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Sample records for cell rbc transfusions

  1. Haemostatic function and biomarkers of endothelial damage before and after RBC transfusion in patients with haematologic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, A M; Leinøe, E B; Johansson, P I

    2015-01-01

    function and the endothelium) to RBC transfusion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Blood was sampled from patients with various transfusion-dependent haematologic diseases before 1 and 24 h after RBC transfusion. Primary and secondary haemostasis was evaluated by whole-blood impedance aggregometry (Multiplate....... Compared to before transfusion, patients had slightly reduced coagulability 1 h after RBC transfusion, assessed by TEG. However, transfusion of older RBC products (>14 days) was associated with increased coagulability (all P level of syndecan-1 increased slightly 24 h after transfusion (median....... The changes observed were small to moderate and the clinical relevance of these findings should be investigated in larger studies....

  2. RBC count

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    ... by kidney disease) RBC destruction ( hemolysis ) due to transfusion, blood vessel injury, or other cause Leukemia Malnutrition Bone ... slight risk any time the skin is broken) Alternative Names Erythrocyte count; Red blood cell count; Anemia - RBC count Images Blood test ...

  3. Red blood cell transfusion during septic shock in the ICU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perner, A; Smith, S H; Carlsen, S

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) remains controversial in patients with septic shock, but current practice is unknown. Our aim was to evaluate RBC transfusion practice in septic shock in the intensive care unit (ICU), and patient characteristics and outcome associated with RBC transfusion....

  4. Survival of red blood cells after transfusion: processes and consequences

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    Giel eBosman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The currently available data suggest that efforts towards improving the quality of red blood cell (RBC blood bank products should concentrate on: (1 preventing the removal of a considerable fraction of the transfused RBCs that takes place within the first hours after transfusion; (2 minimizing the interaction of the transfused RBCs with the patient's immune system. These issues are important in reducing the number and extent of the damaging side effects of transfusions, such as generation of alloantibodies and autoantibodies and iron accumulation, especially in transfusion-dependent patients. Thus, it becomes important for blood bank research not only to assess the classical RBC parameters for quality control during storage, but even more so to identify the parameters that predict RBC survival, function and behaviour in the patient after transfusion. These parameters are likely to result from elucidation of the mechanisms that underly physiological RBC aging in vivo, and that lead to the generation of senescent cell antigens and the accumulation of damaged molecules in vesicles. Also, study of RBC pathology-related mechanisms, such as encountered in various hemoglobinopathies and membranopathies, may help to elucidate the mechanisms underlying a storage-associated increase in susceptibility to physiological stress conditions. Recent data indicate that a combination of new approaches in vitro to mimick RBC behaviour in vivo, the growing knowledge of the signaling networks that regulate RBC structure and function, and the rapidly expanding set of proteomic and metabolomic data, will be instrumental to identify the storage-associated processes that control RBC survival after transfusion.

  5. Selection of GP. Mur antigen-negative RBC for blood recipients with anti-'Mia ' records decreases transfusion reaction rates in Taiwan.

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    Yang, C-A; Lin, J-A; Chang, C-W; Wu, K-H; Yeh, S-P; Ho, C-M; Chang, J-G

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the clinical significance of GP. Mur antigen-negative blood selection for transfusion in patients with anti-'Mi a ' records. The GP. Mur RBC phenotype is prevalent (7·3%) in Taiwan. Antibodies against GP. Mur (anti-'Mi a ') are identified in 1·24% of our population, and anti-'Mi a ' screening using GP. Mur RBC has been routine for Taiwan's blood banks. However, due to the lack of commercial antibodies, only cross-matching was used to prevent transfusion of GP. Mur-positive blood to patients with anti-'Mi a ' in most hospitals. There is still a risk of GP. Mur-positive RBC exposure and subsequent anti-'Mi a '-related transfusion reactions. Since February 2014, GP. Mur antigen-negative RBCs identified by reaction with anti-'Mi a '-positive serum were selected for blood recipients with anti-'Mi a ' records. The transfusion reactions between January 2013 and January 2014 were compared with those that occurred between February 2014 and July 2015. The transfusion reaction rate was significantly higher in anti-'Mi a '-positive blood recipients compared to total subjects receiving an RBC transfusion before GP. Mur-negative donor RBC selection. After antigen-negative RBC selection, the transfusion reaction frequency in subjects with anti-'Mi a ' became similar to total blood recipients. IgG form anti-'Mi a ' antibodies were present in all cases of probable anti-'Mi a '-related transfusion reactions. The time required for anti-'Mi a ' boosting after transfusion was around 4-21 days. Selection of GP. Mur-negative RBC for transfusion to patients with anti-'Mi a ' records could decrease the rate of transfusion reaction and antibody boosting. This procedure should be incorporated into blood bank routines in areas where anti-'Mi a ' is prevalent. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  6. Epidemiology of RBC Transfusions in Patients With Severe Acute Kidney Injury: Analysis From the Randomized Evaluation of Normal Versus Augmented Level Study.

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    Bellomo, Rinaldo; Mårtensson, Johan; Kaukonen, Kirsi-Maija; Lo, Serigne; Gallagher, Martin; Cass, Alan; Myburgh, John; Finfer, Simon

    2016-05-01

    To assess the epidemiology and outcomes associated with RBC transfusion in patients with severe acute kidney injury requiring continuous renal replacement therapy. Post hoc analysis of data from a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial. Thirty-five ICUs in Australia and New Zealand. Cohort of 1,465 patients enrolled in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal versus Augmented Level replacement therapy study. Daily information on morning hemoglobin level and amount of RBC transfused were prospectively collected in the Randomized Evaluation of Normal versus Augmented Level study. We analyzed the epidemiology of such transfusions and their association with clinical outcomes. Overall, 977 patients(66.7%) received a total of 1,192 RBC units. By day 5, 785 of 977 transfused patients (80.4%) had received at least one RBC transfusion. Hemoglobin at randomization was lower in transfused than in nontransfused patients (94 vs 111 g/L; p regression analysis, RBC transfusion was independently associated with lower 90-day mortality (hazard ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.38-0.79). However, we found no independent association between RBC transfusions and mortality when the analyses were restricted to patients surviving at least 5 days (hazard ratio, 1.29; 95% CI, 0.90-1.85). We found no independent association between RBC transfusion and renal replacement therapy-free days, mechanical ventilator-free days, or length of stay in ICU or hospital. In patients with severe acute kidney injury treated with continuous renal replacement therapy, we found no association of RBC transfusion with 90-day mortality or other patient-centered outcomes. The optimal hemoglobin threshold for RBC transfusion in such patients needs to be determined in future randomized controlled trials.

  7. Best practices for transfusion for patients with sickle cell disease

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    Ted Wun

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The beta-globin gene mutation in sickle cell anemia results in anemia and repeated bouts of vascular occlusion. The cumulative effect of these vasocclusive events is progressive damage to many organs including the kidneys, lungs, and brain. The transfusion of red blood cells (RBC can ameliorate many of these complications, but can be associated with both acute and chronic complications, including iron overload. The objective of the Best Practices in Transfusion Medicine for Patients with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD Conference was to review the available published evidence and clinical experience surrounding the use of RBC transfusions for sickle cell disease by a panel of experts. The expert panel developed explicit clinical guidelines for the use of RBC in SCD patients. The panel also made recommendations for further research.  A set of guidelines were produced for dissemination to pertinent stakeholders. If implemented, these clinical pathways have the potential to optimize the use of red blood cell transfusions in SCD.

  8. Best practices for transfusion for patients with sickle cell disease

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    Wun, Ted; Hassell, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    The β-globin gene mutation in sickle cell anemia results in anemia and repeated bouts of vascular occlusion. The cumulative effect of these vasocclusive events is progressive damage to many organs including the kidneys, lungs, and brain. The transfusion of red blood cells (RBC) can ameliorate many of these complications, but can be associated with both acute and chronic complications, including iron overload. The objective of the Best Practices in Transfusion Medicine for Patients with Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) Conference was to review the available published evidence and clinical experience surrounding the use of RBC transfusions for sickle cell disease by a panel of experts. The expert panel developed explicit clinical guidelines for the use of RBC in SCD patients. The panel also made recommendations for further research. A set of guidelines were produced for dissemination to pertinent stakeholders. If implemented, these clinical pathways have the potential to optimize the use of red blood cell transfusions in SCD.

  9. Outpatient red blood cell transfusion payments among patients on chronic dialysis.

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    Gitlin, Matthew; Lee, J Andrew; Spiegel, David M; Carson, Jeffrey L; Song, Xue; Custer, Brian S; Cao, Zhun; Cappell, Katherine A; Varker, Helen V; Wan, Shaowei; Ashfaq, Akhtar

    2012-11-02

    Payments for red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are separate from US Medicare bundled payments for dialysis-related services and medications. Our objective was to examine the economic burden for payers when chronic dialysis patients receive outpatient RBC transfusions. Using Truven Health MarketScan® data (1/1/02-10/31/10) in this retrospective micro-costing economic analysis, we analyzed data from chronic dialysis patients who underwent at least 1 outpatient RBC transfusion who had at least 6 months of continuous enrollment prior to initial dialysis claim and at least 30 days post-transfusion follow-up. A conceptual model of transfusion-associated resource use based on current literature was employed to estimate outpatient RBC transfusion payments. Total payments per RBC transfusion episode included screening/monitoring (within 3 days), blood acquisition/administration (within 2 days), and associated complications (within 3 days for acute events; up to 45 days for chronic events). A total of 3283 patient transfusion episodes were included; 56.4% were men and 40.9% had Medicare supplemental insurance. Mean (standard deviation [SD]) age was 60.9 (15.0) years, and mean Charlson comorbidity index was 4.3 (2.5). During a mean (SD) follow-up of 495 (474) days, patients had a mean of 2.2 (3.8) outpatient RBC transfusion episodes. Mean/median (SD) total payment per RBC transfusion episode was $854/$427 ($2,060) with 72.1% attributable to blood acquisition and administration payments. Complication payments ranged from mean (SD) $213 ($168) for delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction to $19,466 ($15,424) for congestive heart failure. Payments for outpatient RBC transfusion episodes were driven by blood acquisition and administration payments. While infrequent, transfusion complications increased payments substantially when they occurred.

  10. Outpatient red blood cell transfusion payments among patients on chronic dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gitlin Matthew

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Payments for red blood cell (RBC transfusions are separate from US Medicare bundled payments for dialysis-related services and medications. Our objective was to examine the economic burden for payers when chronic dialysis patients receive outpatient RBC transfusions. Methods Using Truven Health MarketScan® data (1/1/02-10/31/10 in this retrospective micro-costing economic analysis, we analyzed data from chronic dialysis patients who underwent at least 1 outpatient RBC transfusion who had at least 6 months of continuous enrollment prior to initial dialysis claim and at least 30 days post-transfusion follow-up. A conceptual model of transfusion-associated resource use based on current literature was employed to estimate outpatient RBC transfusion payments. Total payments per RBC transfusion episode included screening/monitoring (within 3 days, blood acquisition/administration (within 2 days, and associated complications (within 3 days for acute events; up to 45 days for chronic events. Results A total of 3283 patient transfusion episodes were included; 56.4% were men and 40.9% had Medicare supplemental insurance. Mean (standard deviation [SD] age was 60.9 (15.0 years, and mean Charlson comorbidity index was 4.3 (2.5. During a mean (SD follow-up of 495 (474 days, patients had a mean of 2.2 (3.8 outpatient RBC transfusion episodes. Mean/median (SD total payment per RBC transfusion episode was $854/$427 ($2,060 with 72.1% attributable to blood acquisition and administration payments. Complication payments ranged from mean (SD $213 ($168 for delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction to $19,466 ($15,424 for congestive heart failure. Conclusions Payments for outpatient RBC transfusion episodes were driven by blood acquisition and administration payments. While infrequent, transfusion complications increased payments substantially when they occurred.

  11. Predictive factors for red blood cell transfusion in children undergoing noncomplex cardiac surgery.

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    Mulaj, Muj; Faraoni, David; Willems, Ariane; Sanchez Torres, Cristel; Van der Linden, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is frequently required in pediatric cardiac surgery and is associated with altered outcome and increased costs. Determining which factors predict transfusion in this context will enable clinicians to adopt strategies that will reduce the risk of RBC transfusion. This study aimed to assess predictive factors associated with RBC transfusion in children undergoing low-risk cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Children undergoing surgery to repair ventricular septal defect or atrioventricular septal defect from 2006 to 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Demography, preoperative laboratory testing, intraoperative data, and RBC transfusion were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to define factors that were able to predict RBC transfusion. Then, we employed receiver operating characteristic analysis to design a predictive score. Among the 334 children included, 261 (78%) were transfused. Age (43 mL/kg), type of oxygenator used, minimal temperature reached during CPB (<32°C), and preoperative hematocrit (<34%) were independently associated with RBC transfusion in the studied population. A predictive score 2 or greater was the best predictor of RBC transfusion. The present study identified several factors that were significantly associated with perioperative RBC transfusion. Based on these factors, we designed a predictive score that can be used to develop a patient-based blood management program with the aim of reducing the incidence of RBC transfusion. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Trends in Red Blood Cell Transfusion and 30-Day Mortality among Hospitalized Patients

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    Roubinian, Nareg H; Escobar, Gabriel J; Liu, Vincent; Swain, Bix E; Gardner, Marla N; Kipnis, Patricia; Triulzi, Darrell J; Gottschall, Jerome L; Wu, Yan; Carson, Jeffrey L; Kleinman, Steven H; Murphy, Edward L

    2014-01-01

    Background Blood conservation strategies have been shown to be effective in decreasing red blood cell (RBC) utilization in specific patient groups. However, few data exist describing the extent of RBC transfusion reduction or their impact on transfusion practice and mortality in a diverse inpatient population. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using comprehensive electronic medical record data from 21 medical facilities in Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC). We examined unadjusted and risk-adjusted RBC transfusion and 30-day mortality coincident with implementation of RBC conservation strategies. Findings The inpatient study cohort included 391,958 patients who experienced 685,753 hospitalizations. From 2009 to 2013, the incidence of RBC transfusion decreased from 14.0% to 10.8% of hospitalizations; this change coincided with a decline in pre-transfusion hemoglobin levels from 8.1 to 7.6 g/dL. Decreased RBC utilization affected broad groups of admission diagnoses and was most pronounced in patients with a nadir hemoglobin level between 8 and 9 g/dL (n=73,057; 50.8% to 19.3%). During the study period, the standard deviation of risk adjusted RBC transfusion incidence across hospitals decreased by 44% (p blood conservation strategies, RBC transfusion incidence and pre-transfusion hemoglobin levels decreased broadly across medical and surgical patients. Variation in RBC transfusion incidence across hospitals decreased from 2010 to 2013. Consistent with clinical trial data, more restrictive transfusion practice did not appear to impact 30-day mortality. PMID:25135770

  13. Red blood cell alloimmunization among sickle cell Kuwaiti Arab patients who received red blood cell transfusion.

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    Ameen, Reem; Al Shemmari, Salem; Al-Bashir, Abdulaziz

    2009-08-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is common in the Arabian Gulf region. Most cases require a red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, increasing the potential for RBC alloantibody development. The incidence of RBC alloimmunization among Kuwaiti Arab SCD patients is not yet known. This study retrospectively assessed the effect of using two different matching protocols on the incidence of alloimmunization among multiply transfused Kuwaiti Arab SCD patients. A total of 233 Kuwaiti Arab SCD patients were divided into two groups: Group 1 (n = 110) received RBC transfusion through standard ABO- and D-matched nonleukoreduced blood; Group 2 (n = 123) received RBCs matched for ABO, Rh, and K1 poststorage-leukoreduced blood. Multivariate analysis was performed on the factors associated with RBC alloimmunization and antibody specificity. Sixty-five percent of patients in Group 1 developed clinically significant RBC alloantibody with an increased prevalence in females; in patients in Group 2, 23.6% developed RBC alloantibodies (p = 0.01). In Group 1, 72 patients (65.5%) had alloantibodies directed against Rh and Kell systems (p = 0.01). Multivariate analysis further confirmed the results, showing that blood transfusion type and sex have significant effects on the rate of alloimmunizations. This study confirms the importance of selecting RBCs matched for Rh and Kell to reduce the risk of alloimmunizations among Kuwaiti Arab SCD patients.

  14. Concise review: stem cell-derived erythrocytes as upcoming players in blood transfusion.

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    Zeuner, Ann; Martelli, Fabrizio; Vaglio, Stefania; Federici, Giulia; Whitsett, Carolyn; Migliaccio, Anna Rita

    2012-08-01

    Blood transfusions have become indispensable to treat the anemia associated with a variety of medical conditions ranging from genetic disorders and cancer to extensive surgical procedures. In developed countries, the blood supply is generally adequate. However, the projected decline in blood donor availability due to population ageing and the difficulty in finding rare blood types for alloimmunized patients indicate a need for alternative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion products. Increasing knowledge of processes that govern erythropoiesis has been translated into efficient procedures to produce RBC ex vivo using primary hematopoietic stem cells, embryonic stem cells, or induced pluripotent stem cells. Although in vitro-generated RBCs have recently entered clinical evaluation, several issues related to ex vivo RBC production are still under intense scrutiny: among those are the identification of stem cell sources more suitable for ex vivo RBC generation, the translation of RBC culture methods into clinical grade production processes, and the development of protocols to achieve maximal RBC quality, quantity, and maturation. Data on size, hemoglobin, and blood group antigen expression and phosphoproteomic profiling obtained on erythroid cells expanded ex vivo from a limited number of donors are presented as examples of the type of measurements that should be performed as part of the quality control to assess the suitability of these cells for transfusion. New technologies for ex vivo erythroid cell generation will hopefully provide alternative transfusion products to meet present and future clinical requirements. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  15. Transfusion of Packed Red Blood Cells--The Indications Have Changed.

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    Cook, Alan; Miller, Nate

    2015-12-01

    Whole blood/packed red blood cells (pRBC) units transfused in the U.S. totaled 13,785,000 in 2011. A single institution in South Dakota transfused 6,485 units of pRBC in 2013. Current thresholds for transfusion have changed and each transfusion has the risk of causing an adverse reaction; thus, it is important to ensure pRBCs are administered appropriately. Due to these changes and the potential risks associated with transfusion, we reviewed the literature regarding appropriate indications for transfusion of pRBC. Our review specifically focused on four disease entities: iron-deficiency anemia, acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding, acute coronary syndromes, and chronic ischemic heart disease. Based on our findings, we recommend utilizing an overall conservative approach to the transfusion of pRBC. In patients with iron-deficiency anemia, first try alternative methods to improve hemoglobin levels; in those with acute GI bleeding, transfuse for hemoglobin less than 7 g/dL; in patients with acute coronary syndromes, let symptoms/signs be your guide; and in patients with ischemic heart disease, transfuse for hemoglobin levels less than 8 g/dL or if they are symptomatic. Most importantly, be cautious to not fixate on numbers alone; always incorporate patients' symptoms and co-morbidities when considering whether to transfuse pRBCs.

  16. Effect of RBC concentrate transfusions on serum ferritin content in children with acute leukaemia.

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    Bebeshko, V G; Bruslova, E M; Tsvietkova, N M; Iatsemirskii, S M; Puchkareva, T I; Gonchar, L A; Krukovska, V V; Zelinska, A V; Mishchenko, L P

    2013-01-01

    To study the serum ferritin levels in children with acute leukemia, depending on the number of transfusions of RBC concentrate and period of disease. We studied the red blood count, serum iron and ferritin levels in 54 patients with acute leukemia before chemotherapy, at the time of a standardized treatment protocol, and after transfusions of RBC concentrates. In the debute of acute leukemia just before treatment lauch the serum ferritin in 81.5% of children was 2.3-2.5 higher than normal. The need for transfusion of RBC concentrates was higher under serum ferritin level exceeding 500 ng/mL. The association was established between ferritin content and age of the children, variant of acute leukemia and period of the disease. The level of serum ferritin can be used as a marker of ferrokinetic status for timely diagnosis of iron overload in children with acute leukemias and for application of treatment-and-prophylactic actions. Bebeshko V. G., Bruslova K. M., Cvjetkova N. M., Jacemyrskyj S. M., Pushkarova T. I., Gonchar L. O., Krukovska V. V., Zelinska A. V., Mishhenko L. P., 2013.

  17. Risk factors for post-ICU red blood cell transfusion: a prospective study

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    Marque, Sophie; Cariou, Alain; Chiche, Jean-Daniel; Mallet, Vincent Olivier; Pene, Frédéric; Mira, Jean-Paul; Dhainaut, Jean-François; Claessens, Yann-Erick

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Factors predictive of the need for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in the intensive care unit (ICU) have been identified, but risk factors for transfusion after ICU discharge are unknown. This study aims identifies risk factors for RBC transfusion after discharge from the ICU. Methods A prospective, monocentric observational study was conducted over a 6-month period in a 24-bed medical ICU in a French university hospital. Between June and December 2003, 550 critically ill patients were consecutively enrolled in the study. Results A total of 428 patients survived after treatment in the ICU; 47 (11% of the survivors, 8.5% of the whole population) required RBC transfusion within 7 days after ICU discharge. Admission for sepsis (odds ratio [OR] 341.60, 95% confidence interval [CI] 20.35–5734.51), presence of an underlying malignancy (OR 32.6, 95%CI 3.8–280.1), female sex (OR 5.4, 95% CI 1.2–24.9), Logistic Organ Dysfunction score at ICU discharge (OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.1–1.9) and age (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.02–1.12) were independently associated with RBC transfusion after ICU stay. Haemoglobin level at discharge predicted the need for delayed RBC transfusion. Use of vasopressors (OR 0.01, 95%CI 0.001–0.17) and haemoglobin level at discharge from the ICU (OR 0.02, 95% CI 0.007–0.09; P < 0.001) were strong independent predictors of transfusion of RBC 1 week after ICU discharge. Conclusion Sepsis, underlying conditions, unresolved organ failures and haemoglobin level at discharge were related to an increased risk for RBC transfusion after ICU stay. We suggest that strategies to prevent transfusion should focus on homogeneous subgroups of patients and take into account post-ICU needs for RBC transfusion. PMID:16965637

  18. Red Blood Cell Transfusions in Greece: Results of a Survey of Red Blood Cell Use in 2013

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    Serena Valsami

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Greece is ranked as the second highest consumer of blood components in Europe. For an effective transfusion system and in order to reduce variability of transfusion practice by implementing evidence-based transfusion guidelines it is necessary to study and monitor blood management strategies. Our study was conducted in order to evaluate the use of red blood cell units (RBC-U in nationwide scale mapping parameters that contribute to their proper management in Greece. Materials and Methods: The survey was conducted by the Working Committee of Transfusion Medicine&Apheresis of the Hellenic Society of Hematology from January to December 2013. The collected data included the number, ABO/D blood group, patients’ department, and storage age of RBC-U transfused. Results: The number of RBC-U evaluated was 103,702 (17.77% out of 583,457 RBC-U transfused in Greece in 2013. RBC-U transfused by hospital department (mean percentage was as follows: Surgery 29.34%, Internal Medicine 29.48%, Oncology/Hematology 14.65%, Thalassemia 8.87%, Intensive Care Unit 6.55%, Nephrology 1.78%, Obstetrics/Gynecology 1.46%, Neonatal&Pediatric 0.31%, Private Hospitals 8.57%. RBC-U distribution according to ABO/D blood group was: A: 39.02%, B: 12.41%, AB: 5.16%, O: 43.41%, D+: 87.99%, D-: 12.01%. The majority of RBC-U (62.46% was transfused in the first 15 days of storage, 25.24% at 16 to 28 days, and 12.28% at 29-42 days. Conclusion: Despite a high intercenter variability in RBC transfusions, surgical and internal medicine patients were the most common groups of patients transfused with an increasing rate for internal medicine patients. The majority of RBC-U were transfused within the first 15 days of storage, which is possibly the consequence of blood supply insufficiency leading to the direct use of fresh blood. Benchmarking transfusion activity may help to decrease the inappropriate use of blood products, reduce the cost of care, and optimize the use of the

  19. Significant reduction in red blood cell transfusions in a general hospital after successful implementation of a restrictive transfusion policy supported by prospective computerized order auditing.

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    Yerrabothala, Swaroopa; Desrosiers, Kevin P; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M; Dunbar, Nancy M

    2014-10-01

    Our hospital transfusion policy was recently revised to recommend single-unit red blood cell transfusion (RBC TXN) for nonbleeding inpatients when the hemoglobin (Hb) level is not more than 7 g/dL. Our computerized provider order entry system was reconfigured to provide real-time decision support using prospective computerized order auditing based on the most recent Hb level and to remove the single-click ordering option for 2-unit RBC TXNs to enhance compliance. This study was undertaken to assess the impact of these changes on hospital transfusion practice. This study analyzed the total number of transfusion events, proportion of single and 2-unit transfusions and the Hb transfusion trigger in the preimplementation period (October 2011-March 2012) compared to the postimplementation period (October 2012-March 2013). In the postimplementation period the total number of RBC units transfused/1000 patient-days decreased from 60.8 to 44.2 (p auditing has resulted in significantly decreased RBC utilization at our institution. © 2014 AABB.

  20. Red blood cell transfusion probability and associated costs in neurosurgical procedures.

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    Barth, Martin; Weiss, Christel; Schmieder, Kirsten

    2018-03-20

    The extent of red blood cell units (RBC) needed for different neurosurgical procedures and the time point of their administration are widely unknown, which results in generously cross-matching prior to surgery. However, RBC are increasingly requested in the aging western populations, and blood donations are significantly reduced. Therefore, the knowledge of the extent and time point of administration of RBC is of major importance. This is a retrospective single center analysis. The incidence of RBC transfusion during surgery or within 48 h after surgery was analyzed for all neurosurgical patients within 3 years. Costs for cross-matched and transfused RBC were calculated and risk factors for RBC transfusion analyzed. The risk of intraoperative RBC administration was low for spinal and intracranial tumor resections (1.87%) and exceeded 10% only in spinal fusion procedures. This was dependent on the number of fused segments with an intraoperative transfusion risk of > 12.5% with fusion of more than three levels. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed a significantly increased risk for RBC transfusion for female gender (p = 0.006; OR 1.655), higher age (N = 4812; p < 0.0001; OR 1.028), and number of fused segments (N = 737; p < 0.0001; OR 1.433). Annual costs for cross-matching were 783,820.88 USD and for intraoperative RBC administration 121,322.13 USD. Neurosurgical procedures are associated with a low number of RBC needed intraoperatively. Only elective spine fusion procedures with ≥ 3 levels involved and AVM resections seem to require cross-matching of RBC. The present data may allow changing the preoperative algorithm of RBC cross-matching in neurosurgical procedures and help to save resources and costs.

  1. The Nlrp3 Inflammasome Does Not Regulate Alloimmunization to Transfused Red Blood Cells in Mice

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    David R. Gibb

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cell (RBC transfusions are essential for patients with hematological disorders and bone marrow failure syndromes. Despite ABO matching, RBC transfusions can lead to production of alloantibodies against “minor” blood group antigens. Non-ABO alloimmunization is a leading cause of transfusion-associated mortality in the U.S. Despite its clinical importance, little is known about the immunological factors that promote alloimmunization. Prior studies indicate that inflammatory conditions place patients at higher risk for alloimmunization. Additionally, co-exposure to pro-inflammatory pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs promotes alloimmunization in animal models, suggesting that RBC alloimmunization depends on innate immune cell activation. However, the specific innate immune stimuli and sensors that induce a T cell-dependent alloantibody response to transfused RBCs have not been identified. The NLRP3 inflammasome senses chemically diverse PAMPs and damage associated molecular patterns (DAMPs, including extracellular ATP and iron-containing heme. We hypothesized that activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome by endogenous DAMPs from RBCs promotes the alloimmune response to a sterile RBC transfusion. Using genetically modified mice lacking either NLRP3 or multiple downstream inflammasome response elements, we ruled out a role for the NLRP3 inflammasome or any Caspase-1 or -11 dependent inflammasome in regulating RBC alloantibody production to a model antigen.

  2. Clinical Practice Guidelines From the AABB: Red Blood Cell Transfusion Thresholds and Storage.

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    Carson, Jeffrey L; Guyatt, Gordon; Heddle, Nancy M; Grossman, Brenda J; Cohn, Claudia S; Fung, Mark K; Gernsheimer, Terry; Holcomb, John B; Kaplan, Lewis J; Katz, Louis M; Peterson, Nikki; Ramsey, Glenn; Rao, Sunil V; Roback, John D; Shander, Aryeh; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2016-11-15

    More than 100 million units of blood are collected worldwide each year, yet the indication for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and the optimal length of RBC storage prior to transfusion are uncertain. To provide recommendations for the target hemoglobin level for RBC transfusion among hospitalized adult patients who are hemodynamically stable and the length of time RBCs should be stored prior to transfusion. Reference librarians conducted a literature search for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) evaluating hemoglobin thresholds for RBC transfusion (1950-May 2016) and RBC storage duration (1948-May 2016) without language restrictions. The results were summarized using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation method. For RBC transfusion thresholds, 31 RCTs included 12 587 participants and compared restrictive thresholds (transfusion not indicated until the hemoglobin level is 7-8 g/dL) with liberal thresholds (transfusion not indicated until the hemoglobin level is 9-10 g/dL). The summary estimates across trials demonstrated that restrictive RBC transfusion thresholds were not associated with higher rates of adverse clinical outcomes, including 30-day mortality, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, rebleeding, pneumonia, or thromboembolism. For RBC storage duration, 13 RCTs included 5515 participants randomly allocated to receive fresher blood or standard-issue blood. These RCTs demonstrated that fresher blood did not improve clinical outcomes. It is good practice to consider the hemoglobin level, the overall clinical context, patient preferences, and alternative therapies when making transfusion decisions regarding an individual patient. Recommendation 1: a restrictive RBC transfusion threshold in which the transfusion is not indicated until the hemoglobin level is 7 g/dL is recommended for hospitalized adult patients who are hemodynamically stable, including critically ill patients, rather than when the hemoglobin level

  3. Transfusion of 35-day-stored red blood cells does not alter lipopolysaccharide tolerance during human endotoxemia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Anna L.; van Hezel, Maike E.; Klanderman, Robert B.; Tuip-de Boer, Anita M.; Wiersinga, W. Joost; van der Spek, Anne H.; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk; Juffermans, Nicole P.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.

    2017-01-01

    Transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM) encompasses immunosuppressive and proinflammatory effects induced by red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Changes that occur during storage in the RBC product have been hypothesized to underlie TRIM, mediated by tolerance of toll-like receptors (TLR). We

  4. Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction presenting as a painful crisis in a patient with sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabron, A; Moreira, G; Bordin, J O

    1999-01-07

    Patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) are frequently transfused with red blood cells (RBC). Recently we reported that the calculated risk of RBC alloimmunization per transfussed unit in Brazilian patients with SCA is 1.15%. We describe a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR) presenting as a painful crisis in a patient with SCA. A 35-year-old Brazilian female with homozygous SCA was admitted for a program of partial exchange transfusion prior to cholecystectomy. Her blood group was O RhD positive and no atypical RBC alloantibody was detected using the indirect antiglobulin technique. Pre-transfusional hemoglobin (Hb) was 8.7 g/dL and isovolumic partial exchange transfusion was performed using 4 units of ABO compatible packed RBC. Five days after the last transfusion she developed generalized joint pain and fever of 39 degrees C. Her Hb level dropped from 12.0 g/dL to 9.3 g/dL and the unconjugated bilirrubin level rose to 27 mmol/L. She was jaundiced and had hemoglobinuria. Hemoglobin electrophoresis showed 48.7% HbS, 46.6% HbA1, 2.7% HbA2, and 2.0% HbF. The patient's extended RBC phenotype was CDe, K-k+, Kp(a-b+), Fy(a-b-), M+N+s+, Le(a+b-), Di(a-). An RBC alloantibody with specificity to the Rh system (anti-c, titer 1:16.384) was identified by the indirect antiglobulin test. The Rh phenotype of the RBC used in the last packed RBC transfusion was CcDEe. The patient was discharged, asymptomatic, 7 days after admission.

  5. Transfusion-Associated Microchimerism in Combat Casualties

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dunne, James R; Lee, Tzong-Hae; Burns, Christopher; Cardo, Lisa J; Curry, Kathleen; Busch, Michael P

    2007-01-01

    ...) in civilian trauma patients receiving allogenic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. We explored the incidence of TA-MC in combat casualties receiving FrWB compared with patients receiving standard stored RBC transfusions. Methods...

  6. Red blood cell transfusion in preterm neonates: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chirico G

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Gaetano ChiricoNeonatology and Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, Children Hospital, Spedali Civili, Brescia, ItalyAbstract: Preterm neonates, especially very low birth weight infants, remain a category of patients with high transfusion needs; about 90% of those with <1,000 g birth weight may be transfused several times during their hospital stay. However, neonatal red blood cells (RBC transfusion is not without risks. In addition to well-known adverse events, several severe side effects have been observed unique to preterm infants, such as transfusion-related acute gut injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increased mortality risk. It is therefore important to reduce the frequency of RBC transfusion in critically ill neonates, by delayed clamping or milking the umbilical cord, using residual cord blood for initial laboratory investigations, reducing phlebotomy losses, determining transfusion guidelines, and ensuring the most appropriate nutrition, with the optimal supplementation of iron, folic acid, and vitamins. Ideally, RBC transfusion should be tailored to the individual requirements of the single infant. However, many controversies still remain, and the decision on whether to transfuse or not is often made on an empirical basis. Recently, a few clinical trials have been performed with the aim to compare the risk/benefit ratio of restrictive versus liberal transfusion criteria. No significant differences in short-term outcomes were observed, suggesting that the restrictive criteria may reduce the need for transfusion and the related side effects. Neurodevelopmental long-term outcome seemed more favorable in the liberal group at first evaluation, especially for boys, and significantly better in the restrictive group at a later clinical investigation. Magnetic resonance imaging scans, performed at an average age of 12 years, showed that intracranial volume was substantially smaller in the liberal group compared with controls. When sex effects

  7. One-year period prevalence of blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, J T; Kimper-Karl, M L; Sprogøe, U

    2010-01-01

    was 9.2/1000 citizens. Most of the transfused patients had a main diagnosis of neoplasm (22% of recipients), diseases of the circulatory system (15%), the digestive system (15%), injuries (13%) and diseases of the blood (8%). Age standardization reversed the relation between sex specific 1-YPPRs......Transfusion practice is reported to differ considerably between countries. Comparisons often rely on transfusion rates, incidence - or prevalence rates. In this paper, the one-year period prevalence rate (1-YPPR) of transfusion of red cells (RBC) is presented. Transfusion data, demographic data...... and patient data were retrospectively combined to calculate sex and diagnosis specific and age standardized 1-YPPR s of RBC transfusion for the complete population in a Danish county. During the calendar year of 2006, 4427 patients received RBC transfusion in Funen County. The crude 1-YPPR of RBC transfusion...

  8. Preoperative factors associated with red blood cell transfusion in hip fracture patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Medom; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl; Norgaard, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a frequently used treatment in patients admitted with a fractured hip, but the use remains an area of much debate. The aim of this study was to determine preoperative factors associated with the risk of receiving a red blood cell transfusion in hip fracture...

  9. Frequency and specificity of red blood cell alloimmunization in chilean transfused patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caamaño, José; Musante, Evangelina; Contreras, Margarita; Ulloa, Hernán; Reyes, Carolina; Inaipil, Verónica; Saavedra, Nicolás; Guzmán, Neftalí

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunization is an adverse effect of blood transfusions. In Chile, alloimmunization frequency is not established, and for this reason the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and specificity of red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies in Chilean transfused subjects. Records from 4,716 multi-transfused patients were analyzed. In these patients, antibody screening was carried out prior to cross-matching with a commercially available two-cell panel by the microcolum gel test, and samples with a positive screen were analyzed for the specificity of the alloantibody with a 16-cell identification panel. The incidence of RBC alloimmunization in transfused patients was 1.02% (48/4,716) with a higher prevalence in women (40/48). We detected 52 antibodies, the most frequent specificities identified were anti-E (30.8%), anti-K (26.9%), anti-D (7.7%), and anti-Fy(a) (5.8%). The highest incidence of alloantibodies was observed in cancer and gastroenterology patients. The data demonstrated a low alloimmunization frequency in Chilean transfused patients, principally associated with antibodies anti-E, anti-K, anti-D, and anti-Fy(a).

  10. Red Blood Cell Transfusions Impact Pneumonia Rates After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Likosky, Donald S.; Paone, Gaetano; Zhang, Min; Rogers, Mary A.M.; Harrington, Steven D.; Theurer, Patricia F.; DeLucia, Alphonse; Fishstrom, Astrid; Camaj, Anton; Prager, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pneumonia, a known complication of coronary artery bypass (CABG) surgery, significantly increases a patient’s risk of morbidity and mortality. While not well characterized, red blood cell transfusions (RBC) may increase a patient’s risk of pneumonia. We describe the relationship between RBC transfusion and post-operative pneumonia after CABG surgery. Methods A total of 16,182 consecutive patients underwent isolated CABG surgery between 2011 and 2013 at one of 33 hospitals in the state of Michigan. We used multivariable logistic regression to estimate the odds of pneumonia associated with the use or number (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, >6) of RBC units. We adjusted for predicted risk of mortality, pre-operative hematocrit, history of pneumonia, cardiopulmonary bypass duration and medical center. We confirmed the strength and direction of these relationships among selected clinical subgroups in a secondary analysis. Results 576 (3.6%) patients developed pneumonia and 6,451 (39.9%) received RBC transfusions. There was a significant association between any RBC transfusion and pneumonia (ORadj 3.4, p<0.001). There was a dose-response between number of units and odds of pneumonia, ptrend<0.001. Patients receiving only 2 units of RBCs had twofold (ORadj 2.1, p<0.001) increased odds of pneumonia. These findings were consistent across clinical subgroups. Conclusions We found a significant, volume-dependent association between an increasing number of RBCs and odds of pneumonia, which persisted after adjusting for pre-operative patient characteristics. Clinical teams should explore opportunities for preventing a patient’s risk of RBC transfusions, including reducing hemodilution or adopting a lower transfusion threshold in a stable patient. PMID:26209489

  11. A high plasma: red blood cell transfusion ratio during liver transplantation is associated with decreased blood utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, M B; Metcalf, R A; Hess, J R; Reyes, J; Perkins, J D; Montenovo, M I

    2018-04-01

    During massive transfusion, the volume ratio of administered plasma (PL Vol) to red blood cell (RBC Vol) appears to be associated with reduced blood utilization and improved survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal component ratio in the setting of liver transplantation. This is a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent liver transplantation and received at least 500 ml of red blood cells from January 2013 through December 2015. Kernel smoothing analysis determined the proper component ratios to evaluate were a ≥0·85:1 ratio (high) to a ≤0·85:1 ratio (low). Two groups, plasma volume to RBC volume (PL Vol/RBC Vol) and plasma contained in the platelet units added to the plasma calculation [PL + PLT (platelet)] Vol/RBC Vol, were used to evaluate the component ratios. A total of 188 patients were included in the analysis. In the PL Vol/RBC Vol evaluation, a low ratio revealed that 1238 ml (977-1653 ml) (P ratio, in the univariable and multivariable analysis, respectively. In the PL +PLT Vol/RBC Vol evaluation, a low ratio used 734 ml (193-1275) (P = 0·008) and 886 ml (431-1340) (P ratio in the univariable and multivariable analysis, respectively. In patients undergoing liver transplantation, the transfusion of plasma to RBC ratio ≥0·85 was associated with decreased need of RBC transfusions. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  12. Mortality outcomes in trauma patients undergoing prehospital red blood cell transfusion: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gregory S; Dunham, C Michael

    2017-01-01

    The value of prehospital red blood cell (RBC) transfusion for trauma patients is controversial. The purposes of this literature review were to determine the mortality rate of trauma patients with hemodynamic instability and the benefit of prehospital RBC transfusion. A 30-year systematic literature review was performed in 2016. Eligible studies were combined for meta-analysis when tests for heterogeneity were insignificant. The synthesized mortality was 35.6% for systolic blood pressure ≤ 90 mmHg; 51.1% for ≤ 80 mmHg; and 63.9% for ≤ 70 mmHg. For patients with either hypotension or emergency trauma center transfused RBCs, the synthesized Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 27.0 and mortality was 36.2%; the ISS and mortality correlation was r = 0.766 ( P = 0.0096). For civilian patients receiving prehospital RBC transfusions, the synthesized ISS was 27.5 and mortality was 39.5%. One civilian study suggested a decrement in mortality with prehospital RBC transfusion; however, patient recruitment was only one per center per year and mortality was 16 showed similar mortality with and without prehospital RBC availability (27.6% versus 32.0%; P = 0.343). Trauma patient mortality increases with the magnitude of hemodynamic instability and anatomic injury. Some literature evidence indicates no survival advantage with prehospital RBC availability. However, other data suggesting a potential benefit is confounded or likely to be biased.

  13. Transfusion-related mortality after primary hip arthroplasty - an analysis of mechanisms and confounders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, O; Kehlet, H; Johansson, P I

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Bleeding and postoperative anaemia after total hip arthroplasty (THA) may trigger transfusion of red blood cells (RBC). However, large observational studies have reported associations between RBC transfusion and increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. As major...... bleeding or severe postoperative anaemia is intrinsically linked with RBC transfusion, direct causality between transfusion and adverse outcomes remains unclear. This study aimed to identify possible relations between RBC transfusion, severe bleeding or anaemia and mortality in all patients who died...

  14. Intraoperative transfusion practices in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, J; Filipescu, D; Kozek-Langenecker, S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transfusion of allogeneic blood influences outcome after surgery. Despite widespread availability of transfusion guidelines, transfusion practices might vary among physicians, departments, hospitals and countries. Our aim was to determine the amount of packed red blood cells (p......RBC) and blood products transfused intraoperatively, and to describe factors determining transfusion throughout Europe. METHODS: We did a prospective observational cohort study enrolling 5803 patients in 126 European centres that received at least one pRBC unit intraoperatively, during a continuous three month...... period in 2013. RESULTS: The overall intraoperative transfusion rate was 1.8%; 59% of transfusions were at least partially initiated as a result of a physiological transfusion trigger- mostly because of hypotension (55.4%) and/or tachycardia (30.7%). Haemoglobin (Hb)- based transfusion trigger alone...

  15. In vivo crossmatching with Tc-99m-RBC's and In-111-oxine-RBC's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcus, C.S.; Myhre, B.A.; Angulo, M.C.; Salk, R.D.; Essex, C.E.

    1984-01-01

    In vitro crossmatching techniques are often inadequate for patients who have received multiple prior transfusions. These patients usually have multiple antibodies to minor blood groups, not all of which are necessarily important to vivo. It becomes increasingly difficult to obtain appropriate units for transfusion, and often units are used with hopes that a minor group antibody will not be significantly active in vivo. If a transfusion reaction occurs, the unit is stopped. The authors have developed and successfully tested a method whereby 1.5 to 3c of potential donor RBC's are labeled with 25-50 μCi of Tc-99m using the BNL kits. After injection, samples are drawn at 10, 20, 60, and 120 minutes and the RBC survival is measured. If it is desirable to test 2 units simultaneously, the authors use 400 μCi Tc-99m to label an RBC aliquot of one unit and 25 μCi In-111-oxine to label the other; both labeled aliquots are injected together. The method is simple and reliable. In addition to assessing compatibility, the authors may also estimate the % viability of transfused, compatible RBC's by starting with 400 μCi of Tc-99m and multiplying % survival at 24 hours by 1.2. For 24 hr. survival measurements of IN-111-oxine-RBC's, 25 μCi is adequate and no multiplication factor is necessary. The authors have performed 13 in vivo crossmatches, 4 of which were double, in 6 patients. One documented mild transfusion reaction occurred. There were no false positive or false negative results

  16. Variation in Red Blood Cell Transfusion Practices During Cardiac Operations Among Centers in Maryland: Results From a State Quality-Improvement Collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magruder, J Trent; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Crawford, Todd; Alejo, Diane; Conte, John V; Salenger, Rawn; Fonner, Clifford E; Kwon, Christopher C; Bobbitt, Jennifer; Brown, James M; Nelson, Mark G; Horvath, Keith A; Whitman, Glenn R

    2017-01-01

    Variation in red blood cell (RBC) transfusion practices exists at cardiac surgery centers across the nation. We tested the hypothesis that significant variation in RBC transfusion practices between centers in our state's cardiac surgery quality collaborative remains even after risk adjustment. Using a multiinstitutional statewide database created by the Maryland Cardiac Surgery Quality Initiative (MCSQI), we included patient-level data from 8,141 patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass (CAB) or aortic valve replacement at 1 of 10 centers. Risk-adjusted multivariable logistic regression models were constructed to predict the need for any intraoperative RBC transfusion, as well as for any postoperative RBC transfusion, with anonymized center number included as a factor variable. Unadjusted intraoperative RBC transfusion probabilities at the 10 centers ranged from 13% to 60%; postoperative RBC transfusion probabilities ranged from 16% to 41%. After risk adjustment with demographic, comorbidity, and operative data, significant intercenter variability was documented (intraoperative probability range, 4% -59%; postoperative probability range, 13%-39%). When stratifying patients by preoperative hematocrit quartiles, significant variability in intraoperative transfusion probability was seen among all quartiles (lowest quartile: mean hematocrit value, 30.5% ± 4.1%, probability range, 17%-89%; highest quartile: mean hematocrit value, 44.8% ± 2.5%; probability range, 1%-35%). Significant variation in intercenter RBC transfusion practices exists for both intraoperative and postoperative transfusions, even after risk adjustment, among our state's centers. Variability in intraoperative RBC transfusion persisted across quartiles of preoperative hematocrit values. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Accuracy of formulas used to predict post-transfusion packed cell volume rise in anemic dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Jacqueline L; Diehl, Shenandoah; Seshadri, Ravi; Serrano, Sergi

    2012-08-01

    To assess the accuracy of published formulas used to guide packed red blood cell (pRBC) transfusions in anemic dogs and to compare the predicted rise in packed cell volume (PCV) to the actual post-transfusion rise in PCV. Prospective observational study from April 2009 through July 2009. A small animal emergency and specialty hospital. Thirty-one anemic client-owned dogs that received pRBC transfusions for treatment of anemia. None Four formulas were evaluated to determine their predictive ability with respect to rise in PCV following transfusion with pRBC. Post-transfusion rise in PCV were compared to calculated rise in PCV using 4 different formulas. Bias and limits of agreement were investigated using Bland-Altman analyses. Accuracy of existing formulas to predict rise in PCV following transfusion varied significantly. Formula 1 (volume to be transfused [VT] [mL] = 1 mL × % PCV rise × kg body weight [BW]) overestimated the expected rise in PCV (mean difference, 6.30), while formula 2 (VT [mL] = 2 mL ×% PCV rise × kg BW) underestimated the rise in PCV (mean difference, -3.01). Formula 3 (VT [mL] = 90 mL × kg BW × [(desired PCV - Patient PCV)/PCV of donor blood]) and formula 4 (VT [mL] = 1.5 mL ×% PCV rise × kg BW) performed well (mean difference 0.23 and 0.09, respectively) in predicting rise in PCV following pRBC transfusion. Agreement between 2 formulas, "VT (mL) = kg BW × blood volume (90 mL) × [(desired PCV - recipient PCV)/Donor PCV]" and "VT (mL) = 1.5 ×desired rise in PCV × kg BW," was found when they were compared to the actual rise in PCV following pRBC transfusion in anemic dogs. Further research is warranted to determine whether these formulas perform similarly well for other species. © Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care Society 2012.

  18. Effects of red blood cell storage time on transfused patients in the ICU-protocol for a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygård, S L; Jonsson, A B; Madsen, M B

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients in the intensive care unit (ICU) are often anaemic due to blood loss, impaired red blood cell (RBC) production and increased RBC destruction. In some studies, more than half of the patients were treated with RBC transfusion. During storage, the RBC and the storage medium...... evidence to assess the effects of shorter vs. longer storage time of transfused RBCs for ICU patients. METHODS: We will conduct a systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials, and also include results of severe adverse events from large observational...

  19. Best practices for transfusion for patients with sickle cell disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ted Wun; Kathryn Hassell

    2010-01-01

    The beta-globin gene mutation in sickle cell anemia results in anemia and repeated bouts of vascular occlusion. The cumulative effect of these vasocclusive events is progressive damage to many organs including the kidneys, lungs, and brain. The transfusion of red blood cells (RBC) can ameliorate many of these complications, but can be associated with both acute and chronic complications, including iron overload. The objective of the Best Practices in Transfusion Medicine for Patients with S...

  20. Red blood cell transfusions and tissue oxygenation in anemic hematology outpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuruk, Koray; Bartels, Sebastiaan A; Milstein, Dan M J; Bezemer, Rick; Biemond, Bart J; Ince, Can

    2012-03-01

    There is little clinical evidence that red blood cell (RBC) transfusions improve oxygen availability at the microcirculatory level. We tested the hypotheses that anemia in chronically anemic patients with relatively healthy microcirculation would be associated with low tissue hemoglobin (Hb) and tissue oxygenation levels and that these conditions would be improved after RBC transfusions. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to determine tissue oxygen saturation (StO(2)) and tissue Hb index (THI; an index of the amount of Hb in the NIRS measurement volume) in the thenar eminence and sublingual tissue before and 30 minutes after RBC transfusions in 20 chronically anemic hematology outpatients. Data are presented as median (25%-75%). The patients received three (two to three) bags of RBCs in saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol with an age of 21 (7-21) days, which was infused intravenously at the rate of 0.7 bag/hr. RBC transfusions significantly increased hematocrit level from 26% (24%-28%) to 32% (30%-34%; p viscosity from 3.4 (3.1-3.5) mPa/sec to 4.2 (4.0-4.5) mPa/sec (p < 0.0001), thenar StO(2) from 81% (80%-84%) to 86% (81%-89%; p = 0.002), thenar THI from 11.2 (9.3-13.3) AU to 13.7 (9.7-15.3) AU (p = 0.024), sublingual StO(2) from 86% (81%-89%) to 91% (86%-92%; p < 0.0001), and sublingual THI from 15.2 (13.0-17.4) AU to 17.2 (13.5-19.7) AU (p = 0.040). Although anemia in chronically anemic hematology outpatients was not associated with low StO(2) and THI levels, RBC transfusions were successful in improving these variables. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Transfusion thresholds and other strategies for guiding allogeneic red blood cell transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Jeffrey L; Carless, Paul A; Hebert, Paul C

    2012-04-18

    Most clinical practice guidelines recommend restrictive red cell transfusion practices, with the goal of minimising exposure to allogeneic blood. The purpose of this review is to compare clinical outcomes in patients randomised to restrictive versus liberal transfusion thresholds (triggers). To examine the evidence for the effect of transfusion thresholds on the use of allogeneic and/or autologous red cell transfusion, and the evidence for any effect on clinical outcomes. We identified trials by searching; The Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register (searched 01 Feb 2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials 2011, issue 1 (The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (Ovid) 1948 to January Week 3 2011, EMBASE (Ovid) 1980 to 2011 (Week 04), ISI Web of Science: Science Citation Index Expanded (1970 to Feb 2011), ISI Web of Science: Conference Proceedings Citation Index- Science (1990 to Feb 2011). We checked reference lists of other published reviews and relevant papers to identify any additional trials. Controlled trials in which patients were randomised to an intervention group or to a control group. Trials were included where intervention groups were assigned on the basis of a clear transfusion 'trigger', described as a haemoglobin (Hb) or haematocrit (Hct) level below which a red blood cell (RBC) transfusion was to be administered. Risk ratios of requiring allogeneic blood transfusion, transfused blood volumes and other clinical outcomes were pooled across trials, using a random effects model. Data extraction and assessment of the risk of bias was performed by two people. Nineteen trials involving a total of 6264 patients were identified, and were similar enough that the results could be combined. Restrictive transfusion strategies reduced the risk of receiving a RBC transfusion by 39% (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.72). This equates to an average absolute risk reduction (ARR) of 34% (95% CI 24% to 45%). The volume of RBCs transfused was reduced on average by 1

  2. Length of Storage of Red Blood Cells and Patient Survival After Blood Transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halmin, Märit; Rostgaard, Klaus; Lee, Brian K

    2017-01-01

    received transfusions from 2003 to 2012. Measurements: Patients were followed from first blood transfusion. Relative and absolute risks for death in 30 days or 1 year in relation to length of RBC storage were assessed by using 3 independent analytic approaches. All analyses were conducted by using Cox......Background: Possible negative effects, including increased mortality, among persons who receive stored red blood cells (RBCs) have recently garnered considerable attention. Despite many studies, including 4 randomized trials, no consensus exists. Objective: To study the association between...... the length of RBC storage and mortality in a large population-based cohort of patients who received transfusions, allowing detection of small yet clinically significant effects. Design: Binational cohort study. Setting: All transfusion recipients in Sweden and Denmark. Patients: 854 862 adult patients who...

  3. Red Blood Cell Transfusion Need for Elective Primary Posterior Lumbar Fusion in A High-Volume Center for Spine Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristagno, Giuseppe; Beluffi, Simonetta; Tanzi, Dario; Belloli, Federica; Carmagnini, Paola; Croci, Massimo; D’Aviri, Giuseppe; Menasce, Guido; Pastore, Juan C.; Pellanda, Armando; Pollini, Alberto; Savoia, Giorgio

    2018-01-01

    (1) Background: This study evaluated the perioperative red blood cell (RBC) transfusion need and determined predictors for transfusion in patients undergoing elective primary lumbar posterior spine fusion in a high-volume center for spine surgery. (2) Methods: Data from all patients undergoing spine surgery between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2016 were reviewed. Patients’ demographics and comorbidities, perioperative laboratory results, and operative time were analyzed in relation to RBC transfusion. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of transfusion. (3) Results: A total of 874 elective surgeries for primary spine fusion were performed over the three years. Only 54 cases (6%) required RBC transfusion. Compared to the non-transfused patients, transfused patients were mainly female (p = 0.0008), significantly older, with a higher ASA grade (p = 0.0002), and with lower pre-surgery hemoglobin (HB) level and hematocrit (p < 0.0001). In the multivariate logistic regression, a lower pre-surgery HB (OR (95% CI) 2.84 (2.11–3.82)), a higher ASA class (1.77 (1.03–3.05)) and a longer operative time (1.02 (1.01–1.02)) were independently associated with RBC transfusion. (4) Conclusions: In the instance of elective surgery for primary posterior lumbar fusion in a high-volume center for spine surgery, the need for RBC transfusion is low. Factors anticipating transfusion should be taken into consideration in the patient’s pre-surgery preparation. PMID:29385760

  4. Red Blood Cell Transfusion Need for Elective Primary Posterior Lumbar Fusion in A High-Volume Center for Spine Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ristagno

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available (1 Background: This study evaluated the perioperative red blood cell (RBC transfusion need and determined predictors for transfusion in patients undergoing elective primary lumbar posterior spine fusion in a high-volume center for spine surgery. (2 Methods: Data from all patients undergoing spine surgery between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2016 were reviewed. Patients’ demographics and comorbidities, perioperative laboratory results, and operative time were analyzed in relation to RBC transfusion. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the predictors of transfusion. (3 Results: A total of 874 elective surgeries for primary spine fusion were performed over the three years. Only 54 cases (6% required RBC transfusion. Compared to the non-transfused patients, transfused patients were mainly female (p = 0.0008, significantly older, with a higher ASA grade (p = 0.0002, and with lower pre-surgery hemoglobin (HB level and hematocrit (p < 0.0001. In the multivariate logistic regression, a lower pre-surgery HB (OR (95% CI 2.84 (2.11–3.82, a higher ASA class (1.77 (1.03–3.05 and a longer operative time (1.02 (1.01–1.02 were independently associated with RBC transfusion. (4 Conclusions: In the instance of elective surgery for primary posterior lumbar fusion in a high-volume center for spine surgery, the need for RBC transfusion is low. Factors anticipating transfusion should be taken into consideration in the patient’s pre-surgery preparation.

  5. Red Blood Cell Transfusion Independence Following the Initiation of Iron Chelation Therapy in Myelodysplastic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maha A. Badawi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Iron chelation therapy is often used to treat iron overload in patients requiring transfusion of red blood cells (RBC. A 76-year-old man with MDS type refractory cytopenia with multilineage dysplasia, intermediate-1 IPSS risk, was referred when he became transfusion dependent. He declined infusional chelation but subsequently accepted oral therapy. Following the initiation of chelation, RBC transfusion requirement ceased and he remained transfusion independent over 40 months later. Over the same time course, ferritin levels decreased but did not normalize. There have been eighteen other MDS patients reported showing improvement in hemoglobin level with iron chelation; nine became transfusion independent, nine had decreased transfusion requirements, and some showed improved trilineage myelopoiesis. The clinical features of these patients are summarized and possible mechanisms for such an effect of iron chelation on cytopenias are discussed.

  6. Bilirubin levels and phototherapy use before and after neonatal red blood cell transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Patrick D; Christensen, Robert D; Baer, Vickie L; Sheffield, Mark J; Gerday, Erick; Ilstrup, Sarah J

    2016-11-01

    Our previous retrospective study suggested that red blood cell (RBC) transfusion of preterm neonates can be associated with an increase in bilirubin, but this has not been tested prospectively. We studied neonates before and after RBC transfusions, recording serial bilirubin levels and whether they qualified for phototherapy. Because lysed RBCs release plasma-free hemoglobin (Hb), a precursor to bilirubin, we also measured plasma free Hb and bilirubin from the donor blood. We studied 50 transfusions given to 39 neonates. Gestation ages of transfused neonates, at birth, were 26 (24-29) weeks (median [interquartile range]); birthweights were 750 (620-1070) g. The study transfusion was given on Day of Life 9.9 (3.4-19.2). In 20% (10/50) phototherapy was being administered at the beginning of and during the transfusion. In these patients neither the 4- to 6- nor the 24- to 36-hour-posttransfusion bilirubin levels were significantly higher than before transfusion. However, in 30% of the others (12/40) phototherapy was started (or restarted) after the transfusion and 15% had a posttransfusion bilirubin increase of at least 2.5 mg/dL. These neonates received donor blood with a higher plasma-free Hb (p bilirubin increase of at least 2.5 mg/dL. We speculate that neonates qualifying for a RBC transfusion, who are judged to be at high risk for bilirubin-induced neurotoxicity, might benefit from checking their serum bilirubin level after the transfusion and providing donor blood with low plasma-free Hb levels. © 2016 AABB.

  7. Validation of a New Method to Automatically Select Cases With Intraoperative Red Blood Cell Transfusion for Audit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter, Franklin; Epstein, Richard H; Ledolter, Johannes; Dasovich, Susan M; Herman, Jay H; Maga, Joni M; Schwenk, Eric S

    2018-05-01

    Hospitals review allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions for appropriateness. Audit criteria have been published that apply to 5 common procedures. We expanded on this work to study the management decision of selecting which cases involving transfusion of at least 1 RBC unit to audit (review) among all surgical procedures, including those previously studied. This retrospective, observational study included 400,000 cases among 1891 different procedures over an 11-year period. There were 12,616 cases with RBC transfusion. We studied the proportions of cases that would be audited based on criteria of nadir hemoglobin (Hb) greater than the hospital's selected transfusion threshold, or absent Hb or missing estimated blood loss (EBL) among procedures with median EBL 50%) that would be audited and most cases (>50%) with transfusion were among procedures with median EBL 9 g/dL, the procedure's median EBL was 9 g/dL and median EBL for the procedure ≥500 mL. An automated process to select cases for audit of intraoperative transfusion of RBC needs to consider the median EBL of the procedure, whether the nadir Hb is below the hospital's Hb transfusion threshold for surgical cases, and the absence of either a Hb or entry of the EBL for the case. This conclusion applies to all surgical cases and procedures.

  8. Measuring Post-transfusion Recovery and Survival of Red Blood Cells: Strengths and Weaknesses of Chromium-51 Labeling and Alternative Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Roussel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of transfused red blood cells (RBCs that remain in circulation is an important surrogate marker of transfusion efficacy and contributes to predict the potential benefit of a transfusion process. Over the last 50 years, most of the transfusion recovery data were generated by chromium-51 (51Cr-labeling studies and were predominantly performed to validate new storage systems and new processes to prepare RBC concentrates. As a consequence, our understanding of transfusion efficacy is strongly dependent on the strengths and weaknesses of 51Cr labeling in particular. Other methods such as antigen mismatch or biotin-based labeling can bring relevant information, for example, on the long-term survival of transfused RBC. These radioactivity-free methods can be used in patients including from vulnerable groups. We provide an overview of the methods used to measure transfusion recovery in humans, compare their strengths and weaknesses, and discuss their potential limitations. Also, based on our understanding of the spleen-specific filtration of damaged RBC and historical transfusion recovery data, we propose that RBC deformability and morphology are storage lesion markers that could become useful predictors of transfusion recovery. Transfusion recovery can and should be accurately explored by more than one method. Technical optimization and clarification of concepts is still needed in this important field of transfusion and physiology.

  9. Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction/hyperhemolysis syndrome in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talano, Julie-An M; Hillery, Cheryl A; Gottschall, Jerome L; Baylerian, Diane M; Scott, J Paul

    2003-06-01

    Alloimmunization in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) has a reported incidence of 5% to 36%. One complication of alloimmunization is delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction/hyperhemolysis (DHTR/H) syndrome, which has a reported incidence of 11%. In patients with SCD, clinical findings in DHTR/H syndrome occur approximately 1 week after the red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and include the onset of increased hemolysis associated with pain and profound anemia. The hemoglobin (Hb) often drops below pretransfusion levels. In many reported adult cases, the direct antiglobulin test (DAT) remains negative and no new alloantibody is detected as the cause for these transfusion reactions. To date, few pediatric cases have been reported with this phenomenon. The objective of this study was to describe the clinical and laboratory findings of a case series in children who had SCD and experienced a DHTR/H syndrome at our institution. An 11-year retrospective chart review of patients with discharge diagnosis of SCD and transfusion reaction was performed. DHTR/H syndrome was defined as the abrupt onset of signs and symptoms of accelerated hemolysis evidenced by an unexplained fall in Hb, elevated lactic dehydrogenase, elevated bilirubin above baseline, and hemoglobinuria, all occurring between 4 and 10 days after an RBC transfusion. Patient characteristics, time from transfusion, symptoms, reported DAT, new autoantibody or alloantibody formation, laboratory abnormalities, and complications were recorded. Patients with acute transfusion reactions were excluded. We encountered 7 patients who developed 9 episodes of DHTR/H syndrome occurring 6 to 10 days after RBC transfusion. Each presented with fever and hemoglobinuria. All but 1 patient experienced pain initially ascribed to vaso-occlusive crisis. The DAT was positive in only 2 of the 9 episodes. The presenting Hb was lower than pretransfusion levels in 8 of the 9 events. Severe complications were observed after the onset of

  10. Evaluation of Stem Cell-Derived Red Blood Cells as a Transfusion Product Using a Novel Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sandeep N; Gelderman, Monique P; Lewis, Emily M A; Farrel, John; Wood, Francine; Strader, Michael Brad; Alayash, Abdu I; Vostal, Jaroslav G

    2016-01-01

    Reliance on volunteer blood donors can lead to transfusion product shortages, and current liquid storage of red blood cells (RBCs) is associated with biochemical changes over time, known as 'the storage lesion'. Thus, there is a need for alternative sources of transfusable RBCs to supplement conventional blood donations. Extracorporeal production of stem cell-derived RBCs (stemRBCs) is a potential and yet untapped source of fresh, transfusable RBCs. A number of groups have attempted RBC differentiation from CD34+ cells. However, it is still unclear whether these stemRBCs could eventually be effective substitutes for traditional RBCs due to potential differences in oxygen carrying capacity, viability, deformability, and other critical parameters. We have generated ex vivo stemRBCs from primary human cord blood CD34+ cells and compared them to donor-derived RBCs based on a number of in vitro parameters. In vivo, we assessed stemRBC circulation kinetics in an animal model of transfusion and oxygen delivery in a mouse model of exercise performance. Our novel, chronically anemic, SCID mouse model can evaluate the potential of stemRBCs to deliver oxygen to tissues (muscle) under resting and exercise-induced hypoxic conditions. Based on our data, stem cell-derived RBCs have a similar biochemical profile compared to donor-derived RBCs. While certain key differences remain between donor-derived RBCs and stemRBCs, the ability of stemRBCs to deliver oxygen in a living organism provides support for further development as a transfusion product.

  11. Evaluation of Stem Cell-Derived Red Blood Cells as a Transfusion Product Using a Novel Animal Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep N Shah

    Full Text Available Reliance on volunteer blood donors can lead to transfusion product shortages, and current liquid storage of red blood cells (RBCs is associated with biochemical changes over time, known as 'the storage lesion'. Thus, there is a need for alternative sources of transfusable RBCs to supplement conventional blood donations. Extracorporeal production of stem cell-derived RBCs (stemRBCs is a potential and yet untapped source of fresh, transfusable RBCs. A number of groups have attempted RBC differentiation from CD34+ cells. However, it is still unclear whether these stemRBCs could eventually be effective substitutes for traditional RBCs due to potential differences in oxygen carrying capacity, viability, deformability, and other critical parameters. We have generated ex vivo stemRBCs from primary human cord blood CD34+ cells and compared them to donor-derived RBCs based on a number of in vitro parameters. In vivo, we assessed stemRBC circulation kinetics in an animal model of transfusion and oxygen delivery in a mouse model of exercise performance. Our novel, chronically anemic, SCID mouse model can evaluate the potential of stemRBCs to deliver oxygen to tissues (muscle under resting and exercise-induced hypoxic conditions. Based on our data, stem cell-derived RBCs have a similar biochemical profile compared to donor-derived RBCs. While certain key differences remain between donor-derived RBCs and stemRBCs, the ability of stemRBCs to deliver oxygen in a living organism provides support for further development as a transfusion product.

  12. Red blood cell transfusions and tissue oxygenation in anemic hematology outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuruk, Koray; Bartels, Sebastiaan A.; Milstein, Dan M. J.; Bezemer, Rick; Biemond, Bart J.; Ince, Can

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is little clinical evidence that red blood cell (RBC) transfusions improve oxygen availability at the microcirculatory level. We tested the hypotheses that anemia in chronically anemic patients with relatively healthy microcirculation would be associated with low tissue hemoglobin

  13. Cost analysis of erythropoietin versus blood transfusions for cervical cancer patients receiving chemoradiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, Brian D.; Fischer, Bernard A.; Segreti, Eileen M.; Wheelock, John B.; Boardman, Cecilia; Roseff, Susan D.; Cardinale, Robert M.; Benedict, Stanley H.; Goram, Adrian L.

    2001-01-01

    Purpose: Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions or erythropoietin (EPO) can be used to evade the detrimental effects of anemia during radiotherapy, but the economic consequences of selecting either intervention are not well defined. The RBC transfusion needs during chemoradiotherapy for cervix cancer were quantified to allow comparison of RBC transfusion costs with the projected cost of EPO in this setting. Methods and Materials: For patients receiving pelvic radiotherapy, weekly cisplatin, and brachytherapy, the RBC units transfused during treatment were tallied. RBC transfusion costs per unit included the blood itself, laboratory fees, and expected value (risk multiplied by cost) of transfusion-related viral illness. EPO costs included the drug itself and supplemental RBC transfusions when hemoglobin was not adequately maintained. An EPO dosage based on reported usage in cervix cancer patients was applied. Results: Transfusions were given for hemoglobin <10 g/dL. Among 12 consecutive patients, 10 needed at least 1 U of RBC before or during treatment, most commonly after the fifth week. A total of 37 U was given during treatment, for an average of 3.1 U/patient. The sum total of the projected average transfusion-related costs was $990, compared with the total projected EPO-related costs of $3869. Conclusions: Because no proven clinical advantage has been documented for EPO compared with RBC transfusions to maintain hemoglobin during cervix cancer treatment, for most patients, transfusions are an appropriate and appealingly less expensive option

  14. Red blood cell alloimmunization in transfused patients in sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoma, Alain M; Mutombo, Paulin B; Ikeda, Kazuhiko; Nollet, Kenneth E; Natukunda, Bernard; Ohto, Hitoshi

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies of Sub-Saharan Africans show significant alloimmunization to red blood cell (RBC) antigens, but country-specific data are limited. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate, by meta-analysis, the overall proportion of red blood cell alloantibodies among transfused patients. We systematically searched Medline, Embase, and the Africa-Wide Information database to identify relevant studies in any language. Case reports, comments, letters, conference abstracts, editorials, and review articles were excluded. Of the 269 potentially relevant articles, 11 studies fulfilled our selection criteria. Overall proportions of alloimmunization were 6.7 (95% CI: 5.7, 7.8) per 100 transfused patients. With regard to antibody specificity, among clinically significant antibodies, anti-E ranked as the most common, followed by anti-K, anti-C and anti-D. Meta-analysis of available literature quantifies and qualifies the clinical challenge of RBC alloimmunization among transfused patients in Sub-Saharan Africa. These results should drive policy decisions in favour of routine testing of RBC antigens and irregular antibodies for transfused patients as a standard of care throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Transfusion of banked red blood cells and the effects on hemorrheology and microvascular hemodynamics in anemic hematology outpatients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yürük, Koray; Milstein, Dan M. J.; Bezemer, Rick; Bartels, Sebastiaan A.; Biemond, Bart J.; Ince, Can

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion on the hemorrheologic properties and microcirculatory hemodynamics in anemic hematology outpatients receiving 2 to 4 RBC units of either fresh (leukoreduced storage for less than 1week) or aged

  16. Point-of-care washing of allogeneic red blood cells for the prevention of transfusion-related respiratory complications (WAR-PRC): a protocol for a multicenter randomised clinical trial in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Warner, Matthew A; Welsby, Ian J; Norris, Phillip J; Silliman, Christopher C; Armour, Sarah; Wittwer, Erica D; Santrach, Paula J; Meade, Laurie A; Liedl, Lavonne M; Nieuwenkamp, Chelsea M; Douthit, Brian; van Buskirk, Camille M; Schulte, Phillip J; Carter, Rickey E; Kor, Daryl J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The transfusion-related respiratory complications, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), are leading causes of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality. At present, there are no effective preventive strategies with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Although mechanisms remain incompletely defined, soluble biological response modifiers (BRMs) within the RBC storage solution may play an important role. Point-of-care ...

  17. Survival of the fittest?--survival of stored red blood cells after transfusion.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luten, M.; Roerdinkholder-Stoelwinder, B.; Bost, H.J.; Bosman, G.J.C.G.M.

    2004-01-01

    During the last 90 years many developments have taken place in the world of blood transfusion. Several anticoagulants and storage solutions have been developed. Also the blood processing has undergone many changes. At the moment, in The Netherlands, red blood cell (RBC) concentrates (prepared from a

  18. Transfusion of blood during cardiac surgery is associated with higher long-term mortality in low-risk patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Carl-Johan; Ryhammer, Pia Katarina; Jensen, Mariann Tang

    2012-01-01

    Numerous reports have emphasized the need for reduction in transfusions of allogeneic red blood cells (RBC) due to increased morbidity and mortality. Nevertheless, transfusion rates are still high in several cardiac surgery institutions. Reports on long-term survival after cardiac surgery and RBC...... transfusion are few....

  19. Transfusion practice in hip arthroplasty - a nationwide study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jans, Øivind; Kehlet, H; Hussain, Zubair Butt

    2011-01-01

    ) in Denmark. Materials and Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study of all patients undergoing THA or RTHA in Denmark in 2008. Primary outcomes were intercentre variation in red blood cell (RBC) transfusion rates and the timing of transfusion related to surgery. Results Six thousand nine hundred......Background and Objectives The optimal transfusion strategy in hip arthroplasty remains controversial despite existing guidelines. The aim of this study was to evaluate the transfusion practice in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) or revision total hip arthroplasty (RTHA...... thirty-two THA patients and 1132 RTHA patients were included for analysis of which 1674 (24%) THA and 689 (61%) RTHA patients received RBC transfusion. Of these, 47% of THA and 73% of RTHA patients received transfusion on the day of surgery. Transfusion rates between centres varied from 7 to 71...

  20. Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation and extraction in preterm infants before and after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoften, Jacorina C. R.; Verhagen, Elise A.; Keating, Paul; ter Horst, Hendrik J.; Bos, Arend F.

    Objective Preterm infants often need red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. The aim of this study was to determine whether haemoglobin levels before transfusion were associated with regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (r(c)SO(2)) and fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) and whether RBC

  1. Behaviour modification interventions to optimise red blood cell transfusion practices: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soril, Lesley J J; Noseworthy, Thomas W; Dowsett, Laura E; Memedovich, Katherine; Holitzki, Hannah M; Lorenzetti, Diane L; Stelfox, Henry Thomas; Zygun, David A; Clement, Fiona M

    2018-05-18

    To assess the impact of behaviour modification interventions to promote restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion practices. Systematic review and meta-analysis. Seven electronic databases were searched to January 2018. Published randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or non-randomised studies examining an intervention to modify healthcare providers' RBC transfusion practice in any healthcare setting were included. The primary outcome was the proportion of patients transfused. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of inappropriate transfusions, RBC units transfused per patient, in-hospital mortality, length of stay (LOS), pretransfusion haemoglobin and healthcare costs. Meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model and meta-regression was performed in cases of heterogeneity. Publication bias was assessed by Begg's funnel plot. Eighty-four low to moderate quality studies were included: 3 were RCTs and 81 were non-randomised studies. Thirty-one studies evaluated a single intervention, 44 examined a multimodal intervention. The comparator in all studies was standard of care or historical control. In 33 non-randomised studies, use of an intervention was associated with reduced odds of transfusion (OR 0.63 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.71)), odds of inappropriate transfusion (OR 0.46 (95% CI 0.36 to 0.59)), RBC units/patient weighted mean difference (WMD: -0.50 units (95% CI -0.85 to -0.16)), LOS (WMD: -1.14 days (95% CI -2.12 to -0.16)) and pretransfusion haemoglobin (-0.28 g/dL (95% CI -0.48 to -0.08)). There was no difference in odds of mortality (OR 0.90 (95% CI 0.80 to 1.02)). Protocol/algorithm and multimodal interventions were associated with the greatest decreases in the primary outcome. There was high heterogeneity among estimates and evidence for publication bias. The literature examining the impact of interventions on RBC transfusions is extensive, although most studies are non-randomised. Despite this, pooled analysis of 33 studies revealed

  2. Anemia of prematurity : time for a change in transfusion management?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khodabux, Chantal Muriel

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated clinical effects of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in premature infants, different transfusion volumes in relation to neonatal outcome in premature infants and the use of autologous cord blood (CB) as an alternative for allogeneic transfusions. Despite

  3. Role of blood transfusion product type and amount in deep vein thrombosis after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazi, Lama; Schwann, Thomas A; Engoren, Milo C; Habib, Robert H

    2015-12-01

    Postoperative deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is associated with significant morbidity. Even with maximal thromboprophylaxis, postoperative DVT is present in 10% of cardiac surgery patients, and is linked to receiving transfusion. We hypothesized that the incidence of DVT varies with the transfused blood product type, and increases with transfusion dose. 139/1070 cardiac surgery patients have DVT despite maximal chemo and mechanical prophylaxis. DVTs were detected via serial perioperative duplex venous scans (DVS). Red blood cells (RBC), platelets (PLT), plasma (FFP) and cryoprecipitate transfusion data were collected. Transfusion was used in 506(47%) patients: RBC [468(44%); 4.0 ± 4.2u]; FFP [155(14.5%); 3.5 ± 2.3 u]; PLT [185(17.3%); 2.2 ± 1.3 u] and Cryoprecipitate [51(4.8%); 1.3 ± 0.6 u]. Isolated RBC transfusion accounted for 92.6% patients receiving one product, and their DVT rate was increased considerably compared to no transfusion (16.7% versus 7.3%; Pproduct transfusions; particularly when both RBC and FFP are used (25%-40%). Relative to no RBC (n=602), multivariate logistic regression analysis identified a significant RBC-DVT dose dependent relation (Pfashion that is exacerbated when accompanied with FFP. Postoperative screening diagnostic DVS are warranted in this transfused, high risk for DVT population to facilitate timely therapeutic intervention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Erythroid cells in vitro: from developmental biology to blood transfusion products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Whitsett, Carolyn; Migliaccio, Giovanni

    2009-07-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) transfusion plays a critical role in numerous therapies. Disruption of blood collection by political unrest, natural disasters and emerging infections and implementation of restrictions on the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents in cancer may impact blood availability in the near future. These considerations highlight the importance of developing alternative blood products. Knowledge about the processes that control RBC production has been applied to the establishment of culture conditions allowing ex-vivo generation of RBCs in numbers close to those (2.5 x 10 cells/ml) present in a transfusion, from cord blood, donated blood units or embryonic stem cells. In addition, experimental studies demonstrate that such cells protect mice from lethal bleeding. Therefore, erythroid cells generated ex vivo may be suitable for transfusion provided they can be produced safely in adequate numbers. However, much remains to be done to translate a theoretical production of approximately 2.5 x 10 RBCs in the laboratory into a 'clinical grade production process'. This review summarizes the state-of-the-art in establishing ex-vivo culture conditions for erythroid cells and discusses the most compelling issues to be addressed to translate this progress into a clinical grade transfusion product.

  5. Concise review: stem cell-based approaches to red blood cell production for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Siddharth; Huang, Xiaosong; Cheng, Linzhao

    2014-03-01

    Blood transfusion is a common procedure in modern medicine, and it is practiced throughout the world; however, many countries report a less than sufficient blood supply. Even in developed countries where the supply is currently adequate, projected demographics predict an insufficient supply as early as 2050. The blood supply is also strained during occasional widespread disasters and crises. Transfusion of blood components such as red blood cells (RBCs), platelets, or neutrophils is increasingly used from the same blood unit for multiple purposes and to reduce alloimmune responses. Even for RBCs and platelets lacking nuclei and many antigenic cell-surface molecules, alloimmunity could occur, especially in patients with chronic transfusion requirements. Once alloimmunization occurs, such patients require RBCs from donors with a different blood group antigen combination, making it a challenge to find donors after every successive episode of alloimmunization. Alternative blood substitutes such as synthetic oxygen carriers have so far proven unsuccessful. In this review, we focus on current research and technologies that permit RBC production ex vivo from hematopoietic stem cells, pluripotent stem cells, and immortalized erythroid precursors.

  6. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia: transfusion challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barros MM

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Melca M O Barros, Dante M Langhi Jr, José O Bordin Department of Clinical and Experimental Oncology, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA is defined as the increased destruction of red blood cells (RBCs in the presence of anti-RBC autoantibodies and/or complement. Classification of AIHA is based on the optimal auto-RBC antibody reactivity temperatures and includes warm, cold-reactive, mixed AIHA, and drug-induced AIHA subtypes. AIHA is a rare disease, and recommendations for transfusion are based mainly on results from retrospective data and relatively small cohort studies, including heterogeneous patient samples or single case reports. In this article, we will review the challenges and solutions to safely transfuse AIHA patients. We will reflect on the indication for transfusion in AIHA and the difficulty in the accomplishment of immunohematological procedures for the selection of the safest and most compatible RBC units. Keywords: hemolytic anemia, RBC autoantibodies, autoimmunity, hemolysis, direct ­antiglobulin test

  7. Perioperative transfusion threshold and ambulation after hip revision surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kamilla; Johansson, Pär I; Dahl, Benny

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transfusion with red blood cells (RBC) may be needed during hip revision surgery but the appropriate haemoglobin concentration (Hb) threshold for transfusion has not been well established. We hypothesized that a higher transfusion threshold would improve ambulation after hip revision...... surgery. METHODS: The trial was registered at Clinicaltrials.gov ( NCT00906295). Sixty-six patients aged 18 years or older undergoing hip revision surgery were randomized to receive RBC at a Hb threshold of either 7.3 g/dL (restrictive group) or 8.9 g/dL (liberal group). Postoperative ambulation...... received RBC. CONCLUSIONS: A Hb transfusion threshold of 8.9 g/dL was associated with a statistically significantly faster TUG after hip revision surgery compared to a threshold of 7.3 g/dL but the clinical importance is questionable and the groups did not differ in Hb at the time of testing....

  8. Anemia of prematurity: time for a change in transfusion management?

    OpenAIRE

    Khodabux, Chantal Muriel

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis we investigated clinical effects of allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in premature infants, different transfusion volumes in relation to neonatal outcome in premature infants and the use of autologous cord blood (CB) as an alternative for allogeneic transfusions. Despite the use of a national transfusion guideline, we observed significant differences concerning the total amount of administered transfusions. A liberal transfusion strategy and a higher transfusion volu...

  9. Red blood cell transfusion in neurosurgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsler, Stefan; Ketter, Ralf; Eichler, Hermann; Schwerdtfeger, Karsten; Steudel, Wolf-Ingo; Oertel, Joachim

    2012-07-01

    The necessity of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in neurosurgical procedures is under debate. Although detailed recommendations exist for many other surgical disciplines, there are very limited data on the probability of transfusions during neurosurgical procedures. Three-thousand and twenty-six consecutive adult patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures at Saarland University Hospital from December 2006 to June 2008 were retrospectively analyzed for administration of RBCs. The patients were grouped into 11 main diagnostic categories for analysis. The transfusion probability and cross-match to transfusion ratio (C/T ratio) were calculated. Overall, the transfusion probability for neurosurgical procedures was 1.7 % (52/3,026). The probability was 6.5 % for acute subdural hematoma (7/108), 6.2 % for spinal tumors (5/80), 4.6 % for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH, 4/98), 2.8 % for abscess (3/108), 2.4 % for traumatic brain injury (4/162), 2.3 % for cerebral ischemia (1/44), 1.9 % for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) /aneurysms (4/206), 1.4 % for brain tumors (10/718), 0.8 % for hydrocephalus (2/196), 0.4 % for degenerative diseases of the spine (5/1290), including 3.6 % (3/82) for posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) and 0 % for epidural hematoma (0/15). The transfusion probabilities for clipping and coiling of SAH were 2.9 % (2/68) and 1.7 % (2/120) respectively. The probability of blood transfusion during neurosurgical procedures is well below the 10 % level which is generally defined as the limit for preoperative appropriation of RBCs. Patients with spinal tumors, acute subdural hematomas or ICH, i.e., patients undergoing large decompressive procedures of bone or soft tissue, had a higher probability of transfusion.

  10. Genotyping Applications for Transplantation and Transfusion Management: The Emory Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Ross M; Sullivan, Harold Cliff; Bray, Robert A; Gebel, Howard M; Meyer, Erin K; Winkler, Annie M; Josephson, Cassandra D; Stowell, Sean R; Sandy Duncan, Alexander; Roback, John D

    2017-03-01

    Current genotyping methodologies for transplantation and transfusion management employ multiplex systems that allow for simultaneous detection of multiple HLA antigens, human platelet antigens, and red blood cell (RBC) antigens. The development of high-resolution, molecular HLA typing has led to improved outcomes in unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplants by better identifying compatible alleles of the HLA-A, B, C, DRB1, and DQB1 antigens. In solid organ transplantation, the combination of high-resolution HLA typing with solid-phase antibody identification has proven of value for highly sensitized patients and has significantly reduced incompatible crossmatches at the time of organ allocation. This database-driven, combined HLA antigen/antibody testing has enabled routine implementation of "virtual crossmatching" and may even obviate the need for physical crossmatching. In addition, DNA-based testing for RBC antigens provides an alternative typing method that mitigates many of the limitations of hemagglutination-based phenotyping. Although RBC genotyping has utility in various transfusion settings, it has arguably been most useful for minimizing alloimmunization in the management of transfusion-dependent patients with sickle cell disease or thalassemia. The availability of high-throughput RBC genotyping for both individuals and large populations of donors, along with coordinated informatics systems to compare patients' antigen profiles with available antigen-negative and/or rare blood-typed donors, holds promise for improving the efficiency, reliability, and extent of RBC matching for this population.

  11. Red blood cell transfusion and mortality in trauma patients: risk-stratified analysis of an observational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Perel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Haemorrhage is a common cause of death in trauma patients. Although transfusions are extensively used in the care of bleeding trauma patients, there is uncertainty about the balance of risks and benefits and how this balance depends on the baseline risk of death. Our objective was to evaluate the association of red blood cell (RBC transfusion with mortality according to the predicted risk of death.A secondary analysis of the CRASH-2 trial (which originally evaluated the effect of tranexamic acid on mortality in trauma patients was conducted. The trial included 20,127 trauma patients with significant bleeding from 274 hospitals in 40 countries. We evaluated the association of RBC transfusion with mortality in four strata of predicted risk of death: 50%. For this analysis the exposure considered was RBC transfusion, and the main outcome was death from all causes at 28 days. A total of 10,227 patients (50.8% received at least one transfusion. We found strong evidence that the association of transfusion with all-cause mortality varied according to the predicted risk of death (p-value for interaction 50% predicted risk of death (OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.47-0.74, p<0.0001. Transfusion was associated with an increase in fatal and non-fatal vascular events (OR 2.58, 95% CI 2.05-3.24, p<0.0001. The risk associated with RBC transfusion was significantly increased for all the predicted risk of death categories, but the relative increase was higher for those with the lowest (<6% predicted risk of death (p-value for interaction <0.0001. As this was an observational study, the results could have been affected by different types of confounding. In addition, we could not consider haemoglobin in our analysis. In sensitivity analyses, excluding patients who died early; conducting propensity score analysis adjusting by use of platelets, fresh frozen plasma, and cryoprecipitate; and adjusting for country produced results that were similar.The association of transfusion

  12. Blood transfusion in the surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis-a single-center experience of patient blood management in 210 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohrt-Nissen, Søren; Bukhari, Naeem; Dragsted, Casper; Gehrchen, Martin; Johansson, Pär I; Dirks, Jesper; Stensballe, Jakob; Dahl, Benny

    2017-07-01

    The surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis can be associated with substantial blood loss, requiring allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. This study describes the use of RBC and the effect of a standardized perioperative patient blood management program. Patients treated with posterior instrumented fusion were consecutively enrolled over a 6-year period. Patient blood management strategies were implemented in 2011, including prophylactic tranexamic acid, intraoperative permissive hypotension, restrictive fluid therapy (including avoidance of synthetic colloids), restrictive RBC trigger according to institutional standardized protocol, the use of cell savage, and goal-directed therapy according to thrombelastography. In total, 210 patients were included. 64 patients (31%) received RBC transfusions. A decline in the intraoperative rate of RBC transfusion was observed, from 77% in 2011 to 13% in 2016 (p transfusion group had a significantly larger major curve, lower preoperative hemoglobin, higher estimated blood loss, and an increased use of crystalloid volume resuscitation. Multiple logistic regression showed that significant predictors for RBC transfusion were preoperative hemoglobin level (odds ratio [OR], 0.40; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.27-0.57), estimated blood loss (OR, 1.26; 95% CI, 1.15-1.42), and year of surgery (indicating the effect of patient blood management) (OR per year, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.58-0.99). A perioperative patient blood management program substantially reduced the need for RBC transfusion. A preoperative evaluation of anemia is essential to further minimize transfusion rates. © 2017 AABB.

  13. Proven and potential clinical benefits of washing red blood cells before transfusion: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt AE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Amy E Schmidt, Majed A Refaai, Scott A Kirkley, Neil Blumberg Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA Abstract: Red blood cells (RBCs are washed for a variety of reasons such as to remove excess potassium, cytokines, and other allergen proteins from the supernatant and/or to mitigate the effects of the storage lesion. The storage lesion is a product of RBC aging and include leakage of potassium and chloride from the RBCs, depletion of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and adenosine triphosphate, loss of phospholipids and cholesterol, exposure of phosphatidylserine, elaboration of lipid mediators, loss of glutathione, autoxidation of hemoglobin to methemoglobin contributing to decreased blood flow viscosity and adherence to endothelial cells, increased microparticle formation, and disruption of NO-mediated vasodilation. A storage lesion is thought to be caused in part by oxidative stress, which is characterized by functional and structural changes to the RBCs. The effects of the RBC storage lesion on patient morbidity and mortality have been studied intensively with mixed results. Here, we will summarize the potential benefits of RBC washing. Notably, all patient-based studies on washed RBCs are single-center, small randomized studies or observational data, which await replication and tests of generalizability. Some of the most promising preliminary data suggest that washed transfusions of red cells and platelets reduce mortality in low risk, younger patients with acute myeloid leukemia, mitigate lung injury, and substantially reduce mortality in cardiac surgery. Larger randomized trials to replicate or refute these findings are urgently needed and, most importantly, have the potential to strikingly improve clinical outcomes following transfusion. Keywords: washed blood, transfusion, immunomodulation, red blood cell

  14. Clinical significance of estimation of changes in serum SF, VEGF and HGF levels and after transfusion of red blood cells in patients with chronic nephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Peidong; He Haoming

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To observe the changes of serum SF, VEGF and HGF levels and after transfusion of red blood cells (RBC) in patients with chronic nephritis. Methods: Serum SF (with RIA) and serum VEGF, HGF (with ELISA) levels were measured in 30 patients with chronic nephritis both before and after a course of transfusion of RBC and 35 controls. Results: Before transfusion the serum SF levels in the patients were significantly lower than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum SF, VEGF and HGF levels were clinically useful for the progress, prognosis and judgement of chronic nephritis. (authors)

  15. The association between the transfusion of small volumes of leucocyte-depleted red blood cells and outcomes in patients undergoing open-heart valve surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zittermann, Armin; Koster, Andreas; Faraoni, David; Börgermann, Jochen; Schirmer, Uwe; Gummert, Jan F

    2017-02-01

    The relationship between the transfusion of red blood cell (RBC) units and outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery is the subject of intense debates. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the transfusion of 1-2 leucocyte-depleted (LD) RBC units and outcomes in patients undergoing open-heart valve surgery. The investigation encompassed consecutive patients undergoing open-heart valve surgery at our institution between July 2009 and March 2015 who received no (RBC- group) or 1-2 units of LD RBC (RBC+ group). End-points were 30-day mortality (primary), the incidence of in-hospital major organ dysfunctions and 1-year mortality (secondary). Propensity score (PS)-adjusted statistical analysis was used to assess the effect of RBC transfusion on end-points. Thirty-day mortality rate was 0.2% (3/1485) in the RBC- group and 0.4% (6/1672) in the RBC+ group, with a PS-adjusted odds ratio (OR) for 30-day mortality of 1.00 (95% CI: 0.21-4.83;P = 0.99). The two groups showed no significant differences in PS-adjusted ORs for major complications, such as stroke, low cardiac output syndrome, thoracic wound infection and prolonged mechanical ventilation (>24 h). The PS-adjusted ORs for prolonged intensive care unit stay (>48 h) were, however, significantly higher in the RBC+ group (OR = 1.34 [95%CI: 1.04-1.72; P = 0.02]) than in the RBC- group. One-year mortality was comparable between groups (PS-adjusted hazard ratio for the RBC+ group: 0.85 [95% CI: 0.42-1.72; P = 0.65]). Our data do not provide evidence that in patients undergoing valve surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, transfusion of 1-2 units of LD RBC increases operative mortality, the incidence of postoperative complications or 1-year mortality. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  16. Haemolysis following rapid experimental red blood cell transfusion--an evaluation of two infusion pumps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tom Giedsing; Sprogøe-Jakobsen, U; Pedersen, C M

    1998-01-01

    The vast majority of infusion pumps used for rapid transfusion of large amounts of blood have never been properly examined regarding their influence on the quality of the red blood cells (RBCs) infused. In this study, we evaluated the effect of two different infusion pumps on the degree of RBC...

  17. Neonatal transfusion practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindern, Jeannette Susanne von

    2011-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are probably the most frequently used drug given to very preterm infants; more than 90% of infants with a birth weight <1000 grams receive one or more RBC transfusions. Except for reduction of the amount of blood drawn for laboratory tests and use of a single donor program, no

  18. Transfusion practice and complications after laparotomy - an observational analysis of a randomized clinical trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kamilla; Meyhoff, C S; Johansson, P I

    2012-01-01

    Background  Transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells (RBC) may be associated with side effects. This study aimed to assess whether an association could be detected between transfusion practice and the occurrence of complications after laparotomy. Study design and methods  This study is an observ......Background  Transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells (RBC) may be associated with side effects. This study aimed to assess whether an association could be detected between transfusion practice and the occurrence of complications after laparotomy. Study design and methods  This study...... is an observational analysis of data from a randomized trial in 1400 patients who underwent laparotomy. A subgroup of 224 transfused patients with an intraoperative blood loss ≥200 ml were included in the analysis. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate risk factors for postoperative complications...

  19. The Ratio of Blood Products Transfused Affects Mortality in Patients Receiving Massive Transfusions at a Combat Support Hospital

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Borgman, Matthew A; Spinella, Philip C; Perkins, Jeremy G; Grathwohl, Kurt W; Repine, Thomas; Beekley, Alec C; Sebesta, James; Jenkins, Donald; Wade, Charles E; Holcomb, John B

    2007-01-01

    ...:1 ratio of plasma to red blood cell (RBC) units. Methods: We performed a retrospective chart review of 246 patients at a US Army combat support hospital, each of who received a massive transfusion...

  20. Restrictive versus liberal red blood cell transfusion strategies for people with haematological malignancies treated with intensive chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or both, with or without haematopoietic stem cell support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estcourt, Lise J; Malouf, Reem; Trivella, Marialena; Fergusson, Dean A; Hopewell, Sally; Murphy, Michael F

    2017-01-01

    Background Many people diagnosed with haematological malignancies experience anaemia, and red blood cell (RBC) transfusion plays an essential supportive role in their management. Different strategies have been developed for RBC transfusions. A restrictive transfusion strategy seeks to maintain a lower haemoglobin level (usually between 70 g/L to 90 g/L) with a trigger for transfusion when the haemoglobin drops below 70 g/L), whereas a liberal transfusion strategy aims to maintain a higher haemoglobin (usually between 100 g/L to 120 g/L, with a threshold for transfusion when haemoglobin drops below 100 g/L). In people undergoing surgery or who have been admitted to intensive care a restrictive transfusion strategy has been shown to be safe and in some cases safer than a liberal transfusion strategy. However, it is not known whether it is safe in people with haematological malignancies. Objectives To determine the efficacy and safety of restrictive versus liberal RBC transfusion strategies for people diagnosed with haematological malignancies treated with intensive chemotherapy or radiotherapy, or both, with or without a haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Search methods We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised trials (NRS) in MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), CINAHL (from 1982), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 6), and 10 other databases (including four trial registries) to 15 June 2016. We also searched grey literature and contacted experts in transfusion for additional trials. There was no restriction on language, date or publication status. Selection criteria We included RCTs and prospective NRS that evaluated a restrictive compared with a liberal RBC transfusion strategy in children or adults with malignant haematological disorders or undergoing HSCT. Data collection and analysis We used the standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Main results

  1. Continuous Manual Exchange Transfusion for Patients with Sickle Cell Disease: An Efficient Method to Avoid Iron Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehl, Bérengère; Missud, Florence; Holvoet, Laurent; Ithier, Ghislaine; Sakalian-Black, Oliver; Haouari, Zinedine; Lesprit, Emmanuelle; Baruchel, André; Benkerrou, Malika

    2017-03-14

    Children with sickle cell anemia (SCA) may be at risk of cerebral vasculopathy and strokes, which can be prevented by chronic transfusion programs. Repeated transfusions of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) is currently the simplest and most used technique for chronic transfusion programs. However, iron overload is one of the major side effects of this therapy. More developed methods exist, notably the apheresis of RBC (erythrapheresis), which is currently the safest and most efficient method. However, it is costly, complicated, and cannot be implemented everywhere, nor is it suitable for all patients. Manual exchange transfusions combine one or more manual phlebotomies with a PRBC transfusion. At the Reference Center of Sickle Cell Disease, we set up a continuous method of manual exchange transfusion that is feasible for all hospital settings, demands no specific equipment, and is widely applicable. In terms of HbS decrease, stroke prevention, and iron overload prevention, this method showed comparable efficiency to erythrapheresis. In cases where erythrapheresis is not available, this method can be a good alternative for patients and care centers.

  2. Post-transfusion hemoglobin values and patient blood management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moerman, Jan; Vermeulen, Edith; Van Mullem, Mia

    2018-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the added value of communicating post-transfusion hemoglobin values to clinicians as a strategy to improve RBC utilization in a 500-bed hospital. Methods: The total number of RBC transfusions, the mean number of RBC units...... transfused per patient, the mean pre- and post-transfusion hemoglobin values, the ratio of patients transfused and the ratio of patients with a post-transfusion hemoglobin > 10.5 g/dL were calculated per service and per department for six months. The data were reported to each service and compared...... with the data of the department as peer group. The impact of this communication strategy was evaluated in the following six months. Results: In the six months pre-intervention, the mean post-transfusion hemoglobin value was 9.2 g/dL. Post-transfusion hemoglobin was > 10.5 g/dL in 13.4% of patients (112...

  3. Novel web-based real-time dashboard to optimize recycling and use of red cell units at a large multi-site transfusion service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Sharpe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Effective blood inventory management reduces outdates of blood products. Multiple strategies have been employed to reduce the rate of red blood cell (RBC unit outdate. We designed an automated real-time web-based dashboard interfaced with our laboratory information system to effectively recycle red cell units. The objective of our approach is to decrease RBC outdate rates within our transfusion service. Methods: The dashboard was deployed in August 2011 and is accessed by a shortcut that was placed on the desktops of all blood transfusion services computers in the Capital District Health Authority region. It was designed to refresh automatically every 10 min. The dashboard provides all vital information on RBC units, and implemented a color coding scheme to indicate an RBC unit′s proximity to expiration. Results: The overall RBC unit outdate rate in the 7 months period following implementation of the dashboard (September 2011-March 2012 was 1.24% (123 units outdated/9763 units received, compared to similar periods in 2010-2011 and 2009-2010: 2.03% (188/9395 and 2.81% (261/9220, respectively. The odds ratio of a RBC unit outdate postdashboard (2011-2012 compared with 2010-2011 was 0.625 (95% confidence interval: 0.497-0.786; P < 0.0001. Conclusion: Our dashboard system is an inexpensive and novel blood inventory management system which was associated with a significant reduction in RBC unit outdate rates at our institution over a period of 7 months. This system, or components of it, could be a useful addition to existing RBC management systems at other institutions.

  4. Novel web-based real-time dashboard to optimize recycling and use of red cell units at a large multi-site transfusion service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Christopher; Quinn, Jason G; Watson, Stephanie; Doiron, Donald; Crocker, Bryan; Cheng, Calvino

    2014-01-01

    Effective blood inventory management reduces outdates of blood products. Multiple strategies have been employed to reduce the rate of red blood cell (RBC) unit outdate. We designed an automated real-time web-based dashboard interfaced with our laboratory information system to effectively recycle red cell units. The objective of our approach is to decrease RBC outdate rates within our transfusion service. The dashboard was deployed in August 2011 and is accessed by a shortcut that was placed on the desktops of all blood transfusion services computers in the Capital District Health Authority region. It was designed to refresh automatically every 10 min. The dashboard provides all vital information on RBC units, and implemented a color coding scheme to indicate an RBC unit's proximity to expiration. The overall RBC unit outdate rate in the 7 months period following implementation of the dashboard (September 2011-March 2012) was 1.24% (123 units outdated/9763 units received), compared to similar periods in 2010-2011 and 2009-2010: 2.03% (188/9395) and 2.81% (261/9220), respectively. The odds ratio of a RBC unit outdate postdashboard (2011-2012) compared with 2010-2011 was 0.625 (95% confidence interval: 0.497-0.786; P dashboard system is an inexpensive and novel blood inventory management system which was associated with a significant reduction in RBC unit outdate rates at our institution over a period of 7 months. This system, or components of it, could be a useful addition to existing RBC management systems at other institutions.

  5. Safety and effects of two red blood cell transfusion strategies in pediatric cardiac surgery patients: a randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Gast-Bakker, D. H.; de Wilde, R. B. P.; Hazekamp, M. G.; Sojak, V.; Zwaginga, J. J.; Wolterbeek, R.; de Jonge, E.; Gesink-van der Veer, B. J.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the safety and effects of a restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion strategy in pediatric cardiac surgery patients. Randomized controlled trial. Pediatric ICU in an academic tertiary care center, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. One hundred seven

  6. Red blood cell alloimmunization in sickle cell disease patients in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Alloimmunization is a recognized complication of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and causes delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions and provides problems sourcing compatible blood for future transfusions. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of RBC alloimmunization in SCD patients in ...

  7. Efficacy of D- red blood cell transfusion and rituximab therapy in autoimmune hemolytic anemia with anti-D and panreactive autoantibodies arising after hematopoietic stem cell transplant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minakawa, Keiji; Ohto, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Hiroyasu; Saito, Shunichi; Kawabata, Kinuyo; Ogawa, Kazuei; Nollet, Kenneth E; Ikeda, Kazuhiko

    2018-04-17

    Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is caused by autoantibodies to red blood cells (RBCs), which can be panreactive and/or specific to Rh/other blood group antigens. We report a severe case of AIHA after bone marrow transplantation (BMT) due to autoanti-D triggered by reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. A combined strategy of D- RBC transfusion and administration of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) resolved the hemolysis. A 33-year-old male underwent allogeneic BMT from an ABO-identical and HLA-matched unrelated male donor. Five months later, while having mild chronic graft-versus-host disease, he manifested AIHA, with a hemoglobin (Hb) level of 5.1 g/dL on AIHA Day 2 (Posttransplant Day 156) and was refractory to D+ RBCs, with a Hb level of 2.4 g/dL on AIHA Day 6. Anti-D-like autoantibodies (titer 1280, subclass immunoglobulin G 1 , monocyte monolayer assay 28.7%) and panreactive (titer 40) were identified. Changing the RBC transfusion strategy to D- increased his Hb level to 6.7 g/dL on Day 10. Administration of anti-CD20 MoAb mitigated EBV-related B-cell proliferation and reduced anti-D autoantibody titer to 320 by Day 16 with normalized Hb concentration after 6 months. In severe AIHA, when standard treatment and regular RBC transfusions are ineffective, transfusion of RBCs lacking the target antigen(s) of autoantibodies and administration of anti-CD20 MoAb should be considered. © 2018 AABB.

  8. Genotyping applications for transplantation and transfusion management: The Emory Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasano, Ross M.; Sullivan, Harold Cliff; Bray, Bob; Gebel, Howie; Meyer, Erin K.; Winkler, Annie M.; Josephson, Cassandra D.; Stowell, Sean R.; Duncan, Sandy; Roback, John D.

    2018-01-01

    Current genotyping methodologies for transplantation and transfusion management employ multiplex systems that allow for the simultaneous detection of multiple human leukocyte antigens (HLA), human platelet antigens (HPA) and red blood cell (RBC) antigens. The development of high resolution molecular HLA typing has led to improved outcomes of unrelated hematopoietic stem cell transplants by better identifying suitable donors typed at the allele level for HLA-A, B, C, DRB1 and DQB1 antigens. In solid organ transplantation, the combination of high resolution HLA typing along with solid-phase antibody identification and the calculated PRA have shown to be of specific benefit to highly sensitized patients, and have resulted in significant reductions of incompatible crossmatches at the time of organ allocation. This database-driven combined HLA antigen/antibody testing has promoted the routine implementation of the virtual crossmatch, in which an electronic crossmatch is performed, and perhaps even obviates the need for a physical crossmatch. Additionally, DNA-based testing for RBC antigens provides as an alternative typing method that mitigates many of the limitations of hemagglutination-based phenotyping. Although there are many applications of RBC genotyping in various transfusion settings, it has arguably been most useful in the management of transfusion-dependent patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) and thalassemia to minimize alloimmunization. The availability of high-throughput RBC genotyping for both patients and large populations of donors, along with coordinated informatics systems to link patients’ antigen needs with available antigen-negative and/or rare blood-typed donors, offer promise toward improving the efficiency, reliability, and extent of RBC matching for this population. PMID:28234571

  9. Age of transfused blood is not associated with increased postoperative adverse outcome after cardiac surgery.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKenny, M

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated the hypothesis that storage age of transfused red blood cells (RBCs) is associated with adverse outcome after cardiac surgery, and examined association between volume of RBC transfusions and outcome after cardiac surgery.

  10. Blood transfusion reduction with intravenous iron in gynecologic cancer patients receiving chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangsuwan, Penkae; Manchana, Tarinee

    2010-03-01

    To compare the incidence of repeated red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in anemic gynecologic cancer patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy comparing intravenous and oral iron. Forty-four anemic gynecologic cancer patients (hemoglobin level below 10 mg/dl) who required RBC transfusion were stratified and randomized according to baseline hemoglobin levels and chemotherapy regimen. Study group received 200 mg of intravenous iron sucrose and control group received oral ferrous sulphate 600 mg/day. RBC transfusion requirement in the consecutive cycle of chemotherapy was the primary outcome. Quality of life was evaluated by validated Thai version of the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Anemia (FACT-An). In a total of the 44 patients, there were 22 patients in each group. Five patients (22.7%) in the study group and 14 patients (63.6%) in the control group required RBC transfusion in consecutive cycle of chemotherapy (p=0.01). No significant difference in baseline hemoglobin and hematocrit levels was demonstrated in both groups. Significantly higher mean hemoglobin and hematocrit levels after treatment were reported in the study group (10.0+/-0.8 g/dl and 30.5+/-2.4%) than the control group (9.5+/-0.9 g/dl and 28.4+/-2.7%). No significant change of total FACT-An scores was noted between before and after treatment in both groups. No serious adverse events were reported and there was no significant difference among adverse events between both groups. Intravenous iron is an alternative treatment for anemic gynecologic cancer patients receiving platinum-based chemotherapy and reduces the incidence of RBC transfusion without serious adverse events.

  11. Single-dose intravenous iron infusion versus red blood cell transfusion for the treatment of severe postpartum anaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, C; Thomsen, L L; Norgaard, A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are no randomized trials comparing intravenous iron to RBC transfusion for the treatment of severe postpartum anaemia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of randomizing women with severe postpartum anaemia secondary to postpartum...... haemorrhage to RBC transfusion or intravenous iron, and to describe patient-reported outcomes, and haematological and iron parameters. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Women with a postpartum haemorrhage exceeding 1000 ml and an Hb between 5·6 and 8·1 g/dl were randomized to 1500 mg of intravenous iron (n = 7......) isomaltoside or RBC transfusion (n = 6). Participants completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and blood samples were drawn at inclusion, daily during the first week and at weeks 3, 8 and 12. RESULTS: We screened 162 women and included 13 (8...

  12. A time-driven, activity-based costing methodology for determining the costs of red blood cell transfusion in patients with beta thalassaemia major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, K E; Haysom, H E; Higgins, A M; Waters, N; Tahiri, R; Rushford, K; Dunstan, T; Saxby, K; Kaplan, Z; Chunilal, S; McQuilten, Z K; Wood, E M

    2018-04-10

    To describe the methodology to estimate the total cost of administration of a single unit of red blood cells (RBC) in adults with beta thalassaemia major in an Australian specialist haemoglobinopathy centre. Beta thalassaemia major is a genetic disorder of haemoglobin associated with multiple end-organ complications and typically requiring lifelong RBC transfusion therapy. New therapeutic agents are becoming available based on advances in understanding of the disorder and its consequences. Assessment of the true total cost of transfusion, incorporating both product and activity costs, is required in order to evaluate the benefits and costs of these new therapies. We describe the bottom-up, time-driven, activity-based costing methodology used to develop process maps to provide a step-by-step outline of the entire transfusion pathway. Detailed flowcharts for each process are described. Direct observations and timing of the process maps document all activities, resources, staff, equipment and consumables in detail. The analysis will include costs associated with performing these processes, including resources and consumables. Sensitivity analyses will be performed to determine the impact of different staffing levels, timings and probabilities associated with performing different tasks. Thirty-one process maps have been developed, with over 600 individual activities requiring multiple timings. These will be used for future detailed cost analyses. Detailed process maps using bottom-up, time-driven, activity-based costing for determining the cost of RBC transfusion in thalassaemia major have been developed. These could be adapted for wider use to understand and compare the costs and complexities of transfusion in other settings. © 2018 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  13. Detection of alloimmunization to ensure safer transfusion practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Sood

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Serological safety is an integral part of overall safety for blood banks. Emphasis is on the use of routinue Red Blood Cell (RBC antibody screen test, at set time intervals, to reduce risks related to alloantibodies. Also emphasis is on importance of issuing antigen negative blood to alloantibody positive patients. Effect of using leucodepleted blood on the rate of alloimmunization is highlighted. The concept of provision of phenotypically matched blood is suggested. Materials and Methods: Antibody screen test is important to select appropriate blood for transfusion. Repeat antibody screen testing, except if time interval between the earlier and subsequent transfusion was less than 72 hours, followed by antibody identification, if required, was performed in patients being treated with repeat multiple blood transfusions. Between February 2008 and June 2009, repeat samples of 306 multi-transfused patients were analyzed. Search for irregular antibodies and reading of results was conducted using RBC panels (three-cell panel of Column Agglutination Technology (CAT and two cell panel of the Solid Phase Red Cell Adherence Technology (SPRCAT. Specificities of antibodies were investigated using appropriate panels, 11 cell panel of CAT and 16 cell panel of SPRCA. These technologies, detecting agglutination in columns and reactions in solid phase, evaluate the attachment of irregular incomplete antibody to antigen in the first phase of immunological reaction more directly and hence improve the reading of agglutination. Three to four log leuco reduced red blood cells were transfused to patients in the study using blood collection bags with integral filters. Results: Alloimmunization rate of 4.24% was detected from 306 multiply transfused patients tested and followed up. The Transfusion therapy may become significantly complicated. Conclusion: Red cell antibody screening and identification and subsequent issue of antigen negative blood have a

  14. Measurement of total hemoglobin reduces red cell transfusion in hospitalized patients undergoing cardiac surgery: a retrospective database analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Christopher; Belk, Kathy W; Myers, Gerard J

    2018-01-01

    Historically, perioperative hemoglobin monitoring has relied on calculated saturation, using blood gas devices that measure plasma hematocrit (Hct). Co-oximetry, which measures total hemoglobin (tHb), yields a more comprehensive assessment of hemodilution. The purpose of this study was to examine the association of tHb measurement by co-oximetry and Hct, using conductivity with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, length of stay (LOS) and inpatient costs in patients having major cardiac surgery. A retrospective study was conducted on patients who underwent coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) and/or valve replacement (VR) procedures from January 2014 to June 2016, using MedAssets discharge data. The patient population was sub-divided by the measurement modality (tHb and Hct), using detailed billing records and Current Procedural Terminology coding. Cost was calculated using hospital-specific cost-to-charge ratios. Multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify significant drivers of RBC transfusion and resource utilization. The study population included 18,169 cardiovascular surgery patients. Hct-monitored patients accounted for 66% of the population and were more likely to have dual CABG and VR procedures (10.4% vs 8.9%, p=0.0069). After controlling for patient and hospital characteristics, as well as patient comorbidities, Hct-monitored patients had significantly higher RBC transfusion risk (OR=1.26, CI 1.15-1.38, pcosts (IRR=1.15, pcost (IRR=1.22, pcost compared to Hct monitoring.

  15. Point-of-care washing of allogeneic red blood cells for the prevention of transfusion-related respiratory complications (WAR-PRC): a protocol for a multicenter randomised clinical trial in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Matthew A; Welsby, Ian J; Norris, Phillip J; Silliman, Christopher C; Armour, Sarah; Wittwer, Erica D; Santrach, Paula J; Meade, Laurie A; Liedl, Lavonne M; Nieuwenkamp, Chelsea M; Douthit, Brian; van Buskirk, Camille M; Schulte, Phillip J; Kor, Daryl J

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The transfusion-related respiratory complications, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), are leading causes of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality. At present, there are no effective preventive strategies with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Although mechanisms remain incompletely defined, soluble biological response modifiers (BRMs) within the RBC storage solution may play an important role. Point-of-care (POC) washing of allogeneic RBCs may remove these BRMs, thereby mitigating their impact on post-transfusion respiratory complications. Methods and analysis This is a multicenter randomised clinical trial of standard allogeneic versus washed allogeneic RBC transfusion for adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery testing the hypothesis that POC RBC washing is feasible, safe, and efficacious and will reduce recipient immune and physiologic responses associated with transfusion-related respiratory complications. Relevant clinical outcomes will also be assessed. This investigation will enrol 170 patients at two hospitals in the USA. Simon’s two-stage design will be used to assess the feasibility of POC RBC washing. The primary safety outcomes will be assessed using Wilcoxon Rank-Sum tests for continuous variables and Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables. Standard mixed modelling practices will be employed to test for changes in biomarkers of lung injury following transfusion. Linear regression will assess relationships between randomised group and post-transfusion physiologic measures. Ethics and dissemination Safety oversight will be conducted under the direction of an independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB). Approval of the protocol was obtained by the DSMB as well as the institutional review boards at each institution prior to enrolling the first study participant. This study aims to provide important information regarding the feasibility of POC

  16. Electronic remote blood issue: a combination of remote blood issue with a system for end-to-end electronic control of transfusion to provide a "total solution" for a safe and timely hospital blood transfusion service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staves, Julie; Davies, Amanda; Kay, Jonathan; Pearson, Oliver; Johnson, Tony; Murphy, Michael F

    2008-03-01

    The rapid provision of red cell (RBC) units to patients needing blood urgently is an issue of major importance in transfusion medicine. The development of electronic issue (sometimes termed "electronic crossmatch") has facilitated rapid provision of RBC units by avoidance of the serologic crossmatch in eligible patients. A further development is the issue of blood under electronic control at blood refrigerator remote from the blood bank. This study evaluated a system for electronic remote blood issue (ERBI) developed as an enhancement of a system for end-to-end electronic control of hospital transfusion. Practice was evaluated before and after its introduction in cardiac surgery. Before the implementation of ERBI, the median time to deliver urgently required RBC units to the patient was 24 minutes. After its implementation, RBC units were obtained from the nearby blood refrigerator in a median time of 59 seconds (range, 30 sec to 2 min). The study also found that unused requests were reduced significantly from 42 to 20 percent, the number of RBC units issued reduced by 52 percent, the number of issued units that were transfused increased from 40 to 62 percent, and there was a significant reduction in the workload of both blood bank and clinical staff. This study evaluated a combination of remote blood issue with an end-to-end electronically controlled hospital transfusion process, ERBI. ERBI reduced the time to make blood available for surgical patients and improved the efficiency of hospital transfusion.

  17. Platelet-rich-plasmapheresis for minimising peri-operative allogeneic blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carless, Paul A; Rubens, Fraser D; Anthony, Danielle M; O'Connell, Dianne; Henry, David A

    2011-03-16

    Concerns regarding the safety of transfused blood have generated considerable enthusiasm for the use of technologies intended to reduce the use of allogeneic blood (blood from an unrelated donor). Platelet-rich plasmapheresis (PRP) offers an alternative approach to blood conservation. To examine the evidence for the efficacy of PRP in reducing peri-operative allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, and the evidence for any effect on clinical outcomes such as mortality and re-operation rates. We identified studies by searching MEDLINE (1950 to 2009), EMBASE (1980 to 2009), The Cochrane Library (Issue 1, 2009), the Internet (to March 2009) and the reference lists of published articles, reports, and reviews. Controlled parallel group trials in which adult patients, scheduled for non-urgent surgery, were randomised to PRP, or to a control group which did not receive the intervention. Primary outcomes measured were: the number of patients exposed to allogeneic RBC transfusion, and the amount of RBC transfused. Other outcomes measured were: the number of patients exposed to allogeneic platelet transfusions, fresh frozen plasma, and cryoprecipitate, blood loss, re-operation for bleeding, post-operative complications (thrombosis), mortality, and length of hospital stay. Treatment effects were pooled using a random-effects model. Trial quality was assessed using criteria proposed by Schulz et al (Schulz 1995). Twenty-two trials of PRP were identified that reported data for the number of patients exposed to allogeneic RBC transfusion. These trials evaluated a total of 1589 patients. The relative risk (RR) of exposure to allogeneic blood transfusion in those patients randomised to PRP was 0.73 (95%CI 0.59 to 0.90), equating to a relative risk reduction (RRR) of 27% and a risk difference (RD) of 19% (95%CI 10% to 29%). However, significant heterogeneity of treatment effect was observed (p transfused (weighted mean difference [WMD] -0.69, 95%CI -1.93 to 0.56 units). Trials

  18. Single-dose intravenous iron infusion versus red blood cell transfusion for the treatment of severe postpartum anaemia: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, C; Thomsen, L L; Norgaard, A; Langhoff-Roos, J

    2017-02-01

    There are no randomized trials comparing intravenous iron to RBC transfusion for the treatment of severe postpartum anaemia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of randomizing women with severe postpartum anaemia secondary to postpartum haemorrhage to RBC transfusion or intravenous iron, and to describe patient-reported outcomes, and haematological and iron parameters. Women with a postpartum haemorrhage exceeding 1000 ml and an Hb between 5·6 and 8·1 g/dl were randomized to 1500 mg of intravenous iron (n = 7) isomaltoside or RBC transfusion (n = 6). Participants completed the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, and blood samples were drawn at inclusion, daily during the first week and at weeks 3, 8 and 12. We screened 162 women and included 13 (8%). There was no significant difference between groups in fatigue or depression scores. RBC transfusion was associated with a higher Hb on day 1, inhibition of reticulocytosis during the first week and low iron levels. Intravenous iron was associated with increased reticulocytosis during the first week, repleted iron stores and a higher Hb in weeks 3-12. This pilot study shows that intravenous iron could be an attractive alternative to RBC transfusion in severe postpartum anaemia, and that a larger trial is needed and feasible. © 2016 The Authors. Vox Sanguinis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  19. Red blood cell transfusion is associated with further bleeding and fresh-frozen plasma with mortality in nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, Kavitha; Spilsbury, Katrina; Ayonrinde, Oyekoya T; Latchmiah, Faye; Mukhtar, Syed A; Semmens, James B; Leahy, Michael F; Olynyk, John K

    2016-04-01

    Blood products are commonly transfused for patients with nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB). While concerns exist about further bleeding and mortality in subsets of patients receiving red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, the impact of non-RBC blood products has not previously been systematically investigated. The aim of the study was to investigate the associations between blood products transfusion, further bleeding, and mortality after acute NVUGIB. A retrospective cohort study examined further bleeding and 30-day and 1-year mortality in adult patients who underwent gastroscopy for suspected acute NVUGIB between 2008 and 2010 in three tertiary hospitals in Western Australia. Survival analysis was performed. A total of 2228 adults (63% male) with 2360 hospital admissions for NVUGIB met the inclusion criteria. Median age at presentation was 70 years (range, 19-99 years). Thirty-day mortality was 4.9% and 1-year mortality was 13.9%. Transfusion of 4 or more units of RBCs was associated with greater than 10 times the odds of further bleeding in patients with a hemoglobin level of more than 90 g/L (odds ratio, 11.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.1-45.7; p ≤ 0.001), but was not associated with mortality. Administration of 5 or more units of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) was associated with increased 30-day (hazard ratio, 2.8; 95% CI, 1.3-5.9; p = 0.008) and 1-year (hazard ratio, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.3-5.0; p = 0.005) mortality after adjusting for coagulopathy, comorbidity, Rockall score, and other covariates. In this large, multicenter study of NVUGIB, RBC transfusion was associated with further bleeding but not mortality, while FFP transfusion was associated with increased mortality in a subset of patients. © 2015 AABB.

  20. Acute Lung Injury Complicating Blood Transfusion in Post-Partum Hemorrhage: Incidence and Risk Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Teofili, Luciana; Bianchi, Maria; Zanfini, Bruno A.; Catarci, Stefano; Sicuranza, Rossella; Spartano, Serena; Zini, Gina; Draisci, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Background. We retrospectively investigated the incidence and risk factors for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) among patients transfused for post-partum hemorrhage (PPH).  Methods. We identified a series of 71 consecutive patients with PPH requiring the urgent transfusion of three or more red blood cell (RBC) units, with or without fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet (PLT) transfusion. Clinical records were then retrieved and examined for respiratory distress events. Accor...

  1. Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategy for red blood cell transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Petersen, Marie W; Haase, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the benefit and harm of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies to guide red blood cell transfusions. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane central register of controlled...... differences with 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: 31 trials totalling 9813 randomised patients were included. The proportion of patients receiving red blood cells (relative risk 0.54, 95% confidence interval 0.47 to 0.63, 8923 patients, 24 trials) and the number of red blood cell units transfused (mean...... were associated with a reduction in the number of red blood cell units transfused and number of patients being transfused, but mortality, overall morbidity, and myocardial infarction seemed to be unaltered. Restrictive transfusion strategies are safe in most clinical settings. Liberal transfusion...

  2. Effect of Processing and Storage on RBC function in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doctor, Allan; Spinella, Phil

    2012-01-01

    Red Blood Cell (RBC) transfusion is indicated to improve oxygen delivery to tissue, and for no other purpose. We have come to appreciate that donor RBCs are fundamentally altered during processing and storage, in a fashion that both impairs oxygen transport efficacy and introduces additional risk by perturbing both immune and coagulation systems. The protean biophysical and physiologic changes in RBC function arising from storage are termed the ‘storage lesion’; many have been understood for some time; for example, we know that the oxygen affinity of stored blood rises during the storage period1 and that intracellular allosteric regulators, notably 2,3-bisphosphoglyceric acid (DPG) and ATP, are depleted during storage. Our appreciation of other storage lesion features has emerged with improved understanding of coagulation, immune and vascular signaling systems. Herein we review key features of the ‘storage lesion’. Additionally, we call particular attention to the newly appreciated role of RBCs in regulating linkage between regional blood flow and regional O2 consumption by regulating the bioavailability of key vasoactive mediators in plasma, as well as discuss how processing and storage disturbs this key signaling function and impairs transfusion efficacy. PMID:22818545

  3. Transfusion practice in anemic, non-bleeding patients: Cross-sectional survey of physicians working in general internal medicine teaching hospitals in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Babo, Michelle; Chmiel, Corinne; Müggler, Simon Andreas; Rakusa, Julia; Schuppli, Caroline; Meier, Philipp; Fischler, Manuel; Urner, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Transfusion practice might significantly influence patient morbidity and mortality. Between European countries, transfusion practice of red blood cells (RBC) greatly differs. Only sparse data are available on transfusion practice of general internal medicine physicians in Switzerland. In this cross-sectional survey, physicians working in general medicine teaching hospitals in Switzerland were investigated regarding their self-reported transfusion practice in anemic patients without acute bleeding. The definition of anemia, transfusion triggers, knowledge on RBC transfusion, and implementation of guidelines were assessed. 560 physicians of 71 hospitals (64%) responded to the survey. Anemia was defined at very diverging hemoglobin values (by 38% at a hemoglobin Switzerland. Identifying and subsequently correcting this deficit in knowledge translation may have a significant impact on patient care.

  4. Point-of-care washing of allogeneic red blood cells for the prevention of transfusion-related respiratory complications (WAR-PRC): a protocol for a multicenter randomised clinical trial in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Matthew A; Welsby, Ian J; Norris, Phillip J; Silliman, Christopher C; Armour, Sarah; Wittwer, Erica D; Santrach, Paula J; Meade, Laurie A; Liedl, Lavonne M; Nieuwenkamp, Chelsea M; Douthit, Brian; van Buskirk, Camille M; Schulte, Phillip J; Carter, Rickey E; Kor, Daryl J

    2017-08-18

    The transfusion-related respiratory complications, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and transfusion-associated circulatory overload (TACO), are leading causes of transfusion-related morbidity and mortality. At present, there are no effective preventive strategies with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Although mechanisms remain incompletely defined, soluble biological response modifiers (BRMs) within the RBC storage solution may play an important role. Point-of-care (POC) washing of allogeneic RBCs may remove these BRMs, thereby mitigating their impact on post-transfusion respiratory complications. This is a multicenter randomised clinical trial of standard allogeneic versus washed allogeneic RBC transfusion for adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery testing the hypothesis that POC RBC washing is feasible, safe, and efficacious and will reduce recipient immune and physiologic responses associated with transfusion-related respiratory complications. Relevant clinical outcomes will also be assessed. This investigation will enrol 170 patients at two hospitals in the USA. Simon's two-stage design will be used to assess the feasibility of POC RBC washing. The primary safety outcomes will be assessed using Wilcoxon Rank-Sum tests for continuous variables and Pearson chi-square test for categorical variables. Standard mixed modelling practices will be employed to test for changes in biomarkers of lung injury following transfusion. Linear regression will assess relationships between randomised group and post-transfusion physiologic measures. Safety oversight will be conducted under the direction of an independent Data and Safety Monitoring Board (DSMB). Approval of the protocol was obtained by the DSMB as well as the institutional review boards at each institution prior to enrolling the first study participant. This study aims to provide important information regarding the feasibility of POC washing of allogeneic RBCs and its potential impact on ameliorating

  5. Length of Storage of Red Blood Cells and Patient Survival After Blood Transfusion: A Binational Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halmin, Märit; Rostgaard, Klaus; Lee, Brian K; Wikman, Agneta; Norda, Rut; Nielsen, Kaspar René; Pedersen, Ole B; Holmqvist, Jacob; Hjalgrim, Henrik; Edgren, Gustaf

    2017-02-21

    Possible negative effects, including increased mortality, among persons who receive stored red blood cells (RBCs) have recently garnered considerable attention. Despite many studies, including 4 randomized trials, no consensus exists. To study the association between the length of RBC storage and mortality in a large population-based cohort of patients who received transfusions, allowing detection of small yet clinically significant effects. Binational cohort study. All transfusion recipients in Sweden and Denmark. 854 862 adult patients who received transfusions from 2003 to 2012. Patients were followed from first blood transfusion. Relative and absolute risks for death in 30 days or 1 year in relation to length of RBC storage were assessed by using 3 independent analytic approaches. All analyses were conducted by using Cox proportional hazards regression. Regardless of the analytic approach, no association was found between the length of RBC storage and mortality. The difference in 30-day cumulative mortality between patients receiving blood stored for 30 to 42 days and those receiving blood stored for 10 to 19 days was -0.2% (95% CI, -0.5% to 0.1%). Even among patients who received more than 6 units of RBCs stored for 30 days or longer, the hazard ratio of death was 1.00 (CI, 0.96 to 1.05) compared with those who received no such units. Observational study; risk of confounding by indication. Consistent with previous randomized trials, this study found no association between the length of storage of transfused RBCs and patient mortality. Results were homogeneous, with differences in absolute mortality consistently less than 1% among the most extreme exposure categories. These findings suggest that the current practice of storing RBCs for up to 42 days does not need to be changed. The Swedish Research Council, Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, Swedish Society for Medical Research, Strategic Research Program in Epidemiology at Karolinska Institutet, and Danish

  6. Implementation of a simple electronic transfusion alert system decreases inappropriate ordering of packed red blood cells and plasma in a multi-hospital health care system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew; Triulzi, Darrell J; Yazer, Mark H; Rollins-Raval, Marian A; Waters, Jonathan H; Raval, Jay S

    2014-12-01

    Prescriber adherence to institutional blood component ordering guidelines can be low. The goal of this study was to decrease red blood cell (RBC) and plasma orders that did not meet institutional transfusion guidelines by using data within the laboratory information system to trigger alerts in the computerized order entry (CPOE) system at the time of order entry. At 10 hospitals within a regional health care system, discernment rules were created for RBC and plasma orders utilizing transfusion triggers of hemoglobin 1.6, respectively, with subsequent alert generation that appears within the CPOE system when a prescriber attempts to order RBCs or plasma on a patient whose antecedent laboratory values do not suggest that a transfusion is indicated. Orders and subsequent alerts were tracked for RBCs and plasma over evaluation periods of 15 and 10 months, respectively, along with the hospital credentials of the ordering health care providers (physician or nurse). Alerts triggered which were heeded remained steady and averaged 11.3% for RBCs and 19.6% for plasma over the evaluation periods. Overall, nurses and physicians canceled statistically identical percentages of alerted RBC (10.9% vs. 11.5%; p = 0.78) and plasma (21.3% vs. 18.7%; p = 0.22) orders. Implementing a simple evidence-based transfusion alert system at the time of order entry decreased non-evidence based transfusion orders by both nurse and physician providers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Physiologic Impact of Circulating RBC Microparticles upon Blood-Vascular Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed S. Said

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we review current data elucidating the role of red blood cell derived microparticles (RMPs in normal vascular physiology and disease progression. Microparticles (MPs are submicron-size, membrane-encapsulated vesicles derived from various parent cell types. MPs are produced in response to numerous stimuli that promote a sequence of cytoskeletal and membrane phospholipid changes and resulting MP genesis. MPs were originally considered as potential biomarkers for multiple disease processes and more recently are recognized to have pleiotropic biological effects, most notably in: promotion of coagulation, production and handling of reactive oxygen species, immune modulation, angiogenesis, and in initiating apoptosis. RMPs, specifically, form normally during RBC maturation in response to injury during circulation, and are copiously produced during processing and storage for transfusion. Notably, several factors during RBC storage are known to trigger RMP production, including: increased intracellular calcium, increased potassium leakage, and energy failure with ATP depletion. Of note, RMP composition differs markedly from that of intact RBCs and the nature/composition of RMP components are affected by the specific circumstances of RMP genesis. Described RMP bioactivities include: promotion of coagulation, immune modulation, and promotion of endothelial adhesion as well as influence upon vasoregulation via influence upon nitric oxide (NO bioavailability. Of particular relevance, RMPs scavenge NO more avidly than do intact RBCs; this physiology has been proposed to contribute to the impaired oxygen delivery homeostasis that may be observed following transfusion. In summary, RMPs are submicron particles released from RBCs, with demonstrated vasoactive properties that appear to disturb oxygen delivery homeostasis. The clinical impact of RMPs in normal and patho-physiology and in transfusion recipients is an area of continued investigation.

  8. Tc-99m red blood cells for the study of rapid hemolytic processes associated with heterologous blood transfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedetto, A.R.; Harrison, C.R.; Blumhardt, R.; Trow, L.L.

    1984-01-01

    Chromium-51 labeled erythrocytes (Cr-51 RBC) are suitable for the study of hematologic disorders which involve relatively slow destruction of circulating erythrocytes, taking several days to several weeks. However, Cr-51 RBC are not suitable for investigating rapid hemolytic processes which occur within a matter of a few hours due to the variable and unpredictable elution of Cr-51 from the erythrocytes during the first 24 hours or so. Imaging, which could be useful in identifying organ systems involved in the hemolytic process, cannot be performed with Cr-51 RBC because of the high dose commitment caused by the low yield of gamma rays from Cr-51 (2). A method of labeling RBC with Tc-99m, which results in a radiopharmaceutical that combines the excellent dosimetric and imaging qualities of Tc-99m with an extremely stable bond between the Tc-99m and the RBC, is reported. The successful application of this technique in providing red cell support for a cancer patient with an unusual history of intravascular hemolytic transfusion reactions is also reported

  9. Alloimmunization and autoimmunization in transfusion dependent thalassemia major patients: Study on 319 patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari Krishan Dhawan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The development of anti-red blood cell antibodies (both allo-and autoantibodies remains a major problem in thalassemia major patients. We studied the frequency of red blood cell (RBC alloimmunization and autoimmunization among thalassemia patients who received regular transfusions at our center and analyzed the factors, which may be responsible for development of these antibodies. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 319 multiply transfused patients with β-thalassemia major registered with thalassemia clinic at our institute. Clinical and transfusion records of all the patients were examined for age of patients, age at initiation of transfusion therapy, total number of blood units transfused, transfusion interval, status of splenectomy or other interventions. Alloantibody screening and identification was done using three cell and 11 cell panel (Diapanel, Bio-rad, Switzerland respectively. To detect autoantibodies, autocontrol was carried out using polyspecific coombs (IgG + C3d gel cards. Results: Eighteen patients out of total 319 patients (5.64% developed alloantibodies and 90 (28.2% developed autoantibodies. Nine out of 18 patients with alloantibodies also had autoantibodies. Age at first transfusion was significantly higher in alloimmunized than non-immunized patients (P = 0.042. Out of 23 alloantibodies, 52.17% belonged to Rh blood group system (Anti-E = 17%, Anti D = 13%, Anti-C = 13%, Anti-C w = 9%, 35% belonged to Kell blood group system, 9% of Kidd and 4% of Xg blood group system. Conclusion: Alloimmunization was detected in 5.64% of multitransfused thalassemia patients. Rh and Kell blood group system antibodies accounted for more than 80% of alloantibodies. This study re-emphasizes the need for RBC antigen typing before first transfusion and issue of antigen matched blood (at least for Rh and Kell antigen. Early institution of transfusion therapy after diagnosis is another means of decreasing

  10. Iron overload in lower international prognostic scoring system risk patients with myelodysplastic syndrome receiving red blood cell transfusions: Relation to infections and possible benefit of iron chelation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Colleen A C; Wong, Shannon A Y; Leitch, Heather A

    2018-04-01

    An increased incidence of infections and infectious mortality has been reported in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) patients receiving red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. We examined incidence of infections requiring antibiotics, antifungal or antiviral medications in transfused lower International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) risk MDS patients and whether this differed with iron chelation therapy (ICT). 138 transfused MDS patients were lower IPSS risk. 59 received ICT; median duration was 13 months. There was no significant difference between groups in neutrophil count at first RBC transfusion or first infection. Infections included: bacterial, n = 88; viral; fungal; and mycobacterial; n = 2 each. In ICT and non-ICT patients, respectively, infections were (number [%]): patients, 23 (40.0%) and 22 (27.8%); episodes (median [range]), 2 (1-6) and 2 (1-5); hospitalizations, 16 (27.1%) and 8 (10.1%); and deaths, 0 (0%) and 1 (1.3%), p = NS for all. Median overall survival (OS) from first RBC transfusion was superior in ICT patients, p = 0.01, and remained significant in a multivariate analysis (MVA), p = 0.003. Median time to first infection (TTI) was 27 and 7.8 months, respectively, p < 0.0001, and ICT remained significant for TTI in an MVA, p = 0.02, hazard ratio 0.3. For ICT patients with blast count <5%, TTI was significantly superior (p = 0.004). In this retrospective analysis, for lower IPSS risk MDS patients receiving RBC transfusions, though number and type of infections were similar between groups and despite similar neutrophil counts, time to first infection was significantly longer in ICT patients (p < 0.0001). These results should be confirmed in larger, prospective analyses. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Low vs. high haemoglobin trigger for transfusion in vascular surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, A; Nielsen, H B; Wetterslev, J

    2017-01-01

    of the infrarenal aorta or infrainguinal arterial bypass surgery undergo a web-based randomisation to one of two groups: perioperative RBC transfusion triggered by hb ...-up of serious adverse events in the Danish National Patient Register within 90 days is pending. DISCUSSION: This trial is expected to determine whether a RBC transfusion triggered by hb

  12. Plasma free hemoglobin and microcirculatory response to fresh or old blood transfusions in sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Damiani

    Full Text Available Free hemoglobin (fHb may induce vasoconstriction by scavenging nitric oxide. It may increase in older blood units due to storage lesions. This study evaluated whether old red blood cell transfusion increases plasma fHb in sepsis and how the microvascular response may be affected.This is a secondary analysis of a randomized study. Twenty adult septic patients received either fresh or old (15 days storage, respectively RBC transfusions. fHb was measured in RBC units and in the plasma before and 1 hour after transfusion. Simultaneously, the sublingual microcirculation was assessed with sidestream-dark field imaging. The perfused boundary region was calculated as an index of glycocalyx damage. Tissue oxygen saturation (StO2 and Hb index (THI were measured with near-infrared spectroscopy and a vascular occlusion test was performed.Similar fHb levels were found in the supernatant of fresh and old RBC units. Despite this, plasma fHb increased in the old RBC group after transfusion (from 0.125 [0.098-0.219] mg/mL to 0.238 [0.163-0.369] mg/mL, p = 0.006. The sublingual microcirculation was unaltered in both groups, while THI increased. The change in plasma fHb was inversely correlated with the changes in total vessel density (r = -0.57 [95% confidence interval -0.82, -0.16], p = 0.008, De Backer score (r = -0.63 [95% confidence interval -0.84, -0.25], p = 0.003 and THI (r = -0.72 [95% confidence interval -0.88, -0.39], p = 0.0003.Old RBC transfusion was associated with an increase in plasma fHb in septic patients. Increasing plasma fHb levels were associated with decreased microvascular density.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01584999.

  13. Randomized Controlled Study on Safety and Feasibility of Transfusion Trigger Score of Emergency Operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, De-Xing; Liu, Jin; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Qiu-Ying; Xie, Mian; Zhu, Zhao-Qiong

    2015-07-05

    Due to the floating of the guideline, there is no evidence-based evaluation index on when to start the blood transfusion for patients with hemoglobin (Hb) level between 7 and 10 g/dl. As a result, the trigger point of blood transfusion may be different in the emergency use of the existing transfusion guidelines. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the scheme can be safely and effectively used for emergency patients, so as to be supported by multicenter and large sample data in the future. From June 2013 to June 2014, patients were randomly divided into the experimental group (Peri-operative Transfusion Trigger Score of Emergency [POTTS-E] group) and the control group (control group). The between-group differences in the patients' demography and baseline information, mortality and blood transfusion-related complications, heart rate, resting arterial pressure, body temperature, and Hb values were compared. The consistency of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion standards of the two groups of patients with the current blood transfusion guideline, namely the compliance of the guidelines, utilization rate, and per-capita consumption of autologous RBC were analyzed. During the study period, a total of 72 patients were recorded, and 65 of them met the inclusion criteria, which included 33 males and 32 females with a mean age of (34.8 ± 14.6) years. 50 underwent abdomen surgery, 4 underwent chest surgery, 11 underwent arms and legs surgery. There was no statistical difference between the two groups for demography and baseline information. There was also no statistical differences between the two groups in anesthesia time, intraoperative rehydration, staying time in postanesthetic care unit, emergency hospitalization, postoperative 72 h Acute Physiologic Assessment and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores, blood transfusion-related complications and mortality. Only the POTTS-E group on the 1 st postoperative day Hb was lower than group control, P group was

  14. Design and rationale of the QUAZAR Lower-Risk MDS (AZA-MDS-003) trial: a randomized phase 3 study of CC-486 (oral azacitidine) plus best supportive care vs placebo plus best supportive care in patients with IPSS lower-risk myelodysplastic syndromes and poor prognosis due to red blood cell transfusion-dependent anemia and thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Manero, Guillermo; Almeida, Antonio; Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Platzbecker, Uwe; Garcia, Regina; Voso, Maria Teresa; Larsen, Stephen R; Valcarcel, David; Silverman, Lewis R; Skikne, Barry; Santini, Valeria

    2016-01-01

    CC-486 is an oral formulation of the epigenetic modifier azacitidine. In an expanded phase 1 trial, CC-486 demonstrated clinical and biological activity in patients with International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) lower-risk (low- and intermediate-1-risk) myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with poor prognostic features including anemia and/or thrombocytopenia who may have required red blood cell or platelet transfusions. The overall response rate was 40 %, including hematologic improvement in 28 % of patients and RBC transfusion independence sustained for 56 days in 47 % of patients with baseline transfusion dependence. Based on the results of this study, the randomized, placebo-controlled phase 3 QUAZAR Lower-Risk MDS trial (AZA-MDS-003) was initiated. The design and rationale for this trial comparing CC-486 with placebo for the treatment of patients with IPSS lower-risk MDS with poor prognostic features are described. Patients must have IPSS lower-risk MDS with red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent anemia and thrombocytopenia. Eligible patients are randomized 1:1 to receive 300 mg of CC-486 or placebo once daily for the first 21 days of 28-day treatment cycles. Disease status assessments occur at the end of cycle 6 and patients may continue to receive treatment unless there is evidence of progressive disease, lack of efficacy, or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint is RBC transfusion independence for ≥ 84 days, assessed according to International Working Group 2006 criteria. Secondary endpoints include overall survival, hematologic response including platelet response and erythroid response, RBC transfusion independence for ≥ 56 days, duration of RBC transfusion independence, time to RBC transfusion independence, rate of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) progression, time to AML progression, clinically significant bleeding events, safety, health-related quality of life, and healthcare resource utilization. This study will provide data

  15. Preoperative Aspirin Does Not Increase Transfusion or Reoperation in Isolated Valve Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldhammer, Jordan E; Herman, Corey R; Berguson, Mark W; Torjman, Marc C; Epstein, Richard H; Sun, Jian-Zhong

    2017-10-01

    Preoperative aspirin has been studied in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery. However, there is a paucity of clinical data available evaluating perioperative aspirin in other cardiac surgical procedures. This study was designed to investigate the effects of aspirin on bleeding and transfusion in patients undergoing non-emergent, isolated, heart valve repair or replacement. Retrospective, cohort study. Academic medical center. A total of 694 consecutive patients having non-emergent, isolated, valve repair or replacement surgery at an academic medical center were identified. Of the 488 patients who met inclusion criteria, 2 groups were defined based on their preoperative use of aspirin: those taking (n = 282), and those not taking (n = 206) aspirin within 5 days of surgery. Binary logistic regression was used to examine relationships among demographic and clinical variables. No significant difference was found between the aspirin and non-aspirin groups with respect to the percentage receiving red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, mean RBC units transfused in those who required transfusion, massive transfusion of RBC, or amounts of fresh frozen plasma, cryoprecipitate, or platelets. Aspirin was not associated with an increase in the rate of re-exploration for bleeding (5.3% v 6.3%, p = 0.478). Major adverse cardiocerebral events (MACE), 30-day mortality, and 30-day readmission rates were not statistically different between the aspirin-and non-aspirin-treated groups. Preoperative aspirin therapy in elective, isolated, valve surgery did not result in an increase in transfusion or reoperation for bleeding and was not associated with reduced readmission rate, MACE, or 30-day mortality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transfusion practice in anemic, non-bleeding patients: Cross-sectional survey of physicians working in general internal medicine teaching hospitals in Switzerland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle von Babo

    Full Text Available Transfusion practice might significantly influence patient morbidity and mortality. Between European countries, transfusion practice of red blood cells (RBC greatly differs. Only sparse data are available on transfusion practice of general internal medicine physicians in Switzerland.In this cross-sectional survey, physicians working in general medicine teaching hospitals in Switzerland were investigated regarding their self-reported transfusion practice in anemic patients without acute bleeding. The definition of anemia, transfusion triggers, knowledge on RBC transfusion, and implementation of guidelines were assessed.560 physicians of 71 hospitals (64% responded to the survey. Anemia was defined at very diverging hemoglobin values (by 38% at a hemoglobin <130 g/L for men and by 57% at <120 g/L in non-pregnant women. 62% and 43% respectively, did not define anemia in men and in women according to the World Health Organization. Fifty percent reported not to transfuse RBC according to international guidelines. Following factors were indicated to influence the decision to transfuse: educational background of the physicians, geographical region of employment, severity of anemia, and presence of known coronary artery disease. 60% indicated that their knowledge on Transfusion-related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI did not influence transfusion practice. 50% of physicians stated that no local transfusion guidelines exist and 84% supported the development of national recommendations on transfusion in non-acutely bleeding, anemic patients.This study highlights the lack of adherence to current transfusion guidelines in Switzerland. Identifying and subsequently correcting this deficit in knowledge translation may have a significant impact on patient care.

  17. Red blood cell transfusion triggers in acute leukemia: a randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeZern, Amy E; Williams, Katherine; Zahurak, Marianna; Hand, Wesley; Stephens, R Scott; King, Karen E; Frank, Steven M; Ness, Paul M

    2016-07-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion thresholds have yet to be examined in large randomized trials in hematologic malignancies. This pilot study in acute leukemia uses a restrictive compared to a liberal transfusion strategy. A randomized (2:1) study was conducted of restrictive (LOW) hemoglobin (Hb) trigger (7 g/dL) compared to higher (HIGH) Hb trigger (8 g/dL). The primary outcome was feasibility of conducting a larger trial. The four requirements for success required that more than 50% of the eligible patients could be consented, more than 75% of the patients randomized to the LOW arm tolerated the transfusion trigger, fewer than 15% of patients crossed over from the LOW arm to the HIGH arm, and no indication for the need to pause the study for safety concerns. Secondary outcomes included fatigue, bleeding, and RBCs and platelets transfused. Ninety patients were consented and randomly assigned to LOW to HIGH. The four criteria for the primary objective of feasibility were met. When the number of units transfused was compared, adjusting for baseline Hb, the LOW arm was transfused on average 8.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.9-9.1) units/patient while the HIGH arm received 11.7 (95% CI, 10.1-13.2) units (p = 0.0003). There was no significant difference in bleeding events or neutropenic fevers between study arms. This study establishes feasibility for trial of Hb thresholds in leukemia through demonstration of success in all primary outcome metrics and a favorable safety profile. This population requires further study to evaluate the equivalence of liberal and restrictive transfusion thresholds in this unique clinical setting. © 2016 AABB.

  18. Blood genotyping for improved outcomes in chronic transfusion patients: current and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutner JM

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Jose Mauro Kutner,1 Mariza Mota,1 Fabiana Conti,1 Lilian Castilho1,2 1Hemotherapy and Cell Therapy Department, Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo, SP, Brazil; 2Hemocentro Unicamp, Campinas, SP, Brazil Abstract: Blood transfusions are life sustaining in chronically transfused patients. However, certain complications, such as alloimmunization to red blood cells, can create challenges in the management of those patients. Routine phenotyping of blood recipients and the use of phenotype-matched blood units for transfusion have been useful to lower the occurrence of red cell alloantibodies in chronically transfused individuals. Nevertheless, extensive phenotyping is expensive, laborious, and cannot be performed in certain situations. The molecular understanding of blood groups has enabled the design of assays that may be used to better guide matched red blood cell transfusions. This review summarizes key findings related to red cell alloimmunization, the already identified and potential future benefits of blood group genotyping, and how molecular typing is being incorporated in the blood bank's routine to improve clinical and long-term outcomes in chronically transfused patients. Keywords: blood group genotyping, chronically transfused patients, platelet genotyping, RBC alloimmunization

  19. Metabolomics in transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemkov, Travis; Hansen, Kirk C; Dumont, Larry J; D'Alessandro, Angelo

    2016-04-01

    Biochemical investigations on the regulatory mechanisms of red blood cell (RBC) and platelet (PLT) metabolism have fostered a century of advances in the field of transfusion medicine. Owing to these advances, storage of RBCs and PLT concentrates has become a lifesaving practice in clinical and military settings. There, however, remains room for improvement, especially with regard to the introduction of novel storage and/or rejuvenation solutions, alternative cell processing strategies (e.g., pathogen inactivation technologies), and quality testing (e.g., evaluation of novel containers with alternative plasticizers). Recent advancements in mass spectrometry-based metabolomics and systems biology, the bioinformatics integration of omics data, promise to speed up the design and testing of innovative storage strategies developed to improve the quality, safety, and effectiveness of blood products. Here we review the currently available metabolomics technologies and briefly describe the routine workflow for transfusion medicine-relevant studies. The goal is to provide transfusion medicine experts with adequate tools to navigate through the otherwise overwhelming amount of metabolomics data burgeoning in the field during the past few years. Descriptive metabolomics data have represented the first step omics researchers have taken into the field of transfusion medicine. However, to up the ante, clinical and omics experts will need to merge their expertise to investigate correlative and mechanistic relationships among metabolic variables and transfusion-relevant variables, such as 24-hour in vivo recovery for transfused RBCs. Integration with systems biology models will potentially allow for in silico prediction of metabolic phenotypes, thus streamlining the design and testing of alternative storage strategies and/or solutions. © 2015 AABB.

  20. Estimation of adult and neonatal RBC lifespans in anemic neonates using RBCs labeled at several discrete biotin densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvilla, Denison J; Widness, John A; Nalbant, Demet; Schmidt, Robert L; Mock, Donald M; An, Guohua; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2017-06-01

    Prior conclusions that autologous neonatal red blood cells (RBC) have substantially shorter lifespans than allogeneic adult RBCs were not based on direct comparison of autologous neonatal vs. allogeneic adult RBCs performed concurrently in the same infant. Biotin labeling of autologous neonatal RBCs and allogeneic adult donor RBCs permits concurrent direct comparison of autologous vs. allogeneic RBC lifespan. RBCs from 15 allogeneic adult donors and from 15 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonates were labeled at separate biotin densities and transfused simultaneously into the 15 neonates. Two mathematical models that account for the RBC differences were employed to estimate lifespans for the two RBC populations. Mean ± SD lifespan for adult allogeneic RBC was 70.1 ± 19.1 d, which is substantially shorter than the 120 d lifespan of both autologous and adult allogeneic RBC in healthy adults. Mean ± SD lifespan for neonatal RBC was 54.2 ± 11.3 d, which is only about 30% shorter than that of the adult allogeneic RBCs. This study provides evidence that extrinsic environmental factors primarily determine RBC survival (e.g., small bore of the capillaries of neonates, rate of oxygenation/deoxygenation cycles) rather than factors intrinsic to RBC.

  1. Red Blood Cell Storage Lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl J. Kor

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The past two decades have witnessed increased scrutiny regarding efficacy and risk of the once unquestioned therapy of red blood cell (RBC transfusion. Simultaneously, a variety of changes have been identified within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation that are correlated with reduced tissue oxygenation and transfusion-associated adverse effects. These alterations are collectively termed the storage lesion and include extensive biochemical, biomechanical, and immunologic changes involving cells of diverse origin. Time-dependent falls is 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, intracellular RBC adenosine triphosphate, and nitric oxide have been shown to impact RBC deformability and delivery of oxygen to the end-organ. The accumulation of biologic response modifiers such as soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L, lysophosphatidylcholine (lyso-PC, and Regulated on Activation, Normal T-cell Expressed and Secreted (RANTES have been associated with altered recipient immune function as well. This review will address the alterations occurring within the RBC and storage media during RBC preservation and will address the potential clinical consequence thereof.

  2. A fresh frozen plasma to red blood cell transfusion ratio of 1:1 mitigates lung injury in a rat model of damage control resuscitation for hemorrhagic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jingxiang; Pan, Guocheng; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Yuhua; You, Guoxing; Wang, Ying; Gao, Dawei; Zhou, Hong; Zhao, Lian

    2015-06-01

    We aimed to evaluate the effects of resuscitation with different ratios of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) to red blood cells (RBCs) on pulmonary inflammatory injury and to illuminate the beneficial effects of FFP on lung protection compared with lactated ringers (LR) using a rat model of hemorrhagic shock. Rats underwent pressure-controlled hemorrhage for 60 minutes and were then transfused with LR for initial resuscitation. Thereafter, the rats were transfused with varying ratios of FFP:RBC (1:4, 1:2, 1:1, and 2:1) or LR:RBC (1:1) to hold their mean arterial pressure (MAP) at 100 ± 3 mm Hg for 30 minutes. After 4 hours of observation, lung tissue was harvested to determine the wet/dry weight, myeloperoxidase levels, tumor necrosis factor α levels, macrophage inflammatory protein 2 (MIP-2) levels, inducible nitric oxide synthase activity, and the nuclear factor κB p65 DNA-binding activity. With an increase in the FFP:RBC ratio, the volume of required RBC to maintain the target MAP decreased. The MAP value in each group was not significantly different during the whole experiment period. The values of the wet/dry weights and MIP-2 were significantly lower in the FFP:RBC = 1:1 group than the other groups (P ratio of FFP to RBC results in decreased lung inflammation. Compared with LR, FFP could further mitigate lung inflammatory injury. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Worldwide audit of blood transfusion practice in critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Jean-Louis; Jaschinski, Ulrich; Wittebole, Xavier; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Jakob, Stephan M; Almekhlafi, Ghaleb A; Pellis, Tommaso; Tripathy, Swagata; Rubatto Birri, Paolo N; Sakr, Yasser

    2018-04-19

    The aim was to describe transfusion practice in critically ill patients at an international level and evaluate the effects of red blood cell (RBC) transfusion on outcomes in these patients. This was a pre-planned sub-study of the Intensive Care Over Nations audit, which involved 730 ICUs in 84 countries and included all adult patients admitted between 8 May and 18 May 2012, except admissions for routine postoperative surveillance. ICU and hospital outcomes were recorded. Among the 10,069 patients included in the audit, data related to transfusion had been completed for 9553 (mean age 60 ± 18 years, 60% male); 2511 (26.3%) of these had received a transfusion, with considerable variation among geographic regions. The mean lowest hemoglobin on the day of transfusion was 8.3 ± 1.7 g/dL, but varied from 7.8 ± 1.4 g/dL in the Middle East to 8.9 ± 1.9 g/dL in Eastern Europe. Hospital mortality rates were higher in transfused than in non-transfused patients (30.0% vs. 19.6%, p < 0.001) and increased with increasing numbers of transfused units. In an extended Cox proportional hazard analysis, the relative risk of in-hospital death was slightly lower after transfusion in the whole cohort (hazard ratio 0.98, confidence interval 0.96-1.00, p = 0.048). There was a stepwise decrease in the hazard ratio for mortality after transfusion with increasing admission severity scores. More than one fourth of critically ill patients are transfused during their ICU stay, with considerable variations in transfusion practice among geographic regions. After adjustment for confounders, RBC transfusions were associated with a slightly lower relative risk of in-hospital death, especially in the most severely ill patients, highlighting the importance of taking the severity of illness into account when making transfusion decisions.

  4. Comparison of Stored Umbilical Cord Blood and Adult Donor Blood: Transfusion Feasibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rola Sahyoun-tokan

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the storage properties of red blood cell (RBC concentrates of umbilical cord blood (UCB and adult donor blood (ADB, and to evaluate the feasibility of UCB-RBC concentrate as an autologous source for blood transfusion in very low birth weight (VLBW preterm neonates. METHODS: In all, 30 newborn (10 preterm, 20 full term UCB and 31 ADB units were collected. RBC concentrates were stored and compared with regard to pH, potassium (K+, 2,3-biphosphoglycerate (2-3-BPG, adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP, plasma Hb, and bacterial contamination on d 1, 21, and 35 of storage. RESULTS: The K+ level increased with time and differed significantly between storage d 1 and 21, and between storage d 1 and 35 in both the UCB and ADB units. Initial and d 21 K+ levels were higher in the UCB units than in the ADB units. The 2,3-BPG level did not differ significantly between the UCB-PRC and ADB-PRC samples. After 35 d of storage both UCB-PRC and ADB-PRC samples exhibited significant differences from the initial free Hb, intracellular ATP, and pH values. Significant differences in intracellular ATP and pH were also observed between the UCB-PRC and ADB-PRC samples. CONCLUSION: The volume of harvested and prepared UCB-PRC can be used for some of the blood transfusions required during the neonatal period and thus may decrease the number of allogeneic transfusions, especially in preterm newborns. The hematological and biochemical changes that occurred in UCB during storage were comparable with those observed in ADB, and do not pose a risk to the immature metabolism of neonates. UCB-RPC prepared and stored under standard conditions can be a safe alternative RBC source for transfusions in VLBW newborns.

  5. Comparison of stored umbilical cord blood and adult donor blood: transfusion feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokan, Rola Sahyoun; Arsan, Saadet; Erdeve, Omer; Solaz, Nuri; Avcı, Aslıhan; Ulkar, Serenay Elgün; Gülyapar, Elif; Ustünyurt, Zeynep; Bıyıklı, Zeynep; Kemahlı, Sabri

    2012-09-01

    This study aimed to compare the storage properties of red blood cell (RBC) concentrates of umbilical cordblood (UCB) and adult donor blood (ADB), and to evaluate the feasibility of UCB-RBC concentrate as an autologoussource for blood transfusion in very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm neonates. In all, 30 newborn (10 preterm, 20 full term) UCB and 31 ADB units were collected.RBC concentrates were stored and compared with regard to pH, potassium (K(+)), 2,3-biphosphoglycerate (2-3-BPG),adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), plasma Hb, and bacterial contamination on d 1, 21, and 35 of storage. The K(+) level increased with time and differed significantly between storage d 1 and 21, and between storaged 1 and 35 in both the UCB and ADB units. Initial and d 21 K(+) levels were higher in the UCB units than in the ADBunits. The 2,3-BPG level did not differ significantly between the UCB-PRC and ADB-PRC samples. After 35 d of storageboth UCB-PRC and ADB-PRC samples exhibited significant differences from the initial free Hb, intracellular ATP, andpH values. Significant differences in intracellular ATP and pH were also observed between the UCB-PRC and ADB-PRCsamples. The volume of harvested and prepared UCB-PRC can be used for some of the blood transfusions requiredduring the neonatal period and thus may decrease the number of allogeneic transfusions, especially in preterm newborns.The hematological and biochemical changes that occurred in UCB during storage were comparable with those observedin ADB, and do not pose a risk to the immature metabolism of neonates. UCB-RPC prepared and stored under standardconditions can be a safe alternative RBC source for transfusions in VLBW newborns.

  6. Restrictive vs Liberal Blood Transfusion for Acute Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Rationale and Protocol for a Cluster Randomized Feasibility Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairath, Vipul; Kahan, Brennan C.; Gray, Alasdair; Doré, Caroline J.; Mora, Ana; Dyer, Claire; Stokes, Elizabeth A.; Llewelyn, Charlotte; Bailey, Adam A.; Dallal, Helen; Everett, Simon M.; James, Martin W.; Stanley, Adrian J.; Church, Nicholas; Darwent, Melanie; Greenaway, John; Le Jeune, Ivan; Reckless, Ian; Campbell, Helen E.; Meredith, Sarah; Palmer, Kelvin R.; Logan, Richard F.A.; Travis, Simon P.L.; Walsh, Timothy S.; Murphy, Michael F.

    2013-01-01

    Acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (AUGIB) is the commonest reason for hospitalization with hemorrhage in the UK and the leading indication for transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs). Observational studies suggest an association between more liberal RBC transfusion and adverse patient outcomes, and a recent randomised trial reported increased further bleeding and mortality with a liberal transfusion policy. TRIGGER (Transfusion in Gastrointestinal Bleeding) is a pragmatic, cluster randomized trial which aims to evaluate the feasibility and safety of implementing a restrictive versus liberal RBC transfusion policy in adult patients admitted with AUGIB. The trial will take place in 6 UK hospitals, and each centre will be randomly allocated to a transfusion policy. Clinicians throughout each hospital will manage all eligible patients according to the transfusion policy for the 6-month trial recruitment period. In the restrictive centers, patients become eligible for RBC transfusion when their hemoglobin is bleeding, mortality, thromboembolic events, and infections. Quality of life will be measured using the EuroQol EQ-5D at day 28, and the costs associated with hospitalization for AUGIB in the UK will be estimated. Consent will be sought from participants or their representatives according to patient capacity for use of routine hospital data and day 28 follow up. The study has ethical approval for conduct in England and Scotland. Results will be analysed according to a pre-defined statistical analysis plan and disseminated in peer reviewed publications to relevant stakeholders. The results of this study will inform the feasibility and design of a phase III randomized trial. PMID:23706959

  7. Effect of Pre-Hospital Red Blood Cell Transfusion on Mortality and Time of Death in Civilian Trauma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehn, Marius; Weaver, Anne; Brohi, Karim; Eshelby, Sarah; Green, Laura; Røislien, Jo; Lockey, David J

    2018-04-16

    Current management principles of haemorrhagic shock after trauma emphasize earlier transfusion therapy to prevent dilution of clotting factors and correct coagulopathy. London's air ambulance (LAA) was the first UK civilian pre-hospital service to routinely offer pre-hospital red blood cell (RBC) transfusion (phRTx). We investigated the effect of phRTx on mortality. Retrospective trauma database study comparing mortality before-implementation with after-implementation of phRTx in exsanguinating trauma patients. Univariate logistic regression was performed for the unadjusted association between phRTx and mortality was performed, and multiple logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. We identified 623 subjects with suspected major haemorrhage. We excluded 84 (13.5%) patients due to missing data on survival status. Overall 187 (62.3%) patients died in the before phRTx period and 143 (59.8%) died in the after phRTx group. There was no significant improvement in overall survival after the introduction of phRTx (p = 0.554). Examination of pre-hospital mortality demonstrated 126 deaths in the pre-phRTx group (42.2%) and 66 deaths in the RBC administered group (27.6%) There was a significant reduction in pre-hospital mortality in the group who received RBC (p < 0.001). phRTx was associated with increased survival to hospital, but not overall survival. The "delay death" effect of phRTx carries an impetus to further develop in-hospital strategies to improve survival in severely bleeding patients.

  8. [Medical knowledge in immunological security of red blood cells transfusion in Tunisia: evaluation of a CD-ROM of auto-learning].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Salah, N; El Borgi, W; Aounallah Skhiri, H; Ben Lakhal, F; Mouelhi, H; Zoueri, B; Gouider, E; Hafsia, R

    2013-09-01

    In Tunisia, red blood cells (RBC) transfusion joins in a statutory frame but remains subject to failures because of the misunderstanding of legislation and regulations. Our purpose is to estimate the knowledge of the medical staff in the immunological safety of RBC transfusion before and after reading an auto-education CD-ROM. It is a study of evaluation of an intervention. Eighty physicians participated to the study. The evaluation was done using an anonymous questionnaire, containing seven questions with multiple choices (QMC) relating to several items. The rate of good answers (RGA) calculated by questions and by items took into account the impact of the CD-ROM on the improvement of the answers after reading. The global average mark is 2.9/7. The RGA to questions varies from 22.5 % to 76.3%. All participants answered correctly to more than 50% of all items. Two answered correctly to all items. Among the participants, 31.3% answered to all "important" items, concerning ABO blood groups compatibility and ultimate bedside test. The rate of participation to the final evaluation was 83%. The impact of the CD-ROM was important and statistically significant. In the final evaluation, the global mark raised from 2.9 to 5.8/7, 31.5% (vs 2%) answered correctly all the questions and 95.5% (vs 31.3%) answered correctly all "important" items. This study revealed a misunderstanding of the doctors in immunological safety of RBC transfusions. Auto-teaching by CD-ROM was efficient. An improvement of the knowledge by continuous training is necessary in our country. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Assessment of the urgency and deferability of transfusion to inform emergency blood planning and triage: the Bloodhound prospective audit of red blood cell use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shortt, Jake; Polizzotto, Mark N; Waters, Neil; Borosak, Marija; Moran, Martine; Comande, Mary; Devine, Alexandra; Jolley, Damien J; Wood, Erica M

    2009-11-01

    Careful planning is essential to ensure blood availability during shortages. Triaging supply is one proposed strategy; however, few data concerning the urgency of transfusion are available to inform planning. This study sought to determine the proportion of red blood cells (RBCs) used for clinically urgent indications. A total of 5132 RBC units were randomly selected at point of production and distributed into general statewide inventory over a 9-month period. These selected units carried case report forms, for completion at the point of hospital issue for transfusion. Completed forms were returned to the blood service for collation and analysis, capturing information on indication and clinical urgency of supply, including use for potentially deferrable elective surgery. Data from 5052 RBC units indicated that 95.6% were transfused. Approximately one-third of transfused units were used to support surgery, one-third for hematology/oncology, and one-third for other medical and miscellaneous indications. Where used for surgery, 25.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 23.4%-28.0%) were for elective procedures, although urgency of surgery was unknown in 17.1% (95% CI, 15.2%-19.2%) of cases. Supply for nonurgent medical indications and elective surgery only accounted for 9.8% (95% CI, 9.0%-10.6%) of use, with 53.4% (95% CI, 52.0%-54.8%) of RBCs required within 24 hours. The majority of RBCs are transfused with a high degree of clinical urgency, with only a minor proportion required to support elective surgery.

  10. Duration of red blood cell storage and inflammatory marker generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sut, Caroline; Tariket, Sofiane; Chou, Ming Li; Garraud, Olivier; Laradi, Sandrine; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Seghatchian, Jerard; Burnouf, Thierry; Cognasse, Fabrice

    2017-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a life-saving treatment for several pathologies. RBCs for transfusion are stored refrigerated in a preservative solution, which extends their shelf-life for up to 42 days. During storage, the RBCs endure abundant physicochemical changes, named RBC storage lesions, which affect the overall quality standard, the functional integrity and in vivo survival of the transfused RBCs. Some of the changes occurring in the early stages of the storage period (for approximately two weeks) are reversible but become irreversible later on as the storage is extended. In this review, we aim to decipher the duration of RBC storage and inflammatory marker generation. This phenomenon is included as one of the causes of transfusion-related immunomodulation (TRIM), an emerging concept developed to potentially elucidate numerous clinical observations that suggest that RBC transfusion is associated with increased inflammatory events or effects with clinical consequence. PMID:28263172

  11. Clinical factors affecting engraftment and transfusion needs in SCT: a single-center retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesveld, J; Pawlowski, J; Chen, R; Hyrien, O; Debolt, J; Becker, M; Phillips, G; Chen, Y

    2013-05-01

    Successful utilization of SCT modalities often requires utilization of both red cell and platelet transfusions. In this retrospective evaluation of clinical factors affecting transplant engraftment and transfusion utilization at a single transplant center in 505 patients from 2005 through 2009, we found that graft type, donor type and the conditioning regimen intensity significantly affected both the neutrophil engraftment time (PSCT patients required an average of 6.2 red cell units, and 7.9 platelet transfusions in the first 100 days with a wide s.d. Among auto-SCT patients, 5% required neither RBC nor platelet transfusions. Some reduced-intensity transplants were also associated with no transfusion need, and in allogeneic transplants, conditioning regimen intensity was positively correlated with platelet transfusion events as assessed by multivariate analysis. Other patient characteristics such as gender, graft type, donor type, underlying disease and use of TBI were all independently associated with transfusion needs in SCT patients. Further studies are required to understand the means to minimize transfusions and potential related complications in SCT patients.

  12. Transfusion requirements in septic shock (TRISS) trial - comparing the effects and safety of liberal versus restrictive red blood cell transfusion in septic shock patients in the ICU

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Haase, Nicolai; Wetterslev, Jørn

    2013-01-01

    Requirements in Septic Shock (TRISS) trial is a multicenter trial with assessor-blinded outcome assessment, randomising 1,000 patients with septic shock in 30 Scandinavian ICUs to receive transfusion with pre-storage leuko-depleted RBC suspended in saline-adenine-glucose and mannitol (SAGM) at haemoglobin...

  13. The Heritability of Glutathione and Related Metabolites in Stored Red Blood Cells

    OpenAIRE

    van ‘t Erve, Thomas J.; Doskey, Claire M.; Wagner, Brett A.; Hess, John R.; Darbro, Benjamin W.; Ryckman, Kelli K.; Murray, Jeffrey C.; Raife, Thomas J.; Buettner, Garry R.

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) collected for transfusion deteriorate during storage. This deterioration is termed the “RBC storage lesion”. There is increasing concern over the safety, therapeutic efficacy, and toxicity of transfusing longer-stored units of blood. The severity of the RBC storage lesion is dependent on storage-time and varies markedly between individuals. Oxidative damage is considered a significant factor in development of the RBC storage lesion. In this study, the variability during...

  14. Antibody development in pediatric sickle cell patients undergoing erythrocytapheresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Gwendolyn J; Lockwood, William; Kong, Maiying; Bertolone, Salvatore; Raj, Ashok

    2010-12-01

    Erythrocytapheresis, or red blood cell exchange transfusion (RBCX), with donor red blood cell (RBC) units is now increasingly used in the treatment of acute and chronic complications of sickle cell disease (SCD). As in all transfusions, RCBX carries a risk of immunization against foreign antigen on transfused cells. However, by selecting donor units with RBC phenotypes similar to the patient, the risk of allo- and autoimmunization can be reduced. The formation of RBC alloantibodies and/or autoantibodies in 32 multitransfused pediatric SCD patients undergoing monthly RBCX over a 11-year period (12/1998 to 12/2009) was evaluated utilizing a retrospective patient chart review at Kosair Children's Hospital, Louisville, Kentucky. After starting C, E, K antigen-matched RBCX, the rate of clinically significant allo-immunization decreased from 0.189/100 to 0.053/100 U, with a relative risk of 27.9%. Likewise, the rate of autoimmunization decreased from 0.063/100 to 0.035/100 U, with a relative risk of 55.9%. After controlling for clinically insignificant antibodies, our auto- and alloimmunization rate was much less than previously reported values. In addition, the incidence of clinically significant allo- and autoimmunization decreased in our patient population after starting minor antigen-matched RBCX. These results suggest that by matching selected RBC phenotypes, there may be an association in the risk of allo- and autoimmunization of multi-transfused SCD patients.

  15. CD4 Depletion or CD40L Blockade Results in Antigen-Specific Tolerance in a Red Blood Cell Alloimmunization Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabitha Natarajan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 3–10% of human red blood cell (RBC transfusion recipients form alloantibodies to non-self, non-ABO blood group antigens expressed on donor RBCs, with these alloantibodies having the potential to be clinically significant in transfusion and pregnancy settings. However, the majority of transfused individuals never form detectable alloantibodies. Expanding upon observations that children initially transfused with RBCs at a young age are less likely to form alloantibodies throughout their lives, we hypothesized that “non-responders” may not only be ignorant of antigens on RBCs but instead tolerized. We investigated this question in a reductionist murine model, in which transgenic donors express the human glycophorin A (hGPA antigen in an RBC-specific manner. Although wild-type mice treated with poly IC and transfused with hGPA RBCs generated robust anti-hGPA IgG alloantibodies that led to rapid clearance of incompatible RBCs, those transfused in the absence of an adjuvant failed to become alloimmunized. Animals depleted of CD4+ cells or treated with CD40L blockade prior to initial hGPA RBC exposure, in the presence of poly IC, failed to generate detectable anti-hGPA IgG alloantibodies. These non-responders to a primary transfusion remained unable to generate anti-hGPA IgG alloantibodies upon secondary hGPA exposure and did not prematurely clear transfused hGPA RBCs even after their CD4 cells had returned or their CD40L blockade had resolved. This observed tolerance was antigen (hGPA specific, as robust IgG responses to transfused RBCs expressing a third-party antigen occurred in all studied groups. Experiments completed in an RBC alloimmunization model that allowed evaluation of antigen-specific CD4+ T-cells (HOD (hen egg lysozyme, ovalbumin, and human duffyb demonstrated that CD40L blockade prevented the expansion of ovalbumin 323-339 specific T-cells after HOD RBC transfusion and also prevented germinal center formation. Taken

  16. Acute lung injury complicating blood transfusion in post-partum hemorrhage: incidence and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teofili, Luciana; Bianchi, Maria; Zanfini, Bruno A; Catarci, Stefano; Sicuranza, Rossella; Spartano, Serena; Zini, Gina; Draisci, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    We retrospectively investigated the incidence and risk factors for transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) among patients transfused for post-partum hemorrhage (PPH). We identified a series of 71 consecutive patients with PPH requiring the urgent transfusion of three or more red blood cell (RBC) units, with or without transfusion of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and/or platelets (PLT). Clinical records were then retrieved and examined for respiratory distress events. According to the 2004 consensus definition, cases of new-onset hypoxemia, within 6 hours after transfusion, with bilateral pulmonary changes, in the absence of cardiogenic pulmonary edema were identified as TRALI. If an alternative risk factor for acute lung injury was present, possible TRALI was diagnosed. Thirteen cases of TRALI and 1 case of possible TRALI were identified (overall incidence 19.7%). At univariate analysis, patients with TRALI received higher number of RBC, PLT and FFP units and had a longer postpartum hospitalization. Among the diseases occurring in pregnancy- and various pre-existing comorbidities, only gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, significantly increased the risk to develop TRALI (p = 0.006). At multivariate analysis including both transfusion- and patient-related risk factors, pregnancy-related, hypertensive disorders were confirmed to be the only predictors for TRALI, with an odds ratio of 27.7 ( 95% CI 1.27-604.3, p=0.034). Patients suffering from PPH represent a high-risk population for TRALI. The patients with gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia, not receiving anti-hypertensive therapy, have the highest risk. Therefore, a careful monitoring of these patients after transfusions is recommended.

  17. Washed cell salvage in surgical patients: A review and meta-analysis of prospective randomized trials under PRISMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meybohm, Patrick; Choorapoikayil, Suma; Wessels, Anke; Herrmann, Eva; Zacharowski, Kai; Spahn, Donat R

    2016-08-01

    Cell salvage is commonly used as part of a blood conservation strategy. However concerns among clinicians exist about the efficacy of transfusion of washed cell salvage. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in which patients, scheduled for all types of surgery, were randomized to washed cell salvage or to a control group with no cell salvage. Data were independently extracted, risk ratio (RR), and weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Data were pooled using a random effects model. The primary endpoint was the number of patients exposed to allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Out of 1140 search results, a total of 47 trials were included. Overall, the use of washed cell salvage reduced the rate of exposure to allogeneic RBC transfusion by a relative 39% (RR = 0.61; 95% CI 0.57 to 0.65; P platelets, or rate of myocardial infarction and stroke. Washed cell salvage is efficacious in reducing the need for allogeneic RBC transfusion and risk of infection in surgery.

  18. Transfusion Associated Hyperkalemia and Cardiac Arrest in an Infant after Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Wan Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac arrest associated with hyperkalemia during red blood cell transfusion is a rare but fatal complication. Herein, we report a case of transfusion-associated cardiac arrest following the initiation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support in a 9-month old infant. Her serum potassium level was increased to 9.0 mEq/L, soon after the newly primed circuit with pre-stored red blood cell (RBC was started and followed by sudden cardiac arrest. Eventually, circulation was restored and the potassium level decreased to 5.1 mEq/L after 5 min. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO priming is a relatively massive transfusion into a pediatric patient. Thus, to prevent cardiac arrest during blood-primed ECMO in neonates and infants, freshly irradiated and washed RBCs should be used when priming the ECMO circuit, to minimize the potassium concentration. Also, physicians should be aware of all possible complications associated with transfusions during ECMO.

  19. Age of blood and survival after massive transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, C C; Pereira, A

    2017-11-01

    Massive transfusion is the clinical scenario where the presumed adverse effects of stored blood are expected to be more evident because the whole patient's blood volume is replaced by stored blood. To analyse the association between age of transfused red blood cells (RBC) and survival in massively transfused patients. In this retrospective study, clinical and transfusion data of all consecutive patients massively transfused between 2008 and 2014 in a large, tertiary-care hospital were electronically extracted from the Transfusion Service database and the patients' electronic medical records. Prognostic factors for in-hospital mortality were investigated by multivariate logistic regression. A total of 689 consecutive patients were analysed (median age: 61 years; 65% males) and 272 died in-hospital. Projected mortality at 2, 30, and 90 days was 21%, 35% and 45%, respectively. The odds ratio (OR) for in-hospital mortality among patients who survived after the 2nd day increased with patient age (OR: 1.037, 95% CI: 1.021-1.054; per year Ptransfused in the first 48hours (OR: 1.060; 95% CI: 1.038-1.020 per unit; Ptransfusion was associated with a higher proportion of old RBCs transfused in the first 48hours. Other factors associated with poor prognosis were older patient's age and larger volumes of transfused RBCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. A clinical study on the feasibility of autologous cord blood transfusion for anemia of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodabux, Chantal M; von Lindern, Jeannette S; van Hilten, Joost A; Scherjon, Sicco; Walther, Frans J; Brand, Anneke

    2008-08-01

    The objective was to investigate the use of autologous red blood cells (RBCs) derived from umbilical cord blood (UCB), as an alternative for allogeneic transfusions in premature infants admitted to a tertiary neonatal center. UCB collection was performed at deliveries of less than 32 weeks of gestation and processed into autologous RBC products. Premature infants requiring a RBC transfusion were randomly assigned to an autologous or allogeneic product. The primary endpoint was an at least 50 percent reduction in allogeneic transfusion needs. Fifty-seven percent of the collections harvested enough volume (> or =15 mL) for processing. After being processed, autologous products (> or =10 mL/kg) were available for 36 percent of the total study population and for 27 percent of the transfused infants and could cover 58 percent (range, 25%-100%) of the transfusion needs within the 21-day product shelf life. Availability of autologous products depended most on the gestational age. Infants born between 24 and 28 weeks had the lowest availability (17%). All products, however, would be useful in view of their high (87%) transfusion needs. Availability was highest (48%) for the infants born between 28 and 30 weeks. For 42 percent of the infants with transfusion needs in this group, autologous products were available. For the infants born between 30 and 32 weeks, autologous products were available for 36 percent of the infants. Transfusion needs in this group were, however, much lower (19%) compared to the other gestational groups. Autologous RBCs derived from UCB could not replace 50 percent of allogeneic transfusions due to the low UCB volumes collected and subsequent low product availability.

  1. Transfusion packages for massively bleeding patients: the effect on clot formation and stability as evaluated by Thrombelastograph (TEG)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Per Ingemar; Bochsen, L.; Stensballe, J.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated the effect of administering a transfusion package encompassing 5 red blood cells (RBC), 5 fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and 2 platelet concentrates (PC) on clot formation and stability as evaluated by Thrombelastograph (TEG) in 10 patients presenting with massive bleeding. Blood was ...

  2. Red cell alloimmunization in multi‑transfused patients with sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-09

    Dec 9, 2014 ... Key words: Alloimmunization, blood transfusion, sickle cell anemia ... of blood transfusion reaction and demographic variables were completed for each .... adverse effects associated with transfusion that can lead to serious short‑ and ... status in both blood donors and transfusion recipients has reduced the ...

  3. Determination of degree of RBC agglutination for blood typing using a small quantity of blood sample in a microfluidic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaw-Jen; Ho, Ching-Yuan; Zhou, Xin-Miao; Yen, Hsiu-Rong

    2018-04-15

    Blood typing assay is a critical test to ensure the serological compatibility of a donor and an intended recipient prior to a blood transfusion. This paper presents a microfluidic blood typing system using a small quantity of blood sample to determine the degree of agglutination of red blood cell (RBC). Two measuring methods were proposed: impedimetric measurement and electroanalytical measurement. The charge transfer resistance in the impedimetric measurement and the power parameter in the electroanalytical measurement were used for the analysis of agglutination level. From the experimental results, both measuring methods provide quantitative results, and the parameters are linearly and monotonically related to the degree of RBC agglutination. However, the electroanalytical measurement is more reliable than the impedimetric technique because the impedimetric measurement may suffer from many influencing factors, such as chip conditions. Five levels from non-agglutination (level 0) to strong agglutination (level 4+) can be discriminated in this study, conforming to the clinical requirement to prevent any risks in transfusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A multidisciplinary "think tank": the top 10 clinical trial opportunities in transfusion medicine from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored 2009 state-of-the-science symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Cassandra D; Glynn, Simone A; Kleinman, Steve H; Blajchman, Morris A

    2011-04-01

    In September 2009, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened the State-of-the-Science Symposium in Transfusion Medicine to identify Phase II and/or III clinical trials that would provide important information to advance transfusion medicine. Seven multidisciplinary subcommittees developed proposals in the following areas: 1) platelet (PLT) product use, 2) neonatal and/or pediatric transfusion practice, 3) surgical transfusion practice, 4) intensive care unit and/or in trauma transfusion practice, 5) plasma and/or cryoprecipitate product use and therapeutic apheresis practice, 6) red blood cell (RBC) product use and/or blood conservation management, and 7) medical transfusion practice or blood donor studies. The committees consisted of transfusion medicine specialists, hematologists, cardiovascular surgeons, anesthesiologists, neonatologists, critical care physicians, and clinical trial methodologists. Proposals were presented and an external panel evaluated and prioritized each concept for scientific merit, clinical importance, and feasibility. Twenty-four concepts were presented by the subcommittees. Ten concepts addressed four areas deemed most important: 1) PLT transfusion strategies to prevent and/or mitigate bleeding in neonates and patients with hematologic malignancies, 2) RBC transfusion trigger strategies to improve overall outcomes in different patient populations, 3) evaluation of optimal plasma:PLT:RBC ratios in trauma resuscitation, and 4) pathogen inactivation of PLTs to improve PLT transfusion safety. The proposal themes not only represent inquiries about the indications for transfusion, but also epitomize the lack of consensus when clinical practice lacks a strong evidence base. Ultimately, the purpose of this publication is to provide a "blueprint" of ideas for further development rather than endorse any one specific clinical trial design. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  5. Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategy for red blood cell transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Lars B; Petersen, Marie W; Haase, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the benefit and harm of restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies to guide red blood cell transfusions. DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analyses and trial sequential analyses of randomised clinical trials. DATA SOURCES: Cochrane central register of controlled...... trials, SilverPlatter Medline (1950 to date), SilverPlatter Embase (1980 to date), and Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to present). Reference lists of identified trials and other systematic reviews were assessed, and authors and experts in transfusion were contacted to identify additional trials....... TRIAL SELECTION: Published and unpublished randomised clinical trials that evaluated a restrictive compared with a liberal transfusion strategy in adults or children, irrespective of language, blinding procedure, publication status, or sample size. DATA EXTRACTION: Two authors independently screened...

  6. Activity-based costs of blood transfusions in surgical patients at four hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shander, Aryeh; Hofmann, Axel; Ozawa, Sherri; Theusinger, Oliver M; Gombotz, Hans; Spahn, Donat R

    2010-04-01

    Blood utilization has long been suspected to consume more health care resources than previously reported. Incomplete accounting for blood costs has the potential to misdirect programmatic decision making by health care systems. Determining the cost of supplying patients with blood transfusions requires an in-depth examination of the complex array of activities surrounding the decision to transfuse. To accurately determine the cost of blood in a surgical population from a health system perspective, an activity-based costing (ABC) model was constructed. Tasks and resource consumption (materials, labor, third-party services, capital) related to blood administration were identified prospectively at two US and two European hospitals. Process frequency (i.e., usage) data were captured retrospectively from each hospital and used to populate the ABC model. All major process steps, staff, and consumables to provide red blood cell (RBC) transfusions to surgical patients, including usage frequencies, and direct and indirect overhead costs contributed to per-RBC-unit costs between $522 and $1183 (mean, $761 +/- $294). These exceed previously reported estimates and were 3.2- to 4.8-fold higher than blood product acquisition costs. Annual expenditures on blood and transfusion-related activities, limited to surgical patients, ranged from $1.62 to $6.03 million per hospital and were largely related to the transfusion rate. Applicable to various hospital practices, the ABC model confirms that blood costs have been underestimated and that they are geographically variable and identifies opportunities for cost containment. Studies to determine whether more stringent control of blood utilization improves health care utilization and quality, and further reduces costs, are warranted.

  7. Randomized Controlled Study on Safety and Feasibility of Transfusion Trigger Score of Emergency Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Xing Liu

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Peri-operative Transfusion Trigger Score-E evaluation scheme is used to guide the application of RBC. There are no differences in the recent prognosis of patients with the traditional transfusion guidelines. This scheme is safe; Compared with doctor experience-based subjective assessment, the scoring scheme was closer to patient physiological needs for transfusion and more reasonable; Utilization rate and the per capita consumption of RBC are obviously declined, which has clinical significance and is feasible. Based on the abovementioned three points, POTTS-E scores scheme is safe, reasonable, and practicable and has the value for carrying out multicenter and large sample clinical researches.

  8. Combined effect of therapeutic strategies for bleeding injury on early survival, transfusion needs and correction of coagulopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balvers, K; van Dieren, S; Baksaas-Aasen, K; Gaarder, C; Brohi, K; Eaglestone, S; Stanworth, S; Johansson, P I; Ostrowski, S R; Stensballe, J; Maegele, M; Goslings, J C; Juffermans, N P

    2017-02-01

    The combined effects of balanced transfusion ratios and use of procoagulant and antifibrinolytic therapies on trauma-induced exsanguination are not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of transfusion ratios, tranexamic acid and products containing fibrinogen on the outcome of injured patients with bleeding. A prospective multicentre observational study was performed in six level 1 trauma centres. Injured patients who received at least 4 units of red blood cells (RBCs) were analysed and divided into groups receiving a low (less than 1 : 1) or high (1 or more : 1) ratio of plasma or platelets to RBCs, and in receipt or not of tranexamic acid or fibrinogen products (fibrinogen concentrates or cryoprecipitate). Logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of transfusion strategies on the outcomes 'alive and free from massive transfusion' (at least 10 units of RBCs in 24 h) and early 'normalization of coagulopathy' (defined as an international normalized ratio of 1·2 or less). A total of 385 injured patients with ongoing bleeding were included in the study. Strategies that were independently associated with an increased number of patients alive and without massive transfusion were a high platelet to RBC ratio (odds ratio (OR) 2·67, 95 per cent c.i. 1·24 to 5·77; P = 0·012), a high plasma to RBC ratio (OR 2·07, 1·03 to 4·13; P = 0·040) and treatment with tranexamic acid (OR 2·71, 1·29 to 5·71; P = 0·009). No strategies were associated with correction of coagulopathy. A high platelet or plasma to RBC ratio, and use of tranexamic acid were associated with a decreased need for massive transfusion and increased survival in injured patients with bleeding. Early normalization of coagulopathy was not seen for any transfusion ratio, or for use of tranexamic acid or fibrinogen products. © 2017 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Long-Term Stored Hemoglobin-Vesicles, a Cellular Type of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carrier, Has Resuscitative Effects Comparable to That for Fresh Red Blood Cells in a Rat Model with Massive Hemorrhage without Post-Transfusion Lung Injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masahiro Tokuno

    Full Text Available Hemoglobin-vesicles (HbV, encapsulating highly concentrated human hemoglobin in liposomes, were developed as a substitute for red blood cells (RBC and their safety and efficacy in transfusion therapy has been confirmed in previous studies. Although HbV suspensions are structurally and physicochemically stabile for least 1-year at room temperature, based on in vitro experiments, the issue of whether the use of long-term stored HbV after a massive hemorrhage can be effective in resuscitations without adverse, post-transfusion effects remains to be clarified. We report herein on a comparison of the systemic response and the induction of organ injuries in hemorrhagic shock model rats resuscitated using 1-year-stored HbV, freshly packed RBC (PRBC-0 and by 28-day-stored packed RBC (PRBC-28. The six-hour mortality after resuscitation was not significantly different among the groups. Arterial blood pressure and blood gas parameters revealed that, using HbV, recovery from the shock state was comparable to that when PRBC-0 was used. Although no significant change was observed in serum parameters reflecting liver and kidney injuries at 6 hours after resuscitation among the three resuscitation groups, results based on Evans Blue and protein leakage in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, the lung wet/dry weight ratio and histopathological findings indicated that HbV as well as PRBC-0 was less predisposed to result in a post-transfusion lung injury than PRBC-28, as evidenced by low levels of myeloperoxidase accumulation and subsequent oxidative damage in the lung. The findings reported herein indicate that 1-year-stored HbV can effectively function as a resuscitative fluid without the induction of post-transfused lung injury and that it is comparable to fresh PRBC, suggesting that HbV is a promising RBC substitute with a long shelf-life.

  10. Red cell alloimmunization in multi‑transfused patients with sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is an inherited hemoglobin disorder characterized by chronic anemia and occasional crises. Clinical features are variable. While some individuals are relatively stable and rarely require blood transfusion, others often require blood transfusion. Multiple blood transfusion is associated ...

  11. Preoperative blood transfusions for sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estcourt, Lise J; Fortin, Patricia M; Trivella, Marialena; Hopewell, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta globin) genes. Sickle cell disease can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Surgical interventions are more common in people with sickle cell disease, and occur at much younger ages than in the general population. Blood transfusions are frequently used prior to surgery and several regimens are used but there is no consensus over the best method or the necessity of transfusion in specific surgical cases. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2001. Objectives To determine whether there is evidence that preoperative blood transfusion in people with sickle cell disease undergoing elective or emergency surgery reduces mortality and perioperative or sickle cell-related serious adverse events. To compare the effectiveness of different transfusion regimens (aggressive or conservative) if preoperative transfusions are indicated in people with sickle cell disease. Search methods We searched for relevant trials in The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980), and ongoing trial databases; all searches current to 23 March 2016. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register: 18 January 2016. Selection criteria All randomised controlled trials and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing preoperative blood transfusion regimens to different regimens or no transfusion in people with sickle cell disease undergoing elective or emergency surgery. There was no restriction by outcomes examined, language or publication status. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and the risk of bias and extracted data. Main results Three trials with 990 participants were eligible for inclusion in the review. There were no

  12. Pre- and Post-Transfusion Alloimmunization in Dogs Characterized by 2 Antiglobulin-Enhanced Cross-match Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goy-Thollot, I; Giger, U; Boisvineau, C; Perrin, R; Guidetti, M; Chaprier, B; Barthélemy, A; Pouzot-Nevoret, C; Canard, B

    2017-09-01

    When dogs are transfused, blood compatibility testing varies widely but may include dog erythrocyte antigen (DEA) 1 typing and rarely cross-matching. Prospective study to examine naturally occurring alloantibodies against red blood cells (RBCs) and alloimmunization by transfusion using 2 antiglobulin-enhanced cross-match tests. Eighty client-owned anemic, 72 donor, and 7 control dogs. All dogs were typed for DEA 1 and some also for DEA 4 and DEA 7. Major cross-match tests with canine antiglobulin-enhanced immunochromatographic strip and gel columns were performed 26-129 days post-transfusion (median, 39 days); some dogs had an additional early evaluation 11-22 days post-transfusion (median, 16 days). Plasma from alloimmunized recipients was cross-matched against RBCs from 34 donor and control dogs. The 2 cross-match methods gave entirely concordant results. All 126 pretransfusion cross-match results for the 80 anemic recipients were compatible, but 54 dogs died or were lost to follow up. Among the 26 recipients with follow-up, 1 dog accidently received DEA 1-mismatched blood and became cross-match-incompatible post-transfusion. Eleven of the 25 DEA 1-matched recipients (44%) became incompatible against other RBC antigens. No naturally occurring anti-DEA 7 alloantibodies were detected in DEA 7- dogs. The antiglobulin-enhanced immunochromatographic strip cross-match and laboratory gel column techniques identified no naturally occurring alloantibodies against RBC antigens, but a high degree of post-transfusion alloimmunization in dogs. Cross-matching is warranted in any dog that has been previously transfused independent of initial DEA 1 typing and cross-matching results before the first transfusion event. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Red Blood Cell Transfusion Dependency and Hyperferritinemia Are Associated with Impaired Survival in Patients Diagnosed with Myelodysplastic Syndromes: Results from the First Polish MDS-PALG Registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waszczuk-Gajda, Anna; Mądry, Krzysztof; Machowicz, Rafał; Drozd-Sokołowska, Joanna; Stella-Hołowiecka, Beata; Mital, Andrzej; Obara, Agata; Szmigielska-Kapłon, Anna; Sikorska, Anna; Subocz, Edyta; Jędrzejczak, Wiesław W; Dwilewicz-Trojaczek, Jadwiga

    2016-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a heterogeneous group of clonal stem cell disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, cytopenias and a risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Anemia is the most frequent cytopenia diagnosed in patients with MDS. Regular RBC transfusions are the only treatment option for about 40% of patients. Transfusion-dependent patients develop secondary iron overload. The influence of serum ferritin (SF) concentration on survival and acute myeloid leukemia transformation in MDS patients remains controversial. The data for the Central European population is scarce and so far there is no description for Poland. The aim of this study was to perform a retrospective analysis of the relationship of SF concentration with red blood cell transfusion dependency, survival and transformation to acute myeloid leukemia. We retrospectively evaluated the data of the 819 MDS patients (58% male; median age 70 years) included in the MDS Registry of the MDS Section of the Polish Adult Leukemia Group (PALG). Analyses were performed on 190 patients diagnosed with MDS, maximal 6 months before inclusion to the registry in order to avoid selection bias (a shorter survival of higher risk MDS patients). Patients with hyperferritinemia higher than 1000 ng/L vs. patients with SF concentration lower than 1000 ng/L had a median survival of 320 days vs. 568 days, respectively (p log-rank = 0.014). The following factors were found to significantly worsen survival: RBC-transfusion dependence (p = 0.0033; HR 2.67L), platelet transfusion dependence (p = 0.0071; HR 3.321), hemoglobin concentration lower than 10 g/dL (p = 0.0036; HR 2.97), SF concentration higher than 1000 ng/L (p = 0.0023; HR = 2.94), platelet count lower than 10 G/L (p = 0.0081 HR = 5.04), acute leukemia transformation (p = 0.0081; HR 1.968). Taking into account the relatively low number of patients in previous studies exploring hyperferritinemia in MDS, the results of the first Polish

  14. Transfusion reactions in pediatric compared with adult patients: a look at rate, reaction type, and associated products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Fredrick D; Woods, Marcella; Arnold, Shanna; Young, Pampee P

    2015-03-01

    The majority of reports on transfusion reactions address adult patients. Less is known about the types, incidence, and other clinical details of transfusion reactions in pediatric populations. Furthermore, to our knowledge, there have been no previous reports directly comparing these aspects between adults and pediatric patient populations to assess if there are differences. Between the period of January 1, 2011, and February 1, 2013, all reported adult and pediatric transfusion reactions at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) were evaluated by transfusion medicine clinical service. The information was subsequently shared with the hemovigilance database. Data provided to hemovigilance included age, sex, blood product associated with the reaction, severity of the reaction, and the type of transfusion reactions. These were collated with hospital and blood bank information system-acquired data on overall admission and product transfusion. A total of 133,671 transfusions were performed at VUMC during the study period including 20,179 platelet (PLT) transfusions, 31,605 plasma transfusions, 79,933 red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, and 2154 cryoprecipitate transfusions. Over the same period, 108 pediatric and 277 adult transfusion reactions were recorded. This corresponds to an incidence of 6.2 reactions per 1000 transfusions within the pediatric (age reactions per 1000 transfusions within the adult population. In both adult and pediatric populations, transfusion reactions were most commonly associated with PLT, followed by RBC, and then plasma transfusions. Within the pediatric population, subset analysis identified multiple differences when compared to the adult population, including an increased incidence of allergic transfusion reactions (2.7/1000 vs. 1.1/1000, p reactions (1.9/1000 vs. 0.47/1000, p reactions (0.29/1000 vs. 0.078/1000, p reaction incidence was the same between sexes in adults, in pediatric patients, reactions were more common in male

  15. Improving outcomes for hospital patients with critical bleeding requiring massive transfusion: the Australian and New Zealand Massive Transfusion Registry study methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldroyd, J C; Venardos, K M; Aoki, N J; Zatta, A J; McQuilten, Z K; Phillips, L E; Andrianopoulos, N; Cooper, D J; Cameron, P A; Isbister, J P; Wood, E M

    2016-10-06

    The Australian and New Zealand (ANZ) Massive Transfusion (MT) Registry (MTR) has been established to improve the quality of care of patients with critical bleeding (CB) requiring MT (≥ 5 units red blood cells (RBC) over 4 h). The MTR is providing data to: (1) improve the evidence base for transfusion practice by systematically collecting data on transfusion practice and clinical outcomes; (2) monitor variations in practice and provide an opportunity for benchmarking, and feedback on practice/blood product use; (3) inform blood supply planning, inventory management and development of future clinical trials; and (4) measure and enhance translation of evidence into policy and patient blood management guidelines. The MTR commenced in 2011. At each participating site, all eligible patients aged ≥18 years with CB from any clinical context receiving MT are included using a waived consent model. Patient information and clinical coding, transfusion history, and laboratory test results are extracted for each patient's hospital admission at the episode level. Thirty-two hospitals have enrolled and 3566 MT patients have been identified across Australia and New Zealand between 2011 and 2015. The majority of CB contexts are surgical, followed by trauma and gastrointestinal haemorrhage. Validation studies have verified that the definition of MT used in the registry correctly identifies 94 % of CB events, and that the median time of transfusion for the majority of fresh products is the 'product event issue time' from the hospital blood bank plus 20 min. Data linkage between the MTR and mortality databases in Australia and New Zealand will allow comparisons of risk-adjusted mortality estimates across different bleeding contexts, and between countries. Data extracts will be examined to determine if there are differences in patient outcomes according to transfusion practice. The ratios of blood components (e.g. FFP:RBC) used in different types of critical bleeding will also

  16. Red blood cells, still vital after all these years: Commentary on Canadian Blood Services' International Symposium 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Syed M; Donkor, David A; Yan, Matthew; Ning, Shuoyan; Branch, Donald R; Seghatchian, Jerard; Sheffield, William P

    2018-04-01

    Canadian Blood Services (CBS), Canada's national blood transfusion service, has for many years sponsored an annual conference, for the education and awareness of interested participants, showcasing the latest evidence-based understanding of both basic science and clinical issues in transfusion medicine and science. The 15th iteration of this symposium took place September 9, 2017 and focused on some of the vital aspects of red blood cells (RBC), in line with the" 3Rs" concept, namely the provision of the Right red blood cell (RBC) product to the Right patient at the Right time. Presentations touched upon: the evolution of blood banking in North America; the monocyte monolayer assay as a predictor of post-transfusion hemolysis; hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers; RBC alloimmunization; serological approaches to complex RBC antibody problems; randomized clinical trials related to the age of stored RBC; RBC genotyping; pathophysiology, prevention and treatment of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN); and testing and timing in perinatal serology. This commentary provides summaries of all speakers' presentations annotated with relevant references. Special thanks are due to all contributors for their praiseworthy approaches in sharing their experiences and knowledge on this interesting scientific/clinical and management theme. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Clinical effects of blood donor characteristics in transfusion recipients: protocol of a framework to study the blood donor-recipient continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassé, Michaël; McIntyre, Lauralyn; Tinmouth, Alan; Acker, Jason; English, Shane W; Knoll, Greg; Forster, Alan; Shehata, Nadine; Wilson, Kumanan; van Walraven, Carl; Ducharme, Robin; Fergusson, Dean A

    2015-01-19

    When used appropriately, transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is a necessary life-saving therapy. However, RBC transfusions have been associated with negative outcomes such as infection and organ damage. Seeking explanations for the beneficial and deleterious effects of RBC transfusions is necessary to ensure the safe and optimal use of this precious resource. This study will create a framework to analyse the influence of blood donor characteristics on recipient outcomes. We will conduct a multisite, longitudinal cohort study using blood donor data routinely collected by Canadian Blood Services, and recipient data from health administrative databases. Our project will include a thorough validation of primary data, the linkage of various databases into one large longitudinal database, an in-depth epidemiological analysis and a careful interpretation and dissemination of the results to assist the decision-making process of clinicians, researchers and policymakers in transfusion medicine. Our primary donor characteristic will be age of blood donors and our secondary donor characteristics will be donor-recipient blood group compatibility and blood donor sex. Our primary recipient outcome will be a statistically appropriate survival analysis post-RBC transfusion up to a maximum of 8 years. Our secondary recipient outcomes will include 1-year, 2-year and 5-year mortality; hospital and intensive care unit length of stay; rehospitalisation; new cancer and cancer recurrence rate; infection rate; new occurrence of myocardial infarctions and need for haemodialysis. Our results will help determine whether we need to tailor transfusion based on donor characteristics, and perhaps this will improve patient outcome. Our results will be customised to target the different stakeholders involved with blood transfusions and will include presentations, peer-reviewed publications and the use of the dissemination network of blood supply organisations. We obtained approval from the

  18. The Crossmatch/Issue Ratio:  Use of a Novel Quality Indicator and Results of an International Survey on RBC Crossmatching and Issuing Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazer, Mark H; Alcantara, Ramir; Beizai, Pouneh

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To understand the worldwide scope of RBC crossmatching and issuing practices and measure efficiency using a novel quality indicator, the crossmatch/issue (C/I) ratio. METHODS: An electronic survey was disseminated to hospital transfusion services collecting details about RBC...... crossmatching and issuing practices. Respondents were asked to enumerate the number of RBCs crossmatched and issued at their institutions during the 2014 calendar year to calculate the C/I ratio. RESULTS: Fifty-two survey responses were received, mostly from North American transfusion services (28/52, 54......%). The electronic crossmatch was the most common technique (n = 29), and most respondents performed the crossmatch at the time that an order for RBCs was received in the transfusion service (even if an order to issue the RBCs was not received). Data to calculate the C/I ratio were supplied by 22 respondents...

  19. Impact of azacitidine on red blood cell alloimmunisation in myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Sebastián; Orero, Maria T; Javier, Karla; Villegas, Carolina; Luna, Irene; Pérez, Pedro; Roig, Mónica; López, María; Costa, Sofía; Carbonell, Félix; Collado, Rosa; Ivars, David; Linares, Mariano

    2017-09-01

    The incidence of alloimmunisation in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) during the era of supportive treatment ranges from 9 to 56%. However, it is unknown if the widespread use of hypomethylating agents has changed the risk of immunisation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of azacitidine (AZA) therapy on red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunisation in transfused patients with MDS, myelodysplastic syndromes/myeloproliferative syndromes (MDS/MPS) and secondary acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). We have analysed retrospectively all patients with MDS, MDS/MPS and secondary AML from MDS, who received their first transfusion in our hospital between January 1995 and December 2014. We have assessed the impact of age, sex, RBC and platelets units transfused, and AZA treatment on developing alloantibodies. In our study, the number of RBC units transfused increased the risk of developing alloantibodies. However aging and the treatment with AZA were associated with a lower rate of alloimmunisation. Patients with MDS, MDS/MPS and secondary AML who received treatment with AZA developed RBC antibodies at a lower rate than control group. We suggest that aging and immunosuppression due to AZA therapy could develop an immunological tolerance with a weak response to allotransfusions.

  20. RBC micromotors carrying multiple cargos towards potential theranostic applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguang; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Martín, Aída; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha Kun; Escarpa, Alberto; He, Qiang; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2015-08-01

    Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic resonance imaging. The simultaneous encapsulation of the imaging nanoparticles and therapeutic payloads within the same RBC micromotor has a minimal effect upon its propulsion behavior. The ability of the RBC micromotors to transport imaging and therapeutic agents at high speed and spatial precision through a complex microchannel network is also demonstrated. Such ability to load and transport diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutic drugs within a single cell-based motor, in addition to a lower toxicity observed once the drug is encapsulated within the multicargo RBC motor, opens the door to the development of theranostic micromotors that may simultaneously treat and monitor diseases.Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic

  1. Restrictive versus liberal blood transfusion for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding (TRIGGER): a pragmatic, open-label, cluster randomised feasibility trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jairath, Vipul; Kahan, Brennan C; Gray, Alasdair; Doré, Caroline J; Mora, Ana; James, Martin W; Stanley, Adrian J; Everett, Simon M; Bailey, Adam A; Dallal, Helen; Greenaway, John; Le Jeune, Ivan; Darwent, Melanie; Church, Nicholas; Reckless, Ian; Hodge, Renate; Dyer, Claire; Meredith, Sarah; Llewelyn, Charlotte; Palmer, Kelvin R; Logan, Richard F; Travis, Simon P; Walsh, Timothy S; Murphy, Michael F

    2015-07-11

    Transfusion thresholds for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding are controversial. So far, only three small, underpowered studies and one single-centre trial have been done. Findings from the single-centre trial showed reduced mortality with restrictive red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. We aimed to assess whether a multicentre, cluster randomised trial is a feasible method to substantiate or refute this finding. In this pragmatic, open-label, cluster randomised feasibility trial, done in six university hospitals in the UK, we enrolled all patients aged 18 years or older with new presentations of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, irrespective of comorbidity, except for exsanguinating haemorrhage. We randomly assigned hospitals (1:1) with a computer-generated randomisation sequence (random permuted block size of 6, without stratification or matching) to either a restrictive (transfusion when haemoglobin concentration fell below 80 g/L) or liberal (transfusion when haemoglobin concentration fell below 100 g/L) RBC transfusion policy. Neither patients nor investigators were masked to treatment allocation. Feasibility outcomes were recruitment rate, protocol adherence, haemoglobin concentration, RBC exposure, selection bias, and information to guide design and economic evaluation of the phase 3 trial. Main exploratory clinical outcomes were further bleeding and mortality at day 28. We did analyses on all enrolled patients for whom an outcome was available. This trial is registered, ISRCTN85757829 and NCT02105532. Between Sept 3, 2012, and March 1, 2013, we enrolled 936 patients across six hospitals (403 patients in three hospitals with a restrictive policy and 533 patients in three hospitals with a liberal policy). Recruitment rate was significantly higher for the liberal than for the restrictive policy (62% vs 55%; p=0·04). Despite some baseline imbalances, Rockall and Blatchford risk scores were identical between policies. Protocol adherence was 96% (SD 10) in

  2. Red Cell Alloantibodies in Multiple Transfused Thalassaemia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, C N

    2011-01-01

    Thalassaemia major patients require lifelong transfusion support due to which they are prone for alloimmunization to foreign RBCs. Alloimmunization can be prevented by extended phenotype match blood transfusion. The study was conducted to know the extent of problem of alloimmunization and to find important red cell antibodies in thalassaemia patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 32 thalassaemia patients were enrolled. The specimen was subjected to red cell alloantibody and autoantibody by column gel agglutination technique. R 1 (w) R 1 , R 2 R 2 , rr (papaine and non papain) and 11 cell panel reagent cells were used in screening and identification of alloantibodies respectively. Six (18.8 %) subjects were alloimmunized. All alloimmunized subjects were recipient of more than 20 units of transfusion. Total seven clinically significant alloantibodies were identified. Anti E and anti c were commonest antibodies in four (12.5%) patients. Red cell alloimmunization is an important risk in thalassaemia patient. 71.4% of alloantibodies were anti E and anti c type. Extended phenotype match blood transfusion for Rh-c and Rh-E antigens or level 2 antigen matching stringency needs to be explored in preventing alloimmunization in thalassaemia patients.

  3. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreases during storage of leukoreduced red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Anna L.; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.

    2016-01-01

    During storage, the activity of the red blood cell (RBC) antioxidant system decreases. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is essential for protection against oxidative stress by producing NADPH. G6PD function of RBC transfusion products is reported to remain stable during storage, but activity

  4. Hemopoietic stem cell niches, recovery from radiation and bone marrow transfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Carsten, A.L.; Brecher, G.; Feinendegen, L.

    1979-01-01

    Studies were conducted on the appearance of cells in recipient bone marrow with chromosome markers after bone marrow transfusion to recipients that had different treatments. Investigators tried to replete the bone marrow CFV spleen at various times after recovery from maximal sublethal doses of x radiation or during continuous exposure to tritiated water. Studies were made on the effect of diverse treatments on the acceptance of bone marrow transfusions as shown by chromosomal markers. Results showed that the bone marrow of animals rescued by transfusion of 4 x 10 6 bone marrow cells will accept from 0 to 25% of the second transfusion of bone marrow cells given one to 4 months after the first transfusion and examined 2 to 3 weeks after the second transfusion. This may be due to the second transfusion filling up empty niches

  5. Challenges with Navigating the Precarious Hemostatic Balance during Extracorporeal Life Support: Implications for Coagulation and Transfusion Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Jennifer; Winkler, Anne M

    2016-10-01

    For the past four decades, extracorporeal life support (ECLS) has been used to treat critically ill adult and pediatric patients with cardiac and/or respiratory failure, and there are increasingly numbers of centers worldwide performing ECLS for numerous indications. Despite the progress with advancing the technology, hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications are frequently reported and associated with worse outcomes, but the exact cause is often elusive or multifactorial. As a result of the interaction between blood and an artificial circuit, anticoagulation is necessary and there is resultant activation of coagulation, fibrinolysis, as well as, an increased inflammatory response. While unfractionated heparin (UFH) remains the mainstay anticoagulant used during ECLS, there is a paucity of published data to develop a universal anticoagulation guideline and centers are forced to create individualized protocols to guide anticoagulation management while lacking expertise. From an international survey, centers often use a combination of tests, which in turn result in discordant results and confused management. Studies are urgently needed to investigate optimization of current anticoagulation strategies with UFH, as well as, use of alternative anticoagulants and non-thrombogenic biomaterials. Blood transfusion during extracorporeal support typically occurs for several reasons, which includes circuit priming, restoration of oxygen carrying capacity, maintenance of a hemostatic balance, and treatment of hemorrhagic complications. As a result, the majority of patients will have been exposed to at least one blood product during extracorporeal support and transfusion utilization is high. ECLS Centers have adopted transfusion thresholds based upon practice rather than evidence as there have been no prospective studies investigating the efficacy of red cell (RBC) transfusion in patients receiving extracorporeal support. In addition, RBC transfusion has been associated with

  6. Mechanical properties of stored red blood cells using optical tweezers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Adriana; Alexandre de Thomaz, Andre; de Ysasa Pozzo, Liliana; de Lourdes Barjas-Castro, Maria; Brandao, Marcelo M.; Saad, Sara T. O.; Barbosa, Luiz Carlos; Cesar, Carlos Lenz

    2005-08-01

    We have developed a method for measuring the red blood cell (RBC) membrane overall elasticity μ by measuring the deformation of the cells when dragged at a constant velocity through a plasma fluid by an optical tweezers. The deformability of erythrocytes is a critical determinant of blood flow in the microcirculation. We tested our method and hydrodynamic models, which included the presence of two walls, by measuring the RBC deformation as a function of drag velocity and of the distance to the walls. The capability and sensitivity of this method can be evaluated by its application to a variety of studies, such as, the measurement of RBC elasticity of sickle cell anemia patients comparing homozygous (HbSS), including patients taking hydroxyrea (HU) and heterozygous (HbAS) with normal donors and the RBC elasticity measurement of gamma irradiated stored blood for transfusion to immunosupressed patients as a function of time and dose. These studies show that the technique has the sensitivity to discriminate heterozygous and homozygous sickle cell anemia patients from normal donors and even follow the course of HU treatment of Homozygous patients. The gamma irradiation studies show that there is no significant change in RBC elasticity over time for up to 14 days of storage, regardless of whether the unit was irradiated or not, but there was a huge change in the measured elasticity for the RBC units stored for more than 21 days after irradiation. These finds are important for the assessment of stored irradiated RBC viability for transfusion purposes because the present protocol consider 28 storage days after irradiation as the limit for the RBC usage.

  7. Transfusion associated hepatitis B virus infection among sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Transfusion of blood products is a recognised way of transmitting infections particularly viruses. The extent to which blood transfusion contributes to hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in transfused patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) has been found to be 20% in Lagos, Nigeria. Mamman in Zaria however ...

  8. Balancing risk and benefit: maintenance of a thawed Group A plasma inventory for trauma patients requiring massive transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehr, Chelsea R; Gupta, Rajan; von Recklinghausen, Friedrich M; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew M; Dunbar, Nancy M

    2013-06-01

    Transfusion of plasma and red blood cell (RBC) units in a balanced ratio approximating 1:1 has been shown in retrospective studies to be associated with improved outcomes for trauma patients. Our low-volume rural trauma center uses a trauma-activated transfusion algorithm. Plasma is thawed upon activation to avoid wastage. However, the time required for plasma thawing has made achievement of a 1:1 ratio early in resuscitation challenging. In this study, the time required for plasma thawing is characterized, and a potential solution is proposed. A retrospective chart study of 38 moderately and massively transfused (≥6 U in the first 24 hours) trauma patients admitted from January 2008 to March 2012 was performed. We evaluated the time required to dispense plasma and the number of RBCs dispensed before plasma in these patients. The average time between the dispense of RBCs and plasma was 26 minutes (median, 28; range, 0-48 minutes). The average number of RBCs dispensed before plasma was 8 U (median, 7 U; range, 0-24 U). Nearly one third of massively transfused patients had 10 RBCs or greater dispensed before plasma was available. There exists the potential for delayed plasma availability owing to time required for thawing, which may compromise the ability to provide balanced plasma to RBC transfusion to trauma patients. Maintenance of a thawed Group AB plasma inventory may not be operationally feasible for rural centers with low trauma volumes. Use of a thawed Group A plasma inventory is a potential alternative to ensure rapid plasma availability. Therapeutic study, level V.

  9. RBC micromotors carrying multiple cargos towards potential theranostic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhiguang; Esteban-Fernández de Ávila, Berta; Martín, Aída; Christianson, Caleb; Gao, Weiwei; Thamphiwatana, Soracha Kun; Escarpa, Alberto; He, Qiang; Zhang, Liangfang; Wang, Joseph

    2015-08-28

    Red blood cell (RBC)-based micromotors containing both therapeutic and diagnostic modalities are described as a means for potential theranostic applications. In this natural RBC-based multicargo-loaded micromotor system, quantum dots (QDs), anti-cancer drug doxorubicin (DOX), and magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), were co-encapsulated into RBC micromotors. The fluorescent emission of both QDs and DOX provides direct visualization of their loading inside the RBC motors at two distinct wavelengths. The presence of MNPs within the RBCs allows for efficient magnetic guidance under ultrasound propulsion along with providing the potential for magnetic resonance imaging. The simultaneous encapsulation of the imaging nanoparticles and therapeutic payloads within the same RBC micromotor has a minimal effect upon its propulsion behavior. The ability of the RBC micromotors to transport imaging and therapeutic agents at high speed and spatial precision through a complex microchannel network is also demonstrated. Such ability to load and transport diagnostic imaging agents and therapeutic drugs within a single cell-based motor, in addition to a lower toxicity observed once the drug is encapsulated within the multicargo RBC motor, opens the door to the development of theranostic micromotors that may simultaneously treat and monitor diseases.

  10. Splenectomy reduces packed red cell transfusion requirement in children with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haricharan, Ramanath N; Roberts, Jared M; Morgan, Traci L; Aprahamian, Charles J; Hardin, William D; Hilliard, Lee M; Georgeson, Keith E; Barnhart, Douglas C

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of the study was to measure the effect of splenectomy on packed-cell transfusion requirement in children with sickle cell disease. Thirty-seven sickle cell children who underwent splenectomies between January 2000 and May 2006 at a children's hospital were reviewed. Data were collected 6 months preoperatively to 12 months postsplenectomy. Paired t test, analysis of variance, and multivariable regression analyses were performed. Of 37 children with median age 11 years (range, 2-18 years), 34 (21 males) had data that allowed analyses. Twenty-six had Hgb-SS, 5 had Hgb-SC, and 3 had Hgb S-Thal. Laparoscopic splenectomy was attempted in 36 and completed successfully in 34 (94% success). The number of units transfused decreased by 38% for 0 to 6 months and by 45% for 6 to 12 months postsplenectomy. Postoperatively, hematocrit levels increased and reticulocytes concurrently decreased with a reduction in transfusion clinic visits. The decrease in transfusion was not influenced by spleen weight, age, or hemoglobin type. Two children had acute chest syndrome (6%), and 1 had severe pneumonia (3%). Laparoscopic splenectomy can be successfully completed in sickle cell children. Splenectomy significantly reduces the packed red cell transfusion requirement and frequency of clinic visits, in sickle cell children for at least 12 months postoperatively.

  11. Tc-99m Labeled Red Blood Cell by Ultra Tag RBC Kit in Patients Suspected of Gastrointestinal Bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pusuwan, Pawana; Leaungwutiwong, Suraphong; Tocharoenchai, Chiraporn; Chaiwatanarat, Tawatchai; Sirisatipoch, Sasitorn; Rajadara, Samart; Naktong, Thanyada; Thanyarak, Sucheera

    2001-06-01

    Twenty patients suspected of gastrointestinal bleeding who underwent Tc-99m labeled red blood cell (RBC) by ultraTag RBC kit at Division of Nuclear Medicine, Bumrungrad Hospital between January 2000 and December 2002 were studied. The histories of patients together with either endoscopic results or angiographic findings or pathological reports were used as gold standards. Two by Two decision matrix was used for data analysis and the sensitivity together with specificity were calculated. The results show that the sensitivity and specificity of Tc-99m labeled RBC by ultraTag RBC kit are 87.5% and 91.7%, respectively. We conclude that Tc-99m labeled RBC by ultraTag RBC kit gives high percentages of sensitivity and specificity. Moreover, the image quality is improved because of the absence of free Tc-99m pertechnetate uptake in the stomach in all patients

  12. Zeroing in on red blood cell unit expiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyalil, Fathima; Irwin, Greg; Ross, Bryony; Manolis, Michael; Enjeti, Anoop K

    2017-12-01

    Expiry of red blood cell (RBC) units is a significant contributor to wastage of precious voluntary donations. Effective strategies aimed at optimal resource utilization are required to minimize wastage. This retrospective study analyzed the strategic measures implemented to reduce expiry of RBC units in an Australian tertiary regional hospital. The measures, which included inventory rearrangement, effective stock rotation, and the number of emergency courier services required during a 24-month period, were evaluated. There was no wastage of RBC units due to expiry over the 12 months after policy changes. Before these changes, approximately half of RBC wastage (261/511) was due to expiry. The total number of transfusions remained constant in this period and there was no increase in the use of emergency couriers. Policy changes implemented were decreasing the RBC inventory level by one-third and effective stock rotation and using a computerized system to link the transfusion services across the area. Effective stock rotation resulted in a reduction in older blood (>28 days) received in the main laboratory rotated from peripheral hospitals, down from 6%-41% to 0%-2.5%. Age-related expiry of blood products is preventable and can be significantly reduced by improving practices in the pathology service. This study provides proof of principle for "zero tolerance for RBC unit expiry" across a large networked blood banking service. © 2017 The Authors Transfusion published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of AABB.

  13. Serial assessment of biochemical parameters of red cell preparations to evaluate safety for neonatal transfusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Somnath; Marwaha, Neelam; Prasad, Rajendra; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Thakral, Beenu

    2010-12-01

    Neonatologists often prefer fresh blood (2,3 diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) up to 21 days of storage. Within each group of RBC, rise in mean concentration of potassium, lactate and plasma haemoglobin from day 1 to 21 of storage was significant in CPDA-1 RBC having the highest levels at day 21. From day 3 to 21, SAGM RBC had higher mean pH value than CPDA-1 RBC though this difference was not statistically significant. SAGM RBC had highest mean glucose concentration during storage than other two types of red cell preparations (P2,3 DPG concentration from day 1 to 7 was significant (P<0.05). A positive correlation existed between mean plasma potassium and haemoglobin in all three types of red cells (r=0.726, 0.419, 0.605 for CPDA-1 RBC, SAGM RBC and whole blood respectively, P<0.005). All the three red cell preparations tested revealed biochemical changes within acceptable limits of safety till 21 days of storage. CPDA-1 RBCs had the highest degree of these changes.

  14. Transfusion rate as a quality metric: is blood conservation a learnable skill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paone, Gaetano; Brewer, Robert; Likosky, Donald S; Theurer, Patricia F; Bell, Gail F; Cogan, Chad M; Prager, Richard L

    2013-10-01

    Between January 2008 and December 2012, a multicenter quality collaborative initiated a focus on blood conservation as a quality metric, with educational presentations and quarterly reporting of institutional-level perioperative transfusion rates and outcomes. This prospective cohort study was undertaken to determine the effect of that initiative on transfusion rates after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). Between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2012, 30,271 patients underwent isolated CABG in Michigan. Evaluated were annual crude and adjusted trends in overall transfusion rates for red blood cells (RBCs), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and platelets, and in operative death. Transfusion rates continuously decreased for all blood products. RBC use decreased from 56.4% in 2008 (baseline) to 38.3% in 2012, FFP use decreased from 14.8% to 9.1%, and platelet use decreased from 20.5% to 13.4% (ptrend conservation techniques, coincident with regular reporting and review of perioperative transfusion rates as a quality metric, was associated with a significant decrease in blood product utilization. These reductions were concurrent with significant improvement in most perioperative outcomes. This intervention was also safe, as it was not associated with any increases in mortality. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. An On-Chip RBC Deformability Checker Significantly Improves Velocity-Deformation Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Hung Dylan Tsai

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available An on-chip deformability checker is proposed to improve the velocity–deformation correlation for red blood cell (RBC evaluation. RBC deformability has been found related to human diseases, and can be evaluated based on RBC velocity through a microfluidic constriction as in conventional approaches. The correlation between transit velocity and amount of deformation provides statistical information of RBC deformability. However, such correlations are usually only moderate, or even weak, in practical evaluations due to limited range of RBC deformation. To solve this issue, we implemented three constrictions of different width in the proposed checker, so that three different deformation regions can be applied to RBCs. By considering cell responses from the three regions as a whole, we practically extend the range of cell deformation in the evaluation, and could resolve the issue about the limited range of RBC deformation. RBCs from five volunteer subjects were tested using the proposed checker. The results show that the correlation between cell deformation and transit velocity is significantly improved by the proposed deformability checker. The absolute values of the correlation coefficients are increased from an average of 0.54 to 0.92. The effects of cell size, shape and orientation to the evaluation are discussed according to the experimental results. The proposed checker is expected to be useful for RBC evaluation in medical practices.

  16. Pleomorphic Structures in Human Blood Are Red Blood Cell-Derived Microparticles, Not Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Adam J; Gray, Warren D; Schroeder, Max; Yi, Hong; Taylor, Jeannette V; Dillard, Rebecca S; Ke, Zunlong; Wright, Elizabeth R; Stephens, David; Roback, John D; Searles, Charles D

    2016-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusions are a common, life-saving therapy for many patients, but they have also been associated with poor clinical outcomes. We identified unusual, pleomorphic structures in human RBC transfusion units by negative-stain electron microscopy that appeared identical to those previously reported to be bacteria in healthy human blood samples. The presence of viable, replicating bacteria in stored blood could explain poor outcomes in transfusion recipients and have major implications for transfusion medicine. Here, we investigated the possibility that these structures were bacteria. Flow cytometry, miRNA analysis, protein analysis, and additional electron microscopy studies strongly indicated that the pleomorphic structures in the supernatant of stored RBCs were RBC-derived microparticles (RMPs). Bacterial 16S rDNA PCR amplified from these samples were sequenced and was found to be highly similar to species that are known to commonly contaminate laboratory reagents. These studies suggest that pleomorphic structures identified in human blood are RMPs and not bacteria, and they provide an example in which laboratory contaminants may can mislead investigators.

  17. Analysis of RBC-microparticles in stored whole blood bags - a promising marker to detect blood doping in sports?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Sven Christian; Jaganjac, Morana; Al-Thani, Amna Mohamed; Grivel, Jean-Charles; Raynaud, Christophe Michel; Al-Jaber, Hind; Al-Menhali, Afnan Saleh; Merenkov, Zeyed Ahmad; Alsayrafi, Mohammed; Latiff, Aishah; Georgakopoulos, Costas

    2017-11-01

    Blood doping in sports is prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). To find a possible biomarker for the detection of blood doping, we investigated the changes in blood stored in CPDA-1 blood bags of eight healthy subjects who donated one unit of blood. Aliquots were taken on days 0, 14, and 35. Platelet-free plasma was prepared and stored at -80°C until analysis on a flow cytometer dedicated for the analysis of microparticles (MPs). Changes in the number of red blood cell (RBC) -MPs were highly significant (p doping control but confirmation by a transfusion study is necessary. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Accurate measurement of peripheral blood mononuclear cell concentration using image cytometry to eliminate RBC-induced counting error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Leo Li-Ying; Laverty, Daniel J; Smith, Tim; Nejad, Parham; Hei, Hillary; Gandhi, Roopali; Kuksin, Dmitry; Qiu, Jean

    2013-02-28

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) have been widely researched in the fields of immunology, infectious disease, oncology, transplantation, hematological malignancy, and vaccine development. Specifically, in immunology research, PBMCs have been utilized to monitor concentration, viability, proliferation, and cytokine production from immune cells, which are critical for both clinical trials and biomedical research. The viability and concentration of isolated PBMCs are traditionally measured by manual counting with trypan blue (TB) using a hemacytometer. One of the common issues of PBMC isolation is red blood cell (RBC) contamination. The RBC contamination can be dependent on the donor sample and/or technical skill level of the operator. RBC contamination in a PBMC sample can introduce error to the measured concentration, which can pass down to future experimental assays performed on these cells. To resolve this issue, RBC lysing protocol can be used to eliminate potential error caused by RBC contamination. In the recent years, a rapid fluorescence-based image cytometry system has been utilized for bright-field and fluorescence imaging analysis of cellular characteristics (Nexcelom Bioscience LLC, Lawrence, MA). The Cellometer image cytometry system has demonstrated the capability of automated concentration and viability detection in disposable counting chambers of unpurified mouse splenocytes and PBMCs stained with acridine orange (AO) and propidium iodide (PI) under fluorescence detection. In this work, we demonstrate the ability of Cellometer image cytometry system to accurately measure PBMC concentration, despite RBC contamination, by comparison of five different total PBMC counting methods: (1) manual counting of trypan blue-stained PBMCs in hemacytometer, (2) manual counting of PBMCs in bright-field images, (3) manual counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with TB-stained PBMCs, (4) automated counting of acetic acid lysing of RBCs with PI-stained PBMCs

  19. Utilization of red blood cell transfusion in an obstetric setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamani, A A; McMorland, G H; Wadsworth, L D

    1988-11-01

    The transfusion experience for a 1-year period (September 1985 to August 1986) at a tertiary referral obstetric hospital was reviewed retrospectively. During the review period 7731 mothers were delivered and 6003 patients (83%) underwent type-and-screen procedures. A total of 1057 units of red blood cells were crossmatched, and 362 of these 1057 units were transfused to 100 parturient women so that the overall crossmatch/transfusion ratio was 2.9:1. Five percent of transfused patients received 1 unit; 52% of patients received 2 units, 19% received 3 units and 24% received greater than or equal to 4 units of packed red blood cells. Major indications for transfusion were uterine atony, 27%; retained placenta, 17%; trauma, 17%, placenta previa, 7%; and abruptio placentae, 5%. In 12% of patients transfusions were done because of anemia. This study shows the value of audit and confirms that the type-and-screen procedure is an effective way of reducing the crossmatch/transfusion ratio without compromising patient care, even in high-risk patients.

  20. Prolonged storage of packed red blood cells for blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Simancas-Racines, Daniel; Peña-González, Barbra S

    2015-07-14

    A blood transfusion is an acute intervention, used to address life- and health-threatening conditions on a short-term basis. Packed red blood cells are most often used for blood transfusion. Sometimes blood is transfused after prolonged storage but there is continuing debate as to whether transfusion of 'older' blood is as beneficial as transfusion of 'fresher' blood. To assess the clinical benefits and harms of prolonged storage of packed red blood cells, in comparison with fresh, on recipients of blood transfusion. We ran the search on 1st May 2014. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialized Register, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCO Host) and two other databases. We also searched clinical trials registers and screened reference lists of the retrieved publications and reviews. We updated this search in June 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated. Randomised clinical trials including participants assessed as requiring red blood cell transfusion were eligible for inclusion. Prolonged storage was defined as red blood cells stored for ≥ 21 days in a blood bank. We did not apply limits regarding the duration of follow-up, or country where the study took place. We excluded trials where patients received a combination of short- and long-stored blood products, and also trials without a clear definition of prolonged storage. We independently performed study selection, risk of bias assessment and data extraction by at least two review authors. The major outcomes were death from any cause, transfusion-related acute lung injury, and adverse events. We estimated relative risk for dichotomous outcomes. We measured statistical heterogeneity using I(2). We used a random-effects model to synthesise the findings. We identified three randomised clinical trials, involving a total of 120 participants, comparing packed red blood cells with ≥ 21 days storage

  1. Serial assessment of biochemical parameters of red cell preparations to evaluate safety for neonatal transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Somnath; Marwaha, Neelam; Prasad, Rajendra; Sharma, Ratti Ram; Thakral, Beenu

    2010-01-01

    Background & Objectives: Neonatologists often prefer fresh blood (diphosphoglycerate (2,3 DPG) up to 21 days of storage. Results: Within each group of RBC, rise in mean concentration of potassium, lactate and plasma haemoglobin from day 1 to 21 of storage was significant in CPDA-1 RBC having the highest levels at day 21. From day 3 to 21, SAGM RBC had higher mean pH value than CPDA-1 RBC though this difference was not statistically significant. SAGM RBC had highest mean glucose concentration during storage than other two types of red cell preparations (P<0.005). Within each group, fall in mean 2,3 DPG concentration from day 1 to 7 was significant (P<0.05). A positive correlation existed between mean plasma potassium and haemoglobin in all three types of red cells (r=0.726, 0.419, 0.605 for CPDA-1 RBC, SAGM RBC and whole blood respectively, P<0.005). Interpretation & Conclusions: All the three red cell preparations tested revealed biochemical changes within acceptable limits of safety till 21 days of storage. CPDA-1 RBCs had the highest degree of these changes. PMID:21245620

  2. Efficacy of fresh packed red blood transfusion in organophosphate poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Hang-Xing; Tong, Pei-Jian; Li, Cai-Xia; Du, Jing; Chen, Bing-Yu; Huang, Zhi-Hui; Wang, Ying

    2017-03-01

    The mortality rate caused by organophosphate (OP) poisoning is still high, even the standard treatment such as atropine and oxime improves a lot. To search for alternative therapies, this study was aimed to investigate the effects of packed red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in acute OP poisoning, and compare the therapeutic effects of RBCs at different storage times.Patients diagnosed with OP poisoning were included in this prospective study. Fresh RBCs (packed RBCs stored less than 10 days) and longer-storage RBCs (stored more than 10 days but less than 35 days) were randomly transfused or not into OP poisoning patients. Cholinesterase (ChE) levels in blood, atropine usage and durations, pralidoxime durations were measured.We found that both fresh and longer-storage RBCs (200-400 mL) significantly increased blood ChE levels 6 hours after transfusion, shortened the duration for ChE recovery and length of hospital stay, and reduced the usage of atropine and pralidoxime. In addition, fresh RBCs demonstrated stronger therapeutic effects than longer-storage RBCs.Packed RBCs might be an alternative approach in patients with OP poisoning, especially during early stages.

  3. Does a balanced transfusion ratio of plasma to packed red blood cells improve outcomes in both trauma and surgical patients? A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials and observational studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahouma, Mohamed; Kamel, Mohamed; Jodeh, Diana; Kelley, Thomas; Ohmes, Lucas B; de Biasi, Andreas R; Abouarab, Ahmed A; Benedetto, Umberto; Guy, T Sloane; Lau, Christopher; Lee, Paul C; Girardi, Leonard N; Gaudino, Mario

    2017-09-23

    The effect of high transfusion ratios of fresh frozen plasma (FFP): packed red blood cell (RBC) on mortality is still controversial. Observational evidence contradicts a recent randomized controlled trial regarding mortality benefit. This is an updated meta-analysis, including a non-trauma cohort. Patients were grouped into high vs. low based on FFP:RBC ratio. Primary outcomes were 24-h and 30-day/in-hospital mortality. Secondary outcomes were acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute lung injury rates. Random model and leave-one-out-analyses were used. In 36 studies, lower ratio showed poorer 24-h and 30-day survival (p ratio was associated with worse 24-h and 30-day mortality (P ratio of 1:1.5 provided the largest 24-h and 30-day survival benefit (p ratio was not associated with ARDS or ALI. High FFP:RBC ratio confers survival benefits in trauma and non-trauma settings, with the highest survival benefit at 1:1.5. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. An international investigation into O red blood cell unit administration in hospitals: the GRoup O Utilization Patterns (GROUP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Michelle P; Barty, Rebecca; Aandahl, Astrid; Apelseth, Torunn O; Callum, Jeannie; Dunbar, Nancy M; Elahie, Allahna; Garritsen, Henk; Hancock, Helen; Kutner, José Mauro; Manukian, Belinda; Mizuta, Shuichi; Okuda, Makoto; Pagano, Monica B; Pogłód, Ryszard; Rushford, Kylie; Selleng, Kathleen; Sørensen, Claess Henning; Sprogøe, Ulrik; Staves, Julie; Weiland, Thorsten; Wendel, Silvano; Wood, Erica M; van de Watering, Leo; van Wordragen-Vlaswinkel, Maria; Ziman, Alyssa; Jan Zwaginga, Jaap; Murphy, Michael F; Heddle, Nancy M; Yazer, Mark H

    2017-10-01

    Transfusion of group O blood to non-O recipients, or transfusion of D- blood to D+ recipients, can result in shortages of group O or D- blood, respectively. This study investigated RBC utilization patterns at hospitals around the world and explored the context and policies that guide ABO blood group and D type selection practices. This was a retrospective study on transfusion data from the 2013 calendar year. This study included a survey component that asked about hospital RBC selection and transfusion practices and a data collection component where participants submitted information on RBC unit disposition including blood group and D type of unit and recipient. Units administered to recipients of unknown ABO or D group were excluded. Thirty-eight hospitals in 11 countries responded to the survey, 30 of which provided specific RBC unit disposition data. Overall, 11.1% (21,235/191,397) of group O units were transfused to non-O recipients; 22.6% (8777/38,911) of group O D- RBC units were transfused to O D+ recipients, and 43.2% (16,800/38,911) of group O D- RBC units were transfused to recipients that were not group O D-. Disposition of units and hospital transfusion policy varied within and across hospitals of different sizes, with transfusion of group O D- units to non-group O D- patients ranging from 0% to 33%. A significant proportion of group O and D- RBC units were transfused to compatible, nonidentical recipients, although the frequency of this practice varied across sites. © 2017 AABB.

  5. Dramatic impact of blood transfusion on cancer-specific survival after radical cystectomy irrespective of tumor stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchner, Alexander; Grimm, Tobias; Schneevoigt, Birte-Swantje; Wittmann, Georg; Kretschmer, Alexander; Jokisch, Friedrich; Grabbert, Markus; Apfelbeck, Maria; Schulz, Gerald; Gratzke, Christian; Stief, Christian G; Karl, Alexander

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the influence of intraoperative and postoperative blood transfusion on cancer-specific outcome. Follow-up data were collected from 722 patients undergoing radical cystectomy for urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) between 2004 and 2014. Median follow-up was 26 months (interquartile range 12-61 months). Outcome was analyzed in relation to the amount of intraoperative and postoperative blood transfusion and different tumor stages. The primary endpoint was cancer-specific survival (CSS) after cystectomy. Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank test and Cox regression models were used. Intraoperative blood transfusion was given in 36% (263/722) and postoperative blood transfusion in 18% (132/722). In patients with and without intraoperative blood transfusion, 5 year CSS was 48% and 67%, respectively (p blood transfusion, 5 year CSS was 48% and 63%, respectively (p transfused red blood cell (RBC) units [intraoperatively: hazard ratio (HR) = 1.08, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.15, p = .023; postoperatively: HR = 1.14, 95% CI 1.07-1.21, p transfusions was also found in favorable subgroups (pT1 tumor, hemoglobin ≥13 mg/dl, p = .004) and in a high-volume surgeon subgroup (n = 244, p Blood transfusions during and after radical cystectomy were independent prognostic factors for CSS in this retrospective study. Therefore, efforts should be made to reduce the necessity of intraoperative and postoperative blood transfusion in cystectomy patients.

  6. Hyperkalemia caused by rapid red cell transfusion and the potassium absorption filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiko Imashuku

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of transient hyperkalemia during hysterectomy after cesarean section, due to preoperatively undiagnosed placenta accreta that caused unforeseen massive hemorrhage and required rapid red cell transfusion. Hyperkalemia-induced by rapid red cell transfusion is a well-known severe complication of transfusion; however, in patients with sudden massive hemorrhage, rapid red cell transfusion is necessary to save their life. In such cases, it is extremely important to monitor serum potassium levels. For an emergency situation, a system should be developed to ensure sufficient preparation for immediate transfusion and laboratory tests. Furthermore, sufficient stock of preparations to treat hyperkalemia, such as calcium preparations, diuretics, glucose, and insulin is required. Moreover, a transfusion filter that absorbs potassium has been developed and is now available for clinical use in Japan. The filter is easy to use and beneficial, and should be prepared when it is available.

  7. Hyperkalemia caused by rapid red cell transfusion and the potassium absorption filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imashuku, Yasuhiko; Kitagawa, Hirotoshi; Mizuno, Takayoshi; Fukushima, Yutaka

    2017-01-01

    We report a case of transient hyperkalemia during hysterectomy after cesarean section, due to preoperatively undiagnosed placenta accreta that caused unforeseen massive hemorrhage and required rapid red cell transfusion. Hyperkalemia-induced by rapid red cell transfusion is a well-known severe complication of transfusion; however, in patients with sudden massive hemorrhage, rapid red cell transfusion is necessary to save their life. In such cases, it is extremely important to monitor serum potassium levels. For an emergency situation, a system should be developed to ensure sufficient preparation for immediate transfusion and laboratory tests. Furthermore, sufficient stock of preparations to treat hyperkalemia, such as calcium preparations, diuretics, glucose, and insulin is required. Moreover, a transfusion filter that absorbs potassium has been developed and is now available for clinical use in Japan. The filter is easy to use and beneficial, and should be prepared when it is available. PMID:28217070

  8. Combined effect of therapeutic strategies for bleeding injury on early survival, transfusion needs and correction of coagulopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balvers, K.; van Dieren, S.; Baksaas-Aasen, K.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The combined effects of balanced transfusion ratios and use of procoagulant and antifibrinolytic therapies on trauma-induced exsanguination are not known. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of transfusion ratios, tranexamic acid and products containing......) or high (1 or more : 1) ratio of plasma or platelets to RBCs, and in receipt or not of tranexamic acid or fibrinogen products (fibrinogen concentrates or cryoprecipitate). Logistic regression models were used to assess the effect of transfusion strategies on the outcomes ‘alive and free from massive...... number of patients alive and without massive transfusion were a high platelet to RBC ratio (odds ratio (OR) 2·67, 95 per cent c.i. 1·24 to 5·77; P = 0·012), a high plasma to RBC ratio (OR 2·07, 1·03 to 4·13; P = 0·040) and treatment with tranexamic acid (OR 2·71, 1·29 to 5·71; P = 0·009). No strategies...

  9. Red blood cell transfusion for people undergoing hip fracture surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunskill, Susan J; Millette, Sarah L; Shokoohi, Ali; Pulford, E C; Doree, Carolyn; Murphy, Michael F; Stanworth, Simon

    2015-04-21

    The incidence of hip fracture is increasing and it is more common with increasing age. Surgery is used for almost all hip fractures. Blood loss occurs as a consequence of both the fracture and the surgery and thus red blood cell transfusion is frequently used. However, red blood cell transfusion is not without risks. Therefore, it is important to identify the evidence for the effective and safe use of red blood cell transfusion in people with hip fracture. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of red blood cell transfusion in people undergoing surgery for hip fracture. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (31 October 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library, 2014, Issue 10), MEDLINE (January 1946 to 20 November 2014), EMBASE (January 1974 to 20 November 2014), CINAHL (January 1982 to 20 November 2014), British Nursing Index Database (January 1992 to 20 November 2014), the Systematic Review Initiative's Transfusion Evidence Library, PubMed for e-publications, various other databases and ongoing trial registers. Randomised controlled trials comparing red blood cell transfusion versus no transfusion or an alternative to transfusion, different transfusion protocols or different transfusion thresholds in people undergoing surgery for hip fracture. Three review authors independently assessed each study's risk of bias and extracted data using a study-specific form. We pooled data where there was homogeneity in the trial comparisons and the timing of outcome measurement. We used GRADE criteria to assess the quality (low, moderate or high) of the evidence for each outcome. We included six trials (2722 participants): all compared two thresholds for red blood cell transfusion: a 'liberal' strategy to maintain a haemoglobin concentration of usually 10 g/dL versus a more 'restrictive' strategy based on symptoms of anaemia or a lower haemoglobin concentration, usually 8 g/dL. The exact

  10. Gender differences in severity of sickle cell diseases in non-smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami Helvaci, Mehmet; Ayyildiz, Orhan; Gundogdu, Mehmet

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To find out gender differences in severity of sickle cell diseases (SCDs) in non-smokers. Methods: Three groups of SCDs patients on the basis of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions were included. Less than 10 units in their lives were kept in Group-1, Ten units of higher in Group-2 and 50 units or higher as the Third Group. Patients with a history of using one pack of cigarettes -year or above were excluded. Results: The study included 269 patients. Mean ages of the groups were similar (28.4, 28.5, and 28.9 years, respectively). Prevalences of cases without any RBC transfusion in their lives were 7.2% and 3.7% in females and males, respectively (p0.05). Conclusion: The higher painful crises per year, digital clubbing, COPD, leg ulcers, stroke, CRD, pulmonary hypertension, and male ratio of the third group, lower male ratio of patients without any RBC transfusion, lower male ratio of patients without any painful crisis, lower mean ages of male SCDs patients with mortality, and longer overall survival of females in the world could not be explained by well known strong atherosclerotic effects of smoking alone, instead it may be explained by the dominant role of male sex in life. PMID:24353686

  11. Gender differences in severity of sickle cell diseases in non-smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rami Helvaci, Mehmet; Ayyildiz, Orhan; Gundogdu, Mehmet

    2013-07-01

    To find out gender differences in severity of sickle cell diseases (SCDs) in non-smokers. Three groups of SCDs patients on the basis of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions were included. Less than 10 units in their lives were kept in Group-1, Ten units of higher in Group-2 and 50 units or higher as the Third Group. Patients with a history of using one pack of cigarettes -year or above were excluded. The study included 269 patients. Mean ages of the groups were similar (28.4, 28.5, and 28.9 years, respectively). Prevalences of cases without any RBC transfusion in their lives were 7.2% and 3.7% in females and males, respectively (p0.05). The higher painful crises per year, digital clubbing, COPD, leg ulcers, stroke, CRD, pulmonary hypertension, and male ratio of the third group, lower male ratio of patients without any RBC transfusion, lower male ratio of patients without any painful crisis, lower mean ages of male SCDs patients with mortality, and longer overall survival of females in the world could not be explained by well known strong atherosclerotic effects of smoking alone, instead it may be explained by the dominant role of male sex in life.

  12. Anti-fibrinolytic use for minimising perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, David A; Carless, Paul A; Moxey, Annette J; O’Connell, Dianne; Stokes, Barrie J; Fergusson, Dean A; Ker, Katharine

    2014-01-01

    Background Concerns regarding the safety of transfused blood have led to the development of a range of interventions to minimise blood loss during major surgery. Anti-fibrinolytic drugs are widely used, particularly in cardiac surgery, and previous reviews have found them to be effective in reducing blood loss, the need for transfusion, and the need for re-operation due to continued or recurrent bleeding. In the last few years questions have been raised regarding the comparative performance of the drugs. The safety of the most popular agent, aprotinin, has been challenged, and it was withdrawn from world markets in May 2008 because of concerns that it increased the risk of cardiovascular complications and death. Objectives To assess the comparative effects of the anti-fibrinolytic drugs aprotinin, tranexamic acid (TXA), and epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA) on blood loss during surgery, the need for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, and adverse events, particularly vascular occlusion, renal dysfunction, and death. Search methods We searched: the Cochrane Injuries Group’s Specialised Register (July 2010), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2010, Issue 3), MEDLINE (Ovid SP) 1950 to July 2010, EMBASE (Ovid SP) 1980 to July 2010. References in identified trials and review articles were checked and trial authors were contacted to identify any additional studies. The searches were last updated in July 2010. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of anti-fibrinolytic drugs in adults scheduled for non-urgent surgery. Eligible trials compared anti-fibrinolytic drugs with placebo (or no treatment), or with each other. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. This version of the review includes a sensitivity analysis excluding trials authored by Prof. Joachim Boldt. Main results This review summarises data from 252 RCTs that recruited over 25,000 participants. Data from

  13. Cardiac arrest due to hyperkalemia following irradiated packed red cells transfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyazawa, Kazuharu [Yamamoto-kumiai General Hospital, Noshiro, Akita (Japan); Ohta, Sukejuurou; Kojima, Yukiko; Mizunuma, Takahide; Nishikawa, Toshiaki

    1998-11-01

    We describe two cases of cardiac arrest due to hyperkalemia following transfusion of irradiated packed red cells. Case 1: Because sudden, rapid and massive hemorrage occurred in a 69-year-old male patient undergoing the left lobectomy of the liver, 8 units of irradiated packed red cells were rapidly transfused, the patient developed cardiac arrest. Serum kalium concentration after transfusion was 7.6 mEq/l. Case 2: A 7-month-old girl scheduled for closure of a ventricular septal defect, developed cardiac arrest due to hyperkalemia at the start of cardiopulmonary bypass. The extracorporeal circuit was primed with 6 units of irradiated packed red blood cells. Serum kalium concentration immediately after the start of cardiopulmonary bypass was 10.6 mEq/l. Analysis of kalium concentration in the pilot tubes of the same packs revealed 56-61 mEq/l. These case reports suggest that fresh irradiated packed red cells should be transfused during massive bleeding and for pediatric patients to prevent severe hyperkalemia. (author)

  14. Blood transfusion in children with sickle cell disease undergoing tonsillectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Carlyn M; Gnagi, Sharon H; Teufel, Ronald J; Nguyen, Shaun A; White, David R

    2017-12-01

    Tonsillectomy is the second most common surgery in children with sickle cell disease. These children are at an increased risk of perioperative complications due to vaso-occlusive events. Although controversial, preoperative blood transfusions are sometimes given in an effort to prevent such complications. The purpose of this study is to analyze trends in the use of blood transfusion for management of children with sickle cell disease (SCD) undergoing tonsillectomy in a national database. Patients in the 1997-2012 KID with a primary procedure matching the ICD-9 procedure code for tonsillectomy (28.2-28.3) and diagnosis code for SCD (282.60-282.69) were examined. Patients were split into groups by blood transfusion status and compared across variables including complication rate, length of stay (LOS), and hospital charges. Statistical analysis included chi-square test for trend, Mann-Whitney U test, and independent t-test. 1133 patients with SCD underwent tonsillectomy. There was a strong positive correlation between increasing chronologic year and the proportion of patients receiving blood transfusions, 47 (30.1%) in 1997 to 78 (42.5%) in 2012 (r = 0.94, p = 0.005). During this period, there was no significant change in the rate of complications (r = -0.1, p = 0.87). Overall, patients receiving blood transfusion had a longer mean LOS (3.1 ± 2.4 days vs. 2.5 ± 2.2 days, p blood transfusion. The rate of complications in the transfusion group, 18 of 352(5.1%), was not significantly different (p = 0.48) from the group without transfusion, 40 of 626 (6.4%). From 1997 to 2012, there was a significant increase in the proportion of patients with SCD receiving perioperative blood transfusions for tonsillectomy. While the frequency of transfusion rose, those who received a transfusion had similar complication rates with increased charges and length of hospital stays compared to those who did not receive a transfusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  15. Autologous Blood Transfusion in Sports: Emerging Biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamin, Olivier; De Angelis, Sara; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Saugy, Martial; Leuenberger, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    Despite being prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency, blood doping through erythropoietin injection or blood transfusion is frequently used by athletes to increase oxygen delivery to muscles and enhance performance. In contrast with allogeneic blood transfusion and erythropoietic stimulants, there is presently no direct method of detection for autologous blood transfusion (ABT) doping. Blood reinfusion is currently monitored with individual follow-up of hematological variables via the athlete biological passport, which requires further improvement. Microdosage is undetectable, and suspicious profiles in athletes are often attributed to exposure to altitude, heat stress, or illness. Additional indirect biomarkers may increase the sensitivity and specificity of the longitudinal approach. The emergence of "-omics" strategies provides new opportunities to discover biomarkers for the indirect detection of ABT. With the development of direct quantitative methods, transcriptomics based on microRNA or messenger RNA expression is a promising approach. Because blood donation and blood reinfusion alter iron metabolism, quantification of proteins involved in metal metabolism, such as hepcidin, may be applied in an "ironomics" strategy to improve the detection of ABT. As red blood cell (RBC) storage triggers changes in membrane proteins, proteomic methods have the potential to identify the presence of stored RBCs in blood. Alternatively, urine matrix can be used for the quantification of the plasticizer di(2-ethyhexyl)phthalate and its metabolites that originate from blood storage bags, suggesting recent blood transfusion, and have an important degree of sensitivity and specificity. This review proposes that various indirect biomarkers should be applied in combination with mathematical approaches for longitudinal monitoring aimed at improving ABT detection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Efficiency and Cost Analysis of Cell Saver Auto Transfusion System in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Gökhan Bilgili

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood loss and replacement is still a controversial issue in major orthopaedic surgery. Allogenic blood transfusion may cause legal problems and concerns regarding the transmission of transfusion-related diseases. Cellsaver Systems (CSS were developed as an alternative to allogenic transfusion but CSS transfusion may cause coagulation, infection and haemodynamic instability. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the efficiency and cost analysis of a cell saver auto-transfusion system in the total knee arthroplasty procedure. Study Design: Retrospective comparative study. Methods: Those patients who were operated on by unilateral, cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA were retrospectively evaluated. Group 1 included 37 patients who were treated using the cell saver system, and Group 2 involved 39 patients who were treated by allogenic blood transfusion. The groups were compared in terms of preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels, blood loss and transfusion amount, whether allogenic transfusion was made, degree of deformity, body mass index and cost. Results: No significant results could be obtained in the statistical comparisons made in terms of the demographic properties, deformity properties, preoperative laboratory values, transfusion amount and length of hospital stay of the groups. Average blood loss was calculated to be less in Group 1 (p<0.05 and cost was higher in Group 1 (p<0.05. Conclusion: Cell saver systems do not decrease the amount of allogenic blood transfusion and costs more. Therefore, the routine usage of the auto-transfusion systems is a controversial issue. Cell saver system usage does not affect allogenic blood transfusion incidence or allogenic blood transfusion volume. It was found that preoperative haemoglobin and body mass index rates may affect allogenic blood transfusion. Therefore, it is foreseen that auto-transfusion systems could be useful in patients with low haemoglobin level and body mass index.

  17. Unexpected Anemia and Reticulocytopenia in an Adolescent With Sickle Cell Anemia Receiving Chronic Transfusion Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauel, Emily R; Grossmann, Lily T; Vissa, Madhav; Miller, Scott T

    2015-10-01

    In a patient with sickle cell disease receiving chronic transfusion, exacerbation of anemia with reticulocytopenia must prompt consideration of a delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction with hyperhemolysis, as further transfusion may worsen this condition; definitive diagnosis is sometimes difficult. Anemia evolving during parvovirus B19-induced erythroid hypoplasia (transient aplastic crisis) should be attenuated in chronic transfusion patients due to superior survival of transfused over endogenous red blood cells. A 16-year-old with sickle cell disease receiving chronic transfusion of modified intensity (goal to maintain hemoglobin S<50%) who developed symptomatic anemia with reticulocytopenia was later shown to have had transient aplastic crisis.

  18. Red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in confined microflows: Pressure-flow relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Hagit; Waisman, Dan; Korin, Netanel; Sznitman, Josué

    2017-10-01

    Microfluidic-based assays have become increasingly popular to explore microcirculation in vitro. In these experiments, blood is resuspended to a desired haematocrit level in a buffer solution, where frequent choices for preparing RBC suspensions comprise notably Dextran and physiological buffer. Yet, the rational for selecting one buffer versus another is often ill-defined and lacks detailed quantification, including ensuing changes in RBC flow characteristics. Here, we revisit RBC suspensions in microflows and attempt to quantify systematically some of the differences emanating between buffers. We measure bulk flow rate (Q) of RBC suspensions, using PBS- and Dextran-40, as a function of the applied pressure drop (ΔP) for two hematocrits (∼0% and 23%). Two distinct microfluidic designs of varying dimensions are employed: a straight channel larger than and a network array similar to the size of individual RBCs. Using the resulting pressure-flow curves, we extract the equivalent hydrodynamic resistances and estimate the relative viscosities. These efforts are a first step in rigorously quantifying the influence of the 'background' buffer on RBC flows within microfluidic devices and thereby underline the importance of purposefully selecting buffer suspensions for microfluidic in vitro assays. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk

    2008-01-01

    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is

  20. RBC nuclear scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003835.htm RBC nuclear scan To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. An RBC nuclear scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to ...

  1. Efficiency and cost analysis of cell saver auto transfusion system in total knee arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgili, Mustafa Gökhan; Erçin, Ersin; Peker, Gökhan; Kural, Cemal; Başaran, Serdar Hakan; Duramaz, Altuğ; Avkan, Cevdet

    2014-06-01

    Blood loss and replacement is still a controversial issue in major orthopaedic surgery. Allogenic blood transfusion may cause legal problems and concerns regarding the transmission of transfusion-related diseases. Cellsaver Systems (CSS) were developed as an alternative to allogenic transfusion but CSS transfusion may cause coagulation, infection and haemodynamic instability. Our aim was to analyse the efficiency and cost analysis of a cell saver auto-transfusion system in the total knee arthroplasty procedure. Retrospective comparative study. Those patients who were operated on by unilateral, cemented total knee arthroplasty (TKA) were retrospectively evaluated. Group 1 included 37 patients who were treated using the cell saver system, and Group 2 involved 39 patients who were treated by allogenic blood transfusion. The groups were compared in terms of preoperative haemoglobin and haematocrit levels, blood loss and transfusion amount, whether allogenic transfusion was made, degree of deformity, body mass index and cost. No significant results could be obtained in the statistical comparisons made in terms of the demographic properties, deformity properties, preoperative laboratory values, transfusion amount and length of hospital stay of the groups. Average blood loss was calculated to be less in Group 1 (pblood transfusion and costs more. Therefore, the routine usage of the auto-transfusion systems is a controversial issue. Cell saver system usage does not affect allogenic blood transfusion incidence or allogenic blood transfusion volume. It was found that preoperative haemoglobin and body mass index rates may affect allogenic blood transfusion. Therefore, it is foreseen that auto-transfusion systems could be useful in patients with low haemoglobin level and body mass index.

  2. Survival of transfused red blood cells: In vivo compatibility testing with chromium-51

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dharkar, D.D.; Pineda, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The /sup 51/Cr red cell survival test and specific test for measurement of the disappearance rate of labeled red cells. This procedure can be used for the assessment of red cell compatibility testing in vivo. The authors recommend that more routine transfusions as well as ''difficult'' transfusions be monitored by /sup 51/Cr in vivo compatibility testing before the actual transfusions, so that more consistent and reliable survival values are achieved

  3. Ex-vivo expansion of red blood cells: how real for transfusion in humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliaccio, Anna Rita; Masselli, Elena; Varricchio, Lilian; Whitsett, Carolyn

    2012-03-01

    Blood transfusion is indispensable for modern medicine. In developed countries, the blood supply is adequate and safe but blood for alloimmunized patients is often unavailable. Concerns are increasing that donations may become inadequate in the future as the population ages prompting a search for alternative transfusion products. Improvements in culture conditions and proof-of-principle studies in animal models have suggested that ex-vivo expanded red cells may represent such a product. Compared to other cell therapies transfusion poses the unique challenge of requiring great cell doses (2.5×10(12) cells vs 10(7) cells). Although production of such cell numbers is theoretically possible, current technologies generate red cells in numbers sufficient only for safety studies. It is conceived that by the time these studies will be completed, technical barriers to mass cell production will have been eliminated making transfusion with ex-vivo generated red cells a reality. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Transfusion-Transmitted Hepatitis E: NAT Screening of Blood Donations and Infectious Dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, Jens; Knabbe, Cornelius; Vollmer, Tanja

    2018-01-01

    The risk and importance of transfusion-transmitted hepatitis E virus (TT-HEV) infections by contaminated blood products is currently a controversial discussed topic in transfusion medicine. The infectious dose, in particular, remains an unknown quantity. In the present study, we illuminate and review this aspect seen from the viewpoint of a blood donation service with more than 2 years of experience in routine HEV blood donor screening. We systematically review the actual status of presently known cases of TT-HEV infections and available routine NAT-screening assays. The review of the literature revealed a significant variation regarding the infectious dose causing hepatitis E. We also present the outcome of six cases confronted with HEV-contaminated blood products, identified by routine HEV RNA screening of minipools using the highly sensitive RealStar HEV RT-PCR Kit (95% LOD: 4.7 IU/mL). Finally, the distribution of viral RNA in different blood components [plasma, red blood cell concentrate (RBC), platelet concentrates (PC)] was quantified using the first WHO international standard for HEV RNA for NAT-based assays. None of the six patients receiving an HEV-contaminated blood product from five different donors (donor 1: RBC, donor 2-5: APC) developed an acute hepatitis E infection, most likely due to low viral load in donor plasma (donations should be adequate as a routine screening assay to identify high viremic donors and will cover at least a large part of viremic phases.

  5. Hospital blood bank information systems accurately reflect patient transfusion: results of a validation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuilten, Zoe K; Schembri, Nikita; Polizzotto, Mark N; Akers, Christine; Wills, Melissa; Cole-Sinclair, Merrole F; Whitehead, Susan; Wood, Erica M; Phillips, Louise E

    2011-05-01

    Hospital transfusion laboratories collect information regarding blood transfusion and some registries gather clinical outcomes data without transfusion information, providing an opportunity to integrate these two sources to explore effects of transfusion on clinical outcomes. However, the use of laboratory information system (LIS) data for this purpose has not been validated previously. Validation of LIS data against individual patient records was undertaken at two major centers. Data regarding all transfusion episodes were analyzed over seven 24-hour periods. Data regarding 596 units were captured including 399 red blood cell (RBC), 95 platelet (PLT), 72 plasma, and 30 cryoprecipitate units. They were issued to: inpatient 221 (37.1%), intensive care 109 (18.3%), outpatient 95 (15.9%), operating theater 45 (7.6%), emergency department 27 (4.5%), and unrecorded 99 (16.6%). All products recorded by LIS as issued were documented as transfused to intended patients. Median time from issue to transfusion initiation could be calculated for 535 (89.8%) components: RBCs 16 minutes (95% confidence interval [CI], 15-18 min; interquartile range [IQR], 7-30 min), PLTs 20 minutes (95% CI, 15-22 min; IQR, 10-37 min), fresh-frozen plasma 33 minutes (95% CI, 14-83 min; IQR, 11-134 min), and cryoprecipitate 3 minutes (95% CI, -10 to 42 min; IQR, -15 to 116 min). Across a range of blood component types and destinations comparison of LIS data with clinical records demonstrated concordance. The difference between LIS timing data and patient clinical records reflects expected time to transport, check, and prepare transfusion but does not affect the validity of linkage for most research purposes. Linkage of clinical registries with LIS data can therefore provide robust information regarding individual patient transfusion. This enables analysis of joint data sets to determine the impact of transfusion on clinical outcomes. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  6. Interaction between peri-operative blood transfusion, tidal volume, airway pressure and postoperative ARDS: an individual patient data meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serpa Neto, Ary; Juffermans, Nicole P; Hemmes, Sabrine N T; Barbas, Carmen S V; Beiderlinden, Martin; Biehl, Michelle; Fernandez-Bustamante, Ana; Futier, Emmanuel; Gajic, Ognjen; Jaber, Samir; Kozian, Alf; Licker, Marc; Lin, Wen-Qian; Memtsoudis, Stavros G; Miranda, Dinis Reis; Moine, Pierre; Paparella, Domenico; Ranieri, Marco; Scavonetto, Federica; Schilling, Thomas; Selmo, Gabriele; Severgnini, Paolo; Sprung, Juraj; Sundar, Sugantha; Talmor, Daniel; Treschan, Tanja; Unzueta, Carmen; Weingarten, Toby N; Wolthuis, Esther K; Wrigge, Hermann; de Abreu, Marcelo Gama; Pelosi, Paolo; Schultz, Marcus J

    2018-01-01

    Transfusion of blood products and mechanical ventilation with injurious settings are considered risk factors for postoperative lung injury in surgical Patients. A systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis was done to determine the independent effects of peri-operative transfusion of blood products, intra-operative tidal volume and airway pressure in adult patients undergoing mechanical ventilation for general surgery, as well as their interactions on the occurrence of postoperative acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Observational studies and randomized trials were identified by a systematic search of MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and CENTRAL and screened for inclusion into a meta-analysis. Individual patient data were obtained from the corresponding authors. Patients were stratified according to whether they received transfusion in the peri-operative period [red blood cell concentrates (RBC) and/or fresh frozen plasma (FFP)], tidal volume size [≤7 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW), 7-10 and >10 mL/kg PBW] and airway pressure level used during surgery (≤15, 15-20 and >20 cmH 2 O). The primary outcome was development of postoperative ARDS. Seventeen investigations were included (3,659 patients). Postoperative ARDS occurred in 40 (7.2%) patients who received at least one blood product compared to 40 patients (2.5%) who did not [adjusted hazard ratio (HR), 2.32; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25-4.33; P=0.008]. Incidence of postoperative ARDS was highest in patients ventilated with tidal volumes of >10 mL/kg PBW and having airway pressures of >20 cmH 2 O receiving both RBC and FFP, and lowest in patients ventilated with tidal volume of ≤7 mL/kg PBW and having airway pressures of ≤15 cmH 2 O with no transfusion. There was a significant interaction between transfusion and airway pressure level (P=0.002) on the risk of postoperative ARDS. Peri-operative transfusion of blood products is associated with an increased risk of

  7. Plasma transfusion for patients with severe hemorrhage: what is the evidence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callum, Jeannie L; Rizoli, Sandro

    2012-05-01

    The following review will detail the current knowledge in massive hemorrhage with regard to the pathophysiology of the coagulation disturbance, the role of plasma, the role of alternatives to plasma, and the clinical value of having a massive transfusion protocol. The coagulation disturbance in trauma patients is more than just the result of consumption of clotting factors at sites of injury and dilution from the infusion of intravenous fluids and red blood cells (RBCs). Even before substantial amounts of fluid resuscitation and RBC transfusion, one-quarter of trauma patients already have abnormal coagulation variables. There is an apparent role for the activation of protein C, hypofibrinogenemia, and fibrin(gen)olysis in the coagulation disturbance after trauma and massive hemorrhage. None of these three disturbances would be completely mitigated by the use of plasma alone, suggesting that there may be an opportunity to improve care of these patients with alternative strategies, such as fibrinogen concentrates and antifibrinolytics. Despite numerous retrospective cohort studies evaluating 1:1 plasma to RBC formula-driven resuscitation, the overall clinical value of this approach is unclear. Studies have even raised concerns regarding a potential increase in morbidity associated with this approach, particularly for patients overtriaged to 1:1 where a massive transfusion is unlikely. We also do not have sufficient evidence to recommend either goal-directed therapy with thromboelastography or early use of fibrinogen replacement, with either cryoprecipitate or fibrinogen concentrates. We have high-quality data that argue against the role for recombinant Factor VIIa that should prompt removal of this strategy from existing protocols. In contrast, we have high-level evidence that all bleeding trauma patients should receive tranexamic acid as soon as possible after injury. This therapy must be included in hemorrhage protocols. If we are to improve the care of massively

  8. A red cell preservation strategy reduces postoperative transfusions in pediatric heart surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Meena; Tishler, Brielle; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Matte, Gregory S; Howe, Robert J; Durham, Linda; Boyle, Sharon; Mathieu, Derek; Fynn-Thompson, Francis; DiNardo, James A; Ibla, Juan C

    2018-03-25

    Blood transfusion has well-documented adverse effects. As part of a blood conservation initiative at our center, we began routine use of cell saver for all congenital heart surgery performed on cardiopulmonary bypass since 2014. This study aimed to compare transfusion rates prior to, and in the first and second year after this initiative. We hypothesized that cell saver use would decrease transfusion requirements in second year after use of the cell saver compared to the pre cell saver group. Consecutive patients under 18 years undergoing congenital heart surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass were retrospectively analyzed as 3 one-year cohorts defined above. We excluded patients who required mechanical support or reoperation at index admission. Baseline characteristics, and use of blood intraoperatively and postoperatively were compared between groups. The 3 groups had similar baseline characteristics. Blood use was significantly lower in year 2 after cell saver initiation as compared to the pre cell saver group both intra- and postoperatively. The median difference in volume of intraoperative blood transfusion was lower by 138 mL/m 2 (-266, -10 mL/m 2 ) in year 2 when compared to the pre cell saver group. Similarly, the proportion of subjects requiring red blood cell transfusion postoperatively on day of surgery was lower by 10% (-15%, -6%). Standardized use of cell saver significantly decreased perioperative blood use in children undergoing cardiac surgery at our center. A risk-adjusted transfusion threshold for children undergoing heart surgery needs to be developed to further decrease exposure to blood products and associated costs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. RBC deformability and amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge may reflect chronic cell hydration status in healthy young men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stookey, Jodi D; Klein, Alexis; Hamer, Janice; Chi, Christine; Higa, Annie; Ng, Vivian; Arieff, Allen; Kuypers, Frans A; Larkin, Sandra; Perrier, Erica; Lang, Florian

    2013-01-01

    Biomarkers of chronic cell hydration status are needed to determine whether chronic hyperosmotic stress increases chronic disease risk in population-representative samples. In vitro, cells adapt to chronic hyperosmotic stress by upregulating protein breakdown to counter the osmotic gradient with higher intracellular amino acid concentrations. If cells are subsequently exposed to hypo-osmotic conditions, the adaptation results in excess cell swelling and/or efflux of free amino acids. This study explored whether increased red blood cell (RBC) swelling and/or plasma or urine amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge might be informative about relative chronic hyperosmotic stress in free-living men. Five healthy men (20–25 years) with baseline total water intake below 2 L/day participated in an 8-week clinical study: four 2-week periods in a U-shaped A-B-C-A design. Intake of drinking water was increased by +0.8 ± 0.3 L/day in period 2, and +1.5 ± 0.3 L/day in period 3, and returned to baseline intake (0.4 ± 0.2 L/day) in period 4. Each week, fasting blood and urine were collected after a 750 mL bolus of drinking water, following overnight water restriction. The periods of higher water intake were associated with significant decreases in RBC deformability (index of cell swelling), plasma histidine, urine arginine, and urine glutamic acid. After 4 weeks of higher water intake, four out of five participants had ½ maximal RBC deformability below 400 mmol/kg; plasma histidine below 100 μmol/L; and/or undetectable urine arginine and urine glutamic acid concentrations. Work is warranted to pursue RBC deformability and amino acid concentrations after hypo-osmotic challenge as possible biomarkers of chronic cell hydration. PMID:24303184

  10. Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are frequent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Nørgaard, Astrid; Burcharth, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are potentially life-threatening. Due to screening, transmission of infectious diseases has decreased; however, the risk is still present. Various immune reactions are common including simple allergic reactions as well as devastating...... conditions such as transfusion-related acute lung injury and circulatory overload in patients with heart disease. Knowledge of the clinical signs of transfusion-related complications is important for clinicians in order to provide the best possible treatment....

  11. Efficiency and Cost Analysis of Cell Saver Auto Transfusion System in Total Knee Arthroplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa Gökhan Bilgili; Ersin Erçin; Cemal Kural; Altuğ Duramaz; Cevdet Avkan; Gökhan Peker; Serdar Hakan Başaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Blood loss and replacement is still a controversial issue in major orthopaedic surgery. Allogenic blood transfusion may cause legal problems and concerns regarding the transmission of transfusion-related diseases. Cellsaver Systems (CSS) were developed as an alternative to allogenic transfusion but CSS transfusion may cause coagulation, infection and haemodynamic instability. Aims: Our aim was to analyse the efficiency and cost analysis of a cell saver auto-transfusion system ...

  12. Relative effects of plasma, fibrinogen concentrate, and factor XIII on ROTEM coagulation profiles in an in vitro model of massive transfusion in trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, David E; Halmin, Märit; Wikman, Agneta; Östlund, Anders; Ågren, Anna

    2017-10-01

    Massive traumatic haemorrhage is aggravated through the development of trauma-induced coagulopathy, which is managed by plasma transfusion and/or fibrinogen concentrate administration. It is yet unclear whether these treatments are equally potent in ensuring adequate haemostasis, and whether additional factor XIII (FXIII) administration provides further benefits. In this study, we compared ROTEM whole blood coagulation profiles after experimental massive transfusion with different transfusion regimens in an in vitro model of dilution- and transfusion-related coagulopathy. Healthy donor blood was mixed 1 + 1 with six different transfusion regimens. Each regimen contained RBC, platelet concentrate, and either fresh frozen plasma (FFP) or Ringer's acetate (RA). The regimens were further augmented through addition of a low- or medium-dose fibrinogen concentrate and FXIII. Transfusion with FFP alone was insufficient to maintain tissue-factor activated clot strength, coincidental with a deficiency in fibrin-based clot strength. Fibrinogen concentrate conserved, but did not improve coagulation kinetics and overall clot strength. Only combination therapy with FFP and low-dose fibrinogen concentrate improved both coagulation kinetics and fibrin-based clot strength. Administration of FXIII did not result in an improvement of clot strength. In conclusion, combination therapy with both FFP and low-dose fibrinogen concentrate improved clotting time and produced firm clots, representing a possible preferred first-line regimen to manage trauma-induced coagulopathy when RBC and platelets are also transfused. Further research is required to identify optimal first-line transfusion fluids for massive traumatic haemorrhage.

  13. [Efficacy of high versus low plasma: red blood cell ratio resuscitation in patients with severe trauma requiring massive blood transfusion: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; Zhong, Tao; Wu, Gang

    2017-01-20

    To evaluate the efficacy of high (≥1:2) and low (ratio resuscitation in patients with severe trauma requiring massive blood transfusion. The databases including the Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Web of Science, and EMBASE were systemically searched for relevant studies published between January, 2009 and April, 2016. The selection of studies, assessment of methodological quality and data extraction were performed by two researchers independently according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The main endpoint was 24-h mortality, 30-day mortality and 24-h survival rate. Five observational studies reporting outcomes of 1024 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Four studies documented civilian cases and one study had a military setting. No significant differences were found in the Injury Severity Score (ISS) between patient groups receiving high and low plasma: RBC ratio resuscitation. Compared with the low-ratio group, the patients with high-ratio resuscitation showed a significant reduction in the 24-h mortality rate (OR=0.35, 95%CI [0.25, 0.48], Pratio resuscitation within the initial 24 h following the trauma (HR=2.34, 95%CI [1.46, 3.73], P=0.00001). Raising the plasma: RBC ratio to 0.5 or higher may decrease the mortality rate of the patients with severe trauma who need massive blood transfusion.

  14. RBC-choline: changes by lithium and relation to prophylactic response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, M.; Haag, H.; Eisenried, F.; Greil, W.

    1984-01-01

    Red blod cell (RBC)- and plasma-choline levels were measured in patients on lithium (n=96), antidepressants (n=32) and neuroleptics (n=51) and in 25 healthy drug-free controls. Lithium patients exhibited highly increased RBC- and slightly increased plasma-choline levels compared with controls (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively); the choline ratio (RBC-/plasma-choline) was elevated almost to the same extent as RBC-choline (P<0.001). With antidepressants RBC-choline and choline ratios were slightly reduced (P<0.05), whereas neuroleptics showed no effect on choline levels. 79% of lithium patients were responders (reduction in hospitalizations with lithium) 21% were non-responders (no reduction or increase in hospitalizations). Choline ratio exhibited a significant relation to prophylactic lithium response, but lithium ratio did not. The percentage of non-responders was significantly higher in patients with a choline ratio exceeding 100 than in patients with a choline ratio below this cut-off (P<0.01). Thus, the increase of RBC-choline and choline ratios appears to be an effect specific for lithium and might be related to the outcome of lithium prophylaxis. (author)

  15. Transfusão de concentrado de hemácias na unidade de terapia intensiva Red blood cells transfusion in intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange Emanuelle Volpato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A anemia é um problema comum na admissão dos pacientes nas unidades de terapia intensiva, sendo a prática de transfusão de concentrado de hemácias uma terapêutica freqüente. As causas de anemia em pacientes críticos que realizam transfusão de concentrado de hemácias são várias: perda aguda de sangue após trauma, hemorragia gastrointestinal, cirurgia, dentre outras. Atualmente, poucos estudos são disponibilizados sobre o uso de hemocomponentes em pacientes sob cuidados intensivos. Embora as transfusões sangüíneas sejam freqüentes em unidades de terapia intensiva, os critérios de manejo otimizados não são claramente definidos, não existindo, inclusive, guidelines específicos. OBJETIVOS: Analisar as indicações clínicas do uso do concentrado hemácia na unidade de terapia intensiva. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados os prontuários dos pacientes internados na unidade de terapia intensiva que realizaram transfusão de concentrado de hemácias no período de 1º de janeiro de 2005 a 31 de dezembro de 2005. O trabalho foi aceito pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa da Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina (UNISUL. RESULTADOS: A taxa de transfusão foi de 19,33%, tendo predomínio do gênero masculino. Prevalência de paciente com idade superior ou igual a 60 anos. A taxa de óbitos nos pacientes transfundidos com concentrado de hemácias foi de 38,22%. O critério de indicação de transfusão mais freqüente foi por baixa concentração de hemoglobina (78% com média da hemoglobina pré-transfusional de 8,11g/dl. CONCLUSÕES: Os diagnósticos pré-transfusão mais frequentes são politrauma e sepse/choque séptico. Baixa concentração de hemoglobina é o principal critério clínico com média pré-transfusional de 8,11g/dl.BACKGROUND: The anemia is a common problem upon admission of the patients in the intensive care unit being the red blood cell transfusion a frequent therapeutic. The causes of anemia in critical

  16. Anesthesiologists' knowledge about packed red blood cells transfusion in surgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Mendes Soares

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Blood is an important resource in several lifesaving interventions, such as anemia correction and improvement of oxygen transport capacity. Despite advances, packed red blood cell (PRBC transfusion still involves risks. The aim of this study was to describe the knowledge of anesthesiologists about the indications, adverse effects, and alternatives to red blood cell transfusion intraoperatively. Method Cross-sectional study using a questionnaire containing multiple choice questions and clinical cases related to relevant factors on the decision whether to perform PRBC transfusion, its adverse effects, hemoglobin triggers, preventive measures, and blood conservation strategies. The questionnaire was filled without the presence of the investigator. Likert scale was used and the average rank of responses was calculated. The Epi Info 7 software was used for data analysis. Results 79% of the institution's anesthesiologists answered the questionnaire; 100% identified the main adverse effects related to blood transfusion. When asked about the factors that influence the transfusion decision, hemoglobin level had the highest agreement (MR = 4.46 followed by heart disease (MR = 4.26; hematocrit (MR = 4.34; age (RM = 4.1 and microcirculation evaluation (MR = 4.22. Respondents (82.3% identified levels of Hb = 6 g.dL-1 as a trigger to transfuse healthy patient. Regarding blood conservation strategies, hypervolemic hemodilution (MR = 2.81 and decided by drugs (MR = 2.95 were the least reported. Conclusion We identify a good understanding of anesthesiologists about PRBC transfusion; however, there is a need for refresher courses on the subject.

  17. Red blood cells intended for transfusion : quality criteria revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogman, CF; Meryman, HT

    Great variation exists with respect to viability and function of fresh and stored red blood cells (RBCs) as well as of the contents of RBC hemoglobin (Hb) in individual units. Improved technology is available for the preparation as well as the storage of RBCs. The authors raise the question whether

  18. Influence of red blood cell-derived microparticles upon vasoregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Ahmed S; Doctor, Allan

    2017-10-01

    Here we review recent data and the evolving understanding of the role of red blood cell-derived microparticles (RMPs) in normal physiology and in disease progression. Microparticles (MPs) are small membrane vesicles derived from various parent cell types. MPs are produced in response to a variety of stimuli through several cytoskeletal and membrane phospholipid changes. MPs have been investigated as potential biomarkers for multiple disease processes and are thought to have biological effects, most notably in: promotion of coagulation, production and handling of reactive oxygen species, immune modulation, angiogenesis, and in apoptosis. Specifically, RMPs are produced normally during RBC maturation and their production is accelerated during processing and storage for transfusion. Several factors during RBC storage are known to trigger RMP production, including: increased intracellular calcium, increased potassium leakage, and energy failure with ATP depletion. Of note, RMP composition differs from that of intact RBCs, and the nature and composition of RMP components are affected by both storage duration and the character of storage solutions. Recognised RMP bioactivities include: promotion of coagulation, immune modulation, and promotion of endothelial adhesion, as well as influence upon vasoregulation via nitric oxide (NO) scavenging. Of particular relevance, RMPs are more avid NO scavengers than intact RBCs and this feature has been proposed as a mechanism for the impaired oxygen delivery homeostasis that has been observed following transfusion. Preliminary human studies demonstrate that circulating RMP abundance increases with RBC transfusion and is associated with altered plasma vasoactivity and abnormal vasoregulation. In summary, RMPs are submicron particles released from stored RBCs, with demonstrated vasoactive properties that appear to disturb oxygen delivery homeostasis. The clinical impact of RMPs in transfusion recipients is an area of continued

  19. Yersinia enterocolitica septicaemia from transfusion of red cell concentrate stored for 16 days.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, B L; Saw, M H; Hanson, M F; Mackie, M J; Scott, J; Murphy, W G

    1993-01-01

    Two cases of transfusion transmitted Yersinia enterocolitica biotype 3, serotype 09 infection occurred in south east Scotland within four months of each other. In one case, a 79 year old man died the day after receiving a unit of red cell concentrate that had been stored for 29 days after donation. In the second case a 78 year old man died three days after transfusion of a unit of red cell concentrate that had been collected 16 days before transfusion. The donors of both units had no symptoms...

  20. An enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay for estimating red cell survival of transfused red cells-validation using CR-51 labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drew, H.; Kickler, T.; Smith, B.; LaFrance, N.

    1984-01-01

    The survival time of transfused red cells antigenically distinct from the recipient's red cells was determined using an indirect enzyme linked antiglobulin test. These results were then compared to those determined by Cr-51 labeling. Three patients with hypoproliferative anemias and one patient (2 studies) with traumatic hemolytic anemia caused by a prosthetic heart valve were studied. Survival times were performed by transfusing a 5cc aliquot of Cr-51 labeled cells along with the remaining unit. One hour post transfusion, a blood sample was drawn and used as the 100% value. Subsequent samples drawn over a 2-3 week period were then compared to the initial sample to determine percent survival for both methods. The ELISA method for measuring red cell survival in antigenically distinct cells is in close agreement with the Cr-51 method. Although CR-51 labeling is the accepted method for red cell survival determination the ELISA method can be used when radioisotopes are unavailable or contraindicated or when the decision to estimate red cell survival is made after transfusion

  1. Factors affecting red blood cell storage age at the time of transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, Walter H; Beckman, Neil; Murphy, Michael F; Delaney, Meghan; Flanagan, Peter; Fung, Mark; Germain, Marc; Haspel, Richard L; Lozano, Miguel; Sacher, Ronald; Szczepiorkowski, Zbigniew; Wendel, Silvano

    2013-12-01

    Clinical trials are investigating the potential benefit resulting from a reduced maximum storage interval for red blood cells (RBCs). The key drivers that determine RBC age at the time of issue vary among individual hospitals. Although progressive reduction in the maximum storage period of RBCs would be expected to result in smaller hospital inventories and reduced blood availability, the magnitude of the effect is unknown. Data on current hospital blood inventories were collected from 11 hospitals and three blood centers in five nations. A general predictive model for the age of RBCs at the time of issue was developed based on considerations of demand for RBCs in the hospital. Age of RBCs at issue is sensitive to the following factors: ABO group, storage age at the time of receipt by the hospital, the restock interval, inventory reserve, mean demand, and variation in demand. A simple model, based on hospital demand, may serve as the basis for examining factors affecting the storage age of RBCs in hospital inventories. The model suggests that the age of RBCs at the time of their issue to the patient depends on factors external to the hospital transfusion service. Any substantial change in the expiration date of stored RBCs will need to address the broad variation in demand for RBCs while attempting to balance considerations of availability and blood wastage. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. Transfusion Related Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Osborn, Megan Boysen; Tran, Min-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Audience: This exercise is appropriate for all emergency medicine learners (residents and medical students) and learners from other specialties (internal medicine, family medicine, anesthesia). Introduction: About 85 million red blood cell units are transfused worldwide each year. Transfusion reactions can complicate up to 8% of blood transfusions and can range from benign to life threatening. An emergency physician must be able to discuss the risks and benefits of blood transfusion...

  3. Risk of red blood cell alloimmunisation in Rwanda: Assessment of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Screening of alloantibodies in patients is not yet done in district hospitals of Rwanda. The practice is to transfuse ABO/D compatible blood following an immediate spin crossmatch (IS-XM) or indirect antiglobulin test crossmatch (IAT-XM). Objectives: To assess the risk of red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunisation ...

  4. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Clinical Appropriateness of Blood Transfusion in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Changtai; Gao, Yulu; Li, Zhiqiang; Li, Qinyun; Gao, Zongshuai; Liao, Yanqiu; Deng, Zhifeng

    2015-12-01

    The issue of the clinical appropriateness of blood transfusion has become a focus of transfusion medicine worldwide. In China, irrational uses of blood have often been reported in recent years. However, to date there lacks a systematic review of the rational uses of blood. This study aimed to determine the clinical appropriateness of blood transfusion in China. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), China Science and Technology Journal Database, WanFang Database, and Chinese BioMedical Literature Database, and the retrieval cut-off date was June 31, 2015. SPSS 17.0 and MetaAnalyst 3.13 were employed as the statistics tools in this review. A pooled rate of clinical inappropriateness of transfusion was analyzed by DerSimonian-Laird method. In this study, a total of 39 observational studies were included, which related to 75,132 cases of blood transfusion. According to the meta-analysis results, the overall incidence of clinical inappropriateness of transfusion in China was estimated to be 37.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] [32.1, 42.8]). The subgroup analyses revealed that the pooled rates of clinical inappropriateness of transfusion of plasma, red blood cells (RBCs), cryoprecipitate, and platelets were 56.3% (95% CI [45.8, 66.2]), 30.9% (95% CI [27.1, 35.0]), 25.2% (95% CI [13.2, 42.7]), and 14.1% (95% CI [8.8, 21.9]), respectively. However, the pooled incidence of inappropriateness of transfusion in operative departments was 47.5% (95% CI [36.8, 58.3]), which was significantly higher than that in nonoperative departments, 25.8% (95% CI [18.7, 34.4], P  0.05). In conclusion, China has suffered from a disadvantage in the clinical appropriateness of blood transfusion, especially in plasma and RBC use. In future, comprehensive measures should be implemented in order to improve the clinical appropriateness of blood transfusion.

  5. Red blood cell populations and membrane levels of peroxiredoxin 2 as candidate biomarkers to reveal blood doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocco, Cristina; Pallotta, Valeria; D'alessandro, Angelo; Alves, Gilda; Zolla, Lello

    2012-05-01

    Blood doping represents one main trend in doping strategies. Blood doping refers to the practice of boosting the number of red blood cells (RBCs) in the bloodstream in order to enhance athletic performance, by means of blood transfusions, administration of erythropoiesis-stimulating substances, blood substitutes, natural or artificial altitude facilities, and innovative gene therapies. While detection of recombinant EPO and homologous transfusion is already feasible through electrophoretic, mass spectrometry or flow cytometry-based approaches, no method is currently available to tackle doping strategies relying on autologous transfusions. We exploited an in vitro model of autologous transfusion through a 1:10 dilution of concentrated RBCs after 30 days of storage upon appropriate dilution in freshly withdrawn RBCs from the same donor. Western blot towards membrane Prdx2 and Percoll density gradients were exploited to assess their suitability as biomarkers of transfusion. Membrane Prdx2 was visible in day 30 samples albeit not in day 0, while it was still visible in the 1:10 dilution of day 30 in day 0 RBCs. Cell gradients also highlighted changes in the profile of the RBC subpopulations upon dilution of stored RBCs in the fresh ones. From this preliminary in vitro investigation it emerges that Prdx2 and RBC populations might be further tested as candidate biomarkers of blood doping through autologous transfusion, though it is yet to be assessed whether the kinetics in vivo of Prdx2 exposure in the membrane of transfused RBCs will endow a sufficient time-window to allow reliable anti-doping testing.

  6. Aged erythrocytes: a fine wine or sour grapes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, B; Matot, I

    2013-12-01

    Blood transfusion saves many lives but carries significant risk of injury. Currently, red blood cell (RBC) concentrates can be stored up to 42 days. Concerns have recently been raised about the safety and efficacy of transfusing stored RBCs. Refrigerated storage results in a 'storage lesion' that is reflected by metabolic derangements, RBC shape modification, rheological changes, oxidative injury to lipids and proteins, alterations in oxygen affinity and delivery, increased adhesion of RBCs to endothelial cells, and accumulation of bioactive substances in storage media. In animal models, transfusion of aged, but not fresh, RBCs induces organ injury, inflammation, coagulopathy, and impaired oxygen delivery. A number of clinical studies, mostly observational or retrospective and from a single centre, have reported an association between transfusion of older RBCs and increased clinically significant outcomes, such as increased morbidity and mortality in certain patient populations, including trauma, critical care, and cardiac surgery. Others, however, have failed to indicate an influence of RBC age on outcome. The quality of evidence is currently too poor to make recommendations to change current transfusion practice; however, the transfusion community looks forward to the results of randomized trials currently addressing the long-standing question regarding the effects of RBC storage on clinically significant outcomes.

  7. Estimation of transfused red cell survival using an enzyme-linked antiglobulin test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kickler, T.S.; Smith, B.; Bell, W.; Drew, H.; Baldwin, M.; Ness, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    An enzyme-linked antiglobulin test (ELAT) method was developed to estimate survival of transfused red cells. This procedure is based on a principle analogous to that of the Ashby technique were antigenically distinct red cells are transfused and their survival studied. The authors compared the ELAT survival to the 51 Chromium method ( 51 Cr) in four patients. Three patients with hypoproliferative anemias showed T 1/2 by ELAT of 17.5, 18, and 17 days versus 18.5, 20, and 19 days by the 51 Cr method. A fourth patient with traumatic cardiac hemolysis had two studies performed. In this case, the ELAT showed a T 1/2 of 10 and 8.1 days while 51 Cr T 1/2 values were 11 and 10.5 days. The ELAT method for measuring red cell survival yielded data which agreed closely with the results of the 51 Cr method. Although 51 Cr is the accepted method for red cell survival, the ELAT method can be used to estimate transfused red cell survival

  8. The impact of low hemoglobin levels and transfusion on critical care patients with severe ischemic stroke: STroke: RelevAnt Impact of HemoGlobin, Hematocrit and Transfusion (STRAIGHT)--an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellert, L; Schrader, F; Ringleb, P; Steiner, T; Bösel, J

    2014-04-01

    Optimal management of hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell transfusion (RBCT) in neurologic intensive care unit (NICU) patients has not been determined yet. Here we aimed to investigate the impact of anemia and transfusion activity in patients who had acute ischemic stroke. A retrospective analysis of clinical, laboratory, and outcome data of patients with severe acute ischemic stroke treated on our NICU between 2004 and 2011 was performed. Of 109 patients, 97.2% developed anemia and 33% received RBCT. Significant correlations were found between NICU length of stay (NICU LOS) and lowest (nadir) Hb (correlation coefficient, -0.42, P hematocrit (Hct; -0.43, P < .001), and Hct decrease (0.51, P < .001). Duration of mechanical ventilation (MV) was strongly associated with both nadir Hb (-0.41, P < .001) and decrease (0.42, P < .001) and nadir Hct (-0.43, P < .001) and decrease (0.40, P < .001). Red blood cell transfusion correlated with NICU LOS (0.33, P < .001) and with duration of MV (0.40, P < .001). None of these hematologic parameters correlated with in-hospital mortality or 90-day outcome. The linear regression model showed number of RBCT (0.29, P = .008), nadir Hb (-0.18, P = .049), Hb decrease (0.33, P < .001), nadir Hct (-0.18, P = .03), and Hct decrease (0.29, P < .001) to be independent predictors of NICU LOS. Duration of MV was also independently predicted by number of RBC transfusions (0.29, P < .001), nadir Hb (-0.20, P = .02), Hb decrease (0.25, P = .002), nadir Hct (-0.21, P = .015), and Hct decrease (0.26, P < .001). Low and further decreasing Hb and Hct levels as well as RBCT activity are associated with prolonged NICU stay and duration of MV but not with mortality or long-term outcome. Our findings do not justify using a more aggressive transfusion practice at present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Postoperative infection and natural killer cell function following blood transfusion in patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L S; Andersen, A J; Christiansen, P M

    1992-01-01

    The frequency of infection in 197 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery and having either no blood transfusion, transfusion with whole blood, or filtered blood free from leucocytes and platelets was investigated in a prospective randomized trial. Natural killer cell function was measured...... before operation and 3, 7 and 30 days after surgery in 60 consecutive patients. Of the patients 104 required blood transfusion; 48 received filtered blood and 56 underwent whole blood transfusion. Postoperative infections developed in 13 patients transfused with whole blood (23 per cent, 95 per cent...... confidence interval 13-32 per cent), in one patient transfused with blood free from leucocytes and platelets (2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.05-11 per cent) and in two non-transfused patients (2 per cent, 95 per cent confidence interval 0.3-8 per cent) (P less than 0.01). Natural killer cell...

  10. Detection of microparticles from human red blood cells by multiparametric flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grisendi, Giulia; Finetti, Elena; Manganaro, Daniele; Cordova, Nicoletta; Montagnani, Giuliano; Spano, Carlotta; Prapa, Malvina; Guarneri, Valentina; Otsuru, Satoru; Horwitz, Edwin M.; Mari, Giorgio; Dominici, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Background During storage, red blood cells (RBC) undergo chemical and biochemical changes referred to as “storage lesions”. These events determine the loss of RBC integrity, resulting in lysis and release of microparticles. There is growing evidence of the clinical importance of microparticles and their role in blood transfusion-related side effects and pathogen transmission. Flow cytometry is currently one of the most common techniques used to quantify and characterise microparticles. Here we propose multiparametric staining to monitor and quantify the dynamic release of microparticles by stored human RBC. Material and methods RBC units (n=10) were stored under blood bank conditions for up to 42 days. Samples were tested at different time points to detect microparticles and determine the haemolysis rate (HR%). Microparticles were identified by flow cytometry combining carboxyfluorescein diacetate succinimidyl ester (CFSE) dye, annexin V and anti-glycophorin A antibody. Results We demonstrated that CFSE can be successfully used to label closed vesicles with an intact membrane. The combination of CFSE and glycophorin A antibody was effective for monitoring and quantifying the dynamic release of microparticles from RBC during storage. Double staining with CFSE/glycophorin A was a more precise approach, increasing vesicle detection up to 4.7-fold vs the use of glycophorin A/annexin V alone. Moreover, at all the time points tested, we found a robust correlation (R=0.625; p=0.0001) between HR% and number of microparticles detected. Discussion Multiparametric staining, based on a combination of CFSE, glycophorin A antibody and annexin V, was able to detect, characterise and monitor the release of microparticles from RBC units during storage, providing a sensitive approach to labelling and identifying microparticles for transfusion medicine and, more broadly, for cell-based therapies. PMID:25369588

  11. Long-chain PUFA in Granulocytes, Mononuclear Cells, and RBC in Patients With Cystic Fibrosis: Relation to Liver Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jorgensen, Marianne H.; Ott, Peter; Michaelsen, Kim F.

    2012-01-01

    -related liver disease were matched with 20 CF patients without. Blood samples were analysed for liver biochemistry and haematology. Granulocytes, mononuclear cells, and RBC were separated by density gradient centrifugation, and fatty acid composition was measured by gas chromatography. Hepatic ultrasound...

  12. Multiple-capillary measurement of RBC speed, flux, and density with optical coherence tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jonghwan; Wu, Weicheng; Lesage, Frederic; Boas, David A

    2013-11-01

    As capillaries exhibit heterogeneous and fluctuating dynamics even during baseline, a technique measuring red blood cell (RBC) speed and flux over many capillaries at the same time is needed. Here, we report that optical coherence tomography can capture individual RBC passage simultaneously over many capillaries located at different depths. Further, we demonstrate the ability to quantify RBC speed, flux, and linear density. This technique will provide a means to monitor microvascular flow dynamics over many capillaries at different depths at the same time.

  13. Vitamin E nanoemulsion activity on stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C A L; Azevedo Filho, C A; Pereira, G; Silva, D C N; Castro, M C A B; Almeida, A F; Lucena, S C A; Santos, B S; Barjas-Castro, M L; Fontes, A

    2017-06-01

    Stored red blood cells (RBCs) undergo numerous changes that have been termed RBC storage lesion, which can be related to oxidative damage. Vitamin E is an important antioxidant, acting on cell lipids. Thus, this study aimed to investigate vitamin E activity on stored RBCs. We prepared a vitamin E nanoemulsion that was added to RBC units and stored at 4 °C. Controls, without vitamin E, were kept under the same conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored for up to 35 days of storage. RBC elasticity was also evaluated using an optical tweezer system. Vitamin E-treated samples presented a significant decrease in ROS production. Additionally, the elastic constant for vitamin E-treated RBCs did not differ from the control. Vitamin E decreased the amount of ROS in stored RBCs. Because vitamin E acts on lipid oxidation, results suggest that protein oxidation should also be considered a key factor for erythrocyte elastic properties. Thus, further studies combining vitamin E with protein antioxidants deserve attention, aiming to better preserve overall stored RBC properties. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  14. Overall survival in lower IPSS risk MDS by receipt of iron chelation therapy, adjusting for patient-related factors and measuring from time of first red blood cell transfusion dependence: an MDS-CAN analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Heather A; Parmar, Ambica; Wells, Richard A; Chodirker, Lisa; Zhu, Nancy; Nevill, Thomas J; Yee, Karen W L; Leber, Brian; Keating, Mary-Margaret; Sabloff, Mitchell; St Hilaire, Eve; Kumar, Rajat; Delage, Robert; Geddes, Michelle; Storring, John M; Kew, Andrea; Shamy, April; Elemary, Mohamed; Lenis, Martha; Mamedov, Alexandre; Ivo, Jessica; Francis, Janika; Zhang, Liying; Buckstein, Rena

    2017-10-01

    Analyses suggest iron overload in red blood cell (RBC) transfusion-dependent (TD) patients with myleodysplastic syndrome (MDS) portends inferior overall survival (OS) that is attenuated by iron chelation therapy (ICT) but may be biassed by unbalanced patient-related factors. The Canadian MDS Registry prospectively measures frailty, comorbidity and disability. We analysed OS by receipt of ICT, adjusting for these patient-related factors. TD International Prognostic Scoring System (IPSS) low and intermediate-1 risk MDS, at RBC TD, were included. Predictive factors for OS were determined. A matched pair analysis considering age, revised IPSS, TD severity, time from MDS diagnosis to TD, and receipt of disease-modifying agents was conducted. Of 239 patients, 83 received ICT; frailty, comorbidity and disability did not differ from non-ICT patients. Median OS from TD was superior in ICT patients (5·2 vs. 2·1 years; P MDS, adjusting for age, frailty, comorbidity, disability, revised IPSS, TD severity, time to TD and receiving disease-modifying agents. This provides additional evidence that ICT may confer clinical benefit. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Blood transfusion for preventing primary and secondary stroke in people with sickle cell disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estcourt, Lise J; Fortin, Patricia M; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Wang, Winfred C

    2017-01-01

    Background Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta globin) genes. Sickle cell disease can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Stroke affects around 10% of children with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS). Chronic blood transfusions may reduce the risk of vaso-occlusion and stroke by diluting the proportion of sickled cells in the circulation. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2002, and last updated in 2013. Objectives To assess risks and benefits of chronic blood transfusion regimens in people with sickle cell disease for primary and secondary stroke prevention (excluding silent cerebral infarcts). Search methods We searched for relevant trials in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980), and ongoing trial databases; all searches current to 04 April 2016. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 25 April 2016. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing red blood cell transfusions as prophylaxis for stroke in people with sickle cell disease to alternative or standard treatment. There were no restrictions by outcomes examined, language or publication status. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and the risk of bias and extracted data. Main results We included five trials (660 participants) published between 1998 and 2016. Four of these trials were terminated early. The vast majority of participants had the haemoglobin (Hb)SS form of sickle cell disease. Three trials compared regular red cell transfusions to standard care in primary prevention of stroke: two in children with no previous long-term transfusions; and one in children and adolescents on long-term transfusion. Two trials compared the drug

  16. Blood transfusion for preventing primary and secondary stroke in people with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estcourt, Lise J; Fortin, Patricia M; Hopewell, Sally; Trivella, Marialena; Wang, Winfred C

    2017-01-17

    Sickle cell disease is one of the commonest severe monogenic disorders in the world, due to the inheritance of two abnormal haemoglobin (beta globin) genes. Sickle cell disease can cause severe pain, significant end-organ damage, pulmonary complications, and premature death. Stroke affects around 10% of children with sickle cell anaemia (HbSS). Chronic blood transfusions may reduce the risk of vaso-occlusion and stroke by diluting the proportion of sickled cells in the circulation.This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2002, and last updated in 2013. To assess risks and benefits of chronic blood transfusion regimens in people with sickle cell disease for primary and secondary stroke prevention (excluding silent cerebral infarcts). We searched for relevant trials in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE (from 1946), Embase (from 1974), the Transfusion Evidence Library (from 1980), and ongoing trial databases; all searches current to 04 April 2016.We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register: 25 April 2016. Randomised controlled trials comparing red blood cell transfusions as prophylaxis for stroke in people with sickle cell disease to alternative or standard treatment. There were no restrictions by outcomes examined, language or publication status. Two authors independently assessed trial eligibility and the risk of bias and extracted data. We included five trials (660 participants) published between 1998 and 2016. Four of these trials were terminated early. The vast majority of participants had the haemoglobin (Hb)SS form of sickle cell disease.Three trials compared regular red cell transfusions to standard care in primary prevention of stroke: two in children with no previous long-term transfusions; and one in children and adolescents on long-term transfusion.Two trials compared the drug hydroxyurea (hydroxycarbamide) and phlebotomy to long-term transfusions and iron chelation therapy: one in

  17. Phase I/II safety study of transfusion of prion-filtered red cell concentrates in transfusion-dependent patients.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, M R

    2010-08-01

    Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob (vCJD) is a fatal transfusion transmissible prion infection. No test for vCJD in the donor population is currently available. Therefore, prion removal by filtration of red cell concentrate (RCC) is an attractive option for prevention.

  18. Liberal red blood cell transfusions impair quality of life after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pérez, A; Al-Sibai, J Z; Álvarez-Fernández, P; Martínez-Camblor, P; Argüello-Junquera, M; García-Gala, J M; Martínez-Revuelta, E; Silva, J; Morís, C; Albaiceta, G M

    2018-03-12

    The optimal blood management after cardiac surgery remains controversial. Moreover, blood transfusions may have an impact on long-term outcomes. The aim of this study is to characterize the impact of liberal red blood cell transfusions on Health-Related Quality of life (HRQoL) after cardiac surgery. We studied a cohort of 205 consecutive patients after ICU discharge. Baseline characteristics and clinical data were recorded, and HRQoL was assessed using the EuroQoL-5D instrument, applied 6 months after ICU discharge. A specific question regarding the improvement in the quality of life after the surgical intervention was added to the HRQoL questionnaire. Risk factors related to impaired quality of life were identified using univariate comparisons and multivariate regression techniques. The median (interquartile range, IQR) of transfused red blood cells was 3 (1-4). Among 205 patients, 178 were studied 6 months after discharge. Impairment in at least one dimension of the EuroQoL-5D questionnaire was observed in 120 patients, with an overall score of 0.8 (IQR 0.61-1). The number of red blood cell transfusions was related to an impaired HRQoL (OR 1.17 per additional unit, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.36, p=0.03), a trend to lower visual analog scale score (coefficient -0.75 per additional unit, 95% confidence interval -1.61 to 0.1, p=0.09) and an absence of improvement in HRQoL after surgery compared to the previous status (OR 1.13, 95% confidence interval 1.03-1.25, p=0.01). Liberal red blood cell transfusions increase the risk of impaired HRQoL after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  19. Red blood transfusion in preterm infants: changes in glucose, electrolytes and acid base balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Abdelghaffar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Preterm neonates comprise the most heavily transfused group of patients, and about 85% of extremely low birth weight newborns receive a transfusion by the end of their hospital stay. The aim of this study was to assess the possible metabolic effects of RBC transfusion on preterm infants, especially during the first 2 weeks of life, and its relation to blood volume. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 40 preterm neonates with gestational age of less than or equal to 34 weeks. They received RBCs transfusion during first 2 weeks of life. Venous blood samples of infants were collected 2 to 4 hours before and 1 hour after the end of transfusion to evaluate hemoglobin (Hb level, hematocrit, acid-base, electrolytes, and glucose status. Then, infants were classified into two main groups: those who received RBCs volume less than or 20 ml/kg and those who received RBCs volume more than 20 ml/kg. Results: Infants received a mean volume of 20.38 ± 3.2 ml/kg RBCs (range, 10.9 - 26.6 ml/kg at a median age of 9.8 ± 3.6 days. After transfusion, a significant increase of mean Hb (P<0.001, mean Hct (P<0.001, pH (P<0.001, pO 2 (P<0.05, and a significant decrease of the pCO2 (41.46 ± 8.8torr vs 35.4 ± 9.34 torr; P<0.001 were observed. In addition, there was a significant increase of serum K + (P<0.001, and a significant decrease of Ca +2 (P<0.001. A positive correlation was found between the K + intake and the changes of kalemia (r = 0.99; P = 0.00. Furthermore, we observed an inverse correlation between the patients′ calcium intake and the changes of calcemia (r = -0.35; P = 0.02. On comparing the changes in clinical and biochemical variables between two groups after transfusion, we observed a significant increase in mean Hb and Hct associated with a significant decrease in mean serum Ca +2 (P<0.001 in the group receiving the larger blood volume. Conclusion: RBC transfusion was effective in improving anemia, oxygenation, increasing

  20. Introduction of universal prestorage leukodepletion of blood components, and outcomes in transfused cardiac surgery patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuilten, Zoe K; Andrianopoulos, Nick; van de Watering, Leo; Aubron, Cecile; Phillips, Louise; Bellomo, Rinaldo; Pilcher, David; Cameron, Peter; Reid, Christopher M; Cole-Sinclair, Merrole F; Newcomb, Andrew; Smith, Julian; McNeil, John J; Wood, Erica M

    2015-07-01

    To assess whether introduction of universal leukodepletion (ULD) of red blood cells (RBCs) for transfusion was associated with improvements in cardiac surgery patient outcomes. Retrospective study (2005-2010) conducted at 6 institutions. Associations between leukodepletion and outcomes of mortality, infection, and acute kidney injury (AKI) were modeled by logistic regression, and intensive care unit length of stay (LOS) in survivors was explored using linear regression. To examine trends over time, odds ratios (ORs) for outcomes of transfused were compared with nontransfused patients, including a comparison with nontransfused patients who were selected based on propensity score for RBC transfusion. We studied 14,980 patients, of whom 8857 (59%) had surgery pre-ULD. Transfusions of RBCs were made in 3799 (43%) pre-ULD, and 2525 (41%) post-ULD. Administration of exclusively leukodepleted, versus exclusively nonleukodepleted, RBCs was associated with lower incidence of AKI (adjusted OR 0.80, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.65-0.98, P = .035), but no difference in mortality or infection. For post-ULD patients, no difference was found in mortality (OR 0.96, 95% CI 0.76-1.22, P = .76) or infection (OR 0.91, 95% CI 0.79-1.03, P = .161); however, AKI was reduced (OR 0.79 95% CI 0.68-0.92, P = .003). However, ORs for post-ULD outcomes were not significantly different in nontransfused, versus transfused, patients. Furthermore, those who received exclusively nonleukodepleted RBCs were more likely to have surgery post-ULD. Universal leukodepletion was not associated with reduced mortality or infection in transfused cardiac surgery patients. An association was found between ULD and reduced AKI; however, this reduction was not significantly different from that seen in nontransfused patients, and other changes in care most likely explain such changes in renal outcomes. Copyright © 2015 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Changing practice: red blood cell typing by molecular methods for patients with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Jessica; Friedman, David F; Jackson, Tannoa; Vege, Sunitha; Westhoff, Connie M; Chou, Stella T

    2015-06-01

    Extended red blood cell (RBC) antigen matching is recommended to limit alloimmunization in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). DNA-based testing to predict blood group phenotypes has enhanced availability of antigen-negative donor units and improved typing of transfused patients, but replacement of routine serologic typing for non-ABO antigens with molecular typing for patients has not been reported. This study compared the historical RBC antigen phenotypes obtained by hemagglutination methods with genotype predictions in 494 patients with SCD. For discrepant results, repeat serologic testing was performed and/or investigated by gene sequencing for silent or variant alleles. Seventy-one typing discrepancies were identified among 6360 antigen comparisons (1.1%). New specimens for repeat serologic testing were obtained for 66 discrepancies and retyping agreed with the genotype in 64 cases. One repeat Jk(b-) serologic phenotype, predicted Jk(b+) by genotype, was found by direct sequencing of JK to be a silenced allele, and one N typing discrepancy remains under investigation. Fifteen false-negative serologic results were associated with alleles encoding weak antigens or single-dose Fy(b) expression. DNA-based RBC typing provided improved accuracy and expanded information on RBC antigens compared to hemagglutination methods, leading to its implementation as the primary method for extended RBC typing for patients with SCD at our institution. © 2015 AABB.

  2. Evaluation of multi-professional obstetric skills training for postpartum hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markova, Veronika; Sørensen, Jette Led; Holm, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of multi-professional obstetric skills training on the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) indicated by red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and time delay in surgical interventions before, during, and after implementation of the training.......To evaluate the effect of multi-professional obstetric skills training on the incidence of postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) indicated by red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and time delay in surgical interventions before, during, and after implementation of the training....

  3. The Role of Blood Transfusion in the Management of Sickle Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). There is general lack of appreciation by clinicians, of the sub-optimal or frankly harmful effects, of inappropriate transfusion in SCD. This article discusses the relevant pathophysiology of sickle cell ...

  4. Red blood-cell alloantibodies in multiply transfused patients in the occupied Palestinian territory: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaseen, Ahmad; Suleiman, Sa'd; Zenah, Omar Abu; Abu Taha, Adham

    2018-02-21

    Red blood-cell transfusion has greatly reduced the mortality and morbidity in multiply transfused patients with thalassaemia and sickle cell disease. However, this can result in red blood-cell isoimmunisation with autoantibodies and alloantibodies, which can lead to serious complications such as delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and types of alloantibodies in multiply transfused patients living in the north of the West Bank. This pilot study was done at three thalassaemia centres in Nablus, Jenin, and Tulkarm in the occupied Palestinian territory where 300 patients with thalassaemia and sickle cell anaemia regularly receive blood transfusions. Alloantibody screening and identification were done using three-cell and eleven-cell panels (DiaPanel, Bio-rad, Switzerland) respectively. Ethical approval was obtained from Institutional Review Board Centre at Najah University. Written consent was obtained from participants. 131 patients were enrolled. Of the 20 (15%) patients with alloantibodies, 14 (70%) were diagnosed with β-thalassaemia major, three (15%) were diagnosed with sickle cell anaemia, two (10%) were diagnosed with thalassaemia intermedia, and one (5%) was diagnosed with sickle cell thalassaemia. 13 (65%) patients had alloantibodies that belonged to the Rh blood group system (nine [45%] patients had anti-D; two [10%] had anti-E; one [5%] had anti Rh-C; and one [5%] had anti-c). Anti-Kell was found in seven (35%) patients. Our data showed a quite high prevalence of alloimmunisation in multiply transfused patients. Rh and Kell blood group system antibodies were the only alloantibodies identified in this study. To reduce alloimmunisation, it will be essential to introduce a policy for extended red blood-cell phenotyping of these patients and for the issuing of antigen-matched blood (at least for Rh and Kell antigen). Najah National University. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Restrictive or Liberal Red-Cell Transfusion for Cardiac Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mazer, C David; Whitlock, Richard P; Fergusson, Dean A

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The effect of a restrictive versus liberal red-cell transfusion strategy on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery remains unclear. METHODS: In this multicenter, open-label, noninferiority trial, we randomly assigned 5243 adults undergoing cardiac surgery who had a E...

  6. Perioperative Allogeneic Red Blood-Cell Transfusion Associated with Surgical Site Infection After Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everhart, Joshua S; Sojka, John H; Mayerson, Joel L; Glassman, Andrew H; Scharschmidt, Thomas J

    2018-02-21

    Perioperative allogeneic red blood-cell transfusion is a suspected risk factor for surgical site infection (SSI) after total joint arthroplasty (TJA), but the interrelationships among SSI risk, transfusion dose, preoperative anemia, and the presence of coagulopathies have not been well described. Data on SSI within 1 year after surgery as well as on transfusion with blood products within 30 days after surgery were obtained for 6,788 patients who had undergone primary or revision total hip or knee arthroplasty from 2000 to 2011 in a single hospital system. Multivariate logistic regression modeling was used to determine the independent association between allogeneic red blood-cell transfusion and SSI. There was a dose-dependent association between allogeneic red blood-cell transfusion and SSI, with the infection rate increasing as the transfusion dose increased from 1 unit (odds ratio [OR] = 1.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.38, 2.79; p 3 units (OR = 7.40; CI = 4.91, 11.03; p conservation strategies. Therapeutic Level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  7. Utilization and quality of cryopreserved red blood cells in transfusion medicine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, S.; Noorman, F.; Badloe, J. F.; Lagerberg, J. W. M.

    Cryopreserved (frozen) red blood cells have been used in transfusion medicine since the Vietnam war. The main method to freeze the red blood cells is by usage of glycerol. Although the usage of cryopreserved red blood cells was promising due to the prolonged storage time and the limited cellular

  8. The effect of red cell and plasma transfusion on serum zinc and copper levels in the neonate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockitch, G; Godolphin, W J; Pendray, M R; Quigley, G

    1983-11-01

    Transfusion of packed red cells (15 to 20 ml/kg) in 11 preterm infants resulted in a slight increase in mean serum zinc levels on the 3rd post transfusion day but no effect was noted on serum copper levels. No significant difference was found between the changes in serum zinc in 141 paired specimens collected a week apart when zero, one, two or three packed cell transfusions were given in the intervening week. A slight decrease in the mean copper level was noted when one transfusion was given. Transfusion of fresh frozen plasma in six newborns with abdominal wall defects resulted in initial serum copper levels two to three times greater than the reference mean for newborns. No effect was noted on zinc levels. Serum copper results should be interpreted with caution in infants who have been transfused with plasma.

  9. Hemopoietic stem cell niches, recovery from radiation and bone marrow transfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Carsten, A.L.; Brecher, G.

    1979-01-01

    The long term hematologic effects of single whole body sublethal X-ray exposure, 525 rad, and the low level chronic exposure from 137 Cs gamma ray and ingested HTO were investigated in mice. The single X-ray exposure had early severe effect on bone marrows both in terms of total cellularity and the number of pluripotent stem cells. How do animals maintain normal cellularity in the absence of a normal number of the pluripotent stem cells[ The following 3 different mechanisms may be involved: additional division in the cytologically identifiable divisible pool of bone marrows; shortening of cycle time allowing more divisions in the same time with great amplification of a small number of colony-forming unit spleens; and the recruitment of G 0 stem cells into proliferation. The reduction in the number of bone marrow stem cells might be attributed to stromal injury in the marrows such that they cannot support as many stem cells as those before the radiation exposure. As an alternate to the ''niche'' hypothesis, the injury to the stem cell pool such that self-replication was not sufficient to restore normal cell concentration is a possibility. The time sequence of the transfusion of marrows may be important to the ultimate effect. Attempts to fill empty niches 10 and 12 weeks after a single and severe radiation injury may be impossible due to stromal changes which in effect have eliminated the niches. The bone marrows of animals rescued by the transfusion of 4 x 10 6 bone marrow cells will accept 0 to 25% of the second transfusion of 4 x 10 7 cells. (Yamashita, S.)

  10. The restoration in vivo of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) in stored red cells, after transfusion. The levels of red cells 2,3-DPG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, Ana; Zsigmond, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Since the main reason for transfusing preserved red cells is to increase the oxygen carrying capacity of the recipient, the circulating preserved red cells should have at the time of transfusion normal oxygen uptake and normal oxyhemoglobin dissociation characteristics. We evaluated the effectiveness of transfused red cells, through periodical determination of erythrocyte components, during 72 hours after transfusions of large quantities (3,000 mL) of blood. Three patients with massive hemorrhages, two after amputation and one after nephrectomy were given each 3,000 mL preserved blood (in ACD, 10 days, at 4 degrees C). Red cell 2,3-DPG and serum inorganic phosphorus were determined prior to transfusion and after, periodically, for three days. Red cell 2,3-DPG was determined by Krimsky's method and inorganic phosphorus by Kuttner and Lichtenstein's method. The in vivo restoration of 2,3-DPG--of transfused red cells is shown as a percentage of recipient's final 2,3-DPG level, and was calculated in each of the three patients. The level of erythrocyte 2,3-DPG was greater than 60% of the final level within 24 hours, after the end of transfusion. The in vivo rates of restoration of 2,3-DPG in transfused red cells for periods of 0-6, 6-24, 24-48 and 48-72 hours are 0.251, 0.238, 0.133, 0.120 mM/L cells/hour. The therapeutic significance of the increased oxygen affinity of stored blood becomes very important in clinical conditions, when large volumes of red cells are urgently needed. After massive transfusions, the restoration of 2,3-DPG in red cells produces a decrease of serum inorganic phosphorus through its consumption. The stored blood with low values of erythrocyte 2,3-DPG can be used without hesitation when correcting a chronic anemia for instance, but in acute situation, when the organism needs restoration of the oxygen releasing capacity within minutes, the resynthesis is obviously insufficient. In such situations, fresh blood or blood with a near normal 2,3-DPG

  11. Serial haematology results in transfused and non-transfused dogs naturally infected with Babesia rossi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Scheepers

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This prospective longitudinal study investigated the progression of haematological changes in 32 transfused and 54 non-transfused dogs naturally infected with Babesia rossi over the 1st 6 days following diagnosis and treatment. The effect of patient age on the results of complete blood counts was determined. Haematology data were analysed at presentation and at 24 hours, 3 days and 6 days after presentation. Dogs were treated with diminazene aceturate at diagnosis and a blood transfusion was given if deemed clinically required. Mildly to moderately regenerative normocytic normochromic anaemia was observed in all dogs throughout the study period. Transfused dogs more often had an inflammatory leukogram at presentation and at 24 hours, than dogs that were not transfused. In dogs with a left shift, a concurrent normal or decreased segmented neutrophil count was found more commonly than neutrophilia. Severe thrombocytopenia that resolved within a week was common. Blood transfusion alleviated the anaemia, but had no significant effect on white blood cell or platelet responses. Blood cell responses were not significantly influenced by age. In conclusion, the red blood cell and white blood cell responses were less than expected in dogs with babesiosis, given the degree of anaemia and inflammation present. The magnitude of thrombocytopenia and rapid return of the platelet count to normal suggested a possible immune-mediated mechanism for the thrombocytopenia.

  12. Managing the surge in demand for blood following mass casualty events: Early automatic restocking may preserve red cell supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasgow, Simon; Vasilakis, Christos; Perkins, Zane; Brundage, Susan; Tai, Nigel; Brohi, Karim

    2016-07-01

    Traumatic hemorrhage is a leading preventable cause of mortality following mass casualty events (MCEs). Improving outcomes requires adequate in-hospital provision of high-volume red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. This study investigated strategies for optimizing RBC provision to casualties in MCEs using simulation modeling. A computerized simulation model of a UK major trauma center (TC) transfusion system was developed. The model used input data from past MCEs and civilian and military trauma registries. We simulated the effect of varying on-shelf RBC stock hold and the timing of externally restocking RBC supplies on TC treatment capacity across increasing loads of priority one (P1) and two (P2) casualties from an event. Thirty-five thousand simulations were performed. A casualty load of 20 P1s and P2s under standard TC RBC stock conditions left 35% (95% confidence interval, 32-38%) of P1s and 7% (4-10%) of P2s inadequately treated for hemorrhage. Additionally, exhaustion of type O emergency RBC stocks (a surrogate for reaching surge capacity) occurred in a median of 10 hours (IQR, 5 to >12 hours). Doubling casualty load increased this to 60% (57-63%) and 30% (26-34%), respectively, with capacity reached in 2 hours (1-3 hours). The model identified a minimum requirement of 12 U of on-shelf RBCs per P1/P2 casualty received to prevent surge capacity being reached. Restocking supplies in an MCE versus greater permanent on-shelf RBC stock holds was considered at increasing hourly intervals. T-test analysis showed no difference between stock hold versus supply restocking with regard to overall outcomes for MCEs up to 80 P1s and P2s in size (p < 0.05), provided the restock occurred within 6 hours. Even limited-sized MCEs threaten to overwhelm TC transfusion systems. An early-automated push approach to restocking RBCs initiated by central suppliers can produce equivocal outcomes compared with holding excess stock permanently at TCs. Therapeutic/care management study

  13. Perceived changes in behavior and values after a red blood cell transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broccolo M

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Marianna Broccolo,1 Nicolas Favez,2 Oliver Karam3,4 1School of Medicine, 2Clinical Psychology Unit, Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, University of Geneva, Geneva, 3Pediatric Intensive Care Unit, Geneva University Hospital, Geneva, Switzerland; 4Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Children’s Hospital of Richmond at VCU, Richmond, VA, USA Background: Several studies have evaluated perceived changes in patients’ behavior after an organ transplant, especially a heart transplant. Although blood transfusions are much more frequent and have many connotations, derived from religious values, mass culture, or personal ideas, there is no study of the perception the patients have of changes in their behavior and values after a transfusion. This study’s objective was to assess perceived changes in behavior and values after a red blood cell transfusion.Materials and methods: Exploratory study through semistructured interviews with seven adults transfused after orthopedic surgery.Results: Blood had strong symbolic values for all subjects. Each of the seven participants mentioned positive characteristics that they would like to receive from the donor. Six subjects out of the seven acknowledged the possibility that transfusions might induce changes in behavior or values. Three subjects clearly stated that they would refuse to receive blood from a criminal for fear that some negative characteristic may be transmitted to them. Furthermore, three subjects acknowledged that their transfusion might have changed their own behavior or values.Discussion: This study shows that patients might feel that transfusions could modify their behavior or values and that certain personality traits of the donor could be transmitted. Further research in a larger population is warranted to evaluate the incidence of a perceived changed in behavior or values after a blood transfusion, which would then lead to changes in the way information is provided to

  14. Transfusion rate and prevalence of unexpected red blood cell alloantibodies in women undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoestesen, Lisbeth M; Rasmussen, Kjeld L; Lauszus, Finn F

    2011-01-01

    To determine transfusion rates, risk factors for transfusion and the prevalence of unexpected red blood cell alloantibodies in women undergoing hysterectomy for benign disease. In addition, we aimed to evaluate the necessity of the pretransfusion testing for red blood cell alloantibodies....

  15. Acute iatrogenic polycythemia induced by massive red blood cell transfusion during subtotal abdominal colectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Chiapaikeo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A 46 year old man was transfused ten units of packed red blood cells during subtotal colectomy after intraoperative point-of-care testing values demonstrated hemoglobin values less than seven grams per deciliter (g/dL. A post-operative hemoglobin analyzed in a standard hematologic laboratory revealed a hemoglobin value of 27.8 g/dL. He underwent emergent red blood cell depletion therapy which decreased his hemoglobin to 7.5 g/dL. The physiologic consequences of iatrogenic polycythemia caused by massive transfusion during major abdominal surgery must take into account the fluid shifts that interplay between the osmotic load, viscosity of blood, and postoperative third spacing of fluid. Treatment of acute iatrogenic polycythemia can be effectively accomplished by red blood cell depletion therapy. However, fluid shifts caused by massive transfusion followed by rapid red cell depletion produce a unique physiologic state that is without a well-described algorithm for management.

  16. A study report of 174 units of placental umbilical cord whole blood transfusion in 62 patients as a rich source of fetal hemoglobin supply in different indications of blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, N; Mukherijee, K; Chettri, M K; Banerjee, T; Mani, U; Bhattacharya, S

    2001-01-01

    In the animal kingdom, even herbivorous animals swallow the placenta after the birth of the baby (for example, the cow). In the human system, we do not know about the proper utilization of the placenta and membranes although there are suggestions regarding this on the basis of research on placental umbilical cord blood stem cells as an alternative to bone marrow transplantation. In this present series of placental umbilical cord whole blood transfusions, we wanted to examine the safety aspect of other components of cord blood transfusion, e.g., fetal RBC, growth factors and cytokine filled plasma, etc., in different indications of blood transfusion, from the pediatric to the geriatric age group, in malignant and non-malignant disorders affecting our patients. One hundred and seventy-four units of umbilical cord whole blood were collected aseptically from the umbilical vein after caesarean section in standard pediatric blood transfusion bags, after the removal of the baby from the operative field and after confirming the stable condition of the mother. The volume of cord blood varied from 50 ml to 140 ml with a mean of 86 ml+/-16 ml. The cord blood was transfused immediately (within three days of collection) to 62 patients from nine years to 78 years of age, of whom 32 were suffering from varying stages and grades of malignancy from 1 April 1999 till date i.e., 11 Aug 2000, after obtaining adequate consent and following the precautions of standard blood transfusion protocol. The remaining 30 patients included patients suffering from thalassemia major, aplastic anemia, systemic lupus erythematosus, chronic renal failure, rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis and a geriatric group of patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy. All have tolerated the procedure without any immunological or non-immunological reactions. On the basis of our experience with 174 units of placental umbilical cord whole blood transfusion in malignant and non-malignant conditions (within

  17. Non-transfusion dependent thalassemia: translating evidence to guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afif R. Harb

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The thalassemias are a group of inherited disorders of hemoglobin synthesis characterized by various degrees of defective production of the α- or β-globin chains of adult hemoglobin A. Non-transfusion- dependent thalassemia (NTDT includes a group of thalassemia patients who do not require regular RBC transfusions for survival, but may require occasional transfusions due to infection or pregnancy or may require more regular transfusions later in life due to splenomegaly or other complications. Due to the rising phenomenon of global migration, this previously well-localized entity is currently spreading more and more worldwide reaching Northern America and Northern Europe. The clinical picture of NTDT is governed by the severity of the ineffective erythropoiesis and the chronic hemolytic anemia, which, in turn, lead to iron overload, hypercoagulability, and an array of clinical complications involving almost every organ system. Patients with NTDT suffer from complications that are distinct from those encountered in patients with transfusion- dependent thalassemia (TDT in addition to the complications shared by both TDT and NTDT. As a consequence, patients with NTDT deserve a care specifically tailored to their needs. In the care of patients with NTDT, aiming at a standardized yet personalized care is not an easy task especially that NTDT patients lie on a heterogeneous spectrum with a wide variability in their clinical presentation and response to therapy. Therefore, guidelines emerge as a necessity to answer the specific needs of NTDT patients and the clinicians caring for them. In this article, we summarize the complications most commonly associated with NTDT and the recommendations of the guidelines for the management of patients with NTDT, based on the best available evidence.

  18. Study of red blood cell alloimmunization in multitransfused thalassemic children of Jammu region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashu Dogra

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thalassemia is one of the most common genetic disorder of hemoglobin synthesis in Jammu region. Although RBC transfusion is life saving for these patients, it may be associated with some complications like RBC alloimmunization. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the frequency of alloimmunization and the most common alloantibodies involved. Material and Methods: This was a descriptive study involving a total of 70 thalassemic patients in the age range of 2-17 years receiving regular blood transfusions, registered at SMGS Blood Bank, Jammu. Relevant clinical and laboratory data was collected with reference to age at the start of transfusions, total number of transfusions received and splenectomy status. Antibodies screening, antibody identification, and cross matching was done on allpatient samples included in the study, during the period between November 2009 and October 2010. Results: In this study, a total of six alloantibodies six patients (8.5% and one autoantibody (1.42% was detected. All identified alloantibodies belonged to Rh system (i.e. anti-E, in 3 patients (50%, anti D, in one patient (16.66% and Kell system (anti-K, in two patients (33.34%. Higher frequency of alloimmunization was found, with increase in number of transfusions and in those who received transfusions after 1 year of age. Alloimmunization was not significantly associated with gender and splenectomy status (P-value > 0.05. Conclusion: Red cell alloantibodies developed in 8.5% of thalassemic patients and 1.42% had autoantibodies. The most common alloantibodies identified were anti Rh system antibodies (anti-E and anti-D present in 50% and 16.66% of patients respectively. Alloimmunization is not an uncommon problem faced by blood banks and finding compatible units for regularly transfused thalassemic patients may become very difficult. In order to reduce alloimmunization, a policy for performing extended red cell phenotyping of these patients is

  19. Effectiveness, safety, and cost of partial exchange transfusions in patients with sickle-cell anemia at a sickle cell disease center in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boma Muteb, P; Kaluila Mamba, J F J; Muhau Pfutila, P; Bilo, V; Panda Mulefu, J D; Diallo, D A

    2017-11-01

    The partial exchange transfusions necessary for management of some sickle-cell complications raise the issue of effectiveness in the context of limited resources and inadequate blood safety. This study evaluated the effectiveness, safety, and cost of partial exchange transfusions in 39 patients with sickle-cell anemia in Lubumbashi, looking at the patients' age and gender and the tolerability and direct cost of the transfusions. Excel and SPSS 18 were used for data entry and analysis. Chi2 and Fisher exact tests were used for comparisons. A P-value ≤ 5% was considered statistically significant. The average age of patients was 8.6 ± 6.4 years, and the majority were girls. The most frequent indications were stroke, severe infections, severe vasooclusive crises, and acute chest syndrome. Partial exchange transfusions were effective in improving hemoglobin and hematocrit as well as the percentage of HbS. No acute accident was observed during any partial exchange transfusion; one anti-Kell alloimmunization and 2 cases of iron overload were observed. The annual cost of partial exchange transfusions per patient requiring (and able to afford) regular treatment was US $ 3,345 without iron chelation and more than US $ 5000 with chelation. Partial exchange transfusions are effective and tolerated, but financially inaccessible to the majority of our sickle cell patients. Thus, an assessment is needed of the economic burden of sickle cell complications that require partial exchange transfusions in the context of countries with limited financial resources.

  20. Blood component use in a sub-Saharan African country: results of a 4-year evaluation of diagnoses associated with transfusion orders in Namibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitman, John P; Wilkinson, Robert; Liu, Yang; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Smit Sibinga, Cees Th; Lowrance, David W; Marfin, Anthony A; Postma, Maarten J; Mataranyika, Mary; Basavaraju, Sridhar V

    2015-01-01

    National blood use patterns in sub-Saharan Africa are poorly described. Although malaria and maternal hemorrhage remain important drivers of blood demand across Africa, economic growth and changes in malaria, HIV/AIDS, and noncommunicable disease epidemiology may contribute to changes in blood demand. We evaluated indications for blood use in Namibia, a country in southern Africa, using a nationally representative sample and discuss implications for the region. Clinical and demographic data related to the issuance of blood component units in Namibia were reviewed for a 4-year period (August 1, 2007-July 31, 2011). Variables included blood component type, recipient age and sex, and diagnosis. Diagnoses reported by clinicians were reclassified into International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision categories. Multiple imputation methods were used to complete a data set missing age, sex or diagnosis data. Descriptive analyses were conducted to describe indications for transfusions and use of red blood cells (RBCs), platelets, and plasma. A total of 39,313 records accounting for 91,207 blood component units were analyzed. The median age of Namibian transfusion recipients was 45 years (SD, ±19). A total of 78,660 RBC units were issued in Namibia during the study period. Red blood cells transfused for "unspecified anemia" accounted for the single largest category of blood issued (24,798 units). Of the overall total, 38.9% were for diseases of the blood and blood-forming organs (D50-D89). Infectious disease (A00-B99), pregnancy (O00-O99), and gastrointestinal (K20-K93) accounted for 14.8%, 11.1%, and 6.1% of RBC units issued, respectively. Although a specific diagnosis of malaria accounted for only 2.7% of pediatric transfusions, an unknown number of additional transfusions for malaria may have been categorized by requesting physicians as unspecified anemia and counted under diseases of blood forming organs. During the study period, 9751 units of fresh

  1. A benchmarking program to reduce red blood cell outdating: implementation, evaluation, and a conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barty, Rebecca L; Gagliardi, Kathleen; Owens, Wendy; Lauzon, Deborah; Scheuermann, Sheena; Liu, Yang; Wang, Grace; Pai, Menaka; Heddle, Nancy M

    2015-07-01

    Benchmarking is a quality improvement tool that compares an organization's performance to that of its peers for selected indicators, to improve practice. Processes to develop evidence-based benchmarks for red blood cell (RBC) outdating in Ontario hospitals, based on RBC hospital disposition data from Canadian Blood Services, have been previously reported. These benchmarks were implemented in 160 hospitals provincewide with a multifaceted approach, which included hospital education, inventory management tools and resources, summaries of best practice recommendations, recognition of high-performing sites, and audit tools on the Transfusion Ontario website (http://transfusionontario.org). In this study we describe the implementation process and the impact of the benchmarking program on RBC outdating. A conceptual framework for continuous quality improvement of a benchmarking program was also developed. The RBC outdating rate for all hospitals trended downward continuously from April 2006 to February 2012, irrespective of hospitals' transfusion rates or their distance from the blood supplier. The highest annual outdating rate was 2.82%, at the beginning of the observation period. Each year brought further reductions, with a nadir outdating rate of 1.02% achieved in 2011. The key elements of the successful benchmarking strategy included dynamic targets, a comprehensive and evidence-based implementation strategy, ongoing information sharing, and a robust data system to track information. The Ontario benchmarking program for RBC outdating resulted in continuous and sustained quality improvement. Our conceptual iterative framework for benchmarking provides a guide for institutions implementing a benchmarking program. © 2015 AABB.

  2. [Blood transfusion assessment to 112 homozygous sickle-cell disease patients in university hospital of Brazzaville].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokekias, A Elira; Ossini, L Ngolet; Tsiba, F O Atipo; Malanda, F; Koko, I; De Montalembert, M

    2009-01-01

    Homozygous, sickle-cell disease (SCD) is responsible for acute complication, especially anaemic crisis and special situation such as acute chest syndrome, stroke and acute priapism. Pregnancy sickle-cell disease presents high risk for the mother and the fetus. In these indications, blood transfusion is the main therapy aiming to reduce anaemia in order to restore hemoglobin's rate or to increase normal Hb proportion. This study aims to assess the short-term efficiency of the red cell transfusion in SCD homozygous form. One hundred and twelve homozygous sickle-cell patients were enrolled in this prospective study: 59 females and 53 males, median age is 21,8 years (extremes: 2 and 45 years). These patients are mostly with very low income. Two groups of patients are included in this study. In the first group, patients present acute anemia crisis caused by infections disease (malaria, bacterial infections). In the second group (20 cases), SCD patients have particularly situations: pregnancy (10 cases); stroke (six cases); cardiac failure (two cases) and priapism (two cases). Transfusion treatment in first group is simple regimen. Transfusion of EC increased median Hb level at 2,9 g/dl (extremes: 1,1 and 4,7). In the second group of patients, 16 cases were transfused by manual partial exchange (1-3) and four patients received simple regimen of transfusion. Median Hb level was 3,1g/dl (extremes: 2,4-4,9 g/dl). HbS percentage reduction was after PTE between -30 and -66,8% (median: -52,6%). According to our diagnostic possibilities (blood serologic test), we have not found any contamination by HIV, HBV and HCV (virus).

  3. Extremely high concentration of folates in premature newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikavska, T; Brucknerova, I

    2014-01-01

    Extremely high concentration of folates in premature newborns: case reports. Folates are a group of water soluble compounds, which are important for metabolic processes in human body. These are important during periods of rapid cell growth. The most accurate indicator of long-term folate level status in the body is the determination of red blood cell (RBC) folate concentrations. The optimal level of RBC folate is not known in neonatal period. Authors discuss the reasons for extremely high level of RBC folate concentrations. In our work we present the cases of two premature newborns with extremely high level of RBC folate concentrations, which were analyzed immunochemically on the first day of life and after six weeks of life. In both cases we measured RBC folate concentrations on the 1st day of life. After 6 weeks we found extremely high RBC folate concentration level (5516.67 ng/ml) in the first case after RBC transfusions. In second case after two months of life the RBC folate concentration level was doubled (2335.1 ng/ml) until 24 hours after RBC transfusion compared to levels after birth. The normal range of RBC folate values vary in newborns. The upper limit of daily dose of folic acid in pregnancy and neonatal period is not known. On the other hand it is an easily excreted water-soluble vitamin but in premature newborn it can lead to the disruption of metabolic balance and slow its degradation. Some factors can have an impact on RBC folate concentration. Blood transfusion can be one of the main influences on RBC folate concentration. To clarify these mechanisms further studies are required (Ref. 29).

  4. Perioperative transfusion management in patients with sickle cell anaemia undergoing a total hip arthroplasty. Is there a role of red-cell exchange transfusion? A retrospective study in the CHU of Fort-de-France Martinique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ould Amar, K; Rouvillain, J-L; Loko, G

    2013-03-01

    We conducted a retrospective study to examine the optimal regimen of transfusion and whether preoperative transfusion is needed in patients with Sickle cell anaemia (SCA) undergoing a Total hip arthroplasty (THA). Then, we assessed the incidence of perioperative complications rates among patients assigned to different transfusion regimens to propose finally the safety transfusion protocol. Preoperative transfusions are usually given to reduce or prevent perioperative complications to SCA patients undergoing THA. There is no consensus however on the best regimen of transfusion. During the period of 2000 to 2010, 14 patients with SCA (sex-ratio 0.4) with a mean age of 36 years underwent 16 THA (primary or revision). Three groups were differentiated according preoperatively protocol transfusion. Group 1: exchange transfusion (EXT), group 2: simple transfusion (ST), group 3: no transfusion (NT). Overall, preoperative transfusion was performed in 43.7% of cases and complications rate was 50%. In the group 1 (EXT) including five patients (31%), severe complications occurred in four patients (80%). in the group 2, including two patients (12.5%), no complications were observed. In the group 3, including nine patients (56%), complications occurred in four procedures (44.5%), the half of them were haemolytic complications. Our results support the decision to transfuse, ST, preoperatively only if the patient is significantly below their steady-state haemoglobin (Hb) level. Transfusion can be used intraoperatively according Hb level and/or the blood loss volume. Exchange transfusion appeared mostly to be related to postoperative morbidity rates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Red blood cell transfusion in septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosland, Ragnhild G; Hagen, Marte U; Haase, Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores (days 1 and 5), more days in shock (5 (3-10) vs. 2 (2-4), p = 0.0001), more days in ICU (10 (4-19) vs. 4 (2-8), p = 0.0001) and higher 90-day mortality (66 vs. 43%, p = 0.001). The latter association was lost after adjustment for admission category....../dl and independent of shock day and bleeding. Patients with cardiovascular disease were transfused at higher haemoglobin levels. Transfused patients had higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II (56 (45-69) vs. 48 (37-61), p = 0.0005), more bleeding episodes, lower haemoglobin levels days 1 to 5, higher...... and SAPS II and SOFA-score on day 1. CONCLUSIONS: The decision to transfuse patients with septic shock was likely affected by disease severity and bleeding, but haemoglobin level was the only measure that consistently differed between transfused and non-transfused patients....

  6. Features of transfusion therapy in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Balashov

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The indications for transfusion of blood components support after stem cell transplantation (SCT usually do not differ form other clinical situations, but the rules for such therapy have a number of features. One of them is the possibility of inconsistence of AB0 group between donor and recipient of hematopoietic stem cells, which is not only fraught with the development of various alloimmune complications, but also fundamentally changes the standards for the selection of blood components for transfusion. A major problem after HSCT is a secondary immunodeficiency, which is important to consider for ensuring prevention of transfusion-transmitted infections (eg, CMV, as well as to carry out activities aimed for the prevention of transfusion- associated graft-versus-host disease. HSCT is a medical technology today, the effectiveness of which is often dependent on the accuracy and integrity of its implementation. So, serious attitude to various supportive therapy, including transfusions of blood components is an important component which determines the success of the treatment.

  7. Features of transfusion therapy in patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Balashov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The indications for transfusion of blood components support after stem cell transplantation (SCT usually do not differ form other clinical situations, but the rules for such therapy have a number of features. One of them is the possibility of inconsistence of AB0 group between donor and recipient of hematopoietic stem cells, which is not only fraught with the development of various alloimmune complications, but also fundamentally changes the standards for the selection of blood components for transfusion. A major problem after HSCT is a secondary immunodeficiency, which is important to consider for ensuring prevention of transfusion-transmitted infections (eg, CMV, as well as to carry out activities aimed for the prevention of transfusion- associated graft-versus-host disease. HSCT is a medical technology today, the effectiveness of which is often dependent on the accuracy and integrity of its implementation. So, serious attitude to various supportive therapy, including transfusions of blood components is an important component which determines the success of the treatment.

  8. Marrow transfusions into normal recipients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, G.

    1983-01-01

    During the past several years we have explored the transfusion of bone marrow into normal nonirradiated mice. While transfused marrow proliferates readily in irradiated animals, only minimal proliferation takes place in nonirradiated recipients. It has generally been assumed that this was due to the lack of available proliferative sites in recipients with normal marrow. Last year we were able to report that the transfusion of 200 million bone marrow cells (about 2/3 of the total complement of marrow cells of a normal mouse) resulted in 20% to 25% of the recipient's marrow being replaced by donor marrow. Thus we can now study the behavior of animals that have been transfused (donor) and endogenous (recipient) marrow cells, although none of the tissues of either donor or recipient have been irradiated. With these animals we hope to investigate the nature of the peculiar phenomenon of serial exhaustion of marrow, also referred to as the limited self-replicability of stem cells

  9. Morphological and Metabolic Parameters of Red Blood Cells after Their Treatment with Ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna V. Deryugina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess the morphology of red blood cells (RBC and the association of morphological parameters with lipid peroxidation processes and the content of organic phosphates in RBC when treating packed red blood cells with the ozonized saline solution (with an ozone concentration of 2 mg/l after different storage periods.Materials and methods. The morphology of human RBC, the concentration of malonic dialdehyde (MDA in RBC, the catalase activity, the concentration of ATP and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG were studied before and after treatment of RBC with the ozonized saline (with the ozone concentration of 2 mg/l after 7, 14, 21 and 30 days of storage.Results. The effect of ozone (2 ng/l in vitro on the packed red blood cells after 7–21 days of storage contributed to the recovery of RBC shape, increased the concentration of ATP and 2,3-DPG, and optimized the lipid peroxidation. Ozone did not demonstrate a pronounced positive effect on these parameters when the packed RBCs were stored for 30 days.Conclusion. The treatment of the packed RBCs with the ozonized saline solution (with the ozone concentration of 2 mg/l contributed to the recovery of the discocyte count due to optimization of lipid peroxidation processes in cell membranes and enhanced the synthesis of organic phosphates in cells due to the activation of glycolysis and the pentose phosphate pathway. This can be used to improve the morphological and metabolic status of the packed RBCs before their transfusion

  10. Toward a better definition of massive transfusion: focus on the interval of hemorrhage control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, John P; Weinberg, Jordan A; Magnotti, Louis J; Croce, Martin A; Fabian, Timothy C

    2012-12-01

    In clinical research, massive transfusion (MT) is commonly defined as transfusion of 10 or more red blood cell (RBC) units within 24 hours. However, the clinical relevance of this definition remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated whether patients who reach the MT threshold during hemorrhage control differ clinically from those who reach it after hemorrhage control (i.e., after intensive care unit [ICU] arrival) but before 24 hours. Prospective data were collected on all Level I trauma resuscitations within 5.5 years. Patients transfused 10 or more RBCs in the first 24 hours of hospitalization were identified and stratified according to when the MT threshold was achieved: before ICU arrival (Pre-ICU) versus after ICU arrival but before 24 hours of hospitalization (Post-ICU). Clinical characteristics between groups were compared. Three hundred five patients received 10 or more units before ICU arrival, and 46 reached the MT threshold after ICU arrival but before 24 hours. Both groups were clinically similar with respect to age, sex, and Injury Severity Score, but the Post-ICU group had a larger proportion of blunt injuries (71 vs. 53%, p definition. However, they have a significantly decreased mortality risk at 24 hours and the potential to dilute the study cohort. For research purposes, restricting the MT definition to 10 or more RBCs during hemorrhage control may result in study cohorts with relatively more uniform mortality risks. Prognostic study, level II.

  11. Altered 67Ga citrate distribution in patients with multiple red blood cell transfusions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelstad, B.; Luk, S.S.; Hattner, R.S.

    1982-01-01

    Gallium-67 citrate studies from four patients who received multiple red blood cell transfusions were reviewed. Increased kidney, bladder, or bone localization was associated with decreased liver and colon activity. The findings suggest altered distribution due to competition with iron for receptor binding. Identification of inflammatory disease in two patients was possible. However, the effect of transfusions on detection of inflammatory or neoplastic diseases requires further evaluation

  12. Preliminary evaluation of optical glucose sensing in red cell concentrations using near-infrared diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yusuke; Maruo, Katsuhiko; Zhang, Alice W.; Shimogaki, Kazushige; Ogawa, Hideto; Hirayama, Fumiya

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial contamination of blood products is one of the most frequent infectious complications of transfusion. Since glucose levels in blood supplies decrease as bacteria proliferate, it should be possible to detect the presence of bacterial contamination by measuring the glucose concentrations in the blood components. Hence this study is aimed to serve as a preliminary study for the nondestructive measurement of glucose level in transfusion blood. The glucose concentrations in red blood cell (RBC) samples were predicted using near-infrared diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy in the 1350 to 1850 nm wavelength region. Furthermore, the effects of donor, hematocrit level, and temperature variations among the RBC samples were observed. Results showed that the prediction performance of a dataset which contained samples that differed in all three parameters had a standard error of 29.3 mg/dL. Multiplicative scatter correction (MSC) preprocessing method was also found to be effective in minimizing the variations in scattering patterns created by various sample properties. The results suggest that the diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy may provide another avenue for the detection of bacterial contamination in red cell concentrations (RCC) products.

  13. Association of Blood Transfusion From Female Donors With and Without a History of Pregnancy With Mortality Among Male and Female Transfusion Recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caram-Deelder, Camila; Kreuger, Aukje L; Evers, Dorothea; de Vooght, Karen M K; van de Kerkhof, Daan; Visser, Otto; Péquériaux, Nathalie C V; Hudig, Francisca; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan; van der Bom, Johanna G; Middelburg, Rutger A

    2017-10-17

    Transfusion of red blood cells from female donors has been associated with increased mortality in male recipients. To quantify the association between red blood cell transfusion from female donors with and without a history of pregnancy and mortality of red blood cell recipients. Retrospective cohort study of first-time transfusion recipients at 6 major Dutch hospitals enrolled from May 30, 2005, to September 1, 2015; the final follow-up date was September 1, 2015. The primary analysis was the no-donor-mixture cohort (ie, either all red blood cell transfusions exclusively from male donors, or all exclusively from female donors without a history of pregnancy, or all exclusively from female donors with a history of pregnancy). The association between mortality and exposure to transfusions from ever-pregnant or never-pregnant female donors was analyzed using life tables and time-varying Cox proportional hazards models. Red blood cell transfusions from ever-pregnant or never-pregnant female donors, compared with red blood cell transfusions from male donors. All-cause mortality during follow-up. The cohort for the primary analyses consisted of 31 118 patients (median age, 65 [interquartile range, 42-77] years; 52% female) who received 59 320 red blood cell transfusions exclusively from 1 of 3 types of donors (88% male; 6% ever-pregnant female; and 6% never-pregnant female). The number of deaths in this cohort was 3969 (13% mortality). For male recipients of red blood cell transfusions, all-cause mortality rates after a red blood cell transfusion from an ever-pregnant female donor vs male donor were 101 vs 80 deaths per 1000 person-years (time-dependent "per transfusion" hazard ratio [HR] for death, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.01-1.26]). For receipt of transfusion from a never-pregnant female donor vs male donor, mortality rates were 78 vs 80 deaths per 1000 person-years (HR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.81-1.06]). Among female recipients of red blood cell transfusions, mortality rates for

  14. Hyperkalemia after irradiation of packed red blood cells: Possible effects with intravascular fetal transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorp, J.A.; Plapp, F.V.; Cohen, G.R.; Yeast, J.D.; O'Kell, R.T.; Stephenson, S.

    1990-01-01

    Plasma potassium, calcium, and albumin concentrations in irradiated blood, and in fetal blood before and after transfusion, were measured. Dangerously high plasma potassium levels were observed in some units of irradiated packed red blood cells (range, 13.9 to 66.5 mEq/L; mean, 44.7 mEq/L) and could be one possible explanation for the high incidence of fetal arrhythmia associated with fetal intravascular transfusion. There are many factors operative in the preparation of irradiated packed red blood cells that may predispose to high potassium levels: the age of the red blood cells, the number of procedures used to concentrate the blood, the duration of time elapsed from concentration, the duration of time elapsed from irradiation, and the hematocrit. Use of fresh blood, avoidance of multiple packing procedures, limiting the hematocrit in the donor unit to less than or equal to 80%, and minimizing the time between concentration, irradiation and transfusion may minimize the potassium levels, and therefore making an additional washing procedure unnecessary

  15. Intra-operative intravenous fluid restriction reduces perioperative red blood cell transfusion in elective cardiac surgery, especially in transfusion-prone patients: a prospective, randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgopoulou Stavroula

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiac surgery is a major consumer of blood products, and hemodilution increases transfusion requirements during cardiac surgery under CPB. As intraoperative parenteral fluids contribute to hemodilution, we evaluated the hypothesis that intraoperative fluid restriction reduces packed red-cell (PRC use, especially in transfusion-prone adults undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Methods 192 patients were randomly assigned to restrictive (group A, 100 pts, or liberal (group B, 92 pts intraoperative intravenous fluid administration. All operations were conducted by the same team (same surgeon and perfusionist. After anesthesia induction, intravenous fluids were turned off in Group A (fluid restriction patients, who only received fluids if directed by protocol. In contrast, intravenous fluid administration was unrestricted in group B. Transfusion decisions were made by the attending anesthesiologist, based on identical transfusion guidelines for both groups. Results 137 of 192 patients received 289 PRC units in total. Age, sex, weight, height, BMI, BSA, LVEF, CPB duration and surgery duration did not differ between groups. Fluid balance was less positive in Group A. Fewer group A patients (62/100 required transfusion compared to group B (75/92, p Conclusions Our data suggest that fluid restriction reduces intraoperative PRC transfusions without significantly increasing postoperative transfusions in cardiac surgery; this effect is more pronounced in transfusion-prone patients. Trial registration NCT00600704, at the United States National Institutes of Health.

  16. Transfusion in Haemoglobinopathies: Review and recommendations for local blood banks and transfusion services in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arwa Z. Al-Riyami

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sickle cell disease and homozygous β-thalassaemia are common haemoglobinopathies in Oman, with many implications for local healthcare services. The transfusions of such patients take place in many hospitals throughout the country. Indications for blood transfusions require local recommendations and guidelines to ensure standardised levels of care. This article summarises existing transfusion guidelines for this group of patients and provides recommendations for blood banks and transfusion services in Oman. This information is especially pertinent to medical professionals and policy-makers developing required services for the standardised transfusion support of these patients.

  17. A Randomized Clinical Trial of Red Blood Cell Transfusion Triggers in Cardiac Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Colleen G; Sessler, Daniel I; Mascha, Edward J; Sabik, Joseph F; Li, Liang; Duncan, Andra I; Zimmerman, Nicole M; Blackstone, Eugene H

    2017-10-01

    Class I evidence supporting a threshold for transfusion in the cardiac surgical setting is scarce. We randomly allocated patients to a transfusion hematocrit trigger of 24% versus 28% to compare morbidity, mortality, and resource use. From March 2007 to August 2014, two centers randomly assigned 722 adults undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery or valve procedures to a 24% hematocrit trigger (n = 363, low group) or 28% trigger (n = 354, high group). One unit of red blood cells was transfused if the hematocrit fell below the designated threshold. The primary endpoint was a composite of postoperative morbidities and mortality. Treatment effect was primarily assessed using an average relative effect generalized estimating equation model. At the second planned interim analysis, the a priori futility boundary was crossed, and the study was stopped. There was no detected treatment effect on the composite outcome (average relative effect odds ratio, low versus high, 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.29 to 2.54, p = 0.71). However, the low group received fewer red blood cell transfusions than the high group (54% versus 75%, p < 0.001), mostly administered in the operating room (low group, 112 [31%]; high group, 208 [59%]), followed by intensive care unit (low, 105 [31%]; high, 115 [34%]) and floor (low, 41 [12%]; high, 42 [13%]). The low group was exposed to lower hematocrits: median before transfusion, 22% (Q1 = 21%, Q3 = 23%) versus 24% (Q1 = 22%, Q3 = 25%). Negative exposures differed between treatment groups, with lower hematocrit in the 24% trigger group and more red blood cells used in the 28% group, but adverse outcomes did not differ. Because red blood cell use was less with a 24% trigger without adverse effects, our randomized trial results support aggressive blood conservation efforts in cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Small volume transfusion of irradiated red blood cells using satellite bags in very low birth weight infants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamagiwa, Kazuhiro; Honda, Yoshinobu; Sakuma, Kimiko; Igarashi, Etsuo; Watanabe, Masahiko; Ujiie, Niro; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Ohto, Hitoshi

    1993-01-01

    We have treated anemia of prematurity with concentrated red cells divided into 3 packs by using the Sterile Connection Device (SCD, USA). This study was performed to reveal the influence for very low birth weight infants of transfusion of red cells stored after irradiation. The following facts were observed in infants after transfusion: (1) no change in sodium and potassium level and leucocyte count, (2) increased amount of total bilirubin but no change in unbound bilirubin level, (3) decrease in platelet count less than 50,000/mm 3 . According to these results we conclude that the transfusion of concentrated red blood cells stored within 2 weeks after irradiation was safe even for very low birth weight infants. (author)

  19. Pre-emptive treatment with fibrinogen concentrate for postpartum haemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikkelsø, A J; Edwards, H M; Afshari, A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In early postpartum haemorrhage (PPH), a low concentration of fibrinogen is associated with excessive subsequent bleeding and blood transfusion. We hypothesized that pre-emptive treatment with fibrinogen concentrate reduces the need for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion in patients...... and the fibrinogen concentration at inclusion. The primary outcome was RBC transfusion up to 6 weeks postpartum. Secondary outcomes were total blood loss, total amount of blood transfused, occurrence of rebleeding, haemoglobin ... concentrate, thereby significantly increasing fibrinogen concentration compared with placebo by 0.40 g litre(-1) (95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.65; P=0.002). Postpartum blood transfusion occurred in 25 (20%) of the fibrinogen group and 26 (22%) of the placebo group (relative risk, 0.95; 95% confidence...

  20. Effects of platelet and plasma transfusion on outcome in traumatic brain injury patients with moderate bleeding diatheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglin, Catherine O; Spence, Jeffrey S; Warner, Matthew A; Paliotta, Christopher; Harper, Caryn; Moore, Carol; Sarode, Ravi; Madden, Christopher; Diaz-Arrastia, Ramon

    2013-03-01

    Object Coagulopathy and thrombocytopenia are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI), yet transfusion thresholds for mildly to moderately abnormal ranges of international normalized ratio and platelet count remain controversial. This study evaluates associations between fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet transfusions with long-term functional outcome and survival in TBI patients with moderate hemostatic laboratory abnormalities. Methods This study is a retrospective review of prospectively collected data of patients with mild to severe TBI. Data include patient demographics, several initial injury severity metrics, daily laboratory values, Glasgow Outcome Score- Extended (GOSE) scores, Functional Status Examination (FSE) scores, and survival to 6 months. Correlations were evaluated between these variables and transfusion of FFP, platelets, packed red blood cells (RBCs), cryoprecipitate, recombinant factor VIIa, and albumin. Ordinal regression was performed to account for potential confounding variables to further define relationships between transfusion status and long-term outcome. By analyzing collected data, mild to moderate coagulopathy was defined as an international normalized ratio 1.4-2.0, moderate thrombocytopenia as platelet count 50 × 10(9)/L to 107 × 10(9)/L, and moderate anemia as 21%-30% hematocrit. Results In patients with mild to moderate laboratory hematological abnormalities, univariate analysis shows significant correlations between poor outcome scores and FFP, platelet, or packed RBC transfusion; the volume of FFP or packed RBCs transfused also correlated with poor outcome. Several measures of initial injury and laboratory abnormalities also correlated with poor outcome. Patient age, initial Glasgow Coma Scale score, and highest recorded serum sodium were included in the ordinal regression model using backward variable selection. In the moderate coagulopathy subgroup, patients transfused with FFP were more likely to have a lower GOSE

  1. Fluorescence Exclusion: A Simple Method to Assess Projected Surface, Volume and Morphology of Red Blood Cells Stored in Blood Bank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Roussel

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cells (RBC ability to circulate is closely related to their surface area-to-volume ratio. A decrease in this ratio induces a decrease in RBC deformability that can lead to their retention and elimination in the spleen. We recently showed that a subpopulation of “small RBC” with reduced projected surface area accumulated upon storage in blood bank concentrates, but data on the volume of these altered RBC are lacking. So far, single cell measurement of RBC volume has remained a challenging task achieved by a few sophisticated methods some being subject to potential artifacts. We aimed to develop a reproducible and ergonomic method to assess simultaneously RBC volume and morphology at the single cell level. We adapted the fluorescence exclusion measurement of volume in nucleated cells to the measurement of RBC volume. This method requires no pre-treatment of the cell and can be performed in physiological or experimental buffer. In addition to RBC volume assessment, brightfield images enabling a precise definition of the morphology and the measurement of projected surface area can be generated simultaneously. We first verified that fluorescence exclusion is precise, reproducible and can quantify volume modifications following morphological changes induced by heating or incubation in non-physiological medium. We then used the method to characterize RBC stored for 42 days in SAG-M in blood bank conditions. Simultaneous determination of the volume, projected surface area and morphology allowed to evaluate the surface area-to-volume ratio of individual RBC upon storage. We observed a similar surface area-to-volume ratio in discocytes (D and echinocytes I (EI, which decreased in EII (7% and EIII (24%, sphero-echinocytes (SE; 41% and spherocytes (S; 47%. If RBC dimensions determine indeed the ability of RBC to cross the spleen, these modifications are expected to induce the rapid splenic entrapment of the most morphologically altered RBC

  2. Transfusion Related Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection in Sickle Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rev Olaleye

    ABSTRACT: This study aimed to determine retrospectively, the prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection in relation to a background history of blood transfusion; through anti HCV antibody screening test, amongst adult sickle cell disease patients. Anti HCV antibody was tested for in the serum of 92 consecutively selected ...

  3. Prediction of Packed Cell Volume after Whole Blood Transfusion in Small Ruminants and South American Camelids: 80 Cases (2006-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethy, D; Stefanovski, D; Salber, R; Sweeney, R W

    2017-11-01

    Calculation of desired whole blood transfusion volume relies on an estimate of an animal's circulating blood volume, generally accepted to be 0.08 L/kg or 8% of the animal's body weight in kilograms. To use packed cell volume before and after whole blood transfusion to evaluate the accuracy of a commonly used equation to predict packed cell volume after transfusion in small ruminants and South American camelids; to determine the nature and frequency of adverse transfusion reactions in small ruminants and camelids after whole blood transfusion. Fifty-eight small ruminants and 22 alpacas that received whole blood transfusions for anemia. Retrospective case series; medical record review for small ruminants and camelids that received whole blood transfusions during hospitalization. Mean volume of distribution of blood as a fraction of body weight in sheep (0.075 L/kg, 7.5% BW) and goats (0.076 L/kg, 7.6% BW) differed significantly (P blood volume (volume of distribution of blood) is adequate for calculation of transfusion volumes; however, use of the species-specific circulating blood volume can improve calculation of transfusion volume to predict and achieve desired packed cell volume. The incidence of transfusion reactions in small ruminants and camelids is low. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Association of Blood Transfusion From Female Donors With and Without a History of Pregnancy With Mortality Among Male and Female Transfusion Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caram-Deelder, Camila; Kreuger, Aukje L.; Evers, Dorothea; de Vooght, Karen M. K.; van de Kerkhof, Daan; Visser, Otto; Péquériaux, Nathalie C. V.; Hudig, Francisca; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan; van der Bom, Johanna G.

    2017-01-01

    Importance Transfusion of red blood cells from female donors has been associated with increased mortality in male recipients. Objective To quantify the association between red blood cell transfusion from female donors with and without a history of pregnancy and mortality of red blood cell recipients. Design, Setting, and Participants Retrospective cohort study of first-time transfusion recipients at 6 major Dutch hospitals enrolled from May 30, 2005, to September 1, 2015; the final follow-up date was September 1, 2015. The primary analysis was the no-donor-mixture cohort (ie, either all red blood cell transfusions exclusively from male donors, or all exclusively from female donors without a history of pregnancy, or all exclusively from female donors with a history of pregnancy). The association between mortality and exposure to transfusions from ever-pregnant or never-pregnant female donors was analyzed using life tables and time-varying Cox proportional hazards models. Exposures Red blood cell transfusions from ever-pregnant or never-pregnant female donors, compared with red blood cell transfusions from male donors. Main Outcomes and Measures All-cause mortality during follow-up. Results The cohort for the primary analyses consisted of 31 118 patients (median age, 65 [interquartile range, 42-77] years; 52% female) who received 59 320 red blood cell transfusions exclusively from 1 of 3 types of donors (88% male; 6% ever-pregnant female; and 6% never-pregnant female). The number of deaths in this cohort was 3969 (13% mortality). For male recipients of red blood cell transfusions, all-cause mortality rates after a red blood cell transfusion from an ever-pregnant female donor vs male donor were 101 vs 80 deaths per 1000 person-years (time-dependent “per transfusion” hazard ratio [HR] for death, 1.13 [95% CI, 1.01-1.26]). For receipt of transfusion from a never-pregnant female donor vs male donor, mortality rates were 78 vs 80 deaths per 1000 person-years (HR

  5. Effectiveness of a nursing intervention during transfusion of packed red cells on the patient´s anxiety state receiver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Fernando Martín Díaz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The transfusion provokes anxiety and this one compromises the improvement of the patient. Objetive: The study aims to evaluate whether a nursing intervention protocol-through oral and written submissions previous to the transfusion of packed red blood cells decreases anxiety levels in pretransfusion and postransfusion recipient patients through a randomized clinical trial. Methodology: Be conducted in patients over 18 years admitted in the Hospitable complex of Toledo, prescription transfusion of packed red blood cells. For an alpha error 0.05, beta error of 0.90, with an expected effect of 10%, need 70 subjects in each group. The allocation to the intervention group and the control group was randomly made simple. The performance in the normal control group will be done in the hospital, patients receiving transfusion. As dependent variables evaluated:- The anxiety level pretransfusion and postransfusion. Using the questionnaire was validated by Spielberger (STAI. - The level of satisfaction perceived by the user on the information received prior to transfusion. By design developed for this study. Also recorded other control variables: sex, age, socio-cultural level, marital status, reason for transfusion, or no knowledge of the prescription of transfusion, incidents during transfusion.Scientific and sociosanitary relevancy of the study: The results will allow to know if the transfusion increases the anxiety and if an educational intervention nurse can diminish it; and to do the intervention before every transfusion.

  6. Transfusion therapy in paediatric trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nystrup, Kristin Brønnum; Stensballe, Jakob; Bøttger, Morten

    2015-01-01

    Haemorrhage is a leading cause of death in paediatric trauma patients. Predefined massive transfusion protocols (MTP) have the potential to significantly reduce mortality by treating haemorrhagic shock and coagulopathy, in adhering to the principles of haemostatic resuscitation with rapid...... in paediatric trauma patients is challenging, and the optimal blood product ratio that will increase survival in massively bleeding paediatric trauma patients has yet to be determined. To date, only a few small descriptive studies and case reports have investigated the use of predefined MTP in paediatric trauma...... patients.MTP with increased FFP or PLT to RBC ratios combined with viscoelastic haemostatic assay (VHA) guided haemostatic resuscitation have not yet been tested in paediatric populations but based on results from adult trauma patients, this therapeutic approach seems promising.Considering the high...

  7. Photoacoustic measurements of red blood cell oxygen saturation in blood bags in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ruben N.; Bagga, Karan; Douplik, Alexandre; Acker, Jason P.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2017-03-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a critical component of the health care services. RBCs are stored in blood bags in hypothermic temperatures for a maximum of 6 weeks post donation. During this in vitro storage period, RBCs have been documented to undergo changes in structure and function due to mechanical and biochemical stress. Currently, there are no assessment methods that monitor the quality of RBCs within blood bags stored for transfusion. Conventional assessment methods require the extraction of samples, consequently voiding the sterility of the blood bags and potentially rendering them unfit for transfusions. It is hypothesized that photoacoustic (PA) technology can provide a rapid and non-invasive indication of RBC quality. In this study, a novel PA setup was developed for the acquisition of oxygen saturation (SO2) of two blood bags in situ. These measurements were taken throughout the lifespan of the blood bags (42 days) and compared against the clinical gold standard method of the blood gas analyzer (BGA). SO2 values of the blood bags increased monotonically throughout the storage period. A strong correlation between PA SO2 and BGA SO2 was found, however, PA values were on average 3.5% lower. Both techniques found the bags to increase by an SO2 of approximately 20%, and measured very similar rates of SO2 change. Future work will be focused on determining the cause of discrepancy between SO2 values acquired from PA versus BGA, as well as establishing links between the measured SO2 increase and other changes in RBC in situ.

  8. In vivo regeneration of red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate following transfusion of DPG-depleted AS-1, AS-3 and CPDA-1 red cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, A; Keegan, T; Holme, S

    1989-01-01

    Regeneration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) was determined following transfusion of DPG-depleted group O red cells into group A recipients. Blood from five donors was stored in the adenine-containing solutions CPDA-1, AS-1 or AS-3 for 35 d at 4 degrees C. Post-transfusion red cell DPG and ATP were measured in separated group O red cells over a 7 d period. The studies confirmed rapid in vivo DPG regeneration with greater than or equal to 50% of the maximum level being achieved within 7 h. An average of 95% of the recipients' pre-transfusion DPG level was achieved by 72 h and by 7 d mean (+/- SEM) DPG levels relative to recipient's pre-transfusion DPG averaged 84% (+/- 13%), 92% (+/- 17%) and 84% (+/- 21%) for CPDA-1, AS-1 and AS-3 red cells, respectively. Results were comparable to those previously reported for blood stored in ACD for 15-20 d (Valeri & Hirsch, 1969; Beutler & Wood, 1969). The immediate regeneration rate, V, closely approximated first order regeneration kinetics with AS-3 red cells exhibiting double the rate of CPDA-1 red cells (P less than 0.001). AS-1 red cells exhibited an intermediate rate of regeneration which was not significantly different compared to either CPDA-1 or AS-3 (P greater than 0.05). V exhibited a significant (P less than 0.05) positive correlation with ATP levels 5-7 h post-infusion. ATP regeneration of the infused cells was rapid with a mean increase of 1.2 mumol/g Hb above post-storage levels being achieved 1 h following transfusion.

  9. Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are frequent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pommergaard, Hans-Christian; Nørgaard, Astrid; Burcharth, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    Adverse effects to transfusion with red donor blood cells are potentially life-threatening. Due to screening, transmission of infectious diseases has decreased; however, the risk is still present. Various immune reactions are common including simple allergic reactions as well as devastating...

  10. Cost-effectiveness of cell salvage and alternative methods of minimising perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion: a systematic review and economic model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, L; Brown, T J; Haynes, S; Payne, K; Elliott, R A; McCollum, C

    2006-11-01

    To compare patient outcomes, resource use and costs to the NHS and NHS Blood Transfusion Authority (BTA) associated with cell salvage and alternative methods of minimising perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion. Electronic databases covering the period 1996-2004 for systematic reviews and 1994-2004 for economic evidence. Existing systematic reviews were updated with data from selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that involved adults scheduled for elective non-urgent surgery. Any resource use or cost data were extracted for potential use in populating an economic model. Relative risks or weighted mean difference of each outcome for each intervention were assessed, taking into account the number of RCTs included in each outcome and intervention and the presence of any heterogeneity. This allowed indirect comparison of the relative effectiveness of each intervention when the intervention is compared with allogeneic blood transfusion. A decision analytic model synthesised clinical and economic data from several sources, to estimate the relative cost-effectiveness of cell salvage for people undergoing elective surgery with moderate to major expected blood loss. The perspective of the NHS and patients and a time horizon of 1 month were used. The economic model was developed from reviews of effectiveness and cost-effectiveness and clinical experts. Secondary analysis explored the robustness of the results to changes in the timing and costs of cell salvage equipment, surgical procedure, use of transfusion protocols and time horizon of analysis. Overall, 668 studies were identified electronically for the update of the two systematic reviews. This included five RCTs, of which two were cell salvage and three preoperative autologous donation (PAD). Five published systematic reviews were identified for antifibrinolytics, fibrin sealants and restrictive transfusion triggers, PAD plus erythropoietin, erythropoietin alone and acute normovolaemic haemodilution (ANH

  11. Improving transfusion practice in transfusion dependent thalassaemia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chathupa Wickremaarachchi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to improve current transfusion practice in transfusiondependent thalassaemia patients by determining whether safe transition from triplewashed red cells (TWRC to leucodepleted red cells (LDRC, increasing transfusion rates, reducing the use of frusemide and creating uniform practice across patients is possible. In patients receiving regular transfusions (50, triple-washed red blood cells were changed to LDRC, transfusion rates were increased to 5 mL/kg/h (in line with the Cooley’s Foundation guidelines to a maximum of 300 mL/h and frusemide was ceased. Medical review occurred at completion of the transfusion. Of the 20 patients on TWRC, 18 were transitioned to leucodepleted red cells (90%. Recurrent allergic reactions in 2 patients required re-institution of TWRC. 7 of the 8 patients on regular frusemide ceased this practice with no documented transfusion-related fluid overload. One patient refused. Of the eligible 50 patients, 20 patients (40% were increased to the maximum transfusion rate of 300 mLs/h; 6 (12% increased rate but refused to go to the maximum; 9 (18% refused a change in practice and 15 (30% were already at the maximum rate. There was only one documented transfusion reaction (palpitations however this patient was able to tolerate a higher transfusion rate on subsequent transfusions. Thalassemia patients on TWRC were safely transitioned to LDRC. Transfusion rates were safely increased, with a calculated reduction in day-stay bed time of 17.45 h per month. This confirms a guideline of 5 mL/kg/h for transfusion-dependant thalassaemia patients with preserved cardiac function is well tolerated and may be translated to other centres worldwide.   本研究的目的是通过确定是否有可能进行从三洗红细胞(TWRC)到去白细胞红细胞(LDRC)的安全过渡,提高输血速率,减少速尿的使用,并在患者中实施统一规则,从而改进输血依赖型地中海贫血

  12. [Recombinant human erythropoietin in neonates: guidelines for clinical practice from the French Society of Neonatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, E; Beuchée, A; Truffert, P; Pouvreau, N; Patkai, J; Baud, O; Boubred, F; Flamant, C; Jarreau, P-H

    2015-10-01

    1/To assess the effectiveness and safety of EPO in reducing red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in preterm infants. 2/To provide guidelines for clinical practice in France. 1/This systematic evidence review is based on PubMed search, Cochrane library. 2/Using French National Authority for Health methods concerning guidelines for clinical practice. Early EPO reduced the risk of RBC transfusions, donor exposure, and the number of transfusions in very preterm infants (LE2). Late EPO reduced the risk of RBC transfusions and the number of transfusions in very preterm infants (LE2). There is no difference between the effectiveness of early and late EPO (LE2). There is no difference between high-dose and low-dose EPO (LE2). The level of evidence is too low to recommend the intravenous route. EPO has no impact on the rate of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis (LE3), and retinopathy of prematurity (LE2). The level of evidence is too low to recommend EPO for neuroprotection in very preterm or term infants. EPO to reduce RBC transfusion in very preterm infants is recommended (Level A). The optimal time to start therapy is unknown (Level B). The recommended dose is 750IU/kg/week via three subcutaneous injections for 6weeks (Level B). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Red blood cell alloimmunization in patients with sickle cell disease in Turkey: a single center retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Solmaz

    2016-12-01

    Results: Of 216 SCD patients included in the study. Alloimmunization was detected in 67 (31.0% out of 216 patients who underwent transfusion, and in 17 (30.4% out of 56 patients in Group 1 and in 50 (31.3% out of 160 patients in Group 2. When the patients were analyzed according to alloimmunization development, our study revealed that neither SCD complications are a risk factor for alloimmunization nor alloimmunization increases mortality rates. Conclusion: High alloimmunization frequency found in our study suggests the insufficient adherence of alloimmunization-prevention policies in RBC transfusions performed except experienced institutions. Therefore alloimmunization may be reduced or prevented through performing extended red cell typing among SCD patients. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(4.000: 622-627

  14. Bone marrow cells other than stem cells seed the bone marrow after rescue transfusion of fatally irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cronkite, E.P.; Inoue, T.; Bullis, J.E.

    1987-01-01

    In a previous publication, iodinated deoxyuridine ( 125 IUdR) incorporation data were interpreted as indicating that spleen colony-forming units (CFU-S) in DNA synthesis preferentially seeded bone marrow. In the present studies, the CFU-S content of marrow from irradiated, bone-marrow transfused mice was directly determined. Pretreatment of the transfused cells with cytocidal tritiated thymidine resulted in an insignificant diminution in CFU-S content when compared with nontritiated thymidine pretreatment, implying that there is no preferential seeding. The 125 IUdR incorporation data have been reinterpreted as being a result of the proliferation of other progenitor cells present that have seeded the bone marrow

  15. Viscoelastic point-of-care testing to assist with the diagnosis, management and monitoring of haemostasis: A systematic review and cost-effectiveness analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Whiting (Penny); M.J. Al (Maiwenn); M. Westwood (Marie); I. Corro Ramos (Isaac); S. Ryder; N. Armstrong (Nigel); K. Misso (Kate); J. Ross (Janine); J.L. Severens (Hans); J. Kleijnen (Jos)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Patients with substantive bleeding usually require transfusion and/or (re-)operation. Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is independently associated with a greater risk of infection, morbidity, increased hospital stay and mortality. ROTEM (ROTEM® Delta, TEM International GmbH,

  16. Cholecystectomy in sickle cell anemia patients : Perioperative outcome of 364 cases from the national preoperative transfusion study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haberkern, CM; Neumayr, LD; Orringer, EP; Earles, AN; Robertson, SM; Abboud, MR; Koshy, M; Idowu, O; Vichinsky, EP; Black, D.

    1997-01-01

    Cholecystectomy is the most common surgical procedure performed in sickle cell anemia (SCA) patients. We investigated the effects of transfusion and surgical method on perioperative outcome. A total of 364 patients underwent cholecystectomy: group 1 (randomized to aggressive transfusion) 110

  17. Preserving human cells for regenerative, reproductive, and transfusion medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Waseem; El Assal, Rami; Shafiee, Hadi; Anchan, Raymond M; Demirci, Utkan

    2014-07-01

    Cell cryopreservation maintains cellular life at sub-zero temperatures by slowing down biochemical processes. Various cell types are routinely cryopreserved in modern reproductive, regenerative, and transfusion medicine. Current cell cryopreservation methods involve freezing (slow/rapid) or vitrifying cells in the presence of a cryoprotective agent (CPA). Although these methods are clinically utilized, cryo-injury due to ice crystals, osmotic shock, and CPA toxicity cause loss of cell viability and function. Recent approaches using minimum volume vitrification provide alternatives to the conventional cryopreservation methods. Minimum volume vitrification provides ultra-high cooling and rewarming rates that enable preserving cells without ice crystal formation. Herein, we review recent advances in cell cryopreservation technology and provide examples of techniques that are utilized in oocyte, stem cell, and red blood cell cryopreservation. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Interhospital Variability in Perioperative Red Blood Cell Ordering Patterns in United States Pediatric Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Rachel M; Thurm, Cary W; Rothstein, David H

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate perioperative red blood cell (RBC) ordering and interhospital variability patterns in pediatric patients undergoing surgical interventions at US children's hospitals. This is a multicenter cross-sectional study of children aged blood type and crossmatch were included when done on the day before or the day of the surgical procedure. The RBC transfusions included were those given on the day of or the day after surgery. The type and crossmatch-to-transfusion ratio (TCTR) was calculated for each surgical procedure. An adjusted model for interhospital variability was created to account for variation in patient population by age, sex, race/ethnicity, payer type, and presence/number of complex chronic conditions (CCCs) per patient. A total of 357 007 surgical interventions were identified across all participating hospitals. Blood type and crossmatch was performed 55 632 times, and 13 736 transfusions were provided, for a TCTR of 4:1. There was an association between increasing age and TCTR (R(2) = 0.43). Patients with multiple CCCs had lower TCTRs, with a stronger relationship (R(2) = 0.77). There was broad variability in adjusted TCTRs among hospitals (range, 2.5-25). The average TCTR in US children's hospitals was double that of adult surgical data, and was associated with wide interhospital variability. Age and the presence of CCCs markedly influenced this ratio. Studies to evaluate optimal preoperative RBC ordering and standardization of practices could potentially decrease unnecessary costs and wasted blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. MR marrow signs of iron overload in transfusion-dependent patients with sickle cell disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levin, T.L.; Sheth, S.S.; Hurlet, A.; Comerci, S.C.; Ruzal-Shapiro, C.; Piomelli, S.; Berdon, W.E.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) marrow signal in the axial and appendicular skeleton of 13 transfusion-dependent and chelated pediatric patients with sickle cell anemia (SSD) was compared with marrow signal in six non-transfusion-dependent patients with SSD. Hepatic, pancreatic, and renal MR signal were also evaluated. Indication for hypertransfusion therapy was primarily prior history of stroke. Transfusion-dependent patients had evidence of iron deposition throughout the imaged marrow and the liver, despite deferoxamine chelation therapy. Non-transfusion-dependent patients did not demonstrate grossly apparent signs of iron overload. Red marrow restoration was present in the spine, pelvis, and long bones and, in some patients, within the epiphyses. Marrow edema secondary to vaso-occlusive crises was evident in the metaphyses and diaphyses of long bones in areas of both red and fatty marrow and was best seen using fat-saturated T2-weighted imaging techniques. (orig.). With 4 figs., 2 tabs

  20. Automated typing of red blood cell and platelet antigens: a whole-genome sequencing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, William J; Westhoff, Connie M; Gleadall, Nicholas S; Aguad, Maria; Smeland-Wagman, Robin; Vege, Sunitha; Simmons, Daimon P; Mah, Helen H; Lebo, Matthew S; Walter, Klaudia; Soranzo, Nicole; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Danesh, John; Roberts, David J; Watkins, Nick A; Ouwehand, Willem H; Butterworth, Adam S; Kaufman, Richard M; Rehm, Heidi L; Silberstein, Leslie E; Green, Robert C

    2018-06-01

    There are more than 300 known red blood cell (RBC) antigens and 33 platelet antigens that differ between individuals. Sensitisation to antigens is a serious complication that can occur in prenatal medicine and after blood transfusion, particularly for patients who require multiple transfusions. Although pre-transfusion compatibility testing largely relies on serological methods, reagents are not available for many antigens. Methods based on single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) arrays have been used, but typing for ABO and Rh-the most important blood groups-cannot be done with SNP typing alone. We aimed to develop a novel method based on whole-genome sequencing to identify RBC and platelet antigens. This whole-genome sequencing study is a subanalysis of data from patients in the whole-genome sequencing arm of the MedSeq Project randomised controlled trial (NCT01736566) with no measured patient outcomes. We created a database of molecular changes in RBC and platelet antigens and developed an automated antigen-typing algorithm based on whole-genome sequencing (bloodTyper). This algorithm was iteratively improved to address cis-trans haplotype ambiguities and homologous gene alignments. Whole-genome sequencing data from 110 MedSeq participants (30 × depth) were used to initially validate bloodTyper through comparison with conventional serology and SNP methods for typing of 38 RBC antigens in 12 blood-group systems and 22 human platelet antigens. bloodTyper was further validated with whole-genome sequencing data from 200 INTERVAL trial participants (15 × depth) with serological comparisons. We iteratively improved bloodTyper by comparing its typing results with conventional serological and SNP typing in three rounds of testing. The initial whole-genome sequencing typing algorithm was 99·5% concordant across the first 20 MedSeq genomes. Addressing discordances led to development of an improved algorithm that was 99·8% concordant for the remaining 90 Med

  1. Thrombocytopenia responding to red blood cell transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubarak, Ahmad A.; Awidi, Abdalla; Rasul, Kakil I.; Al-Homsi, Ussama

    2004-01-01

    Three patients with severe symptomatic iron defficiency anemia and thrombocytopenia had a significant rise in the platelet count a few days following packed red blood cell transfusion. Pretransfusion platelet count of of patient one was 17x10/L. 22x10/Lin patient two and 29x10/L in patient three. On the 6th day of post tranfusion, the platelet count rose to 166x10/Lin patient one, 830x10/L in patient two and 136x10/L in patient three. The possible mechcnism behind such an unreported observation are discussed. (author)

  2. Prediction of Packed Cell Volume after Whole Blood Transfusion in Small Ruminants and South American Camelids: 80 Cases (2006–2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Luethy, D.; Stefanovski, D.; Salber, R.; Sweeney, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Calculation of desired whole blood transfusion volume relies on an estimate of an animal's circulating blood volume, generally accepted to be 0.08 L/kg or 8% of the animal's body weight in kilograms. Objective To use packed cell volume before and after whole blood transfusion to evaluate the accuracy of a commonly used equation to predict packed cell volume after transfusion in small ruminants and South American camelids; to determine the nature and frequency of adverse transfusion...

  3. Pathogen inactivation by riboflavin and ultraviolet light illumination accelerates the red blood cell storage lesion and promotes eryptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qadri, Syed M; Chen, Deborah; Schubert, Peter; Perruzza, Darian L; Bhakta, Varsha; Devine, Dana V; Sheffield, William P

    2017-03-01

    Pathogen reduction treatment using riboflavin and ultraviolet light illumination (Mirasol) effectively reduces the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections. This treatment is currently licensed for only platelets and plasma products, while its application to whole blood (WB) to generate pathogen-inactivated red blood cells (RBCs) is under development. RBC storage lesion, constituting numerous morphologic and biochemical changes, influences RBC quality and limits shelf life. Stored RBCs further show enhanced susceptibility to RBC programmed cell death (eryptosis) characterized by increased cytosolic Ca 2+ -provoked membrane phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. Using a "pool-and-split" approach, we examined multiple variables of RBC storage lesion and eryptosis in RBC units, derived from Mirasol-treated or untreated WB, after 4 to 42 days of storage, under blood bank conditions. In comparison to untreated RBC units, Mirasol treatment significantly altered membrane microvesiculation, supernatant hemoglobin, osmotic fragility, and intracellular adenosine triphosphate levels but did not influence membrane CD47 expression and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels. Mirasol-treated RBCs showed significantly higher PS exposure after 42, but not after not more than 21, days of storage, which was accompanied by enhanced cytosolic Ca 2+ activity, ceramide abundance, and oxidative stress, but not p38 kinase activation. Mirasol treatment significantly augmented PS exposure, Ca 2+ entry, and protein kinase C activation after energy depletion, a pathophysiologic cell stressor. Mirasol-treated RBCs were, however, more resistant to cell shrinkage. Prolonged storage of Mirasol-treated RBCs significantly increases the proportion of eryptotic RBCs, while even short-term storage enhances the susceptibility of RBCs to stress-induced eryptosis, which could reduce posttransfusion RBC recovery in patients. © 2016 AABB.

  4. Arabidopsis Pol II-Dependent in Vitro Transcription System Reveals Role of Chromatin for Light-Inducible rbcS Gene Transcription1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ido, Ayaka; Iwata, Shinya; Iwata, Yuka; Igarashi, Hisako; Hamada, Takahiro; Sonobe, Seiji; Sugiura, Masahiro; Yukawa, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    In vitro transcription is an essential tool to study the molecular mechanisms of transcription. For over a decade, we have developed an in vitro transcription system from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)-cultured cells (BY-2), and this system supported the basic activities of the three RNA polymerases (Pol I, Pol II, and Pol III). However, it was not suitable to study photosynthetic genes, because BY-2 cells have lost their photosynthetic activity. Therefore, Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) in vitro transcription systems were developed from green and etiolated suspension cells. Sufficient in vitro Pol II activity was detected after the minor modification of the nuclear soluble extracts preparation method; removal of vacuoles from protoplasts and L-ascorbic acid supplementation in the extraction buffer were particularly effective. Surprisingly, all four Arabidopsis Rubisco small subunit (rbcS-1A, rbcS-1B, rbcS-2B, and rbcS-3B) gene members were in vitro transcribed from the naked DNA templates without any light-dependent manner. However, clear light-inducible transcriptions were observed using chromatin template of rbcS-1A gene, which was prepared with a human nucleosome assembly protein 1 (hNAP1) and HeLa histones. This suggested that a key determinant of light-dependency through the rbcS gene transcription was a higher order of DNA structure (i.e. chromatin). PMID:26662274

  5. Serial transmission of human T-cell leukemia virus type I by blood transfusion in rabbits and its prevention by use of X-irradiated stored blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotani, S.; Yoshimoto, S.; Yamato, K.; Fujishita, M.; Yamashita, M.; Ohtsuki, Y.; Taguchi, H.; Miyoshi, I.

    1986-06-15

    Human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) was serially transmitted for 5 passages from rabbit to rabbit by blood transfusion. The virus could be transmitted with 20 ml of whole blood or washed blood cell suspension (fresh or stored for 1-2 weeks at 4 degrees C) but not with cell-free plasma from seroconverted rabbits. Seroconversion occurred 2-4 weeks after blood transfusion and serum anti-HTLV-I titers ranged from 1:20 to 1:640 with the immunofluorescence assay. From transfusion recipients of the 1st to 4th passages, virus-producing cell lines were established by culturing lymphocytes in the presence of T-cell growth factor (TCGF). Three of the 4 cell lines became TCGF-independent after 2-12 months of continuous culture. Blood was transfused between rabbits of opposite sexes and the recipient origin of each cell line was determined by chromosome analysis. We also investigated the effect of X-irradiation (6,000 rad) on blood from seropositive rabbits. Seroconversion likewise occurred in rabbits transfused with blood that had been irradiated immediately before transfusion but not in rabbits transfused with blood that had been irradiated and stored for 1-2 weeks at 4 degrees C. Thus, our rabbit model shows that HTLV-I is serially transmissible by blood transfusion and that this can be prevented by irradiation of blood. The same procedure, therefore, may be useful for the prevention of transfusion-related transmission of HTLV-I in humans.

  6. Implementation of patient blood management remains extremely variable in Europe and Canada: the NATA benchmark project: An observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Linden, Philippe; Hardy, Jean-François

    2016-12-01

    Preoperative anaemia is associated with increased postoperative morbidity and mortality. Patient blood management (PBM) is advocated to improve patient outcomes. NATA, the 'Network for the advancement of patient blood management, haemostasis and thrombosis', initiated a benchmark project with the aim of providing the basis for educational strategies to implement optimal PBM in participating centres. Prospective, observational study with online data collection in 11 secondary and tertiary care institutions interested in developing PBM. Ten European centres (Austria, Spain, England, Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, Romania, Greece, France, and Germany) and one Canadian centre participated between January 2010 and June 2011. A total of 2470 patients undergoing total hip (THR) or knee replacement, or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), were registered in the study. Data from 2431 records were included in the final analysis. Primary outcome measures were the incidence and volume of red blood cells (RBC) transfused. Logistic regression analysis identified variables independently associated with RBC transfusions. The incidence of transfusion was significantly different between centres for THR (range 7 to 95%), total knee replacement (range 3 to 100%) and CABG (range 20 to 95%). The volume of RBC transfused was significantly different between centres for THR and CABG. The incidence of preoperative anaemia ranged between 3 and 40% and its treatment between 0 and 40%, the latter not being related to the former. Patient characteristics, evolution of haemoglobin concentrations and blood losses were also different between centres. Variables independently associated with RBC transfusion were preoperative haemoglobin concentration, lost volume of RBC and female sex. Implementation of PBM remains extremely variable across centres. The relative importance of factors explaining RBC transfusion differs across institutions, some being patient related whereas others are related to

  7. Special proliferative sites are not needed for seeding and proliferation of transfused bone marrow cells in normal syngeneic mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecher, G.; Ansell, J.D.; Micklem, H.S.; Tjio, J.H.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    The widely held view that transfused bone marrow cells will not proliferate in normal mice, not exposed to irradiation or other forms of bone marrow ablation, was reinvestigated. Forty million bone marrow cells from male donors were given to female recipients on each of 5 consecutive days, 5 to 10 times the number customarily used in the past. When the recipients were examined 2-13 weeks after the last transfusion, donor cells were found to average 16-25% of total marrow cells. Similar percentages of donor cells were found when variants of the enzyme phosphoglycerate kinase determined electrophoretically were used for identification of donor and recipient cells. Evidence is presented that the proportion of donor cells is compatible with a nonlinear dependence on the number of cells transfused over the range tested - i.e., 20-200 million bone marrow cells injected intravenously. Special proliferative sites thus do not appear to be required

  8. The practice of reporting transfusion-related acute lung injury: a national survey among clinical and preclinical disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaar, Alexander P J; Wortel, Kim; Binnekade, Jan M; van Oers, Marinus H J; Beckers, Erik; Gajic, Ognjen; Schultz, Marcus J; Juffermans, Nicole P

    2010-02-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is hypothesized to be a "two-hit" entity, in which an inflammatory condition (e.g., sepsis) predisposes to TRALI. TRALI is a clinical diagnosis. Disciplines involved in managing TRALI may differ in decision-making on the reporting of TRALI. A survey was conducted among critical care physicians, hematologists, hemovigilance workers, and transfusion medicine physicians, using case vignettes and a questionnaire. The vignettes varied in patient- and blood product-related factors that may influence the decision to report a TRALI case. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed. A positive beta-coefficient is in favor of reporting. Ninety-two questionnaires were returned (response rate, 68%). For all disciplines, preferences in favor of reporting TRALI were onset of symptoms within 1 hour (beta = 0.4), after transfusion of a single unit of FFP (beta = 0.5), and in the absence of acute lung injury before transfusion (beta = 1.3). An admission diagnosis of sepsis was a negative preference (beta = -0.3). Massive transfusion (6 RBC plus 4 FFP units) was a negative preference for transfusion medicine physicians (beta = -0.3), but a positive preference for the other disciplines. The questionnaire revealed that massive transfusion and the age of blood products were considered relatively more important reasons to report TRALI by critical care physicians compared to the other disciplines (p reporting of a suspected TRALI case. Disciplines involved in managing TRALI differ in decision-making of reporting TRALI, which may contribute to variance in incidence.

  9. An international investigation into O red blood cell unit administration in hospitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeller, Michelle P; Barty, Rebecca; Aandahl, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Transfusion of group O blood to non-O recipients, or transfusion of D- blood to D+ recipients, can result in shortages of group O or D- blood, respectively. This study investigated RBC utilization patterns at hospitals around the world and explored the context and policies that guide ...

  10. Influence of iron deficiency in the radiopharmaceutical behavior of red blood cells labeled with 99mTc(99mTC-RBC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmanovici, G.; Salgueiro, M.J.; Pernas, L.; Collia, N.; Leonardi, N.; Zubillaga, M.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Red blood cells (RBCs) labeled with 99m Tc are commonly used in the evaluation of cardiac function, gastrointestinal tract bleeding, red blood cell volume or splenic sequestration. Generally stannous ion is used as reducing agent. A proposed mechanism is that once the stannous ion (Sn) and the pertechnetate ( 99m Tc) reach the interior of the RBC, the radionuclide is mainly house in the β-chain of hemoglobin. The aim of this study was to determine if hemoglobin content reduction, an indicator of iron deficiency anemia, could affect the efficiency of RBC labeling and the biological distribution of this radiopharmaceutical. We studied 30 rats fed for 3 weeks after weaning with diets with iron contents of 6.5 ppm (group A), 18 ppm (group B) and 100 ppm (control). For all groups, the labeling yields were always higher than 97%; the percentage of radioactivity was mostly founded in blood with almost negligible radioactivity the rest of the studied organs. We can conclude that the decrease in hemoglobin content, an indicator of iron deficiency anemia, does not interfere neither in the labeling nor in the biodistribution of red blood cells labeled with 99m Tc. (author)

  11. Transfusion practices in trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Trichur Ramakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Resuscitation of a severely traumatised patient with the administration of crystalloids, or colloids along with blood products is a common transfusion practice in trauma patients. The determination of this review article is to update on current transfusion practices in trauma. A search of PubMed, Google Scholar, and bibliographies of published studies were conducted using a combination of key-words. Recent articles addressing the transfusion practises in trauma from 2000 to 2014 were identified and reviewed. Trauma induced consumption and dilution of clotting factors, acidosis and hypothermia in a severely injured patient commonly causes trauma-induced coagulopathy. Early infusion of blood products and early control of bleeding decreases trauma-induced coagulopathy. Hypothermia and dilutional coagulopathy are associated with infusion of large volumes of crystalloids. Hence, the predominant focus is on damage control resuscitation, which is a combination of permissive hypotension, haemorrhage control and haemostatic resuscitation. Massive transfusion protocols improve survival in severely injured patients. Early recognition that the patient will need massive blood transfusion will limit the use of crystalloids. Initially during resuscitation, fresh frozen plasma, packed red blood cells (PRBCs and platelets should be transfused in the ratio of 1:1:1 in severely injured patients. Fresh whole blood can be an alternative in patients who need a transfusion of 1:1:1 thawed plasma, PRBCs and platelets. Close monitoring of bleeding and point of care coagulation tests are employed, to allow goal-directed plasma, PRBCs and platelets transfusions, in order to decrease the risk of transfusion-related acute lung injury.

  12. Specific features of red blood cell morphology in hemolytic disease neonates undergoing intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Ivanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents data on the characteristics of red blood cell morphology in infants who have undergone intrauterine intravascular blood transfusion for hemolytic disease of the fetus. The infants are shown to have a reduction in the mean volume of red blood cells and in their mean level of hemoglobin, a decrease in the fraction of fetal hemoglobin and an increase in oxygen tension at half saturation. The above morphological characteristics of red blood cells remain decreased during the neonatal period after exchange transfusion or others, as clinically indicated, which seems to suggest that the compensatory-adaptive mechanisms to regulate hematopoiesis are exhausted and a donor’s red blood cells continue to be predominant.

  13. Prognostic Significance of Blood Transfusion in Newly Diagnosed Multiple Myeloma Patients without Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liping; Fu, Danhui; Zhang, Jinping; Wang, Qingqing; Ye, Yamei; Xie, Qianling

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether blood transfusions affect overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM) patients without hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. A total of 181 patients were enrolled and divided into two groups: 68 patients in the transfused group and 113 patients in the nontransfused group. Statistical analyses showed that there were significant differences in ECOG scoring, Ig isotype, platelet (Plt) counts, hemoglobin (Hb) level, serum creatinine (Scr) level, and β2-microglobulin (β2-MG) level between the two groups. Univariate analyses showed that higher International Staging System staging, Plt counts blood transfusion was associated with PFS but not OS in MM patients. Multivariate analyses showed that blood transfusion was not an independent factor for PFS in MM patients. Our preliminary results suggested that newly diagnosed MM patients may benefit from a liberal blood transfusion strategy, since blood transfusion is not an independent impact factor for survival. PMID:28567420

  14. A data-driven approach to patient blood management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Claudia S; Welbig, Julie; Bowman, Robert; Kammann, Susan; Frey, Katherine; Zantek, Nicole

    2014-02-01

    Patient blood management (PBM) has become a topic of intense interest; however, implementing a robust PBM system in a large academic hospital can be a challenge. In a joint effort between transfusion medicine and information technology, we have developed three overlapping databases that allow for a comprehensive, semiautomated approach to monitoring up-to-date red blood cell (RBC) usage in our hospital. Data derived from this work have allowed us to target our PBM efforts. Information on transfusions is collected using three databases: daily report, discharge database, and denominator database. The daily report collects data on all transfusions in the past 24 hours. The discharge database integrates transfusion data and diagnostic billing codes. The denominator database allows for rate calculations by tracking all patients with a hemoglobin test ordered. A set of algorithms is applied to automatically audit RBC transfusions. The transfusions that do not fit the algorithms' rules are manually reviewed. Data from audits are compiled into reports and distributed to medical directors. Data are also used to target education efforts. Since our PBM program began, the percentage of appropriate RBC orders increased from an initial 70%-80% to 90%-95%, and the overall RBC transfusions/1000 patient-days has decreased by 67% in targeted areas of the hospital. Our PBM program has shaved approximately 3% from our hospital's blood budget. Our semiautomated auditing system allows us to quickly and comprehensively analyze and track blood usage throughout our hospital. Using this technology, we have seen improvements in our hospital's PBM. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. Identified metabolic signature for assessing red blood cell unit quality is associated with endothelial damage markers and clinical outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bordbar, Aarash; Johansson, Pär I.; Paglia, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    shown no difference of clinical outcome for patients receiving old or fresh RBCs. An overlooked but essential issue in assessing RBC unit quality and ultimately designing the necessary clinical trials is a metric for what constitutes an old or fresh RBC unit. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Twenty RBC units...... years and endothelial damage markers in healthy volunteers undergoing autologous transfusions. CONCLUSION: The state of RBC metabolism may be a better indicator of cellular quality than traditional hematologic variables....

  16. [Sickle cell anemia and transfusion safety in Bamako, Mali. Seroprevalence of HIV, HBV and HCV infections and alloimmunization belonged to Rh and Kell systems in sickle cell anemia patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, A B; Guindo, A; Kouriba, B; Dorie, A; Diabaté, D T; Diawara, S I; Fané, B; Touré, B A; Traoré, A; Gulbis, B; Diallo, D A

    2013-12-01

    Red cell transfusion is one of the main treatments in sickle cell disease. However there are potential risks of blood transfusions. In order to propose strategies to improve blood safety in sickle cell disease in Mali, we conducted a prospective study of 133 patients with sickle cell anemia recruited at the sickle cell disease research and control center of Bamako, November 2010 to October 2011. The study aimed to determine the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections by serum screening and the frequency of red cell alloimmunization before and after blood transfusion. The diagnosis of sickle cell syndrome was made by HPLC, the detection of markers of viral infection was performed by ELISA, and the diagnosis of alloimmunization was conducted by the Indirect Coombs test. Prevalence of viral infections observed at the time of enrolment of patients in the study was 1%, 3% and 1% respectively for HIV, HBV and HCV. Three cases of seroconversion after blood transfusion were detected, including one for HIV, one for HBV and one another for HCV in sickle cell anemia patients. All these patients had received blood from occasional donors. The red cell alloimmunization was observed in 4.4% of patients. All antibodies belonged to Rh system only. Blood transfusion safety in sickle cell anemia patients in Mali should be improved by the introduction of at least the technique for detecting the viral genome in the panel of screening tests and a policy of transfusions of blood units only from regular blood donors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Observation on the changes of serum erythropoietin (EPO) and ferritin (SF) levels after preserved red cells (PRC) transfusion in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Keqin; Lv Haijun; Li Xinghua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of serum EPO and SF levels after preserved red cells transfusion in patients with IDA. Methods: Serum EPO and SF levels were detected with RIA both before and after transfusing preserved red cells in 35 patients with IDA as well as in 30 controls. Results: Before transfusion serum EPO levels in the patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Transfusing preserved red cells is an effective treatment and has important role in clinical application. (authors)

  18. CAR-T Cell Therapies From the Transfusion Medicine Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesnak, Andrew; Lin, ChieYu; Siegel, Don L; Maus, Marcela V

    2016-07-01

    The use of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell therapy for the treatment of hematologic malignancies has generated significant excitement over the last several years. From a transfusion medicine perspective, the implementation of CAR-T therapy as a potential mainstay treatment for not only hematologic but also solid-organ malignancies represents a significant opportunity for growth and expansion. In this review, we will describe the rationale for the development of genetically redirected T cells as a cancer therapeutic, the different elements that are required to engineer these cells, as well as an overview of the process by which patient cells are harvested and processed to create and subsequently validate CAR-T cells. Finally, we will briefly describe some of the toxicities and clinical efficacy of CAR-T cells in the setting of patients with advanced malignancy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Autologous Transfusion of Stored Red Blood Cells Increases Pulmonary Artery Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinciroli, Riccardo; Stowell, Christopher P.; Wang, Lin; Yu, Binglan; Fernandez, Bernadette O.; Feelisch, Martin; Mietto, Cristina; Hod, Eldad A.; Chipman, Daniel; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Zapol, Warren M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Transfusion of erythrocytes stored for prolonged periods is associated with increased mortality. Erythrocytes undergo hemolysis during storage and after transfusion. Plasma hemoglobin scavenges endogenous nitric oxide leading to systemic and pulmonary vasoconstriction. Objectives: We hypothesized that transfusion of autologous blood stored for 40 days would increase the pulmonary artery pressure in volunteers with endothelial dysfunction (impaired endothelial production of nitric oxide). We also tested whether breathing nitric oxide before and during transfusion could prevent the increase of pulmonary artery pressure. Methods: Fourteen obese adults with endothelial dysfunction were enrolled in a randomized crossover study of transfusing autologous, leukoreduced blood stored for either 3 or 40 days. Volunteers were transfused with 3-day blood, 40-day blood, and 40-day blood while breathing 80 ppm nitric oxide. Measurements and Main Results: The age of volunteers was 41 ± 4 years (mean ± SEM), and their body mass index was 33.4 ± 1.3 kg/m2. Plasma hemoglobin concentrations increased after transfusion with 40-day and 40-day plus nitric oxide blood but not after transfusing 3-day blood. Mean pulmonary artery pressure, estimated by transthoracic echocardiography, increased after transfusing 40-day blood (18 ± 2 to 23 ± 2 mm Hg; P transfusing 3-day blood (17 ± 2 to 18 ± 2 mm Hg; P = 0.5). Breathing nitric oxide decreased pulmonary artery pressure in volunteers transfused with 40-day blood (17 ± 2 to 12 ± 1 mm Hg; P Transfusion of autologous leukoreduced blood stored for 40 days was associated with increased plasma hemoglobin levels and increased pulmonary artery pressure. Breathing nitric oxide prevents the increase of pulmonary artery pressure produced by transfusing stored blood. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 01529502). PMID:25162920

  20. Infection after injury: association with blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemurgy, A S; Hart, M B; Murphy, C G; Albrink, M H; Piazza, A; Leparc, G F; Harris, R E

    1992-02-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the association between red blood cell transfusions and infections in an easily stratified, homogenous group of injured adults. All received their initial transfusions upon arrival to the emergency department. Over 5 years, 390 uncross-matched trauma patients received type "O" red blood cells (RBCs) during initial resuscitation. One hundred fifty-four (39%) died within 7 days because of injuries sustained: 236 (61%) survived at least 7 days. Of these 236, clear differences could be seen between those receiving 6 or fewer or 7 or more units of RBCs. When adjusted for age, sex, and severity of injury (Champion Trauma Score, Injury Severity Score, TRISS), the risk of infection was higher in those receiving 7 or more units of RBCs. Similarly, risk of infection was related to units of RBCs transfused in a dose-related fashion. Blood transfusions should be avoided, if possible. Arbitrary "trigger points" for transfusions should be abandoned.

  1. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transfusion Is Safe and Improves Liver Function in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Ming; Zhang, Zheng; Xu, Ruonan; Lin, Hu; Fu, Junliang; Zou, Zhengsheng; Zhang, Aimin; Shi, Jianfei; Chen, Liming; Lv, Sa; He, Weiping; Geng, Hua; Jin, Lei; Liu, Zhenwen; Wang, Fu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the safety and initial efficacy of umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cell (UC-MSC) transfusions for acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) patients associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. No significant side effects were observed, and the UC-MSC transfusions significantly increased the survival rates in ACLF patients. It was found that UC-MSC transfusions are safe in the clinic and may serve as a novel therapeutic approach for HBV-associated ACLF patients.

  2. Relevance of blood groups in transfusion of sickle cell disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noizat-Pirenne, France

    2013-03-01

    Blood groups are clinically significant in sickle cell disease (SCD) as transfusion remains a key treatment in this pathology. The occurrence of a delayed haemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR) is not rare and is a life-threatening event. The main cause of DHTR is the production of alloantibodies against red blood cell antigens. The high rate of alloimmunization in SCD patients is mainly due to the differences of red blood groups between patients of African descent, and the frequently Caucasian donors. From an immuno-haematological point of view, DHTR in SCD patients has specific features: classical antibodies known to be haemolytic can be encountered, but otherwise non significant antibodies, autoantibodies and antibodies related to partial and rare blood groups are also frequently found in individuals of African descent. In some cases, there are no detectable antibodies. As alloimmunization remains the main cause of DHTR, it is extremely important to promote blood donation by individuals of African ancestry to make appropriate blood available. Copyright © 2012 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Alloimmunization in autoimmune hemolytic anemia patient: The differential adsorption approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi C Dara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients of β-thalassemia major are dependent on regular blood transfusions for their entire lifetime. Development of antibodies against red blood cell (RBC antigen which may be alloantibody or autoantibody, several times as a result of frequent red cell component transfusions, further complicates the subsequent transfusion therapy. Among the autoantibodies, warm-reactive autoantibodies are commoner and interfere in the pretransfusion testing. These RBC autoantibodies present in patient's serum potentially react with all the cells of antibody identification panel giving “pan-reactive” picture and making alloantibody identification complex. In this report, we present our approach in a thalassemia patient who presented with warm-type autoimmune hemolytic anemia, low hemoglobin of 5.8 g/dl, and three significant alloantibodies (anti-D, anti-S, and anti-Jk b which were masked by pan-reactive warm autoantibody(s. Differential adsorption was used to unmask underlying alloantibodies. We suggest that differential adsorption procedure is an effective and efficient method for autoantibody adsorption, detection, and identification of masked alloantibody(s, especially in patients with low hemoglobin and history of recent blood transfusion.

  4. Application of image flow cytometry for the characterization of red blood cell morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Ruben N.; Sebastian, Joseph A.; Parsons, Michael; Chang, Tim C.; Acker, Jason P.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2017-02-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) stored in hypothermic environments for the purpose of transfusion have been documented to undergo structural and functional changes over time. One sign of the so-called RBC storage lesion is irreversible damage to the cell membrane. Consequently, RBCs undergo a morphological transformation from regular, deformable biconcave discocytes to rigid spheroechinocytes. The spherically shaped RBCs lack the deformability to efficiently enter microvasculature, thereby reducing the capacity of RBCs to oxygenate tissue. Blood banks currently rely on microscope techniques that include fixing, staining and cell counting in order to morphologically characterize RBC samples; these methods are labor intensive and highly subjective. This study presents a novel, high-throughput RBC morphology characterization technique using image flow cytometry (IFC). An image segmentation template was developed to process 100,000 images acquired from the IFC system and output the relative spheroechinocyte percentage. The technique was applied on samples extracted from two blood bags to monitor the morphological changes of the RBCs during in vitro hypothermic storage. The study found that, for a given sample of RBCs, the IFC method was twice as fast in data acquisition, and analyzed 250-350 times more RBCs than the conventional method. Over the lifespan of the blood bags, the mean spheroechinocyte population increased by 37%. Future work will focus on expanding the template to segregate RBC images into more subpopulations for the validation of the IFC method against conventional techniques; the expanded template will aid in establishing quantitative links between spheroechinocyte increase and other RBC storage lesion characteristics.

  5. The air we breathe: three vital respiratory gases and the red blood cell: oxygen, nitric oxide, and carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzik, Walter H

    2011-04-01

    Three vital respiratory gases-oxygen (O(2)), nitric oxide (NO), and carbon dioxide (CO(2))-intersect at the level of the human red blood cell (RBC). In addition to hemoglobin (Hb)'s central role in O(2) transport, interaction of Hb with the Band 3 metabolon balances RBC energy flow. 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate enhances O(2) transport across the placenta and plays an important role in regulating RBC plasticity. NO is a key mediator of hypoxic vasodilation, but the precise role of RBC Hb remains controversial. In addition to established theories that depend on RBC uptake, delivery, and discharge of NO or its metabolites, an alternative hypothesis based on RBC permeability is suggested. NO depletion by free Hb may account for several clinical features seen during intravascular hemolysis or during deliberate infusion of Hb solutions used as RBC substitutes. CO(2) released by tissues triggers oxygen release through a series of well-coordinated reactions centered on the Band 3 metabolon. While RBC carbonic anhydrase and the Band 3 anion exchanger are central to this process, there is surprisingly little research on the kinetics of CO(2) clearance by transfusion. The three RBC gases are directly related to the three principal gases of Earth's atmosphere. Human fossil fuel consumption dumps 90 million metric tons of carbon into the atmosphere annually. Increasing CO(2) levels are linked to global warming, melting Arctic ice, rising sea levels, and climate instability. Just as individual cells depend on balance of the three vital gases, so too will their balance determine survival of life on Earth. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  6. Reduction of prion infectivity in packed red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, Rodrigo; Buytaert-Hoefen, Kimberley A.; Gonzalez-Romero, Dennisse; Castilla, Joaquin; Hansen, Eric T.; Hlavinka, Dennis; Goodrich, Raymond P.; Soto, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    The link between a new variant form of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and the consumption of prion contaminated cattle meat as well as recent findings showing that vCJD can be transmitted by blood transfusion have raised public health concerns. Currently, a reliable test to identify prions in blood samples is not available. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility to remove scrapie prion protein (PrP Sc ) and infectivity from red blood cell (RBC) suspensions by a simple washing procedure using a cell separation and washing device. The extent of prion removal was assessed by Western blot, PMCA and infectivity bioassays. Our results revealed a substantial removal of infectious prions (≥3 logs of infectivity) by all techniques used. These data suggest that a significant amount of infectivity present in RBC preparations can be removed by a simple washing procedure. This technology may lead to increased safety of blood products and reduce the risk of further propagation of prion diseases.

  7. Restrictive versus liberal transfusion strategies for older mechanically ventilated critically ill patients: a randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Timothy S; Boyd, Julia A; Watson, Douglas; Hope, David; Lewis, Steff; Krishan, Ashma; Forbes, John F; Ramsay, Pamela; Pearse, Rupert; Wallis, Charles; Cairns, Christopher; Cole, Stephen; Wyncoll, Duncan

    2013-10-01

    To compare hemoglobin concentration (Hb), RBC use, and patient outcomes when restrictive or liberal blood transfusion strategies are used to treat anemic (Hb≤90 g/L) critically ill patients of age≥55 years requiring≥4 days of mechanical ventilation in ICU. Parallel-group randomized multicenter pilot trial. Six ICUs in the United Kingdom participated between August 2009 and December 2010. One hundred patients (51 restrictive and 49 liberal groups). Patients were randomized to a restrictive (Hb trigger, 70 g/L; target, 71-90 g/L) or liberal (90 g/L; target, 91-110 g/L) transfusion strategy for 14 days or the remainder of ICU stay, whichever was longest. Baseline comorbidity rates and illness severity were high, notably for ischemic heart disease (32%). The Hb difference among groups was 13.8 g/L (95% CI, 11.5-16.0 g/L); pdisease, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, and total non-neurologic Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score at baseline (hazard ratio, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.28-1.03]; p=0.061). A large trial of transfusion strategies in older mechanically ventilated patients is feasible. This pilot trial found a nonsignificant trend toward lower mortality with restrictive transfusion practice.

  8. [Perioperative transfusion of erythrocyte concentrates during elective surgery: introduction of a protocol for indications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Andrés, M C; Abad Gosálbez, A; López Sánchez, P; Martínez Aparisi, A; Ortí Lucas, R; Aranda Arrufat, A; Madrid Rondón, V

    1999-10-01

    The aim of this paper is, first, to know the actual situation of the perioperatory red cell transfusion for elective surgery in our hospital. In a second phase and prospectively, we tested guidelines for red cell perioperatory transfusion in order to observe the change of transfusions. Then, we compared the results between the basal and postintervention periods. We performed an aleatory assay with two periods, basal and interventionist. Basal period: 151 patients undergoing elective surgery with perioperatory blood requested and general anesthesia. Intervention period: We applied a transfusion guidelines protocol for perioperatory red cell transfusion from the Hospital's Transfusion Committee, also a questionnaire to evaluate the medical indication; We studied 164 patients with clinical features like the basal period. Study/results variables: preoperative blood request, perioperatively transfusion, number of packed red-cell units transfused, crossmatch--to--transfusion ratio, haemoglobin level pre and posttransfusion. No significant drop of the cross match-transfusion ratio was observed after intervention. There is a slight reduction of the crossmatch--to--transfusion ratio, although these value is high (4.48), due to an increase of the transfusion keeping the percentage of appropriate transfusions. The most frequent reason (53%) of inadequate transfusion is the active bleeding. 1) The transfusional activity of the Marina Alta Hospital supposes approximately 17% of the request and 6% of the global transfusion. 2) The introduction of a protocol of perioperative transfusion instructions suppose a small decrease of the crossmatch--to--transfusion ratio, without statistical significance. This slight reduction is due to an increase of transfusion in the post-intervention period, since in this period there is a group of older age patients and with greater percentage of associated pathology. 3) The rate of appropriate transfusions in both periods is similar. 4) The

  9. Ten-year patterns in blood product utilization during cardiothoracic surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass in a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonk, Alexander B A; Meesters, Michael I; van Dijk, Wouter B; Eijsman, Leon; Romijn, Johannes W A; Jansen, Evert K; Loer, Stephan A; Boer, Christa

    2014-10-01

    This retrospective analysis describes blood conservation strategies and overall consumption of red blood cells (RBCs), fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), and platelet (PLT) concentrates during nonaortic cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in a tertiary hospital over a 10-year period. Study variables of 6026 patients that underwent cardiac surgery between 2002 and 2011 were incorporated in the database and included hemoglobin (Hb), lowest temperature, CPB duration, 24-hour blood loss, fluid balance, and overall transfusion requirements. Between 2002 and 2011, the lowest intraoperative Hb levels and temperature increased from 8.5 ± 1.2 to 10.4 ± 1.4 g/dL and from 32 ± 2 to 34 ± 1°C, respectively. In addition to the steep decrease in the postoperative fluid balance over time, a reduction in 24-hour blood loss from 815 ± 588 mL (2002) to 590 ± 438 mL (2011) was observed. These changes were paralleled by a 28% reduction in overall RBC transfusion from 1443 units in 2002 to 1038 in 2011. While RBC transfusion decreased over time, there was no significant change in the use of FFP or PLT concentrate transfusion. The probability to receive RBC transfusion increased after cessation of aprotinin, but reduced after routine cell salvage in all operations. This institutional report shows a large reduction in blood loss and transfusion requirements in cardiac surgery over a 10-year period. This reduction is most probably attributed to structural cell salvage, reduced intraoperative fluid volumes, and the increase in the lowest intraoperative body temperature. © 2013 AABB.

  10. Monitoring compliance with transfusion guidelines in hospital departments by electronic data capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norgaard, Astrid; de Lichtenberg, Trine Honnens; Nielsen, Jens; Johansson, Pär I.

    2014-01-01

    Background The practice of transfusing red blood cells is still liberal in some centres suggesting a lack of compliance with guidelines recommending transfusion of red blood cells at haemoglobin levels of 6–8 g/dL in the non-bleeding patient. Few databases provide ongoing feedback of data on pre-transfusion haemoglobin levels at the departmental level. In a tertiary care hospital, no such data were produced before this study. Our aim was to establish a Patient Blood Management database based on electronic data capture in order to monitor compliance with transfusion guidelines at departmental and hospital levels. Materials and methods Hospital data on admissions, diagnoses and surgical procedures were used to define the populations of patients. Data on haemoglobin measurements and red blood cell transfusions were used to calculate pre-transfusion haemoglobin, percentage of transfused patients and transfusion volumes. Results The model dataset include 33,587 admissions, of which 10% had received at least one unit of red blood cells. Haemoglobin measurements preceded 96.7% of the units transfused. The median pre-transfusion haemoglobin was 8.9 g/dL (interquartile range 8.2–9.7) at the hospital level. In only 6.5% of the cases, transfusion was initiated at 7.3 g/dL or lower as recommended by the Danish national transfusion guideline. In 27% of the cases, transfusion was initiated when the haemoglobin level was 9.3 g/dL or higher, which is not recommended. A median of two units was transfused per transfusion episode and per hospital admission. Transfusion practice was more liberal in surgical and intensive care units than in medical departments. Discussion We described pre-transfusion haemoglobin levels, transfusion rates and volumes at hospital and departmental levels, and in surgical subpopulations. Initial data revealed an extensive liberal practice and low compliance with national transfusion guidelines, and identified wards in need of intervention. PMID

  11. Cytogenetic studies in dogs after total body irradiation and allogeneic transfusion with cryopreserved blood mononuclear cells: observations in long-term chimeras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonell, F.; Calvo, W.; Fliedner, T.M.; Kratt, E.; Gerhartz, H.; Koerbling, M.; Nothdurft, W.; Ross, W.M.

    1984-01-01

    Cytogenetic studies were performed on two dog groups after total body irradiation and allogeneic transfusion with cryopreserved blood mononuclear cells. The first group of dogs was transfused with unseparated leukocytes and suffered from graft-versus-host disease (GvHD). Cytogenetic studies demonstrated only cells of donor origin in all dogs of this group. The second group of animals was transfused with fraction 2 of a discontinuous albumin gradient. The dogs of this group did not develop GvHD, and the cytogenetic studies showed the presence of a mosaic of cells from donor and recipient origin in all of them. These results suggest that the GvHD may suppress autochthonous regeneration

  12. Analysis of the association between necrotizing enterocolitis and transfusion of red blood cell in very low birth weight preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Yeong Bak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the association between necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC and red blood cell transfusions in very low birth weight (VLBW preterm infants. Methods: We studied were 180 VLBW preterm infants who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of CHA Gangnam Hospital from January of 2006 to December of 2009. The subjects were divided into 2 groups: an NEC group (greater than stage II on the modified Bell’s criteria and a control group (less than stage II on the modified Bell’s critieria. We defined red blood cell transfusion before NEC diagnosis as the frequency of transfusion until NEC diagnosis (mean day at NEC diagnosis, day 18 in the NEC group and the frequency of transfusion until 18 days after birth in the control group. Results: Of the 180 subjects, 18 (10% belonged to the NEC group, and 14 (78% of these 18 patients had a history of transfusion before NEC diagnosis. The NEC group received 3.1±2.9 transfusions, and the control group received 1.0±1.1 transfusions before the NEC diagnosis (P =0.005. In a multivariate logistic regression corrected for gestational age, Apgar score at 1 minute, the presence of respiratory distress syndrome, patent ductus arteriosus, premature rupture of membrane, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy and death were confounding factors. The risk of NEC increased 1.63 times (95% confidence interval, 1.145 to 2.305; P =0.007 with transfusion before the NEC diagnosis. Conclusion: The risk for NEC increased significantly with increased transfusion frequency before the NEC diagnosis.

  13. Non-invasive spectroscopy of transfusable red blood cells stored inside sealed plastic blood-bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, K; Atkins, C G; Chen, D; Schulze, H G; Devine, D V; Blades, M W; Turner, R F B

    2016-03-07

    After being separated from (donated) whole blood, red blood cells are suspended in specially formulated additive solutions and stored (at 4 °C) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) blood-bags until they are needed for transfusion. With time, the prepared red cell concentrate (RCC) is known to undergo biochemical changes that lower effectiveness of the transfusion, and thus regulations are in place that limit the storage period to 42 days. At present, RCC is not subjected to analytical testing prior to transfusion. In this study, we use Spatially Offset Raman Spectroscopy (SORS) to probe, non-invasively, the biochemistry of RCC inside sealed blood-bags. The retrieved spectra compare well with conventional Raman spectra (of sampled aliquots) and are dominated by features associated with hemoglobin. In addition to the analytical demonstration that SORS can be used to retrieve RCC spectra from standard clinical blood-bags without breaking the sterility of the system, the data reveal interesting detail about the oxygenation-state of the stored cells themselves, namely that some blood-bags unexpectedly contain measurable amounts of deoxygenated hemoglobin after weeks of storage. The demonstration that chemical information can be obtained non-invasively using spectroscopy will enable new studies of RCC degeneration, and points the way to a Raman-based instrument for quality-control in a blood-bank or hospital setting.

  14. Long term follow up of patients after allogeneic stem cell transplantation and transfusion of HSV-Tk transduced T-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Maria Weissinger

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT is one of the curative treatments for hematologic malignancies, but is hampered by severe complications, such as acute or chronic graft-versus-host-disease (aGvHD; cGvHD and infections. CD34-selcetion of stem cells reduces the risk of aGvHD, but also leads to increased infectious complications and relapse. Thus, we studied the efficacy, safety and feasibility of transfer of gene modified donor T-cells shortly after allo-HSCT in two clinical trials between 2002 and 2007 and here we compare the results to unmodified donor leukocyte transfusion (DLI. The aim of these trials was to provide patients with the protection of T-cells after T-cell-depleted allo-HSCT in the matched or mismatched donor setting with an option to delete transduced T-cells, if severe aGvHD occurred within the trial period. Donor-T-cells were transduced with the replication-deficient retrovirus SFCMM-3, expressing HSV-Tk and the truncated LNGFR for selection of transduced cells. Transduced cells were transfused either after day +60 (matched donors or on day +42 (haploidentical donors.Nine patients were included in the first trial (MHH; 2002 until 2007 2 were included in TK007 (2005-2009 and 6 serve as a control group for outcome after haploidentical transplantation without HSV-TK-transduced DLI. Three patients developed acute GvHD, two had grade I of the skin, one had aGvHD on day +131 (post-HSCT; +89 post-HSV-Tk DLI grade II, which was successfully controlled by ganciclovir (GCV. Donor chimerism was stabilized after transfusion of the transduced cells in all patients treated. Functionality of HSV-Tk gene expressing T-cells was shown by loss of bcr-abl gene expression as well as by control of cytomegalovirus-reactivation. To date, 6patients have relapsed and died, 2 after a second HSCT without T-cell depletion or administration of unmodified T-cells. Eleven patients (7 post-HSV-Tk DLI are alive and well to date.

  15. A single dose of erythropoietin reduces perioperative transfusions in cardiac surgery: results of a prospective single-blind randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltert, Luca; Rondinelli, Beatrice; Bello, Ricardo; Falco, Mauro; Bellisario, Alessandro; Maselli, Daniele; Turani, Franco; De Paulis, Ruggero; Pierelli, Luca

    2015-07-01

    We conducted a prospective single-blind randomized study to assess whether a single 80,000 IU dose of human recombinant erythropoietin (HRE), given just 2 days before cardiac surgery, could be effective in reducing perioperative allogeneic red blood cell transfusion (aRBCt). Six-hundred patients presenting with preoperative hemoglobin (Hb) level of not more than 14.5 g/dL were randomly assigned to either HRE or control. The primary endpoint was the incidence of perioperative aRBCt. The secondary endpoints were mortality and the incidence of adverse events in the first 45 days after surgery, Hb level on Postoperative Day 4, and number of units of RBC transfusions in the first 4 days after surgery. A total of 17% (HRE) versus 39% (control) required transfusion (relative risk, 0.436; pHRE (0%) and control (3.5%) among the patients with baseline Hb of 13.0 g/dL or more, which included the nonanemic fraction of the study population. The mean (range) Hb level on Postoperative Day 4 was 10.2 (9.9-10.6) g/dL (HRE) versus 8.7 (8.5-9.2) g/dL (control; pHRE (pHRE) versus 3.33% (control). The 45-day adverse event rate was 4.33% (HRE) versus 5.67% (control; both p=NS). In anemic patients (HbHRE administered 2 days before cardiac surgery is effective in reducing the incidence of aRBCt without increasing adverse events. © 2015 AABB.

  16. 99mTc-RBC subtraction scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagaki, Syoichi; Tonami, Syuichi; Yasui, Masakazu; Kuranishi, Makoto; Sugishita, Kouki; Nakamura, Mamoru

    1994-01-01

    Sequential abdominal scintigrams with 99m Tc-labelled red blood cells (RBC) were subtracted for observing a site of gastrointestinal bleeding and calculating the bleeding rate. This method is technically very easy and can detect the site of bleeding with the minimum rate, as low as 0.2 ml/min., in a phantom experiment. In 23 cases with final diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding, conventional non-subtraction scintigraphy detected only 30% (7/23), but subtraction scintigraphy detected 61% (14/23). It was concluded that subtraction scintigraphy had higher sensitivity than conventional scintigraphy for early diagnosing bleeding. A combination of non-subtraction and subtraction scintigraphy is recommended to detect a site of gastrointestinal bleeding in a clinical setting. (author)

  17. Autologous Blood Transfusion for Postpartum Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenawalt, Julia A; Zernell, Denise

    Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a leading contributor to maternal morbidity and mortality in the United States and globally. Although the rate of PPH is generally decreasing nationally, severity of PPH appears to be increasing, potentially related to the various comorbidities associated with women of childbearing age. There is increasing evidence of risks associated with allogeneic blood transfusion, which has historically been the classic therapeutic approach for treatment to PPH. Pregnant women are particularly susceptible to the implications of sensitization to red cell antigens, a common sequela to allogenic blood transfusion. Autologous blood transfusion eliminates the potential of communicable disease transmission as well as the conceivable threat of a blood transfusion reaction. Recent technological advances allow cell salvage coupled with the use of a leukocyte filter to be used as an alternative approach for improving the outcome for women experiencing a PPH. Modest changes in standard operating procedure and continued training in use and application of cell salvaged blood may assist in minimizing negative outcomes from PPH. Salvaged blood has been demonstrated to be at least equal and often superior to banked blood. We discuss nursing implications for application of this technology for women with PPH. Continued research is warranted to evaluate the impact that application of cell salvage with filtration has on the patient experiencing a PPH.

  18. Reducing transfusion requirements in liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donohue, Ciara I; Mallett, Susan V

    2015-12-24

    Liver transplantation (LT) was historically associated with massive blood loss and transfusion. Over the past two decades transfusion requirements have reduced dramatically and increasingly transfusion-free transplantation is a reality. Both bleeding and transfusion are associated with adverse outcomes in LT. Minimising bleeding and reducing unnecessary transfusions are therefore key goals in the perioperative period. As the understanding of the causes of bleeding has evolved so too have techniques to minimize or reduce the impact of blood loss. Surgical "piggyback" techniques, anaesthetic low central venous pressure and haemodilution strategies and the use of autologous cell salvage, point of care monitoring and targeted correction of coagulopathy, particularly through use of factor concentrates, have all contributed to declining reliance on allogenic blood products. Pre-emptive management of preoperative anaemia and adoption of more restrictive transfusion thresholds is increasingly common as patient blood management (PBM) gains momentum. Despite progress, increasing use of marginal grafts and transplantation of sicker recipients will continue to present new challenges in bleeding and transfusion management. Variation in practice across different centres and within the literature demonstrates the current lack of clear transfusion guidance. In this article we summarise the causes and predictors of bleeding and present the evidence for a variety of PBM strategies in LT.

  19. OpenRBC: Redefining the Frontier of Red Blood Cell Simulations at Protein Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu-Hang; Lu, Lu; Li, He; Grinberg, Leopold; Sachdeva, Vipin; Evangelinos, Constantinos; Karniadakis, George

    We present a from-scratch development of OpenRBC, a coarse-grained molecular dynamics code, which is capable of performing an unprecedented in silico experiment - simulating an entire mammal red blood cell lipid bilayer and cytoskeleton modeled by 4 million mesoscopic particles - on a single shared memory node. To achieve this, we invented an adaptive spatial searching algorithm to accelerate the computation of short-range pairwise interactions in an extremely sparse 3D space. The algorithm is based on a Voronoi partitioning of the point cloud of coarse-grained particles, and is continuously updated over the course of the simulation. The algorithm enables the construction of a lattice-free cell list, i.e. the key spatial searching data structure in our code, in O (N) time and space space with cells whose position and shape adapts automatically to the local density and curvature. The code implements NUMA/NUCA-aware OpenMP parallelization and achieves perfect scaling with up to hundreds of hardware threads. The code outperforms a legacy solver by more than 8 times in time-to-solution and more than 20 times in problem size, thus providing a new venue for probing the cytomechanics of red blood cells. This work was supported by the Department of Energy (DOE) Collaboratory on Mathematics for Mesoscopic Model- ing of Materials (CM4). YHT acknowledges partial financial support from an IBM Ph.D. Scholarship Award.

  20. Predicting the risk of perioperative transfusion for patients undergoing elective hepatectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Camelia S; Jarnagin, William R; Fong, Yuman; Elkin, Elena; Fischer, Mary; Wuest, David; D'Angelica, Michael; DeMatteo, Ronald P; Blumgart, Leslie H; Gönen, Mithat

    2009-12-01

    To develop 2 instruments that predict the probability of perioperative red blood cell transfusion in patients undergoing elective liver resection for primary and secondary tumors. Hepatic resection is the most effective treatment for several benign and malign conditions, but may be accompanied by substantial blood loss and the need for perioperative transfusions. While blood conservation strategies such as autologous blood donation, acute normovolemic hemodilution, or cell saver systems are available, they are economically efficient only if directed toward patients with a high risk of transfusion. Using preoperative data from 1204 consecutive patients who underwent liver resection between 1995 and 2000 at Memorial Sloan- Kettering Cancer Center, we modeled the probability of perioperative red blood cell transfusion. We used the resulting model, validated on an independent dataset (n = 555 patients), to develop 2 prediction instruments, a nomogram and a transfusion score, which can be easily implemented into clinical practice. The planned number of liver segments resected, concomitant extrahepatic organ resection, a diagnosis of primary liver malignancy, as well as preoperative hemoglobin and platelets levels predicted the probability of perioperative red blood cell transfusion. The predictions of the model appeared accurate and with good discriminatory abilities, generating an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.71. Preoperative factors can be combined into risk profiles to predict the likelihood of transfusion during or after elective liver resection. These predictions, easy to calculate in the frame of a nomogram or of a transfusion score, can be used to identify patients who are at high risk for red cell transfusions and therefore most likely to benefit from blood conservation techniques.

  1. PARENTERAL IRON SUCROSE AS AN ALTERNATIVE TO PACKED CELLS/BLOOD TRANSFUSION IN MODERATE-TO-SEVERE ANAEMIA IN PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rama Sarala

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM This case study focuses on the efficacy of iron sucrose in moderate-to-severe anaemia in pregnancy and to compare the efficacy of iron sucrose with packed cell transfusion and based on the study to establish whether iron sucrose could be an alternative to packed cells transfusion for the management of moderate-to-severe anaemia complicating pregnancy remote from the term gestation. MATERIALS AND METHODS It is a case control study for a period of 2 years. Women were randomly selected where for the study group 50 patients intravenous iron sucrose was given and for control group 50 patients packed cells transfusion was given. RESULTS The study group and the control group had 50 subjects each. On an average 80% were in the age group of 15-24 yrs. in both groups. In both groups, on an average 85% were with moderate anaemia (6-8 g/dL and 15% were with severe anaemia (<6 g/dL. Mean requirement of iron sucrose for moderate anaemia was 1100 mg and for severe anaemia it was 1300 mg. Mean requirement of packed cells for moderate anaemia was 3 units and for severe anaemia 4-5 units. In iron sucrose group, mean haemoglobin% at baseline 7.1±0.8 g/dL, after 1 week 7.9±0.6, after 4 weeks 11±0.5 g/dL and at delivery 11.7±0.6 g/dL. In packed cells group, mean haemoglobin% at baseline 7.0±0.7 g/dL, after 1 week 10.2±0.5 g/dL, after 4 weeks 10.3±0.5 g/dL and at delivery 10.4±0.4 g/dL. The mean haematocrit values in iron sucrose group at baseline 20.9±2.5%, after 1 week 25.3±2.2% and after 4 weeks 33.6±2.0%. The mean haematocrit values in packed cells group at baseline 20.8±2.3%, after 1 week 30.0±1.9% and after 4 weeks 30.2±2.0%. Mean rise of haematocrit from baseline to 1 week in iron sucrose and packed cells group were 4.4±1.3% and 9.1±2.0% respectively. Mean rise of haematocrit from baseline to 4 weeks in iron sucrose and packed cell group were 12.7±2.1% and 9.3±2.3 respectively. The mean ferritin values in iron sucrose group at baseline

  2. RBC acetyl cholinesterase: A poor man′s early diagnostic biomarker for familial alzheimer′s and Parkinson′s disease dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himmatrao Saluba Bawaskar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Analysis of red blood cell acetyl cholinesterase (AChE in a familial Alzheimer′s diseases (AD Parkinson′s disease dementia (PDD and their first generation. Setting: General hospital, Mahad district, Raigad. Patients and Methods: Clinically diagnosed patients of AD and PDD and their asymptomatic relatives. Their blood was collected in EDTA tube and transferred to laboratory at Mumbai. Result: Median red blood cell (RBC cholinesterase levels amongst PDD, their first generation asymptomatic relatives, familial AD, asymptomatic relatives of AD, healthy controls, farmers exposed to pesticides (positive control and other neurological condition without dementia (hypertension with TIA 1, sub-dural hematoma 2, hypothyroid 1, non-familial unilateral parkinsonism without dementia 3, writers cramps 2, hyponitremia 1 and cerebral palsy with non-fluent aphasia 1. Median values of RBC AChE were 19086.78 U/L, 15666.05 U/L, 9013.11 U/L, 7806.19 U/L, 14334.57 U/L, 9785.05 U/L and 13162.60 U/L, respectively. As compared to controls, RBC AChE levels were statistically significant among PDD (P = 0.004 and significantly lowered among familial AD patients (P = 0.010, relatives of patients (P = 0.010. Interpretations: Below the normal RBC AChE level is a potential biomarker in asymptomatic relatives of familial AD patients. RBC AChE is raised than normal level in patients suffering from PDD, where AChE inhibitors are helpful. However, RBC AChE level below the normal where AChE inhibitor may not be effective.

  3. Preoperative embolization in surgical treatment of spinal metastases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Caroline; Dahl, Benny; Frevert, Susanne Christiansen

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess whether preoperative transcatheter arterial embolization of spinal metastases reduces blood loss, the need for transfusion with allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs), and surgery time in the surgical treatment of patients with symptomatic metastatic spinal cord compression. MATERIALS......L) versus 902 mL (SD, 416 mL). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative embolization in patients with symptomatic spinal metastasis independent of primary tumor diagnosis did not reduce intraoperative blood loss and allogeneic RBC transfusion significantly but did reduce the surgery time. A small reduction...... instrumentation and randomly assigned to either preoperative embolization (n = 23) or a control group (n = 22). The primary outcome was intraoperative blood loss. Secondary outcomes were perioperative blood loss, allogeneic RBC transfusion, and surgery time. Analyses were performed by intention-to-treat. RESULTS...

  4. Factors associated with increased red blood cells transfusion requirements in patients with hodgkin and non-hodgkin lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.; Basit, A.; Hameed, A.; Ali, M.

    2015-01-01

    Anaemia is a common feature of lympho-proliferative disorders and is an important cause of poor quality of life in these patients. When indicated, packed red blood cells (PRBC) units are transfused to treat anaemia. Objective of this study was to identify risk factors associated with PRBC transfusions in lymphoma patients. Methods: This was a retrospective study done on Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) patients who had PRBC transfusions during chemotherapy. Information regarding gender, type of lymphoma, stage, baseline haemoglobin, marrow involvement and total number of PRBC units transfused was collected. Results: A total of 481 patients with diagnosis of HL and NHL were registered during one year period. Out of these, 108 (22.4%) had PRBC transfusions during treatment. HL and NHL patients were 30 (27.8%) and 78 (72.2%) respectively. NHL patients were older than HL (37 vs. 32 years), (p=0.03). HL patients had lower mean haemoglobin 9. 2.56 g/dl as compared to NHL 11.33 ± 2.42 g/dl, (p<0.05). There was significant difference in number of PRBC units transfused based on lymphoma type (NHL 6.74 ± 5.69 vs. HL 3.97 ± 3.0 units, p<0.05). Bone marrow involvement resulted in increased transfusion requirements (7.84 ± 4.36 vs. 5.26 ± 5.49 units, p<0.05) while stage of disease didn't affected significantly (I/II-4.88 ± 4.85 and III/IV 6.30 ± 5.33 units p=0.2). Conclusion: A significant number of lymphoma patients need PRBC transfusions during chemotherapy. NHL patients and bone marrow involvement makes patients at higher risk for transfusions. In places, where blood bank support is not adequate, patients should be informed right from beginning to arrange donors for possible transfusions during chemotherapy. (author)

  5. A gene phylogeny of the red algae (Rhodophyta) based on plastid rbcL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshwater, D W; Fredericq, S; Butler, B S; Hommersand, M H; Chase, M W

    1994-01-01

    A phylogeny for the Rhodophyta has been inferred by parsimony analysis of plastid rbcL sequences representing 81 species, 68 genera, 38 families, and 17 orders of red algae; rbcL encodes the large subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase. Levels of sequence divergence among species, genera, and families are high in red algae, typically much greater than those reported for flowering plants. The Rhodophyta traditionally consists of one class, Rhodophyceae, and two subclasses, Bangiophycidae and Florideophycidae. The Bangiophycidae with three orders (Porphyridiales, Compsopogonales, and Bangiales) appears to be polyphyletic, and the Florideophycidae with 17 orders is monophyletic in this study. The current classification of the Florideophycidae based on ultrastructure of pit connections is supported. With the exception of the Rhodogorgonales, which appears to be misplaced, orders with one or two pit-plug cap layers (Hildenbrandiales, Corallinales, Acrochaetiales, Palmanales, Batrachospermales, and Nemaliales) terminate long branches of basal position within Florideophycidae in the most parsimonious rbcL tree. Orders that lack typical cap layers but possess a cap membrane are resolved as a monophyletic clade sister to the Ahnfeltiales. The large order Gigartinales, which is distributed among five rbcL clades, is polyphyletic. Families that possess typical carrageenan in their cell walls are resolved as a terminal clade containing two family complexes centered around the Solieriaceae and Gigartinaceae. PMID:8041781

  6. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... antibodies may or may not be associated with adverse reactions, and identification of the specific type of RBC ... the only things that can cause a transfusion reaction. The recipient's immune ... or to drugs that the donor may have taken. Rarely, antibodies in the plasma ...

  7. Blood Transfusion Strategies in Patients Undergoing Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Soo Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO is frequently associated with bleeding and coagulopathy complications, which may lead to the need for transfusion of multiple blood products. However, blood transfusions are known to increase morbidity and mortality, as well as hospital cost, in critically ill patients. In current practice, patients on ECMO receive a transfusion, on average, of 1-5 packed red blood cells (RBCs/day, with platelet transfusion accounting for the largest portion of transfusion volume. Generally, adult patients require more transfusions than neonates or children, and patients receiving venovenous ECMO for respiratory failure tend to need smaller transfusion volumes compared to those receiving venoarterial ECMO for cardiac failure. Observation studies have reported that a higher transfusion volume was associated with increased mortality. To date, the evidence for transfusion in patients undergoing ECMO is limited; most knowledge on transfusion strategies was extrapolated from studies in critically ill patients. However, current data support a restrictive blood transfusion strategy for ECMO patients, and a low transfusion trigger seems to be safe and reasonable.

  8. Transfusion practice in coronary artery bypass surgery in Denmark: a multicenter audit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, J.J.; Westen, M; Pallesen, PA

    2007-01-01

    of antifibrinolytic drugs, use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), cross-clamp time, time on CPB, lowest hemoglobin during CPB, and number of distal anastomoses. The percentage of patients transfused with allogeneic red blood cells ranged from 30.0% to 64.2%. Several patients (12.1-42.7%) transfused with red blood cells......Transfusion rates in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) continue to vary substantially, although guidelines for allogeneic transfusion have been developed. In order to evaluate ongoing transfusion practices, we performed a multicenter audit in four Danish hospitals regarding the use...

  9. Red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate concentration and in vivo P50 during early critical illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ezz el din S; McLellan, Stuart A; Walsh, Timothy S

    2005-10-01

    To measure red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (RBC 2,3-DPG) concentrations in early critical illness; to investigate factors associated with high or low RBC 2,3-DPG levels; to calculate in vivo P50 in patients with early critical illness; and to explore the relationship between RBC 2,3-DPG and intensive care mortality. Prospective cohort study. General medical-surgical intensive care unit (ICU) of a major Scottish teaching hospital. One-hundred eleven critically ill patients during the first 24 hrs in the ICU with no history of chronic hematologic disorders or RBC transfusion within 24 hrs and 34 age- and sex-matched healthy reference subjects. None. We measured RBC 2,3-DPG concentration, plasma biochemistry values, and arterial blood gas parameters. On average, RBC 2,3-DPG was lower among critically ill patients than controls (mean [sd], 14.1 [6.3] vs. 16.7 [3.7] mumol/g hemoglobin; p = .004) and had a wider range of values (patients, 3.2-32.5 mumol/g hemoglobin; reference group, 9.1-24.3). Regression analysis indicated a strong independent association between plasma pH and RBC 2,3-DPG (B, 32.15 [95% confidence interval, 19.07-46.22], p level was normal (3.8 kPa) but varied widely among patients (range, 2.0-5.5 kPa). RBC 2,3-DPG concentration was similar for ICU survivors and nonsurvivors. RBC 2,3-DPG concentrations vary widely among critically ill patients. Acidosis is associated with lower RBC 2,3-DPG concentrations, but anemia is not associated with a compensatory increase in RBC 2,3-DPG early in critical illness. Lower RBC 2,3-DPG concentrations during the first 24 hrs of intensive care are not associated with higher ICU mortality.

  10. [Prospects in blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouger, P

    2003-04-01

    What will be the evolution of blood transfusion in the next 10 years? What are the scientific and medical arguments to help the decision makers to propose the developments? Many scientific and clinical studies show that blood substitutes are not ready for use in man. So, for a long time, blood collection in man will still be a necessity to prepare cell concentrates (red blood cells and platelets) and fresh frozen plasma. During this period, blood safety will be based on development of testing technics and preparation processes of blood products. Another major point will be a better clinical use of blood derivates. Cellular therapy will be probably only a way of diversification in blood transfusion centers in partnership with hospitals.

  11. Trends in US minority red blood cell unit donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazer, Mark H; Delaney, Meghan; Germain, Marc; Karafin, Matthew S; Sayers, Merlyn; Vassallo, Ralph; Ziman, Alyssa; Shaz, Beth

    2017-05-01

    To provide the appropriately diverse blood supply necessary to support alloimmunized and chronically transfused patients, minority donation recruitment programs have been implemented. This study investigated temporal changes in minority red blood cell (RBC) donation patterns in the United States. Data on donor race and ethnicity from 2006 through 2015, including the number of unique donors, collections, RBCs successfully donated, and average annual number of RBC donations per donor (donor fraction), were collected from eight US blood collectors. Minority donors were stratified into the following groups: Asian, black or African American, Hispanic or Latino, Native Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander, white, multiracial/other, and no answer/not sure. Over the 10-year period, white donors annually constituted the majority of unique donors (range, 70.7%-73.9%), had the greatest proportion of collections (range, 76.1%-79.8%), and donated the greatest proportion of RBC units (range, 76.3%-80.2%). These donors also had the highest annual donor fraction (range, 1.82-1.91 units per donor). Black or African American donors annually constituted between 4.9 and 5.2% of all donors during the study period and donated between 4.0 and 4.3% of all RBC units. Linear regression analysis revealed decreasing numbers of donors, collections, and donated RBC units from white donors over time. Although the US population has diversified, and minority recruitment programs have been implemented, white donors constitute the majority of RBC donors and donations. Focused and effective efforts are needed to increase the proportion of minority donors. © 2017 AABB.

  12. Reappraising the concept of massive transfusion in trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanworth, Simon J; Morris, Timothy P; Gaarder, Christine

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT : INTRODUCTION : The massive-transfusion concept was introduced to recognize the dilutional complications resulting from large volumes of packed red blood cells (PRBCs). Definitions of massive transfusion vary and lack supporting clinical evidence. Damage-control resuscitation regimens o...

  13. Clinical transfusion practice update: haemovigilance, complications, patient blood management and national standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelbrecht, Sunelle; Wood, Erica M; Cole-Sinclair, Merrole F

    2013-09-16

    Blood transfusion is not without risk. Although the risks of HIV and hepatitis transmission have diminished, haemovigilance programs highlight that other significant transfusion hazards remain. Sepsis from bacterial contamination is the most common residual infectious hazard in developed countries, and events due to clerical error are problematic. Unnecessary transfusions should be avoided. New national guidelines on patient blood management (PBM) emphasise holistic approaches, including strategies to reduce transfusion requirements. Perioperative PBM should incorporate preoperative haemoglobin and medication optimisation, intraoperative blood conservation, and consideration of restrictive postoperative transfusion and cell-salvage techniques. When massive transfusion is required, hospitals should implement massive transfusion protocols. These protocols reduce mortality, improve communication and facilitate adequate provision of blood products. They should include multidisciplinary team involvement and guidelines for use of blood components and adjunctive agents. Although fresh frozen plasma to red blood cell and platelet to red blood cell ratios of ≥ 1 : 2 appear to reduce mortality in trauma patients who receive massive transfusion, there is insufficient evidence to recommend specific ratios. Systematic reviews have found no significant benefit of recombinant activated factor VII in critical bleeding, and an increase in thromboembolic events; specialist haematology advice is therefore recommended when considering use of this agent. The National Safety and Quality Health Service Standards address use of blood and blood products, and provide important transfusion principles for adoption by all clinicians. Storage of red cells in additive solution results in changes, known as the "storage lesion", and studies to determine the clinical effect of the age of blood at transfusion are ongoing.

  14. Red Blood Cell Agglutination for Blood Typing Within Passive Microfluidic Biochips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huet, Maxime; Cubizolles, Myriam; Buhot, Arnaud

    2018-04-19

    Pre-transfusion bedside compatibility test is mandatory to check that the donor and the recipient present compatible groups before any transfusion is performed. Although blood typing devices are present on the market, they still suffer from various drawbacks, like results that are based on naked-eye observation or difficulties in blood handling and process automation. In this study, we addressed the development of a red blood cells (RBC) agglutination assay for point-of-care blood typing. An injection molded microfluidic chip that is designed to enhance capillary flow contained anti-A or anti-B dried reagents inside its microchannel. The only blood handling step in the assay protocol consisted in the deposit of a blood drop at the tip of the biochip, and imaging was then achieved. The embedded reagents were able to trigger RBC agglutination in situ, allowing for us to monitor in real time the whole process. An image processing algorithm was developed on diluted bloods to compute real-time agglutination indicator and was further validated on undiluted blood. Through this proof of concept, we achieved efficient, automated, real time, and quantitative measurement of agglutination inside a passive biochip for blood typing which could be further generalized to blood biomarker detection and quantification.

  15. Blood transfusion in burn patients: Triggers of transfusion in a referral burn center in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavousi, S H; Ahmadabadi, A; Sedaghat, A; Khadem-Rezaiyan, M; Yaghoubi Moghaddam, Z; Behrouzian, M J; Nemati, S; Saghafi, H

    2018-02-01

    Blood and its derivatives are one of the most lifesaving products in the modern medicine practice. However, it is not an absolutely safe prescription. Many adverse effects such as infection, transfusion-related acute lung injury, immunosuppression, multi-organ dysfunction, acute respiratory syndrome, transfusion errors, transmission of infectious agents such as HIV, HBV, HCV are attributable to blood transfusion. The aim of this study was to describe how and when blood products were transfused in a referral burn center. This cross-sectional study was performed on medical records of all admitted patients in the Department of Burns and Reconstructive Surgery of Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran during September 2014 up to August 2015. Transfusion measures such as Hb, Hct and demographic data were extracted from patient records. SPSS version 11.5 was used for data analysis. During the study period, 701 acute burnt patients were admitted with the mean age of 25.5±20.5 years. Sixty-four percent were male and burnt percentage of total body surface area (TBSA) was 30.9±24.3%. About one third (240) of patients received at least one blood product. Mean of the transfused packed red blood cell was 274.1±674.6mL per patient and 8.85mL per 1% of burnt TBSA. Anemia was the most common transfusion trigger. Mortality in burnt patients who received blood products was two folds more than patients who did not receive any blood products. We prescribed less blood products compared with other reviewed burn centers. However, following a written blood transfusion protocol by all clinicians may reduce blood transfusion in unnecessary situations even more significantly. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Reappraising the concept of massive transfusion in trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanworth, Simon J.; Morris, Timothy P.; Gaarder, Christine; Goslings, J. Carel; Maegele, Marc; Cohen, Mitchell J.; König, Thomas C.; Davenport, Ross A.; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Johansson, Pär I.; Allard, Shubha; Johnson, Tony; Brohi, Karim

    2010-01-01

    The massive-transfusion concept was introduced to recognize the dilutional complications resulting from large volumes of packed red blood cells (PRBCs). Definitions of massive transfusion vary and lack supporting clinical evidence. Damage-control resuscitation regimens of modern trauma care are

  17. [Effectiveness of a nursing intervention on patient anxiety before transfusion of packed red blood cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Díaz, Jesús Fernando; Hidalgo Gutiérrez, M Jesús; Cerezo Solana, M Fátima; Martín Morcillo, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention regarding anxiety and satisfaction in patients requiring a red blood cell transfusion. Randomised, controlled, single-blind clinical trial in patients requiring a packed red blood cell transfusion. alpha=.05, beta=.10, to detect a 10% difference, 70 subjects in each group. The sampling recruitment was randomised to the intervention group (IG) and the control group (CG). an intervention protocol with oral and written information using a published guide on the safety, risks and benefits of haemotherapy for the IG, and an equivalent one on general health topics for the CG. pre- and post-anxiety state; Spielberger's validated questionnaire: STAI. Satisfaction, by an ad hoc questionnaire. Sociodemographic and clinical variables: description, reason for transfusion, prescription knowledge, incidents, records. There was a total of 144 subjects, 73 (50.69%) in the IG, and 71 (49.31%) in the CG. The mean age was 55.80 years, with 56.94% males, and a first transfusion in 52.08%. Comparability between the IG and the CG was tested and confirmed. The decrease in anxiety after the intervention for the IG was 19.99, compared to 25.48 in CG. The difference was greater than the proposed 10%, and was statistically significant. The preference for information was 98.60% in IG, compared to 43.70% in CG. The hypothesis was confirmed; a protocolised nursing educational intervention protocol increased patient satisfaction with nursing care, and decreased patient anxiety, thus preventing complications and providing greater safety to the users. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Allogeneic blood transfusion and prognosis following total hip replacement: a population-based follow up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Alma B; Mehnert, Frank; Overgaard, Søren

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allogeneic red blood cell transfusion is frequently used in total hip replacement surgery (THR). However, data on the prognosis of transfused patients are sparse. In this study we compared the risk of complications following THR in transfused and non-transfused patients. METHODS......: A population-based follow-up study was performed using data from medical databases in Denmark. We identified 28,087 primary THR procedures performed from 1999 to 2007, from which we computed a propensity score for red blood cell transfusion based on detailed data on patient-, procedure-, and hospital......-related characteristics. We were able to match 2,254 transfused with 2,254 non-transfused THR patients using the propensity score. RESULTS: Of the 28,087 THR patients, 9,063 (32.3%) received at least one red blood cell transfusion within 8 days of surgery. Transfused patients had higher 90-day mortality compared...

  19. Platelet transfusion therapy in sub-Saharan Africa: bacterial contamination, recipient characteristics and acute transfusion reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hume, Heather A.; Ddungu, Henry; Angom, Racheal; Baluku, Hannington; Kajumbula, Henry; Kyeyune-Byabazaire, Dorothy; Orem, Jackson; Ramirez-Arcos, Sandra; Tobian, Aaron A.R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Little data are available on bacterial contamination (BC) of platelet units or acute transfusion reactions to platelet transfusions (PT) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Methods This prospective observational study evaluated the rate of BC of whole blood derived platelet units (WB-PU), the utility of performing Gram stains (GS) to prevent septic reactions, characteristics of patients receiving PT and the rate of acute reactions associated with PT at the Uganda Cancer Institute in Kampala, Uganda. An aliquot of each WB-PU studied was taken to perform GS and culture using the Bactec™ 9120 instrument. Study participants were monitored for reactions. Results 337 WB-PU were evaluated for BC, of which 323 units were transfused in 151 transfusion episodes to 50 patients. The frequency of BC ranged from 0.3%–2.1% (according to criteria used to define BC). The GS had high specificity (99.1%), but low sensitivity to detect units with BC. The median platelet count prior to PT was 10,900 (IQR 6,000–18,900) cells/μL. 78% of PT were given to patients with no bleeding. Acute reactions occurred in 11 transfusion episodes, involving 13 WB-PU, for a rate of 7.3% (95%CI=3.7–12.7%) per transfusion episode. All recipients of units with positive bacterial cultures were receiving antibiotics at the time of transfusion; none experienced a reaction. Conclusions The rate of BC observed in this study is lower than previously reported in SSA, but still remains a safety issue. As GS appears to be an ineffective screening tool, alternate methods should be explored to prevent transfusing bacterially-contaminated platelets in SSA. PMID:27079627

  20. Blood transfusion practice in Belgium. As assessed by a national survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beguin, C; Lambermont, M; Dupont, E; Vandermeersch, E; France, F H; Waterloos, H; Baele, P

    1998-01-01

    In April 1995 the Ministry of Public Health invited all Belgian hospitals to participate to a survey on the use of blood transfusion. The questionnaire presented two parts, the first one devoted to products transfused and the second one to the transfusion organisation in the hospital. 71 hospitals answered: 7 university and 64 general hospitals. All hospitals reported the use of red cells, 31 of them still used whole blood. Surgical departments transfused the greatest absolute amount of units, but the highest intensity (units/bed/year) was observed in intensive care units. 52 hospitals mentioned the use of autologous predeposit. The highest consumption of platelets occurred in medicine but intensive care showed the highest intensity of platelet transfusion. In 41 hospitals platelets were obtained by cytapheresis. The number of plasma units transfused was highly correlated with the quantities of packed red cells and whole blood transfused. Ten hospitals didn't report the use of any blood conservation technique. Returning unused units to the blood bank was allowed in 80% of the hospitals, their return to the transfusion center was permitted in 65% of the hospitals. A transfusion committee existed in only 11 hospitals. Transfusion should be improved by a better education of all physicians and nurses involved with transfusion and by improving standardisation, by better documentation, better reporting and information of all health care workers involved.

  1. Successful implementation of a packed red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma transfusion protocol in the surgical intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E Szpila

    Full Text Available Blood product transfusions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine if implementation of a restrictive protocol for packed red blood cell (PRBC and fresh frozen plasma (FFP transfusion safely reduces blood product utilization and costs in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU.We performed a retrospective, historical control analysis comparing before (PRE and after (POST implementation of a restrictive PRBC/FFP transfusion protocol for SICU patients. Univariate analysis was utilized to compare patient demographics and blood product transfusion totals between the PRE and POST cohorts. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to determine if implementation of the restrictive transfusion protocol is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes after controlling for age, illness severity, and total blood products received.829 total patients were included in the analysis (PRE, n=372; POST, n=457. Despite higher mean age (56 vs. 52 years, p=0.01 and APACHE II scores (12.5 vs. 11.2, p=0.006, mean units transfused per patient were lower for both packed red blood cells (0.7 vs. 1.2, p=0.03 and fresh frozen plasma (0.3 vs. 1.2, p=0.007 in the POST compared to the PRE cohort, respectively. There was no difference in inpatient mortality between the PRE and POST cohorts (7.5% vs. 9.2%, p=0.39. There was a decreased risk of urinary tract infections (OR 0.47, 95%CI 0.28-0.80 in the POST cohort after controlling for age, illness severity and amount of blood products transfused.Implementation of a restrictive transfusion protocol can effectively reduce blood product utilization in critically ill surgical patients with no increase in morbidity or mortality.

  2. Effect of blood transfusions on canine renal allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van der Linden, C.J.; Buurman, W.A.; Vegt, P.A.; Greep, J.M.; Jeekel, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this study significantly prolonged canine renal allograft survival has been demonstrated after transfusion of 100 ml of third-party whole blood given peroperatively. Peroperative transfusions of third-party leukocyte-free blood or pure lymphocyte cell suspensions did not influence graft survival. Furthermore, no improvement in graft survival has been found after a peroperative transfusion of irradiated whole blood (2500 rad). These data suggest that delayed graft rejection after blood transfusions can only be expected after the administration of whole blood. The role of competent lymphocytes in whole blood is questionable, since a transfusion or irradiated whole blood in combination with nonirradiated lymphocytes did not lead to prolonged graft survival. Immunosuppression of the recipient directly after transfusion seems to be essential to induce the beneficial effect of blood transfusions. This has been demonstrated for a transfusion of whole blood 14 days before transplantation. A single transfusion of 100 ml of whole blood 14 days before transplantation could effectively prolong graft survival if immunosuppression with azathioprine and prednisone was started on the day of transfusion. No improvement in graft survival has been found with such a transfusion if preoperative immunosuppression has been omitted

  3. Three-year follow-up of implementation of evidence-based transfusion practice in a tertiary hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norgaard, A.; Stensballe, J.; de Lichtenberg, T. H.

    2017-01-01

    of the implementation of evidence-based transfusion practice. Materials and Methods: Red blood cell transfusion quality indicators were compared with the evidence-based guideline at hospital and department level. Based on this evaluation, wards were selected for interventions targeting doctors and nurses......Background and Objectives: Traditionally, Denmark has had a high rate of allogeneic red blood cell transfusion caused by a liberal transfusion practice despite the existence of restrictive guidelines. We established a Patient Blood Management programme in a tertiary hospital and report the results...... procedures and 28% in admissions (P blood cell transfusion for non-bleeding patients, and led to significantly fewer patients being exposed to transfusion....

  4. Antioxidant activity of citrullus colocynthis pulp extract in the RBC's of alloxan-induced diabetic rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallak, M.; Jaliah, B.I.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies in our laboratory showed that Citrullus colocynthis pulp seedless extract have antihyperglycemic and insulinotropic effects in alloxan induced diabetes. Reactive oxygen species have been implicated in the mechanism of damage of red blood cells and anaemia in diabetic patients. So the current study was carried out to investigate the protective role of citrullus colocynthis against oxidative stress in the RBC's of alloxan induced diabetic rats. Methods: Rats were divided into four groups each of ten rats, the first group was normal non diabetic rats given normal saline orally and was named control group, the second group was diabetic rats given normal saline orally and were named normal saline treated-diabetic rats, the third and fourth group were diabetic rats treated with the pulp extract or glibenclamide (a positive control) orally. Evaluations were made for haematological parameters in the blood and for lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress enzymes activities in the RBC's of all experimental rats. Results: The diabetic rats had a significant decrease (p<0.05) in total erythrocytes count and Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and a normal Haemoglobin (Hb) value in the blood. They also showed decreased levels of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and decreased activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) in the RBC's hemolysate. On other hand, oral administration of citrullus colocynthis or glibenclamide alleviated these altered parameters in the treated rats, they resulted in a significant increase (p<0.05) in the in total erythrocytes count and PCV (Haematocrit) values in the blood and caused a significant decreased levels of TBARS and increased activities of SOD and CAT in the RBC's of those diabetic treated rats when compared to diabetic rats given normal saline. The effect was more profound in citrullus colocynthis treated diabetic rats. Conclusion: Citrullus colocynthis pulp extract possesses a potent antioxidant property

  5. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Low-Dose Tranexamic Acid versus Placebo to Reduce Red Blood Cell Transfusion During Complex Multilevel Spine Fusion Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabini, Louanne M; Moreland, Natalie C; Vealey, Ryan J; Bebawy, John F; Koski, Tyler R; Koht, Antoun; Gupta, Dhanesh K; Avram, Michael J

    2018-02-01

    Multilevel spine fusion surgery for adult deformity correction is associated with significant blood loss and coagulopathy. Tranexamic acid reduces blood loss in high-risk surgery, but the efficacy of a low-dose regimen is unknown. Sixty-one patients undergoing multilevel complex spinal fusion with and without osteotomies were randomly assigned to receive low-dose tranexamic acid (10 mg/kg loading dose, then 1 mg·kg -1 ·hr -1 throughout surgery) or placebo. The primary outcome was the total volume of red blood cells transfused intraoperatively. Thirty-one patients received tranexamic acid, and 30 patients received placebo. Patient demographics, risk of major transfusion, preoperative hemoglobin, and surgical risk of the 2 groups were similar. There was a significant decrease in total volume of red blood cells transfused (placebo group median 1460 mL vs. tranexamic acid group 1140 mL; median difference 463 mL, 95% confidence interval 15 to 914 mL, P = 0.034), with a decrease in cell saver transfusion (placebo group median 490 mL vs. tranexamic acid group 256 mL; median difference 166 mL, 95% confidence interval 0 to 368 mL, P = 0.042). The decrease in packed red blood cell transfusion did not reach statistical significance (placebo group median 1050 mL vs. tranexamic acid group 600 mL; median difference 300 mL, 95% confidence interval 0 to 600 mL, P = 0.097). Our results support the use of low-dose tranexamic acid during complex multilevel spine fusion surgery to decrease total red blood cell transfusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Risk of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Randomized to a Restrictive Versus Liberal Approach to Red Blood Cell Transfusion in Cardiac Surgery: A Substudy Protocol of the Transfusion Requirements in Cardiac Surgery III Noninferiority Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Amit X; Shehata, Nadine; McGuinness, Shay; Whitlock, Richard; Fergusson, Dean; Wald, Ron; Parikh, Chirag; Bagshaw, Sean M; Khanykin, Boris; Gregory, Alex; Syed, Summer; Hare, Gregory M T; Cuerden, Meaghan S; Thorpe, Kevin E; Hall, Judith; Verma, Subodh; Roshanov, Pavel S; Sontrop, Jessica M; Mazer, C David

    2018-01-01

    When safe to do so, avoiding blood transfusions in cardiac surgery can avoid the risk of transfusion-related infections and other complications while protecting a scarce resource and reducing costs. This protocol describes a kidney substudy of the Transfusion Requirements in Cardiac Surgery III (TRICS-III) trial, a multinational noninferiority randomized controlled trial to determine whether the risk of major clinical outcomes in patients undergoing planned cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is no greater with a restrictive versus liberal approach to red blood cell transfusion. The objective of this substudy is to determine whether the risk of acute kidney injury is no greater with a restrictive versus liberal approach to red blood cell transfusion, and whether this holds true in patients with and without preexisting chronic kidney disease. Multinational noninferiority randomized controlled trial conducted in 73 centers in 19 countries (2014-2017). Patients (~4800) undergoing planned cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. The primary outcome of this substudy is perioperative acute kidney injury, defined as an acute rise in serum creatinine from the preoperative value (obtained in the 30-day period before surgery), where an acute rise is defined as ≥26.5 μmol/L in the first 48 hours after surgery or ≥50% in the first 7 days after surgery. We will report the absolute risk difference in acute kidney injury and the 95% confidence interval. We will repeat the primary analysis using alternative definitions of acute kidney injury, including staging definitions, and will examine effect modification by preexisting chronic kidney disease (defined as a preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] blood cell transfusion in the presence of anemia during cardiac surgery done with cardiopulmonary bypass. www.clinicaltrials.gov; clinical trial registration number NCT 02042898.

  7. Use of Laser Assisted Optical Rotational Cell Analyzer (LoRRca MaxSis in the Diagnosis of RBC Membrane Disorders, Enzyme Defects, and Congenital Dyserythropoietic Anemias: A Monocentric Study on 202 Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Zaninoni

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Chronic hemolytic anemias are a group of heterogeneous diseases mainly due to abnormalities of red cell (RBC membrane and metabolism. The more common RBC membrane disorders, classified on the basis of blood smear morphology, are hereditary spherocytosis (HS, elliptocytosis, and hereditary stomatocytoses (HSt. Among RBC enzymopathies, the most frequent is pyruvate kinase (PK deficiency, followed by glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, pyrimidine 5′ nucleotidase P5′N, and other rare enzymes defects. Because of the rarity and heterogeneity of these diseases, diagnosis may be often challenging despite the availability of a variety of laboratory tests. The ektacytometer laser-assisted optical rotational cell analyser (LoRRca MaxSis, able to assess the RBC deformability in osmotic gradient conditions (Osmoscan analysis, is a useful diagnostic tool for RBC membrane disorders and in particular for the identification of hereditary stomatocytosis. Few data are so far available in other hemolytic anemias. We evaluated the diagnostic power of LoRRca MaxSis in a large series of 140 patients affected by RBC membrane disorders, 37 by enzymopathies, and 16 by congenital diserythropoietic anemia type II. Moreover, nine patients with paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH were also investigated. All the hereditary spherocytoses, regardless the biochemical defect, showed altered Osmoscan curves, with a decreased Elongation Index (EI max and right shifted Omin; hereditary elliptocytosis (HE displayed a trapezoidal curve and decreased EImax. Dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (DHSt caused by PIEZO1 mutations was characterized by left-shifted curve, whereas KCNN4 mutations were associated with a normal curve. Congenital diserythropoietic anemia type II and RBC enzymopathies had Osmoscan curve within the normal range except for glucosephosphate isomerase (GPI deficient cases who displayed an enlarged curve associated with significantly increased Ohyper, offering a

  8. Blood transfusion products contain mitochondrial DNA damage-associated molecular patterns: a potential effector of transfusion-related acute lung injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yann-Leei; King, Madelyn B; Gonzalez, Richard P; Brevard, Sidney B; Frotan, M Amin; Gillespie, Mark N; Simmons, Jon D

    2014-10-01

    Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is the most frequent and severe complication in patients receiving multiple blood transfusions. Current pathogenic concepts hold that proinflammatory mediators present in transfused blood products are responsible for the initiation of TRALI, but the identity of the critical effector molecules is yet to be determined. We hypothesize that mtDNA damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) are present in blood transfusion products, which may be important in the initiation of TRALI. DNA was extracted from consecutive samples of packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma (FFP), and platelets procured from the local blood bank. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to quantify ≈200 bp sequences from the COX1, ND1, ND6, and D-loop regions of the mitochondrial genome. A range of mtDNA DAMPs were detected in all blood components measured, with FFP displaying the largest variation. We conclude that mtDNA DAMPs are present in packed red blood cells, FFP, and platelets. These observations provide proof of the concept that mtDNA DAMPs may be mediators of TRALI. Further studies are needed to test this hypothesis and to determine the origin of mtDNA DAMPs in transfused blood. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum SOD and T-cell subsets distribution type after leukocyte-deduced red blood cell transfusion in patients with lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhengqin; Li Keqin; Xiang Hengquan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum SOD contents and T-cell subsets distribution type after leukocyte-deduced red blood cell transfusion in patients with lung cancer. Methods: Serum SOD levels was measured with RIA and T-cell subsets distribution type was detected with monoclonal antibody technic both before and after leukocyte-deduced red blood cell transfusion in 32 patients with lung cancer and 35 normal controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum levels of SOD and T-cell CIM/ CD8 value were significantly lower in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Determination of serum SOD level and T-cell subsets distribution type is clinically useful in the management of patients with lung cancer. (authors)

  10. Packed red blood cell transfusion causes greater hemoglobin rise at a lower starting hemoglobin in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidech, Andrew M; Kahn, Marc J; Soong, Wayne; Green, David; Batjer, H Hunt; Bleck, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    Each unit of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) is expected to raise circulating hemoglobin (HGB) by approximately 1 g/dL. There are few data on modifiers of this relationship other than gender and body mass index (BMI). We recorded HGB before and after PRBC transfusion in a retrospective cohort of 103 patients and a prospective cohort of 93 patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In the retrospective cohort, 48 of 103 patients were transfused, and in the prospective cohort, 56 of 93 patients were transfused. In both groups, lower pre-transfusion HGB was associated with a larger increase in HGB (P rise in HGB (P < 0.001) after correction for number of units of PRBCs given, gender, and BMI in repeated measures analysis. Pre-transfusion HGB explained an additional 12% of variance in the data (P < 0.001). In both cohorts, the magnitude of the effect was similar. In patients with SAH, transfusion at lower HGB leads to a greater increase in HGB. Transfusion at lower HGB may be relatively more cost-effective, and this should be balanced against any potential benefit from higher HGB in SAH. One rather than 2 units of PRBCs are likely to be sufficient for most HGB targets after SAH, especially in patients with more severe anemia.

  11. [Immunohematologic study and transfusion approach to patients with public antibodies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solves, P; de la Rubia, J; Arriaga, F; Cervera, J; Arnao, M; Carpio, N; Marty, M L

    1997-02-01

    To analyze the different immunohematologic studies required to identify anti-red cell antibodies directed against high incidence antigens and comment the best tranfusion management. Five patients with suspected anti-red cell alloantibodies directed against high frequency antigens are reported. After a positive antibody screening test (AST), an agglutination test with a commercial panel of 24 red cells was performed. Red cells were treated with proteolytic enzymes and AET to try to identify the circulating antibody. However, it was necessary to send the samples to reference laboratories for definitive identification. In order to evaluate the haemolytic potential of the antibody serum samples were treated with DTT and immunoglobulin subtype was studied with the capillary agglutination test. Finally, we analyze the half life of Cr51 labelled red cells. To obtain compatible blood for transfusion, autologous transfusion and cross-match with blood from direct relatives were performed. AST was positive in every case. A decrease in the agglutination test was observed after ficin treatment in two patients, and an increase in the remaining. The treatment of red cells with ZZAP and AET resulted in a decrease of agglutination in three cases and an increase in the remaining two. Specificity of the antibodies was as follows: anti-Cellano (two cases), anti-Ku (one case) and anti-Yta (two cases). Anti-Kell antibodies were IgG1 and anti-Cartwright antibodies were IgG4. One patient was transfused with autologous blood alone, another patient received compatible blood from direct relatives. A third patient was transfused both with autologous and allogeneic compatible blood. The fourth patient did not need red cell transfusion and, finally the last patient had to be transfused with incompatible blood but no postransfusion haemolysis was observed. In patients with anti-red cell antibodies against high-frequency antigens, red blood cells treatment with proteolytic enzymes (ZZAP, ficin

  12. The prevalence and assessment of blood transfusions in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajieh Borna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood transfusion is common in infants. Due to the weakened immune system of newborns and the risk of blood transfusion complications, it is necessary to pay more attention following or after to blood transfusion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and risk factors of blood transfusions in hospitalized neonates. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 1106 infants admitted in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU of Mustafa Khomeini University Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from spring 2009 to 2012. Frequency and the reason for of blood components transfusion including fresh frozen plasma, platelets, whole blood, packed red blood cells, cryoprecipitate and relationship with gestational age, sex, birth weight, Apgar score, duration of hospitalization, use of mechanical ventilation were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS statistical software, version 16 (IBM, Armonk, NY, USA and statistical test, chi-square test, independent t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results: Among 1106 infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit, 221 infants (%19.98 received blood products. 82 of all (37% were female and 139 (%63 were female. 113 (51% of neonate were preterm and 108 (48% were term. From 361 times of blood transfusions, 121 infant (54.75% received at least one blood product. The frequency of blood transfusion was between 39 and 1 times, with an average of 3.65 times per infant. Frequency of fresh frozen plasma infusion was 173 (47.9%, packed cell 122 (33%, platelet 32 (8.8%, cryoprecipitate 20 (5.1% and whole blood 3 unit (0.83%. The most common causes for fresh frozen plasma transfusion was replacement therapy 140 (80%, for packed cell, to correct symptomatic anemia 68 (55.6%, for platelet transfusions was to prevent bleeding in  neonates with thrombocytopenia 20 (62.5% and cryoprecipitate for bleeding caused by DIC in 18 infant (90%. There was significant relation between frequency of

  13. Post-transfusion purpura treated with plasma exchange by haemonetics cell separator. A case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, B; Morling, N; Rosenkvist, J

    1978-01-01

    A case of post-transfusion purpura in a 61-year-old, multiparous female with a platelet alloantibody (anti-Zwa) in her serum is reported. The patient was successfully treated with plasma exchange by means of a Haemonetics 30 cell separator and corticosteroids. Compared with other therapeutic...

  14. Anti-HI can cause a severe delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction with hyperhemolysis in sickle cell disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibanez, Clara; Habibi, Anoosha; Mekontso-Dessap, Armand; Chadebech, Philippe; Chami, Btissam; Bierling, Philippe; Galactéros, Frédéric; Rieux, Claire; Nataf, Joëlle; Bartolucci, Pablo; Peyrard, Thierry; Pirenne, France

    2016-07-01

    Delayed hemolytic transfusion reaction (DHTR) is a life-threatening condition in sickle cell disease (SCD) patients that is frequently complicated by hyperhemolysis. Antibodies resulting from antigen disparity between donors of European ancestry and patients of African ancestry are common, but situations involving antibodies not classically of clinical significance are also encountered. Anti-HI is generally considered to be an innocuous naturally occurring antibody. We describe two cases of hyperhemolysis with anti-HI and provide details of the reported cases. Both SCD patients were polyimmunized and belonged to blood group B. They developed anti-HI that was reactive at 37°C, after the transfusion of group O red blood cell units matched for all known and produced antibodies classically considered to be clinically significant. Both patients developed DHTR with hyperhemolysis. In the first case, a pregnant woman, a second transfusion was unavoidable and the patient died from cardiac arrest. The state of the second patient improved without the need for further transfusion. Three other cases of DHTR with anti-HI have been described in the literature in SCD patients. The two additional cases reported here definitively demonstrate that anti-HI is dangerous in SCD patients. As a result, ABO-identical matching (including A1 status) must be considered in SCD patients with anti-HI. © 2016 AABB.

  15. Molecular cloning of RBCS genes in Selaginella and the evolution of the rbcS gene family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Bo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rubisco small subunits (RBCS are encoded by a nuclear rbcS multigene family in higher plants and green algae. However, owing to the lack of rbcS sequences in lycophytes, the characteristics of rbcS genes in lycophytes is unclear. Recently, the complete genome sequence of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii provided the first insight into the rbcS gene family in lycophytes. To understand further the characteristics of rbcS genes in other Selaginella, the full length of rbcS genes (rbcS1 and rbcS2 from two other Selaginella species were isolated. Both rbcS1 and rbcS2 genes shared more than 97% identity among three Selaginella species. RBCS proteins from Selaginella contained the Pfam RBCS domain F00101, which was a major domain of other plant RBCS proteins. To explore the evolution of the rbcS gene family across Selaginella and other plants, we identified and performed comparative analysis of the rbcS gene family among 16 model plants based on a genome-wide analysis. The results showed that (i two rbcS genes were obtained in Selaginella, which is the second fewest number of rbcS genes among the 16 representative plants; (ii an expansion of rbcS genes occurred in the moss Physcomitrella patens; (iii only RBCS proteins from angiosperms contained the Pfam PF12338 domains, and (iv a pattern of concerted evolution existed in the rbcS gene family. Our study provides new insights into the evolution of the rbcS gene family in Selaginella and other plants.

  16. Restrictive blood transfusion protocol in liver resection patients reduces blood transfusions with no increase in patient morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehry, John; Cannon, Robert; Scoggins, Charles R; Puffer, Lisa; McMasters, Kelly M; Martin, Robert C G

    2015-02-01

    Management of anemia in surgical oncology patients remains one of the key quality components in overall care and cost. Continued reports demonstrate the effects of hospital transfusion, which has been demonstrated to lead to a longer length of stay, more complications, and possibly worse overall oncologic outcomes. The hypothesis for this study was that a dedicated restrictive transfusion protocol in patients undergoing hepatectomy would lead to less overall blood transfusion with no increase in overall morbidity. A cohort study was performed using our prospective database from January 2000 to June 2013. September 2011 served as the separation point for the date of operation criteria because this marked the implementation of more restrictive blood transfusion guidelines. A total of 186 patients undergoing liver resection were reviewed. The restrictive blood transfusion guidelines reduced the percentage of patients that received blood from 31.0% before January 9, 2011 to 23.3% after this date (P = .03). The liver procedure that was most consistently associated with higher levels of transfusion was a right lobectomy (16%). Prior surgery and endoscopic stent were the 2 preoperative interventions associated with receiving blood. Patients who received blood before and after the restrictive period had similar predictive factors: major hepatectomies, higher intraoperative blood loss, lower preoperative hemoglobin level, older age, prior systemic chemotherapy, and lower preoperative nutritional parameters (all P blood did not have worse overall progression-free survival or overall survival. A restrictive blood transfusion protocol reduces the incidence of blood transfusions and the number of packed red blood cells transfused. Patients who require blood have similar preoperative and intraoperative factors that cannot be mitigated in oncology patients. Restrictive use of blood transfusions can reduce cost and does adversely affect patients undergoing liver resection

  17. Study on changes of serum ferritin (SF), folic acid (FA) and vitamin B12 levels after transfusion of preserved red cells (PRC) in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Hongsu; Li Xinhua; Li Keqin

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum SF, FA and VitB 12 levels after transfusion of preserved red cells in patients with IDA. Methods: Serum SF, FA and VitB 12 levels (with RIA) were detected both before and after transfusion of preserved red cells in 32 patients with IDA as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before transfusion of preserved red cells, the serum SF levels were significantly lower than those in controls (P 12 levels were significantly higher (P 12 were not much different from those in the controls. Conclusion: Transfusion of preserved red cells proves to be very useful. (authors)

  18. Red blood cell transfusion in infants and children - Current perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Natasha

    2018-06-01

    Children routinely receive packed red blood transfusion when they are admitted in the intensive care unit or undergoing cardiac surgeries. These guidelines aim to summarize literature and provide transfusion triggers exclusively in infants and children. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Hepatitis B Surface AntigenemiaAmong Transfused Children with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients with sickle cell anaemia (SCA), a common haematological disorder inNigeria,may have complications that require blood transfusion, thus exposing them to the risk. Objective: To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) among transfused childrenwith SCAin Enugu. Subjects and Method: ...

  20. Experimental evaluation of mechanical and electrical properties of RBC suspensions under flow. Role of RBC deformability

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Antonova, N.; Říha, Pavel; Ivanov, I.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 25, 3-4 (2010), s. 45-52 ISSN 1313-2458 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : apparent viscosity * conductivity * RBC suspensions * dextran 70 * PEG 35 000 * glutaraldehyde Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  1. Effect of blood transfusions on canine renal allograft survival

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Der Linden, C.J.; Buurman, W.A.; Vegt, P.A.; Greep, J.M.; Jeekel, J.

    1982-01-01

    In this study significantly prolonged canine renal allograft survival has been demonstrated after transfusion of 100 ml of third-party whole blood given peroperatively. Peroperative transfusions of third-party leukocyte-free blood or pure lymphocyte cell suspensions did not influence graft survival. Futhermore, no improvement in graft survival has been found after a peroperative transfuson of irradiated whole blood (2500 rad). These data suggest that delayed graft rejection after blood transfusions can only be expected after the administration of whole blood. The role of competent lymphocytes in whole blood is questionable, since a transfusion of irradiated whole blood in combination with nonirradiated lymphocytes did not lead to prolonged graft survival. Immunosuppression of the recipient directly after transfusion seems to be essential to induce the beneficial effect of blood transfusions. This has been demonstrated for a transfusion of whole blood 14 days before transplantation. A single transfusion of 100 ml of whole blood 14 days before transplantation could effectively prolong graft survival if immunosuppression with azathioprine and prednisone was started on the day of transfusion. No improvement in graft survival has been found with such a transfusion if preoperative immunosuppression has been omitted

  2. Reappraising the concept of massive transfusion in trauma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stanworth, Simon J; Morris, Timothy P; Gaarder, Christine

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT : INTRODUCTION : The massive-transfusion concept was introduced to recognize the dilutional complications resulting from large volumes of packed red blood cells (PRBCs). Definitions of massive transfusion vary and lack supporting clinical evidence. Damage-control resuscitation regimens...... of modern trauma care are targeted to the early correction of acute traumatic coagulopathy. The aim of this study was to identify a clinically relevant definition of trauma massive transfusion based on clinical outcomes. We also examined whether the concept was useful in that early prediction of massive...... transfusion as a concept in trauma has limited utility, and emphasis should be placed on identifying patients with massive hemorrhage and acute traumatic coagulopathy....

  3. Investigation of the status quo of massive blood transfusion in China and a synopsis of the proposed guidelines for massive blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiang-Cun; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Dang, Qian-Li; Sun, Yang; Xu, Cui-Xiang; Jin, Zhan-Kui; Ma, Ting; Liu, Jing

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to provide an overview of massive transfusion in Chinese hospitals, identify the important indications for massive transfusion and corrective therapies based on clinical evidence and supporting experimental studies, and propose guidelines for the management of massive transfusion. This multiregion, multicenter retrospective study involved a Massive Blood Transfusion Coordination Group composed of 50 clinical experts specializing in blood transfusion, cardiac surgery, anesthesiology, obstetrics, general surgery, and medical statistics from 20 tertiary general hospitals across 5 regions in China. Data were collected for all patients who received ≥10 U red blood cell transfusion within 24 hours in the participating hospitals from January 1 2009 to December 31 2010, including patient demographics, pre-, peri-, and post-operative clinical characteristics, laboratory test results before, during, and after transfusion, and patient mortality at post-transfusion and discharge. We also designed an in vitro hemodilution model to investigate the changes of blood coagulation indices during massive transfusion and the correction of coagulopathy through supplement blood components under different hemodilutions. The experimental data in combination with the clinical evidence were used to determine the optimal proportion and timing for blood component supplementation during massive transfusion. Based on the findings from the present study, together with an extensive review of domestic and international transfusion-related literature and consensus feedback from the 50 experts, we drafted the guidelines on massive blood transfusion that will help Chinese hospitals to develop standardized protocols for massive blood transfusion.

  4. Fulminant transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease in a premature infant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, R.S.; Dixon, S.L.

    1989-01-01

    A fatal case of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease developed in a premature infant after receiving several blood products, including nonirradiated white blood cells. Transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease can be prevented. Irradiation of blood products is the least controversial and most effective method. Treatment was unsuccessful in most reported cases of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease. Therefore irradiation of blood products before transfusing to patients susceptible to transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease is strongly recommended

  5. Limited Blood Transfusions Are Safe in Orthopaedic Trauma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolenc, Andrea J; Morris, William Z; Como, John J; Wagner, Karl G; Vallier, Heather A

    2016-12-01

    Controversy exists over association of blood transfusions with complications. The purpose was to assess effects of limited transfusions on complication rates and hospital course. Level 1 trauma center. Three hundred seventy-one consecutive patients with Injury Severity Score ≥16 underwent fixation of fractures of spine (n = 111), pelvis (n = 72), acetabulum (n = 57), and/or femur (n = 179). Those receiving >3 units of packed red blood cell were excluded. Fracture type, associated injuries, treatment details, ventilation time, complications, and hospital stay were prospectively recorded. Ninety-eight patients with 107 fractures received limited transfusion, and 119 patients with 123 fractures were not transfused. The groups did not differ in age, fracture types, time to fixation, or associated injuries. Lowest hematocrit was lower in the transfused group (22.8 vs. 30.0, P < 0.0001). Surgical duration (3:23 vs. 2:28) and estimated blood loss (462 vs. 211 mL) were higher in transfused patients (all P < 0.003). Pulmonary complications occurred in 12% of transfused and 4% of nontransfused, (P = 0.10). Mean days of mechanical ventilation (2.51 vs. 0.45), intensive care unit days (4.5 vs. 1.5) and total hospital stay (8.8 vs. 5.7) were higher in transfused patients (all P ≤ 0.006). After multivariate analysis, limited transfusion was associated with increased hospital and intensive care unit stays and mechanical ventilation time, but not with complications. Patients receiving ≤3 units of packed red blood cell had lower hematocrit and greater surgical burden, but no difference in complications versus the nontransfused group. Limited blood transfusions are likely safe, excepting a possible association with longer mechanical ventilation times and hospital stays. Therapeutic level III. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  6. Discriminating plants using the DNA barcode rbcLb: an appraisal based on a large data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenpan; Cheng, Tao; Li, Changhao; Xu, Chao; Long, Ping; Chen, Chumming; Zhou, Shiliang

    2014-03-01

    The ideal DNA barcode for plants remains to be discovered, and the candidate barcode rbcL has been met with considerable skepticism since its proposal. In fact, the variability within this gene has never been fully explored across all plant groups from algae to flowering plants, and its performance as a barcode has not been adequately tested. By analysing all of the rbcL sequences currently available in GenBank, we attempted to determine how well a region of rbcL performs as a barcode in species discrimination. We found that the rbcLb region was more variable than the frequently used rbcLa region. Both universal and plant group-specific primers were designed to amplify rbcLb, and the performance of rbcLa and rbcLb was tested in several ways. Using blast, both regions successfully identified all families and nearly all genera; however, the successful species identification rates varied significantly among plant groups, ranging from 24.58% to 85.50% for rbcLa and from 36.67% to 90.89% for rbcLb. Successful species discrimination ranged from 5.19% to 96.33% for rbcLa and from 22.09% to 98.43% for rbcLb in species-rich families, and from 0 to 88.73% for rbcLa and from 2.04% to 100% for rbcLb in species-rich genera. Both regions performed better for lower plants than for higher plants, although rbcLb performed significantly better than rbcLa overall, particularly for angiosperms. Considering the applicability across plants, easy and unambiguous alignment, high primer universality, high sequence quality and high species discrimination power for lower plants, we suggest rbcLb as a universal plant barcode. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Ranitidine prevents postoperative transfusion-induced depression of delayed hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Hammer, J H; Moesgaard, F

    1989-01-01

    The influence of perioperative blood transfusion on postoperative depression of cell-mediated immunity (CMI) and the effect of ranitidine on transfusion-induced changes in postoperative CMI were investigated. CMI was assessed preoperatively and postoperatively by skin testing with seven common...

  8. Strategi Perancangan Mutu Ripe Banana Chip (RBC Berbasis Harapan Konsumen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Herry P

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ripe Banana Chip (RBC, merupakan salah satu jenis kripik yang dibuat dari pisang masak. RBC dapat dilakukan dengan menggunakan teknologi penggorengan vakum (vacum frying ataupun pembekuan (freezing. RBC pisang mas cukup banyak memiliki keunggulan dari nilai gizinya. Produk ini masih belum diketahui tingkat kesesuain mutunya dengan keinginan konsumen dilihat dari aspek fisik ataupun organoleptik. Tujuan penelitian ini agar dapat mengetahui rancangan mutu yang tepat untuk produk RBC pisang mas. Penelitian ini menggunakan tiga metode, diantaranya metode skoring, Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI, dan metode diagram tulang ikan. Hasil dari penelitian, yaitu : warna RBC dengan intensitas 5,56 (kuning dan skor 3,862 (suka ; informasi kemasan dengan intensitas 4,5 (setuju dan skor 3,534 (suka ; kenyamanan kemasan dengan intensitas 8,58 (nyaman dan skor 4,155 (suka ; keamanan kemasan dengan intensitas 8,15 (sangat aman dan skor 4,086 (suka ; ketebalan dengan intensitas 8,31(sangat tebal dan skor 1,604 (sangat tidak suka ; Oil dengan intensitas 4,86 (banyak dan skor 2,483 (tidak suka ; kerenyahan dengan intensitas 7,32 (keras dan skor 2,843 (cukup suka ; Easy of breaking dengan intensitas 5,17 (mudah dipatahkan dan skor 3,158 (cukup suka ; rasa manis dengan intensitas 7,89 (manis dan skor 3,208 (cukup suka ; rasa asam dengan intensitas 4,84 (agak asam dan skor 3,309 (cukup suka. Nilai CSI yang dihasilkan, yaitu sebesar 64% (puas. Strategi untuk meningkatkan mutu RBC diantaranya: mengurangi ukuran ketebalan bahan baku sebelum diproses; lebih dipertimbangkan lagi tingkat kematangan pisang; memberi pengarahan dan motivasi kepada pekerja; melakukan pengawasan saat produksi berlangsung; lebih memperhatikan keseragaman ukuran pisang, dan menggunakan alternatif lain dalam penirisan minyak, misalnya sentrifuse agar keberadaan minyak berkurang.

  9. Blood transfusion indications in neurosurgical patients: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagwe, Shefali; Chung, Lawrance K; Lagman, Carlito; Voth, Brittany L; Barnette, Natalie E; Elhajjmoussa, Lekaa; Yang, Isaac

    2017-04-01

    Neurosurgical procedures can be complicated by significant blood losses that have the potential to decrease tissue perfusion to critical brain tissue. Red blood cell transfusion is used in a variety of capacities both inside, and outside, of the operating room to prevent untoward neurologic damage. However, evidence-based guidelines concerning thresholds and indications for transfusion in neurosurgery remain limited. Consequently, transfusion practices in neurosurgical patients are highly variable and based on institutional experiences. Recently, a paradigm shift has occurred in neurocritical intensive care units, whereby restrictive transfusion is increasingly favored over liberal transfusion but the ideal strategy remains in clinical equipoise. The authors of this study perform a systematic review of the literature with the objective of capturing the changing landscape of blood transfusion indications in neurosurgical patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Autologous blood transfusion during emergency trauma operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Carlos V R; Foulkrod, Kelli H; Sadler, Holli T; Richards, E Kalem; Biggan, Dennis P; Czysz, Clea; Manuel, Tony

    2010-07-01

    Intraoperative cell salvage (CS) of shed blood during emergency surgical procedures provides an effective and cost-efficient resuscitation alternative to allogeneic blood transfusion, which is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in trauma patients. Retrospective matched cohort study. Level I trauma center. All adult trauma patients who underwent an emergency operation and received CS as part of their intraoperative resuscitation. The CS group was matched to a no-CS group for age, sex, Injury Severity Score, mechanism of injury, and operation performed. Amount and cost of allogeneic transfusion of packed red blood cells and plasma. The 47 patients in the CS group were similar to the 47 in the no-CS group for all matched variables. Patients in the CS group received an average of 819 mL of autologous CS blood. The CS group received fewer intraoperative (2 vs 4 U; P = .002) and total (4 vs 8 U; P blood cells. The CS group also received fewer total units of plasma (3 vs 5 U; P = .03). The cost of blood product transfusion (including the total cost of CS) was less in the CS group ($1616 vs $2584 per patient; P = .004). Intraoperative CS provides an effective and cost-efficient resuscitation strategy as an alternative to allogeneic blood transfusion in trauma patients undergoing emergency operative procedures.

  11. Outcomes of Protocol-Driven Care of Critically Ill Severely Anemic Patients for Whom Blood Transfusion Is Not an Option.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shander, Aryeh; Javidroozi, Mazyar; Gianatiempo, Carmine; Gandhi, Nisha; Lui, John; Califano, Frank; Kaufman, Margit; Naqvi, Sajjad; Syed, Faraz; Aregbeyen, Oshuare

    2016-06-01

    To compare the outcomes of severely anemic critically ill patients for whom transfusion is not an option ("bloodless" patients) with transfused patients. Cohort study with propensity score matching. ICU of a referral center. One hundred seventy-eight bloodless and 441 transfused consecutive severely anemic, critically ill patients, admitted between May 1996 and April 2011, and having at least one hemoglobin level less than or equal to 8 g/dL within 24 hours of ICU admission. Patients with diagnosis of brain injury, acute myocardial infarction, or status postcardiac surgery were excluded. Allogeneic RBC transfusion during ICU stay. Primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Other outcomes were ICU mortality, readmission to ICU, new electrocardiographic or cardiac enzyme changes suggestive of cardiac ischemia or injury, and new positive blood culture result. Transfused patients were older, had higher hemoglobin level at admission, and had higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score. Hospital mortality rates were 24.7% in bloodless and 24.5% in transfused patients (odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.68-1.52; p = 0.95). Adjusted odds ratio of hospital mortality was 1.52 (95% CI, 0.95-2.43; p = 0.08). No significant difference in ICU readmission or positive blood culture results was observed. Analysis of propensity score-matched cohorts provided similar results. Overall risk of mortality in severely anemic critically ill bloodless patients appeared to be comparable with transfused patients, albeit the latter group had older age and higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score. Use of a protocol to manage anemia in these patients in a center with established patient blood management and bloodless medicine and surgery programs is feasible and likely to contribute to improved outcome, whereas more studies are needed to better delineate the impact of such programs.

  12. Development of a kit for RBC labelling with 99mTc and its clinic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marafuschi, A.M.; Nowotny, G.A.; Palcos, M.C.; Rotta, M. del C.

    1980-01-01

    A kit for labelling red blood cells (RBC) with 99m Tc based on a Tin Pyrophosphate mixture freeze-dried and a saline solution saturated with nitrogen has been prepared for spleen and placenta scanning, circulatory studies and blood volume determinations. The stannous tin is intended to reduce the 99m Tc pertechnetate, obtained either from generators or from solvent extraction, to the appropriate valence state suitable for labelling. The technique is as follows: Add to the heparinized blood sample the Tin-Pyrophosphate mixture dissolved in the saline solution. After five minutes incubation time at room temperature the plasma is discarded by centrifugation. Following the addition of the tracer activity to the separated RBC, the supernatant is discarded after a second centrifugation. Depending on the test to be performed, the RBC are either resuspended in saline solution for blood pool or circulation studies or denaturalized at 49.5 deg C for spleen scanning. The labelling yield (95-88%) and its stability has been checked by in vitro measurements, up to four hours after labelling. The biological distribution and spleen uptake have been determined in rats and rabbits. The developed method proved to be adequate for labelling RBC with good labelling retention. An interesting application is shown in babies with congenital cardiac defects and suspected absence of the spleen, where the scan gave a good image of the existing spleen. (author) [es

  13. Genetically Determined Hazards of Blood Transfusion Within and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The risks of sensitizing the recipient of a blood transfusion to the antigens on the red blood cells of the donor have been calculated for the various populations of Southern Africa. Although many of these antigens vary markedly in their frequencies in different populations, the theoretical risks of incompatible transfusion with ...

  14. Lack of effect of unrefrigerated young whole blood transfusion on patient outcomes after massive transfusion in a civilian setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwok M; Leonard, Anton D

    2011-08-01

    Warm fresh whole blood has been advocated for critical bleeding in the military setting. This study assessed whether unrefrigerated young whole blood transfusion, from donation to transfusion less than 24 hours, could reduce mortality of patients with critical bleeding in a civilian setting. A linked data cohort study was conducted on a total of 353 consecutive patients requiring massive transfusion, defined as 10 units or more of red blood cells or whole blood transfusion within 24 hours, in a quaternary health care center in Australia. Of the 353 patients with massive blood transfusion in the study, 77 received unrefrigerated young whole blood transfusion (mean, 4.0 units; interquartile range, 2-6). The diagnosis, severity of acute illness, age, sex, and ABO blood group were not significantly different between the patients who received unrefrigerated young whole blood and those who did not. Unrefrigerated young whole blood transfusions were associated with a slightly improved coagulation profile (lowest fibrinogen concentrations 1.7g/L vs. 1.4g/L, p=0.006; worst international normalization ratio, 2.4 vs. 2.8, p=0.05) but did not reduce the total utilization of allogeneic blood products and subsequent use of recombinant Factor VIIa (27% vs. 22%, p=0.358). Thirty-day mortality and 8-year survival after hospital discharge (hazard ratio, 1.05; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-2.65; p=0.93) were also not different after the use of unrefrigerated young whole blood transfusion. Unrefrigerated young whole blood transfusion was not associated with a reduced mortality of patients requiring massive transfusion in a civilian setting when other blood products were readily available. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  15. The effects of red blood cell preparation method on in vitro markers of red blood cell aging and inflammatory response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwanski, Katherine; Garraud, Olivier; Cognasse, Fabrice; Hamzeh-Cognasse, Hind; Payrat, Jean-Marc; Min, Kyungyoon

    2013-12-01

    Studies are currently under way examining whether the age of stored red blood cells (RBCs) affects clinical outcome in transfusion recipients. The effects of storage duration on the RBC storage lesion are well documented, while fewer studies are available regarding the effect of RBC production method. In this study, we compared in vitro RBC quality variables and markers of inflammatory response in apheresis and whole blood (WB)-derived RBCs, specifically those prepared after an overnight room temperature hold (RTH) of WB. SAGM RBCs, prepared from WB after overnight RTH (n = 10), were compared to SAGM RBCs prepared using an apheresis device (Alyx, n = 10). As a control, SAGM RBCs were also prepared within 2 hours of WB collection (2-hr WB, n = 10). All RBCs were stored at 4°C for 42 days with weekly assay of in vitro variables, cytokines and/or chemokines, and neutrophil activation after incubation with RBC supernatant. RTH WB RBCs exhibited decreased levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate acid (2.3 μmol/g hemoglobin [Hb] ± 2.1 vs. 13.7 ± 1.3 μmol/g Hb) and morphology (160 ± 10 vs. 192 ± 5) on Day 1 and increased hemolysis (0.45 ± 0.21% vs. 0.31 ± 0.09%) and microparticles (6.1 ± 2.8/10(3) RBCs vs. 3.9 ± 1.1/10(3) RBCs) on Day 42 compared to apheresis RBCs. Gro-α and ENA-78 cytokine levels were significantly higher in RTH WB than Alyx RBCs during storage. CD11b expression was highest in neutrophils exposed to supernatant from RTH WB RBCs (p < 0.05). RBC preparation method has a meaningful effect on the RBC storage lesion, which should be taken into account in addition to length of storage. © 2013 American Association of Blood Banks.

  16. Hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn due to maternal red blood cell alloantibodies in the Malay population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Mohd Nazri; Mohd Noor, Noor Haslina; Johan Noor, Shah Reza; Sukri, Salamah Ahmad; Mustafa, Rapiaah; Luc Aster, Hans Van Rostenberghe

    2014-01-01

    Background: Maternal red blood cell (RBC) alloimmunization may lead to production of harmful antibodies that result in hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN). There is insufficient data on the prevalence of HDFN due to RBC alloantibodies in the Malay neonatal population. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HDFN in the Malay neonatal population due to clinically significant RBC alloantibodies. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Transfusion Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitiy Sains Malaysia over one year period from January to December 2009. A total of 5163 Malay pregnant women who attended labor room for delivery were collected and analyzed prospectively. The blood samples were subjected to the standard immunohematological procedure for RBC antibody screening and identification using reagents of Diamed-ID Gel microtyping system. All the newborns with RBC alloantibody were investigated for the evidence of HDFN. Results: Thirty (0.58%) women were found to have clinically significant RBC alloantibodies. Most of the alloantibodies belonged to Rhesus (Rh) system (56.7%) where anti-E (33.3%) was the most common followed by anti-D (10.0%). Rh antibodies were the main cause of HDFN in fourteen (0.27%) neonates. Anti-D and anti-c were identified to cause moderate to very severe HDFN. Conclusions: With the low prevalence of clinically significant RBC alloantibodies and HDFN, routine antenatal antibody screening practice may not be advised as a routine practice at present, preferably reserved for those women of RhD negative or with history of HDFN, significantly of those attributed to anti-c. PMID:25161351

  17. Profiles of blood and blood component transfusion recipients in Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafirakureva, Nyashadzaishe; Khoza, Star; Hassall, Oliver; Faragher, Brian E.; Kajja, Isaac; Mvere, David A.; Emmanuel, Jean C.; Postma, Maarten J.; van Hulst, Marinus

    2015-01-01

    Background There are limited published data on the characteristics of blood transfusion recipients in sub-Saharan Africa. This study describes the demographic characteristics of blood transfusion recipients and patterns of blood and blood component use in Zimbabwe. Materials and methods Data on the characteristics of the blood transfusion recipients (age, sex, blood group), blood components received (type, quantity), discharge diagnoses and outcomes following transfusion (discharge status, duration of stay in hospital), were retrospectively collected from four major hospitals for the period from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012. Diagnoses were grouped into broad categories according to the disease headings of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10). Surgical procedures were grouped into broad categories according to organ system using ICD-9. Results Most of the 1,793 transfusion recipients studied were female (63.2%) and in the reproductive age group, i.e. 15–49 years (65.3%). The median age of the recipients was 33 years (range, 0–93). The majority of these recipients (n=1,642; 91.6%) received a red blood cell transfusion. The majority of the patients were diagnosed with conditions related to pregnancy and childbirth (22.3%), and diseases of blood and blood-forming organs (17.7%). The median time spent in hospital was 8 days (range, 0–214) and in-hospital mortality was 15.4%. Discussion Our sample of blood transfusion recipients were fairly young and most of them received red blood cell transfusions. The majority of patients in the reproductive age group received blood transfusions for pregnancy and childbirth-related diagnoses. PMID:26192782

  18. Efeito da transfusão de concentrado de hemácias sobre parâmetros de inflamação e estresse oxidativo em pacientes criticamente enfermos Effect of red blood cell transfusion on parameters of inflammation and oxidative stress in critically ill patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Diomário da Rosa

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Transfusão de concentrado de hemácias é freqüentemente prescrita nas unidades de terapia intensiva. Durante muito tempo a transfusão de hemácias era vista como tendo benefícios clínicos óbvios. Entretanto nos últimos anos a prática de transfusão sanguínea tem sido examinada de uma forma mais cautelosa, levando a investigações a respeito dos benefícios transfusionais, incluindo aqui o fato de os efeitos imunomoduladores relacionados à transfusão podem aumentar o risco de morbimortalidade dos pacientes. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar o efeito da transfusão de concentrado de hemácias e sua relação com a produção de citocinas inflamatórias e dano oxidativo em pacientes criticamente enfermos admitidos em uma unidade de terapia intensiva. MÉTODOS: Foram analisados durante 6 meses, no ano de 2008, pacientes internados na unidade de terapia intenvia que realizaram transfusão de concentrado de hemácias. Foram analisados os níveis séricos pré e pós transfusionais de interleucina-6 (IL-6, proteínas carboniladas e substâncias reativas ao ácido tiobarbitúrico (TBARS. RESULTADOS: Houve diminuição dos níveis séricos de IL-6 pós-transfusionais e um aumento significativo tanto para TBARS quanto para proteínas carboniladas. No entanto não houve significância estatística entre os níveis séricos de IL-6, TBARS antes e após transfusão de concentrado de hemácias e a taxa de mortalidade. Contudo ocorreu significância da relação dos níveis pós transfusionais de proteínas carboniladas e mortalidade. CONCLUSÃO: Transfusão de concentrado de hemácias é associada a aumento dos marcadores de dano oxidativo e diminuição de IL-6 em pacientes criticamente enfermos.INTRODUCTION: Red blood cell transfusions are common in intensive care units. For many years, transfusions of red blood were thought to have obvious clinical benefits. However, in recent years, the risks and benefits of blood transfusions have been

  19. Patient inclusion in transfusion medicine: current perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Friedman MT

    2015-01-01

    blood transfusions via measures such as preoperative anemia management, intraoperative cell salvage, and improved transfusion guidelines. PBM strategies also focus on enhanced requirements for transfusion education and shared decision making, including informed consent and, thus, promote a patient-centered approach as defined by the Institute of Medicine. Keywords: informed consent, patient blood management, patient-centered approach, patient communication, shared decision making

  20. CHARACTERIZATION OF ENU-INDUCED MUTATIONS IN RED BLOOD CELL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina Kildey

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Murine models with modified gene function as a result of N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU mutagenesis have been used to study phenotypes resulting from genetic change. This study investigated genetic factors associated with red blood cell (RBC physiology and structural integrity that may impact on blood component storage and transfusion outcome. Forward and reverse genetic approaches were employed with pedigrees of ENU-treated mice using a homozygous recessive breeding strategy. In a “forward genetic” approach, pedigree selection was based upon identification of an altered phenotype followed by exome sequencing to identify a causative mutation. In a second strategy, a “reverse genetic” approach based on selection of pedigrees with mutations in genes of interest was utilised and, following breeding to homozygosity, phenotype assessed. Thirty-three pedigrees were screened by the forward genetic approach. One pedigree demonstrated reticulocytosis, microcytic anaemia and thrombocytosis. Exome sequencing revealed a novel single nucleotide variation (SNV in Ank1 encoding the RBC structural protein ankyrin-1 and the pedigree was designated Ank1EX34. The reticulocytosis and microcytic anaemia observed in the Ank1EX34 pedigree were similar to clinical features of hereditary spherocytosis in humans. For the reverse genetic approach three pedigrees with different point mutations in Spnb1 encoding RBC protein spectrin-1β, and one pedigree with a mutation in Epb4.1, encoding band 4.1 were selected for study. When bred to homozygosity two of the spectrin-1β pedigrees (a, b demonstrated increased RBC count, haemoglobin (Hb and haematocrit (HCT. The third Spnb1 mutation (spectrin-1β c and mutation in Epb4.1 (band 4.1 did not significantly affect the haematological phenotype, despite these two mutations having a PolyPhen score predicting the mutation may be damaging. Exome sequencing allows rapid identification of causative mutations and development of

  1. Impact of antigenic exposures and role of molecular blood grouping in enhancing transfusion safety in chronically transfused thalassemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makroo, Raj Nath; Agrawal, Soma; Bhatia, Aakanksha; Chowdhry, Mohit; Thakur, Uday Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Red cell alloimmunization is an acknowledged complication of blood transfusion. Current transfusion practices for thalassemia do not cater to this risk. Serological phenotyping is usually not reliable in these cases unless performed before the first transfusion. Under such circumstances, molecular blood grouping is an effective alternative. To perform molecular blood group genotyping in chronically transfused thalassemia patients and assess the risk of antigenic exposure and incidence of alloimmunization with current transfusion protocols. Molecular blood group genotyping was performed for 47 chronically transfused thalassemia patients. Their 1-year transfusion records were retrieved to assess the antigenic exposure and the frequency thereof. Of 47 patients, 6 were already alloimmunized (3 with anti-E and 3 with anti-K) and were receiving the corresponding antigen negative units. We observed that random selection of ABO and Rh D matched units resulted in 57.7% ±8.26% chance of Rh and Kell phenotype matching also. Forty-four patients had received one or more antigenic exposures at least once. The 6 already alloimmunized patients were further exposed to antigens other than the ones they were immunized to. During the study period, only one patient developed an alloantibody, anti-E with exposure to antigens C (92%) and/or E (32%) at each transfusion. Several factors apart from mere antigen exposure may influence the development of alloimmunization as most of our patients received antigenic exposures but not alloimmunized. Our data provide an impetus for future large-scale studies to understand the development of alloimmunization in such patients.

  2. Impact of antigenic exposures and role of molecular blood grouping in enhancing transfusion safety in chronically transfused thalassemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj Nath Makroo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Red cell alloimmunization is an acknowledged complication of blood transfusion. Current transfusion practices for thalassemia do not cater to this risk. Serological phenotyping is usually not reliable in these cases unless performed before the first transfusion. Under such circumstances, molecular blood grouping is an effective alternative. Aim: To perform molecular blood group genotyping in chronically transfused thalassemia patients and assess the risk of antigenic exposure and incidence of alloimmunization with current transfusion protocols. Materials and Methods: Molecular blood group genotyping was performed for 47 chronically transfused thalassemia patients. Their 1-year transfusion records were retrieved to assess the antigenic exposure and the frequency thereof. Results: Of 47 patients, 6 were already alloimmunized (3 with anti-E and 3 with anti-K and were receiving the corresponding antigen negative units. We observed that random selection of ABO and Rh D matched units resulted in 57.7% ±8.26% chance of Rh and Kell phenotype matching also. Forty-four patients had received one or more antigenic exposures at least once. The 6 already alloimmunized patients were further exposed to antigens other than the ones they were immunized to. During the study period, only one patient developed an alloantibody, anti-E with exposure to antigens C (92% and/or E (32% at each transfusion. Conclusion: Several factors apart from mere antigen exposure may influence the development of alloimmunization as most of our patients received antigenic exposures but not alloimmunized. Our data provide an impetus for future large-scale studies to understand the development of alloimmunization in such patients.

  3. Advantages of type and screen policy: Perspective from a developing country!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, Geet; Tiwari, Aseem K; Arora, Dinesh; Dara, Ravi C; Acharya, Devi P; Bhardwaj, Gunjan; Sharma, Jyoti

    2018-01-01

    The authors' center recently changed their pretransfusion testing protocol from "conventional" type and screen (TS) with anti-human globulin (AHG) crossmatch (Policy A) to TS with immediate-spin (IS) crossmatch (Policy B). Red blood cell (RBC) units were issued after compatible IS crossmatch as and when required instead of AHG crossmatch. This study was conducted to compare the effects of change of policy from A to B over 1-year period on crossmatch-to-transfusion (C/T) ratio, RBC issue turnaround time (TAT), outdating of RBC, man-hours consumption, and monetary savings. This was a comparative, prospective study conducted by the Department of Transfusion Medicine of a tertiary hospital-based blood bank in Northern India. The Policy B was implemented in the department from January 2014. Relevant retrospective data for comparison of the previous 1 year, when Policy A was practiced, were derived from hospital information system. 23909 and 24724 RBC units transfused to patients admitted to the hospital during respective 1-year period of practice for Policy A and B. There was significant reduction in C/T ratio (1.94 vs. 1.01) and RBC issue TAT (79 vs. 65 min) with Policy B. Expiry due to outdating reduced (37 vs. zero) along with man-hours (16% reduction) and monetary (33% reduction) savings. Use of 'TS with IS crossmatch' policy provides multiple advantages to all the stakeholders; blood banker, clinician, patient, and the hospital management.

  4. Impact of Transfusion on Cancer Growth and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadi A. Goubran

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For many years, transfusion of allogeneic red blood cells, platelet concentrates, and plasma units has been part of the standard therapeutic arsenal used along the surgical and nonsurgical treatment of patients with malignancies. Although the benefits of these blood products are not a matter of debate in specific pathological conditions associated with life-threatening low blood cell counts or bleeding, increasing clinical evidence is nevertheless suggesting that deliberate transfusion of these blood components may actually lead to negative clinical outcomes by affecting patient's immune defense, stimulating tumor growth, tethering, and dissemination. Rigorous preclinical and clinical studies are needed to dimension the clinical relevance, benefits, and risks of transfusion of blood components in cancer patients and understand the amplitude of problems. There is also a need to consider validating preparation methods of blood components for so far ignored biological markers, such as microparticles and biological response modifiers. Meanwhile, blood component transfusions should be regarded as a personalized medicine, taking into careful consideration the status and specificities of the patient, rather than as a routine hospital procedure.

  5. [Team approaches to critical bleeding (massive bleeding and transfusion) - chairmen's introductory remarks. Questionnaire survey on current status of hospital clinical laboratories evaluating critical hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino, Shuichi; Suwabe, Akira

    2014-12-01

    In 2007, "the Guidelines for Actions against Intraoperative Critical Hemorrhage" were established by the Japanese Society of Anaesthesiologists and the Japanese Society of Blood transfusion and Cell Therapy. The documentation of in-hospital procedures for critical hemorrhage, especially about how to select RBC units, has widely standardized hospital practice. Patients with intraoperative critical hemorrhage sometimes suffer from massive blood loss. In this situation, some patients develop coagulopathy. To treat them, we need to evaluate their coagulation status based on laboratory test results. So, we performed a nationwide questionnaire survey on the current status of hospital clinical laboratories evaluating critical hemorrhage. From the results of this survey, it was recommended that central hospital laboratories should try to reduce the turn-around time required to test for coagulation parameters as much as possible for appropriate substitution therapy. (Review).

  6. Allogeneic blood transfusion and prognosis following total hip replacement: a population-based follow up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overgaard Soren

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Allogeneic red blood cell transfusion is frequently used in total hip replacement surgery (THR. However, data on the prognosis of transfused patients are sparse. In this study we compared the risk of complications following THR in transfused and non-transfused patients. Methods A population-based follow-up study was performed using data from medical databases in Denmark. We identified 28,087 primary THR procedures performed from 1999 to 2007, from which we computed a propensity score for red blood cell transfusion based on detailed data on patient-, procedure-, and hospital-related characteristics. We were able to match 2,254 transfused with 2,254 non-transfused THR patients using the propensity score. Results Of the 28,087 THR patients, 9,063 (32.3% received at least one red blood cell transfusion within 8 days of surgery. Transfused patients had higher 90-day mortality compared with matched non-transfused patients: the adjusted OR was 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI: 1.2-3.8. Blood transfusion was also associated with increased odds of pneumonia (OR 2.1; CI: 1.2-3.8, whereas the associations with cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events (OR 1.4; CI: 0.9-2.2 and venous thromboembolism (OR 1.2; CI: 0.7-2.1 did not reach statistical significance. The adjusted OR of reoperation due to infection was 0.6 (CI: 0.1-2.9. Conclusions Red blood cell transfusion was associated with an adverse prognosis following primary THR, in particular with increased odds of death and pneumonia. Although the odds estimates may partly reflect unmeasured bias due to blood loss, they indicate the need for careful assessment of the risk versus benefit of transfusion even in relation to routine THR procedures.

  7. Multiple and Periodic Measurement of RBC Aggregation and ESR in Parallel Microfluidic Channels under On-Off Blood Flow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jun Kang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Red blood cell (RBC aggregation causes to alter hemodynamic behaviors at low flow-rate regions of post-capillary venules. Additionally, it is significantly elevated in inflammatory or pathophysiological conditions. In this study, multiple and periodic measurements of RBC aggregation and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR are suggested by sucking blood from a pipette tip into parallel microfluidic channels, and quantifying image intensity, especially through single experiment. Here, a microfluidic device was prepared from a master mold using the xurography technique rather than micro-electro-mechanical-system fabrication techniques. In order to consider variations of RBC aggregation in microfluidic channels due to continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip, two indices (aggregation index (AI and erythrocyte-sedimentation-rate aggregation index (EAI are evaluated by using temporal variations of microscopic, image-based intensity. The proposed method is employed to evaluate the effect of hematocrit and dextran solution on RBC aggregation under continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip. As a result, EAI displays a significantly linear relationship with modified conventional ESR measurement obtained by quantifying time constants. In addition, EAI varies linearly within a specific concentration of dextran solution. In conclusion, the proposed method is able to measure RBC aggregation under continuous ESR in the conical pipette tip. Furthermore, the method provides multiple data of RBC aggregation and ESR through a single experiment. A future study will involve employing the proposed method to evaluate biophysical properties of blood samples collected from cardiovascular diseases.

  8. High mortality among children with sickle cell anemia and overt stroke who discontinue blood transfusion after transition to an adult program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Joseph F; Ballas, Samir K

    2016-05-01

    Chronic blood transfusion is the standard of care in the management of overt stroke due to sickle cell anemia (SS) to prevent recurrence of stroke. The problem arises when children are transitioned to adult care where blood transfusion may be discontinued. The purpose of this study was to report the outcome of 22 patients with SS and overt stroke who were transitioned to our adult program between 1993 and 2009. Transitioned patients were kept on chronic blood transfusion they had as children. Blood bank data were performed and computerized according to FDA and AABB regulations. Records were kept prospectively. Blood counts and percent hemoglobin (Hb)S were obtained before and after transfusion. HbS was kept below 30% after transfusion. Metabolic profiles were obtained every 6 months or more often if needed. Statistical analysis was by the two-tailed t-test. Patients who were compliant with blood transfusion were rarely hospitalized for painful crises. Alloimmunization and iron overload were the major complications of blood transfusion. Eight patients who refused to be maintained on chronic blood transfusion or who were noncompliant died within 1 to 5 years after transition. Causes of death included stroke in two, sudden in three, and multiorgan failure in three. The overall rate of death after transition was 36% and the major cause was discontinuation of blood transfusion. Efforts must be made to maintain adequate chronic simple or exchange blood transfusion for children with SS and stroke after transition to adult care. © 2015 AABB.

  9. [Whole-blood transfusion for hemorrhagic shock resuscitation: two cases in Djibouti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordier, P Y; Eve, O; Dehan, C; Topin, F; Menguy, P; Bertani, A; Massoure, P L; Kaiser, E

    2012-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock requires early aggressive treatment, including transfusion of packed red blood cells and hemostatic resuscitation. In austere environments, when component therapy is not available, warm fresh whole-blood transfusion is a convenient treatment. It provides red blood cells, clotting factors, and functional platelets. Therefore it is commonly used in military practice to treat hemorrhagic shock in combat casualties. At Bouffard Hospital Center in Djibouti, the supply of packed red blood cells is limited, and apheresis platelets are unavailable. We used whole blood transfusion in two civilian patients with life-threatening non-traumatic hemorrhages. One had massive bleeding caused by disseminated intravascular coagulation due to septic shock; the second was a 39 year-old pregnant woman with uterine rupture. In both cases, whole blood transfusion (twelve and ten 500 mL bags respectively), combined with etiological treatment, enabled coagulopathy correction, hemorrhage control, and satisfactory recovery.

  10. Detrimental effects of perioperative blood transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen

    1995-01-01

    Evidence suggests that perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion increases the risk of infectious complications after major surgery and of cancer recurrence after curative operation. This has been attributed to immunosuppression. Several authors have suggested that filtered whole blood and/or red...... cell concentrate, or leucocyte- and buffy coat-reduced red cells in artificial medium or their own plasma, may reduce postoperative immunosuppression. It was also anticipated that the use of autologous blood might minimize the risk of perioperative transfusion, but studies have unexpectedly shown...... similar postoperative infectious complications and cancer recurrence and/or survival rates in patients receiving autologous blood donated before operation and those receiving allogeneic blood. Future studies should identify common risk factors associated with blood storage....

  11. Epidemiology of massive transfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halmin, M A; Chiesa, F; Vasan, S K

    2015-01-01

    and to describe characteristics and mortality of massively transfused patients. Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study based on the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions (SCANDAT2) database, linking data on blood donation, blood components and transfused patients with inpatient- and population.......4% among women transfused for obstetrical bleeding. Mortality increased gradually with age and among all patients massively transfused at age 80 years, only 26% were alive [TABLE PRESENTED] after 5 years. The relative mortality, early after transfusion, was high and decreased with time since transfusion...

  12. Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemert, Martin J C van; Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M van den [Laser Centre and Department of Obstetrics, Laser Center, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Lopriore, Enrico [Division of Neonatology, Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands); Pasman, Suzanne A; Vandenbussche, Frank P H A [Division of Fetal Medicine, Department of Obstetrics, Leiden University Medical Centre, Leiden (Netherlands)], E-mail: m.j.vangemert@amc.uva.nl

    2008-04-07

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twin fetuses sharing one single (monochorionic) placenta. TTTS is caused by a net inter-twin transfusion of blood through placental anastomoses, from one twin (the donor) to the other (the recipient), which link the two feto-placental circulations. Currently, the only reliable method to measure the net inter-twin transfusion clinically is when incomplete laser therapy of TTTS occurs and one of the twins becomes anemic and requires an intra-uterine transfusion of adult red blood cells. Then, differences between adult hemoglobin concentrations measured during the transfusion and at birth relate not only to the net inter-twin transfusion but also to the finite lifetime of the adult red blood cells. We have analyzed this situation, derived the differential equations of adult hemoglobin in the donor and recipient twins, given the solutions and given expressions relating the net inter-twin flow with clinically measured parameters. We have included single and multiple intra-uterine transfusions. In conclusion, because incomplete laser therapy occurs frequently, and some cases require an intra-uterine transfusion, this method may allow collecting a wealth of net inter-twin flow data from clinicians involved in laser therapy of TTTS. To aid to the widespread use of this method, we have presented the equations as clearly as possible in tables for easy use by others. (note)

  13. Arterio-venous flow between monochorionic twins determined during intra-uterine transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gemert, Martin J C van; Wijngaard, Jeroen P H M van den; Lopriore, Enrico; Pasman, Suzanne A; Vandenbussche, Frank P H A

    2008-01-01

    Twin-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) is a severe complication of monozygotic (identical) twin fetuses sharing one single (monochorionic) placenta. TTTS is caused by a net inter-twin transfusion of blood through placental anastomoses, from one twin (the donor) to the other (the recipient), which link the two feto-placental circulations. Currently, the only reliable method to measure the net inter-twin transfusion clinically is when incomplete laser therapy of TTTS occurs and one of the twins becomes anemic and requires an intra-uterine transfusion of adult red blood cells. Then, differences between adult hemoglobin concentrations measured during the transfusion and at birth relate not only to the net inter-twin transfusion but also to the finite lifetime of the adult red blood cells. We have analyzed this situation, derived the differential equations of adult hemoglobin in the donor and recipient twins, given the solutions and given expressions relating the net inter-twin flow with clinically measured parameters. We have included single and multiple intra-uterine transfusions. In conclusion, because incomplete laser therapy occurs frequently, and some cases require an intra-uterine transfusion, this method may allow collecting a wealth of net inter-twin flow data from clinicians involved in laser therapy of TTTS. To aid to the widespread use of this method, we have presented the equations as clearly as possible in tables for easy use by others. (note)

  14. Emergency transfusion of patients with unknown blood type with blood group O Rhesus D positive red blood cell concentrates: a prospective, single-centre, observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleng, Kathleen; Jenichen, Gregor; Denker, Kathrin; Selleng, Sixten; Müllejans, Bernd; Greinacher, Andreas

    2017-05-01

    Emergency patients with unknown blood type usually receive O Rhesus D negative (RhD-) red blood cell concentrates until their blood group is determined to prevent RhD+ related adverse transfusion reactions. As 85% of individuals are RhD+, this consumption of O RhD- red blood cell concentrates contributes to shortages of O RhD- red blood cell concentrates, sometimes forcing transfusion of known RhD- patients with RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. Here we report the outcome of this transfusion policy transfusing all emergency patients with unknown blood type with O RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. In this prospective single-centre observational study done between Jan 1, 2001, and Dec 31, 2015, we assessed all consecutive RhD- patients at the University Medicine Greifswald who received RhD+ red blood cell concentrates (emergency patients with unknown blood type; and RhD- patients receiving RhD+ red blood cell concentrates during RhD- red blood cell concentrate shortages). No patients were excluded. The primary endpoint was anti-D allo-immunisation at 2 months follow-up or later. Patients were followed up and tested for immunisation against red blood cell antigens using the direct antiglobulin test and an antibody screen every 3-5 days for 4 weeks or until death, or hospital discharge. Surviving patients were screened for development of anti-D antibodies for up to 12 months (at the predefined timepoints 2, 3, 6, and 12 months) after RhD+ red blood cell transfusion. 437 emergency patients, of whom 85 (20%) were RhD-, received 2836 RhD+ red blood cell concentrates. The overall risk of inducing anti-D antibodies (in all 437 recipients) was 17 (4%, 95% CI 2·44-6·14) of 437 (assuming all patients lost to follow-up developed anti-D allo-immunisation). During this period, 110 known RhD- patients received RhD+ red blood cell concentrates during RhD- red blood cell concentrate shortages. Of these, 29 (26%; 95% CI 19·0-35·3) developed anti-D allo-immunisation (assuming all

  15. Hepatitis C and blood transfusion among children attending the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) accounts for 90% of post-transfusion hepatitis. In Uganda, there has been limited research of prevalence of HCV among sickle cell anaemia (SS) patients, a group at risk for multiple transfusions. Objectives: To establish prevalence of HCV infection and determine whether blood ...

  16. The study of x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy of 99mTc-RBC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Chunyi

    1994-01-01

    99m Tc-RBC are widely used as visualization agents for a blood pool. In this research 99m Tc-RBC was prepared by in vivo labeling. The chemical state and changes of 99m Tc atoms in 99m Tc-RBC was determined by x-ray photo-electron spectroscopy (XPS). The stability of 99m Tc-RBC is best shown by the determination of XPS at one hour or at two hours after labeling. There are two ways of coordination of bonding of RBC and 99m Tc: One is the coordination of 99m Tc with the oxygen atom which carries a negative charge of the carboxyl radical on the polypeptide bond, the other is the coordination of 99m Tc with a sulfur atom which caries the negative charge of cysteine. From the E b value of 99m Tc-RBC 99m Tc 3d5/2, it can be inferred that 99m Tc of 99m Tc-RBC is less than a trivalent. At the same time, the results of the determination by XPS with the compounds containing 99 TcO 4 - , 99 Tc(V), 99 Tc(IV) and 99 Tc(III) show that the chemical shift is lowered as the reduction state is lowered. Experimental results coincide with theoretical inferences

  17. Storage characteristics of multiple-donor pooled red blood cells compared to single-donor red blood cell units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Aabhas; Chowdhury, Raquibul; Hillyer, Christopher D; Mitchell, W Beau; Shaz, Beth H

    2016-12-01

    Each unit of blood donated is processed and stored individually resulting in variability in the amount of red blood cells (RBCs) collected, RBC properties, and the 24-hour posttransfusion RBC survivability. As a result, each unit differs in its ability to deliver oxygen and potentially its effects on the recipient. The goal of this study was to investigate the storage of pooled RBCs from multiple donors in comparison to control standard RBC units. Two units of irradiated, leukoreduced RBCs of same ABO, D, E, C, and K antigen phenotype were collected from each of five donors using apheresis. One unit from each donor was pooled in a 2-L bag and remaining units were used as controls. After being pooled, RBCs were separated in five bags and stored at 4°C along with the controls. Quality indexes were measured on Days 2, 14, and 28 for all the units. Adenosine triphosphate assays for both pooled and controls showed a slight decrease from Day 2 to Day 28 (pooled/control from 5.22/5.24 to 4.35/4.33 µmol/g hemoglobin [Hb]). 2,3-Diphosphoglycerate was successfully rejuvenated for all RBC units on Day 28 (pooled 11.46 µmol/g Hb; control 11.86 µmol/g Hb). The results showed a nonsignificant difference between pooled and control units, with a general trend of lower standard deviation for pooled units when compared to controls. Pooled units have reduced unit-to-unit variability. Future exploration of their immunogenicity is required before using pooled units for transfusion. © 2016 AABB.

  18. Chronic adult T-cell Leukemia in a young male after blood transfusion as a newborn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Colucci

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell Lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL and HTLV-1 Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HTM/TSP. Areas of extremely high HTLV-1 prevalence are surrounded by areas of middle or very low prevalence. ATLL is an aggressive lymphoproliferative malignancy of peripheral T cells, with an incidence of less than 5% in HTLV-1-infected individuals. ATLL developed in the majority of cases in individuals who were infected with HTLV-1 by their mothers due to prolonged breastfeeding. In non-endemic areas, ATLL is usually limited to immigrants, their sexual partners and descendants from endemic regions. Very few cases of ATLL have been diagnosed in recipient patients few years after an organ transplantation or blood transfusion worldwide. Achieving an accurate and fast diagnosis of ATLL can be challenging due to the lack of professional experience, delayed consultation and difficulty in its sub-classification. We present a case of a delayed onset of a chronic ATLL in an 18-years-old male who was transfused with blood components as a premature newborn in Buenos Aires, a non-endemic city of South America.

  19. Regeneration of blood-forming organs after autologous leukocyte transfusion in lethally irradiated dogs. II. Distribution and cellularity of the marrow in irradiated and transfused animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, W.; Fliedner, T.M.; Herbst, E.; Huegl, E.; Bruch, C.

    1976-01-01

    Dogs were given transfusions of cryopreserved autologous mononuclear blood leukocytes after 1200 roentgens (R) (midline dose) whole-body x-irradiation. Bone marrow repopulation was studied by means of histomorphological methods at days 9 and 10 after transfusion of an average of 3 x 10 9 , 7 x 10 9 , 13 x 10 9 , and 31 x 10 9 cells. The return of marrow cellularity to normal values was related to the number of cells transfused. With low cell doses (3 x 10 9 and 7 x 10 9 ), the marrow regeneration at 10 days was focal. There were groups of cells (colonies) showing either erythropoiesis, myelopoiesis, or megakaryocytopoiesis in the osteal niches of the trabecular bones. Frequently such niches were seen showing complete cellular recovery next to niches with complete aplasia. With higher cell doses, all niches showed hemopoietic regeneration, and the cellularity approached normal values. No hemopoietic regeneration was observed in those skeletal parts that do not show hemopoiesis, even under normal circumstances

  20. Molecular blood typing augments serologic testing and allows for enhanced matching of red blood cells for transfusion in patients with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Katie; Harris, Samantha; Gaur, Prashant; Haile, Askale; Armour, Rosalind; Teramura, Gayle; Delaney, Meghan

    2012-02-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) patients have dissimilar red blood cell (RBC) phenotypes compared to the primarily Caucasian blood donor base due, in part, to underlying complex Rh and silenced Duffy expression. Gene array-based technology offers high-throughput antigen typing of blood donors and can identify patients with altered genotypes. The purpose of the study was to ascertain if RBC components drawn from predominantly Caucasian donors could provide highly antigen-matched products for molecularly typed SCD patients. SCD patients were genotyped by a molecular array (HEA Beadchip, BioArray Solutions). The extended antigen phenotype (C, c, E, e, K, k, Jk(a) , Jk(b) , Fy(a) , Fy(b) , S, s) was used to query the inventory using different matching algorithms; the resulting number of products was recorded. A mean of 96.2 RBC products was available for each patient at basic-level, 34 at mid-level, and 16.3 at high-level stringency. The number of negative antigens correlated negatively with the number of available products. The Duffy silencing mutation in the promoter region (67T>C) (GATA) was found in 96.5% of patients. Allowing Fy(b+) products for patients with GATA increased the number of available products by up to 180%, although it does not ensure prevention of Duffy antibodies in all patients. This feasibility study provides evidence that centers with primarily Caucasian donors may be able to provide highly antigen-matched products. Knowledge of the GATA status expands the inventory of antigen-matched products. Further work is needed to determine the most clinically appropriate match level for SCD patients. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  1. Transfusion strategy for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handel, James; Lang, Eddy

    2015-09-01

    Clinical question Does a hemoglobin transfusion threshold of 70 g/L yield better patient outcomes than a threshold of 90 g/L in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding? Article chosen Villanueva C, Colomo A, Bosch A, et al. Transfusion strategies for acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding. N Engl J Med 2013;368(1):11-21. Study objectives The authors of this study measured mortality, from any cause, within the first 45 days, in patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding, who were managed with a hemoglobin threshold for red cell transfusion of either 70 g/L or 90 g/L. The secondary outcome measures included rate of further bleeding and rate of adverse events.

  2. Red cell alloimmunization in multi‑transfused patients with sickle cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-09

    Dec 9, 2014 ... history of blood transfusion, the total number of units of blood received ... specificities of irregular antibodies detected in the antibody screen. This involves testing the serum ..... Daniels G, Hadley A, Green CA. Causes of fetal ...

  3. Clinical gestalt and the prediction of massive transfusion after trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommerening, Matthew J; Goodman, Michael D; Holcomb, John B; Wade, Charles E; Fox, Erin E; Del Junco, Deborah J; Brasel, Karen J; Bulger, Eileen M; Cohen, Mitch J; Alarcon, Louis H; Schreiber, Martin A; Myers, John G; Phelan, Herb A; Muskat, Peter; Rahbar, Mohammad; Cotton, Bryan A

    2015-05-01

    Early recognition and treatment of trauma patients requiring massive transfusion (MT) has been shown to reduce mortality. While many risk factors predicting MT have been demonstrated, there is no universally accepted method or algorithm to identify these patients. We hypothesised that even among experienced trauma surgeons, the clinical gestalt of identifying patients who will require MT is unreliable. Transfusion and mortality outcomes after trauma were observed at 10 U.S. Level-1 trauma centres in patients who survived ≥ 30 min after admission and received ≥ 1 unit of RBC within 6h of arrival. Subjects who received ≥ 10 units within 24h of admission were classified as MT patients. Trauma surgeons were asked the clinical gestalt question "Is the patient likely to be massively transfused?" 10 min after the patients arrival. The performance of clinical gestalt to predict MT was assessed using chi-square tests and ROC analysis to compare gestalt to previously described scoring systems. Of the 1245 patients enrolled, 966 met inclusion criteria and 221 (23%) patients received MT. 415 (43%) were predicted to have a MT and 551(57%) were predicted to not have MT. Patients predicted to have MT were younger, more often sustained penetrating trauma, had higher ISS scores, higher heart rates, and lower systolic blood pressures (all pGestalt sensitivity was 65.6% and specificity was 63.8%. PPV and NPV were 34.9% and 86.2% respectively. Data from this large multicenter trial demonstrates that predicting the need for MT continues to be a challenge. Because of the increased mortality associated with delayed therapy, a more reliable algorithm is needed to identify and treat these severely injured patients earlier. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Usefulness of blood irradiation before transfusion to avoid transfusion associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Koki

    1997-01-01

    We summarize the pathology of the transfusion associated graft versus host disease (TA-GVHD) and examine the usefulness of the blood irradiation before transfusion as more widely used prophylaxis. The symptom of TA-GVHD was as follows: after (asymptomatic phase) for 1 to 2 weeks after blood transfusion, pyrexia and erythema appeared. Furthermore, hepatic disorder, diarrhea and bloody stool occurred. In no longer time, pancytopenia by aplastic crisis of the bone marrow appeard, and severe granulocytopenia occurred. Finally, by the complication with severe infectious disease such as septicemia, almost all the patients died with in 3 to 4 weeks after blood transfusion. TA-GVHD was found in some patients without immune deficiency syndrome. The cause of the frequent occurrence of the disease in Japan was shown by the probability of the one-way matching analysis. As the countermeasure of TA-GVHD, we examined the effectiveness of the blood irradiation before transfusion under the consideration of the safety and the emergency. After the responder cells were beforehand irradiated with various doses of radiation (X-ray or g-ray), the proliferative response was investigated through the uptake of 3 H-thymidine, and we obtained 15-50 Gy as the optimum dose of the radiation. We discuss the establishment of the countermeasure for the TA-GVHD and the formation of the nationwide support system for TV-GVHD (K.H.). 33 refs

  5. In a Canine Pneumonia Model of Exchange-Transfusion, Altering the Age but Not the Volume of Older Red Blood Cells Markedly Alters Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Puch, Irene; Remy, Kenneth E.; Solomon, Steven B.; Sun, Junfeng; Wang, Dong; Al-Hamad, Mariam; Kelly, Seth M.; Sinchar, Derek; Bellavia, Landon; Kanias, Tamir; Popovsky, Mark A.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Klein, Harvey G.; Natanson, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Background Massive exchange-transfusion of 42-day-old red blood cells (RBCs) in a canine model of S. aureus pneumonia resulted in in vivo hemolysis with increases in cell-free hemoglobin (CFH), transferrin bound iron (TBI), non-transferrin bound iron (NTBI), and mortality. We have previously shown that washing 42-day-old RBCs before transfusion significantly decreased NTBI levels and mortality, but washing 7-day-old RBCs increased mortality and CFH levels. We now report the results of altering volume, washing, and age of RBCs. Study Design and Methods Two-year-old purpose-bred infected beagles were transfused with increasing volumes (5-10, 20-40, or 60-80 mL/kg) of either 42- or 7-day-old RBCs (n=36) or 80 mL/kg of either unwashed or washed RBCs with increasing storage age (14, 21, 28, or 35 days) (n=40). Results All volumes transfused (5-80 mL/kg) of 42-day-old RBCs, resulted in alike (i.e., not significantly different) increases in TBI during transfusion as well as in CFH, lung injury, and mortality rates after transfusion. Transfusion of 80 mL/kg of RBCs stored for 14, 21, 28 and 35 days resulted in increased CFH and NTBI in between levels found at 7 and 42 days of storage. However, washing RBCs of intermediate ages (14-35 days) does not alter NTBI and CFH levels or mortality rates. Conclusions Preclinical data suggest that any volume of 42-day-old blood potentially increases risks during established infection. In contrast, even massive volumes of 7-day-old blood result in minimal CFH and NTBI levels and risks. In contrast to the extremes of storage, washing blood stored for intermediate ages does not alter risks of transfusion or NTBI and CFH clearance. PMID:26469998

  6. Testosterone-dependent sex differences in red blood cell hemolysis in storage, stress, and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanias, Tamir; Sinchar, Derek; Osei-Hwedieh, David; Baust, Jeffrey J; Jordan, Andrew; Zimring, James C; Waterman, Hayley R; de Wolski, Karen S; Acker, Jason P; Gladwin, Mark T

    2016-10-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) hemolysis represents an intrinsic mechanism for human vascular disease. Intravascular hemolysis releases hemoglobin and other metabolites that inhibit nitric oxide signaling and drive oxidative and inflammatory stress. Although these pathways are important in disease pathogenesis, genetic and population modifiers of hemolysis, including sex, have not been established. We studied sex differences in storage or stress-induced hemolysis in RBC units from the United States and Canada in 22 inbred mouse strains and in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) using measures of hemolysis in 315 patients who had homozygous SS hemoglobin from the Walk-PHASST cohort. A mouse model also was used to evaluate posttransfusion recovery of stored RBCs, and gonadectomy was used to determine the mechanisms related to sex hormones. An analysis of predisposition to hemolysis based on sex revealed that male RBCs consistently exhibit increased susceptibility to hemolysis compared with females in response to routine cold storage, under osmotic or oxidative stress, after transfusion in mice, and in patients with SCD. The sex difference is intrinsic to the RBC and is not mediated by plasmatic factors or female sex hormones. Importantly, orchiectomy in mice improves RBC storage stability and posttransfusion recovery, whereas testosterone repletion therapy exacerbates hemolytic response to osmotic or oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that testosterone increases susceptibility to hemolysis across human diseases, suggesting that male sex may modulate clinical outcomes in blood storage and SCD and establishing a role for donor genetic variables in the viability of stored RBCs and in human hemolytic diseases. © 2016 AABB.

  7. Transfusion Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smit Sibinga CT

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cees Th. Smit Sibinga ID Consulting, Zuidhorn, The NetherlandsTransfusion Medicine is a bridging science, spanning the evidence-based practice at the bedside with the social sciences in the community.     Transfusion Medicine starts at the bedside. Surprisingly, only recently that has become rediscovered with the development of ‘patient blood management’ and ‘patient centered’ approaches to allow the growth of an optimal and rational patient care through supportive hemotherapy – safe and effective, affordable and accessible.1    Where transfusion of blood found its origin in the need of a patient, it has drifted away for a long period of time from the bedside and has been dominated for almost a century by laboratory sciences. At least the first ten editions of the famous and well reputed textbook Mollison’s Blood Transfusion in Clinical Medicine contained only a fraction on the actual bedside practice of transfusion medicine and did not focus at all on patient blood management.2    This journal will focus on all aspects of the transfusion chain that immediately relate to the bedside practice and clinical use of blood and its components, and plasma derivatives as integral elements of a human transplant tissue. That includes legal and regulatory aspects, medical, ethical and cultural aspects, pure science and pathophysiology of disease and the impact of transfusion of blood, as well as aspects of the epidemiology of blood transfusion and clinical indications, and cost-effectiveness. Education through timely and continued transfer of up to date knowledge and the application of knowledge in clinical practice to develop and maintain clinical skills and competence, with the extension of current educational approaches through e-learning and accessible ‘apps’ will be given a prominent place.

  8. Transfusion medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murawski, K.; Peetoom, F.

    1986-01-01

    These proceedings contain 24 selections, including papers presented at the conference of American Red Cross held in May 1985, on the Subject of transfusion medicine. Some of the titles are: Fluosol/sup R/-DA in Radiation Therapy; Expression of Cloned Human Factor VIII and the Molecular Basis of Gene Defects that Cause Hemophilia; DNA-Probing Assay in the Detection of Hepatitis B Virus Genome in Human Peripheral Blood Cells; and Monoclonal Antibodies: Convergence of Technology and Application

  9. Progress in bio-manufacture of platelets for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heazlewood, Shen Y; Nilsson, Susan K; Cartledge, Kellie; Be, Cheang Ly; Vinson, Andrew; Gel, Murat; Haylock, David N

    2017-11-01

    Blood transfusion services face an ever-increasing demand for donor platelets to meet clinical needs. Whilst strategies for increasing platelet storage life and improving the efficiency of donor platelet collection are important, in the longer term, platelets generated by bio-manufacturing processes will be required to meet demands. Production of sufficient numbers of in vitro-derived platelets for transfusion represents a significant bioengineering challenge. In this review, we highlight recent progress in this area of research and outline the main technical and biological obstacles that need to be met before this becomes feasible and economic. A critical consideration is assurance of the functional properties of these cells as compared to their fresh, donor collected, counterparts. We contend that platelet-like particles and in vitro-derived platelets that phenotypically resemble fresh platelets must deliver the same functions as these cells upon transfusion. We also note recent progress with immortalized megakaryocyte progenitor cell lines, molecular strategies for reducing expression of HLA Class I to generate universal donor platelets and the move to early clinical studies with in vitro-derived platelets.

  10. Transfusão de hemácias em terapia intensiva: controvérsias entre evidências Red blood cell transfusion in the intensive care setting: controversies amongst evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubens Carmo Costa Filho

    2009-08-01

    com hemoglobina superiores a 7 g/dL. Não existe um consenso sobre o limiar transfusional em pacientes críticos. Os pacientes com doença cardiovascular parecem apresentar um maior risco de morte do que aqueles sem doença cardiovascular, para qualquer nível de hemoglobina. A transfusão guiada por níveis de hemoglobina e parâmetros fisiológicos, oxi-hemodinâmicos individualizados e contexto clínico parece ser atualmente estratégia mais aceita do que a correção arbitrária e isolada da hemoglobina.Anemia is a prevalent issue in intensive care units. It appears in the first days, and may continue or worsen during hospital stay. Its etiology is generally multifactorial. Red blood cell transfusion is the most common intervention for treating anemia. Approximately 12 million blood units are used for transfusions in the United States, 25% to 30% in the intensive care units. Due to reduction of transfusion infections the increased safety has allowed an expansion of clinical indications. However, transfusion therapy is associated with other adverse effects such as nosocomial infections, immunological impairment, lung injury, hemolytic reactions and higher cancer incidence. Various papers have tried to show an association between correction of anemia and mortality-morbidity, but no consensus has been reached in literature. One of the current World Health Organization's proposals is to reduce potentially unnecessary transfusions, promoting a rational transfusion attitude. The primary objective of this narrative review is to approach controversies regarding the transfusion threshold according to recent studies, and as a secondary objective, it aims to discuss iatrogenic anemia aspects and the different behaviors among intensivists on the best practices for implementation of transfusion practices. It is not within our objectives to discuss transfusion complications, although they are mentioned. A search was conducted on electronic literature databases (Pub

  11. Risk of Acute Kidney Injury in Patients Randomized to a Restrictive Versus Liberal Approach to Red Blood Cell Transfusion in Cardiac Surgery: A Substudy Protocol of the Transfusion Requirements in Cardiac Surgery III Noninferiority Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit X. Garg

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: When safe to do so, avoiding blood transfusions in cardiac surgery can avoid the risk of transfusion-related infections and other complications while protecting a scarce resource and reducing costs. This protocol describes a kidney substudy of the Transfusion Requirements in Cardiac Surgery III (TRICS-III trial, a multinational noninferiority randomized controlled trial to determine whether the risk of major clinical outcomes in patients undergoing planned cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass is no greater with a restrictive versus liberal approach to red blood cell transfusion. Objective: The objective of this substudy is to determine whether the risk of acute kidney injury is no greater with a restrictive versus liberal approach to red blood cell transfusion, and whether this holds true in patients with and without preexisting chronic kidney disease. Design and Setting: Multinational noninferiority randomized controlled trial conducted in 73 centers in 19 countries (2014-2017. Patients: Patients (~4800 undergoing planned cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Measurements: The primary outcome of this substudy is perioperative acute kidney injury, defined as an acute rise in serum creatinine from the preoperative value (obtained in the 30-day period before surgery, where an acute rise is defined as ≥26.5 μmol/L in the first 48 hours after surgery or ≥50% in the first 7 days after surgery. Methods: We will report the absolute risk difference in acute kidney injury and the 95% confidence interval. We will repeat the primary analysis using alternative definitions of acute kidney injury, including staging definitions, and will examine effect modification by preexisting chronic kidney disease (defined as a preoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] <60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 . Limitations: It is not possible to blind patients or providers to the intervention; however, objective measures will be used to assess

  12. Hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn due to maternal red blood cell alloantibodies in the Malay population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Nazri Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Maternal red blood cell (RBC alloimmunization may lead to production of harmful antibodies that result in hemolytic disease of fetus and newborn (HDFN. There is insufficient data on the prevalence of HDFN due to RBC alloantibodies in the Malay neonatal population. Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of HDFN in the Malay neonatal population due to clinically significant RBC alloantibodies. Subjects and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in Transfusion Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitiy Sains Malaysia over one year period from January to December 2009. A total of 5163 Malay pregnant women who attended labor room for delivery were collected and analyzed prospectively. The blood samples were subjected to the standard immunohematological procedure for RBC antibody screening and identification using reagents of Diamed-ID Gel microtyping system. All the newborns with RBC alloantibody were investigated for the evidence of HDFN. Results: Thirty (0.58% women were found to have clinically significant RBC alloantibodies. Most of the alloantibodies belonged to Rhesus (Rh system (56.7% where anti-E (33.3% was the most common followed by anti-D (10.0%. Rh antibodies were the main cause of HDFN in fourteen (0.27% neonates. Anti-D and anti-c were identified to cause moderate to very severe HDFN . Conclusions: With the low prevalence of clinically significant RBC alloantibodies and HDFN, routine antenatal antibody screening practice may not be advised as a routine practice at present, preferably reserved for those women of RhD negative or with history of HDFN, significantly of those attributed to anti-c.

  13. Cancer incidence in blood transfusion recipients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjalgrim, Henrik; Edgren, Gustaf; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2007-01-01

    of the observed to the expected numbers of cancers, that is, standardized incidence ratios (SIRs), using incidence rates for the general Danish and Swedish populations as a reference. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: During 5,652,918 person-years of follow-up, 80,990 cancers occurred......, the standardized incidence ratios for cancers of the tongue, mouth, pharynx, esophagus, liver, and respiratory and urinary tracts and for squamous cell skin carcinoma remained elevated beyond 10 years after the transfusion. CONCLUSIONS: The marked increase in cancer risk shortly after a blood transfusion may...

  14. Blood Transfusions (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Blood Transfusions KidsHealth / For Teens / Blood Transfusions What's in this ... in his or her body. What Is a Blood Transfusion? A transfusion is a simple medical procedure that ...

  15. Human Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transfusion Is Safe and Improves Liver Function in Acute-on-Chronic Liver Failure Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming; Zhang, Zheng; Xu, Ruonan; Lin, Hu; Fu, Junliang; Zou, Zhengsheng; Zhang, Aimin; Shi, Jianfei; Chen, Liming; Lv, Sa; He, Weiping; Geng, Hua; Jin, Lei; Liu, Zhenwen

    2012-01-01

    Acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) is a severe, life-threatening complication, and new and efficient therapeutic strategies for liver failure are urgently needed. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) transfusions have been shown to reverse fulminant hepatic failure in mice and to improve liver function in patients with end-stage liver diseases. We assessed the safety and initial efficacy of umbilical cord-derived MSC (UC-MSC) transfusions for ACLF patients associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. A total of 43 ACLF patients were enrolled for this open-labeled and controlled study; 24 patients were treated with UC-MSCs, and 19 patients were treated with saline as controls. UC-MSC therapy was given three times at 4-week intervals. The liver function, adverse events, and survival rates were evaluated during the 48-week or 72-week follow-up period. No significant side effects were observed during the trial. The UC-MSC transfusions significantly increased the survival rates in ACLF patients; reduced the model for end-stage liver disease scores; increased serum albumin, cholinesterase, and prothrombin activity; and increased platelet counts. Serum total bilirubin and alanine aminotransferase levels were significantly decreased after the UC-MSC transfusions. UC-MSC transfusions are safe in the clinic and may serve as a novel therapeutic approach for HBV-associated ACLF patients. PMID:23197664

  16. Recombinant human erythropoietin and blood transfusion in low-birth weight preterm infants under restrictive transfusion guidelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badiee, Z.; Pourmirzaiee, Mohmmad A.; Naseri, F.; Kelishadi, R.

    2006-01-01

    To compare the number and volume of red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs) in very low birth weight infants under restrictive red blood cell transfusion guidelines with and without erythropoietin administration. In a controlled clinical trial conducted at the neonatal intensive care unit of Alzahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran, between April 2002 to April 2004, 60 premature infants with gestational age up to 34 weeks, birth weight up to 1500 g, and postnatal age between 8 and 14 days were included. The newborns were randomized into 2 groups: Group 1 received 3 doses of 400 IU/kg erythropoietin per week for 6 weeks, and Group 2 received no treatment aside from their conventional medications. The 2 groups did not differ significantly with respect to their mean gestational age, birth weight and hematocrit at the study entry. Fewer transfusions were administered to those receiving erythropoietin (26.7% versus 50%, p=0.03), but there was no statistically significant difference between groups with respect to volume of transfusion. Compared with the placebo group, the infants receiving erythropoietin had a higher mean hematocrit (34% +/- 4.3 versus 29% +/- 5.9, p<0.001) and absolute reticulocyte count (57 +/- 19 versus 10 +/- 4.8 x 106, p<0.001) at the end of the study. We found no significant difference in the incidence of thrombocytopenia and leukopenia between the 2 groups. We conclude that when the restrictive RBCT guidelines were followed, treatment with erythropoietin can be useful in reduction of the number of RBCTs. (author)