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Sample records for cell proliferation differentiation

  1. Granulosa cell proliferation differentiation and its role in follicular development

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    LU Cuiling; YANG Wei; HU Zhaoyuan; LIU Yixun

    2005-01-01

    Granuiosa cells (GCs) are the most important cells in the ovary that undergo serious changes morphologically and physiologically during the processes of follicular proliferation, differentiation, ovulation, lutenization and atresia. Oocyte (OC) directs GC proliferation and differentiation, while GCs influence OC maturation. Many ovarian factors are involved in the regulation of these processes via different molecular mechanisms and signal pathways. P38MAPK can selectively regulate steroidogenesis in GCs controlled by FSH; Transcript factors LRH-1 and DAX-1 play an important role in this process; FSH induces GC prolfferation and differentiation by stimulating PCNA and StAR expression and steroidogenesis. Activated ERK1/2 signal pathway may be involved in the FSH-regulated GC proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, GC is an ideal model for studying cell proliferation, differentiation and interaction,as well as signal transduction. This review briefly summarizes the latest data in the literature, including the results achieved in our laboratory.

  2. Interleukin-1 regulates proliferation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells.

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    Vela, José M; Molina-Holgado, Eduardo; Arévalo-Martín, Angel; Almazán, Guillermina; Guaza, Carmen

    2002-07-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a pleiotropic cytokine expressed during normal CNS development and in inflammatory demyelinating diseases, but remarkably little is known about its effect on oligodendroglial cells. In this study we explored the role of IL-1beta in oligodendrocyte progenitors and differentiated oligodendrocytes. The effects of IL-1beta were compared to those of IL-1 receptor antagonist, the specific inhibitor of IL-1 activity, since progenitors and differentiated oligodendrocytes produce IL-1beta and express IL-1 receptors. Unlike other proinflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha and IFNgamma), IL-1beta was not toxic for oligodendrocyte lineage cells. However, this cytokine inhibited proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitors in the presence of growth factors (PDGF plus bFGF). This was evidenced by a significant decrease in both cells incorporating bromodeoxyuridine (45%) and total cell numbers (57%) after 6 days of treatment. Interestingly, IL-1beta blocked proliferation at the late progenitor/prooligodendrocyte (O4+) stage but did not affect proliferation of early progenitors (A2B5+). Inhibition of proliferation paralleled with promotion of differentiation, as revealed by the increased percentage of R-mab+ cells (6.7-fold). Moreover, when oligodendrocyte progenitors were allowed to differentiate in the absence of growth factors, treatment with IL-1beta promoted maturation to the MBP+ stage (4.2-fold) and survival of differentiating oligodendrocytes (2.1-fold). Regarding intracellular signaling, IL-1beta activated the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) but not the p42/p44 MAPK and, when combined with growth factors, intensified p38 activation but inhibited the growth-factor-induced p42/p44 activation. IL-1beta also induced a time-dependent inhibition of PFGF-Ralpha gene expression. These results support a role for IL-1beta in promoting mitotic arrest and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitors as well as maturation and survival of differentiating

  3. Metabolic profiling of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during proliferation and differentiation into red blood cells.

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    Daud, Hasbullah; Browne, Susan; Al-Majmaie, Rasoul; Murphy, William; Al-Rubeai, Mohamed

    2016-01-25

    An understanding of the metabolic profile of cell proliferation and differentiation should support the optimization of culture conditions for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) proliferation, differentiation, and maturation into red blood cells. We have evaluated the key metabolic parameters during each phase of HSPC culture for red blood cell production in serum-supplemented (SS) and serum-free (SF) conditions. A simultaneous decrease in growth rate, total protein content, cell size, and the percentage of cells in the S/G2 phase of cell cycle, as well as an increase in the percentage of cells with a CD71(-)/GpA(+) surface marker profile, indicates HSPC differentiation into red blood cells. Compared with proliferating HSPCs, differentiating HSPCs showed significantly lower glucose and glutamine consumption rates, lactate and ammonia production rates, and amino acid consumption and production rates in both SS and SF conditions. Furthermore, extracellular acidification was associated with late proliferation phase, suggesting a reduced cellular metabolic rate during the transition from proliferation to differentiation. Under both SS and SF conditions, cells demonstrated a high metabolic rate with a mixed metabolism of both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in early and late proliferation, an increased dependence on OXPHOS activity during differentiation, and a shift to glycolytic metabolism only during maturation phase. These changes indicate that cell metabolism may have an important impact on the ability of HSPCs to proliferate and differentiate into red blood cells.

  4. Distinct T helper cell dependence of memory B-cell proliferation versus plasma cell differentiation.

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    Zabel, Franziska; Fettelschoss, Antonia; Vogel, Monique; Johansen, Pål; Kündig, Thomas M; Bachmann, Martin F

    2017-03-01

    Several memory B-cell subclasses with distinct functions have been described, of which the most effective is the class-switched (CS) memory B-cell population. We have previously shown, using virus-like particles (VLPs), that the proliferative potential of these CS memory B cells is limited and they fail to re-enter germinal centres (GCs). However, VLP-specific memory B cells quickly differentiated into secondary plasma cells (PCs) with the virtue of elevated antibody production compared with primary PCs. Whereas the induction of VLP(+) memory B cells was strongly dependent on T helper cells, we were wondering whether re-stimulation of VLP(+) memory B cells and their differentiation into secondary PCs would also require T helper cells. Global absence of T helper cells led to strongly impaired memory B cell proliferation and PC differentiation. In contrast, lack of interleukin-21 receptor-dependent follicular T helper cells or CD40 ligand signalling strongly affected proliferation of memory B cells, but differentiation into mature secondary PCs exhibiting increased antibody production was essentially normal. This contrasts with primary B-cell responses, where a strong dependence on CD40 ligand but limited importance of interleukin-21 receptor was seen. Hence, T helper cell dependence differs between primary and secondary B-cell responses as well as between memory B-cell proliferation and PC differentiation.

  5. Differential Effects of Tacrolimus versus Sirolimus on the Proliferation, Activation and Differentiation of Human B Cells.

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    Opas Traitanon

    Full Text Available The direct effect of immunosuppressive drugs calcineurin inhibitor (Tacrolimus, TAC and mTOR inhibitor (Sirolimus, SRL on B cell activation, differentiation and proliferation is not well documented. Purified human B cells from healthy volunteers were stimulated through the B Cell Receptor with Anti-IgM + anti-CD40 + IL21 in the absence / presence of TAC or SRL. A variety of parameters of B cell activity including activation, differentiation, cytokine productions and proliferation were monitored by flow cytometry. SRL at clinically relevant concentrations (6 ng/ml profoundly inhibited CD19(+ B cell proliferation compared to controls whereas TAC at similar concentrations had a minimal effect. CD27(+ memory B cells were affected more by SRL than naïve CD27- B cells. SRL effectively blocked B cell differentiation into plasma cells (CD19(+CD138(+ and Blimp1(+/Pax5(low cells even at low dose (2 ng/ml, and totally eliminated them at 6 ng/ml. SRL decreased absolute B cell counts, but the residual responding cells acquired an activated phenotype (CD25(+/CD69(+ and increased the expression of HLA-DR. SRL-treated stimulated B cells on a per cell basis were able to enhance the proliferation of allogeneic CD4(+CD25(- T cells and induce a shift toward the Th1 phenotype. Thus, SRL and TAC have different effects on B lymphocytes. These data may provide insights into the clinical use of these two agents in recipients of solid organ transplants.

  6. Modulatory effects of quercetin on proliferation and differentiation of the human colorectal cell line Caco-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dihal, A.A.; Woutersen, R.A.; Ommen, B.v.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Stierum, R.H.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of the dietary flavonoid quercetin was investigated on proliferation and differentiation of the human colon cancer cell line Caco-2. Confluent Caco-2 monolayers exposed to quercetin showed a biphasic effect on cell proliferation and a decrease in cell differentiation (0.001

  7. Erythropoietin and the effect of oxygen during proliferation and differentiation of human neural progenitor cells

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    Frech Moritz J

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia plays a critical role in various cellular mechanisms, including proliferation and differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells. In the present study, we explored the impact of lowered oxygen on the differentiation potential of human neural progenitor cells, and the role of erythropoietin in the differentiation process. Results In this study we demonstrate that differentiation of human fetal neural progenitor cells under hypoxic conditions results in an increased neurogenesis. In addition, expansion and proliferation under lowered oxygen conditions also increased neuronal differentiation, although proliferation rates were not altered compared to normoxic conditions. Erythropoietin partially mimicked these hypoxic effects, as shown by an increase of the metabolic activity during differentiation and protection of differentiated cells from apoptosis. Conclusion These results provide evidence that hypoxia promotes the differentiation of human fetal neural progenitor cells, and identifies the involvement of erythropoietin during differentiation as well as different cellular mechanisms underlying the induction of differentiation mediated by lowered oxygen levels.

  8. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells stimulate proliferation and neuronal differentiation of retinal progenitor cells.

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    Jing Xia

    Full Text Available During retina development, retinal progenitor cell (RPC proliferation and differentiation are regulated by complex inter- and intracellular interactions. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs are reported to express a variety of cytokines and neurotrophic factors, which have powerful trophic and protective functions for neural tissue-derived cells. Here, we show that the expanded RPC cultures treated with BMSC-derived conditioned medium (CM which was substantially enriched for bFGF and CNTF, expressed clearly increased levels of nuclear receptor TLX, an essential regulator of neural stem cell (NSC self-renewal, as well as betacellulin (BTC, an EGF-like protein described as supporting NSC expansion. The BMSC CM- or bFGF-treated RPCs also displayed an obviously enhanced proliferation capability, while BMSC CM-derived bFGF knocked down by anti-bFGF, the effect of BMSC CM on enhancing RPC proliferation was partly reversed. Under differentiation conditions, treatment with BMSC CM or CNTF markedly favoured RPC differentiation towards retinal neurons, including Brn3a-positive retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and rhodopsin-positive photoreceptors, and clearly diminished retinal glial cell differentiation. These findings demonstrate that BMSCs supported RPC proliferation and neuronal differentiation which may be partly mediated by BMSC CM-derived bFGF and CNTF, reveal potential limitations of RPC culture systems, and suggest a means for optimizing RPC cell fate determination in vitro.

  9. Human Liver Stem Cells Suppress T-Cell Proliferation, NK Activity, and Dendritic Cell Differentiation

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    Stefania Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human liver stem cells (HLSCs are a mesenchymal stromal cell-like population resident in the adult liver. Preclinical studies indicate that HLSCs could be a good candidate for cell therapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and the immunomodulatory properties of HLSCs on T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells (NKs, and dendritic cells (DCs in allogeneic experimental settings. We found that HLSCs inhibited T-cell proliferation by a mechanism independent of cell contact and dependent on the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 and on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. When compared with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs, HLSCs were more efficient in inhibiting T-cell proliferation. At variance with MSCs, HLSCs did not elicit NK degranulation. Moreover, HLSCs inhibited NK degranulation against K562, a NK-sensitive target, by a mechanism dependent on HLA-G release. When tested on DC generation from monocytes, HLSCs were found to impair DC differentiation and DCs ability to induce T-cell proliferation through PGE2. This study shows that HLSCs have immunomodulatory properties similar to MSCs, but, at variance with MSCs, they do not elicit a NK response.

  10. Human Liver Stem Cells Suppress T-Cell Proliferation, NK Activity, and Dendritic Cell Differentiation.

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    Bruno, Stefania; Grange, Cristina; Tapparo, Marta; Pasquino, Chiara; Romagnoli, Renato; Dametto, Ennia; Amoroso, Antonio; Tetta, Ciro; Camussi, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Human liver stem cells (HLSCs) are a mesenchymal stromal cell-like population resident in the adult liver. Preclinical studies indicate that HLSCs could be a good candidate for cell therapy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the immunogenicity and the immunomodulatory properties of HLSCs on T-lymphocytes, natural killer cells (NKs), and dendritic cells (DCs) in allogeneic experimental settings. We found that HLSCs inhibited T-cell proliferation by a mechanism independent of cell contact and dependent on the release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and on indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity. When compared with mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), HLSCs were more efficient in inhibiting T-cell proliferation. At variance with MSCs, HLSCs did not elicit NK degranulation. Moreover, HLSCs inhibited NK degranulation against K562, a NK-sensitive target, by a mechanism dependent on HLA-G release. When tested on DC generation from monocytes, HLSCs were found to impair DC differentiation and DCs ability to induce T-cell proliferation through PGE2. This study shows that HLSCs have immunomodulatory properties similar to MSCs, but, at variance with MSCs, they do not elicit a NK response.

  11. Role of Mechanical Cues in Cell Differentiation and Proliferation: A 3D Numerical Model.

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    Seyed Jamaleddin Mousavi

    Full Text Available Cell differentiation, proliferation and migration are essential processes in tissue regeneration. Experimental evidence confirms that cell differentiation or proliferation can be regulated according to the extracellular matrix stiffness. For instance, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs can differentiate to neuroblast, chondrocyte or osteoblast within matrices mimicking the stiffness of their native substrate. However, the precise mechanisms by which the substrate stiffness governs cell differentiation or proliferation are not well known. Therefore, a mechano-sensing computational model is here developed to elucidate how substrate stiffness regulates cell differentiation and/or proliferation during cell migration. In agreement with experimental observations, it is assumed that internal deformation of the cell (a mechanical signal together with the cell maturation state directly coordinates cell differentiation and/or proliferation. Our findings indicate that MSC differentiation to neurogenic, chondrogenic or osteogenic lineage specifications occurs within soft (0.1-1 kPa, intermediate (20-25 kPa or hard (30-45 kPa substrates, respectively. These results are consistent with well-known experimental observations. Remarkably, when a MSC differentiate to a compatible phenotype, the average net traction force depends on the substrate stiffness in such a way that it might increase in intermediate and hard substrates but it would reduce in a soft matrix. However, in all cases the average net traction force considerably increases at the instant of cell proliferation because of cell-cell interaction. Moreover cell differentiation and proliferation accelerate with increasing substrate stiffness due to the decrease in the cell maturation time. Thus, the model provides insights to explain the hypothesis that substrate stiffness plays a key role in regulating cell fate during mechanotaxis.

  12. Role of Mechanical Cues in Cell Differentiation and Proliferation: A 3D Numerical Model

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    Mousavi, Seyed Jamaleddin; Hamdy Doweidar, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Cell differentiation, proliferation and migration are essential processes in tissue regeneration. Experimental evidence confirms that cell differentiation or proliferation can be regulated according to the extracellular matrix stiffness. For instance, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate to neuroblast, chondrocyte or osteoblast within matrices mimicking the stiffness of their native substrate. However, the precise mechanisms by which the substrate stiffness governs cell differentiation or proliferation are not well known. Therefore, a mechano-sensing computational model is here developed to elucidate how substrate stiffness regulates cell differentiation and/or proliferation during cell migration. In agreement with experimental observations, it is assumed that internal deformation of the cell (a mechanical signal) together with the cell maturation state directly coordinates cell differentiation and/or proliferation. Our findings indicate that MSC differentiation to neurogenic, chondrogenic or osteogenic lineage specifications occurs within soft (0.1-1 kPa), intermediate (20-25 kPa) or hard (30-45 kPa) substrates, respectively. These results are consistent with well-known experimental observations. Remarkably, when a MSC differentiate to a compatible phenotype, the average net traction force depends on the substrate stiffness in such a way that it might increase in intermediate and hard substrates but it would reduce in a soft matrix. However, in all cases the average net traction force considerably increases at the instant of cell proliferation because of cell-cell interaction. Moreover cell differentiation and proliferation accelerate with increasing substrate stiffness due to the decrease in the cell maturation time. Thus, the model provides insights to explain the hypothesis that substrate stiffness plays a key role in regulating cell fate during mechanotaxis. PMID:25933372

  13. Neuron-NG2 Cell Synapses: Novel Functions for Regulating NG2 Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

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    Qian-Kun Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NG2 cells are a population of CNS cells that are distinct from neurons, mature oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and microglia. These cells can be identified by their NG2 proteoglycan expression. NG2 cells have a highly branched morphology, with abundant processes radiating from the cell body, and express a complex set of voltage-gated channels, AMPA/kainate, and GABA receptors. Neurons notably form classical and nonclassical synapses with NG2 cells, which have varied characteristics and functions. Neuron-NG2 cell synapses could fine-tune NG2 cell activities, including the NG2 cell cycle, differentiation, migration, and myelination, and may be a novel potential therapeutic target for NG2 cell-related diseases, such as hypoxia-ischemia injury and periventricular leukomalacia. Furthermore, neuron-NG2 cell synapses may be correlated with the plasticity of CNS in adulthood with the synaptic contacts passing onto their progenies during proliferation, and synaptic contacts decrease rapidly upon NG2 cell differentiation. In this review, we highlight the characteristics of classical and nonclassical neuron-NG2 cell synapses, the potential functions, and the fate of synaptic contacts during proliferation and differentiation, with the emphasis on the regulation of the NG2 cell cycle by neuron-NG2 cell synapses and their potential underlying mechanisms.

  14. NGF induces adult stem Leydig cells to proliferate and differentiate during Leydig cell regeneration

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    Zhang, Lei [Department of Cell Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China); Wang, Huaxi [Southern Medical University, 510515 Guangzhou (China); Yang, Yan [College of Pharmacy, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China); Liu, Hui [Department of Cell Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China); Zhang, Qihao; Xiang, Qi [Department of Cell Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China); National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, 510632 Guangzhou (China); Ge, Renshan [Population Council, Rockefeller University, 10065 New York (United States); Su, Zhijian, E-mail: tjnuszj@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Cell Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China); Huang, Yadong, E-mail: tydhuang@jnu.edu.cn [Department of Cell Biology, College of Life Science and Technology, Jinan University, 510632 Guangzhou (China); National Engineering Research Center of Genetic Medicine, 510632 Guangzhou (China)

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Nerve growth factor has shown significant changes on mRNA levels during Adult Leydig cells regeneration. •We established the organ culture model of rat seminiferous tubules with ethane dimethyl sulphonate (EDS) treatment. •Nerve growth factor has shown proliferation and differentiation-promoting effects on Adult stem Leydig cells. •Nerve growth factor induces progenitor Leydig cells to proliferate and differentiate and immature Leydig cells to proliferate. -- Abstract: Nerve growth factor (NGF) has been reported to be involved in male reproductive physiology. However, few reports have described the activity of NGF during Leydig cell development. The objective of the present study was to examine the role of NGF during stem-Leydig-cell (SLC) regeneration. We investigated the effects of NGF on Leydig-cell (LC) regeneration by measuring mRNA levels in the adult rat testis after ethane dimethanesulfonate (EDS) treatment. Furthermore, we used the established organ culture model of rat seminiferous tubules to examine the regulation of NGF during SLC proliferation and differentiation using EdU staining, real-time PCR and western blotting. Progenitor Leydig cells (PLCs) and immature Leydig cells (ILCs) were also used to investigate the effects of NGF on LCs at different developmental stages. NGF mRNA levels changed significantly during Leydig-cell regeneration in vivo. In vitro, NGF significantly promoted the proliferation of stem Leydig cells and also induced steroidogenic enzyme gene expression and 3β-HSD protein expression. The data from PLCs and ILCs showed that NGF could increase Cyclin D1 and Hsd 17b3 mRNA levels in PLCs and Cyclin D1 mRNA levels in ILCs. These results indicate that NGF may play an important role during LC regeneration by regulating the proliferation and differentiation of LCs at different developmental stages, from SLCs to PLCs and from PLCs to ILCs. The discovery of this effect of NGF on Leydig cells will provide useful

  15. Cdk4 functions in multiple cell types to control Drosophila intestinal stem cell proliferation and differentiation

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    Mojca Adlesic

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The proliferation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs and differentiation of enteroblasts to form mature enteroendocrine cells and enterocytes in the Drosophila intestinal epithelium must be tightly regulated to maintain homeostasis. We show that genetic modulation of CyclinD/Cdk4 activity or mTOR-dependent signalling cell-autonomously regulates enterocyte growth, which influences ISC proliferation and enteroblast differentiation. Increased enterocyte growth results in higher numbers of ISCs and defective enterocyte growth reduces ISC abundance and proliferation in the midgut. Adult midguts deficient for Cdk4 show severe disruption of intestinal homeostasis characterised by decreased ISC self-renewal, enteroblast differentiation defects and low enteroendocrine cell and enterocyte numbers. The ISC/enteroblast phenotypes result from a combination of cell autonomous and non-autonomous requirements for Cdk4 function. One non-autonomous consequence of Cdk4-dependent deficient enterocyte growth is high expression of Delta in ISCs and Delta retention in enteroblasts. We postulate that aberrant activation of the Delta–Notch pathway is a possible partial cause of lost ISC stemness. These results support the idea that enterocytes contribute to a putative stem cell niche that maintains intestinal homeostasis in the Drosophila anterior midgut.

  16. Exogenous hydrogen sulfide promotes cell proliferation and differentiation by modulating autophagy in human keratinocytes.

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    Xie, Xin; Dai, Hui; Zhuang, Binyu; Chai, Li; Xie, Yanguang; Li, Yuzhen

    2016-04-01

    The effects and the underlying mechanisms of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation are still less known. In the current study, we investigated the effects and the underlying mechanisms of exogenous H2S on keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Human keratinocytes (HaCaT cells) were treated with various concentrations (0.05, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 mM) of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS, a donor of H2S) for 24 h. A CCK-8 assay was used to assess cell viability. Western blot analysis was performed to determine the expression levels of proteins associated with differentiation and autophagy. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to observe autophagic vacuoles, and flow cytometry was applied to evaluate apoptosis. NaHS promoted the viability, induced the differentiation, and enhanced autophagic activity in a dose-dependent manner in HaCaT cells but had no effect on cell apoptosis. Blockage of autophagy by ATG5 siRNA inhibited NaHS-induced cell proliferation and differentiation. The current study demonstrated that autophagy in response to exogenous H2S treatment promoted keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation. Our results provide additional insights into the potential role of autophagy in keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation.

  17. miRNA-720 controls stem cell phenotype, proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp cells.

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    Emilio Satoshi Hara

    Full Text Available Dental pulp cells (DPCs are known to be enriched in stem/progenitor cells but not well characterized yet. Small non-coding microRNAs (miRNAs have been identified to control protein translation, mRNA stability and transcription, and have been reported to play important roles in stem cell biology, related to cell reprogramming, maintenance of stemness and regulation of cell differentiation. In order to characterize dental pulp stem/progenitor cells and its mechanism of differentiation, we herein sorted stem-cell-enriched side population (SP cells from human DPCs and periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs, and performed a locked nucleic acid (LNA-based miRNA array. As a result, miR-720 was highly expressed in the differentiated main population (MP cells compared to that in SP cells. In silico analysis and a reporter assay showed that miR-720 targets the stem cell marker NANOG, indicating that miR-720 could promote differentiation of dental pulp stem/progenitor cells by repressing NANOG. Indeed, gain-and loss-of-function analyses showed that miR-720 controls NANOG transcript and protein levels. Moreover, transfection of miR-720 significantly decreased the number of cells positive for the early stem cell marker SSEA-4. Concomitantly, mRNA levels of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs, which are known to play crucial factors during stem cell differentiation, were also increased by miR-720 through unknown mechanism. Finally, miR-720 decreased DPC proliferation as determined by immunocytochemical analysis against ki-67, and promoted odontogenic differentiation as demonstrated by alizarin red staining, as well as alkaline phosphatase and osteopontin mRNA levels. Our findings identify miR-720 as a novel miRNA regulating the differentiation of DPCs.

  18. Effect of Rat Schwann Cell Secretion on Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Neural Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of rat Schwann cell secretion on the proliferation and differentiation of human embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs). Methods The samples were divided into three groups. In Group One, NSCs were cultured in DMED/F12 in which Schwann cells had grown for one day. In Group Two, NSCs and Schwann cells were co-cultured. In Group Three, NSCs were cultured in DMEM/F12. The morphology of NSCs was checked and b-tubulin, GalC, hoechst 33342 and GFAP labellings were detected. Results In Group One, all neural spheres were attached to the bottom and differentiated. The majority of them were b-tubulin positive while a few of cells were GFAP or GalC positive. In Group Two, neural spheres remained undifferentiatied and their proliferation was inhibited in places where Schwann cells were robust. In places where there were few Schwann cells, NSCs performed in a similar manner as in Group One. In Group Three, the cell growth state deteriorated day after day. On the 7th day, most NSCs died. Conclusion The secretion of rat Schwann cells has a growth supportive and differentiation-inducing effect on human NSCs.

  19. Stem cell proliferation and differentiation a multitype branching process model

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    Macken, Catherine A

    1988-01-01

    The body contains many cellular systems that require the continuous production of new, fully functional, differentiated cells to replace cells lacking or having limited self-renewal capabilities that die or are damaged during the lifetime of an individual. Such systems include the epidermis, the epithelial lining of the gut, and the blood. For example, erythrocytes (red blood cells) lack nuclei and thus are incapable of self-replication. They have a life span in the circulation of about 120 days. Mature granulocytes, which also lack proliferative capacity, have a much shorter life span - typically 12 hours, though this may be reduced to only two or three hours in times of serious tissue infection. Perhaps a more familiar example is the outermost layer of the skin. This layer is composed of fully mature, dead epidermal cells that must be replaced by the descendants of stem cells lodged in lower layers of the epidermis (cf. Alberts et al. , 1983). In total, to supply the normal steady-state demands of cells, an...

  20. Regulation of progenitor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation in enteric nervous system neurospheres.

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    Sokratis Theocharatos

    Full Text Available Enteric nervous system (ENS progenitor cells isolated from mouse and human bowel can be cultured in vitro as neurospheres which are aggregates of the proliferating progenitor cells, together with neurons and glial cells derived from them. To investigate the factors regulating progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation, we first characterised cell proliferation in mouse ENS neurospheres by pulse chase experiments using thymidine analogs. We demonstrate rapid and continuous cell proliferation near the neurosphere periphery, after which postmitotic cells move away from the periphery to become distributed throughout the neurosphere. While many proliferating cells expressed glial markers, expression of the neuronal markers β-tubulin III (Tuj1 and nitric oxide synthase was detected in increasing numbers of post-mitotic cells after a delay of several days. Treatment of both mouse and human neurospheres with the γ-secretase inhibitor N-[N-(3,5-Difluorophenacetyl-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycine t-butyl ester (DAPT reduced expression of the transcription factors Hes1 and Hes5, demonstrating inhibition of Notch signaling. DAPT treatment also inhibited progenitor cell proliferation and increased the numbers of differentiating neurons expressing Tuj1 and nitric oxide synthase. To confirm that the cellular effects of DAPT treatment were due to inhibition of Notch signaling, siRNA knockdown of RBPjκ, a key component of the canonical Notch signaling pathway, was demonstrated both to reduce proliferation and to increase neuronal differentiation in neurosphere cells. These observations indicate that Notch signaling promotes progenitor cell proliferation and inhibits neuronal differentiation in ENS neurospheres.

  1. Effects of olfactory ensheathing cells on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuewei Xie; Zhouping Tang; Feng Xu; Na Liu; Zaiwang Li; Suiqiang Zhu; Wei Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Olfactory ensheathing cells can promote oriented differentiation and proliferation of neural stem cells by cell-secreted neural factors.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of olfactory ensheathing cells on the differentiation and proliferation of neural stem cells.DESIGN, TIME AND SETrlNG: Cytology was performed at the Department of Neurology, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, China, from September 2007 to October 2008.MATERIALS: Mouse anti-nestin polyclonal antibody (Chemicon, USA), mouse anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) IgG1, mouse anti-2', 3'-cyclic nucleotide 3'-phosphodiesterase (CNPase) IgG1, mouse anti-Tubulin Class-Ill IgG1 (Neo Markers, USA), Avidin-labeled Cy3 (KPL, USA), and goat anti-mouse IgG1: fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) (Serotec, UK) were used in this study.METHODS: Tissues were isolated from the embryonic olfactory bulb and subependymal region of Wistar rats. Serum-free DMEM/F12 culture media was used for co-culture experiments. Neural stem cells were incubated in serum-free or 5% fetal bovine serum-containing DMEM/F12 as controls.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: After 7 days of co-culture, neural stem cells and olfactory ensheathing cells underwent immunofluorescent staining for nestin, tubulin, glial fibrillary acidic protein, and CNPase.RESULTS: Olfactory ensheathing cells promoted proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells into neuron-like cells, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The proportion of neuron-like cells was 78.2%, but the proportion of neurons in 5% fetal bovine serum DMEM/F12 was 48.3%. In the serum-free DMEM/F12, neural stem cells contracted, unevenly adhered to the glassware wall, or underwent apoptosis at 7 days.CONCLUSION: Olfactory ensheathing cells promote differentiation of neural stem cells mainly into neuron-like cells, and accelerate proliferation of neural stem cells. The outcome is better compared with serum-free medium or medium containing 5% fetal bovine

  2. Slow and sustained nitric oxide releasing compounds inhibit multipotent vascular stem cell proliferation and differentiation without causing cell death

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    Curtis, Brandon M.; Leix, Kyle Alexander [Department of Chemistry, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Ji, Yajing [Department of Biomedical Science and Medicine, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Glaves, Richard Samuel Elliot [Department of Biology, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Ash, David E. [Department of Chemistry, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States); Mohanty, Dillip K., E-mail: Mohan1dk@cmich.edu [Department of Chemistry, Central Michigan University, Mount Pleasant, MI 48859 (United States)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Multipotent vascular stem cells (MVSCs) proliferate and differentiate. • Nitric oxide inhibits proliferation of MVSCs. • Nitric oxide inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs). • Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) neither de-differentiate nor proliferate. - Abstract: Atherosclerosis is the leading cause of cerebral and myocardial infarction. It is believed that neointimal growth common in the later stages of atherosclerosis is a result of vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) de-differentiation in response to endothelial injury. However, the claims of the SMC de-differentiation theory have not been substantiated by monitoring the fate of mature SMCs in response to such injuries. A recent study suggests that atherosclerosis is a consequence of multipotent vascular stem cell (MVSC) differentiation. Nitric oxide (NO) is a well-known mediator against atherosclerosis, in part because of its inhibitory effect on SMC proliferation. Using three different NO-donors, we have investigated the effects of NO on MVSC proliferation. Results indicate that NO inhibits MVSC proliferation in a concentration dependent manner. A slow and sustained delivery of NO proved to inhibit proliferation without causing cell death. On the other hand, larger, single-burst NO concentrations, inhibits proliferation, with concurrent significant cell death. Furthermore, our results indicate that endogenously produced NO inhibits MVSC differentiation to mesenchymal-like stem cells (MSCs) and subsequently to SMC as well.

  3. Arabidopsis and Tobacco superman regulate hormone signalling and mediate cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibau, Candida; Di Stilio, Verónica S; Wu, Hen-Ming; Cheung, Alice Y

    2011-01-01

    Arabidopsis thaliana superman (SUP) plays an important role during flower development by maintaining the boundary between stamens and carpels in the inner two whorls. It was proposed that SUP maintains this boundary by regulating cell proliferation in both whorls, as loss-of-function superman mutants produce more stamens at the expense of carpels. However, the cellular mechanism that underlies SUP function remains unknown. Here Arabidopsis or tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) SUP was overexpressed in tobacco plants to substantiate SUP's role as a regulator of cell proliferation and boundary definition and provide evidence that its biological role may be mediated via hormonal changes. It was found that moderate levels of SUP stimulated cell growth and proliferation, whereas high levels were inhibitory. SUP stimulated auxin- and cytokinin-regulated processes, and cells overexpressing SUP displayed reduced hormone dependency for proliferation and regeneration into plants. SUP also induced proliferation of female traits in the second and third flower whorls and promoted differentiation of petaloid properties in sepals, further supporting a role for SUP as a boundary regulator. Moreover, cytokinin suppressed stamen development and promoted differentiation of carpeloid tissues, suggesting that SUP may regulate male and female development via its effect on cytokinin signalling. Taken together, these observations suggest a model whereby the effect of SUP on cell growth and proliferation involves the modulation of auxin- and cytokinin-regulated processes. Furthermore, differential SUP expression or different sensitivities of different cell types to SUP may determine whether SUP stimulates or suppresses their proliferation.

  4. PROPERTIES OF PROLIFERATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF NEONATAL RAT RETINAL PROGENITOR CELLS IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kang Qianyan; Liu Yong; Zhao Jianjun; Qiu Fen; Chen Xinlin; Tian Yumei; Hu Ming

    2006-01-01

    Objective To investigate the properties of proliferation and differentiation of neonatal rat retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) in vitro. Methods RPCs were isolated from neonatal SD rats neural retina and cultured in DMEM/F12+N2 with EGF and bFGF (suspension medium )or 10%FBS without EGF and bFGF (differentiation medium). The cells grew as suspended spheres or adherent monolayers, depending on different culture conditions. The neural stem cells or retinal progenitors, neurons, astrocytes, retinal ganglion cells, rod photoreceptors and the proliferating cells were evaluated with immunofluorescence analysis by Nestin or Pax6, Map2, GFAP, Thy-1, Rhodopsin and BrdU antibodies respectively. Results RPCs could propagate and differentiate in suspension or differentiation medium and express the markers of Nestin (92.86%) or Pax6 (86.75%), Map2 (38.54%), GFAP (20.93%), Thy-1 (27.66%) and Rhodopsin(13.33%)in suspension medium; however, Nestin (60.27%), Pax6 (52%), Map2 (34.94%), GFAP (38.17%), Thy-1(30.84%) and Rhodopsin (34.67%) in differentiation medium. 96.4% of the population in the neurospheres was BrdU-positive cells. The cells could spontaneously adherent forming some subspheres and retinal specific cell types. Conclusion Neonatal rat RPCs possess the high degree of proliferation and can differentiate into neurons, astrocytes, retinal ganglion cells and rod photoreceptors in vitro. There are different proportions for RPCs to differentiate into specific cell types.

  5. Donor lung derived myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cells differentially regulate T cell proliferation and cytokine production

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    Benson Heather L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Direct allorecognition, i.e., donor lung-derived dendritic cells (DCs stimulating recipient-derived T lymphocytes, is believed to be the key mechanism of lung allograft rejection. Myeloid (cDCs and plasmacytoid (pDCs are believed to have differential effects on T cell activation. However, the roles of each DC type on T cell activation and rejection pathology post lung transplantation are unknown. Methods Using transgenic mice and antibody depletion techniques, either or both cell types were depleted in lungs of donor BALB/c mice (H-2d prior to transplanting into C57BL/6 mice (H-2b, followed by an assessment of rejection pathology, and pDC or cDC-induced proliferation and cytokine production in C57BL/6-derived mediastinal lymph node T cells (CD3+. Results Depleting either DC type had modest effect on rejection pathology and T cell proliferation. In contrast, T cells from mice that received grafts depleted of both DCs did not proliferate and this was associated with significantly reduced acute rejection scores compared to all other groups. cDCs were potent inducers of IFNγ, whereas both cDCs and pDCs induced IL-10. Both cell types had variable effects on IL-17A production. Conclusion Collectively, the data show that direct allorecognition by donor lung pDCs and cDCs have differential effects on T cell proliferation and cytokine production. Depletion of both donor lung cDC and pDC could prevent the severity of acute rejection episodes.

  6. Proliferation and differentiation of rat bone marrow stem cells by 400μT electromagnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Manouchehr; Jadidi, Majid; Baghian, Atefeh; Hasanzadeh, Hadi

    2016-01-26

    The interaction between environment electromagnetic field (EMF) and cells can effect on various physiological processes. EMF as an external inducing factor, could effect on proliferation or differentiation of cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the electromagnetic field on the viability, proliferation and differentiation rate of bone marrow stem cells (BMSCs) to neuron. BMSCs were obtained from 42 adult male rats. The cells incubated and cultured in 96-wells and 6-wells plates and exposed to electromagnetic field (40 or 400μT) with a selected waveform: AC (alternative current), rectified half wave (RHW) and rectified full wave (RFW), for a week. To assess the viability and proliferation rate of treated cells, MTT assay was done, and then immunocytochemistry staining Neu N was used to evaluate cell differentiation to neuron. Results showed that EMF decreases the viability and proliferation in treated groups. But in AC group's reduction was significant. Minimum viability and proliferation rate was observed in RHW 400μT group compared with sham. Immunocytochemistry showed that EMF can induce BMSC differentiation into neuron in AC 400μT and RFW 400μT. Evidences of this research support the hypothesis that EMF can induce differentiation of BMSCs to neuron.

  7. Nardosinone improves the proliferation, migration and selective differentiation of mouse embryonic neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ze-Hui Li

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigated the impact of Nardosinone, a bioactive component in Nardostachys root, on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. The neural stem cells were isolated from cerebrums of embryonic day 14 CD1 mice. The proliferation of cells was monitored using the cell counting kit-8 assay, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and cell cycle analysis. Cell migration and differentiation were investigated with the neurosphere assay and cell specific markers, respectively. The results showed that Nardosinone promotes cells proliferation and increases cells migration distance in a dose-dependent manner. Nardosinone also induces the selective differentiation of neural stem cells to neurons and oligodendrocytes, as indicated by the expression of microtubule-associated protein-2 and myelin basic protein, respectively. Nardosinone also increases the expression of phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase and phospho-cAMP response element binding protein during proliferation and differentiation. In conclusion, this study reveals the regulatory effects of Nardosinone on neural stem cells, which may have significant implications for the treatment of brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases.

  8. Patterns of cell proliferation and rod photoreceptor differentiation in shark retinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Anadón, Ramón; Candal, Eva

    2010-01-01

    We studied the pattern of cell proliferation and its relation with photoreceptor differentiation in the embryonic and postembryonic retina of two elasmobranchs, the lesser spotted dogfish (Scyliorhinus canicula) and the brown shyshark (Haploblepharus fuscus). Cell proliferation was studied with antibodies raised against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and phospho-histone-H3, and early photoreceptor differentiation with an antibody raised against rod opsin. As regards the spatiotemporal distribution of PCNA-immunoreactive cells, our results reveal a gradual loss of PCNA that coincides in a spatiotemporal sequence with the gradient of layer maturation. The presence of a peripheral growth zone containing pure-proliferating retinal progenitors (the ciliary marginal zone) in the adult retina matches with the general pattern observed in other groups of gnathostomous fishes. However, in the shark retina the generation of new cells is not restricted to the ciliary marginal zone but also occurs in retinal areas that contain differentiated cells: (1) in a transition zone that lies between the pure-proliferating ciliary marginal zone and the central (layered) retina; (2) in the differentiating central area up to prehatching embryos where large amounts of PCNA-positive cells were observed even in the inner and outer nuclear layers; (3) and in the retinal pigment epithelium of prehatching embryos. Rod opsin immunoreactivity was observed in both species when the outer plexiform layer begins to be recognized in the central retina and, as we previously observed in trout, coincided temporally with the weakening in PCNA labelling.

  9. Retinoic acid and cAMP inhibit rat hepatocellular carcinoma cell proliferation and enhance cell differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ionta, M. [Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Alfenas MG (Brazil); Departamento de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil); Rosa, M.C.; Almeida, R.B.; Freitas, V.M.; Rezende-Teixeira, P.; Machado-Santelli, G.M. [Departamento de Biologia Celular e do Desenvolvimento, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo SP (Brazil)

    2012-05-25

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third highest cause of cancer death worldwide. In general, the disease is diagnosed at an advanced stage when potentially curative therapies are no longer feasible. For this reason, it is very important to develop new therapeutic approaches. Retinoic acid (RA) is a natural derivative of vitamin A that regulates important biological processes including cell proliferation and differentiation. In vitro studies have shown that RA is effective in inhibiting growth of HCC cells; however, responsiveness to treatment varies among different HCC cell lines. The objective of the present study was to determine if the combined use of RA (0.1 µM) and cAMP (1 mM), an important second messenger, improves the responsiveness of HCC cells to RA treatment. We evaluated the proliferative behavior of an HCC cell line (HTC) and the expression profile of genes related to cancer signaling pathway (ERK and GSK-3β) and liver differentiation [E-cadherin, connexin 26 (Cx26), and connexin 32 (Cx32)]. RA and cAMP were effective in inhibiting the proliferation of HTC cells independently of combined use. However, when a mixture of RA and cAMP was used, the signals concerning the degree of cell differentiation were increased. As demonstrated by Western blot, the treatment increased E-cadherin, Cx26, Cx32 and Ser9-GSK-3β (inactive form) expression while the expression of Cx43, Tyr216-GSK-3β (active form) and phosphorylated ERK decreased. Furthermore, telomerase activity was inhibited along treatment. Taken together, the results showed that the combined use of RA and cAMP is more effective in inducing differentiation of HTC cells.

  10. Domain of dentine sialoprotein mediates proliferation and differentiation of human periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alkan Ozer

    Full Text Available Classic embryological studies have documented the inductive role of root dentin on adjacent periodontal ligament differentiation.  The biochemical composition of root dentin includes collagens and cleavage products of dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP, such as dentin sialoprotein (DSP.  The high abundance of DSP in root dentin prompted us to ask the question whether DSP or peptides derived thereof would serve as potent biological matrix components to induce periodontal progenitors to further differentiate into periodontal ligament cells. Here, we test the hypothesis that domain of DSP influences cell fate. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical analyses showed that the COOH-terminal DSP domain is expressed in mouse periodontium at various stages of root development. The recombinant COOH-terminal DSP fragment (rC-DSP enhanced attachment and migration of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSC, human primary PDL cells without cell toxicity. rC-DSP induced PDLSC cell proliferation as well as differentiation and mineralization of PDLSC and PDL cells by formation of mineralized tissue and ALPase activity. Effect of rC-DSP on cell proliferation and differentiation was to promote gene expression of tooth/bone-relate markers, transcription factors and growth factors. The results for the first time showed that rC-DSP may be one of the components of cell niche for stimulating stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation and a natural scaffold for periodontal regeneration application.

  11. Effects of peripheral benzodiazepine receptor ligands on proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, D H; Kang, S K; Lee, R H; Ryu, J M; Park, H Y; Choi, H S; Bae, Y C; Suh, K T; Kim, Y K; Jung, Jin Sup

    2004-01-01

    The peripheral benzodiazepine receptor (PBR) has been known to have many functions such as a role in cell proliferation, cell differentiation, steroidogenesis, calcium flow, cellular respiration, cellular immunity, malignancy, and apoptosis. However, the presence of PBR has not been examined in mesenchymal stem cells. In this study, we demonstrated the expression of PBR in human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) and human adipose stromal cells (hATSCs) by RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry. To determine the roles of PBR in cellular functions of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs), effects of diazepam, PK11195, and Ro5-4864 were examined. Adipose differentiation of hMSCs was decreased by high concentration of PBR ligands (50 microM), whereas it was increased by low concentrations of PBR ligands (<10 microM). PBR ligands showed a biphasic effect on glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity. High concentration of PBR ligands (from 25 to 75 microM) inhibited proliferation of hMSCs. However, clonazepam, which does not have an affinity to PBR, did not affect adipose differentiation and proliferation of hMSCs. The PBR ligands did not induce cell death in hMSCs. PK11195 (50 microM) and Ro5-5864 (50 microM) induced cell cycle arrest in the G(2)/M phase. These results indicate that PBR ligands play roles in adipose differentiation and proliferation of hMSCs.

  12. The effects and mechanisms of clinorotation on proliferation and differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Ming [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, XiJing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wang, Yongchun [Department of Aerospace Biodynamics, School of Aerospace Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Yang, Min; Liu, Yanwu [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, XiJing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Qu, Bo [Chengdu Military General Hospital, Chengdu, 610083 (China); Ye, Zhengxu; Liang, Wei [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, XiJing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Sun, Xiqing, E-mail: sunxiqing@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Aerospace Biodynamics, School of Aerospace Medicine, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Luo, Zhuojing, E-mail: zjluo@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, XiJing Hospital, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2015-05-01

    Data from human and rodent studies have demonstrated that microgravity induces observed bone loss in real spaceflight or simulated experiments. The decrease of bone formation and block of maturation may play important roles in bone loss induced by microgravity. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of proliferation and differentiation in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) induced by simulated microgravity and the mechanisms underlying it. We report here that clinorotation, a simulated model of microgravity, decreased proliferation and differentiation in BMSCs after exposure to 48 h simulated microgravity. The inhibited proliferation are related with blocking the cell cycle in G2/M and enhancing the apoptosis. While alterations of the osteoblast differentiation due to the decreased SATB2 expression induced by simulated microgravity in BMSCs. - Highlights: • Simulated microgravity inhibited proliferation and differentiation in BMSCs. • The decreased proliferation due to blocked cell cycle and enhanced the apoptosis. • The inhibited differentiation accounts for alteration of SATB2, Hoxa2 and Cbfa1.

  13. Catechins Variously Affect Activities of Conjugation Enzymes in Proliferating and Differentiated Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kateřina Lněničková

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of processes in intestinal cells is essential, as most xenobiotics come into contact with the small intestine first. Caco-2 cells are human colorectal adenocarcinoma that once differentiated, exhibit enterocyte-like characteristics. Our study compares activities and expressions of important conjugation enzymes and their modulation by green tea extract (GTE and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG using both proliferating (P and differentiated (D caco-2 cells. The mRNA levels of the main conjugation enzymes were significantly elevated after the differentiation of Caco-2 cells. However, no increase in conjugation enzymes’ activities in differentiated cells was detected in comparison to proliferating ones. GTE/EGCG treatment did not affect the mRNA levels of any of the conjugation enzymes tested in either type of cells. Concerning conjugation enzymes activities, GTE/EGCG treatment elevated glutathione S-transferase (GST activity by approx. 30% and inhibited catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT activity by approx. 20% in differentiated cells. On the other hand, GTE as well as EGCG treatment did not significantly affect the activities of conjugation enzymes in proliferating cells. Administration of GTE/EGCG mediated only mild changes of GST and COMT activities in enterocyte-like cells, indicating a low risk of GTE/EGCG interactions with concomitantly administered drugs. However, a considerable chemo-protective effect of GTE via the pronounced induction of detoxifying enzymes cannot be expected as well.

  14. Biphasic electrical currents stimulation promotes both proliferation and differentiation of fetal neural stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun-A Chang

    Full Text Available The use of non-chemical methods to differentiate stem cells has attracted researchers from multiple disciplines, including the engineering and the biomedical fields. No doubt, growth factor based methods are still the most dominant of achieving some level of proliferation and differentiation control--however, chemical based methods are still limited by the quality, source, and amount of the utilized reagents. Well-defined non-chemical methods to differentiate stem cells allow stem cell scientists to control stem cell biology by precisely administering the pre-defined parameters, whether they are structural cues, substrate stiffness, or in the form of current flow. We have developed a culture system that allows normal stem cell growth and the option of applying continuous and defined levels of electric current to alter the cell biology of growing cells. This biphasic current stimulator chip employing ITO electrodes generates both positive and negative currents in the same culture chamber without affecting surface chemistry. We found that biphasic electrical currents (BECs significantly increased the proliferation of fetal neural stem cells (NSCs. Furthermore, BECs also promoted the differentiation of fetal NSCs into neuronal cells, as assessed using immunocytochemistry. Our results clearly show that BECs promote both the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of fetal NSCs. It may apply to the development of strategies that employ NSCs in the treatment of various neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  15. Effects of FGFR Signaling on Cell Proliferation and Differentiation of Apert Dental Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Changming; Huguley, Samuel; Cui, Chun; Cabaniss, Lauren B; Waite, Peter D; Sarver, David M; Mamaeva, Olga A; MacDougall, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The Apert syndrome is a rare congenital disorder most often arising from S252W or P253R mutations in fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR2). Numerous studies have focused on the regulatory role of Apert FGFR2 signaling in bone formation, whereas its functional role in tooth development is largely unknown. To investigate the role of FGFR signaling in cell proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of human dental cells in vitro, we isolated dental pulp and enamel organ epithelia (EOE) tissues from an Apert patient carrying the S252W FGFR2 mutation. Apert primary pulp and EOE cells were established and shown to exhibit normal morphology and express alkaline phosphatase under differentiation conditions. Similar to control cells, Apert dental pulp and EOE cells expressed all FGFRs, with highest levels of FGFR1 followed by FGFR2 and low levels of FGFR3 and FGFR4. However, Apert cells had increased cell growth compared with control cells. Distinct from previous findings in osteoblast cells, gain-of-function S252W FGFR2 mutation did not upregulate the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFRα), but elevated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling in cells after EGF stimulation. Unexpectedly, there was little effect of the S252W mutation on odontogenic gene expression in dental pulp and EOE cells. However, after inhibition of total FGFR signaling or ERK signaling, the expression of odontogenic genes was upregulated in both dental cell types, indicating the negative effect of whole FGFR signaling on odontogenic differentiation. This study provides novel insights on FGFR signaling and a common Apert FGFR2 mutation in the regulation of odontogenic differentiation of dental mesenchymal and epithelial cells.

  16. The Effect of Laser Irradiation on Adipose Derived Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, H.; de Villiers, J.; Mvula, B.

    2009-06-01

    There are two fundamental types of stem cells: Embryonic Stem cells and Adult Stem cells. Adult Stem cells have a more restricted potential and can usually differentiate into a few different cell types. In the body these cells facilitate the replacement or repair of damaged or diseased cells in organs. Low intensity laser irradiation was shown to increase stem cell migration and stimulate proliferation and it is thought that treatment of these cells with laser irradiation may increase the stem cell harvest and have a positive effect on the viability and proliferation. Our research is aimed at determining the effect of laser irradiation on differentiation of Adipose Derived Stem Cells (ADSCs) into different cell types using a diode laser with a wavelength of 636 nm and at 5 J/cm2. Confirmation of stem cell characteristics and well as subsequent differentiation were assessed using Western blot analysis and cellular morphology supported by fluorescent live cell imaging. Functionality of subsequent differentiated cells was confirmed by measuring adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and cell viability.

  17. Polymeric vs hydroxyapatite-based scaffolds on dental pulp stem cell proliferation and differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Arash; Khojasteh; Saeed; Reza; Motamedian; Maryam; Rezai; Rad; Mehrnoosh; Hasan; Shahriari; Nasser; Nadjmi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells(h DPSCs) on four commercially available scaffold biomaterials. METHODS: hD PSCs were isolated from human dental pulp tissues of extracted wisdom teeth and established in stem cell growth medium. h DPSCs at passage 3-5 were seeded on four commercially available scaffold biomaterials, SureO ss(Allograft), Cerabone(Xenograft), PLLA(Synthetic), and OSTEON Ⅱ Collagen(Composite), for 7 and 14 d in osteogenic medium. Cell adhesion and morphology to the scaffolds were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy(SEM). Cell proliferation and differentiation into osteogenic lineage were evaluated using DNA counting and alkaline phosphatase(ALP) activity assay, respectively. RESULTS: All scaffold biomaterials except Sure Oss(Allograft) supported h DPSC adhesion, proliferation and differentiation. hD PSCs seeded on PLLA(Synthetic) scaffold showed the highest cell proliferation and attachment as indicated with both SEM and DNA counting assay. Evaluating the osteogenic differentiation capability of hD PSCs on different scaffold biomaterials with ALP activity assay showed high level of ALP activity on cells cultured on PLLA(Synthetic) and OSTEON ⅡCollagen(Composite) scaffolds. SEM micrographs also showed that in the presence of Cerabone(Xenograft) and OSTEON Ⅱ Collagen(Composite) scaffolds, the h DPSCs demonstrated the fibroblastic phenotype with several cytoplasmic extension, while the cells on PLLA scaffold showed the osteoblastic-like morphology, round-like shape. CONCLUSION: PLLA scaffold supports adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hD PSCs. Hence, it may be useful in combination with hD PSCs for cell-based reconstructive therapy.

  18. Lipocalin-2 inhibits osteoclast formation by suppressing the proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast lineage cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun-Ju, E-mail: biohjk@knu.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, Clinical Trial Center, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hye-Jin [Department of Molecular Medicine, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, Clinical Trial Center, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kyung-Ae [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Skeletal Diseases Genome Research Center, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Gwon, Mi-Ri; Jin Seong, Sook [Department of Molecular Medicine, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, Clinical Trial Center, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Suk, Kyoungho [Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Shin-Yoon [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Skeletal Diseases Genome Research Center, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young-Ran, E-mail: yry@knu.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Medicine, Cell and Matrix Research Institute, Clinical Trial Center, BK21 Plus KNU Biomedical Convergence Program, School of Medicine, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 700-422 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-10

    Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is a member of the lipocalin superfamily and plays a critical role in the regulation of various physiological processes, such as inflammation and obesity. In this study, we report that LCN2 negatively modulates the proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast precursors, resulting in impaired osteoclast formation. The overexpression of LCN2 in bone marrow-derived macrophages or the addition of recombinant LCN2 protein inhibits the formation of multinuclear osteoclasts. LCN2 suppresses macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-induced proliferation of osteoclast precursor cells without affecting their apoptotic cell death. Interestingly, LCN2 decreases the expression of the M-CSF receptor, c-Fms, and subsequently blocks its downstream signaling cascades. In addition, LCN2 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and attenuates the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1), which are important modulators in osteoclastogenesis. Mechanistically, LCN2 inhibits NF-κB signaling pathways, as demonstrated by the suppression of IκBα phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of p65, and NF-κB transcriptional activity. Thus, LCN2 is an anti-osteoclastogenic molecule that exerts its effects by retarding the proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast lineage cells. - Highlights: • LCN2 expression is regulated during osteoclast development. • LCN2 suppresses M-CSF-mediated osteoclast precursor proliferation. • LCN2 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation.

  19. Decreased proliferation ability and differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells of osteoporosis rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Wang; Bing Zhao; Chao Li; Jie-Sheng Rong; Shu-Qing Tao; Tian-Zun Tao

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To explore decreased proliferation ability and differentiation potential of mesenchymal stem cells(MSCs) of osteoporosis rat.Methods:MSCs were obtained from osteoporosis rat, and proliferation potency and impaired osteogenic differentiation potential were determined. Results:The result showed a significant downregulation ofMSCs pluripotency related gene(Oct 4) and osteogenic genes(BSP,OCN) expression inOVXMSCs compared withShamMSCs(P<0.05). Conclusions:These data suggest thatMSCs are aging in osteoporosis body, and autologous OVXMSCs transplantation is not appropriate to treat osteoporosis if necessary.There will be a possibility in establishing a new clinical application ofMSCs autologous transplantation to treat osteoporosis, ifOVXMSCs have stronger proliferation and differentiation.

  20. Effects of Wnt-10b on proliferation and differentiation of murine melanoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misu, Masayasu [Department of Pathogen, Infection and Immunity, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Ouji, Yukiteru, E-mail: oujix@naramed-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathogen, Infection and Immunity, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Kawai, Norikazu [Department of Pathogen, Infection and Immunity, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Nishimura, Fumihiko [Department of Neurosurgery, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Nakamura-Uchiyama, Fukumi [Department of Pathogen, Infection and Immunity, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Masahide, E-mail: myoshika@naramed-u.ac.jp [Department of Pathogen, Infection and Immunity, Nara Medical University, 840 Shijo-cho, Kashihara, Nara 634-8521 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    In spite of the strong expression of Wnt-10b in melanomas, its role in melanoma cells has not been elucidated. In the present study, the biological effects of Wnt-10b on murine B16F10 (B16) melanoma cells were investigated using conditioned medium from Wnt-10b-producing COS cells (Wnt-CM). After 2 days of culture in the presence of Wnt-CM, proliferation of B16 melanoma cells was inhibited, whereas tyrosinase activity was increased. An in vitro wound healing assay demonstrated that migration of melanoma cells to the wound area was inhibited with the addition of Wnt-CM. Furthermore, evaluation of cellular senescence revealed prominent induction of SA-β-gal-positive senescent cells in cultures with Wnt-CM. Finally, the growth of B16 melanoma cell aggregates in collagen 3D-gel cultures was markedly suppressed in the presence of Wnt-CM. These results suggest that Wnt-10b represses tumor cell properties, such as proliferation and migration of B16 melanoma cells, driving them toward a more differentiated state along a melanocyte lineage. - Highlights: • Wnt-10b inhibited proliferation and migration of melanoma cells. • Wnt-10b induced tyrosinase activity and senescence of melanoma cells. • Wnt-10b suppressed growth of cell aggregates in collagen 3D-gel cultures. • Wnt-10b represses tumor cell properties, driving them toward a more differentiated state along a melanocyte lineage.

  1. Notch signaling is required for normal prostatic epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi-De; Leow, Ching Ching; Zha, Jiping; Tang, Zhijun; Modrusan, Zora; Radtke, Freddy; Aguet, Michel; de Sauvage, Frederic J; Gao, Wei-Qiang

    2006-02-01

    Notch pathway is crucial for stem/progenitor cell maintenance, growth and differentiation in a variety of tissues. Using a transgenic cell ablation approach, we found in our previous study that cells expressing Notch1 are crucial for prostate early development and re-growth. Here, we further define the role of Notch signaling in regulating prostatic epithelial cell growth and differentiation using biochemical and genetic approaches in ex vivo or in vivo systems. Treatment of developing prostate grown in culture with inhibitors of gamma-secretase/presenilin, which is required for Notch cleavage and activation, caused a robust increase in proliferation of epithelial cells co-expressing cytokeratin 8 and 14, lack of luminal/basal layer segregation and dramatically reduced branching morphogenesis. Using conditional Notch1 gene deletion mouse models, we found that inactivation of Notch1 signaling resulted in profound prostatic alterations, including increased tufting, bridging and enhanced epithelial proliferation. Cells within these lesions co-expressed both luminal and basal cell markers, a feature of prostatic epithelial cells in predifferentiation developmental stages. Microarray analysis revealed that the gene expression in a number of genetic networks was altered following Notch1 gene deletion in prostate. Furthermore, expression of Notch1 and its effector Hey-1 gene in human prostate adenocarcinomas were found significantly down-regulated compared to normal control tissues. Taken together, these data suggest that Notch signaling is critical for normal cell proliferation and differentiation in the prostate, and deregulation of this pathway may facilitate prostatic tumorigenesis.

  2. Vitamin D: A modulator of cell proliferation and differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.A.P. Pols (Huib); J.C. Birkenhäger (Jan); J.A. Foekens (John); J.P.T.M. van Leeuwen (Hans)

    1990-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3, [1,25(OH)2D3], the biologically most active metabolite of vitamin D3, is involved in the regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone metabolism. Recently, receptors for 1,25(OH)2D3 have also been shown in cells and tissues not directly related to c

  3. Coordination of cell proliferation and differentiation during C. elegans development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijtenberg, S.A.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of a complex multi-cellular organism from a single fertilized egg is an intriguing yet highly complex process. It requires the generation of large numbers of cells, which at the appropriate times need to obtain specialized functions and morphologies, while assembling into well-defined

  4. Nitroglycerin enhances proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells via nitric oxide pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li HUANG; Ni QIU; Che ZHANG; Hong-yan WEI; Ya-lin LI; Hong-hao ZHOU; Zhou-sheng XIAO

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of nitroglycerin (NTG) on cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSC) and its mechanisms. Methods: Primary HBMSC were cultured in osteogenic differentiation medium consisting of phenol red-free or-minimum es-sential media plus 10% fetal bovine serum (dextran-coated charcoal stripped)supplemented with 10 nmol/L dexamethasone, 50 mg/L ascorbic acid, and l0 mmol/Lβ-glycerophosphate for inducing osteoblastic differentiation. The cells were treated with NTG (0.1-10 μmol/L) alone or concurrent incubation with different nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors. Nitric oxide (NO) production was measured by using a commercial NO kit. Cell proliferation was measured by 5-bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation. The osteoblastic differentiation of HBMSC culture was evaluated by measuring cellular alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium deposition, as well as osteoblastic markers by real-time RT-PCR. Results: The treatment of HBMSC with NTG (0.1-10 μmol/L) led to a dose-dependent increase of NO production in the conditional medium. The release of NO by NTG resulted in increased cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of HBMSC, as evi-denced by the increment of the BrdU incorporation, the induction of ALP activity in the early stage, and the calcium deposition in the latter stage. The increment of NO production was also correlated with the upregulation of osteoblastic markers in HBMSC cultures. However, the stimulatory effect of NTG (10 μmol/L) could not be abolished by either NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, an antagonist of endothe-lial NOS, or 1400W, a selective blocker of inducible NOS activity. Conclusion: NTG stimulates cell proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of HBMSC through a direct release of NO, which is independent on intracellular NOS activity.

  5. PROLIFERATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF NEURAL STEM CELLS IN ADULT RATS AFTER CEREBRAL INFARCTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhang; Ren-zhi Wang; Yong Yao; Zhi-hai Liu; Zhi-gang Lian; Yu-jie Zou; Yu-kui Wei

    2004-01-01

    Objective To investigate proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in adult rats after cerebral infarction.Methods Models of cerebral infarction in rats were made and the time-course expression of bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), Musashil, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN) were determined by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining. BrdU and Musashil were used to mark dividing neural stem cells. GFAP and NeuN were used to mark differentiating neural stem cells.Results Compared with controls, the number of BrdU-labeled and BrdU-labeled with Musashil-positive cells increased strikingly 1 day after cerebral infarction; approximately 6 fold with a peak 7 days later; markedly decreased 14 days later, but was still elevated compared with that of controls; decling to the control level 28 days later. The number of BrdU-labeled with GFAP-positive cells nearly remained unchanged in the hippocampus after cerebral infarction. The number of BrdU-labeled with NeuN-positive cells increased strikingly 14 days after cerebral infarction, reached maximum peak in the hippocampus 28 days after cerebral infarction in rats.Conclusion Cerebral infarction stimulate proliferation of inherent neural stem cells and most proliferated neural stem cells differentiate into neurons.

  6. Dorsal root ganglion neurons promote proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-xun Zhang; Xiao-rui Jiang; Lei Wang; Fang-min Chen; Lin Xu; Fei Huang

    2015-01-01

    Preliminary animal experiments have conifrmed that sensory nerve ifbers promote osteoblast differentiation, but motor nerve ifbers have no promotion effect. Whether sensory neurons pro-mote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells remains unclear. No results at the cellular level have been reported. In this study, dorsal root ganglion neurons (sensory neurons) from Sprague-Dawley fetal rats were co-cultured with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells transfected with green lfuorescent protein 3 weeks after osteo-genic differentiationin vitro, while osteoblasts derived from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells served as the control group. The rat dorsal root ganglion neurons promoted the prolifera-tion of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived osteoblasts at 3 and 5 days of co-culture, as observed by lfuorescence microscopy. The levels of mRNAs for osteogenic differentiation-re-lated factors (including alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, osteopontin and bone morphogenetic protein 2) in the co-culture group were higher than those in the control group, as detected by real-time quantitative PCR. Our ifndings indicate that dorsal root ganglion neurons promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells, which pro-vides a theoretical basis forin vitro experiments aimed at constructing tissue-engineered bone.

  7. Nukbone® promotes proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells from human amniotic membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Nayeli; Rodríguez-Hernández, Ana G. [Depto. Microbiología y Parasitología, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Mexico City 04510 (Mexico); Enríquez-Jiménez, Juana [Depto. Biología de la Reproducción, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán (INCMNSZ), México City 14000 (Mexico); Alcántara-Quintana, Luz E. [Subd. de Investigación, Centro Nacional de la Transfusión Sanguínea, Secretaria de Salud, Mexico City 07370 (Mexico); Fuentes-Mera, Lizeth [Depto. Biología Molecular e Histocompatibilidad, Hospital General “Dr. Manuel Gea González”, México City 4800 (Mexico); Piña-Barba, María C. [Depto. Materiales Metálicos y Cerámicos, Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), México City 04510 (Mexico); Zepeda-Rodríguez, Armando [Depto. Biología Celular y Tisular, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), México City 04510 (Mexico); and others

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Nukbone showed to be a good scaffold for adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. •Nukbone induced osteoblastic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells. •Results showed that Nukbone offer an excellent option for bone tissue regeneration due to properties. -- Abstract: Bovine bone matrix Nukbone® (NKB) is an osseous tissue-engineering biomaterial that retains its mineral and organic phases and its natural bone topography and has been used as a xenoimplant for bone regeneration in clinics. There are not studies regarding its influence of the NKB in the behavior of cells during the repairing processes. The aim of this research is to demonstrate that NKB has an osteoinductive effect in human mesenchymal stem cells from amniotic membrane (AM-hMSCs). Results indicated that NKB favors the AM-hMSCs adhesion and proliferation up to 7 days in culture as shown by the scanning electron microscopy and proliferation measures using an alamarBlue assay. Furthermore, as demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, it was detected that two gene expression markers of osteoblastic differentiation: the core binding factor and osteocalcin were higher for AM-hMSCs co-cultured with NKB in comparison with cultivated cells in absence of the biomaterial. As the results indicate, NKB possess the capability for inducing successfully the osteoblastic differentiation of AM-hMSC, so that, NKB is an excellent xenoimplant option for repairing bone tissue defects.

  8. MAPKs and Signal Transduction in the Control of Gastrointestinal Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana H. Osaki

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways are activated by several stimuli and transduce the signal inside cells, generating diverse responses including cell proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. Each MAPK cascade comprises a series of molecules, and regulation takes place at different levels. They communicate with each other and with additional pathways, creating a signaling network that is important for cell fate determination. In this review, we focus on ERK, JNK, p38 and ERK5, the major MAPKs, and their interactions with PI3K-Akt, TGFβ/Smad and Wnt/β-catenin pathways. More importantly, we describe how MAPKs regulate cell proliferation and differentiation in the rapidly renewing epithelia that lines the gastrointestinal tract and, finally, we highlight the recent findings on nutritional aspects that affect MAPK transduction cascades.

  9. The Effects of Dense/Nanometer Hydroxyapatite on Proliferation and Osteogenetic Differentiation of Periodontal Ligament Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate possible effects of nanometer powder of hydroxyapatite on proliferation of periodontal ligament cells. With sol-gel method, the nanometer hydroxyapatite powder were fabricated. The primary periodontal ligament cells were cultured on dense panicle hydroxyapatite and nanometer particle hydroxyapatite. The effects on proliferation of periodontal ligament cell were examined in vitro with MTT( methyl thiazolil tetracolium) test. The intercellular effects were observed with scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analyzer. In addition, the influence of two materials on osteogenetic differentiation was determined with measurement of ALP ( alkaline phosphatase) activity. It is concluded that nanometer hydroxyapatite can promote proliiferation and osteogenetic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells and it may become absorbable agent in osseous restoration.

  10. The hippo pathway promotes Notch signaling in regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, and oocyte polarity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianzhong Yu

    Full Text Available Specification of the anterior-posterior axis in Drosophila oocytes requires proper communication between the germ-line cells and the somatically derived follicular epithelial cells. Multiple signaling pathways, including Notch, contribute to oocyte polarity formation by controlling the temporal and spatial pattern of follicle cell differentiation and proliferation. Here we show that the newly identified Hippo tumor-suppressor pathway plays a crucial role in the posterior follicle cells in the regulation of oocyte polarity. Disruption of the Hippo pathway, including major components Hippo, Salvador, and Warts, results in aberrant follicle-cell differentiation and proliferation and dramatic disruption of the oocyte anterior-posterior axis. These phenotypes are related to defective Notch signaling in follicle cells, because misexpression of a constitutively active form of Notch alleviates the oocyte polarity defects. We also find that follicle cells defective in Hippo signaling accumulate the Notch receptor and display defects in endocytosis markers. Our findings suggest that the interaction between Hippo and classic developmental pathways such as Notch is critical to spatial and temporal regulation of differentiation and proliferation and is essential for development of the body axes in Drosophila.

  11. Involvement of calreticulin in cell proliferation, invasion and differentiation in diallyl disulfide-treated HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Lan; Shan, Jian; Chen, Xin; Li, Guoqing; Li, Linwei; Tan, Hui; Su, Qi

    2016-09-01

    Diallyl disulfide (DADS) has shown potential as a therapeutic agent in various cancers. Previously, calreticulin (CRT) was found to be downregulated in differentiated HL-60 cells treated with DADS. The present study investigated the role of CRT proteins in DADS-induced proliferation, invasion and differentiation in HL-60 cells. The present study demonstrated that DADS treatment significantly changed the morphology of HL-60 cells and caused the significant time-dependent downregulation of CRT. Small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of CRT expression significantly inhibited proliferation, decreased invasion ability, increased the expression of cluster of differentiation (CD)11b and reduced the expression of CD33 in DADS-treated HL-60 cells. DADS also significantly affected cell proliferation, invasion and differentiation in CRT-overexpressed HL-60 cells. Nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reduction assays showed decreased NBT reduction activity in the CRT overexpression group and increased NBT reduction in the CRT siRNA group. Following treatment with DADS, the NBT reduction abilities in all groups were increased. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrates the downregulation of CRT during DADS-induced differentiation in HL-60 cells and indicates that CRT is involved in cell proliferation, invasion and differentiation in DADS-treated HL-60 cells.

  12. Dopamine inhibits proliferation, induces differentiation and apoptosis of K562 leukaemia cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Qun; YUAN Lin-bo

    2007-01-01

    Background Dopamine exerts its effects mainly in nervous system through D1, D2 or D3 receptors. There are few reports dealing with the effects of dopamine on leukaemia cells. However, some dopamine agonists or antagonists do show biological effects on some types of leukaemia cells. Here, we report the effects of dopamine on the proliferation,differentiation and apoptosis of K562 leukaemia cells.Methods Proliferation was determined by MTT assay and cell counting both in liquid and semisolid cultures.Differentiation was verified by morphology, benzidine staining and flow cytometry. Apoptosis was checked by Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry. The two groups were untreated group and treated group (dopamine 10-9 mol/L-10-4mol/L).Results In liquid culture, MTT assay and colony assay, dopamine inhibited proliferation of K562 cells. Inhibition rate was 29.28% at 10-6 mol/L and 36.10% at 10-5 mol/L after culture for 5 days in MTT assay. In benzidine staining and CD71 expression, dopamine induced K562 cells toward erythroid differentiation by increased 155% at 10-6 mol/L and by 171% at 10-5 mol/L after culture for 5 days in benzidine staining. In Hoechst 33258 staining and flow cytometry,dopamine induced K562 cells toward apoptosis. The sub G1 peak stained by PI was 14.23% at 10-4 mol/L dopamine after culture for 3 days compared with the control (0.81%) in flow cytometry.Conclusion Dopamine inhibites proliferation and induces both differentiation and apoptosis of K562 leukaemia cells.

  13. Low level light promotes the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Jin-Chul; Rhee, Yun-Hee; Choi, Sun-Hyang; Kim, Dae Yu; Chung, Phil-Sang

    2015-03-01

    Low-level light irradiation (LLLI) reported to stimulate the proliferation or differentiation of a variety of cell types. However, very little is known about the effect of light therapy on stem cells. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of LLLI on the molecular physiological change of human bone marrow derived stem cells (hBMSC) by wavelength (470, 630, 660, 740 and 850, 50mW). The laser diode was performed with different time interval (0, 7.5, 15, 30J/cm2, 50mW) on hBMSC. To determine the molecular physiological changes of cellular level of hBMSC, the clonogenic assay, ATP assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection, mitochondria membrane potential (MMPΦ) staining and calcium efflux assay were assessed after irradiation. There was a difference between with and without irradiation on hBMSCs. An energy density up to 30 J/cm² improved the cell proliferation in comparison to the control group. Among these irradiated group, 630 and 660nm were significantly increased the cell proliferation. The cellular level of ATP and calcium influx was increased with energy dose-dependent in all LLLI groups. Meanwhile, ROS and MMPΦ were also increased after irradiation except 470nm. It can be concluded that LLLI using infrared light and an energy density up to 30 J/cm² has a positive stimulatory effect on the proliferation or differentiation of hBMSCs. Our results suggest that LLLI may influence to the mitochondrial membrane potential activity through ATP synthesis and increased cell metabolism which leads to cell proliferation and differentiation.

  14. Decitabine suspends human CD34+ cell differentiation and proliferation during lentiviral transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Naoya; Hsieh, Matthew M; Platner, Charlotte; Saunthararajah, Yogen; Tisdale, John F

    2014-01-01

    Efficient ex vivo transduction of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is encumbered by differentiation which reduces engraftment. We hypothesized that inhibiting DNA methyltransferase with decitabine would block differentiation of transduced CD34+ cells under cytokine stimulation and thus improve transduction efficiency for engrafting HSCs. Human CD34+ cells in cytokine-containing media were treated with or without decitabine for 24 or 48 hours, and then these cells were transduced with a GFP-expressing lentiviral vector. Utilizing decitabine pre-treatment for 48 hours, we observed an equivalent percentage of successfully transduced cells (GFP-positivity) and a higher percentage of cells that retained CD34 positivity, compared to no decitabine exposure. Cell proliferation was inhibited after decitabine exposure. Similar results were observed among CD34+ cells from six different donors. Repopulating activity was evaluated by transplantation into NOD/SCID/IL2Rγnull mice and demonstrated an equivalent percentage of GFP-positivity in human cells from decitabine-treated samples and a trend for higher human cell engraftment (measured 20-24 weeks after transplantation), compared to no decitabine exposure. In conclusion, ex vivo decitabine exposure inhibits both differentiation and proliferation in transduced human CD34+ cells and modestly increases the engraftment ability in xenograft mice, while the transduction efficiency is equivalent in decitabine exposure, suggesting improvement of lentiviral transduction for HSCs.

  15. Decitabine suspends human CD34+ cell differentiation and proliferation during lentiviral transduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoya Uchida

    Full Text Available Efficient ex vivo transduction of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs is encumbered by differentiation which reduces engraftment. We hypothesized that inhibiting DNA methyltransferase with decitabine would block differentiation of transduced CD34+ cells under cytokine stimulation and thus improve transduction efficiency for engrafting HSCs. Human CD34+ cells in cytokine-containing media were treated with or without decitabine for 24 or 48 hours, and then these cells were transduced with a GFP-expressing lentiviral vector. Utilizing decitabine pre-treatment for 48 hours, we observed an equivalent percentage of successfully transduced cells (GFP-positivity and a higher percentage of cells that retained CD34 positivity, compared to no decitabine exposure. Cell proliferation was inhibited after decitabine exposure. Similar results were observed among CD34+ cells from six different donors. Repopulating activity was evaluated by transplantation into NOD/SCID/IL2Rγnull mice and demonstrated an equivalent percentage of GFP-positivity in human cells from decitabine-treated samples and a trend for higher human cell engraftment (measured 20-24 weeks after transplantation, compared to no decitabine exposure. In conclusion, ex vivo decitabine exposure inhibits both differentiation and proliferation in transduced human CD34+ cells and modestly increases the engraftment ability in xenograft mice, while the transduction efficiency is equivalent in decitabine exposure, suggesting improvement of lentiviral transduction for HSCs.

  16. Histamine is required during neural stem cell proliferation to increase neuron differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Martínez, G; Velasco, I; García-López, G; Solís, K H; Flores-Herrera, H; Díaz, N F; Molina-Hernández, A

    2012-08-02

    Histamine in the adult central nervous system (CNS) acts as a neurotransmitter. This amine is one of the first neurotransmitters to appear during development reaching its maximum concentration simultaneously with neuron differentiation peak. This suggests that HA plays an important role in neurogenesis. We have previously shown that HA is able to increase neuronal differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro, by activating the histamine type 1 receptor. However the mechanism(s) by which HA has a neurogenic effect on NSCs has not been explored. Here we explore how HA is able to increase neuron phenotype. Cortex neuroepithelium progenitors were cultured and at passage two treatments with 100 μM HA were given during cell proliferation and differentiation or only during differentiation. Immunocytochemistry was performed on differentiated cultures to detect mature neurons. To explore the expression of certain important transcriptional factors involved on asymmetric cell division and commitment, RT-PCR and qRT-PCR were performed. Results indicate that HA is required during cell proliferation in order to increase neuron differentiation and suggest that this amine increases neuron commitment during the proliferative phase probably by rising prospero1 and neurogenin1 expression.

  17. Fluoxetine Decreases the Proliferation and Adipogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Kyung Sun

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fluoxetine was originally developed as an antidepressant, but it has also been used to treat obesity. Although the anti-appetite effect of fluoxetine is well-documented, its potential effects on human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs or mature adipocytes have not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of fluoxetine on the proliferation of ASCs. We also investigated its inhibitory effect on adipogenic differentiation. Fluoxetine significantly decreased ASC proliferation, and signal transduction PCR array analysis showed that it increased expression of autophagy-related genes. In addition, fluoxetine up-regulated SQSTM1 and LC3B protein expression as detected by western blotting and immunofluorescence. The autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA, significantly attenuated fluoxetine-mediated effects on ASC proliferation and SQSTM1/LC3B expression. In addition, 3-MA decreased the mRNA expression of two autophagy-related genes, beclin-1 and Atg7, in ASCs. Fluoxetine also significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and down-regulated the levels of PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α in ASCs. Collectively, these results indicate that fluoxetine decreases ASC proliferation and adipogenic differentiation. This is the first in vitro evidence that fluoxetine can reduce fat accumulation by inhibiting ASC proliferation and differentiation.

  18. Fluoxetine Decreases the Proliferation and Adipogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo Kyung; Kim, Ji Hye; Choi, Joon-Seok; Hwang, Sung-Joo; Sung, Jong-Hyuk

    2015-07-22

    Fluoxetine was originally developed as an antidepressant, but it has also been used to treat obesity. Although the anti-appetite effect of fluoxetine is well-documented, its potential effects on human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) or mature adipocytes have not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of fluoxetine on the proliferation of ASCs. We also investigated its inhibitory effect on adipogenic differentiation. Fluoxetine significantly decreased ASC proliferation, and signal transduction PCR array analysis showed that it increased expression of autophagy-related genes. In addition, fluoxetine up-regulated SQSTM1 and LC3B protein expression as detected by western blotting and immunofluorescence. The autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), significantly attenuated fluoxetine-mediated effects on ASC proliferation and SQSTM1/LC3B expression. In addition, 3-MA decreased the mRNA expression of two autophagy-related genes, beclin-1 and Atg7, in ASCs. Fluoxetine also significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and down-regulated the levels of PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α in ASCs. Collectively, these results indicate that fluoxetine decreases ASC proliferation and adipogenic differentiation. This is the first in vitro evidence that fluoxetine can reduce fat accumulation by inhibiting ASC proliferation and differentiation.

  19. VEGF-mediated angiogenesis stimulates neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation in the premature brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Jinqiao, E-mail: jinqiao1977@163.com [Institute of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Fudan University (China); Sha, Bin [Department of Neonatology, Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, 399 Wanyuan Road, Shanghai 201102 (China); Zhou, Wenhao, E-mail: zhou_wenhao@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Neonatology, Children' s Hospital of Fudan University, 399 Wanyuan Road, Shanghai 201102 (China); Yang, Yi [Institute of Pediatrics, Children' s Hospital of Fudan University (China)

    2010-03-26

    This study investigated the effects of angiogenesis on the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in the premature brain. We observed the changes in neurogenesis that followed the stimulation and inhibition of angiogenesis by altering vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in a 3-day-old rat model. VEGF expression was overexpressed by adenovirus transfection and down-regulated by siRNA interference. Using immunofluorescence assays, Western blot analysis, and real-time PCR methods, we observed angiogenesis and the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells. Immunofluorescence assays showed that the number of vWF-positive areas peaked at day 7, and they were highest in the VEGF up-regulation group and lowest in the VEGF down-regulation group at every time point. The number of neural stem cells, neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the subventricular zone gradually increased over time in the VEGF up-regulation group. Among the three groups, the number of these cells was highest in the VEGF up-regulation group and lowest in the VEGF down-regulation group at the same time point. Western blot analysis and real-time PCR confirmed these results. These data suggest that angiogenesis may stimulate the proliferation of neural stem cells and differentiation into neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes in the premature brain.

  20. The effect of temperature on proliferation and differentiation of chicken skeletal muscle satellite cells isolated from different muscle types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Rachel L; Halevy, Orna; Yahav, Shlomo; Velleman, Sandra G

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal muscle satellite cells are a muscle stem cell population that mediate posthatch muscle growth and repair. Satellite cells respond differentially to environmental stimuli based upon their fiber-type of origin. The objective of this study was to determine how temperatures below and above the in vitro control of 38°C affected the proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells isolated from the chicken anaerobic pectoralis major (p. major) or mixed fiber biceps femoris (b.femoris) muscles. The satellite cells isolated from the p. major muscle were more sensitive to both cold and hot temperatures compared to the b.femoris satellite cells during both proliferation and differentiation. The expressions of myogenic regulatory transcription factors were also different between satellite cells from different fiber types. MyoD expression, which partially regulates proliferation, was generally expressed at higher levels in p. major satellite cells compared to the b.femoris satellite cells from 33 to 43°C during proliferation and differentiation. Similarly, myogenin expression, which is required for differentiation, was also expressed at higher levels in p. major satellite cells in response to both cold and hot temperatures during proliferation and differentiation than b. femoris satellite cells. These data demonstrate that satellite cells from the anaerobic p. major muscle are more sensitive than satellite cells from the aerobic b. femoris muscle to both hot and cold thermal stress during myogenic proliferation and differentiation.

  1. Proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells on akermanite and β-TCP bioceramics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Xia

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of akermanite as compared to β-TCP on attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM and actin filament labeling were used to reveal attachment and growth of hPDLCs seeded on β-TCP and akermanite ceramic. Cell proliferation was tested by lactic acid production and MTT analysis, while osteogenic differentiation was assayed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP expression and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR analysis on markers of osteopontin (OPN, dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein-1 (DMP-1, and osteocalcin (OCN, and further detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent analysis (ELISA analysis for OCN expression. Besides, the ions released from akermanite and their effect on hPDLCs was also measured by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES, MTT analysis, ALP expression and real-time PCR analysis. hPDLCs attached well on both ceramics, but showed better spreading on akermanite. hPDLCs proliferated more rapidly on akermanite than β-TCP. Importantly, osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs was enhanced on akermanite compared to β-TCP. Besides, Ca, Mg and Si ions were released from akermanite, while only Ca ions were released from β-TCP. Moreover, more pronounced proliferation and higher osteogenic gene expression for hPDLCs cultured with akermanite extract were detected as compared to cells cultured on akermanite. Therefore, akermanite ceramic showed an enhanced effect on proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs, which might be attributed to the release of ions containing Ca, Mg and Si from the material. It is suggested that akermanite ceramics may serve as a potential material for periodontal bone regeneration.

  2. Effect of Stathmin Decoy-oligodeoxynucleotides on the Proliferation and Differentiation of Precartilainous Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Fengjing; ZHANG Yibei; CHEN Anmin

    2007-01-01

    By using decoy-oligodeoxynucleotides (decoy-ODNS) technique, the effects of Stathmin gene on the proliferation and differentiation of in vitro cultured precartilainous stem cells (PSCs) were investigated. The Stathmin decoy-ODNs were transfected into PSCs in rats by using gene trans- fection technique. Under the induction of cortisol (1 μmol/L), electrophoretic mobility shift assay was used the inhibitory effects of decoy-ODNS on Stathmin gene. MTT and cytometry were used to test the cell proliferation. The expression of collagen Ⅱ and Ⅴ and Stathmin protein was detected by using Western blot. The results showed that Stathmin decoy-ODNs inhibited the Stathmin activity in a dose-dependent manner. When the concentration of decoy-ODNs was 10 times of standard con- centration, the proliferation of PSCs was obviously suppressed and the differentiation happened. Compared to the control group, the difference was significant (P<0.05). It was concluded that de-coy-ODNs could inhibit the proliferation and promote the differentiation of PSCs by antagonizing Stathmin activity.

  3. Regulation of BMP4 on the proliferation and differentiation in SVZa neural stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shiyong; ZHANG Zhiyuan; SONG Yechun; QIU Kejun; ZHANG Kecheng; AN Ning; ZHOU Zheng; CAI Wenqin; YANG Hui

    2004-01-01

    The neural stem cells in the anterior subventricular zone (SVZa) mainly generate the progenitors that will differentiate into neurons, and along a highly circumscribed migratory access--Rostral migratory stream (RMS), they migrate to the olfactory bulbs (OB). To understand the effects of BMPs on SVZa neural stem cells, in this study BMP4 at various concentrations was used to induce SVZa neural stem cells, and the living cell labeling using BMP4 promotor conjugated with red fluorescence protein showed the expression of BMP4 dynamically. The results demonstrated that low BMP4 doses (1-5 ng/mL)promoted while high doses (10-100 ng/mL) inhibited the proliferation of SVZa neural stem cells, and BMP4 promoted neuron differentiation in the early stage (1-3 d), howeverm,it inhibited the neuron commitment after 4 d. Noggin, the antagonist of BMP4, blocked the physiological effects of BMP4. In OB, BMP4 is mainly to accelerate the progenitors to withdraw from the cell cycle and trigger the differentiation, and in RMS, it promotes the proliferation of committed progenitors and not differentiation, further in SVZa, BMP4 enhances astrocyte commitment.

  4. Attachment, proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells on various guided tissue regeneration membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, T; Wang, H L; Miyauchi, M

    2001-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biological effects of guided tissue regeneration (GTR) membrane materials, per se, on the periodontal tissue regeneration. Rat periodontal ligament (PDL)-derived cells were used to study the attachment, proliferation and differentiation, in vitro, on various GTR membranes. Five commercially available membranes bovine type I collagen (BioMend; BM), bovine type I atelocollagen (Tissue Guide; TG), polylactic acid (Epi-Guide; EG), co-polymer of polylactic acid and polyglycolic acid (Resolute; RL) and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene: e-PTFE (Gore Tex; GT)-were examined. A 3 x 3 mm section of the membrane was fixed to the bottom of a 35 x 10 mm style culture dish and plated with 2 ml of cell suspension at an initial density of 5 x 10(4) cells/ml in culture medium with 10% fetal bovine serum. For cell growth analysis, the specimens were fixed with 10% buffered formalin and stained with hematoxylin at 1.5 hours and 1, 3 and 5 days after cell seeding. The number of cells included in a unit area of 0.25 mm2 were counted under light microscopy. As a comparative scaffold of cell proliferation, a plastic cover for cell culture slip (Celldesk; CD) was used. For analysis of cell differentiation, activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and calcification were histochemically revealed after 2-week cultivation. The initial number of PDL cells attached to the membrane at 1.5 hours after cell seeding was different among membranes. RL, TG and EG had the same level of attached cell numbers as that on CD, while the cell numbers on GT and BM were significantly lower than that on CD (p membranes examined. RL and BM demonstrated a significantly higher number of cells at 5 days than at 1.5 hours (p 0.1). EG had a similar number of cell attachments to that at 1.5 hours throughout the experimental period. There was almost no cell proliferation on GT. Cell clusters of ALP positive cells and foci of calcification were seen on all membranes except for

  5. Culture of proliferating and differentiating fat-storing cells in 3T3-conditioned medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendoza-Figueroa, T; Argüello, C; Kuri-Harcuch, W

    1988-01-01

    There is growing evidence suggesting that hepatic fat-storing cells (FSC) or Ito cells have an important function in vitamin A storage and metabolism and in the synthesis of connective tissue components in normal liver and during fibrogenesis. The purified FSC acquire a fibroblastic morphology and their vitamin A content decreases in culture. We cultivated cells under in vitro conditions that allowed the expression of FSC morphological and functional characteristics for 3-4 weeks of primary culture. Cells were isolated from rat liver by the collagenase-perfusion method without further purification and cultured with 3T3-conditioned medium, which seemed to stimulate the selective proliferation of the FSC. After 8-10 days, round and stellate cells grew actively from a few precursor cells in the primary culture and were not subcultivated; the stellate cells had the ability to become round and vice versa and were highly motile. The cells had intracytoplasmic lipid droplets, a well developed rough endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi complex, numerous vesicles filled with electron-dense material, and extracellular matrix (ECM) components on their surface. Both stellate and round cells showed the presence of desmin by immunofluorescence and vitamin A autofluorescence, but lacked peroxidase activity. The culture conditions we describe allowed the selective proliferation of cells with morphological and functional characteristics of the FSC in the normal liver, raising the possibility of studying FSC proliferation and differentiation.

  6. Effects of celecoxib on proliferation and tenocytic differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Kairui; Zhang, Sheng [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Li, Qianqian [Cancer Research Institute, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Yang, Jun [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, 421 Hospital of PLA, Guangzhou 510318 (China); Dong, Weiqiang [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Department of Orthopaedics, The First Affiliated Hospital to Guangzhou Medical University, Guangzhou 510120 (China); Wang, Shengnan; Cheng, Yirong; Al-Qwbani, Mohammed [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China); Wang, Qiang, E-mail: 1780468505@qq.com [Department of Orthopaedics, Subei People’s Hospital of Jiangsu Province (Clinical Medical College of Yangzhou University), Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province 225001 (China); Yu, Bin, E-mail: carryzhang1985@live.com [Department of Orthopaedics and Traumatology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou 510515 (China)

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Celecoxib has no effects on TDSCs cell proliferation in various concentrations. • Celecoxib reduced mRNAs levels of tendon associated transcription factor. • Celecoxib reduced mRNAs levels of main tendon associated collagen. • Celecoxib reduced mRNAs levels of tendon associated molecules. - Abstract: NSAIDs are often ingested to reduce the pain and improve regeneration of tendon after tendon injury. Although the effects of NSAIDs in tendon healing have been reported, the data and conclusions are not consistent. Recently, tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) have been isolated from tendon tissues and has been suggested involved in tendon repair. Our study aims to determine the effects of COX-2 inhibitor (celecoxib) on the proliferation and tenocytic differentiation of TDSCs. TDSCs were isolated from mice Achilles tendon and exposed to celecoxib. Cell proliferation rate was investigated at various concentrations (0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μg/ml) of celecoxib by using hemocytometer. The mRNA expression of tendon associated transcription factors, tendon associated collagens and tendon associated molecules were determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression of Collagen I, Collagen III, Scleraxis and Tenomodulin were determined by Western blotting. The results showed that celecoxib has no effects on TDSCs cell proliferation in various concentrations (p > 0.05). The levels of most tendon associated transcription factors, tendon associated collagens and tendon associated molecules genes expression were significantly decreased in celecoxib (10 μg/ml) treated group (p < 0.05). Collagen I, Collagen III, Scleraxis and Tenomodulin protein expression were also significantly decreased in celecoxib (10 μg/ml) treated group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, celecoxib inhibits tenocytic differentiation of tendon-derived stem cells but has no effects on cell proliferation.

  7. Regulatory subunits of PKA define an axis of cellular proliferation/differentiation in ovarian cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hall John C

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA exists in two isoforms, RI and RII, which distinguish the PKA isozymes, type I (PKA-I and type II (PKA-II. Evidence obtained from a variety of different experimental approaches has shown that the relative levels of type I and type II PKA in cells can play a major role in determining the balance between cell growth and differentiation. In order to characterize the effect of PKA type I and type II regulatory subunits on gene transcription at a global level, the PKA regulatory subunit genes for RIα and RIIβ were stably transfected into cells of the ovarian cancer cell line (OVCAR8. Results RIα transfected cells exhibit hyper-proliferative growth and RIIβ transfected cells revert to a relatively quiescent state. Profiling by microarray revealed equally profound changes in gene expression between RIα, RIIβ, and parental OVCAR cells. Genes specifically up-regulated in RIα cells were highly enriched for pathways involved in cell growth while genes up-regulated in RIIβ cells were enriched for pathways involved in differentiation. A large group of genes (~3600 was regulated along an axis of proliferation/differentiation between RIα, parental, and RIIβ cells. RIα/wt and RIIβ/wt gene regulation was shown by two separate and distinct gene set analytical methods to be strongly cross-correlated with a generic model of cellular differentiation. Conclusion Overexpression of PKA regulatory subunits in an ovarian cancer cell line dramatically influences the cell phenotype. The proliferation phenotype is strongly correlated with recently identified clinical biomarkers predictive of poor prognosis in ovarian cancer suggesting a possible pivotal role for PKA regulation in disease progression.

  8. Estrogen Stimulates Proliferation and Differentiation of Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells through Different Signal Transduction Pathways

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    Makiko Okada

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Our previous study indicated that both 17β-estradiol (E2, known to be an endogenous estrogen, and bisphenol A (BPA, known to be a xenoestrogen, could positively influence the proliferation or differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NS/PCs. The aim of the present study was to identify the signal transduction pathways for estrogenic activities promoting proliferation and differentiation of NS/PCs via well known nuclear estrogen receptors (ERs or putative membrane-associated ERs. NS/PCs were cultured from the telencephalon of 15-day-old rat embryos. In order to confirm the involvement of nuclear ERs for estrogenic activities, their specific antagonist, ICI-182,780, was used. The presence of putative membrane-associated ER was functionally examined as to whether E2 can activate rapid intracellular signaling mechanism. In order to confirm the involvement of membrane-associated ERs for estrogenic activities, a cell-impermeable E2, bovine serum albumin-conjugated E2 (E2-BSA was used. We showed that E2 could rapidly activate extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK 1/2, which was not inhibited by ICI-182,780. ICI-182,780 abrogated the stimulatory effect of these estrogens (E2 and BPA on the proliferation of NS/PCs, but not their effect on the differentiation of the NS/PCs into oligodendroglia. Furthermore, E2-BSA mimicked the activity of differentiation from NS/PCs into oligodendroglia, but not the activity of proliferation. Our study suggests that (1 the estrogen induced proliferation of NS/PCs is mediated via nuclear ERs; (2 the oligodendroglial generation from NS/PCs is likely to be stimulated via putative membrane‑associated ERs.

  9. EGFR signaling regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis during planarian regeneration and homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraguas, Susanna; Barberán, Sara; Cebrià, Francesc

    2011-06-01

    Similarly to development, the process of regeneration requires that cells accurately sense and respond to their external environment. Thus, intrinsic cues must be integrated with signals from the surrounding environment to ensure appropriate temporal and spatial regulation of tissue regeneration. Identifying the signaling pathways that control these events will not only provide insights into a fascinating biological phenomenon but may also yield new molecular targets for use in regenerative medicine. Among classical models to study regeneration, freshwater planarians represent an attractive system in which to investigate the signals that regulate cell proliferation and differentiation, as well as the proper patterning of the structures being regenerated. Recent studies in planarians have begun to define the role of conserved signaling pathways during regeneration. Here, we extend these analyses to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor pathway. We report the characterization of three epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptors in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. Silencing of these genes by RNA interference (RNAi) yielded multiple defects in intact and regenerating planarians. Smed-egfr-1(RNAi) resulted in decreased differentiation of eye pigment cells, abnormal pharynx regeneration and maintenance, and the development of dorsal outgrowths. In contrast, Smed-egfr-3(RNAi) animals produced smaller blastemas associated with abnormal differentiation of certain cell types. Our results suggest important roles for the EGFR signaling in controlling cell proliferation, differentiation and morphogenesis during planarian regeneration and homeostasis.

  10. Invariant NKT cells require autophagy to coordinate proliferation and survival signals during differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Bo; Zhao, Meng; Miller, Brian C; Véla, Jose Luis; Bruinsma, Monique W; Virgin, Herbert W; Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2015-06-15

    Autophagy regulates cell differentiation, proliferation, and survival in multiple cell types, including cells of the immune system. In this study, we examined the effects of a disruption of autophagy on the differentiation of invariant NKT (iNKT) cells. Using mice with a T lymphocyte-specific deletion of Atg5 or Atg7, two members of the macroautophagic pathway, we observed a profound decrease in the iNKT cell population. The deficit is cell-autonomous, and it acts predominantly to reduce the number of mature cells, as well as the function of peripheral iNKT cells. In the absence of autophagy, there is reduced progression of iNKT cells in the thymus through the cell cycle, as well as increased apoptosis of these cells. Importantly, the reduction in Th1-biased iNKT cells is most pronounced, leading to a selective reduction in iNKT cell-derived IFN-γ. Our findings highlight the unique metabolic and genetic requirements for the differentiation of iNKT cells.

  11. Temperature effect on proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells from turkeys with different growth rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D L; Coy, C S; Strasburg, G M; Reed, K M; Velleman, S G

    2016-04-01

    Poultry selected for growth have an inefficient thermoregulatory system and are more sensitive to temperature extremes. Satellite cells are precursors to skeletal muscle and mediate all posthatch muscle growth. Their physiological functions are affected by temperature. The objective of the current study was to determine how temperature affects satellite cells isolated from the pectoralis major (p. major) muscle (breast muscle) of turkeys selected for increased 16 wk body weight (F line) in comparison to a randombred control line (RBC2) from which the F line originated. Pectoralis major muscle satellite cells were thermally challenged by culturing between 33°C and 43°C to analyze the effects of cold and heat on proliferation and differentiation as compared to control temperature of 38°C. Expression levels of myogenic regulatory factors: myogenic differentiation factor 1 (MYOD1) and myogenin (MYOG) were quantified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). At all sampling times, proliferation increased at a linear rate across temperature in both the RBC2 and F lines. Differentiation also increased at a linear rate across temperature from 33 to 41°C at all sampling times in both the F and RBC2 lines. Satellite cells isolated from F line turkeys were more sensitive to both hot and cold temperatures as proliferation and differentiation increased to a greater extent across temperature (33 to 43°C) when compared with the RBC2 line. Expression of MYOD1 and MYOG increased as temperatures increased from 33 to 41°C at all sampling times in both the F and RBC2 lines. These results demonstrate that satellite cell function is sensitive to both cold and hot temperatures and p. major muscle satellite cells from F line turkeys are more sensitive to temperature extremes than RBC2 satellite cells.

  12. Diverse Functions of VDUP1 in Cell Proliferation, Differentiation, and Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sang Yong Kim; Hyun-Woo Suh; Jin Woong Chung; Suk-Ran Yoon; Inpyo Choi

    2007-01-01

    Vitamin D3 up-regulated protein 1 (VDUP1) is a multifunctional protein involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis. VDUP1 is induced by a variety of stresses. Inversely, VDUP1 is often reduced in various tumor tissues and cell lines. Over-expression of VDUP1 inhibits cell proliferation through cell cycle arrest. VDUP1 interacts with thioredoxin (Trx) and negatively regulates the expression and antioxidant function of Trx which is involved in redox regulation. VDUP1-/- mice are more susceptible to carcinogenesis than wild-type mice and are defective in establishing immune system including the development and function of natural killer cells. Furthermore, VDUP1-/-mice show impaired Kreb cycle-mediated fatty acid utilization. In this review, we have discussed the multifunctional roles of VDUP1 in diverse cellular responses, in particular its relation to proliferation, apoptosis,differentiation, and diseases such as cancer and stress-related diseases.

  13. Periodontitis promotes the proliferation and suppresses the differentiation potential of human periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wei; Wang, Shi; Wang, Jianguo; Jin, Fang

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the periodontitis-associated changes in the number, proliferation and differentiation potential of human periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). Cultures of human periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) were established from healthy donors and donors with periodontitis. The numbers of stem cell were characterized using flow cytometry. PDLSCs were isolated from the PDLCs by immunomagnetic bead selection. Colony‑forming abilities, osteogenic and adipogenic potential, gene expression of cementoblast phenotype, alkaline phosphatase activity and in vivo differentiation capacities were then evaluated. Periodontitis caused an increase in the proliferation of PDLSCs and a decrease in the commitment to the osteoblast lineage. This is reflected by changes in the expression of osteoblast markers. When transplanted into immunocompromised mice, PDLSCs from the healthy donors exhibited the capacity to produce cementum PDL‑like structures, whereas, the inflammatory PDLSCs transplants predominantly formed connective tissues. In conclusion, the data from the present study suggest that periodontitis affects the proliferation and differentiation potential of human PDLSCs in vitro and in vivo.

  14. Differential expression of alkaline phosphatase gene in proliferating primary lymphocytes and malignant lymphoid cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latheef, S A A; Devanabanda, Mallaiah; Sankati, Swetha; Madduri, Ramanadham

    2016-02-01

    Alkaline Phosphatase (APase) activity has been shown to be enhanced specifically in mitogen stimulated B lymphocytes committed to proliferation, but not in T lymphocytes. APase gene expression was analyzed in proliferating murine and human primary lymphocytes and human malignant cell lines using reverse transcriptase and real time PCR. In mitogen stimulated murine splenic lymphocytes, enhancement of APase activity correlated well with an increase in APase gene expression. However, in mitogen stimulated murine T lymphocytes and human PBL despite a vigorous proliferative response, no increase in APase enzyme activity or gene expression was observed. A constitutive expression of APase activity concomitant with APase gene expression was observed inhuman myeloma cell line, U266 B1. However, neither enzyme activity nor gene expression of APase were observed in human T cell lymphoma, SUPT-1. The results suggest a differential expression of APase activity and its gene in proliferating primary lymphocytes of mice and humans. The specific expression of APase activity and its gene only in human myeloma cells, but not in proliferating primary B cells can be exploited as a sensitive disease marker.

  15. Differential phosphorylation of NG2 proteoglycan by ERK and PKCα helps balance cell proliferation and migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makagiansar, Irwan T.; Williams, Scott; Mustelin, Tomas; Stallcup, William B.

    2007-01-01

    Two distinct Thr phosphorylation events within the cytoplasmic domain of the NG2 proteoglycan help regulate the cellular balance between proliferation and motility. Protein kinase Cα mediates the phosphorylation of NG2 at Thr2256, resulting in enhanced cell motility. Extracellular signal–regulated kinase phosphorylates NG2 at Thr2314, stimulating cell proliferation. The effects of NG2 phosphorylation on proliferation and motility are dependent on β1-integrin activation. Differential cell surface localization of the two distinctly phosphorylated forms of NG2 may be the mechanism by which the NG2–β1-integrin interaction promotes proliferation in one case and motility in the other. NG2 phosphorylated at Thr2314 colocalizes with β1-integrin on microprotrusions from the apical cell surface. In contrast, NG2 phosphorylated at Thr2256 colocalizes with β1-integrin on lamellipodia at the leading edges of cells. Thus, phosphorylation and the resulting site of NG2–integrin localization may determine the specific downstream effects of integrin signaling. PMID:17591920

  16. Differential phosphorylation of NG2 proteoglycan by ERK and PKCalpha helps balance cell proliferation and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makagiansar, Irwan T; Williams, Scott; Mustelin, Tomas; Stallcup, William B

    2007-07-01

    Two distinct Thr phosphorylation events within the cytoplasmic domain of the NG2 proteoglycan help regulate the cellular balance between proliferation and motility. Protein kinase Calpha mediates the phosphorylation of NG2 at Thr2256, resulting in enhanced cell motility. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylates NG2 at Thr2314, stimulating cell proliferation. The effects of NG2 phosphorylation on proliferation and motility are dependent on beta1-integrin activation. Differential cell surface localization of the two distinctly phosphorylated forms of NG2 may be the mechanism by which the NG2-beta1-integrin interaction promotes proliferation in one case and motility in the other. NG2 phosphorylated at Thr2314 colocalizes with beta1-integrin on microprotrusions from the apical cell surface. In contrast, NG2 phosphorylated at Thr2256 colocalizes with beta1-integrin on lamellipodia at the leading edges of cells. Thus, phosphorylation and the resulting site of NG2-integrin localization may determine the specific downstream effects of integrin signaling.

  17. Nitric Oxide Prevents Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation Through Regulation of Gene Expression, Cell Signaling, and Control of Cell Proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapia-Limonchi, Rafael; Cahuana, Gladys M; Caballano-Infantes, Estefania; Salguero-Aranda, Carmen; Beltran-Povea, Amparo; Hitos, Ana B; Hmadcha, Abdelkrim; Martin, Franz; Soria, Bernat; Bedoya, Francisco J; Tejedo, Juan R

    2016-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) delays mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC) differentiation by regulating genes linked to pluripotency and differentiation. Nevertheless, no profound study has been conducted on cell differentiation regulation by this molecule through signaling on essential biological functions. We sought to demonstrate that NO positively regulates the pluripotency transcriptional core, enforcing changes in the chromatin structure, in addition to regulating cell proliferation, and signaling pathways with key roles in stemness. Culturing mESCs with 2 μM of the NO donor diethylenetriamine/NO (DETA/NO) in the absence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) induced significant changes in the expression of 16 genes of the pluripotency transcriptional core. Furthermore, treatment with DETA/NO resulted in a high occupancy of activating H3K4me3 at the Oct4 and Nanog promoters and repressive H3K9me3 and H3k27me3 at the Brachyury promoter. Additionally, the activation of signaling pathways involved in pluripotency, such as Gsk3-β/β-catenin, was observed, in addition to activation of PI3 K/Akt, which is consistent with the protection of mESCs from cell death. Finally, a decrease in cell proliferation coincides with cell cycle arrest in G2/M. Our results provide novel insights into NO-mediated gene regulation and cell proliferation and suggest that NO is necessary but not sufficient for the maintenance of pluripotency and the prevention of cell differentiation. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2078-2088, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Molecular manipulation targeting regulation of dopaminergic differentiation and proliferation of neural stem cells or pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yin-Xiu; Wei, Li-Chun; Wang, Ya-Zhou; Cao, Rong; Wang, Xi; Chen, Liang-Wei

    2011-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a severe deliberating neurological disease caused by progressive degenerative death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of midbrain. While cell replacement strategy by transplantation of neural stem cells and inducement of dopaminergic neurons is recommended for the treatment of PD, understanding the differentiation mechanism and controlled proliferation of grafted stem cells remain major concerns in their clinical application. Here we review recent studies on molecular signaling pathways in regulation of dopaminergic differentiation and proliferation of stem cells, particularly Wnt/beta-catenin signaling in stimulating formation of the dopaminergic phenotype, Notch signaling in inhibiting stem cell differentiation, and Sonic hedgehog functioning in neural stem cell proliferation and neuronal cell production. Activation of oncogenes involved in uncontrolled proliferation or tumorigenicity of stem cells is also discussed. It is proposed that a selective molecular manipulation targeting strategy will greatly benefit cell replacement therapy for PD by effectively promoting dopaminergic neuronal cell generation and reducing risk of tumorigenicity of in vivo stem cell applications.

  19. Survival motor neuron protein regulates stem cell division, proliferation, and differentiation in Drosophila.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart J Grice

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy is a severe neurogenic disease that is caused by mutations in the human survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1 gene. SMN protein is required for the assembly of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins and a dramatic reduction of the protein leads to cell death. It is currently unknown how the reduction of this ubiquitously essential protein can lead to tissue-specific abnormalities. In addition, it is still not known whether the disease is caused by developmental or degenerative defects. Using the Drosophila system, we show that SMN is enriched in postembryonic neuroblasts and forms a concentration gradient in the differentiating progeny. In addition to the developing Drosophila larval CNS, Drosophila larval and adult testes have a striking SMN gradient. When SMN is reduced in postembryonic neuroblasts using MARCM clonal analysis, cell proliferation and clone formation defects occur. These SMN mutant neuroblasts fail to correctly localise Miranda and have reduced levels of snRNAs. When SMN is removed, germline stem cells are lost more frequently. We also show that changes in SMN levels can disrupt the correct timing of cell differentiation. We conclude that highly regulated SMN levels are essential to drive timely cell proliferation and cell differentiation.

  20. Effects of lysophosphatidic acid on the in vitro proliferation and differentiation of a novel porcine preadipocyte cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobusue, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Makiko; Kano, Koichiro

    2010-12-01

    We examined the effects of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) on in vitro proliferation and differentiation of a porcine preadipocyte cell line, DFAT-P, and a mouse preadipocyte cell line, 3T3-L1. During the proliferation and differentiation phases, DFAT-P and 3T3-L1 cells expressed only the endothelial differentiation gene (EDG)-2 receptor and not EDG-4 and EDG-7 receptors. LPA promoted the proliferation of DFAT-P cells more extensively than that of 3T3-L1 cells. After adipogenic induction, LPA inhibited glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity and lipid droplet accumulation, and suppressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) protein expression, this inhibitory effect in DFAT-P cells was twice as high as that in 3T3-L1 cells. Furthermore, treatments with low LPA concentrations significantly inhibited adipocyte differentiation in DFAT-P cells but not in 3T3-L1 cells. We conclude that LPA promotes the proliferation of porcine preadipocytes through the EDG-2 receptor but inhibits their differentiation, and these effects depend on the down-regulation of PPARγ expression via the EDG-2 receptor. Furthermore, DFAT-P cells are more sensitive to LPA than 3T3-L1 cells. These findings in a porcine model will contribute to the understanding of LPA action mechanisms on in vitro proliferation and differentiation of preadipocytes in domestic animals and/or humans.

  1. Effect of Electromagnetic Fields on Proliferation and Differentiation of Cultured Mouse Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In order to study the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on proliferation, differentiation and intercellular cyclic AMP (cAMP) in mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in vitro, the mouse bone MSCs were isolated and cultured in vitro. The third passage MSCs were divided into 4 groups and stimulated with EMFs. The cellular proliferation (MTT),the cellular differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity, ALP), and the intercellular cAMP level were investigated at different time points. The results showed that EMF (50Hz pulse burst 2 mT peak) inhibited the cellular proliferation (P<0.05), enhanced the cellular differentiation (P<0.05), and increased the intercellular cAMP level (P<0.01) in the early time of the stimulation (1-3 days), but the intercellular cAMP level did not increased further in the later days. We are led to conclude that the cAMP may be involved in the mediation of the growth inhibitory and differentiation-inducing signals of specific EMFs in vitro.

  2. Altered differentiation and paracrine stimulation of mammary epithelial cell proliferation by conditionally activated Smoothened.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visbal, Adriana P; LaMarca, Heather L; Villanueva, Hugo; Toneff, Michael J; Li, Yi; Rosen, Jeffrey M; Lewis, Michael T

    2011-04-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling network is critical for patterning and organogenesis in mammals, and has been implicated in a variety of cancers. Smoothened (Smo), the gene encoding the principal signal transducer, is overexpressed frequently in breast cancer, and constitutive activation in MMTV-SmoM2 transgenic mice caused alterations in mammary gland morphology, increased proliferation, and changes in stem/progenitor cell number. Both in transgenic mice and in clinical specimens, proliferative cells did not usually express detectable Smo, suggesting the hypothesis that Smo functioned in a non-cell autonomous manner to stimulate proliferation. Here, we employed a genetically tagged mouse model carrying a Cre-recombinase-dependent conditional allele of constitutively active Smo (SmoM2) to test this hypothesis. MMTV-Cre- or adenoviral-Cre-mediated SmoM2 expression in the luminal epithelium, but not in the myoepithelium, was required for the hyper-proliferative phenotypes. High levels of proliferation were observed in cells adjacent or in close-proximity to Smo expressing cells demonstrating that SmoM2 expressing cells were stimulating proliferation via a paracrine or juxtacrine mechanism. In contrast, Smo expression altered luminal cell differentiation in a cell-autonomous manner. SmoM2 expressing cells, purified by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) via the genetic fluorescent tag, expressed high levels of Ptch2, Gli1, Gli2, Jag2 and Dll-1, and lower levels of Notch4 and Hes6, in comparison to wildtype cells. These studies provide insight into the mechanism of Smo activation in the mammary gland and its possible roles in breast tumorigenesis. In addition, these results also have potential implications for the interpretation of proliferative phenotypes commonly observed in other organs as a consequence of hedgehog signaling activation.

  3. Pinoresinol inhibits proliferation and induces differentiation on human HL60 leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepporta, Maria Vittoria; Mazza, Teresa; Morozzi, Guido; Fabiani, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Pinoresinol (PIN), one of the simplest lignans, is the precursor of other dietary lignans that are present in whole-grain cereals, legumes, fruits, and other vegetables. Several experimental and epidemiological evidences suggest that lignans may prevent human cancer in different organs. In this study we investigated the chemopreventive properties of PIN on cell lines derived from different sites either expressing or not the functional tumor suppressor protein p53. It was found that PIN inhibited the proliferation of p53 wild type colon and prostate tumor cells (HCT116 and LNCaP) while in breast cells the inhibition of growth was observed only in p53 mutant cells (MDA-MB-231). A potent antiproliferative activity of PIN was also observed on p53 null cells HL60 (IC50% 8 μM), their multidrug resistant variant HL60R (IC50% 32 μM) and K562. On HL60 cells, PIN caused a block of cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase, induced a weak proapoptotic effect but it was a good trigger of differentiation (NBT reduction and CD11b expression). PIN caused an upregulation of the CDK inhibitor p21(WAF1/Cip1) both at mRNA and protein levels so suggesting that this could be a mechanism by which PIN reduced proliferation and induced differentiation on HL60 cells.

  4. TAM receptors support neural stem cell survival, proliferation and neuronal differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Ji

    Full Text Available Tyro3, Axl and Mertk (TAM receptor tyrosine kinases play multiple functional roles by either providing intrinsic trophic support for cell growth or regulating the expression of target genes that are important in the homeostatic regulation of immune responses. TAM receptors have been shown to regulate adult hippocampal neurogenesis by negatively regulation of glial cell activation in central nervous system (CNS. In the present study, we further demonstrated that all three TAM receptors were expressed by cultured primary neural stem cells (NSCs and played a direct growth trophic role in NSCs proliferation, neuronal differentiation and survival. The cultured primary NSCs lacking TAM receptors exhibited slower growth, reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis as shown by decreased BrdU incorporation and increased TUNEL labeling, than those from the WT NSCs. In addition, the neuronal differentiation and maturation of the mutant NSCs were impeded, as characterized by less neuronal differentiation (β-tubulin III+ and neurite outgrowth than their WT counterparts. To elucidate the underlying mechanism that the TAM receptors play on the differentiating NSCs, we examined the expression profile of neurotrophins and their receptors by real-time qPCR on the total RNAs from hippocampus and primary NSCs; and found that the TKO NSC showed a significant reduction in the expression of both nerve growth factor (NGF and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, but accompanied by compensational increases in the expression of the TrkA, TrkB, TrkC and p75 receptors. These results suggest that TAM receptors support NSCs survival, proliferation and differentiation by regulating expression of neurotrophins, especially the NGF.

  5. Elongation, proliferation & migration differentiate endothelial cell phenotypes and determine capillary sprouting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popel Aleksander S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Angiogenesis, the growth of capillaries from preexisting blood vessels, has been extensively studied experimentally over the past thirty years. Molecular insights from these studies have lead to therapies for cancer, macular degeneration and ischemia. In parallel, mathematical models of angiogenesis have helped characterize a broader view of capillary network formation and have suggested new directions for experimental pursuit. We developed a computational model that bridges the gap between these two perspectives, and addresses a remaining question in angiogenic sprouting: how do the processes of endothelial cell elongation, migration and proliferation contribute to vessel formation? Results We present a multiscale systems model that closely simulates the mechanisms underlying sprouting at the onset of angiogenesis. Designed by agent-based programming, the model uses logical rules to guide the behavior of individual endothelial cells and segments of cells. The activation, proliferation, and movement of these cells lead to capillary growth in three dimensions. By this means, a novel capillary network emerges out of combinatorially complex interactions of single cells. Rules and parameter ranges are based on literature data on endothelial cell behavior in vitro. The model is designed generally, and will subsequently be applied to represent species-specific, tissue-specific in vitro and in vivo conditions. Initial results predict tip cell activation, stalk cell development and sprout formation as a function of local vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations and the Delta-like 4 Notch ligand, as it might occur in a three-dimensional in vitro setting. Results demonstrate the differential effects of ligand concentrations, cell movement and proliferation on sprouting and directional persistence. Conclusion This systems biology model offers a paradigm closely related to biological phenomena and highlights previously

  6. ZnO nanowire arrays as substrates for cell proliferation and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciofani, Gianni, E-mail: g.ciofani@sssup.it [Italian Institute of Technology, Center of MicroBioRobotics c/o Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera (Pisa) (Italy); Genchi, Giada Graziana [BioRobotics Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera (Pisa) (Italy); Mattoli, Virgilio [Italian Institute of Technology, Center of MicroBioRobotics c/o Scuola Superiore Sant' Anna, Viale Rinaldo Piaggio 34, 56025 Pontedera, Pisa (Italy)

    2012-02-01

    In the latest years, the use of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanostructures has been proposed in different biomedical applications, however, to date, only a few contrasting results concerning their biocompatibility can be found in the literature. In particular, the application of the extraordinary piezoelectric properties of ZnO nanostructures has poorly been explored for the culture of electrically excitable cells, and, for this reason, systematic investigations of their interactions with these living systems appear to be necessary. In this paper, we report about adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of two mammalian cell lines (PC12, as model of neuronal cells, and H9c2, as model of muscle cells) over ZnO nanowire arrays. We demonstrate suitability of these arrays in sustaining cellular functions, and their potential in applications that range from tissue engineering to minimally invasive sensing and/or stimulation. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ZnO nanowire arrays were exploited as mammalian cell substrates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Two cell lines were investigated: PC12 (neuronal-like) and H9c2 (muscle-like). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An intimate connection between cells and nanostructured substrates was highlighted. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Adhesion, proliferation and differentiation was well sustained by ZnO nanowire arrays.

  7. Random networks of single-walled carbon nanotubes promote mesenchymal stem cell's proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Hyeok; Shim, Wooyoung; Choolakadavil Khalid, Najeeb; Kang, Won-Seok; Lee, Minsu; Kim, Hyo-Sop; Choi, Je; Lee, Gwang; Kim, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-28

    Studies on the interaction of cells with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) have been receiving increasing attention owing to their potential for various cellular applications. In this report, we investigated the interactions between biological cells and nanostructured SWCNTs films and focused on how morphological structures of SWCNT films affected cellular behavior such as cell proliferation and differentiation. One directionally aligned SWCNT Langmuir-Blodgett (LB) film and random network SWCNT film were fabricated by LB and vacuum filteration methods, respectively. We demonstrate that our SWCNT LB and network film based scaffolds do not show any cytotoxicity, while on the other hand, these scaffolds promote differentiation property of rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs) when compared with that on conventional tissue culture polystyrene substrates. Especially, the SWCNT network film with average thickness and roughness values of 95 ± 5 and 9.81 nm, respectively, demonstrated faster growth rate and higher cell thickness for rMSCs. These results suggest that systematic manipulation of the thickness, roughness, and directional alignment of SWCNT films would provide the convenient strategy for controlling the growth and maintenance of the differentiation property of stem cells. The SWCNT film could be an alternative culture substrate for various stem cells, which often require close control of the growth and differentiation properties.

  8. Low power laser and LED irradiation effect on proliferation and differentiation of Wistar rats mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancera, Diana; Solarte, Efrain; Fierro, Leonardo; Criollo, William

    2013-11-01

    It has been demonstrated that appropriately cultured and stimulated mesenchymal cells, can give rise to cells of all tissues of the body. We evaluate the cell proliferation and differentiation induced by low power light irradiation in cell cultures of mesenchymal cells, isolated and previously characterized, from Wistar rats. Roche® XTT and LDH tests were used to assess proliferation and cytotoxicity. Cellular differentiation was determined by optical microscopy and using specific fluorescent markers. We report laser cellular proliferation enhancement by 532 and 473 nm, and the best cell culture response by a dose of 2 Jcm-2. Although a three day irradiation protocol the cultures grown and no cytotoxicity was detected. Cellular differentiation occurred, and the production of cardiomyocytes was promoted by the cell proliferation stimulated by low power laser irradiation.

  9. NLS-RARα promotes proliferation and inhibits differentiation in HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiu-Xiu; Zhong, Liang; Zhang, Xi; Gao, Yuan-Mei; Liu, Bei-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    A unique mRNA produced in leukemic cells from a t(15;17) acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) patient encodes a fusion protein between the retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) and a myeloid gene product called PML. Studies have reported that neutrophil elastase (NE) cleaves bcr-1-derived PML-RARα in early myeloid cells, leaving only the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of PML attached to RARα. The resultant NLS-RARα fusion protein mainly localizes to, and functions within, the cell nucleus. It is speculated that NLS-RARα may act in different ways from the wild-type RARα, but its biological characteristics have not been reported. This study takes two approaches. Firstly, the NLS-RARα was silenced with pNLS-RARα-shRNA. The mRNA and protein expression of NLS-RARα were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot respectively. Cell proliferation in vitro was assessed by MTT assay. Flow cytometry (FCM) was used to detect the differentiation of cells. Secondly, the NLS-RARα was over-expressed by preparation of recombinant adenovirus HL-60/pAd-NLS-RARα. The assays of mRNA and protein expression of NLS-RARα, and cell proliferation, were as above. By contrast, cell differentiation was stimulated by all trans retinoic acid (ATRA) (2.5µmol/L) at 24h after virus infection of pAd-NLS-RARα, and then detected by CD11b labeling two days later. The transcription and translation of C-MYC was detected in HL-60/pAd-NLS-RARα cells which treated by ATRA. Our results showed that compared to the control groups, the expression of NLS-RARα was significantly reduced in the HL-60/pNLS-RARα-shRNA cells, and increased dramatically in the HL-60/pAd-NLS-RARα cells. The proliferation was remarkably inhibited in the HL-60/pNLS-RARα-shRNA cells in a time-dependent manner, but markedly promoted in the HL-60/pAd-NLS-RARα cells. FCM outcome revealed the differentiation increased in HL-60/pNLS-RARα-shRNA cells, and decreased in the HL-60/pAd-NLS-RARα cells treated with 2.5µmol/L ATRA. The

  10. Fluoxetine induces proliferation and inhibits differentiation of hypothalamic neuroprogenitor cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Sousa-Ferreira

    Full Text Available A significant number of children undergo maternal exposure to antidepressants and they often present low birth weight. Therefore, it is important to understand how selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs affect the development of the hypothalamus, the key center for metabolism regulation. In this study we investigated the proliferative actions of fluoxetine in fetal hypothalamic neuroprogenitor cells and demonstrate that fluoxetine induces the proliferation of these cells, as shown by increased neurospheres size and number of proliferative cells (Ki-67+ cells. Moreover, fluoxetine inhibits the differentiation of hypothalamic neuroprogenitor cells, as demonstrated by decreased number of mature neurons (Neu-N+ cells and increased number of undifferentiated cells (SOX-2+ cells. Additionally, fluoxetine-induced proliferation and maintenance of hypothalamic neuroprogenitor cells leads to changes in the mRNA levels of appetite regulator neuropeptides, including Neuropeptide Y (NPY and Cocaine-and-Amphetamine-Regulated-Transcript (CART. This study provides the first evidence that SSRIs affect the development of hypothalamic neuroprogenitor cells in vitro with consequent alterations on appetite neuropeptides.

  11. Slit/Robo1 signaling regulates neural tube development by balancing neuroepithelial cell proliferation and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu [Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of The Ministry of Education, Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Han, Zhe [Institute of Vascular Biological Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510224 (China); Chuai, Manli [College of Life Sciences Biocentre, University of Dundee, Dundee DD1 5EH (United Kingdom); Wang, Li-jing [Institute of Vascular Biological Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510224 (China); Ho Lee, Kenneth Ka [Stem Cell and Regeneration Thematic Research Programme, School of Biomedical Sciences, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin (Hong Kong); Geng, Jian-guo, E-mail: jgeng@umich.edu [Institute of Vascular Biological Sciences, Guangdong Pharmaceutical University, Guangzhou 510224 (China); Department of Biologic and Materials Sciences, University of Michigan School of Dentistry, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Yang, Xuesong, E-mail: yang_xuesong@126.com [Key Laboratory for Regenerative Medicine of The Ministry of Education, Department of Histology and Embryology, School of Medicine, Jinan University, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2013-05-01

    development by tightly coordinating cell proliferation and differentiation during neurulation. - Highlights: ► The role of Slit/Robo1 signaling was investigated with chick and mouse models. ► Disturbance of Slit/Robo1 signaling resulted in neural tube defects. ► Slit/Robo1 signaling regulated the proliferation of neural tube cells. ► Slit/Robo1 signaling modulated the differentiation of neural tube cells. ► Slit/Robo1 signaling balanced the proliferation and differentiation of neural tube.

  12. Effect of molecular weight and concentration of hyaluronan on cell proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Ningbo, E-mail: curl-zhao@163.com; Wang, Xin, E-mail: 394041230@qq.com; Qin, Lei, E-mail: qinlei30@126.com; Guo, Zhengze, E-mail: zhzeguo@163.com; Li, Dehua, E-mail: lidehuafmmu@163.com

    2015-09-25

    Hyaluronan (HA), the simplest glycosaminoglycan and a major component of the extracellular matrix, exists in various tissues. It is involved in some critical biological procedures, including cellular signaling, cell adhesion and proliferation, and cell differentiation. The effect of molecular weight (MW) and concentration of HA on cell proliferation and differentiation was controversial. In this study, we investigated the effect of MW and concentration of HA on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rabbit bone marrow-derived stem cells in vitro. Results showed that high MW HA decreased the cell adhesion rate in a concentration-dependant manner. The cell adhesion rate was decreased by increasing MW of HA. Cell proliferation was significantly enhanced by low MW HA (P < 0.05). The factorial analysis indicated that MW and concentration had an interactive effect on the cell adhesion rate and cell proliferation (P < 0.05). High MW HA increased the mRNA expressions of ALP, RUNX-2 and OCN. The higher the MW was, the higher the mRNA expressions were. The factorial analysis indicated that MW and concentration had an interactive effect on ALP mRNA expression (P < 0.05). HA of higher MW and higher concentration promoted bone formation. These findings provide some useful information in understanding the mechanism underlying the effect of MW and concentration of HA on cell proliferation and differentiation. - Highlights: • Effect of hyaluronan on cell proliferation and differentiation is evaluated in vitro. • Hyaluronan of low molecular weight increases cell proliferation. • Hyaluronan of high molecular weight promotes cell osteogenic differentiation. • Molecular weight and concentration of hyaluronan show interactive effect.

  13. Functional dissection of HOXD cluster genes in regulation of neuroblastoma cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunhong Zha

    Full Text Available Retinoic acid (RA can induce growth arrest and neuronal differentiation of neuroblastoma cells and has been used in clinic for treatment of neuroblastoma. It has been reported that RA induces the expression of several HOXD genes in human neuroblastoma cell lines, but their roles in RA action are largely unknown. The HOXD cluster contains nine genes (HOXD1, HOXD3, HOXD4, and HOXD8-13 that are positioned sequentially from 3' to 5', with HOXD1 at the 3' end and HOXD13 the 5' end. Here we show that all HOXD genes are induced by RA in the human neuroblastoma BE(2-C cells, with the genes located at the 3' end being activated generally earlier than those positioned more 5' within the cluster. Individual induction of HOXD8, HOXD9, HOXD10 or HOXD12 is sufficient to induce both growth arrest and neuronal differentiation, which is associated with downregulation of cell cycle-promoting genes and upregulation of neuronal differentiation genes. However, induction of other HOXD genes either has no effect (HOXD1 or has partial effects (HOXD3, HOXD4, HOXD11 and HOXD13 on BE(2-C cell proliferation or differentiation. We further show that knockdown of HOXD8 expression, but not that of HOXD9 expression, significantly inhibits the differentiation-inducing activity of RA. HOXD8 directly activates the transcription of HOXC9, a key effector of RA action in neuroblastoma cells. These findings highlight the distinct functions of HOXD genes in RA induction of neuroblastoma cell differentiation.

  14. Reciprocal actions of microRNA-9 and TLX in the proliferation and differentiation of retinal progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yamin; Luo, Min; Ni, Ni; Den, Yuan; Xia, Jing; Chen, Junzhao; Ji, Jing; Zhou, Xiaojian; Fan, Xianqun; Gu, Ping

    2014-11-15

    Recent research has demonstrated critical roles of a number of microRNAs (miRNAs) in stem cell proliferation and differentiation. miRNA-9 (miR-9) is a brain-enriched miRNA. Whether miR-9 has a role in retinal progenitor cell (RPC) proliferation and differentiation remains unknown. In this study, we show that miR-9 plays an important role in RPC fate determination. The expression of miR-9 was inversely correlated with that of the nuclear receptor TLX, which is an essential regulator of neural stem cell self-renewal. Overexpression of miR-9 downregulated the TLX levels in RPCs, leading to reduced RPC proliferation and increased neuronal and glial differentiation, and the effect of miR-9 overexpression on RPC proliferation and differentiation was inhibited by the TLX overexpression; knockdown of miR-9 resulted in increased TLX expression as well as enhanced proliferation of RPCs. Furthermore, inhibition of endogenous TLX by small interfering RNA suppressed RPC proliferation and promoted RPCs to differentiate into retinal neuronal and glial cells. These results suggest that miR-9 and TLX form a feedback regulatory loop to coordinate the proliferation and differentiation of retinal progenitors.

  15. miR-141-3p inhibits human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cell proliferation and differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Weimin; Kassem, Moustapha

    2014-01-01

    Wnt signaling determines human stromal (mesenchymal) stem cell (hMSC) differentiation fate into the osteoblast or adipocyte lineage. microRNAs (miRNAs) are small RNA molecules of 21-25 nucleotides that regulate many aspects of osteoblast biology. Thus, we examined miRNAs regulated by Wnt signaling...... in hMSC. We identified miRNA (miR)-141-3p as a Wnt target which in turn inhibited Wnt signaling. Moreover, miR-141-3p inhibited hMSC proliferation by arresting cells at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. miR-141-3p inhibited osteoblast differentiation of hMSC as evidenced by reduced alkaline phosphatase...... activity, gene expression and in vitro mineralized matrix formation. Bioinformatic studies, Western blot analysis and 3'UTR reporter assay demonstrated that cell division cycle 25A (CDC25A) is a direct target of miR-141-3p. siRNA-mediated knock-down of CDC25A inhibited hMSC proliferation and osteoblast...

  16. Grb10 deletion enhances muscle cell proliferation, differentiation and GLUT4 plasma membrane translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokbel, Nancy; Hoffman, Nolan J; Girgis, Christian M; Small, Lewin; Turner, Nigel; Daly, Roger J; Cooney, Gregory J; Holt, Lowenna J

    2014-11-01

    Grb10 is an intracellular adaptor protein which binds directly to several growth factor receptors, including those for insulin and insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1), and negatively regulates their actions. Grb10-ablated (Grb10(-/-) ) mice exhibit improved whole body glucose homeostasis and an increase in muscle mass associated specifically with an increase in myofiber number. This suggests that Grb10 may act as a negative regulator of myogenesis. In this study, we investigated in vitro, the molecular mechanisms underlying the increase in muscle mass and the improved glucose metabolism. Primary muscle cells isolated from Grb10(-/-) mice exhibited increased rates of proliferation and differentiation compared to primary cells isolated from wild-type mice. The improved proliferation capacity was associated with an enhanced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK in the basal state and changes in the expression of key cell cycle progression markers involved in regulating transition of cells from the G1 to S phase (e.g., retinoblastoma (Rb) and p21). The absence of Grb10 also promoted a faster transition to a myogenin positive, differentiated state. Glucose uptake was higher in Grb10(-/-) primary myotubes in the basal state and was associated with enhanced insulin signaling and an increase in GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane. These data demonstrate an important role for Grb10 as a link between muscle growth and metabolism with therapeutic implications for diseases, such as muscle wasting and type 2 diabetes.

  17. Zebrafish embryonic stromal trunk (ZEST) cells support hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) proliferation, survival, and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Clyde; Su, Tammy; Lau, Ryan P; Shah, Arpit; Laurie, Payton C; Avalos, Brenda; Aggio, Julian; Harris, Elena; Traver, David; Stachura, David L

    2015-12-01

    Forward genetic screens in zebrafish have been used to identify genes essential for the generation of primitive blood and the emergence of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs), but have not elucidated the genes essential for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) proliferation and differentiation because of the lack of methodologies to functionally assess these processes. We previously described techniques used to test the developmental potential of HSPCs by culturing them on zebrafish kidney stromal (ZKS) cells, derived from the main site of hematopoiesis in the adult teleost. Here we describe an additional primary stromal cell line we refer to as zebrafish embryonic stromal trunk (ZEST) cells, derived from tissue surrounding the embryonic dorsal aorta, the site of HSC emergence in developing fish. ZEST cells encouraged HSPC differentiation toward the myeloid, lymphoid, and erythroid pathways when assessed by morphologic and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses. Additionally, ZEST cells significantly expanded the number of cultured HSPCs in vitro, indicating that these stromal cells are supportive of both HSPC proliferation and multilineage differentiation. Examination of ZEST cells indicates that they express numerous cytokines and Notch ligands and possess endothelial characteristics. Further characterization of ZEST cells should prove to be invaluable in understanding the complex signaling cascades instigated by the embryonic hematopoietic niche required to expand and differentiate HSPCs. Elucidating these processes and identifying possibilities for the modulation of these molecular pathways should allow the in vitro expansion of HSPCs for a multitude of therapeutic uses.

  18. Nuclear EGFR characterize still controlled proliferation retained in better differentiated clear cell RCC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahel, J; Dordevic, G; Markic, D; Mozetic, V; Spanjol, J; Grahovac, B; Stifter, S

    2015-08-01

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most common solid kidney tumor representing 2-3% of all cancers, with the highest frequency occurring in Western countries. There was a worldwide and European annual increase in incidence of approximately 2% although incidence has been stabilized in last few years. One third of the patients already have metastases in the time of the diagnosis with poor prognosis because RCC are radio and chemoresistant. The prognostic value of EGFR over-expression in RCC is a controversial issue that could be explained by different histological types of study tumors and non-standardized criteria for evaluation of expression. Recent evidences points to a new mode of EGFR signaling pathway in which activated EGFR undergoes nuclear translocalization and then, as transcription factor, mediates gene expression and other cellular events required for highly proliferating activities. According to our observations, the membranous expression of EGFR associates with high nuclear grade and poor differentiated tumors. On the other hand, nuclear EGFR expression was high in low nuclear graded and well differentiated tumors with good prognosis. We hypothesize that this mode of EGFR signaling characterizes still controlled proliferation retained in well differentiated RCC with Furhman nuclear grade I or II.

  19. Effects of Polymer Surfaces on Proliferation and Differentiation of Embryonic Stem Cells and Bone Marrow Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Sisi; Liao, Wenbin; Ma, Yupo; Simon, Marcia; Rafailovich, Miriam; Stony Brook Medical Center Collaboration; Stony Brook Dental Schoo Collaboration

    2013-03-01

    Currently, proliferation and differentiation of stem cell is usually accomplished either in vivo, or on chemical coated tissue culture petri dish with the presence of feeder cells. Here we investigated whether they can be directly cultured on polymeric substrates, in the absence of additional factors. We found that mouse embryonic stem cells did not require gelatin and could remain in the undifferentiated state without feeder cells at least for four passages on partially sulfonated polystyrene. The modulii of cells was measured and found to be higher for cells plated directly on the polymer surface than for those on the same surface covered with gelatin and feeder cells. When plated with feeder cells, the modulii was not sensitive to gelatin. Whereas the differentiation properties of human bone marrow stem cells, which are not adherent, are less dependent on either chemical or mechanical properties of the substrate. However, they behave differently on different toughness hydrogels as oppose to on polymer coated thin films.

  20. Hedgehog signal activation coordinates proliferation and differentiation of fetal liver progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, Yoshikazu [Laboratory of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Itoh, Tohru, E-mail: itohru@iam.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Laboratory of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan); Miyajima, Atsushi [Laboratory of Cell Growth and Differentiation, Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biosciences, The University of Tokyo, 1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032 (Japan)

    2009-09-10

    Hedgehog (Hh) signaling plays crucial roles in development and homeostasis of various organs. In the adult liver, it regulates proliferation and/or viability of several types of cells, particularly under injured conditions, and is also implicated in stem/progenitor cell maintenance. However, the role of this signaling pathway during the normal developmental process of the liver remains elusive. Although Sonic hedgehog (Shh) is expressed in the ventral foregut endoderm from which the liver derives, the expression disappears at the onset of the liver bud formation, and its possible recurrence at the later stages has not been investigated. Here we analyzed the activation and functional relevance of Hh signaling during the mouse fetal liver development. At E11.5, Shh and an activation marker gene for Hh signaling, Gli1, were expressed in Dlk{sup +} hepatoblasts, the fetal liver progenitor cells, and the expression was rapidly decreased thereafter as the development proceeded. In the culture of Dlk{sup +} hepatoblasts isolated from the E11.5 liver, activation of Hh signaling stimulated their proliferation and this effect was cancelled by a chemical Hh signaling inhibitor, cyclopamine. In contrast, hepatocyte differentiation of Dlk{sup +} hepatoblasts in vitro as manifested by the marker gene expression and acquisition of ammonia clearance activity was significantly inhibited by forced activation of Hh signaling. Taken together, these results demonstrate the temporally restricted manner of Hh signal activation and its role in promoting the hepatoblast proliferation, and further suggest that the pathway needs to be shut off for the subsequent hepatic differentiation of hepatoblasts to proceed normally.

  1. Effects of melatonin on the proliferation and differentiation of rat adipose-derived stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaminy Arash

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteogenesis driven by adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs is regulated by physiological and pathological factors. Accumulating evidence from in vitro and in vivo experiments suggests that melatonin may have an influence on bone formation. However, little is known about the effects of melatonin on osteogenesis, which thus remains to be elucidated. This study was performed to determine whether melatonin at physiological concentrations (0.01-10 nM could affect the in vitro proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat ADSCs. Materials and Methods: ADSCs were isolated from the fat of adult rats. After cell expansion in culture media and through three passages, osteogenesis was induced in a monolayer culture using osteogenic medium with or without melatonin at physiological concentrations (0.01-10 nM. After four weeks, the cultures were examined for mineralization by Alizarin Red S and von Kossa staining and for alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity using an ALP kit. Cell viability and apoptosis were also assayed by 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl-2-(4-sulfophenyl-2H-tetrazolium (MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Results: The results indicated that at physiological concentrations, melatonin suppressed proliferation and differentiation of ADSCs. These data indicate that ADSCs exposed to melatonin, had a lower ALP activity in contrast to the cells exposed to osteogenic medium alone. Similarly, mineral deposition (calcium level also decreased in the presence of melatonin. Flow cytometry confirmed that cell growth had decreased and that the numbers of apoptotic cells had increased. Conclusion: These results suggest that the physiological concentration of melatonin has a negative effect on ADSC osteogenesis.

  2. Effects of titanium nanoparticles on adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hou Y

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Yanhua Hou, Kaiyong Cai, Jinghua Li, Xiuyong Chen, Min Lai, Yan Hu, Zhong Luo, Xingwei Ding, Dawei Xu Key Laboratory of Biorheological Science and Technology and Ministry of Education, College of Bioengineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of nanoscale wear particles derived from titanium/titanium alloy-based implants on integration of bone. Here we report the potential impact of titanium oxide (TiO2 nanoparticles on adhesion, migration, proliferation, and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC from the cellular level to the molecular level in the Wistar rat. Methods: A series of TiO2 nanoparticles (14 nm, 108 nm, and 196 nm were synthesized and characterized by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Results: The TiO2 nanoparticles had negative effects on cell viability, proliferation, and the cell cycle of MSC in a dose-dependent and size-dependent manner. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to investigate the effects of particle internalization on adhesion, spreading, and morphology of MSC. The integrity of the cell membrane, cytoskeleton, and vinculin of MSC were negatively influenced by large TiO2 nanoparticles. Conclusion: The Transwell migration assay and a wound healing model suggested that TiO2 nanoparticles had a strong adverse impact on cell migration as particle size increased (P < 0.01. Furthermore, alkaline phosphatase, gene expression of osteocalcin (OC and osteopontin (OPN, and mineralization measurements indicate that the size of the TiO2 nanoparticles negatively affected osteogenic differentiation of MSC. Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, titanium dioxide, nanoparticles, cytotoxicity, adhesion, migration

  3. The MHV68 M2 protein drives IL-10 dependent B cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Andrea M; Herskowitz, Jeremy H; Speck, Samuel H

    2008-04-01

    Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68) establishes long-term latency in memory B cells similar to the human gammaherpesvirus Epstein Barr Virus (EBV). EBV encodes an interleukin-10 (IL-10) homolog and modulates cellular IL-10 expression; however, the role of IL-10 in the establishment and/or maintenance of chronic EBV infection remains unclear. Notably, MHV68 does not encode an IL-10 homolog, but virus infection has been shown to result in elevated serum IL-10 levels in wild-type mice, and IL-10 deficiency results in decreased establishment of virus latency. Here we show that a unique MHV68 latency-associated gene product, the M2 protein, is required for the elevated serum IL-10 levels observed at 2 weeks post-infection. Furthermore, M2 protein expression in primary murine B cells drives high level IL-10 expression along with increased secretion of IL-2, IL-6, and MIP-1alpha. M2 expression was also shown to significantly augment LPS driven survival and proliferation of primary murine B cells. The latter was dependent on IL-10 expression as demonstrated by the failure of IL10-/- B cells to proliferate in response to M2 protein expression and rescue of M2-associated proliferation by addition of recombinant murine IL-10. M2 protein expression in primary B cells also led to upregulated surface expression of the high affinity IL-2 receptor (CD25) and the activation marker GL7, along with down-regulated surface expression of B220, MHC II, and sIgD. The cells retained CD19 and sIgG expression, suggesting differentiation to a pre-plasma memory B cell phenotype. These observations are consistent with previous analyses of M2-null MHV68 mutants that have suggested a role for the M2 protein in expansion and differentiation of MHV68 latently infected B cells-perhaps facilitating the establishment of virus latency in memory B cells. Thus, while the M2 protein is unique to MHV68, analysis of M2 function has revealed an important role for IL-10 in MHV68 pathogenesis-identifying a

  4. The MHV68 M2 protein drives IL-10 dependent B cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Siegel

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68 establishes long-term latency in memory B cells similar to the human gammaherpesvirus Epstein Barr Virus (EBV. EBV encodes an interleukin-10 (IL-10 homolog and modulates cellular IL-10 expression; however, the role of IL-10 in the establishment and/or maintenance of chronic EBV infection remains unclear. Notably, MHV68 does not encode an IL-10 homolog, but virus infection has been shown to result in elevated serum IL-10 levels in wild-type mice, and IL-10 deficiency results in decreased establishment of virus latency. Here we show that a unique MHV68 latency-associated gene product, the M2 protein, is required for the elevated serum IL-10 levels observed at 2 weeks post-infection. Furthermore, M2 protein expression in primary murine B cells drives high level IL-10 expression along with increased secretion of IL-2, IL-6, and MIP-1alpha. M2 expression was also shown to significantly augment LPS driven survival and proliferation of primary murine B cells. The latter was dependent on IL-10 expression as demonstrated by the failure of IL10-/- B cells to proliferate in response to M2 protein expression and rescue of M2-associated proliferation by addition of recombinant murine IL-10. M2 protein expression in primary B cells also led to upregulated surface expression of the high affinity IL-2 receptor (CD25 and the activation marker GL7, along with down-regulated surface expression of B220, MHC II, and sIgD. The cells retained CD19 and sIgG expression, suggesting differentiation to a pre-plasma memory B cell phenotype. These observations are consistent with previous analyses of M2-null MHV68 mutants that have suggested a role for the M2 protein in expansion and differentiation of MHV68 latently infected B cells-perhaps facilitating the establishment of virus latency in memory B cells. Thus, while the M2 protein is unique to MHV68, analysis of M2 function has revealed an important role for IL-10 in MHV68 pathogenesis

  5. Effects of strontium on proliferation and differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yunfeng; Li, Jihua; Zhu, Songsong; Luo, En; Feng, Ge; Chen, Qianming [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, No. 14, Section 3, Southern Renmin Road, Chengdu 610041 (China); Hu, Jing, E-mail: drhu@vip.sohu.com [State Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, West China College of Stomatology, Sichuan University, No. 14, Section 3, Southern Renmin Road, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2012-02-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Strontium ranelate (SrR) inhibits proliferation of BMMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SrR increases osteoblastic but decreases adipocytic differentiation of BMMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SrR increases expression of Runx2, BSP and OCN by BMMSCs in osteogenic medium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SrR decreases expression of PPAR{gamma}, aP2/ALBP and LPL by BMMSCs in adipogenic medium. -- Abstract: Strontium ranelate (SrR) was an effective anti-osteoporotic drug to increase bone formation and decrease bone resorption. However, reports about the effect of SR on osteoblastic and adipocytic differentiation from bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are limited. The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether SrR affects the ability of BMMSCs to differentiate into osteoblasts or adipocytes. Rat BMMSCs were identified by flow cytometry and exposed to SR (0.1 and 1.0 mM Sr{sup 2+}) under osteogenic or adipogenic medium for 1 and 2 weeks. The proliferation and differentiation of BMMSCs were analyzed by MTT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Oil red O staining, quantitative real-time RT-PCR and Western blot assays. SrR significantly inhibited the proliferation, increased osteoblastic but decreased adipocytic differentiation of rat BMMSCs dose-dependently. In osteogenic medium, SrR increased the expression of ALP, the mRNA levels of Cbfa1/Runx2, bone sialoprotein, and osteocalcin by RT-PCR, and the protein levels of Cbfa1/Runx2 by Western blot. In adipogenic medium, SrR decreased the mRNA levels of PPAR{gamma}2, adipocyte lipid-binding protein 2 (aP2/ALBP), and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) by RT-PCR, and the protein expression of PPAR{gamma} in Western blot analysis. These results indicated that the effects of SrR to promote osteoblastic but inhibit adipocytic differentiation of BMMSCs might contribute to its effect on osteoporosis treatment.

  6. Serum-free spheroid suspension culture maintains high proliferation and differentiation potentials of mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimperti, Stella; Wen, Yuan; Lei, Pedro; Tian, Jun; Campbell, Andrew; Andreadis, Stelios T.

    2016-01-01

    There have been many clinical trials recently using ex vivo-expanded human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to treat several indications such as graft-versus-host disease, acute myocardial infarction, Crohn’s disease, and multiple sclerosis. However, the conventional 2-dimensional (2D) culture of MSCs is laborious and limited in scale potential. The large dosage requirement for many of the indications further exacerbates this manufacturing challenge. In contrast, spheroid MSC culture does not require a cell attachment surface and is amenable to large-scale suspension cell culture techniques, such as stirred-tank bioreactors. In this present study, we developed and optimized serum free media for culturing MSC spheroids. We used Design of Experiment (DoE)-based strategies to systematically evaluate media mixtures and a panel of different components. The optimization yielded two prototype media that could allow MSCs to form aggregates and proliferate in both static cultures and dynamic cultures. The expanded MSCs expressed the expected surface markers for mesenchymal cells (CD73, CD90 and CD105). In addition, the expanded cells demonstrated multipotency and differentiated to the osteocyte, chondrocyte and adipocyte lineages, which showed similar or enhanced differentiation levels compared with serum-containing adherent cultures. PMID:24616445

  7. A co-culture model of the hippocampal neurogenic niche reveals differential effects of astrocytes, endothelial cells and pericytes on proliferation and differentiation of adult murine precursor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Ehret

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The niche concept of stem cell biology proposes a functional unit between the precursor cells and their local microenvironment, to which several cell types might contribute by cell–cell contacts, extracellular matrix, and humoral factors. We here established three co-culture models (with cell types separated by membrane for both adherent monolayers and neurospheres to address the potential influence of different niche cell types in the neurogenic zone of the adult hippocampus of mice. Astrocytes and endothelial cells enhanced precursor cell proliferation and neurosphere formation. Endothelial factors also led to a prolonged increase in proliferation after growth factor withdrawal, which otherwise induces differentiation. All niche cell types enhanced cell survival in monolayer cultures, endothelial cells also stimulated neuronal differentiation. A parallel trend elicited by astrocytes did not reach conventional statistical significance. Pericytes had variable effects here. We did not observe changes in differentiation in neurosphere co-cultures. In summary, our data indicate that in precursor cell culture protocols survival could be improved by adding as yet unknown factors physiologically contributed by astrocytes and endothelial cells. Our findings also underscore the complexity of the niche and the differential impact of factors from the different sources on distinct aspects of neuronal development. With the help of the models presented here, identification of these factors and their specific biological activity can now be initiated.

  8. Gold Nanoparticles Promote Proliferation of Human Periodontal Ligament Stem Cells and Have Limited Effects on Cells Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs had been widely applied in the practice and advancement of chemistry, biology, and medicine due to facility of synthesis and versatility in surface functionalization. Recent studies had shown that AuNPs can be applied to cells, affecting cellular physiological processes such as proliferation and differentiation. In this study, four diameters of AuNPs (20, 40, 60, and 80 nm were cocultured with human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs at six different concentrations. The optimal size and concentration of AuNPs were selected to treat human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs to evaluate proliferation. Moreover, the influence of AuNPs on multiple differentiation capacity of hPDLSCs was clarified. The results revealed that AuNPs (60 nm, 56 μM can effectively promote the proliferation of hPDLCs/hPDLSCs in vitro, slightly enhance osteoblastic differentiation, and have no effect on adipogenic differentiation. In addition, the expression of COL-1, Runx2, BSP, and OCN was upregulated in the presence of AuNPs (60 nm, 56 μM. These results indicated that AuNPs (60 nm, 56 μM can effectively promote the proliferation of hPDLCs/hPDLSCs and have no significant effect on the differentiation of hPDLSCs. These results provide an insight on the advantage of implementing of AuNPs on hPDLSCs culture and expose the influence of these materials on periodontal tissue engineering.

  9. Conditioned media from differentiating craniofacial bone marrow stromal cells influence mineralization and proliferation in periodontal ligament stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhenyu; Feng, Yuan; Liu, Hongwei

    2016-10-01

    Previous reports have mainly focused on the behavioral responses of human periodontal ligament stem cells (hPDLSCs) in interaction with tibia bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). However, there is little study on the biologic features of hPDLSCs under the induction of maxilla BMSCs (M-BMSCs) at different phases of osteogenic differentiation. We hypothesized that M-BMSCs undergoing osteogenic differentiation acted on the proliferation, differentiation, and bone-forming capacity of hPDLSCs. In this paper, primary hPDLSCs and human M-BMSCs (hM-BMSCs) were expanded in vitro. After screening of surface markers for characterization, hPDLSCs were cocultured with different phases of differentiating hM-BMSCs. Cell proliferation and alkaline phosphatase activity were examined, and mineralization-associated markers such as osteocalcin and runt-related transcription factor 2 of hPDLSCs in coculture with uninduced/osteoinduced hM-BMSCs were evaluated. hPDLSCs in hM-BMSCs-conditioned medium (hM-BMSCs-CM) group showed a reduction in proliferation compared with untreated hPDLSCs, while osteoinduced hM-BMSCs for 10 day-conditioned medium (hM-BMSCs-CM-10ds) and osteoinduced hM-BMSCs for 15 day-conditioned medium (hM-BMSCs-CM-15ds) enhance the proliferation of hPDLSCs. hM-BMSCs of separate differentiation stages temporarily inhibited osteogenesis of hPDLSCs in the early days. Upon extending time periods, uninduced/osteoinduced hM-BMSCs markedly enhanced osteogenesis of hPDLSCs to different degrees. The transplantation results showed hM-BMSCs-CM-15ds treatment promoted tissue regeneration to generate cementum/periodontal ligament-like structure characterized by hard-tissue formation. This research supported the notion that hM-BMSCs triggered osteogenesis of hPDLSCs suggesting important implications for periodontal engineering.

  10. Mango Fruit Extracts Differentially Affect Proliferation and Intracellular Calcium Signalling in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Meng-Wong Taing; Jean-Thomas Pierson; Shaw, Paul N.; Dietzgen, Ralf G.; Roberts-Thomson, Sarah J.; Gidley, Michael J.; Monteith, Gregory R.

    2015-01-01

    The assessment of human cancer cell proliferation is a common approach in identifying plant extracts that have potential bioactive effects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that methanolic extracts of peel and flesh from three archetypal mango cultivars, Irwin (IW), Nam Doc Mai (NDM), and Kensington Pride (KP), differentially affect proliferation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity, and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]I) signalling in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Man...

  11. Differential modulation of mitogen driven proliferation and homeostasis driven proliferation of T cells by rapamycin, Ly294002 and chlorophyllin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Deepak; Kumar, Sandur Santosh; Raghu, Rashmi; Khanam, Shazia; Sainis, Krishna Balaji

    2007-04-01

    Homeostasis driven proliferation (HDP) of naïve CD4+ T cells depends upon T cell receptor ligation with self-MHC II along with availability of interleukin-7. But the exact nature of downstream signaling events involved in HDP of helper T cells remains elusive. To identify the specific involvement of signaling molecules in HDP, purified CD4+ T cells were treated with either mTOR inhibitor rapamycin or PI3kinase inhibitor Ly294002 or with an antioxidant chlorophyllin (CHL) in vitro. Rapamycin treated cells failed to proliferate, expressed anergic T cell specific transcription factor genes egr-2 and egr-3 and showed diminished IFN-gamma production in response to Con A stimulation in vitro. Although CHL treated cells also failed to proliferate, they showed a normal IFN-gamma production during primary stimulation and did not upregulate egr-2 and egr-3 genes following restimulation in vitro. Ly294002 treated cells failed to express IL-2 and IFN-gamma and did not divide in response to Con A stimulation in vitro. While all these inhibitors significantly inhibited CD4+ T cell proliferation in response to the mitogen in vitro, only CHL treatment could inhibit their HDP in lymphopenic mice. Our results also demonstrate that combined treatment with rapamycin and Ly294002 did not inhibit HDP of CD4+ T cells. Thus, the present study, for the first time, shows a non-essential role of mTOR and PI3kinase during HDP of CD4+ T cells and also describes its possible regulation by an antioxidant.

  12. Short term morphine exposure in vitro alters proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells and promotes apoptosis via mu receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafna Willner

    Full Text Available Chronic morphine treatment inhibits neural progenitor cell (NPC progression and negatively effects hippocampal neurogenesis. However, the effect of acute opioid treatment on cell development and its influence on NPC differentiation and proliferation in vitro is unknown. We aim to investigate the effect of a single, short term exposure of morphine on the proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of NPCs and the mechanism involved.Cell cultures from 14-day mouse embryos were exposed to different concentrations of morphine and its antagonist naloxone for 24 hours and proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis were studied. Proliferating cells were labeled with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU and cell fate was studied with immunocytochemistry.Cells treated with morphine demonstrated decreased BrdU expression with increased morphine concentrations. Analysis of double-labeled cells showed a decrease in cells co-stained for BrdU with nestin and an increase in cells co-stained with BrdU and neuron-specific class III β-tubuline (TUJ1 in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore, a significant increase in caspase-3 activity was observed in the nestin- positive cells. Addition of naloxone to morphine-treated NPCs reversed the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of morphine.Short term morphine exposure induced inhibition of NPC proliferation and increased active caspase-3 expression in a dose dependent manner. Morphine induces neuronal and glial differentiation and decreases the expression of nestin- positive cells. These effects were reversed with the addition of the opioid antagonist naloxone. Our results demonstrate the effects of short term morphine administration on the proliferation and differentiation of NPCs and imply a mu-receptor mechanism in the regulation of NPC survival.

  13. SDF-1 and CXCR4 play an important role in adult SVZ lineage cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chang; Yao, Wen-Long; Tan, Wei; Zhang, Chuan-Han

    2017-02-15

    Evidence has shown that stromal cell-derived factor (SDF-1/CXCL12) plays an important role in maintaining adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs). SDF-1 is also known to enhance recovery by recruiting NPCs to damaged regions and recent studies have revealed that SDF-1α exhibits pleiotropism, thereby differentially affecting NPC subpopulations. In this study, we investigated the role of SDF-1 in in vitro NPC self-renewal, proliferation and differentiation, following treatment with different concentrations of SDF-1 or a CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100. We observed that AMD3100 inhibited the formation of primary neurospheres. However, SDF-1 and AMD3100 exhibited no effect on proliferation upon inclusion of growth factors in the media. Following growth factor withdrawal, AMD3100 and SDF-1 treatment resulted in differential effects on NPC proliferation. SDF-1, at a concentration of 500ng/ml, resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of oligodendrocytes following growth factor withdrawal-induced differentiation. Using CXCR4 knockout mice, we observed that SDF-1 affected NPC proliferation in the sub-ventricular zone (SVZ). We also investigated the occurrence of differential CXCR4 expression at different stages during lineage progression. These results clearly indicate that signaling interactions between SDF-1 and CXCR4 play an important role in adult SVZ lineage cell proliferation and differentiation.

  14. Capsaicin inhibits the adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by regulating cell proliferation, apoptosis, oxidative and nitrosative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Muhammed; Jang, Mi; Park, Mina; Gobianand, Kuppannan; You, Seungkwon; Yeon, Sung-Heom; Park, Sungkwon; Kim, Min Ji; Lee, Hyun-Jeong

    2015-07-01

    Obesity is a global health problem that requires the utmost attention. Apart from other factors the trans-differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into adipocytes is an added detrimental factor causing the intensification of obesity. The main objective of this present study is to analyse whether capsaicin is capable of inhibiting the differentiation of BMSCs to adipocytes. Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were obtained and exposed to different concentrations of capsaicin for a period of 6 days following 2 days of adipogenic induction. The capsaicin exposed cells were collected at three different time points (2, 4 and 6 days) and subjected to various analyses. BMSCs after exposure to capsaicin showed dose and time dependent reduction in cell viability and proliferation. Interestingly, capsaicin induced cell cycle arrest at G0-G1 and increased apoptosis by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) production. Capsaicin significantly inhibited the early adipogenic differentiation, lipogenesis and maturation of adipocytes with concomitant repression of PPARγ, C/EBPα, FABP4 and SCD-1. Taken together, the results of the present study have clearly emphasized that capsaicin potentially inhibits the adipogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells via many different pathways (anti-proliferative, apoptotic and cell cycle arrest) through the stimulation of ROS and RNS production. Thus, capsaicin not only suppresses the maturation of pre-adipocytes into adipocytes but also inhibits the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into adipocytes.

  15. miR-335 orchestrates cell proliferation, migration and differentiation in human mesenchymal stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Manuel A.; Tomé, María; López-Romero, Pedro; Albo, Carmen; Sepúlveda, Juan Carlos; Fernández-Gutierrez, Benjamin; Dopazo, Ana; Bernad, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Abstract In spite of the extensive potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in cell therapy, little is known about the molecular mechanisms that regulate their therapeutic properties. We aimed to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) involved in controlling the transition between the resting and reparative phenotypes of hMSCs, hypothesizing that these miRNAs must be present in the undifferentiated cells and downregulated to allow initiation of distinct activation/differentiation pro...

  16. Mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation on load-bearing trabecular Nitinol scaffolds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotman, Irena; Ben-David, Dror; Unger, Ronald E; Böse, Thomas; Gutmanas, Elazar Y; Kirkpatrick, C James

    2013-09-01

    Bone tissue regeneration in load-bearing regions of the body requires high-strength porous scaffolds capable of supporting angiogenesis and osteogenesis. 70% porous Nitinol (NiTi) scaffolds with a regular 3-D architecture resembling trabecular bone were produced from Ni foams using an original reactive vapor infiltration technique. The "trabecular Nitinol" scaffolds possessed a high compressive strength of 79 MPa and high permeability of 6.9×10(-6) cm2. The scaffolds were further modified to produce a near Ni-free surface layer and evaluated in terms of Ni ion release and human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) proliferation (AlamarBlue), differentiation (alkaline phosphatase activity, ALP) and mineralization (Alizarin Red S staining). Scanning electron microscopy was employed to qualitatively corroborate the results. hMSCs were able to adhere and proliferate on both as-produced and surface-modified trabecular NiTi scaffolds, to acquire an osteoblastic phenotype and produce a mineralized extracellular matrix. Both ALP activity and mineralization were increased on porous scaffolds compared to control polystyrene plates. Experiments in a model coculture system of microvascular endothelial cells and hMSCs demonstrated the formation of prevascular structures in trabecular NiTi scaffolds. These data suggest that load-bearing trabecular Nitinol scaffolds could be effective in regenerating damaged or lost bone tissue.

  17. Zebrafish kruppel-like factor 4a represses intestinal cell proliferation and promotes differentiation of intestinal cell lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-Chen Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mouse krüppel-like factor 4 (Klf4 is a zinc finger-containing transcription factor required for terminal differentiation of goblet cells in the colon. However, studies using either Klf4(-/- mice or mice with conditionally deleted Klf4 in their gastric epithelia showed different results in the role of Klf4 in epithelial cell proliferation. We used zebrafish as a model organism to gain further understanding of the role of Klf4 in the intestinal cell proliferation and differentiation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We characterized the function of klf4a, a mammalian klf4 homologue by antisense morpholino oligomer knockdown. Zebrafish Klf4a shared high amino acid similarities with human and mouse Klf4. Phylogenetic analysis grouped zebrafish Klf4a together with both human and mouse Klf4 in a branch with high bootstrap value. In zebrafish, we demonstrate that Klf4a represses intestinal cell proliferation based on results of BrdU incorporation, p-Histone 3 immunostaining, and transmission electron microscopy analyses. Decreased PepT1 expression was detected in intestinal bulbs of 80- and 102-hours post fertilization (hpf klf4a morphants. Significant reduction of alcian blue-stained goblet cell number was identified in intestines of 102- and 120-hpf klf4a morphants. Embryos treated with γ-secretase inhibitor showed increased klf4a expression in the intestine, while decreased klf4a expression and reduction in goblet cell number were observed in embryos injected with Notch intracellular domain (NICD mRNA. We were able to detect recovery of goblet cell number in 102-hpf embryos that had been co-injected with both klf4a and Notch 1a NICD mRNA. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides in vivo evidence showing that zebrafih Klf4a is essential for the repression of intestinal cell proliferation. Zebrafish Klf4a is required for the differentiation of goblet cells and the terminal differentiation of enterocytes. Moreover, the regulation of

  18. Ectopic TBX1 suppresses thymic epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation during thymus organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeh, Kaitlin A G; Cardenas, Kim T; Bain, Virginia E; Liu, Zhijie; Laurent, Micheline; Manley, Nancy R; Richie, Ellen R

    2014-08-01

    The thymus and parathyroid glands arise from a shared endodermal primordium in the third pharyngeal pouch (3rd pp). Thymus fate is specified in the ventral 3rd pp between E9.5 and E11, whereas parathyroid fate is specified in the dorsal domain. The molecular mechanisms that specify fate and regulate thymus and parathyroid development are not fully delineated. Previous reports suggested that Tbx1 is required for thymus organogenesis because loss of Tbx1 in individuals with DiGeorge syndrome and in experimental Tbx1 deletion mutants is associated with thymus aplasia or hypoplasia. However, the thymus phenotype is likely to be secondary to defects in pharyngeal pouch formation. Furthermore, the absence of Tbx1 expression in the thymus-fated domain of the wild-type 3rd pp suggested that Tbx1 is instead a negative regulator of thymus organogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we generated a novel mouse strain in which expression of a conditional Tbx1 allele was ectopically activated in the thymus-fated domain of the 3rd pp. Ectopic Tbx1 expression severely repressed expression of Foxn1, a transcription factor that marks the thymus-fated domain and is required for differentiation and proliferation of thymic epithelial cell (TEC) progenitors. By contrast, ectopic Tbx1 did not alter the expression pattern of Gcm2, a transcription factor restricted to the parathyroid-fated domain and required for parathyroid development. Ectopic Tbx1 expression impaired TEC proliferation and arrested TEC differentiation at an early progenitor stage. The results support the hypothesis that Tbx1 negatively regulates TEC growth and differentiation, and that extinction of Tbx1 expression in 3rd pp endoderm is a prerequisite for thymus organogenesis.

  19. Ectopic TBX1 suppresses thymic epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation during thymus organogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeh, Kaitlin A. G.; Cardenas, Kim T.; Bain, Virginia E.; Liu, Zhijie; Laurent, Micheline; Manley, Nancy R.; Richie, Ellen R.

    2014-01-01

    The thymus and parathyroid glands arise from a shared endodermal primordium in the third pharyngeal pouch (3rd pp). Thymus fate is specified in the ventral 3rd pp between E9.5 and E11, whereas parathyroid fate is specified in the dorsal domain. The molecular mechanisms that specify fate and regulate thymus and parathyroid development are not fully delineated. Previous reports suggested that Tbx1 is required for thymus organogenesis because loss of Tbx1 in individuals with DiGeorge syndrome and in experimental Tbx1 deletion mutants is associated with thymus aplasia or hypoplasia. However, the thymus phenotype is likely to be secondary to defects in pharyngeal pouch formation. Furthermore, the absence of Tbx1 expression in the thymus-fated domain of the wild-type 3rd pp suggested that Tbx1 is instead a negative regulator of thymus organogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we generated a novel mouse strain in which expression of a conditional Tbx1 allele was ectopically activated in the thymus-fated domain of the 3rd pp. Ectopic Tbx1 expression severely repressed expression of Foxn1, a transcription factor that marks the thymus-fated domain and is required for differentiation and proliferation of thymic epithelial cell (TEC) progenitors. By contrast, ectopic Tbx1 did not alter the expression pattern of Gcm2, a transcription factor restricted to the parathyroid-fated domain and required for parathyroid development. Ectopic Tbx1 expression impaired TEC proliferation and arrested TEC differentiation at an early progenitor stage. The results support the hypothesis that Tbx1 negatively regulates TEC growth and differentiation, and that extinction of Tbx1 expression in 3rd pp endoderm is a prerequisite for thymus organogenesis. PMID:25053428

  20. Effect of angiotensin II on proliferation and differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells into mesodermal progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizuka, Toshiaki, E-mail: tishizu@ndmc.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513 (Japan); Goshima, Hazuki; Ozawa, Ayako; Watanabe, Yasuhiro [Department of Pharmacology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513 (Japan)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with angiotensin II enhanced LIF-induced DNA synthesis of mouse iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II may enhance the DNA synthesis via induction of superoxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with angiotensin II significantly increased JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II enhanced differentiation into mesodermal progenitor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II may enhance the differentiation via activation of p38 MAPK. -- Abstract: Previous studies suggest that angiotensin receptor stimulation may enhance not only proliferation but also differentiation of undifferentiated stem/progenitor cells. Therefore, in the present study, we determined the involvement of the angiotensin receptor in the proliferation and differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Stimulation with angiotensin II (Ang II) significantly increased DNA synthesis in mouse iPS cells cultured in a medium with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Pretreatment of the cells with either candesartan (a selective Ang II type 1 receptor [AT{sub 1}R] antagonist) or Tempol (a cell-permeable superoxide scavenger) significantly inhibited Ang II-induced DNA synthesis. Treatment with Ang II significantly increased JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. Pretreatment with candesartan significantly inhibited Ang II- induced JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. In contrast, induction of mouse iPS cell differentiation into Flk-1-positive mesodermal progenitor cells was performed in type IV collagen (Col IV)- coated dishes in a differentiation medium without LIF. When Col IV-exposed iPS cells were treated with Ang II for 5 days, the expression of Flk-1 was significantly increased compared with that in the cells treated with the vehicle alone. Pretreatment of the cells with both candesartan and SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) significantly inhibited the Ang II- induced increase in Flk-1 expression

  1. Effect of transforming growth factor beta and bone morphogenetic proteins on rat hepatic stellate cell proliferation and trans-differentiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Shen; Guo-Jiang Huang; Yue-Wen Gong

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To explore different roles of TGF-β (transforming growth factor beta) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs)in hepatic stellate cell proliferation and trans-differentiation.METHODS: Hepatic stellate cells were isolated from male Sprague-Dawley rats. Sub-cultured hepatic stellate cells were employed for cell proliferation assay with WST-1 reagent and Western blot analysis with antibody against smooth muscle alpha actin (SMA).RESULTS: The results indicated that TGF-β1 significantly inhibited cell proliferation at concentration as low as 0.1 ng/ml, but both BMP-2 and BMP-4 did not affect cell proliferation at concentration as high as 10 ng/ml. The effect on hepatic stellate cell trans-differentiation was similar between TGFβ1 and BMPs. However, BMPs was more potent at transdifferentiation of hepatic stellate cells than TGF-β1. In addition, we observed that TGF-β1 transient reduced the abundance of SMA in hepatic stellate cells.CONCLUSION: TGF-β may be more important in regulation of hepatic stellate cell proliferation while BMPs may be the major cytokines regulating hepatic stellate cell transdifferentiation.

  2. MicroRNA-128 regulates the proliferation and differentiation of bovine skeletal muscle satellite cells by repressing Sp1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Yang; Zhang, Wei Ran; Wang, Yi Min; Liu, Xin Feng; Li, Xin; Ding, Xiang Bin; Guo, Hong

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The muscle-specific miRNAs miR-1 and miR-206 have been shown to regulate muscle development and promote myogenic differentiation; however, it is likely that a number of other miRNAs play important roles in regulating myogenesis as well. microRNA-128 (miR-128) has been reported to be highly expressed in brain and skeletal muscle, and we found that miR-128 is also up-regulated during bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell differentiation using microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. However, little is known about the functions of miR-128 in bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell development. In this study, we investigated the biological functions of miR-128 in bovine skeletal muscle cell development. Using a dual-luciferase reporter assay, we confirmed that miR-128 regulates the Sp1 gene. Over-expression of miR-128 reduced Sp1 protein levels and inhibited muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. Inhibition of miR-128 increased Sp1 protein levels and promoted muscle satellite cell differentiation but also suppressed proliferation. Changes in miR-128 and Sp1 expression levels also affected the protein levels of MyoD and CDKN1A. Sp1, an activator of MyoD and a suppressor of CDKN1A, plays an important role in bovine muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. The results of our study reveal a mechanism by which miR-128 regulates bovine skeletal muscle satellite cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation via Sp1.

  3. Altered proliferation and differentiation properties of primary mammary epithelial cells from BRCA1 mutation carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burga, Laura N; Tung, Nadine M; Troyan, Susan L; Bostina, Mihnea; Konstantinopoulos, Panagiotis A; Fountzilas, Helena; Spentzos, Dimitrios; Miron, Alexander; Yassin, Yosuf A; Lee, Bernard T; Wulf, Gerburg M

    2009-02-15

    Female BRCA1 mutation carriers have a nearly 80% probability of developing breast cancer during their life-time. We hypothesized that the breast epithelium at risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers harbors mammary epithelial cells (MEC) with altered proliferation and differentiation properties. Using a three-dimensional culture technique to grow MECs ex vivo, we found that the ability to form colonies, an indication of clonality, was restricted to the aldehyde dehydrogenase 1-positive fraction in MECs but not in HCC1937 BRCA1-mutant cancer cells. Primary MECs from BRCA1 mutation carriers (n = 9) had a 28% greater ability for clonal growth compared with normal controls (n = 6; P = 0.006), and their colonies were significantly larger. Colonies in controls and BRCA1 mutation carriers stained positive for BRCA1 by immunohistochemistry, and 79% of the examined single colonies from BRCA1 carriers retained heterozygosity for BRCA1 (ROH). Colonies from BRCA1 mutation carriers frequently showed high epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression (71% EGFR positive versus 44% in controls) and were negative for estrogen receptor (ERalpha; 32% ER negative, 44% mixed, 24% ER positive versus 90% ER positive in controls). Expression of CK14 and p63 were not significantly different. Microarray studies revealed that colonies from BRCA1-mutant PMECs anticipate expression profiles found in BRCA1-related tumors, and that the EGFR pathway is up-regulated. We conclude that BRCA1 haploinsufficiency leads to an increased ability for clonal growth and proliferation in the PMECs of BRCA1 mutation carriers, possibly as a result of EGFR pathway activation. These altered growth and differentiation properties may render BRCA1-mutant PMECs vulnerable to transformation and predispose to the development of ER-negative, EGFR-positive breast cancers.

  4. The microRNA pathway controls germ cell proliferation and differentiation in C.elegans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Irfan Ahmad Bukhari; Alejandro Vasquez-Rifo; Dominic Gagné; Eric R Paquet; Monique Zetka; Claude Robert; Jean-Yves Masson; Martin J Simard

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of the miRNA pathway revealed a new layer of molecular control of biological processes.To uncover new functions of this gene regulatory pathway,we undertook the characterization of the two miRNA-specific Argonaute proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans,ALG-1 and ALG-2.We first observed that the loss-of-function of alg-1 and alg-2 genes resulted in reduced progeny number.An extensive analysis of the germline of these mutants revealed a reduced mitotic region,indicating fewer proliferating germ cells.We also observed an early entry into meiosis in alg-1 and alg-2 mutant animals.We detected ALG-1 and ALG-2 protein expressions in the distal tip cell (DTC),a specialized cell located at the tip of both C.elegans gonadal arms that regulates mitosis-meiosis transition.Re-establishing the expression of alg-1 specifically in the DTC of mutant animals partially rescued the observed germline defects.Further analyses also support the implication of the miRNA pathway in gametogenesis.Interestingly,we observed that disruption of five miRNAs expressed in the DTC led to similar phenotypes.Finally,gene expression analysis of alg-1 mutant gonads suggests that the miRNA pathway is involved in the regulation of different pathways important for germline proliferation and differentiation.Collectively,our data indicate that the miRNA pathway plays a crucial role in the control of germ cell biogenesis in C.elegans.

  5. Kv3.1 channels stimulate adult neural precursor cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Takahiro; Cuny, Hartmut; Adams, David J

    2013-05-15

    Adult neural stem/precursor cells (NPCs) play a pivotal role in neuronal plasticity throughout life. Among ion channels identified in adult NPCs, voltage-gated delayed rectifier K(+) (KDR) channels are dominantly expressed. However, the KDR channel subtype and its physiological role are still undefined. We used real-time quantitative RT-PCR and gene knockdown techniques to identify a major functional KDR channel subtype in adult NPCs. Dominant mRNA expression of Kv3.1, a high voltage-gated KDR channel, was quantitatively confirmed. Kv3.1 gene knockdown with specific small interfering RNAs (siRNA) for Kv3.1 significantly inhibited Kv3.1 mRNA expression by 63.9% (P Kv3.1 is the subtype responsible for producing KDR channel outward currents. Resting membrane properties, such as resting membrane potential, of NPCs were not affected by Kv3.1 expression. Kv3.1 knockdown with 300 nm siRNA inhibited NPC growth (increase in cell numbers) by 52.9% (P Kv3.1 knockdown also significantly reduced neuronal differentiation by 31.4% (P Kv3.1 is a dominant functional KDR channel subtype expressed in adult NPCs and plays key roles in NPC proliferation and neuronal lineage commitment during differentiation.

  6. Microcephaly gene links Trithorax and REST/NRSF to control neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yawei J.; Baltus, Andrew E.; Mathew, Rebecca S.; Murphy, Elisabeth A.; Evrony, Gilad D.; Gonzalez, Dilenny M.; Wang, Estee P.; Marshall-Walker, Christine A.; Barry, Brenda J.; Murn, Jernej; Tatarakis, Antonis; Mahajan, Muktar A.; Samuels, Herbert H.; Shi, Yang; Golden, Jeffrey A.; Mahajnah, Muhammad; Shenhav, Ruthie; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Microcephaly is a neurodevelopmental disorder causing significantly reduced cerebral cortex size. Many known microcephaly gene products localize to centrosomes, regulating cell fate and proliferation. Here, we identify and characterize a nuclear zinc finger protein, ZNF335/NIF-1, as a causative gene for severe microcephaly, small somatic size, and neonatal death. Znf335-null mice are embryonically lethal and conditional knockout leads to severely reduced cortical size. RNA-interference and postmortem human studies show that Znf335 is essential for neural progenitor self-renewal, neurogenesis, and neuronal differentiation. ZNF335 is a component of a vertebrate-specific, trithorax H3K4-methylation complex, directly regulating REST/NRSF, a master regulator of neural gene expression and cell fate, as well as other essential neural-specific genes. Our results reveal ZNF335 as an essential link between H3K4 complexes and REST/NRSF, and provide the first direct genetic evidence that this pathway regulates human neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation. PMID:23178126

  7. Proinflammatory cytokines differentially influence adult hippocampal cell proliferation depending upon the route and chronicity of administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Anne Seguin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Julie Anne Seguin, Jordan Brennan, Emily Mangano, Shawn HayleyInstitute of Neuroscience, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Disturbances of hippocampal plasticity, including impaired dendritic branching and reductions of neurogenesis, are provoked by stressful insults and may occur in depression. Although corticoids likely contribute to stressor-induced reductions of neurogenesis, other signaling messengers, including pro-inflammatory cytokines might also be involved. Accordingly, the present investigation assessed whether three proinflammatory cytokines, namely interleukin-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α (associated with depression influenced cellular proliferation within the hippocampus. In this regard, systemic administration of TNF-α reduced 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU labeling within the hippocampus, whereas IL-1β and IL-6 had no such effect. However, repeated but not a single intra-hippocampal infusion of IL-6 and IL-1β actually increased cellular proliferation and IL-6 infusion also enhanced microglial staining within the hippocampus. Yet, no changes in doublecortin expression were apparent, suggesting that the cytokine did not influence the birth of cells destined to become neurons. Essentially, the route of administration and chronicity of cytokine administration had a marked influence upon the nature of hippocampal alterations provoked, suggesting that cytokines may differentially regulate hippocampal plasticity in neuropsychiatric conditions.Keywords: cytokine, depression, neuroplasticity, hippocampus, stressor

  8. Proinflammatory cytokines differentially influence adult hippocampal cell proliferation depending upon the route and chronicity of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Julie Anne; Brennan, Jordan; Mangano, Emily; Hayley, Shawn

    2009-01-01

    Disturbances of hippocampal plasticity, including impaired dendritic branching and reductions of neurogenesis, are provoked by stressful insults and may occur in depression. Although corticoids likely contribute to stressor-induced reductions of neurogenesis, other signaling messengers, including pro-inflammatory cytokines might also be involved. Accordingly, the present investigation assessed whether three proinflammatory cytokines, namely interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) (associated with depression) influenced cellular proliferation within the hippocampus. In this regard, systemic administration of TNF-alpha reduced 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling within the hippocampus, whereas IL-1beta and IL-6 had no such effect. However, repeated but not a single intra-hippocampal infusion of IL-6 and IL-1beta actually increased cellular proliferation and IL-6 infusion also enhanced microglial staining within the hippocampus. Yet, no changes in doublecortin expression were apparent, suggesting that the cytokine did not influence the birth of cells destined to become neurons. Essentially, the route of administration and chronicity of cytokine administration had a marked influence upon the nature of hippocampal alterations provoked, suggesting that cytokines may differentially regulate hippocampal plasticity in neuropsychiatric conditions.

  9. Structural differentiation, proliferation, and association of human embryonic stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes in vitro and in their extracardiac tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Li; Johkura, Kohei; Takei, Shunsuke; Ogiwara, Naoko; Sasaki, Katsunori

    2007-06-01

    The proliferation, structural differentiation, and capacity of association of human ES cell-derived cardiomyocytes were assessed in culture and in extracardiac graft tissues. Embryoid body (EB) outgrowths having cardiomyocytes, and their transplants in mice retroperitoneum or renal subcapsular region were analyzed mainly by immunochemistry. During the culture of EB outgrowths, colonies of cardiomyocytes grew in size exhibiting synchronized beatings. Subcellular structures of those cardiomyocytes involved in the contraction, hormone production, and intercellular integration differentiated with distinct immunoreactivity for constituent proteins/peptides. Judging from PCNA staining, proliferation potential was maintained in part for more than 70 days. In teratoma tissues on post-transplantation Day 7, cardiomyocytes maintained their integration with connexin 43 and cadherin at their junctions. They partly exhibited strong PCNA reactivity. On Day 28, large part of the cardiomyocytes lost their association, dispersing among non-cardiac cells without discernible cadherin reactivity. Proliferation potential was generally low irrespective of their tissue diversity. From these results, structural differentiation and active proliferation of human ES cell-derived cardiomyocytes occurred in vitro, maintaining their association. When developed in extracardiac tissues, however, the cardiomyocytes showed low proliferation potential and reduced cellular integration. This leads to the proposal that some procedure will be necessary to accelerate or maintain the proliferation of cardiomyocytes in vivo.

  10. Differential effects of a complex organochlorine mixture on the proliferation of breast cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aube, Michel, E-mail: 4aubem@videotron.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Larochelle, Christian, E-mail: christian.larochelle@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Ayotte, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.ayotte@inspq.qc.ca [Axe de recherche en sante des populations et environnementale, Centre de recherche du Centre hospitalier universitaire de Quebec and Universite Laval, 2875 Boulevard Laurier, Edifice Delta 2, bureau 600, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 2M2 (Canada); Laboratoire de Toxicologie, Institut national de sante publique du Quebec, 945 avenue Wolfe, Quebec, QC, Canada G1V 5B3 (Canada)

    2011-04-15

    Organochlorine compounds (OCs) are a group of persistent chemicals that accumulate in fatty tissues with age. Although OCs has been tested individually for their capacity to induce breast cancer cell proliferation, few studies examined the effect of complex mixtures that comprise compounds frequently detected in the serum of women. We constituted such an OC mixture containing 15 different components in environmentally relevant proportions and assessed its proliferative effects in four breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, CAMA-1, MDAMB231) and in non-cancerous CV-1 cells. We also determined the capacity of the mixture to modulate cell cycle stage of breast cancer cells and to induce estrogenic and antiandrogenic effects using gene reporter assays. We observed that low concentrations of the mixture (100x10{sup 3} and 50x10{sup 3} dilutions) stimulated the proliferation of MCF-7 cells while higher concentrations (10x10{sup 3} and 5x10{sup 3} dilutions) had the opposite effect. In contrast, the mixture inhibited the proliferation of non-hormone-dependent cell lines. The mixture significantly increased the number of MCF-7 cells entering the S phase, an effect that was blocked by the antiestrogen ICI 182,780. Low concentrations of the mixture also caused an increase in CAMA-1 cell proliferation but only in the presence estradiol and dihydrotestosterone (p<0.05 at the 50x10{sup 3} dilution). DDT analogs and polychlorinated biphenyls all had the capacity to stimulate the proliferation of CAMA-1 cells in the presence of sex steroids. Reporter gene assays further revealed that the mixture and several of its constituents (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin, {beta}-hexachlorocyclohexane, toxaphene) induced estrogenic effects, whereas the mixture and several components (DDT analogs, aldrin, dieldrin and PCBs) inhibited the androgen signaling pathway. Our results indicate that the complex OC mixture increases the proliferation of MCF-7 cells due to its estrogenic potential. The

  11. Expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells regulates proliferation, differentiation, and maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopp, Sabine; Bornhäuser, Martin; Ugarte, Fernando; Wobus, Manja; Kuhn, Matthias; Brenner, Sebastian; Thieme, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The melanoma cell adhesion molecule defines mesenchymal stromal cells in the human bone marrow that regenerate bone and establish a hematopoietic microenvironment in vivo. The role of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in primary human mesenchymal stromal cells and the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells during ex vivo culture has not yet been demonstrated. We applied RNA interference or ectopic overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells to evaluate the effect of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule on their proliferation and differentiation as well as its influence on co-cultivated hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Knockdown and overexpression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule affected several characteristics of human mesenchymal stromal cells related to osteogenic differentiation, proliferation, and migration. Furthermore, knockdown of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells stimulated the proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and strongly reduced the formation of long-term culture-initiating cells. In contrast, melanoma cell adhesion molecule-overexpressing human mesenchymal stromal cells provided a supportive microenvironment for hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule increased the adhesion of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells to human mesenchymal stromal cells and their migration beneath the monolayer of human mesenchymal stromal cells. Our results demonstrate that the expression of the melanoma cell adhesion molecule in human mesenchymal stromal cells determines their fate and regulates the maintenance of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells through direct cell-cell contact.

  12. Slit/Robo1 signaling regulates neural tube development by balancing neuroepithelial cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guang; Li, Yan; Wang, Xiao-yu; Han, Zhe; Chuai, Manli; Wang, Li-jing; Ho Lee, Kenneth Ka; Geng, Jian-guo; Yang, Xuesong

    2013-05-01

    coordinating cell proliferation and differentiation during neurulation.

  13. EphB4 Regulates Self-Renewal, Proliferation and Neuronal Differentiation of Human Embryonic Neural Stem Cells in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Liu

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: EphB4 belongs to the largest family of Eph receptor tyrosine kinases. It contributes to a variety of pathological progresses of cancer malignancy. However, little is known about its role in neural stem cells (NSCs. This study examined whether EphB4 is required for proliferation and differentiation of human embryonic neural stem cells (hNSCs in vitro. Methods: We up- and down-regulated EphB4 expression in hNSCs using lentiviral over-expression and shRNA knockdown constructs and then investigated the influence of EphB4 on the properties of hNSCs. Results: Our results show that shRNA-mediated EphB4 reduction profoundly impaired hNSCs self-renewal and proliferation. Furthermore, detection of differentiation revealed that knockdown of EphB4 inhibited hNSCs differentiation towards a neuronal lineage and promoted hNSCs differentiation to glial cells. In contrast, EphB4 overexpression promoted hNSCs self-renewal and proliferation, further induced hNSCs differentiation towards a neuronal lineage and inhibited hNSCs differentiation to glial cells. Moreover, we found that EphB4 regulates cell proliferation mediated by the Abl-CyclinD1 pathway. Conclusion: These studies provide strong evidence that fine tuning of EphB4 expression is crucial for the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of hNSCs, suggesting that EphB4 might be an interesting target for overcoming some of the therapeutic limitations of neuronal loss in brain diseases.

  14. Pyridoxine enhances cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation by upregulating the GABAergic system in the mouse dentate gyrus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Woosuk; Kim, Dae Won; Yoo, Ki-Yeon; Chung, Jin Young; Youn, Hwa Young; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Choi, Soo Young; Won, Moo-Ho; Hwang, In Koo

    2011-05-01

    We investigated the effects of pyridoxine (vitamin B(6)) on cell death, cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, and the GABAergic system in the mouse dentate gyrus. We administered pyridoxine (350 mg/kg intraperitoneally) to 8 week old mice twice a day for 14 days and sacrificed them at 10 weeks of age. Pyridoxine treatment did not induce neuronal death or activate microglia in the dentate gyrus, while glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-positive cells were significantly increased in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. The increase in GFAP-positive cells was confirmed to be due to proliferating cells based on double immunofluorescence staining. GFAP-positive cells, which were also labeled with Ki67, a marker for cell proliferation, and doublecortin, a marker for neuroblast differentiation, were significantly increased in the pyridoxine-treated group compared to those in the vehicle-treated group. Pyridoxine treatment also increased the protein levels of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) 67, an enzyme for GABA synthesis, and pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PNP) oxidase, an enzyme for pyridoxal phosphate synthesis, in the dentate gyrus. These results suggest that pyridoxine treatment distinctly increases cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation, and upregulated the GABAergic system, as revealed by the increases of GAD67 and PNP oxidase in the mouse dentate gyrus.

  15. RAF kinase activity regulates neuroepithelial cell proliferation and neuronal progenitor cell differentiation during early inner ear development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Magariños

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Early inner ear development requires the strict regulation of cell proliferation, survival, migration and differentiation, coordinated by the concerted action of extrinsic and intrinsic factors. Deregulation of these processes is associated with embryonic malformations and deafness. We have shown that insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I plays a key role in embryonic and postnatal otic development by triggering the activation of intracellular lipid and protein kinases. RAF kinases are serine/threonine kinases that regulate the highly conserved RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling cascade involved in transducing the signals from extracellular growth factors to the nucleus. However, the regulation of RAF kinase activity by growth factors during development is complex and still not fully understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By using a combination of qRT-PCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we show that C-RAF and B-RAF are expressed during the early development of the chicken inner ear in specific spatiotemporal patterns. Moreover, later in development B-RAF expression is associated to hair cells in the sensory patches. Experiments in ex vivo cultures of otic vesicle explants demonstrate that the influence of IGF-I on proliferation but not survival depends on RAF kinase activating the MEK-ERK phosphorylation cascade. With the specific RAF inhibitor Sorafenib, we show that blocking RAF activity in organotypic cultures increases apoptosis and diminishes the rate of cell proliferation in the otic epithelia, as well as severely impairing neurogenesis of the acoustic-vestibular ganglion (AVG and neuron maturation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that RAF kinase activity is essential to establish the balance between cell proliferation and death in neuroepithelial otic precursors, and for otic neuron differentiation and axonal growth at the AVG.

  16. Ascorbic acid enhances the cardiac differentiation of induced pluripotent stem cells through promoting the proliferation of cardiac progenitor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nan Cao; Bin Wei; Liu Wang; Ying Jin; Huang-Tian Yang; Zumei Liu; Zhongyan Chen; Jia Wang; Taotao Chen; Xiaoyang Zhao; Yu Ma; Lianju Qin; Jiuhong Kang

    2012-01-01

    Generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) has opened new avenues for the investigation of heart diseases,drug screening and potential autologous cardiac regeneration.However,their application is hampered by inefficient cardiac differentiation,high interline variability,and poor maturation of iPSC-derived cardiomyoeytes (iPS-CMs).To identify efficient inducers for cardiac differentiation and maturation of iPSCs and elucidate the mechanisms,we systematically screened sixteen cardiomyocyte inducers on various murine (m) iPSCs and found that only ascorbic acid (AA) consistently and robustly enhanced the cardiac differentiation of eleven lines including eight without spontaneous cardiogenic potential.We then optimized the treatment conditions and demonstrated that differentiation day 2-6,a period for the specification of cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs),was a critical time for AA to take effect.This was further confirmed by the fact that AA increased the expression of cardiovascular but not mesodermal markers.Noteworthily,AA treatment led to approximately 7.3-fold (miPSCs) and 30.2-fold (human iPSCs) augment in the yield of iPS-CMs.Such effect was attributed to a specific increase in the proliferation of CPCs via the MEK-ERK1/2 pathway by promoting collagen synthesis.In addition,AA-induced cardiomyocytes showed better sareomerie organization and enhanced responses of action potentials and calcium transients to β-adrenergic and muscarinic stimulations.These findings demonstrate that AA is a suitable cardiomyocyte inducer for iPSCs to improve cardiac differentiation and maturation simply,universally,and efficiently.These findings also highlight the importance of stimulating CPC proliferation by manipulating extracellular microenvironment in guiding cardiac differentiation of the pluripotent stem cells.

  17. Piper and Vismia species from Colombian Amazonia differentially affect cell proliferation of hepatocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lizcano, Leandro J; Siles, Maite; Trepiana, Jenifer; Hernández, M Luisa; Navarro, Rosaura; Ruiz-Larrea, M Begoña; Ruiz-Sanz, José Ignacio

    2014-12-30

    There is an increasing interest to identify plant-derived natural products with antitumor activities. In this work, we have studied the effects of aqueous leaf extracts from Amazonian Vismia and Piper species on human hepatocarcinoma cell toxicity. Results showed that, depending on the cell type, the plants displayed differential effects; thus, Vismia baccifera induced the selective killing of HepG2, while increasing cell growth of PLC-PRF and SK-HEP-1. In contrast, these two last cell lines were sensitive to the toxicity by Piper krukoffii and Piper putumayoense, while the Piperaceae did not affect HepG2 growth. All the extracts induced cytotoxicity to rat hepatoma McA-RH7777, but were innocuous (V. baccifera at concentrations Piper genera with opposite effects as a model system to study the mechanisms of the antitumoral activity against different types of hepatocarcinoma.

  18. Impact of low oxygen tension on stemness, proliferation and differentiation potential of human adipose-derived stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jane Ru; Pingguan-Murphy, Belinda; Wan Abas, Wan Abu Bakar [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Noor Azmi, Mat Adenan; Omar, Siti Zawiah [Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Chua, Kien Hui [Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Wan Safwani, Wan Kamarul Zaman, E-mail: wansafwani@um.edu.my [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Lembah Pantai, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-05-30

    Highlights: • Hypoxia maintains the stemness of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs). • ASCs show an increased proliferation rate under low oxygen tension. • Oxygen level as low as 2% enhances the chondrogenic differentiation potential of ASCs. • HIF-1α may regulate the proliferation and differentiation activities of ASCs under hypoxia. - Abstract: Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been found adapted to a specific niche with low oxygen tension (hypoxia) in the body. As an important component of this niche, oxygen tension has been known to play a critical role in the maintenance of stem cell characteristics. However, the effect of O{sub 2} tension on their functional properties has not been well determined. In this study, we investigated the effects of O{sub 2} tension on ASCs stemness, differentiation and proliferation ability. Human ASCs were cultured under normoxia (21% O{sub 2}) and hypoxia (2% O{sub 2}). We found that hypoxia increased ASC stemness marker expression and proliferation rate without altering their morphology and surface markers. Low oxygen tension further enhances the chondrogenic differentiation ability, but reduces both adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potential. These results might be correlated with the increased expression of HIF-1α under hypoxia. Taken together, we suggest that growing ASCs under 2% O{sub 2} tension may be important in expanding ASCs effectively while maintaining their functional properties for clinical therapy, particularly for the treatment of cartilage defects.

  19. Effect of growth factors (BMP-4/7 & bFGF on proliferation & osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohui Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: BMP (bone morphogenetic protein-4/7 and bFGF (basic fibroblast growth factor significantly promote the osteogenic activity and the proliferation of rabbit BMSCs (bone marrow stromal cells, respectively. However, their synergistic effects on the proliferation and the differentiation of BMSCs remain unclear. In the present study, the effects of bFGF and BMP-4/7 were investigated on the proliferation and the differentiation of rat BMSCs in vitro. Methods: BMSCs were isolated from New Zealand white rabbits and cultured to the third passage. The samples were divided into five groups according to the material implanted: (A 80 ng/ml BMP-4/7; (B 80 ng/ml bFGF; (C 30 ng/ml BMP-4/7 and 30 ng/ml bFGF; (D 50 ng/ml BMP-4/7 and 50 ng/ml bFGF; and (E 80 ng/ml BMP-4/7 and 80 ng/ml bFGF. Cell proliferation was analyzed using methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT assay. Alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin (OC dynamics were also measured. Results: BMP-4/7 alone significantly (P<0.05 promoted the proliferation of BMSCs. At the same time, it also promoted or inhibited the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. The synergistic effects of BMP-4/7 and bFGF significantly promoted both the proliferation and the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. The treatment of the synergistic effects was dose and time dependent. Interpretation & conclusions: A rational combination of BMP-4/7 and bFGF can promote the proliferation and the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. In addition, the synergistic functions are effective.

  20. Two dimensional gel human protein databases offer a systematic approach to the study of cell proliferation and differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Celis, J E; Gesser, B; Dejgaard, K;

    1989-01-01

    Human cellular protein databases have been established using computer-analyzed 2D gel electrophoresis. These databases, which include information on various properties of proteins, offer a global approach to the study of regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, thanks...

  1. Piper and Vismia Species from Colombian Amazonia Differentially Affect Cell Proliferation of Hepatocarcinoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro J. Lizcano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing interest to identify plant-derived natural products with antitumor activities. In this work, we have studied the effects of aqueous leaf extracts from Amazonian Vismia and Piper species on human hepatocarcinoma cell toxicity. Results showed that, depending on the cell type, the plants displayed differential effects; thus, Vismia baccifera induced the selective killing of HepG2, while increasing cell growth of PLC-PRF and SK-HEP-1. In contrast, these two last cell lines were sensitive to the toxicity by Piper krukoffii and Piper putumayoense, while the Piperaceae did not affect HepG2 growth. All the extracts induced cytotoxicity to rat hepatoma McA-RH7777, but were innocuous (V. baccifera at concentrations < 75 µg/mL or even protected cells from basal death (P. putumayoense in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes. In every case, cytotoxicity was accompanied by an intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. These results provide evidence for the anticancer activities of the studied plants on specific cell lines and suggest that cell killing could be mediated by ROS, thus involving mechanisms independent of the plants free radical scavenging activities. Results also support the use of these extracts of the Vismia and Piper genera with opposite effects as a model system to study the mechanisms of the antitumoral activity against different types of hepatocarcinoma.

  2. Low-power laser irradiation promotes the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells via cyclic adenosine monophosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jyun-Yi Wu; Chia-Hsin Chen; Li-Yin Yeh; Ming-Long Yeh; Chun-Chan Ting; Yan-Hsiung Wang

    2013-01-01

    Retaining or improving periodontal ligament (PDL) function is crucial for restoring periodontal defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological effects of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human PDL (hPDL) cells. Cultured hPDL cells were irradiated (660 nm) daily with doses of 0, 1, 2 or 4 J?cm22. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the effect of LPLI on osteogenic differentiation was assessed by Alizarin Red S staining and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Additionally, osteogenic marker gene expression was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our data showed that LPLI at a dose of 2 J?cm22 significantly promoted hPDL cell proliferation at days 3 and 5. In addition, LPLI at energy doses of 2 and 4 J?cm22 showed potential osteogenic capacity, as it stimulated ALP activity, calcium deposition, and osteogenic gene expression. We also showed that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a critical regulator of the LPLI-mediated effects on hPDL cells. This study shows that LPLI can promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDL cells. These results suggest the potential use of LPLI in clinical applications for periodontal tissue regeneration.

  3. Development of the cerebellar body in sharks: spatiotemporal relations of Pax6 expression, cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Carrera, Iván; Sueiro, Catalina; Candal, Eva; Mazan, Sylvie; Anadón, Ramón

    2008-02-20

    We have studied the patterns of cell proliferation, regional organization and differentiation in the cerebellar body of embryos and juveniles of two shark species by immunohistochemistry with antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), Pax6, reelin (RELN), GABA, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) and calretinin (CR). The organization of Pax6-expressing cells was also studied by in situ hybridization. Our results reveal that a transient secondary matrix zone, the external germinal layer, is formed in sharks at early stages of cerebellar development and is the source of the earliest Pax6-expressing (granule) cells. Later in development, new granule Pax6-expressing cells arise from medial proliferation zones and accumulate medially in the granular eminences. The GABAergic components appear very early, and show clear regional differences. The medial proliferation zones remain active even in adults. Taken together, the proliferation and differentiation markers used in the present study highlight striking similarities during development between the cerebellar body of elasmobranchs and the cerebella of tetrapods. These results show the importance of elasmobranch models to reconstruct the evolutionary developmental history of the vertebrate cerebellum.

  4. Cell proliferation, viability, and in vitro differentiation of equine mesenchymal stem cells seeded on bacterial cellulose hydrogel scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favi, Pelagie M.; Benson, Roberto S. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Neilsen, Nancy R. [Department of Biomedical and Diagnostic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Hammonds, Ryan L. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Bates, Cassandra C. [Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Stephens, Christopher P. [Department of Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Center for Materials Processing, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Dhar, Madhu S., E-mail: mdhar@utk.edu [Department of Large Animal Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The culture of multipotent mesenchymal stem cells on natural biopolymers holds great promise for treatments of connective tissue disorders such as osteoarthritis. The safety and performance of such therapies relies on the systematic in vitro evaluation of the developed stem cell-biomaterial constructs prior to in vivo implantation. This study evaluates bacterial cellulose (BC), a biocompatible natural polymer, as a scaffold for equine-derived bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (EqMSCs) for application in bone and cartilage tissue engineering. An equine model was chosen due to similarities in size, load and types of joint injuries suffered by horses and humans. Lyophilized and critical point dried BC hydrogel scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to confirm nanostructure morphology which demonstrated that critical point drying induces fibre bundling unlike lyophilisation. EqMSCs positively expressed the undifferentiated pluripotent mesenchymal stem cell surface markers CD44 and CD90. The BC scaffolds were shown to be cytocompatible, supporting cellular adhesion and proliferation, and allowed for osteogenic and chondrogenic differentiation of EqMSCs. The cells seeded on the BC hydrogel were shown to be viable and metabolically active. These findings demonstrate that the combination of a BC hydrogel and EqMSCs are promising constructs for musculoskeletal tissue engineering applications. - Highlights: ► Critical point drying induces fibre bundling unlike lyophilisation. ► Cells positively expressed undifferentiated pluripotent stem cell markers. ► BCs were cytocompatible, supported cell adhesion, proliferation and differentiationCells seeded on BC scaffolds were viable and metabolically active. ► Findings demonstrate that BC and EqMSCs are promising tissue engineered constructs.

  5. Differential proliferation rhythm of neural progenitor and oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the young adult hippocampus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Matsumoto

    Full Text Available Oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs are a unique type of glial cells that function as oligodendrocyte progenitors while constantly proliferating in the normal condition from rodents to humans. However, the functional roles they play in the adult brain are largely unknown. In this study, we focus on the manner of OPC proliferation in the hippocampus of the young adult mice. Here we report that there are oscillatory dynamics in OPC proliferation that differ from neurogenesis in the subgranular zone (SGZ; the former showed S-phase and M-phase peaks in the resting and active periods, respectively, while the latter only exhibited M-phase peak in the active period. There is coincidence between different modes of proliferation and expression of cyclin proteins that are crucial for cell cycle; cyclin D1 is expressed in OPCs, while cyclin D2 is observed in neural stem cells. Similar to neurogenesis, the proliferation of hippocampal OPCs was enhanced by voluntary exercise that leads to an increase in neuronal activity in the hippocampus. These data suggest an intriguing control of OPC proliferation in the hippocampus.

  6. Regulation of proximal tubular cell differentiation and proliferation in primary culture by matrix stiffness and ECM components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wan-Chun; Lin, Hsi-Hui; Tang, Ming-Jer

    2014-09-15

    To explore whether matrix stiffness affects cell differentiation, proliferation, and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in primary cultures of mouse proximal tubular epithelial cells (mPTECs), we used a soft matrix made from monomeric collagen type I-coated polyacrylamide gel or matrigel (MG). Both kinds of soft matrix benefited primary mPTECs to retain tubular-like morphology with differentiation and growth arrest and to evade TGF-β1-induced EMT. However, the potent effect of MG on mPTEC differentiation was suppressed by glutaraldehyde-induced cross-linking and subsequently stiffening MG or by an increasing ratio of collagen in the soft mixed gel. Culture media supplemented with MG also helped mPTECs to retain tubular-like morphology and a differentiated phenotype on stiff culture dishes as soft MG did. We further found that the protein level and activity of ERK were scaled with the matrix stiffness. U-0126, a MEK inhibitor, abolished the stiff matrix-induced dedifferentiation and proliferation. These data suggest that the ERK signaling pathway plays a vital role in matrix stiffness-regulated cell growth and differentiation. Taken together, both compliant property and specific MG signals from the matrix are required for the regulation of epithelial differentiation and proliferation. This study provides a basic understanding of how physical and chemical cues derived from the extracellular matrix regulate the physiological function of proximal tubules and the pathological development of renal fibrosis.

  7. FGF-2 signal promotes proliferation of cerebellar progenitor cells and their oligodendrocytic differentiation at early postnatal stage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naruse, Masae; Shibasaki, Koji; Ishizaki, Yasuki, E-mail: yasukiishizaki@gunma-u.ac.jp

    2015-08-07

    The origins and developmental regulation of cerebellar oligodendrocytes are largely unknown, although some hypotheses of embryonic origins have been suggested. Neural stem cells exist in the white matter of postnatal cerebellum, but it is unclear whether these neural stem cells generate oligodendrocytes at postnatal stages. We previously showed that cerebellar progenitor cells, including neural stem cells, widely express CD44 at around postnatal day 3. In the present study, we showed that CD44-positive cells prepared from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum gave rise to neurospheres, while CD44-negative cells prepared from the same cerebellum did not. These neurospheres differentiated mainly into oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, suggesting that CD44-positive neural stem/progenitor cells might generate oligodendrocytes in postnatal cerebellum. We cultured CD44-positive cells from the postnatal day 3 cerebellum in the presence of signaling molecules known as mitogens or inductive differentiation factors for oligodendrocyte progenitor cells. Of these, only FGF-2 promoted survival and proliferation of CD44-positive cells, and these cells differentiated into O4+ oligodendrocytes. Furthermore, we examined the effect of FGF-2 on cerebellar oligodendrocyte development ex vivo. FGF-2 enhanced proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells and increased the number of O4+ and CC1+ oligodendrocytes in slice cultures. These results suggest that CD44-positive cells might be a source of cerebellar oligodendrocytes and that FGF-2 plays important roles in their development at an early postnatal stage. - Highlights: • CD44 is expressed in cerebellar neural stem/progenitor cells at postnatal day 3 (P3). • FGF-2 promoted proliferation of CD44-positive progenitor cells from P3 cerebellum. • FGF-2 promoted oligodendrocytic differentiation of CD44-positive progenitor cells. • FGF-2 increased the number of oligodendrocytes in P3 cerebellar slice culture.

  8. Retinoic acid promotes the proliferation of primordial germ cell-like cells differentiated from mouse skin-derived stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hui; Wang, Jun-Jie; Cheng, Shun-Feng; Ge, Wei; Sun, Yuan-Chao; Sun, Xiao-Feng; Sun, Rui; Li, Lan; Li, Bo; Shen, Wei

    2016-02-01

    Skin-derived stem cells (SDSCs) have the potential to differentiate into gametes and are a potential resource for research and clinical applications. Sufficient amount of primordial germ cells (PGCs) is an important requirement for successful differentiation of SDSCs into gametes in vitro. Retinoic acid (RA), a vitamin A-derived small lipophilic molecule, promotes the growth of PGCs in vivo; however, the role of RA on the proliferation of PGC-like cells (PGCLCs) derived from SDSCs remains unknown. In this study, SDSCs were induced to differentiate into the embryoid body and cocultured with mouse fibroblasts to form PGCLCs. The proliferation of PGCLCs with the presence of various concentrations of RA was investigated in vitro. Immunofluorescence labeling showed that the 5-Bromo-2-deoxyUridine-positive ratio of PGCLCs was increased after the cells were treated with 5-μM RA, and flow cytometry results showed that the number of cells in the S phase was increased significantly. The messenger RNA expression levels of cell cycle-related genes, CCND1 and CDK2, were also increased. Furthermore, RA effectively promoted the external proliferation of endogenous PGCs when 11.5-days postcoitum fetal mouse genital ridges were cultured in vitro. In conclusion, 5-μM RA promoted the proliferation of SDSCs-derived PGCLCs and endogenous PGCs. Our study will provide a valuable model system for studying the differentiation of stem cells into gametes in vitro.

  9. Morphology, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells cultured on titanium, tantalum, and chromium surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stiehler, Maik; Lind, M.; Mygind, Tina;

    2007-01-01

    the interactions between human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and smooth surfaces of titanium (Ti), tantalum (Ta), and chromium (Cr). Mean cellular area was quantified using fluorescence microscopy (4 h). Cellular proliferation was assessed by (3)H-thymidine incorporation and methylene blue cell counting assays (4...

  10. Effect of Yiguanjian decoction on cell differentiation and proliferation in CCl4-treated mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ling Wang; Dong-Wei Jia; Hui-Yang Liu; Xiao-Feng Yan; Ting-Jie Ye; Xu-Dong Hu; Bo-Qin Li

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the cellular mechanisms of action of Yiguanjian (YGJ) decoction in treatment of chronic hepatic injury.METHODS:One group of mice was irradiated,and received enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-positive bone marrow transplants followed by 13 wk of CCl4 injection and 6 wk of oral YGJ administration.A second group of Institute for Cancer Research mice was treated with 13 wk of CCl4 injection and 6 wk of oral YGJ administration.Liver function,histological changes in the liver,and Hyp content were analyzed.The expression of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA),F4/80,albumin (Alb),EGFP,mitogen-activated protein kinase-2 (PKM2),Ki-67,α fetoprotein (AFP),monocyte chemotaxis protein-1 and CC chemokine receptor 2 were assayed.RESULTS:As hepatic damage progressed,EGFP-positive marrow cells migrated into the liver and were mainly distributed along the fibrous septa.They showed a conspicuous coexpression of EGFP with α-SMA and F4/80 but no coexpression with AIb.Moreover,the expression of PKM2,AFP and Ki-67 was enhanced dynamically and steadily over the course of liver injury.YGJ abrogated the increases in the number of bone marrow-derived fibrogenic cells in the liver,inhibited expression of both progenitor and mature hepatocyte markers,and reduced fibrogenesis.CONCLUSION:YGJ decoction improves liver fibrosis by inhibiting the migration of bone marrow cells into the liver as well as inhibiting their differentiation and suppressing the proliferation of both progenitors and hepatocytes in the injured liver.

  11. Cell proliferation dynamics and morphological differentiation during regeneration in Dorvillea bermudensis (Polychaeta, Dorvilleidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, Tanja; Müller, Monika C M

    2006-04-01

    Although some species of Annelida have an enormous capacity to regenerate, it is not yet known whether reestablishment of lost body parts is performed by stem cells, depends on preceding dedifferentiation of somatic cells, or is a combination of both. In order to clarify how, in the case of epimorphic regeneration, the blastemas are formed, we applied the thymidine analog 5'-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) in the dorvilleid polychaete Dorvillea bermudensis to identify cells in the S-phase of the cell cycle. Regeneration pulse-chase experiments were carried out to determine onset and dynamics of the proliferation process, and BrdU pulse-chase experiments were undertaken to follow cell fate. We found irregularly distributed S-phase cells throughout the body of adult specimens. Subsequent to amputation, these cells do not migrate from the amputee towards the wound site, where proliferation activity was documented no earlier than 16 h after fragmentation. In the initial phase, the proliferation rate at the anterior end exceeds the rate at the posterior end. Observance of identity could be demonstrated for the ectoderm and can be assumed for the two other germ layers. The anterior blastema transforms into the head, while the posterior forms the pygidium and persists as a proliferation zone; four or numerous segments are formed by intercalation between the former anterior or posterior blastema and the amputee.

  12. The biologic properties of recombinant human thrombopoietin in the proliferation and megakaryocytic differentiation of acute myeloblastic leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, I; Kanakura, Y; Kato, T; Ikeda, H; Horikawa, Y; Ishikawa, J; Kitayama, H; Nishiura, T; Tomiyama, Y; Miyazaki, H; Matsuzawa, Y

    1996-10-15

    Thrombopoietin (TPO) is implicated as a primary regulator of megakaryopoiesis and thrombopoiesis. However, the biologic effects of TPO on human acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) cells are largely unknown. To determine if recombinant human (rh) TPO has proliferation-supporting and differentiation-inducing activities in AML cells, 15 cases of AML cells that were exclusively composed of undifferentiated leukemia cells and showed growth response to rhTPO in a short-term culture (72 hours) were subjected to long-term suspension culture with or without rhTPO. Of 15 cases, rhTPO supported proliferation of AML cells for 2 to 4 weeks in 4 cases whose French-American-British subtypes were M0, M2, M4, and M7, respectively. In addition to the proliferation-supporting activity, rhTPO was found to induce AML cells to progress to some degree of megakaryocytic differentiation at both morphologic and surface-phenotypic level in 2 AML cases with M0 and M7 subtypes. The treatment of AML cells with rhTPO resulted in rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of the TPO-receptor, c-mpl, and STAT3 in all of cases tested. By contrast, the expression of erythroid/megakaryocyte-specific transcription factors (GATA-1, GATA-2, and NF-E2) was markedly induced or enhanced in only 2 AML cases that showed megakaryocytic differentiation in response to rhTPO. These results suggested that, at least in a fraction of AML cases, TPO could not only support the proliferation of AML cells irrespective of AML subtypes, but could also induce megakaryocytic differentiation, possibly through activation of GATA-1, GATA-2, and NF-E2.

  13. 14-3-3{sigma} controls corneal epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation through the Notch signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xin, Ying [Stem Cell Institute, James Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Lu, Qingxian [Tumor Immunobiology Group, James Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Li, Qiutang, E-mail: q.li@louisville.edu [Stem Cell Institute, James Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences, University of Louisville School of Medicine, 301 E. Muhammad Ali Blvd., Louisville, KY 40202 (United States)

    2010-02-19

    14-3-3{sigma} (also called stratifin) is specifically expressed in the stratified squamous epithelium and its function was recently shown to be linked to epidermal stratification and differentiation in the skin. In this study, we investigated its role in corneal epithelium cell proliferation and differentiation. We showed that the 14-3-3{sigma} mutation in repeated epilation (Er) mutant mice results in a dominant negative truncated protein. Primary corneal epithelial cells expressing the dominant negative protein failed to undergo high calcium-induced cell cycle arrest and differentiation. We further demonstrated that blocking endogenous 14-3-3{sigma} activity in corneal epithelial cells by overexpressing dominative negative 14-3-3{sigma} led to reduced Notch activity and Notch1/2 transcription. Significantly, expression of the active Notch intracellular domain overcame the block in epithelial cell differentiation in 14-3-3{sigma} mutant-expressing corneal epithelial cells. We conclude that 14-3-3{sigma} is critical for regulating corneal epithelial proliferation and differentiation by regulating Notch signaling activity.

  14. Proliferation and Differentiation of Rat Osteoporosis Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) after Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (TERT) Transfection

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Chao; Wei, Guojun; Gu, Qun; Wang, Qiang; Tao, Shuqin; Liang XU

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine whether MSC are excellent materials for MSCs transplantation in the treatment of osteoporosis. Material/Methods We studied normal, osteoporosis, and TERT-transfected MSC from normal and osteoporosis rats to compare the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation using RT-PCR and Western blot by constructing an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis (OVX). The primary MSC from model rats were extracted and cultured to evaluate the proliferat...

  15. Prox1 Inhibits Proliferation and Is Required for Differentiation of the Oligodendrocyte Cell Lineage in the Mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kato

    Full Text Available Central nervous system injury induces a regenerative response in ensheathing glial cells comprising cell proliferation, spontaneous axonal remyelination, and limited functional recovery, but the molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In Drosophila, this involves the genes prospero and Notch controlling the balance between glial proliferation and differentiation, and manipulating their levels in glia can switch the response to injury from prevention to promotion of repair. In the mouse, Notch1 maintains NG2 oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs in a progenitor state, but what factor may enable oligodendrocyte (OL differentiation and functional remyelination is not understood. Here, we asked whether the mammalian homologue of prospero, Prox1, is involved. Our data show that Prox1 is distributed in NG2+ OPCs and in OLs in primary cultured cells, and in the mouse spinal cord in vivo. siRNA prox1 knockdown in primary OPCs increased cell proliferation, increased NG2+ OPC cell number and decreased CC1+ OL number. Prox1 conditional knockout in the OL cell lineage in mice increased NG2+ OPC cell number, and decreased CC1+ OL number. Lysolecithin-induced demyelination injury caused a reduction in CC1+ OLs in homozygous Prox1-/- conditional knockout mice compared to controls. Remarkably, Prox1-/- conditional knockout mice had smaller lesions than controls. Altogether, these data show that Prox1 is required to inhibit OPC proliferation and for OL differentiation, and could be a relevant component of the regenerative glial response. Therapeutic uses of glia and stem cells to promote regeneration and repair after central nervous system injury would benefit from manipulating Prox1.

  16. Effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on proliferation, differentiation and migration in equine mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Maike; Raabe, Oksana; Addicks, Klaus; Wenisch, Sabine; Arnhold, Stefan

    2011-03-01

    In equine medicine, stem cell therapies for orthopaedic diseases are routinely accompanied by application of NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs). Thus, it has to be analysed how NSAIDs actually affect the growth and differentiation potential of MSCs (mesenchymal stem cells) in vitro in order to predict the influence of NSAIDs such as phenylbutazone, meloxicam, celecoxib and flunixin on MSCs after grafting in vivo. The effects of NSAIDs were evaluated regarding cell viability and proliferation. Additionally, the multilineage differentiation capacity and cell migration was analysed. NSAIDs at lower concentrations (0.1-1 μM for celecoxib and meloxicam and 10-50 μM for flunixin) exert a positive effect on cell proliferation and migration, while at higher concentrations (10-200 μM for celecoxib and meloxicam and 100-1000 μM for flunixin and phenylbutazone), there is rather a negative influence. While there is hardly any influence on the adipogenic as well as on the chondrogenic MSC differentiation, the osteogenic differentiation potential, as demonstrated with the von Kossa staining, is significantly disturbed. Thus, it can be concluded that the effects of NSAIDs on MSCs are largely dependent on the concentrations used. Additionally, for some differentiation lineages, also the choice of NSAID is critical.

  17. Tumour necrosis factor-alpha impairs neuronal differentiation but not proliferation of hippocampal neural precursor cells: Role of Hes1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keohane, Aoife; Ryan, Sinead; Maloney, Eimer; Sullivan, Aideen M; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2010-01-01

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine, which influences neuronal survival and function yet there is limited information available on its effects on hippocampal neural precursor cells (NPCs). We show that TNFalpha treatment during proliferation had no effect on the percentage of proliferating cells prepared from embryonic rat hippocampal neurosphere cultures, nor did it affect cell fate towards either an astrocytic or neuronal lineage when cells were then allowed to differentiate. However, when cells were differentiated in the presence of TNFalpha, significantly reduced percentages of newly born and post-mitotic neurons, significantly increased percentages of astrocytes and increased expression of TNFalpha receptors, TNF-R1 and TNF-R2, as well as expression of the anti-neurogenic Hes1 gene, were observed. These data indicate that exposure of hippocampal NPCs to TNFalpha when they are undergoing differentiation but not proliferation has a detrimental effect on their neuronal lineage fate, which may be mediated through increased expression of Hes1.

  18. Identification of a novel microRNA that regulates the proliferation and differentiation in muscle side population cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motohashi, Norio; Alexander, Matthew S; Casar, Juan Carlos; Kunkel, Louis M

    2012-11-01

    Muscle satellite cells are largely responsible for skeletal muscle regeneration following injury. Side population (SP) cells, which are thought to be muscle stem cells, also contribute to muscle regeneration. SP cells exhibit high mesenchymal potential, and are a possible cell source for therapy of muscular dystrophy. However, the mechanism by which muscle SP cells are committed to differentiation is poorly understood. microRNAs (miRNAs) play key roles in modulating a variety of cellular processes through repression of their mRNA targets. In skeletal muscle, miRNAs are known to be involved in myoblast proliferation and differentiation. To investigate mechanisms of SP cell regulation, we profiled miRNA expression in SP cells and main population (MP) cells in muscles using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction-based expression assays. We identified a set of miRNAs that was highly expressed in SP cells as compared with MP cells. One miRNA, miR-128a, was elevated in expression in SP cells, but decreased in expression during continued culture in vitro. Overexpression of miR-128a in SP cells resulted in inhibited cell proliferation. The differentiation potential of SP cells was also decreased when miR-128a was overexpressed. MiR-128a was found to regulate the target genes involved in the regulation of adipogenic-, osteogenic- and myogenic genes that include: PPARγ, Runx1, and Pax3. Overexpression of miR-128a suppressed the activity of a luciferase reporter fused to the 3'-untranslated region of each gene. These results demonstrate that miR-128a contributes to the maintenance of the quiescent state, and it regulates cellular differentiation by repressing individual genes in SP cells.

  19. The Use Of Laser Irradiation To Stimulate Adipose Derived Stem Cell Proliferation And Differentiation For Use In Autologous Grafts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamse, Heidi

    2009-09-01

    Stem cells are characterized by the qualities of self-renewal, long term viability, and the ability to differentiate into various cell types. Historically, stem cells have been isolated from the inner cell mass of blastocysts and harvesting these cells resulted in the death of the embryo leading to religious, political and ethical issues. The identification and subsequent isolation of adult stem cells from bone marrow stroma have been welcomed as an alternate source for stem cells. The clinical use of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) presented problems such as limited cell number, pain and morbidity upon isolation. Adipose tissue is derived from the mesenchyme, is easily isolated, a reliable source of stem cells and able to differentiate into different cell types including smooth muscle. Over the past few years, the identification and characterization of stem cells has led the potential use of these cells as a promising alternative to cell replacement therapy. Smooth muscle is a major component of human tissues and is essential for the normal functioning of many different organs. Low intensity laser irradiation has been shown to increase viability, protein expression and migration of stem cells in vitro, and to stimulate proliferation of various types of stem cells. In addition, the use of laser irradiation to stimulate differentiation in the absence of growth factors has also been demonstrated in normal human neural progenitor cells (NHNPCs) in vitro where NHNPCs are not only capable of being sustained by light in the absence of growth factors, but that they are also able to differentiate normally as assessed by neurite formation. Our work has focused on the ability of laser irradiation to proliferate adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs), maintain ADSC character and increase the rate and maintenance of differentiation of ADSCs into smooth muscle and skin fibroblast cells. Current studies are also investigating the effect of different irradiation wavelengths and

  20. Differential effects of esculetin and daphnetin on in vitro cell proliferation and in vivo estrogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Orozco, Fausto Alejandro; Rosales, Ana Alejandra Román; Vega-López, Armando; Domínguez-López, Maria Lilia; García-Mondragón, Ma Juana; Maldonado-Espinoza, Amelia; Lemini, Cristina; Mendoza-Patiño, Nicandro; Mandoki, Juan José

    2011-10-01

    Esculetin (6,7-dihydroxycoumarin) and daphnetin (7,8-dihydroxycoumarin) are secondary metabolites of plants used in folk medicine. These compounds have showed great antiproliferative activity in several tumor cell lines and have been proposed as potential anticancer agents. However, the estrogenic potential of these two compounds has to date not been reported. The present study compared esculetin and daphnetin on the inhibition of cell proliferation and cell cycle progression of the MCF-7 estrogen-responsive human carcinoma cell line. In vivo and in vitro estrogenic activity for both compounds was also evaluated. Esculetin inhibited cell proliferation after 72 h exposure (IC50=193 ± 6.6 μM), while daphnetin evidenced inhibiting effects starting at 24-h exposure (72 h, IC50=73 ± 4.1 μM). Both effects showed changes in cyclin D1 gene expression. In non-estrogenic conditions (E-screening assay), esculetin produced biphasic response on proliferation of the MCF-7 cells; at 10(-8)-10(-6)M, concentrations induced proliferative effects as EC50=4.07 × 10(-9)M (E(2)=2.91 × 10(-12)M); at higher concentrations (10(-5)-10(-4)M), cell proliferation was inhibited. Relative proliferative effect at E(2) was 52% (E(2)=100), relative proliferative potency was 0.072 (E(2)=100). Additionally, esculetin tested in vivo showed estrogenic effects at 50-100mg/kg doses; relative uterotrophic effect at E(2) was 37%, with relative uterotrophic potency registered at 0.003. In contrast, daphnetin did not induce estrogenic effects in vitro or with in vivo models. The low estrogenic activity of esculetin could prove useful in postmenopausal therapy but not as a safe antitumor agent in estrogen-dependent tumors. Daphnetin-based antiproliferative selectivity with MCF-7 cells showed that daphnetin is a promising antitumoral agent also acting on estrogen dependent tumors.

  1. Modulation of Mouse Embryonic Stem Cell Proliferation and Neural Differentiation by the P2X7 Receptor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Talita; de Oliveira, Sophia La Banca; Cheffer, Arquimedes; Beco, Renata; Martins, Patrícia; Fornazari, Maynara; Lameu, Claudiana; Junior, Helio Miranda Costa; Coutinho-Silva, Robson; Ulrich, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Background Novel developmental functions have been attributed to the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) including proliferation stimulation and neural differentiation. Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC), induced with retinoic acid to neural differentiation, closely assemble processes occurring during neuroectodermal development of the early embryo. Principal Findings P2X7R expression together with the pluripotency marker Oct-4 was highest in undifferentiated ESC. In undifferentiated cells, the P2X7R agonist Bz-ATP accelerated cell cycle entry, which was blocked by the specific P2X7R inhibitor KN-62. ESC induced to neural differentiation with retinoic acid, reduced Oct-4 and P2X7R expression. P2X7R receptor-promoted intracellular calcium fluxes were obtained at lower Bz-ATP ligand concentrations in undifferentiated and in neural-differentiated cells compared to other studies. The presence of KN-62 led to increased number of cells expressing SSEA-1, Dcx and β3-tubulin, as well as the number of SSEA-1 and β3-tubulin-double-positive cells confirming that onset of neuroectodermal differentiation and neuronal fate determination depends on suppression of P2X7R activity. Moreover, an increase in the number of Ki-67 positive cells in conditions of P2X7R inhibition indicates rescue of progenitors into the cell cycle, augmenting the number of neuroblasts and consequently neurogenesis. Conclusions In embryonic cells, P2X7R expression and activity is upregulated, maintaining proliferation, while upon induction to neural differentiation P2X7 receptor expression and activity needs to be suppressed. PMID:24798220

  2. Modulation of mouse embryonic stem cell proliferation and neural differentiation by the P2X7 receptor.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Glaser

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Novel developmental functions have been attributed to the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R including proliferation stimulation and neural differentiation. Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC, induced with retinoic acid to neural differentiation, closely assemble processes occurring during neuroectodermal development of the early embryo. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: P2X7R expression together with the pluripotency marker Oct-4 was highest in undifferentiated ESC. In undifferentiated cells, the P2X7R agonist Bz-ATP accelerated cell cycle entry, which was blocked by the specific P2X7R inhibitor KN-62. ESC induced to neural differentiation with retinoic acid, reduced Oct-4 and P2X7R expression. P2X7R receptor-promoted intracellular calcium fluxes were obtained at lower Bz-ATP ligand concentrations in undifferentiated and in neural-differentiated cells compared to other studies. The presence of KN-62 led to increased number of cells expressing SSEA-1, Dcx and β3-tubulin, as well as the number of SSEA-1 and β3-tubulin-double-positive cells confirming that onset of neuroectodermal differentiation and neuronal fate determination depends on suppression of P2X7R activity. Moreover, an increase in the number of Ki-67 positive cells in conditions of P2X7R inhibition indicates rescue of progenitors into the cell cycle, augmenting the number of neuroblasts and consequently neurogenesis. CONCLUSIONS: In embryonic cells, P2X7R expression and activity is upregulated, maintaining proliferation, while upon induction to neural differentiation P2X7 receptor expression and activity needs to be suppressed.

  3. Effect of the chemical composition of Ricinus communis polyurethane on rat bone marrow cell attachment, proliferation, and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloti, Márcio M; Hiraki, Karen R N; Barros, Valdemar M R; Rosa, Adalberto L

    2003-01-01

    Alterations in the chemical composition of a polymer may be undertaken to improve its biological properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro biocompatibility of Ricinus communis polyurethane (RCP) with three different chemical compositions: RCPp (pure RCP), RCP+CaCO(3), and RCP+Ca(3)(PO(4))(2). Rat bone marrow cells were cultivated under conditions that allowed osteoblastic differentiation and were evaluated for cell attachment, cell proliferation, cell morphology, total protein content, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and bonelike nodule formation. For the evaluation of attachment, cells were cultured for 4 h. After 3 days, cell morphology was evaluated. Cell proliferation was evaluated after 7 and 14 days. Total protein content and ALP activity were evaluated after 14 days. For bonelike nodule formation, cells were cultured for 21 days. Data were compared with an analysis of variance and Duncan's multiple range test when appropriate. Cell attachment and ALP activity were not affected by RCP chemical composition. Proliferation, total protein content, and bonelike nodule formation were all affected by RCP chemical composition. These results suggest that initial cell events are not affected by RCP chemical composition, whereas RCPs blended with calcium carbonate or, better yet, calcium phosphate, by favoring events that promote matrix mineralization, are more biocompatible materials.

  4. The role of Zic family zinc finger transcription factors in the proliferation and differentiation of retinal progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watabe, Yui [Division of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo (Japan); Department of Ophthalmology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Division of Orthoptics, Teikyo University School of Medical Care and Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Baba, Yukihiro [Division of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo (Japan); Nakauchi, Hiromitsu [Division of Stem Cell Therapy, Center for Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo (Japan); Mizota, Atsushi [Department of Ophthalmology, Teikyo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Watanabe, Sumiko, E-mail: sumiko@ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Division of Molecular and Developmental Biology, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-11-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zic transcription factors expressed early retinal progenitor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zics sustain proliferation activity of retinal progenitor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Overexpression of Zic in retinal progenitors perturbed rod differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fate determination to rod photoreceptor was not affected. -- Abstract: Members of the Zic family of zinc finger transcription factors play critical roles in a variety of developmental processes. Using DNA microarray analysis, we found that Zics are strongly expressed in SSEA-1-positive early retinal progenitors in the peripheral region of the mouse retina. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction using mRNA from the retina at various developmental stages showed that Zic1 and Zic2 are expressed in the embryonic retina and then gradually disappear during retinal development. Zic3 is also expressed in the embryonic retina; its expression level slightly decreases but it is expressed until adulthood. We overexpressed Zic1, Zic2, or Zic3 in retinal progenitors at embryonic day 17.5 and cultured the retina as explants for 2 weeks. The number of rod photoreceptors was fewer than in the control, but no other cell types showed significant differences between control and Zic overexpressing cells. The proliferation activity of normal retinal progenitors decreased after 5 days in culture, as observed in normal in vivo developmental processes. However, Zic expressing retinal cells continued to proliferate at days 5 and 7, suggesting that Zics sustain the proliferation activities of retinal progenitor cells. Since the effects of Zic1, 2, and 3 are indistinguishable in terms of differentiation and proliferation of retinal progenitors, the redundant function of Zics in retinal development is suggested.

  5. Nuclear Factor I-C promotes proliferation and differentiation of apical papilla-derived human stem cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Stomatologic Hospital & College, Anhui Medical University, Key Lab of Oral Diseases Research of Anhui Province, Hefei (China); Wang, Zhihua; Jiang, Yong [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Niu, Zhongying [Treatment center of oral diseases, The 306th Hospital of People' s Liberation Army, Beijing (China); Fu, Lei; Luo, Zhirong [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China); Cooper, Paul R.; Smith, Anthony J. [Oral Biology, School of Dentistry, University of Birmingham, B4 6NN (United Kingdom); He, Wenxi, E-mail: hewenxi@fmmu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Operative Dentistry & Endodontics, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an (China)

    2015-03-15

    The transcription factor Nuclear Factor I-C (NFIC) has been implicated in the regulation of tooth root development, where it may be anticipated to impact on the behavior of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) and root odontoblast activity. We hypothesized that NFIC may provide an important target for promoting dentin/root regeneration. In the present study, the effects of NFIC on the proliferation and differentiation of SCAPs were investigated. Over-expression of NFIC increased cell proliferation, mineralization nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in SCAPs. Furthermore, NFIC up-regulated the mRNA levels of odontogenic-related markers, ALP, osteocalcin and collagen type I as well as dentin sialoprotein protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of NFIC by si-RNA inhibited the mineralization capacity of SCAPs and down-regulated the expression of odontogenic-related markers. In conclusion, the results indicated that upregulation of NFIC activity in SCAPs may promote osteo/odontoblastic differentiation of SCAPs. - Highlights: • NFIC promotes the proliferation of SCAPs in vitro. • NFIC promotes osteo/odontogenic differentiation of SCAPs in vitro. • Knockdown of NFIC inhibits odontogenic differentiation in SCAPs.

  6. Wnt3a signaling promotes proliferation,myogenic differentiation,and migration of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-chang SHANG; Shu-hui WANG; Fu XIONG; Cui-ping ZHAO; Fu-ning PENG; Shan-wei FENG; Mei-shan LI; Yong LI; Cheng ZHANG

    2007-01-01

    Aim:To investigate the effects of the wingless-related MMTV integration site 3A (Wnt3a) signaling on the proliferation,migration,and the myogenic and adipogenic differentiation of rat bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (rMSC). Methods:Primary MSC were isolated and cultured from Spragne-Dawley rats and characterized by flow cytometry. Mouse L cells were transfected with Wnt3a cDNA,and conditioned media containing active Wnt3a proteins were prepared. Cell proliferation was evaluated by cell count and 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assay.The migration of rMSC was performed by using a transwell migration and wound healing assay. The myogenic and adipogenic differentiation in rMSC were examined by light microscopy,immunofluorescence,and RT-PCR at different time points after myogenic or adipogenic introduction. Results:Wnt3a signaling induced β-catenin nuclear translocation and activated the Writ pathway in rMSC.In the presence of Wnt3a,rMSC proliferated more rapidly than the control cells,keeping their differentiation potential. Moreover,Wnt3a signaling induced 2.62%and 3.76% of rMSC-expressed desmin and myosin heavy chain after being cultured in myogenic medium. The myogenic differentiation genes,including Pax7,MyoD,Myf5,Myf4,and myogenin,were activated after Wnt3a treatment. On the other hand,Wnt3a inhibited the adipogenic differentiation in rMSC through the downregulated expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPalpha)and peroxisome proliferator-activaled receptor gamma (PPARgamma). Furthermore,Wnt3a promoted the migration capacity of rMSC. Conclusion:The results indicate that Wnt3a signaling can induce myogenic differentiation in rMSC. Wnt3a signaling is also involved in the regulation of the proliferation and migration of rMSC. These results could provide a rational foundation for cell-based tissue repair in humans.

  7. PROPERTIES OF PROLIFERATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF NEONATAL RAT RETINAL PROGENITOR CELLS IN VITRO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Neural stem or progenitor cells are i mmature,multipotent cells that have the capacityto differenti-ate into the three CNSlineages(neurons,astrocytesand oligodendrocytes)[1].Neuronal degeneration isthe cause of visual i mpair ment associated with prev-alent ocular diseases such as retinitis pigmentosa,age-related macular degeneration,retinal detach-ment and glaucoma[2].Transplantation of culturedneural stemcells/progenitors may helprestore visionby repopulating the damaged retina and replacingthe degenerati...

  8. Overexpression of TGF-β1 enhances chondrogenic differentiation and proliferation of human synovium-derived stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Il; Ryu, Jae-Sung; Yeo, Jee Eun; Choi, Yun Jin; Kim, Yong Sang [Center for Stem Cell and Arthritis Research, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Yonsei Sarang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Kinarm [Center for Stem Cell Research, Institute of Advanced Biomedical Science, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Yong-Gon, E-mail: yonseranglab@daum.net [Center for Stem Cell and Arthritis Research, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Yonsei Sarang Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-08-08

    Highlights: • Continuous TGF-β1 overexpression in hSD-MSCs did not influence their phenotypes. • Retroviral-mediated transduction of TGFB1 in hSD-MSCs enhances cell proliferation. • TGF-β1 overexpression did not effect to adipo- or osteogenic potential of hSD-MSCs. • TGF-β1 overexpression in hSD-MSCs could stimulate and accelerate chondrogenesis. - Abstract: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily proteins play a critical role in proliferation, differentiation, and other functions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). During chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs, TGF-β up-regulates chondrogenic gene expression by enhancing the expression of the transcription factor SRY (sex-determining region Y)-box9 (Sox9). In this study, we investigated the effect of continuous TGF-β1 overexpression in human synovium-derived MSCs (hSD-MSCs) on immunophenotype, differentiation potential, and proliferation rate. hSD-MSCs were transduced with recombinant retroviruses (rRV) encoding TGF-β1. The results revealed that continuous overexpression of TGF-β1 did not affect their phenotype as evidenced by flow cytometry and reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR). In addition, continuous TGF-β1 overexpression strongly enhanced cell proliferation of hSD-MSCs compared to the control groups. Also, induction of chondrogenesis was more effective in rRV-TGFB-transduced hSD-MSCs as shown by RT-PCR for chondrogenic markers, toluidine blue staining and glycosaminoglycan (GAG)/DNA ratio. Our data suggest that overexpression of TGF-β1 positively enhances the proliferation and chondrogenic potential of hSD-MSCs.

  9. Beneficial effects of BV2 cell on proliferation and neuron-differentiating of mesenchymal stem cells in the circumstance of injured PC12 cell supernatant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Guang LUO; Hong WANG; Jin ZHOU; Rong YAN; Zhe WU; Chao-Dong ZHANG; Qiu-Shuang WANG

    2006-01-01

    Objective The microglias is the representative of immune cells in the brain. It plays dual roles of both repairing and damaging in injured nervous system, and works as an inevitable component of the circumstance of injured neurons. This study was aiming at the effects of the microglias on the biological activities of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) inthe circumstance of injured neurons. Methods MSCs were obtained by primary culture. We adopted PC12 cells (PC12) and BV2 cells (BV2) to substitute for neurons and microglias, respectively. PC12 were injured by aged Aβ1-40 and the supernatant of the injured PC12 was used to set up the circumstance of injured neurons. Transwells were used for co-culture of BV2 and MSCs, which allowed the independent detection of cells after co-culture. Immunofluorescence was used to identify MSCs and neuron-differentiating cells with CD44 and neuron specific enolase (NSE) staining, respectively. MTT assay was adopted to measure the proliferation. Results In the circumstance of both BV2 presence and injured PC12 supernatant incubation, either the proliferation or the differentiation of MSCs reached the highest, which seemed to be contradictory, but we gave our explanations. With the BV2 co-culture, the proliferation of MSCs tend to be higher, but the neuron-differentiating MSCs were similar to those incubated without BV2 co-culture either in normal or injured in PC12 supernatant. With the incubation of injured PC12 supernatant, the neuron-differentiating cells were significantly higher than that of control (P < 0.05). Conclusion In the circumstance of injured neurons, microlgias tend to promote the MSCs proliferation. Although not helpful in neuron-differentiating, microglias did not exert any negative effect either.

  10. MiRNA-125a-5p inhibits glioblastoma cell proliferation and promotes cell differentiation by targeting TAZ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Jian; Xiao, Gelei [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Peng, Gang [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Liu, Dingyang [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Wang, Zeyou [Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Liao, Yiwei; Liu, Qing [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Wu, Minghua [The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Cancer Research Institute, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); Yuan, Xianrui, E-mail: xry69@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China); The Institute of Skull Base Surgery & Neuro-oncology at Hunan, Changsha, Hunan 410008 (China)

    2015-02-06

    Highlights: • Expression of miR-125a-5p is inversely correlated with that of TAZ in glioma cells. • MiR-125a-5p represses TAZ expression in glioma cells. • MiR-125a-5p directly targets the 3′ UTR of TAZ mRNA and promotes its degradation. • MiR-125a-5p represses CTGF and survivin via TAZ, and inhibits glioma cell growth. • MiR-125a-5p inhibits the stem cell features of HFU-251 MG cells. - Abstract: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most lethal brain tumor due to the resistance to conventional therapies, such as radiotherapy and chemotherapy. TAZ, an important mediator of the Hippo pathway, was found to be up-regulated in diverse cancers, including in GBM, and plays important roles in tumor initiation and progression. However, little is known about the regulation of TAZ expression in tumors. In this study, we found that miR-125a-5p is an important regulator of TAZ in glioma cells by directly targeting the TAZ 3′ UTR. MiR-125a-5p levels are inversely correlated with that of TAZ in normal astrocytes and a panel of glioma cell lines. MiR-125a-5p represses the expression of TAZ target genes, including CTGF and survivin, and inhibits cell proliferation and induces the differentiation of GBM cells; whereas over-expression of TAZ rescues the effects of miR-125a-5p. This study revealed a mechanism for TAZ deregulation in glioma cells, and also demonstrated a tumor suppressor role of miR-125a-5p in glioblastoma cells.

  11. Adiponectin and AMP kinase activator stimulate proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamauchi Mika

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adiponectin is a key mediator of the metabolic syndrome that is caused by visceral fat accumulation. Adiponectin and its receptors are known to be expressed in osteoblasts, but their actions with regard to bone metabolism are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of adiponectin on the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells. Results Adiponectin receptor type 1 (AdipoR1 mRNA was detected in the cells by RT-PCR. The adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMP kinase was phosphorylated by both adiponectin and a pharmacological AMP kinase activator, 5-amino-imidazole-4-carboxamide-riboside (AICAR, in the cells. AdipoR1 small interfering RNA (siRNA transfection potently knocked down the receptor mRNA, and the effect of this knockdown persisted for as long as 10 days after the transfection. The transfected cells showed decreased expressions of type I collagen and osteocalcin mRNA, as determined by real-time PCR, and reduced ALP activity and mineralization, as determined by von Kossa and Alizarin red stainings. In contrast, AMP kinase activation by AICAR (0.01–0.5 mM in wild-type MC3T3-E1 cells augmented their proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization. BrdU assay showed that the addition of adiponectin (0.01–1.0 μg/ml also promoted their proliferation. Osterix, but not Runx-2, appeared to be involved in these processes because AdipoR1 siRNA transfection and AICAR treatments suppressed and enhanced osterix mRNA expression, respectively. Conclusion Taken together, this study suggests that adiponectin stimulates the proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of osteoblasts via the AdipoR1 and AMP kinase signaling pathways in autocrine and/or paracrine fashions.

  12. Human amnion mesenchymal stem cells promote proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuli; Yin, Ying; Jiang, Fei; Chen, Ning

    2015-02-01

    Human amnion mesenchymal stem cells (HAMSCs) can be obtained from human amniotic membrane, a highly abundant and readily available tissue. HAMSC sources present fewer ethical issues, have low immunogenicity, anti-inflammatory properties, considerable advantageous characteristics, and are considered an attractive potential treatment material in the field of regenerative medicine. We used a co-culture system to determine whether HAMSCs could promote osteogenesis in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs). We isolated HAMSCs from discarded amnion samples and collected them using pancreatin/collagenase digestion. We cultured HAMSCs and HBMSCSs in basal medium. Activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an early osteogenesis marker, was increased in the co-culture system compared to the control single cultures, which we also confirmed by ALP staining. We used immunofluorescence testing to investigate the effects of co-culturing with HAMSCs on HBMSC proliferation, which revealed that the co-culturing enhanced EdU expression in HBMSCs. Western blotting and quantitative real-time PCR indicated that co-culturing promoted osteogenesis in HBMSCs. Furthermore, Alizarin red S staining revealed that extracellular matrix calcium levels in mineralized nodule formation produced by the co-cultures were higher than that in the controls. Using the same co-culture system, we further observed the effects of HAMSCs on osteogenic differentiation in primary osteoblasts by Western blotting, which better addressed the mechanism for HAMSCs in bone regeneration. The results showed HAMSCs are osteogenic and not only play a role in promoting HBMSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation but also in osteoblasts, laying the foundation for new regenerative medicine methods.

  13. The effects of 6-gingerol on proliferation, differentiation, and maturation of osteoblast-like MG-63 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, J.Z.; Yang, X.; Bi, Z.G. [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital, Harbin Medicine University, Harbin (China)

    2015-04-28

    We investigated whether 6-gingerol affects the maturation and proliferation of osteoblast-like MG63 cells in vitro. Osteoblast-like MG63 cells were treated with 6-gingerol under control conditions, and experimental inflammation was induced by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). Expression of different osteogenic markers and cytokines was analyzed by real-time PCR, Western blotting, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activity and biomineralization as markers for differentiation were measured. Treatment with 6-gingerol resulted in insignificant effects on the proliferation rate. 6-Gingerol induced the differentiation of osteoblast-like cells with increased transcription levels of osteogenic markers, upregulated ALP enzyme activity, and enhanced mineralized nodule formation. Stimulation with TNF-α led to enhanced interleukin-6 and nuclear factor-κB expression and downregulated markers of osteoblastic differentiation. 6-Gingerol reduced the degree of inflammation in TNF-α-treated MG-63 cells. In conclusion, 6-gingerol stimulated osteoblast differentiation in normal physiological and inflammatory settings, and therefore, 6-gingerol represents a promising agent for treating osteoporosis or bone inflammation.

  14. Lin28B promotes Müller glial cell de-differentiation and proliferation in the regenerative rat retinas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zui; Zhao, Chen; Jian, Qian; Gillies, Mark; Xu, Haiwei; Yin, Zheng Qin

    2016-01-01

    Retinal regeneration and repair are severely impeded in higher mammalian animals. Although Müller cells can be activated and show some characteristics of progenitor cells when injured or under pathological conditions, they quickly form gliosis scars. Unfortunately, the basic mechanisms that impede retinal regeneration remain unknown. We studied retinas from Royal College of Surgeon (RCS) rats and found that let-7 family molecules, let-7e and let-7i, were significantly overexpressed in Müller cells of degenerative retinas. It demonstrated that down-regulation of the RNA binding protein Lin28B was one of the key factors leading to the overexpression of let-7e and let-7i. Lin28B ectopic expression in the Müller cells suppressed overexpression of let-7e and let-7i, stimulated and mobilized Müller glia de-differentiation, proliferation, promoted neuronal commitment, and inhibited glial fate acquisition of de-differentiated Müller cells. ERG recordings revealed that the amplitudes of a-wave and b-wave were improved significantly after Lin28B was delivered into the subretinal space of RCS rats. In summary, down-regulation of Lin28B as well as up-regulation of let-7e and let-7i may be the main factors that impede Müller cell de-differentiation and proliferation in the retina of RCS rats. PMID:27384999

  15. Fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) is required for corneal epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation during embryonic development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jinglin; Upadhya, Dinesh; Lu, Lin; Reneker, Lixing W

    2015-01-01

    Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) play important roles in many aspects of embryonic development. During eye development, the lens and corneal epithelium are derived from the same surface ectodermal tissue. FGF receptor (FGFR)-signaling is essential for lens cell differentiation and survival, but its role in corneal development has not been fully investigated. In this study, we examined the corneal defects in Fgfr2 conditional knockout mice in which Cre expression is activated at lens induction stage by Pax6 P0 promoter. The cornea in LeCre, Fgfr2(loxP/loxP) mice (referred as Fgfr2(CKO)) was analyzed to assess changes in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival. We found that Fgfr2(CKO) cornea was much thinner in epithelial and stromal layer when compared to WT cornea. At embryonic day 12.5-13.5 (E12.5-13.5) shortly after the lens vesicle detaches from the overlying surface ectoderm, cell proliferation (judged by labeling indices of Ki-67, BrdU and phospho-histone H3) was significantly reduced in corneal epithelium in Fgfr2(CKO) mice. At later stage, cell differentiation markers for corneal epithelium and underlying stromal mesenchyme, keratin-12 and keratocan respectively, were not expressed in Fgfr2(CKO) cornea. Furthermore, Pax6, a transcription factor essential for eye development, was not present in the Fgfr2(CKO) mutant corneal epithelial at E16.5 but was expressed normally at E12.5, suggesting that FGFR2-signaling is required for maintaining Pax6 expression in this tissue. Interestingly, the role of FGFR2 in corneal epithelial development is independent of ERK1/2-signaling. In contrast to the lens, FGFR2 is not required for cell survival in cornea. This study demonstrates for the first time that FGFR2 plays an essential role in controlling cell proliferation and differentiation, and maintaining Pax6 levels in corneal epithelium via ERK-independent pathways during embryonic development.

  16. Ethanol extract ofOenanthe javanica increases cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the adolescent rat dentate gyrus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Hui Chen; Jae Chul Lee; Eun Joo Bae; Yun Lyul Lee; Jong Dai Kim; Moo-Ho Won; Il Jun Kang; Joon Ha Park; Jeong Hwi Cho; In Hye Kim; Bich Na Shin; Ji Hyeon Ahn; Seok Joon Hwang; Bing Chun Yan; Hyun Jin Tae

    2015-01-01

    Oenanthe javanica is an aquatic perennial herb that belongs to theOenanthe genus in Apiaceae family, and it displays well-known medicinal properties such as protective effects against glu-tamate-induced neurotoxicity. However, few studies regarding effects ofOenanthe javanica on neurogenesis in the brain have been reported. In this study, we examined the effects of a normal diet and a diet containing ethanol extract ofOenanthe javanica on cell proliferation and neu-roblast differentiation in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adolescent rats using Ki-67 (an endogenous marker for cell proliferation) and doublecortin (a marker for neuroblast). Our results showed thatOenanthe javanica extract signiifcantly increased the number of Ki-67-immunoreactive cells and doublecortin-immunoreactive neuroblasts in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the adolescent rats. In addition, the immunoreactivity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was signiifcantly increased in the dentate gyrus of theOe-nanthe javanica extract-treated group compared with the control group. However, we did not ifnd that vascular endothelial growth factor expression was increased in theOenanthe javanica extract-treated group compared with the control group. These results indicate thatOenanthe javanica extract improves cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation by increasing brain-de-rived neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity in the rat dentate gyrus.

  17. Ethanol extract of Oenanthe javanica increases cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the adolescent rat dentate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Hui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oenanthe javanica is an aquatic perennial herb that belongs to the Oenanthe genus in Apiaceae family, and it displays well-known medicinal properties such as protective effects against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity. However, few studies regarding effects of Oenanthe javanica on neurogenesis in the brain have been reported. In this study, we examined the effects of a normal diet and a diet containing ethanol extract of Oenanthe javanica on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the subgranular zone of the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adolescent rats using Ki-67 (an endogenous marker for cell proliferation and doublecortin (a marker for neuroblast. Our results showed that Oenanthe javanica extract significantly increased the number of Ki-67-immunoreactive cells and doublecortin-immunoreactive neuroblasts in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus in the adolescent rats. In addition, the immunoreactivity of brain-derived neurotrophic factor was significantly increased in the dentate gyrus of the Oenanthe javanica extract-treated group compared with the control group. However, we did not find that vascular endothelial growth factor expression was increased in the Oenanthe javanica extract-treated group compared with the control group. These results indicate that Oenanthe javanica extract improves cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation by increasing brain-derived neurotrophic factor immunoreactivity in the rat dentate gyrus.

  18. The effect of perfusion culture on proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on biocorrodible bone replacement material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farack, J., E-mail: jana.farack@tu-dresden.de [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, Budapester Str. 27, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Wolf-Brandstetter, C. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, Budapester Str. 27, D-01069 Dresden (Germany); Glorius, S.; Nies, B. [InnoTERE GmbH, Tatzberg 47-49, D-01307 Dresden (Germany); Standke, G. [Fraunhofer Institute for Ceramic Technologies and Systems (IKTS), Winterbergstr. 28, D-01277 Dresden (Germany); Quadbeck, P. [Fraunhofer Institute for Manufacturing Technology and Advanced Materials (IFAM), Winterbergstr. 28, D-01277 Dresden (Germany); Worch, H.; Scharnweber, D. [Technische Universitaet Dresden, Max Bergmann Center of Biomaterials, Budapester Str. 27, D-01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Biocorrodible iron foams were coated with different calcium phosphate phases (CPP) to obtain a bioactive surface and controlled degradation. Further adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of SaOs-2 and human mesenchymal stem cells were investigated under both static and dynamic culture conditions. Hydroxyapatite (HA; [Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}OH{sub 2}]) coated foams released 500 {mu}g/g iron per day for Dulbecco's modified eagle medium (DMEM) and 250 {mu}g/g iron per day for McCoys, the unmodified reference 1000 {mu}g/g iron per day for DMEM and 500 {mu}g/g iron per day for McCoys, while no corrosion could be detected on brushite (CaHPO{sub 4}) coated foams. Using a perfusion culture system with conditions closer to the in vivo situation, cells proliferated and differentiated on iron foams coated with either brushite or HA while in static cell culture cells could proliferate only on Fe-brushite. We conclude that the degradation behaviour of biocorrodible iron foams can be varied by different calcium phosphate coatings, offering opportunities for design of novel bone implants. Further studies will focus on the influence of different modifications of iron foams on the expression of oxidative stress enzymes. Additional information about in vivo reactions and remodelling behaviour are expected from testing in implantation studies.

  19. Lipogems Product Treatment Increases the Proliferation Rate of Human Tendon Stem Cells without Affecting Their Stemness and Differentiation Capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randelli, Pietro; Menon, Alessandra; Ragone, Vincenza; Creo, Pasquale; Bergante, Sonia; Randelli, Filippo; De Girolamo, Laura; Alfieri Montrasio, Umberto; Banfi, Giuseppe; Cabitza, Paolo; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the success rate of rotator cuff healing remains tremendous challenge. Among many approaches, the possibility of activating resident stem cells in situ, without the need to isolate them from biopsies, could represent valuable therapeutic strategy. Along this line, it has been recently demonstrated that lipoaspirate product, Lipogems, contains and produces growth-factors that may activate resident stem cells. In this study, human tendon stem cells (hTSCs) from the rotator cuff were cocultured in a transwell system with the Lipogems lipoaspirate product and compared to control untreated cells in terms of cell proliferation, morphology, stem cell marker and VEGF expression, and differentiation and migration capabilities. Results showed that the Lipogems product significantly increases the proliferation rate of hTSCs without altering their stemness and differentiation capability. Moreover, treated cells increase the expression of VEGF, which is crucial for the neovascularization of the tissue during the healing process. Overall, this study supports that directly activating hTSCs with the Lipogems lipoaspirate could represent a new practical therapeutic approach. In fact, obtaining a lipoaspirate is easier, safer, and more cost-effective than harvesting cells from tendon or bone marrow biopsies, expanding them in GMP facility and then reinjecting them in the patient.

  20. Lipogems Product Treatment Increases the Proliferation Rate of Human Tendon Stem Cells without Affecting Their Stemness and Differentiation Capability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Randelli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the success rate of rotator cuff healing remains tremendous challenge. Among many approaches, the possibility of activating resident stem cells in situ, without the need to isolate them from biopsies, could represent valuable therapeutic strategy. Along this line, it has been recently demonstrated that lipoaspirate product, Lipogems, contains and produces growth-factors that may activate resident stem cells. In this study, human tendon stem cells (hTSCs from the rotator cuff were cocultured in a transwell system with the Lipogems lipoaspirate product and compared to control untreated cells in terms of cell proliferation, morphology, stem cell marker and VEGF expression, and differentiation and migration capabilities. Results showed that the Lipogems product significantly increases the proliferation rate of hTSCs without altering their stemness and differentiation capability. Moreover, treated cells increase the expression of VEGF, which is crucial for the neovascularization of the tissue during the healing process. Overall, this study supports that directly activating hTSCs with the Lipogems lipoaspirate could represent a new practical therapeutic approach. In fact, obtaining a lipoaspirate is easier, safer, and more cost-effective than harvesting cells from tendon or bone marrow biopsies, expanding them in GMP facility and then reinjecting them in the patient.

  1. Lipogems Product Treatment Increases the Proliferation Rate of Human Tendon Stem Cells without Affecting Their Stemness and Differentiation Capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randelli, Pietro; Menon, Alessandra; Ragone, Vincenza; Creo, Pasquale; Bergante, Sonia; Randelli, Filippo; De Girolamo, Laura; Alfieri Montrasio, Umberto; Banfi, Giuseppe; Cabitza, Paolo; Tettamanti, Guido; Anastasia, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Increasing the success rate of rotator cuff healing remains tremendous challenge. Among many approaches, the possibility of activating resident stem cells in situ, without the need to isolate them from biopsies, could represent valuable therapeutic strategy. Along this line, it has been recently demonstrated that lipoaspirate product, Lipogems, contains and produces growth-factors that may activate resident stem cells. In this study, human tendon stem cells (hTSCs) from the rotator cuff were cocultured in a transwell system with the Lipogems lipoaspirate product and compared to control untreated cells in terms of cell proliferation, morphology, stem cell marker and VEGF expression, and differentiation and migration capabilities. Results showed that the Lipogems product significantly increases the proliferation rate of hTSCs without altering their stemness and differentiation capability. Moreover, treated cells increase the expression of VEGF, which is crucial for the neovascularization of the tissue during the healing process. Overall, this study supports that directly activating hTSCs with the Lipogems lipoaspirate could represent a new practical therapeutic approach. In fact, obtaining a lipoaspirate is easier, safer, and more cost-effective than harvesting cells from tendon or bone marrow biopsies, expanding them in GMP facility and then reinjecting them in the patient. PMID:27057170

  2. Differential Effects of Falcarinol and Related Aliphatic C17-Polyacetylenes on Intestinal Cell Proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative major polyacetylenes of carrots (falcarinol and falcarindiol) and American ginseng roots (falcarinol and panaxydol) were isolated and tested in human intestinal epithelial cells of normal (FHs 74 Int.) and cancer (Caco-2) origin. A hormesis effect was seen for all isolated polyacetylenes when added to Caco-2 cells in concentrations ranging from 1 ng/mL to 20 μg/mL. The relative inhibitory potency was falcarinol > panaxydol > falcarindiol. No hormesis effect was observed when adding the polyacetylenes to FHs 74 Int. cells. Instead, an inhibitory growth response was observed above 1 μg/mL. The relative inhibitory potency was panaxydol > falcarinol > falcarindiol. Maximal inhibition at 20 μg/mL corresponded to approximately 95% and 80% inhibition of cell proliferation in normal and cancer cells, respectively. Combinations of falcarinol and falcarindiol added to normal and cancer cells showed a synergistic response for the inhibition of cell growth. Furthermore, the oxidized form of falcarinol, falcarinon, showed a significantly less growth inhibitory effect in intestinal cells of both normal and cancer origin; hence, a hydroxyl group at C-3 may be important for activity of falcarinol-type polyacetylenes. Extracts of carrots, containing different amounts of falcarinol, falcarindiol, and falcarindiol 3-acetate had significant inhibitory effects on both normal and cancer cell proliferation. In cancer cells, the extract containing the highest concentration of falcarinol tended to have the highest growth inhibitory effect, in accordance with a higher potency of falcarinol than falcarindiol. The present study demonstrates that aliphatic C17-polyacetylenes are potential anticancer principles of carrots and related vegetables and that synergistic interaction between bioactive polyacetylenes may be important for their bioactivity. PMID:19694436

  3. Differential effects of falcarinol and related aliphatic C(17)-polyacetylenes on intestinal cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purup, Stig; Larsen, Eric; Christensen, Lars P

    2009-09-23

    Quantitative major polyacetylenes of carrots (falcarinol and falcarindiol) and American ginseng roots (falcarinol and panaxydol) were isolated and tested in human intestinal epithelial cells of normal (FHs 74 Int.) and cancer (Caco-2) origin. A hormesis effect was seen for all isolated polyacetylenes when added to Caco-2 cells in concentrations ranging from 1 ng/mL to 20 microg/mL. The relative inhibitory potency was falcarinol > panaxydol > falcarindiol. No hormesis effect was observed when adding the polyacetylenes to FHs 74 Int. cells. Instead, an inhibitory growth response was observed above 1 microg/mL. The relative inhibitory potency was panaxydol > falcarinol > falcarindiol. Maximal inhibition at 20 microg/mL corresponded to approximately 95% and 80% inhibition of cell proliferation in normal and cancer cells, respectively. Combinations of falcarinol and falcarindiol added to normal and cancer cells showed a synergistic response for the inhibition of cell growth. Furthermore, the oxidized form of falcarinol, falcarinon, showed a significantly less growth inhibitory effect in intestinal cells of both normal and cancer origin; hence, a hydroxyl group at C-3 may be important for activity of falcarinol-type polyacetylenes. Extracts of carrots, containing different amounts of falcarinol, falcarindiol, and falcarindiol 3-acetate had significant inhibitory effects on both normal and cancer cell proliferation. In cancer cells, the extract containing the highest concentration of falcarinol tended to have the highest growth inhibitory effect, in accordance with a higher potency of falcarinol than falcarindiol. The present study demonstrates that aliphatic C(17)-polyacetylenes are potential anticancer principles of carrots and related vegetables and that synergistic interaction between bioactive polyacetylenes may be important for their bioactivity.

  4. In the absence of Sonic hedgehog, p53 induces apoptosis and inhibits retinal cell proliferation, cell-cycle exit and differentiation in zebrafish.

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    Sergey V Prykhozhij

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling regulates cell proliferation during vertebrate development via induction of cell-cycle regulator gene expression or activation of other signalling pathways, prevents cell death by an as yet unclear mechanism and is required for differentiation of retinal cell types. Thus, an unsolved question is how the same signalling molecule can regulate such distinct cell processes as proliferation, cell survival and differentiation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Analysis of the zebrafish shh(-/- mutant revealed that in this context p53 mediates elevated apoptosis during nervous system and retina development and interferes with retinal proliferation and differentiation. While in shh(-/- mutants there is activation of p53 target genes and p53-mediated apoptosis, an increase in Hedgehog (Hh signalling by over-expression of dominant-negative Protein Kinase A strongly decreased p53 target gene expression and apoptosis levels in shh(-/- mutants. Using a novel p53 reporter transgene, I confirm that p53 is active in tissues that require Shh for cell survival. Proliferation assays revealed that loss of p53 can rescue normal cell-cycle exit and the mitotic indices in the shh(-/- mutant retina at 24, 36 and 48 hpf. Moreover, generation of amacrine cells and photoreceptors was strongly enhanced in the double p53(-/-shh(-/- mutant retina suggesting the effect of p53 on retinal differentiation. CONCLUSIONS: Loss of Shh signalling leads to the p53-dependent apoptosis in the developing nervous system and retina. Moreover, Shh-mediated control of p53 activity is required for proliferation and cell cycle exit of retinal cells as well as differentiation of amacrine cells and photoreceptors.

  5. 3'UTR Shortening Potentiates MicroRNA-Based Repression of Pro-differentiation Genes in Proliferating Human Cells.

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    Yonit Hoffman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Most mammalian genes often feature alternative polyadenylation (APA sites and hence diverse 3'UTR lengths. Proliferating cells were reported to favor APA sites that result in shorter 3'UTRs. One consequence of such shortening is escape of mRNAs from targeting by microRNAs (miRNAs whose binding sites are eliminated. Such a mechanism might provide proliferation-related genes with an expression gain during normal or cancerous proliferation. Notably, miRNA sites tend to be more active when located near both ends of the 3'UTR compared to those located more centrally. Accordingly, miRNA sites located near the center of the full 3'UTR might become more active upon 3'UTR shortening. To address this conjecture we performed 3' sequencing to determine the 3' ends of all human UTRs in several cell lines. Remarkably, we found that conserved miRNA binding sites are preferentially enriched immediately upstream to APA sites, and this enrichment is more prominent in pro-differentiation/anti-proliferative genes. Binding sites of the miR17-92 cluster, upregulated in rapidly proliferating cells, are particularly enriched just upstream to APA sites, presumably conferring stronger inhibitory activity upon shortening. Thus 3'UTR shortening appears not only to enable escape from inhibition of growth promoting genes but also to potentiate repression of anti-proliferative genes.

  6. MARCKS Signaling Differentially Regulates Vascular Smooth Muscle and Endothelial Cell Proliferation through a KIS-, p27kip1- Dependent Mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Yu

    Full Text Available Overexpression of the myristolated alanine-rich C kinase substrate (MARCKS occurs in vascular proliferative diseases such as restenosis after bypass surgery. MARCKS knockdown results in arrest of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC proliferation with little effect on endothelial cell (EC proliferation. We sought to identify the mechanism of differential regulation by MARCKS of VSMC and EC proliferation in vitro and in vivo.siRNA-mediated MARCKS knockdown in VSMCs inhibited proliferation and prevented progression from phase G0/G1 to S. Protein expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27kip1, but not p21cip1 was increased by MARCKS knockdown. MARCKS knockdown did not affect proliferation in VSMCs derived from p27kip1-/- mice indicating that the effect of MARCKS is p27kip1-dependent. MARCKS knockdown resulted in decreased phosphorylation of p27kip1 at threonine 187 and serine 10 as well as, kinase interacting with stathmin (KIS, cyclin D1, and Skp2 expression. Phosphorylation of p27kip1 at serine 10 by KIS is required for nuclear export and degradation of p27kip1. MARCKS knockdown caused nuclear trapping of p27kip1. Both p27kip1 nuclear trapping and cell cycle arrest were released by overexpression of KIS, but not catalytically inactive KIS. In ECs, MARCKS knockdown paradoxically increased KIS expression and cell proliferation. MARCKS knockdown in a murine aortic injury model resulted in decreased VSMC proliferation determined by bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU integration assay, and inhibition of vascular wall thickening. MARCKS knockdown increased the rate of re-endothelialization.MARCKS knockdown arrested VSMC cell cycle by decreasing KIS expression. Decreased KIS expression resulted in nuclear trapping of p27kip1 in VSMCs. MARCKS knockdown paradoxically increased KIS expression in ECs resulting in increased EC proliferation. MARCKS knockdown significantly attenuated the VSMC proliferative response to vascular injury, but accelerated

  7. Integrated functions of Pax3 and Pax7 in the regulation of proliferation, cell size and myogenic differentiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte A Collins

    Full Text Available Pax3 and Pax7 are paired-box transcription factors with roles in developmental and adult regenerative myogenesis. Pax3 and Pax7 are expressed by postnatal satellite cells or their progeny but are down regulated during myogenic differentiation. We now show that constitutive expression of Pax3 or Pax7 in either satellite cells or C2C12 myoblasts results in an increased proliferative rate and decreased cell size. Conversely, expression of dominant-negative constructs leads to slowing of cell division, a dramatic increase in cell size and altered morphology. Similarly to the effects of Pax7, retroviral expression of Pax3 increases levels of Myf5 mRNA and MyoD protein, but does not result in sustained inhibition of myogenic differentiation. However, expression of Pax3 or Pax7 dominant-negative constructs inhibits expression of Myf5, MyoD and myogenin, and prevents differentiation from proceeding. In fibroblasts, expression of Pax3 or Pax7, or dominant-negative inhibition of these factors, reproduce the effects on cell size, morphology and proliferation seen in myoblasts. Our results show that in muscle progenitor cells, Pax3 and Pax7 function to maintain expression of myogenic regulatory factors, and promote population expansion, but are also required for myogenic differentiation to proceed.

  8. Neutralization of LINGO-1 during in vitro differentiation of neural stem cells results in proliferation of immature neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lööv, Camilla; Fernqvist, Maria; Walmsley, Adrian; Marklund, Niklas; Erlandsson, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Identifying external factors that can be used to control neural stem cells division and their differentiation to neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes is of high scientific and clinical interest. Here we show that the Nogo-66 receptor interacting protein LINGO-1 is a potent regulator of neural stem cell maturation to neurons. LINGO-1 is expressed by cortical neural stem cells from E14 mouse embryos and inhibition of LINGO-1 during the first days of neural stem cell differentiation results in decreased neuronal maturation. Compared to neurons in control cultures, which after 6 days of differentiation have long extending neurites, neurons in cultures treated with anti-LINGO-1 antibodies retain an immature, round phenotype with only very short processes. Furthermore, neutralization of LINGO-1 results in a threefold increase in βIII tubulin-positive cells compared to untreated control cultures. By using BrdU incorporation assays we show that the immature neurons in LINGO-1 neutralized cultures are dividing neuroblasts. In contrast to control cultures, in which no cells were double positive for βIII tubulin and BrdU, 36% of the neurons in cultures treated with anti-LINGO-1 antibodies were proliferating after three days of differentiation. TUNEL assays revealed that the amount of cells going through apoptosis during the early phase of differentiation was significantly decreased in cultures treated with anti-LINGO-1 antibodies compared to untreated control cultures. Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel role for LINGO-1 in neural stem cell differentiation to neurons and suggest a possibility to use LINGO-1 inhibitors to compensate for neuronal cell loss in the injured brain.

  9. Neutralization of LINGO-1 during in vitro differentiation of neural stem cells results in proliferation of immature neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Lööv

    Full Text Available Identifying external factors that can be used to control neural stem cells division and their differentiation to neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes is of high scientific and clinical interest. Here we show that the Nogo-66 receptor interacting protein LINGO-1 is a potent regulator of neural stem cell maturation to neurons. LINGO-1 is expressed by cortical neural stem cells from E14 mouse embryos and inhibition of LINGO-1 during the first days of neural stem cell differentiation results in decreased neuronal maturation. Compared to neurons in control cultures, which after 6 days of differentiation have long extending neurites, neurons in cultures treated with anti-LINGO-1 antibodies retain an immature, round phenotype with only very short processes. Furthermore, neutralization of LINGO-1 results in a threefold increase in βIII tubulin-positive cells compared to untreated control cultures. By using BrdU incorporation assays we show that the immature neurons in LINGO-1 neutralized cultures are dividing neuroblasts. In contrast to control cultures, in which no cells were double positive for βIII tubulin and BrdU, 36% of the neurons in cultures treated with anti-LINGO-1 antibodies were proliferating after three days of differentiation. TUNEL assays revealed that the amount of cells going through apoptosis during the early phase of differentiation was significantly decreased in cultures treated with anti-LINGO-1 antibodies compared to untreated control cultures. Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel role for LINGO-1 in neural stem cell differentiation to neurons and suggest a possibility to use LINGO-1 inhibitors to compensate for neuronal cell loss in the injured brain.

  10. Alternol inhibits the proliferation and induces the differentiation of the mouse melanoma B16F0 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caixia; Xu, Wenjuan; Hao, Wenjin; Wang, Bingsheng; Zheng, Qiusheng

    2016-08-01

    High malignant potential and low susceptibility to treatment are characteristics of malignant melanoma. Alternol, a novel compound purified from microbial fermentation products obtained from the bark of the yew tree, exhibits a variety of antitumor activities. Based on these findings, the aim of the present study was to extend the knowledge on the antineoplastic effect of alternol in the mouse melanoma B16F0 cell line. Alternol significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation of B16F0 cells in a dose-dependent manner as detected by MTT and soft agar colony formation assays. NaOH alkaline lysis and oxidation of Dopa indicated that alternol enhanced the melanin content and tyrosinase activity of the B16F0 cells and results also showed a dose‑response relationship. Morphologic changes accompanied by extended dendrites were discovered in the B16F0 cells after treatment with alternol. Furthermore, the mRNA levels of tyrosinase, Trp1 and Trp2 were increased by alternol. Our results confirmed that alternol possesses marked antineoplastic properties against melanoma cells, indicating that this microbial fermentation product is a promising agent for the differentiation therapy of cancer. The inhibition of cell proliferation and colony formation by alternol was associated with both cytotoxicity and induction of differentiation.

  11. How does the supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus affect the proliferation and differentiation activities of rat bone marrow-derived stromal cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samadikuchaksaraei, A; Gholipourmalekabadi, M; Saberian, M; Abdollahpour Alitappeh, M; Shahidi Delshad, E

    2016-08-31

    Low proliferation rate and unwanted differentiation of bone marrow-derived stromal cells (rBMSCs) during the frequent passages have limited the use of such cells in clinical cell therapy. Recently, the researchers have focused on the effects of the components produced by some bacteria on proliferation of the stem cells. In this study, we discussed the possible effects of the Lactobacillus acidophilus supernatant on proliferation and differentiation of the rBMSCs. For this aim, the cells were isolated from rat bone marrow, characterized by culturing on tissue specific differentiation media and stained. The cells (passage two) were treated with different concentrations of the L. acidophilus supernatant (0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.9, 3, 9 and 30 &mgr;l/ml) for 14 days. The proliferation and differentiation capacity of the cells were then determined by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide (MTT assay) and tissue specific staining. The results showed a positive effect of the supernatant on the cell proliferation in 3 and 9 &mgr;l/ml concentrations, while did not affect the differentiation capacity of the rBMSCs. The current study strongly suggests the L. acidophilus supernatant as an alternative material that could be added to the media with aim of improvement in the proliferation rate of the rBMSCs without affecting their differentiation capacity.

  12. Evaluation of magnesium alloys with alternative surface finishing for the proliferation and chondro-differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinidad, J; Arruebarrena, G; De Argandona, E Saenz; De Eguino, G Ruiz; Infante, A; RodrIguez, C I, E-mail: jtrinidad@eps.mondragon.edu

    2010-11-01

    Articular cartilage has little capacity for self-repair. As a result, continuous mechanical stress can lead to the degradation of articular cartilage, culminating in progressive damage and joint degeneration. Tissue engineering has arisen as a promising therapeutic approach to cartilage repair. Magnesium alloys are one of the most important metallic biomaterials emerging in this area due to their biocompatibility, bio-absorbability and especially to their mechanical properties. These properties make magnesium alloys a promising biomaterial in the regeneration of cartilage tissue. Objective. This study was undertaken to analyze the influence of surface characteristics of magnesium alloys in the adhesion, proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Methods. Two commercial magnesium alloys (AZ31B and ZM21) were subjected to different treatments in order to obtain four different surfaces in each alloy. Human MSCs were seeded into the magnesium alloys and analyzed for their proliferation and chondrogenesis differentiation ability. Results. Human MSCs showed a greater proliferation and chondro-differentiation when cultured in the ZM21 magnesium alloy with a surface finishing of fine sanding, polishing, and etching.

  13. MicroRNA-130b targets Fmr1 and regulates embryonic neural progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Xi [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Food Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Zhang, Kunshan [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell Center, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); Wang, Yanlu; Wang, Junbang; Cui, Yaru [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Food Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China); Li, Siguang, E-mail: siguangli@163.com [Department of Regenerative Medicine, Stem Cell Center, Tongji University School of Medicine, Shanghai 200092 (China); Luo, Yuping, E-mail: luoyuping@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Food Science and Technology, College of Life Sciences and Food Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330047 (China)

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •We found that the 3′ UTR of the Fmr1 mRNA is a target of miR-130b. •MiR-130b suppresses the expression of Fmr1 in mouse embryonic stem cell. •MiR-130b alters the proliferation of mouse embryonic stem cell. •MiR-130b alters fate specification of mouse embryonic stem cell. -- Abstract: Fragile X syndrome, one of the most common forms of inherited mental retardation, is caused by expansion of the CGG repeat in the 5′-untranslated region of the X-linked Fmr1 gene, which results in transcriptional silencing and loss of expression of its encoded protein FMRP. The loss of FMRP increases proliferation and alters fate specification in adult neural progenitor cells (aNPCs). However, little is known about Fmr1 mRNA regulation at the transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. In the present study, we report that miR-130b regulated Fmr1 expression by directly targeting its 3′-untranslated region (3′ UTR). Up-regulation of miR-130b in mouse embryonic neural progenitor cells (eNPCs) decreased Fmr1 expression, markedly increased eNPC proliferation and altered the differentiation tendency of eNPCs, suggesting that antagonizing miR-130b may be a new therapeutic entry point for treating Fragile X syndrome.

  14. Mango Fruit Extracts Differentially Affect Proliferation and Intracellular Calcium Signalling in MCF-7 Human Breast Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Wong Taing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of human cancer cell proliferation is a common approach in identifying plant extracts that have potential bioactive effects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that methanolic extracts of peel and flesh from three archetypal mango cultivars, Irwin (IW, Nam Doc Mai (NDM, and Kensington Pride (KP, differentially affect proliferation, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK activity, and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]I signalling in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Mango flesh extracts from all three cultivars did not inhibit cell growth, and of the peel extracts only NDM reduced MCF-7 cell proliferation. Mango cultivar peel and flesh extracts did not significantly change ERK phosphorylation compared to controls; however, some reduced relative maximal peak [Ca2+]I after adenosine triphosphate stimulation, with NDM peel extract having the greatest effect among the treatments. Our results identify mango interfruit and intrafruit (peel and flesh extract variability in antiproliferative effects and [Ca2+]I signalling in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and highlight that parts of the fruit (such as peel and flesh and cultivar differences are important factors to consider when assessing potential chemopreventive bioactive compounds in plants extracts.

  15. REX-1 expression and p38 MAPK activation status can determine proliferation/differentiation fates in human mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Dilli Ram Bhandari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: REX1/ZFP42 is a well-known embryonic stem cell (ESC marker. However, the role of REX1, itself, is relatively unknown because the function of REX1 has only been reported in the differentiation of ESCs via STAT signaling pathways. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs isolated from young tissues and cancer cells express REX1. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Human umbilical cord blood-derived MSCs (hUCB-MSCs and adipose tissue-derived MSCs (hAD-MSCs strongly express REX1 and have a lower activation status of p38 MAPK, but bone marrow-derived MSCs (hBM-MSCs have weak REX1 expression and higher activation of p38 MAPK. These results indicated that REX1 expression in hMSCs was positively correlated with proliferation rates but inversely correlated with the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK. In hUCB-MSCs, the roles of REX1 and p38 MAPK were investigated, and a knockdown study was performed using a lentiviral vector-based small hairpin RNA (shRNA. After REX1 knockdown, decreased cell proliferation was observed. In REX1 knocked-down hUCB-MSCs, the osteogenic differentiation ability deteriorated, but the adipogenic potential increased or was similar to that observed in the controls. The phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in hUCB-MSCs significantly increased after REX1 knockdown. After p38 MAPK inhibitor treatment, the cell growth in REX1 knocked-down hUCB-MSCs almost recovered, and the suppressed expression levels of CDK2 and CCND1 were also restored. The expression of MKK3, an upstream regulator of p38 MAPK, significantly increased in REX1 knocked-down hUCB-MSCs. The direct binding of REX1 to the MKK3 gene was confirmed by a chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP assay. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings showed that REX1 regulates the proliferation/differentiation of hMSCs through the suppression of p38 MAPK signaling via the direct suppression of MKK3. Therefore, p38 MAPK and REX-1 status can determine the cell fate of adult stem cells (ASCs. These

  16. Akirin2 regulates proliferation and differentiation of porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells via ERK1/2 and NFATc1 signaling pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoling; Luo, Yanliu; Huang, Zhiqing; Jia, Gang; Liu, Guangmang; Zhao, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Akirin2, a novel nuclear factor, plays an important role in myogenesis. To investigate the role of Akirin2 in proliferation and differentiation of porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells, Akirin2 overexpression and Akirin2 silence technologies were employed. Our results showed that overexpression of Akirin2 markedly enhanced the proliferation and differentiation of porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells, whereas silencing of Akirin2 got the opposite results. Furthermore, our results showed that Akirin2 affected proliferation and differentiation of porcine skeletal muscle satellite cells through extracellular-signal regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) and NFATc1 signaling pathways. These results indicate that Akirin2 can effectively promote skeletal muscle satellite cells proliferation and differentiation, acting through ERK1/2- and NFATc1-dependent mechanisms. PMID:28327665

  17. Effects of novel hydroxyapatite-based 3D biomaterials on proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadzic, Ivana; Vucic, Vesna; Jokanovic, Vukoman; Debeljak-Martacic, Jasmina; Markovic, Dejan; Petrovic, Snjezana; Glibetic, Marija

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the differential capacity of isolated dental pulp stem cells (SHED) cultured onto four different scaffold materials. The differential potential of isolated SHED was examined on the following scaffolds: porous hydroxyapatite (pHAP) alone or combined with three polymers [polylactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA), alginate, and ethylene vinylacetate / ethylene vinylversatate (EVA/EVV)]. SHED were isolated by "outgrowth" method and characterized by the flow cytometry. Viability of cells grown with scaffolds was assessed by MTT and LDH assays. No significant cytotoxic effect of any of the tested materials was shown. Staining with alizarin red and estimated alkaline phosphatase activity to identify differentiation, demonstrated osteoblastic phenotype of SHED and newly deposited and mineralized extra cellular matrix (ECM) in presence of all tested scaffolds. The developed ECM seen at scanning electronic micrographs additionally confirmed the osteogenic differentiation and biocompatibility between cells and materials. In summary, all studied biomaterials are suitable carriers for proliferation and osteoblastic differentiation of dental pulp mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

  18. Optimal concentration and time window for proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells from embryonic cerebral cortex:5% oxygen preconditioning for 72 hours

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-li Yuan; Ying-jun Guan; Deng-dian Ma; Hong-mei Du

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia promotes proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells from embryonic day 12 rat brain tissue, but the concentration and time of hypoxic preconditioning are controversial. To address this, we cultured neural stem cells isolated from embryonic day 14 rat cerebral cortex in 5% and 10% oxygenin vitro. MTT assay, neurosphere number, and immunolfuorescent staining found that 5% or 10% oxygen preconditioning for 72 hours improved neural stem cell viability and proliferation. With prolonged hypoxic duration (120 hours), the proportion of apoptotic cells increased. Thus, 5% oxygen preconditioning for 72 hours promotes neural stem cell prolif-eration and neuronal differentiation. Our ifndings indicate that the optimal concentration and duration of hypoxic preconditioning for promoting proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells from the cerebral cortex are 5% oxygen for 72 hours.

  19. Electrospun polyurethane scaffolds for proliferation and neuronal differentiation of human embryonic stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlberg, Bjoern; Liu, Johan [BioNano Systems Laboratory, Department of Microtechnology and Nanoscience, Chalmers University of Technology, Goeteborg, SE-412 96 (Sweden); Axell, Mathilda Zetterstroem; Kuhn, H Georg [Center for Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Goeteborg, SE-413 45 (Sweden); Nannmark, Ulf, E-mail: bjorn.carlberg@chalmers.s, E-mail: mathilda.zetterstrom@neuro.gu.s, E-mail: georg.kuhn@neuro.gu.s, E-mail: ulf.nannmark@anatcell.gu.s, E-mail: jliu@chalmers.s [Department of Medical Chemistry and Cell Biology, Institute of Biomedicine, University of Gothenburg, Goeteborg, SE-405 30 (Sweden)

    2009-08-15

    Adult central nervous system (CNS) tissue has a limited capacity to recover after trauma or disease. Hence, tissue engineering scaffolds intended for CNS repair and rehabilitation have been subject to intense research effort. Electrospun porous scaffolds, mimicking the natural three-dimensional environment of the in vivo extracellular matrix (ECM) and providing physical support, have been identified as promising candidates for CNS tissue engineering. The present study demonstrates in vitro culturing and neuronal differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) on electrospun fibrous polyurethane scaffolds. Electrospun scaffolds composed of biocompatible polyurethane resin (Desmopan 9370A, Bayer MaterialScience AG) were prepared with a vertical electrospinning setup. Resulting scaffolds, with a thickness of approximately 150{mu}m, exhibited high porosity (84%) and a bimodal pore size distribution with peaks at 5-6 and 1{mu}m. The mean fiber diameter was measured to approximately 360 nm with a standard deviation of 80 nm. The undifferentiated hESC line SA002 (Cellartis AB, Goeteborg, Sweden) was seeded and cultured on the produced scaffolds and allowed propagation and then differentiation for up to 47 days. Cultivation of hESC on electrospun fibrous scaffolds proved successful and neuronal differentiation was observed via standard immunocytochemistry. The results indicate that predominantly dopaminergic tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive neurons are derived in co-culture with fibrous scaffolds, in comparison to reference cultures under the same differentiation conditions displaying large proportions of GFAP positive cell types. Scanning electron micrographs confirm neurite outgrowth and connection to adjacent cells, as well as cell attachment to individual fibers of the fibrous scaffold. Consequently, electrospun polyurethane scaffolds have been proven feasible as a substrate for hESC propagation and neuronal differentiation. The physical interaction between

  20. The effect of electrospun poly(lactic acid and nanohydroxyapatite nanofibers’ diameter on proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells

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    Amir Doustgani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Electrospun nanofibrous mats of poly(lactic acid (PLA and nanohydroxyapatite (nano-HA were prepared and proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells on the prepared nanofibers were investigated in this study. Materials and Methods: PLA/nano-HA nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning. The effects of process parameters, such as nano-HA concentration, distance, applied voltage, and flow rate on the mean diameter of electrospun nanofibers were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to determine the mean fiber diameter of produced nanofibers. Mechanical propertes of nanofibrous mats were evaluated using a universal testing machine. Response surface methodology was used to model the fiber diameter of electrospun PLA/nano-HA nanofibers. Results: The average fiber diameter for optimized nanofibers was 125 ± 11 nm. MTT and ALP results showed that optimization of fiber diameter increased the osteogenic differentiation of stem cells. Conclusion: It could be concluded that optimization of fiber diameter has beneficial effect on cell proliferation and differentiation. Optimized nanofibers of PLA/nano-HA could be good candidates for bone tissue engineering.

  1. TRANSGENIC GDNF POSITIVELY INFLUENCES PROLIFERATION, DIFFERENTIATION, MATURATION AND SURVIVAL OF MOTOR NEURONS PRODUCED FROM MOUSE EMBRYONIC STEM CELLS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Édgar Cortés

    2016-09-01

    increased numbers of evoked action potentials, as well as by the appearance of rebound action potentials, sag inward rectification, spike frequency adaptation and spontaneous synaptic potentials. Upon challenge with kainate, GDNF-overexpressing cells are more resistant to excitotoxicity than control motor neurons. Together these data indicate that GDNF promotes proliferation of motor neuron-committed precursors, promotes neuronal differentiation, enhances maturation, and confers neuroprotection. GDNF-expressing ESC can be useful in studies of development and disease.

  2. Transgenic GDNF Positively Influences Proliferation, Differentiation, Maturation and Survival of Motor Neurons Produced from Mouse Embryonic Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, Daniel; Robledo-Arratia, Yolanda; Hernández-Martínez, Ricardo; Escobedo-Ávila, Itzel; Bargas, José; Velasco, Iván

    2016-01-01

    of rebound APs, sag inward rectification, spike frequency adaptation and spontaneous synaptic potentials. Upon challenge with kainate, GDNF-overexpressing cells are more resistant to excitotoxicity than control MNs. Together these data indicate that GDNF promotes proliferation of MN-committed precursors, promotes neuronal differentiation, enhances maturation, and confers neuroprotection. GDNF-expressing ESC can be useful in studies of development and disease. PMID:27672361

  3. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) in Regenerative Medicine: Molecular Mechanism for PPAR in Stem Cells' Adipocyte Differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qiang; Tian, Taoran; Chen, Zhaozhao; Deng, Shuwen; Sun, Ke; Xie, Jing; Cai, Xiaoxiao

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative medicine plays an indispensable role in modern medicine and many trials and researches have therefore been developed to fit our medical needs. Tissue engineering has proven that adipose tissue can widely be used and brings advantages to regenerative medicine. Moreover, a trait of adipose stem cells being isolated and grown in vitro is a cornerstone to various applications. Since the adipose tissue has been widely used in regenerative medicine, numerous studies have been conducted to seek methods for gaining more adipocytes. To investigate molecular mechanism for adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) has been widely studied to find out its functional mechanism, as a key factor for adipocyte differentiation. However, the precise molecular mechanism is still unknown. This review thus summarizes recent progress on the study of molecular mechanism and role of PPAR in adipocyte differentiation.

  4. Mechanical strain modulates age-related changes in the proliferation and differentiation of mouse adipose-derived stromal cells

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    Chiang Wen-Sheng

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies on the effects of aging in human and mouse mesenchymal stem cells suggest that a decline in the number and differentiation potential of stem cells may contribute to aging and aging-related diseases. In this report, we used stromal cells isolated from adipose tissue (ADSCs of young (8-10 weeks, adult (5 months, and old (21 months mice to test the hypothesis that mechanical loading modifies aging-related changes in the self-renewal and osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation potential of these cells. Results We show that aging significantly reduced the proliferation and increased the adipogenesis of ADSCs, while the osteogenic potential is not significantly reduced by aging. Mechanical loading (10% cyclic stretching, 0.5 Hz, 48 h increased the subsequent proliferation of ADSCs from mice of all ages. Although the number of osteogenic colonies with calcium deposition was increased in ADSCs subjected to pre-strain, it resulted from an increase in colony number rather than from an increase in osteogenic potential after strain. Pre-strain significantly reduced the number of oil droplets and the expression of adipogenic marker genes in adult and old ADSCs. Simultaneously subjecting ADSCs to mechanical loading and adipogenic induction resulted in a stronger inhibition of adipogenesis than that caused by pre-strain. The reduction of adipogenesis by mechanical strain was loading-magnitude dependent: loading with 2% strain only resulted in a partial inhibition, and loading with 0.5% strain could not inhibit adipogenesis in ADSCs. Conclusions We demonstrate that mechanical stretching counteracts the loss of self-renewal in aging ADSCs by enhancing their proliferation and, at the same time, reduces the heightened adipogenesis of old cells. These findings are important for the further study of stem cell control and treatment for a variety of aging related diseases.

  5. PRDM6 is enriched in vascular precursors during development and inhibits endothelial cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation.

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    Wu, Yaxu; Ferguson, James E; Wang, Hong; Kelley, Rusty; Ren, Rongqin; McDonough, Holly; Meeker, James; Charles, Peter C; Wang, Hengbin; Patterson, Cam

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms that regulate the differentiation program of multipotential stem cells remain poorly understood. In order to define the cues that delineate endothelial commitment from precursors, we screened for candidate regulatory genes in differentiating mouse embryoid bodies. We found that the PR/SET domain protein, PRDM6, is enriched in flk1(+) hematovascular precursor cells using a microarray-based approach. As determined by 5' RACE, full-length PRDM6 protein contains a PR domain and four Krüppel-like zinc fingers. In situ hybridization in mouse embryos demonstrates staining of the primitive streak, allantois, heart, outflow tract, paraaortic splanchnopleura (P-Sp)/aorto-gonadal-mesonephric (AGM) region and yolk sac, all sites known to be enriched in vascular precursor cells. PRDM6 is also detected in embryonic and adult-derived endothelial cell lines. PRDM6 is co-localized with histone H4 and methylates H4-K20 (but not H3) in vitro and in vivo, which is consistent with the known participation of PR domains in histone methyltransferase activity. Overexpression of PRDM6 in mouse embryonic endothelial cells induces apoptosis by activating caspase-3 and inducing G1 arrest. PRDM6 inhibits cell proliferation as determined by BrdU incorporation in endothelial cells, but not in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Overexpression of PRDM6 also results in reduced tube formation in cultured endothelial cells grown in Matrigel. Taken together, our data indicate that PRDM6 is expressed by vascular precursors, has differential effects in endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, and may play a role in vascular precursor differentiation and survival by modulating local chromatin-remodeling activity within hematovascular subpopulations during development.

  6. Aberrant proliferation of differentiating alveolar cells induces hyperplasia in resting mammary glands of SV40-TAg transgenic mice

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    Wolfgang eBohn

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available WAP-T1 transgenic mice express SV40-TAg under control of the WAP promoter (Whey Acidic Protein which directs activity of this strong viral oncogene to luminal cells of the mammary gland. Resting uniparous WAP-T1 glands develop hyperplasia composed of TAg positive cells prior to appearance of advanced tumor stages. We show that cells in hyperplasia display markers of alveolar differentiation, suggesting that TAg targets differentiating cells of the alveolar compartment. The glands show significant expression of Elf5 and milk genes (Lalba, Csn2, and Wap. TAg expressing cells largely co-stain with antibodies to Elf5, lack the epithelial marker Sca-1, and are hormone receptor negative. High expression levels of Elf5 but not of milk genes are also seen in resting glands of normal BALB/c mice. This indicates that expression of Elf5 in resting WAP-T1 glands is not specifically induced by TAg. CK6a positive luminal cells lack TAg. These cells co-express the markers prominin1, CK6a, and Sca1, and are positive for hormone receptors. These hormone sensitive cells localize to ducts and seem not to be targeted by TAg. Despite reaching an advanced stage in alveolar differentiation the cells in hyperplasia do not exit the cell cycle. Thus, expression of TAg in conjunction with regular morphogenetic processes of alveologenesis seem to provide the basis for a hormone independent, unscheduled proliferation of differentiating cells in resting glands of WAP-T1 transgenic mice, leading to the formation of hyperplastic lesions.

  7. Aberrant Proliferation of Differentiating Alveolar Cells Induces Hyperplasia in Resting Mammary Glands of SV40-TAg Transgenic Mice.

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    Quante, Timo; Wegwitz, Florian; Abe, Julia; Rossi, Alessandra; Deppert, Wolfgang; Bohn, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    WAP-T1 transgenic mice express SV40-TAg under control of the whey acidic protein (WAP) promoter, which directs activity of this strong viral oncogene to luminal cells of the mammary gland. Resting uniparous WAP-T1 glands develop hyperplasia composed of TAg positive cells prior to appearance of advanced tumor stages. We show that cells in hyperplasia display markers of alveolar differentiation, suggesting that TAg targets differentiating cells of the alveolar compartment. The glands show significant expression of Elf5 and milk genes (Lalba, Csn2, and Wap). TAg expressing cells largely co-stain with antibodies to Elf5, lack the epithelial marker Sca1, and are hormone receptor negative. High expression levels of Elf5 but not of milk genes are also seen in resting glands of normal BALB/c mice. This indicates that expression of Elf5 in resting WAP-T1 glands is not specifically induced by TAg. CK6a positive luminal cells lack TAg. These cells co-express the markers prominin-1, CK6a, and Sca1, and are positive for hormone receptors. These hormone sensitive cells localize to ducts and seem not to be targeted by TAg. Despite reaching an advanced stage in alveolar differentiation, the cells in hyperplasia do not exit the cell cycle. Thus, expression of TAg in conjunction with regular morphogenetic processes of alveologenesis seem to provide the basis for a hormone independent, unscheduled proliferation of differentiating cells in resting glands of WAP-T1 transgenic mice, leading to the formation of hyperplastic lesions.

  8. Golli myelin basic proteins stimulate oligodendrocyte progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation in remyelinating adult mouse brain.

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    Paez, Pablo M; Cheli, Veronica T; Ghiani, Cristina A; Spreuer, Vilma; Handley, Vance W; Campagnoni, Anthony T

    2012-07-01

    Golli myelin basic proteins are necessary for normal myelination, acting via voltage and store-dependent Ca(2+) entry at multiple steps during oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) development. To date nothing is known regarding the role of golli proteins in demyelination or remyelination events. Here the effects of golli ablation and overexpression in myelin loss and recovery were examined using the cuprizone (CPZ) model of demyelination/remyelination. We found severe demyelination in the corpus callosum (CC) of golli-overexpressing mice (JOE) during the CPZ treatment, which was accompanied by an increased number of reactive astrocytes and activation of microglia/macrophages. During demyelination of JOE brains, a significant increase in the number of proliferating OPCs was found in the CC as well as in the subventricular zone, and our data indicate that these progenitors matured and fully remyelinated the CC of JOE animals after CPZ withdrawal. In contrast, in the absence of golli (golli-KO mice) delayed myelin loss associated with a smaller immune response, and a lower number of OPCs was found in these mice during the CPZ treatment. Furthermore, incomplete remyelination was observed after CPZ removal in large areas of the CC of golli-KO mice, reflecting irregular recovery of the oligodendrocyte population and subsequent myelin sheath formation. Our findings demonstrate that golli proteins sensitize mature oligodendrocytes to CPZ-induced demyelination, while at the same time stimulate the proliferation/recruitment of OPCs during demyelination, resulting in accelerated remyelination.

  9. Glutamate signals through mGluR2 to control Schwann cell differentiation and proliferation

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    Saitoh, Fuminori; Wakatsuki, Shuji; Tokunaga, Shinji; Fujieda, Hiroki; Araki, Toshiyuki

    2016-01-01

    Rapid saltatory nerve conduction is facilitated by myelin structure, which is produced by Schwann cells (SC) in the peripheral nervous system (PNS). Proper development and degeneration/regeneration after injury requires regulated phenotypic changes of SC. We have previously shown that glutamate can induce SC proliferation in culture. Here we show that glutamate signals through metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGluR2) to induce Erk phosphorylation in SC. mGluR2-elicited Erk phosphorylation requires ErbB2/3 receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation to limit the signaling cascade that promotes phosphorylation of Erk, but not Akt. We found that Gβγ and Src are involved in subcellular signaling downstream of mGluR2. We also found that glutamate can transform myelinating SC to proliferating SC, while inhibition of mGluR2 signaling can inhibit demyelination of injured nerves in vivo. These data suggest pathophysiological significance of mGluR2 signaling in PNS and its possible therapeutic importance to combat demyelinating disorders including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. PMID:27432639

  10. Organic cation transporter-mediated ergothioneine uptake in mouse neural progenitor cells suppresses proliferation and promotes differentiation into neurons.

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    Takahiro Ishimoto

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study is to clarify the functional expression and physiological role in neural progenitor cells (NPCs of carnitine/organic cation transporter OCTN1/SLC22A4, which accepts the naturally occurring food-derived antioxidant ergothioneine (ERGO as a substrate in vivo. Real-time PCR analysis revealed that mRNA expression of OCTN1 was much higher than that of other organic cation transporters in mouse cultured cortical NPCs. Immunocytochemical analysis showed colocalization of OCTN1 with the NPC marker nestin in cultured NPCs and mouse embryonic carcinoma P19 cells differentiated into neural progenitor-like cells (P19-NPCs. These cells exhibited time-dependent [(3H]ERGO uptake. These results demonstrate that OCTN1 is functionally expressed in murine NPCs. Cultured NPCs and P19-NPCs formed neurospheres from clusters of proliferating cells in a culture time-dependent manner. Exposure of cultured NPCs to ERGO or other antioxidants (edaravone and ascorbic acid led to a significant decrease in the area of neurospheres with concomitant elimination of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Transfection of P19-NPCs with small interfering RNA for OCTN1 markedly promoted formation of neurospheres with a concomitant decrease of [(3H]ERGO uptake. On the other hand, exposure of cultured NPCs to ERGO markedly increased the number of cells immunoreactive for the neuronal marker βIII-tubulin, but decreased the number immunoreactive for the astroglial marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, with concomitant up-regulation of neuronal differentiation activator gene Math1. Interestingly, edaravone and ascorbic acid did not affect such differentiation of NPCs, in contrast to the case of proliferation. Knockdown of OCTN1 increased the number of cells immunoreactive for GFAP, but decreased the number immunoreactive for βIII-tubulin, with concomitant down-regulation of Math1 in P19-NPCs. Thus, OCTN1-mediated uptake of ERGO in NPCs inhibits

  11. Effects of fucoidan on proliferation, AMP-activated protein kinase, and downstream metabolism- and cell cycle-associated molecules in poorly differentiated human hepatoma HLF cells.

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    Kawaguchi, Takumi; Hayakawa, Masako; Koga, Hironori; Torimura, Takuji

    2015-05-01

    Survival rates are low in patients with poorly differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fucoidan, a sulfated polysaccharide derived from brown seaweed, has anticancer activity; however, the effects of fucoidan on poorly differentiated HCC remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of fucoidan on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a proliferation regulator, and its downstream metabolism- and cell cycle-related molecules in a poorly differentiated human hepatoma HLF cell line. HLF cells were treated with fucoidan (10, 50, or 100 µg/ml; n=4) or phosphate buffered saline (control; n=4) for 96 h. Proliferation was evaluated by counting cells every 24 h. AMPK, TSC2, mTOR, GSK3β, acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), ATP-citrate lyase, p53, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4, and CDK6 expression and/or phosphorylation were examined by immunoblotting 24 h after treatment with 100 µg/ml fucoidan. Cell cycle progression was analyzed by fluorescence-activated cell sorter 48 h after treatment. Treatment with 50 or 100 µg/ml fucoidan significantly and dose- and time-dependently suppressed HLF cell proliferation (PFucoidan induced AMPK phosphorylation on Ser172 24 h after treatment. Although no differences were seen in expression and phosphorylation levels of TSC2, mTOR, GSK3β, ATP-citrate lyase, and p53 between the control and fucoidan-treated HLF cells, fucoidan induced ACC phosphorylation on Ser79. Moreover, fucoidan decreased cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6 expression 24 h after treatment. Furthermore, HLF cells were arrested in the G1/S phase 48 h after fucoidan treatment. We demonstrated that fucoidan suppressed HLF cell proliferation with AMPK phosphorylation. We showed that fucoidan phosphorylated ACC and downregulated cyclin D1, CDK4 and CDK6 expression. Our findings suggest that fucoidan inhibits proliferation through AMPK-associated suppression of fatty acid synthesis and G1/S transition in HLF cells.

  12. Phentolamine inhibits angiogenesis in vitro: Suppression of proliferation migration and differentiation of human endothelial cells.

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    Pan, Liangli; Liu, Chenyang; Kong, Yanan; Piao, Zhengguo; Cheng, Biao

    2016-06-16

    It is widely known that the β-adrenergic receptor (AR) blocker (propranolol) inhibits human endothelial cell (EC) angiogenesis in vitro, but how the α-AR antagonist (phentolamine) affects human EC angiogenesis has not yet been studied. Here, we show for the first time that both human dermal microvascular ECs (HDMECs) and human brain microvascular ECs (HBMECs) express α-ARs. Moreover, our results indicate that phentolamine inhibits the proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis of HDMECs and HBMECs. Finally, VEGFR-2 and Ang1/2 expression of HDMECs was suppressed by phentolamine. Together, these results indicate that phentolamine impairs several critical events of neovascularization, and α-ARs, as well as the VEGF/VEGFR-2 and Ang/Tie-2 signaling pathways, may be involved in these processes. Our results suggest a novel therapeutic strategy for the use of α-blockers in the treatment of human angiogenesis-dependent diseases.

  13. Effect of advanced oxidation protein products on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells.

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    Sun, Nan; Yang, Li; Li, Yingbin; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Hong; Liu, Duan; Li, Qingnan; Cai, Dehong

    2013-08-01

    Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs) as a novel marker of oxidative stress, are involved in a variety of diseases, including osteoporosis. Although a number of studies have shown the possible functions of AOPPs in biological processes, little is known about the role of AOPPs in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of AOPPs on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs, isolated from bone marrow, were cultured in the absence or presence of AOPPs (50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/ml). MTT assay was used to determine the proliferative ability of the cells. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, the mRNA expression of ALP and collagen I and bone nodule formation were detected to assess osteogenic differentiation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was analyzed with the probe 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). The expression of receptor of advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) at the mRNA and protein level was detected by real-time PCR and western blot analysis, respectively. Compared with the control group, AOPPs inhibited MSC proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Moreover, AOPPs induced a significant reduction in ALP activity, as well as a decrease in ALP and collagen I mRNA levels in the MSCs; bone nodule formation was also inhibited. Furthermore, AOPPs increased ROS generation in the MSCs, and upregulated the expression of RAGE at the mRNA and protein level. These results suggest that AOPPs inhibit the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs, possibly through the AOPPs-RAGE-ROS pathway; this may be an important mechanism in the development of osteoporosis.

  14. A novel thrombopoietin-stem-cell factor fusion protein possesses enhanced potential in stimulating megakaryocyte proliferation and differentiation.

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    Zang, Yuhui; Zhang, Yumin; Peng, Wei; Chen, Bin; Zhu, Jie; Zhang, Chi; Ouyang, Jian; Qin, Junchuan

    2007-11-01

    TPO (thrombopoietin) and SCF (stem-cell factor) are functionally related cytokines with overlapping but distinct haematopoietic effects. In the present study, a novel TPO-SCF fusion protein that combined the complementary biological effects of TPO and SCF into a single molecule was expressed in, and purified from, Sf9 [Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm)] insect cells. The specific activity of rhTPO (recombinant human TPO)-SCF in megakaryoblastic Mo7e cell proliferation assays was 2.90+/-0.35 x 10(7) units/micromol, approx. 1.7 times as high as that of rhTPO. The specific activity of rhTPO-SCF in TF-1 cells proliferation assays was 7.10+/-0.95 x 10(6) units/micromol, approx. 1.2 times as high as that of rhSCF (recombinant human SCF). In a megakaryocyte-colony-forming assay using human peripheral-blood CD34(+) cells, the SCF moiety of rhTPO-SCF worked in a synergistic way to augment the colony number and exhibited a higher potential to stimulate megakaryocyte colony growth. According to the results of EMSA (electrophoretic mobility-shift assay) and semi-quantitative RT (reverse transcriptase)-PCR, the synergistic effects of the SCF moiety were also reflected in increased STAT5 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 5) DNA binding and enhanced up-regulation of p21 expression in Mo7e cells treated by rhTPO-SCF, suggesting that rhTPO-SCF could be more potent in promoting megakaryocyte proliferation and differentiation.

  15. Synthesis of trace element Si and Sr codoping hydroxyapatite with non-cytotoxicity and enhanced cell proliferation and differentiation.

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    Gao, Jianyong; Wang, Ming; Shi, Chao; Wang, Liping; Wang, Dalin; Zhu, Yingchun

    2016-11-01

    The main inorganic minerals in natural bones are non-stoichiometric hydroxyapatite (HA, Ca10[PO4]6[OH]2) doped with various trace elements, which may possess important biochemical effects. To investigate the functions of Sr and Si elements in human hard tissues, non-doped HA, trace Si doped HA, Si and Sr codoped HA with the concentration of natural bones are synthesized by hydrothermal method in this study. The samples are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The biological activities are evaluated via cytotoxicity study, adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast measurement, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) assay. All the synthesized materials are HA phase, which have hierarchical structures with oriented HA nanorods assembled into the platy particles. These materials are non-cytotoxic against L929 cells line even at 400 μg/ml powder suspension. The results clearly indicate that the proliferation of L929 cells increases with trace elements doping from trace Si-HA to Si + Sr-HA. The adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast measurement illustrates that proliferation of osteoblasts advances about 1.3 times for Si-HA and about 1.8 times for Si + Sr-HA compared with undoped HA. In general, Si-HA with trace Si element shows enhanced cell differentiation, and Si + Sr-HA dual-doped with Si and Sr elements presents increased biological activity compared with Si-HA.

  16. The impact of glucocorticoid on proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells by regulating DKK1

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    Jie YANG

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe the influence of different concentrations of glucocorticoid on the expression of DKK1 gene and the effect of DKK1 on the proliferation and differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs. Methods The experiment consisted three groups, namely, control group (no Dex, Dex8 group (10-8mol/L Dex, and Dex6 group (10-6mol/L Dex. Culture fluids with different concentrations of Dex, including 0, 10-8, and 10-6mol/L, were used to stimulate BMSCs. Realtime PCR was used to detect the expression of the DKK1 gene, and clone formation experiment was used to detect the influence on the proliferation of BMSCs. Osteogenic- and adipogenic-induced media were used which contained 0, 10-8, and 10-6mol/L Dex, respectively, to stimulate BMSCs, and to extract RNA after 3d. Real-time PCR was used to detect the expression of DKK1 genes, osteogenic genes (Runx2 and OCN, and adipogenic genes (C/EBP and PPARγ. After three weeks, Alizarin red staining and Oil red O staining were adopted to detect the influence on osteogenic and adipogenic differentiations. Results The expression of DKK1 was the highest, whereas the corresponding cloning formation ability was the lowest, after the stimulation of glucocorticoid with high concentration. The expressions of Runx2 and OCN under osteogenic induction in Dex8 group were the highest, whereas the expression of DKK1 was the lowest. Based on Alizarin red staining, calcified cortical tubers were only found in Dex8 group. The expressions of C/EBP and PPARγ under adipogenic induction in Dex6 group were the highest, so was the expression of DKK1. With Oil red O staining, there were abundant lipid drops in Dex6 group. Conclusion The expression of DKK1 was upregulated under high concentration of glucocorticoid, but it inhibited the proliferation of BMSCs. DKK1 inhibited osteogenic differentiation but promoted adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs. Osteoporosis after glucocorticoid

  17. Nuclear Factor I-C promotes proliferation and differentiation of apical papilla-derived human stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Wang, Zhihua; Jiang, Yong; Niu, Zhongying; Fu, Lei; Luo, Zhirong; Cooper, Paul R; Smith, Anthony J; He, Wenxi

    2015-03-15

    The transcription factor Nuclear Factor I-C (NFIC) has been implicated in the regulation of tooth root development, where it may be anticipated to impact on the behavior of stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAPs) and root odontoblast activity. We hypothesized that NFIC may provide an important target for promoting dentin/root regeneration. In the present study, the effects of NFIC on the proliferation and differentiation of SCAPs were investigated. Over-expression of NFIC increased cell proliferation, mineralization nodule formation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in SCAPs. Furthermore, NFIC up-regulated the mRNA levels of odontogenic-related markers, ALP, osteocalcin and collagen type I as well as dentin sialoprotein protein levels. In contrast, knockdown of NFIC by si-RNA inhibited the mineralization capacity of SCAPs and down-regulated the expression of odontogenic-related markers. In conclusion, the results indicated that upregulation of NFIC activity in SCAPs may promote osteo/odontoblastic differentiation of SCAPs.

  18. Topological laser speckle analyzer of differentiation and proliferation activity during morphogenesis in cell cultures

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    Notchenko A.V.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An automated system for morpho-topological determination of cell division phases and structur al differentiation of tissues during morphogenesis was implemented on the basis of topological properties of cell cultures, considered within the framework of set and manifold theories. A simple robotic hardware and software system based on Zeiss microscope with a modified stage and a Velleman manipulator KSR-1 allow to control the laser module position, carrying out the angular irradiation of samples either in transmission or in darkfield or luminescent modes and the subsequent math ematical data processing. This low-budget system can be easily assembled and programmed in any cytomorphological or histomorphologi-cal laboratory. The code for data processing in MATLAB is given at the end of the paper.

  19. TRPM8 ion channels differentially modulate proliferation and cell cycle distribution of normal and cancer prostate cells.

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    Valero, María Ll; Mello de Queiroz, Fernanda; Stühmer, Walter; Viana, Félix; Pardo, Luis A

    2012-01-01

    Overexpression of the cation-permeable channel TRPM8 in prostate cancers might represent a novel opportunity for their treatment. Inhibitors of TRPM8 reduce the growth of prostate cancer cells. We have used two recently described and highly specific blockers, AMTB and JNJ41876666, and RNAi to determine the relevance of TRPM8 expression in the proliferation of non-tumor and tumor cells. Inhibition of the expression or function of the channel reduces proliferation rates and proliferative fraction in all tumor cells tested, but not of non-tumor prostate cells. We observed no consistent acceleration of growth after stimulation of the channel with menthol or icilin, indicating that basal TRPM8 expression is enough to sustain growth of prostate cancer cells.

  20. TRPM8 ion channels differentially modulate proliferation and cell cycle distribution of normal and cancer prostate cells.

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    María Ll Valero

    Full Text Available Overexpression of the cation-permeable channel TRPM8 in prostate cancers might represent a novel opportunity for their treatment. Inhibitors of TRPM8 reduce the growth of prostate cancer cells. We have used two recently described and highly specific blockers, AMTB and JNJ41876666, and RNAi to determine the relevance of TRPM8 expression in the proliferation of non-tumor and tumor cells. Inhibition of the expression or function of the channel reduces proliferation rates and proliferative fraction in all tumor cells tested, but not of non-tumor prostate cells. We observed no consistent acceleration of growth after stimulation of the channel with menthol or icilin, indicating that basal TRPM8 expression is enough to sustain growth of prostate cancer cells.

  1. Transforming growth factor beta1 regulates melanocyte proliferation and differentiation in mouse neural crest cells via stem cell factor/KIT signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Tamihiro; Soma, Yoshinao; Kawa, Yoko; Ito, Masaru; Yamasaki, Emiko; Watabe, Hidenori; Hosaka, Eri; Yajima, Kenji; Ohsumi, Kayoko; Mizoguchi, Masako

    2002-03-01

    Stem cell factor is essential to the migration and differentiation of melanocytes during embryogenesis based on the observation that mutations in either the stem cell factor gene, or its ligand, KIT, result in defects in coat pigmentation in mice. Stem cell factor is also required for the survival of melanocyte precursors while they are migrating towards the skin. Transforming growth factor beta1 has been implicated in the regulation of both cellular proliferation and differentiation. NCC-melb4, an immortal cloned cell line, was cloned from a mouse neural crest cell. NCC-melb4 cells provide a model to study the specific stage of differentiation and proliferation of melanocytes. They also express KIT as a melanoblast marker. Using the NCC-melb4 cell line, we investigated the effect of transforming growth factor beta1 on the differentiation and proliferation of immature melanocyte precursors. Immunohistochemically, NCC-melb4 cells showed transforming growth factor beta1 expression. The anti-transforming growth factor beta1 antibody inhibited the cell growth, and downregulated the KIT protein and mRNA expression. To investigate further the activation of autocrine transforming growth factor beta1, NCC-melb4 cells were incubated in nonexogenous transforming growth factor beta1 culture medium. KIT protein decreased with anti-transforming growth factor beta1 antibody concentration in a concentration-dependent manner. We concluded that in NCC-melb4 cells, transforming growth factor beta1 promotes melanocyte precursor proliferation in autocrine and/or paracrine regulation. We further investigated the influence of transforming growth factor beta1 in vitro using a neural crest cell primary culture system from wild-type mice. Anti-transforming growth factor beta1 antibody decreased the number of KIT positive neural crest cell. In addition, the anti-transforming growth factor beta1 antibody supplied within the wild-type neural crest explants abolished the growth of the neural

  2. Short Stat5-interacting peptide derived from phospholipase C-β3 inhibits hematopoietic cell proliferation and myeloid differentiation.

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    Hiroki Yasudo

    Full Text Available Constitutive activation of the transcription factor Stat5 in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells leads to various hematopoietic malignancies including myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN. Our recent study found that phospholipase C (PLC-β3 is a novel tumor suppressor involved in MPN, lymphoma and other tumors. Stat5 activity is negatively regulated by the SH2 domain-containing protein phosphatase SHP-1 in a PLC-β3-dependent manner. PLC-β3 can form the multimolecular SPS complex together with SHP-1 and Stat5. The close physical proximity of SHP-1 and Stat5 brought about by interacting with the C-terminal segment of PLC-β3 (PLC-β3-CT accelerates SHP-1-mediated dephosphorylation of Stat5. Here we identify the minimal sequences within PLC-β3-CT required for its tumor suppressor function. Two of the three Stat5-binding noncontiguous regions, one of which also binds SHP-1, substantially inhibited in vitro proliferation of Ba/F3 cells. Surprisingly, an 11-residue Stat5-binding peptide (residues 988-998 suppressed Stat5 activity in Ba/F3 cells and in vivo proliferation and myeloid differentiation of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Therefore, this study further defines PLC-β3-CT as the Stat5- and SHP-1-binding domain by identifying minimal functional sequences of PLC-β3 for its tumor suppressor function and implies their potential utility in the control of hematopoietic malignancies.

  3. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptorα Agonists Differentially Regulate Inhibitor of DNA Binding Expression in Rodents and Human Cells

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    María del Carmen González

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id2 is a helix-loop-helix (HLH transcription factor that participates in cell differentiation and proliferation. Id2 has been linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases since thiazolidinediones, antidiabetic agents and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR gamma agonists, have been reported to diminish Id2 expression in human cells. We hypothesized that PPARα activators may also alter Id2 expression. Fenofibrate diminished hepatic Id2 expression in both late pregnant and unmated rats. In 24 hour fasted rats, Id2 expression was decreased under conditions known to activate PPARα. In order to determine whether the fibrate effects were mediated by PPARα, wild-type mice and PPARα-null mice were treated with Wy-14,643 (WY. WY reduced Id2 expression in wild-type mice without an effect in PPARα-null mice. In contrast, fenofibrate induced Id2 expression after 24 hours of treatment in human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2. MK-886, a PPARα antagonist, did not block fenofibrate-induced activation of Id2 expression, suggesting a PPARα-independent effect was involved. These findings confirm that Id2 is a gene responsive to PPARα agonists. Like other genes (apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein A-V, the opposite directional transcriptional effect in rodents and a human cell line further emphasizes that PPARα agonists have different effects in rodents and humans.

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorα agonists differentially regulate inhibitor of DNA binding expression in rodents and human cells.

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    González, María Del Carmen; Corton, J Christopher; Acero, Nuria; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores; Quirós, Yolanda; Alvarez-Millán, Juan José; Herrera, Emilio; Bocos, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id2) is a helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factor that participates in cell differentiation and proliferation. Id2 has been linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases since thiazolidinediones, antidiabetic agents and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma agonists, have been reported to diminish Id2 expression in human cells. We hypothesized that PPARα activators may also alter Id2 expression. Fenofibrate diminished hepatic Id2 expression in both late pregnant and unmated rats. In 24 hour fasted rats, Id2 expression was decreased under conditions known to activate PPARα. In order to determine whether the fibrate effects were mediated by PPARα, wild-type mice and PPARα-null mice were treated with Wy-14,643 (WY). WY reduced Id2 expression in wild-type mice without an effect in PPARα-null mice. In contrast, fenofibrate induced Id2 expression after 24 hours of treatment in human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2). MK-886, a PPARα antagonist, did not block fenofibrate-induced activation of Id2 expression, suggesting a PPARα-independent effect was involved. These findings confirm that Id2 is a gene responsive to PPARα agonists. Like other genes (apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein A-V), the opposite directional transcriptional effect in rodents and a human cell line further emphasizes that PPARα agonists have different effects in rodents and humans.

  5. Effects of high glucose on mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yu-Ming; Schilling, Tatjana; Benisch, Peggy;

    2007-01-01

    -immortalized MSC (hMSC-TERT) and primary MSC (hMSC). HG (25mM) enhanced hMSC-TERT proliferation in long-term studies in contrast to hMSC where proliferation was unchanged. Thioredoxin-interacting protein, which is involved in apoptosis regulation, was stimulated by glucose in hMSC-TERT. However, apoptosis...

  6. Preconditioning Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells with a Low Concentration of BMP2 Stimulates Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysdahl, Helle; Baatrup, Anette; Foldager, Casper Bindzus; Bünger, Cody

    2014-12-01

    Clinical trials using bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) for bone reconstruction have shown promising results. However, the relatively high concentration needed to be effective raises concerns for efficacy and safety. The aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic effect of an alternative treatment strategy in which human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are preconditioned with low concentrations of BMP2 for a short time in vitro. hMSCs in suspension were stimulated for 15 min with 10 and 20 ng/mL of BMP2. After the BMP2 was removed, the cells were seeded and cultured in osteogenic medium. The effects of preconditioning were analyzed with regard to proliferation and expression of osteogenic markers at both gene and protein level. The results were compared to those from cultures with continuous BMP2 stimulation. A significant increase in proliferation was seen with both precondition and continuous stimulation with BMP2, with no difference between the treatments. Preconditioning with BMP2 significantly increased gene expression of RUNX2, COLI, ALP, and OC, and protein levels of COLI and ALP. This was not found with continuous stimulation. The role of preconditioning with BMP2 in osteogenesis was validated by findings of increased gene expression of SMAD1 and an increase in dual phosphorylation of ser 463 and ser 465 in the SMAD 1/5/8 pathway. We concluded that preconditioning hMSCs with BMP2 stimulates osteogenesis: proliferation with matrix secretion and matrix maturation of hMSCs. This implies that preconditioning with BMP2 might be more effective at inducing proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs than continuous stimulation. Preconditioning with BMP2 could benefit the clinical application of BMP2 since side effects from high-dose treatments could be avoided.

  7. Fragile x mental retardation protein regulates proliferation and differentiation of adult neural stem/progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuping Luo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fragile X syndrome (FXS, the most common form of inherited mental retardation, is caused by the loss of functional fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP. FMRP is an RNA-binding protein that can regulate the translation of specific mRNAs. Adult neurogenesis, a process considered important for neuroplasticity and memory, is regulated at multiple molecular levels. In this study, we investigated whether Fmrp deficiency affects adult neurogenesis. We show that in a mouse model of fragile X syndrome, adult neurogenesis is indeed altered. The loss of Fmrp increases the proliferation and alters the fate specification of adult neural progenitor/stem cells (aNPCs. We demonstrate that Fmrp regulates the protein expression of several components critical for aNPC function, including CDK4 and GSK3beta. Dysregulation of GSK3beta led to reduced Wnt signaling pathway activity, which altered the expression of neurogenin1 and the fate specification of aNPCs. These data unveil a novel regulatory role for Fmrp and translational regulation in adult neurogenesis.

  8. Chondroregulatory action of prolactin on proliferation and differentiation of mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells in 3-dimensional micromass cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seriwatanachai, Dutmanee [Center of Calcium and Bone Research (COCAB), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Krishnamra, Nateetip [Center of Calcium and Bone Research (COCAB), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol, E-mail: naratt@narattsys.com [Center of Calcium and Bone Research (COCAB), Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand); Department of Physiology, Faculty of Science, Mahidol University, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cells expressed PRL receptor mRNAs and proteins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Low PRL concentration (10 ng/mL) increased chondrocyte viability and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Higher PRL concentrations ( Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 100 ng/mL) decreased viability and increased apoptosis. -- Abstract: A recent investigation in lactating rats has provided evidence that the lactogenic hormone prolactin (PRL) increases endochondral bone growth and bone elongation, presumably by accelerating apoptosis of hypertrophic chondrocytes in the growth plate and/or subsequent chondrogenic matrix mineralization. Herein, we demonstrated the direct chondroregulatory action of PRL on proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of chondrocytes in 3-dimensional micromass culture of mouse chondrogenic ATDC5 cell line. The results showed that ATDC5 cells expressed PRL receptor (PRLR) transcripts, and responded typically to PRL by downregulating PRLR expression. Exposure to a low PRL concentration of 10 ng/mL, comparable to the normal levels in male and non-pregnant female rats, increased chondrocyte viability, differentiation, proteoglycan accumulation, and mRNA expression of several chondrogenic differentiation markers, such as Sox9, ALP and Hspg2. In contrast, high PRL concentrations of Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 100 ng/mL, comparable to the levels in pregnancy or lactation, decreased chondrocyte viability by inducing apoptosis, with no effect on chondrogenic marker expression. It could be concluded that chondrocytes directly but differentially responded to non-pregnant and pregnant/lactating levels of PRL, thus suggesting the stimulatory effect of PRL on chondrogenesis in young growing individuals, and supporting the hypothesis of hypertrophic chondrocyte apoptosis in the growth plate of lactating rats.

  9. Acemannan, an extracted product from Aloe vera, stimulates dental pulp cell proliferation, differentiation, mineralization, and dentin formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittapiromsak, Nawaporn; Sahawat, Dusida; Banlunara, Wijit; Sangvanich, Polkit; Thunyakitpisal, Pasutha

    2010-06-01

    This study investigated the effect of acemannan (Aloe vera gel polysaccharide) on dentin formation. Primary human dental pulp cells were treated with acemannan. New DNA synthesis, bone morphogenetic protein-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, dentin sialoprotein expression, and mineralization were determined by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, biochemical assay, western blotting, and Alizarin Red staining, respectively. Then the upper first molars of 24 male Sprague Dawley rats were intentionally exposed and capped with either acemannan or calcium hydroxide. At day 28, the teeth were histopathologically examined and evaluated for the degree of inflammation, dentin bridge formation, and pulp tissue organization. The results revealed that acemannan significantly increased pulp cell proliferation, bone morphogenetic protein-2, alkaline phosphatase activity, dentin sialoprotein expression, and mineralization, compared with the untreated group. The acemannan-treated group also exhibited a complete homogeneous calcified dentin bridge and good pulp tissue organization, whereas neither was detected in the calcium hydroxide-treated and sham groups. In the acemannan-treated group, either mild or no inflammation was found, whereas the other groups had various degrees of inflammation. The data suggest that acemannan promotes dentin formation by stimulating primary human dental pulp cell proliferation, differentiation, extracellular matrix formation, and mineralization. Acemannan also has pulpal biocompatibility and promotes soft tissue organization.

  10. Akhirin regulates the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells in intact and injured mouse spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulhaleem, Felemban Athary M; Song, Xiaohong; Kawano, Rie; Uezono, Naohiro; Ito, Ayako; Ahmed, Giasuddin; Hossain, Mahmud; Nakashima, Kinichi; Tanaka, Hideaki; Ohta, Kunimasa

    2015-05-01

    Although the central nervous system is considered a comparatively static tissue with limited cell turnover, cells with stem cell properties have been isolated from most neural tissues. The spinal cord ependymal cells show neural stem cell potential in vitro and in vivo in injured spinal cord. However, very little is known regarding the ependymal niche in the mouse spinal cord. We previously reported that a secreted factor, chick Akhirin, is expressed in the ciliary marginal zone of the eye, where it works as a heterophilic cell-adhesion molecule. Here, we describe a new crucial function for mouse Akhirin (M-AKH) in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of progenitors in the mouse spinal cord. During embryonic spinal cord development, M-AKH is transiently expressed in the central canal ependymal cells, which possess latent neural stem cell properties. Targeted inactivation of the AKH gene in mice causes a reduction in the size of the spinal cord and decreases BrdU incorporation in the spinal cord. Remarkably, the expression patterns of ependymal niche molecules in AKH knockout (AKH-/-) mice are different from those of AKH+/+, both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we provide evidence that AKH expression in the central canal is rapidly upregulated in the injured spinal cord. Taken together, these results indicate that M-AKH plays a crucial role in mouse spinal cord formation by regulating the ependymal niche in the central canal.

  11. Long-term potentiation promotes proliferation/survival and neuronal differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taesup Cho

    Full Text Available Neural stem cell (NSC replacement therapy is considered a promising cell replacement therapy for various neurodegenerative diseases. However, the low rate of NSC survival and neurogenesis currently limits its clinical potential. Here, we examined if hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP, one of the most well characterized forms of synaptic plasticity, promotes neurogenesis by facilitating proliferation/survival and neuronal differentiation of NSCs. We found that the induction of hippocampal LTP significantly facilitates proliferation/survival and neuronal differentiation of both endogenous neural progenitor cells (NPCs and exogenously transplanted NSCs in the hippocampus in rats. These effects were eliminated by preventing LTP induction by pharmacological blockade of the N-methyl-D-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR via systemic application of the receptor antagonist, 3-[(R-2-carboxypiperazin-4-yl]-propyl-1-phosphonic acid (CPP. Moreover, using a NPC-neuron co-culture system, we were able to demonstrate that the LTP-promoted NPC neurogenesis is at least in part mediated by a LTP-increased neuronal release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and its consequent activation of tropomysosin receptor kinase B (TrkB receptors on NSCs. Our results indicate that LTP promotes the neurogenesis of both endogenous and exogenously transplanted NSCs in the brain. The study suggests that pre-conditioning of the host brain receiving area with a LTP-inducing deep brain stimulation protocol prior to NSC transplantation may increase the likelihood of success of using NSC transplantation as an effective cell therapy for various neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Inhibition of cell proliferation, cell expansion and differentiation by the Arabidopsis SUPERMAN gene in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereterbide, A; Hernould, M; Castera, S; Mouras, A

    2001-11-01

    Plant development depends upon the control of growth, organization and differentiation of cells derived from shoot and root meristems. Among the genes involved in flower organ determination, the cadastral gene SUPERMAN controls the boundary between whorls 3 and 4 and the growth of the adaxial outer ovule integument by down-regulating cell divisions. To determine the precise function of this gene we overexpressed ectopically the Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. SUPERMAN gene in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). The transgenic plants exhibited a dwarf phenotype. Histologically and cytologically detailed analyses showed that dwarfism is correlated with a reduction in cell number, which is in agreement with the SUPERMAN function in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, a reduction in cell expansion and an impairment of cell differentiation were observed in tobacco organs. These traits were observed in differentiated vegetative and floral organs but not in meristem structures. A potential effect of the SUPERMAN transcription factor in the control of gibberellin biosynthesis is discussed.

  13. Opposing roles of PKA and EPAC in the cAMP-dependent regulation of schwann cell proliferation and differentiation [corrected].

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketty Bacallao

    Full Text Available In Schwann cells (SCs, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP not only induces differentiation into a myelinating SC-related phenotype, but also synergistically enhances the mitogenic action of growth factors such as neuregulin. To better understand the molecular mechanism by which cAMP exerts these apparently contradictory functions, we investigated the role of the two main effectors of cAMP, protein kinase A (PKA and the exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC, on the proliferation and differentiation of both isolated and axon-related SCs. For these studies, a variety of PKA and EPAC agonists and antagonists were used, including pathway-selective analogs of cAMP and pharmacological inhibitors. Our studies indicated that the activity of PKA rather than EPAC was required for the adjuvant effect of cAMP on S-phase entry, whereas the activity of EPAC rather than PKA was required for SC differentiation and myelin formation. Even though selective EPAC activation had an overall anti-proliferative effect in SCs, it failed to drive the expression of Krox-20, a master regulator of myelination, and that of myelin-specific proteins and lipids, suggesting that EPAC activation was insufficient to drive a full differentiating response. Interestingly, inhibition of EPAC activity resulted in a drastic impairment of SC differentiation and myelin formation but not Krox-20 expression, which indicates an independent mechanism of Krox-20 regulation in response to cAMP. In conclusion, our data supports the idea that the outcome of cAMP signaling in SCs depends on the particular set of effectors activated. Whereas the mitogenic action of cAMP relies exclusively on PKA activity, the differentiating action of cAMP requires a PKA-independent (non-canonical cAMP-specific pathway that is partially transduced by EPAC.

  14. Opposing roles of PKA and EPAC in the cAMP-dependent regulation of schwann cell proliferation and differentiation [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacallao, Ketty; Monje, Paula V

    2013-01-01

    In Schwann cells (SCs), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) not only induces differentiation into a myelinating SC-related phenotype, but also synergistically enhances the mitogenic action of growth factors such as neuregulin. To better understand the molecular mechanism by which cAMP exerts these apparently contradictory functions, we investigated the role of the two main effectors of cAMP, protein kinase A (PKA) and the exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC), on the proliferation and differentiation of both isolated and axon-related SCs. For these studies, a variety of PKA and EPAC agonists and antagonists were used, including pathway-selective analogs of cAMP and pharmacological inhibitors. Our studies indicated that the activity of PKA rather than EPAC was required for the adjuvant effect of cAMP on S-phase entry, whereas the activity of EPAC rather than PKA was required for SC differentiation and myelin formation. Even though selective EPAC activation had an overall anti-proliferative effect in SCs, it failed to drive the expression of Krox-20, a master regulator of myelination, and that of myelin-specific proteins and lipids, suggesting that EPAC activation was insufficient to drive a full differentiating response. Interestingly, inhibition of EPAC activity resulted in a drastic impairment of SC differentiation and myelin formation but not Krox-20 expression, which indicates an independent mechanism of Krox-20 regulation in response to cAMP. In conclusion, our data supports the idea that the outcome of cAMP signaling in SCs depends on the particular set of effectors activated. Whereas the mitogenic action of cAMP relies exclusively on PKA activity, the differentiating action of cAMP requires a PKA-independent (non-canonical) cAMP-specific pathway that is partially transduced by EPAC.

  15. Preconditioning Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells with a Low Concentration of BMP2 Stimulates Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation In Vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysdahl, Helle; Baatrup, Anette; Foldager, Casper Bindzus;

    2014-01-01

    treatment strategy in which human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are preconditioned with low concentrations of BMP2 for a short time in vitro. hMSCs in suspension were stimulated for 15 min with 10 and 20 ng/mL of BMP2. After the BMP2 was removed, the cells were seeded and cultured...... in osteogenesis was validated by findings of increased gene expression of SMAD1 and an increase in dual phosphorylation of ser 463 and ser 465 in the SMAD 1/5/8 pathway. We concluded that preconditioning hMSCs with BMP2 stimulates osteogenesis: proliferation with matrix secretion and matrix maturation of h......MSCs. This implies that preconditioning with BMP2 might be more effective at inducing proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs than continuous stimulation. Preconditioning with BMP2 could benefit the clinical application of BMP2 since side effects from high-dose treatments could be avoided....

  16. The Notch pathway regulates both the proliferation and differentiation of follicular cells in the panoistic ovary of Blattella germanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irles, Paula; Elshaer, Nashwa; Piulachs, Maria-Dolors

    2016-01-01

    The Notch pathway is an essential regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation during development. Its involvement in insect oogenesis has been examined in insect species with meroistic ovaries, and it is known to play a fundamental role in cell fate decisions and the induction of the mitosis-to-endocycle switch in follicular cells (FCs). This work reports the functions of the main components of the Notch pathway (Notch and its ligands Delta and Serrate) during oogenesis in Blattella germanica, a phylogenetically basal species with panoistic ovary. As is revealed by RNAi-based analyses, Notch and Delta were found to contribute towards maintaining the FCs in an immature, non-apoptotic state. This ancestral function of Notch appears in opposition to the induction of transition from mitosis to endocycle that Notch exerts in Drosophila melanogaster, a change in the Notch function that might be in agreement with the evolution of the insect ovary types. Notch was also shown to play an active role in inducing ovarian follicle elongation via the regulation of the cytoskeleton. In addition, Delta and Notch interactions were seen to determine the differentiation of the posterior population of FCs. Serrate levels were found to be Notch-dependent and are involved in the control of the FC programme, although they would appear to play no crucial role in panoistic ovary oogenesis.

  17. Periostin differentially induces proliferation, contraction and apoptosis of primary Dupuytren's disease and adjacent palmar fascia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vi, Linda; Feng, Lucy; Zhu, Rebecca D.; Wu, Yan [Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hand and Upper Limb Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada); Satish, Latha [Center for Genomic Sciences, Allegheny-Singer Research Institute, Allegheny General Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Gan, Bing Siang [Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hand and Upper Limb Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Medical Biophysics, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); O' Gorman, David B., E-mail: dogorman@uwo.ca [Cell and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Hand and Upper Limb Centre, London, Ontario (Canada); Lawson Health Research Institute, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Surgery, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada); Department of Biochemistry, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario (Canada)

    2009-12-10

    Dupuytren's disease, (DD), is a fibroproliferative condition of the palmar fascia in the hand, typically resulting in permanent contracture of one or more fingers. This fibromatosis is similar to scarring and other fibroses in displaying excess collagen secretion and contractile myofibroblast differentiation. In this report we expand on previous data demonstrating that POSTN mRNA, which encodes the extra-cellular matrix protein periostin, is up-regulated in Dupuytren's disease cord tissue relative to phenotypically normal palmar fascia. We demonstrate that the protein product of POSTN, periostin, is abundant in Dupuytren's disease cord tissue while little or no periostin immunoreactivity is evident in patient-matched control tissues. The relevance of periostin up-regulation in DD was assessed in primary cultures of cells derived from diseased and phenotypically unaffected palmar fascia from the same patients. These cells were grown in type-1 collagen-enriched culture conditions with or without periostin addition to more closely replicate the in vivo environment. Periostin was found to differentially regulate the apoptosis, proliferation, {alpha} smooth muscle actin expression and stressed Fibroblast Populated Collagen Lattice contraction of these cell types. We hypothesize that periostin, secreted by disease cord myofibroblasts into the extra-cellular matrix, promotes the transition of resident fibroblasts in the palmar fascia toward a myofibroblast phenotype, thereby promoting disease progression.

  18. Alyssum homolocarpum seeds: phytochemical analysis and effects of the seed oil on neural stem cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Ghanbari, Amir; Razavipour, Razieh; Saeidi, Vahid; Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Sohrabpour, Maryam; Azari, Hassan

    2015-07-01

    Pharmacognostic evaluation of medicinal plants may assess their current applications and possibly results in finding new active components. In this study, ash and extractive values and high performance thin layer chromatography fingerprints of Alyssum homolocarpum (Brassicaceae) seed extracts were investigated to elucidate its composition. Differential scanning calorimetry and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis were employed to determine the components of A. homolocarpum seed oil (AHO). Neurosphere assay, in vitro differentiation and immunofluorescence analysis were performed to evaluate the effects of oral administration of AHO (0.5 or 1 g/kg/day for 14 days) on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) in adult male BALB/c mice. Total, acid-insoluble and water-soluble ash values were determined as 45.83 ± 5.85, 6.67 ± 2.89 and 28.33 ± 2.89 mg/g, respectively. The extractive values were 4.90, 0.43 and 0.56 % (w/w) for n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethanolic extracts, respectively. Interestingly, AHO was mainly composed of α-linolenic acid (89.71 %), β-sitosterol (3.3 mg/g) and campesterol (0.86 mg/g). Administration of AHO at 1 g/kg/day significantly increased proliferation of NSCs, as evidenced by an increase in mean neurosphere-forming frequency per brain (872.7 ± 15.17) and neurosphere diameter (101 ± 2.48 µm) compared to the control group (424.3 ± 59.29 and 78.63 ± 1.7 µm, respectively; P < 0.05). AHO treatment did not affect in vitro differentiation of the harvested NSCs. Our data show that A. homolocarpum seed oil is a rich source of α-linolenic acid and β-sitosterol with potential therapeutic application to enhance NSC proliferation and recruitment in neurological diseases.

  19. Differential TOR activation and cell proliferation in Arabidopsis root and shoot apexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaojuan; Cai, Wenguo; Liu, Yanlin; Li, Hui; Fu, Liwen; Liu, Zengyu; Liu, Hongtao; Xu, Tongda; Xiong, Yan

    2017-01-01

    The developmental plasticity of plants relies on the remarkable ability of the meristems to integrate nutrient and energy availability with environmental signals. Meristems in root and shoot apexes share highly similar molecular players but are spatially separated by soil. Whether and how these two meristematic tissues have differential activation requirements for local nutrient, hormone, and environmental cues (e.g., light) remain enigmatic in photosynthetic plants. Here, we report that the activation of root and shoot apexes relies on distinct glucose and light signals. Glucose energy signaling is sufficient to activate target of rapamycin (TOR) kinase in root apexes. In contrast, both the glucose and light signals are required for TOR activation in shoot apexes. Strikingly, exogenously applied auxin is able to replace light to activate TOR in shoot apexes and promote true leaf development. A relatively low concentration of auxin in the shoot and high concentration of auxin in the root might be responsible for this distinctive light requirement in root and shoot apexes, because light is required to promote auxin biosynthesis in the shoot. Furthermore, we reveal that the small GTPase Rho-related protein 2 (ROP2) transduces light-auxin signal to activate TOR by direct interaction, which, in turn, promotes transcription factors E2Fa,b for activating cell cycle genes in shoot apexes. Consistently, constitutively activated ROP2 plants stimulate TOR in the shoot apex and cause true leaf development even without light. Together, our findings establish a pivotal hub role of TOR signaling in integrating different environmental signals to regulate distinct developmental transition and growth in the shoot and root. PMID:28223530

  20. Proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells on biomimetically and electrolytically deposited calcium phosphate coatings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiawei; de Boer, Jan; de Groot, Klaas

    2009-09-01

    Biomimetic and electrolytic deposition are versatile methods to prepare calcium phosphate coatings. In this article, we compared the effects of biomimetically deposited octacalcium phosphate and carbonate apatite coatings as well as electrolytically deposited carbonate apatite coating on the proliferation and differentiation of mouse osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. It was found that MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on the biomimetically deposited carbonate apatite coating demonstrated the greatest proliferation rate and the highest differentiation potential. Cells on the biomimetically deposited octacalcium phosphate coating had lower proliferation rate before day 7, but higher after that, than those on the electrolytically deposited carbonate apatite coating. There was no difference on the expression of early differentiation markers, that is, alkaline phosphatase activity and collagen content, between biomimetically deposited octacalcium phosphate and electrolytically deposited carbonate apatite coatings. However, higher expression of late differentiation markers, that is, osteocalcin and bone sialoprotein mRNA, was found on the biomimetically deposited octacalcium phosphate coating on day 14. These results suggest that the difference in in vitro osteoblast cell performance of calcium phosphate coatings might relate to their physicochemical properties. Biomimetic carbonate apatite coating is the most favorable surface for the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells.

  1. Sonic hedgehog signaling coordinates the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells by regulating cell cycle kinetics during development of the neocortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komada, Munekazu

    2012-06-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh) acts as a morphogen in normal development of various vertebrate tissues and organs. Shh signaling is essential for patterning and cell-fate specification, particularly in the central nervous system. Shh signaling plays different roles depending on its concentration, area, and timing of exposure. During the development of the neocortex, a low level of Shh is expressed in the neural stem/progenitor cells as well as in mature neurons in the dorsal telencephalon. Shh signaling in neocortex development has been shown to regulate cell cycle kinetics of radial glial cells and intermediate progenitor cells, thereby maintaining the proliferation, survival and differentiation of neurons in the neocortex. During the development of the telencephalon, endogenous Shh signaling is involved in the transition of slow-cycling neural stem cells to fast-cycling neural progenitor cells. It seems that high-level Shh signaling in the ventral telencephalon is essential for ventral specification, while low-level Shh signaling in the dorsal telencephalon plays important roles in the fine-tuning of cell cycle kinetics. The Shh levels and multiple functions of Shh signaling are important for proper corticogenesis in the developing brain. The present paper discusses the roles of Shh signaling in the proliferation and differentiation of neural stem/progenitor cells.

  2. Potential role of herbal remedies in stem cell therapy: proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udalamaththa, Vindya Lankika; Jayasinghe, Chanika Dilumi; Udagama, Preethi Vidya

    2016-08-11

    Stem cell therapy has revolutionized modern clinical therapy with the potential of stem cells to differentiate into many different cell types which may help to replace different cell lines of an organism. Innumerous trials are carried out to merge new scientific knowledge and techniques with traditional herbal extracts that may result in less toxic, affordable, and highly available natural alternative therapeutics. Currently, mesenchyamal stromal cell (MSC) lines are treated with individual and mixtures of crude herbal extracts, as well as with purified compounds from herbal extracts, to investigate the mechanisms and effects of these on stem cell growth and differentiation. Human MSCs (hMSCs) possess multilineage, i.e., osteogenic, neurogenic, adipogenic, chondrogenic, and myogenic, differentiation abilities. The proliferative and differentiation properties of hMSCs treated with herbal extracts have shown promise in diseases such as osteoporosis, neurodegenerative disorders, and other tissue degenerative disorders. Well characterized herbal extracts that result in increased rates of tissue regeneration may be used in both stem cell therapy and tissue engineering for replacement therapy, where the use of scaffolds and vesicles with enhanced attaching and proliferative properties could be highly advantageous in the latter. Although the clinical application of herbal extracts is still in progress due to the variability and complexity of bioactive constituents, standardized herbal preparations will strengthen their application in the clinical context. We have critically reviewed the proliferative and differentiation effects of individual herbal extracts on hMSCs mainly derived from bone marrow and elaborated on the plausible underlying mechanisms of action. To be fruitfully used in reparative and regenerative therapy, future directions in this area of study should (i) make use of hMSCs derived from different non-traditional sources, including medical waste material

  3. Long-term administration of scopolamine interferes with nerve cell proliferation, differentiation and migration in adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus, but it does not induce cell death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing Chun Yan; Yun Lyul Lee; Il-Jun Kang; Moo-Ho Won; Joon Ha Park; Bai Hui Chen; Jeong-Hwi Cho; In Hye Kim; Ji Hyeon Ahn; Jae-Chul Lee; In Koo Hwang; Jun Hwi Cho

    2014-01-01

    Long-term administration of scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, can inhibit the survival of newly generated cells, but its effect on the proliferation, differentiation and migration of nerve cells in the adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus remain poorly understood. In this study, we used immunohistochemistry and western blot methods to weekly detect the biological behaviors of nerve cells in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of adult mice that received intraperito-neal administration of scopolamine for 4 weeks. Expression of neuronal nuclear antigen (NeuN;a neuronal marker) and Fluoro-Jade B (a marker for the localization of neuronal degeneration) was also detected. After scopolamine treatment, mouse hippocampal neurons did not die, and Ki-67 (a marker for proliferating cells)-immunoreactive cells were reduced in number and reac hed the lowest level at 4 weeks. Doublecortin (DCX; a marker for newly generated neurons)-im-munoreactive cells were gradually shortened in length and reduced in number with time. After scopolamine treatment for 4 weeks, nearly all of the 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine (BrdU)-labeled newly generated cells were located in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus, but they did not migrate into the granule cell layer. Few mature BrdU/NeuN double-labeled cells were seen in the subgranular zone of the dentate gyrus. These ifndings suggest that long-term administration of scopolamine interferes with the proliferation, differentiation and migration of nerve cells in the adult mouse hippocampal dentate gyrus, but it does not induce cell death.

  4. M2 Phenotype Microglia-derived Cytokine Stimulates Proliferation and Neuronal Differentiation of Endogenous Stem Cells in Ischemic Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ja Yong; Kim, Jong Youl; Kim, Jae Young; Park, Joohyun; Lee, Won Taek

    2017-01-01

    Microglia play a key role in the immune response and inflammatory reaction that occurs in response to ischemic stroke. Activated microglia promote neuronal damage or protection in injured brain tissue. Extracellular signals polarize the microglia towards the M1/M2 phenotype. The M1/M2 phenotype microglia released pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines which induce the activation of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs). In this study, we investigated how the cytokines released by microglia affect the activation of NSPCs. First, we treated BV2 cells with a lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 20 ng/ml) for M1 phenotype microglia and interleukin-4 (IL-4; 20 ng/ml) for M2 phenotype microglia in BV2 cells. Mice were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 1 h. In ex vivo, brain sections containing the subventricular zone (SVZ) were cultured in conditioned media of M1 and M2 phenotype-conditioned media for 3 d. We measured the expression of cytokines in the conditioned media by RT-PCR and ELISA. The M2 phenotype microglia-conditioned media led to the proliferation and neural differentiation of NSPCs in the ipsilateral SVZ after ischemic stroke. The RT-PCR and ELISA results showed that the expression of TGF-α mRNA was significantly higher in the M2 phenotype microglia-conditioned media. These data support that M2 phenotype microglia-derived TGF-α is one of the key factors to enhance proliferation and neural differntiation of NSPCs after ischemic stroke.

  5. The effect of gold nanoparticles on the proliferation and differentiation of murine osteoblast: a study of MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuanyuan; Shi, Xiujuan; Chen, Fengshan

    2014-07-01

    The current study involves in identification and molecular levels characterization of optimal size and concentration of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). Stable, gold nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). The concentration and size dependent effects of the gold nanoparticles on proliferation of pre-osteoblast cells MC3T3-E1 was evaluated employing MTT cell proliferation assay. The results revealed that 30 nm diameter gold nanoparticles at a concentration of 10(-11) ppm were the most effective in promoting cell proliferation. Assay for alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and ALP staining were also used to confirm the effect of gold nanoparticles on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation. Moreover, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to measure the expression of the osteogenic genes Runx2, ALP, OCN and OPN as response gold nanoparticles. The data demonstrated that 30 nm gold nanoparticles at a concentration of 10(-11) ppm was the best combination of size and concentration to promote the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts, as indicated by an increase in the ALP activity and expression of the osteogenic genes Runx2, ALP, OCN and OPN. Collectively the results of this study suggest that gold nanoparticles can promote the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and could be used effectively in treatments promoting bone regeneration.

  6. CD1d-dependent expansion of NKT follicular helper cells in vivo and in vitro is a product of cellular proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampuria, Pragya; Lang, Mark L

    2015-05-01

    NKT follicular helper cells (NKTfh cells) are a recently discovered functional subset of CD1d-restricted NKT cells. Given the potential for NKTfh cells to promote specific antibody responses and germinal center reactions, there is much interest in determining the conditions under which NKTfh cells proliferate and/or differentiate in vivo and in vitro. We confirm that NKTfh cells expressing the canonical semi-invariant Vα14 TCR were CXCR5(+)/ICOS(+)/PD-1(+)/Bcl6(+) and increased in number following administration of the CD1d-binding glycolipid α-galactosylceramide (α-GC) to C57Bl/6 mice. We show that the α-GC-stimulated increase in NKTfh cells was CD1d-dependent since the effect was diminished by reduced CD1d expression. In vivo and in vitro treatment with α-GC, singly or in combination with IL-2, showed that NKTfh cells increased in number to a greater extent than total NKT cells, but proliferation was near-identical in both populations. Acquisition of the NKTfh phenotype from an adoptively transferred PD-1-depleted cell population was also evident, showing that peripheral NKT cells differentiated into NKTfh cells. Therefore, the α-GC-stimulated, CD1d-dependent increase in peripheral NKTfh cells is a result of cellular proliferation and differentiation. These findings advance our understanding of the immune response following immunization with CD1d-binding glycolipids.

  7. Role of ERK1/2, Akt, and PLCy pathways in proliferation and neuronal differentiation in the adult rat spinal cord neural stem/progenitor cell culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Si eChan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Proliferation of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs has been identified in both normal and injured adult mammalian spinal cord. Yet the signaling mechanisms underlying the regulation of adult spinal cord NSPCs proliferation and commitment toward a neuronal lineage remain undefined. In this study, the role of three growth factor-mediated signaling pathways in proliferation and neuronal differentiation was examined. Adult spinal cord NSPCs were enriched in the presence of fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2. We observed an increase in the number of cells expressing the microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2 over time, indicating neuronal differentiation in the culture. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase or extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK kinase 1 and 2/ERK 1 and 2 (MEK/ERK1/2 or the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathways suppressed active proliferation in adult spinal cord NSPC cultures; whereas neuronal differentiation was negatively affected only when the ERK1/2 pathway was inhibited. Inhibition of the phospholipase C gamma (PLCy pathway did not affect proliferation or neuronal differentiation. Finally, we demonstrated that the blockade of either the ERK1/2 or PLCy signaling pathways reduced neurite branching of MAP2+ cells derived from the NSPC cultures. Many of the MAP2+ cells expressed synaptophysin and had a glutamatergic phenotype, indicating that over time adult spinal cord NSPCs had differentiated into mostly glutamatergic neurons. Our work provides new information regarding the contribution of these pathways to the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of NSPCs derived from adult spinal cord cultures, and emphasizes that the contribution of these pathways is dependent on the origin of the NSPCs.

  8. Investigation of low-level laser therapy potentiality on proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblast-like cells in the absence/presence of osteogenic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloise, Nora; Ceccarelli, Gabriele; Minzioni, Paolo; Vercellino, Marco; Benedetti, Laura; De Angelis, Maria Gabriella Cusella; Imbriani, Marcello; Visai, Livia

    2013-12-01

    Several studies have shown that low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) has beneficial effects on bone regeneration. The objective of this study was to examine the in vitro effects of LLLI on proliferation and differentiation of a human osteoblast-like cell line (Saos-2 cell line). Cultured cells were exposed to different doses of LLLI with a semiconductor diode laser (659 nm 10 mW power output). The effects of laser on proliferation were assessed daily up to seven days of culture in cells irradiated once or for three consecutive days with laser doses of 1 or 3 J/cm2. The obtained results showed that laser stimulation enhances the proliferation potential of Saos-2 cells without changing their telomerase pattern or morphological characteristics. The effects on cell differentiation were assessed after three consecutive laser irradiation treatments in the presence or absence of osteo-inductive factors on day 14. Enhanced secretion of proteins specific for differentiation toward bone as well as calcium deposition and alkaline phosphatase activity were observed in irradiated cells cultured in a medium not supplemented with osteogenic factors. Taken together these findings indicate that laser treatment enhances the in vitro proliferation of Saos-2 cells, and also influences their osteogenic maturation, which suggest it is a helpful application for bone tissue regeneration.

  9. The differential anti-proliferation effect of white (Pueraria mirifica), red (Butea superba), and black (Mucuna collettii) Kwao Krua plants on the growth of MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherdshewasart, W; Cheewasopit, W; Picha, P

    2004-08-01

    The differential anti-proliferation effect of white (Pueraria mirifica), red (Butea superba) and black (Mucuna collettii) Kwao Krua plant extracts on the growth of MCF-7 cells was evaluated after 4 days of incubation. The percent cell growth comparison was based on protein determination of the harvested cells in parallel with the control group and Pueraria lobata treatment group. Pueraria lobata led to no proliferation and a mild anti-proliferation effect on the growth of MCF-7 cells. Pueraria mirifica caused proliferation at 1 microg/mL and an anti-proliferative effect on the growth of MCF-7 cells at 100 and 1000 microg/mL with an ED50 value of 642.83 microg/mL. Butea superba led to no proliferation and an anti-proliferation effect on the growth of MCF-7 cells at 10, 100 and 1000 microg/mL with an ED50 value of 370.91 microg/mL. Mucuna collettii led to no proliferation and an anti-proliferation effect on the growth of MCF-7 cells at 100 and 1000 microg/mL with an ED50 value of 85.36 microg/mL. The results demonstrated that only Pueraria mirifica showed an estrogenic effect on MCF-7 cell growth and a clear antagonistic effect with E2 at high concentration. Butea superba and Mucuna collettii exhibited only anti-proliferation effects on the growth of MCF-7 cells in relation with a possible anti-estrogen mechanism or a potent cytotoxic effect.

  10. Effects of varied interferons in combination with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) on proliferation and differentiation of ATRA-resistent APL cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Peng-cheng; ZHANG Mei; LI Jing; CAI Rui-bo; LIU Ya-lin; CAO Yun-xin

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects and mechanisms of interferon in combination with alltrans retinoic acid (ATRA) on proliferation and differentiation of ATRA-resistent APL cell. Methods :After MR2 cells (ATRA-resistance cell line) were treated with IFN-α, IFN-γ and ATRA alone or IFN-α and IFN-γ in combination with ATRA respectively. The cell roliferation was tested by MTT test and the cell differentiation was tested through light microscope by NBT test and flow cytometry (FCM). The expression of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) protein was observed by indirect immune fluorescent method. Results: Both IFN-α and IFN-γ could inhibit the proliferation and induce the differentiation of MR2 cells to some extent. The effects were more obvious after both interferons in combination with ATRA respectively (P<0. 05). Moreover, the maturation of MR2 cells induced by IFN-γ+ATRA group was more higher than that by IFN-α+ATRA group (P<0.05). Both interferons could induce the expressions of PML protein. Conclusion :Both interferons can inhibit MR2 cells proliferation, which may be related to the expression of PML protein induced by both interferons. The inducing differentiation effects of IFN-γ+ATRA group on MR2 cells are more powerful than those of IFN-α+ATRA group, which may be related to the different signal transduction pathway of both interferons.

  11. In vitro effects of rituximab on the proliferation, activation and differentiation of human B cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamburova, E.G.; Koenen, H.J.P.M.; Boon, L.; Hilbrands, L.B.; Joosten, I.

    2012-01-01

    Rituximab is a chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody (mAb) used in B-cell malignancies, various autoimmune disorders and organ transplantation. Although administration of a single dose of rituximab results in full B-cell depletion in peripheral blood, there remains a residual B-cell population in s

  12. The Influence of Physical Forces on Progenitor Cell Migration, Proliferation and Differentiation in Fracture Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    total # animals) Surgery Day Loading initiation and cell delivery Euthanasia Day 10 (# animals) Euthanasia Day 24 (# animals) Euthanasia ...Day and local delivery of cells Loading initiation Euthanasia Day 10 (# animals) Euthanasia Day 24 (# animals) Euthanasia Day 48...Cell Homing. Doctoral Dissertation. University of Michigan September 2008. Weaver, Aaron S.; Alford, Andrea I.; Hankenson, Kurt D.; Su, Yu-Ping

  13. Diverse functions of IGF/insulin signaling in malignant and noncancerous prostate cells: proliferation in cancer cells and differentiation in noncancerous cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidegger, Isabel; Ofer, Philipp; Doppler, Wolfgang; Rotter, Varda; Klocker, Helmut; Massoner, Petra

    2012-10-01

    The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) pathway represents one of the most studied molecular regulatory networks in oncology. Clinical trials investigating the therapeutic value of anti-IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) therapies in cancer, including prostate cancer, are ongoing. However, the multiple functions of the IGF network in the prostate are not entirely known. To elucidate the effects of IGF and insulin (INS) on prostate cells, we stimulated prostate cancer (PC3, DU145, LNCaP, DUCaP) and noncancerous prostate cells (EP156T, RWPE-1) and observed differing responses: whereas cancer cells responded to IGF and INS exposure by way of enhanced cell proliferation and glucose consumption, basal to luminal differentiation was induced in noncancerous cells. The same diverse responses were observed when the growth factor receptors IGF1R or INSR were overexpressed. Down-regulation of IGF1R or INSR isoform A (INSRA) also inhibited only proliferation of cancer cells. The proliferative response induced by the INSR in cancer cells was mediated solely by the INSRA. Moreover we observed that the receptors of the IGF network mutually influence their expression and exert redundant functions, thus underscoring the functional molecular network formed by IGF, INS, IGF1R, and INSR. Collectively we found that both IGF1R and INSRA have oncogenic effects in prostate cancer, but the IGF network also has important physiological functions in the noncancerous prostate. These data provide new insights into the biology of the IGF network in the prostate, thereby facilitating the design and interpretation of clinical studies investigating IGF1R targeting agents.

  14. Human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation is regulated by PGE2 through differential activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase isoforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleiveland, Charlotte Ramstad; Kassem, Moustapha; Lea, Tor

    2008-01-01

    with synthetic cAMP analogues, resulted in enhancement of proliferation. On the other side, we found that treatment of hMSC with high concentrations of PGE2 inhibited cell proliferation by arresting the cells in G0/G1 phase, an effect we found to be mediated by PKA I. Hence, the two different PKA isoforms seem....... Furthermore, PGE2 treatment leads to enhanced nuclear translocation of beta-catenin, thus influencing cell proliferation. The presence of two PKA isoforms, types I and II, prompted us to investigate their individual contribution in PGE2-mediated regulation of proliferation. Specific activation of PKA type II......The conditions used for in vitro differentiation of hMSCs contain substances that affect the activity and expression of cyclooxygenase enzymes (COX1/COX2) and thereby the synthesis of prostanoids. hMSC constitutively produce PGE2 when cultivated in vitro. In this study we have investigated effects...

  15. Role of Epigenetics in Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation: Implications for Treating Neurodegenerative Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinageshwar, Bhairavi; Maiti, Panchanan; Dunbar, Gary L; Rossignol, Julien

    2016-02-02

    The main objectives of this review are to survey the current literature on the role of epigenetics in determining the fate of stem cells and to assess how this information can be used to enhance the treatment strategies for some neurodegenerative disorders, like Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Some of these epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation and histone modifications, which have a direct impact on the way that genes are expressed in stem cells and how they drive these cells into a mature lineage. Understanding how the stem cells are behaving and giving rise to mature cells can be used to inform researchers on effective ways to design stem cell-based treatments. In this review article, the way in which the basic understanding of how manipulating this process can be utilized to treat certain neurological diseases will be presented. Different genetic factors and their epigenetic changes during reprogramming of stem cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) have significant potential for enhancing the efficacy of cell replacement therapies.

  16. Role of Epigenetics in Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation: Implications for Treating Neurodegenerative Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhairavi Srinageshwar

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main objectives of this review are to survey the current literature on the role of epigenetics in determining the fate of stem cells and to assess how this information can be used to enhance the treatment strategies for some neurodegenerative disorders, like Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. Some of these epigenetic mechanisms include DNA methylation and histone modifications, which have a direct impact on the way that genes are expressed in stem cells and how they drive these cells into a mature lineage. Understanding how the stem cells are behaving and giving rise to mature cells can be used to inform researchers on effective ways to design stem cell-based treatments. In this review article, the way in which the basic understanding of how manipulating this process can be utilized to treat certain neurological diseases will be presented. Different genetic factors and their epigenetic changes during reprogramming of stem cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs have significant potential for enhancing the efficacy of cell replacement therapies.

  17. Nuclear trafficking of secreted factors and cell-surface receptors: new pathways to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation, and involvement in cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Planque Nathalie

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Secreted factors and cell surface receptors can be internalized by endocytosis and translocated to the cytoplasm. Instead of being recycled or proteolysed, they sometimes translocate to the nucleus. Nuclear import generally involves a nuclear localization signal contained either in the secreted factor or its transmembrane receptor, that is recognized by the importins machinery. In the nucleus, these molecules regulate transcription of specific target genes by direct binding to transcription factors or general coregulators. In addition to the transcription regulation, nuclear secreted proteins and receptors seem to be involved in other important processes for cell life and cellular integrity such as DNA replication, DNA repair and RNA metabolism. Nuclear secreted proteins and transmembrane receptors now appear to induce new signaling pathways to regulate cell proliferation and differentiation. Their nuclear localization is often transient, appearing only during certain phases of the cell cycle. Nuclear secreted and transmembrane molecules regulate the proliferation and differentiation of a large panel of cell types during embryogenesis and adulthood and are also potentially involved in wound healing. Secreted factors such as CCN proteins, EGF, FGFs and their receptors are often detected in the nucleus of cancer cells. Nuclear localization of these molecules has been correlated with tumor progression and poor prognosis for patient survival. Nuclear growth factors and receptors may be responsible for resistance to radiotherapy.

  18. The Influence of Physical Forces on Progenitor Cell Migration, Proliferation and Differentiation in Fracture Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    marrow-derived human mesenchymal progenitor cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2006;345: 1177-1183. 5. Fiedler J, Etzel N...progenitor cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2005;334: 561-568. 7. Fiedler J, Roderer G, Gunther KP, Brenner RE. BMP-2

  19. Overexpression of Wnt3a facilitates the proliferation and neural differentiation of neural stem cells in vitro and after transplantation into an injured rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi-Tao; Bi, Yong-Yan; Chen, Er-Tao; Feng, Dong-Fu

    2014-02-01

    Neural stem cell-based therapy is a promising option for repair after injury. However, poor stem cell proliferation and insufficient differentiation of the stem cells into neurons are still difficult problems. The present study investigated whether transplantation of neural stem cells (NSCs) genetically modified to express Wnt3a is a promising approach to overcome these difficulties. We explored the possibility that Wnt3a might contribute to the therapeutic effect of NSC transplantation in retinal repair. The relative promotion of proliferation and neural differentiation by modified NSCs was investigated in a rat model of optic nerve crush. A recombinant lentivirus (Lenti-Wnt3a) was engineered to express Wnt3a. NSCs infected with control lentivirus (Lenti-GFP) or Lenti-Wnt3a were transplanted into the subretinal space immediately after the optic nerve crush. The proliferation and neural differentiation activity of the NSCs were assessed in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of Wnt3a in NSCs induced activation of Wnt signaling, promoted proliferation, and directed the differentiation of the NSCs into neurons both in vitro and in vivo. Our study suggests that Wnt3a can potentiate the therapeutic benefits of NSC-based therapy in the injured retina.

  20. PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORα (PPARα) AGONISTS DIFFERENTIALLY REGULATE INHIBITOR OF DNA BINDING (ID2) EXPRESSION IN RODENTS AND HUMAN CELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abstract Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id2) is a member of the helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factor family whose members play important roles in cell differentiation and proliferation. Id2 has been linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases since thiazolidinediones,...

  1. Low-power GaAlAs laser irradiation promotes the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of stem cells via IGF1 and BMP2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyun-Yi Wu

    Full Text Available Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI has been found to induce various biological effects and cellular processes. Also, LPLI has been shown to promote fracture repair. Until now, it has been unclear how LPLI promotes bone formation and fracture healing. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential mechanism of LPLI-mediated enhancement of bone formation using mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (D1 cells. D1 cells were irradiated daily with a gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs laser at dose of 0, 1, 2, or 4 J/cm(2. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH assay showed no cytotoxic effects of LPLI on D1 cells, and instead, LPLI at 4 J/cm(2 significantly promoted D1 cell proliferation. LPLI also enhanced osteogenic differentiation in a dose-dependent manner and moderately increased expression of osteogenic markers. The neutralization experiments indicated that LPLI regulated insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1 and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2 signaling to promote cell proliferation and/or osteogenic differentiation. In conclusion, our study suggests that LPLI may induce IGF1 expression to promote both the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of D1 cells, whereas it may induce BMP2 expression primarily to enhance osteogenic differentiation.

  2. DNA Methylation in Skeletal Muscle Stem Cell Specification, Proliferation, and Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhianna C. Laker

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An unresolved and critically important question in skeletal muscle biology is how muscle stem cells initiate and regulate the genetic program during muscle development. Epigenetic dynamics are essential for cellular development and organogenesis in early life and it is becoming increasingly clear that epigenetic remodeling may also be responsible for the cellular adaptations that occur in later life. DNA methylation of cytosine bases within CpG dinucleotide pairs is an important epigenetic modification that reduces gene expression when located within a promoter or enhancer region. Recent advances in the field suggest that epigenetic regulation is essential for skeletal muscle stem cell identity and subsequent cell development. This review summarizes what is currently known about how skeletal muscle stem cells regulate the myogenic program through DNA methylation, discusses a novel role for metabolism in this process, and addresses DNA methylation dynamics in adult skeletal muscle in response to physical activity.

  3. Differential Effects of Falcarinol and Related Aliphatic C17-Polyacetylenes on Intestinal Cell Proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Purup, Stig; Larsen, Eric; Christensen, Lars P.

    2009-01-01

    Quantitative major polyacetylenes of carrots (falcarinol and falcarindiol) and American ginseng roots (falcarinol and panaxydol) were isolated and tested in human intestinal epithelial cells of normal (FHs 74 Int.) and cancer (Caco-2) origin. A hormesis effect was seen for all isolated polyacetylenes when added to Caco-2 cells in concentrations ranging from 1 ng/mL to 20 μg/mL. The relative inhibitory potency was falcarinol > panaxydol > falcarindiol. No hormesis effect was observed when addi...

  4. Characterization of temperature-sensitive mutants reveals a role for receptor-like kinase SCRAMBLED/STRUBBELIG in coordinating cell proliferation and differentiation during Arabidopsis leaf development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lin; Zhong, Si-Hui; Cui, Xiao-Feng; Li, Jianming; He, Zu-Hua

    2012-12-01

    The balance between cell proliferation and cell differentiation is essential for leaf patterning. However, identification of the factors coordinating leaf patterning and cell growth behavior is challenging. Here, we characterized a temperature-sensitive Arabidopsis mutant with leaf blade and venation defects. We mapped the mutation to the sub-2 allele of the SCRAMBLED/STRUBBELIG (SCM/SUB) receptor-like kinase gene whose functions in leaf development have not been demonstrated. The sub-2 mutant displayed impaired blade development, asymmetric leaf shape and altered venation patterning under high ambient temperature (30°C), but these defects were less pronounced at normal growth temperature (22°C). Loss of SCM/SUB function results in reduced cell proliferation and abnormal cell expansion, as well as altered auxin patterning. SCM/SUB is initially expressed throughout leaf primordia and becomes restricted to the vascular cells, coinciding with its roles in early leaf patterning and venation formation. Furthermore, constitutive expression of the SCM/SUB gene also restricts organ growth by inhibiting the transition from cell proliferation to expansion. We propose the existence of a SCM/SUB-mediated developmental stage-specific signal for leaf patterning, and highlight the importance of the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation for leaf morphogenesis.

  5. Interferon-γ regulates the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells via activation of indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase (IDO.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Croitoru-Lamoury

    Full Text Available The kynurenine pathway (KP of tryptophan metabolism is linked to antimicrobial activity and modulation of immune responses but its role in stem cell biology is unknown. We show that human and mouse mesenchymal and neural stem cells (MSCs and NSCs express the complete KP, including indoleamine 2,3 dioxygenase 1 (IDO and IDO2, that it is highly regulated by type I (IFN-β and II interferons (IFN-γ, and that its transcriptional modulation depends on the type of interferon, cell type and species. IFN-γ inhibited proliferation and altered human and mouse MSC neural, adipocytic and osteocytic differentiation via the activation of IDO. A functional KP present in MSCs, NSCs and perhaps other stem cell types offers novel therapeutic opportunities for optimisation of stem cell proliferation and differentiation.

  6. Effects of poly(L-lysine), poly(acrylic acid) and poly(ethylene glycol) on the adhesion, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Hongxu; Guo, Likun; Kawazoe, Naoki; Tateishi, Tetsuya; Chen, Guoping

    2009-01-01

    Microenvironments, composed of many kinds of cytokines and growth factors plus extracellular matrices with diverse electrostatic properties, play key roles in controlling cell functions in vivo. In this study, three kinds of water-soluble polymers, positively charged poly(L-lysine) (PLL), negatively charged poly(acrylic acid) (PAAc) and neutral poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), were compared based on their effects on the adhesion, spread, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The MSCs were seeded and cultured in the presence of polymers of different concentrations applied by methods using coating, mixing or covering. The effects of the water-soluble polymers depended on their electrostatic properties and method of application. The methods were in the order of coating, mixing and covering in terms of high to low influence. A low concentration of PLL promoted MSC adhesion, spread, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation, while a high concentration of PLL was toxic. The PEG-coated surface facilitated cell aggregation and spheroid formation by inhibiting cell adhesion. A high concentration of mixed PEG (10 microg/ml) promoted cell proliferation in serum-free medium. PAAc showed no obvious effects on MSC adhesion, spread, proliferation, or chondrogenic differentiation.

  7. New Horizons in Enhancing the Proliferation and Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells Using Stimulatory Effects of the Short Time Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghlidospour, M; Mortazavi, S M J; Yousefi, F; Mortazavi, S A R

    2015-09-01

    Mobile phone use and wireless communication technology have grown explosively over the past decades. This rapid growth has caused widespread global concern about the potential detrimental effects of this technology on human health. Stem cells generate specialized cell types of the tissue in which they reside through normal differentiation pathways. Considering the undeniable importance of stem cells in modern medicine, numerous studies have been performed on the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on cellular processes such as: proliferation, differentiation, cell cycle and DNA repair processes. We have conducted extensive studies on beneficial (stimulatory) or detrimental biological effects of exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones, mobile phone base stations, mobile phone jammers, radar systems, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems and dentistry cavitrons over the past years. In this article, recent studies on the biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation in the range of radiofrequency (RF) on some important features of stem cells such as their proliferation and differentiation are reviewed. Studies reviewed in this paper indicate that the stimulatory or inhibitory effects of RF radiation on the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells depend on various factors such as the biological systems, experiment conditions, the frequency and intensity of RF and the duration of exposure.

  8. Cloning of the Eukaryotic Expression Vector with Nerve Growth Factor in Rats and Its Effects on Proliferation and Differentiation of Mesencephal Neural Stem Cells of Fetal Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minhua LIN; Lin YANG; Rong FU; Hongyang ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Summary: The eukaryotic expression vector containing full-length cDNA sequence of rate nerve growth factor (NGF) β subunit was constructed and its effects on proliferation and differentiation of neural stem cells were observed. By using PCR, full-length cDNA sequence of NGF β subunit in rats was cloned and ligated into the eukaryotic expression vector pEGFP-N1-NGE The recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N1-NGF was transfected into the mesencephal neural stem cells of embryonic rats by Lipofectamin and transiently expressed. MTT method was used to determine the effects of NGF on proliferation of neural stem cells, and under phase-contrast microscopy, the effects of NGF on growth of nervous processes following differentiation of neural stem cells were observed. Sequence analysis indicated that the cloned full-length cDNA sequence of rat NGF β was identical to that of published sequence encoding NGF in gene GeneBank. The transfection of recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N1-NGF into mesencephal neural stem cells of embryonic rats could obviously promote proliferation of neural stem cells and faciliate the growth of neural stem cells-derived nerve cells. It was suggested that neural stem cells could be used as a vehicle of gene transfer, and the expression of NGF β subunit in the neural stem cells could promote the growth of nerve cells derived from neural stem cells.

  9. Survival Motor Neuron Protein Regulates Stem Cell Division, Proliferation, and Differentiation in Drosophila

    OpenAIRE

    Stuart J Grice; Ji-Long Liu

    2011-01-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy is a severe neurogenic disease that is caused by mutations in the human survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene. SMN protein is required for the assembly of small nuclear ribonucleoproteins and a dramatic reduction of the protein leads to cell death. It is currently unknown how the reduction of this ubiquitously essential protein can lead to tissue-specific abnormalities. In addition, it is still not known whether the disease is caused by developmental or degenerative defe...

  10. Bezafibrate enhances proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells via AMPK and eNOS activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing ZHONG; Ling-ling XIU; Guo-hong WEI; Yuan-yuan LIU; Lei SU; Xiao-pei CAO; Yan-bing LI; Hai-peng XIAO

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effects of bezafibrate on the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells, and to determine the signaling pathway underlying the effects.Methods: MC3T3-E1 cells, a mouse osteoblastic cell line, were used. Cell viability and proliferation were examined using MTT assay and colorimetric BrdU incorporation assay, respectively. NO production was evaluated using the Griess reagent. The mRNA expression of ALP, collagen I, osteocalcin, BMP-2, and Runx-2 was measured using real-time PCR. Western blot analysis was used to detect the expression of AMPK and eNOS proteins.Results: Bezafibrate increased the viability and proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Bezafibrate (100 μmol/L) significantly enhanced osteoblastic mineralization and expression of the differentiation markers ALP, collagen I and osteocalcin. Bezaflbrate (100 μmol/L) increased phosphorylation of AMPK and eNOS, which led to an increase of NO production by 4.08-fold, and upregulating BMP-2 and Runx-2 mRNA expression. These effects could be blocked by AMPK inhibitor compound C (5 μmol/L), or the PPARβ inhibitor GSK0660 (0.5 μmol/L), but not by the PPARa inhibitor MK886 (10 μmol/L). Furthermore, GSK0660, compound C, or N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME, 1 mmol/L) could reverse the stimulatory effects of bezafibrate (100 pmol/L) on osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, whereas MK886 only inhibited bezafibrate-induced osteoblast prolifera-tion.Conclusion: Bezafibrate stimulates proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells, mainly via a PPARβ-dependent mechanism. The drug might be beneficial for osteoporosis by promoting bone formation.

  11. Upregulated microRNA-92b regulates the differentiation and proliferation of EpCAM-positive fetal liver cells by targeting C/EBPß.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nian-Song Qian

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are short noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression. Although recent evidences have been indicated that their aberrant expression may play an important role in cancer stem cells, the mechanism of their deregulation in neoplastic transformation of liver cancer stem cells (LCSCs has not been explored. In our study, the HCC model was established in F344 rats by DEN induction. The EpCAM(+ cells were sorted out from unfractionated fetal liver cells and liver cancer cells using the FACS analysis and miRNA expression profiles of two groups were screened through microarray platform. Gain-of-function studies were performed in vitro and in vivo to determine the role of miR-92b on proliferation and differentiation of the hepatic progenitors. In addition, luciferase reporter system and gene function analysis were used to predict miR-92b target. we found that miR-92b was highly downregulated in EpCAM(+ fetal liver cells in expression profiling studies. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated reverse correlation between miR-92b expression and differentiation degree in human HCC samples. Overexpression of miR-92b in EpCAM(+ fetal liver cells significantly increased proliferation and inhibited differentiation as well as in vitro and in vivo studies. Moreover, we verified that C/EBPß is a direct target of miR-92b and contributes to its effects on proliferation and differentiation. We conclude that aberrant expression of miR-92b can result in proliferation increase and differentiation arrest of hepatic progenitors by targeting C/EBPß.

  12. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 is required for the regulation of rat oval cell proliferation and differentiation in the 2AAF/PHX model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C Steiger-Luther

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Nicole C Steiger-Luther1, Houda Darwiche1, Seh-Hoon Oh1, Jennifer M Williams1, Bryon E Petersen1,21Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, 2Program in Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USAAbstract: Oval cell-mediated liver regeneration is a highly complex process that involves the coordination of several signaling factors, chemokines and cytokines to allow for proper maintenance of the liver architecture. When hepatocyte proliferation is inhibited, an hepatic stem cell population, often referred to as “oval cells”, is activated to aid in liver regeneration. The function of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 during this process of oval cell activation is of particular interest because it is produced in liver and has been shown to induce migration and differentiation of other stem cell populations both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, IGFBP-3 production has been linked to the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β superfamily, a pathway known to be induced during oval cell proliferation. In this study, we set out to determine whether IGFBP-3 plays a role in oval cell proliferation, migration and differentiation during this specific type of regeneration. Through activation of the oval cell-mediated liver regeneration in a rat model, we found that IGFBP-3 is elevated in the liver and serum of animals during peak days of oval cell activation and proliferation. Furthermore, in vitro assays found that WB-344 cells, a liver stem cell line similar to oval cells, were induced to migrate in the presence of IGFBP-3. When expression of IGFBP-3 was knocked down during oval cell activation in vivo, we found that oval cell proliferation was increased and observed the appearance of numerous atypical ductular structures, which were OV-6 and Ki67-positive. Finally, quantitative realtime PCR analysis of liver tissue from IGFBP-3 small interfering

  13. Increased culture density is linked to decelerated proliferation, prolonged G1 phase, and enhanced propensity for differentiation of self-renewing human pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jincheng; Fan, Yongjia; Tzanakakis, Emmanuel S

    2015-04-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) display a very short G1 phase and rapid proliferation kinetics. Regulation of the cell cycle, which is linked to pluripotency and differentiation, is dependent on the stem cell environment, particularly on culture density. This link has been so far empirical and central to disparities in the growth rates and fractions of self-renewing hPSCs residing in different cycle phases. In this study, hPSC cycle progression in conjunction with proliferation and differentiation were comprehensively investigated for different culture densities. Cell proliferation decelerated significantly at densities beyond 50×10(4) cells/cm(2). Correspondingly, the G1 fraction increased from 25% up to 60% at densities greater than 40×10(4) cells/cm(2) while still hPSC pluripotency marker expression was maintained. In parallel, expression of the cycle inhibitor CDKN1A (p21) was increased, while that of p27 and p53 did not change significantly. After 4 days of culture in an unconditioned medium, greater heterogeneity was noted in the differentiation outcomes and was limited by reducing the density variation. A quantitative model was constructed for self-renewing and differentiating hPSC ensembles to gain a better understanding of the link between culture density, cycle progression, and stem cell state. Results for multiple hPSC lines and medium types corroborated experimental findings. Media commonly used for maintenance of self-renewing hPSCs exhibited the slowest kinetics of induction of differentiation (kdiff), while BMP4 supplementation led to 14-fold higher kdiff values. Spontaneous differentiation in a growth factor-free medium exhibited the largest variation in outcomes at different densities. In conjunction with the quantitative framework, our findings will facilitate rationalizing the selection of cultivation conditions for the generation of stem cell therapeutics.

  14. Aberrant Proliferation of Differentiating Alveolar Cells Induces Hyperplasia in Resting Mammary Glands of SV40-TAg Transgenic Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Quante, Timo; Wegwitz, Florian; Abe, Julia; Rossi, Alessandra; Deppert, Wolfgang; Bohn, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    WAP-T1 transgenic mice express SV40-TAg under control of the whey acidic protein (WAP) promoter, which directs activity of this strong viral oncogene to luminal cells of the mammary gland. Resting uniparous WAP-T1 glands develop hyperplasia composed of TAg positive cells prior to appearance of advanced tumor stages. We show that cells in hyperplasia display markers of alveolar differentiation, suggesting that TAg targets differentiating cells of the alveolar compartment. The glands show signi...

  15. Aberrant proliferation of differentiating alveolar cells induces hyperplasia in resting mammary glands of SV40-TAg transgenic mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wolfgang eBohn; Timo eQuante

    2014-01-01

    WAP-T1 transgenic mice express SV40-TAg under control of the WAP promoter (Whey Acidic Protein) which directs activity of this strong viral oncogene to luminal cells of the mammary gland. Resting uniparous WAP-T1 glands develop hyperplasia composed of TAg positive cells prior to appearance of advanced tumor stages. We show that cells in hyperplasia display markers of alveolar differentiation, suggesting that TAg targets differentiating cells of the alveolar compartment. The glands show signif...

  16. Effects of salvianolic acid B on proliferation, neurite outgrowth and differentiation of neural stem cells derived from the cerebral cortex of embryonic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B is isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza,the root of which is widely used as a traditional Chinese medicine to treat stroke.However,little is known about how salvianolic acid B influences growth characteristics of neural stem cells (NSCs).The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of salvianolic acid B on proliferation,neurite outgrowth and differentiation of NSCs derived from the cerebral cortex of embryonic mice using MTT,flow cytometry,immunofluorescence and RT-PCR.It was found that 20 μg mL·1 and 40 μg mL·1 salvianolic acid B had similar effects on proliferation of NSCs,and a suitable concentration of salvianolic acid B increased the number of NSCs and their derivative neurospheres.The growth-promoting activity of salvianolic acid B was dependent on and associated with an accumulation in the G2/S-phase cell population.Salvianolic acid B also promoted the neurite outgrowth of NSCs and their differentiation into neurons.The mRNA for tau,GFAP and nestin were present in differentiating neurospheres induced by salvianolic acid B.However,high-level expression of tau mRNA and low-level expression of GFAP mRNA was detected in differentiated cells,in contrast to the control conditions.This collective evidence indicates that exogenous salvianolic acid B is capable of promoting proliferation of neurospheres and differentiation towards the neuronal lineage in vitro and may act in the proliferation of NSCs and may promote NSC differentiation into neuronal cells.

  17. Proteome analysis reveals novel proteins associated with proliferation and differentiation of the colorectal cancer cell line Caco-2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stierum, R.; Gaspari, M.; Dommels, Y.; Ouatas, T.; Pluk, H.; Jespersen, S.; Vogels, J.; Verhoeckx, K.; Groten, J.; Ommen, B. van

    2003-01-01

    Here, we describe a proteomics approach to study protein expression changes in differentiating Caco-2 cells. Caco-2 is a colorectal carcinoma cell line, which upon differentiation loses its tumorigenic phenotype and displays characteristics of mature enterocytes, including brush borders with microvi

  18. Dose-dependent differential effect of hemin on protein synthesis and cell proliferation in Leishmania donovani promastigotes cultured in vitro

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Jayanta K Pal; Manisha Joshi-Purandare

    2001-06-01

    Leishmania donovani requires an exogenous source of heme for growth and transformation. In in vitro culture of the free-living promastigotes, exogenously added hemin enhances cell proliferation. In this investigation, the question of the function of heme with particular reference to protein synthesis and cell proliferation has been addressed. The results of in vitro cell culture experiments demonstrated that hemin (10 M) alone is suitable for supporting optimum level of protein synthesis, and thereby cell proliferation of promastigotes to an extent that it can replace fetal bovine serum. However, in situ labelling experiments along with Western blots revealed that high concentration of hemin (50 M) reduced the level of protein synthesis in general and of -tubulin in particular with a concomitant induction of hsp90, and induced consequent morphological changes that are observed during in situ transformation of promastigotes in mammalian macrophages. These results therefore suggest that sudden exposure to high concentration of heme in mammalian macrophages may be one of the key factors that trigger promastigote to amastigote transformation in L. donovani. Furthermore, hemin with its dual characteristic could be used as a tool to understand molecular mechanism of cell proliferation and transformation in these parasites.

  19. Seipin knockout in mice impairs stem cell proliferation and progenitor cell differentiation in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus via reduced levels of PPARγ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoxi Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The seipin gene (BSCL2 was originally identified in humans as a loss-of-function gene associated with congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 2 (CGL2. Neuronal seipin-knockout (seipin-nKO mice display a depression-like phenotype with a reduced level of hippocampal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. The present study investigated the influence of seipin deficiency on adult neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG and the underlying mechanisms of the effects. We show that the proliferative capability of stem cells in seipin-nKO mice was substantially reduced compared to in wild-type (WT mice, and that this could be rescued by the PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone (rosi. In seipin-nKO mice, neuronal differentiation of progenitor cells was inhibited, with the enhancement of astrogliogenesis; both of these effects were recovered by rosi treatment during early stages of progenitor cell differentiation. In addition, rosi treatment could correct the decline in hippocampal ERK2 phosphorylation and cyclin A mRNA level in seipin-nKO mice. The MEK inhibitor U0126 abolished the rosi-rescued cell proliferation and cyclin A expression in seipin-nKO mice. In seipin-nKO mice, the hippocampal Wnt3 protein level was less than that in WT mice, and there was a reduction of neurogenin 1 (Neurog1 and neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1 mRNA, levels of which were corrected by rosi treatment. STAT3 phosphorylation (Tyr705 was enhanced in seipin-nKO mice, and was further elevated by rosi treatment. Finally, rosi treatment for 10 days could alleviate the depression-like phenotype in seipin-nKO mice, and this alleviation was blocked by the MEK inhibitor U0126. The results indicate that, by reducing PPARγ, seipin deficiency impairs proliferation and differentiation of neural stem and progenitor cells, respectively, in the adult DG, which might be responsible for the production of the depression-like phenotype in seipin-nKO mice.

  20. Evaluation of early stage human bone marrow stromal proliferation, cell migration and osteogenic differentiation on μ-MIM structured stainless steel surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitar, Malak; Benini, Fausta; Brose, Claudia; Friederici, Vera; Imgrund, Philipp; Bruinink, Arie

    2013-05-01

    It is well established that surface topography greatly affect cell-surface interactions. In a recent study we showed that microstructured stainless steel surfaces characterized by the presence of defined hexagonally arranged hemisphere-like structures significantly affected cell architecture (shape and focal adhesion size) of primary human bone mesenchymal stromal cells. This study aimed at further investigating the influence these microstructures (microcline protruding hemispheres) on critical aspects of cell behaviour namely; proliferation, migration and osteogenic differentiation. As with previously reported data, we used primary human bone mesenchymal stromal cells to investigate such effects at an early stage in vitro. Cells of different patients were utilised for cell migration studies. Our data showed that an increase in cell proliferation was exhibited as a function of surface topography (hemispheres). Cell migration velocity also varied as a function of surface topography on patient specific basis and seems to relate to the differentiated state of the seeded cell population (as demonstrated by bALP positivity). Osteogenic differentiation, however, did not exhibit significant variations (both up and down-regulation) as a function of both surface topography and time in culture.

  1. Preliminary screening of differentially expressed genes involved in methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 gene-mediated proliferation in human osteosarcoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Gang; Li, Yi; Lv, YangFan; Dai, Huanzi; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Qiao-Nan

    2015-04-01

    Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) is essential in human brain development and has been linked to several cancer types and neuro-developmental disorders. This study aims to screen the MeCP2 related differentially expressed genes and discover the therapeutic targets for osteosarcoma. CCK8 assay was used to detect the proliferation and SaOS2 and U2OS cells. Apoptosis of cells was detected by flow cytometry analysis that monitored Annexin V-APC/7-DD binding and 7-ADD uptake simultaneously. Denaturing formaldehyde agarose gel electrophoresis was employed to examine the quality of total RNA 18S and 28S units. Gene chip technique was utilized to discover the differentially expressed genes correlated with MeCP2 gene. Differential gene screening criteria were used to screen the changed genes. The gene up-regulation or down-regulation more than 1.5 times was regarded as significant differential expression genes. The CCK8 results indicated that the cell proliferation of MeCP2 silencing cells (LV-MeCP2-RNAi) was significantly decreased compared to non-silenced cells (LV-MeCP2-RNAi-CN) (P genes were screened from a total of 49,395 transcripts. Among the total 107 transcripts, 34 transcripts were up-regulated and 73 transcripts were down-regulated. There were five significant differentially expressed genes, including IGFBP4, HOXC8, LMO4, MDK, and CTGF, which correlated with the MeCP2 gene. The methylation frequency of CpG in IGFBP4 gene could achieve 55%. In conclusion, the differentially expressed IGFBP4, HOXC8, LMO4, MDK, and CTGF genes may be involved in MeCP2 gene-mediated proliferation and apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells.

  2. Cannabidiol stimulates Aml-1a-dependent glial differentiation and inhibits glioma stem-like cells proliferation by inducing autophagy in a TRPV2-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabissi, Massimo; Morelli, Maria Beatrice; Amantini, Consuelo; Liberati, Sonia; Santoni, Matteo; Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; Pallini, Roberto; Santoni, Giorgio

    2015-10-15

    Glioma stem-like cells (GSCs) correspond to a tumor cell subpopulation, involved in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumor initiation and acquired chemoresistance. Currently, drug-induced differentiation is considered as a promising approach to eradicate this tumor-driving cell population. Recently, the effect of cannabinoids (CBs) in promoting glial differentiation and inhibiting gliomagenesis has been evidenced. Herein, we demonstrated that cannabidiol (CBD) by activating transient receptor potential vanilloid-2 (TRPV2) triggers GSCs differentiation activating the autophagic process and inhibits GSCs proliferation and clonogenic capability. Above all, CBD and carmustine (BCNU) in combination overcome the high resistance of GSCs to BCNU treatment, by inducing apoptotic cell death. Acute myeloid leukemia (Aml-1) transcription factors play a pivotal role in GBM proliferation and differentiation and it is known that Aml-1 control the expression of several nociceptive receptors. So, we evaluated the expression levels of Aml-1 spliced variants (Aml-1a, b and c) in GSCs and during their differentiation. We found that Aml-1a is upregulated during GSCs differentiation, and its downregulation restores a stem cell phenotype in differentiated GSCs. Since it was demonstrated that CBD induces also TRPV2 expression and that TRPV2 is involved in GSCs differentiation, we evaluated if Aml-1a interacted directly with TRPV2 promoters. Herein, we found that Aml-1a binds TRPV2 promoters and that Aml-1a expression is upregulated by CBD treatment, in a TRPV2 and PI3K/AKT dependent manner. Altogether, these results support a novel mechanism by which CBD inducing TRPV2-dependent autophagic process stimulates Aml-1a-dependent GSCs differentiation, abrogating the BCNU chemoresistance in GSCs.

  3. Effects of total flavonoids from Drynaria fortunei on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat dental pulp stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Fei; Yuan, Su-Jian; Yang, Cheng

    2012-09-01

    Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) have the potential to form bone, nerve and fat, and are a candidate for use in regenerative medicine. Previous studies indicated that total flavonoids from Drynaria fortunei show a stimulative effect on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells in vitro. This study aimed to investigate the effect of total flavonoids from Drynaria fortunei on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat DPSCs, and to further clarify the mechanisms involved. DPSCs were isolated by enzymatic digestion and identified using the CD44, CD29 and CD34 markers by immunohistochemistry, and exposed to 0.01, 0.05 and 0.1 g/l total flavonoids from Drynaria fortunei media. Total flavonoids from Drynaria fortunei promoted the proliferation of DPSCs in a dose-dependent manner and this effect may depend on the shortening of the G0/G1 phase and promotion of the S phase. Compared with the control group, the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and the expression of osteogenic genes increased with the concentrations of total flavonoids from Drynaria fortunei, and the volume and number of calcified nodules in the Drynaria groups was bigger compared to the control group. These results suggest that total flavonoid from Drynaria fortunei directly stimulates DPSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation, and may serve as a new promising candidate drug for dental tissue engineering and bone regeneration.

  4. Effects of differential endothelial cells growth stage on the proliferation and migration of vascular smooth muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Xiao-jing; HUANG Lan; JIN Jun; ZHAO Gang

    2003-01-01

    @@ Endothelial injury and SMC proliferation and migration are the same common pathophysiological processes of many cardiovascular diseases such as artherosclerosis, hypertension, diabete and restenosis. So it is very important to determine their functional interaction under pathology conditions.

  5. Proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of BMP2 gene‑transfected stem cells from human tooth apical papilla: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Xiaolei; Ling, Junqi; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xinchun; Ma, Jinglei; Zheng, Jianmao

    2014-10-01

    Stem cells from the apical papilla (SCAP) have odontogenic potential, which plays a pivotal role in the root dentin development of permanent teeth. Human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is a well-known gene that participates in regulating the odontogenic differentiation of dental tissue‑derived stem cells. However, little is known regarding the effects of the BMP2 gene on the proliferation and odontogenic differentiation of SCAP. This study aimed to evaluate the odontogenic differentiation potential of lentiviral‑mediated BMP2 gene‑transfected human SCAP (SCAP/BMP2) in vitro. SCAP were isolated by enzymatic dissociation of human teeth apical papillae. The multipotential of SCAP was verified by their osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation characteristics. The phenotype of SCAP was evaluated by flow cytometry (FCM). The proliferation status of the blank vector‑transfected SCAP (SCAP/Vector) and SCAP/BMP2 was analyzed by a cell counting kit-8 (CCK‑8). Odontogenic genes, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OCN), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP) and dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) of the two groups of cells were evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). ALP staining and alizarin red (AR) staining of the cells was performed on the 16th day after transfection. In vitro results of CCK-8, qPCR, ALP and AR staining demonstrated that: ⅰ) SCAP/BMP2 had a comparable proliferation rate to SCAP/Vector; ⅱ) SCAP/BMP2 presented significantly better potential to differentiate into odontoblasts compared to SCAP/Vector by upregulating ALP, OCN, DSPP and DMP1 genes; ⅲ) more ALP granules and mineralized deposits were formed by SCAP/BMP2 as compared to SCAP/Vector. The results suggested that lentiviral-mediated BMP2 gene transfection enhances the odontogenic differentiation capacity of human SCAP in vitro.

  6. c-myc but not Hif-1α-dependent downregulation of VEGF influences the proliferation and differentiation of HL-60 cells induced by ATRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Guanhua; Li, Yanmei; Zhang, Zhiyong; Ren, Xia; Li, Hongjiang; Zhang, Wen; Wei, Ruoying; Pan, Sufei; Shi, Lulu; Bi, Kehong; Jiang, Guosheng

    2013-06-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in solid tumor growth, progression and metastasis as well as in the proliferation and differentiation of hematological malignancies. However, the molecular mechanism that modulates VEGF expression and secretion in leukemia cells has not yet to be elucidated. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of the signal pathway in modulating the expression of VEGF in HL-60 cells. Specific siRNAs targeting VEGF were transfected into HL-60 cells and the VEGF expression was measured with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot assay. The cell proliferation of HL-60 cells was detected by the cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and the differentiation of HL-60 cells induced by all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) was detected by the RT-PCR assay and flow cytometry assay for CD11b. The upstream transcription factors that were related to VEGF expression such as P53, SP-1, c-jun, VHL, cox-2, c-myc and stat3 were detected by RT-PCR assay. In addition, the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay was used to reveal the role of c-myc by binding the target gene VEGF. The results demonstrated the hypoxia-inducible factor 1α-related signaling pathway, not the same as in solid tumors, might not play a key role in modulating VEGF expression. c-myc contributes to the modulation of VEGF expression by targeting the promoter of VEGF, which was indicated by the ChIP assay. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that VEGF plays an important role in the differentiation and proliferation of HL-60 cells; c-myc-dependent downregulation of VEGF induced by ATRA contributes to the differentiation of HL-60 cells.

  7. Research progress on the proliferation and differentiation of

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, A.; Tan, B.

    Space environments such as microgravity magnetic field radiation and heavy metal ions affects the development and functions of human and mammalian cells To study these influences and the corresponding metabolisms is in favour of knowing about the development and differentiation process of organism cells In recent years researches on the differentiation of stem cells induced in vitro provide a new pathway for the repair of tissue lesion and therapy of human diseases Stem cells are potential in capable of differentiating into different functional cells But there has no reliable methods to induce the stem cells differentiating forward specific cells and to gain enough cells for transplantation which limited their application on clinical therapy It has been indicated that microgravity influenced embryonic development hematopoietic and mesenchymal stem cells and so on Hematopoietic stem cell migration and its differentiation were affected by microgravity The specific differentiation of hematopoietic stem cells was inhibited under microgravity The expression of proteins regulating cell cycle period also changed Mesenchymal stem cells provide a source of cells for the repair of musculoskeletal tissue in ground experiment While under microgravity the proliferation and differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells were influenced along with the differentiated cells function changed Furthermore in the differentiation process of stem cells under microgravity the mechanism of signal transport was also affected and the specific differentiation

  8. In vivo regulation of colonic cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and P27Kip1 by dietary fish oil and butyrate in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Turner, Nancy D; Murphy, Mary E; Carroll, Raymond J; Chapkin, Robert S; Lupton, Joanne R

    2015-11-01

    We have shown that dietary fish oil is protective against experimentally induced colon cancer, and the protective effect is enhanced by coadministration of pectin. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized that fish oil with butyrate, a pectin fermentation product, protects against colon cancer initiation by decreasing cell proliferation and increasing differentiation and apoptosis through a p27(Kip1)-mediated mechanism. Rats were provided diets of corn or fish oil, with/without butyrate, and terminated 12, 24, or 48 hours after azoxymethane (AOM) injection. Proliferation (Ki-67), differentiation (Dolichos Biflorus Agglutinin), apoptosis (TUNEL), and p27(Kip1) (cell-cycle mediator) were measured in the same cell within crypts in order to examine the coordination of cell cycle as a function of diet. DNA damage (N(7)-methylguanine) was determined by quantitative IHC analysis. Dietary fish oil decreased DNA damage by 19% (P = 0.001) and proliferation by 50% (P = 0.003) and increased differentiation by 56% (P = 0.039) compared with corn oil. When combined with butyrate, fish oil enhanced apoptosis 24 hours after AOM injection compared with a corn oil/butyrate diet (P = 0.039). There was an inverse relationship between crypt height and apoptosis in the fish oil/butyrate group (r = -0.53, P = 0.040). The corn oil/butyrate group showed a positive correlation between p27(Kip1) expression and proliferation (r = 0.61, P = 0.035). These results indicate the in vivo effect of butyrate on apoptosis and proliferation is dependent on dietary lipid source. These results demonstrate the presence of an early coordinated colonocyte response by which fish oil and butyrate protects against colon tumorigenesis.

  9. The effects of C60(C(COOH)2)2-FITC on proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Song, Yan; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Mingyi; He, Rui; Chang, Yanan; Jin, Junjiang; Xing, Geng-Mei; Zhang, Jun

    2013-10-01

    As manufactured nanoparticles, fullerene nanoparticles were used as the model to research the manufactured nanoparticles entering into cells and hence have been rapidly developed for biomedical uses. Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) have become the most widely used seeding cells in tissue engineering because they are readily obtained without ethical problems and are multipotent with regard to adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineages. Because of their favorable biological and cellular activities, C60 carboxyl derivatives are among the most widely studied C60 derivatives. FITC labeled C60(C(COOH)2)2 nanoparticles were charactered by FTIR, ESI-MS, XPS and DLS. The effects of C60(C(COOH)2)2-FITC on proliferation and differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in vitro were observed. The fullerene nanoparticles are quickly internalized by the cells and they had low toxicity to proliferation of hMSCs. The C60(C(COOH)2)2 nanoparticles could promote cell proliferation, enhance osteoclast differentiation of hMSCs.

  10. Testosterone inhibits transforming growth factor-β signaling during myogenic differentiation and proliferation of mouse satellite cells: potential role of follistatin in mediating testosterone action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Melissa; Bhasin, Shalender; Jasuja, Ravi; Pervin, Shehla; Singh, Rajan

    2012-03-05

    Testosterone (T) administration is associated with increased satellite cell number and skeletal muscle hypertrophy, although there is considerable heterogeneity in the response of different skeletal muscle groups to T in vivo. We investigated the effects of T on the growth and differentiation of satellite cells isolated from levator ani (LA) and gastrocnemius (gastroc) muscles. T up regulated follistatin (Fst) expression, but down regulated the mRNA and protein expression of a number of genes in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)-signaling pathway. Inhibition of Fst expression by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited myogenic differentiation and blocked the pro-myogenic effects of T. Treatment of satellite cells with T or Fst up regulated the expression of Pax7 and PCNA, and increased their proliferation. T and Fst blocked TGF-β induced inhibition of growth and myogenic differentiation and down regulated TGF-β-dependent transcriptome in both LA and gastroc cells. We conclude that T stimulation of satellite cell proliferation and myogenic differentiation are associated with up regulation of Fst and inhibition of TGF-β-signaling.

  11. Peptides Regulate Cortical Thymocytes Differentiation, Proliferation, and Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kh. Khavinson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The processes of differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis were studied in a cell culture of human cortical thymocytes under the influence of short peptides T-32 (Glu-Asp-Ala and T-38 (Lys-Glu-Asp. Peptides T-32 and T-38 amplified cortical thymocytes differentiation towards regulatory T cells, increased their proliferative activity, and decreased the level of apoptosis. Moreover, peptides under study stimulated proliferative and antiapoptotic activity of the mature regulatory T cells.

  12. The DNA glycosylases OGG1 and NEIL3 influence differentiation potential, proliferation, and senescence-associated signs in neural stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, Amilcar [Linnaeus Center in Developmental Biology for Regenerative Medicine (DBRM), Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE 17177 Stockholm (Sweden); Hermanson, Ola, E-mail: ola.hermanson@ki.se [Linnaeus Center in Developmental Biology for Regenerative Medicine (DBRM), Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, SE 17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-07-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer DNA glycosylases OGG1 and NEIL3 are required for neural stem cell state. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No effect on cell viability by OGG1 or NEIL3 knockdown in neural stem cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer OGG1 or NEIL3 RNA knockdown result in decreased proliferation and differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Increased HP1{gamma} immunoreactivity after NEIL3 knockdown suggests premature senescence. -- Abstract: Embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) exhibit self-renewal and multipotency as intrinsic characteristics that are key parameters for proper brain development. When cells are challenged by oxidative stress agents the resulting DNA lesions are repaired by DNA glycosylases through the base excision repair (BER) pathway as a means to maintain the fidelity of the genome, and thus, proper cellular characteristics. The functional roles for DNA glycosylases in NSCs have however remained largely unexplored. Here we demonstrate that RNA knockdown of the DNA glycosylases OGG1 and NEIL3 decreased NSC differentiation ability and resulted in decreased expression of both neuronal and astrocytic genes after mitogen withdrawal, as well as the stem cell marker Musashi-1. Furthermore, while cell survival remained unaffected, NEIL3 deficient cells displayed decreased cell proliferation rates along with an increase in HP1{gamma} immunoreactivity, a sign of premature senescence. Our results suggest that DNA glycosylases play multiple roles in governing essential neural stem cell characteristics.

  13. Fetal neural tube stem cells from Pax3 mutant mice proliferate, differentiate, and form synaptic connections when stimulated with folic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichi, Shunsuke; Nakazaki, Hiromichi; Boshnjaku, Vanda; Singh, Ravneet Monny; Mania-Farnell, Barbara; Xi, Guifa; McLone, David G; Tomita, Tadanori; Mayanil, Chandra Shekhar K

    2012-01-20

    Although maternal intake of folic acid (FA) prevents neural tube defects in 70% of the population, the exact mechanism of prevention has not been elucidated. We hypothesized that FA affects neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and differentiation. This hypothesis was examined in a folate-responsive spina bifida mouse model, Splotch (Sp(-/-)), which has a homozygous loss-of-function mutation in the Pax3 gene. Neurospheres were generated with NSCs from the lower lumbar neural tube of E10.5 wild-type (WT) and Sp(-/-) embryos, in the presence and absence of FA. In the absence of FA, the number of neurospheres generated from Sp(-/-) embryos compared with WT was minimal (Pcell differentiation, FA-stimulated Sp(-/-) neurospheres were allowed to differentiate in the continued presence or absence of FA. Neurospheres from both conditions expressed multi-potent stem cell characteristics and the same differentiation potential as WT. Further, multiple neurospheres from both WT and FA-stimulated Sp(-/-) cell cultures formed extensive synaptic connections. On the whole, FA-mediated rescue of neural tube defects in Sp(-/-) embryos promotes NSC proliferation at an early embryonic stage. FA-stimulated Sp(-/-) neurospheres differentiate and form synaptic connections, comparable to WT.

  14. Differential effect of three mitogen-activated protein kinases on lipoprotein (a)-induced human mesangial cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hong-mei; WEI Min; XU Ke; LI Xue-wang

    2010-01-01

    Background Mesangial hypercellularity is a critical early histopathological finding in human and experimental glomerular diseases. Hyperlipidemia and the glomerular deposition of lipoproteins are commonly associated with mesangial hypercellularity and play an important pathobiological role in the development of glomerular diseases. The activated cytoplasmic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), including mainly extracellular-signal regulated protein kinase (ERK), c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38, has been thought to translocate into the nucleus and activate various transcription factors and protooncogenes associated with cell growth and proliferation. Lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) has been shown to stimulate proliferation of mesangial cells, but the events of Lp(a) signaling have not yet been characterized. The purpose of this study was to investigate the signal transduction pathways involved in Lp(a)-induced cell proliferation and provide an evidence for the participation of Lp(a) in intracellular signaling pathways for mesangial cell proliferation.Methods Lp(a) was isolated from a patient who was being treated with low density lipoprotein (LDL)-apheresis by density gradient ultracentrifugation and then chromatography. Human mesangial cells (HMCs) were isolated by the sequential sieving technique and stimulated with Lp(a) in different concentration and time course. The DNA synthesis of the cells was measured by [~3H] thymidine incorporation for detecting the proliferation. The expression of all the three members of MAPK family, including ERK1/ERK2, JNK, and p38, and their phosphorylation were detected by Western blotting. Results Lp(a) could induce a significant dose-dependent proliferation of HMCs. The ~3H-TdR incorporation was 1.64±0.31, 1.69±0.48, 3.59±0.68 (P <0.01), 4.14±0.78 (P <0.01), and 4.05±0.55 (P <0.01) (10~3 cpm) at the Lp(a) concentration of 0, 5, 10, 25, and 50 μg/ml, respectively. Lp(a) induced an increase in ERK1/ERK2 phosphorylation

  15. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) isoforms control lymphoid cancer cell proliferation through differentially regulating tumor suppressor p53 activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardella, Kacie A; Muro, Israel; Fang, Gloria; Sarkar, Krishnakali; Mendez, Omayra; Wright, Casey W

    2016-03-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is involved in xenobiotic and hypoxic responses, and we previously showed that ARNT also regulates nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling by altering the DNA binding activity of the RelB subunit. However, our initial study of ARNT-mediated RelB modulation was based on simultaneous suppression of the two ARNT isoforms, isoform 1 and 3, and precluded the examination of their individual functions. We find here that while normal lymphocytes harbor equal levels of isoform 1 and 3, lymphoid malignancies exhibit a shift to higher levels of ARNT isoform 1. These elevated levels of ARNT isoform 1 are critical to the proliferation of these cancerous cells, as suppression of isoform 1 in a human multiple myeloma (MM) cell line, and an anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) cell line, triggered S-phase cell cycle arrest, spontaneous apoptosis, and sensitized cells to doxorubicin treatment. Furthermore, co-suppression of RelB or p53 with ARNT isoform 1 prevented cell cycle arrest and blocked doxorubicin induced apoptosis. Together our findings reveal that certain blood cancers rely on ARNT isoform 1 to potentiate proliferation by antagonizing RelB and p53-dependent cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Significantly, our results identify ARNT isoform 1 as a potential target for anticancer therapies.

  16. Effect of decellularized adipose tissue particle size and cell density on adipose-derived stem cell proliferation and adipogenic differentiation in composite methacrylated chondroitin sulphate hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cody F C; Yan, Jing; Han, Tim Tian Y; Marecak, Dale M; Amsden, Brian G; Flynn, Lauren E

    2015-07-30

    An injectable composite scaffold incorporating decellularized adipose tissue (DAT) as a bioactive matrix within a hydrogel phase capable of in situ polymerization would be advantageous for adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) delivery in the filling of small or irregular soft tissue defects. Building on previous work, the current study investigates DAT milling methods and the effects of DAT particle size and cell seeding density on the response of human ASCs encapsulated in photo-cross-linkable methacrylated chondroitin sulphate (MCS)-DAT composite hydrogels. DAT particles were generated by milling lyophilized DAT and the particle size was controlled through the processing conditions with the goal of developing composite scaffolds with a tissue-specific 3D microenvironment tuned to enhance adipogenesis. ASC proliferation and adipogenic differentiation were assessed in vitro in scaffolds incorporating small (average diameter of 38   ±   6 μm) or large (average diameter of 278   ±   3 μm) DAT particles in comparison to MCS controls over a period of up to 21 d. Adipogenic differentiation was enhanced in the composites incorporating the smaller DAT particles and seeded at the higher density of 5   ×   10(5) ASCs/scaffold, as measured by glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) enzyme activity, semi-quantitative analysis of perilipin expression and oil red O staining of intracellular lipid accumulation. Overall, this study demonstrates that decellularized tissue particle size can impact stem cell differentiation through cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, providing relevant insight towards the rational design of composite biomaterial scaffolds for adipose tissue engineering.

  17. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Negatively Regulates the Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Toward Myofibroblasts in Liver Fibrogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuangshuang Jia

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs have been confirmed to have capacity to differentiate toward hepatic myofibroblasts, which contribute to fibrogenesis in chronic liver diseases. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ, a ligand-activated transcription factor, has gained a great deal of recent attention as it is involved in fibrosis and cell differentiation. However, whether it regulates the differentiation of BMSCs toward myofibroblasts remains to be defined. Methods: Carbon tetrachloride or bile duct ligation was used to induce mouse liver fibrosis. Expressions of PPARγ, α-smooth muscle actin, collagen α1 (I and collagen α1 (III were detected by real-time RT-PCR and Western blot or immunofluorescence assay. Results: PPARγ expression was decreased in mouse fibrotic liver. In addition, PPARγ was declined during the differentiation of BMSCs toward myofibroblasts induced by transforming growth factor β1. Activation of PPARγ stimulated by natural or synthetic ligands suppressed the differentiation of BMSCs. Additionally, knock down of PPARγ by siRNA contributed to BMSC differentiation toward myofibroblasts. Furthermore, PPARγ activation by natural ligand significantly inhibited the differentiation of BMSCs toward myofibroblasts in liver fibrogenesis and alleviated liver fibrosis. Conclusions: PPARγ negatively regulates the differentiation of BMSCs toward myofibroblasts, which highlights a further mechanism implicated in the BMSC differentiation.

  18. Increased cell proliferation and differential protein expression induced by low-level Er:YAG laser irradiation in human gingival fibroblasts: proteomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogita, Mayumi; Tsuchida, Sachio; Aoki, Akira; Satoh, Mamoru; Kado, Sayaka; Sawabe, Masanori; Nanbara, Hiromi; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Takeuchi, Yasuo; Mizutani, Koji; Sasaki, Yoshiyuki; Nomura, Fumio; Izumi, Yuichi

    2015-09-01

    Erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser treatment has demonstrated favorable wound healing effect after periodontal therapy. One of the reasons may be the positive biological effect of the low-level laser on the irradiated tissues, although the mechanism remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of low-level Er:YAG laser irradiation on cell proliferation and laser-induced differential expression of proteins in human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) by proteomic analysis. In the first experiment, HGFs were exposed to low-level Er:YAG laser irradiation and the laser-induced cell proliferation and damage were evaluated on day 3. In the second experiment, proteomic analysis was performed on day 1 after irradiation. The peptides prepared from HGFs were analyzed by a hybrid ion trap-Fourier transform mass spectrometer, Mascot search engine, and UniProtKB database. A significant increase in cell proliferation without cell damage after irradiation was observed. Among the total identified 377 proteins, 59 proteins, including galectin-7, which was associated with the process of wound healing, were upregulated and 15 proteins were downregulated in laser-treated HGFs. In the third experiment, the increase in messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression of galectin-7 in the irradiated HGFs was validated by various analytical techniques. In addition, the effect of recombinant human galectin-7 on the modulation of HGFs proliferation was confirmed. The results indicate that low-level Er:YAG laser irradiation can promote HGF proliferation and induce a significant change in protein expression and the upregulation of galectin-7 expression may partly contribute to the increase in cell proliferation.

  19. CD226 (DNAM-1) is involved in lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 costimulatory signal for naive T cell differentiation and proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Kazuko; Shirakawa, Jun; Kameyama, Tomie; Honda, Shin-Ichiro; Tahara-Hanaoka, Satoko; Miyamoto, Akitomo; Onodera, Masafumi; Sumida, Takayuki; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Shibuya, Akira

    2003-12-15

    Upon antigen recognition by the T cell receptor, lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) physically associates with the leukocyte adhesion molecule CD226 (DNAM-1) and the protein tyrosine kinase Fyn. We show that lentiviral vector-mediated mutant (Y-F322) CD226 transferred into naive CD4+ helper T cells (Ths) inhibited interleukin (IL)-12-independent Th1 development initiated by CD3 and LFA-1 ligations. Moreover, proliferation induced by LFA-1 costimulatory signal was suppressed in mutant (Y-F322) CD226-transduced naive CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the absence of IL-2. These results suggest that CD226 is involved in LFA-1-mediated costimulatory signals for triggering naive T cell differentiation and proliferation. We also demonstrate that although LFA-1, CD226, and Fyn are polarized at the immunological synapse upon stimulation with anti-CD3 in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, lipid rafts are polarized in CD4+, but not CD8+, T cells. Moreover, proliferation initiated by LFA-1 costimulatory signal is suppressed by lipid raft disruption in CD4+, but not CD8+, T cells, suggesting that the LFA-1 costimulatory signal is independent of lipid rafts in CD8+ T cells.

  20. Differential responses of Trans-Resveratrol on proliferation of neural progenitor cells and aged rat hippocampal neurogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Pandey, Ankita; Jahan, Sadaf; Shukla, Rajendra Kumar; Kumar, Dipak; Srivastava, Akriti; Singh, Shripriya; Rajpurohit, Chetan Singh; Yadav, Sanjay; Khanna, Vinay Kumar; Pant, Aditya Bhushan

    2016-01-01

    The plethora of literature has supported the potential benefits of Resveratrol (RV) as a life-extending as well as an anticancer compound. However, these two functional discrepancies resulted at different concentration ranges. Likewise, the role of Resveratrol on adult neurogenesis still remains controversial and less understood despite its well documented health benefits. To gather insight into the biological effects of RV on neurogenesis, we evaluated the possible effects of the compound on the proliferation and survival of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in culture, and in the hippocampus of aged rats. Resveratrol exerted biphasic effects on NPCs; low concentrations (10 μM) stimulated cell proliferation mediated by increased phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and p38 kinases, whereas high concentrations (>20 μM) exhibited inhibitory effects. Administration of Resveratrol (20 mg/kg body weight) to adult rats significantly increased the number of newly generated cells in the hippocampus, with upregulation of p-CREB and SIRT1 proteins implicated in neuronal survival and lifespan extension respectively. We have successfully demonstrated that Resveratrol exhibits dose dependent discrepancies and at a lower concentration can have a positive impact on the proliferation, survival of NPCs and aged rat hippocampal neurogenesis implicating its potential as a candidate for restorative therapies against age related disorders. PMID:27334554

  1. Valproic acid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, decreases proliferation of and induces specific neurogenic differentiation of canine adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurihara, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Takehito; Sakaue, Motoharu; Murayama, Ohoshi; Miyazaki, Yoko; Onuki, Atsushi; Aoki, Takuma; Saito, Miyoko; Fujii, Yoko; Hisasue, Masaharu; Tanaka, Kazuaki; Takizawa, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) isolated from adult tissue have pluripotent differentiation and self-renewal capability. The tissue source of ADSCs can be obtained in large quantities and with low risks, thus highlighting the advantages of ADSCs in clinical applications. Valproic acid (VPA) is a widely used antiepileptic drug, which has recently been reported to affect ADSC differentiation in mice and rats; however, few studies have been performed on dogs. We aimed to examine the in vitro effect of VPA on canine ADSCs. Three days of pretreatment with VPA decreased the proliferation of ADSCs in a dose-dependent manner; VPA concentrations of 4 mM and above inhibited the proliferation of ADSCs. In parallel, VPA increased p16 and p21 mRNA expression, suggesting that VPA attenuated the proliferative activity of ADSCs by activating p16 and p21. Furthermore, the effects of VPA on adipogenic, osteogenic or neurogenic differentiation were investigated morphologically. VPA pretreatment markedly promoted neurogenic differentiation, but suppressed the accumulation of lipid droplets and calcium depositions. These modifications of ADSCs by VPA were associated with a particular gene expression profile, viz., an increase in neuronal markers, that is, NSE, TUBB3 and MAP2, a decrease in the adipogenic marker, LPL, but no changes in osteogenic markers, as estimated by reverse transcription-PCR analysis. These results suggested that VPA is a specific inducer of neurogenic differentiation of canine ADSCs and is a useful tool for studying the interaction between chromatin structure and cell fate determination.

  2. E2F1 Coregulates Cell Cycle Genes and Chromatin Components during the Transition of Oligodendrocyte Progenitors from Proliferation to Differentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Laura; Swiss, Victoria A.; Jablonska, Beata; Lei, Liang; Pedre, Xiomara; Walsh, Martin; Zhang, Weijia; Gallo, Vittorio; Canoll, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Cell cycle exit is an obligatory step for the differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating cells. A key regulator of the transition from proliferation to quiescence is the E2F/Rb pathway, whose activity is highly regulated in physiological conditions and deregulated in tumors. In this paper we report a lineage-specific decline of nuclear E2F1 during differentiation of rodent OPC into oligodendrocytes (OLs) in developing white matter tracts and in cultured cells. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and deep-sequencing in mouse and rat OPCs, we identified cell cycle genes (i.e., Cdc2) and chromatin components (i.e., Hmgn1, Hmgn2), including those modulating DNA methylation (i.e., Uhrf1), as E2F1 targets. Binding of E2F1 to chromatin on the gene targets was validated and their expression assessed in developing white matter tracts and cultured OPCs. Increased expression of E2F1 gene targets was also detected in mouse gliomas (that were induced by retroviral transformation of OPCs) compared with normal brain. Together, these data identify E2F1 as a key transcription factor modulating the expression of chromatin components in OPC during the transition from proliferation to differentiation. PMID:24453336

  3. Microfluidic devices for cell cultivation and proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Tehranirokh, Masoomeh; Kouzani, Abbas Z.; Francis, Paul S.; Kanwar, Jagat R.

    2013-01-01

    Microfluidic technology provides precise, controlled-environment, cost-effective, compact, integrated, and high-throughput microsystems that are promising substitutes for conventional biological laboratory methods. In recent years, microfluidic cell culture devices have been used for applications such as tissue engineering, diagnostics, drug screening, immunology, cancer studies, stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and neurite guidance. Microfluidic technology allows dynamic cell cul...

  4. ETV6-PDGFRB and FIP1L1-PDGFRA stimulate human hematopoietic progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation into eosinophils: the role of nuclear factor-κB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montano-Almendras, Carmen P.; Essaghir, Ahmed; Schoemans, Hélène; Varis, Inci; Noël, Laura A.; Velghe, Amélie I.; Latinne, Dominique; Knoops, Laurent; Demoulin, Jean-Baptiste

    2012-01-01

    Background ETV6-PDGFRB (also called TEL-PDGFRB) and FIP1L1-PDGFRA are receptor-tyrosine kinase fusion genes that cause chronic myeloid malignancies associated with hypereosinophilia. The aim of this work was to gain insight into the mechanisms whereby fusion genes affect human hematopoietic cells and in particular the eosinophil lineage. Design and Methods We introduced ETV6-PDGFRB and FIP1L1-PDGFRA into human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitor and stem cells isolated from umbilical cord blood. Results Cells transduced with these oncogenes formed hematopoietic colonies even in the absence of cytokines. Both oncogenes also stimulated the proliferation of cells in liquid culture and their differentiation into eosinophils. This model thus recapitulated key features of the myeloid neoplasms induced by ETV6-PDGFRB and FIP1L1-PDGFRA. We next showed that both fusion genes activated the transcription factors STAT1, STAT3, STAT5 and nuclear factor-κB. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase inhibition blocked nuclear factor-κB activation in transduced progenitor cells and patients’ cells. Nuclear factor-κB was also activated in the human FIP1L1-PDGFRA-positive leukemia cell line EOL1, the proliferation of which was blocked by borte-zomib and the IκB kinase inhibitor BMS-345541. A mutant IκB that prevents nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB inhibited cell growth and the expression of eosinophil markers, such as the interleukin-5 receptor and eosinophil peroxidase, in progenitors transduced with ETV6-PDGFRB. In addition, several potential regulators of this process, including HES6, MYC and FOXO3 were identified using expression microarrays. Conclusions We show that human CD34+ cells expressing PDGFR fusion oncogenes proliferate autonomously and differentiate towards the eosinophil lineage in a process that requires nuclear factor-κB. These results suggest new treatment possibilities for imatinib-resistant myeloid neoplasms associated with PDGFR mutations. PMID:22271894

  5. LEPTIN STIMULATING PROLIFERATION AND DIFFERENTIATION OF HUMAN OSTEOBLAST-LIKE CELL LINE MG63 IN DOSE-DEPENDENT AND TIME-DEPENDENT MANNERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Mian; YU Xue-tao; CHEN Shu; CAI Xiao-hua; PENG Yi-chao; PENG Xiao-rong

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate the direct effect of leptin on osteoblast-like cell line MG63. Methods Human osteoblast-like cell line MG63 was incubated with leptin of different doses for 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively.The proliferation of MG63 was determined by methylene blue assay. Alpha1 (Ⅰ) collagen gene expression in MG63was determined by real time flourescence quantitive PCR (FQ-PCR), both with 17β-E2 as positive control.Results Leptin accelerated the proliferation and differentiation of MG63 in dose and time-dependent manners,with the best effect at 10-7 mol/L at 72 h. Compared with 17β-E2 , leptin showed a weaker promoting effect at all of the three time point: 24, 48 and 72 h. While the effects of the two hormones have an approaching trend the time prolonged. Conclusion Leptin has the effects of accelerating the proliferation and differentiation of MG63 cells in vitro, which is more enduring and later than that of 17β-E2.

  6. 17β-Estradiol Promotes Schwann Cell Proliferation and Differentiation, Accelerating Early Remyelination in a Mouse Peripheral Nerve Injury Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen induces oligodendrocyte remyelination in response to demyelination in the central nervous system. Our objective was to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol (E2 on Schwann cell function and peripheral nerve remyelination after injury. Adult male C57BL/6J mice were used to prepare the sciatic nerve transection injury model and were randomly categorized into control and E2 groups. To study myelination in vitro, dorsal root ganglion (DRG explant culture was prepared using 13.5-day-old mouse embryos. Primary Schwann cells were isolated from the sciatic nerves of 1- to 3-day-old Sprague–Dawley rats. Immunostaining for myelin basic protein (MBP expression and toluidine blue staining for myelin sheaths demonstrated that E2 treatment accelerates early remyelination in the “nerve bridge” region between the proximal and distal stumps of the transection injury site in the mouse sciatic nerve. The 5-bromo-2′-deoxyuridine incorporation assay revealed that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation in the bridge region and in the primary culture, which is blocked using AKT inhibitor MK2206. The in vitro myelination in the DRG explant culture determined showed that the MBP expression in the E2-treated group is higher than that in the control group. These results show that E2 promotes Schwann cell proliferation and myelination depending on AKT activation.

  7. Labeling and imaging of human mesenchymal stem cells with quantum dot bioconjugates during proliferation and osteogenic differentiation in long term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, B; Clark, P; Stroscio, M; Mao, J

    2006-01-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals that serve as promising alternatives to organic dyes for cell labeling. Because of their unique spectral, physical and chemical properties, QDs are useful for concurrently monitoring several intercellular and intracellular interactions in live normal cells and cancer cells over periods ranging from less than a second to over several days (several divisions of cells). Here, peptide CGGGRGD is immobilized on CdSe-ZnS QDs coated with carboxyl groups by cross linking with amine groups. These conjugates are directed by the peptide to bind with selected integrins on the membrane of human Mesenchymal stem cells. Upon overnight incubation with optimal concentration, QDs effectively labeled all the cells. Here, we report long-term labeling of human bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with RGD-conjugated QDs during self replication and differentiation into osteogenic cell lineages.

  8. Human neural progenitor cells retain viability, phenotype, proliferation, and lineage differentiation when labeled with a novel iron oxide nanoparticle, Molday ION Rhodamine B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen WB

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Wei-Bin Shen,1,2 Celine Plachez,2,3 Amanda Chan,4 Deborah Yarnell,1 Adam C Puche,3 Paul S Fishman,1,5 Paul Yarowsky1,21Research Service, VA Maryland Health Care System, Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Pharmacology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Anatomy and Neurobiology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USA; 4Notre Dame of Maryland School of Pharmacy, Baltimore, MD, USA; 5Department of Neurology, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Ultrasmall superparamagnetic iron-oxide particles (USPIOs loaded into stem cells have been suggested as a way to track stem cell transplantation with magnetic resonance imaging, but the labeling, and post-labeling proliferation, viability, differentiation, and retention of USPIOs within the stem cells have yet to be determined for each type of stem cell and for each type of USPIO. Molday ION Rhodamine B™ (BioPAL, Worcester, MA, USA (MIRB has been shown to be a USPIO labeling agent for mesenchymal stem cells, glial progenitor cells, and stem cell lines. In this study, we have evaluated MIRB labeling in human neuroprogenitor cells and found that human neuroprogenitor cells are effectively labeled with MIRB without use of transfection reagents. Viability, proliferation, and differentiation properties are unchanged between MIRB-labeled neuroprogenitors cells and unlabeled cells. Moreover, MIRB-labeled human neuroprogenitor cells can be frozen, thawed, and replated without loss of MIRB or even without loss of their intrinsic biology. Overall, those results show that MIRB has advantageous properties that can be used for cell-based therapy.Keywords: ferumoxides, USPIO, MION, neural stem cells, SC121 antibody, human, toxicology

  9. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) regulate murine neural progenitor cell survival, proliferation, and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharf, Eugene; May, Victor; Braas, Karen M; Shutz, Kristin C; Mao-Draayer, Yang

    2008-11-01

    Neural stem/progenitor cells (NPC) have gained wide interest over the last decade from their therapeutic potential, either through transplantation or endogenous replacement, after central nervous system (CNS) disease and damage. Whereas several growth factors and cytokines have been shown to promote NPC survival, proliferation, or differentiation, the identification of other regulators will provide much needed options for NPC self-renewal or lineage development. Although previous studies have shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP)/vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) can regulate stem/progenitor cells, the responses appeared variable. To examine the direct roles of these peptides in NPCs, postnatal mouse NPC cultures were withdrawn from epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fibroblastic growth factor (FGF) and maintained under serum-free conditions in the presence or absence of PACAP27, PACAP38, or VIP. The NPCs expressed the PAC1(short)null receptor isoform, and the activation of these receptors decreased progenitor cell apoptosis more than 80% from TUNEL assays and facilitated proliferation more than fivefold from bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) analyses. To evaluate cellular differentiation, replicate control and peptide-treated cultures were examined for cell fate marker protein and transcript expression. In contrast with previous work, PACAP peptides downregulated NPC differentiation, which appeared consistent with the proliferation status of the treated cells. Accordingly, these results demonstrate that PACAP signaling is trophic and can maintain NPCs in a multipotent state. With these attributes, PACAP may be able to promote endogenous NPC self-renewal in the adult CNS, which may be important for endogenous self-repair in disease and ageing processes.

  10. Enhanced proliferation and dopaminergic differentiation of ventral mesencephalic precursor cells by synergistic effect of FGF2 and reduced oxygen tension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Pia [Department of Neurobiology Research, Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, Winslowparken 21, DK-5000 Odense C (Denmark); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Bern, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland); Gramsbergen, Jan-Bert; Zimmer, Jens [Department of Neurobiology Research, Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, Winslowparken 21, DK-5000 Odense C (Denmark); Widmer, Hans R. [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Bern, CH-3010 Bern (Switzerland); Meyer, Morten, E-mail: MMeyer@health.sdu.dk [Department of Neurobiology Research, Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Southern Denmark, Winslowparken 21, DK-5000 Odense C (Denmark)

    2011-07-15

    Effective numerical expansion of dopaminergic precursors might overcome the limited availability of transplantable cells in replacement strategies for Parkinson's disease. Here we investigated the effect of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and FGF8 on expansion and dopaminergic differentiation of rat embryonic ventral mesencephalic neuroblasts cultured at high (20%) and low (3%) oxygen tension. More cells incorporated bromodeoxyuridine in cultures expanded at low as compared to high oxygen tension, and after 6 days of differentiation there were significantly more neuronal cells in low than in high oxygen cultures. Low oxygen during FGF2-mediated expansion resulted also in a significant increase in tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) dopaminergic neurons as compared to high oxygen tension, but no corresponding effect was observed for dopamine release into the culture medium. However, switching FGF2-expanded cultures from low to high oxygen tension during the last two days of differentiation significantly enhanced dopamine release and intracellular dopamine levels as compared to all other treatment groups. In addition, the short-term exposure to high oxygen enhanced in situ assessed TH enzyme activity, which may explain the elevated dopamine levels. Our findings demonstrate that modulation of oxygen tension is a recognizable factor for in vitro expansion and dopaminergic differentiation of rat embryonic midbrain precursor cells.

  11. Pectin from Prunus domestica L. induces proliferation of IEC-6 cells through the alteration of cell-surface heparan sulfate on differentiated Caco-2 cells in co-culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Mitsutaka; Murata, Kazuma; Oshima, Kazuya; Itoh, Chihiro; Kitaguchi, Kohji; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

    2015-05-01

    Dietary fiber intake provides various physiological and metabolic effects for human health. Pectin, a water-soluble dietary fiber, induces morphological changes of the small intestine in vivo. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying pectin-derived morphological alterations have not been elucidated. Previously, we found that pectin purified from Prunus domestica L. altered the sulfated structure of cell-surface heparan sulfate (HS) on differentiated Caco-2 cells via fibronectin and α5β1 integrin. In this study, we investigated the biological significance of the effect of pectin on HS in differentiated Caco-2 cells. An in vitro intestinal epithelium model was constructed by co-culture of differentiated Caco-2 cells and rat IEC-6 cells, which were used as models of intestinal epithelium and intestinal crypt cells, respectively. We found that pectin-treated differentiated Caco-2 cells promoted growth of IEC-6 cells. Real-time RT-PCR analysis and western blotting showed that relative mRNA and protein expression levels of Wnt3a were upregulated by pectin treatment in differentiated Caco-2 cells. Analysis by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy demonstrated that pectin-induced structural alteration of HS markedly decreased the interaction with Wnt3a. However, depression in the secretion of Wnt3a from Caco-2 cells by anti-Wnt3a antibody did not affect the proliferation of IEC-6 cells in co-culture system. These observations indicated that pectin altered the sulfated structure of cell-surface HS to promote secretion of Wnt3a from differentiated Caco-2 cells and Wnt3a indirectly stimulated the proliferation of IEC-6 cells.

  12. NF-κB2 mutation targets survival, proliferation and differentiation pathways in the pathogenesis of plasma cell tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Brian A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Abnormal NF-κB2 activation has been implicated in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma, a cancer of plasma cells. However, a causal role for aberrant NF-κB2 signaling in the development of plasma cell tumors has not been established. Also unclear is the molecular mechanism that drives the tumorigenic process. We investigated these questions by using a transgenic mouse model with lymphocyte-targeted expression of p80HT, a lymphoma-associated NF-κB2 mutant, and human multiple myeloma cell lines. Methods We conducted a detailed histopathological characterization of lymphomas developed in p80HT transgenic mice and microarray gene expression profiling of p80HT B cells with the goal of identifying genes that drive plasma cell tumor development. We further verified the significance of our findings in human multiple myeloma cell lines. Results Approximately 40% of p80HT mice showed elevated levels of monoclonal immunoglobulin (M-protein in the serum and developed plasma cell tumors. Some of these mice displayed key features of human multiple myeloma with accumulation of plasma cells in the bone marrow, osteolytic bone lesions and/or diffuse osteoporosis. Gene expression profiling of B cells from M-protein-positive p80HT mice revealed aberrant expression of genes known to be important in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma, including cyclin D1, cyclin D2, Blimp1, survivin, IL-10 and IL-15. In vitro assays demonstrated a critical role of Stat3, a key downstream component of IL-10 signaling, in the survival of human multiple myeloma cells. Conclusions These findings provide a mouse model for human multiple myeloma with aberrant NF-κB2 activation and suggest a molecular mechanism for NF-κB2 signaling in the pathogenesis of plasma cell tumors by coordinated regulation of plasma cell generation, proliferation and survival.

  13. ETS-related transcription factors ETV4 and ETV5 are involved in proliferation and induction of differentiation-associated genes in embryonic stem (ES) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Tadayuki; Kuure, Satu; Uranishi, Kousuke; Koide, Hiroshi; Costantini, Frank; Yokota, Takashi

    2015-09-11

    The pluripotency and self-renewal capacity of embryonic stem (ES) cells is regulated by several transcription factors. Here, we show that the ETS-related transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5 (Etv4/5) are specifically expressed in undifferentiated ES cells, and suppression of Oct3/4 results in down-regulation of Etv4/5. Simultaneous deletion of Etv4 and Etv5 (Etv4/5 double knock-out (dKO)) in ES cells resulted in a flat, epithelial cell-like appearance, whereas the morphology changed into compact colonies in a 2i medium (containing two inhibitors for GSK3 and MEK/ERK). Expression levels of self-renewal marker genes, including Oct3/4 and Nanog, were similar between wild-type and dKO ES cells, whereas proliferation of Etv4/5 dKO ES cells was decreased with overexpression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors (p16/p19, p15, and p57). A differentiation assay revealed that the embryoid bodies derived from Etv4/5 dKO ES cells were smaller than the control, and expression of ectoderm marker genes, including Fgf5, Sox1, and Pax3, was not induced in dKO-derived embryoid bodies. Microarray analysis demonstrated that stem cell-related genes, including Tcf15, Gbx2, Lrh1, Zic3, and Baf60c, were significantly repressed in Etv4/5 dKO ES cells. The artificial expression of Etv4 and/or Etv5 in Etv4/5 dKO ES cells induced re-expression of Tcf15 and Gbx2. These results indicate that Etv4 and Etv5, potentially through regulation of Gbx2 and Tcf15, are involved in the ES cell proliferation and induction of differentiation-associated genes in ES cells.

  14. The stimulation of proliferation and differentiation of periodontal ligament cells by the ionic products from Ca7Si2P2O16 bioceramics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yinghong; Wu, Chengtie; Xiao, Yin

    2012-07-01

    The ultimate goal of periodontal tissue engineering is to produce predictable regeneration of alveolar bone, root cementum, and periodontal ligament, which are lost as a result of periodontal diseases. To achieve this goal, it is of great importance to develop novel bioactive materials which could stimulate the proliferation, differentiation and osteogenic/cementogenic gene expression of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) for periodontal regeneration. In this study, we synthesized novel Ca(7)Si(2)P(2)O(16) ceramic powders for the first time by the sol-gel method and investigated the biological performance of PDLCs after exposure to different concentrations of Ca(7)Si(2)P(2)O(16) extracts. The original extracts were prepared at 200 mg ml(-1) and further diluted with serum-free cell culture medium to obtain a series of diluted extracts (100, 50, 25, 12.5 and 6.25 mg ml(-1)). Proliferation, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, Ca deposition, and osteogenesis/cementogenesis-related gene expression (ALP, Col I, Runx2 and CEMP1) were assayed for PDLCs on days 7 and 14. The results showed that the ionic products from Ca(7)Si(2)P(2)O(16) powders significantly stimulated the proliferation, ALP activity, Ca deposition and osteogenesis/cementogenesis-related gene expression of PDLCs. In addition, it was found that Ca(7)Si(2)P(2)O(16) powders had excellent apatite-mineralization ability in simulated body fluids. This study demonstrated that Ca(7)Si(2)P(2)O(16) powders with such a specific composition possess the ability to stimulate the PDLC proliferation and osteoblast/cemenoblast-like cell differentiation, indicating that they are a promising bioactive material for periodontal tissue regeneration application.

  15. Differential effects of exercise intensities in hippocampal BDNF, inflammatory cytokines and cell proliferation in rats during the postnatal brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Fernandes, Jansen; Peixinho-Pena, Luiz Fernando; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; Cavalheiro, Esper Abrão; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2013-10-11

    It has been established that low intensities of exercise produce beneficial effects for the brain, while high intensities can cause some neuronal damage (e.g. exacerbated inflammatory response and cell death). Although these effects are documented in the mature brain, the influence of exercise intensities in the developing brain has been poorly explored. To investigate the impact of exercise intensity in developing rats, we evaluated the hippocampal level of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL6 and IL10) and the occurrence of hippocampal cell degeneration and proliferation at different stages of postnatal brain development of rats submitted to two physical exercise intensities. To this point, male rats were divided into different age groups: P21, P31, P41 and P51. Each age group was submitted to two exercise intensities (low and high) on a treadmill over 10 consecutive days, except the control rats. We verified that the density of proliferating cells was significantly higher in the dentate gyrus of rats submitted to low-intensity exercise from P21 to P30 compared with high-intensity exercise and control rats. A significant increase of proliferative cell density was found in rats submitted to high-intensity exercise from P31 to P40 when compared to low-intensity exercise and control rats. Elevated hippocampal levels of IL6 were detected in rats submitted to high-intensity exercise from P21 to P30 compared to control rats. From P41 to P50 period, higher levels of BDNF, TNFα and IL10 were found in the hippocampal formation of rats submitted to high-intensity exercise in relation to their control rats. Our data show that exercise-induced neuroplastic effects on BDNF levels and cellular proliferation in the hippocampal region are dependent on exercise intensity and developmental period. Thus, exercise intensity is an inflammation-inducing factor and exercise-induced inflammatory response during the postnatal brain development is

  16. TiO2 coating promotes human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation without the loss of their capacity for chondrogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitainen, Salla; Mähönen, Anssi J; Lappalainen, Reijo; Kröger, Heikki; Lammi, Mikko J; Qu, Chengjuan

    2013-06-01

    Human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) are used in applications, which may require a large amount of cells; therefore, efficient expansion of the cells is desired. We studied whether TiO2 coating on plastic cell culture dishes could promote proliferation of hMSCs without adverse effects in chondrogenic differentiation. TiO2-films were deposited on polystyrene dishes and glass coverslips using an ultrashort pulsed laser deposition technique. Human MSCs from three donors were expanded on them until 95% confluence, and the cells were evaluated by morphology, immunocytochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The chondrogenic differentiation in pellets was performed after cultivation on TiO2-coated dishes. Chondrogenesis was evaluated by histological staining of proteoglycans and type II collagen, and qRT-PCR. Human MSC-associated markers STRO-1, CD44, CD90 and CD146 did not change after expansion on TiO2-coated coverslips. However, the cell number after a 48h-culture period was significantly higher on TiO2-coated culture dishes. Importantly, TiO2 coating caused no significant differences in the proteoglycan and type II collagen staining of the pellets, or the expression of chondrocyte-specific genes in the chondrogenesis assay. Thus, the proliferation of hMSCs could be significantly increased when cultured on TiO2-coated dishes without weakening their chondrogenic differentiation capacity. The transparency of TiO2-films allows easy monitoring of the cell growth and morphology under a phase-contrast microscope.

  17. Bone-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from HIV transgenic mice exhibit altered proliferation, differentiation capacity and paracrine functions along with impaired therapeutic potential in kidney injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Kang; Rai, Partab; Lan, Xiqian; Plagov, Andrei; Malhotra, Ashwani [Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhassett, NY (United States); Gupta, Sanjeev [Departments of Medicine and Pathology, Marion Bessin Liver Research Center, Diabetes Center, Cancer Center, Ruth L. and David S. Gottesman Institute for Stem Cell and Regenerative Medicine Research, Institute for Clinical and Translational Research, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY (United States); Singhal, Pravin C., E-mail: psinghal@nshs.edu [Feinstein Institute for Medical Research, North Shore-Long Island Jewish Health System, Manhassett, NY (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) secrete paracrine factors that could be cytoprotective and serve roles in immunoregulation during tissue injury. Although MSCs express HIV receptors, and co-receptors, and are susceptible to HIV infection, whether HIV-1 may affect biological properties of MSCs needs more study. We evaluated cellular proliferation, differentiation and paracrine functions of MSCs isolated from compact bones of healthy control mice and Tg26 HIV-1 transgenic mice. The ability of MSCs to protect against cisplatin toxicity was studied in cultured renal tubular cells as well as in intact mice. We successfully isolated MSCs from healthy mice and Tg26 HIV-1 transgenic mice and found the latter expressed viral Nef, Vpu, NL4-3 and Vif genes. The proliferation and differentiation of Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs was inferior to MSCs from healthy mice. Moreover, transplantation of Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs less effectively improved outcomes compared with healthy MSCs in mice with acute kidney injury. Also, Tg26 HIV-1 MSCs secreted multiple cytokines, but at significantly lower levels than healthy MSCs, which resulted in failure of conditioned medium from these MSCs to protect cultured renal tubular cells from cisplatin toxicity. Therefore, HIV-1 had adverse biological effects on MSCs extending to their proliferation, differentiation, function, and therapeutic potential. These findings will help in advancing mechanistical insight in renal injury and repair in the setting of HIV-1 infection. -- Highlights: •MSCs isolated from HIV mice displayed HIV genes. •MSCs isolated from HIV mice exhibited attenuated growth and paracrine functions. •AKI mice with transplanted HIV-MSC displayed poor outcome. •HIV-1 MSC secreted multiple cytokines but at a lower level.

  18. Thrombopoietin induced proliferation and differentiation of fetal liver CD34+ cells with phenotype change from hemopoiesis to neurogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Ma; Dongchu Ma; Yi Tao; Yinghui Sun; Di Lin; Huiying Yu; Jinlong Jian; Wei Jia; Boquan Jin

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have reported a neurotrophin-like motif in the N-terminal receptor binding region of the thrombopoietin (TPO) molecule, and have described localization of TPO and TPO receptor in the brain. Therefore, it is believed that TPO may be involved in regulation of neurogenesis.OBJECTIVE: To validate the effect of TPO on trans-differentiation, or differentiation from hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to neural stem cells (NSCs).DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Comparative studies were performed from March 2004 to April 2007 at the Department of Experimental Medicine, Northern Hospital, and the Department of Immunology, Fourth Military Medical University of Chinese PLA.MATERIALS: Human fetal liver (FL) was obtained from fetuses after water-balloon abortion. Gestational age ranged from 16 to 20 weeks. The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board and Ethics Committee of the Northern Hospital. TPO was kindly provided by Genentech Inc (USA). Iscove's Modified Dulbecco's Medium (IMDM) and neurobasal(tm) medium were purchased from Invitrogen (USA). MACS CD34 multisort kit was purchased from Miltenyi Biotec (Germany). METHODS: CD34+ cells were isolated from human FL mononuclear cells using MACS CD34 multisort kit and cultured at 1 × 105/mL in IMDM, containing TPO for 60 days with weekly changes of half of the medium. After culturing for 30 and 60 days, the TPO-induced cells were resuspended in neurobasal(tm) medium containing 10% fetal brain extracts and plated in an 8-well BIOCOAT(R) poly-D-Lysine Culture Slide and cultured for another 7 days. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cell number, viability, phenotype and expression of hemopoiesis-related and neurogenesis-related proteins were examined by trypan blue exclusion with hemocytometer, immunoblot, immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry.RESULTS: After 60 days of induction with TPO, the cell number increased by 4.6-fold compared to the initial culture. Although the proportion of the cells expressing the

  19. Differential effects of miR-34c-3p and miR-34c-5p on SiHa cells proliferation apoptosis, migration and invasion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, Jesus Adrian [Laboratorio de Terapia Genica, Departamento de Genetica y Biologia Molecular, CINVESTAV, Av. IPN 2508, Mexico 07360 D.F. (Mexico); Alvarez-Salas, Luis Marat, E-mail: lalvarez@cinvestav.mx [Laboratorio de Terapia Genica, Departamento de Genetica y Biologia Molecular, CINVESTAV, Av. IPN 2508, Mexico 07360 D.F. (Mexico)

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} In this study we examine miR-34c-3p and miR-34c-5p functions in SiHa cells. {yields} We study miRNA effect on cell proliferation, anchorage independent growth, apoptosis, cell motility and invasion. {yields} We find that miR-34c-3p and miR-34c-5p inhibition of proliferation and anchorage independent growth are exclusive to SiHa cells. {yields} miR-34c-3p induces apoptosis and inhibits cell motility and invasion in SiHa cells. {yields} In this study we conclude that miR-34c-3p functions as a tumor suppressor differ from miR-34c-5p. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNA) regulate expression of several genes associated with human cancer. Here, we analyzed the function of miR-34c, an effector of p53, in cervical carcinoma cells. Expression of either miR-34c-3p or miR-34c-5p mimics caused inhibition of cell proliferation in the HPV-containing SiHa cells but not in other cervical cells irrespective of tumorigenicity and HPV content. These results suggest that SiHa cells may lack of regulatory mechanisms for miR-34c. Monolayer proliferation results showed that miR-34c-3p produced a more pronounced inhibitory effect although both miRNAs caused inhibition of anchorage independent growth at similar extent. However, ectopic expression of pre-miR-34c-3p, but not pre-miR-34c-5p, caused S-phase arrest in SiHa cells triggering a strong dose-dependent apoptosis. A significant inhibition was observed only for miR-34c-3p on SiHa cells migration and invasion, therefore implying alternative regulatory pathways and targets. These results suggest differential tumor suppressor roles for miR-34c-3p and miR-34c-5p and provide new insights in the understanding of miRNA biology.

  20. Cultured Human Periosteum-Derived Cells Can Differentiate into Osteoblasts in a Perioxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma-Mediated Fashion via Bone Morphogenetic Protein signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Jin-Eun; Park, Jin-Ho; Yun, Jeong-Won; Kang, Young-Hoon; Park, Bong-Wook; Hwang, Sun-Chul; Cho, Yeong-Cheol; Sung, Iel-Yong; Woo, Dong Kyun; Byun, June-Ho

    2016-01-01

    The differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells towards an osteoblastic fate depends on numerous signaling pathways, including activation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling components. Commitment to osteogenesis is associated with activation of osteoblast-related signal transduction, whereas inactivation of this signal transduction favors adipogenesis. BMP signaling also has a critical role in the processes by which mesenchymal stem cells undergo commitment to the adipocyte lineage. In our previous study, we demonstrated that an agonist of the perioxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipocyte differentiation, stimulates osteoblastic differentiation of cultured human periosteum-derived cells. In this study, we used dorsomorphin, a selective small molecule inhibitor of BMP signaling, to investigate whether BMP signaling is involved in the positive effects of PPARγ agonists on osteogenic phenotypes of cultured human periosteum-derived cells. Both histochemical detection and bioactivity of ALP were clearly increased in the periosteum-derived cells treated with the PPARγ agonist at day 10 of culture. Treatment with the PPARγ agonist also caused an increase in alizarin red S staining and calcium content in the periosteum-derived osteoblasts at 2 and 3 weeks of culture. In contrast, dorsomorphin markedly decreased ALP activity, alizarin red S staining and calcium content in both the cells treated with PPARγ agonist and the cells cultured in osteogenic induction media without PPARγ agonist during the culture period. In addition, the PPARγ agonist clearly increased osteogenic differentiation medium-induced BMP-2 upregulation in the periosteum-derived osteoblastic cells at 2 weeks of culture as determined by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunoblotting, and immunocytochemical analyses. Although further study will be needed to clarify the mechanisms of PPARγ-regulated osteogenesis

  1. Time-dependence of cardiomyocyte differentiation disturbed by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor a inhibitor GW6471 in murine embryonic stem cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling DING; Xing-guang LIANG; Yi-jia LOU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the possible roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated recep-tor α (PPARα) and the signal pathway regulating the transcription of PPARα in the cardiomyocyte differentiation course of marine embryonic stem (ES) cells in vitro. Methods: The expression of PPARa during cardiomyocyte differentiation was analyzed using both Western blotting and immunofluorescence. Cardiac specific genes and sarcomeric proteins were evaluated when embryoid bodies were challenged with PPARα specific inhibitor GW6471 at different time courses.The phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) was stud-ied in the differentiation process, and its specific inhibitor SB203580 was em-ployed to study the function of p38 MAPK on cardiac differentiation and the expression of PPARα. Results: The expression of PPARα was observed to be at a low level in undifferentiated ES cells and markedly induced with the appearance of beating clusters. The inhibition of PPARa by its specific inhibitor GW6471 (1 x 10-5 mol/L) significantly prevented cardiomyocyte differentiation and resulted in the reduced expression of cardiac sarcomeric proteins (ie α-actinin, troponin-T) and specific genes (ie α-MHC, MLC2v) in a time-dependent manner. In the differ-entiation course, p-p38 MAPK was maintained at a high level from d 3 followed by a decrease from d 10. The inhibition of the p38 MAPK pathway by SB203580 between d 3 and d 7 efficiently prevented cardiomyocyte differentiation and re-sulted in the capture of the upregulation of PPARα. Conclusion: Taken together,these results showed a close association between PPARα and cardiomyocyte differentiation in vitro, and p38 MAPK was partly responsible for the regulation of PPARα.

  2. Enhanced proliferation and dopaminergic differentiation of ventral mesencephalic precursor cells by synergistic effect of FGF2 and reduced oxygen tension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Pia; Gramsbergen, Jan-Bert; Zimmer, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Effective numerical expansion of dopaminergic precursors might overcome the limited availability of transplantable cells in replacement strategies for Parkinson's disease. Here we investigated the effect of fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF2) and FGF8 on expansion and dopaminergic differentiation...... in high oxygen cultures. Low oxygen during FGF2-mediated expansion resulted also in a significant increase in tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-ir) dopaminergic neurons as compared to high oxygen tension, but no corresponding effect was observed for dopamine release into the culture medium. However......, switching FGF2-expanded cultures from low to high oxygen tension during the last two days of differentiation significantly enhanced dopamine release and intracellular dopamine levels as compared to all other treatment groups. In addition, the short-term exposure to high oxygen enhanced in situ assessed TH...

  3. 1α,25(OH)2D3-dependent modulation of Akt in proliferating and differentiating C2C12 skeletal muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago, Claudia G; Arango, Nadia S; Boland, Ricardo L

    2012-04-01

    We previously reported that 1α,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D(3) [1α,25(OH)(2)D(3)] induces non-transcriptional rapid responses through activation of Src and MAPKs in the skeletal muscle cell line C2C12. In the present study we investigated the modulation of Akt by the secosteroid hormone in C2C12 cells at proliferative stage (myoblasts) and at early differentiation stage. In proliferating cells, 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) activates Akt by phosphorylation in Ser473 in a time-dependent manner (5-60 min). When these cells were pretreated with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin to disrupt caveolae microdomains, hormone-induced activation of Akt was suppressed. Similar results were obtained by siRNA silencing of caveolin-1 expression, further indicating that hormone effects on cell membrane caveolae are required for downstream signaling. PI3K and p38 MAPK, but not ERK1/2, participate in 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) activation of Akt in myoblasts. The involvement of p38 MAPK in Akt phosphorylation by the hormone probably occurs through MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2), which is activated by the steroid. In addition, the participation of Src in Akt phosphorylation by 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) was demonstrated using the inhibitor PP2 and antisense oligodeoxynucleotides that suppress Src expression. We also observed that PI3K participates in hormone-induced proliferation. During the early phase of C2C12 cell differentiation 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) also increases Akt phosphorylation and activates Src. Of relevance, Src and PI3K are involved in Akt activation and in MHC and myogenin increased expression by 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3). Altogether, these data suggest that 1α,25(OH)(2)D(3) upregulates Akt through Src, PI(3)K, and p38 MAPK to stimulate myogenesis in C2C12 cells.

  4. Total saponins of Panax ginseng effects on proliferation and differentiation of human embryonic neural stem cells and in a Parkinson's disease mouse model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yingbo Li; Shali Wang

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Total saponins of Panax ginseng (TSPG) exhibits neuroprotection against Parkinson's disease in the substantia nigra.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of TSPG on human embryonic neural stem cells (NSCs) proliferation and differentiation into dopaminergic neurons using in vitro studies, and to observe NSC differentiation in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease, as well as behavioral changes before and after transplantation.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: In vitro neural cell biology trial and in vivo randomized, controlled animal trial were performed at the Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University between September 2004 and December 2007.MATERIALS: TSPG (purity > 95%) was isolated, extracted, and identified by Chongqing Academy of Chinese Materia Medica. Recombinant human basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF)and recombinant human epidermal growth factor (EGF) were purchased from PeproTech, USA. A total of 25 C57/BL6J mice, aged 18-20 weeks were included. Twenty were used to establish a Parkinson's disease model with i.p. injection of MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1, 2, 3,6-tetrahydropyridine) and TSPG alone or combined with interleukin-1 (IL-1)-treated NSCs prior to transplantation into the corpus striatum. The remaining five mice were pretreated for 3 days with TSPG prior to MPTP injection, serving as the TSPG prevention group.METHODS: Primary NSCs were isolated, cultured and purified from embryonic cerebral cortex.Immunocytochemistry was employed to detect specific antigen expression in the NSCs. In vitro experiment: (1) to induce proliferation, NSCs were treated with TSPG, EGF+bFGF, or TSPG+EGF+bFGF, respectively; (2) to induce dopaminergic neuronal differentiation, NSCs were treated with TSPG, IL-1, or TSPG+IL-1, respectively.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In vitro experiment: the effects of TSPG on NSCs proliferation were evaluated with flow cytometry and M'IT assay. Tyrosine hydroxylase expression was determined by immunocytochemistry assay

  5. A proliferation-inducing ligand sustains the proliferation of human naïve (CD27⁻) B cells and mediates their differentiation into long-lived plasma cells in vitro via transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor and B-cell mature antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuda, Yoshiko; Haneda, Masataka; Kadomatsu, Kenji; Kobayashi, Takaaki

    2015-06-01

    Long-lived plasma cells (PCs) contribute to humoral immunity through an undefined mechanism. Memory B cells, but not human naïve B cells, can be induced to differentiate into long-lived PCs in vitro. Because evidence links a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), a tumor necrosis factor family member, to the ability of bone marrow to mediate long-term PC survival, we reasoned that APRIL influences the proliferation and differentiation of naïve B cells. We describe here the development of a simple cell culture system that allowed us to show that APRIL sustained the proliferation of naïve human B cells and induced them to differentiate into long-lived PCs. Blocking the transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor or B-cell mature antigen shows they were required for the differentiation of naïve B cells into long-lived PCs in vitro. Our in vitro culture system will reveal new insights into the biology of long-lived PCs.

  6. Human bone morphogenetic protein-2 gene transfer induces human mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 范清宇; 钱济先; 马保安; 周勇; 张明华

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To identify eukaryotic expression vector of human bone morphogenetic protein 2 pcDNA3/BMP2, verify its expression in transfected human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and the effect on hMSCs differentiation.Methods: The BMP2 gene was cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector pcDNA3. Transfected the recombinant into hMSCs by liposome. Immunnohistochemistry and in situ hybridization methods were used to identify the expression of BMP2 mRNA and protein; ALP and Von Kossa stains were performed to identify the BMP2 gene differentiated effect on the hMSCs. Results: The pcDNA3/BMP2 fragments were as large as theory. BMP2 mRNA and protein were expressed and synthesized both in 48 h and 4 weeks after transfection, the ALP and Ca deposit exhibition, which marked the osteogenic lineage of hMSCs,were enhanced and sped. Conclusion: Transfection of pcDNA3/BMP2 is able to provide transient and persistent expression in hMSCs, and promote the MSCs differentiation to osteogenic lineage.

  7. Proliferation and differentiation of reactive nestin~+/GFAP~+ cells in an adult rat model of compression-induced spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pinglin Yang; Xijing He; Haopeng Li; Binshang Lan; Guoyu Wang; Yiheng Liu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Studies have demonstrated that astrocytes may possess similar properties to neural stem cells/neural precursor cells and have the potential to differentiate into neurons.OBJECTIVE:To observe neuroepithelial stem cell protein (nestin) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression following spinal cord injury,and to explore whether nestin~+/GFAP~+ cells,which are detected at peak levels in gray and white matter around the ependymal region of the central canal in injured spinal cord,possess similar properties of neural stem cells.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A randomized,controlled experiment.The study was performed at the Key Laboratory of Environment and Genes Related to Diseases (Xi'an Jiaotong University),Ministry of Education between January 2004 and December 2006.MATERIALS:Rabbit anti-rat nestin,β-tubulin Ⅲ,mouse anti-rat GFAP,galactocerebroside (GaLC) antibodies were utilized,as well as flow cytometry.METHODS:A total of 60 male,Sprague Dawiey rats,aged 8 weeks,were randomly assigned to control (n=12) and model (n=48) groups.The spinal cord injury model was established in the model group by aneurysm clip compression,while the control animals were not treated.The gray and white matter around the ependymal region of the central canal exhibited peak expression of nestin~+/GFAP~+ cells.These cells were harvested and prepared into single cell suspension,followed by primary and passage cultures.The cells were incubated with serum-containing neural stem cell complete medium.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Nestin and GFAP expression in injured spinal cord was determined using immunohistochemistry and double-labeled immunofluorescence at 1,3,5,7,14,28,and 56 days post-injury.In addition,cell proliferation and differentiation were detected using immunofluorescence cytochemistry and flow cytometry.RESULTS:Compared with the control group,the model group exhibited significantly increased nestin and GFAP expression (P<0.05),which reached peak levels between 3 and 7

  8. Cell proliferation in gastrointestinal mucosa.

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, W M; Wright, N A

    1999-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cell proliferation plays an important role in the maintenance of the integrity of the gastrointestinal system. The study of gastrointestinal proliferation kinetics allows a better understanding of the complexity of the system, and also has important implications for the study of gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Gastrointestinal stem cells are shown to be pluripotential and to give rise to all cell lineages in the epithelium. Carcinogenesis in the colon occurs through sequenti...

  9. Novel strontium-doped bioactive glass nanoparticles enhance proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strobel, L. A. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg Medical Center, Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery (Germany); Hild, N.; Mohn, D.; Stark, W. J. [ETH Zurich, Department of Chemistry and Applied Biosciences, Institute for Chemical and Bioengineering (Switzerland); Hoppe, A. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Biomaterials (Germany); Gbureck, U. [University of Wuerzburg, Department for Functional Materials in Medicine and Dentistry (Germany); Horch, R. E.; Kneser, U. [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg Medical Center, Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery (Germany); Boccaccini, A. R., E-mail: aldo.boccaccini@ww.uni-erlangen.de [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Biomaterials (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    The present study investigates a new family of bioactive glass nanoparticles with and without Sr-doping focusing on the influence of the nanoparticles on human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSCs) in vitro. The bioactive glass nanoparticles were fabricated by flame spray synthesis and a particle diameter of 30-35 nm was achieved. Glass nanoparticles were undoped (BG 13-93-0Sr) or doped with 5 wt% strontium (Sr) (BG 13-93-5Sr) and used at concentrations of 10 and 100 {mu}g/cm Superscript-Two (particles per culture plate area), respectively. Cells were cultured for 14 days after which the samples were analysed regarding metabolic activity and expression of various bone-specific genes. Cell growth and morphology indicated the high cytocompatibility of the nanoparticulate bioactive glass. The presence of the nanoparticles enhanced cell growth compared to the plain polystyrene control group. At a concentration of 100 {mu}g/cm Superscript-Two , Sr-doped particles led to significantly enhanced gene expression of osteocalcin, collagen type 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor. Thus, Sr-doped nanoparticles showing a dose-dependent increase of osteogenic differentiation in hBMSCs are a promising biomaterial for bone regeneration purposes.

  10. Effects of Canonical NF-κB Signaling Pathway on the Proliferation and Odonto/Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Stem Cells from Apical Papilla

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    Junjun Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Information. NF-κB signaling pathway plays a complicated role in the biological functions of mesenchymal stem cells. However, the effects of NF-κB pathway on the odonto/osteogenic differentiation of stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs remain unclear. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of canonical NF-κB pathway on the osteo/odontogenic capacity of SCAPs in vitro. Results. Western blot results demonstrated that NF-κB pathway in SCAPs was successfully activated by TNF-α or blocked by BMS-345541. NF-κB pathway-activated SCAPs presented a higher proliferation activity compared with control groups, as indicated by dimethyl-thiazol-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay (MTT and flow cytometry assay (FCM. Wound scratch assay revealed that NF-κB pathway-activated SCAPs presented an improved migration capacity, enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity, and upregulated mineralization capacity of SCAPs, as compared with control groups. Meanwhile, the odonto/osteogenic markers (ALP/ALP, RUNX2/RUNX2, OSX/OSX, OCN/OCN, OPN/OPN, BSP/BSP, DSPP/DSP, and DMP-1/DMP-1 in NF-κB pathway-activated SCAPs were also significantly upregulated as compared with control groups at both protein and mRNA levels. However, NF-κB pathway-inhibited SCAPs exhibited a lower proliferation/migration capacity, and decreased odonto/osteogenic ability in comparison with control groups. Conclusion. Our findings suggest that classical NF-κB pathway plays a paramount role in the proliferation and committed differentiation of SCAPs.

  11. The Effects of Crystal Phase and Particle Morphology of Calcium Phosphates on Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danoux, Charlène; Pereira, Daniel; Döbelin, Nicola; Stähli, Christoph; Barralet, Jake; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Habibovic, Pamela

    2016-07-01

    Calcium phosphate (CaP) ceramics are extensively used for bone regeneration; however, their clinical performance is still considered inferior to that of patient's own bone. To improve the performance of CaP bone graft substitutes, it is important to understand the effects of their individual properties on a biological response. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of the crystal phase and particle morphology on the behavior of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). To study the effect of the crystal phase, brushite, monetite, and octacalcium phosphate (OCP) are produced by controlling the precipitation conditions. Brushite and monetite are produced as plate-shaped and as needle-shaped particles, to further investigate the effect of particle morphology. Proliferation of hMSCs is inhibited on OCP as compared to brushite and monetite in either morphology. Brushite needles consistently show the lowest expression of most osteogenic markers, whereas the expression on OCP is in general high. There is a trend toward a higher expression of the osteogenic markers on plate-shaped than on needle-shaped particles for both brushite and monetite. Within the limits of CaP precipitation, these data indicate the effect of both crystal phase and particle morphology of CaPs on the behavior of hMSCs.

  12. Recombiant DNA and cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stein, G.S.; Stein, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains 13 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Expression of Dihydrofolate Reductase and Thymidylate Synthase Genes in Mammalian Cells; Expression of Histone Genes during the Cell Cycle in Human Cells; Regulation of Nonmuscle Actin Gene Expression during Early Development; and Recombinant DNA Approaches to Studying Control of Cell Proliferation: An Overview.

  13. Effects of Apatite Cement Containing Atelocollagen on Attachment to and Proliferation and Differentiation of MC3T3-E1 Osteoblastic Cells

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    Masaaki Takechi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available To improve the osteoconductivity of apatite cement (AC for reconstruction of bone defects after oral maxillofacial surgery, we previously fabricated AC containing atelocollagen (AC(ate. In the present study, we examined the initial attachment, proliferation and differentiation of mouse osteoblastic cells (MC3T3-E1 cells on the surface of conventional AC (c-AC, AC(ate and a plastic cell dish. The number of osteoblastic cells showing initial attachment to AC(ate was greater than those attached to c-AC and similar to the number attached to the plastic cell wells. We also found that osteoblastic cells were well spread and increased their number on AC(ate in comparison with c-AC and the wells without specimens, while the amount of procollagen type I carboxy-terminal peptide (PIPC produced in osteoblastic cells after three days on AC(ate was greater as compared to the others. There was no significant difference in regard to alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity and osteocalcin production by osteoblastic cells among the three surface types after three and six days. However, after 12 days, ALP activity and the produced osteocalcin were greater with AC(ate. In conclusion, AC(ate may be a useful material with high osteoconductivity for reconstruction of bone defects after oral maxillofacial surgery.

  14. Rehabilitative Therapies Differentially Alter Proliferation and Survival of Glial Cell Populations in the Perilesional Zone of Cortical Infarcts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SILKE KEINER; FANNY WURM; ALBRECHT KUNZE; OTTO W. WITTE; CHRISTOPH REDECKER

    2008-01-01

    Rehabilitative therapies after stroke are designed to improve remodeling of neuronal circuits and to promote functional recovery. Only very little is known about the underlying cellular mechanisms. In particular, the effects of rehabilitative training on glial cells, which play an important role in the pathophysiology of cerebral ischemia, are only poorly understood. Here, we examined the effects of rehabilitative therapies on proliferation and survival of distinct glial populations in the perilesional area of photochemically induced focal ischemic infarcts in the forelimb sensorimotor cortex in rats. Immediately after the infarct,one group of animals housed in standard cages received daily sessions of skilled reaching training of the impaired forelimb; a second group was transferred to an enriched environment, whereas a third control group remained in standard cages without further treatment. Functional recovery was assessed in a sensorimotor walking task. To label proliferating cells, bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was administered from day 2 until day 6 postinfarct. Proliferation and survival of astrocytes, microglia/macrophages, and immature and mature oligodendrocytes in the perilesional zone were immunocytochemically quantified at day 10 and 42. Using this approach, we demonstrate that enriched environment and reaching training both significantly improve functional recovery of the impaired forelimb. Furthermore,these therapies strongly reduce the proliferation of microglia/macrophages in the perilesional zone, and daily training of the impaired forelimb significantly increased the survival of newly generated astrocytes. Our data, therefore,demonstrate that rehabilitative therapies after cortical infarcts not only improve the functional recovery but also significantly influence the glial response in the perilesional zone.%卒中后的康复治疗能改善神经环路的重塑,促进功能恢复.但人们对其潜在的细胞分子机制却知之甚少.特别是康

  15. L-type calcium channels play a crucial role in the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

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    Wen, Li [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wang, Yu [Department of Oncology, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Wang, Huan [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Kong, Lingmin [Department of Fundamental Medicine, Cell Engineering Research Centre, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhang, Liang [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Chen, Xin [Department of General Dentistry, The 174th Hospital of Chinese PLA, Xiamen 361003 (China); Ding, Yin, E-mail: dingyin@fmmu.edu.cn [Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We detect the functional Ca{sup 2+} currents and mRNA expression of VDCC{sub L} in rMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Blockage of VDCC{sub L} exert antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on rMSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibiting VDCC{sub L} can suppress the ability of rMSCs to differentiate into osteoblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {alpha}1C of VDCC{sub L} may be a primary functional subunit in VDCC{sub L}-regulating rMSCs. -- Abstract: L-type voltage-dependent Ca{sup 2+} channels (VDCC{sub L}) play an important role in the maintenance of intracellular calcium homeostasis, and influence multiple cellular processes. They have been confirmed to contribute to the functional activities of osteoblasts. Recently, VDCC{sub L} expression was reported in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), but the role of VDCC{sub L} in MSCs is still undetermined. The aim of this study was to determine whether VDCC{sub L} may be regarded as a new regulator in the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of rat MSC (rMSCs). In this study, we examined functional Ca{sup 2+} currents (I{sub Ca}) and mRNA expression of VDCC{sub L} in rMSCs, and then suppressed VDCC{sub L} using nifedipine (Nif), a VDCC{sub L} blocker, to investigate its role in rMSCs. The proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs were analyzed by MTT, flow cytometry, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), Alizarin Red S staining, RT-PCR, and real-time PCR assays. We found that Nif exerts antiproliferative and apoptosis-inducing effects on rMSCs. ALP activity and mineralized nodules were significantly decreased after Nif treatment. Moreover, the mRNA levels of the osteogenic markers, osteocalcin (OCN), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), were also down-regulated. In addition, we transfected {alpha}1C-siRNA into the cells to further confirm the role of VDCC{sub L} in rMSCs, and a similar effect on osteogenesis was found. These

  16. Hydrostatic pressure promotes the proliferation and osteogenic/chondrogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells: The roles of RhoA and Rac1

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    Yin-Hua Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies have shown that hydrostatic pressure can serve as an active regulator for bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs. The current work further investigates the roles of cytoskeletal regulatory proteins Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA and Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 (Rac1 in hydrostatic pressure-related effects on BMSCs. Flow cytometry assays showed that the hydrostatic pressure promoted cell cycle initiation in a RhoA- and Rac1-dependent manner. Furthermore, fluorescence assays confirmed that RhoA played a positive and Rac1 displayed a negative role in the hydrostatic pressure-induced F-actin stress fiber assembly. Western blots suggested that RhoA and Rac1 play central roles in the pressure-inhibited ERK phosphorylation, and Rac1 but not RhoA was involved in the pressure-promoted JNK phosphorylation. Finally, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR experiments showed that pressure promoted the expression of osteogenic marker genes in BMSCs at an early stage of osteogenic differentiation through the up-regulation of RhoA activity. Additionally, the PCR results showed that pressure enhanced the expression of chondrogenic marker genes in BMSCs during chondrogenic differentiation via the up-regulation of Rac1 activity. Collectively, our results suggested that RhoA and Rac1 are critical to the pressure-induced proliferation and differentiation, the stress fiber assembly, and MAPK activation in BMSCs.

  17. Direct Interaction of CD40 on Tumor Cells with CD40L on T Cells Increases the Proliferation of Tumor Cells by Enhancing TGF-β Production and Th17 Differentiation.

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    Hyemin Kim

    Full Text Available It has recently been reported that the CD40-CD40 ligand (CD40L interaction is important in Th17 development. In addition, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β promotes tumorigenesis as an immunosuppressive cytokine and is crucial in the development of Th17 cells. This study investigated the role of CD40 in breast cancer cells and its role in immunosuppressive function and tumor progression. CD40 was highly expressed in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231, and its stimulation with CD40 antibodies caused the up-regulation of TGF-β. Direct CD40-CD40L interaction between MDA-MB231 cells and activated T cells also increased TGF-β production and induced the production of IL-17, which accelerated the proliferation of MDA-MB231 cells through the activation of STAT3. Taken together, the direct CD40-CD40L interaction of breast tumor cells and activated T cells increases TGF-β production and the differentiation of Th17 cells, which promotes the proliferation of breast cancer cells.

  18. Effects of growth hormone therapeutic supplementation on hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells in children with growth hormone deficiency: focus on proliferation and differentiation capabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawa, M P; Stecewicz, I; Piecyk, K; Pius-Sadowska, E; Paczkowska, E; Rogińska, D; Sobuś, A; Łuczkowska, K; Gawrych, E; Petriczko, E; Walczak, M; Machaliński, B

    2015-09-01

    We investigated the direct effects of growth hormone (GH) replacement therapy (GH-RT) on hematopoiesis in children with GH deficiency (GHD) with the special emphasis on proliferation and cell cycle regulation. Peripheral blood (PB) was collected from sixty control individuals and forty GHD children before GH-RT and in 3rd and 6th month of GH-RT to measure hematological parameters and isolate CD34(+)-enriched hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs). Selected parameters of PB were analyzed by hematological analyzer. Moreover, collected HPCs were used to analyze GH receptor (GHR) and IGF1 expression, clonogenicity, and cell cycle activity. Finally, global gene expression profile of collected HPCs was analyzed using genome-wide RNA microarrays. GHD resulted in a decrease in several hematological parameters related to RBCs and significantly diminished clonogenicity of erythroid progenies. In contrast, GH-RT stimulated increases in clonogenic growth of erythroid lineage and RBC counts as well as significant up-regulation of cell cycle-propagating genes, including MAP2K1, cyclins D1/E1, PCNA, and IGF1. Likewise, GH-RT significantly modified GHR expression in isolated HPCs and augmented systemic IGF1 levels. Global gene expression analysis revealed significantly higher expression of genes associated with cell cycle, proliferation, and differentiation in HPCs from GH-treated subjects. (i) GH-RT significantly augments cell cycle progression in HPCs and increases clonogenicity of erythroid progenitors; (ii) GHR expression in HPCs is modulated by GH status; (iii) molecular mechanisms by which GH influences hematopoiesis might provide a basis for designing therapeutic interventions for hematological complications related to GHD.

  19. Effects of Anastrozole Combined with Shuganjiangu Decoction on Osteoblast-like Cell Proliferation, Differentiation and OPG/RANKL mRNA Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Ren; Shu-yan Han; Ping-ping Li

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of anastrozole combined with Shuganjiangu decoction on osteoblast-like cells.Methods:Human osteoblast-like cells MG-63 were cultured and divided into four groups:control,anastrozole,Shuganjiangu decoction (SGJGD),and anastrozole combined with SGJGD.Cell proliferation was investigated by MTT assay.Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin,the indicators of cell differentiation,were evaluated by p-nitrophenylphosphate method and radioimmunoassay,respectively.Gene expressions of ALP,osteocalcin,osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) were examined by real-time PCR.Results:As evidenced by MTT assay,cell proliferation of MG-63 was inhibited by anastrozole,but stimulated with treatment of SGJGD alone and combined with anastrozole (P<0.01).Compared with control group,ALP activity was increased by the treatment of SGJGD alone and combined with anastrozole (P<0.01).Also,osteocalcin secretion was enhanced with the treatment of SGJGD single and combination with anastrozole (P<0.05).In the real-time PCR assay,gene expressions of ALP and osteocalcin were significantly increased (P<0.01 for ALP,P<0.05 for osteocalcin) by the treatment of SGJGD and anastrozole combined with SGJGD,but the expression of RANKL was decreased (P<0.05).Moreover,anastrozole combined with SGJGD upregulated gene expression of OPG (P<0.01).Conclusion:SGJGD may alleviate the injury effects of anastrozole on MG-63 cells through adjusting bone formation and resorption indicators.

  20. Proliferation, migration, and differentiation of endogenous ependymal region stem/progenitor cells following minimal spinal cord injury in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothe, A J; Tator, C H

    2005-01-01

    Ependymal cells of the adult mammalian spinal cord exhibit stem/progenitor cell properties following injury. In the present study, we utilized intraventricular injection of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-6,6'-di(4-sulfophenyl)-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine (DiI) to label the ependyma lining the central canal to allow tracking of the migration of endogenous ependymal cells and their progeny after spinal cord injury (SCI). We developed a minimal injury model that preserved the integrity of the central canal and did not interfere with ependymal cell labeling. Three days following SCI, there was an 8.6-fold increase in the proliferative labeling index of the ependymal cells at the level of the needle track based on bromodeoxyuridine labeling, compared with 1 day post-injury. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells were not detected in the ependyma or surrounding gray matter, indicating that ependymal cells do not undergo apoptosis in response to minimal injury. Nestin was rapidly induced in the ependyma by 1 day and expression peaked by 7 days post-injury. We quantitated the number and distance of ependymal cell migration following minimal injury. The number of ependymal cells migrating from the region of the central canal increased by 3 days following minimal injury and DiI-labeled glial fibrillary acidic protein expressing cells were detected 14 days post-SCI, most of which migrated within 70 microm of the region of the central canal. These results show that a minimal SCI adjacent to the ependyma is sufficient to induce an endogenous ependymal cell response where ependymal stem/progenitor cells proliferate and migrate from the region of the central canal, differentiating primarily into astrocytes.

  1. A Chinese Herbal Decoction, Danggui Buxue Tang, Stimulates Proliferation, Differentiation and Gene Expression of Cultured Osteosarcoma Cells: Genomic Approach to Reveal Specific Gene Activation

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    Roy C. Y. Choi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Danggui Buxue Tang (DBT, a Chinese herbal decoction used to treat ailments in women, contains Radix Astragali (Huangqi; RA and Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Danggui; RAS. When DBT was applied onto cultured MG-63 cells, an increase of cell proliferation and differentiation of MG-63 cell were revealed: both of these effects were significantly higher in DBT than RA or RAS extract. To search for the biological markers that are specifically regulated by DBT, DNA microarray was used to reveal the gene expression profiling of DBT in MG-63 cells as compared to that of RA- or RAS-treated cells. Amongst 883 DBT-regulated genes, 403 of them are specifically regulated by DBT treatment, including CCL-2, CCL-7, CCL-8, and galectin-9. The signaling cascade of this DBT-regulated gene expression was also elucidated in cultured MG-63 cells. The current results reveal the potential usage of this herbal decoction in treating osteoporosis and suggest the uniqueness of Chinese herbal decoction that requires a well-defined formulation. The DBT-regulated genes in the culture could serve as biological responsive markers for quality assurance of the herbal preparation.

  2. Brain-derived neurotrophic factors increase the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells in mouse models of cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dawei Zang; Juan Liu; Xianhua Zuo; Surindar Cheema

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been confirmed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) can promote the proliferation of neural stem cells (NSCs) and protect neuron-like cells in vitro. However, its effect on endogenous NSCs in vivo is still unclear.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether BDNF can induce the endogenous NSCs to proliferate and differentiate into the neurons in the mice model of cerebral infarction.DESIGN: A synchronal controlled observation.SETTINGS: Department of Neurology, Microbiology Division of the Department of Laboratory, Tianjin First Central Hospital; Howard Florey Institute, Medical College, the University of Melbourne.MATERIALS: Twenty-four pure breed C57BL/6J mice at the age of 10 weeks old (12 males and 12 females)were divided into saline control group and BDNF-treated group, 6 males and 6 females in each group.METHODS: The experiments were performed at the University of Melbourne from July 2004 to February 2005. ① The left middle cerebral artery (MCA) was ligated in both groups to establish models of cerebral infarction and the Matsushita measuring method was used to monitor the blood flow of the lesioned region supplied by MCA. 75% reduction of blood flow should be reached in the lesioned region. ② At 24 hours after infarction, mice in the BDNF-treated group were administrated with BDNF, which was slowly delivered using an ALZET osmium pump design. BDNF was dissolved in saline at the dosage of 500 mg/kg and injected into the pump, which could release the solution consistently in the following 28 days. The mice in the saline control group accepted the same volume of saline at 24 hours after infarction. ③ The Rotarod function test began at 1 week preoperatively, the time stayed on Rotarod was recorded. The mice were tested once a day till the end of the experiment. At 4 weeks post cerebral infarction, double labeling of Nestin and GFAP, BⅢ tubulin and CNPase immunostaining was performed to observe the differentiation directions of the re

  3. The RP105/MD-1 complex is indispensable for TLR4/MD-2-dependent proliferation and IgM-secreting plasma cell differentiation of marginal zone B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yoshinori; Yanagibashi, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Yasuharu; Ikutani, Masashi; Kariyone, Ai; Ohta, Shoichiro; Hirai, Yoshikatsu; Kimoto, Masao; Miyake, Kensuke; Takatsu, Kiyoshi

    2012-06-01

    Marginal zone (MZ) B cells mount rapid T-cell-independent (T-I) immune responses against microbial components such as LPS. While Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is essential for LPS responses, MZ B cells uniquely express high levels of another LPS sensor Radioprotective 105 (RP105). However, little is known about how RP105 is used by MZ B cells. In this study, we investigated TLR4- or RP105-dependent MZ B cell responses by utilizing agonistic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to each receptor. Cross-linking TLR4 and RP105 at the same time with the mAbs induced robust IgM-secreting plasma cell generation as lipid A moiety of LPS. In contrast, stimulation with either mAb alone did not elicit such responses. RP105-deficient MZ B cells failed to produce IgM-secreting plasma cells in response to lipid A. TLR4 or lipid A stimulation of MZ B cells up-regulated their B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1) and X-box-binding protein 1 (Xbp-1) mRNA expression. RP105 stimulation alone did not give these responses and in fact decreased TLR4-mediated their expression. Compared with wild-type (WT) MZ B cells, RP105-deficient MZ B cells exhibited increased levels of Blimp-1 and Xbp-1 mRNA expression in response to lipid A. Lipid A or TLR4 plus RP105 stimulation induced massive proliferation and expression of Bcl-xL and c-Myc in WT but not RP105-deficient MZ B cells. These responses contributed to TLR4-mediated anti-apoptotic responses in MZ B cells. Thus, RP105 contributes in a unique way to the TLR4-dependent survival, proliferation and plasma cell generation of MZ B cells.

  4. Tart cherry juice induces differential dose-dependent effects on apoptosis, but not cellular proliferation, in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Keith R; Wooden, Alissa

    2012-11-01

    Consumption of polyphenol-rich fruits, for example, tart cherries, is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer. This is due, in large part, to the diverse myriad bioactive agents, that is, polyphenol anthocyanins, present in fruits. Anthocyanin-rich tart cherries purportedly modulate numerous cellular processes associated with oncogenesis such as apoptosis, cellular proliferation (CP), and cell cycle progression, although the effective concentrations eliciting these effects are unclear. We hypothesized that several dose-dependent effects over a large concentration range of 100% tart cherry juice (TCJ) would exist and affect these processes differentially with the potential for cellular protection and cellular death either by apoptosis or by necrosis. In this in vitro study, we tested the dose response of TCJ on CP and cell death in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. TCJ was added at 0.03-30% (v/v) to cells and incubated overnight with the medium alone or with increasing TCJ. Bromodeoxyuridine incorporation was significantly reduced by 20% at ≥10% (v/v) TCJ and associated with necrosis, but was not different between the control and treatment groups at <10% TCJ. MTT reduction was also significantly reduced by 27% and 80% at 10% and 30% TCJ, respectively, and associated with necrosis. Apoptosis, but not necrosis, was increased ∼63% at 3% TCJ (∼307 nM monomeric anthocyanins), yet significantly decreased (P<.05) by 20% at 1% TCJ (920 nM) both of which were physiologically relevant concentrations of anthocyanins. The data support a biphasic effect on apoptosis and no effect on proliferation.

  5. Adrenocorticotropin hormone 1-39 promotes proliferation and differentiation of oligodendroglial progenitor cells and protects from excitotoxic and inflammation-related damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamins, Joyce A; Nedelkoska, Liljana; Lisak, Robert P

    2014-10-01

    Oligodendroglia (OL) are highly susceptible to damage and, like neurons, are terminally differentiated. It is important to protect OL precursors (OPC) because they are reservoirs of differentiating cells capable of myelination following perinatal insult and remyelination in white matter diseases, including multiple sclerosis (MS). Patients with relapsing-remitting MS are commonly treated with high-dose corticosteroids (CS) when experiencing an exacerbation. Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH), a primary component of another approved MS exacerbation treatment, is a melanocortin peptide that stimulates production of CS by the adrenals. Melanocortin receptors are also found in the central nervous system (CNS) and on immune cells. ACTH is produced within the CNS and may have CS-independent effects on glia. We found that ACTH 1-39 stimulated proliferation of OPC, and to a lesser extent astroglia (AS) and microglia (MG), in rat glial cultures. ACTH accelerated differentiation of PDGFRα(+) OPC to a later stage marked by galactolipid expression and caused greater expansion of OL myelin-like sheets compared with untreated cells. Protective effects of ACTH on OPC were assessed by treating cultures with selected toxic agents, with or without ACTH. At 200 nM, ACTH protected OPC from death induced by staurosporine, glutamate, NMDA, AMPA, kainate, quinolinic acid, H2 O2 , and slow NO release, but not against kynurenic acid or rapid NO release. These agents and ACTH were not toxic to AS or MG. Our findings indicate that ACTH 1-39 provides benefits by increasing the number of OPC, accelerating their development into mature OL, and reducing OPC death from toxic insults.

  6. The effect of injectable gelatin-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid hydrogel matrices on the proliferation, migration, differentiation and oxidative stress resistance of adult neural stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Teck Chuan; Toh, Wei Seong; Wang, Li-Shan; Kurisawa, Motoichi; Spector, Myron

    2012-04-01

    Transplanted or endogenous neural stem cells often lack appropriate matrix in cavitary lesions in the central nervous system. In this study, gelatin-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid (Gtn-HPA), which could be enzymatically crosslinked with independent tuning of crosslinking degree and gelation rate, was explored as an injectable hydrogel for adult neural stem cells (aNSCs). The storage modulus of Gtn-HPA could be tuned (449-1717 Pa) to approximate adult brain tissue. Gtn-HPA was cytocompatible with aNSCs (yielding high viability >93%) and promoted aNSC adhesion. Gtn-HPA demonstrated a crosslinking-based approach for preconditioning aNSCs and increased the resistance of aNSCs to oxidative stress, improving their viability from 8-15% to 84% when challenged with 500 μM H(2)O(2). In addition, Gtn-HPA was able to modulate proliferation and migration of aNSCs in relation to the crosslinking degree. Finally, Gtn-HPA exhibited bias for neuronal cells. In mixed differentiation conditions, Gtn-HPA increased the proportion of aNSCs expressing neuronal marker β-tubulin III to a greater extent than that for astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein, indicating an enhancement in differentiation towards neuronal lineage. Between neuronal and astrocytic differentiation conditions, Gtn-HPA also selected for higher survival in the former. Overall, Gtn-HPA hydrogels are promising injectable matrices for supporting and influencing aNSCs in ways that may be beneficial for brain tissue regeneration after injuries.

  7. Differential Contribution of the Guanylyl Cyclase-Cyclic GMP-Protein Kinase G Pathway to the Proliferation of Neural Stem Cells Stimulated by Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno P. Carreira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an important inflammatory mediator involved in the initial boost in the proliferation of neural stem cells following brain injury. However, the mechanisms underlying the proliferative effect of NO are still unclear. The aim of this work was to investigate whether cyclic GMP (cGMP and the cGMP-dependent kinase (PKG are involved in the proliferative effect triggered by NO in neural stem cells. For this purpose, cultures of neural stem cells isolated from the mouse subventricular zone (SVZ were used. We observed that long-term exposure to the NO donor (24 h, NOC-18, increased the proliferation of SVZ cells in a cGMP-dependent manner, since the guanylate cyclase inhibitor, ODQ, prevented cell proliferation. Similarly to NOC-18, the cGMP analogue, 8-Br-cGMP, also increased cell proliferation. Interestingly, shorter exposures to NO (6 h increased cell proliferation in a cGMP-independent manner via the ERK/MAP kinase pathway. The selective inhibitor of PKG, KT5823, prevented the proliferative effect induced by NO at 24 h but not at 6 h. In conclusion, the proliferative effect of NO is initially mediated by the ERK/MAPK pathway, and at later stages by the GC/cGMP/PKG pathway. Thus, our work shows that NO induces neural stem cell proliferation by targeting these two pathways in a biphasic manner.

  8. Differences in proliferation, differentiation, and cytokine production by bone cells seeded on titanium-nitride and cobalt-chromium-molybdenum surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hove, Ruud P; Nolte, Peter A; Semeins, Cornelis M; Klein-Nulend, Jenneke

    2013-08-01

    Titanium-nitride coating is used to improve cobalt-chromium-molybdenum implant survival in total knee arthroplasty, but its effect on osteoconduction is unknown. Chromium and cobalt ions negatively affect the growth and metabolism of cultured osteoblasts while enhancing osteoclastogenic cytokine production. Therefore, it was hypothesized that a titanium-nitride surface would enhance osteoblast proliferation and/or differentiation and reduce osteoclastogenic cytokine production compared with a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum surface. MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts showed increased proliferation and decreased differentiation on titanium-nitride, while cytokine interleukin-6 production was higher on porous cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (p cobalt-chromium-molybdenum surface.

  9. Ipsilateral versus bilateral limb-training in promoting the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells following cerebral infarction in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiyao Yang; Feng Zhu; Xiaomei Zhang; Zhuo Gao; Yunpeng Cao

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of ipsilateral versus bilateral limb-training on promotion of endogenous neural stem cells in the peripheral infarct zone and the corresponding cerebral region in the unaffected hemisphere of rats with cerebral infarction. Middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced in Wistar rats. The rat forelimb on the unaffected side was either wrapped up with tape to force the use of the paretic forelimb in rats or not braked to allow bilateral forelimbs to participate in training. Daily training consisted of mesh drum training, balance beam training, and stick rolling training for a total of 40 minutes, once per day. Control rats received no training. At 14 days after functional training, rats receiving bilateral limb-training exhibited milder neurological impairment than that in the ipsilateral limb-training group or the control group. The number of nestin/glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive and nestin/microtubule-associated protein 2-positive cells in the peripheral infarct zone and in the corresponding cerebral region in the unaffected hemisphere was significantly higher in rats receiving bilateral limb-training than in rats receiving ipsilateral limb-training. These data suggest that bilateral limb-training can promote the proliferation and differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells in the bilateral hemispheres after cerebral infarction and accelerate the recovery of neurologic function. In addition, bilateral limb-training produces better therapeutic effects than ipsilateral limb-training.

  10. Human Serum is as Efficient as Fetal Bovine Serum in Supporting Proliferation and Differentiation of Human Multipotent Stromal (Mesenchymal) Stem Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aldahmash, Abdullah; Haack-Sørensen, Mandana; Al-Nbaheen, May

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human multipotent stromal (skeletal, mesenchymal) stem cells (hMSC) are employed in an increasing number of clinical trials for tissue regeneration of age-related degenerative diseases. However, routine use of fetal bovine sera (FBS) for their in vitro expansion is not optimal and may...... pose a health risk for patients. METHODS: We carried out a side-by-side comparison of the effects of allogenic pooled human serum (HuS) versus FBS on hMSC proliferation and differentiation in vitro and in vivo. As a model for hMSC, we employed telomerase-immortalized hMSC; hMSC-TERT cell line. RESULTS......) or adipocytic markers (PPAR-gamma2, lipoprotein lipase (LPL), aP2), respectively. In order to test for the functional capacity of hMSC-TERT that have been maintained in long-term cultures in the presence of HuS vs. FBS, the cells were mixed with hydroxyapatite/tricalcium phosphate (HA/TCP) and implanted...

  11. Indirect coating of RGD peptides using a poly-L-lysine spacer enhances jaw periosteal cell adhesion, proliferation, and differentiation into osteogenic tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardjomandi, N; Klein, C; Kohler, K; Maurer, A; Kalbacher, H; Niederländer, J; Reinert, S; Alexander, D

    2012-08-01

    The aim of our study was to generate a biofunctionalized, three-dimensional (3D) biomaterial to enhance jaw periosteal cell (JPC) adhesion and differentiation into osteogenic tissue. Therefore, open-cell polylactic acid (OPLA) scaffolds were coated covalently with different RGD peptides (a conserved recognition sequence of the most ECM proteins--arginine-glycine-asparagine) and different coating variants. The linear and cyclic RGD peptides were either applied directly or indirectly via a poly-L-lysine (PLL) spacer. JPCs were analyzed on coated constructs in 2D and 3D cultures and showed enhanced rates for indirectly coated scaffolds using the PLL spacer. By gene expression, we detected significantly increased levels of osteogenic marker genes, such as alkaline phosphatase, RUNX2, and AMELY in JPCs seeded onto PLL/linear RGD constructs compared to the otherwise-coated constructs. An analysis of the JPC mineralization capacity revealed the highest amounts of calcium-phosphate precipitates in cells growing within the PLL/linear scaffolds. Additionally, the JPC adhesion behavior on OPLA scaffolds seems to be mediated by ITGB3, ITGB1, and ITGAV, as shown by blocking assays. We concluded that coating of OPLA constructs with linear RGD peptides via PLL represents a suitable approach for functionalizing the polymer surface and enhancing adhesion, proliferation, and mineralization of JPCs.

  12. Effects of Buyang Huanwu decoction on cell proliferation and differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of aged rats following cerebral ischemia/reperfusion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianfeng Gao; Fenghua Lü; Changlian Zhu

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The mobilization of endogenous stem cells is an effective way to promote repair following ischemic brain damage. Buyang Huanwu decoction (BHD) can effectively improve cerebral blood flow and protect against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion damage.OBJECTIVE: To study the effects of BHD on cell proliferation and differentiation in the hippocampal dentate gyrus of rats following cerebral infarction, to investigate the protective effects of BHD against cerebral infarction, and to analyze the dose-effect relationship.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: This randomized, controlled, animal study was performed at the Laboratory of Department of Physiology, Henan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China from June 2007 to February 2008.MATERIALS: A total of 36 male, Sprague Dawley rats, aged 20-21 months, were equally and randomly assigned to the following groups: sham operation, model control, and nimodipine, as well as high-dose, moderate-dose, and low-dose BHD. BHD was composed of milkvetch root, Chinese angelica, red peony root, earthworm, peach seed, safflower, and Szechwan Iovage rhizome, which were provided by the Outpatient Department, Henan College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, China.METHODS: The Chinese medicinal ingredients described above were decocted. The external carotid artery was ligated in rats from the sham operation group. Rat models of focal cerebral infarction were established by middle cerebral artery occlusion in the model control and nimodipine groups, as well as the high-dose, moderate-dose, and low-dose BHD groups. The drugs were administered by gavage 5 days, as well as 2 hours, prior to model induction. Rats in the nimodipine group were daily administered a 6 mg/kg nimodipine suspension by gavage. Rats in the high-dose, moderate-dose, and low-dose BHD groups were administered daily 26, 13, and 6.5 g/kg BHD, respectively. Rats in the sham operation and model control groups were treated with an equal volume of saline.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

  13. DNMT3B in vitro knocking-down is able to reverse embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma cell phenotype through inhibition of proliferation and induction of myogenic differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megiorni, Francesca; Camero, Simona; Ceccarelli, Simona; McDowell, Heather P; Mannarino, Olga; Marampon, Francesco; Pizer, Barry; Shukla, Rajeev; Pizzuti, Antonio; Marchese, Cinzia; Clerico, Anna; Dominici, Carlo

    2016-11-29

    Aberrant DNA methylation has been frequently observed in many human cancers, including rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS), the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children. To date, the expression and function of the de novo DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) 3B in RMS have not yet been investigated. Our study show for the first time a significant up-regulation of DNMT3B levels in 14 RMS tumour samples and 4 RMS cell lines in comparison to normal skeletal muscle. Transfection of RD and TE671 cells, two in vitro models of embryonal RMS (ERMS), with a synthetic DNMT3B siRNA decreased cell proliferation by arresting cell cycle at G1 phase, as demonstrated by the reduced expression of Cyclin B1, Cyclin D1 and Cyclin E2, and by the concomitant up-regulation of the checkpoint regulators p21 and p27. DNMT3B depletion also impaired RB phosphorylation status and decreased migratory capacity and clonogenic potential. Interestingly, DNMT3B knock-down was able to commit ERMS cells towards myogenic terminal differentiation, as confirmed by the acquisition of a myogenic-like phenotype and by the increased expression of the myogenic markers MYOD1, Myogenin and MyHC. Finally, inhibition of MEK/ERK signalling by U0126 resulted in a reduction of DNMT3B protein, giving evidence that DNMT3B is a down-stream molecule of this oncogenic pathway.Taken together, our data indicate that altered expression of DNMT3B plays a key role in ERMS development since its silencing is able to reverse cell cancer phenotype by rescuing myogenic program. Epigenetic therapy, by targeting the DNA methylation machinery, may represent a novel therapeutic strategy against RMS.

  14. Silorane resin supports proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of MLO-A5 bone cells in vitro and bone formation in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, J David; Barragan-Adjemian, Cielo; Rosser, Jennifer; Melander, Jennifer R; Dusevich, Vladimir; Weiler, Rachel A; Miller, Bradley D; Kilway, Kathleen V; Dallas, Mark R; Bi, Lianxing; Nalvarte, Elisabet L; Bonewald, Lynda F

    2012-04-01

    Methyl methacrylate used in bone cements has drawbacks of toxicity, high exotherm, and considerable shrinkage. A new resin, based on silorane/oxirane chemistry, has been shown to have little toxicity, low exotherm, and low shrinkage. We hypothesized that silorane-based resins may also be useful as components of bone cements as well as other bone applications and began testing on bone cell function in vitro and in vivo. MLO-A5, late osteoblast cells, were exposed to polymerized silorane (SilMix) resin (and a standard polymerized bisGMA/TEGDMA methacrylate (BT) resin and compared to culture wells without resins as control. A significant cytotoxic effect was observed with the BT resin resulting in no cell growth, whereas in contrast, SilMix resin had no toxic effects on MLO-A5 cell proliferation, differentiation, nor mineralization. The cells cultured with SilMix produced increasing amounts of alkaline phosphatase (1.8-fold) compared to control cultures. Compared to control cultures, an actual enhancement of mineralization was observed in the silorane resin-containing cultures at days 10 and 11 as determined by von Kossa (1.8-2.0 fold increase) and Alizarin red staining (1.8-fold increase). A normal bone calcium/phosphate atomic ratio was observed by elemental analysis along with normal collagen formation. When used in vivo to stabilize osteotomies, no inflammatory response was observed, and the bone continued to heal. In conclusion, the silorane resin, SilMix, was shown to not only be non cytototoxic, but actually supported bone cell function. Therefore, this resin has significant potential for the development of a nontoxic bone cement or bone stabilizer.

  15. Silorane resin supports proliferation, differentiation, and mineralization of MLO-A5 bone cells in vitro and bone formation in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, J. David; Barragan-Adjemian, Cielo; Rosser, Jennifer; Melander, Jennifer R.; Dusevich, Vladimir; Weiler, Rachel A.; Miller, Bradley D.; Kilway, Kathleen V.; Dallas, Mark R.; Bi, Lianxing; Nalvarte, Elisabet L.; Bonewald, Lynda F.

    2015-01-01

    Methyl methacrylate used in bone cements has drawbacks of toxicity, high exotherm, and considerable shrinkage. A new resin, based on silorane/oxirane chemistry, has been shown to have little toxicity, low exotherm, and low shrinkage. We hypothesized that silorane-based resins may also be useful as components of bone cements as well as other bone applications and began testing on bone cell function in vitro and in vivo. MLO-A5, late osteoblast cells, were exposed to polymerized silorane (SilMix) resin (and a standard polymerized bisGMA/TEGDMA methacrylate (BT) resin and compared to culture wells without resins as control. A significant cytotoxic effect was observed with the BT resin resulting in no cell growth, whereas in contrast, SilMix resin had no toxic effects on MLO-A5 cell proliferation, differentiation, nor mineralization. The cells cultured with SilMix produced increasing amounts of alkaline phosphatase (1.8-fold) compared to control cultures. Compared to control cultures, an actual enhancement of mineralization was observed in the silorane resin-containing cultures at days 10 and 11 as determined by von Kossa (1.8–2.0 fold increase) and Alizarin red staining (1.8-fold increase). A normal bone calcium/phosphate atomic ratio was observed by elemental analysis along with normal collagen formation. When used in vivo to stabilize osteotomies, no inflammatory response was observed, and the bone continued to heal. In conclusion, the silorane resin, SilMix, was shown to not only be non cytototoxic, but actually supported bone cell function. Therefore, this resin has significant potential for the development of a nontoxic bone cement or bone stabilizer. PMID:22278990

  16. Depletion of human micro-RNA miR-125b reveals that it is critical for the proliferation of differentiated cells but not for the down-regulation of putative targets during differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Sun; Kim, Hak Kyun; Chung, Sangmi; Kim, Kwang-Soo; Dutta, Anindya

    2005-04-29

    Micro-RNAs are small non-coding RNAs that regulate target gene expression post-transcriptionally through base pairing with the target messenger RNA. Functional characterization of micro-RNAs awaits robust experimental methods to knock-down a micro-RNA as well as to assay its function in vivo. In addition to the recently developed method to sequester micro-RNA with 2'-O-methyl antisense oligonucleotide, we report that small interfering RNA against the loop region of a micro-RNA precursor can be used to deplete the micro-RNA. The depletion of miR-125b by this method had a profound effect on the proliferation of adult differentiated cancer cells, and this proliferation defect was rescued by co-transfected mature micro-RNA. This technique has unique advantages over the 2'-O-methyl antisense oligonucleotide and can be used to determine micro-RNA function, assay micro-RNAs in vivo, and identify the contribution of a predicted micro-RNA precursor to the pool of mature micro-RNA in a given cell. miR-125b and let-7 micro-RNAs are induced, whereas their putative targets, lin-28 and lin-41, are decreased during in vitro differentiation of Tera-2 or embryonic stem cells. Experimental increase or decrease of micro-RNA concentrations did not, however, affect the levels of the targets, a finding that is explained by the fact that the down-regulation of the targets appears to be mostly at the transcriptional level in these in vitro differentiation systems. Collectively these results reveal the importance of micro-RNA depletion strategies for directly determining micro-RNA function in vivo.

  17. Plaque psoriasis vs. atopic dermatitis and lichen planus: a comparison for lesional T-cell subsets, epidermal proliferation and differentiation.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bovenschen, H.J.; Seijger, M.M.B.; Kerkhof, P.C.M. van de

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: T-cell infiltration in plaque psoriasis has recently been an important subject of investigation. Interestingly, comparative analyses of the disease-specific composition of the lesional T-cell infiltrate in plaque psoriasis and other inflammatory dermatoses have only sparsely been perform

  18. Cross-talk between the epidermal growth factor-like repeats/fibronectin 6-8 repeats domains of Tenascin-R and microglia modulates neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hong; Huang, Wenhui; Niu, Rui; Sun, Lixin; Zhang, Luyong

    2008-01-01

    Mounting evidence has demonstrated that the microenvironment of stem/progenitor cells plays an important role in their proliferation and commitment to their fate. However, it remains unclear how all elements, such as astrocytes, microglia, extracellular matrix molecules, soluble factors, and their cross-talk interactions in the microenvironments, affect neural stem/progenitor cell fate. This work explored the influences of cross-talk between Tenascin-R (TN-R) and microglia on neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation. Our results show that microglia triggered by TN-R distinct domains EGF-like repeats (EGFL) and fibronectin 6-8 repeats (FN6-8) significantly enhanced the proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells and also obviously induced the differentiation into neurons but not oligodendrocytes. Neurite processes of neurons generated from neural progenitor cells were promoted by both EGFL and FN6-8 domains-activated microglia. Microglia triggered by EGFL and FN6-8 secreted brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta); interestingly, FN6-8 could activate microglia to secrete nerve growth factor in addition to BDNF and TGF-beta, but EGFL domain could not. All these data implied that the cross-talk between TN-R distinct domains EGFL/FN6-8 and microglia promoted neural stem/progenitor cell proliferation and induced their differentiation into neurons.

  19. Peroxisomes in Different Skeletal Cell Types during Intramembranous and Endochondral Ossification and Their Regulation during Osteoblast Differentiation by Distinct Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guofeng Qian

    Full Text Available Ossification defects leading to craniofacial dysmorphism or rhizomelia are typical phenotypes in patients and corresponding knockout mouse models with distinct peroxisomal disorders. Despite these obvious skeletal pathologies, to date no careful analysis exists on the distribution and function of peroxisomes in skeletal tissues and their alterations during ossification. Therefore, we analyzed the peroxisomal compartment in different cell types of mouse cartilage and bone as well as in primary cultures of calvarial osteoblasts. The peroxisome number and metabolism strongly increased in chondrocytes during endochondral ossification from the reserve to the hypertrophic zone, whereas in bone, metabolically active osteoblasts contained a higher numerical abundance of this organelle than osteocytes. The high abundance of peroxisomes in these skeletal cell types is reflected by high levels of Pex11β gene expression. During culture, calvarial pre-osteoblasts differentiated into secretory osteoblasts accompanied by peroxisome proliferation and increased levels of peroxisomal genes and proteins. Since many peroxisomal genes contain a PPAR-responsive element, we analyzed the gene expression of PPARɑ/ß/ɣ in calvarial osteoblasts and MC3T3-E1 cells, revealing higher levels for PPARß than for PPARɑ and PPARɣ. Treatment with different PPAR agonists and antagonists not only changed the peroxisomal compartment and associated gene expression, but also induced complex alterations of the gene expression patterns of the other PPAR family members. Studies in M3CT3-E1 cells showed that the PPARß agonist GW0742 activated the PPRE-mediated luciferase expression and up-regulated peroxisomal gene transcription (Pex11, Pex13, Pex14, Acox1 and Cat, whereas the PPARß antagonist GSK0660 led to repression of the PPRE and a decrease of the corresponding mRNA levels. In the same way, treatment of calvarial osteoblasts with GW0742 increased in peroxisome number and

  20. An important role for adenine, cholera toxin, hydrocortisone and triiodothyronine in the proliferation, self-renewal and differentiation of limbal stem cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Min; Bojic, Sanja; Figueiredo, Gustavo S; Rooney, Paul; de Havilland, Julian; Dickinson, Anne; Figueiredo, Francisco C; Lako, Majlinda

    2016-11-01

    The cornea is a self-renewing tissue located at the front of the eye. Its transparency is essential for allowing light to focus onto the retina for visual perception. The continuous renewal of corneal epithelium is supported by limbal stem cells (LSCs) which are located in the border region between conjunctiva and cornea known as the limbus. Ex vivo expansion of LSCs has been successfully applied in the last two decades to treat patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD). Various methods have been used for their expansion, yet the most widely used culture media contains a number of ingredients derived from animal sources which may compromise the safety profile of human LSC transplantation. In this study we sought to understand the role of these components namely adenine, cholera toxin, hydrocortisone and triiodothyronine with the aim of re-defining a safe and GMP compatible minimal media for the ex vivo expansion of LSCs on human amniotic membrane. Our data suggest that all four components play a critical role in maintaining LSC proliferation and promoting LSC self-renewal. However removal of adenine and triiodothyronine had a more profound impact and led to LSC differentiation and loss of viability respectively, suggesting their essential role for ex vivo expansion of LSCs. Replacement of each of the components with GMP-grade reagents resulted in equal growth to non-GMP grade media, however an enhanced differentiation of LSCs was observed, suggesting that additional combinations of GMP grade reagents need to be tested to achieve similar or better level of LSC maintenance in the same manner as the traditional LSC media.

  1. Senegenin promotes in vitro proliferation of human neural progenitor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Shi; Zhigang Liang; Zixuan Guo; Ran Li; Fen Yu; Zhanjun Zhang; Xuan Wang; Xiaomin Wang

    2011-01-01

    Senegenin, an effective component of Polygala tenuifolia root extract, promotes proliferation and differentiation of neural progenitor cells in the hippocampus.However, the effects of senegenin on mesencephalon-derived neural progenitor cells remain poorly understood.Cells from a ventral mesencephalon neural progenitor cell line (ReNcell VM) were utilized as models for pharmaceutical screening.The effects of various senegenin concentrations on cell proliferation were analyzed,demonstrating that high senegenin concentrations (5, 10, 50, and 100 pmo/L), particularly 50 pmol/L, significantly promoted proliferation of ReNcell VM cells.In the mitogen-activated protein kinase signal transduction pathway, senegenin significantly increased phosphorylation levels of extracellular signal-regulated kinases.Moreover, cell proliferation was suppressed by extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitors.Results suggested that senegenin contributed to in vitro proliferation of human neural progenitor cells by upregulating phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase.

  2. Effect of Low Level Laser Therapy on Proliferation and Differentiation of the Cells Contributing in Bone Regeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Amid, Reza; Kadkhodazadeh, Mahdi; Ahsaie, Mitra Ghazizadeh; Hakakzadeh, Arian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Low level laser therapy (LLLT) also known as photobiomodulation, is a treatment that uses low-level lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to change cellular function and is a clinically well accepted tool in regenerative medicine and dentistry. Considering the variety of laser, exposure, cells and study types, the exact effects of low level laser therapy seems to be unclear. The aim of this study was to review the data published in the field of the effects of low level laser th...

  3. Control of proliferating potential of myeloid leukemia cells during long-term treatment with vitamin D3 analogues and other differentiation inducers in combination with antileukemic drugs: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasukabe, T; Honma, Y; Hozumi, M; Suda, T; Nishii, Y

    1987-01-15

    Growth inhibition of murine and human myeloid leukemia cells by differentiation inducers during long-term culture was examined to improve the strategy for therapy of myeloid leukemia by differentiation inducers. When the effect of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a typical differentiation inducer, on proliferation of mouse myeloid leukemia M1 cells was examined at a constant product of time and concentration (480 nM in 20 days), the continuous treatment with 24 nM 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 was the most effective for inhibition of cell proliferation. After 20 days, the cumulative cell number was reduced about 3 X 10(5) times by continuous treatment with 24 nM 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Similar results were obtained when M1 cells were treated continuously with dexamethasone. M1 cells resistant to 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 appeared about 25 days after the start of continuous treatment with 24 nM 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. On the other hand, when M1 cells were treated continuously with 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and noncytotoxic doses of antileukemic drugs such as 1-beta-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine and daunomycin, resistant cells did not appear for at least 35 days. A similar effect of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and antileukemic drugs on cell proliferation was observed with the human monoblast-like cell line U937. The survival of syngeneic SL mice inoculated with M1 cells was prolonged more by treatment with both 1 alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 and daunomycin than by treatment with either drug alone. These results suggest that continuous treatment with both differentiation inducers and certain antileukemic drugs may be more effective therapeutically than treatment with a differentiation inducer alone.

  4. Inhibition of Viability, Proliferation, Cytokines Secretion, Surface Antigen Expression, and Adipogenic and Osteogenic Differentiation of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells by Seven-Day Exposure to 0.5 T Static Magnetic Fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After seven-day exposure to 0.5-Tesla Static Magnetic Field (SMF, Adipose-derived Stem Cells (ASCs and those labeled by superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO nanoparticles were examined for viability by methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT assay, proliferation by cell counting and bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU incorporation, DNA integrity by single cell gel electrophoresis, surface antigen by flow cytometry analysis, and the expression of cytokines and genetic markers by reverse transcription-PCR and underwent adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation assessed by quantifying related specific genes expression. The SMF slightly reduced cell viability and proliferation and inhibited the expression of CD49d, CD54, and CD73 but did not damage DNA integrity. The SMF slightly downregulated the expression of cytokines including Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF, Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1, Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF-β1, genetic markers comprising Stem Cell Antigen-1 (Sca1, Octamer-4 (Oct-4, ATP-binding Cassette Subfamily B Member 1 (ABCB1, adipogenic marker genes containing Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPAR-γ, and osteogenic marker genes including Secreted Phosphor-protein 1 (SPP1 and Osterix (OSX. Exposure to 0.5 T SMF for seven days inhibited viability, proliferation, surface antigen expression, cytokine secretion, stem cell genetic marker expression, and adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation but did not affect the DNA integrity in ASCs with or without SPIO labeling.

  5. Differential regulation of LncRNA-SARCC suppresses VHL-mutant RCC cell proliferation yet promotes VHL-normal RCC cell proliferation via modulating androgen receptor/HIF-2α/C-MYC axis under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, W; Sun, Y; Jiang, M; Wang, M; Gasiewicz, T A; Zheng, J; Chang, C

    2016-09-15

    It is well established that hypoxia contributes to tumor progression in a hypoxia inducible factor-2α (HIF-2α)-dependent manner in renal cell carcinoma (RCC), yet the role of long noncoding RNAs (LncRNAs) involved in hypoxia-mediated RCC progression remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that LncRNA-SARCC (Suppressing Androgen Receptor in Renal Cell Carcinoma) is differentially regulated by hypoxia in a von Hippel-Lindau (VHL)-dependent manner both in RCC cell culture and clinical specimens. LncRNA-SARCC can suppress hypoxic cell cycle progression in the VHL-mutant RCC cells while derepress it in the VHL-restored RCC cells. Mechanism dissection reveals that LncRNA-SARCC can post-transcriptionally regulate androgen receptor (AR) by physically binding and destablizing AR protein to suppress AR/HIF-2α/C-MYC signals. In return, HIF-2α can transcriptionally regulate the LncRNA-SARCC expression via binding to hypoxia-responsive elements on the promoter of LncRNA-SARCC. The negative feedback modulation between LncRNA-SARCC/AR complex and HIF-2α signaling may then lead to differentially modulated RCC progression in a VHL-dependent manner. Together, these results may provide us a new therapeutic approach via targeting this newly identified signal from LncRNA-SARCC to AR-mediated HIF-2α/C-MYC signals against RCC progression.

  6. Wnt target genes identified by DNA microarrays in immature CD34+ thymocytes regulate proliferation and cell adhesion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.J.T. Staal (Frank); F. Weerkamp (Floor); M.R.M. Baert (Miranda); C.M. van den Burg (Caroline); M. van Noort (Mascha); E.F. de Haas (Edwin); J.J.M. van Dongen (Jacques)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe thymus is seeded by very small numbers of progenitor cells that undergo massive proliferation before differentiation and rearrangement of TCR genes occurs. Various signals mediate proliferation and differentiation of these cells, including Wnt signals. Wnt signals i

  7. The gene desert mammary carcinoma susceptibility locus Mcs1a regulates Nr2f1 modifying mammary epithelial cell differentiation and proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bart M G Smits

    2013-06-01

    modifier of differentiation, proliferation, and mammary cancer risk.

  8. Mechanical stimulation increases proliferation, differentiation and protein expression in culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grossi, Alberto; Yadav, Kavita; Lawson, Moira Ann

    2007-01-01

    Myogenesis is a complex sequence of events, including the irreversible transition from the proliferation-competent myoblast stage into fused, multinucleated myotubes. Myogenic differentiation is regulated by positive and negative signals from surrounding tissues. Stimulation due to stretch- or load...

  9. Effects of curcumin (Curcuma longa) on learning and spatial memory as well as cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in adult and aged mice by upregulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor and CREB signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Sung Min; Choi, Jung Hoon; Yoo, Dae Young; Kim, Woosuk; Jung, Hyo Young; Kim, Jong Whi; Yoo, Miyoung; Lee, Sanghee; Kim, Chul Jung; Yoon, Yeo Sung; Hwang, In Koo

    2014-06-01

    Aging is a progressive process, and it may lead to the initiation of neurological diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of wild Indian Curcuma longa using a Morris water maze paradigm on learning and spatial memory in adult and D-galactose-induced aged mice. In addition, the effects on cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation were assessed by immunohistochemistry for Ki67 and doublecortin (DCX) respectively. The aging model in mice was induced through the subcutaneous administration of D-galactose (100 mg/kg) for 10 weeks. C. longa (300 mg/kg) or its vehicle (physiological saline) was administered orally to adult and D-galactose-treated mice for the last three weeks before sacrifice. The administration of C. longa significantly shortened the escape latency in both adult and D-galactose-induced aged mice and significantly ameliorated D-galactose-induced reduction of cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the subgranular zone of hippocampal dentate gyrus. In addition, the administration of C. longa significantly increased the levels of phosphorylated CREB and brain-derived neurotrophic factor in the subgranular zone of dentate gyrus. These results indicate that C. longa mitigates D-galactose-induced cognitive impairment, associated with decreased cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation, by activating CREB signaling in the hippocampal dentate gyrus.

  10. Slowing Down Differentiation of Engrafted Human Myoblasts Into Immunodeficient Mice Correlates With Increased Proliferation and Migration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Ingo; Negroni, Elisa; Bencze, Maximilien; Wolff, Annie; Aamiri, Ahmed; Di Santo, James P; Silva-Barbosa, Suse D.; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Savino, Wilson; Mouly, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    We have used a model of xenotransplantation in which human myoblasts were transplanted intramuscularly into immunodeficient Rag2-/-γC-/- mice, in order to investigate the kinetics of proliferation and differentiation of the transplanted cells. After injection, most of the human myoblasts had already differentiated by day 5. This differentiation correlated with reduction in proliferation and limited migration of the donor cells within the regenerating muscle. These results suggest that the precocious differentiation, already detected at 3 days postinjection, is a limiting factor for both the migration from the injection site and the participation of the donor cells to muscle regeneration. When we stimulated in vivo proliferation of human myoblasts, transplanting them in a serum-containing medium, we observed 5 days post-transplantation a delay of myogenic differentiation and an increase in cell numbers, which colonized a much larger area within the recipient's muscle. Importantly, these myoblasts maintained their ability to differentiate, since we found higher numbers of myofibers seen 1 month postengraftment, as compared to controls. Conceptually, these data suggest that in experimental myoblast transplantation, any intervention upon the donor cells and/or the recipient's microenvironment aimed at enhancing proliferation and migration should be done before differentiation of the implanted cells, e.g., day 3 postengraftment. PMID:21934656

  11. Slowing down differentiation of engrafted human myoblasts into immunodeficient mice correlates with increased proliferation and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riederer, Ingo; Negroni, Elisa; Bencze, Maximilien; Wolff, Annie; Aamiri, Ahmed; Di Santo, James P; Silva-Barbosa, Suse D; Butler-Browne, Gillian; Savino, Wilson; Mouly, Vincent

    2012-01-01

    We have used a model of xenotransplantation in which human myoblasts were transplanted intramuscularly into immunodeficient Rag2(-/-)γC(-/-) mice, in order to investigate the kinetics of proliferation and differentiation of the transplanted cells. After injection, most of the human myoblasts had already differentiated by day 5. This differentiation correlated with reduction in proliferation and limited migration of the donor cells within the regenerating muscle. These results suggest that the precocious differentiation, already detected at 3 days postinjection, is a limiting factor for both the migration from the injection site and the participation of the donor cells to muscle regeneration. When we stimulated in vivo proliferation of human myoblasts, transplanting them in a serum-containing medium, we observed 5 days post-transplantation a delay of myogenic differentiation and an increase in cell numbers, which colonized a much larger area within the recipient's muscle. Importantly, these myoblasts maintained their ability to differentiate, since we found higher numbers of myofibers seen 1 month postengraftment, as compared to controls. Conceptually, these data suggest that in experimental myoblast transplantation, any intervention upon the donor cells and/or the recipient's microenvironment aimed at enhancing proliferation and migration should be done before differentiation of the implanted cells, e.g., day 3 postengraftment.

  12. The Fto Gene Regulates the Proliferation and Differentiation of Pre-Adipocytes in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jiao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The highly regulated differentiation and proliferation of pre-adipocytes play a key role in the initiation of obesity. Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO is a novel gene strongly associated with the risk of obesity. A deficiency of FTO may cause growth retardation in addition to fat mass and adipocyte size reduction in vivo. To investigate the potential role of Fto gene on the proliferation and differentiation of pre-adipocytes, we generated Fto-knockdown and overexpressed 3T3-L1 cells. Using numerous proliferation assays our results suggest that Fto knockdown leads to suppression of proliferation, lower mitochondrial membrane potential, less cellular ATP, and decreased and smaller intracellular lipid droplets compared with controls (p < 0.05. Western blot analysis demonstrated that Fto knockdown can significantly suppress peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4 expression and inhibit Akt phosphorylation. By contrast, overexpression of Fto had the opposing effect on proliferation, mitochondrial membrane potential, ATP generation, in vitro differentiation, Akt phosphorylation, and PPARγ and GLUT4 expression. Moreover, we demonstrated that Wortmannin, a phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K inhibitor, could inhibit phospho-Akt in Fto overexpressed 3T3-L1 cells. Taken together, the results suggest that Fto regulates the proliferation and differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells via multiple mechanisms, including PPARγ and PI3K/Akt signaling.

  13. Roles of MicroRNA in regulating proliferation and differentiation of stem cells%MicroRNA在干细胞增殖与分化过程中的调控作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杞少华; 武栋成; 李东升

    2011-01-01

    背景:研究表明MicroRNA(miRNA)可通过抑制干细胞特定mRNA 序列的翻译来调控干细胞的自我更新和分化.目的:探讨miRNAs 在干细胞增殖和分化过程中的作用.方法:由第一作者检索2000/2010 PubMed 数据库、Elsevier 数据库及Nature 数据库.英文检索词为"stem cell,embryonic stem cell(ESC),induced pluripotent stem cells(iPS cell),microRNA(miRNA)".排除重复性研究.共保留其中的39 篇进行归纳总结.结果与结论:胚胎干细胞有特异性的miRNAs 表达,miRNAs 对胚胎干细胞增殖与分化起重要的调控作用;miRNAs 对造血干细胞分化的多个阶段和方向有调控作用;miRNAs 还参与了神经干细胞、间充质干细胞和皮肤干细胞等成体干细胞分化的调控.干细胞特异性的miRNAs 可提高体细胞重编程的效率.%BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have an important role in regulating stem cell self-renewal and differentiation by repressing the translation of selected mRNAs in stem cells.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the roles of miRNAs in regulating proliferation and differentiation of stem cells.METHODS: The first author searched PubMed database, Elsevier database and Nature database from 2000 to 2010. Key words were “stem cell, embryonic stem cell (ESC), induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS cell), microRNA (miRNA)”. Duplicated articles were excluded. Finally, 39 articles were selected.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: MicroRNAs are specifically expressed in embryonic stem cells. MiRNAs play important roles in regulating stem cell’s proliferation and differentiation. MiRNAs modulate multiple stages and cell types of hemopoietic stem cell differentiation. MiRNAs also regulate the differentiation of neural stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells and skin stem cells.Embryonic stem cell-specific miRNAs promote the efficiency of somatic cell reprogramming.

  14. MAPK signal pathways in the regulation of cell proliferation in mammalian cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    MAPK families play an important role in complex cellular programs like proliferation, differentiation,development, transformation, and apoptosis. At least three MAPK families have been characterized: extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), Jun kinase (JNK/SAPK) and p38 MAPK. The above effects are fulfilled by regulation of cell cycle engine and other cell proliferation related proteins. In this paper we discussed their functions and cooperation with other signal pathways in regulation of cell proliferation.

  15. Evaluation of germ-cell kinetics in infertile patients with proliferating cell nuclear antigen proliferating index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li ZENG; Xiang-Tian KONG; Jin-Wei SU; Tong-Li XIA; Yan-Qun NA; Ying-Lu GUO

    2001-01-01

    To explore the usefulness of proliferating cell nuclear antigen proliferating index (PCNA PI) in the pathological diagnosis and treatment of male infertility. Methods: Testicular biopsy specimen obtained from 48 cases of male infertility and 2 normal controls were fixed and embedded. The sections were stained with anti-PCNA monoclonal antibodies or haematoxylin/eosin. Proliferating index (PI), expressed as the percentage of germ-cell nuclei positively stained with PCNA antibody, was assessed from more than 20 seminiferous tubules or 600 germ-cells. Results: The infertile patients were divided into 4 groups: Group 1, normal spermatogenesis ( 14 cases); Group 2, hypospermatogenesis (16 cases); Group 3, germinal arrest (10 cases); Group 4, Sertoli cell only syndrome (8 cases). The PCNA PI of normal control testis was 86.5% (mean value). Group 3 had a significantly lower PCNA PI (29.8%) than normal testis; Group 1 and 2 had similar Pis (82.3% and 82.3%, respectively) as the control testis. PI of the negative control (Group 4) was 0 as no germ-cells were found. Conclusion: PCNA PI is useful for assessing germ-cell kinetics, especially for pathological diagnosis of germinal arrest which is difficult to differentiate by routine HE staining technique. In germinal arrest, there is a significantly lowered PCNA PI, which is an indication of DNA synthesis deterioration, suggesting the use of therapies be different from those for hypospermatogenesis.

  16. 低氧对成体干细胞增殖和分化的影响%Effects of hypoxia on the proliferation and differentiation of adult stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚启梅

    2011-01-01

    Hypoxia is one kind of important physiological and pathological phenomenon. Recent studies have shown that hypoxia has effects on the proliferation and differentiation of adult stem cells. Dental pulp is often exposed to ischemia and hypoxia, for the reason that its anatomical location is susceptible to stimuli or injury. Researches on the effects of hypoxia in adult stem cells may provide new methods to study the biological functions of dental pulp stem cells, especially when these cells following exposure to hypoxia. This review emphasized the effects of hypoxia on the proliferation and differentiation of adult stem cells, the mechanism that involved in these processes I the role of hypoxia in the regulation of dental pulp cells proliferation and differentiation.%低氧是一种重要的生理和病理现象,有研究表明低氧可影响成体干细胞的增殖和分化.牙髓组织在受到外伤或刺激时易处于缺血、低氧状态,低氧对成体干细胞影响的研究进展可以为牙髓干细胞的生物学研究提供思路,本文将从低氧对成体干细胞增殖和分化的影响及其相关调控机制、低氧对牙髓细胞增殖和分化的影响等方面作一综述.

  17. A comparative study of the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells cultured on β-TCP ceramics and demineralized bone matrix with or without osteogenic inducers in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Shaofeng; Gao, Yan; Huang, Xiangya; Ling, Junqi; Liu, Zhaohui; Xiao, Yin

    2015-05-01

    The repair of bone defects that result from periodontal diseases remains a clinical challenge for periodontal therapy. β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics are biodegradable inorganic bone substitutes with inorganic components that are similar to those of bone. Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is an acid-extracted organic matrix derived from bone sources that consists of the collagen and matrix proteins of bone. A few studies have documented the effects of DBM on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of inorganic and organic elements of bone on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDLCs using three-dimensional porous β-TCP ceramics and DBM with or without osteogenic inducers. Primary hPDLCs were isolated from human periodontal ligaments. The proliferation of the hPDLCs on the scaffolds in the growth culture medium was examined using a Cell-Counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the osteogenic differentiation of the hPDLCs cultured on the β-TCP ceramics and DBM were examined in both the growth culture medium and osteogenic culture medium. Specific osteogenic differentiation markers were examined using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). SEM images revealed that the cells on the β-TCP were spindle-shaped and much more spread out compared with the cells on the DBM surfaces. There were no significant differences observed in cell proliferation between the β-TCP ceramics and the DBM scaffolds. Compared with the cells that were cultured on β-TCP ceramics, the ALP activity, as well as the Runx2 and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA levels in the hPDLCs cultured on DBM were significantly enhanced both in the growth culture medium and the osteogenic culture medium. The organic elements of bone may exhibit greater osteogenic differentiation effects

  18. Hedgehog信号通道与相关干细胞增殖与分化的研究进展%Research development of Hedgehog signal pathway and proliferation and differentiation of related stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莉; 杨志云; 王宪波

    2011-01-01

    背景:Hedgehog 蛋白为成形素蛋白,其相关信号通道参与胚胎发育和成体组织再生.目的:对Hedgehog 信号通道相关干细胞的增殖及分化研究近况进行综述.方法:应用计算机检索CNKI和PubMed 数据库中2000-01/2010-12 关于Hedgehog 信号通路的文章,在标题和摘要中以"hedgehog 信号通道,细胞增殖,细胞分化,信号调控"或"Hedgehog signaling pathway,cell proliferation,celldifferentiation,signal pathway controlling"为检索词进行检索,选择关于Hedgehog 信号通道对各种干细胞及成体器官作用内容的文章,初检到169 篇,根据纳入标准选择27 篇进行综述.结果与结论:具有多种分化潜能的干细胞发育成具有特定生物学功能的组织细胞是受到干细胞自身或外在的、近程或远程的信号调控的,其中细胞之间的相互信息传递在细胞发育分化过程中扮演着重要角色.Hedgehog 信号通路起到维持细胞增殖、分化、凋亡之间的平衡,其能够调节相邻细胞之间的分子差异,对细胞分化命运起决定性作用.%BACKGROUND: Hedgehog protein is morphogen, and the signal pathway which is related to Hedgehog protein takes part in the embryogenesis and proliferation and differentiation of adult tissues.OBJECTIVE: To review the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells re lated to Hedgehog signal pathway. METHODS: The articles related to Hedgehog signaling pathway in CNKI database and PubMed Database from January 2000 to December 2010 were retrieved with the key words of “Hedgehog signaling pathway, cell proliferation, cell differentiation,signal pathway controlling”. The articles related to the function of Hedgehog signaling pathway to several kinds of stem cells and adult organs were selected. A total of 169 literatures were obtained from computer screen, and 27 documents of them were involved for summarization according to inclusion criteria.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Stem cells with multiple

  19. Control of cell proliferation by Myc

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouchard, C; Staller, P; Eilers, M

    1998-01-01

    Myc proteins are key regulators of mammalian cell proliferation. They are transcription factors that activate genes as part of a heterodimeric complex with the protein Max. This review summarizes recent progress in understanding how Myc stimulates cell proliferation and how this might contribute...

  20. Effects of lanthanum and gadolinium on proliferation and differentiation of primary osteoblasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Dawei; Zhang Jinchao; Chen Yao; Yang Mengsu; Yao Xinsheng

    2007-01-01

    The effects of La3 + and Gd3+ on the proliferation, differentiation and adipogenic transdifferentiation of rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells (ROB cells) were evaluated by MTT method, measuring the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and Oil red O measurement. Both of La3+ and Gd3+ inhibited the proliferation of ROB cells at all concentrations (1 × 10-5, 1 × 10-6, 1 × 10-7, 1 × 10-8,3 folds (P < 0.01). However, the effects reversed to inhibit at other concentrations. Gd3 + played a negative role in the alkaline phosphatase activity. La3+ inhibited the adipogenic transdifferentiation of ROB cells at all concentrations in a dose-dependent way. However,fects of rare earth elements on the proliferation, differentiation and adipogenic transdifferentiation of ROB cells were dependent on their concentrations and species.

  1. Vanillin and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol promotes cell proliferation and neuroblast differentiation in the dentate gyrus of mice via the increase of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and tropomyosin-related kinase B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jeong-Hwi; Park, Joon Ha; Ahn, Ji Hyeon; Lee, Jae-Chul; Hwang, In Koo; Park, Seung Min; Ahn, Ji Yun; Kim, Dong Won; Cho, Jun Hwi; Kim, Jong-Dai; Kim, Young-Myeong; Won, Moo-Ho; Kang, Il-Jun

    2016-04-01

    4-Hydroxy‑3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin) and 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol (4-HBA) are well‑known phenolic compounds, which possess various therapeutic properties and are widely found in a variety of plants. In the present study, the effects of vanillin and 4‑HBA were first investigated on cell proliferation, as well as neuronal differentiation and integration of granule cells in the dentate gyrus (DG) of adolescent mice using Ki‑67, doublecortin (DCX) immunohistochemistry and 5‑bromo‑2'‑deoxyuridine (BrdU)/feminizing Locus on X 3 (NeuN) double immunofluorescence. In both the vanillin and 4‑HBA groups, the number of Ki‑67+ cells, DCX+ neuroblasts and BrdU+/NeuN+ neurons were significantly increased in the subgranular zone of the DG, as compared with the vehicle group. In addition, the levels of brain‑derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin‑related kinase B (TrkB), a BDNF receptor, were significantly increased in the DG in the vanillin and 4‑HBA groups compared with the vehicle group. These results indicated that vanillin and 4‑HBA enhanced cell proliferation, neuroblast differentiation and integration of granule cells in the DG of adolescent mice . These neurogenic effects of vanillin and 4‑HBA may be closely associated with increases in BDNF and TrkB.

  2. Adipogenesis licensing and execution are disparately linked to cell proliferation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Guo; Kun-Ming Zhang; Kang Tu; Yi-Xue Li; Li Zhu; Hua-Sheng Xiao; Ying Yang; Jia-Rui Wu

    2009-01-01

    Coordination of cell differentiation and proliferation is a key issue in the development process of multi-cellular organisms and stem cells. Here we provide evidence that the establishment of adipocyte differentiation of 3T3-LI cells requires two processes: the licensing of an adipogenesis gene-expression program within a particular growth-arrest stage, i.e., the contact-inhibition stage, and then the execution of this program in a cell-cycle-independent manner,by which the licensed progenitors are differentiated into adipocytes in the presence of inducing factors. Our results showed that differentiation licensing of 3T3-L1 cells during the contact-inhibition stage involved epigenetic modifications such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, whereas disturbing these epigenetic modifications by DNA methylation inhibitors or RNAi during the contact-inhibition stage significantly reduced adipogenesis efficiency.More importantly, when these licensed 3T3-LI cells were re-cultured under non-differentiating conditions or treated only with insulin, this adipogenesis commitment could be maintained from one cell generation to the next, whereby the licensed program could be activated in a cell-cycle-independent manner once these cells were subjected to adipogenesis-inducing conditions. This result suggests that differentiation licensing and differentiation execution can be uncoupled and disparately linked to cell proliferation. Our findings deliver a new concept that cell-fate decision can be subdivided into at least two stages, licensing and execution, which might have different regulatory relationships with cell proliferation, in addition, this new concept may provide a clue for developing new strategies against obesity.

  3. Dicer-dependent pathways regulate chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuya; Lu, Jun; Cobb, Bradley S; Rodda, Stephen J; McMahon, Andrew P; Schipani, Ernestina; Merkenschlager, Matthias; Kronenberg, Henry M

    2008-02-12

    Small noncoding RNAs, microRNAs (miRNAs), bind to messenger RNAs through base pairing to suppress gene expression. Despite accumulating evidence that miRNAs play critical roles in various biological processes across diverse organisms, their roles in mammalian skeletal development have not been demonstrated. Here, we show that Dicer, an essential component for biogenesis of miRNAs, is essential for normal skeletal development. Dicer-null growth plates show a progressive reduction in the proliferating pool of chondrocytes, leading to severe skeletal growth defects and premature death of mice. The reduction of proliferating chondrocytes in Dicer-null growth plates is caused by two distinct mechanisms: decreased chondrocyte proliferation and accelerated differentiation into postmitotic hypertrophic chondrocytes. These defects appear to be caused by mechanisms downstream or independent of the Ihh-PTHrP signaling pathway, a pivotal signaling system that regulates chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Microarray analysis of Dicer-null chondrocytes showed limited expression changes in miRNA-target genes, suggesting that, in the majority of cases, chondrocytic miRNAs do not directly regulate target RNA abundance. Our results demonstrate the critical role of the Dicer-dependent pathway in the regulation of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation during skeletal development.

  4. The Wnt signaling pathway in cellular proliferation and differentiation: A tale of two coactivators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Jia-Ling; Kahn, Michael

    2010-09-30

    Wnt signaling pathways play divergent roles during development, normal homeostasis and disease. The responses that result from the activation of the pathway control both proliferation and differentiation. Tight regulation and controlled coordination of the Wnt signaling cascade is required to maintain the balance between proliferation and differentiation. The non-redundant roles of the coactivator proteins CBP and p300, within the context of Wnt signaling are discussed. We highlight their roles as integrators of the various inputs that a cell receives to elicit the correct and coordinated response. We propose that essentially all cellular information - i.e. from other signaling pathways, nutrient levels, etc. - is funneled down into a choice of coactivators usage, either CBP or p300, by their interacting partner beta-catenin (or catenin-like molecules in the absence of beta-catenin) to make the critical decision to either remain quiescent, or once entering cycle to proliferate without differentiation or to initiate the differentiation process.

  5. Chromium Picolinate did not Effect on the Proliferation and Differentiation of Myoblasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Tsa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment is conducted in vitro to investigate trivalent chromium picolinate affects the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts. A myoblasts cell line (C2C12 from rats was used in the experiment. These were randomly divided into the control group, the Pic group (50ppb picolinate and the CrPic group (50ppb chromium picolinate. The differentiation of myoblasts reveals that the number of differentiated myotubes, creatine kinase (CK activity and the aldolase (ALB activity do not differ among the three groups (P > 0.05. The activity of hexokinase in the CrPic and Pic groups clearly exceeds that in the control group (P 0.05. Myoblast proliferation was the same across the three groups (P > 0.05, and the quantity of DNA in the control group exceeded that in the Pic group (P < 0.05. The experiment indicated that 200ppb chromium picolinate did not influence the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts.

  6. Characterization and endocrine regulation of proliferation and differentiation of primary cultured preadipocytes from gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmerón, C; Acerete, L; Gutiérrez, J; Navarro, I; Capilla, E

    2013-07-01

    A preadipocyte primary cell culture was established to gain knowledge about adipose tissue development in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata), one of the most extensively produced marine aquaculture species in the Mediterranean. The preadipocytes obtained from the stromal-vascular cell fraction of adipose tissue proliferated in culture, reaching confluence around day 8. At that time, the addition of an adipogenic medium promoted differentiation of the cells into mature adipocytes, which showed an enlarged cytoplasm filled with lipid droplets. First, cell proliferation and differentiation were analyzed under control and adipogenic conditions during culture development. Next, the effects of insulin, GH, and IGF-I on cell proliferation were evaluated at day 8. All peptides significantly stimulated proliferation of the cells after 48 h of incubation (P differentiation when added to growth medium were studied at day 11, after 3 d of induction with adipogenic medium. The results showed that IGF-I is more potent than insulin enhancing differentiation (P product in aquaculture.

  7. DNA Methylation Dynamics During Differentiation, Proliferation, and Tumorigenesis in the Intestinal Tract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Can-Ze

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation, an epigenetic control mechanism in mammals, is widely present in the intestinal tract during the differentiation and proliferation of epithelial cells. Cells in stem cell pools or villi have different patterns of DNA methylation. The process of DNA methylation is dynamic and occurs at many relevant regulatory elements during the rapid transition of stem cells into fully mature, differentiated epithelial cells. Changes in DNA methylation patterns most often take place in enhancer and promoter regions and are associated with transcription factor binding. During differentiation, enhancer regions associated with genes important to enterocyte differentiation are demethylated, activating gene expression. Abnormal patterns of DNA methylation during differentiation and proliferation in the intestinal tract can lead to the formation of aberrant crypt foci and destroy the barrier and absorptive functions of the intestinal epithelium. Accumulation of these epigenetic changes may even result in tumorigenesis. In the current review, we discuss recent findings on the association between DNA methylation and cell differentiation and proliferation in the small intestine and highlight the possible links between dysregulation of this process and tumorigenesis. PMID:26413818

  8. Enhancement of osteogenic differentiation and proliferation in human mesenchymal stem cells by a modified low intensity ultrasound stimulation under simulated microgravity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sardar M Z Uddin

    Full Text Available Adult stem cells can differentiate into multiple lineages depending on their exposure to differing biochemical and biomechanical inductive factors. Lack of mechanical signals due to disuse can inhibit osteogenesis and induce adipogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs. Long-term bed rest due to both brain/spinal cord injury and space travel can lead to disuse osteoporosis that is in part caused by a reduced number of osteoblasts. Thus, it is essential to provide proper mechanical stimulation for cellular viability and osteogenesis, particularly under disuse conditions. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of low intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS on the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived human stem cells (Ad-hMSC in simulated microgravity conditions. Cells were cultured in a 1D clinostat to simulate microgravity (SMG and treated with LIPUS at 30mW/cm(2 for 20 min/day. It was hypothesized that the application of LIPUS to SMG cultures would restore osteogenesis in Ad-hMSCs. The results showed significant increases in ALP, OSX, RANKL, RUNX2, and decreases in OPG in LIPUS treated SMG cultures of Ad-MSC compared to non-treated cultures. LIPUS also restored OSX, RUNX2 and RANKL expression in osteoblast cells. SMG significantly reduced ALP positive cells by 70% (p<0.01 and ALP activity by 22% (p<0.01, while LIPUS treatment restored ALP positive cell number and activity to equivalence with normal gravity controls. Extracellular matrix collagen and mineralization was assessed by Sirius red and Alizarin red staining, respectively. SMG cultures showed little or no collagen or mineralization, but LIPUS treatment restored collagen content to 50% (p<0.001 and mineralization by 45% (p<0.001 in LIPUS treated-SMG cultures relative to SMG-only cultures. The data suggest that LIPUS treatment can restore normal osteogenic differentiation of MSCs from disuse by daily short duration stimulation.

  9. Role of the p70 S6 kinase cascade in neutrophilic differentiation and proliferation of HL-60 cells-a study of transferrin receptor-positive and -negative cells obtained from dimethyl sulfoxide- or retinoic acid-treated HL-60 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanayasu-Toyoda, Toshie; Yamaguchi, Teruhide; Oshizawa, Tadashi; Kogi, Mieko; Uchida, Eriko; Hayakawa, Takao

    2002-09-01

    Previously, we suggested that p70 S6 kinase (p70 S6K) plays an important role in the regulation of neutrophilic differentiation of HL-60 cells; this conclusion was based on our analysis of transferrin receptor (Trf-R) positive (Trf-R(+)) and negative (Trf-R(-)) cells that appeared after treatment with dimethyl sulfoxide (Me(2)SO). In this study, we analyzed the upstream of p70 S6K in relation to the differentiation and proliferation of both cell types. The granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF)-induced enhancement of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) activity in Trf-R(+) cells was markedly higher than that in Trf-R(-) cells. Wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI3K, partially inhibited G-CSF-induced p70 S6K activity and G-CSF-dependent proliferation, whereas rapamycin, an inhibitor of p70 S6K, completely inhibited these activities. The wortmannin-dependent enhancement of neutrophilic differentiation was similar to that induced by rapamycin. From these results, we conclude that the PI3K/p70 S6K cascade may play an important role in negative regulation of neutrophilic differentiation in HL-60 cells. For the G-CSF-dependent proliferation, however, p70 S6K appears to be a highly important pathway through not only a PI3K-dependent but also possibly an independent cascade.

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma overexpression suppresses proliferation of human colon cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu, E-mail: ttamotsu@shinshu-u.ac.jp [Department of Integrative Physiology and Bio-System Control, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan); Haniu, Hisao [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Shinshu University School of Medicine, 3-1-1 Asahi, Matsumoto, Nagano 390-8621 (Japan)

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the correlation between PPAR{gamma} expression and cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} overexpression reduces cell viability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show the synergistic effect of cell growth inhibition by a PPAR{gamma} agonist. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) plays an important role in the differentiation of intestinal cells and tissues. Our previous reports indicate that PPAR{gamma} is expressed at considerable levels in human colon cancer cells. This suggests that PPAR{gamma} expression may be an important factor for cell growth regulation in colon cancer. In this study, we investigated PPAR{gamma} expression in 4 human colon cancer cell lines, HT-29, LOVO, DLD-1, and Caco-2. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis revealed that the relative levels of PPAR{gamma} mRNA and protein in these cells were in the order HT-29 > LOVO > Caco-2 > DLD-1. We also found that PPAR{gamma} overexpression promoted cell growth inhibition in PPAR{gamma} lower-expressing cell lines (Caco-2 and DLD-1), but not in higher-expressing cells (HT-29 and LOVO). We observed a correlation between the level of PPAR{gamma} expression and the cells' sensitivity for proliferation.

  11. BSAP/Pax-5在B淋巴细胞发育、增殖、分化中的作用%Effect of BSAP/Pax-5 on the Development, Proliferation and Differentiation of B Lymphocyte Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭余庆; 张永祥

    2001-01-01

    BSAP, a B cell lineage-specific activator protein, is a nucleus transcription factor and is en coded by the Pax-5 gene. It is a critical modulator of B cell development, proliferation and differentia tion. BSAP also influences B cell immunoglobulin secretion at later stages of B cell differentiation.%BSAp,一个B细胞特异性激活蛋白,由Pax-5转录的核蛋白。作为核转录因子,其在B细胞的发育、增殖和分化中起重要作用。同时也影响B细胞分化晚期的Ig的分泌。

  12. The Comparative Study on the Proliferation and Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells from the Gut and Brain of Rats%肠与脑来源神经干细胞的增殖和分化特性比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永飚; 朱利斌; 刘征吉; 夏立广; 李仲荣

    2011-01-01

    目的 探索肠神经干细胞(ENSCs)的增殖和分化特性,寻找神经干细胞移植治疗肠道神经元缺陷性疾病的合适干细胞源.方法 采用神经干细胞培养和分离技术,对来自同一大鼠肠道及大脑的神经干细胞(CNS-NSCs)进行体外培养,通过神经球生长直接观察法、CCK-8细胞增殖测定法、流式细胞仪测定,比较研究两者的生长和增殖情况及成熟分化特性.结果 与CNS-NSCs相比,ENSCs神经球增殖速度较慢;ENSCs神经球表面常有长突起,并相互连接成网络状,显示早期成熟分化的迹象;CCK-8法测得ENSCs的吸光度明显低于CNS-NSCs(P0.05)、GFAP阳性细胞比例分别为21.7%和22.5%(P>0.05)、Nestin阳性细胞比例分别为10.8%和10.8%(P>0.05). 结论 ENSCs与CNS-NSCs具有类似的增殖、分化特性,但ENSCs增殖速度较慢,易于成熟分化.%Objective To explore the characteristics of proliferation and differentiation of enteric neural stem cells ( ENSCs ), and look for the suitable source of neural stem cells for transplantation treatment of developmental defects of enteric neuron. Methods We used the culture medium and isolation technique adopted in our laboratory to culture in vitro enteric neural stem cells ( ENSCs ) from gut and central nervous system - derived neural stem cells( CNS - NSCs ) from brain obtained from the same embryonic rat. The state of growth, the characteristics of proliferation and differentiation of hoth neural stem cells were compared by direct observation of neurosphere growth, CCK - 8 method and flow cytometry. Results Compared to the CNS - NSCs, the proliferation of ENSCs neurosphere was much slower. Some long dendrites often grew from the surface of the ENSCs neurosphere, and connected each other and formed a network,which seemed to <