WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell product design

  1. Direct fuel cell product design improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Significant milestones have been attained towards the technology development field testing and commercialization of direct fuel cell power plant since the 1994 Fuel Cell Seminar. Under a 5-year cooperative agreement with the Department of Energy signed in December 1994, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has been developing the design for a MW-scale direct fuel cell power plant with input from previous technology efforts and the Santa Clara Demonstration Project. The effort encompasses product definition in consultation with the Fuel Cell Commercialization Group, potential customers, as well as extensive system design and packaging. Manufacturing process improvements, test facility construction, cell component scale up, performance and endurance improvements, stack engineering, and critical balance-of-plant development are also addressed. Major emphasis of this product design improvement project is on increased efficiency, compactness and cost reduction to establish a competitive place in the market. A 2.85 MW power plant with an efficiency of 58% and a footprint of 420 m{sup 2} has been designed. Component and subsystem testing is being conducted at various levels. Planning and preparation for verification of a full size prototype unit are in progress. This paper presents the results obtained since the last fuel cell seminar.

  2. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2004-08-01

    The ongoing program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) for stationary power plant applications. The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where the fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several FCE sub-megawatt power plants are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the reporting period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance of plant equipment designs is discussed in this report.

  3. MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

    2005-03-01

    The program was designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE, formerly Energy Research Corporation) from an early state of development for stationary power plant applications. The current program efforts were focused on technology and system development, and cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, in Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where a hydrocarbon fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several sub-MW power plants based on the DFC design are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Several one-megawatt power plant design was verified by operation on natural gas at FCE. This plant is currently installed at a customer site in King County, WA under another US government program and is currently in operation. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and

  4. Hydrogen-chlorine fuel cell for production of hydrochloric acid and electric power : chlorine kinetics and cell design

    OpenAIRE

    Thomassen, Magnus Skinlo

    2005-01-01

    This thesis work is the continuation and final part of a joint project between the Department of Materials Technology, NTNU and Norsk Hydro Research Center in Porsgrunn, looking at the possibility of using fuel cells for production of hydrogen chloride and electric power. The experimental work encompass an evaluation of three hydrogen - chlorine fuel cell design concepts, development and implementation of a mathematical fuel cell model and a kinetic study of the chlorine reduction reaction. T...

  5. Design, Engineering, and Construction of Photosynthetic Microbial Cell Factories for Renewable Solar Fuel Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindblad, Peter; Lindberg, Pia; Stensjoe, Karin (Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Dept. of Chemistry-Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala Univ., Uppsala (Sweden)), E-mail: Peter.Lindblad@kemi.uu.se; Oliveira, Paulo (Instituto de Biologia Molecular e Celular, Porto (Portugal)); Heidorn, Thorsten (Bioforsk-Norwegian Inst. for Agricultural and Environmental Research, Aas Oslo, (Norway))

    2012-03-15

    There is an urgent need to develop sustainable solutions to convert solar energy into energy carriers used in the society. In addition to solar cells generating electricity, there are several options to generate solar fuels. This paper outlines and discusses the design and engineering of photosynthetic microbial systems for the generation of renewable solar fuels, with a focus on cyanobacteria. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotic microorganisms with the same type of photosynthesis as higher plants. Native and engineered cyanobacteria have been used by us and others as model systems to examine, demonstrate, and develop photobiological H{sub 2} production. More recently, the production of carbon-containing solar fuels like ethanol, butanol, and isoprene have been demonstrated. We are using a synthetic biology approach to develop efficient photosynthetic microbial cell factories for direct generation of biofuels from solar energy. Present progress and advances in the design, engineering, and construction of such cyanobacterial cells for the generation of a portfolio of solar fuels, e.g., hydrogen, alcohols, and isoprene, are presented and discussed. Possibilities and challenges when introducing and using synthetic biology are highlighted

  6. Molted carbonate fuel cell product design and improvement - 4th quarter, 1995. Quarterly report, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The primary objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of MW-class IMHEX Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell power plants. Progress is described on marketing, systems design and analysis, product options and manufacturing.

  7. Ergonomic Product Design 21

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book explains basic of ergonomic product design with human engineering, image engineering and strategy of that design, ergonomic industrial design, which includes product design to access the human engineering in development of new product and customer satisfaction, application technology of image engineering, industrial design of human engineering item and strategy of human engineering, a good ergonomic design. It also tells of examples of convenient design for human such as hardware product and software product in automobile, telephones for ergonomic product in the future, new goods and new technology, ergonomic product in house and office, and computers and robots in the future.

  8. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody cell culture production process using a quality by design approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Brian; Mun, Melissa; Laird, Michael W

    2010-07-01

    The goal of quality by design (QbD) in cell culture manufacturing is to develop manufacturing processes which deliver products with consistent critical quality attributes (CQAs). QbD approaches can lead to better process understanding through the use of process parameter risk ranking and statistical design of experiments (DOE). The QbD process starts with an analysis of process parameter risk with respect to CQAs and key performance indicators (KPIs). Initial DOE study designs and their factor test ranges are based on the outcomes of the process parameter risk ranking exercises. Initial DOE studies screen factors for significant influences on CQAs as well as characterize responses for process KPIs. In the case study provided here, multifactor process characterization studies using a scale-down model resulted in significant variation in charge heterogeneity of a monoclonal antibody (MAb) as measured by ion-exchange chromatography (IEC). Iterative DOE studies, using both screening and response surface designs, were used to narrow the operating parameter ranges so that charge heterogeneity could be controlled to an acceptable level. The data from the DOE studies were used to predict worst-case conditions, which were then verified by testing at those conditions. Using the approach described here, multivariate process parameter ranges were identified that yield acceptable CQA levels and that still provide operational flexibility for manufacturing. PMID:20300882

  9. Thermodynamics-based design of microbial cell factories for anaerobic product formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto-Rojas, Hugo F; van Maris, A J A; Wahl, S Aljoscha; Heijnen, J J

    2015-09-01

    The field of metabolic engineering has delivered new microbial cell factories and processes for the production of different compounds including biofuels, (di)carboxylic acids, alcohols, and amino acids. Most of these processes are aerobic, with few exceptions (e.g., alcoholic fermentation), and attention is focused on assembling a high-flux product pathway with a production limit usually set by the oxygen transfer rate. By contrast, anaerobic product synthesis offers significant benefits compared to aerobic systems: higher yields, less heat generation, reduced biomass production, and lower mechanical energy input, which can significantly reduce production costs. Using simple thermodynamic calculations, we demonstrate that many products can theoretically be produced under anaerobic conditions using several conventional and non-conventional substrates. PMID:26232033

  10. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526. ISSN 0022-0531 Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2014

  11. Product Design in Microfinance

    OpenAIRE

    Laureti, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    The poor need a range of financial services to cope with shocks, to manage day-to-day transactions, and to grasp business opportunities, among others. To be successful in reaching the poor, microfinance institutions should offer products that meet the poor’s needs. Product design, therefore, is becoming a very important topic. “Behavioral” product design pinpoints the importance of individuals’ behavioral anomalies, such as procrastination behavior and lack of self-control. Financial products...

  12. Improving designer productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting those challenges.

  13. Performance-enhancing drugs: design and production of redirected chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, B L

    2015-03-01

    Performance enhancement of the immune system can now be generated through ex vivo gene modification of T cells in order to redirect native specificity to target tumor antigens. This approach combines the specificity of antibody therapy, the expanded response of cellular therapy and the memory activity of vaccine therapy. Recent clinical trials of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells directed toward CD19 as a stand-alone therapy have shown sustained complete responses in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. As these drug products are individually derived from a patient's own cells, a different manufacturing approach is required for this kind of personalized therapy compared with conventional drugs. Key steps in the CAR T-cell manufacturing process include the selection and activation of isolated T cells, transduction of T cells to express CARs, ex vivo expansion of modified T cells and cryopreservation in infusible media. In this review, the steps involved in isolating, genetically modifying and scaling-out the CAR T cells for use in a clinical setting are described in the context of in-process and release testing and regulatory standards. PMID:25675873

  14. Strain Design of Ashbya gossypii for Single-Cell Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Ledesma-Amaro, Rodrigo; Santos, María A.; Jiménez, Alberto; Revuelta, José Luis

    2014-01-01

    Single-cell oil (SCO) represents a sustainable alternative for the oil industry. Accordingly, the identification of microorganisms with either higher lipidogenic ability or novel capacities for the transformation of raw materials constitutes a major challenge for the field of oil biotechnology. With this in mind, here, we were prompted to address the lipidogenic profile of the filamentous hemiascomycete Ashbya gossypii, which is currently used for the microbial production of vitamins. We foun...

  15. Chemical Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    2004-01-01

    This paper highlights for a class of chemical products, the design process, their design with respect to the important issues, the need for appropriate tools and finally, lists some of the challenges and opportunities for the process systems engineering (PSE)/computer-aided process engineering...... (CAPE) community. The chemical products considered belong to the following types: chemical/biochemical/agrochemical products, coatings and solvents, food (nutraceuticals), HIM (household, industrial and institutional), personal care, pharmaceuticals and drugs. The challenges and opportunities are...... highlighted in terms of the needs for multi-level modeling with emphasis on property models that are suitable for computer-aided applications, flexible solution strategies that are able to solve a large range of chemical product design problems and finally, a systems chemical product design framework with the...

  16. Product line design

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Anderson, S. P.; Celik, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 157, May (2015), s. 517-526. ISSN 0022-0531 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-22540S Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : product line design * product differentiation * second-degree price discrimination Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.033, year: 2014

  17. Rational plasmid design and bioprocess optimization to enhance recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) productivity in mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmerling, Verena V; Pegel, Antje; Milian, Ernest G; Venereo-Sanchez, Alina; Kunz, Marion; Wegele, Jessica; Kamen, Amine A; Kochanek, Stefan; Hoerer, Markus

    2016-02-01

    Viral vectors used for gene and oncolytic therapy belong to the most promising biological products for future therapeutics. Clinical success of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) based therapies raises considerable demand for viral vectors, which cannot be met by current manufacturing strategies. Addressing existing bottlenecks, we improved a plasmid system termed rep/cap split packaging and designed a minimal plasmid encoding adenoviral helper function. Plasmid modifications led to a 12-fold increase in rAAV vector titers compared to the widely used pDG standard system. Evaluation of different production approaches revealed superiority of processes based on anchorage- and serum-dependent HEK293T cells, exhibiting about 15-fold higher specific and volumetric productivity compared to well-established suspension cells cultivated in serum-free medium. As for most other viral vectors, classical stirred-tank bioreactor production is thus still not capable of providing drug product of sufficient amount. We show that manufacturing strategies employing classical surface-providing culture systems can be successfully transferred to the new fully-controlled, single-use bioreactor system Integrity(TM) iCELLis(TM) . In summary, we demonstrate substantial bioprocess optimizations leading to more efficient and scalable production processes suggesting a promising way for flexible large-scale rAAV manufacturing. PMID:26284700

  18. MCFC PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contract is supported by DOE and DOD/DARPA funds. The objective of the DOE program is to advance the direct carbonate fuel cell technology to a level suitable for commercial entry. The specific objectives of the DOD's initiative on 2 MW Fuel Cell Fixed Base Power Plant are: (A) to provide a detailed engineering design, development and cost estimate of the 2 MW fuel cell fixed base dual fuel power plant for DOD applications. Installation and operational support systems will also be developed. (B) To construct a full-size MW-class dual fuel power plant simulator

  19. Computer aided product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinou, Leonidas; Bagherpour, Khosrow; Gani, Rafiqul; Klein, J.A.; Wu, D.T.

    A general methodology for Computer Aided Product Design (CAPD) with specified property constraints which is capable of solving a large range of problems is presented. The methodology employs the group contribution approach, generates acyclic, cyclic and aromatic compounds of various degrees of......-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) and gas solubility. Finally, a computer program based on the extended methodology has been developed and the results from five case studies highlighting various features of the methodology are presented....

  20. Computer aided product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Constantinou, Leonidas; Bagherpour, Khosrow; Gani, Rafiqul;

    1996-01-01

    A general methodology for Computer Aided Product Design (CAPD) with specified property constraints which is capable of solving a large range of problems is presented. The methodology employs the group contribution approach, generates acyclic, cyclic and aromatic compounds of various degrees......-liquid equilibria (LLE), solid-liquid equilibria (SLE) and gas solubility. Finally, a computer program based on the extended methodology has been developed and the results from five case studies highlighting various features of the methodology are presented....

  1. Improving pension product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Mulvey, John M.

    2013-01-01

    progression, expected social benefits, choice of assets, type of retirement distribution schedules, bequest motive and life insurance. The problem is solved via a model that combines two optimization technologies: stochastic control and multi-stage stochastic linear programming (SLP). As an example of an...... optimal pension product design, we present the operations research methods, which have potential to stimulate new thinking and add to actuarial practice....

  2. Design and demonstration of an immobilized-cell fluidized-bed reactor for the efficient production of ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, O.F.; Scott, T.C.; Davison, B.H.; Scott, C.D.

    1994-06-01

    Initial studies have been carried out using a 4 inch ID fluidized bed reactor (FBR). This medium scale FBR was designed for scale-up. Present performance was compared with results from experiments using smaller FBRs. On-line and off-line measurement systems are also described. Zymomonas mobilis was immobilized in {kappa}-carrageenan at cell loadings of 15--50 g (dry weight) L{sup {minus}1}. The system is designed for determining optimal operation with high conversion and productivity for a variety of conditions including feedstocks, temperature, flow rate, and column sizes (from 2 to 5 meters tall). The demonstration used non-sterile feedstocks containing either industrial (light steep water) or synthetic nutrients and dextrose.

  3. Production Target Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Olivas, Eric Richard [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-28

    The Northstar 99Mo production target, a cylindrical length of 100Mo rod, has evolved considerably since its first conception.  The cylinder was very early sliced into disks to increase the heat transfer area, first to 1 mm thick disks then to the current 0.5 mm thick.  The coolant was changed early in the target development from water to helium to eliminate corrosion and dissolution.  The diameter has increased from initially 6 mm to 12 mm, the current diameter of the test target now at ANL, to nominally 28 mm (26-30.6 mm, depending upon optimal beam spot size and shape).  The length has also changed to improve the production to cost ratio, so now the target is nominally 41 mm long (excluding coolant gaps between disks), and irradiated on both ends.  This report summarizes the current status of the plant target design.

  4. Estimating the performance of product integrated photovoltaic (PIPV) cells under indoor conditions for the support of design processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Apostolou, G.; Verwaal, M.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    To estimate the performance of PV products' cells in an indoor environment we have developed an analytical model, which calculates the efficiency and power production of various types of PV technologies as a function of distance from natural and artificial light sources. The model aims to assist des

  5. Designing Product Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    led to a new business paradigm, "mass customization", where companies strive to provide highly customized products while still maintaining the efficiency of the classical mass production enterprise. One of the key factors in mass customization has been efficient use of product platforms as a...... foundation for the customization process, whereby the customized products become variants of a product family with a high degree of reuse and utilization of kinship between the individual variants.With this paper, we will discuss the development of platform based product families from three points of view...

  6. Designing Product Families

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Per Erik Elgård; Miller, Thomas Dedenroth

    1998-01-01

    foundation for the customization process, whereby the customized products become variants of a product family with a high degree of reuse and utilization of kinship between the individual variants.With this paper, we will discuss the development of platform based product families from three points of view...

  7. ADAPTABLE DESIGN IN PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qingming; MEI Huafeng

    2006-01-01

    A newly emerging design pattern, named as adaptable design (AD), which aims at developing products that are adaptable from design to post-life cycle, is discussed. AD consists of four main phases: product modeling, design platform, specific design and product redesign. A new process-based design data model (PDDM) is presented which is organized according to the principles of conveniem knowledge extraction, data representation, layout, sharing and reuse. Based on the PDDM, a universal design platform for product family development is established, which has characters of modularity, parameter-driven, variant design, etc. The framework of the platform is also proposed as a conceptual structure and overall logical organization for generating a family of products. AD methodology is successfully applied to develop a family of tunnel boring machine (TBM) for different engineering projects, with the efficiency of our developing team being greatly increased.

  8. Natural product-based design, synthesis and biological evaluation of Albiziabioside A derivatives that selectively induce HCT116 cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Gaofei; Cui, Shanshan; Luan, Weijing; Wang, Shuai; Hou, Zhuang; Liu, Yongxiang; Liu, Yang; Cheng, Maosheng

    2016-05-01

    A series of Albiziabioside A coupled substituents of cinnamoyl derivatives were designed and synthesized. The synthesized compounds were screened for anticancer activity against a panel of six human cancer cell lines using a MTT assay. Synthetic derivatives showed excellent selectivity, as they were toxic against only HCT116 cell line. Some compounds exhibited better anti-cancer activity against HCT116 compared to positive controls, such as 5-fluorouracil and Albiziabioside A. Compound 8n was the most active derivative. Importantly, it was also found that the anti-proliferative activity of 8n could be attributed to the induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HCT116 cells. PMID:26922223

  9. Product design - Molecules, devices, functional products, and formulated products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.

    2015-01-01

    Chemical product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article provides an overview of product design while focusing on product conceptualization. Four product types are considered - molecular products, formulated products, devices and functional products. For molecular products......, computer-aided design tools are used to predict the physicochemical properties of single molecules and blends. For formulated products, an integrated experiment-modeling approach is used to generate the formula with the specified product attributes. For devices and functional products, conceptual product...... design is carried out by modeling the product based on thermodynamics, kinetics and transport processes, by performing experiments, and by decision making based on rule-based methods The results are product specifications in terms of the type of ingredients, composition, and the structure, form, shape or...

  10. Culture-Orientated Product Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moalosi, Richie; Popovic, Vesna; Hickling-Hudson, Anne

    2010-01-01

    There is little in-depth research that can assist designers to use culture as a catalyst for designing innovative products within Botswana's context. The concept of culture and design are intertwined, thus modifications stemming from cultural evolution both reflect and determine developments in design. The paper discusses an experimental design…

  11. Improving pension product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konicz, Agnieszka Karolina; Mulvey, John M.

    The paper develops a pension product that can be oered in a dened contribution pension scheme as a deferred or immediate life annuity. The product is characterized by linking an individual's savings directly to market returns and differs from the products available in the market by being adjusted...... current wealth, expected lifetime salary progression, mandatory and voluntary pension contributions, expected state retirement pension, choice of assets, subjective lifetime expectancy and bequest motive. Specically, the asset allocation strategy, the payout prole and the level of insured sum dening the...

  12. Improving designer productivity. [artificial intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Gary C.

    1992-01-01

    Designer and design team productivity improves with skill, experience, and the tools available. The design process involves numerous trials and errors, analyses, refinements, and addition of details. Computerized tools have greatly speeded the analysis, and now new theories and methods, emerging under the label Artificial Intelligence (AI), are being used to automate skill and experience. These tools improve designer productivity by capturing experience, emulating recognized skillful designers, and making the essence of complex programs easier to grasp. This paper outlines the aircraft design process in today's technology and business climate, presenting some of the challenges ahead and some of the promising AI methods for meeting these challenges.

  13. Towards mature design of PV powered products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kan, S.Y.; Beers, S. van; Brezet, H. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Industrial Design Engineering, Section Design for Sustainability Program, Delft (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    The appearance and the actual convenience of photovoltaic (PV) powered products is often not properly considered in sustainable product design. We undertook an endeavour to identify and chart the main factors that need to be improved in order to reduce those neglects and to stimulate a broader use of PV cells in products. Moreover this paper will stir up the discussion on mature design quality of sustainable products. The word 'mature' can for instance mean timeless design. Some solutions and synergetic proper novel technologies are proposed for achieving a sound integration of PV cells into products. An introduction of mature design by optimizing ergonomical aspects, appearance and product - user context relevance is given. In particular the emphasis will be on good matching of the overall design with the PV cell characteristics. The uses of curved coloured PV surfaces will be highlighted. Although the appearance of PV powered products obviously contributes towards the diffusion of such products, it still remains a point of discussion what kind of appearance is decisive in this process. (orig.)

  14. Open design and medical products

    OpenAIRE

    Dexter, Matt

    2014-01-01

    This research details the use of Open Design to enable participation in the conceptualisation, design and development of medical products for those who are excluded by their chronic health condition. The research was directed according to the Action Research methodology outlined by Checkland & Holwell (1998); Action Research being highlighted by Archer (1995) as a method compatible for practice-led design research. Open design directed the design practice, which consisted of a ...

  15. Molten carbonate fuel cell product design & improvement - 2nd quarter, 1996. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The main objective of this project is to establish the commercial readiness of a molten carbonate fuel cell power plant for distributed power generation, cogeneration, and compressor station applications. This effort includes marketing, systems design and analysis, packaging and assembly, test facility development, and technology development, improvement, and verification.

  16. First Year Product Design Students

    OpenAIRE

    Rooney, Carmel; Timlin, Gregor

    2012-01-01

    As part of the BSc (hons) Degree in Product Design, first year students combined the skills learned in the Communication and Design Modules to work with the Dypsraxia Association of Ireland, to develop concept designs for objects to facilitate everyday living for people with dyspraxia.

  17. Constraint-Aided Product Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mullineux

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of supporting the early stages of design is widely accepted. In particular, the development of supportive tools and methods for modelling and analysis of evolving design solutions present a difficult challenge. One reason for this is the need to model both the product design and the design knowledge from which the design is created. There are a number of limitations with many existing techniques and an alternative approach that deals with the design constraints themselves is presented. Dealing directly with the constraints affords a more generalised approach that represents the process by which a product is designed. This enables modelling and reasoning about a product from an often abstract and evolving set of requirements. The constraint methodology is an iterative process where the design requirements are elaborated, the constraint rules altered, design ideas generated and tested as functional structures. The incorporation of direct search techniques to solve the constrained problem enables different solutions to be explored and allows the determination of ‘best compromises’ for related constraints. A constraint modelling environment is discussed and two example cases are used to demonstrate the potential of a constraint-aided approach for supporting important issues such as the design of product variants and product families. 

  18. Production Facility SCADA Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Gregory E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Holloway, Michael Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Baily, Scott A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Woloshun, Keith Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wheat, Robert Mitchell Jr. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-03-23

    The following report covers FY 14 activities to develop supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system for the Northstar Moly99 production facility. The goal of this effort is to provide Northstar with a baseline system design.

  19. Cork for sustainable product design

    OpenAIRE

    Mestre, A.C.; Gil, L.

    2011-01-01

    Sustainable Product Design is currently accepted as one of the most promising trends in the “Sustainable Development” movement. It is often seen as a facilitation tool to implement Sustainability in practice, by improving the life cycle and eco-efficiency of products, by promoting dematerialization and by proposing completely new innovative sustainable solutions, services and products which encourage and communicate new “Sustainable Life Styles and Scenarios” and that can both stimulate the e...

  20. Industrial Designers¡¦ Attitudes Toward Product Design

    OpenAIRE

    Jun-Chieh Wu; Yeon-Sheng Yang; Tsung-Han Wang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this research is to find out the attitudes of designers regarding product design. Subjects practicing product design are the main targets of this study. Factors designers of different attitudes towards product design emphasize in project design are explored, from which types of industrial designers are speicfied in terms of their value point of view in product design. From related literautre, six design-oriented attributes were identified for the measurement of designer¡¦s attitude...

  1. Design, engineering, and production of human recombinant t cell receptor ligands derived from human leukocyte antigen DR2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J W; Mechling, D E; Bächinger, H P; Burrows, G G

    2001-06-29

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules are membrane-anchored heterodimers on the surface of antigen-presenting cells that bind the T cell receptor, initiating a cascade of interactions that results in antigen-specific activation of clonal populations of T cells. Susceptibility to multiple sclerosis is associated with certain MHC class II haplotypes, including human leukocyte antigen (HLA) DR2. Two DRB chains, DRB5*0101 and DRB1*1501, are co-expressed in the HLA-DR2 haplotype, resulting in the formation of two functional cell surface heterodimers, HLA-DR2a (DRA*0101, DRB5*0101) and HLA-DR2b (DRA*0101, DRB1*1501). Both isotypes can present an immunodominant peptide of myelin basic protein (MBP-(84-102)) to MBP-specific T cells from multiple sclerosis patients. We have previously demonstrated that the peptide binding/T cell recognition domains of rat MHC class II (alpha1 and beta1 domains) could be expressed as a single exon for structural and functional characterization; Burrows, G. G., Chang, J. W., Bächinger, H.-P., Bourdette, D. N., Wegmann, K. W., Offner, H., and Vandenbark A. A. (1999) Protein Eng. 12, 771-778; Burrows, G. G., Adlard, K. L., Bebo, B. F., Jr., Chang, J. W., Tenditnyy, K., Vandenbark, A. A., and Offner, H. (2000) J. Immunol. 164, 6366-6371). Single-chain human recombinant T cell receptor ligands (RTLs) of approximately 200 amino acid residues derived from HLA-DR2b were designed using the same principles and have been produced in Escherichia coli with and without amino-terminal extensions containing antigenic peptides. Structural characterization using circular dichroism predicted that these molecules retained the antiparallel beta-sheet platform and antiparallel alpha-helices observed in the native HLA-DR2 heterodimer. The proteins exhibited a cooperative two-state thermal unfolding transition, and DR2-derived RTLs with a covalently linked MBP peptide (MBP-(85-99)) showed increased stability to thermal unfolding relative to the

  2. Statistical design and optimization of single cell oil production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by an oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula sp. IIP-33 using response surface methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Bandhu, Sheetal; Dasgupta, Diptarka; Akhter, Jawed; Kanaujia, Pankaj; Suman, Sunil K; Agrawal, Deepti; Kaul, Savita; Adhikari, Dilip K; Ghosh, Debashish

    2014-01-01

    Single cell oil production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate by oleaginous yeast Rhodotorula sp. IIP-33 was analyzed using a two stage statistical design approach based on Response Surface Methodology. Variables like pentose sugar, (NH4)2SO4, KH2PO4, yeast extract, pH and temperature were found to influence lipid production significantly. Under optimized condition in a shake flask, yield of lipid was 2.1199 g with fat coefficient of 7.09 which also resembled ~99% similarity to model predicte...

  3. Introduction to solar cell production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book introduces solar cell production. It is made up eight chapters, which are summary of solar cell with structure and prospect of the business, special variable of solar cell on light of the sun and factor causing variable of solar cell, production of solar cell with surface texturing, diffusion, metal printing dry and firing and edge isolation, process of solar cell on silicone wafer for solar cell, forming of electrodes, introduction of thin film solar cell on operating of solar cell, process of production and high efficiency of thin film solar cell, sorting of solar cell and production with background of silicone solar cell and thin film solar cell, structure and production of thin film solar cell and compound solar cell, introduction of solar cell module and the Industrial condition and prospect of solar cell.

  4. Total design for textile products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zafirova Koleta

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Product development is less than 20-30 years old and a relatively new area of research compared to the other classic academic disciplines. Integrated product development is a philosophy that systematically employs the teaming of functional disciplines to integrate and concurrently apple all the necessary processes to produce an effective and efficient product that satisfies customer needs. Product development might also be understood as a multidisciplinary field of research. The disciplines directly participating in product development include engineering design, innovation, manufacturing, marketing and management. A background contribution is also generated by disciplines such as psychology, social sciences and information technology. This article is an overview that introduces this philosophy to textile product development.

  5. Graphic Design: Now in Production

    OpenAIRE

    Thorel, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    Catalogue d’une imposante exposition co-organisée par le Walker Art Center de Minneapolis et le National Design Museum Cooper-Hewitt de New York, Graphic Design : Now in Production ambitionne de cartographier les territoires du design graphique contemporain dans son acception la plus large possible. Identité visuelle, magazines, posters, typographie, webdesign ou génériques de films sont abordés dans cet ouvrage particulièrement dense. Des planches illustrées, agrémentées de commentaires, ren...

  6. A glucose anode for enzymatic fuel cells optimized for current production under physiological conditions using a design of experiment approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rakesh; Leech, Dónal

    2015-12-01

    This study reports a design of experiment methodology to investigate and improve the performance of glucose oxidizing enzyme electrodes. Enzyme electrodes were constructed by co-immobilization of amine-containing osmium redox complexes, multiwalled carbon nanotubes and glucose oxidase in a carboxymethyldextran matrix at graphite electrode surfaces to provide a 3-dimensional matrix for electrocatalytic oxidation of glucose. Optimization of the amount of the enzyme electrode components to produce the highest current density under pseudo-physiological conditions of 5 mM glucose in saline buffer at 37 °C was performed using response surface methodology. A statistical analysis showed that the proposed model had a good fit with the experimental results. From the validated model, the addition of multiwalled carbon nanotubes and carboxymethyldextran components was identified as major contributing factors to the improved performance. Based on the optimized amount of components, enzyme electrodes display current densities of 1.2±0.1 mA cm(-2) and 5.2±0.2 mA cm(-2) at 0.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl in buffer containing 5 mM and 100 mM glucose, respectively, largely consistent with the predicted values. This demonstrates that use of a design of experiment approach can be applied effectively and efficiently to improve the performance of enzyme electrodes as anodes for biofuel cell device development. PMID:26116416

  7. Photography, production, design and editing

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez-Biosca, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    The formal features that have made Spanish cinema what it is and the technical processes behind them (camerawork, production design, editing) have passed through the same stages of trial and error, hurdles, crises, and conflicts as has been the case with other national cinemas. The notion of the exceptionalism of Spanish cinema is not supported by evidence, unless by “anomaly” we just mean “cultural specificity.” Cultural specificities there have been, as there are today: the h...

  8. Computational Intelligence Techniques for New Product Design

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Kit Yan; Dillon, Tharam S

    2012-01-01

    Applying computational intelligence for product design is a fast-growing and promising research area in computer sciences and industrial engineering. However, there is currently a lack of books, which discuss this research area. This book discusses a wide range of computational intelligence techniques for implementation on product design. It covers common issues on product design from identification of customer requirements in product design, determination of importance of customer requirements, determination of optimal design attributes, relating design attributes and customer satisfaction, integration of marketing aspects into product design, affective product design, to quality control of new products. Approaches for refinement of computational intelligence are discussed, in order to address different issues on product design. Cases studies of product design in terms of development of real-world new products are included, in order to illustrate the design procedures, as well as the effectiveness of the com...

  9. Towards a theory of product design specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2004-01-01

    The product design specification is an important element in a product development project because it defines the target to be met. One requirement on the product design specification is to articulate and communicate the aspects, which makes the product attractive seen from the users' viewpoint. I...... elements to build such a theory of product design specifications upon.......The product design specification is an important element in a product development project because it defines the target to be met. One requirement on the product design specification is to articulate and communicate the aspects, which makes the product attractive seen from the users' viewpoint. In...... specifications, which express the customers¿ need and perception of value. In this paper we will scrutinize this assumption. We outline the roles and tasks of the product design specification in order to identify the requirements on a theory of product design specifications and we identify existing theory...

  10. Towards a theory of product design specifications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    The product design specification is an important element in a product development project because it defines the target to be met. One requirement on the product design specification is to articulate and communicate the aspects, which makes the product attractive seen from the users' viewpoint. In...... specifications, which express the customers¿ need and perception of value. In this paper we will scrutinize this assumption. We outline the roles and tasks of the product design specification in order to identify the requirements on a theory of product design specifications and we identify existing theory...... elements to build such a theory of product design specifications upon....

  11. Interoperability of Design Intent in Integrated Product and Process Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M; W; Fu; W; F; Lu; A; Y; C; Nee; S; K; Ong

    2002-01-01

    Concurrent engineering is currently an overwhelming t rend in product development since it takes the down-stream product development issues and product life-cycle issues into consideration in up-front design pro cess. At this stage, evaluation, verification and validation of design concepts and design schemes is critical to the right-to-market product development. I dentification and extraction of design intent from the part digital mock-ups in different data formats and created in different CAD syste...

  12. Strategies for fuel cell product development. Developing fuel cell products in the technology supply chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the high cost of research and development and the broad spectrum of knowledge and competences required to develop fuel cell products, many product-developing firms outsource fuel cell technology, either partly or completely. This article addresses the inter-firm process of fuel cell product development from an Industrial Design Engineering perspective. The fuel cell product development can currently be characterised by a high degree of economic and technical uncertainty. Regarding the technology uncertainty: product-developing firms are more often then not unfamiliar with fuel cell technology technology. Yet there is a high interface complexity between the technology supplied and the product in which it is to be incorporated. In this paper the information exchange in three current fuel cell product development projects is analysed to determine the information required by a product designer to develop a fuel cell product. Technology transfer literature suggests that transfer effectiveness is greatest when the type of technology (technology uncertainty) and the type of relationship between the technology supplier and the recipient are carefully matched. In this line of thinking this paper proposes that the information required by a designer, determined by the design strategy and product/system volume, should be met by an appropriate level of communication interactivity with a technology specialist. (author)

  13. Micro Products - Product Development and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2003-01-01

    of the electronics industry to create still smaller chips with still larger capacity. Therefore the manufacturing technologies connected with micro/nano products in silicon are relatively highly developed compared to the technologies used for manufacturing micro products in metals, polymers and ceramics. For all......Innovation within the field of micro and nano technology is to a great extent characterized by cross-disciplinary skills. The traditional disciplines like e.g. physics, biology, medicine and engineering are united in a common development process that can only take place in the presence of multi...... technologies, however, it is a continuously increasing challenge to create the operational basis for an industrial production of micro products. As the products through product development processes are made applicable to a large number of customers, the pressure in regard to developing production technologies...

  14. Product Life Design: Notes for course 41627

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2003-01-01

    , resource- and ecological specifications, life cycle-oriented quality, whole life costs. - Product life systems, "the meeting", relational properties, the role of the human operator. - Modelling of the product and the product life cycle, computer modelling. - The score model, Integrated Product Development......The course in product life design is designed to give an understanding of the phenomena of life cycle and product life thinking, the role of product design in fitting to product life systems and thus achieving sound product life perspectives. The course aims at developing an ability in the student...... to formulate specifications, synthesise and evaluate design proposals related to given product life systems. Training is also given in dealing with tools and principles for life cycle design (DFX). Course content The following aspects of life cycle design are considered: - Life cycle, stakeholders...

  15. STANDPOINTS ABOUT THE MANAGEMENT OF PRODUCTS DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Gica Cruceru

    2009-01-01

    In this paper the engineering design process is defined and the Product Design Specification is detailed. Subjects covered include form design, design for manufacture and assembly, materials and process for powder products selection. In general the simplest solution is the best and all professional engineers seek elegant and simple solutions. Design is not solely the achieving of technical solutions but also creating useful products which satisfy and appeal to their users. So along with the e...

  16. Design of a single chambered microbial electrolytic cell reactor for production of biohydrogen from rice straw hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Pratima; Parkhey, Piyush

    2015-06-01

    Rice straw was pretreated using a microwave-assisted alkali pretreatment method. Cellulose recovery was approximately 82 %. This material was hydrolysed in an optimized enzymatic saccharification reaction using cellulase from Lysinibacillus sphaericus. This resulted in saccharification of 49 % of cellulosic biomass into glucose. A single chambered microbial electrolytic cell reactor of volume 2l was built using acrylic plastic sheets with graphite sheet as anode and a stainless-steel mesh as cathode. Shewanella putrefaciens was used as exoelectrogen to oxidize rice straw hydrolysate in the reactor for electrohydrogenesis. The maximum H2 yield obtained was 801 ml H2 g(-1) COD removal. Coulombic efficiency of 88 %, cathodic H2 recovery of 58 % and total H2 recovery of 51 % with an energy efficiency of 74 % were recorded. PMID:25650347

  17. BEHAVIOURAL DESIGN APPROACH FOR IMPROVING MECHANICAL PRODUCT PERFORMANCE FORM DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Huichao; Houssin, Remy; Gardoni, Mickael; Jean, Renaud

    2014-01-01

    The mechanical engineering problems today become more and more complex particularly in the area of new product development. Mechanical product design is usually performed simply taking into consideration system functions and structures, while users’ behaviours in terms of using the system are generally not fully considered enough early in the design phase. This paper covers the multi-trade engineering design, and deals with the development of a behavioural design approach to help designers to...

  18. Product Implications of Design Offshoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Zaza Nadja Lee; Ahmed-Kristensen, Saeema

    2011-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact offshoring of product development has on the product and suggest possible ways the negative impacts can be avoided.......This paper investigates the impact offshoring of product development has on the product and suggest possible ways the negative impacts can be avoided....

  19. CIRP Design 2012 Sustainable Product Development

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    During its life cycle, a product produces waste that is over 20 times its weight. As such it is critical to develop products that are sustainable. Currently product development processes lack high quality methods and tools that are empirically validated to support development of sustainable products. This book is a compilation of over forty cutting edge international research papers from the 22nd CIRP International Design Conference, written by eminent researchers from 15 countries, on engineering design process, methods and tools, broadly for supporting sustainable product development.   A variety of new insights into the product development process, as well as a host of methods and tools that are at the cutting edge of design research are discussed and explained covering a range of diverse topics. The areas covered include: ·Sustainable design and manufacturing, ·Design synthesis and creativity, ·Global product development and product life cycle management, ·Design for X (safety, reliability, manufactu...

  20. RESEARCH ON PRODUCT INNOVATION DESIGN IN VIRTUAL PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    An integrated template of virtual product development alters primarily sequential tradition mode of product lifecycle. The template integrates all processes of product development using digital modem. An environment of virtual pro-duct development provides product development environment of integration, communion, network, concurrent and col-laboration. Combining development of new rapier loom, an innovated design process is researched in virtual product de-velopment, which consists three portions: constructing an integration development environment, innovation design andmanufacturing simulation. The innovated design process realizes reverse design, mechanism concept design, structuraldesign and analysis, performalce analysis and manufacturing process simulation of virtual product, which can enhancegreatly product performance and reduce cost and development cycle of new product.

  1. XML-based product information processing method for product design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen Yu

    2012-01-01

    Design knowledge of modern mechatronics product is based on information processing as the center of the knowledge-intensive engineering, thus product design innovation is essentially the knowledge and information processing innovation. Analysis of the role of mechatronics product design knowledge and information management features, a unified model of XML-based product information processing method is proposed. Information processing model of product design includes functional knowledge, structural knowledge and their relationships. For the expression of product function element, product structure element, product mapping relationship between function and structure based on the XML model are proposed. The information processing of a parallel friction roller is given as an example, which demonstrates that this method is obviously helpful for knowledge-based design system and product innovation.

  2. Insights Gained from Testing Alternate Cell Designs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. E. O' Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; G. K. Housley; M. S. Sohal; D. G. Milobar; Thomas Cable

    2009-09-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has been researching the application of solid-oxide electrolysis cell for large-scale hydrogen production from steam over a temperature range of 800 to 900ºC. The INL has been testing various solid oxide cell designs to characterize their electrolytic performance operating in the electrolysis mode for hydrogen production. Some results presented in this report were obtained from cells, initially developed by the Forschungszentrum Jülich and now manufactured by the French ceramics firm St. Gobain. These cells have an active area of 16 cm2 per cell. They were initially developed as fuel cells, but are being tested as electrolytic cells in the INL test stands. The electrolysis cells are electrode-supported, with ~10 µm thick yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolytes, ~1400 µm thick nickel-YSZ steam-hydrogen electrodes, and manganite (LSM) air-oxygen electrodes. The experiments were performed over a range of steam inlet mole fractions (0.1 to 0.6), gas flow rates, and current densities (0 to 0.6 A/cm2). Steam consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation. On a molar basis, the steam consumption rate is equal to the hydrogen production rate. Cell performance was evaluated by performing DC potential sweeps at 800, 850, and 900°C. The voltage-current characteristics are presented, along with values of area-specific resistance as a function of current density. Long-term cell performance is also assessed to evaluate cell degradation. Details of the custom single-cell test apparatus developed for these experiments are also presented. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed another fuel cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. The NASA cell is structurally symmetrical, with both electrodes supporting the thin electrolyte and containing micro-channels for gas diffusion. This configuration is called a bi

  3. Product-oriented intensive heating process design

    OpenAIRE

    Broeze, J.; Sman, van der, R.G.M.; Vollebregt, H.M.; Berg, van den, S.J.P.L.

    2007-01-01

    Control of product quality and process yields in innovative food production processes can be largely improved through better understanding of the relations between process design and product quality.The effects of intensive heating processes such as frying, baking, roasting and microwave on product quality are still poorly understood. Currently, when designing new food processing lines, empirical knowledge of the effects of various process types on product quality is leading.With upcoming `ne...

  4. Mars oxygen production system design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Charles E.; Pillow, Linda K.; Perkinson, Robert C.; Brownlie, R. P.; Chwalowski, P.; Carmona, M. F.; Coopersmith, J. P.; Goff, J. C.; Harvey, L. L.; Kovacs, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    The design and construction phase is summarized of the Mars oxygen demonstration project. The basic hardware required to produce oxygen from simulated Mars atmosphere was assembled and tested. Some design problems still remain with the sample collection and storage system. In addition, design and development of computer compatible data acquisition and control instrumentation is ongoing.

  5. Remanufacturing and product design: designing for the 7th generation

    OpenAIRE

    Charter, Martin; Gray, Casper

    2007-01-01

    The following is taken directly from the research report. This report investigates Design for Remanufacture in terms of both detailed product design and the business context in which Design for Remanufacture may operate. Key Study Objectives • To understand the link between design and remanufacture • To understand how Design for Remanufacture can lead to increased innovation and Sustainable Development (SD) • To identify proactive strategies to further Design for Remanufacture...

  6. Advances in product family and product platform design methods & applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jiao, Jianxin; Siddique, Zahed; Hölttä-Otto, Katja

    2014-01-01

    Advances in Product Family and Product Platform Design: Methods & Applications highlights recent advances that have been made to support product family and product platform design and successful applications in industry. This book provides not only motivation for product family and product platform design—the “why” and “when” of platforming—but also methods and tools to support the design and development of families of products based on shared platforms—the “what”, “how”, and “where” of platforming. It begins with an overview of recent product family design research to introduce readers to the breadth of the topic and progresses to more detailed topics and design theory to help designers, engineers, and project managers plan, architect, and implement platform-based product development strategies in their companies. This book also: Presents state-of-the-art methods and tools for product family and product platform design Adopts an integrated, systems view on product family and pro...

  7. Personalised product design using virtual interactive techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharia, Kurien; Varghese, Surekha Mariam

    2012-01-01

    Use of Virtual Interactive Techniques for personalized product design is described in this paper. Usually products are designed and built by considering general usage patterns and Prototyping is used to mimic the static or working behaviour of an actual product before manufacturing the product. The user does not have any control on the design of the product. Personalized design postpones design to a later stage. It allows for personalized selection of individual components by the user. This is implemented by displaying the individual components over a physical model constructed using Cardboard or Thermocol in the actual size and shape of the original product. The components of the equipment or product such as screen, buttons etc. are then projected using a projector connected to the computer into the physical model. Users can interact with the prototype like the original working equipment and they can select, shape, position the individual components displayed on the interaction panel using simple hand gestur...

  8. Design for the Environment Products (Online Search)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products...

  9. Design for the Environment Products (Raw Data)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains a list of products that carry the Design for the Environment (DfE) label. This mark enables consumers to quickly identify and choose products...

  10. PRODUCT DATA PREDICTION WITH UNCERTAINTY IN PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Suiran; Wang Chengtao; Kimura Fumihiko

    2003-01-01

    Various kinds of data are used in new product design and more accurate data make the design results more reliable. Even though part of product data can be available directly from the existing similar products, there still leaves a great deal of data unavailable. This makes data prediction a valuable work. A method that can predict data of product under development based on the existing similar products is proposed. Fuzzy theory is used to deal with the uncertainties in data prediction process. The proposed method can be used in life cycle design, life cycle assessment (LCA) etc. Case study on current refrigerator is used as a demonstration example.

  11. Buyer Search Costs and Endogenous Product Design

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitri Kuksov

    2004-01-01

    Buyer search costs for price are changing in many markets. Through a model of buyer and seller behavior, I consider the effects of changing search costs on prices both when product differentiation is fixed and when it is endogenously determined in equilibrium. If firms cannot change product design, lower buyer search costs for price lead to increased price competition. However, if product design is a decision variable, lower search costs for price may also lead to higher product differentiati...

  12. Product Design Engineering--A Global Education Trend in Multidisciplinary Training for Creative Product Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vere, Ian; Melles, Gavin; Kapoor, Ajay

    2010-01-01

    Product design is the convergence point for engineering and design thinking and practices. Until recently, product design has been taught either as a component of mechanical engineering or as a subject within design schools but increasingly there is global recognition of the need for greater synergies between industrial design and engineering…

  13. Design of experiments in production engineering

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book covers design of experiments (DoE) applied in production engineering as a combination of manufacturing technology with applied management science. It presents recent research advances and applications of design experiments in production engineering and the chapters cover metal cutting tools, soft computing for modelling and optmization of machining, waterjet machining of high performance ceramics, among others.

  14. Integrating product design into the supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Omera; Stolte, Terje; Creazza, Alessandro;

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the research is to illustrate how companies can create competitive capabilities through integration of product design into the supply chain. In doing so the paper reveals the challenges and the opportunities that companies face when integrating product design and supply chain...... opportunities and challenges when integrating product design and the supply chain and subsequently a step-by-step guide is developed to address these. Practical Implications: The research provides key recommendations to companies on how to create competitive capabilities by integrating product design into the...... supply chain. Originality/Value: This paper provides novel insights to both practitioners and researchers. For practitioners detailed recommendations are given on how they can maximise benefits through integrating product design into the supply chain. The RBV has been harnessed to highlight how...

  15. SOLUTION FOR SYNTETHIC PRODUCTS NESTING BASED ON LEATHER PRODUCTS DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Antemie Alex; Popp Aurel

    2012-01-01

    Research in general irregular-shape nesting can be used in confection industry for nesting leather and synthetic product parts. Today there are solutions for synthetic products, while solutions for leather products are still under development. Our research is oriented to improved footwear design efficiency, while assister by computer. We treated almost each stage of footwear design, and we observed that our studies regarding economical efficiency can be used also for nesting parts of syntheti...

  16. Design of Agricultural Cleaner Production Technology System

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Jun-mei; Wang, Xin-jie

    2009-01-01

    Based on the introduction of agricultural cleaner production, technology system design of planting cleaner production is discussed from five aspects of water-saving irrigation technology, fertilization technology, diseases and insects control technology, straw comprehensive utilization technology and plastic film pollution control technology. Cleaner production technology system of livestock and poultry raise is constructed from the aspects of source control technology, reduction technique in...

  17. Production System Design for Multiple Brands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsson, Christer; Christensen, Irene

    Production systems enabling both cost efficiency and flexibility in terms of high product variation are explored. The study follows an explorative longitudinal field study approach. The database consists of three large global corporations, each consisting of several companies producing household ......-outs, worker skills, integration of distribution channels, after sales service and degree of servitization. Three production system design principles called VXY emerge....

  18. Design of formulated products: a systematic methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, K.M.

    2011-01-01

    In chemical product design one tries to find a product which exhibits the desired (target) behavior specified a priori. The identity of the ingredients of chemical-based products maybe unknown at the start, but some of their desired qualities and functions are usually known. A systematic model-ba......) of a paint formulation and an insect repellent lotion are presented....

  19. Cell Architecture for Nanoelectronic Design

    OpenAIRE

    Martorell, F.; A. Rubio

    2007-01-01

    Submitted on behalf of EDA Publishing Association (http://irevues.inist.fr/handle/2042/5920) International audience Several nanoelectronic devices have been already proved. However, no architecture which makes use of them provides a feasible opportunity to build medium/large systems. Nanoarchitecture proposals only solve a small part of the problems needed to achieve a real design. In this paper, we propose and analyze a cell architecture that overcomes most of those at the gate level. ...

  20. Yeast metabolic chassis designs for diverse biotechnological products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouhten, Paula; Boruta, Tomasz; Andrejev, Sergej; Pereira, Filipa; Rocha, Isabel; Patil, Kiran Raosaheb

    2016-01-01

    The diversity of industrially important molecules for which microbial production routes have been experimentally demonstrated is rapidly increasing. The development of economically viable producer cells is, however, lagging behind, as it requires substantial engineering of the host metabolism. A chassis strain suitable for production of a range of molecules is therefore highly sought after but remains elusive. Here, we propose a genome-scale metabolic modeling approach to design chassis strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae - a widely used microbial cell factory. For a group of 29 products covering a broad range of biochemistry and applications, we identified modular metabolic engineering strategies for re-routing carbon flux towards the desired product. We find distinct product families with shared targets forming the basis for the corresponding chassis cells. The design strategies include overexpression targets that group products by similarity in precursor and cofactor requirements, as well as gene deletion strategies for growth-product coupling that lead to non-intuitive product groups. Our results reveal the extent and the nature of flux re-routing necessary for producing a diverse range of products in a widely used cell factory and provide blueprints for constructing pre-optimized chassis strains. PMID:27430744

  1. Design of targeted B cell killing agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey V Stepanov

    Full Text Available B cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of both systemic and organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Autoreactive B cells not only produce autoantibodies, but also are capable to efficiently present specific autoantigens to T cells. Furthermore, B cells can secrete proinflammatory cytokines and amplify the vicious process of self-destruction. B cell-directed therapy is a potentially important approach for treatment of various autoimmune diseases. The depletion of B cells by anti-CD20/19 monoclonal antibody Retuximab® used in autoimmune diseases therapy leads to systemic side effects and should be significantly improved. In this study we designed a repertoire of genetically engineered B cell killers that specifically affected one kind of cells carrying a respective B cell receptor. We constructed immunotoxins (ITs, fused with c-myc epitope as a model targeting sequence, based on barnase, Pseudomonas toxin, Shiga-like toxin E.coli and Fc domain of human antibody IgGγ1. C-MYC hybridoma cell line producing anti-c-myc IgG was chosen as a model for targeted cell depletion. C-myc sequence fused with toxins provided addressed delivery of the toxic agent to the target cells. We demonstrated functional activity of designed ITs in vitro and showed recognition of the fusion molecules by antibodies produced by targeted hybridoma. To study specificity of the proposed B cells killing molecules, we tested a set of created ITs ex vivo, using C-MYC and irrelevant hybridoma cell lines. Pseudomonas-containing IT showed one of the highest cytotoxic effects on the model cells, however, possessed promiscuous specificity. Shiga-like toxin construct demonstrated mild both cytotoxicity and specificity. Barnase and Fc-containing ITs revealed excellent balance between their legibility and toxic properties. Moreover, barnase and Fc molecules fused with c-myc epitope were able to selectively deplete c-myc-specific B cells and decrease production of anti

  2. The marketing implications of affective product design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seva, Rosemary R; Duh, Henry Been-Lirn; Helander, Martin G

    2007-11-01

    Emotions are compelling human experiences and product designers can take advantage of this by conceptualizing emotion-engendering products that sell well in the market. This study hypothesized that product attributes influence users' emotions and that the relationship is moderated by the adherence of these product attributes to purchase criteria. It was further hypothesized that the emotional experience of the user influences purchase intention. A laboratory study was conducted to validate the hypotheses using mobile phones as test products. Sixty-two participants were asked to assess eight phones from a display of 10 phones and indicate their emotional experiences after assessment. Results suggest that some product attributes can cause intense emotional experience. The attributes relate to the phone's dimensions and the relationship between these dimensions. The study validated the notion of integrating affect in designing products that convey users' personalities. PMID:17303064

  3. Compatibility and product design in software markets

    OpenAIRE

    Woeckener, Bernd

    1999-01-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay between compatibility and product design decisions in a symmetric software duopoly with network effects. We show that suppliers do not always offer differentiated product designs and compete within the market. Rather, when ever both the significance of the network effects and the costs of compatibility are high, they offer homogeneous and incompatible variants and compete for the market, although this leads to Bertrand competition with zero profits. Moreover,...

  4. [Strategic considerations on the design and choice of animal models for non-clinical investigations of cell-based medicinal products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Jörg; Schulz, Ronny M; Sanzenbacher, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    For the development of medicinal products animal models are still indispensable to demonstrate efficacy and safety prior to first use in humans. Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP), which include cell-based medicinal products (CBMP), differ in their pharmacology and toxicology compared to conventional pharmaceuticals, and thus, require an adapted regime for non-clinical development. Developers are, therefore, challenged to develop particular individual concepts and to reconcile these with regulatory agencies. Guidelines issued by the European Medicines Agency (EMA), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and other sources can provide direction.The published approaches for non-clinical testing of efficacy document that homologous animal models where the therapeutic effect is investigated in a disease-relevant animal model utilizing cells derived from the same species are commonly used. The challenge is that the selected model should reflect the human disease in all critical features and that the cells should be comparable to the investigated human medicinal product in terms of quality and biological activity. This is not achievable in all cases. In these cases, alternative methods may provide supplemental information. To demonstrate the scientific proof-of-concept (PoC), small animal models such as mice or rats are preferred. During the subsequent product development phase, large animal models (i.e. sheep, minipigs, dogs) must be considered, as they may better reflect the anatomical or physiological situation in humans. In addition to efficacy, those models may also be suitable to prove some safety aspects of ATMP (e.g. regarding dose finding, local tolerance, or undesired interactions and effects of the administered cells in the target tissue). In contrast, for evaluation of the two prominent endpoints for characterizing the safety of ATMP (i.e. biodistribution, tumorigenicity) heterologous small animal models, especially immunodeficient mouse strains

  5. Product modular design incorporating preventive maintenance issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yicong; Feng, Yixiong; Tan, Jianrong

    2016-03-01

    Traditional modular design methods lead to product maintenance problems, because the module form of a system is created according to either the function requirements or the manufacturing considerations. For solving these problems, a new modular design method is proposed with the considerations of not only the traditional function related attributes, but also the maintenance related ones. First, modularity parameters and modularity scenarios for product modularity are defined. Then the reliability and economic assessment models of product modularity strategies are formulated with the introduction of the effective working age of modules. A mathematical model used to evaluate the difference among the modules of the product so that the optimal module of the product can be established. After that, a multi-objective optimization problem based on metrics for preventive maintenance interval different degrees and preventive maintenance economics is formulated for modular optimization. Multi-objective GA is utilized to rapidly approximate the Pareto set of optimal modularity strategy trade-offs between preventive maintenance cost and preventive maintenance interval difference degree. Finally, a coordinate CNC boring machine is adopted to depict the process of product modularity. In addition, two factorial design experiments based on the modularity parameters are constructed and analyzed. These experiments investigate the impacts of these parameters on the optimal modularity strategies and the structure of module. The research proposes a new modular design method, which may help to improve the maintainability of product in modular design.

  6. Product Modular Design Incorporating Preventive Maintenance Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Yicong; FENG Yixiong; TAN Jianrong

    2016-01-01

    Traditional modular design methods lead to product maintenance problems, because the module form of a system is created according to either the function requirements or the manufacturing considerations. For solving these problems, a new modular design method is proposed with the considerations of not only the traditional function related attributes, but also the maintenance related ones. First, modularity parameters and modularity scenarios for product modularity are defined. Then the reliability and economic assessment models of product modularity strategies are formulated with the introduction of the effective working age of modules. A mathematical model used to evaluate the difference among the modules of the product so that the optimal module of the product can be established. After that, a multi-objective optimization problem based on metrics for preventive maintenance interval different degrees and preventive maintenance economics is formulated for modular optimization. Multi-objective GA is utilized to rapidly approximate the Pareto set of optimal modularity strategy trade-offs between preventive maintenance cost and preventive maintenance interval difference degree. Finally, a coordinate CNC boring machine is adopted to depict the process of product modularity. In addition, two factorial design experiments based on the modularity parameters are constructed and analyzed. These experiments investigate the impacts of these parameters on the optimal modularity strategies and the structure of module. The research proposes a new modular design method, which may help to improve the maintainability of product in modular design.

  7. New design competences for localized production systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kaare Riise; Morelli, Nicola

    2005-01-01

    in fully industrialized countries such as Denmark and represents an interesting alternative to globalized industrial production. Furthermore this case is an interesting opportunity to re-discuss the role and competences of designers in such new models. Tools and methods of the design profession are...

  8. Managing Input during Assistive Technology Product Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Young Mi

    2011-01-01

    Many different sources of input are available to assistive technology innovators during the course of designing products. However, there is little information on which ones may be most effective or how they may be efficiently utilized within the design process. The aim of this project was to compare how three types of input--from simulation tools,…

  9. MECHANICAL PRODUCT EXTENSIVE INTELLIGENT CONCEPTUAL DESIGN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Guoquan; Zhong Yifang; Zhang Weiguo

    2004-01-01

    Based on extenics, an extensive functional information model (function-behavioral action-structure-environmental constraint) of the mechanical product intelligent conceptual design is developed, and the mechanism of theoretic structure solutions is produced, the mapping relations between function-behavior and behavior-structure are analyzed.The model is applied to the filling material system's conceptual design to verify validity.

  10. Traditional Chinese culture in modern Product Design

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the sources and features of traditional Chinese culture. It also discusses the aesthetic thoughts of Chinese traditional culture. Chinese traditional culture has been illustrated broad and far-reaching impact on design since ancient time. In the context of globalization and the rapid development of science and technology, the difference between traditional design and modern product design should be explored. Chinese traditional culture cannot be totally absorbed. It is im...

  11. Progress in Microbial Fuel Cells Energy Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) harness the natural metabolisms of microbes to produce electrical power from almost any kind of organic matter. In addition to the low power densities (about 1mW for a 1-liter reactor), MFCs are presently built with expensive membrane and electrodes. The payback time of MFCs is therefore very long (evaluated to 25000 years for our lab prototype). Progresses in designing low-cost MFCs are necessary before conceiving large scale energy production. (author)

  12. The Virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory for Structured Chemical Product Design and Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele; Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti; Kalakul, Sawitree; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Woodley, John; Gernaey, Krist; Gani, Rafiqul

    The objective of this paper is to present new methods for design of chemicals based formulated products and their implementation in the software, the Virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory. The new products are tailor-made blended liquid products and emulsion-based products. The new software...... the design and analysis of a wide range of homogeneous formulated products: tailor-made blends, single phase liquid formulations and emulsion-based products. The decision making process is supported by dedicated property models and structured databases, specifically developed for each design problem...... scenario. Output from the software is a small set of most promising product candidates and a short list of recommended experiments that can validate and further fine-tune the product composition. The application of the new features is highlighted through two case studies relative to an emulsion...

  13. Soft and hard product attributes in design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Boelskifte, Per

    2003-01-01

    Products are to a growing extend being sold based on their soft values such as design and styling and the image they can bring the owner. This makes it more important that people involved in product development can communicate these more soft or intangible values. Works within this area is pursued...... a number of places (Lopez 2003, Pascalle 2000, Goovers 2003, Warell 2001). The authors have experienced the need when searching for materials that can give the product a certain expression (www.designinsite.dk). In a previous study an interdisciplinary group of 14 students (coming from industrial...... design, business and engineering) showed consensus on assigning certain words to specific products in order to express the sensory and perceived experiences (Johnson et al. 2003). An initial vocabulary was formulated based on input from the design literature. The study showed that a significant amount of...

  14. Teaching Design for Environment in Product Design Classes

    OpenAIRE

    Baeriswyl, Michael C.; Eppinger, Steven D.

    2011-01-01

    The paper presents an approach to teaching design for environment (DFE) in the context of a product design and development course. The teaching method has been applied in our classes for graduate engineering, business, and design students. Our approach includes a step-by-step DFE process and utilizes a recent Herman Miller chair as a case study to illustrate the successful application of each step in the process. The DFE process steps are based on our research at Herman Miller and on several ...

  15. Digital Production and Students as Learning Designers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Birgitte Holm; Levinsen, Karin

    2014-01-01

    as the new opportunities enable young students to integrate their playing competencies and skills into the formal school learning. This paper presents and discusses a theory regarding students’ digital production from a learning and design-for-learning perspective, which is generated based on the...... project Netbook 1:1 (2009–2012), where information and communication technology (ICT) was readily accessible for each child at school and at home in grades 1–3 at two Danish public schools. The paper presents a Four Levels Design for Learning Model, which can be used for both design for learning and...... analyses of learning processes. The discussion is supported by empirical examples from the project, which explored emerging relations amongst ICT, production and subject matter-specific practice (Danish, mathematics and interdisciplinary activities). We understand design for learning as related to both...

  16. Safety in the design of production lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyhrberg, Mette Bang; Broberg, Ole; Jacobsen, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper is a case study report on how safety considerations were handled in the process of redesigning a production line. The design process was characterized as a specification and negotiation process between engineers from the company and the supplier organization. The new production line...... became safer, but not as a result of any intentional plan to integrate safety aspects into the design process. Instead, the supplier’s design of a new piece of equipment had a higher built-in safety level. The engineering team in the company was aware of the importance of safety aspects neither in the...... ‘history workshop’ with the engineering team. The workshop clarified the sequence of events and discussions that took place during the design process and opened for a discussion of the role of safety aspects. During the workshop new insights emerged into the question of how to integrate safety aspects in...

  17. Production engineering jig and tool design

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, E J H

    1972-01-01

    Production Engineering: Jig and Tool Design focuses on jig and tool design as part of production engineering and covers topics ranging from inspection and gauging to multiple and consecutive tooling, tool calculation and development of form tools, deep-hole boring, and grinding-wheel form-crushing. Air and oil operated fixtures, negative rake machining, and the economics of jig and fixture practice are also discussed. This text is comprised of 22 chapters; the first of which provides an overview of the function and organization of the jig and tool department. Attention then turns to the subjec

  18. Informative technologies in the material products designing

    OpenAIRE

    L.A. Dobrzański; R. Honysz

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of materials products designing is to optimize their functional properties in terms of technological, economic and ecological aspects.Design/methodology/approach: Materials science is an example of a field, in which informative technologies used to understand and anticipate the construction of materials and their properties has a significant success.Findings: Innovation and development of new informative technologies and the widespread use of modern materials will be esse...

  19. Kansei Engineering and Ergonomic Design of Products

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan Sadeghi Naeini; Maryam Heidarpour

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this article was to describe the concept of Kansei and its status in ergonomics, to specialists of disciplines such as safety, industrial engineering, and specifically the associates of ergonomic design of products and industrial designers. During last decades the dominate approaches of ergonomics were mainly focused on physical aspects of human body, but along with the development of sciences, it has had a dramatic growth in human mental characteristics and has expanded f...

  20. Efficient Production-Distribution System Design

    OpenAIRE

    Samir Elhedhli; Jean-Louis Goffin

    2005-01-01

    The production-distribution system design is an integral part of the general supply chain design. This paper proposes a novel solution methodology for this problem that is based on Lagrangean relaxation, interior-point methods, and branch and bound. Unlike classical approaches, Lagrangean relaxation is applied in a two-level hierarchy, branch and bound is based on a Lagrangean lower bound and column generation (branch and price), while interior-point methods are used within a cutting-plane co...

  1. Design, product structuring and modelling of mechatronic products and systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Sørensen, Torben

    2003-01-01

    Information Technology offers software and hardware for improvement of the engineering design, structuring and control systems, and industrial applications. The latest progress in IT makes integration of an overall design and manufacturing IT- concept feasible and commercially attractive. An IT-tool...... concept for modelling, simulation and design of mechatronic products and systems is proposed in this paper. It built on results from a Danish mechatronic research program on intelligent motion control as well as from the Esprit project SWING on IT-tools for rapid prototyping of fluid power components...

  2. Sensory Marketing:Designing Pleasurable Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lageat Thierry

    2004-01-01

    Luxury products, household appliances, cosmetics and products for the general public all use the techniques of sensory marketing in the very first phases of conception to specify or give a distinct character to the way they are perceived. Creating the visio-tactile qualities of a mobile phone or dashboard, designing the acoustics used in a lipstick tube closure: these considerations offer industry a way of managing and mastering the sensorial identity which will set their products apart from those of their competitors. Sensory marketing is based upon the objective definition, the analysis and the mastering of the qualitative characteristics of the object to be conceived.

  3. PLUTONIUM-238 PRODUCTION TARGET DESIGN STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurt, Christopher J [ORNL; Wham, Robert M [ORNL; Hobbs, Randall W [ORNL; Owens, R Steven [ORNL; Chandler, David [ORNL; Freels, James D [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    A new supply chain is planned for plutonium-238 using existing reactors at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Idaho National Laboratory (INL) and existing chemical recovery facilities at ORNL. Validation and testing activities for new irradiation target designs have been conducted in three phases over a 2 year period to provide data for scale-up to production. Target design, qualification, target fabrication, and irradiation of fully-loaded targets have been accomplished. Data from post-irradiation examination (PIE) supports safety analysis and irradiation of future target designs.

  4. Electrochemical characterisation of solid oxide cell electrodes for hydrogen production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernuy-Lopez, Carlos; Knibbe, Ruth; He, Zeming; Mao, Xiaojian; Hauch, Anne; Nielsen, Karsten Agersted

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen electrodes and steam electrodes are designed and tested to develop improved solid oxide electrolysis cells for H2 production with the cell support on the oxygen electrode. The electrode performance is evaluated by impedance spectroscopy testing of symmetric cells at open circuit voltage (OCV...

  5. Counting on natural products for drug design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Tiago; Reker, Daniel; Schneider, Petra; Schneider, Gisbert

    2016-06-01

    Natural products and their molecular frameworks have a long tradition as valuable starting points for medicinal chemistry and drug discovery. Recently, there has been a revitalization of interest in the inclusion of these chemotypes in compound collections for screening and achieving selective target modulation. Here we discuss natural-product-inspired drug discovery with a focus on recent advances in the design of synthetically tractable small molecules that mimic nature's chemistry. We highlight the potential of innovative computational tools in processing structurally complex natural products to predict their macromolecular targets and attempt to forecast the role that natural-product-derived fragments and fragment-like natural products will play in next-generation drug discovery.

  6. Design of Formulated Products: Experimental Component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul; Cheng, Y. S.;

    2012-01-01

    of the final product. The first stage (Stage 1) has been covered in previous publications, along with detailed case studies. The development of Stage 2 and Stage 3 is considered in this article and highlighted through two case studies involving the design and validation of an insect repellent lotion...

  7. Thermal design of a Mars oxygen production plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridhar, K. R.; Iyer, Venkatesh A.

    1991-01-01

    The optimal design of the thermal components of a system that uses carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere to produce oxygen for spacecraft propulsion and/or life support is discussed. The gases are pressurized, heated and passed through an electrochemical cell. Carbon dioxide is reduced to carbon monoxide and oxygen due to thermal dissociation and electrocatalysis. The oxygen thus formed is separated from the gas mixture by the electrochemical cell. The objective of the design is to optimize both the overall mass and the power consumption of the system. The analysis shows that at electrochemical cell efficiencies of about 50 percent and lower, the optimal system would require unspent carbon dioxide in the exhaust gases to be separated and recycled. Various methods of efficiently compressing the intake gases to system pressures of 0.1 MPa are investigated. The total power requirement for oxygen production rates of 1, 5, and 10 kg/day at various cell efficiencies are presented.

  8. Informative technologies in the material products designing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Dobrzański

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of materials products designing is to optimize their functional properties in terms of technological, economic and ecological aspects.Design/methodology/approach: Materials science is an example of a field, in which informative technologies used to understand and anticipate the construction of materials and their properties has a significant success.Findings: Innovation and development of new informative technologies and the widespread use of modern materials will be essential for promoting economic development in the near future by application of entirely new, interdisciplinary field of science: computational materials science.Practical implications: The use of informative technologies allows exploring in a short time and at low expense, many solutions for the design of the mechanical properties of materials and their simulation beyond the standardized range.Originality/value: The most important benefit of material designing is the ability of suitable selection of material (or its manufacturing for various applications with use of informative technologies.

  9. Raman spectroscopy in pharmaceutical product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paudel, Amrit; Raijada, Dhara; Rantanen, Jukka

    2015-01-01

    molecular-based drug discovery, design of innovative drug delivery systems and quality control of finished products. This review presents concise accounts of various conventional and emerging Raman instrumentations including associated hyphenated tools of pharmaceutical interest. Moreover, relevant...... application cases of Raman spectroscopy in early and late phase pharmaceutical development, process analysis and micro-structural analysis of drug delivery systems are introduced. Finally, potential areas of future advancement and application of Raman spectroscopic techniques are discussed....

  10. Design of environmentally friendly products using indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenau, Torben Anker; Bey, Niki

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes the requirements of product designers towards methods for environmental evaluation; it argues that indicators can be used for rough environmental evaluations and it presents experiences made with the indicator-based Oil Point Method (OPM). This method is illustrated by means of...... three examples, a vacuum cleaner, two sweaters and a passenger car. The quality of the results is compared with two other methods for environmental evaluation....

  11. URPD: a specific product primer design tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuang Li-Yeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polymerase chain reaction (PCR plays an important role in molecular biology. Primer design fundamentally determines its results. Here, we present a currently available software that is not located in analyzing large sequence but used for a rather straight-forward way of visualizing the primer design process for infrequent users. Findings URPD (yoUR Primer Design, a web-based specific product primer design tool, combines the NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq, UCSC In-Silico PCR, memetic algorithm (MA and genetic algorithm (GA primer design methods to obtain specific primer sets. A friendly user interface is accomplished by built-in parameter settings. The incorporated smooth pipeline operations effectively guide both occasional and advanced users. URPD contains an automated process, which produces feasible primer pairs that satisfy the specific needs of the experimental design with practical PCR amplifications. Visual virtual gel electrophoresis and in silico PCR provide a simulated PCR environment. The comparison of Practical gel electrophoresis comparison to virtual gel electrophoresis facilitates and verifies the PCR experiment. Wet-laboratory validation proved that the system provides feasible primers. Conclusions URPD is a user-friendly tool that provides specific primer design results. The pipeline design path makes it easy to operate for beginners. URPD also provides a high throughput primer design function. Moreover, the advanced parameter settings assist sophisticated researchers in performing experiential PCR. Several novel functions, such as a nucleotide accession number template sequence input, local and global specificity estimation, primer pair redesign, user-interactive sequence scale selection, and virtual and practical PCR gel electrophoresis discrepancies have been developed and integrated into URPD. The URPD program is implemented in JAVA and freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/urpd/.

  12. URPD: a specific product primer design tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) plays an important role in molecular biology. Primer design fundamentally determines its results. Here, we present a currently available software that is not located in analyzing large sequence but used for a rather straight-forward way of visualizing the primer design process for infrequent users. Findings URPD (yoUR Primer Design), a web-based specific product primer design tool, combines the NCBI Reference Sequences (RefSeq), UCSC In-Silico PCR, memetic algorithm (MA) and genetic algorithm (GA) primer design methods to obtain specific primer sets. A friendly user interface is accomplished by built-in parameter settings. The incorporated smooth pipeline operations effectively guide both occasional and advanced users. URPD contains an automated process, which produces feasible primer pairs that satisfy the specific needs of the experimental design with practical PCR amplifications. Visual virtual gel electrophoresis and in silico PCR provide a simulated PCR environment. The comparison of Practical gel electrophoresis comparison to virtual gel electrophoresis facilitates and verifies the PCR experiment. Wet-laboratory validation proved that the system provides feasible primers. Conclusions URPD is a user-friendly tool that provides specific primer design results. The pipeline design path makes it easy to operate for beginners. URPD also provides a high throughput primer design function. Moreover, the advanced parameter settings assist sophisticated researchers in performing experiential PCR. Several novel functions, such as a nucleotide accession number template sequence input, local and global specificity estimation, primer pair redesign, user-interactive sequence scale selection, and virtual and practical PCR gel electrophoresis discrepancies have been developed and integrated into URPD. The URPD program is implemented in JAVA and freely available at http://bio.kuas.edu.tw/urpd/. PMID:22713312

  13. Design for manufacturability production management activity report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Norihiko; Sato, T.; Honma, M.; Yoshioka, N.; Hosono, K.; Onodera, T.; Itoh, H.; Suzuki, H.; Uga, T.; Kadota, K.; Iriki, N.

    2006-05-01

    Design For Manufacturability Production Management (DFM-PM) Subcommittee has been started in succession to Reticle Management Subcommittee (RMS) in Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology Committee for Japan (SMTCJ) from 2005. Our activity focuses on the SoC (System On Chip) Business, and it pursues the improvement of communication in manufacturing technique. The first theme of activity is the investigation and examination of the new trends about production (manufacturer) technology and related information, and proposals of business solution. The second theme is the standardization activity about manufacture technology and the cooperation with related semiconductors' organizations. And the third theme is holding workshop and support for promotion and spread of the standardization technology throughout semiconductor companies. We expand a range of scope from design technology to wafer pattern reliability and we will propose the competition domain, the collaboration area and the standardization technology on DFM. Furthermore, we will be able to make up a SoC business model as the 45nm node technology beyond manufacturing platform in cooperating with the design information and the production information by utilizing EDA technology.

  14. Can Insulin Production Suppress β Cell Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vas, Matias; Ferrer, Jorge

    2016-01-12

    While insulin has mitogenic effects in many cell types, its effects on β cells remain elusive. In this issue of Cell Metabolism, Szabat et al. (2015) genetically block insulin production in adult β cells and show that this leads to a relief of ER stress, AKT activation, and increased β cell proliferation. PMID:26771111

  15. Transitions in Sustainable Product Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boks, Casper; McAloone, Tim C.

    2009-01-01

    By the early 1990s, sustainable product innovation (or ecodesign, or Design for environment) had gained sufficient critical mass in academic research to be identified as a distinct research area. In the past 15 years, stimulated by a growing environmental concern and awareness in the media, this...... transitions; this is illustrated by discussing characteristic aspects of each transition, which together provide a historic account of how academic research into sustainable product innovation had matured. In conclusion, a number of possible future transitions or extensions of the research area are discussed....... research area has expanded considerably; from a bunch of opportunistic eco-pathfinders trying to make products better recyclable into acknowledged scientific research regarding technology transfer and commercialisation. This paper proposes that this maturing process took place through a number of...

  16. Defining Patient Centric Pharmaceutical Drug Product Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Sven; Ternik, Robert L; Onder, Graziano; Khan, Mansoor A; van Riet-Nales, Diana A

    2016-09-01

    The term "patient centered," "patient centric," or "patient centricity" is increasingly used in the scientific literature in a wide variety of contexts. Generally, patient centric medicines are recognized as an essential contributor to healthy aging and the overall patient's quality of life and life expectancy. Besides the selection of the appropriate type of drug substance and strength for a particular indication in a particular patient, due attention must be paid that the pharmaceutical drug product design is also adequately addressing the particular patient's needs, i.e., assuring adequate patient adherence and the anticipate drug safety and effectiveness. Relevant pharmaceutical design aspects may e.g., involve the selection of the route of administration, the tablet size and shape, the ease of opening the package, the ability to read the user instruction, or the ability to follow the recommended (in-use) storage conditions. Currently, a harmonized definition on patient centric drug development/design has not yet been established. To stimulate scientific research and discussions and the consistent interpretation of test results, it is essential that such a definition is established. We have developed a first draft definition through various rounds of discussions within an interdisciplinary AAPS focus group of experts. This publication summarizes the outcomes and is intended to stimulate further discussions with all stakeholders towards a common definition of patient centric pharmaceutical drug product design that is useable across all disciplines involved. PMID:27317470

  17. A product-model supporting coupling's management during microproduct design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Museau, Matthieu; De Grave, Arnaud; Masclet, Cedric;

    2009-01-01

    Microproducts show specificities compared to macroproducts and their design processes differ. Nowadays, existing design tools manage microproduct specificities too late during the design process, only after the first product representation is available. This article presents a product-model able ...

  18. The Relation of Plant Design to Product Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost of medical supplies varies enormously, from a few cents per unit to a figure many times this. In the latter case the capital cost of medical supplies held up in the irradiation cell can vary considerably and may be of the order of $100 000 or more. To reduce the cost of capital invested in the irradiation plant and the stock of product in the plant requires a special design approach resulting in a plant design that is unusual. The plant resulting is that employed by ETHICON Limited in Edinburgh, Scotland. (author)

  19. Design elements of hot cell facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, D. K.; Lee, K. S.; Baek, S. Y.; Ahn, Y. S.; Choo, Y. S

    1997-06-01

    Hot cell facility is necessary for the post-irradiation examinations of nuclear fuels and materials. Therefore many hot cell facilities have been constructed and operating to support the research and development on the nuclear technology. In this report, the design elements of the hot cell facility is reviewed and discussed. (author). 3 tabs., 12 figs

  20. FUEL CELLS IN ENERGY PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Xiaoyu

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to study fuel cells. They convert chemical energy directly into electrical energy with high efficiency and low emmission of pollutants. This thesis provides an overview of fuel cell technology.The basic working principle of fuel cells and the basic fuel cell system components are introduced in this thesis. The properties, advantages, disadvantages and applications of six different kinds of fuel cells are introduced. Then the efficiency of each fuel cell is p...

  1. Incorporating ISO Metadata Using HDF Product Designer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelenak, Aleksandar; Kozimor, John; Habermann, Ted

    2016-01-01

    The need to store in HDF5 files increasing amounts of metadata of various complexity is greatly overcoming the capabilities of the Earth science metadata conventions currently in use. Data producers until now did not have much choice but to come up with ad hoc solutions to this challenge. Such solutions, in turn, pose a wide range of issues for data managers, distributors, and, ultimately, data users. The HDF Group is experimenting on a novel approach of using ISO 19115 metadata objects as a catch-all container for all the metadata that cannot be fitted into the current Earth science data conventions. This presentation will showcase how the HDF Product Designer software can be utilized to help data producers include various ISO metadata objects in their products.

  2. Shaping Dreams: Design Ideas and Design Fiction in Movie and Television Production Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ion Wille, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to show how the design process influences the planning and development of moving images, i.e., live-action movies, animation, and television. The paper documents the significance of design in the early stages of film and television production and shows how industry...... practitioners value the contribution of designers in developing the narrative through visual support. The paper suggests a comparison of design and screenplay research and analysis. In addition, it touches on the subject of design fiction in the case of a project involving collaboration of production design...... students from The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Design, and screenwriting and producer students from The National Film School of Denmark. Finally, this article provides insight into one of the newer trans-disciplinary developments in design, namely the cross-pollination taking place between...

  3. Design of a lunar oxygen production plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam

    1990-01-01

    To achieve permanent human presence and activity on the moon, oxygen is required for both life support and propulsion. Lunar oxygen production using resources existing on the moon will reduce or eliminate the need to transport liquid oxygen from earth. In addition, the co-products of oxygen production will provide metals, structural ceramics, and other volatile compounds. This will enable development of even greater self-sufficiency as the lunar outpost evolves. Ilmenite is the most abundant metal-oxide mineral in the lunar regolith. A process involving the reaction of ilmenite with hydrogen at 1000 C to produce water, followed by the electrolysis of this water to provide oxygen and recycle the hydrogen has been explored. The objective of this 1990 Summer Faculty Project was to design a lunar oxygen-production plant to provide 5 metric tons of liquid oxygen per year from lunar soil. The results of this study describe the size and mass of the equipment, the power needs, feedstock quantity and the engineering details of the plant.

  4. Life cycle assessment of hydrogen production and fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper details life cycle assessment (LCA) of hydrogen production and fuel cell system. LCA is a key tool in hydrogen and fuel cell technologies for design, analysis, development; manufacture, applications etc. Energy efficiencies and greenhouse gases and air pollution emissions have been evaluated in all process steps including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation, natural gas reprocessing, wind and solar electricity generation , hydrogen production through water electrolysis and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization

  5. Eukaryotic protein production in designed storage organelles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloheimo Markku

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Protein bodies (PBs are natural endoplasmic reticulum (ER or vacuole plant-derived organelles that stably accumulate large amounts of storage proteins in seeds. The proline-rich N-terminal domain derived from the maize storage protein γ zein (Zera is sufficient to induce PBs in non-seed tissues of Arabidopsis and tobacco. This Zera property opens up new routes for high-level accumulation of recombinant proteins by fusion of Zera with proteins of interest. In this work we extend the advantageous properties of plant seed PBs to recombinant protein production in useful non-plant eukaryotic hosts including cultured fungal, mammalian and insect cells. Results Various Zera fusions with fluorescent and therapeutic proteins accumulate in induced PB-like organelles in all eukaryotic systems tested: tobacco leaves, Trichoderma reesei, several mammalian cultured cells and Sf9 insect cells. This accumulation in membranous organelles insulates both recombinant protein and host from undesirable activities of either. Recombinant protein encapsulation in these PBs facilitates stable accumulation of proteins in a protected sub-cellular compartment which results in an enhancement of protein production without affecting the viability and development of stably transformed hosts. The induced PBs also retain the high-density properties of native seed PBs which facilitate the recovery and purification of the recombinant proteins they contain. Conclusion The Zera sequence provides an efficient and universal means to produce recombinant proteins by accumulation in ER-derived organelles. The remarkable cross-kingdom conservation of PB formation and their biophysical properties should have broad application in the manufacture of non-secreted recombinant proteins and suggests the existence of universal ER pathways for protein insulation.

  6. Expression regulation of design process gene in product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Lusheng; Li, Bo; Tong, Shurong;

    2011-01-01

    To improve the design process efficiency, this paper proposes the principle and methodology that design process gene controls the characteristics of design process under the framework of design process reuse and optimization based on design process gene. First, the concept of design process gene ...

  7. Portable Fuel Cells for Consumer Products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugherty, Mark; Ibrahim, Samir; Learn, Thomas; Kenyon, Kenneth; Haberman, David; Hoffman, Stephanie; Salter, Carlton [Enable Fuel Cell Company, 2120 West Greenview Drive Middleton, WI 53562 (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Enable Fuel Cells (Enable) is developing small passive proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells. These fuel cells are well-suited for use with many portable consumer products. The fuel cells have been demonstrated with applications such as radios, flat screen TVs, CD players, fluorescent and incandescent lighting, global positioning systems and toy trains. In this paper we present operational data and discuss issues that arise in comparing fuel cells with batteries. (author)

  8. Product design for elderly-visual design information inspired a new perspective in design education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langeveld, L.H.

    2014-01-01

    A workshop Product Design for Elderly was held in Beijing and organized by the School of Digital Media and Design, Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications. A domestic appliances company had sponsored a part of the workshop and brought in the topics. The objectives of the workshop were cre

  9. Fuel cells principles, design, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Revankar, Shripad T

    2014-01-01

    ""This book covers all essential themes of fuel cells ranging from fundamentals to applications. It includes key advanced topics important for understanding correctly the underlying multi-science phenomena of fuel cell processes. The book does not only cope with traditional fuel cells but also discusses the future concepts of fuel cells. The book is rich on examples and solutions important for applying the theory into practical use.""-Peter Lund, Aalto University, Helsinki""A good introduction to the range of disciplines needed to design, build and test fuel cells.""-Nigel Brandon, Imperial Co

  10. The Multimedia Product - between Design and Information, Design and Utility and Design and Entertainment

    OpenAIRE

    Dieter Penteliuc-Cotosman

    2009-01-01

    The paper investigates the possible coherent and effective alternatives to solve the problems related to the communication needs of any multimedia product. In essence, the presentation will focus on identifying the issues and principles governing three types of the design - in fact, the multimedia design in a broader sense - namely the information design – precisely aiming at ways of organization and presentation of information in a useful and significant form, the graphical user interface de...

  11. Product System Design – to Household Massage Design as An Example

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Huabin; Lin Qichao

    2016-01-01

    Explain what is the system design and the applications of System design in the product design process. Using The whole idea and systems design methods to analyze the design of household hand massage,Use a chart image to explain that Household hand massage products in the influence of user and the environment, the influence of large system environment for the product. The use of components of the system to anatomy product design. Each system components has a link between and mutual correlation.

  12. AUTOMATIC APPROACH TO PRODUCT CONCEPTUAL DESIGN BASED ON CONSTRAINT NETWORK

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongjie; Xiao Renbin

    2004-01-01

    Product design is considered as the constraint satisfaction problem (CSP), and a new design approach basedon constraint network is proposed and applied to make design automatic partially. By means of constraint extraction, constraint network construction and operation, constraint chains are acquired, and then the conceptual design scheme can be got by decoding the information stored in the design constraint chains, which provides a novelty method for mechanical product design automation. Shearing mechanism of shearing machine has been designed by this way.

  13. Improved vanillin production in baker's yeast through in silico design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brochado, Ana Rita; Matos, Cláudia; Møller, Birger L.;

    2010-01-01

    Background: Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavouring agents, originally obtained from cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia. Currently vanillin is mostly produced via chemical synthesis. A de novo synthetic pathway for heterologous vanillin production from glucose has...... recently been implemented in baker's yeast, Saccharamyces cerevisiae. In this study we aimed at engineering this vanillin cell factory towards improved productivity and thereby at developing an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis. Results: Expression of a glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis...... thaliana in the vanillin producing S. cerevisiae strain served to decrease product toxicity. An in silico metabolic engineering strategy of this vanillin glucoside producing strain was designed using a set of stoichiometric modelling tools applied to the yeast genome-scale metabolic network. Two targets...

  14. e-Learning in Production Systems Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakehi, Munenori; Yamada, Tetsuo; Takahashi, Michiya; Watanabe, Ichie

    The e-Learning has been focused on not only the employee training at enterprises but also the lesson at universities in Japan. Since there are many methods of instruction such as educational software, electronic bulletin boards, and slides using computers and networks, the class content cannot be developed easily in e-Learning. Therefore, the designing class content for e-learning is more important than conventional lessons. This paper discusses class content of a production system design for e-Learning. First, the study target of this lesson is determined and the story of the whole lesson is decided. Second, the structure of the learning theme is determined. Third, the educational materials including the educational software are developed and related to the content and structure. Finally, the demonstration experiments of the lesson are carried out at universities, the results of the questionnaires and tests are analyzed, and the effectiveness of the class including the educational method and the educational materials is discussed.

  15. PRINCIPLE OF POST-PRODUCTION DESIGN OF HYDRAULIC ACTUATORS

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Puzanov

    2015-01-01

    In work the problem of design-technology preparation of production of hydraulic actuators is staticized. The structure and business processes of design and production are analysed. Methods and means of reorganization of project works for the purpose of cutting-down of time of preparation of production are offered. The directions of reorganization of process of design are formulated. The principle of carrying out procedures of design-technology preparation of production of hydraulic actuators ...

  16. A study product design of optimal solution for customer requirements

    OpenAIRE

    LIAO, Shih-Chung

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the author uses an evaluative criteria model and their associated criteria status, product evaluative criteria software of results and product objective function of optimal values solution, along with product morphological analysis, to synthesize evaluative criteria and optimize product design values. This study focuses on how to use an evaluative criteria model’s imprecise market information by evaluative criteria design software; product mapping relationships between design p...

  17. Nature-Inspired Design: Strategies for Sustainable Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    De Pauw, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Product designers can apply different strategies, methods, and tools for sustainable product development. Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) offer designers a distinct class of strategies that use ‘nature’ as a guiding source of knowledge and inspiration for addressing sustainability. Biomimicry and Cradle to Cradle, two Nature-Inspired Design Strategies, have already been implemented in product design practice and in curricula of higher education. But how are these strategies applied, ...

  18. 47 CFR 6.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 6... Obligations-What Must Covered Entities Do? § 6.7 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a... identify barriers to accessibility and usability as part of such a product design and development...

  19. 36 CFR 1193.23 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Product design, development... § 1193.23 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers shall evaluate the accessibility... incorporate such evaluation throughout product design, development, and fabrication, as early and...

  20. 47 CFR 7.7 - Product design, development, and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Product design, development, and evaluation. 7...? § 7.7 Product design, development, and evaluation. (a) Manufacturers and service providers shall... shall incorporate such evaluation throughout product design, development, and fabrication, as early...

  1. Mammalian designer cells: Engineering principles and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingqi; Fussenegger, Martin

    2015-07-01

    Biotechnology is a widely interdisciplinary field focusing on the use of living cells or organisms to solve established problems in medicine, food production and agriculture. Synthetic biology, the science of engineering complex biological systems that do not exist in nature, continues to provide the biotechnology industry with tools, technologies and intellectual property leading to improved cellular performance. One key aspect of synthetic biology is the engineering of deliberately reprogrammed designer cells whose behavior can be controlled over time and space. This review discusses the most commonly used techniques to engineer mammalian designer cells; while control elements acting on the transcriptional and translational levels of target gene expression determine the kinetic and dynamic profiles, coupling them to a variety of extracellular stimuli permits their remote control with user-defined trigger signals. Designer mammalian cells with novel or improved biological functions not only directly improve the production efficiency during biopharmaceutical manufacturing but also open the door for cell-based treatment strategies in molecular and translational medicine. In the future, the rational combination of multiple sets of designer cells could permit the construction and regulation of higher-order systems with increased complexity, thereby enabling the molecular reprogramming of tissues, organisms or even populations with highest precision. PMID:26010998

  2. Photovoltaic cell and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Srinivasamohan; Kumar, Bikash

    2008-07-22

    An efficient photovoltaic cell, and its process of manufacture, is disclosed wherein the back surface p-n junction is removed from a doped substrate having an oppositely doped emitter layer. A front surface and edges and optionally the back surface periphery are masked and a back surface etch is performed. The mask is not removed and acts as an anti-reflective coating, a passivating agent, or both. The photovoltaic cell retains an untextured back surface whether or not the front is textured and the dopant layer on the back surface is removed to enhance the cell efficiency. Optionally, a back surface field is formed.

  3. Improved vanillin production in baker's yeast through in silico design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansen Jørgen

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vanillin is one of the most widely used flavouring agents, originally obtained from cured seed pods of the vanilla orchid Vanilla planifolia. Currently vanillin is mostly produced via chemical synthesis. A de novo synthetic pathway for heterologous vanillin production from glucose has recently been implemented in baker's yeast, Saccharamyces cerevisiae. In this study we aimed at engineering this vanillin cell factory towards improved productivity and thereby at developing an attractive alternative to chemical synthesis. Results Expression of a glycosyltransferase from Arabidopsis thaliana in the vanillin producing S. cerevisiae strain served to decrease product toxicity. An in silico metabolic engineering strategy of this vanillin glucoside producing strain was designed using a set of stoichiometric modelling tools applied to the yeast genome-scale metabolic network. Two targets (PDC1 and GDH1 were selected for experimental verification resulting in four engineered strains. Three of the mutants showed up to 1.5 fold higher vanillin β-D-glucoside yield in batch mode, while continuous culture of the Δpdc1 mutant showed a 2-fold productivity improvement. This mutant presented a 5-fold improvement in free vanillin production compared to the previous work on de novo vanillin biosynthesis in baker's yeast. Conclusion Use of constraints corresponding to different physiological states was found to greatly influence the target predictions given minimization of metabolic adjustment (MOMA as biological objective function. In vivo verification of the targets, selected based on their predicted metabolic adjustment, successfully led to overproducing strains. Overall, we propose and demonstrate a framework for in silico design and target selection for improving microbial cell factories.

  4. Cell factories for insulin production

    OpenAIRE

    Baeshen, Nabih A.; Baeshen, Mohammed N; Sheikh, Abdullah; Bora, Roop S; Mohamed Morsi M. Ahmed; Ramadan, Hassan A I; Saini, Kulvinder Singh; Redwan, Elrashdy M.

    2014-01-01

    The rapid increase in the number of diabetic patients globally and exploration of alternate insulin delivery methods such as inhalation or oral route that rely on higher doses, is bound to escalate the demand for recombinant insulin in near future. Current manufacturing technologies would be unable to meet the growing demand of affordable insulin due to limitation in production capacity and high production cost. Manufacturing of therapeutic recombinant proteins require an appropriate host org...

  5. Organic Tandem Solar Cells: Design and Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chun-Chao

    In the past decade, research on organic solar cells has gone through an important development stage leading to major enhancements in power conversion efficiency, from 4% to 9% in single-junction devices. During this period, there are many novel processing techniques and device designs that have been proposed and adapted in organic solar-cell devices. One well-known device architecture that helps maximize the solar cell efficiency is the multi-junction tandem solar-cell design. Given this design, multiple photoactive absorbers as subcells are stacked in a monolithic fashion and assembled via series connection into one complete device, known as the tandem solar cell. Since multiple absorbers with different optical energy bandgaps are being applied in one tandem solar-cell device, the corresponding solar cell efficiency is maximized through expanded absorption spectrum and reduced carrier thermalization loss. In Chapter 3, the architecture of solution-processible, visibly transparent solar cells is introduced. Unlike conventional organic solar-cell devices with opaque electrodes (such as silver, aluminum, gold and etc.), the semi-transparent solar cells rely on highly transparent electrodes and visibly transparent photoactive absorbers. Given these two criteria, we first demonstrated the visibly transparent single-junction solar cells via the polymer absorber with near-infrared absorption and the top electrode based on solution-processible silver nanowire conductor. The highest visible transparency (400 ˜ 700 nm) of 65% was achieved for the complete device structure. More importantly, power conversion efficiency of 4% was also demonstrated. In Chapter 4, we stacked two semi-transparent photoactive absorbers in the tandem architecture in order to realize the semi-transparent tandem solar cells. A noticeable performance improvement from 4% to 7% was observed. More importantly, we modified the interconnecting layers with the incorporation of a thin conjugated

  6. Designing in an Interplay with a Product Model - Explained by Design Units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    1996-01-01

    If we expand the concept of product models from a bill of material and representations of parts to a genetic model (a chromosome), which is able to capture decisions on functions and design concepts during the design activity, a new design situation is created. This paper treats designing...... in an interplay with a product model in a so-called Designer's Workbench, based on the clarification of the structuring of the product model, the design operationswhich succesively build up the product model, and the role of the product model in the design work as basis for synthesis and modelling of properties...

  7. DATA CRYSTALLIZATION APPLIED FOR DESIGNING NEW PRODUCTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenichi HORIE; Yoshiharu MAENO; Yukio OHSAWA

    2007-01-01

    It is only the observable part of the real world that can be stored in data.For such incomplete and ill-structured data,data crystallizing aims at presenting the hidden structure among events including unobservable events.This is realized by data crystallization,where dummy items,corresponding to potential existence ofunobservable events,are inserted to the given data.These dummy items and their relations with observable events are visualized by applying KeyGraph to the data with dummy items,like the crystallization of snow where dusts are involved in the formation of crystallization of water molecules.For tuning the granularity level of structure to be visualized,the tool of data crystallization is integrated with human's process of understanding significant scenarios in the real world.This basic method is expected to be applicable for various real world domains where previous methods of chance-discovery lead human to successful decision making.In this paper,we apply the data crystallization with human-interactive annealing (DCHA) to the design of products in a real company.The results show its effect to industrial decision making.

  8. Design of Sustainable Blended Products using an Integrated Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti; Gernaey, Krist; Woodley, John; Gani, Rafiqul

    This paper presents a systematic methodology for designing blended products consisting of three stages; product design, process identification and experimental verification. The product design stage is considered in this paper. The objective of this stage is to screen and select suitable chemicals...... to be used as building blocks in the mixture design, and then to propose the blend formulations that fulfill the desired product attributes. The result is a set of blends that match the constraints, the compositions, values of the target properties and information about their miscibility. The...... methodology has been applied to design several blended products. A case study on design of blended lubricants is highlighted. The objective is to identify blended products that satisfy the product attributes with at least similar or better performance compared to conventional products....

  9. Advances in fuel cell vehicle design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Jennifer

    Factors such as global warming, dwindling fossil fuel reserves, and energy security concerns combine to indicate that a replacement for the internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicle is needed. Fuel cell vehicles have the potential to address the problems surrounding the ICE vehicle without imposing any significant restrictions on vehicle performance, driving range, or refuelling time. Though there are currently some obstacles to overcome before attaining the widespread commercialization of fuel cell vehicles, such as improvements in fuel cell and battery durability, development of a hydrogen infrastructure, and reduction of high costs, the fundamental concept of the fuel cell vehicle is strong: it is efficient, emits zero harmful emissions, and the hydrogen fuel can be produced from various renewable sources. Therefore, research on fuel cell vehicle design is imperative in order to improve vehicle performance and durability, increase efficiency, and reduce costs. This thesis makes a number of key contributions to the advancement of fuel cell vehicle design within two main research areas: powertrain design and DC/DC converters. With regards to powertrain design, this research first analyzes various powertrain topologies and energy storage system types. Then, a novel fuel cell-battery-ultracapacitor topology is presented which shows reduced mass and cost, and increased efficiency, over other promising topologies found in the literature. A detailed vehicle simulator is created in MATLAB/Simulink in order to simulate and compare the novel topology with other fuel cell vehicle powertrain options. A parametric study is performed to optimize each powertrain and general conclusions for optimal topologies, as well as component types and sizes, for fuel cell vehicles are presented. Next, an analytical method to optimize the novel battery-ultracapacitor energy storage system based on maximizing efficiency, and minimizing cost and mass, is developed. This method can be applied

  10. Green Product Design: Aspects and practices within the furniture industry

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Malin; Koyumdzhieva, Tsvetelina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to investigate how green product design has been practiced within the Swedish furniture industry. Furthermore, to investigate how green product design can reduce the negative impact on the environment. Theoretical framework - The literature used to serve as a base for this paper includes some aspects concerning Green Supply Chain Management, but fundamentally concerns green or environmentally conscious design, motivators for designing „green‟ products, such as legisl...

  11. DESIGN ATTRIBUTES OPTIMIZATION MODEL FOR CUSTOMIZED PRODUCT AND ITS APPLICATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Le; Liu Fei; Lei Qi

    2005-01-01

    By formulating the design of customized product as a multi-objective optimization problem,a method for designing customized product according to the relative importance of customer needs is proposed. This method searches for the optimal design that maximizes customer satisfaction by establishing mapping from design attributes to the degree of customer satisfaction on each customer need.A window product is taken as an example for case study. The result indicates that this method is feasible.

  12. Product Design – From Molecules to Formulations to Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Ng, Ka M.

    2014-01-01

    Product design is a multidisciplinary and diverse subject. This article focuses on product conceptualization (what-to-make) and briefly reviews the corresponding manufacturing processes (how-to-make). Four product types are considered – molecular products, formulated products, devices and...

  13. Intellectualization of Design Technique for Product Maintainability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Quan; SONG Yi-gang; CHENG Zhong-hua

    2004-01-01

    The basis of the two guideline lectures for maintainability design,namely "maintainability design criterions" and "cases compilation of maintainability design technique",an intellectualized architecture for combining rule-based reasoning(RBR)and case-based reasoning(CBR),is presented in this paper by analyzing from maintainability design procedure to the thought of our solving the maintainability design problem.Furthermore,the domain model and reasoning process is introduced and a representation of maintainability domain knowledge is given.Finally,the computer-aided engineering system for maintainability design(MCAES)which is based on intellectualized architecture is reported;its function and implementation is described.

  14. A Contradiction-Based Approach for Innovative Product Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Yao-Tsung

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Without creativity in design there is no potential for innovation. This paper investigates the role of contradictions in enhancing creativity in product design. Based on the inventive principles of TRIZ, this paper presents a novel design method by integrating technical and physical contradiction analysis methods into the conceptual design activities of new product development (NPD. Despite the recognized importance of innovative design, there is a lack of the systematic and effective design-thinking process that can covers all conceptual design activities. To address this gap, a sharper and fundamental model of the problem-solving is created for innovative product design based on the contradiction-oriented concept. Eventually, one case study is employed to illustrate the method and the result validates that it can help designers produce more creative outcomes in product design.

  15. Plant Design for the Production of DUAGG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cost of producing DUAGG is an important consideration for any interested private firm in determining whether DUCRETE is economically viable as a material of construction in next-generation spent nuclear fuel casks. This study analyzed this project as if it was a stand-alone project. The capital cost includes engineering design, equipment costs and installation, start up, and management; the study is not intended to be a life-cycle cost analysis. The costs estimated by this study are shown in Table ES.1, and the conclusions of this study are listed in Table ES.2. The development of DUAGG and DUCRETE is a major thrust of the Depleted Uranium Uses Research and Development Project. An obvious use of depleted uranium is as a shielding material (e.g., DUCRETE). DUCRETE is made by replacing the conventional stone aggregate in concrete with DUAGG. One objective of this project is to bring the development of DUCRETE to a point at which a demonstrated basis exists for its commercial deployment. The estimation of the costs to manufacture DUAGG is an important part of this effort. Paul Lessing and William Quapp developed DUAGG and DUCRETE as part of an Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) program to find beneficial uses for depleted uranium (DU). Subsequently, this technology was licensed to Teton Technologies, Inc. The DUAGG process mixes DUO2 with sintering materials and additives to form pressed briquettes. These briquettes are sintered at 1300 C, and the very dense sintered briquettes are then crushed and classified into gap-graded size fractions. The graded DUAGG is then ready to be used to make high-strength heavy DUCRETE. The DUCRETE shielding will be placed into an annular steel cask-shell mold, which has internal steel reinforcing bars. The objectives of this study are to (1) use previous DUAGG process developments to design a plant that will produce DUAGG at a baseline rate, (2) determine the size of the equipment required to meet the

  16. Engineered CHO cells for production of diverse, homogeneous glycoproteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhang; Wang, Shengjun; Halim, Adnan; Schulz, Morten Alder; Frodin, Morten; Rahman, Shamim H.; Vester-Christensen, Malene Bech; Behrens, Carsten; Kristensen, Claus; Vakhrushev, Sergey Y.; Bennett, Eric Paul; Wandall, Hans H.; Clausen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    genes controlling N-glycosylation in CHO cells and constructed a design matrix that facilitates the generation of desired glycosylation, such as human-like alpha 2,6-linked sialic acid capping. This engineering approach will aid the production of glycoproteins with improved properties and therapeutic...

  17. Cell Culture for Production of Insecticidal Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Steven; Chan, Leslie C L; Matindoost, Leila; Pushparajan, Charlotte; Visnovsky, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    While large-scale culture of insect cells will need to be conducted using bioreactors up to 10,000 l scale, many of the main challenges for cell culture-based production of insecticidal viruses can be studied using small-scale (20-500 ml) shaker/spinner flasks, either in free suspension or using microcarrier-based systems. These challenges still relate to the development of appropriate cell lines, stability of virus strains in culture, enhancing virus yields per cell, and the development of serum-free media and feeds for the desired production systems. Hence this chapter presents mainly the methods required to work with and analyze effectively insect cell systems using small-scale cultures. Outlined are procedures for quantifying cells and virus and for establishing frozen cells and virus stocks. The approach for maintaining cell cultures and the multiplicity of infection (MOI) and time of infection (TOI) parameters that should be considered for conducting infections are discussed.The methods described relate, in particular, to the suspension culture of Helicoverpa zea and Spodoptera frugiperda cell lines to produce the baculoviruses Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus, HearNPV, and Anticarsia gemmatalis multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus, AgMNPV, respectively, and the production of the nonoccluded Oryctes nudivirus, OrNV, using an adherent coleopteran cell line. PMID:27565495

  18. Top-K Product Design Based on Collaborative Tagging Data

    OpenAIRE

    Das, Mahashweta; Das, Gautam; Hristidis, Vagelis

    2013-01-01

    The widespread use and popularity of collaborative content sites (e.g., IMDB, Amazon, Yelp, etc.) has created rich resources for users to consult in order to make purchasing decisions on various products such as movies, e-commerce products, restaurants, etc. Products with desirable tags (e.g., modern, reliable, etc.) have higher chances of being selected by prospective customers. This creates an opportunity for product designers to design better products that are likely to attract desirable t...

  19. Audio-visual interactions in product sound design

    OpenAIRE

    Özcan, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2010-01-01

    Consistent product experience requires congruity between product properties such as visual appearance and sound. Therefore, for designing appropriate product sounds by manipulating their spectral-temporal structure, product sounds should preferably not be considered in isolation but as an integral part of the main product concept. Because visual aspects of a product are considered to dominate the communication of the desired product concept, sound is usually expected to fit the visual charact...

  20. Cork Design: A Design Action Intervention Approach Towards Sustainable Product Innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mestre, A.C.C.M.

    2014-01-01

    The study Cork Design: A Design Action Intervention Approach Towards Sustainable Product Innovation comprises the systematic implementation of sustainable product innovation within the Portuguese cork sector, through action research. Cork is a natural, recyclable, non-toxic, and renewable resource,

  1. The Multimedia Product - between Design and Information, Design and Utility and Design and Entertainment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dieter Penteliuc-Cotosman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates the possible coherent and effective alternatives to solve the problems related to the communication needs of any multimedia product. In essence, the presentation will focus on identifying the issues and principles governing three types of the design - in fact, the multimedia design in a broader sense - namely the information design – precisely aiming at ways of organization and presentation of information in a useful and significant form, the graphical user interface design, whose sub-domain consists of the information displayed on the monitor screen and of interactivity between user, computer and electronic devices, meaning, in fact, everything the user sees, touches, hears and all the elements with which he interacts, the graphic design, whose main concern is to create an aesthetic layout arrangement ( from the visual and perceptive information.

  2. Research and Development of Growth Design System for Mechanical Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Bo; ZE Xiangbo; YANG Tao; CUI Weihua; LIU Luning

    2006-01-01

    By applying genetic engineering methodology into the incremental product growth design, a generic structural design approach is put forward, as well as an intelligent evolution strategy of the product units growth, which is based on the multilevel Decomposition and Reconstruction of product gene. To guarantee a successful transformation from functional requirement to geometry constraints between parts in the incremental growth design of mechanical product, the integrated design method incorporates the design requirements and assembly perspective into product genetic information. The mathematical model of state transition during incremental design process are given at first, based on which product can grow step by step from functional requirement to the final geometrical product structure automatically. And then, to quantify the measurement of assembly efficiency, a mathematical model as well as a technology to quantify assembly constraints was developed by application of some fuzzy logic algorithms. Finally, examples have been proved that the approach is promising.

  3. Cell substrates for the production of viral vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubrit, Françoise; Perugi, Fabien; Léon, Arnaud; Guéhenneux, Fabienne; Champion-Arnaud, Patrick; Lahmar, Mehdi; Schwamborn, Klaus

    2015-11-01

    Vaccines have been used for centuries to protect people and animals against infectious diseases. For vaccine production, it has become evident that cell culture technology can be considered as a key milestone and has been the result of decades of progress. The development and implementation of cell substrates have permitted massive and safe production of viral vaccines. The demand in new vaccines against emerging viral diseases, the increasing vaccine production volumes, and the stringent safety rules for manufacturing have made cell substrates mandatory viral vaccine producer factories. In this review, we focus on cell substrates for the production of vaccines against human viral diseases. Depending on the nature of the vaccine, choice of the cell substrate is critical. Each manufacturer intending to develop a new vaccine candidate should assess several cell substrates during the early development phase in order to select the most convenient for the application. First, as vaccine safety is quite naturally a central concern of Regulatory Agencies, the cell substrate has to answer the regulatory rules stringency. In addition, the cell substrate has to be competitive in terms of viral-specific production yields and manufacturing costs. No cell substrate, even the so-called "designer" cell lines, is able to fulfil all the requested criteria for all viral vaccines. Therefore, the availability of a variety of cell substrates for vaccine production is essential because it improves the chance to successfully respond to the current and future needs of vaccines linked to new emerging or re-emerging infectious diseases (e.g. pandemic flu, Ebola, and Chikungunya outbreaks). PMID:26187258

  4. Designing of robotic production lines using CAx software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróbel, A.; Langer, P.

    2015-11-01

    Present market conditions causes that modern control systems of robotized manufacturing cells should be characterized by the much greater degree of flexibility, selforganization and, above all, adaptability to emerging outer excitations. The phenomenon of information distribution is one of the most important features of modern control systems. In the paper is presented the approach, based on application of multi-agent systems, for supporting the operation of robotized manufacturing cells. The aim of this approach is to obtain the flexible response to outer excitations and preventing situations that might cause the delay of the production process. The presented paper includes description of the concept of an informatics system designed for controlling the work of production systems, including work cells. Such systems could operate independently if it would be equipped with the selforganization mechanism. It is possible in the case of the proposed multi-agent system. The implementation of the presented concept will follow the present analysis of the described concept. The advantage of the proposed concept is its hierarchical depiction that allows integrating different utilized informatics tools in one complex system. It allows preparing the final computer program.

  5. M-C Power`s product design and improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurens, R.M.; Petraglia, V.J.

    1995-08-01

    The sole mission of M-C Power is the development and subsequent commercialization of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) stacks. These MCFC stacks are based on the Internally Manifolded Heat EXchanger plate design developed by the Institute of Gas Technology. Integration of the MCFC stack into a commercially viable power plant is the mission of the IMHEX{reg_sign} team. The team is composed of leaders in the packaging and design of power generation equipment, including fuel cell technology, and includes Stewart & Stevenson, Bechtel, The Institute of Gas Technology and M-C Power. In an effort to succeed in their respective missions, M-C Power and the IMHEX{reg_sign} team have developed a commercialization program. At the present time the team is making the transition from Phase I (Technology Development) to Phase II (Product Design & Improvement) of the program. Phase II`s objective is a commercially viable (cost effective and technologically reliable) MCFC power plant ready for market by the turn of the century.

  6. Nature-Inspired Design: Strategies for Sustainable Product Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Pauw, I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Product designers can apply different strategies, methods, and tools for sustainable product development. Nature-Inspired Design Strategies (NIDS) offer designers a distinct class of strategies that use ‘nature’ as a guiding source of knowledge and inspiration for addressing sustainability. Biomimic

  7. Study of Mechanical Product Rapid Design Based on Knowledge Engineering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAI Li-gang; ZHONG Ting-xiu

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes a mechanical product intelligent rapid design approach based on integrated technologies. Adopting knowledge based engineering to reuse and manage product design knowledge, and combining feature modeling and parametric design based on existing CAD/CAE/CAM system and technology of product family modeling and engineering database, the system establishes a product family knowledge base, which mainly including product family case base and rule base. The system also utilizes WEB technology to let customers to individually customize products remotely through internet. And an applicable example is given in the end.

  8. Combining Axiomatic Design and Case-Based Reasoning in a Design Methodology of Mechatronics Products

    OpenAIRE

    Janthong, Nattawut; BRISSAUD Daniel; Butdee, Suthep

    2009-01-01

    Current market environments are volatile and unpredictable. The ability for design products to meet customer's requirements has become critical to success. The key element to develop such products is identifying functional requirements and knowledge utilization based on a scientific approach to provide both designers of new products and redesigners of existing products with a suitable solution that meets to customer's needs. This paper presents a method to (re)design mechatronic products by c...

  9. A Knowledge Based Interactive System for Complex Product Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayretli, Ahmet

    This research presents a new Artificial Intelligence (AI) based product development approach for integrating mechanical design with electronic design to improve design and manufacture of electromechanical products by avoiding design conflicts in the early stages of the design process. The proposed approach has been implemented in a Delphi based environment integrated with a CAD system. The system assists designers from different disciplines in evaluating complex systems as far as parts relation, potential effects on each other, conflict management, costs, weight and physical constraints are concerned in the early design stages. This helps the designers to avoid design iterations leading to longer lead-time, hence increased cost. The developed system enables to rapidly develop and evaluate new complex products and add new functions to the existing products within given constraints.

  10. Simulation-based comparisons of four apparel cell production modes of one clothing production line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoqiang Pan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This research, by using the SIMIO simulation platform, provides a quantitative and comparative analysis of how the efficiency of four different cell production modes is affected. It is hoped that the outcomes will be of some help for garment factories to optimize their production lines. Design/methodology/approach: The SIMIO simulation platform was employed in the research and comparisons were made of the simulation test results about the four different production modes. Findings: The operation mode, number of operators, and number of buffer areas are key factors affecting the production line efficiency, and need to be reasonably set to achieve the highest efficiency. Originality/value: As most research literature so far is qualitative, this research provided a simulation-based quantitative analysis of the production efficiency under different cell production modes.

  11. Robust design of configurations and parameters of adaptable products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Chen, Yongliang; Xue, Deyi; Gu, Peihua

    2014-03-01

    An adaptable product can satisfy different customer requirements by changing its configuration and parameter values during the operation stage. Design of adaptable products aims at reducing the environment impact through replacement of multiple different products with single adaptable ones. Due to the complex architecture, multiple functional requirements, and changes of product configurations and parameter values in operation, impact of uncertainties to the functional performance measures needs to be considered in design of adaptable products. In this paper, a robust design approach is introduced to identify the optimal design configuration and parameters of an adaptable product whose functional performance measures are the least sensitive to uncertainties. An adaptable product in this paper is modeled by both configurations and parameters. At the configuration level, methods to model different product configuration candidates in design and different product configuration states in operation to satisfy design requirements are introduced. At the parameter level, four types of product/operating parameters and relations among these parameters are discussed. A two-level optimization approach is developed to identify the optimal design configuration and its parameter values of the adaptable product. A case study is implemented to illustrate the effectiveness of the newly developed robust adaptable design method.

  12. In silico product design of pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Johan Boetker; Dhara Raijada; Johanna Aho; Milad Khorasani; Søren V. Søgaard; Lærke Arnfast; Adam Bohr; Magnus Edinger; Jorrit J. Water; Jukka Rantanen

    2016-01-01

    The increasing demand for personalized medicine necessitates the production of easily customizable dosage forms. As the number of possible dosage forms may scale toward infinity, their uniqueness requires a versatile production platform and numerical simulation in order to be manufactured efficiently. A mathematical description of these systems is the only feasible approach to manage such diverse properties of different products. However, experimental verification is still essential for evalu...

  13. Engineering Design of Localised Synergistic Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Leung Pah Hang, M; Martinez-Hernandez, E.; M. Leach; Yang, A.

    2015-01-01

    Centralised production of essential products and services based on fossil fuels and large scale distribution infrastructures have contributed to a plethora of issues such as deterioration of ecosystems, social-economic injustice and depletion of resources. The establishment of localised production systems can potentially reduce unsustainable resource consumption and bring socioeconomic and environmental benefits. The main objective of this work is to develop engineering tools for the rational...

  14. Study on design of GMP facility for radio-pharmaceuticals production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For production and research for practical use of radio-pharmaceuticals using for medical treatment and diagnosis, the complex facility offer shield and clean environment is basically required for protecting personnel from radiation, and protecting the product from contamination. This facility should be designed to comply with GMP(Good Manufacturing Practice). In this study, technical requirements and guide for hot cell and clean room were investigated, and design concept and requirements of facility for radio-pharmaceuticals handling are suggested. And also, GMP facility for production of Tc-99m generator and other radio-pharmaceuticals(Ho-166 etc.) was designed to comply with this design concept and requirements

  15. Marketing and Product Design: A Rocky Love Affair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landwehr Jan R.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The success stories of design-oriented companies like Apple, Audi or Nike have put design on the agenda in many marketing departments. Consumers cannot elude the effect of aesthetics and therefore design is a major factor for business success. Typically consumers choose the product with the best design, all other aspects being equal. Only when the interplay of product characteristics, brand and design is carefully coordinated can successful products be created. This requires an integrated approach to design, one which is applied right at the beginning of the value chain. Product development, marketing and design need to work in close cooperation, communicate well and frequently, and collect feedback from the market. Superior aesthetics are always important but should be a top priority in cases where efficiency-oriented Asian competitors are able to offer functionally similar products at much lower prices.

  16. A Methodology To Design Product Families Through Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Yacoub, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    Many companies in the online market store huge data about their customers’ preferences. In the same time, there is a fierce competition between companies to attract customers by designing and offering new customer-focused product portfolios. Designing products through big data has been recently trending upwards but there is a need for a methodology to enable companies to extract the useful knowledge from big data in product design. This research presents a new method to help companies to bene...

  17. Bovine mammary stem cells: Cell biology meets production agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammary stem cells (MaSC) provide for net growth, renewal and turnover of mammary epithelial cells, and are therefore potential targets for strategies to increase production efficiency. Appropriate regulation of MaSC can potentially benefit milk yield, persistency, dry period management and tissue ...

  18. PROPOSAL OF SPATIAL OPTIMIZATION OF PRODUCTION PROCESS IN PROCESS DESIGNER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Malega

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This contribution is focused on optimizing the use of space in the production process using software Process Designer. The aim of this contribution is to suggest possible improvements to the existing layout of the selected production process. Production process was analysed in terms of inputs, outputs and course of actions. Nowadays there are many software solutions aimed at optimizing the use of space. One of these software products is the Process Designer, which belongs to the product line Tecnomatix. This software is primarily aimed at production planning. With Process Designer is possible to design the layout of production and subsequently to analyse the production or to change according to the current needs of the company.

  19. In silico product design of pharmaceuticals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boetker, Johan; Raijada, Dhara; Aho, Johanna;

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The increasing demand for personalized medicine necessitates the production of easily customizable dosage forms. As the number of possible dosage forms may scale towards infinity, their uniqueness require a versatile production platform and numerical simulation in order to be manufacture...

  20. Towards Generic Interaction Styles for Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Stienstra, Marcelle

    2008-01-01

    a wider range of interactive products. In this paper we report on five years of continued research into interaction styles for telephones, kitchen equipment, HiFi products and medical devices, and we show how it is indeed possible and beneficial to formulate a set of generic interaction styles....

  1. Analysis and Design an Industrial Product (Ceramics)

    OpenAIRE

    Sorin Gabriel Gresoi; Cristina Elena Protopopescu

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines how and which aspects should be analyzed on a product that sells industrial market due to the special feature of these markets and the close correlation between the concept of quality and value for use, especially for an industrial product.

  2. Health and Welfare IT Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merritt, Timothy; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we describe the outcomes from a university design class focused on the design of systems intended to solve problems faced by health care professionals, patients and systems that support welfare or extended independence for older people. The students worked in groups for 10 weeks...

  3. 77 FR 33269 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-05

    ... life-cycle costs for each of the designated product categories. Information on the availability... the life-cycle costs of the products. In considering a product's availability, USDA uses several... feasibility, USDA examines evidence pointing to the general commercial use of a product and its...

  4. 76 FR 56883 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    ... those products, including the life-cycle costs of the products. In considering an item's availability... life-cycle costs of product categories proposed for designation, USDA has obtained the necessary input... documented availability, benefits, and life-cycle costs of even a very small percentage of all products...

  5. Audio-visual interactions in product sound design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özcan, E.; Van Egmond, R.

    2010-01-01

    Consistent product experience requires congruity between product properties such as visual appearance and sound. Therefore, for designing appropriate product sounds by manipulating their spectral-temporal structure, product sounds should preferably not be considered in isolation but as an integral p

  6. Applying axiomatic design methodology in developing modified libertation products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Margarita Vallejo Díaz

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Some conceptual elements regarding the axiomatic design method were applied to a specific case-study regarding developing modified liberation compressed product (CLM-UN, for use in the agricultural sector as pH regulating agent in solil. The study was orientated towards defining functional requeriments, design parameters and process variables for manufacturing the product. Independence and information were evaluated, supporting axiomatic design as an alternative for integral product and process design (as a rational and systemic exercise, facilitating producing products having the quality which future users expect from them.

  7. Product System Design – to Household Massage Design as An Example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Huabin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Explain what is the system design and the applications of System design in the product design process. Using The whole idea and systems design methods to analyze the design of household hand massage,Use a chart image to explain that Household hand massage products in the influence of user and the environment, the influence of large system environment for the product. The use of components of the system to anatomy product design. Each system components has a link between and mutual correlation.

  8. A Data Clustering Approach to Support Modular Product Family Design

    OpenAIRE

    Sahin, Asli

    2007-01-01

    Product Platform Planning is an emerging philosophy that calls for the planned development of families of related products. It is markedly different from the traditional product development process and relatively new in engineering design. Product families and platforms can offer a multitude of benefits when applied successfully such as economies of scale from producing larger volumes of the same modules, lower design costs from not having to redesign similar subsystems, and many other advan...

  9. Model-based design of integrated production systems: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Ould Sidi, Mohamed Mahmoud; Lescourret, Francoise

    2011-01-01

    Pest resistance and water pollution are major issues caused by the excessive use of pesticides in intensive agriculture. The concept of integrated production system (IPS) has been thus designed to solve those issues and also to meet the need for better food quality and production. Methodologies such as agronomic diagnosis-based design, prototyping, and model-based design have been developed. Here we review the model-based design of IPS. We identify tools for the development of comprehensive m...

  10. Design of Sustainable Blended Products using an Integrated Methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti; Gernaey, Krist; Woodley, John; Gani, Rafiqul

    to be used as building blocks in the mixture design, and then to propose the blend formulations that fulfill the desired product attributes. The result is a set of blends that match the constraints, the compositions, values of the target properties and information about their miscibility. The...... methodology has been applied to design several blended products. A case study on design of blended lubricants is highlighted. The objective is to identify blended products that satisfy the product attributes with at least similar or better performance compared to conventional products....

  11. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh Kavi; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-01-01

    , its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design....... Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack of...

  12. Tumorigenicity studies for human pluripotent stem cell-derived products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Takuya; Yasuda, Satoshi; Sato, Yoji

    2013-01-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs), i.e. human embryonic stem cells and human induced pluripotent stem cells, are able to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types. Because of these abilities, numerous attempts have been made to utilize hPSCs in regenerative medicine/cell therapy. hPSCs are, however, also tumorigenic, that is, they can give rise to the progressive growth of tumor nodules in immunologically unresponsive animals. Therefore, assessing and managing the tumorigenicity of all final products is essential in order to prevent ectopic tissue formation, tumor development, and/or malignant transformation elicited by residual pluripotent stem cells after implantation. No detailed guideline for the tumorigenicity testing of hPSC-derived products has yet been issued for regenerative medicine/cell therapy, despite the urgent necessity. Here, we describe the current situations and issues related to the tumorigenicity testing of hPSC-derived products and we review the advantages and disadvantages of several types of tumorigenicity-associated tests. We also refer to important considerations in the execution and design of specific studies to monitor the tumorigenicity of hPSC-derived products. PMID:23370350

  13. Integrated Modeling and Design of Photoelectrochemical Water-Splitting Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Berger, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The photoelectrochemical production of fuels is an interesting research topic that aims to provide a low-cost method for storing solar energy. A one-dimensional model of a photoelectrochemical cell for solar water splitting has been developed, with applicability to both wired and wireless designs. The model of the light absorber handles electron and hole transport. The model of the electrolyte accounts for mass transport through regions of aqueous solution, including stagnant diffusion lay...

  14. Applying environmental product design to biomedical products research.

    OpenAIRE

    Messelbeck, J; Sutherland, L

    2000-01-01

    The principal themes for the Biomedical Research and the Environment Conference Committee on Environmental Economics in Biomedical Research include the following: healthcare delivery companies and biomedical research organizations, both nonprofit and for-profit, need to improve their environmental performance; suppliers of healthcare products will be called upon to support this need; and improving the environmental profile of healthcare products begins in research and development (R&D). The c...

  15. Technological design of heavy water production facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with the mathematical models and the computational programs utilized in the design of installations for the deuterium separation by isotopic exchange in water-hydrogen sulfide system, by water isotopic distillation and by hydrogen isotopic distillation

  16. Design and evaluation of functional meat products

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Iñiguez-de-Ciriano, M. (Mikel); Astiasaran, I. (Iciar); D. Ansorena

    2014-01-01

    The meat industry has been traditionally one of the main sectors of food industry. An excess of meat products consumption has been related to an increased risk of some diseases such as cardiovascular, diabetes and some types of cancer. This work deals with the development and evaluation of different strategies to improve the nutritional quality of meat products, maintaining at the same time their stability and typical sensory properties. In consequence, the objectives of the work include the ...

  17. A grand model for chemical product design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fung, Ka Y.; Ng, Ka M.; Zhang, Lei;

    2016-01-01

    , a pricing model, an economic model as well as factors such as company strategy, government policies and regulations. This article introduces the model and highlights selected aspects of the model with two case studies. One is a die attach adhesive that illustrates how pricing affects profitability......, and how product composition changes with market conditions. Another is a hand lotion that illustrates how product quality affects the profit.(C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. QFood - Optimal design of food products

    OpenAIRE

    Bech, Anne C.; Engelund, Erling; Juhl, Hans Jørn; Kristensen, Kai; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    1994-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. QFood is an acronym for Quality Function Deployment in the Food Industry. On the basis of House of Quality, the project seeks to combine traditional socio-economic factors with a more technical analysis in a common modelling framework which can be used to illustrate consumer reactions to new and modified food products. Sensory analysis has been important in the development of food products, but it is characteristic that sensory analysis has often been carried out indepen...

  19. On the logistics effects of integrated product and package design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bramklev, Caroline; Hansen, Claus Thorp

    2007-01-01

    of literature, which shows that there is a need for research into Integrated Product and Package Design. Secondly, we have analysed three cases from industrial practice, which show that a conscious and integrated design of product and package has positive logistics effects, whereas neglecting this issue might......If engineering designers consciously design product and package in an integrated manner, there is a great potential for industrial global enterprises to develop and product mechanical products, such as exhaust extraction systems, car washer machines and fuel handling systems while simultaneously...... obtaining error-free deliveries, saving costs and avoiding quality problems. Thus, the authors of this paper see a challenge in developing the theory and methodology for Integrated Product and Package Design. In this paper we take a first step in this direction. Firstly, we have carried out a broad review...

  20. Research on integrating customization design for mechanical product

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAI Ligang; LI Dianqi; ZHONG Tingxiu; LI Zhi

    2007-01-01

    This paper proposes an integrating rapid custom- ization design system which combines various technologies such as Web, knowledge based engineering (KBE), engineer- hag database and Computer Aided Design (CAD) and has been used in elevator design. The whole system is set up on the base of engineering database technology, integrating Product Data Management (PDM), Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) etc. It adopts Web technology to enable cus- tomers to individually customize products remotely through the internet. The system also adopts KBE to manage and reuse product design knowledge, while combining the tech- nology of product family modeling and technologies of feature modeling and parametric design, based on the assem- bly of the CAD system of Unigraphics Solutions Inc., to create a product family case library that achieves intelligent, rapid design customization.

  1. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  2. Continued SOFC cell and stack technology and improved production methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wandel, M.; Brodersen, K.; Phair, J. (and others)

    2009-05-15

    Within this project significant results are obtained on a number of very diverse areas ranging from development of cell production, metallic creep in interconnect to assembling and test of stacks with foot print larger than 500 cm2. Out of 38 milestones 28 have been fulfilled and 10 have been partly fulfilled. This project has focused on three main areas: 1) The continued cell development and optimization of manufacturing processes aiming at production of large foot-print cells, improving cell performance and development environmentally more benign production methods. 2) Stack technology - especially stacks with large foot print and improving the stack design with respect to flow geometry and gas leakages. 3) Development of stack components with emphasis on sealing (for 2G as well as 3G), interconnect (coat, architecture and creep) and test development. Production of cells with a foot print larger than 500 cm2 is very difficult due to the brittleness of the cells and great effort has been put into this topic. Eight cells were successfully produced making it possible to assemble and test a real stack thereby giving valuable results on the prospects of stacks with large foot print. However, the yield rate is very low and a significant development to increase this yield lies ahead. Several lessons were learned on the stack level regarding 'large foot print' stacks. Modelling studies showed that the width of the cell primarily is limited by production and handling of the cell whereas the length (in the flow direction) is limited by e.g. pressure drop and necessary manifolding. The optimal cell size in the flow direction was calculated to be between approx20 cm and < 30 cm. From an economical point of view the production yield is crucial and stacks with large foot print cell area are only feasible if the cell production yield is significantly enhanced. Co-casting has been pursued as a production technique due to the possibilities in large scale production

  3. Impact of product development efforts on product introduction and product customization abilities:investigating the effects of product design complexity and product development order winners

    OpenAIRE

    Chaudhuri, Atanu; Dawar, Saloni

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of efforts in new product development-manufacturing integration (NPDMI) on new product introduction (NPI) and product customization (PC) abilities and the moderating effects of product design complexity and importance of new product development order winners (NPIOW) on the above relationships. The results from the data on 136 Indian manufacturing plants show that NPDMI, product design complexity and NPIOW all have significant positive impact on NPI and PC ab...

  4. Tetherin restricts productive HIV-1 cell-to-cell transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoletta Casartelli

    Full Text Available The IFN-inducible antiviral protein tetherin (or BST-2/CD317/HM1.24 impairs release of mature HIV-1 particles from infected cells. HIV-1 Vpu antagonizes the effect of tetherin. The fate of virions trapped at the cell surface remains poorly understood. Here, we asked whether tetherin impairs HIV cell-to-cell transmission, a major means of viral spread. Tetherin-positive or -negative cells, infected with wild-type or DeltaVpu HIV, were used as donor cells and cocultivated with target lymphocytes. We show that tetherin inhibits productive cell-to-cell transmission of DeltaVpu to targets and impairs that of WT HIV. Tetherin accumulates with Gag at the contact zone between infected and target cells, but does not prevent the formation of virological synapses. In the presence of tetherin, viruses are then mostly transferred to targets as abnormally large patches. These viral aggregates do not efficiently promote infection after transfer, because they accumulate at the surface of target cells and are impaired in their fusion capacities. Tetherin, by imprinting virions in donor cells, is the first example of a surface restriction factor limiting viral cell-to-cell spread.

  5. New Vistas in Chemical Product and Process Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Babi, Deenesh K; Gani, Rafiqul

    2016-06-01

    Design of chemicals-based products is broadly classified into those that are process centered and those that are product centered. In this article, the designs of both classes of products are reviewed from a process systems point of view; developments related to the design of the chemical product, its corresponding process, and its integration are highlighted. Although significant advances have been made in the development of systematic model-based techniques for process design (also for optimization, operation, and control), much work is needed to reach the same level for product design. Timeline diagrams illustrating key contributions in product design, process design, and integrated product-process design are presented. The search for novel, innovative, and sustainable solutions must be matched by consideration of issues related to the multidisciplinary nature of problems, the lack of data needed for model development, solution strategies that incorporate multiscale options, and reliability versus predictive power. The need for an integrated model-experiment-based design approach is discussed together with benefits of employing a systematic computer-aided framework with built-in design templates. PMID:27088667

  6. Erythropoietin production by PDGFR-β(+) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerl, Katharina; Nolan, Karen A; Karger, Christian; Fuchs, Michaela; Wenger, Roland H; Stolt, Claus C; Willam, Carsten; Kurtz, Armin; Kurt, Birgül

    2016-08-01

    PDGFR-β-expressing cells of the kidneys are considered as a relevant site of erythropoietin (EPO) production. The origin of these cells, their contribution to renal EPO production, and if PDGFR-β-positive cells in other organs are also capable to express EPO are less clear. We addressed these questions in mice, in which hypoxia-inducible transcription factors were stabilized in PDGFR-β(+) cells by inducible deletion of the von Hippel-Lindau (Vhl) protein. Vhl deletion led to a 600-fold increase of plasma EPO concentration, 170-fold increase of renal EPO messenger RNA (mRNA) levels, and an increase of hematocrit values up to 70 %. Intrarenal localization of EPO-expressing cells coincided with the zonal heterogeneity and distribution of cells expressing PDGFR-β. Amongst a variety of extrarenal organs only adrenal glands showed significant EPO mRNA expression after Vhl deletion in PDGFR-β(+) cells. EPO mRNA, plasma EPO, and hematocrit fell to subnormal values if HIF-2α, but not HIF-1α, was deleted either alone or in combination with Vhl in PDGFR-β(+) cells. Treatment of mice with a prolyl-hydroxylase inhibitor caused an increase of EPO mRNA abundance and plasma EPO concentrations in wild-type mice and in mice lacking HIF-1α in PDGFR-β(+) cells but exerted no effect in mice lacking HIF-2α in PDGFR-β(+) cells. These findings suggest that PDGFR-β(+) cells are the only relevant site of EPO expression in the kidney and that HIF-2 is the essential transcription factor triggering EPO expression therein. Moreover, our findings suggest that PDGFR-β(+) cells elaborating EPO might arise from the metanephric mesenchyme, rather than from the neural crest. PMID:27220347

  7. Co-Simulation Technology for Complex Product Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊光楞; 陈小波; 郭滨; 蹇佳; 王成龙

    2002-01-01

    First analyze the simulation requirements in complex product design, then propose the approach to full applying simulation to complex product design, and present the key enable technology with respect to modeling, simulation running, VV&A,evaluation and decision making and supporting platform.

  8. Risk Management and Loss Optimization at Design Process of Products

    OpenAIRE

    Katalin Németh-Erdődi

    2008-01-01

    We’d like to introduce a flexible system of design process elements to support theformation and tool selection of an efficient, „lean” product design process. To do this weidentify numerical risk factors and introduce a calculating method for optimising takinginto consideration- the effect of design steps on usage characteristics,- the time needed by the design elements and the resultant losses,- the effect of design on the success of the implementation process.A generic model was developed f...

  9. Parametric Collaborative Design of Network-based Mechanical Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Shu-fang; YU Guo-jun; WANG Zong-yan; SU Tie-xiong; QIN Hui-bin

    2012-01-01

    Aiming at the problems of low-level information sharing, slow transmission and repetitive work in the designing process of product series, the internet-oriented parametric collaborative design method is proposed, in which the problems of sharing conflict and network heterogeneous in the distributed collaborative design are analyzed, and the construction method of collaborative design platforms based on PDMWorks Workgroup is put forward. Through studying the mechanism of roles distribution and function allocation and data concurrency control, the communication mechanism of internet-oriented collaborative design is formulated. On the basis of structure features of overhead travelling crane, through combining parametric variant design with collaborative design, internet-oriented parametric collaborative design system of overhead travelling crane is developed and verified through main girder design. In the paper, the internet-oriented parametric collaborative design method is proposed, aiming to solve the problems of low-level information sharing, slow transmission and repetitive work in the designing process of product series. The problems of sharing conflict and network heterogeneous in the distributed collaborative design are analyzed. The construction method of collaborative design platforms based on PDMWorks Workgroup is put forward. The communication mechanism of internet-oriented collaborative design is formulated, through studying the mechanism of roles distribution and function allocation and data concurrency control. On the basis of structure features of overhead travelling crane, through combining parametric variant design with collaborative design, internet-oriented parametric collaborative design system of overhead travelling crane is developed and verified through main girder design.

  10. Enhancing product robustness in reliability-based design optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different types of uncertainties need to be addressed in a product design optimization process. In this paper, the uncertainties in both product design variables and environmental noise variables are considered. The reliability-based design optimization (RBDO) is integrated with robust product design (RPD) to concurrently reduce the production cost and the long-term operation cost, including quality loss, in the process of product design. This problem leads to a multi-objective optimization with probabilistic constraints. In addition, the model uncertainties associated with a surrogate model that is derived from numerical computation methods, such as finite element analysis, is addressed. A hierarchical experimental design approach, augmented by a sequential sampling strategy, is proposed to construct the response surface of product performance function for finding optimal design solutions. The proposed method is demonstrated through an engineering example. - Highlights: • A unifying framework for integrating RBDO and RPD is proposed. • Implicit product performance function is considered. • The design problem is solved by sequential optimization and reliability assessment. • A sequential sampling technique is developed for improving design optimization. • The comparison with traditional RBDO is provided

  11. A thermophilic microbial fuel cell design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carver, Sarah M.; Vuoriranta, Pertti; Tuovinen, Olli H.

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are reactors able to generate electricity by capturing electrons from the anaerobic respiratory processes of microorganisms. While the majority of MFCs have been tested at ambient or mesophilic temperatures, thermophilic systems warrant evaluation because of the potential for increased microbial activity rates on the anode. MFC studies at elevated temperatures have been scattered, using designs that are already established, specifically air-cathode single chambers and two-chamber designs. This study was prompted by our previous attempts that showed an increased amount of evaporation in thermophilic MFCs, adding unnecessary technical difficulties and causing excessive maintenance. In this paper, we describe a thermophilic MFC design that prevents evaporation. The design was tested at 57 °C with an anaerobic, thermophilic consortium that respired with glucose to generate a power density of 375 mW m -2 after 590 h. Polarization and voltage data showed that the design works in the batch mode but the design allows for adoption to continuous operation.

  12. Development and design of micro products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans Nørgaard

    2004-01-01

    Innovation within the field of micro and nano technology is characterized by cross-disciplinary skills The IT-sector driven development of materials/technologies related to semiconductors and silicon The more traditional materials polymers, metals, ceramics: well suited for mass production but no...

  13. CAD/CAM: improved design quality, increased productivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, D. E.; England, J.

    1980-01-01

    Maintaining productivity levels while assuring the quality of engineering products grows increasingly more difficult and costly for industries such as the energy industry which are heavily committed to product design. The man/machine interface made possible through the development of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology can be applied to the design process as a tool for increased control to assure the quality of the final engineering product. The quality-control aspects of CAD/CAM technology are addressed in this presentation.

  14. Model based process-product design and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    This paper gives a perspective on modelling and the important role it has within product-process design and analysis. Different modelling issues related to development and application of systematic model-based solution approaches for product-process design is discussed and the need for a hybrid...... model-based framework is highlighted. This framework should be able to manage knowledge-data, models, and associated methods and tools integrated with design work-flows and data-flows for specific product-process design problems. In particular, the framework needs to manage models of different types...

  15. Design of GMP compliance radiopharmaceutical production facility in MINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985, MINT built the only radiopharmaceutical production facility in Malaysia. The facility was designed based on IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) standard guidelines which provide radiation safety to the staff and the surrounding environment from radioactive contamination. Since 1999, BPFK (Biro Pengawalan Farmaseutikal Kebangsaan) has used the guidelines from Pharmaceutical Inspection Convention Scheme (PICS) to meet the requirements of the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) for Pharmaceutical Products. In the guidelines, the pharmaceutical production facility shall be designed based on clean room environment. In order to design a radiopharmaceutical production facility, it is important to combine the concept of radiation safety and clean room to ensure that both requirements from GMP and IAEA are met. The design requirement is necessary to set up a complete radiopharmaceutical production facility, which is safe, has high production quality and complies with the Malaysian and International standards. (Author)

  16. Low power and reliable SRAM memory cell and array design

    CERN Document Server

    Ishibashi, Koichiro

    2011-01-01

    Success in the development of recent advanced semiconductor device technologies is due to the success of SRAM memory cells. This book addresses various issues for designing SRAM memory cells for advanced CMOS technology. To study LSI design, SRAM cell design is the best materials subject because issues about variability, leakage and reliability have to be taken into account for the design.

  17. Designing a Family of Development-Intensive Products

    OpenAIRE

    V. Krishnan; Zhu, W.

    2006-01-01

    Faced with fragmented markets, saturated and demanding customers, and global competition, firms increasingly must design and offer a line of innovative, quality-differentiated products to target customers with differing willingness to pay (WTP). In this context, designing a special class of products that we term development-intensive products (DIPs)--for which the fixed costs of development far outweigh the unit-variable costs--presents some unique managerial challenges. Examples of such deve...

  18. Product Family Design Methodology Using Object-Oriented Approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The serious competition environment of global marke t requests the enterprise to change traditional product development strategy and a dopt new theory in order to meet diverse customer needs while maintaining near m ass production efficiency, which is the main philosophy of mass customization. P roduct family design is research focus at present and also is the core technolog y of DFMC (design for mass customization). Firstly, this paper explores the fund amental issues of product family, such as concepts o...

  19. Design for environment: The greening of product and supply chain

    OpenAIRE

    K Soylu; Dumville, J. C.

    2011-01-01

    This research aims to analyze specifically three disciplines, which are design for environment; design for supportability; and design for supply chain, to assess particularly their interactions and collaborations in the new product development, and to explain briefly how their activities can green new products and supply chains. Experience and a comprehensive review of literature associated with concurrent engineering, supply chain, and environmental management can present a theoretical model...

  20. The design of iodine production facility for good manufacturing practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of radiopharmaceutical production in Nuclear Malaysia is continuously expanding after the completion of the iodine (I-131) production facility in collaboration with local investor. The facility is designed based on Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) and the designed has been approved by the National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau (NPCB). This paper presents the design of the facility which complied with the guidelines produced by PICS and IAEA. (Author)

  1. QFood - Optimal design of food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Anne C.; Engelund, Erling; Juhl, Hans Jørn;

    1994-01-01

    Executive Summary: 1. QFood is an acronym for Quality Function Deployment in the Food Industry. On the basis of House of Quality, the project seeks to combine traditional socio-economic factors with a more technical analysis in a common modelling framework which can be used to illustrate consumer...... of a Customer Satisfaction Index which is inversely proportional to how ""close"" the product is to the consumer's ideal....... of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch - as instruments of measurement. The report gives an introduction to sensory analysis in general. The QFood project uses both descriptive and affective tests and the methods used are described. 3. As a rule, market analysis uses a combination of qualitative...... project. House of Quality is described with special reference to the development of food products. 5. An MDS-based model for use in the evaluation of an optimal product is developed. The model is based on the profit function from classical micro-economic theory. The imputed price is defined as a function...

  2. Design and Research on Mini Type Slicer for Cereal Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Jiang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The research purpose is to design a mini type slicer for cereal product aiming at the rural households. It not only could be used for cutting the rice flour products and candy, but also slicing the cassava, sweet potatoes, pineapple and other crops. The article elaborates on the shape design, color design and other design of this slicer, including selecting electric motor and V belt, the design of shaft and blade, to introduce the main structure and operating principles of the slicer, based on which the conclusion has been reached.

  3. 77 FR 72653 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... life-cycle costs for each of the designated product categories. Information on the availability... economic and technological feasibility of using those products, including the life-cycle costs of the... examines evidence pointing to the general commercial use of a product and its life-cycle cost...

  4. Establishment of Relationships between Material Design and Product Design Domains by Hybrid FEM-ANN Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Prakash, K Soorya; Raj, M Joseph Malvin

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, research on AI based modeling technique to optimize development of new alloys with necessitated improvements in properties and chemical mixture over existing alloys as per functional requirements of product is done. The current research work novels AI in lieu of predictions to establish association between material and product customary. Advanced computational simulation techniques like CFD, FEA interrogations are made viable to authenticate product dynamics in context to experimental investigations. Accordingly, the current research is focused towards binding relationships between material design and product design domains. The input to feed forward back propagation prediction network model constitutes of material design features. Parameters relevant to product design strategies are furnished as target outputs. The outcomes of ANN shows good sign of correlation between material and product design domains. The study enriches a new path to illustrate material factors at the time of new product d...

  5. Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library adopting minimalist design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We herein build an adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) cell library adopting minimalist design and a symmetric layout. In the proposed minimalist design, every logic cell is designed by arraying four types of building block cells: buffer, NOT, constant, and branch cells. Therefore, minimalist design enables us to effectively build and customize an AQFP cell library. The symmetric layout reduces unwanted parasitic magnetic coupling and ensures a large mutual inductance in an output transformer, which enables very long wiring between logic cells. We design and fabricate several logic circuits using the minimal AQFP cell library so as to test logic cells in the library. Moreover, we experimentally investigate the maximum wiring length between logic cells. Finally, we present an experimental demonstration of an 8-bit carry look-ahead adder designed using the minimal AQFP cell library and demonstrate that the proposed cell library is sufficiently robust to realize large-scale digital circuits

  6. Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library adopting minimalist design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Naoki; Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-05-01

    We herein build an adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) cell library adopting minimalist design and a symmetric layout. In the proposed minimalist design, every logic cell is designed by arraying four types of building block cells: buffer, NOT, constant, and branch cells. Therefore, minimalist design enables us to effectively build and customize an AQFP cell library. The symmetric layout reduces unwanted parasitic magnetic coupling and ensures a large mutual inductance in an output transformer, which enables very long wiring between logic cells. We design and fabricate several logic circuits using the minimal AQFP cell library so as to test logic cells in the library. Moreover, we experimentally investigate the maximum wiring length between logic cells. Finally, we present an experimental demonstration of an 8-bit carry look-ahead adder designed using the minimal AQFP cell library and demonstrate that the proposed cell library is sufficiently robust to realize large-scale digital circuits.

  7. Adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron cell library adopting minimalist design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Naoki, E-mail: takeuchi-naoki-kx@ynu.jp [Institute of Advanced Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Yamanashi, Yuki; Yoshikawa, Nobuyuki [Institute of Advanced Sciences, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Yokohama National University, 79-5 Tokiwadai, Hodogaya, Yokohama 240-8501 (Japan)

    2015-05-07

    We herein build an adiabatic quantum-flux-parametron (AQFP) cell library adopting minimalist design and a symmetric layout. In the proposed minimalist design, every logic cell is designed by arraying four types of building block cells: buffer, NOT, constant, and branch cells. Therefore, minimalist design enables us to effectively build and customize an AQFP cell library. The symmetric layout reduces unwanted parasitic magnetic coupling and ensures a large mutual inductance in an output transformer, which enables very long wiring between logic cells. We design and fabricate several logic circuits using the minimal AQFP cell library so as to test logic cells in the library. Moreover, we experimentally investigate the maximum wiring length between logic cells. Finally, we present an experimental demonstration of an 8-bit carry look-ahead adder designed using the minimal AQFP cell library and demonstrate that the proposed cell library is sufficiently robust to realize large-scale digital circuits.

  8. A 3D design performance matrix for product design and development

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Yuanyuan; Qin, Shengfeng; Holland, Ray

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a novel 3-dimensional design performance matrix (model) for a web-based product design and development. The first dimension highlights five performance indicators: efficiency, effectiveness, collaboration, management skills and innovation, these are most influenced by role-based performance measurement criteria in the second dimension. The third dimension takes product design and development process (time) into account. This 3D model allows all involved design pa...

  9. Graduating product designers and their attitudes to design responsibility: A survey

    OpenAIRE

    Birkett, Stacey; Lloyd, Peter; Garner, Steven

    2008-01-01

    The notion of responsibility in designing is one that is becoming increasingly important, underlying significant areas of design activity. The research reported in this paper presents the results of a questionnaire study of 50 graduating product designers from 11 UK Universities. We find that students are focussed on environmental issues, have a very clear idea about where their responsibilities end for the products they design, but who display significant differences between the ideas about ...

  10. Cell-Free Synthesis Meets Antibody Production: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Marlitt Stech; Stefan Kubick

    2015-01-01

    Engineered antibodies are key players in therapy, diagnostics and research. In addition to full size immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) molecules, smaller formats of recombinant antibodies, such as single-chain variable fragments (scFv) and antigen binding fragments (Fab), have emerged as promising alternatives since they possess different advantageous properties. Cell-based production technologies of antibodies and antibody fragments are well-established, allowing researchers to design and manufactu...

  11. Double Image Design in Newspaper Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Barišić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the high circulation production of daily newspapers, a double image, double information is set under the rules of Infraredesign theory (Pap et al, 2010. The management of visible and near infrared is posted with process colors for color setting configured for conventional newspaper print. The place of imprint that has delimited information in vs (Visible Spectrum and nir (Near InfraRed is called “a print with an infrared effect,” or conditionally “a print with infrared colors.” Daily newspapers, as massive carriers of information made by printing technique, are receiving a new form of presentation: printed image with a built-in invisible image.

  12. Engineering CAR-T Cells: Design Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Shivani; Riddell, Stanley R.

    2016-01-01

    Despite being empirically designed based on a simple understanding of TCR signaling, T cells engineered with chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) have been remarkably successful in treating patients with advanced refractory B cell malignancies. However, many challenges remain in improving the safety and efficacy of this therapy and extending it toward the treatment of epithelial cancers. Other aspects TCR signaling beyond those directly provided by CD3ζ and CD28 phosphorylation strongly influence a T cell’s ability to differentiate and acquire full effector functions. Here, we discuss how the principles of TCR recognition, including spatial constraints, Kon/Koff rates, and synapse formation, along with in-depth analysis of CAR signaling might be applied to develop safer and more effective synthetic tumor targeting receptors. PMID:26169254

  13. Developing engineering design core competences through analysis of industrial products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Lenau, Torben Anker

    2011-01-01

    Most product development work carried out in industrial practice is characterised by being incremental, i.e. the industrial company has had a product in production and on the market for some time, and now time has come to design a new and upgraded variant. This type of redesign project requires...... challenge in staging a course module, in which students develop knowledge, understanding and skills, which will prepare them for being able to participate in and contribute to redesign projects in industrial practice. In the course module Product Analysis and Redesign that has run for 8 years we have...... that the engineering designers have core design competences to carry through an analysis of the existing product encompassing both a user-oriented side and a technical side, as well as to synthesise solution proposals for the new and upgraded product. The authors of this paper see an educational...

  14. The Research on Ecological Design-oriented Folk Food Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Zhou

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the development of ecological design-oriented method for folk food products in China. As special food form, folk foods, with features of rich content, flexibility, scientificity, interestingness, entertainment and randomness, play an important guiding role in physical, intellectual, moral and aesthetic development of children. Oriented by ecological design, with the purpose of protecting and inheriting folk foods products, this study presents the design and research of folk foods on the basis of the concept of ecological design. Based on the protection of intangible cultural heritage and combined with the development goal of contemporary China, it demonstrates the importance of folk foods systematically and explores the sustainable development of ecological design-oriented folk food product design. The research is of great significance to children’s future growth and to intangible culture protection and inheritance of folk foods.

  15. Design of cell phone for seniors

    OpenAIRE

    Čapák, Přemysl

    2012-01-01

    Předmětem této bakalářská práce je návrh mobilního telefonu pro seniory. Jejím cílem je analýza problému po stránce vývojové, technické a designové. Především se pak zabývá vlastním návrhem od variantních řešení po finální projekt. The subject of the bachelor's thesis is design of a cell phone for elderly people. It is based on historical and technical analysis and analysis of form. The work is aimed at the development of the design from variant proposals to the final project. D...

  16. The power of design product innovation in sustainable energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Reinders, Angele H; Brezet, Han

    2012-01-01

    The Power of Design offers an introduction and a practical guide to product innovation, integrating the key topics that are necessary for the design of sustainable and energy-efficient products using sustainable energy technologies. Product innovation in sustainable energy technologies is an interdisciplinary field. In response to its growing importance and the need for an integrated view on the development of solutions, this text addresses the functional principles of various energy technologies next to the latest design processes and innovation methods. From the perspec

  17. Life-cycle analysis of product integrated polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; García-Valverde, Rafael; Krebs, Frederik C

    2011-01-01

    , switch and a white light emitting semiconductor diode. The polymer solar cell employed in this prototype presents a power conversion efficiency in the range of 2 to 3% yielding energy payback times (EPBT) in the range of 1.3–2 years. Based on this it is worthwhile to undertake a life-cycle study......A life cycle analysis (LCA) on a product integrated polymer solar module is carried out in this study. These assessments are well-known to be useful in developmental stages of a product in order to identify the bottlenecks for the up-scaling in its production phase for several aspects spanning from...... economics through design to functionality. An LCA study was performed to quantify the energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from electricity use in the manufacture of a light-weight lamp based on a plastic foil, a lithium-polymer battery, a polymer solar cell, printed circuitry, blocking diode...

  18. Design and Development of Synthetic Microbial Platform Cells for Bioenergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jun eLee

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The finite reservation of fossil fuels accelerates the necessity of development of renewable energy sources. Recent advances in synthetic biology encompassing systems biology and metabolic engineering enable us to engineer and/or create tailor made microorganisms to produce alternative biofuels for the future bio-era. For the efficient transformation of biomass to bioenergy, microbial cells need to be designed and engineered to maximize the performance of cellular metabolisms for the production of biofuels during energy flow. Toward this end, two different conceptual approaches have been applied for the development of platform cell factories: forward minimization and reverse engineering. From the context of naturally minimized genomes, non-essential energy-consuming pathways and/or related gene clusters could be progressively deleted to optimize cellular energy status for bioenergy production. Alternatively, incorporation of non-indigenous parts and/or modules including biomass degrading enzymes, carbon uptake transporters, photosynthesis, CO2 fixation, and etc. into chassis microorganisms allows the platform cells to gain novel metabolic functions for bioenergy. This review focuses on the current progress in synthetic biology-aided pathway engineering in microbial cells and discusses its impact on the production of sustainable bioenergy.

  19. Designing for Dynamic Usability: Development of a Design Method that Supports Designing Products for Dynamic Use Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bijl-Brouwer, van der Mieke; Voort, van der Mascha C.

    2008-01-01

    Ease of use or usability is gaining ground as a selling argument. However, designing usable consumer products still remains a complicated activity, particularly when products will be used in changing circumstances. The usability of a product is defined by ISO 9241 as the extent to which a product ca

  20. Using “Styling” Conceptual Tool In Product Design: A Product Semantic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çınar Narter

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Industrial design "styling" concept is generally described as the "Products altering the basic structural elements between the forms of perception”. Referred to here "perception", wants to give the message to be aware of or understand the product. Repeated a number of forms that create the perception occurs through a kind of product has led to the design. At this point, we must not mix up the styling and design. Design does not mean styling. Styling of the product does not mean that the external appearance and give shape to the shell. Styling Applications; cognitive sciences, hybrid technologies, is kept in sight, out of human psychological and physical needs of the state and includes the creation of form over function causality. "Styling" in Turkish is also referred as "shaping" and "stylization". In this article, under the discipline of Industrial Design "Semantic Concept Tools" and the "Design" is one of the methods of "styling" the implications of the concept of product design applications. In terms of product identification, products to reflect the context in which the concept of design and semantic approach to styling products that is passed out of the ways in which a study intended to convey messages included. In this study, the relationship between the disciplines of product design semantics,in the field of science and industry are established.

  1. On Adaptive Extended Compatibility Changing Type of Product Design Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenwen, Jiang; Zhibin, Xie

    The article uses research ways of Enterprise localization and enterprise's development course to research strategy of company's product design and development. It announces at different stages for development, different kinds of enterprises will adopt product design and development policies of different modes. It also announces close causality between development course of company and central technology and product. The result indicated enterprises in leading position in market, technology and brand adopt pioneer strategy type of product research and development. These enterprise relying on the large-scale leading enterprise offering a complete set service adopts the passively duplicating type tactic of product research and development. Some enterprise in part of advantage in technology, market, management or brand adopt following up strategy of product research and development. The enterprises with relative advantage position adopt the strategy of technology applied taking optimizing services as centre in product research and development in fields of brand culture and market service.

  2. An Innovative Methodology of Product Design from Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-I Wen; Shu-jun Zhang; Kevin Hapeshi; Xiao-feng Wang

    2008-01-01

    Nature is an information sourcebeok of behaviour, function, colour and shape which can inspire visual design and invention. Studying the form and functional characteristics of a natural object can provide inspiration for product design and help to improve the marketability of manufactured products. The inspiration can be triggered either by direct observation or captured by threo-dimensional (3D) digitising techniques to obtain superficial information (geometry and colour). An art designer often creates a concept in the form of a two-dimensional (2D) sketch while engineering methods lead to a point cloud in 3D. Each has its limitations in that the art designer commonly lacks the knowledge to build a final product from a 2D sketch and the engineering designer's 3D point clouds may not be very beautiful. We propose a method for Product Design from Nature (PDN),coupling aesthetic intent and geometrical characteristics, exploring the interactions between designers and nature's systems in PDN. We believe that this approach would considerably reduce the lead time and cost of product design from nature.

  3. Property Modelling and Databases in Product-Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul; Sansonetti, Sascha

    Properties of pure chemicals and their mixtures play an important role in the design of chemicals based products and the processes that manufacture them. Although, the use of experimental data in the design and/or analysis of these chemicals based products and their processes is desirable...... of the PC-SAFT is used. The developed database and property prediction models have been combined into a properties-software that allows different product-process design related applications. The presentation will also briefly highlight applications of the software for virtual product-process design......, they are not always available. Also, it may be too expensive or it may take too long to measure the required data. In these situations and when repetitive calculations are involved, as in process simulation, it is useful to have appropriate models to reliably predict the needed properties. For property model...

  4. HAMCIND, Cell Burnup with Fission Products Poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: HAMCIND is a cell burnup code based in a coupling between HAMMER-TECHNION and CINDER. The fission product poisoning is taken into account in an explicit fashion. 2 - Method of solution: The nonlinear coupled set of equations for the neutron transport and nuclide transmutation equations and nuclide transmutation equations in a unit cell is solved by HAMCIND in a quasi-static approach. The spectral transport equation is solved by HAMMER-TECHNION at the beginning of each time-step while the nuclide transmutation equations are solved by CINDER for every time-step. The HAMMER-TECHNION spectral calculations are performed taking into account the fission product contribution to the macroscopic cross sections (fast and thermal), in the inelastic scattering matrix and even in the thermal scattering matrices. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Restrictions and/or limitations for HAMCIND depend upon the local operating system

  5. Design and Realization of the Safety Production Scheduling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiang Fan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have a research of the design and realization of the Safety Production Scheduling System. Urged by the government departments as well as safety supervising institutions, many coal enterprises are embarking on designing and constructing an information system platform for safety production and scheduling. How to establish a systematic, comprehensive, standardized and scientific management platform for the safety production and scheduling has become a hot issue in the coal industry, which is also an important move to integrate various safety management measures in order to prevent major safety accidents and keep up with the international industry status. Taking a successful, large-scale safety production and scheduling system for example, this study elaborates on its overall design and construction. When the system is completed, it will play an important role in strengthening safety production of the coal mines, preventing accidents as well as increasing the overall safety level of the coal industry.

  6. Designer cell signal processing circuits for biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert W.; Wang, Baojun

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms are able to respond effectively to diverse signals from their environment and internal metabolism owing to their inherent sophisticated information processing capacity. A central aim of synthetic biology is to control and reprogramme the signal processing pathways within living cells so as to realise repurposed, beneficial applications ranging from disease diagnosis and environmental sensing to chemical bioproduction. To date most examples of synthetic biological signal processing have been built based on digital information flow, though analogue computing is being developed to cope with more complex operations and larger sets of variables. Great progress has been made in expanding the categories of characterised biological components that can be used for cellular signal manipulation, thereby allowing synthetic biologists to more rationally programme increasingly complex behaviours into living cells. Here we present a current overview of the components and strategies that exist for designer cell signal processing and decision making, discuss how these have been implemented in prototype systems for therapeutic, environmental, and industrial biotechnological applications, and examine emerging challenges in this promising field. PMID:25579192

  7. Designer cell signal processing circuits for biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Robert W; Wang, Baojun

    2015-12-25

    Microorganisms are able to respond effectively to diverse signals from their environment and internal metabolism owing to their inherent sophisticated information processing capacity. A central aim of synthetic biology is to control and reprogramme the signal processing pathways within living cells so as to realise repurposed, beneficial applications ranging from disease diagnosis and environmental sensing to chemical bioproduction. To date most examples of synthetic biological signal processing have been built based on digital information flow, though analogue computing is being developed to cope with more complex operations and larger sets of variables. Great progress has been made in expanding the categories of characterised biological components that can be used for cellular signal manipulation, thereby allowing synthetic biologists to more rationally programme increasingly complex behaviours into living cells. Here we present a current overview of the components and strategies that exist for designer cell signal processing and decision making, discuss how these have been implemented in prototype systems for therapeutic, environmental, and industrial biotechnological applications, and examine emerging challenges in this promising field. PMID:25579192

  8. Design and optimization of artificial cultivation units for algae production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper focuses on finding the optimum design of artificial cultivation units for biomass production depending on geographical location and kind of algal species selected for growth. Here, the optimum is defined as the design that yields the lowest net present sink for the lifetime of the cultivation unit. Models are developed for tubular, column, and flat plate photobioreactors by considering diurnal pattern of sunlight and temperature fluctuations. As part of the case study, algae growth is modeled for 10 years in each cultivation unit using two species and four locations, resulting in twenty-four optimization problems. Each optimization model is implemented in GAMS 23.6.5 and the solution is obtained using CONOPT (version 3.14W) solver. The results indicate that algae species with higher oil content requires smaller reactor volume to produce the desired amount of biomass. The results also reveal that the geographical location with higher incident solar irradiance may not necessarily be the optimal location for algae culturing because higher irradiance may lead to cell damage, and hence, lower growth rates. Among the options considered in the case study, the design of tubular photobioreactor for culturing Phaeodactylum tricornutum at Hyderabad, India yields the minimum net present sink. - Highlights: • Studied 3 types of outdoor cultivation units: tubular, column, and flat plate PBRs. • Developed dynamic model to find best combination of species, location, and reactor. • Considered the diurnal pattern of sunlight and temperature fluctuations for a year. • Species with higher oil content and location with moderate irradiance is preferable. • Phaeodactylum tricornutum grown at Hyderabad, India in a tubular PBR occupies a volume of 29 L

  9. Simulation-based optimization for product and process design

    OpenAIRE

    Driessen, L.

    2006-01-01

    The design of products and processes has gradually shifted from a purely physical process towards a process that heavily relies on computer simulations (virtual prototyping). To optimize this virtual design process in terms of speed and final product quality, statistical methods and mathematical optimization techniques are widely used nowadays. The main contributions of this thesis are in two areas. The first is the area of gradient estimation for optimization problems for which a single simu...

  10. Cell-Free Synthesis Meets Antibody Production: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlitt Stech

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Engineered antibodies are key players in therapy, diagnostics and research. In addition to full size immunoglobulin gamma (IgG molecules, smaller formats of recombinant antibodies, such as single-chain variable fragments (scFv and antigen binding fragments (Fab, have emerged as promising alternatives since they possess different advantageous properties. Cell-based production technologies of antibodies and antibody fragments are well-established, allowing researchers to design and manufacture highly specific molecular recognition tools. However, as these technologies are accompanied by the drawbacks of being rather time-consuming and cost-intensive, efficient and powerful cell-free protein synthesis systems have been developed over the last decade as alternatives. So far, prokaryotic cell-free systems have been the focus of interest. Recently, eukaryotic in vitro translation systems have enriched the antibody production pipeline, as these systems are able to mimic the natural pathway of antibody synthesis in eukaryotic cells. This review aims to overview and summarize the advances made in the production of antibodies and antibody fragments in cell-free systems.

  11. Design for Health and Well Being: Knitted Products for Diabetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gault, A.

    2016-07-01

    This paper will discuss the design development, manufacturing and testing of knitted products maximizing the use of new innovations in Nano- technology and the integration of Phase Changing Materials specifically for diabetics. The project identified key aspects requiring design solutions to bring improvement to the circulatory problems with specific reference to the diabetic condition. Diabetics have particular difficulty in regulating their body temperature and this can result in the condition worsening, and resulting in loss of digits or limbs. The design of products to prevent the deterioration of the diabetic condition and to help those with limb loss was developed in collaboration with a Northern Ireland diabetic consultant, a product engineer and a knitwear designer. The fusion of ideas between the stakeholders resulted in the development and manufacture of a range of products that have been successfully tested at the yarn and fabric development stage and have been proven to maintain body temperature by either cooling or warming and therefore bring improvement to health and well-being. Whilst the product has a performance element the design ideas created desirable products that not only provided solutions to the brief but also resulted in products that had further market applications.

  12. The Design and Development of Enhanced Thermal Desorption Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Humble

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This research study is based on a knowledge-transfer collaboration between The National Centre for Product Design and Development Research (PDR and Markes International Ltd. The aim of the two-year collaboration has been to implement design tools and techniques for the development of enhanced thermal desorption products. Thermal desorption is a highly-specialised technique for the analysis of trace-level volatile organic compounds. This technique allows minute quantities of these compounds to be measured; however, there is an increasing demand from customers for greater sensitivity over a wider range of applications, which means new design methodologies need to be evaluated. The thermal desorption process combines a number of disparate chemical, thermal and mechanical disciplines, and the major design constraints arise from the need to cycle the sample through extremes in temperature. Following the implementation of a comprehensive product design specification, detailed design solutions have been developed using the latest 3D CAD techniques. The impact of the advanced design techniques is assessed in terms of improved product performance and reduced development times, and the wider implications of new product development within small companies are highlighted.  

  13. 77 FR 69381 - Designation of Product Categories for Federal Procurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-19

    ... masking perspiration and other body odors and that are often combined with an antiperspirant. (b) Minimum... in the Federal Register (FR) for the purpose of designating a total of 12 product categories for the preferred procurement of biobased products by Federal agencies (referred to hereafter in this FR notice...

  14. Design models in the development of mechatronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, Tufail; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Nielsen, Kjeld;

    2012-01-01

    In view of widespread application of mechatronic systems and the competition to offer customized products at high quality and low cost, there has been considerable attention to introduce new methods and models in this regard. This paper explores design process of mechatronic product development w...

  15. Design of systems for productivity and well being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2014-01-01

    It has always been an ambition within the ergonomic profession to ensure that design or redesign of production systems consider both productivity and employee well being, but there are many approaches to how to achieve this. This paper identifies the basic issues to be addressed in light of some research activities at DTU, especially by persons responsible for facilitating design processes. Four main issues must be addressed: (1) determining the limits and scope of the system to be designed; (2) identifying stakeholders related to the system and their role in the system design; (3) handling the process' different types of knowledge; and (4) emphasizing that performance management systems, key performance indicators (KPIs), and leadership are also part of the system design and must be given attention. With the examples presented, we argue that knowledge does exist to help system design facilitators address these basic issues. PMID:23631941

  16. Design of systems for productivity and well being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Kasper; Jensen, Per Langaa

    2014-01-01

    It has always been an ambition within the ergonomic profession to ensure that design or redesign of production systems consider both productivity and employee well being, but there are many approaches to how to achieve this. This paper identifies the basic issues to be addressed in light of some...... research activities at DTU, especially by persons responsible for facilitating design processes. Four main issues must be addressed: (1) determining the limits and scope of the system to be designed; (2) identifying stakeholders related to the system and their role in the system design; (3) handling...... the process’ different types of knowledge; and (4) emphasizing that performance management systems, key performance indicators (KPIs), and leadership are also part of the system design and must be given attention. With the examples presented, we argue that knowledge does exist to help system design...

  17. Rational Embracing of Modern Prototyping Capable Design Technologies into the Tools Pool of Product Design Teams

    OpenAIRE

    Polydoras, Stamatios; Sfantsikopoulos, Michael; Provatidis, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Today’s markets impose wide sets of requirements for new products. The Process of New Product Design, has shifted from sequential Engineering to Concurrent Engineering, for low cost-early market entry. Design Teams must deliver highest quality within minimum time and cost and global crisis worsens things, by further reducing budgets. Prototyping within design processes has become crucial, whereas, available prototyping alternatives have increased. Decisions regarding the use of the most appro...

  18. Design, performance and production of the Fermilab TESLA RF input couplers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champion, M.

    1996-10-01

    The TeV Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator (TESLA) requires as one of its technical components a radiofrequency (rf) input coupler that transfers 1.3 GHz rf energy from the rf distribution system to a nine-cell superconducting accelerating cavity operating at a temperature of 1.8 K. The input coupler design is driven by numerous design criteria, which result in a rather complicated implementation. The production of twelve input couplers for the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) is underway at Fermilab, with the first two couplers having been delivered late in 1995. This paper discusses the Fermilab TESLA rf input coupler design, recent test results, and production issues.

  19. Productivity Improvement- Application of TPM and layout design

    OpenAIRE

    Hossein, Md. Mohsarraf

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, with a discussion on concepts and principles of total productive maintenance(TPM), overall equipment effectiveness (OEE), efficient layout design, maintenance activitiesand scope of development, a detailed report is provided on real scenario of a drilling pipes andaccessory manufacturing factory Driconeq Production AB, Sweden. Total ProductiveMaintenance (TPM) is a maintenance program which involves a newly defined concept formaintaining plants and equipment. That is why, TPM ...

  20. Design Opportunities in Service-Product Combined Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Mi-Jin; Nam, Ki-Young

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to examine recent research issues related to the integration of service and product in view of industrial design. Further, it attempts to identify new opportunities for further research regarding “product-servicization” vs. “service-productization”. In the continued efforts to provide the users with fuller experiences, one major trend is the blending of products and services. Much existing research seems to either present cases or propose frameworks regarding th...

  1. The relevance of energy analysis in product design

    OpenAIRE

    Braam, J

    1980-01-01

    This review considers the various components which determine the total energy requirement of a product. A method which may be used by a designer to calculate the total energy requirement of a product, in a more appropriate manner than methods previously published, is described. With the proposed method the advantage of recycling materials from discarded products results in a lower energy requirement. Two examples are given to illustrate the calculation method. The first is a comparison of the...

  2. Design of innovative product profiles: anticipatory estimation of success potential

    OpenAIRE

    Y. BORGIANNI; Cardillo, A.; Cascini, G; Rotini, F.

    2011-01-01

    According to the current trend to extend the domain of application of Engineering Design to the whole Product Cycle, i.e. from the definition of the product profile to the management of the dismantling procedures, the authors are investigating the possibility to define a practical toolkit to support the earliest stages of product development both in terms of prescriptions to generate new value propositions and assessment of the expected market appraisal. The present paper deals with the secon...

  3. Dollar and Senses: Pharmaceutical Product Design is Becoming Vivid

    OpenAIRE

    Schreiber, Stacey L.

    2003-01-01

    Prilosec purple, Viagra blue, and Prozac green and cream: pharmaceutical product design is on the rise, and the future is even brighter. As design features come into view, protection against copying is critical to maintaining the effectiveness of these source-identifying marks. The current state of trademark law allows drug manufacturers to prevent competitors from producing similar medications with the same appearance or identifying design feature. However, while most courts have been increa...

  4. Exploring the influence of design culture on ICT healthcare product and service design for rural China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, J.; Kandachar, P.V.; Freudenthal, A.

    2010-01-01

    Design culture is usually considered as one of the important aspects that influence designers’ decisions and actions, especially in Design for Base of the Pyramid projects including ICT Healthcare Product Design in Rural China (IHDRC). There are two research questions in this issue: what are the cul

  5. DESIGNING A PRODUCT CATALOGUE FOR CAT BAGS FALL WINTER 2016

    OpenAIRE

    Vorobyeva, Lidia

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this thesis project was to create a product catalogue for the brand Cat Bags. The project was conducted in co-operation with the bag manufacturer GROWN UP Group and its part called GROWN UP Licenses. The GROWN UP Licenses owns a license to produce and sell bags and related products under the brand Cat. Designing a product catalogue is a complex project including co-operation and collaboration with the GROWN UP Licenses marketing team and a senior graphic designer. The proc...

  6. Product design and development for dinner chair of Kansei Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirichai Yodwangjai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the customer’s perception and product properties. The semantic differential method was employed to examine the relationship between customer’s perception and product properties. Fifty-six dinner chairs are selected from website, magazine and publishing and 10 SD words. The product properties divided 8 groups and 34 sub-groups. The new model created base on Quantification Theory Type 1. The research results show 3 high perceptions: comfortable, soft and modern. The research is expected to help support the designer to design a new model that satisfied the customer’s perception.

  7. Conceiving product ideas in an initial and uncertain design situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    , which carry innovation. Traditional approaches to conceptualisation are no longer sufficient. Too many engineering designers have practiced or cultivated a one-sided product quality focus and too many believe that creativity can compensate for a lack of knowledge and insight into the users’ perception...... of quality and value. Too many engineering designers work stereotypically based on an understanding of the physical product as the core of ideation, and use the conception of a “problem” as the point of departure for the design process. The aim of this research work is to create a multisided, dynamic...

  8. A Systematic Methodology for Design of Emulsion Based Chemical Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Gani, Rafiqul

    2012-01-01

    A systematic methodology for emulsion based chemical product design is presented. The methodology employs a model-based product synthesis/design stage and a modelexperiment based further refinement and/or validation stage. In this paper only the first stage is presented. The methodology employs a...... employed to obtain a list of formulations that satisfy constraints representing the desired needs (target properties). Through a conceptual case study dealing with the design of a sunscreen lotion, the application of this new methodology is illustrated....

  9. Designing Integrated Product- Service System Solutions in Manufacturing Industries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costa, Nina; Patrício, Lia; Morelli, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Manufacturing firms are increasingly evolving towards the design of integrated product-service solutions but servitization literature does not provide specific guidance on how to design these integrated solutions. Building upon ProductService System (PSS) and Service Design (SD) approaches, this...... paper proposes an integrative method that joins PSS’s systems and network approach with the creative, human-centered, value cocreation approach of SD. The paper also describes the development and application of this method to the creation of integrated solutions for the laboratory industry, highlighting...

  10. A Systematic Methodology for Design of Emulsion Based Chemical Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Gani, Rafiqul

    A systematic methodology for emulsion based chemical product design is presented. The methodology employs a model-based product synthesis/design stage and a modelexperiment based further refinement and/or validation stage. In this paper only the first stage is presented. The methodology employs a...... employed to obtain a list of formulations that satisfy constraints representing the desired needs (target properties). Through a conceptual case study dealing with the design of a sunscreen lotion, the application of this new methodology is illustrated....

  11. Customization Product Design Based on User's Emotion and Needs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Chun; ZHANG Chun-lin; LIU Wen-zhi

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents a design method that ensures the ingenuity of the product form as well as the whole and exact expression of user's needs. The key idea is to establish an automatic design system which can transform the users language needs into the product features in real-time. A rifle was taken as a research instance and soldiers were chosen as evaluation customers. The theory of fuzzy set and semantic difference are adopted to evaluate the relationship between user's needs and product features as well as their alternatives. FAHP (fuzzy analytic hierarchy process) is utilized to judge the users satisfactory forms. This method can also be applied to other product form designs.

  12. Property Based Process and Product Synthesis and Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eden, Mario Richard

    2003-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of a general framework for solving process and product design problems. Targeting the desired performance of the system in a systematic manner relieves the iterative nature of conventional design techniques. Furthermore, conventional component based methods are....../or products by matching the synthesis/design targets. The reverse problem formulation technique extends the application range of the numerical solvers as well as the models themselves, thus it is possible to identify alternative designs that conventional methods are not capable of finding. A novel way of...... not capable of handling problems, where the process or product objectives are driven by functionalities or properties rather than chemical constituency. The framework is meant to complement existing composition based methods by being able to handle property driven problems. By investigating the...

  13. Artefact specification, design, and production as a process of communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Per

    1999-01-01

    The co-operative process of specifying, designing, and producing an artefact is analysed in terms of communication among the agents involved. By way of introduction, I offer a brief analysis of communication in general, outlining conditions for its success, while avoiding simplistic assumptions...... about communication as literal ‘transmission’ or ‘sharing’ of ideas. It is then explained how the initial artefact specification, the design representation, and ultimately the artefact itself can all be seen as symbolic expressions of ideas that are communicated, and it is shown how the conditions for...... the success of communication carry over to the artefact production process. The purpose of the analysis is to provide a conceptual background for the study of various aspects of artefact production, such as design, or the development of computer-based tools for collaborative design, product modelling...

  14. Innovative Product Design Based on Customer Requirement Weight Calculation Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen-Guang Guo; Yong-Xian Liu; Shou-Ming Hou; Wei Wang

    2010-01-01

    In the processes of product innovation and design, it is important for the designers to find and capture customer's focus through customer requirement weight calculation and ranking. Based on the fuzzy set theory and Euclidean space distance, this paper puts forward a method for customer requirement weight calculation called Euclidean space distances weighting ranking method. This method is used in the fuzzy analytic hierarchy process that satisfies the additive consistent fuzzy matrix. A model for the weight calculation steps is constructed;meanwhile, a product innovation design module on the basis of the customer requirement weight calculation model is developed. Finally, combined with the instance of titanium sponge production, the customer requirement weight calculation model is validated. By the innovation design module, the structure of the titanium sponge reactor has been improved and made innovative.

  15. Design and exergetic analysis of a novel carbon free tri-generation system for hydrogen, power and heat production from natural gas, based on combined solid oxide fuel and electrolyser cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdikaris, N.; Hofmann, Ph.; Spyrakis, S. [Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, School of Mechanical Engineering, Thermal Engineering Section, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou Ave., Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Panopoulos, K.D. [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 4th km N.R. Ptolemais-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, 50200 Ptolemais (Greece); Kakaras, E. [Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, School of Mechanical Engineering, Thermal Engineering Section, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou Ave., Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 4th km N.R. Ptolemais-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, 50200 Ptolemais (Greece)

    2010-03-15

    The Solid Oxide Cells (SOCs) are able to operate in two modes: (a) the Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) that produce electricity and heat and (b) the Solid Oxide Electrolyser Cells (SOEC) that consume electricity and heat to electrolyse water and produce hydrogen and oxygen. The present paper presents a carbon free SOEC/SOFC combined system for the production of hydrogen, electricity and heat (tri-generation) from natural gas fuel. Hydrogen can be locally used as automobile fuel whereas the oxygen produced in the SOEC is used to combust the depleted fuel from the SOFC, which is producing electricity and heat from natural gas. In order to achieve efficient carbon capture in such a system, water steam should be used as the SOEC anode sweep gas, to allow the production of nitrogen free flue gases. The SOEC and SOFC operations were matched through modeling of all components in Aspenplus trademark. The exergetic efficiency of the proposed decentralised system is 28.25% for power generation and 18.55% for production of hydrogen. The system is (a) carbon free because it offers an almost pure pressurised CO{sub 2} stream to be driven for fixation via parallel pipelines to the natural gas feed, (b) does not require any additional water for its operation and (c) offers 26.53% of its energetic input as hot water for applications. (author)

  16. From product centered design to value centered design: understanding the value-system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randmaa, Merili; Howard, Thomas J.; Otto, T.

    more value for the customer for less eford. Value and understanding the value-system needs to be in the focus of business strategy. Value can be created, exchanged and perceived. It can be tangible (physical products, money) or intangible (information, experience, relationships, service). Creating......Product design has focused on different parameters through history- design for usability, design for manufacturing, design for assembly etc. Today, as the products get bundled with service, it is important to interconnect product, service and business model design to create synergy effect and offer...... value is usually a co-creation process, where customers, suppliers and manufacturers all have their part. This paper describes a paradigm shift towards value-based thinking and proposes a new methodology for understanding and analysing the value system....

  17. Designed Amino Acid Feed in Improvement of Production and Quality Targets of a Therapeutic Monoclonal Antibody.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Torkashvand

    Full Text Available Cell culture feeds optimization is a critical step in process development of pharmaceutical recombinant protein production. Amino acids are the basic supplements of mammalian cell culture feeds with known effect on their growth promotion and productivity. In this study, we reported the implementation of the Plackett-Burman (PB multifactorial design to screen the effects of amino acids on the growth promotion and productivity of a Chinese hamster ovary DG-44 (CHO-DG44 cell line producing bevacizumab. After this screening, the amino acid combinations were optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM to determine the most effective concentration in feeds. Through this strategy, the final monoclonal antibody (mAb titre was enhanced by 70%, compared to the control group. For this particular cell line, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, arginine and glycine had the highest positive effects on the final mAb titre. Simultaneously, the impact of the designed amino acid feed on some critical quality attributes of bevacizumab was examined in the group with highest productivity. The product was analysed for N-glycan profiles, charge variant distribution, and low molecular weight forms. The results showed that the target product quality has been improved using this feeding strategy. It was shown how this strategy could significantly diminish the time and number of experiments in identifying the most effective amino acids and related concentrations in target product enhancement. This model could be successfully applied to other components of culture media and feeds.

  18. Process and reactor design for biophotolytic hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburic, Bojan; Dechatiwongse, Pongsathorn; Zemichael, Fessehaye W; Maitland, Geoffrey C; Hellgardt, Klaus

    2013-07-14

    The green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii has the ability to produce molecular hydrogen (H2), a clean and renewable fuel, through the biophotolysis of water under sulphur-deprived anaerobic conditions. The aim of this study was to advance the development of a practical and scalable biophotolytic H2 production process. Experiments were carried out using a purpose-built flat-plate photobioreactor, designed to facilitate green algal H2 production at the laboratory scale and equipped with a membrane-inlet mass spectrometry system to accurately measure H2 production rates in real time. The nutrient control method of sulphur deprivation was used to achieve spontaneous H2 production following algal growth. Sulphur dilution and sulphur feed techniques were used to extend algal lifetime in order to increase the duration of H2 production. The sulphur dilution technique proved effective at encouraging cyclic H2 production, resulting in alternating Chlamydomonas reinhardtii recovery and H2 production stages. The sulphur feed technique enabled photobioreactor operation in chemostat mode, resulting in a small improvement in H2 production duration. A conceptual design for a large-scale photobioreactor was proposed based on these experimental results. This photobioreactor has the capacity to enable continuous and economical H2 and biomass production using green algae. The success of these complementary approaches demonstrate that engineering advances can lead to improvements in the scalability and affordability of biophotolytic H2 production, giving increased confidence that H2 can fulfil its potential as a sustainable fuel of the future. PMID:23689756

  19. Developing a Decision Model of Sustainable Product Design and Development from Product Servicizing in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Chen; Tu, Jui-Che; Hung, So-Jeng

    2016-01-01

    In response to the global trend of low carbon and the concept of sustainable development, enterprises need to develop R&D for the manufacturing of energy-saving and sustainable products and low carbon products. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to construct a decision model for sustainable product design and development from product…

  20. Approach to integrate product conceptual design information into a computer-aided design system

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Macias, Victor H.; Ríos Chueco, José; Vizán Idoipe, Antonio; Pérez García, Jesus Maria

    2013-01-01

    Commercial computer-aided design systems support the geometric definition of product, but they lack utilities to support initial design stages. Typical tasks such as customer need capture, functional requirement formalization, or design parameter definition are conducted in applications that, for instance, support ?quality function deployment? and ?failure modes and effects analysis? techniques. Such applications are noninteroperable with the computer-aided design systems, leading to disconti...

  1. Applying fuel cell experience to sustainable power products

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Joseph M.; O'Day, Michael J.

    Fuel cell power plants have demonstrated high efficiency, environmental friendliness, excellent transient response, and superior reliability and durability in spacecraft and stationary applications. Broader application of fuel cell technology promises significant contribution to sustainable global economic growth, but requires improvement to size, cost, fuel flexibility and operating flexibility. International Fuel Cells (IFC) is applying lessons learned from delivery of more than 425 fuel cell power plants and 3 million h of operation to the development of product technology which captures that promise. Key findings at the fuel cell power plant level include: (1) ancillary components account for more than 40% of the weight and nearly all unscheduled outages of hydrocarbon-fuelled power plants; a higher level of integration and simplification is required to achieve reasonable characteristics, (2) hydrocarbon fuel cell power plant components are highly interactive; the fuel processing approach and power plant operating pressure are major determinants of overall efficiency, and (3) achieving the durability required for heavy duty vehicles and stationary applications requires simultaneous satisfaction of electrochemical, materials and mechanical considerations in the design of the cell stack and other power plant components. Practical designs must minimize application specific equipment. Related lessons for stationary fuel cell power plants include: (1) within fuel specification limits, natural gas varies widely in heating value, minor constituents such as oxygen and nitrogen content and trace compounds such as the odorant; (2) city water quality varies widely; recovery of product water for process use avoids costly, complicated and site-specific water treatment systems, but water treatment is required to eliminate impurities and (3) the embedded protection functions for reliable operation of fuel cell power conditioners meet or exceed those required for connection to

  2. Inside s-inner product sets and Euclidean designs

    OpenAIRE

    Nozaki, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    A finite set X in the Euclidean space is called an s-inner product set if the set of the usual inner products of any two distinct points in X has size s. First, we give a special upper bound for the cardinality of an s-inner product set on concentric spheres. The upper bound coincides with the known lower bound for the size of a Euclidean 2s-design. Secondly, we prove the non-existence of 2- or 3-inner product sets on two concentric spheres attaining the upper bound for any d>1. The efficient...

  3. Crowdsourcing New Product Design on the Web: An Analysis of Online Designer Platform Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Dai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A designer is a core resource in the fashion industry. Successful designers need to be creative and quick to understand the business and wider environment in which they are operating. The Designer Platform Service (DPS, which combines the mechanism of crowdsourcing and group buying on the web, provides a platform for entrant designers to try their abilities in the real market practice. Freelance designers post design samples or sketches of products on the website of DPS, and consumers may preorder the products (each at a fixed price online based on the design information. Once the number of ordering reaches or passes a certain threshold, that is, the minimum production quantity (MPQ, DPS will arrange for production and delivery according to the orders received. This novel service boosts the growth of entrant designers and links designing works with real markets directly. We are interested in how the price and MPQ decisions are made in DPS, with consideration of the entrant designer's objective, decision sequences, and customer demand structures. We develop Stackelberg games to model and derive the equilibrium solutions under individual scenarios. Our findings suggest feasibility of the DPS business model.

  4. An Adaptive Design Methodology for Reduction of Product Development Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hara Gopal Mani Pakala

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Embedded systems interaction with environment inher ently complicates understanding of requirements and their correct implementation. However, product unce rtainty is highest during early stages of developme nt. Design verification is an essential step in the dev elopment of any system, especially for Embedded Sys tem. This paper introduces a novel adaptive design metho dology, which incorporates step-wise prototyping an d verification. With each adaptive step product-reali zation level is enhanced while decreasing the level of product uncertainty, thereby reducing the overall c osts. The back-bone of this frame-work is the development of Domain Specific Operational (DOP Mo del and the associated Verification Instrumentation for Test and Evaluation, developed based on the DOP model. Together they generate functionally valid test-sequence for carrying out p rototype evaluation. With the help of a case study ‘Multi- mode Detection Subsystem’ the application of this m ethod is sketched. The design methodologies can be compared by defining and computing a generic perfor mance criterion like Average design-cycle Risk. For the case study, by computing Average design-cycle Risk, it is shown that the adaptive me thod reduces the product development risk for a small increase in th e total design cycle time

  5. Yeast cell factories for fine chemical and API production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glieder Anton

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This review gives an overview of different yeast strains and enzyme classes involved in yeast whole-cell biotransformations. A focus was put on the synthesis of compounds for fine chemical and API (= active pharmaceutical ingredient production employing single or only few-step enzymatic reactions. Accounting for recent success stories in metabolic engineering, the construction and use of synthetic pathways was also highlighted. Examples from academia and industry and advances in the field of designed yeast strain construction demonstrate the broad significance of yeast whole-cell applications. In addition to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, alternative yeast whole-cell biocatalysts are discussed such as Candida sp., Cryptococcus sp., Geotrichum sp., Issatchenkia sp., Kloeckera sp., Kluyveromyces sp., Pichia sp. (including Hansenula polymorpha = P. angusta, Rhodotorula sp., Rhodosporidium sp., alternative Saccharomyces sp., Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Torulopsis sp., Trichosporon sp., Trigonopsis variabilis, Yarrowia lipolytica and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii.

  6. «Vision in Product design» as a method for universal design: «Vision in Product design» som metode for universell utforming

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, Philip Solvang

    2014-01-01

    The intention of this thesis is to identify and address the methodological challenges with Universal Design. Since Universal Design can be understood as both a design approach and a design philosophy, challenges in both understandings are examined. The increased visibility of the disabled, and the baby boom that followed the years after The Second World War created a need for products accommodating the different user abilities of people of all ages, and this was the aim of Universal Design. U...

  7. Production of soluble Neprilysin by endothelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A soluble full-length form of Neprilysin exists in media of endothelial cells. • Exosomal release is the key mechanism for the production of soluble Neprilysin. • Inhibition of ADAM-17 by specific inhibitors reduce Neprilysin release. • Exosome mediated release of Neprilysin is dependent on ADAM-17 activity. - Abstract: A non-membrane bound form of Neprilysin (NEP) with catalytic activity has the potential to cleave substrates throughout the circulation, thus leading to systemic effects of NEP. We used the endothelial cell line Ea.hy926 to identify the possible role of exosomes and A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17 (ADAM-17) in the production of non-membrane bound NEP. Using a bradykinin based quenched fluorescent substrate (40 μM) assay, we determined the activity of recombinant human NEP (rhNEP; 12 ng), and NEP in the media of endothelial cells (10% v/v; after 24 h incubation with cells) to be 9.35 ± 0.70 and 6.54 ± 0.41 μmols of substrate cleaved over 3 h, respectively. The presence of NEP in the media was also confirmed by Western blotting. At present there are no commercially available inhibitors specific for ADAM-17. We therefore synthesised two inhibitors TPI2155-14 and TPI2155-17, specific for ADAM-17 with IC50 values of 5.36 and 4.32 μM, respectively. Treatment of cells with TPI2155-14 (15 μM) and TPI2155-17 (4.3 μM) resulted in a significant decrease in NEP activity in media (62.37 ± 1.43 and 38.30 ± 4.70, respectively as a % of control; P < 0.0001), implicating a possible role for ADAM-17 in NEP release. However, centrifuging media (100,000g for 1 h at 4 °C) removed all NEP activity from the supernatant indicating the likely role of exosomes in the release of NEP. Our data therefore indicated for the first time that NEP is released from endothelial cells via exosomes, and that this process is dependent on ADAM-17

  8. Production of soluble Neprilysin by endothelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuruppu, Sanjaya, E-mail: Sanjaya.Kuruppu@monash.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Building 77, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia); Rajapakse, Niwanthi W. [Department of Physiology, Building 13F, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia); Minond, Dmitriy [Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, 11350 SW Village Parkway, Port Saint Lucie, FL 34987 (United States); Smith, A. Ian [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Building 77, Monash University, Wellington Rd, Clayton, Vic 3800 (Australia)

    2014-04-04

    Highlights: • A soluble full-length form of Neprilysin exists in media of endothelial cells. • Exosomal release is the key mechanism for the production of soluble Neprilysin. • Inhibition of ADAM-17 by specific inhibitors reduce Neprilysin release. • Exosome mediated release of Neprilysin is dependent on ADAM-17 activity. - Abstract: A non-membrane bound form of Neprilysin (NEP) with catalytic activity has the potential to cleave substrates throughout the circulation, thus leading to systemic effects of NEP. We used the endothelial cell line Ea.hy926 to identify the possible role of exosomes and A Disintegrin and Metalloprotease 17 (ADAM-17) in the production of non-membrane bound NEP. Using a bradykinin based quenched fluorescent substrate (40 μM) assay, we determined the activity of recombinant human NEP (rhNEP; 12 ng), and NEP in the media of endothelial cells (10% v/v; after 24 h incubation with cells) to be 9.35 ± 0.70 and 6.54 ± 0.41 μmols of substrate cleaved over 3 h, respectively. The presence of NEP in the media was also confirmed by Western blotting. At present there are no commercially available inhibitors specific for ADAM-17. We therefore synthesised two inhibitors TPI2155-14 and TPI2155-17, specific for ADAM-17 with IC{sub 50} values of 5.36 and 4.32 μM, respectively. Treatment of cells with TPI2155-14 (15 μM) and TPI2155-17 (4.3 μM) resulted in a significant decrease in NEP activity in media (62.37 ± 1.43 and 38.30 ± 4.70, respectively as a % of control; P < 0.0001), implicating a possible role for ADAM-17 in NEP release. However, centrifuging media (100,000g for 1 h at 4 °C) removed all NEP activity from the supernatant indicating the likely role of exosomes in the release of NEP. Our data therefore indicated for the first time that NEP is released from endothelial cells via exosomes, and that this process is dependent on ADAM-17.

  9. An Adaptive Design Methodology for Reduction of Product Development Risk

    CERN Document Server

    Pakala, Hara Gopal Mani; Kvsvn, Dr Raju; Khan, Dr Ibrahim; 10.5121/ijasuc.2011.2303

    2011-01-01

    Embedded systems interaction with environment inherently complicates understanding of requirements and their correct implementation. However, product uncertainty is highest during early stages of development. Design verification is an essential step in the development of any system, especially for Embedded System. This paper introduces a novel adaptive design methodology, which incorporates step-wise prototyping and verification. With each adaptive step product-realization level is enhanced while decreasing the level of product uncertainty, thereby reducing the overall costs. The back-bone of this frame-work is the development of Domain Specific Operational (DOP) Model and the associated Verification Instrumentation for Test and Evaluation, developed based on the DOP model. Together they generate functionally valid test-sequence for carrying out prototype evaluation. With the help of a case study 'Multimode Detection Subsystem' the application of this method is sketched. The design methodologies can be compar...

  10. Cytokine production by endothelial cells infected with human T cell lymphotropic virus type I.

    OpenAIRE

    H. Takashima; Eguchi, K.; Kawakami, A; Kawabe, Y; Migita, K; Sakai, M; Origuchi, T; Nagataki, S.

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the ability of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) to infect endothelial cells and induce cytokine production by these cells. METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were cocultured with HTLV-I infected T cell line (MT-2 cells) or uninfected T cell line (CEM cells). RESULTS: Following coculture with MT-2 cells, endothelial cells expressed HTLV-I specific core antigens. Endothelial cells cocultured with MT-2 cells produced significant amoun...

  11. The design of Eco Board Games as an umbrella approach to sustainable product design education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boks, Casper; McAloone, Tim C.

    2009-01-01

    The multidisciplinarity and quickly broadening scope of sustainable product design education provide incentives for experimentation with different pedagogical techniques. One of these, involving the development of eco board games, has been used at both the Technical University Denmark and the...

  12. A Comprehensive Framework for Surfactant Selection and Design for Emulsion Based Chemical Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Gani, Rafiqul

    2014-01-01

    developmentof a methodology and relevant tools in order to spare time and resources in the design of emulsion-based chemical products, so that the products can reach the market faster and at a reduced cost. Theunderstanding and modeling of the characteristic behavior of emulsions and their peculiar...... ingredientsis consequently necessary to tackle this problem with computer-aided methods and tools. A compre-hensive framework for the selection and design of surfactants, the main responsible for the formationand the stability of emulsions, is presented here together with the modeling of the cloud point, a key...... thetype of emulsion expected (through the hydrophilic–lipophilic balance), and its stability (through thehydrophilic–lipophilic deviation), forming a robust chemical product design tool. The application of thisframework is highlighted for the design of some emulsion based chemical products....

  13. Evaluation of critical materials in five additional advance design photovoltaic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.; Martin, P.; Gurwell, W.E.

    1981-02-01

    The objective of this study is to identify potential material supply constraints due to the large-scale deployment of five advanced photovoltaic (PV) cell designs, and to suggest strategies to reduce the impacts of these production capacity limitations and potential future material shortages. The Critical Materials Assessment Program (CMAP) screens the designs and their supply chains and identifies potential shortages which might preclude large-scale use of the technologies. The results of the screening of five advanced PV cell designs are presented: (1) indium phosphide/cadmium sulfide, (2) zinc phosphide, (3) cadmium telluride/cadmium sulfide, (4) copper indium selenium, and (5) cadmium selenide photoelectrochemical. Each of these five cells is screened individually assuming that they first come online in 1991, and that 25 Gwe of peak capacity is online by the year 2000. A second computer screening assumes that each cell first comes online in 1991 and that each cell has a 5 GWe of peak capacity by the year 2000, so that the total online capacity for the five cells is 25 GWe. Based on a review of the preliminary baseline screening results, suggestions were made for varying such parameters as the layer thickness, cell production processes, etc. The resulting PV cell characterizations were then screened again by the CMAP computer code. The CMAP methodology used to identify critical materials is described; and detailed characterizations of the advanced photovoltaic cell designs under investigation, descriptions of additional cell production processes, and the results are presented. (WHK)

  14. Computer-Aided Chemical Product Design Framework: Design of High Performance and Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, Lei; Gani, Rafiqul

    reachable. The method is applied on refrigerant design for a heat pump cycle. It is shown how the presented framework can generate optimal novel refrigerants that are high performing and environmentally friendly. This is achieved through integrated product-process based optimization objective, namely...... refrigerants today (Mota-Babiloni et al., 2015). However, design of new refrigerants poses a great challenge and finding an optimum solution for a given application often faces trade-off issues between cycle performance and environmental criteria. In addition, following issues are still to be addressed. What...... target properties and needs should carefully be selected for a given heat pump cycle to ensure that an optimum refrigerant is found? How can cycle performance and environmental criteria be integrated at the product design stage and not in post-design analysis? Computer-aided product design methods enable...

  15. Implications of intelligent, integrated microsystems for product design and development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MYERS,DAVID R.; MCWHORTER,PAUL J.

    2000-04-19

    Intelligent, integrated microsystems combine some or all of the functions of sensing, processing information, actuation, and communication within a single integrated package, and preferably upon a single silicon chip. As the elements of these highly integrated solutions interact strongly with each other, the microsystem can be neither designed nor fabricated piecemeal, in contrast to the more familiar assembled products. Driven by technological imperatives, microsystems will best be developed by multi-disciplinary teams, most likely within the flatter, less hierarchical organizations. Standardization of design and process tools around a single, dominant technology will expedite economically viable operation under a common production infrastructure. The production base for intelligent, integrated microsystems has elements in common with the mathematical theory of chaos. Similar to chaos theory, the development of microsystems technology will be strongly dependent on, and optimized to, the initial product requirements that will drive standardization--thereby further rewarding early entrants to integrated microsystem technology.

  16. Implications of intelligent, integrated microsystems for product design and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intelligent, integrated microsystems combine some or all of the functions of sensing, processing information, actuation, and communication within a single integrated package, and preferably upon a single silicon chip. As the elements of these highly integrated solutions interact strongly with each other, the microsystem can be neither designed nor fabricated piecemeal, in contrast to the more familiar assembled products. Driven by technological imperatives, microsystems will best be developed by multi-disciplinary teams, most likely within the flatter, less hierarchical organizations. Standardization of design and process tools around a single, dominant technology will expedite economically viable operation under a common production infrastructure. The production base for intelligent, integrated microsystems has elements in common with the mathematical theory of chaos. Similar to chaos theory, the development of microsystems technology will be strongly dependent on, and optimized to, the initial product requirements that will drive standardization--thereby further rewarding early entrants to integrated microsystem technology

  17. Benchmarking Design: Multiplying the Impact of Technical Assistance to MSMEs in Design and Product Development

    OpenAIRE

    Del Giorgio Solfa, Federico

    2012-01-01

    This work takes as challenge-level exploratory study in the importance, scope and dimensions of the benchmarking of product design for the state advisory in design and product development for micro, small and medium producers. The initiative falls as the zero phase of the project made for the Admission to the Research Career of Scientific and Technological Research Commission of the Province of Buenos Aires (CIC-PBA), which is under evaluation. Our approach comprises the sub-national po...

  18. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design........ Also, simultaneously with sustainability analysis, the life cycle impact on environment associated with bioethanol production is performed. Finally, candidate alternative designs are generated and compared with the base case design in terms of LCA, economics, waste, energy usage and enviromental impact...... of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, to definedesign/retrofit targets for process improvements. Economic analysis is performed to evaluate the profitability of the process...

  19. Verifying Architectural Design Rules of the Flight Software Product Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, Dharmalingam; Lindvall, Mikael; Ackermann, Chris; McComas, David; Bartholomew, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents experiences of verifying architectural design rules of the NASA Core Flight Software (CFS) product line implementation. The goal of the verification is to check whether the implementation is consistent with the CFS architectural rules derived from the developer's guide. The results indicate that consistency checking helps a) identifying architecturally significant deviations that were eluded during code reviews, b) clarifying the design rules to the team, and c) assessing the overall implementation quality. Furthermore, it helps connecting business goals to architectural principles, and to the implementation. This paper is the first step in the definition of a method for analyzing and evaluating product line implementations from an architecture-centric perspective.

  20. Hemicellulosic ethanol production by immobilized cells of Scheffersomyces stipitis: effect of cell concentration and stirring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milessi, Thais S S; Antunes, Felipe A F; Chandel, Anuj K; da Silva, Silvio S

    2015-01-01

    Bioconversion of hemicellulosic hydrolysate into ethanol plays a pivotal role in the overall success of biorefineries. For the efficient fermentative conversion of hemicellulosic hydrolysates into ethanol, the use of immobilized cells system could provide the enhanced ethanol productivities with significant time savings. Here, we investigated the effect of 2 important factors (e.g., cell concentration and stirring) on ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate using the yeast Scheffersomyces stipitis immobilized in calcium alginate matrix. A 2(2) full factorial design of experiment was performed considering the process variables- immobilized cell concentration (3.0, 6.5 and 10.0 g/L) and stirring (100, 200 and 300 rpm). Statistical analysis showed that stirring has the major influence on ethanol production. Maximum ethanol production (8.90 g/l) with ethanol yield (Yp/s) of 0.33 g/g and ethanol productivity (Qp) of 0.185 g/l/h was obtained under the optimized process conditions (10.0 g/L of cells and 100 rpm). PMID:25488725

  1. Design, production and initial state of the canister

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederqvist, Lars; Johansson, Magnus; Leskinen, Nina; Ronneteg, Ulf

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility.The report provides input on the initial state of the canisters to the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the engineered barriers once they have been finally placed in the KBS-3 repository and will not be further handled within the repository facility. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the canisters shall be handled and disposed. The report presents the design premises and reference design of the canister and verifies the conformity of the reference design to the design premises. The production methods and the ability to produce canisters according to the reference design are described. Finally, the initial state of the canisters and their conformity to the reference design and design premises are presented

  2. Design, production and initial state of the canister

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility.The report provides input on the initial state of the canisters to the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the engineered barriers once they have been finally placed in the KBS-3 repository and will not be further handled within the repository facility. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the canisters shall be handled and disposed. The report presents the design premises and reference design of the canister and verifies the conformity of the reference design to the design premises. The production methods and the ability to produce canisters according to the reference design are described. Finally, the initial state of the canisters and their conformity to the reference design and design premises are presented

  3. Application of concurrent engineering in product and process design

    OpenAIRE

    Juárez Varón, David; Segui Llinares, Vicente Jesús; MENGUAL RECUERDA, ANA; Ferrándiz Bou, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Traditional methods applied to the development of new products are becoming obsolete, being necessary advanced methods based on a new approach that allows work cooperatively. This is called Concurrent Engineering and this paper intends to carry out a review of the integration of this discipline in the new ways of working. The main objective of the new forms of work is to systematize the design by interdisciplinary teams simultaneously working the products, the processes, getting the right des...

  4. Spimes and Speculative Design: Sustainable Product Futures Today

    OpenAIRE

    Stead, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper unpacks Sterling’s concept of spimes and outlines how it can be developed as a lens through which to speculate and reflect upon more preferable and sustainable technological product futures. The term spimes denotes a class of near future, sustainable, manufactured objects, and unlike the disposable products that permeate our society today; a spime would be designed so that it can be managed sustainably throughout its entire lifecycle. This would have the goal of making the implicit...

  5. The prescriptive quality of 11 design principles for knowledge productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Verdonschot, Suzanne G.M.; Kessels, Joseph W.M.

    2008-01-01

    This study explores the learning processes that contribute to knowledge productivity: gradual improvement and radical innovation of an organisation’s operating procedures, products, and services, based on the development and application of new knowledge. The research is based on the assumption that innovation is the result of a series of powerful social learning processes. Previous research revealed a set of eleven design principles that reflect factors that really matter in an innovation pro...

  6. Smart object design for active security management of hazardous products

    OpenAIRE

    Dobre, Dragos; Bajic, Eddy

    2007-01-01

    The hazardous substances are products that need special attention from the personnel which manipulates them, therefore, there is an increased need for better security management of goods and people. In this paper we propose the design of the Smart Object capable to survey its own environment according to its own security rules and to cooperate with others surounding equiped products to manage the security level in acceptable boundaries. By this way, an Active Security Environment is created, ...

  7. Sustainable Process Design of Biofuels: Bioethanol Production from Cassava rhizome

    OpenAIRE

    Mangnimit, S.; Malakul, P.; Gani, Rafiqul

    2013-01-01

    This study is focused on the sustainable process design of bioethanol production from cassava rhizome. The study includes: process simulation, sustainability analysis, economic evaluation and life cycle assessment (LCA). A steady state process simulation if performed to generate a base case design of the bioethanol conversion process using cassava rhizome as a feedstock. The sustainability analysis is performed to analyze the relevant indicators in sustainability metrics, todefinedesign/retro...

  8. Some Aspects of Mega-Floating Airport Design and Production

    OpenAIRE

    Hadžić, Neven; Tomić, Marko; Vladimir, Nikola; Senjanović, Ivo

    2016-01-01

    Mega-Floating Airports (MFA) are unique and complex offshore transport system components that emerged as a consequence of tremendous land price increase in the vicinity of very large coastal cities. An overview of MFAs design and production aspects is presented within this paper including design concept, model tests and full scale measurement, air transport analysis, infrastructure, main particulars and structure, wave breaker, hydroelastic analysis due to wave load and airplane moving ...

  9. A 5 MW TRIGA reactor design for radioisotope production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and preparation of commercial-scale quantities of radioisotopes has become an important activity as their medical and industrial applications continue to expand. There are currently various large multipurpose research reactors capable of producing ample quantities of radioisotopes. These facilities, however, have many competing demands placed upon them by a wide variety of researchers and scientific programs which severely limit their radioisotope production capability. A demonstrated need has developed for a simpler reactor facility dedicated to the production of radioisotopes on a commercial basis. This smaller, dedicated reactor could provide continuous fission and activation product radioisotopes to meet commercial requirements for the foreseeable future. The design of a 5 MW TRIGA reactor facility, upgradeable to 10 MW, dedicated to the production of industrial and medical radioisotopes is discussed. A TRIGA reactor designed specifically for this purpose with its demonstrated long core life and simplicity of operation would translate into increased radioisotope production. As an example, a single TRIGA could supply the entire US needs for Mo-99. The facility is based on the experience gained by General Atomics in the design, installation, and construction of over 60 other TRIGAs over the past 35 years. The unique uranium-zirconium hydride fuel makes TRIGA reactors inexpensive to build and operate, reliable in their simplicity, highly flexible due to unique passive safety, and environmentally friendly because of minimal power requirements and long-lived fuel. (author)

  10. Design Exploration of Engineered Materials, Products, and Associated Manufacturing Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Rishabh; Kulkarni, Nagesh H.; Gautham, B. P.; Singh, Amarendra K.; Mistree, Farrokh; Allen, Janet K.; Panchal, Jitesh H.

    2015-01-01

    In the past few years, ICME-related research has been directed towards the study of multi-scale materials design. However, relatively little has been reported on model-based methods that are of relevance to industry for the realization of engineered materials, products, and associated industrial manufacturing processes. Computational models used in the realization of engineered materials and products are fraught with uncertainty, have different levels of fidelity, are incomplete and are even likely to be inaccurate. In light of this, we adopt a robust design strategy that facilitates the exploration of the solution space thereby providing decision support to a design engineer. In this paper, we describe a foundational construct embodied in our method for design exploration, namely, the compromise Decision Support Problem. We introduce a problem that we are using to establish the efficacy of our method. It involves the integrated design of steel and gears, traversing the chain of steel making, mill production, and evolution of the material during these processes, and linking this to the mechanical design and manufacture of the gear. We provide an overview of our method to determine the operating set points for the ladle, tundish and caster operations necessary to manufacture steel of a desired set of properties. Finally, we highlight the efficacy of our method.

  11. Design, production and initial state of the closure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The production reports are included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the closure and plugs in underground openings other than deposition tunnels for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the engineered barriers once they have been finally placed in the KBS-3 repository and will not be further handled within the repository facility. In addition, the report provides some input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the closure and plugs shall be handled and installed. The report presents the design premises and reference designs of the closure and plugs and verifies their conformity to the design premises. It also briefly deals with the production of the closure and plugs. Finally, the initial state of the closure and plugs and their conformity to the reference designs and design premises are presented

  12. Natural Products That Target Cancer Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moselhy, Jim; Srinivasan, Sowmyalakshmi; Ankem, Murali K; Damodaran, Chendil

    2015-11-01

    The cancer stem cell model suggests that tumor initiation is governed by a small subset of distinct cells with stem-like character termed cancer stem cells (CSCs). CSCs possess properties of self-renewal and intrinsic survival mechanisms that contribute to resistance of tumors to most chemotherapeutic drugs. The failure to eradicate CSCs during the course of therapy is postulated to be the driving force for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Recent studies have focused on understanding the unique phenotypic properties of CSCs from various tumor types, as well as the signaling pathways that underlie self-renewal and drug resistance. Natural products (NPs) such as those derived from botanicals and food sources may modulate vital signaling pathways involved in the maintenance of CSC phenotype. The Wingless/Integrated (WNT), Hedgehog, Notch and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways have all been associated with quiescence and self-renewal of CSCs, as well as execution of CSC function including differentiation, multidrug resistance and metastasis. Recent studies evaluating NPs against CSC support the epidemiological evidence linking plant-based diets with reduced malignancy rates. This review covers the key aspects of NPs as modulators of CSC fate. PMID:26503998

  13. High-performance radial AMTEC cell design for ultra-high-power solar AMTEC systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendricks, T.J.; Huang, C.

    1999-07-01

    Alkali Metal Thermal to Electric Conversion (AMTEC) technology is rapidly maturing for potential application in ultra-high-power solar AMTEC systems required by potential future US Air Force (USAF) spacecraft missions in medium-earth and geosynchronous orbits (MEO and GEO). Solar thermal AMTEC power systems potentially have several important advantages over current solar photovoltaic power systems in ultra-high-power spacecraft applications for USAF MEO and GEO missions. This work presents key aspects of radial AMTEC cell design to achieve high cell performance in solar AMTEC systems delivering larger than 50 kW(e) to support high power USAF missions. These missions typically require AMTEC cell conversion efficiency larger than 25%. A sophisticated design parameter methodology is described and demonstrated which establishes optimum design parameters in any radial cell design to satisfy high-power mission requirements. Specific relationships, which are distinct functions of cell temperatures and pressures, define critical dependencies between key cell design parameters, particularly the impact of parasitic thermal losses on Beta Alumina Solid Electrolyte (BASE) area requirements, voltage, number of BASE tubes, and system power production for both maximum power-per-BASE-area and optimum efficiency conditions. Finally, some high-level system tradeoffs are demonstrated using the design parameter methodology to establish high-power radial cell design requirements and philosophy. The discussion highlights how to incorporate this methodology with sophisticated SINDA/FLUINT AMTEC cell modeling capabilities to determine optimum radial AMTEC cell designs.

  14. New silicon cell design concepts for 20 percent AMI efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, M.

    1982-01-01

    The basic design principles for obtaining high efficiency in silicon solar cells are reviewed. They critically involve very long minority carrier lifetimes, not so much to attain high collection efficiency, but primarily for increased output voltages. Minority carrier lifetime, however, is sensitive to radiation damage, and particularly in low resistivity silicon, on which the high efficiency design is based. Radiation resistant space cells will therefore have to follow differing design principles than high efficiency terrestrial cells.

  15. Research on Design Optimization Strategy in Virtual Product Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘军; 韩帮军; 范秀敏; 马登哲

    2004-01-01

    Simulation and optimization are the key points of virtual product development (VPD). Traditional engineering simulation software and optimization methods are inadequate to analyze the optimization problems because of its computational inefficiency. A systematic design optimization strategy by using statistical methods and mathematical optimization technologies is proposed. This method extends the design of experiments (DOE) and the simulation metamodel technologies. Metamodels are built to in place of detailed simulation codes based on effectively DOE, and then be linked to optimization routines for fast analysis, or serve as a bridge for integrating simulation software across different domains. A design optimization of composite material structure is used to demonstrate the newly introduced methodology.

  16. Mechanical design of a magnetic fusion production reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mechanical aspects of a tandem mirror and tokamak concepts for the tritium production mission are compared, and a proposed breeding blanket configuration for each type of reactor is presented in detail, along with a design outline of the complete fusion reaction system. In both cases, the reactor design is developed sufficiently to permit preliminary cost estimates of all components. A qualitative comparison is drawn between both concepts from the view of mechanical design and serviceability, and suggestions are made for technology proof tests on unique mechanical features. Detailed cost breakdowns indicate less than 10% difference in the overall costs of the two reactors

  17. Exploring the influence of design culture on ICT healthcare product and service design for rural China

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, J; Kandachar, P.V.; Freudenthal, A.

    2010-01-01

    Design culture is usually considered as one of the important aspects that influence designers’ decisions and actions, especially in Design for Base of the Pyramid projects including ICT Healthcare Product Design in Rural China (IHDRC). There are two research questions in this issue: what are the cultural factors and how these factors influence designers’ cultural values. This paper investigates the first question focusing on the influence of designers’ own cultural background. Based on existi...

  18. From Complex Natural Products to Simple Synthetic Mimetics by Computational De Novo Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Lukas; Rodrigues, Tiago; Neuhaus, Claudia S; Schneider, Petra; Schneider, Gisbert

    2016-06-01

    We present the computational de novo design of synthetically accessible chemical entities that mimic the complex sesquiterpene natural product (-)-Englerin A. We synthesized lead-like probes from commercially available building blocks and profiled them for activity against a computationally predicted panel of macromolecular targets. Both the design template (-)-Englerin A and its low-molecular weight mimetics presented nanomolar binding affinities and antagonized the transient receptor potential calcium channel TRPM8 in a cell-based assay, without showing target promiscuity or frequent-hitter properties. This proof-of-concept study outlines an expeditious solution to obtaining natural-product-inspired chemical matter with desirable properties. PMID:27111835

  19. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH REGARDING LEATHER APPLICATIONS IN PRODUCT DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRALEA Jeni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the role and importance of experimental research in design activity. The designer, as a researcher and a project manager, proposes to establish a relationship between functional-aesthetic-constructive-technological-economic,based on the aesthetic possibilities of the materials used for the experiments. With the aim to identify areas for the application of leather waste resulted from the production process, the paper presents experiments conducted with this material in combination with wood, by using different techniques that lead to different aesthetic effects. Identifying the areas to use and creating products from leather and/or wood waste, is based on the properties of these materials. Leather, the subject of these experiments, has the advantage that it can be used on both sides. Tactile differences of the two sides of this material has both aesthetical and functional advantages, which makes it suitable for applications on products that meet the requirements of "design for all". With differentiated tactile characteristics, in combination with other materials, for these experiments wood, easily "read touch" products can be generated to help people with certain disabilities. Thus, experiments presented in this paper allows the establishment of aesthetic schemes applicable to products that are friendly both with the environment (based on the reuse of wood and leather waste and with the users (can be used as applications, accessories and concepts of products for people with certain disabilities. The designer’s choices or decisions can be based on the results of this experiment. The experiment enables the designer to develop creative, innovative and environmentally friendly products.

  20. Design, production and initial state of the buffer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerjesson, Lennart; Gunnarsson, David; Johannesson, Lars-Erik; Jonsson, Esther

    2010-12-15

    The report is included in a set of Production reports, presenting how the KBS-3 repository is designed, produced and inspected. The set of reports is included in the safety report for the KBS-3 repository and repository facility. The report provides input on the initial state of the buffer for the assessment of the long-term safety, SR-Site. The initial state refers to the properties of the engineered barriers once they have been finally placed in the KBS-3 repository and will not be further handled within the repository facility. In addition, the report provides input to the operational safety report, SR-Operation, on how the buffer shall be handled and installed. The report presents the design premises and reference design of the buffer and verifies the conformity of the reference design to the design premises. It also describes the production of the buffer, from excavation and delivery of buffer material to installation in the deposition hole. Finally, the initial state of the buffer and its conformity to the reference design and design premises is presented

  1. Multi-objective evolutionary optimisation for product design and manufacturing

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    Presents state-of-the-art research in the area of multi-objective evolutionary optimisation for integrated product design and manufacturing Provides a comprehensive review of the literature Gives in-depth descriptions of recently developed innovative and novel methodologies, algorithms and systems in the area of modelling, simulation and optimisation

  2. Grid-enabled Workflows for Industrial Product Design

    OpenAIRE

    Boniface, M.J.; Ferris, J.; Ghanem, M; Azam, N

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a generic approach for developing and using Grid-based workflow technology for enabling cross-organizational engineering applications. Using industrial product design examples from the automotive and aerospace industries we highlight the main requirements and challenges addressed by our approach and describe how it can be used for enabling interoperability between heterogeneous workflow engines.

  3. Property Modelling for Applications in Chemical Product and Process Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gani, Rafiqul

    group parameter is missing, the atom connectivity based model is employed to predict the missing group interaction. In this way, a wide application range of the property modeling tool is ensured. Based on the property models, targeted computer-aided techniques have been developed for design and analysis...... of organic chemicals, polymers, mixtures as well as separation processes. The presentation will highlight the framework (ICAS software) for property modeling, the property models and issues such as prediction accuracy, flexibility, maintenance and updating of the database. Also, application issues......Physical-chemical properties of pure chemicals and their mixtures play an important role in the design of chemicals based products and the processes that manufacture them. Although, the use of experimental data in design and analysis of chemicals based products and their processes is desirable...

  4. Knowledge productivity : designing and testing a method to diagnose knowledge productivity and plan for enhancement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, Christiaan David

    2007-01-01

    Our economy has changed from an industrial into a knowledge economy in which knowledge productivity has become the main challenge. The lack of appropriate techniques to reveal knowledge productivity hinders organizations to design effective policies aiming at improving knowledge-based performance. T

  5. PEM Fuel Cells Redesign Using Biomimetic and TRIZ Design Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, Keith Kin Kei

    Two formal design methodologies, biomimetic design and the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving, TRIZ, were applied to the redesign of a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell. Proof of concept prototyping was performed on two of the concepts for water management. The liquid water collection with strategically placed wicks concept demonstrated the potential benefits for a fuel cell. Conversely, the periodic flow direction reversal concepts might cause a potential reduction water removal from a fuel cell. The causes of this water removal reduction remain unclear. In additional, three of the concepts generated with biomimetic design were further studied and demonstrated to stimulate more creative ideas in the thermal and water management of fuel cells. The biomimetic design and the TRIZ methodologies were successfully applied to fuel cells and provided different perspectives to the redesign of fuel cells. The methodologies should continue to be used to improve fuel cells.

  6. PRODUCTION PROCESS DESIGN OF FUNCTIONAL FOOD PRODUCTS BASED ON FUNCTIONAL VALUE ANALYSES

    OpenAIRE

    Pershakova T. V.; Shubina L. N.; Derenkova I. A.; Naumov N. N.

    2015-01-01

    The article substantiates the feasibility of the method of functional value analysis application to ensure high efficiency for the production of functional food products. This article describes the design technique of food functionality based on the methodology of value analysis, allowing considering such factors as consumer preferences, nutritional, functional value, economic and technological indicators while developing product formulations and technologies. With the example of flour confec...

  7. IFMIF target and test cell - Towards design integration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International-Fusion-Material-Irradiation-Facility (IFMIF) is an accelerator driven neutron source for irradiation tests of candidate fusion reactor materials. Two 40 MeV deuterium beams of 125 mA each will hit a flowing liquid lithium jet target, producing high energy neutrons up to 55 MeV at a rate of about 1x1017s-1. Those neutrons will penetrate the target back wall made of a thin Eurofer plate. In the attached High Flux Test Module (HFTM), a testing volume of 0.5 litres filled by qualified small scale specimens will be irradiated at displacement rates of 20-50 dpa/fpy in structural materials. The HFTM will also provide helium and hydrogen production to dpa ratios that reflect within the uncertainties the values expected in a DEMO fusion reactor. The Medium Flux Test Module (MFTM) comprises devices for in situ creep-fatigue and tritium release experiments, as well as tungsten spectral shifter or reflector plates. Farther down-stream the low flux region will provide irradiation tubes for additional material irradiation at lower fluence levels. The objective of the present paper is to present the progress achieved in the design integration of the Target and Test Cell of IFMIF. First, work is reported on collecting and harmonizing the CAD designs provided by various international groups involved in the IFMIF Target and Test Cell development. Second, further efforts devoted to the general nuclear layout of the Target and Test Cell are described, taking into account nuclear calculations of responses such as the nuclear heating, the activation inventories, and dose rates based on most advanced nuclear data and calculational procedures. Finally, results of an extensive study are presented on the cooling capabilities of the Target and Test Cell by natural convection. (author)

  8. Design for Sustainability: Current Trends in Sustainable Product Design and Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Crul

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The Design for Sustainability (D4S concept outlines methodologies for making sustainable improvements (social, economic and environmental to products by applying elements of life cycle thinking. D4S builds on the work of ecodesign to include economic and social concerns, and its methodology includes both incremental and radical innovation. The United Nations Environment Programme and the Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, in concert with key partners, work to support, illustrate, and diffuse targeted D4S demonstration efforts, including the European Commission-funded Cleaner Production for Better Products project in Vietnam, that are needed to change unsustainable consumption and production patterns.

  9. Consultancy Designer Involvement in New Product Development: Mapping a Novel Design Leadership Process

    OpenAIRE

    Maciver, Fiona; O'Driscoll, Aidan

    2010-01-01

    The role of design and designers in new product development (NPD) has always been problematic and complex in its approach and in the extent of its involvement (Leenders et al., 2007; Murray and O’Driscoll, 1996; Veryzer and Borja de Mozota, 2005). As the industrial design profession seeks to confront the challenges of a recessionary environment, both the designer led ‘intuitive’ approach to NPD, and the marketer led ‘systematic’ approach become outmoded (Cross, 2001; Martin, 2007). There is s...

  10. The innovation effect of user design: Exploring consumers' innovation perceptions of firms selling products designed by users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Schreier (Martin); C. Fuchs (Christoph); D.W. Dahl (Darren)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractThe authors study consumer perceptions of firms that sell products designed by users. In contrast with the traditional design mode, in which professional designers employed by firms handle the design task, common design by users involves the firm's user community in creating new product

  11. Designing Mechatronic Products - Achieving Integration by Means of Modelling Dependencies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas

    activities rather than synthesis activities. The study further shows that functional modelling can be used to create a common model in the early phases of design, but later phases have to rely on informal and formal transformation of information about the product concept between the domains due...... disciplines have to be combined and function in an integrated fashion. The holistic view of the product concept is sometimes missing in projects and engineering disciplines are reluctant to interact. Investigations of literature, cases from industry and practical experience are used for dissecting...... to the absence of a common modelling language. The further research is aimed at one particular challenge related to the integration phenomenon, which is the difficulty in modelling and controlling multiple relations in the product concept as a consequence of the multidisciplinary development. ‘A product...

  12. MERIP - Design of Production Systems with focus on Human Ressources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Peter; Knudsen, Mads Kristian Lund

    1998-01-01

    systems. Those "Case-companies" will form an important basis for the development of production systems, and they will function as sparring partners for the project. MERIP will in this way be able to inform the industry about new ways in development of production systems - and suggest how the industry...... system will be designed on four elements, the organisation of the production tasks, competence, technology and information, which is the subject for the paper.......The way in which the Industry has involved the human resources in production systems, has changed in last decades. Previously the human resources were mainly considered as means to link together the technical systems, while today they are key resources responsible for development, planning and...

  13. PRACTICE OF GESTALT THEORY IN INDUSTRIAL PRODUCT DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkut ERYAYAR

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available It is common knowledge that Gestalt Theory argues that an organized whole represents more than the sum of its parts. According to this theory, which emerged in studies on visual perception, a whole is made up of many parts each of which cannot reflect the whole on its own. Likewise, an industrial design comprises various parts which create a meaningful and functional whole. The success of a design can be measured against its ability to be perceived the same way as it is designed. In this respect, the inclusion of Gestalt theory principles in the process of design will enable the end product to differ from others and its user to perceive it in the right direction.

  14. Switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2010-01-05

    A switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production. The designer transgenic algae includes at least two transgenes for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production wherein a first transgene serves as a genetic switch that can controls photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolution and a second transgene encodes for creation of free proton channels in the algal photosynthetic membrane. In one embodiment, the algae includes a DNA construct having polymerase chain reaction forward primer (302), a inducible promoter (304), a PSII-iRNA sequence (306), a terminator (308), and a PCR reverse primer (310). In other embodiments, the PSII-iRNA sequence (306) is replaced with a CF.sub.1-iRNA sequence (312), a streptomycin-production gene (314), a targeting sequence (316) followed by a proton-channel producing gene (318), or a PSII-producing gene (320). In one embodiment, a photo-bioreactor and gas-product separation and utilization system produce photobiological H.sub.2 from the switchable PSII designer alga.

  15. Applications of ``PV Optics`` for solar cell and module design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sopori, B.L.; Madjdpour, J.; Chen, W. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper describes some applications of a new optics software package, PV Optics, developed for the optical design of solar cells and modules. PV Optics is suitable for the analysis and design of both thick and thin solar cells. It also includes a feature for calculation of metallic losses related to contacts and back reflectors.

  16. Media fill for validation of a good manufacturing practice-compliant cell production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Marta; Roseti, Livia; Bassi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    According to the European Regulation EC 1394/2007, the clinical use of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products, such as Human Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells expanded for the regeneration of bone tissue or Chondrocytes for Autologous Implantation, requires the development of a process in compliance with the Good Manufacturing Practices. The Media Fill test, consisting of a simulation of the expansion process by using a microbial growth medium instead of the cells, is considered one of the most effective ways to validate a cell production process. Such simulation, in fact, allows to identify any weakness in production that can lead to microbiological contamination of the final cell product as well as qualifying operators. Here, we report the critical aspects concerning the design of a Media Fill test to be used as a tool for the further validation of the sterility of a cell-based Good Manufacturing Practice-compliant production process. PMID:25096172

  17. Design of GMP compliance radiopharmaceutical production facility in MINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In 1985, MINT built the only radiopharmaceutical production facility in Malaysia. The facility was designed based on IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) standard guidelines, which provides radiation safety to the operator and the surrounding environment from radioactive contamination. In 1999, BPFK (Malaysia National Pharmaceutical Control Bureau) enforced the guidelines from Pharmaceutical Inspection Convention Scheme (PICS) to meet the requirements of the Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) for Pharmaceutical Products. Among others, the guidelines require the pharmaceutical production facility to be designed based on cleanroom environment. In order to meet this requirement, the design of a radiopharmaceutical production facility shall combine the concept of radiation safety and cleanroom to ensure that both requirements from GMP and IAEA are met. This design requirement is necessary to ensure a radiopharmaceutical production facility which is safe, has high production quality and in compliance with the Malaysian and International standards. In order to obtain the license to continue producing radiopharmaceutical products, MINT shall closely follow the guidelines from PICS: GMP and nuclear facility requirements. To meet those requirements, the layout of MINT facility was redesigned to ensure the contaminants or particulates from outside area will not enter the production area. The flow path of personnel to the production room is equiped with air lock and change room in order to avoid contamination from outside environment. The airlock and changing room provide the physical separation of different stages of cleanroom class and between clean area and non-clean area. The cleanliness level or class for each room is determined by the criticality of exposure of the process and products to the environment. The clean class which is grade A is used for critical process and the other grade is for non-critical process or as a background. The concepts of

  18. Spatial augmented reality for product appearance design evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ki Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality based on projection, called “Spatial Augmented Reality (SAR”, is a new technology that can produce immersive contents by overlapping virtuality and real-world environment. It has been paid attention as the next generation digital contents in media art and human–computer interaction (HCI. In this paper, we present a new methodology to evaluate the product appearance design more intuitively by means of SAR technique. The proposed method first projects the high-quality rendered image considering the optical property of materials onto the mock-up of a product. We also conduct a projector-camera calibration to compensate a color distortion according to a projector, a projection surface and environment lighting. The design evaluation methodology we propose offers more flexible and intuitive evaluation environment to a designer and user (evaluator than previous methods that are performed via a digital display. At the end of this research, we have conducted a case study for designing and evaluating appearance design of an automobile.

  19. Test Results From The Idaho National Laboratory Of The NASA Bi-Supported Cell Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C Stoots; J O' Brien; T Cable

    2009-11-01

    The Idaho National Laboratory has been researching the application of solid-oxide fuel cell technology for large-scale hydrogen production. As a result, the Idaho National Laboratory has been testing various cell designs to characterize electrolytic performance. NASA, in conjunction with the University of Toledo, has developed a new cell concept with the goals of reduced weight and high power density. This paper presents results of the INL's testing of this new solid oxide cell design as an electrolyzer. Gas composition, operating voltage, and other parameters were varied during testing. Results to date show the NASA cell to be a promising design for both high power-to-weight fuel cell and electrolyzer applications.

  20. Costs Models in Design and Manufacturing of Sand Casting Products

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Nicolas; Bernard, Alain

    2010-01-01

    In the early phases of the product life cycle, the costs controls became a major decision tool in the competitiveness of the companies due to the world competition. After defining the problems related to this control difficulties, we will present an approach using a concept of cost entity related to the design and realization activities of the product. We will try to apply this approach to the fields of the sand casting foundry. This work will highlight the enterprise modelling difficulties (limits of a global cost modelling) and some specifics limitations of the tool used for this development. Finally we will discuss on the limits of a generic approach.

  1. Factorial Design to Optimize Biosurfactant Production by Yarrowia lipolytica

    OpenAIRE

    Gizele Cardoso Fontes; Priscilla Filomena Fonseca Amaral; Marcio Nele; Maria Alice Zarur Coelho

    2010-01-01

    In order to improve biosurfactant production by Yarrowia lipolytica IMUFRJ 50682, a factorial design was carried out. A 24 full factorial design was used to investigate the effects of nitrogen sources (urea, ammonium sulfate, yeast extract, and peptone) on maximum variation of surface tension (ΔST) and emulsification index (EI). The best results (67.7% of EI and 20.9 mN m−1 of ΔST) were obtained in a medium composed of 10 g 1−1 of ammonium ...

  2. Solar Cell Production in Nigeria: Prospects, Options and Problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects and problems facing solar cell production in Nigeria are discussed. The paper reviews many proven solar cell materials in terms of their current efficiencies and production costs. Silicon solar cell production appears to be the best technology option for Nigeria because of the abundant quartz sand and waste products from our phosphate fertiliser company that can be employed as starting materials to produce solar grade silicon. Factors affecting solar cell efficiency, choice of solar cell as well as financial and material problems limiting the progress on silicon solar cell production are also discussed. Finally, the paper recommends the simultaneous production of solar grade silicon and coordinated development of the balance of system components as first steps towards actualizing this objective

  3. Tissue-specific designs of stem cell hierarchies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visvader, Jane E; Clevers, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Recent work in the field of stem cell biology suggests that there is no single design for an adult tissue stem cell hierarchy, and that different tissues employ distinct strategies to meet their self-renewal and repair requirements. Stem cells may be multipotent or unipotent, and can exist in quiesc

  4. An Integrated Methodology for Emulsified Formulated Product Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattei, Michele

    significantly reduce both time and cost connected to product development by doing only the necessary experi- ments , and ensuring chances for innovation . The main contribution of this project i s the development of an integrated methodology for the design of emulsified formulated products. The methodology...... consists of three stages: the problem definition stage, the model - based design stage, and the experiment - based verification stage. In the probl em definition stage, the consumer needs are trans- lated into a set of target thermo - physical properties and into a list of categories of ingre- dients that...... the proposed formulation are measured by means of tailor - made exp eriments. The formulation is then validated or, if necessary, re- fined thanks to a systematic list of action. The problem definition stage relies on a robust knowledge base, which needs to system- atically generate quantitative...

  5. On the Simple Economics of Advertising, Marketing, and Product Design

    OpenAIRE

    David P. Myatt; Justin P. Johnson

    2004-01-01

    We propose a framework for analyzing transformations of demand. Such transformations frequently stem from changes in the dispersion of consumers' valuations, which lead to rotations of the demand curve. In a wide variety of settings, profits are a U-shaped function of dispersion. A high level of dispersion is complemented by a niche posture, and low dispersion is complemented by a mass-market posture. We investigate numerous applications of our framework, including product design; advertising...

  6. Space crew productivity: A driving factor in space station design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolbers, H. L.

    1985-01-01

    The criteria of performance, cost, and mission success probability (program confidence) are the principal factors that program or project managers and system engineers use in selecting the optimum design approach for meeting mission objectives. A frame of reference is discussed in which the interrelationships of these pertinent parameters can be made visible, and from which rational or informed decisions can be derived regarding the potential impact of adjustments in crew productivity on total Space Station System effectiveness.

  7. Efficient eLearning course design and media production

    OpenAIRE

    Bremer, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    AKUE is developed by the e-learning centre of the University of Frankfurt, studiumdigitale, and is a procedure to assure high quality levels of e-learning course design and digital media production. The name AKUE stands for the German words for analysis, concept, implementation and evaluation and describes the four phases of the process. Background of AKUE is the fact, that costs and benefits of e-learning courses are difficult to be quantified. Therefore so called procedure (or process) mode...

  8. Game design and production : frequent problems in game development

    OpenAIRE

    Sundström, Ylva

    2013-01-01

    This essay is about common problems that can arise during game development projects. It is focused around the production cycle and how the game industry treats the game development pipeline. It mainly describes issues with communication within game development teams, problems concerning planning and how the design process affects members of the game development team’s work process and efficiency. It includes an analysis of common problems that I have found during my studies of literature desc...

  9. Integrated Product and Process Design Using a Reverse Engineering System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A; Ajmal; T; S; Tat

    2002-01-01

    Computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) and revers e engineering (RE) have changed drastically the concept of product re-design, pla nning and manufacture of components. However, the main problems currently facing the developers of reverse engineering system, is the time consuming digitis ation of 3D data and the conversion of large amounts of data into a concise and manageable format and linking it to a CAD/CAM system. Automated 3-D profile gen eration, measurements and inspection of manufactured comp...

  10. Design and production of a hermetic bayonet isolation valve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fermilab is upgrading the Tevatron for lower temperature/higher beam energy operation. Portions of the satellite refrigeration system will operate below atmospheric pressure after the upgrade is complete. Contamination must be prevented by hermetically sealing the subatmospheric helium to air interfaces. Bayonet connections in the low pressure flow path require a reliable, leak tight isolation valve instead of the standard quarter turn ball valve. Design, development, and production of a new valve are described

  11. Design of liposomal formulations for cell targeting

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, E.; Gomes, Andreia C.; Preto, Ana; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Liposomes have gained extensive attention as carriers for a wide range of drugs due to being both nontoxic and biodegradable as they are composed of substances naturally occurring in biological membranes. Active targeting for cells has explored specific modification of the liposome surface by functionalizing it with specific targeting ligands in order to increase accumulation and intracellular uptake into target cells. None of the Food and Drug Administration-licensed liposomes or lipid nanop...

  12. Microbial electrolysis cells as innovative technology for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hydrogen production is becoming increasingly important in view of using hydrogen in fuel cells. However, most of the production of hydrogen so far comes from the combustion of fossil fuels and water electrolysis. Microbial Electrolysis Cell (MEC), also known as Bioelectrochemically Assisted Microbial Reactor, is an ecologically clean, renewable and innovative technology for hydrogen production. Microbial electrolysis cells produce hydrogen mainly from waste biomass assisted by various bacteria strains. The principle of MECs and their constructional elements are reviewed and discussed. Keywords: microbial Electrolysis Cells, hydrogen production, waste biomass purification

  13. Recombinant Protein Production and Insect Cell Culture and Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, Glenn F. (Inventor); Goodwin, Thomas J. (Inventor); OConnor, Kim C. (Inventor); Francis, Karen M. (Inventor); Andrews, Angela D. (Inventor); Prewett, Tracey L. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A process has been developed for recombinant production of selected polypeptides using transformed insect cells cultured in a horizontally rotating culture vessel modulated to create low shear conditions. A metabolically transformed insect cell line is produced using the culture procedure regardless of genetic transformation. The recombinant polypeptide can be produced by an alternative process using virtually infected or stably transformed insect cells containing a gene encoding the described polypeptide. The insect cells can also be a host for viral production.

  14. Practical application of amorphous solar cells. High quality production technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-08-01

    The targets of the project are to develop production technology of amorphous solar cells for electric power generation which will possess good reproducibility and be highly sensitive to solar light, and to elucidate their technological and economical applicability. During the years of from 1980 to 1982, studies on research and development of amorphous solar cells with multi-layer structure were made, and the conversion efficiency of the amorphous sollar cell was improved to 82.5% (10 cm square cell). (1) Amorphous growth equipment for continuous formation of tandem structure was designed and constructed. Boron concentration when grown in independent separate reaction chambers was found to be less than 1/10 of that grown in the single chanber. Film formation rate of 7/sup 0/ A/sec was achieved using Si/sub 2/H/sub 6/ for the growth of a-Si:H(i). (2) In the technology for stainless steel substrate modules, modules of the sizes specified by NEDO were assembled with the super strail structure employing tempered glass, achieving 4.7% conversion rate. (3) For materials and formation technology of the transparent conductive film grid electrode, light transmittance and resistance of the film made by sputtering evaporation of ITO film were studied. (4) As regards reliability technology, it was found that the tandem structure will greatly decreace the deterioration rate as compared with the single layer structure. The modules with super strait structre proved to be weatherproof. (4 figs)

  15. Sustainable and Intensified Design of a Biodiesel Production Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Ismail, Muhammad I.; Babi, Deenesh Kavi;

    impact and maximum profitability is needed. In this work a computer-aided framework for process synthesis and process intensification is applied for sustainable production of biodiesel from pure/waste palm oil as the feedstock. This approach examines several biodiesel processing routes that were...... collected through available data and current technologies reported in the literature. Using this information, a generic superstructure of processing routes was created that described a network of configurations representing multiple designs for the production of biodiesel. Therefore, based on the currently...... of economic and environmental sustainability was identified. For the case of biodiesel production, the intensified process alternative turned out to be the most economical and more sustainable than other alternatives. The computer-aided methods and tools used in this work are: SustainPro (method and tool...

  16. Metabolic Design and Control for Production in Prokaryotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chhabra, Swapnil R.; Keasling, J.D.

    2010-11-10

    Prokaryotic life on earth is manifested by its diversity and omnipresence. These microbes serve as natural sources of a large variety of compounds with the potential to serve the ever growing, medicinal, chemical and transportation needs of the human population. However, commercially viable production of these compounds can be realized only through significant improvement of the native production capacity of natural isolates. The most favorable way to achieve this goal is through the genetic manipulation of metabolic pathways that direct the production of these molecules. While random mutagenesis and screening have dominated the industrial production of such compounds in the past our increased understanding of microbial physiology over the last five decades has shifted this trend towards rational approaches for metabolic design. Major drivers of this trend include recombinant DNA technology, high throughput characterization of macromolecular cellular components, quantitative modeling for metabolic engine ring, targeted combinatorial engineering and synthetic biology. In this chapter we track the evolution of microbial engineering technologies from the black box era of random mutagenesis to the science and engineering-driven era of metabolic design.

  17. Effects of irradiation on cytokine production in glioma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of irradiation on cytokine production in glioma cell lines, NP1, NP2 and NP3, were studied. Culture supernatants were collected after 6, 24, 48 or 72 hours and the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Spontaneous and IL-1β-stimulated productions were analyzed. Some cells were given a single dose of Lineac irradiation (10 or 20 Gy). Production of IL-6 (with or without IL-1β stimulation) increased gradually to a maximum after 72 hours, more in the 20 Gy-irradiated cells than 10 Gy cells (p<0.01). Production of IL-8 increased gradually to a maximum after 48 or 72 hours. Spontaneous production of IL-8 increased more in 20 Gy-irradiated cells than 10 Gy cells after 6 and 24 hours (p<0.01), but increased more in 10 Gy cells than 20 Gy cells after 48 and 72 hours (p<0.01). The production of IL-8 stimulated by IL-1β increased more in 10 Gy cells than 20 Gy cells 24 hours later (p<0.01). IL-6 and IL-8 production differed in the response to irradiation. Our data suggest that bidirectional communication between the immune system and glioma cells changes after radiotherapy. (author)

  18. Integrated design strategy for product life-cycle management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, G. Patrick

    2001-02-01

    Two major trends suggest new considerations for environmentally conscious manufacturing (ECM) -- the continuation of dematerialization and the growing trend toward goods becoming services. A diversity of existing research could be integrated around those trends in ways that can enhance ECM. Major research-based achievements in information, computation, and communications systems, sophisticated and inexpensive sensing capabilities, highly automated and precise manufacturing technologies, and new materials continue to drive the phenomenon of dematerialization - the reduction of the material and energy content of per capita GDP. Knowledge is also growing about the sociology, economics, mathematics, management and organization of complex socio-economic systems. And that has driven a trend towards goods evolving into services. But even with these significant trends, the value of material, energy, information and human resources incorporated into the manufacture, use and disposal of modern products and services often far exceeds the benefits realized. Multi-disciplinary research integrating these drivers with advances in ECM concepts could be the basis for a new strategy of production. It is argued that a strategy of integrating information resources with physical and human resources over product life cycles, together with considering products as streams of service over time, could lead to significant economic payoff. That strategy leads to an overall design concept to minimize costs of all resources over the product life cycle to more fully capture benefits of all resources incorporated into modern products. It is possible by including life cycle monitoring, periodic component replacement, re-manufacture, salvage and human factor skill enhancement into initial design.

  19. Fuel cell design using a new heuristic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a new method for the pre-design of a typical fuel cell with a structural array of 10 x 10 fuel elements for a BWR is presented. The method is based on principles of maximum dispersion and minimum peaks of local power within the array of fuel elements. The pre-design of the fuel cells is made by simulation in two dimensions (2-D) through the cells physics code CASMO-4. For this purpose of pre-design the search process is guided by an objective function which is a combination of the main neutronic parameters of the fuel cell. The results show that the method is a promising tool that could be used for the design of fuel cells for use in a nuclear plant BWR. (Author)

  20. Can engineered "designer" T cells outsmart chronic hepatitis B?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protzer, U; Abken, H

    2010-01-01

    More than 350 million people worldwide are persistently infected with human heptatitis B virus (HBV) and at risk to develop liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma making long-term treatment necessary. While a vaccine is available and new antiviral drugs are being developed, elimination of persistently infected cells is still a major issue. Recent efforts in adoptive cell therapy are experimentally exploring immunotherapeutic elimination of HBV-infected cells by means of a biological attack with genetically engineered "designer" T cells. PMID:21188203

  1. Design, production and initial state of the deposition tunnel backfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Document available in extended abstract form only. In the Finnish KBS-3V type repository for spent nuclear fuel the deposition tunnels are closed with backfill consisting of different clay based components and a concrete plug constructed at the mouth of the deposition tunnels. The work described in this paper was initiated by Posiva Oy and is reported in Keto et al. (2012). The objectives of the report was to present the design basis, requirements, design, production and initial state of the backfill and to work as background material for the construction license application for the Finnish repository for spent nuclear fuel. This paper is limited to presenting the backfill part of the work. The performance targets for the backfill are to limit advective flow along the deposition tunnels, keep the buffer in place and contribute to the mechanical stability of deposition tunnels. In addition, the chemical composition of the backfill shall not jeopardize the performance of the buffer, canister or bedrock. The backfill design consists of three different main components: foundation layer installed at site, pre-compacted backfill blocks and bentonite pellets. Approximately 86% of the nominal tunnel volume will be filled with backfill blocks and the remaining volume with the other two components. The backfill blocks consist of Friedland clay from Germany with smectite content between 30-38%. The foundation layer material and pellets consist of bentonite clay from Greece with smectite content of 75-90%. The production chain for backfill consists of excavation and processing of the materials at site, delivery, acceptance of the material batch to production, transport, handling and storage of raw materials and components in different phases and manufacturing and installation of backfill components. Quality control is included in all phases of the production chain. The initial state of the backfill describe the material properties of the components and the average properties

  2. Topography of ganglion cell production in the cat's retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ganglion cells of the cat's retina form several classes distinguishable in terms of soma size, axon diameter, dendritic morphology, physiological properties, and central connections. Labeling with [3H]thymidine shows that the ganglion cells which survive in the adult are produced as several temporally shifted, overlapping waves: medium-sized cells are produced before large cells, whereas the smallest ganglion cells are produced throughout the period of ganglion cell generation. Large cells and medium-sized cells show the same distinctive pattern of production, forming rough spirals around the area centralis. The oldest cells tend to lie superior and nasal to the area centralis, whereas cells in the inferior nasal retina and inferior temporal retina are, in general, progressively younger. Within each retinal quadrant, cells nearer the area centralis tend to be older than cells in the periphery, but there is substantial overlap. The retinal raphe divides the superior temporal quadrant into two zones with different patterns of cell addition. Superior temporal retina near the vertical meridian adds cells only slightly later than superior nasal retina, whereas superior temporal retina near the horizontal meridian adds cells very late, contemporaneously with inferior temporal retina. The broader wave of production of smaller ganglion cells seems to follow this same spiral pattern at its beginning and end. The presence of the area centralis as a nodal point about which ganglion cell production in the retinal quadrants pivots suggests that the area centralis is already an important retinal landmark even at the earliest stages of retinal development

  3. Methods for Stem Cell Production and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claudio, Pier Paolo (Inventor); Valluri, Jagan V. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to methods for rapidly expanding a stem cell population with or without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention relates to methods for rapidly increasing the life span of stem cell populations without culture supplements in simulated microgravity conditions. The present invention also relates to methods for increasing the sensitivity of cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions and in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The methods of the present invention can also be used to proliferate cancer cells by culturing them in the presence of omega-3 fatty acids. The present invention also relates to methods for testing the sensitivity of cancer cells and cancer stem cells to chemotherapeutic agents by culturing the cancer cells and cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce tissue for use in transplantation by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors by culturing stem cells or cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions. The methods of the present invention can also be used to produce cellular factors and growth factors to promote differentiation of cancer stem cells under microgravity conditions.

  4. Design for Sustainability: Current Trends in Sustainable Product Design and Development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clark, G.; Kosoris, J.; Nguyen Hong, L.; Crul, M.

    2009-01-01

    The Design for Sustainability (D4S) concept outlines methodologies for making sustainable improvements (social, economic and environmental) to products by applying elements of life cycle thinking. D4S builds on the work of ecodesign to include economic and social concerns, and its methodology includ

  5. Design Report for ACP Hot Cell Rear Door

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ku, J. H.; Kwon, K. C.; Choung, W. M.; Cho, I. J.; Kook, D. H.; Lee, W. K.; You, G. S.; Lee, E. P.; Park, S. W

    2005-12-15

    A hot-cell facility was constructed at the IMEF building for the demonstrate ACP process. ACP hot-cell consists of process cell and maintenance cell, and each cell has rear door. Since this facility was constructed at basement floor, all process materials, equipment and radioactive materials are take in and out through the rear door. Also, this door can be an access route of workers for the maintenance works. Therefore ACP hot-cell rear doors must maintain the radiation shielding, sealing, mechanical and structural safety. This report presents design criteria, design contents of each part and driving part. It was confirmed that the rear doors sufficiently maintain the safety through the structural analysis and shielding analysis. Also, it was confirmed that the rear doors were constructed as designed by the gamma scanning test after the installation.

  6. Small Cell Layouts Based on Accounting Product Demand and Operating Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常剑峰; 钟约先; 韩赞东

    2004-01-01

    Most current cell layout methods do not take into account the product demand and operating sequences, and may be too sophisticated for facilities with a relatively small number of products. A specific method for designing small manufacturing cells was developed especially for the press production lines, which is computationally simple, and yet considers product demand and the operating sequences. A simulated application illustrates the robustness of the layouts to demand changes. The method uses simple rules and database tools, so it is accessible to a wide range of facilities.

  7. Optimization of Extracellular Lipase Production by Penicillium chrysogenum Using Factorial Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafei, M. S.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of oxygen on lipase production by Penicillium chrysogenum was studied under two operating modes, controlled aeration rate tested and controlled agitation at dissolved oxygen concentration (DO 1.00 vvm. Lipase production and cell dry weight were tested in a stirred batch fermenter 5 L. Improvement in oxygen transfer rate (OTR either by aeration or agitation resulted in an increase in lipase production. Growth curves and lipase activities of P.chrysogenum were examined at agitation rates (200,400,600 rpm, aeration rates (2,4 vvm at different fermentation periods (24,48,72,96,120 h. Response Surface Methodology (RSM using Design Expert software was used to study the effect of aeration, agitation, and fermentation time on lipase activity and cell dry weight. These factors were analyzed using 21. 32 level factorial design. An optimal set of conditions that maximize lipase production: (2 vvm aeration; 600 rpm agitation after 72 h was obtained. The maximum lipase activity obtained was 240 U/mL. Beside lipase activity, this paper also studies the optimal combination of the controllable factors (aeration; agitation and fermentation time that will maximize the cell dry weight.

  8. Communication through design : why do we love some products more than the others

    OpenAIRE

    Calado, Elçin Aleixo, 1980-

    2014-01-01

    Designers cannot have direct contact with all the population for whom they design the mass-produced products. Once the product is designed, it exists independently apart from its designer’s control. In this manner, design can be considered as a process of communication, where the designer’s intentions related to product is transmitted to the consumer via product form. After that, the consumer interprets the product without direct access to the designer or his/her intentions, and therefore the...

  9. Systematic Methodology for Design of Tailor-Made Blended Products: Fuels and Other Blended Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti

    A tailor-made blended liquid product is defined as a formulation of various chemicals in the liquid state to obtain a liquid mixture with a specific set of desired characteristics and qualities. Examples of blended liquid products are synthetic fuels and lubricants. This type of products is very ...... methodology and tools was tested through two case studies. In the first case study, two different gasoline blend problems have been solved. In the second case study, four different lubricant design problems have been solved....

  10. Preliminary Design Report for the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    US Bonneville Power Administration

    1990-04-01

    A master plan for the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project (YKPP) was developed by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) on October 15, 1987, as a reasonable basis upon which the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) could proceed to fund predesign work on the project. The Council approved the predesign work on the condition that eight preliminary tasks were completed. These tasks are: Task 1. Agreement on a refined statement of project goals. Task 2. Completion of a technical analysis of water supplies. Task 3. Completion of an experimental design plan. Task 4. Development of a harvest management plan. Task 5. Assessment of potential genetic risks. Task 6. Project coordination with all other affected parties. Task 7. Submission of a preliminary design report to the Council. Task 8. Develop a project management structure. The preliminary design report summarizes the work completed on these tasks. It provides a description of the preliminary design, engineering, and construction phases of project development, and gives an estimate of project costs. Also included is a description of other studies that were conducted to support YKPP planning. The results of studies conducted during the last 30 months indicate that hatchery facilities can be built in the Yakima and Klickitat subbasins to provide harvest benefits and to supplement natural production. Planning for the Yakima subbasin is at a more advanced stage of development than for the Klickitat subbasin because of greater availability of basic resource information. The information needed to proceed with final design and construction for the Klickitat subbasin will be available by 1992, as ongoing predesign work continues. This schedule is consistent with the anticipated phased completion of the YKPP by 1997.

  11. Preliminary design of the Delft Isotope Production Reactor (DIPR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The abundant and strongly growing use of Technetium-99m in medical diagnostics depends on just a few producers and processors of Molybdenum-99 world-wide, making the molybdenum supply chain very sensitive to interruptions. New production routes are needed, especially be-cause some of the reactors used for the production of this isotope will soon reach the end of their economic lifetime. In this paper a preliminary design of a special purpose isotope production reactor, named DIPR, is presented, which could produce about 8% of the world-wide demand. The reactor design is based on aqueous homogeneous reactors studied in the past and has been evaluated using coupled neutronics and CFD calculations. Both steady state and transient analyses have been carried out, showing the mild behavior of the reactor in various situations. The consequences of an operation error leading to an increase of the uranium concentration in the fuel solution has to be investigated in greater detail, taking into account a more complete physics model. Until now, no show stopper has been identified and the DIPR seems a promising reactor for securing the isotope supply chain. (author)

  12. Factorial Design to Optimize Biosurfactant Production by Yarrowia lipolytica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizele Cardoso Fontes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve biosurfactant production by Yarrowia lipolytica IMUFRJ 50682, a factorial design was carried out. A 24 full factorial design was used to investigate the effects of nitrogen sources (urea, ammonium sulfate, yeast extract, and peptone on maximum variation of surface tension (ΔST and emulsification index (EI. The best results (67.7% of EI and 20.9 mN m−1 of ΔST were obtained in a medium composed of 10 g 1−1 of ammonium sulfate and 0.5 g 1−1 of yeast extract. Then, the effects of carbon sources (glycerol, hexadecane, olive oil, and glucose were evaluated. The most favorable medium for biosurfactant production was composed of both glucose (4% w/v and glycerol (2% w/v, which provided an EI of 81.3% and a ΔST of 19.5 mN m−1. The experimental design optimization enhanced ΔEI by 110.7% and ΔST by 108.1% in relation to the standard process.

  13. The HDF Product Designer - Interoperability in the First Mile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H.; Jelenak, A.; Habermann, T.

    2014-12-01

    Interoperable data have been a long-time goal in many scientific communities. The recent growth in analysis, visualization and mash-up applications that expect data stored in a standardized manner has brought the interoperability issue to the fore. On the other hand, producing interoperable data is often regarded as a sideline task in a typical research team for which resources are not readily available. The HDF Group is developing a software tool aimed at lessening the burden of creating data in standards-compliant, interoperable HDF5 files. The tool, named HDF Product Designer, lowers the threshold needed to design such files by providing a user interface that combines the rich HDF5 feature set with applicable metadata conventions. Users can quickly devise new HDF5 files while at the same time seamlessly incorporating the latest best practices and conventions from their community. That is what the term interoperability in the first mile means: enabling generation of interoperable data in HDF5 files from the onset of their production. The tool also incorporates collaborative features, allowing team approach in the file design, as well as easy transfer of best practices as they are being developed. The current state of the tool and the plans for future development will be presented. Constructive input from interested parties is always welcome.

  14. Arecoline decreases interleukin-6 production and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human basal cell carcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arecoline, the most abundant areca alkaloid, has been reported to decrease interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in epithelial cancer cells. Since IL-6 overexpression contributes to the tumorigenic potency of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), this study was designed to investigate whether arecoline altered IL-6 expression and its downstream regulation of apoptosis and the cell cycle in cultured BCC-1/KMC cells. BCC-1/KMC cells and a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, were treated with arecoline at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 μg/ml, then IL-6 production and expression of apoptosis- and cell cycle progress-related factors were examined. After 24 h exposure, arecoline inhibited BCC-1/KMC cell growth and decreased IL-6 production in terms of mRNA expression and protein secretion, but had no effect on HaCaT cells. Analysis of DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation showed that arecoline induced apoptosis of BCC-1/KMC cells in a dose-dependent manner, activated caspase-3, and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. In addition, arecoline induced progressive and sustained accumulation of BCC-1/KMC cells in G2/M phase as a result of reducing checkpoint Cdc2 activity by decreasing Cdc25C phosphatase levels and increasing p53 levels. Furthermore, subcutaneous injection of arecoline led to decreased BCC-1/KMC tumor growth in BALB/c mice by inducing apoptosis. This study demonstrates that arecoline has potential for preventing BCC tumorigenesis by reducing levels of the tumor cell survival factor IL-6, increasing levels of the tumor suppressor factor p53, and eliciting cell cycle arrest, followed by apoptosis. Highlights: ► Arecoline has potential to prevent against basal cell carcinoma tumorigenesis. ► It has more effectiveness on BCC as compared with a human keratinocyte cell line. ► Mechanisms involved including reducing tumor cells’ survival factor IL-6, ► Decreasing Cdc25C phosphatase, enhancing tumor suppressor factor p53, ► Eliciting G2/M

  15. Arecoline decreases interleukin-6 production and induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human basal cell carcinoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Li-Wen [Department of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Bau-Shan; Cheng, Hsiao-Ling [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Hu, Yu-Chen [Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Chang, Wen-Tsan [Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Division of Hepatobiliarypancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Chang, Kee-Lung, E-mail: Chang.KeeLung@msa.hinet.net [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan (China)

    2012-01-15

    Arecoline, the most abundant areca alkaloid, has been reported to decrease interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels in epithelial cancer cells. Since IL-6 overexpression contributes to the tumorigenic potency of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), this study was designed to investigate whether arecoline altered IL-6 expression and its downstream regulation of apoptosis and the cell cycle in cultured BCC-1/KMC cells. BCC-1/KMC cells and a human keratinocyte cell line, HaCaT, were treated with arecoline at concentrations ranging from 10 to 100 μg/ml, then IL-6 production and expression of apoptosis- and cell cycle progress-related factors were examined. After 24 h exposure, arecoline inhibited BCC-1/KMC cell growth and decreased IL-6 production in terms of mRNA expression and protein secretion, but had no effect on HaCaT cells. Analysis of DNA fragmentation and chromatin condensation showed that arecoline induced apoptosis of BCC-1/KMC cells in a dose-dependent manner, activated caspase-3, and decreased expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. In addition, arecoline induced progressive and sustained accumulation of BCC-1/KMC cells in G2/M phase as a result of reducing checkpoint Cdc2 activity by decreasing Cdc25C phosphatase levels and increasing p53 levels. Furthermore, subcutaneous injection of arecoline led to decreased BCC-1/KMC tumor growth in BALB/c mice by inducing apoptosis. This study demonstrates that arecoline has potential for preventing BCC tumorigenesis by reducing levels of the tumor cell survival factor IL-6, increasing levels of the tumor suppressor factor p53, and eliciting cell cycle arrest, followed by apoptosis. Highlights: ► Arecoline has potential to prevent against basal cell carcinoma tumorigenesis. ► It has more effectiveness on BCC as compared with a human keratinocyte cell line. ► Mechanisms involved including reducing tumor cells’ survival factor IL-6, ► Decreasing Cdc25C phosphatase, enhancing tumor suppressor factor p53, ► Eliciting G2/M

  16. Freezing mammalian cells for production of biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Gargi

    2012-03-01

    Cryopreservation techniques utilize very low temperatures to preserve the structure and function of living cells. Various strategies have been developed for freezing mammalian cells of biological and medical significance. This paper highlights the importance and application of cryopreservation for recombinant mammalian cells used in the biopharmaceutical industry to produce high-value protein therapeutics. It is a primer that aims to give insight into the basic principles of cell freezing for the benefit of biopharmaceutical researchers with limited or no prior experience in cryobiology. For the more familiar researchers, key cell banking parameters such as the cell density and hold conditions have been reviewed to possibly help optimize their specific cell freezing protocols. It is important to understand the mechanisms underlying the freezing of complex and sensitive cellular entities as we implement best practices around the techniques and strategies used for cryopreservation. PMID:22226818

  17. Integrated Computer-aided Framework for Sustainable Chemical Product Design and Evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalakul, Sawitree; Cignitti, Stefano; Zhang, Lei;

    2016-01-01

    This work proposes an integrated model-based framework for chemical product design and evaluation based on which the software, VPPD-Lab (The Virtual Product-Process Design Laboratory) has been developed. The framework allows the following options: (1) design a product using design templates, such...... product design templates when the desired template is not available. The product design templates follow the same common steps in the workflow for a product type but have options to employ product specific property models, data and calculation routines, if necessary. This paper highlights the application...... of the templates for three case studies: (i) the design of a refrigeration cycle, (ii) a mixture/blend design problem involving lubricant design and (iii) a tailor-made product design of jet-fuels (blended chemical products)....

  18. Design, Modeling, and Development of Microbial Cell Factories

    KAUST Repository

    Kodzius, Rimantas

    2014-03-26

    Using Metagenomic analysis, computational modeling, single cell and genome editing technologies, we will express desired microbial genes and their networks in suitable hosts for mass production of energy, food, and fine chemicals.

  19. Design considerations for silicon HLE solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindholm, F. A.; Neugroschel, A.; Pao, S. C.; Fossum, J. G.; Sah, C. T.

    1978-01-01

    The high-low (H-L) junction in the emitter region that defines the high-low-junction emitter (HLE) solar cell suppresses the dark emitter recombination current J sub E so that the base recombination current dominates in determining the open-circuit voltage. For silicon cells this enables the achievement of considerably larger values of open-circuit voltage than those achievable in conventional structures. This paper describes experiments that demonstrate the achievement of J sub E suppression (to less than 5 x 10 to the -14th A/sq cm) and large open-circuit voltage (640 mV) in HLE test cells of two distinct types. In the first type (the diffused HLE structure) impurity diffusion forms the H-L junction in the emitter; in the second type (the oxide-charge-induced HLE structure) the H-L junction is formed in emitter material of relatively low doping concentration by an oxide-charge-induced electron accumulation layer.

  20. User experienced dimensions in product design : a consolidation of what academic researchers know and what design practitioners do

    OpenAIRE

    BLANCHY, Kerstin; Bouchard, Carole; Bonnardel, Nathalie; LOCKNER, Damien; AOUSSAT, Améziane

    2015-01-01

    Experience has become the new paradigm of product design. Designers seek to anticipate emotions or associations a user might have when in contact with their design. The factors that influence human product perception are diverse. We firstly show which product dimensions are currently investigated by design researchers. It becomes obvious that besides the usual suspects: form and colour, emotion and associations, there must be many others. We conducted a study to identify these and to estimate...

  1. Broadband back grating design for thin film solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Janjua, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, design based on tapered circular grating structure was studied, to provide broadband enhancement in thin film amorphous silicon solar cells. In comparison to planar structure an absorption enhancement of ~ 7% was realized.

  2. Study on Distributed Knowledge Information System for Product Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shouqin; CHIN Kwai Sang; LING Weiqing; XIE Youbai

    2001-01-01

    To overcome the limitations of commercial CAD and handbook form of knowledge expression, the Distributed Knowledge Information System (DKIS) for product design is proposed. The structure of DKIS and the key issues in its implementation are introduced; the method of knowledge store and transfer of DKIS is discussed. The mechanism of knowledge representation, acquisition and utilization, based on Internet network, is achieved. Based on the concept of function driven, integrated Artificial Neural Networks and Active Server Pages techniques, transplanting the trained ANN into DKIS system, a new method for retrieving knowledge in DKIS over Internet is achieved. Finally, a prototype of DKIS is developed to demonstrate the feasibility of the structure and constructional method of DKIS. The work provides a scheme for speed knowledge acquisition and shortens the cycle of product development.

  3. Fabrication of Complex Optical Components From Mold Design to Product

    CERN Document Server

    Riemer, Oltmann; Gläbe, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    High quality optical components for consumer products made of glass and plastic are mostly fabricated by replication. This highly developed production technology requires several consecutive, well-matched processing steps called a "process chain" covering all steps from mold design, advanced machining and coating of molds, up to the actual replication and final precision measurement of the quality of the optical components. Current market demands for leading edge optical applications require high precision and cost effective parts in large volumes. For meeting these demands it is necessary to develop high quality process chains and moreover, to crosslink all demands and interdependencies within these process chains. The Transregional Collaborative Research Center "Process chains for the replication of complex optical elements" at Bremen, Aachen and Stillwater worked extensively and thoroughly in this field from 2001 to 2012. This volume will present the latest scientific results for the complete process chain...

  4. Adaptability Feature's Concept, Modeling and Application in Product Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BaiYuewei; ChenZhuoning; WeiShuangyu; BinHongzan

    2003-01-01

    The current 3D CAD/CAM system, both research prototypes and commercial systems, based on traditional feature modeling are always hampered by the problems in their complicated modeling and difficult maintaining. This paper introduces a new method for modeling parts by using adaptability feature (AF), by which the consistent relationship among parts and assemblies can be maintained in whole design process. In addition, the design process, can be speeded, time-to-market shortened, and product quality improved. Some essential issues of the strategy are discussed. A system, KMCAD3D, by taking advantages of AF has been developed. It is shown that the method discussed is a feasible and effective way to improve current feature modeling technology.

  5. Feature-based multiresolution techniques for product design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEE Sang Hun; LEE Kunwoo

    2006-01-01

    3D computer-aided design (CAD) systems based on feature-based solid modelling technique have been widely spread and used for product design. However, when part models associated with features are used in various downstream applications,simplified models in various levels of detail (LODs) are frequently more desirable than the full details of the parts. In particular,the need for feature-based multiresolution representation of a solid model representing an object at multiple LODs in the feature unit is increasing for engineering tasks. One challenge is to generate valid models at various LODs after an arbitrary rearrangement of features using a certain LOD criterion, because composite Boolean operations consisting of union and subtraction are not commutative. The other challenges are to devise proper topological framework for multiresolution representation, to suggest more reasonable LOD criteria, and to extend applications. This paper surveys the recent research on these issues.

  6. Architectural design and production beyond the rule of art

    OpenAIRE

    Massimo Lauria; Francesca Giglio

    2011-01-01

    In the construction sector among the reasons that raise the idea of a crisis of the project, some related to technical information and its impacts on the construction’s quality.The certainties of the rules of art, lapse in comparison with the new role taken on by production in the decision-making and construction processes and in particular in the relationship designer-enterprise. Any technical solution, it is now difficult to define «conform», because of information sources...

  7. Conceiving product ideas in an initial and uncertain design situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Claus Thorp; Andreasen, Mogens Myrup

    2006-01-01

    , which carry innovation. Traditional approaches to conceptualisation are no longer sufficient. Too many engineering designers have practiced or cultivated a one-sided product quality focus and too many believe that creativity can compensate for a lack of knowledge and insight into the users’ perception...... authors believe that our research work contains an new contribution to theory, and that we have established a strong justification for the ontology, but we have to emphasize that the ontology has not yet been applied by students or in industrial practice. A test and verification of the ontology still...

  8. Design & development of innovative proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    OpenAIRE

    Carton, James

    2011-01-01

    The research undertaken in this thesis is concerned with the design and development of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells and provides a body of information for continued PEM fuel cell development, which will ideally aid in the future commercialisation of these electrochemical devices. Through a combination of numerical analysis, computational fluid dynamic modelling and experimental work, effective flow plate designs, flow field configurations and materials are analysed and new inn...

  9. Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) program conceptual design and product development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-31

    Achieving the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) goals of 60% efficiency, single-digit NO{sub x}, and 10% electric power cost reduction imposes competing characteristics on the gas turbine system. Two basic technical issues arise from this. The turbine inlet temperature of the gas turbine must increase to achieve both efficiency and cost goals. However, higher temperatures move in the direction of increased NO{sub x} emission. Improved coatings and materials technologies along with creative combustor design can result in solutions to achieve the ultimate goal. GE`s view of the market, in conjunction with the industrial and utility objectives, requires the development of Advanced Gas Turbine Systems which encompass two potential products: a new aeroderivative combined-cycle system for the industrial market, and a combined-cycle system for the utility sector that is based on an advanced frame machine. The GE Advanced Gas Turbine Development program is focused on two specific products: (1) a 70 MW class industrial gas turbine based on the GE90 core technology utilizing an innovative air cooling methodology; (2) a 200 MW class utility gas turbine based on an advanced Ge heavy-duty machine utilizing advanced cooling and enhancement in component efficiency. Both of these activities required the identification and resolution of technical issues critical to achieving ATS goals. The emphasis for the industrial ATS was placed upon innovative cycle design and low emission combustion. The emphasis for the utility ATS was placed on developing a technology base for advanced turbine cooling, while utilizing demonstrated and planned improvements in low emission combustion. Significant overlap in the development programs will allow common technologies to be applied to both products. GE Power Systems is solely responsible for offering GE products for the industrial and utility markets.

  10. Overview of Production of Protein Using Cell-free Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Fei Philip

    2014-01-01

    One of the most important steps in protein research is production of the target protein. Cell based systems are mature tools that have long been used to express recombinant proteins by manipulation of the expression organisms. However, it is often challenging to find suitable cell systems that allow for rapid screening of conditions and constructs to produce properly folded, functional proteins in a cost effective manner. As a result, cell-free protein production emerged as an attractive alte...

  11. Design and Control of High Temperature PEM Fuel Cell System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Søren Juhl

    often during a normal driving cycle. The combination of batteries and super capacitors together with fuel cells can improve the system performance, lifetime and cost. Simple systems can be designed where the fuel cells and batteries are directly connected, but the introduction of power electronics can...

  12. Block 4 solar cell module design and test specification for intermediate load center applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Requirements for performance of terrestrial solar cell modules intended for use in various test applications are established. During the 1979-80 time period, such applications are expected to be in the 20 to 500 kilowatt size range. A series of characterization and qualification tests necessary to certify the module design for production, and the necessary performance test for acceptance of modules are specified.

  13. Topology optimization for designing strain-gauge load cells

    OpenAIRE

    Takezawa, Akihiro; Nishiwaki, Shinji; Kitamura, Mitsuru; C. N. Silva, Emílio

    2010-01-01

    Load cells are used extensively in engineering fields. This paper describes a novel structural optimization method for single- and multi-axis load cell structures. First, we briefly explain the topology optimization method that uses the solid isotropic material with penalization (SIMP) method. Next, we clarify the mechanical requirements and design specifications of the single- and multi-axis load cell structures, which are formulated as an objective function. In the case of multi-axis load c...

  14. Design of microdevices for long-term live cell imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in fluorescent live cell imaging provide high-content information that relates a cell's life events to its ancestors. An important requirement to track clonal growth and development is the retention of motile cells derived from an ancestor within the same microscopic field of view for days to weeks, while recording fluorescence images and controlling the mechanical and biochemical microenvironments that regulate cell growth and differentiation. The aim of this study was to design a microwell device for long-term, time-lapse imaging of motile cells with the specific requirements of (a) inoculating devices with an average of one cell per well and (b) retaining progeny of cells within a single microscopic field of view for extended growth periods. A two-layer PDMS microwell culture device consisting of a parallel-plate flow cell bonded on top of a microwell array was developed for cell capture and clonal culture. Cell deposition statistics were related to microwell geometry (plate separation and well depth) and the Reynolds number. Computational fluid dynamics was used to simulate flow in the microdevices as well as cell–fluid interactions. Analysis of the forces acting upon a cell was used to predict cell docking zones, which were confirmed by experimental observations. Cell–fluid dynamic interactions are important considerations for design of microdevices for long-term, live cell imaging. The analysis of force and torque balance provides a reasonable approximation for cell displacement forces. It is computationally less intensive compared to simulation of cell trajectories, and can be applied to a wide range of microdevice geometries to predict the cell docking behavior. (paper)

  15. Adaptive designs based on the truncated product method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuhäuser Markus

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adaptive designs are becoming increasingly important in clinical research. One approach subdivides the study into several (two or more stages and combines the p-values of the different stages using Fisher's combination test. Methods Alternatively to Fisher's test, the recently proposed truncated product method (TPM can be applied to combine the p-values. The TPM uses the product of only those p-values that do not exceed some fixed cut-off value. Here, these two competing analyses are compared. Results When an early termination due to insufficient effects is not appropriate, such as in dose-response analyses, the probability to stop the trial early with the rejection of the null hypothesis is increased when the TPM is applied. Therefore, the expected total sample size is decreased. This decrease in the sample size is not connected with a loss in power. The TPM turns out to be less advantageous, when an early termination of the study due to insufficient effects is possible. This is due to a decrease of the probability to stop the trial early. Conclusion It is recommended to apply the TPM rather than Fisher's combination test whenever an early termination due to insufficient effects is not suitable within the adaptive design.

  16. Design for Sustainability: Current Trends in Sustainable Product Design and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Marcel Crul; Long Nguyen Hong; Garrette Clark; Justin Kosoris

    2009-01-01

    The Design for Sustainability (D4S) concept outlines methodologies for making sustainable improvements (social, economic and environmental) to products by applying elements of life cycle thinking. D4S builds on the work of ecodesign to include economic and social concerns, and its methodology includes both incremental and radical innovation. The United Nations Environment Programme and the Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, in concert with key partners, work to support, illustra...

  17. Potential of optical design in tandem micromorph silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krc, J.; Campa, A.; Smole, F.; Topic, M.

    2006-04-01

    The potential of three advanced optical designs in tandem micromorph silicon solar cells are analysed by means of optical simulations: enhanced light scattering, intermediate reflector (interlayer) and antireflective coating (ARC) on glass. The effects on quantum efficiency, QE, and short circuit current density, J SC, of the top and bottom cell are investigated. In case of enhanced light scattering, the role of haze parameter and angular distribution function of scattered light is analysed separately. High haze parameter improves light trapping in top and bottom cell. However, the improvement in QE and J SC of the bottom cell is limited at higher haze parameters due to increased absorption in top cell and increased optical losses in realistic textured ZnO/Ag back contact. Broad ADF plays an important role for improving the performances of both, top and bottom cell. The role of refractive index of an interlayer between top and bottom cell is analysed. Significant increases in QE and J SC of the top cell are revealed for small refractive indexes of the interlayer (n cell is observed. Optimisation of thickness and refractive index of a single-layer ARC on glass is carried out in order to obtain maximal J SC either in top or in bottom cell. Moderate increases in J SC and QE are obtained for optimised ARC parameters. Among the three optical designs, the greatest potential, considering the improvements in both cells, is revealed for enhanced light scattering.

  18. Regulatory T cells Enhance Mast Cell Production of IL-6 via Surface-bound TGFβ1

    OpenAIRE

    Ganeshan, Kirthana; Bryce, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Mast cell degranulation is a hallmark of allergic reactions but mast cells can also produce many cytokines that modulate immunity. Recently, CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been shown to inhibit mast cell degranulation and anaphylaxis but their influence on cytokine production remained unknown. Here, we show that, rather than inhibit, Tregs actually enhance mast cell production of IL-6. We demonstrate that, while inhibition of degranulation was OX40/OX40L dependent, enhancement of IL-6 ...

  19. Optimizing PHB and Protease Production by Box Behnken Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amro Abd al fattah Amara

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mixed culture is more suitable to adapt more flexible fermentation process and produce different product simultaneously. In this study a mixed Bacillus culture was investigated for their ability to produce the bioplastic "Polyhydroxybutyrate" and both of the mesophilic and the thermophilic proteases in one flask. Box-Behnken experimental design was used. The produced amount of PHB has been increased significantly. Meanwhile there is a competition between PHB and proteases. The maximum produced amount of PHB using Box-Behnken design was 2.82 g/l/48 h with protease activity equal to 41.9 Units/ml/48 h for thermophilic proteases and 99.65 Units/ml/48 h for mesophilic proteases. Excel solver was used for extra-optimization for the optimum conditions obtained from Box-Behnken experiments and its model. The maximum PHB obtained after using Excel solver was 2.88 g/l/48 h. The maximum mesophilic and thermophilic activities obtained at the same PHB production conditions were 175.68 and 243.38 Units/ml respectively. The model accuracy as obtained from Excel solver was 118.8%, which prove the power of the experimental design in optimizing such complicated process. The strategies used in this study are recommended for the production of PHB and different proteases simultaneously using Bacillus mixed culture. ABSTRAK: Kultur campuran adalah lebih sesuai bagi proses penapaian yang fleksibel dan ia boleh menghasilkan produk yang berbeza secara serentak. Dalam kajian ini keupayaan  menghasilkan "Polyhydroxybutyrate" bioplastik serta mesofilik dan termofilik protease dalam satu flask oleh  kultur Bacillus campuran telah disiasat. Eksperimen rekabentuk Box-Behnken telah digunakan. Jumlah PHB yang dikeluarkan meningkat dengan ketara dan terdapat persaingan antara PHB dan protease. Jumlah keluaran PHB maksima menggunakan rekabentuk Box-Behnken adalah 2.82 g/l/48 jam dengan aktiviti protease sama dengan 41.9 Unit/ml/48 jam untuk protease termofilik dan 99.65 Unit

  20. STUDY ON INNOVATION AND MANAGEMENT OF THE OBJECTIVE STAGE IN PRODUCT DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Long, Yin-Cheng; Lin, Zhu; Rang, Kong-Fan

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, innovation and management during the objective stage of the product design process are studied. The idea of innovation for the whole product concept at the objective design stage was put forward in view of the overall development trends and mode of product design. The strategies of product innovation as well as its related process are also discussed. Finally, some recommendations regarding diminishing uncertainty in this stage of product design process are being made.

  1. Lipopolysaccharide induces IFN-γ production in human NK cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid M Kanevskiy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available NK cells have been shown to play a regulatory role in sepsis. According to the current view, NK cells become activated via macrophages or dendritic cells primed by lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Recently TLR4 gene expression was detected in human NK cells suggesting the possibility of a direct action of LPS on NK cells. In this study, effects of LPS on NK cell cytokine production and cytotoxicity were studied using highly purified human NK cells. LPS induced IFN-γ production in the presence of IL-2 in cell populations containing >98% CD56+ cells. Surprisingly, in the same experiments LPS decreased NK cell degranulation. No significant expression of markers related to blood dendritic cells, monocytes or T or B lymphocytes in the NK cell preparations was observed; the portions of HLA-DRbright, CD14+, CD3+ and CD20+ cells amounted to less than 0.1% within the cell populations. No more than 0.2% of NK cells were shown to be slightly positive for surface TLR4 in our experimental system, although intracellular staining revealed moderate amounts of TLR4 inside the NK cell population. These cells were negative for surface CD14, the receptor participating in LPS recognition by TLR4. Incubation of NK cells with IL-2 or/and LPS did not lead to an increase in TLR4 surface expression. TLR4–CD56+ NK cells isolated by cell sorting secreted IFN-γ in response to LPS. Antibody to TLR4 did not block the LPS-induced increase in IFN-γ production. We have also shown that Re-form of LPS lacking outer core oligosaccharide and O-antigen induces less cytokine production in NK cells than full length LPS. We speculate that the polysaccharide fragments of LPS molecule may take part in LPS-induced IFN-γ production by NK cells. Collectively our data suggest the existence of a mechanism of LPS direct action on NK cells distinct from established TLR4-mediated signaling.

  2. Designing Cell-Compatible Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seliktar, Dror

    2012-06-01

    Hydrogels are polymeric materials distinguished by high water content and diverse physical properties. They can be engineered to resemble the extracellular environment of the body’s tissues in ways that enable their use in medical implants, biosensors, and drug-delivery devices. Cell-compatible hydrogels are designed by using a strategy of coordinated control over physical properties and bioactivity to influence specific interactions with cellular systems, including spatial and temporal patterns of biochemical and biomechanical cues known to modulate cell behavior. Important new discoveries in stem cell research, cancer biology, and cellular morphogenesis have been realized with model hydrogel systems premised on these designs. Basic and clinical applications for hydrogels in cell therapy, tissue engineering, and biomedical research continue to drive design improvements using performance-based materials engineering paradigms.

  3. Graphics Innovation Design Based on Cell Intuition Simulation Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Zhi-qiu; REN Na; ZHAO Ting-ting; CUI Lun-feng

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new cell intuition simulation method which is a combination of intuitive simulation calculation method and the operation of binary image, and applied it in the innovation of the graphic design process. First of all, we study how to express a variety of graphics, and establish the definition of cell intuitive model, work out the cell intuitive operation process and many new cellular operators such as a variety of matrix blocks crossover operator, a variety of matrix blocks mutation operator, matrix blocks replace operator, matrix blocks compression operator, matrix blocks extension operator. By choosing two or more cells and selecting the artificial selection or fitness selection, we can set up and visualize the design and pick the best design results .Finally, validation is made on this algorithm by an example, and a innovation graphic is also represented.

  4. Center for Intelligent Fuel Cell Materials Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santurri, P.R., (Chemsultants International); Hartmann-Thompson, C.; Keinath, S.E. (Michigan Molecular Inst.)

    2008-08-26

    The goal of this work was to develop a composite proton exchange membrane utilizing 1) readily available, low cost materials 2) readily modified and 3) easily processed to meet the chemical, mechanical and electrical requirements of high temperature PEM fuel cells. One of the primary goals was to produce a conducting polymer that met the criteria for strength, binding capability for additives, chemical stability, dimensional stability and good conductivity. In addition compatible, specialty nanoparticles were synthesized to provide water management and enhanced conductivity. The combination of these components in a multilayered, composite PEM has demonstrated improved conductivity at high temperatures and low humidity over commercially available polymers. The research reported in this final document has greatly increased the knowledge base related to post sulfonation of chemically and mechanically stable engineered polymers (Radel). Both electrical and strength factors for the degree of post sulfonation far exceed previous data, indicating the potential use of these materials in suitable proton exchange membrane architectures for the development of fuel cells. In addition compatible, hydrophilic, conductive nano-structures have been synthesized and incorporated into unique proton exchange membrane architectures. The use of post sulfonation for the engineered polymer and nano-particle provide cost effective techniques to produce the required components of a proton exchange membrane. The development of a multilayer proton exchange membrane as described in our work has produced a highly stable membrane at 170°C with conductivities exceeding commercially available proton exchange membranes at high temperatures and low humidity. The components and architecture of the proton exchange membrane discussed will provide low cost components for the portable market and potentially the transportation market. The development of unique components and membrane architecture

  5. Viral vaccines and their manufacturing cell substrates: New trends and designs in modern vaccinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Ana F; Soares, Hugo R; Guerreiro, Miguel R; Alves, Paula M; Coroadinha, Ana S

    2015-09-01

    Vaccination is one of the most effective interventions in global health. The worldwide vaccination programs significantly reduced the number of deaths caused by infectious agents. A successful example was the eradication of smallpox in 1979 after two centuries of vaccination campaigns. Since the first variolation administrations until today, the knowledge on immunology has increased substantially. This knowledge combined with the introduction of cell culture and DNA recombinant technologies revolutionized vaccine design. This review will focus on vaccines against human viral pathogens, recent developments on vaccine design and cell substrates used for their manufacture. While the production of attenuated and inactivated vaccines requires the use of the respective permissible cell substrates, the production of recombinant antigens, virus-like particles, vectored vaccines and chimeric vaccines requires the use - and often the development - of specific cell lines. Indeed, the development of novel modern viral vaccine designs combined with, the stringent safety requirements for manufacture, and the better understanding on animal cell metabolism and physiology are increasing the awareness on the importance of cell line development and engineering areas. A new era of modern vaccinology is arriving, offering an extensive toolbox to materialize novel and creative ideas in vaccine design and its manufacture. PMID:26212697

  6. Teaching Design in Television Production Technology: The Twelve Steps of Preproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Henry L. (Hal), III; Loveland, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Extensive planning must be used to produce television programs. Students must develop sound design practices and understand these attributes of design in their production planning. Through the design and planning processes involved in television production, students learn that design is a creative process, and that there is no perfect design, but…

  7. Underground openings production line 2012. Design, production and initial state of the underground openings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    The Underground Openings Line Production Line report describes the design requirements, the design principles, the methods of construction and the target properties for the underground rooms required for the final repository. It is one of five Production Line reports, namely the: Underground Openings Line report, Canister report, Buffer report, Backfill report, Closure report. Together, these reports cover the lifespan of the underground phases of the final repository from the start of construction of the underground rooms to their closure. Posiva has developed reference methods for constructing the underground rooms. Tunnels will be constructed using the drill and blast technique, shafts will be constructed using raise boring and the deposition holes will be constructed by reverse down reaming. Underground openings will be made safe by reinforcement by using rock bolts, net or shotcrete, depending on which type of opening is being considered, and groundwater inflows will be limited by grouting. Posiva's requirements management system (VAHA) sets out the specifications for the enactment of the disposal concept at Olkiluoto under five Levels - 1 to 5, from the most generic to the most specific. In this report, the focus is on Level 4 and 5 requirements, which provide practical guidance for the construction of the underground openings. The design requirements are presented in Level 4 and the design specification in Level 5 In addition to the long-term safety-related requirements included in VAHA, there are additional requirements regarding the operation of underground openings, e.g. space requirements due to the equipment used and its maintenance, operational and fire safety. The current reference design for the disposal facility is presented based on the design requirements and design specifications. During the lifespan of the repository the reference design will be revised and updated according to the design principles as new information is available

  8. Underground openings production line 2012. Design, production and initial state of the underground openings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Underground Openings Line Production Line report describes the design requirements, the design principles, the methods of construction and the target properties for the underground rooms required for the final repository. It is one of five Production Line reports, namely the: Underground Openings Line report, Canister report, Buffer report, Backfill report, Closure report. Together, these reports cover the lifespan of the underground phases of the final repository from the start of construction of the underground rooms to their closure. Posiva has developed reference methods for constructing the underground rooms. Tunnels will be constructed using the drill and blast technique, shafts will be constructed using raise boring and the deposition holes will be constructed by reverse down reaming. Underground openings will be made safe by reinforcement by using rock bolts, net or shotcrete, depending on which type of opening is being considered, and groundwater inflows will be limited by grouting. Posiva's requirements management system (VAHA) sets out the specifications for the enactment of the disposal concept at Olkiluoto under five Levels - 1 to 5, from the most generic to the most specific. In this report, the focus is on Level 4 and 5 requirements, which provide practical guidance for the construction of the underground openings. The design requirements are presented in Level 4 and the design specification in Level 5 In addition to the long-term safety-related requirements included in VAHA, there are additional requirements regarding the operation of underground openings, e.g. space requirements due to the equipment used and its maintenance, operational and fire safety. The current reference design for the disposal facility is presented based on the design requirements and design specifications. During the lifespan of the repository the reference design will be revised and updated according to the design principles as new information is available. Reference

  9. The application of product architecture in determining the concept of mini hydrogen cell for petrol powered internal combustion engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nidzamuddin, M. Y.; Nadzirah, T. S.; Juffrizal, K.; Zulfattah, Z. M.; Tan, C. F.; Taha, M. M.; Hidayah, I.; Hilwa, M. Z.

    2015-05-01

    Product architecture is a method to translate the physical element of the functional requirement within the product system and describe the connection between these physical elements. Physical element will be interpreted through parts, component or subassemblies. Method of product architecture is an effective way in determined the conceptual design because it is not only considered the way of the product to be designed but it also focused on how the product will be made, used and even maintaining the product. This paper presents the methodology of the design and development of mini hydrogen cell for petrol powered internal combustion engine through the product architecture method. This method is applied based on the four stages of the product concept development process which is product element, product cluster, product geometry and the morphological chart. From this method, the best option of the concept is selected.

  10. Growth promoting effects of prebiotic yeast cell wall products in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was designed to investigate the growth promoting effects of supplementing different sources and concentrations of prebiotic yeast cell wall (YCW) products containing mannanoligosaccharides in starter broilers under an immune stress and Clostridium perfringens challenge. Through a series ...

  11. Liposomal Drug Products: A Quality by Design Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoming

    Quality by Design (QbD) principles has been applied to the development of two liposomal formulations, containing a hydrophilic small molecule therapeutic (Tenofovir) and a protein therapeutic (superoxide dismutase). The goal of the research is to provide critical information on 1) how to reduce the preparation variability in liposome formulations, and 2) how to increase drug encapsulation inside liposomes to reduce manufacturing cost. Most notably, an improved liposome preparation method was developed which increased the encapsulation efficiency of hydrophilic molecules. In particular, this method allows for very high encapsulation efficiency. For example, encapsulation efficiencies of up to 50% have been achieved, whereas previously only 20% or less have been reported. Another significant outcome from this research is a first principle mathematical model to predict the encapsulation efficiency of hydrophilic drugs in unilamellar liposomes. This mathematical model will be useful in: formulation development to rapidly achieve optimized formulations; comparison of drug encapsulation efficiencies of liposomes prepared using different methods; and assisting in the development of suitable process analytical technologies to achieve real-time monitoring and control of drug encapsulation during manufacturing. A novel two-stage reverse dialysis in vitro release testing method has also been developed for passively targeted liposomes, which uses the first stage to mimic the circulation of liposomes in the body and the second stage to imitate the drug release process at the target. The developed in vitro release testing method can be used to distinguish formulations with varied compositions for quality control testing purposes. This developed method may pave the way to the development of more biorelevant quality control testing methods for liposomal drug products in the future. The QbD case studies performed in this research are examples of how this approach can be used to

  12. The ILC engineering design phase: Towards the production of an engineering design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 2007, the International Linear Collider-Global Design Effort (ILC-GDE) published the ILC Reference Design Report (RDR) which contains a description of the design of the linear collider and a ''value'' cost estimate. The RDR was developed over a 2 year period starting in August 2005 with the creation of the GDE at the Second ILC workshop, held at Snowmass, Colorado. The design described in the RDR and its associated estimate allow the GDE to plan and prioritize the next phase of the ILC, the creation of an Engineering Design and the production, by mid 2010, of an Engineering Design Report (EDR). The EDR will contain, in addition to a more mature design and an updated value estimate, a plan for executing the ILC Project. The purpose of the EDR is to facilitate formal international negotiations at government level on siting, funding, organization and execution of the ILC project with a timescale consistent with the start of construction in 2012. The creation of the ILC Engineering Design will include: (1) Basic R and D to demonstrate that all components can be engineered; (2) R and D into alternative solutions to mitigate remaining risk; (3) An overall design to allow machine construction to start within 3 years following its completion; (4) selection between high tech options to allow industrialization efforts; (5) A comprehensive value-engineering exercise; (6) A complete value cost estimate for the machine, including a funding profile consistent with the project schedule; (7) A project execution plan including a realistic schedule; (8) Designs for facilities shared between different ''area systems'', and for site-specific infrastructure. The designs must include the level of detail needed for regions to estimate the cost to host; and (9) All necessary information must be provided to regions to evaluate project technical and financial risks in support of a bid to host. With the completion of the EDR, the ILC-GDE leadership will be able to seek approval of

  13. Cell fusion in tumor progression: the isolation of cell fusion products by physical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincitorio Massimo

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell fusion induced by polyethylene glycol (PEG is an efficient but poorly controlled procedure for obtaining somatic cell hybrids used in gene mapping, monoclonal antibody production, and tumour immunotherapy. Genetic selection techniques and fluorescent cell sorting are usually employed to isolate cell fusion products, but both procedures have several drawbacks. Results Here we describe a simple improvement in PEG-mediated cell fusion that was obtained by modifying the standard single-step procedure. We found that the use of two PEG undertreatments obtains a better yield of cell fusion products than the standard method, and most of these products are bi- or trinucleated polykaryocytes. Fusion rate was quantified using fluorescent cell staining microscopy. We used this improved cell fusion and cell isolation method to compare giant cells obtained in vitro and giant cells obtained in vivo from patients with Hodgkin's disease and erythroleukemia. Conclusions In the present study we show how to improve PEG-mediated cell fusion and that cell separation by velocity sedimentation offers a simple alternative for the efficient purification of cell fusion products and to investigate giant cell formation in tumor development.

  14. Plant cell walls throughout evolution: towards a molecular understanding of their design principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, Purbasha; Bosneaga, Elena; Auer, Manfred

    2009-02-16

    Throughout their life, plants typically remain in one location utilizing sunlight for the synthesis of carbohydrates, which serve as their sole source of energy as well as building blocks of a protective extracellular matrix, called the cell wall. During the course of evolution, plants have repeatedly adapted to their respective niche,which is reflected in the changes of their body plan and the specific design of cell walls. Cell walls not only changed throughout evolution but also are constantly remodelled and reconstructed during the development of an individual plant, and in response to environmental stress or pathogen attacks. Carbohydrate-rich cell walls display complex designs, which together with the presence of phenolic polymers constitutes a barrier for microbes, fungi, and animals. Throughout evolution microbes have co-evolved strategies for efficient breakdown of cell walls. Our current understanding of cell walls and their evolutionary changes are limited as our knowledge is mainly derived from biochemical and genetic studies, complemented by a few targeted yet very informative imaging studies. Comprehensive plant cell wall models will aid in the re-design of plant cell walls for the purpose of commercially viable lignocellulosic biofuel production as well as for the timber, textile, and paper industries. Such knowledge will also be of great interest in the context of agriculture and to plant biologists in general. It is expected that detailed plant cell wall models will require integrated correlative multimodal, multiscale imaging and modelling approaches, which are currently underway.

  15. Multijunction Solar Cell Development and Production at Spectrolab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzer, Chris; King, R. R.; Law, D. C.; Edmondson, K. M.; Isshiki, T.; Haddad, M.; Zhang, X.; Boisvert, J. C.; Joslin, D. E.; Karam, N. H.

    2007-01-01

    Development of multijunction space solar cells is much like that for any high technology product. New products face two major pressures from the market: improving performance while maintaining heritage. This duality of purpose is not new and has been represented since ancient times by the Roman god Janus.[1] This deity was typically represented as two faces on a single head: one facing forward and the other to the rear. The image of Janus has been used as symbolism for many combined forces of dual purpose, such as the balance in life between beginnings and endings, or between art and science. For our purposes, Janus represents our design philosophy balance between looking to the future for improvement while simultaneously blending past heritage. In the space photovoltaics industry there are good reasons for both purposes. Looking to the past, a product must have a space flight heritage to gain widespread use. The main reason being that this is an unforgiving business. Spacecraft are expensive to build, launch and operate. Typically once a satellite is launched, in-field service for a power systems problem is near impossible.[2Balanced with this is looking forward. New missions typically require more power than previous programs or attempt new objectives such as a new orbit. And there is always the cost pressure for both the satellite itself as well as the launch costs. Both of which push solar technology to improve power density at a lower cost. The consequence of this balance in a high-risk environment is that space PV develops as a series of infrequent large technology steps or generational changes interspersed with more frequent small technology steps or evolutionary changes. Figure 1 gives a bit of clarification on this point. It depicts the historical progress in space solar cells tracked by efficiency against first launch date for most major products introduced by Spectrolab. The first generation is the Si-based technology reaching a peak values near 15% AM0

  16. LISE++: Exotic beam production with fragment separators and their design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasov, O. B.; Bazin, D.

    2016-06-01

    Since the LISE++ code presentation at the EMIS 2007 conference (Tarasov and Bazin, 2008), important improvements have been made in the analytical and Monte Carlo calculations of transmission, and accuracy of reaction product distributions. In this paper new features of the code in ion-beam optics, creation of new LISE++ blocks, and development of some reaction models will be discussed. Large progress has been done in ion-beam optics with the introduction of "elemental" blocks, that allows optical matrices calculation within LISE++. New type of configurations based on these blocks allow a detailed analysis of the transmission, useful for fragment separator design, and can be used for optics optimization based on user constraints.

  17. Interdisciplinary Design of an Assistive Product for Personal Mobility with the use of an Expanded Model of Axiomatic Design

    OpenAIRE

    Aguilar-Zambrano, Jaime; Hurtado, Maria; Valencia, Manuel; Sandoval, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a model for product design in an interdisciplinary way with participation of the university, private company and the user. The proposal was implemented in the design of an assistive product for mobility according to the ISO9999: 2007 standard. The structure considers the user as the central axis of the design process. In the application, the interdisciplinary team was made up of engineers, industrial designers, an occupational therapist and a psychologist. In the model, ...

  18. Lecithins enhance leukotriene production from white cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, H C; Ikeda, T; Koike, H; Haruyama, Y; Miyakawa, I; Mori, N

    1990-10-01

    36 x 10(7) WBC were isolated from 120 ml heparinized venous blood by 5% dextran T-500 sedimentation. 20 mg egg lecithin and 20 mg dipalmitoyl lecithin were respectively pretreated in 2 ml 0.15 M Tris buffer by vibration and sonication. WBC were incubated with the pretreated lecithins for 20 min. Leukotrienes (LTs) were identified by HPLC and bioassay, and quantified with an RIA Kit. Crude incubation medium of both lecithin groups caused guinea pig ileum contractions which were antagonized with FPL55712. Incubation media were partially purified with Bond elut C18. Purified samples of both lecithin groups showed LTC4 and LTD4 peaks on HPLC. LTC4 production (pg/10(7) WBC, M +/- SD) was 194.5 +/- 61.7 (n = 5) in control group, 348.9 +/- 95.4 (n = 6) in dipalmitoyl lecithin group, 543.8 +/- 105.6 (n = 6) in egg lecithin group and 105.62 +/- 63.2 (n = 6) in AA-861 + dipalmitoyl lecithin group. LTC4 production of both lecithin groups was significantly higher than that of control group (P less than 0.01 in dipalmitoyl lecithin group and P less than 0.001 in egg lecithin group). Both egg lecithin and dipalmitoyl lecithin enhanced LT production from WBC. LT production was suppressed in the presence of AA-861. The mechanism of the enhancement in LT production is unclear, but these lecithins are apparently not substrates because dipalmitoyl lecithin contains no arachidonic acid. PMID:2177200

  19. Cell immobilization for microbial production of 1,3-propanediol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gungormusler-Yilmaz, Mine; Cicek, Nazim; Levin, David B; Azbar, Nuri

    2016-06-01

    Cell and enzyme immobilization are often used for industrial production of high-value products. In recent years, immobilization techniques have been applied to the production of value-added chemicals such as 1,3-Propanediol (1,3-PDO). Biotechnological fermentation is an attractive alternative to current 1,3-PDO production methods, which are primarily thermochemical processes, as it generates high volumetric yields of 1,3-PDO, is a much less energy intensive process, and generates lower amounts of environmental organic pollutants. Although several approaches including: batch, fed-batch, continuous-feed and two-step continuous-feed were tested in suspended systems, it has been well demonstrated that cell immobilization techniques can significantly enhance 1,3-PDO production and allow robust continuous production in smaller bioreactors. This review covers various immobilization methods and their application for 1,3-PDO production. PMID:25600463

  20. NASA's Space Launch Transitions: From Design to Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, Bruce; Robinson, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) successfully completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) in 2015, a major milestone on the journey to an unprecedented era of exploration for humanity. CDR formally marked the program's transition from design to production phase just four years after the program's inception and the first such milestone for a human launch vehicle in 40 years. While challenges typical of a complex development program lie ahead, CDR evaluators concluded that the design is technically and programmatically sound and ready to press forward to Design Certification Review (DCR) and readiness for launch of Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in the 2018 timeframe. SLS is prudently based on existing propulsion systems, infrastructure and knowledge with a clear, evolutionary path as required by mission needs. In its initial configuration, designated Block I, SLS will a minimum of 70 metric tons (t) of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO). It can evolve to a 130 t payload capacity by upgrading its engines, boosters, and upper stage, dramatically increasing the mass and volume of human and robotic exploration while decreasing mission risk, increasing safety, and simplifying ground and mission operations. CDR was the central programmatic accomplishment among many technical accomplishments that will be described in this paper. The government/industry SLS team successfully test fired a flight-like five-segment solid rocket motor, as well as seven hotfire development tests of the RS-25 core stage engine. The majority of the major test article and flight barrels, rings, and domes for the core stage liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen, engine section, intertank, and forward skirt were manufactured at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility. Renovations to the B-2 test stand for stage green run testing were completed at NASA Stennis Space Center. Core stage test stands are rising at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center. The modified Pegasus barge for core stage transportation from manufacturing

  1. NASA's Space Launch System Transitions From Design To Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askins, Bruce R.; Robinson, Kimberly F.

    2016-01-01

    NASA's Space Launch System (SLS) successfully completed its Critical Design Review (CDR) in 2015, a major milestone on the journey to an unprecedented era of exploration for humanity. CDR formally marked the program's transition from design to production phase just four years after the program's inception and the first such milestone for a human launch vehicle in 40 years. While challenges typical of a complex development program lie ahead, CDR evaluators concluded that the design is technically and programmatically sound and ready to press forward to Design Certification Review (DCR) and readiness for launch of Exploration Mission 1 (EM-1) in the 2018 timeframe. SLS is prudently based on existing propulsion systems, infrastructure and knowledge with a clear, evolutionary path as required by mission needs. In its initial configuration, designated Block 1, SLS will a minimum of 70 metric tons (t) (154,324 pounds) of payload to low Earth orbit (LEO). It will evolve to a 130 t (286,601 pound) payload capacity by upgrading its engines, boosters, and upper stage, dramatically increasing the mass and volume of human and robotic exploration while decreasing mission risk, increasing safety, and simplifying ground and mission operations. CDR was the central programmatic accomplishment among many technical accomplishments that will be described in this paper. The government/industry SLS team successfully test-fired a flight-like five-segment solid rocket motor, as well as seven hotfire development tests of the RS-25 core stage engine. The majority of the major test article and flight barrels, rings, and domes for the core stage liquid oxygen, liquid hydrogen, engine section, intertank, and forward skirt were manufactured at NASA's Michoud Assembly Facility in New Orleans, Louisiana. Renovations to the B-2 test stand for stage green run testing were completed at NASA's Stennis Space Center (SSC), near Bay St. Louis, Mississippi. Core stage test stands are reaching completion

  2. Design of smart functional apparel products for moxa moxibustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Au, Wai-man; Ding, Feng; Wong, Kwok-shing

    2013-08-01

    Moxa Moxibustion is a common traditional Chinese therapy in which burning Moxa is applied to affected body areas. This method has been employed for thousands of years to achieve certain medical objectives, such as pain relief or antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. Its therapeutic effectiveness has been demonstrated successfully both in research and clinical studies. However, this traditional approach may cause undesirable side effects, for example: 1) burning of Moxa produces by-products such as smoke and ash; 2) patients are at risk of being burnt; 3) the active ingredients of the Moxa leaf oil are volatile, odorous, unstable in air and easy to dissipate, and difficult to store and transport; 4) it is inconvenient to operate. These side effects limit its further high-potential and high-value applications. This study is aimed at developing a multi-functional smart textile system that will adopt smart fabrics containing encapsulated Moxa oil integrated with thermally conductive materials to replace the conventional Moxa products. This will efficiently deliver the active ingredients of Moxa to a human body at optimum conditions, i.e., in a precise and controllable way, with maximum convenience and a high level of comfort. Doing so would solve the existing problems mentioned above. Both garment design skill and textile technology will be applied to Moxa Moxibustion textile to enhance the aesthetics and functionality. The smart garment performance will be assessed subjectively in a clinical trial and objectively by a number of instrumental methods.

  3. Cell design concepts for aqueous lithium-oxygen batteries: A model-based assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grübl, Daniel; Bessler, Wolfgang G.

    2015-11-01

    Seven cell design concepts for aqueous (alkaline) lithium-oxygen batteries are investigated using a multi-physics continuum model for predicting cell behavior and performance in terms of the specific energy and specific power. Two different silver-based cathode designs (a gas diffusion electrode and a flooded cathode) and three different separator designs (a porous separator, a stirred separator chamber, and a redox-flow separator) are compared. Cathode and separator thicknesses are varied over a wide range (50 μm-20 mm) in order to identify optimum configurations. All designs show a considerable capacity-rate effect due to spatiotemporally inhomogeneous precipitation of solid discharge product LiOH·H2O. In addition, a cell design with flooded cathode and redox-flow separator including oxygen uptake within the external tank is suggested. For this design, the model predicts specific power up to 33 W/kg and specific energy up to 570 Wh/kg (gravimetric values of discharged cell including all cell components and catholyte except housing and piping).

  4. A retrosynthetic biology approach to metabolic pathway design for therapeutic production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faulon Jean-Loup

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Synthetic biology is used to develop cell factories for production of chemicals by constructively importing heterologous pathways into industrial microorganisms. In this work we present a retrosynthetic approach to the production of therapeutics with the goal of developing an in situ drug delivery device in host cells. Retrosynthesis, a concept originally proposed for synthetic chemistry, iteratively applies reversed chemical transformations (reversed enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the metabolic space starting from a target product to reach precursors that are endogenous to the chassis. So far, a wider adoption of retrosynthesis into the manufacturing pipeline has been hindered by the complexity of enumerating all feasible biosynthetic pathways for a given compound. Results In our method, we efficiently address the complexity problem by coding substrates, products and reactions into molecular signatures. Metabolic maps are represented using hypergraphs and the complexity is controlled by varying the specificity of the molecular signature. Furthermore, our method enables candidate pathways to be ranked to determine which ones are best to engineer. The proposed ranking function can integrate data from different sources such as host compatibility for inserted genes, the estimation of steady-state fluxes from the genome-wide reconstruction of the organism's metabolism, or the estimation of metabolite toxicity from experimental assays. We use several machine-learning tools in order to estimate enzyme activity and reaction efficiency at each step of the identified pathways. Examples of production in bacteria and yeast for two antibiotics and for one antitumor agent, as well as for several essential metabolites are outlined. Conclusions We present here a unified framework that integrates diverse techniques involved in the design of heterologous biosynthetic pathways through a retrosynthetic approach in the reaction signature space

  5. IFMIF test cell design: Current status and key components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IFMIF (International Fusion Material Irradiation Facility) test cell design has been further developed and optimized based on the existing modular test cell concept. Key features of the current test cell include actively cooled surrounding shielding walls with coverage of internal surfaces with stainless steel liner, independent two layer top shielding plugs for protecting the access cell from neutron and gamma radiation from the test cell, optimized piping and cabling plugs for accommodating pipe and cable penetrations and for minimizing neutron streaming, rearranged lithium quench tank to outside of the test cell, etc. According to preliminary neutronic calculation results, limited access to the quench tank area for maintenance after beam shut-off can be expected with the current arrangement. Maintenance of the lithium inlet and outlet pipes as well as the two beam ducts are also possible by introducing removable shielding plugs which can be removed and replaced in case of failure

  6. Risk Management in Product Design: Current State, Conceptual Model and Future Research

    OpenAIRE

    Oehmen, Josef; Seering, Warren; Ben-Daya, Mohamed; Al-Salamah, Muhammad

    2010-01-01

    Risk management is an important element of product design. It helps to minimize the project- and product-related risks such as project budget and schedule overrun, or missing product cost and quality targets. Risk management is especially important for complex, international product design projects that involve a high degree of novel technology. This paper reviews the literature on risk management in product design. It examines the newly released international standard ISO 31000 “Risk managem...

  7. An in silico platform for the design of heterologous pathways in nonnative metabolite production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatsurachai Sunisa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microorganisms are used as cell factories to produce valuable compounds in pharmaceuticals, biofuels, and other industrial processes. Incorporating heterologous metabolic pathways into well-characterized hosts is a major strategy for obtaining these target metabolites and improving productivity. However, selecting appropriate heterologous metabolic pathways for a host microorganism remains difficult owing to the complexity of metabolic networks. Hence, metabolic network design could benefit greatly from the availability of an in silico platform for heterologous pathway searching. Results We developed an algorithm for finding feasible heterologous pathways by which nonnative target metabolites are produced by host microorganisms, using Escherichia coli, Corynebacterium glutamicum, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae as templates. Using this algorithm, we screened heterologous pathways for the production of all possible nonnative target metabolites contained within databases. We then assessed the feasibility of the target productions using flux balance analysis, by which we could identify target metabolites associated with maximum cellular growth rate. Conclusions This in silico platform, designed for targeted searching of heterologous metabolic reactions, provides essential information for cell factory improvement.

  8. Design of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle Drive System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaltz, Erik

    Fuel cells achieve more and more attention due to their potential of replacing the traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) used in the area of transportation. In this PhD thesis a fuel cell shaft power pack (FCSPP) is designed and implemented in a small truck. The FCSPP replaces the original...... supply system of the truck which was powered by a lead-acid battery package. The FCSPP includes fuel storage, a fuel cell system, an energy storage device, power electronics, an electric machine, and the necessary control. The FCSPP therefore converts the energy of the fuel to a shaft torque and speed of...... increase the efficiency. In this work a lead-acid battery, an ultracapacitor, or a combination of both are considered as energy storage devices. A FCSPP is designed for 10 different configurations of connecting the energy storage device(s) and fuel cell to a common bus, which comply with the 42V Power...

  9. Fuel cell mining vehicles: design, performance and advantages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential for using fuel cell technology in underground mining equipment was discussed with reference to the risks associated with the operation of hydrogen vehicles, hydrogen production and hydrogen delivery systems. This paper presented some of the initiatives for mine locomotives and fuel cell stacks for underground environments. In particular, it presents the test results of the first applied industrial fuel cell vehicle in the world, a mining and tunneling locomotive. This study was part of an international initiative managed by the Fuel Cell Propulsion Institute which consists of several mining companies, mining equipment manufacturers, and fuel cell technology developers. Some of the obvious benefits of fuel cells for underground mining operations include no exhaust gases, lower electrical costs, significantly reduced maintenance, and lower ventilation costs. Another advantage is that the technology can be readily automated and computer-based for tele-remote operations. This study also quantified the cost and operational benefits associated with fuel cell vehicles compared to diesel vehicles. It is expected that higher vehicle productivity could render fuel cell underground vehicles cost-competitive. 6 refs., 1 tab

  10. Investigation Of Designers Intentions And A Users’ Perception Of Product Character

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Saeema; Boelskifte, Per

    2006-01-01

    Products can be designed to have a character, i.e. a mood that is conveyed through the form of the product, the use of material and colour. Industrial designers often design a consumer product to target a particular market segment with a particular lifestyle or age group. Therefore, the character...

  11. Designs and Architectures for the Next Generation of Organic Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Shyang Liao

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Organic solar cells show great promise as an economically and environmentally friendly technology to utilize solar energy because of their simple fabrication processes and minimal material usage. However, new innovations and breakthroughs are needed for organic solar cell technology to become competitive in the future. This article reviews research efforts and accomplishments focusing on three issues: power conversion efficiency, device stability and processability for mass production, followed by an outlook for optimizing OSC performance through device engineering and new architecture designs to realize next generation organic solar cells.

  12. Stress analysis for wall structure in mobile hot cell design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahrin, Muhammad Hannan, E-mail: hannan@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Rahman, Anwar Abdul, E-mail: anwar@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Hamzah, Mohd Arif, E-mail: arif@nuclearmalaysia.gov.my; Mamat, Mohd Rizal; Azman, Azraf; Hasan, Hasni [Prototype and Plant Development Centre, Technical Services Division, Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    Malaysian Nuclear Agency is developing a Mobile Hot Cell (MHC) in order to handle and manage Spent High Activity Radioactive Sources (SHARS) such as teletherapy heads and irradiators. At present, there are only two units of MHC in the world, in South Africa and China. Malaysian Mobile Hot cell is developed by Malaysian Nuclear Agency with the assistance of IAEA expert, based on the design of South Africa and China, but with improved features. Stress analysis has been performed on the design in order to fulfil the safety requirement in operation of MHC. This paper discusses the loading analysis effect from the sand to the MHC wall structure.

  13. Design of a galvanotaxic track for cells, using polymer electrodes.

    OpenAIRE

    Bengtsson, Katarina

    2011-01-01

    Galvanotaxis is the movement of cells in an applied electric field. The first steps to design a chip for observations of galvanotaxic behavior of cells were done in this work. The chip is a miniaturised system of previous larger galvanotaxis systems and uses materials which are thought to be biocompatible. The system was constructed on microscope slides with a channel in PDMS with adjacent polymer electrodes. The polymer electrodes were made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) poly(styrenes...

  14. Host cells and methods for production of isobutanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anthony, Larry Cameron; He, Hongxian; Huang, Lixuan Lisa; Okeefe, Daniel P.; Kruckeberg, Arthur Leo; Li, Yougen; Maggio-Hall, Lori Ann; McElvain, Jessica; Nelson, Mark J.; Patnaik, Ranjan; Rothman, Steven Cary

    2016-08-23

    Provided herein are recombinant yeast host cells and methods for their use for production of isobutanol. Yeast host cells provided comprise an isobutanol biosynthetic pathway and at least one of reduced or eliminated aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, reduced or eliminated acetolactate reductase activity; or a heterologous polynucleotide encoding a polypeptide having ketol-acid reductoisomerase activity.

  15. Air pollutant production by algal cell cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, F.; Funkhouser, E. A.

    1982-01-01

    The production of phytotoxic air pollutants by cultures of Chlorella vulgaris and Euglena gracilis is considered. Algal and plant culture systems, a fumigation system, and ethylene, ethane, cyanide, and nitrogen oxides assays are discussed. Bean, tobacco, mustard green, cantaloupe and wheat plants all showed injury when fumigated with algal gases for 4 hours. Only coleus plants showed any resistance to the gases. It is found that a closed or recycled air effluent system does not produce plant injury from algal air pollutants.

  16. Design and realisation of a quasi monolithic silicon load cell

    OpenAIRE

    Wensink, H.; Wiegerink, R.J.; Zwijze, A.F.; Boer; Elwenspoek, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the first silicon load cell is presented designed for measuring a load up to 1000 kg. A prototype has been realised. An improved cryogenic RIE process with high aspect ratio was developed for the fabrication of thin springs. Low temperature silicon direct bonding was used for the final assembly. The mechanical structure was tested using poly silicon strain gauges. Encapsulated resonant strain gauges [1] will be used in the final design in order to obtain the desired accuracy of...

  17. Large Scale Production of Stem Cells and Their Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweigerdt, Robert

    Stem cells have been envisioned to become an unlimited cell source for regenerative medicine. Notably, the interest in stem cells lies beyond direct therapeutic applications. They might also provide a previously unavailable source of valuable human cell types for screening platforms, which might facilitate the development of more efficient and safer drugs. The heterogeneity of stem cell types as well as the numerous areas of application suggests that differential processes are mandatory for their in vitro culture. Many of the envisioned applications would require the production of a high number of stem cells and their derivatives in scalable, well-defined and potentially clinical compliant manner under current good manufacturing practice (cGMP). In this review we provide an overview on recent strategies to develop bioprocesses for the expansion, differentiation and enrichment of stem cells and their progenies, presenting examples for adult and embryonic stem cells alike.

  18. The Design of a Five-Cell Superconducting RF Module with a PBG Coupler Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arsenyev, Sergey A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Simakov, Evgenya I [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-29

    We discuss the problem of incorporating a Photonic Band Gap (PBG) cell into a superconducting accelerating module of 5 cells designed for the operational frequency of 2.1 GHz. The reason for using a PBG cell is to provide a good accelerating mode confinement and good Higher Order Mode (HOM) suppression. PBG cell can potentially be used for placing HOM and fundamental mode couplers. However, because of the naturally higher ratio of the peak magnetic field to the accelerating field in the PBG cell, it should be designed to operate at a lower accelerating gradient than the other cells of the module. This ensures that the probability of quench in the PBG cell would be no higher than in other elliptical cells of the structure.

  19. Symbolic Meaning Integration in Design and its Influence on Product and Brand Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompay, van Thomas; Pruyn, Ad; Tieke, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Previous research and theorizing in product design and consumer psychology testifies to the importance of congruence among symbolic meanings connoted through elements in visual communications such as advertisements, product appearance, and product packaging. However, understanding of the processes w

  20. C2CAD: A SUSTAINABLE APPAREL DESIGN AND PRODUCTION CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many environmental problems related to apparel industry, such as toxicity in dyeing wastewater, could be minimized by apparel designers and manufacturers. However, no apparel design and production model put designers' role in environmental sustainability into consideration. ...

  1. Effect of Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells immobilisation on mead production

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, A.P.; Ferreira, A. Mendes; Oliveira, J. M.; Estevinho, L .M.; Faia, A. Mendes

    2014-01-01

    Mead is a traditional alcoholic beverage obtained by the fermentation of diluted honey performed by yeasts. In this work the potential of application of immobilised yeast cells on single-layer Ca-alginate or double-layer alginateechitosan for mead production was assessed for the first time. The meads produced either with entrapped or free cells were evaluated in terms of quality and aroma profile. The immobilisation procedure had no adverse effect on cell viability, since minor differen...

  2. 田口设计优化保加利亚乳杆菌静息细胞转化合成共轭亚油酸%Optimization of bioconversion conditions for the production of conjugated linoleic acids with resting cells of Lactobacillus bulgaricus by Taguchi design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游庆红; 尹秀莲

    2012-01-01

    The production of conjugated linoleic acids by resting cells of Lactobacillus bulgaricus was optimized using Taguchi design. On the basis of single factor test, the Ls(24) of orthogonal experiment was designed using Minitab software, and the results were analyzed using Taguchi design. The results indicated that the effects of the concentration of resting cells, pH value, temperature and the concentration of linoleic acids on the production of conjugated linoleic acids were insignificant. Minitab software predicted the optimal production of conjugated linoleic acids were as follows: the concentration of resting cells 7%, pH value 5.7, temperature 32℃ and the concentration of linoleic acids 1.7g/L. Under these conditions, the yield of conjugated linoleic acids reached 142.3mg/L, which corresponded to the predicted value (140.63mg/L). This indicated that optimum program is good.%应用田口设计对保加利亚乳杆菌静息细胞转化合成共轭亚油酸进行优化.在单因素试验基础上,应用Minitab设计2水平4因素正交试验,采用田口设计方法分析正交试验结果.结果表明,静息细胞浓度、pH值、温度、亚油酸浓度对共轭亚油酸产量影响均不显著.软件预测产共轭亚油酸的最佳工艺为静息细胞浓度7%、pH值为5.7、温度32℃、亚油酸浓度1.7g/L,此时共轭亚油酸产量为142.3mg/L,与软件预测值140.63mg/L相吻合,表明优化方案达到了预期效果,且具有良好的稳定性.

  3. Contending stigma in product design: using insights from social psychology as a stepping stone for design strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaes, K.R.V.; Stappers, P.J.; Standaert, A.; Desager, K.

    2012-01-01

    Assistive, protective or medical products that are visibly worn or used in proximity to the human body can have an emotional impact on their users and bystanders. In his design effort it is important for a designer to be mindful of the potential stigma a product might elicit. The identity threat mod

  4. Producing the Goods: Design History and the Production of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, John

    1990-01-01

    Questions the origin of design history and its relationship to art history. Maintains that design historical knowledge is produced, and it must be acknowledged that there are design histories and not one monolithic body of knowledge. (KM)

  5. Cell line profiling to improve monoclonal antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sohye; Ren, Da; Xiao, Gang; Daris, Kristi; Buck, Lynette; Enyenihi, Atim A; Zubarev, Roman; Bondarenko, Pavel V; Deshpande, Rohini

    2014-04-01

    Mammalian cell culture performance is influenced by both intrinsic (genetic) and extrinsic (media and process) factors. In this study, intrinsic capacity of various monoclonal antibody-producing Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines was compared by exposing them to the same culture condition. Microarray-based transcriptomics and LC-MS/MS shotgun proteomics technologies were utilized to obtain expression landscape of different cell lines. Specific transcripts and proteins correlating with productivity, growth rate and cell size have been identified. The proteomics analysis results showed a strong correlation between the intracellular protein expression levels of the recombinant DHFR and productivity. In contrast, neither the light chain nor the heavy chain of the recombinant monoclonal antibody showed correlation to productivity. Other top ranked proteins which demonstrated positive correlation to productivity included the adaptor protein complex subunits AP3D1and AP2B2, DNA repair protein DDB1 and the ER translocation complex component, SRPR. The subunits of molecular chaperone T-complex protein 1 and the regulator of mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism MTHFD2 showed negative correlation to productivity. The transcriptomics analysis has identified the regulators of calcium signaling, Tmem20 and Rcan1, as the top ranked genes displaying positive and negative correlation to productivity, respectively. For the second part of the study, the principal component analysis (PCA) was generated to view the underlying global structure of the expression data. A clear division and expression polarity was observed between the two distinct clusters of cell lines, independent of link to productivity or any other traits examined. The primary component of the PCA generated from either transcriptomics or proteomics data displayed a strong correlation to cell size and doubling time, while none of the main principal components showed correlation to productivity. Our findings suggest

  6. Design of a self-adjusted jet impingement system for cooling of photovoltaic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: A schematic diagram of the experimental setup. - Highlights: • Wind and solar energy were joined up for more efficient production of electricity. • The great potential of the proposed cooling device on PV cell was presented. • Electricity was produced via a designed turbine installed inside the wind turbine. • Output power was increased 36% from both the PV cell and turbine electrical energy. • CFD modeling was employed to show wind flow pattern under the PV cell. - Abstract: This study aims to join up wind and solar energy as the renewable energy sources for more efficient production of electrical energy. A laboratory-scale cooling device based on a conic wind-collecting tunnel was designed and then fabricated to cool down a photovoltaic (PV) cell. The collected wind from conic tunnel was employed with two goals; first, it was considered as a coolant fluid for PV cell. Second, it was applied for producing electrical energy via a designed turbine. The great potential of the proposed cooling device on the performance of the PV cell are the focus of this study. The obtained results reveals that the total output power was increased 36% from both the PV cell and turbine electrical energy production. In order to explain the observed results, a CFD modeling based on MRF technique were undertaken. The flow distributions in two modes (with and without turbine) were compared and the effect of turbine blade was then interpreted in terms of air flow pattern diverted to underneath of the studied PV cell

  7. Design of a Fuel Cell Hybrid Electric Vehicle Drive System

    OpenAIRE

    Schaltz, Erik

    2010-01-01

    Fuel cells achieve more and more attention due to their potential of replacing the traditional internal combustion engine (ICE) used in the area of transportation. In this PhD thesis a fuel cell shaft power pack (FCSPP) is designed and implemented in a small truck. The FCSPP replaces the original supply system of the truck which was powered by a lead-acid battery package. The FCSPP includes fuel storage, a fuel cell system, an energy storage device, power electronics, an electric machine, and...

  8. Bioreactor production of secondary metabolites from cell cultures of periwinkle and sandalwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valluri, Jagan V

    2009-01-01

    A bench-top bioreactor allowing continuous extraction of secondary metabolites is designed for Catharanthus roseus L. (G.) Don (periwinkle) and Santalum album L. (sandalwood) plant cell suspensions. Periwinkle cell cultures are exposed to biotic elicitors (Aspergillus niger, crude chitin) and abiotic elicitors (mannitol, methyl jasmonate) to induce alkaloid production. Whereas most of the biotic elicitors are effective when added on day 15 of culture, the abiotic elicitors are effective when added on day 20. The use of trans-cinnamic acid, an inhibitor of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) activity, results in significant increase in the alkaloid production of periwinkle cell cultures. Exposure of the cells to mannitol-induced osmotic stress produced marked increment in the total alkaloid production. When biotic and abiotic stress treatments are applied sequentially, an additive effect in alkaloid accumulation is observed. Although no essential oils are detected, secondary metabolites in the form of phenolics are produced by the sandalwood cell cultures in the bioreactor environment. The use of morphologic modification such as organ cultures and transformed cultures is believed to be required for both production and storage of essential oil constituents in sandalwood. The present chapter demonstrates that periwinkle and sandalwood cell suspensions could be developed and successfully cultured in a modified air-lift bioreactor. The exploitation of variant cell strains and biotransformation of added precursors can certainly improve the use of periwinkle and sandalwood cell cultures for the bioproduction of desired compounds. PMID:19521856

  9. Human invariant NKT cell subsets differentially promote differentiation, antibody production, and T cell stimulation by B cells in vitro.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    PUBLISHED Invariant NK T (iNKT) cells can provide help for B cell activation and Ab production. Because B cells are also capable of cytokine production, Ag presentation, and T cell activation, we hypothesized that iNKT cells will also influence these activities. Furthermore, subsets of iNKT cells based on CD4 and CD8 expression that have distinct functional activities may differentially affect B cell functions. We investigated the effects of coculturing expanded human CD4(+), CD8α(+), and ...

  10. RESEARCH ON THE GENERALIZED MODULAR DESIGN METHOD WITH FLEXIBLE MODULES OF PRODUCT STRUCTURES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Yanshen; Xu Qianli; Chen Yongliang; Hou Liang

    2004-01-01

    A new generalized modular design (GMD) method is proposed based on design practice of frame structure of hydraulic press machines. By building a series of flexible modules (FMs), design knowledge and structure features are integrated into parametric models. Then, parametric design and variational analysis methods for GMD are presented according to user defined design objectives and customized product characteristics. A FM-centered GMD system is developed and successfully used in the rapid design of relevant products.

  11. High-yield secretion of recombinant proteins expressed in tobacco cell culture with a designer glycopeptide tag: Process development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ningning; Gonzalez, Maria; Savary, Brett; Xu, Jianfeng

    2016-03-01

    Low-yield protein production remains the most significant economic hurdle with plant cell culture technology. Fusions of recombinant proteins with hydroxyproline-O-glycosylated designer glycopeptide tags have consistently boosted secreted protein yields. This prompted us to study the process development of this technology aiming to achieve productivity levels necessary for commercial viability. We used a tobacco BY-2 cell culture expressing EGFP as fusion with a glycopeptide tag comprised of 32 repeat of "Ser-Pro" dipeptide, or (SP)32 , to study cell growth and protein secretion, culture scale-up, and establishment of perfusion cultures for continuous production. The BY-2 cells accumulated low levels of cell biomass (∼7.5 g DW/L) in Schenk & Hildebrandt medium, but secreted high yields of (SP)32 -tagged EGFP (125 mg/L). Protein productivity of the cell culture has been stable for 6.0 years. The BY-2 cells cultured in a 5-L bioreactor similarly produced high secreted protein yield at 131 mg/L. Successful operation of a cell perfusion culture for 30 days was achieved under the perfusion rate of 0.25 and 0.5 day(-1) , generating a protein volumetric productivity of 17.6 and 28.9 mg/day/L, respectively. This research demonstrates the great potential of the designer glycopeptide technology for use in commercial production of valuable proteins with plant cell cultures. PMID:26627201

  12. Automation of cells of radiopharmaceuticals production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 67Ga is an important radiopharmaceutical used to identify inflammatory processes in chronic illnesses, diagnosis by image of tumors in soft tissues and the possibility to evaluate the result for therapeutic intervention. In the present work a module of 67Ga processing was developed with the objective to reduce the interventions in the hot cell, in order to avoid oxidation caused by metallic materials, and consuming in hoses of the peristaltic pumps, that release residues that blocked the valves used in the process. With materials such as: acrylic, PVC, PEEK e teflon and they are used vacuum as method (way) of fluid transferences instead of peristaltic pump in the majority of the procedures, with this improvements the system can make shorter the lengths of transference hoses, increasing the yield in the process with less interventions for maintenance and time exposure of the workers, guaranteeing the quality and reducing the time of the processing. using a mobile system for displacement of the processing module making in the cleanness and maintenance of the cell that works with radioactive material. Reducing the time of exposure dose of the workers in compliance with RDC-17 of ANVISA, which ruling the Good Manufacturing Practice Procedures. (author)

  13. Solid oxide fuel cells SOFCRoll single cell and stack design and development

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfai, Alem T.

    2013-01-01

    This study has focused on the implementation of a stack system for a novel design of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFCRoll). The issues affecting the commercialization of SOFCs are mainly based on durability and cost. The new design offers a number of advantages over the existing designs; it seeks to retain the specific advantages of both the tubular (high unit strength, no sealing problems) and planar arrangements (high power density). This design also aims to achieve low manufac...

  14. Nonlinear observer designs for fuel cell power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgun, Haluk

    A fuel cell is an electrochemical device that combines hydrogen and oxygen, with the aid of electro-catalysts, to produce electricity. A fuel cell consists of a negatively charged anode, a positively charged cathode and an electrolyte, which transports protons or ions. A low temperature fuel cell has an electrical potential of about 0.7 Volt when generating a current density of 300--500 mA/cm2. Practical fuel cell power systems will require a combination of several cells in series (a stack) to satisfy the voltage requirements of specific applications. Fuel cells are suitable for a potentially wide variety of applications, from stationary power generation in the range of hundreds of megawatts to portable electronics in the range of a couple of watts. Efficient operation of a fuel cell system requires advanced feedback control designs. Reliable measurements from the system are necessary to implement such designs. However, most of the commercially available sensors do not operate properly in the reformate and humidified gas streams in fuel cell systems. Sensors working varying degrees of success are too big and costly, and sensors that are potentially low cost are not reliable or do not have the required life time [28]. Observer designs would eliminate sensor needs for measurements, and make feedback control implementable. Since the fuel cell system dynamics are highly nonlinear, observer design is not an easy task. In this study we aim to develop nonlinear observer design methods applicable to fuel cell systems. In part I of the thesis we design an observer to estimate the hydrogen partial pressure in the anode channel. We treat inlet partial pressure as an unknown slowly varying parameter and develop an adaptive observer that employs a nonlinear voltage injection term. However in this design Fuel Processing System (FPS) dynamics are not modelled, and their effect on the anode dynamics are treated as plant uncertainty. In part II of the thesis we study the FPS

  15. Research on Concurrent Design of Collaborative Product Commerce Oriented Discrete Manufacturing Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽兰; 俞涛; 方明伦; 王晓红

    2003-01-01

    In order to fulfill the product concurrent design requirements of discrete manufacturing enterprises, this paper puts forth for the first time a Collaborative Product Commerce (CPC) oriented X2D (X to Design) theory, which can take Collaboration, Commerce and Concurrence (3C) into realization during the product design stage. At the same time, this research adopts VPN (Virtual Private Network) technique to ensure the security of product data and information during transportation. By building CPC-oriented and VPN-based framework of X2D product concurrent design system, the paper explores a way for discrete enterprises adapting to the drastically competitive market and performing their product innovation.

  16. The Present Status of Hot Cell Designs at NECSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioisotope production group of the South African Nuclear Energy Corporation has manufactured a range of radioisotopes since 1967. A 20 MW nuclear reactor is used for radioisotope production. It has modern hot cells and an efficient waste handling facility. There are two sections dealing with radioisotope and radiopharmaceutical production and quality control. The Radiochemical Section produces radioactive bulk products such as 99Mo, 32P, 35S and 131I, whereas another section manufactures final products such as 131I diagnostic and therapeutic capsules, 192Ir radiography sources, 137Cs and 60Co sealed sources, 85Kr glass tubes for smoke detectors. The 99Mo-99Tc generators produced from 99Mo and the complimentary kits are largely used as radiopharmaceuticals for nuclear medicine. (author)

  17. Design of an energy-efficient CNFET Full Adder Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arezoo Taeb

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper by using the carbon nanotube field effect transistor (CNFET, which is a promising alternative for the MOSFET transistor, two novel energy-efficient Full Adders are proposed. The proposed Full Adders show full swing logic and strong output drivability. The first design uses eight transistors and nine capacitors and the second design utilizes three capacitors less than the first design. Simulations, carried out using HSPICE based on the Stanford University CNFET model at 0.6V and 0.9V supply voltages, demonstrate the efficiency of type proposed circuit parameters such as delay, power and power-delay product.

  18. Recombinant host cells and media for ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Brent E; Ingram, Lonnie O; Yomano, Lorraine P; York, Sean W

    2014-02-18

    Disclosed are recombinant host cells suitable for degrading an oligosaccharide that have been optimized for growth and production of high yields of ethanol, and methods of making and using these cells. The invention further provides minimal media comprising urea-like compounds for economical production of ethanol by recombinant microorganisms. Recombinant host cells in accordance with the invention are modified by gene mutation to eliminate genes responsible for the production of unwanted products other than ethanol, thereby increasing the yield of ethanol produced from the oligosaccharides, relative to unmutated parent strains. The new and improved strains of recombinant bacteria are capable of superior ethanol productivity and yield when grown under conditions suitable for fermentation in minimal growth media containing inexpensive reagents. Systems optimized for ethanol production combine a selected optimized minimal medium with a recombinant host cell optimized for use in the selected medium. Preferred systems are suitable for efficient ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) using lignocellulose as an oligosaccharide source. The invention also provides novel isolated polynucleotide sequences, polypeptide sequences, vectors and antibodies.

  19. Fuel Cell Car Design Project for Freshman Engineering Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Steve R.; Davis, Virginia A.

    2014-01-01

    In the Samuel Ginn College of Engineering at Auburn University, we have integrated a semester long design project based on a toy fuel cell car into our freshman "Introduction to Chemical Engineering Class." The project provides the students a basic foundation in chemical reactions, energy, and dimensional analysis that facilitates…

  20. Design and realisation of a quasi monolithic silicon load cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensink, H.; Wiegerink, R.J.; Zwijze, A.F.; Boer, de M.J.; Elwenspoek, M.C.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, the first silicon load cell is presented designed for measuring a load up to 1000 kg. A prototype has been realised. An improved cryogenic RIE process with high aspect ratio was developed for the fabrication of thin springs. Low temperature silicon direct bonding was used for the fina

  1. Novel Design for a Diffusive Solar Cell Window

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruei-Tang Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Building integrated photovoltaics (BIPV are an important application of future solar energy development. The incorporation of solar cells into windows must not only maintain indoor natural lighting but also generate electrical power at the same time. In our continuing effort to improve the design of diffusion solar window, a more fundamental and efficient three-layer structure—glass/EVA with TiO2 nanoparticles embedded/glass—was proposed. In this work, a well-established ASAP ray-tracing model for a diffusive solar cell window was implemented to validate the outperformance of three-layer structure over primitive five-layer structure. Optical simulations were also implemented to perform its primary design for the determination of the optimal design parameters, such as the glass thickness, the EVA thickness, and the weight concentration of TiO2 nanoparticles. Based on the simulation results, an optimal design for a three-layer diffusive solar cell window prototype was proposed. And the influence of both EVA thickness and glass thickness on the power edge-exitance (solar cell power generation efficiency of a DSCW was thoroughly investigated.

  2. Design Principles for Cell Phone Learning in EFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong

    2010-01-01

    Cell phone learning (C-learning), as an instructional approach, has been gaining more and more attention in the field of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in the last 10 years. While studies have proved C-learning an effective instructional approach in research settings, a review of literature indicates the lack of design principles to…

  3. Comprehensive design of omnidirectional high-performance perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yutao; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    The comprehensive design approach is established with coupled optical-electrical simulation for perovskite-based solar cell, which emerged as one of the most promising competitors to silicon solar cell for its low-cost fabrication and high PCE. The selection of structured surface, effect of geometry parameters, incident angle-dependence and polarization-sensitivity are considered in the simulation. The optical modeling is performed via the finite-difference time-domain method whilst the electrical properties are obtained by solving the coupled nonlinear equations of Poisson, continuity, and drift-diffusion equations. The optical and electrical performances of five different structured surfaces are compared to select a best structured surface for perovskite solar cell. The effects of the geometry parameters on the optical and electrical properties of the perovskite cell are analyzed. The results indicate that the light harvesting is obviously enhanced by the structured surface. The electrical performance can be remarkably improved due to the enhanced light harvesting of the designed best structured surface. The angle-dependence for s- and p-polarizations is investigated. The structured surface exhibits omnidirectional behavior and favorable polarization-insensitive feature within a wide incident angle range. Such a comprehensive design approach can highlight the potential of perovskite cell for power conversion in the full daylight. PMID:27405419

  4. Comprehensive design of omnidirectional high-performance perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yutao; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-07-01

    The comprehensive design approach is established with coupled optical-electrical simulation for perovskite-based solar cell, which emerged as one of the most promising competitors to silicon solar cell for its low-cost fabrication and high PCE. The selection of structured surface, effect of geometry parameters, incident angle-dependence and polarization-sensitivity are considered in the simulation. The optical modeling is performed via the finite-difference time-domain method whilst the electrical properties are obtained by solving the coupled nonlinear equations of Poisson, continuity, and drift-diffusion equations. The optical and electrical performances of five different structured surfaces are compared to select a best structured surface for perovskite solar cell. The effects of the geometry parameters on the optical and electrical properties of the perovskite cell are analyzed. The results indicate that the light harvesting is obviously enhanced by the structured surface. The electrical performance can be remarkably improved due to the enhanced light harvesting of the designed best structured surface. The angle-dependence for s- and p-polarizations is investigated. The structured surface exhibits omnidirectional behavior and favorable polarization-insensitive feature within a wide incident angle range. Such a comprehensive design approach can highlight the potential of perovskite cell for power conversion in the full daylight.

  5. Comprehensive design of omnidirectional high-performance perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yutao; Xuan, Yimin

    2016-01-01

    The comprehensive design approach is established with coupled optical-electrical simulation for perovskite-based solar cell, which emerged as one of the most promising competitors to silicon solar cell for its low-cost fabrication and high PCE. The selection of structured surface, effect of geometry parameters, incident angle-dependence and polarization-sensitivity are considered in the simulation. The optical modeling is performed via the finite-difference time-domain method whilst the electrical properties are obtained by solving the coupled nonlinear equations of Poisson, continuity, and drift-diffusion equations. The optical and electrical performances of five different structured surfaces are compared to select a best structured surface for perovskite solar cell. The effects of the geometry parameters on the optical and electrical properties of the perovskite cell are analyzed. The results indicate that the light harvesting is obviously enhanced by the structured surface. The electrical performance can be remarkably improved due to the enhanced light harvesting of the designed best structured surface. The angle-dependence for s- and p-polarizations is investigated. The structured surface exhibits omnidirectional behavior and favorable polarization-insensitive feature within a wide incident angle range. Such a comprehensive design approach can highlight the potential of perovskite cell for power conversion in the full daylight. PMID:27405419

  6. Statistical analysis in the design of nuclear fuel cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the preliminary results of a statistical analysis carried out for the design of nuclear fuel cells. The analysis consists in verifying the behavior of a cell, related with the frequency of the pines used for its design. In this preliminary study was analyzed the behavior of infinite multiplication factor and the peak factor of local power. On the other hand, the mentioned analysis was carried out using a pines group of enriched uranium previously established, for which varies the pines frequency used in the design. To carry out the study, the CASMO-IV code was used. The obtained designs are for the different axial areas of a fuel assembly. A balance cycle of the unit 1 of the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde was used like reference. To obtain the result of the present work, systems that are already had and in which have already been implemented the heuristic techniques of ant colonies, neural networks and a hybrid between the dispersed search and the trajectories re-chaining. The results show that is possible to design nuclear fuel cells with a good performance, if is considered a statistical behavior in the frequency of the used pines, in a same way. (Author)

  7. [Continuous perfusion culture hybridoma cells for production of monoclonal antibody].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mi, Li; Li, Ling; Feng, Qiang; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Chen, Zhi-Nan

    2002-05-01

    Hybridoma cells were cultured by continuous perfusion in Fibra-Cel of 5L packed-bed bioreactor for 22 days in low serum or serum-free media. The corresponded amino acids were fed and serum concentration was decreased by analyzing glucose concentration, oxygen uptake rate, secretary antibody amount and amino acids concentration in culture supernatant. Comparing with continuous perfusion culture that amino acids were not fed, antibody amount of production was increased about 2-3 times. The inoculated cell density was 2.5 x 10(5) cells/mL, while the final cell density was 8.79 x 10(8) cells/mL. Antibody production was reached 295 mg/L/d at average level, and the highest level was reached 532 mg/L/d. These results provided a primary mode of enlarge culture for monoclonal antibody industralization. PMID:12192875

  8. Design for manufacturability of a VDSM standard cell library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宠; 陈岚; 曾健平; 尹明会; 赵劫

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method of designing a 65 nm DFM standard cell library.By reducing the amount of the library largely,the process of optical proximity correction (OPC) becomes more efficient and the need for large storage is reduced.This library is more manufacture-friendly as each cell has been optimized according to the DFM rule and optical simulation.The area penalty is minor compared with traditional library,and the timing,as well as power has a good performance.Furthermore,this library has passed the test from the Technology Design Department of Foundry.The result shows this DFM standard cell library has advantages that improve the yield.

  9. Analysis of Reference Design for Nuclear-Assisted Hydrogen Production at 750 C Reactor Outlet Temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) for the efficient production of hydrogen without the greenhouse gas emissions associated with conventional fossil-fuel hydrogen production techniques has been under investigation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INL) for the last several years. The activities at the INL have included the development, testing and analysis of large numbers of solid oxide electrolysis cells, and the analyses of potential plant designs for large scale production of hydrogen using a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to provide the process heat and electricity to drive the electrolysis process. The results of this research led to the selection in 2009 of HTE as the preferred concept in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen technology down-selection process. However, the down-selection process, along with continued technical assessments at the INL, has resulted in a number of proposed modifications and refinements to improve the original INL reference HTE design. These modifications include changes in plant configuration, operating conditions and individual component designs. This report describes the resulting new INL reference design coupled to two alternative HTGR power conversion systems, a Steam Rankine Cycle and a Combined Cycle (a Helium Brayton Cycle with a Steam Rankine Bottoming Cycle). Results of system analyses performed to optimize the design and to determine required plant performance and operating conditions when coupled to the two different power cycles are also presented. A 600 MWt high temperature gas reactor coupled with a Rankine steam power cycle at a thermal efficiency of 44.4% can produce 1.85 kg/s of hydrogen and 14.6 kg/s of oxygen. The same capacity reactor coupled with a combined cycle at a thermal efficiency of 42.5% can produce 1.78 kg/s of hydrogen and 14.0 kg/s of oxygen.

  10. Intelligent decision support system for ergonomic product design

    OpenAIRE

    Kaljun, Jasmin; Obad, Milenko; Dolšak, Bojan

    2012-01-01

    In general, computer tools for ergonomic CAD do not assist designer with higher level advice when performing ergonomic design. Designer has to possess expert knowledge and experience in many fields of engineering design including ergonomics in order to deliver successful designs. Such multi-levelexperts are rare and usually occupied. Two alternative ways are used to substitute these experts: teams of experts covering different areas of knowledge are established or some intelligent computer pr...

  11. Green design assessment of electromechanical products based on group weighted-AHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jinwei; Zhou, MengChu; Li, Zhiwu; Xie, Huiguang

    2015-11-01

    Manufacturing industry is the backbone of a country's economy while environmental pollution is a serious problem that human beings must face today. The green design of electromechanical products based on enterprise information systems is an important method to solve the environmental problem. The question on how to design green products must be answered by excellent designers via both advanced design methods and effective assessment methods of electromechanical products. Making an objective and precise assessment of green design is one of the problems that must be solved when green design is conducted. An assessment method of green design on electromechanical products based on Group Weighted-AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process) is proposed in this paper, together with the characteristics of green products. The assessment steps of green design are also established. The results are illustrated via the assessment of a refrigerator design.

  12. The Co-Evolution between Product Form Design and Product CategoriesThe Renaissance of the Behind-the-ear Hearing Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, Anders Dahl

    This paper will analyze co-evolutionary relationships between product categories and product form designs. Previous research has found how the interaction between product categories and product form design influences users’ perception of product value and how changes in product form design can ca...

  13. In silico Design of "Un-Natural" Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zucko; J. ...(et al.

    2008-05-01

    ClustScan, which are under development to model these processes in silico. The heart of CompGen is a specially structured database, based on BioSQL v1.29, which connects the biosynthetic order of synthase/synthetase enzymes to the sequences of the component polypeptides. The additional linkage to the gene sequences allows the integration of DNA sequence with product structure. The database contains sequences of the well-characterised PKS/NRPS clusters, and non-annotated sequenced clusters whose structure and functionis yet unknown, to act as building blocks for the production of novel products. It is easy to add custom sequences to the database and to annotate them by the use of propriety protein profiles designed by Pfam database and HMMER. One function of the program is the ability to generate virtual recombinants between clusters. This can be done using a recombination model (with optional parameters to predict sites for homologous recombination or by user defined recombination sites (e.g. to model in vitro genetic manipulation such as module replacement. The program predicts the linear polyketide structure of the resulting "un-natural" natural products with a chemical description using isomeric SMILES. Molecular modelling of the subsequent spontaneous cyclisation process produces structures for a virtual compound database for further molecular modelling studies using PASS and CDD technology. An optional "reverse genetics" module analyses a given chemical structure to see if it could be produced by a novel PKS/NRPS synthesis cluster and suggests the DNA sequence of a suitable cluster based on building blocks derived from clusters contained in the database.Overall, the CompGen allows in silico generation of the database of novel "un-natural" natural chemical compounds that can be used for in silico screening using PASS or CDD technology. The other integral generic program package, ClustScan, will recognise and annotate new gene clusters from microbial genome

  14. From Product End-of-Life Sustainable Considerations to Design Management

    OpenAIRE

    Duque Ciceri, Natalia; Garetti, Marco; Sperandio, Severine

    2010-01-01

    Better understanding of the current product End-of-life sustainable practices leads to important feedback for the design of more "sustainable" so called eco-products, by identifying the design improvements that reduce the impact of manufactured goods on the environment and society. In this paper, we propose a way to assess the impact on product design that ultimately helps on deciding the product characteristics required for a desired End-of-life (EOL) practice (i.e. reuse, recycle, remanufac...

  15. Accessibility engineering - Simulation and user experience tools for designing products for all

    OpenAIRE

    Dangelmaier, Manfred; TZOVARAS, Dimitrios; Blach, Roland; Tsakiris, T.

    2014-01-01

    Inclusive design is a declared political intention in Europe. Enterprises are expected to take their social responsibility by providing accessible products. But designing products for all also means economic opportunities by improving usability and user experience of the product and by enlarging the target market. To design inclusive products a new type of engineering competence and functionis needed: accessibility engineering. VERITAS, an Integrated Project in the European 7th Framework Prog...

  16. Design Methods and Factors Influencing their Uptake in Product Development Companies: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jagtap, Santosh; Warell, Anders; Hiort, Viktor; Motte, Damien; Larsson, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Design methods are necessary to support product development companies in improving their product development processes, and thereby in producing high quality products. The uptake of design methods in product development companies is limited and lower than one might expect. There is a wide variety of literature related to factors that influence the uptake of design methods in companies. In this paper, we synthesised this literature, and in particular, developed a framework of factors than can ...

  17. Design a Product for Learning and Teaching: From Theories to Developing a Process

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi, Mahmoud; Brunel, Stephane; Vallespir, Bruno

    2008-01-01

    Most of firms design products by using several resources such human resources and tools, to sell these products to customers regardless to design the products for learning objectives. Based upon several endeavors realized in the academic and hands-on activities this paper presents the three basic theories underlined to the notion of design for learning and teaching namely knowledge, design, and learning theories. After a short review of knowledge and knowledge management theories context and ...

  18. Choosing the right platform for the right product: Sustainable production of chemicals in microbial cell factories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrgard, Markus

    The Novo Nordisk Foundation Center for Biosustainability (CFB) is a new non-profit research center focused on sustainable production of biochemicals and therapeutic proteins using microbial and mammalian cell factories. The work at CFB is organized around an iterative loop where cell factories are...

  19. Innovative self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell (SMEC) for biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    A self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell (SMEC), in which a specially designed anode chamber and external electricity supply were not needed, was developed for in situ biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors. In batch experiments, the hydrogen production rate reached 17.8 m...... and buffer concentration. The highest hydrogen production rate of 32.2 mL/L/d and YH2 of 1.43 mol-H2/mol-acetate were achieved at 1640 mg/L (20 mM) acetate and 100 mM phosphate buffer. Further evaluation of the reactor under single electricity-generating or hydrogen-producing mode indicated that further....... Furthermore, 16S rRNA genes analysis showed that this special operation strategy resulted same microbial community structures in the anodic biofilms of the two cell units. The simple, compact and in situ applicable SMEC offers new opportunities for reactor design for a microbial electricity...

  20. H2 PRODUCTION AND FUEL CELLS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WANG, X.; RODRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2006-06-30

    Oxide nanosystems play a key role as components of catalysts used for the production of H{sub 2} via the steam reforming or the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, and for the water-gas shift reaction. The behavior seen for Cu-ceria and Au-ceria WGS catalysts indicates that the oxide is much more than a simple support. The special chemical properties of the oxide nanoparticles (defect rich, high mobility of oxygen) favor interactions with the reactants or other catalyst components. More in-situ characterization and mechanistic studies are necessary for the optimization of these nanocatalysts. The use of oxide nanomaterials for the fabrication of PEMFCs and SOFCs can lead to devices with a high practical impact. One objective is to build electrodes with low cost conducting oxide nanoarrays. The electron and oxygen-ion conducting capabilities of many oxides improve when going from the bulk to the nanoscale. Furthermore, one can get a more homogeneous surface morphology and an increase of the effective reaction area. Much more fundamental and practical research needs to be done in this area.

  1. Development of a yeast cell factory for production of aromatic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Prado, Edith Angelica; Kildegaard, Kanchana Rueksomtawin; Li, Mingji;

    2014-01-01

    There is much interest in aromatic chemicals in the chemical industry as these can be used for production of dyes, anti-oxidants, nutraceuticals and food ingredients. Yeast is a widely used cell factory and it is particularly well suited for production of aromatic chemicals via complex biosynthetic...

  2. Macrophage secretory products selectively stimulate dermatan sulfate proteoglycan production in cultured arterial smooth muscle cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, I. J.; Wagner, W. D.; Owens, R. T.

    1990-01-01

    Arterial dermatan sulfate proteoglycan has been shown to increase with atherosclerosis progression, but factors responsible for this increase are unknown. To test the hypothesis that smooth muscle cell proteoglycan synthesis may be modified by macrophage products, pigeon arterial smooth muscle cells were exposed to the media of either cholesteryl ester-loaded pigeon peritoneal macrophages or a macrophage cell line P388D1. Proteoglycans radiolabeled with [35S]sulfate and [3H]serine were isolat...

  3. Photonic Design: From Fundamental Solar Cell Physics to Computational Inverse Design

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Owen D

    2013-01-01

    Photonic innovation is becoming ever more important in the modern world. Optical systems are dominating shorter and shorter communications distances, LED's are rapidly emerging for a variety of applications, and solar cells show potential to be a mainstream technology in the energy space. The need for novel, energy-efficient photonic and optoelectronic devices will only increase. This work unites fundamental physics and a novel computational inverse design approach towards such innovation. The first half of the dissertation is devoted to the physics of high-efficiency solar cells. As solar cells approach fundamental efficiency limits, their internal physics transforms. Photonic considerations, instead of electronic ones, are the key to reaching the highest voltages and efficiencies. Proper photon management led to Alta Device's recent dramatic increase of the solar cell efficiency record to 28.3%. Moreover, approaching the Shockley-Queisser limit for any solar cell technology will require light extraction to ...

  4. Advanced optical design of tandem micromorph silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krc, Janez; Smole, Franc; Topic, Marko [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Department of Electronics, University of Ljubljana, Trzaska 25, Si-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2006-06-15

    The role of refractive index of an interlayer in micromorph silicon solar cell is analyzed by means of optical simulations. Significant increases in quantum efficiency and photocurrent of the top cell are revealed for small refractive indexes of the interlayer (n<2.0). At the same time a noticeable decrease in the performance of the bottom cell is observed. Optimization of thickness and refractive index of a single-layer antireflective coating (ARC) on glass is carried out in order to obtain maximal photocurrent either in the top or in the bottom cell. Moderate increases in photocurrents are obtained (up to 4%) for optimized ARC parameters. Potential thickness reductions of the absorber layers related to (1) an interlayer with small refractive index, (2) an optimal ARC and (3) enhanced light scattering are determined and compared. Among the three advanced optical designs, the greatest potential in thickness reduction (up to 50%) is associated with enhanced light scattering. ng. (author)

  5. Design of Compact Photoelectrochemical Cells for Water Splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosserez Tom

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Solar driven water splitting can be achieved by coupling electrolyzers with PhotoVoltaics (PV. Integration of both functions in a compact PhotoElectroChemical (PEC cell is an attractive option but presents significant scientific challenges. In this work, the design of single- and dual-compartment PEC cells for research purposes is discussed. The fabrication of separator-electrode assemblies is an important aspect, and upscaling of these architectures even to centimeter scale is not trivial. The layout of a new dual-compartment compact PEC cell with in-situ monitoring of pH, temperatures, and oxygen and hydrogen evolution for research purposes is presented. Finally, a prospect of future PEC cells for practical applications is presented.

  6. Continuous culture of immobilized streptomyces cells for kasugamycin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C J; Chang, Y K; Chun, G T; Jeong, Y H; Lee, S J

    2001-01-01

    Continuous cultures of immobilized Streptomyces kasugaensis, a kasugamycin producer, were carried out on Celite beads. When using a prototype separator for immobilized-cell separation and recycling, the continuous operation could not be sustained for an extended period as a result of an excessive loss of immobilized cells caused by the poor performance of the separator. Accordingly, the immobilized-cell separator was revised to provide better immobilized-cell settling and thus recycling into the reactor. In a subsequent culture using the revised separator, a stable operation was maintained for over 820 h with a high kasugamycin productivity. The kasugamycin productivity ranged from 9.8 to 16.1 mg/L/h, which was about 14- to 23-fold higher than that in a batch suspended-cell culture. When the original feeding medium concentration was doubled at the end of the continuous culture, the productivity became severely impaired for several reasons, which will be discussed. An excessive formation of free cells and loss of immobilized cells through the separator were also observed. PMID:11386865

  7. Photonic Nanostructures Design and Optimization for Solar Cell Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a semiconducting photonic nanostructure capable of wide range absorption and tunable optical resonance has been designed with a proposed theoretical optimization model. The design consists of ZnO/CdS core-shell nanowire arrays as well as multilayer thin films that act to absorb incident electromagnetic (EM waves over a broad frequency range. Theoretical, as well as numerical, studies of the nanostructure inside a solar cell plate have been conducted in order to validate the proposed microstructural design. Excellent energy absorption rates of EM waves have been achieved in the high frequency range by using the optical resonance of the nanowire array. By combining multilayer thin film with the core-shell nanowire in the unit cell of a photonic solar cell, a broadband high absorption has been achieved. Moreover, the geometry of the proposed photonic nanostructure is obtained through the implementation of a genetic algorithm. This avoids local minima and an optimized absorption rate of ~90% over the frequency range of 300 to 750 THz has been obtained in the solar cell.

  8. From Design to Production Control Through the Integration of Engineering Data Management and Workflow Management Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Le Goff, J M; Bityukov, S; Estrella, F; Kovács, Z; Le Flour, T; Lieunard, S; McClatchey, R; Murray, S; Organtini, G; Vialle, J P; Bazan, A; Chevenier, G

    1997-01-01

    At a time when many companies are under pressure to reduce "times-to-market" the management of product information from the early stages of design through assembly to manufacture and production has become increasingly important. Similarly in the construction of high energy physics devices the collection of ( often evolving) engineering data is central to the subsequent physics analysis. Traditionally in industry design engineers have employed Engineering Data Management Systems ( also called Product Data Management Systems) to coordinate and control access to documented versions of product designs. However, these systems provide control only at the collaborative design level and are seldom used beyond design. Workflow management systems, on the other hand, are employed in industry to coordinate and support the more complex and repeatable work processes of the production environment. Commer cial workflow products cannot support the highly dynamic activities found both in the design stages of product developmen...

  9. Solar-cell interconnect design for terrestrial photovoltaic modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mon, G. R.; Moore, D. M.; Ross, R. G., Jr.

    1984-11-01

    Useful solar cell interconnect reliability design and life prediction algorithms are presented, together with experimental data indicating that the classical strain cycle (fatigue) curve for the interconnect material does not account for the statistical scatter that is required in reliability predictions. This shortcoming is presently addressed by fitting a functional form to experimental cumulative interconnect failure rate data, which thereby yields statistical fatigue curves enabling not only the prediction of cumulative interconnect failures during the design life of an array field, but also the quantitative interpretation of data from accelerated thermal cycling tests. Optimal interconnect cost reliability design algorithms are also derived which may allow the minimization of energy cost over the design life of the array field.

  10. Design of linear controllers applied to an ethanol steam reformer for PEM fuel cell applications

    OpenAIRE

    García, Vanesa M.; Serra, Maria; Llorca, Jordi; Riera, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on the design of a controller for a low temperature ethanol steam reformer for the production of hydrogen to feed a protonic exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. It describes different control structures for the reformer and treats the control structure selection of this multiple input multiple output (MIMO) system. For each considered control structure, decentralised 2 × 2 controllers with proportional integral (PI) control actions in each control loop are implemented. The t...

  11. Statistical optimisation of cell growth and carotenoid production by Rhodotorula mucilaginosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iriani R. Maldonade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sequential statistical methods were used to maximise carotenoid production by a strain of Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, isolated from the Brazilian ecosystem. Initially, a factorial 2(5-1 experimental design was used, and the variables were pH and the levels of glucose, yeast extract, MgSO4.7H2O and KH2PO4. The nitrogen source (yeast extract was the most important variable in enhancing carotenoid production; MgSO4.7H2O and KH2PO4 had a negative influence. The initial pH had no significant effect on carotenoid and cell productions. We further investigated the effects of glucose and yeast extract effects, using a second-order central composite design (CCD to optimise carotenoid production, which was adequately approximated with a full quadratic equation obtained from a two-factor-2-level design. The analysis of quadratic surfaces showed that after 5 days of cultivation at 25ºC, the maximum carotenoid concentration (745 µg l-1 was obtained with 15 g l-1 of yeast extract and 20 g l-1 of glucose. The maximum carotenoid production (152 µg g-1 was obtained with 5 g l-1 yeast extract and 10 g l-1 glucose. Carotenoid formation was more sensitive to changes in yeast extract concentration than to changes in glucose concentration. Maximum cell production was achieved with 15-17 g l-1 of yeast extract and 15-20 g l-1 of glucose.

  12. Proton exchange fuel cell : the design, construction and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinzen, M.R.; Simoes, G.C.; Da Silva, L. [Univ. do Vale do Itajai, Sao Jose, SC (Brazil). Lab. de Pesquisa em Energia; Fiori, M.A.; Paula, M.M.S. [Univ. do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Santa Catarina (Brazil). Lab. de Sintese de Complexos Multifuncionais; Benavides, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Quimica Aplicada, Coahuila (Mexico)

    2010-07-15

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) convert the chemical energy stored in the fuel directly into electrical energy without intermediate steps. The PEMFC operates at a relatively low operating temperature making it a good choice for mobile applications, but a high power density is needed in order to decrease the total weight of the vehicles. This paper presented a simple methodology to construct a PEMFC-type fuel cell, with particular reference to the gaseous diffuser, cell structure, the fixing plate, mounting bracket, gas distribution plates, and the membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The geometric design and meshing of the PEMFC were also described. The electrode was made using graphite with flow-field geometry. The PEMFC was tested for 100 hour of continuous work, during which time the current and voltage produced were monitored in order to evaluate the performance of the PEMFC. The materials used in the preparation of the fuel cell proved to be suitable. There was no loss of efficiency during the tests. The most relevant aspects affecting the PEMFC design were examined in an effort to optimize the performance of the cell. 13 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Photobiological hydrogen production with switchable photosystem-II designer algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, James Weifu

    2014-02-18

    A process for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production using transgenic alga. The process includes inducing exogenous genes in a transgenic alga by manipulating selected environmental factors. In one embodiment inducing production of an exogenous gene uncouples H.sub.2 production from existing mechanisms that would downregulate H.sub.2 production in the absence of the exogenous gene. In other embodiments inducing an exogenous gene triggers a cascade of metabolic changes that increase H.sub.2 production. In some embodiments the transgenic alga are rendered non-regenerative by inducing exogenous transgenes for proton channel polypeptides that are targeted to specific algal membranes.

  14. A systematic methodology for design of tailor-made blended products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yunus, Nor Alafiza Binti; Gernaey, Krist; Woodley, John;

    2014-01-01

    A systematic methodology for design of tailor-made blended products has been developed. In tailor-made blended products, one identifies the product needs and matches them by blending different chemicals. The systematic methodology has four main tasks. First, the design problem is defined: the pro...... methodology is highlighted through two case studies involving gasoline blends and lubricant base oils....

  15. 78 FR 58318 - Clinical Trial Design for Intravenous Fat Emulsion Products; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Clinical Trial Design for Intravenous Fat Emulsion Products... ``Clinical Trial Design for Intravenous Fat Emulsion Products.'' This workshop will provide a forum to discuss trial design of clinical trials intended to support registration of intravenous fat...

  16. Integration of chemical product development, process design and operation based on a kilo-plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yu; WU Zhihui; JIANG Yanbin

    2006-01-01

    Presented in this paper is an integrated approach of computer-aided product development, process design and operation analysis based on a kilo-plant. The implemented kilo-plant, as a research platform to manufacture product in kilogram-scale, was designed especially for fine and specialty chemicals. The characteristics of product synthesis, process operation and product quality control are investigated coupled with computer-aided monitoring, online modeling, simulation and operation process optimization. In this way, chemical product discovery, process design and operation are integrated in a systematic approach, in the aim to respond to rapid changing marketplace demands to new products.

  17. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the ninth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2005-December 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) reformate purification, (2) heat transfer enhancement, (3) autothermal reforming coal-derived methanol degradation test; and (4) model development for fuel cell system integration. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

  18. Data management in the cell therapy production facility: the batch process record (BPR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, We

    2008-01-01

    The activities of cell therapy establishments are associated with substantial amounts of information. For reasons of best practice, regulation and adherence to prevailing standards, the data generated in the course of cell therapy product processing must be recorded and retained in an organized manner. Because cell therapy products are functionally pharmaceuticals, the paradigm of the pharmaceutical manufacturing batch process record (BPR) is proposed as a unit for collecting the data resulting from processing. Considerations for cell-processing facilities for the design of BPR and possible selection of electronic data-recording tools are reviewed, including data to collect in response to regulatory or accreditation mandates and different types of electronic data management tools that may be employed. Additionally, considerations for selection, qualification and validation of computer software for maintenance of the BPR are addressed. PMID:18418768

  19. INTEGRATED LAYOUT DESIGN OF CELLS AND FLOW PATHS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhihua; Zhong Yifang; Zhou Ji

    2003-01-01

    The integrated layout problem in manufacturing systems is investigated. An integrated model for concurrent layout design of cells and flow paths is formulated. A hybrid approach combined an enhanced branch-and-bound algorithm with a simulated annealing scheme is proposed to solve this problem. The integrated layout method is applied to re-layout the gear pump shop of a medium-size manufacturer of hydraulic pieces. Results show that the proposed layout method can concurrently provide good solutions of the cell layouts and the flow path layouts.

  20. Product Knowledge Representation and Integration Technology in Web-based Collaborative Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Wentao; TIAN Ling; LUO Wei; TONG Bingshu

    2006-01-01

    Because of the complexity of modern product design, the web-based collaborative product design aroused considerable attention of manufacturers in the last few years with the development of Internet technology. But it is still hardly achievable due to the difficulty to share product knowledge from different designers and systems. In this paper, we firstly create an ontology-based product model, which consists of PPR (Product, Process and Resource) concept models and PPR characteristic models, to describe product knowledge. Afterwards, how to represent the model in XML is discussed in detail. Then the mechanism of product knowledge collection and integration from different application systems based on interface agents is introduced. At last, a web-based open-architecture product knowledge integrating and sharing prototype system AD-HUB is developed. An example is also given and it shows that the theory discussed in this paper is efficient to represent and integrate product knowledge in web-based collaborative design processes.