WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell power plants

  1. DIRECT FUEL/CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-05-01

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine{reg_sign} (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha DFC/T hybrid power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Also, the preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed.

  2. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  3. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  4. Progress and prospects for phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonville, L.J.; Scheffler, G.W.; Smith, M.J. [International Fuel Cells Corp., South Windsor, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has developed the fuel cell power plant as a new, on-site power generation source. IFC`s commercial fuel cell product is the 200-kW PC25{trademark} power plant. To date over 100 PC25 units have been manufactured. Fleet operating time is in excess of one million hours. Individual units of the initial power plant model, the PC25 A, have operated for more than 30,000 hours. The first model {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} power plant has over 10,000 hours of operation. The manufacturing, application and operation of this power plant fleet has established a firm base for design and technology development in terms of a clear understanding of the requirements for power plant reliability and durability. This fleet provides the benchmark against which power plant improvements must be measured.

  5. Dynamic simulation of a direct carbonate fuel cell power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest, J.B. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Ghezel-Ayagh, H.; Kush, A.K. [Fuel Cell Engineering, Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is commercializing a 2.85 MW Direct carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC) power plant. The commercialization sequence has already progressed through construction and operation of the first commercial-scale DFC power plant on a U.S. electric utility, the 2 MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP), and the completion of the early phases of a Commercial Plant design. A 400 kW fuel cell stack Test Facility is being built at Energy Research Corporation (ERC), FCE`s parent company, which will be capable of testing commercial-sized fuel cell stacks in an integrated plant configuration. Fluor Daniel, Inc. provided engineering, procurement, and construction services for SCDP and has jointly developed the Commercial Plant design with FCE, focusing on the balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment outside of the fuel cell modules. This paper provides a brief orientation to the dynamic simulation of a fuel cell power plant and the benefits offered.

  6. Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-13

    Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels DOE-DOD Workshop Washington, DC. January 13, 2011 reliable, efficient, ultra-clean Report...2011 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2011 to 00-00-2011 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Fuel Cell Power Plants Renewable and Waste Fuels 5a. CONTRACT...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES presented at the DOE-DOD Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop held

  7. Integrating fuel cell power systems into building physical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, J. [KCI Technologies, Inc., Hunt Valley, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the integration of fuel cell power plants and absorption chillers to cogenerate chilled water or hot water/steam for all weather air conditioning as one possible approach to building system applications. Absorption chillers utilize thermal energy in an absorption based cycle to chill water. It is feasible to use waste heat from fuel cells to provide hydronic heating and cooling. Performance regimes will vary as a function of the supply and quality of waste heat. Respective performance characteristics of fuel cells, absorption chillers and air conditioning systems will define relationships between thermal and electrical load capacities for the combined systems. Specifically, this paper develops thermodynamic relationships between bulk electrical power and cooling/heating capacities for combined fuel cell and absorption chiller system in building applications.

  8. Phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system performance model and computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkasab, K. A.; Lu, C. Y.

    1984-01-01

    A FORTRAN computer program was developed for analyzing the performance of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant systems. Energy mass and electrochemical analysis in the reformer, the shaft converters, the heat exchangers, and the fuel cell stack were combined to develop a mathematical model for the power plant for both atmospheric and pressurized conditions, and for several commercial fuels.

  9. 1000kW phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. Outline of the plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinobe, Kenji; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kaneko, Hideo

    1988-02-10

    The outline of the 1000KW phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant, developed as part of the Moonlight plan, was described. The plant was composed of 4 stacks of 260KW DC output. They were devided into two train with 680V and 765A. The generation efficiency of the plant was 40% and more. Steam reforming of natural gas was used. As the fuel, fuel cell exhaust gas was used in composition with the natural gas. The DC-AC inverter had an efficiency of 96%. The capacity of hot water generator and demineralized water plant for cell cooling were 2t/h and 1.6t/h, respectively, and air-system was incorporated. In September of 1987, the plant has succeeded in 1000KW power generation, and put in operation now. Under the 100% loaded condition, each cell had a voltage of 0.7V with little variation, and the current was 200mA/cm/sup 2/. No problems were found in cooling conditions and in the control of interpole differential pressure. The reformer has been operated for 1200h scince its commisioning, and had experiences of 100 times on start up-shut down operations, the reformer also indicated good performances in the gas compositions. The starting time of 8h and the load follow-up rate 10%/min remain as the subjects for shortening. DC-AC conversion was good. The concentration of NOx and the noise level satisfied the target values. (12 figs, 1 tab)

  10. Power conversion and quality of the Santa Clara 2 MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skok, A.J. [Fuel Cell Engineering Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Abueg, R.Z. [Basic Measuring Instruments, Santa Clara, CA (United States); Schwartz, P. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is the first application of a commercial-scale carbonate fuel cell power plant on a US electric utility system. It is also the largest fuel cell power plant ever operated in the United States. The 2MW plant, located in Santa Clara, California, utilizes carbonate fuel cell technology developed by Energy Research Corporation (ERC) of Danbury, Connecticut. The ultimate goal of a fuel cell power plant is to deliver usable power into an electrical distribution system. The power conversion sub-system does this for the Santa Clara Demonstration Plant. A description of this sub-system and its capabilities follows. The sub-system has demonstrated the capability to deliver real power, reactive power and to absorb reactive power on a utility grid. The sub-system can be operated in the same manner as a conventional rotating generator except with enhanced capabilities for reactive power. Measurements demonstrated the power quality from the plant in various operating modes was high quality utility grade power.

  11. Integration of A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell into A 10 MW Gas Turbine Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denver F. Cheddie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Power generation using gas turbine power plants operating on the Brayton cycle suffers from low efficiencies. In this work, a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is proposed for integration into a 10 MW gas turbine power plant, operating at 30% efficiency. The SOFC system utilizes four heat exchangers for heat recovery from both the turbine outlet and the fuel cell outlet to ensure a sufficiently high SOFC temperature. The power output of the hybrid plant is 37 MW at 66.2% efficiency. A thermo-economic model predicts a payback period of less than four years, based on future projected SOFC cost estimates.

  12. Special considerations on operating a fuel cell power plant using natural gas with marginal heating value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, L. Ng; Chien-Liang Lin [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan (China); Ya-Tang Cheng [Power Research Institute, Taiwan (China)

    1996-12-31

    In realizing new power generation technologies in Taiwan, a phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant (model PC2513, ONSI Corporation) has been installed in the premises of the Power Research Institute of the Taiwan Power Company in Taipei County of Taiwan. The pipeline gas supplying to the site of this power plant has a high percentage of carbon dioxide and thus a slightly lower heating value than that specified by the manufacturer. Because of the lowering of heating value of input gas, the highest Output power from the power plant is understandably less than the rated power of 200 kW designed. Further, the transient response of the power plant as interrupted from the Grid is also affected. Since this gas is also the pipeline gas supplying to the heavily populated Taipei Municipal area, it is conceivable that the success of the operations of fuel cells using this fuel is of vital importance to the promotion of the use of this power generation technology in Taiwan. Hence, experiments were set up to assess the feasibility of this fuel cell power plant using the existing pipeline gas in this part of Taiwan where fuel cells would most likely find useful.

  13. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power plants...

  14. Overview of commercialization of stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hooie, D.T.; Williams, M.C.

    1995-07-01

    In this paper, DOE`s efforts to assist private sector organizations to develop and commercialize stationary fuel cell power plants in the United States are discussed. The paper also provides a snapshot of the status of stationary power fuel cell development occurring in the US, addressing all fuel cell types. This paper discusses general characteristics, system configurations, and status of test units and demonstration projects. The US DOE, Morgantown Energy Technology Center is the lead center for implementing DOE`s program for fuel cells for stationary power.

  15. Assessment and comparison of 100-MW coal gasification phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1988-01-01

    One of the advantages of fuel cell (FC) power plants is fuel versatility. With changes only in the fuel processor, the power plant will be able to accept a variety of fuels. This study was performed to design process diagrams, evaluate performance, and to estimate cost of 100 MW coal gasifier (CG)/phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant systems utilizing coal, which is the largest single potential source of alternate hydrocarbon liquids and gases in the United States, as the fuel. Results of this study will identify the most promising integrated CG/PAFC design and its near-optimal operating conditions. The comparison is based on the performance and cost of electricity which is calculated under consistent financial assumptions.

  16. Increase of power output by change of ion transport direction in a plant microbial fuel cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, R.A.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    The plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) is a technology for the production of renewable and clean bioenergy based on photosynthesis. To increase the power output of the PMFC, the internal resistance (IR) must be reduced. The objective of the present study was to reduce the membrane resistance by changi

  17. Manual of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant cost model and computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C. Y.; Alkasab, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    Cost analysis of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant includes two parts: a method for estimation of system capital costs, and an economic analysis which determines the levelized annual cost of operating the system used in the capital cost estimation. A FORTRAN computer has been developed for this cost analysis.

  18. ISRU Reactant, Fuel Cell Based Power Plant for Robotic and Human Mobile Exploration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Russell S.; Sanders, Gerald; Simon, Thomas; McCurdy, Kerri

    2003-01-01

    Three basic power generation system concepts are generally considered for lander, rover, and Extra-Vehicular Activity (EVA) assistant applications for robotic and human Moon and Mars exploration missions. The most common power system considered is the solar array and battery system. While relatively simple and successful, solar array/battery systems have some serious limitations for mobile applications. For typical rover applications, these limitations include relatively low total energy storage capabilities, daylight only operating times (6 to 8 hours on Mars), relatively short operating lives depending on the operating environment, and rover/lander size and surface use constraints. Radioisotope power systems are being reconsidered for long-range science missions. Unfortunately, the high cost, political controversy, and launch difficulties that are associated with nuclear-based power systems suggests that the use of radioisotope powered landers, rovers, and EVA assistants will be limited. The third power system concept now being considered are fuel cell based systems. Fuel cell power systems overcome many of the performance and surface exploration limitations of solar array/battery power systems and the prohibitive cost and other difficulties associated with nuclear power systems for mobile applications. In an effort to better understand the capabilities and limitations of fuel cell power systems for Moon and Mars exploration applications. NASA is investigating the use of In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) produced reactant, fuel cell based power plants to power robotic outpost rovers, science equipment, and future human spacecraft, surface-excursion rovers, and EVA assistant rovers. This paper will briefly compare the capabilities and limitations of fuel cell power systems relative to solar array/battery and nuclear systems, discuss the unique and enhanced missions that fuel cell power systems enable, and discuss the common technology and system attributes

  19. Repowering of an Existing Power Plant by Means of Gas Turbine and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, a repowering is performed adding one or more gas turbines to an existing steam cycle which was built decades ago. Thus, traditional repowering results in combine d cycles (CC). High temperature fuel cells (such as SOFC) could also be used as a topping cycle...... for topping an existing steam cycle, instead of gas turbine on the top. This is also the target of this study, r epowering of an existing power plant with SOFC as well as gas turbines. The plant used here for repowering is the Kyndby power station is an emergency and peak load facility for Zealand in Denmark....... This means the facilities at the station can be started up within minutes if operational irregularities occur in the high voltage electricity grid or problems arise at other power stations. Nowadays this station is repowered with two gas turbines but the current study is about the original steam plant before...

  20. NASA's PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant Development Program for Space Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoberecht, Mark A.

    2008-01-01

    A three-center NASA team led by the Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio is completing a five-year PEM fuel cell power plant development program for future space applications. The focus of the program has been to adapt commercial PEM fuel cell technology for space applications by addressing the key mission requirements of using pure oxygen as an oxidant and operating in a multi-gravity environment. Competing vendors developed breadboard units in the 1 to 5 kW power range during the first phase of the program, and a single vendor developed a nominal 10-kW engineering model power pant during the second phase of the program. Successful performance and environmental tests conducted by NASA established confidence that PEM fuel cell technology will be ready to meet the electrical power needs of future space missions.

  1. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  2. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant having a bootstrap start-up system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, Michael T

    2016-10-04

    The bootstrap start-up system (42) achieves an efficient start-up of the power plant (10) that minimizes formation of soot within a reformed hydrogen rich fuel. A burner (48) receives un-reformed fuel directly from the fuel supply (30) and combusts the fuel to heat cathode air which then heats an electrolyte (24) within the fuel cell (12). A dilute hydrogen forming gas (68) cycles through a sealed heat-cycling loop (66) to transfer heat and generated steam from an anode side (32) of the electrolyte (24) through fuel processing system (36) components (38, 40) and back to an anode flow field (26) until fuel processing system components (38, 40) achieve predetermined optimal temperatures and steam content. Then, the heat-cycling loop (66) is unsealed and the un-reformed fuel is admitted into the fuel processing system (36) and anode flow (26) field to commence ordinary operation of the power plant (10).

  3. Thermo-economic modeling of an indirectly coupled solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheddie, Denver F. [Center for Energy Studies, University of Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva (Trinidad and Tobago); Tobago; Murray, Renique [Natural Gas Institute of the Americas, University of Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva (Trinidad and Tobago); Tobago

    2010-12-15

    Power generation using gas turbine (GT) power plants operating on the Brayton cycle suffers from low efficiencies, resulting in poor fuel to power conversion. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is proposed for integration into a 10 MW gas turbine power plant, operating at 30% efficiency, in order to improve system efficiencies and economics. The SOFC system is indirectly coupled to the gas turbine power plant, paying careful attention to minimize the disruption to the GT operation. A thermo-economic model is developed for the hybrid power plant, and predicts an optimized power output of 20.6 MW at 49.9% efficiency. The model also predicts a break-even per-unit energy cost of USD 4.65 cents kWh{sup -1} for the hybrid system based on futuristic mass generation SOFC costs. This shows that SOFCs may be indirectly integrated into existing GT power systems to improve their thermodynamic and economic performance. (author)

  4. Two-loop controller for maximizing performance of a grid-connected photovoltaic - fuel cell hybrid power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoungsoo

    The study started with the requirement that a photovoltaic (PV) power source should be integrated with other supplementary power sources whether it operates in a stand-alone or grid-connected mode. First, fuel cells for a backup of varying PV power were compared in detail with batteries and were found to have more operational benefits. Next, maximizing performance of a grid-connected PV-fuel cell hybrid system by use of a two-loop controller was discussed. One loop is a neural network controller for maximum power point tracking, which extracts maximum available solar power from PV arrays under varying conditions of insolation, temperature, and system load. A real/reactive power controller (RRPC) is the other loop. The RRPC meets the system's requirement for real and reactive powers by controlling incoming fuel to fuel cell stacks as well as switching control signals to a power conditioning subsystem. The RRPC is able to achieve more versatile control of real/reactive powers than the conventional power sources since the hybrid power plant does not contain any rotating mass. Results of time-domain simulations prove not only effectiveness of the proposed computer models of the two-loop controller, but also their applicability for use in transient stability analysis of the hybrid power plant. Finally, environmental evaluation of the proposed hybrid plant was made in terms of plant's land requirement and lifetime COsb2 emissions, and then compared with that of the conventional fossil-fuel power generating forms.

  5. Performance Comparison on Repowering of a Steam Power Plant with Gas Turbines and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Masoud Rokni

    2016-01-01

    Repowering is a process for transforming an old power plant for greater capacity and/or higher efficiency. As a consequence, the repowered plant is characterized by higher power output and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, repowering is performed by adding one or more gas turbines into an existing steam cycle which was built decades ago. Thus, traditional repowering results in combined cycles (CC). High temperature fuel cells (such as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)) could also be used as a ...

  6. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  7. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  8. The Kuroshio power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

  9. Orange County Littoral Cell CRSMP Wastewater and Power Plant Discharge Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Graphical depiction of wastewater and power plant discharge pipelines/outlets locations in Southern California.The shapefile was collected by Everest International...

  10. Manual of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant optimization model and computer program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, C. Y.; Alkasab, K. A.

    1984-01-01

    An optimized cost and performance model for a phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system was derived and developed into a modular FORTRAN computer code. Cost, energy, mass, and electrochemical analyses were combined to develop a mathematical model for optimizing the steam to methane ratio in the reformer, hydrogen utilization in the PAFC plates per stack. The nonlinear programming code, COMPUTE, was used to solve this model, in which the method of mixed penalty function combined with Hooke and Jeeves pattern search was chosen to evaluate this specific optimization problem.

  11. Hydrogen Gas Production from Nuclear Power Plant in Relation to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies Nowadays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusibani, Elin; Kamil, Insan; Suud, Zaki

    2010-06-01

    Recently, world has been confused by issues of energy resourcing, including fossil fuel use, global warming, and sustainable energy generation. Hydrogen may become the choice for future fuel of combustion engine. Hydrogen is an environmentally clean source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications because without release of pollutants at the point of end use. Hydrogen may be produced from water using the process of electrolysis. One of the GEN-IV reactors nuclear projects (HTGRs, HTR, VHTR) is also can produce hydrogen from the process. In the present study, hydrogen gas production from nuclear power plant is reviewed in relation to commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies nowadays.

  12. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants.

  13. Repowering of an Existing Power Plant by Means of Gas Turbine and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Repowering is a process consisting in a transformation of an old power plant in order to have a greater nameplate capacity or more efficiency, which result in a net increase of power generated. As a consequence of the higher efficiency, the repow ered plant is characterized by higher power output and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, a repowering is performed adding one or more gas turbines to an existing steam cycle which was built decades ago. Thus, traditional repowering results in com...

  14. Advanced stellarator power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-07-01

    The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies.

  15. Power plant siting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winter, J.V.; Conner, D.A.

    1978-01-01

    Just to keep up with expected demand, the US will need over 500 new power generation units by 1985. Where these power plants will be located is the subject of heated debate among utility officials, government leaders, conservationists, concerned citizens and a multitude of special interest groups. This book offers a balanced review of all of the salient factors that must be taken into consideration in selecting power plant locations. To deal with this enormously complex subject, the authors (1) offer a general overview of the history and reasoning behind present legislation on the state and national levels; (2) describe the many different agencies that have jurisdiction in power plant location, from local water authorities and city councils to state conservation boards and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission; and (3) include a state-by-state breakdown of siting laws, regulations and present licensing procedures. Architects, engineers, contractors, and others involved in plant construction and site evaluation will learn of the trade-offs that must be made in balancing the engineering, economic, and environmental impacts of plant location. The book covers such areas as availability of water supplies for generation or cooling; geology, typography, and demography of the proposed site; and even the selection of the fuel best suited for the area. Finally, the authors examine the numerous environmental aspects of power plant siting.

  16. Nuclear Power Plants (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell III, Walter [Southern Nuclear Engineering, Inc.

    1973-01-01

    Projected energy requirements for the future suggest that we must employ atomic energy to generate electric power or face depletion of our fossil-fuel resources—coal, oil, and gas. In short, both conservation and economic considerations will require us to use nuclear energy to generate the electricity that supports our civilization. Until we reach the time when nuclear power plants are as common as fossil-fueled or hydroelectric plants, many people will wonder how the nuclear plants work, how much they cost, where they are located, and what kinds of reactors they use. The purpose of this booklet is to answer these questions. In doing so, it will consider only central station plants, which are those that provide electric power for established utility systems.

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant with an anode recycle loop turbocharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kazuo; Skiba, Tommy; Patel, Kirtikumar H.

    2016-09-27

    An anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) has a turbocharger turbine (102) secured in fluid communication with a compressed oxidant stream within an oxidant inlet line (218) downstream from a compressed oxidant supply (104), and the anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) also includes a turbocharger compressor (106) mechanically linked to the turbocharger turbine (102) and secured in fluid communication with a flow of anode exhaust passing through an anode exhaust recycle loop (238) of the solid oxide fuel cell power plant (200). All or a portion of compressed oxidant within an oxidant inlet line (218) drives the turbocharger turbine (102) to thereby compress the anode exhaust stream in the recycle loop (238). A high-temperature, automotive-type turbocharger (100) replaces a recycle loop blower-compressor (52).

  18. State participation in the creation of fuel-cell-based power plants to meet civilian demand in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekhota, F.N.

    1996-04-01

    At present, up to 70% of Russian territory is not covered by central electrical distribution systems. In the field of fuel cell power plants, Russia is at parity with the leading foreign countries with respect to both technical and economic performance and the level of research being conducted. Civilian use of these generating systems on a broad scale, however, demands that a number of problems be solved, particularly those relating to the need for longer plant service life, lower unit cost of electricity, etc. The Ministry of Science and technical Policy of the Russian Federation issued a decree creating a new are of concentration, `Fuel Cell Based Power Plants for Civilian Needs,` in the GNTPR `Environmentally Clean Power Industry,` which will form the basis for financial support in this area out of the federal budget.

  19. Performance Comparison on Repowering of a Steam Power Plant with Gas Turbines and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    . Decreasing the operating temperature in a SOFC allows the use of less complex materials and construction methods, consequently reducing plant and the electricity costs. A lower working temperature makes it also suitable for topping an existing steam cycle, instead of gas turbines. This is also the target......Repowering is a process for transforming an old power plant for greater capacity and/or higher efficiency. As a consequence, the repowered plant is characterized by higher power output and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, repowering is performed by adding one or more gas turbines...... into an existing steam cycle which was built decades ago. Thus, traditional repowering results in combined cycles (CC). High temperature fuel cells (such as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)) could also be used as a topping cycle, achieving even higher global plant efficiency and even lower specific CO2 emissions...

  20. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  1. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  2. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  3. Performance Comparison on Repowering of a Steam Power Plant with Gas Turbines and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rokni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Repowering is a process for transforming an old power plant for greater capacity and/or higher efficiency. As a consequence, the repowered plant is characterized by higher power output and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, repowering is performed by adding one or more gas turbines into an existing steam cycle which was built decades ago. Thus, traditional repowering results in combined cycles (CC. High temperature fuel cells (such as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC could also be used as a topping cycle, achieving even higher global plant efficiency and even lower specific CO2 emissions. Decreasing the operating temperature in a SOFC allows the use of less complex materials and construction methods, consequently reducing plant and the electricity costs. A lower working temperature makes it also suitable for topping an existing steam cycle, instead of gas turbines. This is also the target of this study, repowering of an existing power plant with SOFC as well as gas turbines. Different repowering strategies are studied here, repowering with one gas turbine with and without supplementary firing, repowering with two gas turbines with and without supplementary firing and finally repowering using SOFC. Plant performances and CO2 emissions are compared for the suggested repowered plants.

  4. A solar power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avakyan, Yu.V.; Dabagyan, T.N.; Gagiyan, L.A.; Kharapetyan, G.S.; Vartanyan, A.V.

    1984-01-01

    This invention is designed for solar energy collectors in the form of heat pipes. A solar power plant is proposed that contains a solar concentrator in the form of at least one heat pipe with evaporation and condensation sections, the first of which is constructed to absorb solar emission and the second located in a heat exchanger equipped with inlet and outlet pipes. In order to simplify the design, the solar power plant is equipped with an additional heat exchanger connected through a connector to the inlet and outlet pipes, while the evaporation section holds an additional section in the lower half, within the auxiliary heat exchanger. During operation as a solar energy collector, the evaporation region absorbs the solar energy and converts it to heat, which is then carried by the heat transfer medium to the heating tube.

  5. Project proposals on the creation of Russian-American joint enterprise for investigation, development and manufacture of power plants on the basis of solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smotrov, N.V.; Kleschev, Yu.N.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a proposal for a joint Russian-American enterprise for performing scientific investigations, development, and manufacture of fuel cell power plants on the basis of the solid oxide fuel cell. RASOFCo. Russian-American Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Company. RASOFCo will provide the series output of the electrochemical generator (ECG) of 1kW power, then of 5kW and 10kW as well as the development and the output of 10kW power plant with the subsequent output of a power plant of greater power. An ECG based on solid oxide fuel cells uses methane as a fuel. Predicted technical characteristics, market analysis, assessment of potential demands for power plants of low power for Tyumentransgas, participants of the joint enterprise and their founding contributions, strategy for manufacture and financing, and management of RASOFCo are discussed.

  6. Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia Bonelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of the results for a Station Black-Out analysis for Atucha 2 Nuclear Power Plant is presented here. Calculations were performed with MELCOR 1.8.6 YV3165 Code. Atucha 2 is a pressurized heavy water reactor, cooled and moderated with heavy water, by two separate systems, presently under final construction in Argentina. The initiating event is loss of power, accompanied by the failure of four out of four diesel generators. All remaining plant safety systems are supposed to be available. It is assumed that during the Station Black-Out sequence the first pressurizer safety valve fails stuck open after 3 cycles of water release, respectively, 17 cycles in total. During the transient, the water in the fuel channels evaporates first while the moderator tank is still partially full. The moderator tank inventory acts as a temporary heat sink for the decay heat, which is evacuated through conduction and radiation heat transfer, delaying core degradation. This feature, together with the large volume of the steel filler pieces in the lower plenum and a high primary system volume to thermal power ratio, derives in a very slow transient in which RPV failure time is four to five times larger than that of other German PWRs.

  7. Current power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, J.H.

    1979-03-06

    A current power plant is described that includes a shaft mounted turbine wheel for employment in water current, a housing adjacent the impeller and to which the shaft extends, a ramp positioned on the upstream side of the impellar, and a frame on which the turbine wheel is mounted. The frame is mounted by rollers on a tract such that the impeller and frame may be rolled on the tracks inside the housing, whereafter doors are closed, and water around the turbine wheel may be pumped out to facilitate turbine repair.

  8. Analysis of Power Balancing with Fuel Cells & Hydrogenproduction Plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    -in hybrid battery-hydrogen fuel cell vehicles it is important that the electricity demand is flexible. In the dump charge situation the potential to reduce the fuel consumption, CO2-emissions and to integrate fluctuating renewable energy is improved with the ability to charge at times with wind power....... This becomes increasingly important with more wind power, and can already be identified in 2012. The energy system analyses conducted here represents systems with plenty of excess wind power. The results presented above are also true for the 2030 energy system with 50 % wind power and 100 % renewable energy...... for integrating fluctuation renewable energy, also in future high temperature electrolysers. The fuel consumptions and CO2-emissions are larger than for current vehicles until we have more than 50 % wind power in the hydrogen vehicle transport scenarios. Also, if hydrogen is not produced according to the wind...

  9. Electrochemical Power Plant for Terrestrial Flight Platforms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electrochemical power plant is proposed by MicroCell Technologies to provide power to terrestrial flight platforms. Our power plant is based upon a proton...

  10. Simulated coal-gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plant system verification. Final report, September 1990--June 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    This report summarizes work performed under U.S. Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) Contract DE-AC-90MC27168 for September 1990 through March 1995. Energy Research Corporation (ERC), with support from DOE, EPRI, and utilities, has been developing a carbonate fuel cell technology. ERC`s design is a unique direct fuel cell (DFC) which does not need an external fuel reformer. An alliance was formed with a representative group of utilities and, with their input, a commercial entry product was chosen. The first 2 MW demonstration unit was planned and construction begun at Santa Clara, CA. A conceptual design of a 10OMW-Class dual fuel power plant was developed; economics of natural gas versus coal gas use were analyzed. A facility was set up to manufacture 2 MW/yr of carbonate fuel cell stacks. A 100kW-Class subscale power plant was built and several stacks were tested. This power plant has achieved an efficiency of {approximately}50% (LHV) from pipeline natural gas to direct current electricity conversion. Over 6,000 hours of operation including 5,000 cumulative hours of stack operation were demonstrated. One stack was operated on natural gas at 130 kW, which is the highest carbonate fuel cell power produced to date, at 74% fuel utilization, with excellent performance distribution across the stack. In parallel, carbonate fuel cell performance has been improved, component materials have been proven stable with lifetimes projected to 40,000 hours. Matrix strength, electrolyte distribution, and cell decay rate have been improved. Major progress has been achieved in lowering stack cost.

  11. Large size biogas-fed Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power plants with carbon dioxide management: Technical and economic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curletti, F.; Gandiglio, M.; Lanzini, A.; Santarelli, M.; Maréchal, F.

    2015-10-01

    This article investigates the techno-economic performance of large integrated biogas Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power plants. Both atmospheric and pressurized operation is analysed with CO2 vented or captured. The SOFC module produces a constant electrical power of 1 MWe. Sensitivity analysis and multi-objective optimization are the mathematical tools used to investigate the effects of Fuel Utilization (FU), SOFC operating temperature and pressure on the plant energy and economic performances. FU is the design variable that most affects the plant performance. Pressurized SOFC with hybridization with a gas turbine provides a notable boost in electrical efficiency. For most of the proposed plant configurations, the electrical efficiency ranges in the interval 50-62% (LHV biogas) when a trade-off of between energy and economic performances is applied based on Pareto charts obtained from multi-objective plant optimization. The hybrid SOFC is potentially able to reach an efficiency above 70% when FU is 90%. Carbon capture entails a penalty of more 10 percentage points in pressurized configurations mainly due to the extra energy burdens of captured CO2 pressurization and oxygen production and for the separate and different handling of the anode and cathode exhausts and power recovery from them.

  12. Wind power plant system services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit

    Traditionally, conventional power plants have the task to support the power system, by supplying power balancing services. These services are required by the power system operators in order to secure a safe and reliable operation of the power system. However, as in the future the wind power...... is going more and more to replace conventional power plants, the sources of conventional reserve available to the system will be reduced and fewer conventional plants will be available on-line to share the regulation burden. The reliable operation of highly wind power integrated power system might......, in a modern power system with large scale integration wind power. This study presents the investigation of the real-time balance control in a modern Danish power system, where WPPs can actively contribute to active power balance control. New solutions for the automatic generation control (AGC) dealing...

  13. Fuel Cell Power Plant Initiative. Volume 2; Preliminary Design of a Fixed-Base LFP/SOFC Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veyo, S.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the preliminary design for a military fixed-base power system of 3 MWe nominal capacity using Westinghouse's tubular Solid Oxide Fuel Cell [SOFC] and Haldor Topsoe's logistic fuels processor [LFP]. The LFP provides to the fuel cell a methane rich sulfur free fuel stream derived from either DF-2 diesel fuel, or JP-8 turbine fuel. Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that directly convert the chemical energy contained in fuels such as hydrogen, natural gas, or coal gas into electricity at high efficiency with no intermediate heat engine or dynamo. The SOFC is distinguished from other fuel cell types by its solid state ceramic structure and its high operating temperature, nominally 1000'C. The SOFC pioneered by Westinghouse has a tubular geometry closed at one end. A power generation stack is formed by aggregating many cells in an ordered array. The Westinghouse stack design is distinguished from other fuel cell stacks by the complete absence of high integrity seals between cell elements, cells, and between stack and manifolds. Further, the reformer for natural gas [predominantly methane] and the stack are thermally and hydraulically integrated with no requirement for process water. The technical viability of combining the tubular SOFC and a logistic fuels processor was demonstrated at 27 kWe scale in a test program sponsored by the Advanced Research Projects Agency [ARPA) and carried out at the Southern California Edison's [SCE] Highgrove generating station near San Bernardino, California in 1994/95. The LFP was a breadboard design supplied by Haldor Topsoe, Inc. under subcontract to Westinghouse. The test program was completely successful. The LFP fueled the SOFC for 766 hours on JP-8 and 1555 hours of DF-2. In addition, the fuel cell operated for 3261 hours on pipeline natural gas. Over the 5582 hours of operation, the SOFC generated 118 MVVH of electricity with no perceptible degradation in performance. The LFP processed military

  14. Adaptation of thermal power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogmans, Christian W.J.; Dijkema, Gerard P.J.; Vliet, van Michelle T.H.

    2017-01-01

    When does climate change information lead to adaptation? We analyze thermal power plant adaptation by means of investing in water-saving (cooling) technology to prevent a decrease in plant efficiency and load reduction. A comprehensive power plant investment model, forced with downscaled climate

  15. Power electronics for local fuel cell/-battery plants; Leistungselektronik fuer dezentrale Brennstoffzellen/-Batterieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krykunov, Oleksandr

    2009-10-13

    With their high efficiency and modular structure, fuel cells are an attractive option for decentral power supply. An important component of decentral power supply systems is the power-electronic control element for supply of electric power from the fuel cell to the three-phase electricity grid. Control elements can be constructed of a unidirectional DC/DC converter with a current inverter connnected in series. The investigation focused on the development of the DC/DC converter with minimum constructional and control requirements and optimum adaption of the DC/DC converter to the characteristics of the fuel cell. (orig.) [German] Die Brennstoffzelle stellt mit ihrem hohen Wirkungsgrad und ihrem modularen Aufbau eine attraktive Option fuer die Verwendung in einem dezentralen Energieversorgungssystem dar. Eine wichtige Komponente des dezentralen Energieversorgungssystems sind die leistungselektronischen Stellglieder fuer die Einspeisung der elektrischen Energie aus der Brennstoffzelle in das dreiphasige Netz. Die leistungselektronischen Stellglieder koennen aus einem undirektionalen DC/DC-Wandler und einem nachgeschalteten Wechselrichter realisiert werden. Die Entwicklung des DC/DC-Wandlers mit einem moeglichst geringeren Bauelemente- und Steuerungsaufwand fuer diese leistungselektronischen Stellglieder und die Anpassung des DC/DC-Wandlers an die Eigenschaften der Brennstoffzelle war das Ziel dieser Arbeit. (orig.)

  16. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self‐funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty‐three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  17. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  18. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  19. Myosin-Powered Membrane Compartment Drives Cytoplasmic Streaming, Cell Expansion and Plant Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valera V Peremyslov

    Full Text Available Using genetic approaches, particle image velocimetry and an inert tracer of cytoplasmic streaming, we have made a mechanistic connection between the motor proteins (myosins XI, cargo transported by these motors (distinct endomembrane compartment defined by membrane-anchored MyoB receptors and the process of cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. It is shown that the MyoB compartment in Nicotiana benthamiana is highly dynamic moving with the mean velocity of ~3 μm/sec. In contrast, Golgi, mitochondria, peroxisomes, carrier vesicles and a cytosol flow tracer share distinct velocity profile with mean velocities of 0.6-1.5 μm/sec. Dominant negative inhibition of the myosins XI or MyoB receptors using overexpression of the N. benthamiana myosin cargo-binding domain or MyoB myosin-binding domain, respectively, resulted in velocity reduction for not only the MyoB compartment, but also each of the tested organelles, vesicles and cytoplasmic streaming. Furthermore, the extents of this reduction were similar for each of these compartments suggesting that MyoB compartment plays primary role in cytosol dynamics. Using gene knockout analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, it is demonstrated that inactivation of MyoB1-4 results in reduced velocity of mitochondria implying slower cytoplasmic streaming. It is also shown that myosins XI and MyoB receptors genetically interact to contribute to cell expansion, plant growth, morphogenesis and proper onset of flowering. These results support a model according to which myosin-dependent, MyoB receptor-mediated transport of a specialized membrane compartment that is conserved in all land plants drives cytoplasmic streaming that carries organelles and vesicles and facilitates cell growth and plant development.

  20. Myosin-Powered Membrane Compartment Drives Cytoplasmic Streaming, Cell Expansion and Plant Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peremyslov, Valera V; Cole, Rex A; Fowler, John E; Dolja, Valerian V

    2015-01-01

    Using genetic approaches, particle image velocimetry and an inert tracer of cytoplasmic streaming, we have made a mechanistic connection between the motor proteins (myosins XI), cargo transported by these motors (distinct endomembrane compartment defined by membrane-anchored MyoB receptors) and the process of cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. It is shown that the MyoB compartment in Nicotiana benthamiana is highly dynamic moving with the mean velocity of ~3 μm/sec. In contrast, Golgi, mitochondria, peroxisomes, carrier vesicles and a cytosol flow tracer share distinct velocity profile with mean velocities of 0.6-1.5 μm/sec. Dominant negative inhibition of the myosins XI or MyoB receptors using overexpression of the N. benthamiana myosin cargo-binding domain or MyoB myosin-binding domain, respectively, resulted in velocity reduction for not only the MyoB compartment, but also each of the tested organelles, vesicles and cytoplasmic streaming. Furthermore, the extents of this reduction were similar for each of these compartments suggesting that MyoB compartment plays primary role in cytosol dynamics. Using gene knockout analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, it is demonstrated that inactivation of MyoB1-4 results in reduced velocity of mitochondria implying slower cytoplasmic streaming. It is also shown that myosins XI and MyoB receptors genetically interact to contribute to cell expansion, plant growth, morphogenesis and proper onset of flowering. These results support a model according to which myosin-dependent, MyoB receptor-mediated transport of a specialized membrane compartment that is conserved in all land plants drives cytoplasmic streaming that carries organelles and vesicles and facilitates cell growth and plant development.

  1. Exergy Analysis of Gas Turbine – Fuel cell based combined Cycle Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sreeramulu,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in demand for electrical energy leads to the newer power generation systems. Though it is not new, fuel cell technology is one of the promising systems for cleaner and competitive alternate power generation system. When the fuel cells are integrated with the Gas Turbines, the total thermal efficiency of the combined cycle is obtained greater than 60%. In this paper, thermodynamic analysis of SOFC-GT combined system (2.898MW has been carried out, exergy efficiency and exergy destruction of each component are calculated.The effect of compression ratio (rp, turbine inlet temperature (TIT and ambient temperature of air, on the performance of the system has been analyzed. Outcome of the system modeling reveals that SOFC andcombustion chamber are the main sources of exergy destruction. At the optimum compression ratio 9, the total thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency are found to be 63.3% and 60.85% respectively.

  2. Thermo-economic modeling of a solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine power plant with semi-direct coupling and anode recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheddie, Denver F. [Center for Energy Studies, University of Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva (Trinidad and Tobago); Tobago; Murray, Renique [Natural Gas Institute of the Americas, University of Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva (Trinidad and Tobago); Tobago

    2010-10-15

    Power generation using gas turbine (GT) power plants operating on the Brayton cycle suffers from low efficiencies, resulting in poor fuel to power conversion. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is proposed for integration into a 10 MW gas turbine power plant, operating at 30% efficiency in order to improve system efficiencies and economics. The SOFC system is semi-directly coupled to the gas turbine power plant, with careful attention paid to minimize the disruption to the GT operation. A thermo-economic model is developed for the hybrid power plant, and predicts an optimized power output of 21.6 MW at 49.2% efficiency. The model also predicts a breakeven per-unit energy cost of USD 4.70 cents /kWh for the hybrid system based on futuristic mass generation SOFC costs. Results show that SOFCs can be semi-directly integrated into existing GT power systems to improve their thermodynamic and economic performance. (author)

  3. Generator module architecture for a large solid oxide fuel cell power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Riggle, Matthew W.; Litzinger, Kevin P.

    2013-06-11

    A solid oxide fuel cell module contains a plurality of integral bundle assemblies, the module containing a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion receiving air inlet feed and containing a base support, the base supports dense, ceramic exhaust manifolds which are below and connect to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the fuel cells comprise a fuel cell stack bundle all surrounded within an outer module enclosure having top power leads to provide electrical output from the stack bundle, where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all 100% of the weight of the stack, and each bundle assembly has its own control for vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control.

  4. Modelling and Simulation of a Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Coupled with a Gas Turbine Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Andreassi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The paper presents a simulation of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT power generation system fueled by natural gas. In the system considered, the unreacted fuel from a topping solid oxide fuel cell is burnt in an afterburner to feed a bottoming gas turbine and produce additional power. Combustion gas expands in the gas turbine after having preheated the inlet air and fuel and it is used to generate steam required by the reforming reactions. A novel thermodynamic model has been developed for the fuel cell and implemented into the library of a modular object-oriented Process Simulator, CAMELPro™. The relevant plant performance indicators have been analyzed to evaluate the incremental increase in efficiency brought about by the introduction of the gas turbine and heat regeneration system. Simulations were performed for different values of the main plant parameters.

    • This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings. 

  5. AND THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alduhov Oleg Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the atmospheric dispersion as part of the process of selection of sites to accommodate nuclear and thermal power plants is performed to identify concentration fields of emissions and to assess the anthropogenic impact produced on the landscape components and human beings. Scattering properties of the atmospheric boundary layer are mainly determined by the turbulence intensity and the wind field. In its turn, the turbulence intensity is associated with the thermal stratification of the boundary layer. Therefore, research of the atmospheric dispersion is reduced to the study of temperature and wind patterns of the boundary layer. Statistical processing and analysis of the upper-air data involves the input of the data collected by upper-air stations. Until recently, the upper-air data covering the standard period between 1961 and 1970 were applied for these purposes, although these data cannot assure sufficient reliability of assessments in terms of the properties of the atmospheric dispersion. However, recent scientific and technological developments make it possible to substantially increase the data coverage by adding the upper-air data collected within the period between 1964 and 2010. The article has a brief overview of BL_PROGS, a specialized software package designated for the processing of the above data. The software package analyzes the principal properties of the atmospheric dispersion. The use of the proposed software package requires preliminary development of a database that has the information collected by an upper-air station. The software package is noteworthy for the absence of any substantial limitations imposed onto the amount of the input data that may go up in proportion to the amount of the upper-air data collected by upper-air stations.

  6. Simulating solar power plant variability :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, Matthew Samuel; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua.

    2013-06-01

    It is important to be able to accurately simulate the variability of solar PV power plants for grid integration studies. We aim to inform integration studies of the ease of implementation and application-specific accuracy of current PV power plant output simulation methods. This report reviews methods for producing simulated high-resolution (sub-hour or even sub-minute) PV power plant output profiles for variability studies and describes their implementation. Two steps are involved in the simulations: estimation of average irradiance over the footprint of a PV plant and conversion of average irradiance to plant power output. Six models are described for simulating plant-average irradiance based on inputs of ground-measured irradiance, satellite-derived irradiance, or proxy plant measurements. The steps for converting plant-average irradiance to plant power output are detailed to understand the contributions to plant variability. A forthcoming report will quantify the accuracy of each method using application-specific validation metrics.

  7. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant. Quarterly technical progress report, February 1-April 30, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Work has been initiated during this first quarter under all four program tasks and by all major participants as described. Task 1.0 activity (establish power plant reference design) concentrated upon definition of user requirements and establishment of power plant subsystem alternatives and characteristics. Task 2.0 work (stack and cell design development and verification) was initiated with a heavy emphasis upon test facilities preparation. A total of 27 laboratory cells were operated during this reporting period and a total of nine cells continued on test at the end of the quarter. Investigation of alternative anode and cathode materials proceeded; a dual-porosity anode was fabricated and tested. Over 10,000 endurance hours on a state-of-the-art cell carried-over from a previous program has been achieved and 1500 hours endurance has been obtained with sheet metal cells. Results presented for electrolyte structure development include comparative data for spray-dried and modified aqueous slurry process powders. Shake-down tests with a rotating disc electrode apparatus for fundamental measurements are described. Concept designs for both prototype and subscale stacks have been identified. Task 3.0 effort (development capability for full-scale stack tests) included preparation of an overall test plan to commercialization for molten carbonate fuel cells and of a functional specification for the tenth-scale stack test facility; drafts of both documents were completed for internal review. Cost-effective manufacturing assessment of available designs and processes was initiated. Task 4.0 work (develop capabilities for operation of stacks on coal-derived gas) included gathering of available contaminants concentration and effects information and preparation of initial projections of contaminant ranges and concentrations. Accomplishments to date and activities planned for the next quarter are described.

  8. SOFC solid oxide fuel cell power plants for the decentralised electric energy supply; SOFC-Brennstoffzellen-Kraftwerke fuer die dezentrale elektrische Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogang Tchonla, Etienne

    2012-07-01

    To use the fuel cell economically, the efficiency of the system must still be raised so that it can be set up in the market. Within the scope of analysis on this topic, a 120-kW-SOFC-demonstration power plant was to be considered. Since not enough information about the demonstration power plant from the operator was available for the investigation, we had to calculate with the help of the known technical data of similar power plants. After that a model was build and simulated by means of MATLAB/Simulink. Before that the single power plant components were being described. Two of them (the boost converter as well as the inverter) were looked at more thoroughly. As a result of the analysis, it was found that a standard inverter which had been conceived for other applications, for example, Photovoltaic or Wind Power can also be used for fuel cells. Unfortunately, this was not the case for the added boost converter. It had to be precisely conceived for the used fuel cell type. After this discovery information was won for the realization of a 1-MW-Fuel Cell Power Plant. The topology of the 1-MW-power plant was fixed on the basis of the 120-kW-system. A parallel connection of eight 120-kW SOFC-fuel cell aggregates is intended, as well as a connection at the outlet side 120-kW boost converters. A standard inverter with 1 MW electrical power as well as a 1-MVA-transformer could be used for the realization of the 1-MW-power plant. The binding of the power plant in the three-phase current network was examined in view of the norms, laws and connection conditions. Beside the distinction of the operating forms of the power plant (parallel or isolated operation) the security of the plant was emphasized with regard to quick fault recognition, safe supply line isolation in the fault case as well as a compliance of the prescribed regulations. To verify the calculated results as well as the provided models, a 10-kW-labor sample was built and examined in the lab. This experimental

  9. Cost related sensitivity analysis for optimal operation of a grid-parallel PEM fuel cell power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkh, M. Y.; Tanrioven, M.; Rahman, A.; Alam, M. S.

    Fuel cell power plants (FCPP) as a combined source of heat, power and hydrogen (CHP&H) can be considered as a potential option to supply both thermal and electrical loads. Hydrogen produced from the FCPP can be stored for future use of the FCPP or can be sold for profit. In such a system, tariff rates for purchasing or selling electricity, the fuel cost for the FCPP/thermal load, and hydrogen selling price are the main factors that affect the operational strategy. This paper presents a hybrid evolutionary programming and Hill-Climbing based approach to evaluate the impact of change of the above mentioned cost parameters on the optimal operational strategy of the FCPP. The optimal operational strategy of the FCPP for different tariffs is achieved through the estimation of the following: hourly generated power, the amount of thermal power recovered, power trade with the local grid, and the quantity of hydrogen that can be produced. Results show the importance of optimizing system cost parameters in order to minimize overall operating cost.

  10. Use of fuel cells in multi-MW-thermal power plants; Brennstoffzelleneinsatz im Mehr-MW-Heizkraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezuo, A. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Knappstein, H. [Thyssengas GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Langnickel, U. [Gas-, Elektrizitaets- und Wasserwerke Koeln AG (GEW) (Germany); Nymoen, H. [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    Natural gas fuel cells with phosphoric acid electrolyte today are already used in small series of compact units ranging up to 500 kW electric capacity. They thus represent a successful contribution to decentralised power production through cogeneration. Their use in multi-MW thermal power stations is technically possible and, in view of their low emissions and great efficiency, a very attractive alternative. This technology merits intensive development work in order to acquire through practical experience the know-how for bringing costs down to an acceptable level. Manufacturers and operators will need to prepare themselves for modifications regarding the operation and maintenance of these larger plants. The results of a feasibility study for a 1.5 MW thermal power plant presented in this article could come in useful here. (orig.) [Deutsch] Erdgasbetriebene Brennstoffzellen mit Phosphorsaeure-Elektrolyt werden heute bereits in Kleinserien als kompakte Einheiten mit einer elektrischen Leistung von bis zu 500 kW gebaut und mit Erfolg in der dezentralen Energieerzeugung auf Basis der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung betrieben. Der Einsatz in Mehr-MW-Heizkraftwerken ist ebenfalls moeglich und sollte unter dem Aspekt einer schadstoffarmen und effizienten Energieerzeugung intensiv weiter verfolgt werden, um ueber die gewonnenen Erfahrungen die angestrebten Kostenziele zu erreichen. Technologiebedingt muessen sich Hersteller und Betreiber auf die veraenderten Anforderungen bezueglich Betrieb und Wartung rechtzeitig einstellen. Die nachfolgend vorgestellten Ergebnisse einer Machbarkeitsstudie fuer ein 1,5-MW-Heizkraftwerk koennen dabei hilfreich sein. (orig.)

  11. Energy Analysis of a Combined Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with a Steam Turbine Power Plant for Marine Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yousri M. A. Welaya; M. Mosleh; Nader R. Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Strong restrictions on emissions from marine power plants (particularly SOx, NOx) will probably be adopted in the near future. In this paper, a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and steam turbine fuelled by natural gas is proposed as an attractive option to limit the environmental impact of the marine sector. The analyzed variant of the combined cycle includes a SOFC operated with natural gas fuel and a steam turbine with a single-pressure waste heat boiler. The calculations were performed for two types of tubular and planar SOFCs, each with an output power of 18 MW. This paper includes a detailed energy analysis of the combined system. Mass and energy balances are performed not only for the whole plant but also for each component in order to evaluate the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. In addition, the effects of using natural gas as a fuel on the fuel cell voltage and performance are investigated. It has been found that a high overall efficiency approaching 60%may be achieved with an optimum configuration using the SOFC system. The hybrid system would also reduce emissions, fuel consumption, and improve the total system efficiency.

  12. Energy analysis of a combined solid oxide fuel cell with a steam turbine power plant for marine applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welaya, Yousri M. A.; Mosleh, M.; Ammar, Nader R.

    2013-12-01

    Strong restrictions on emissions from marine power plants (particularly SO x , NO x ) will probably be adopted in the near future. In this paper, a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and steam turbine fuelled by natural gas is proposed as an attractive option to limit the environmental impact of the marine sector. The analyzed variant of the combined cycle includes a SOFC operated with natural gas fuel and a steam turbine with a single-pressure waste heat boiler. The calculations were performed for two types of tubular and planar SOFCs, each with an output power of 18 MW. This paper includes a detailed energy analysis of the combined system. Mass and energy balances are performed not only for the whole plant but also for each component in order to evaluate the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. In addition, the effects of using natural gas as a fuel on the fuel cell voltage and performance are investigated. It has been found that a high overall efficiency approaching 60% may be achieved with an optimum configuration using the SOFC system. The hybrid system would also reduce emissions, fuel consumption, and improve the total system efficiency.

  13. Asbury power plant, Asbury, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicker, K.

    2005-08-01

    The Asbury power plant in rural southwest Missouri is off the beaten path in more ways than one. Three years ago, Empire District Electric Co., the plant's owner/operator, began mixing pieces of discarded tires into its coal fuel supply. Each ensuing year, without compromising local air quality, the plant has rid the area of millions of tires that otherwise would have ended up in a landfill. For demonstrating that a blight can be made right, Asbury is one of Power's 2005 top plants. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  15. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  16. System Design of a Natural Gas PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant for Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Ferrall, Tim Rehg, Vesna Stanic

    2000-09-30

    The following conclusions are made based on this analysis effort: (1) High-temperature PEM data are not available; (2) Stack development effort for Phase II is required; (3) System results are by definition preliminary, mostly due to the immaturity of the high-temperature stack; other components of the system are relatively well defined; (4) The Grotthuss conduction mechanism yields the preferred system characteristics; the Grotthuss conduction mechanism is also much less technically mature than the vehicle mechanism; (5) Fuel processor technology is available today and can be procured for Phase II (steam or ATR); (6) The immaturity of high-temperature membrane technology requires that a robust system design be developed in Phase II that is capable of operating over a wide temperature and pressure range - (a) Unpressurized or Pressurized PEM (Grotthuss mechanism) at 140 C, Highest temperature most favorable, Lowest water requirement most favorable, Pressurized recommended for base loaded operation, Unpressurized may be preferred for load following; (b) Pressurized PEM (vehicle mechanism) at about 100 C, Pressure required for saturation, Fuel cell technology currently available, stack development required. The system analysis and screening evaluation resulted in the identification of the following components for the most promising system: (1) Steam reforming fuel processor; (2) Grotthuss mechanism fuel cell stack operating at 140 C; (3) Means to deliver system waste heat to a cogeneration unit; (4) Pressurized system utilizing a turbocompressor for a base-load power application. If duty cycling is anticipated, the benefits of compression may be offset due to complexity of control. In this case (and even in the base loaded case), the turbocompressor can be replaced with a blower for low-pressure operation.

  17. PV power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the international seminar of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (OTTI) at 11th June, 2012 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Technical due diligence (Dietmar Obst); (2) Certification / rating system for large PV plants (Robert Pfatischer); (3) O and M requirements (Lars Rulf); (4) IR photography for large scale systems (Bernhard Weinreich); (5) New market models for PV systems - direct marketing and sales of PV electricity (Martin Schneider); (6) Needs and benefits for plant certification for grid connection and operation (Christoph Luetke-Lengerich); (7) Lare volume module testing / Screening in the field and workshop (Semir Merzoug); (8) Dismantling costs of large scale PV plants (Siegfried Schimpf).

  18. 76 FR 77963 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation; Proposed Biomass Power Plant... (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related facilities (Proposal)...

  19. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM 200 kW - PC25C FUEL CELL POWER PLANT FOR THE ST.-AGNES-HOSPITAL, BOCHOLT, GERMANY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dipl.-Ing. Knut Stahl

    2002-01-31

    Since the beginning of the Year 2001, the Saint-Agnes-Hospital in Bocholt, Germany, operates a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) to provide the base load of electrical power as well as heat in Winter and air conditioning in Summer. The project was made possible by federal funding from the U.S. Department of Energy as well as by a strategic alliance with the local utility company, the Bocholter Energie- und Wasserversorgung GmbH (BEW), and with the gas supplier of BEW, the Thyssengas GmbH. The fuel cell power plant is combined with an absorption chiller. It is highly efficient and has an excellent power to heat ratio. The operation during the first Year went smoothly and nearly free of trouble.

  20. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  1. Hybrid power plants; Thermische Hybridkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuschy, I. [ALSTOM Power Support, Mannheim (Germany). Bereiche Forschung und Entwicklung/Ingenieurdienstleistungen; Franke, U. [Fachhochschule Flensburg (Germany). Thermodynamik

    2002-07-01

    New German laws concerning the use of biomass and other renewable energy sources have improved the conditions for power generation with renewable energies. A promising alternative to common small-scale (combined-heat-and-) power plants could be found in so-called hybrid power plants which use renewable energies and fossil fuels in combination. A thermodynamic process analysis shows how to determine the renewable energies' portion of a hybrid power plant's total output. [German] Mit den veraenderten gesetzlichen Rahmenbedingungen erhoeht sich die Motivation, regenerative Energiequellen zur Stromerzeugung zu nutzen. Neben dem exklusiven Einsatz in kleineren (Heiz-) Kraftwerken bietet sich die gemeinsame Nutzung mit fossilen Energietraegern in sogenannten Hybridkraftwerken an. Hier stellt sich die Frage, wie der Anteil der regenerativen Energien an der Gesamt-Stromproduktion des Hybridkraftwerkes zu ermitteln ist. Eine thermodynamische Prozessanalyse kann darueber Aufschluss geben.

  2. Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the reliability and availability of power plants is frequently based on simple indexes that do not take into account the criticality of some failures used for availability analysis. This criticality should be evaluated based on concepts of reliability which consider the effect of a component failure on the performance of the entire plant. System reliability analysis tools provide a root-cause analysis leading to the improvement of the plant maintenance plan.   Taking in view that the power plant performance can be evaluated not only based on  thermodynamic related indexes, such as heat-rate, Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis focuses on the presentation of reliability-based tools used to define performance of complex systems and introduces the basic concepts of reliability, maintainability and risk analysis aiming at their application as tools for power plant performance improvement, including: ·         selection of critical equipment and components, ·         defini...

  3. Ammonia in power plant emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerich, Mads; Henningsen, J. O.; Olafsson, Ari

    1990-08-01

    Ammonia monitoring is needed in most schemes for denitrification of power plant emission. In the PALAMON system we use a 500 MHz tunable, single mode, single line, CO2 laser as light source for a low pressure, high temperature, photoacoustic cell. With this cell we can resolve the sR(5,O) line of the ammonia spectrum, and suppress the interfering C02(9R30) absorption line down to a lppm NH3 detection limit. The validity of the measured ammonia concentrations is strongly dependent on details of the sampling system and on the reliability of the calibration routines. In particular calibration with certified mixtures of NH3:N2 has proved insufficient due to the multiple and long time constants caused by adsorption of ammonia to different materials in the system. Presence of water vapor in the gas greatly reduces these time constants. Therefore a number of methods for simple production of moist calibration gases from macroscopic amounts of NH3 are applied. The calibrations are translated to response from an easily managable absorber in order to allow automated recalibration of the photoacoustic response. Data from a field test of the system, and calibration data will be presented.

  4. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop and verify the design of a prototype molten carbonate fuel cell stack which meets the requirements of a 1990's-competitive coal-fired electrical utility central station or industrial cogeneratin power plants. During this quarter, activity continued in all four task areas: Task 1 - system studies to define the reference power plant design; Task 2 - cell and stack design, development and verification; Task 3 - preparation for fabrication and testing of the full-scale prototype stack; and Task 4 - development of the capability to operate stacks on coal-derived gas.

  5. State power plant productivity programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    The findings of a working group formed to review the status of efforts by utilities and utility regulators to increase the availability and reliability of generating units are presented. Representatives from nine state regulatory agencies, NRRI, and DOE, participated on the Working Group. The Federal government has been working cooperatively with utilities, utility organizations, and with regulators to encourage and facilitate improvements in power plant productivity. Cooperative projects undertaken with regulatory and energy commissions in California, Illinois, New York, Ohio, Texas, North Carolina and Mighigan are described. Following initiation of these cooperative projects, DOE funded a survey to determine which states were explicitly addressing power plant productivity through the regulatory process. The Working Group was formed following completion of this survey. The Working Group emphasized the need for those power plant productivity improvements which are cost effective. The cost effectiveness of proposed availability improvement projects should be determined within the context of opportunities for operating and capital improvements available to an entire utility. The Working Group also identified the need for: allowing for plant designs that have a higher construction cost, but are also more reliable; allowing for recovery and reducing recovery lags for productivity-related capital expenditures; identifying and reducing disincentives in the regulatory process; ascertaining that utilities have sufficient money available to undertake timely maintenance; and support of EPRI and NERC to develop a relevant and accurate national data base. The DOE views these as extremely important aspects of any regulatory program to improve power plant productivity.

  6. Design and evaluation of ship's power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.J.; Nienhuis, U.; Vugt, J. van; Folkersma, W.

    1999-01-01

    The cruise industry is host to major changes in the way the skip's power plants are configured. Diesel-electric propulsion has replaced most diesel-mechanic systems for larger ships. Podded propulsion is making serious headway and gas turbines are currently under order. In future, fuel cells, perman

  7. Purge gas protected transportable pressurized fuel cell modules and their operation in a power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafred, Paolo R.; Dederer, Jeffrey T.; Gillett, James E.; Basel, Richard A.; Antenucci, Annette B.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel cell generator apparatus and method of its operation involves: passing pressurized oxidant gas, (O) and pressurized fuel gas, (F), into fuel cell modules, (10 and 12), containing fuel cells, where the modules are each enclosed by a module housing (18), surrounded by an axially elongated pressure vessel (64), where there is a purge gas volume, (62), between the module housing and pressure vessel; passing pressurized purge gas, (P), through the purge gas volume, (62), to dilute any unreacted fuel gas from the modules; and passing exhaust gas, (82), and circulated purge gas and any unreacted fuel gas out of the pressure vessel; where the fuel cell generator apparatus is transpatable when the pressure vessel (64) is horizontally disposed, providing a low center of gravity.

  8. Transient responses of phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1983-01-01

    An analytical and computerized study of the steady state and transient response of a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) system was completed. Parametric studies and sensitivity analyses of the PAFC system's operation were accomplished. Four non-linear dynamic models of the fuel cell stack, reformer, shift converters, and heat exchangers were developed based on nonhomogeneous non-linear partial differential equations, which include the material, component, energy balance, and electrochemical kinetic features. Due to a lack of experimental data for the dynamic response of the components only the steady state results were compared with data from other sources, indicating reasonably good agreement. A steady state simulation of the entire system was developed using, nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The finite difference method and trial-and-error procedures were used to obtain a solution. Using the model, a PAFC system, that was developed under NASA Grant, NCC3-17, was improved through the optimization of the heat exchanger network. Three types of cooling configurations for cell plates were evaluated to obtain the best current density and temperature distributions. The steady state solutions were used as the initial conditions in the dynamic model. The transient response of a simplified PAFC system, which included all of the major components, subjected to a load change was obtained. Due to the length of the computation time for the transient response calculations, analysis on a real-time computer was not possible. A simulation of the real-time calculations was developed on a batch type computer. The transient response characteristics are needed for the optimization of the design and control of the whole PAFC system. All of the models, procedures and simulations were programmed in Fortran and run on IBM 370 computers at Cleveland State University and the NASA Lewis Research Center.

  9. Status of commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant system development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warshay, M.

    1987-01-01

    A technology development and commercial feasibility evaluation is presented for phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) applicable to electric utility operations. The correction of identified design deficiencies in the control card and water treatment subsystems is projected to be able to substantially increase average powerplant availability from the 63 percent achieved in recent field tests of a PAFC system. Current development work is proceeding under NASA research contracts at the output levels of a multimegawatt facility for electric utility use, a multikilowatt on-site integrated energy generation facility, and advanced electrocatalysts applicable to PAFCs.

  10. Distillate fuel-oil processing for phosphoric acid fuel-cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiba, K. K.

    1980-02-01

    The current efforts to develop distillate oil-steam reforming processes are reviewed, and the applicability of these processes for integration with the fuel cell are discussed. The development efforts can be grouped into the following processing approaches: high-temperature steam reforming (HTSR); autothermal reforming (ATR); autothermal gasification (AG); and ultra desulfurization followed by steam reforming. Sulfur in the feed is a key problem in the process development. A majority of the developers consider sulfur as an unavoidable contaminant of distillate fuel and are aiming to cope with it by making the process sulfur-tolerant. In the HTSR development, the calcium aluminate catalyst developed by Toyo Engineering represents the state of the art. United Technology (UTC), Engelhard, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are also involved in the HTSR research. The ATR of distillate fuel is investigated by UTC and JPL. The autothermal gasification (AG) of distillate fuel is being investigated by Engelhard and Siemens AG. As in the ATR, the fuel is catalytically gasified utilizing the heat generated by in situ partial combustion of feed, however, the goal of the AG is to accomplish the initial breakdown of the feed into light gases and not to achieve complete conversion to CO and H/sub 2/. For the fuel-cell integration, a secondary reforming of the light gases from the AG step is required. Engelhard is currently testing a system in which the effluent from the AG section enters the steam-reforming section, all housed in a single vessel. (WHK)

  11. Proceedings of a Topical Meeting On Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1986-02-12

    These proceedings describe the workshop of the Topical Meeting on Small Scale Geothermal Power Plants and Geothermal Power Plant Projects. The projects covered include binary power plants, rotary separator, screw expander power plants, modular wellhead power plants, inflow turbines, and the EPRI hybrid power system. Active projects versus geothermal power projects were described. In addition, a simple approach to estimating effects of fluid deliverability on geothermal power cost is described starting on page 119. (DJE-2005)

  12. MCFC power plant with CO{sub 2} separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Noboru [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell power plant has been developed for many years with expectation of high system efficiency. In the meantime the gas turbine combined cycle has shown its considerable progress in improving system efficiency. Fuel cell power plant will no longer be attractive unless it exceeds the gas turbine combined cycle at least in the system efficiency. It is said CO{sub 2} separation could improve the efficiency of fuel cell power plant. IHI has developed the CO{sub 2} separator for fuel cell power plant. This study describes that the CO{sub 2} separator can increase the efficiency of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant by 5% and the expected efficiency reaches 63 % in HHV basis.

  13. Model-Based Design of Energy Efficient Palladium Membrane Water Gas Shift Fuel Processors for PEM Fuel Cell Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gummalla, Mallika; Vanderspurt, Thomas Henry; Emerson, Sean; She, Ying; Dardas, Zissis; Olsommer, Benoît

    An integrated, palladium alloy membrane Water-Gas Shift (WGS) reactor can significantly reduce the size, cost and complexity of a fuel processor for a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane fuel cell power system.

  14. 76 FR 20624 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural... Corporation (Oglethorpe) for the construction of a 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related...

  15. Advanced Coordinating Control System for Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Peng; WEI Shuangying

    2006-01-01

    The coordinating control system is popular used in power plant. This paper describes the advanced coordinating control by control methods and optimal operation, introduces their principals and features by using the examples of power plant operation. It is wealthy for automation application in optimal power plant operation.

  16. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  17. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW.

  18. Microbial Community Analysis of Anodes from Sediment Microbial Fuel Cells Powered by Rhizodeposits of Living Rice Plants ▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schamphelaire, Liesje; Cabezas, Angela; Marzorati, Massimo; Friedrich, Michael W.; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy

    2010-01-01

    By placing the anode of a sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) in the rhizosphere of a rice plant, root-excreted rhizodeposits can be microbially oxidized with concomitant current generation. Here, various molecular techniques were used to characterize the composition of bacterial and archaeal communities on such anodes, as influenced by electrical circuitry, sediment matrix, and the presence of plants. Closed-circuit anodes in potting soil were enriched with Desulfobulbus-like species, members of the family Geobacteraceae, and as yet uncultured representatives of the domain Archaea. PMID:20097806

  19. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  20. Modelling a Combined Heat and Power Plant based on Gasification, Micro Gas Turbine and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud

    2009-01-01

    A system level modelling study on two combined heat and power (CHP) systems both based on biomass gasification. One system converts the product gas in a micro gas turbine (MGT) and the other in a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and MGT arrangement. An electrochemical model of the SOFC has...

  1. 78 FR 26747 - Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-08

    ... Rural Utilities Service Oglethorpe Power Corporation: Proposed Biomass Power Plant AGENCY: Rural... construction of a 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related facilities (Proposal) in Warren County, Georgia... the 100 megawatt (MW) biomass plant and related facilities (Proposal) in Warren County,...

  2. Efficiency of Modern Power Plants of Thermal Power Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Yakovlev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers efficiency and prospects in development of different types of fossil-fuel power plants – gas turbine, steam turbine and combined (gas and steam cycles.The paper provides information on plant selection, fuel consumption, specific output cost. It describes main advantages of various power plants.

  3. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ninić Neven; Klarin Branko; Tolj Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen usi...

  4. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 12: Fuel cells. [energy conversion efficiency of, for use in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warde, C. J.; Ruka, R. J.; Isenberg, A. O.

    1976-01-01

    A parametric assessment of four fuel cell power systems -- based on phosphoric acid, potassium hydroxide, molten carbonate, and stabilized zirconia -- has shown that the most important parameters for electricity-cost reduction and/or efficiency improvement standpoints are fuel cell useful life and power density, use of a waste-heat recovery system, and fuel type. Typical capital costs, overall energy efficiencies (based on the heating value of the coal used to produce the power plant fuel), and electricity costs are: phosphoric acid $350-450/kWe, 24-29%, and 11.7 to 13.9 mills/MJ (42 to 50 mills/kWh); alkaline $450-700/kWe, 26-31%, and 12.8 to 16.9 mills/MJ (46 to 61 mills/kWh); molten carbonate $480-650/kWe, 32-46%, and 10.6 to 19.4 mills/MJ (38 to 70 mills/kWh), stabilized zirconia $420-950/kWe, 26-53%, and 9.7 to 16.9 mills/MJ (35 to 61 mills/kWh). Three types of fuel cell power plants -- solid electrolytic with steam bottoming, molten carbonate with steam bottoming, and solid electrolyte with an integrated coal gasifier -- are recommended for further study.

  5. High power density carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Doyon, J.; Allen, J. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient and environmentally clean source of power generation. Many organizations worldwide are actively pursuing the development of the technology. Field demonstration of multi-MW size power plant has been initiated in 1996, a step toward commercialization before the turn of the century, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) is planning to introduce a 2.85MW commercial fuel cell power plant with an efficiency of 58%, which is quite attractive for distributed power generation. However, to further expand competitive edge over alternative systems and to achieve wider market penetration, ERC is exploring advanced carbonate fuel cells having significantly higher power densities. A more compact power plant would also stimulate interest in new markets such as ships and submarines where space limitations exist. The activities focused on reducing cell polarization and internal resistance as well as on advanced thin cell components.

  6. HIGH EFFICIENCY FOSSIL POWER PLANT (HEFPP) CONCEPTUALIZATION PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.L. Justice

    1999-03-25

    This study confirms the feasibility of a natural gas fueled, 20 MW M-C Power integrated pressurized molten carbonate fuel cell combined in a topping cycle with a gas turbine generator plant. The high efficiency fossil power plant (HEFPP) concept has a 70% efficiency on a LHV basis. The study confirms the HEFPP has a cost advantage on a cost of electricity basis over the gas turbine based combined cycle plants in the 20 MW size range. The study also identifies the areas of further development required for the fuel cell, gas turbine generator, cathode blower, inverter, and power module vessel. The HEFPP concept offers an environmentally friendly power plant with minuscule emission levels when compared with the combined cycle power plant.

  7. Thermal power plant design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Dipak

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Power Plant: Design and Operation deals with various aspects of a thermal power plant, providing a new dimension to the subject, with focus on operating practices and troubleshooting, as well as technology and design. Its author has a 40-long association with thermal power plants in design as well as field engineering, sharing his experience with professional engineers under various training capacities, such as training programs for graduate engineers and operating personnel. Thermal Power Plant presents practical content on coal-, gas-, oil-, peat- and biomass-fueled thermal power

  8. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and

  9. Simulators predict power plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R.

    2002-07-01

    Mix the complexity of a new construction or major retrofit project with today's 'do more with less', a pinch of 'personnel inexperience,' and a dash of 'unintended consequences', and you have got a recipe for insomnia. Advanced simulation tools, however, can help you wring out your design train your operators before the first wire is terminated and just may be get a good night's rest. The article describes several examples of uses of simulation tools. Esscor recently completed a simulation project for a major US utility exploring the potential for furnace/duct implosion that could result from adding higher volumetric flow induced-draft fans and selective catalytic reduction to a 650-MW coal-fired plant. CAF Electronics Inc. provided a full-scope simulator for Alstom's KA24-1 combined-cycle power plant in Paris, France. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools are being used by the Gas Technology Institute to simulate the performance of the next generation of pulverized coal combustors. 5 figs.

  10. Modelling a Combined Heat and Power Plant based on Gasification, Micro Gas Turbine and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud

    2009-01-01

    A system level modelling study on two combined heat and power (CHP) systems both based on biomass gasification. One system converts the product gas in a micro gas turbine (MGT) and the other in a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and MGT arrangement. An electrochemical model of the SOFC has...... been developed and calibrated against published data from Topsoe Fuel Cells A/S (TOFC) and Risø National Laboratory, and the modelled gasifier is based on an up scaled version of the demonstrated low tar gasifier, Viking, situated at the Technical University of Denmark. The SOFC converts the syngas...

  11. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  12. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analyses Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.S. Samuelsen; A.D. Rao

    2006-02-06

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include ''Zero Emission'' power plants and the ''FutureGen'' H{sub 2} co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the ''Vision 21'' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  13. The Plant Cell Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne-Mie C.Emons; Kurt V.Fagerstedt

    2010-01-01

    @@ Multicellular organization and tissue construction has evolved along essentially different lines in plants and animals. Since plants do not run away, but are anchored in the soil, their tissues are more or less firm and stiff. This strength stems from the cell walls, which encase the fragile cytoplasm, and protect it.

  14. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  15. TS Power Plant, Eureka County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R. [DTE Energy Services (United States)

    2008-10-15

    Not all coal-fired power plants are constructed by investor-owned utilities or independent power producers selling to wholesale markets. When Newmont Mining Corp. recognised that local power supplies were inadequate and too expensive to meet long-term electricity needs for its major gold- and copper-mining operations in northern Nevada, it built its own generation. What is more, Newmont's privately owned 200-MW net coal-fired plant features power plant technologies that will surely become industry standards. Newmont's investment in power and technology is also golden: the capital cost will be paid back in about eight years. 4 figs.

  16. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  17. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  18. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  19. Harmonics in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preciado, V.; Madrigal, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2015-04-02

    Wind power generation has been growing at a very fast pace for the past decade, and its influence and impact on the electric power grid is significant. As in a conventional power plant, a wind power plant (WPP) must ensure that the quality of the power being delivered to the grid is excellent. At the same time, the wind turbine should be able to operate immune to small disturbances coming from the grid. Harmonics are one of the more common power quality issues presented by large WPPs because of the high switching frequency of the power converters and the possible nonlinear behavior from electric machines (generator, transformer, reactors) within a power plant. This paper presents a summary of the most important issues related to harmonics in WPPs and discusses practical experiences with actual Type 1 and Type 3 wind turbines in two WPPs.

  20. Dynamic Frequency Response of Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit

    Electricity generation from wind energy has rapidly increased for the last five years worldwide. In many countries, wind energy targets have been set in the range of 20% to 50% of all electricity generation due to the concerns of CO2 emissions, fossil fuel costs, and energy efficiency. In order...... to maintain sustainable and reliable operation of the power system for these targets, transmission system operators (TSOs) have revised the grid code requirements. Also, the TSOs are planning the future development of the power system with various wind penetration scenarios to integrate more wind power...... according to their grid codes. In these scenarios particularly with high wind power penetration cases, conventional power plants (CPPs) such as old thermal power plants are planned to be replaced with wind power plants (WPPs). Consequently, the power system stability will be affected and the control...

  1. Research of the Power Plant Operational Modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koismynina Nina M.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article the algorithm of the power plant operational modes research is offered. According to this algorithm the program for the modes analysis and connection power transformers choice is developed. The program can be used as educational means for studying of the power plant electric part, at the same time basic data are provided. Also the program can be used for the analysis of the working power plants modes. Checks of the entered data completeness and a choice correctness of the operational modes are provided in the program; in all cases of a deviation from the correct decisions to the user the relevant information is given.

  2. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninić Neven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen using less than 10% of the distillate produced.

  3. Uranium contamination due to nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Sanchez, A.; Vera Tome, F.; Diaz Bejarano, J.; Garcia Aparicio, A. (Univ. de Extremadura, Badajoz (Spain). Dept. de Fisica)

    1992-01-01

    Measurements of uranium isotopes and their daughters in the natural series were performed in the cooling reservoirs and their neighborhood of two nuclear power plants, [alpha] and [gamma] spectrometry of samples were used to measure the natural and artificial radionuclides. The nuclear power plants are in the southwest of Spain and one of them has been in operation since 1982, the other plant is in the construction phase. We compare the results obtained for the two sites. (orig.).

  4. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battle, R E; Campbell, D J

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project.

  5. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential

  6. Photovoltaic power plants: production calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.

    Rational sizing of a photovoltaic plant requires a good evaluation of the obtainable electric energy as a function of the many meteorological and plant parameters. A computing procedure is described in detail together with a fully developed numerical example. The procedure is based on monthly usability. It is reliable and it allows designers to take into account the influence of the main plant parameters within rather wide ranges.

  7. Direct flash steam geothermal power plant assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, T. E.

    1982-01-01

    The objective was to analyze the capacity and availability factors of an operating direct flash geothermal power plant. System and component specifications, operating procedures, maintenance history, malfunctions, and outage rate are discussed. The plant studied was the 75 MW(e) geothermal power plant at Cerro Prieto, Mexico, for the years 1973 to 1979. To describe and assess the plant, the project staff reviewed documents, visited the plant, and met with staff of the operating utility. The high reliability and availability of the plant was documented and actions responsible for the good performance were identified and reported. The results are useful as guidance to US utilities considering use of hot water geothermal resources for power generation through a direct flash conversion cycle.

  8. 76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, for operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant..., Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (NUREG-1437, Supplement 1), dated......

  9. Current fusion power plant design concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gore, B.F.; Murphy, E.S.

    1976-09-01

    Nine current U.S. designs for fusion power plants are described in this document. Summary tabulations include a tenth concept, for which the design document was unavailable during preparation of the descriptions. The information contained in the descriptions was used to define an envelope of fusion power plant characteristics which formed the basis for definition of reference first commercial fusion power plant design. A brief prose summary of primary plant features introduces each of the descriptions contained in the body of this document. In addition, summary tables are presented. These tables summarize in side-by-side fashion, plant parameters, processes, combinations of materials used, requirements for construction materials, requirements for replacement materials during operation, and production of wastes.

  10. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains data on power plants, based on the Energy Information Administration's EIA-860 dataset and supplemented with data from EPA's Facility...

  11. Topologies for large scale photovoltaic power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera Tobar, Ana; Bullich Massagué, Eduard; Aragüés Peñalba, Mònica; Gomis Bellmunt, Oriol

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. The concern of increasing renewable energy penetration into the grid together with the reduction of prices of photovoltaic solar panels during the last decade have enabled the development of large scale solar power plants connected to the medium and high voltage grid. Photovoltaic generation components, the internal layout and the ac collection grid are being investigated for ensuring the best design, operation and control of these power plants. This ...

  12. Efficiencies of Power Plants Using Hydrothermal Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirosaka, Kazuma; Yuvamitra, Korakot; Ishikawa, Akira; Hasegawa, Tatsuya

    Wet biomass is hard to handle as a fuel for power plants because it contains high moisture and its drying process needs more energy input than it produces. Hydrothermal oxidation could be one of the promising technologies to overcome this problem because this process does not need drying process at all. We focus on recovery of thermal energy produced by hydrothermal oxidation of wet biomass. Two kinds of power plant are investigated, a direct type and an indirect type. In the direct type power plant, reactant is oxidized in a reactor and directly flowed into a turbine. In the indirect type power plant, reactant is oxidized in a reactor and the reaction heat is conveyed to the main water, which is flowed into a turbine. The amount of electric power and the energy conversion efficiency are calculated by using ethanol, glucose and peat solutions as reactants. In both type of power plant, one steam turbine is employed for generating electricity with the maximum turbine inlet temperature of 650 °C. As ethanol concentration increased, the amount of electric power and the energy conversion efficiency become higher. The maximum efficiency for the direct type power plant using ethanol solution is about 26.4 % for 17.6 wt% at the reactor pressure of 10 MPa. The efficiency of the indirect type power plant is much lower than that of the direct type, but by pressurizing main water up to 4 MPa, the efficiency becomes higher up to 20.9 %. For glucose solution, the maximum efficiency for the direct type is about 25.5 % for 34.5 wt% at the reactor pressure of 5 MPa. The maximum efficiency of the indirect type at the main water pressure of 4 MPa is about 21.1 % for 40.7 wt%. For peat solution, only the indirect type is investigated. The maximum efficiency at the main water pressure of 4 MPa is about 20.8 % for 36.8 wt%.

  13. Market Integration of Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer

    Global efforts to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide drives the introduction of renewable power production technologies into the existing power system. The real-time balance between production and consumption must, however, still be maintained at all times. Unfortunately, this is becoming...... increasingly challenging due to the intrinsic variability of production technologies such as photovoltaics and wind turbines. In a Smart Grid system the balancing task will therefore be handled by mobilizing flexibility on the consumption side. This Thesis assumes that the Smart Grid should be commercially...... based rather than funded by subsidies. Consequently the Smart Grid provides a business opportunity for so-called Virtual Power Plants. A Virtual Power Plant is an independent commercial operator, which provides Smart Grid capabilities to flexible consumers. This means that the Virtual Power Plant...

  14. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-01

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  15. Informatization of Power Plant and Its Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhenghai

    2006-01-01

    @@ This paper presents the working procedure of power generating enterprises and explains the framework of an e-power-plant and its information system, puts forward the guideline and the general goal of informatization construction while focusing on the construction goal in the applied system, the implementing strategy, the project management and organization.

  16. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  17. Advanced coal-fired power plant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauke, F. [Babcock Borsig Power Energy GmbH (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the joint efforts of a large European group of manufacturers, utilities and institutes co-operating in a phased long-term project named 'Advanced 700{degree}C PF Power Plant'. Net efficiences of more than 50% will be reached through development of a super critical steam cycle operating at maximum steam temperatures in the range of 700{degree}C. The principal efforts are based on development of creep resistent nickel-based materials named super-alloys for the hottest areas of the water/steam cycle. The Advanced 700{degree}C PF Power Plant project will improve the competitiveness of coal-fired power generation. Furthermore, it will provide a major reduction of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants in the range of 15% from the best PF power plants presently and up to 40% from older plants. The demonstration programme will leave the possibility of any plant output between 400 and 1000 MW. The project will run to the end of 2003. 8 figs.

  18. Our Car as Power Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell cars can provide more efficient and cleaner transportation. However, we use our cars for transportation only 5% of the time. When parked, the fuel cell in the car can produce electricity from hydrogen, which is cleaner and more efficient than the current electricity system, generating usef

  19. Perspectives on Magnetized Target Fusion Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. L.

    2007-06-01

    One approach to Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) builds upon the ongoing experimental effort (FRX-L) to generate a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) target plasma suitable for translation and cylindrical-liner (i.e., converging flux conserver) implosion. Numerical modeling is underway to elucidate key performance drivers for possible future power-plant extrapolations. The fusion gain, Q (ratio of DT fusion yield to the sum of initial liner kinetic energy plus plasma formation energy), sets the power-plant duty cycle for a nominal design electric power [ e.g. 1,000 MWe(net)]. A pulsed MTF power plant of this type derives from the historic Fast Liner Reactor (FLR) concept and shares attributes with the recent Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) Z-pinch and laser-driven pellet HYLIFE-II conceptual designs.

  20. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  1. Integration of torrefaction with steam power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakri, B.; Saari, J.; Sermyagina, E.; Vakkilainen, E.

    2013-09-01

    Torrefaction is one of the pretreatment technologies to enhance the fuel characteristics of biomass. The efficient and continuous operation of a torrefaction reactor, in the commercial scale, demands a secure biomass supply, in addition to adequate source of heat. Biorefinery plants or biomass-fuelled steam power plants have the potential to integrate with the torrefaction reactor to exchange heat and mass, using available infrastructure and energy sources. The technical feasibility of this integration is examined in this study. A new model for the torrefaction process is introduced and verified by the available experimental data. The torrefaction model is then integrated in different steam power plants to simulate possible mass and energy exchange between the reactor and the plants. The performance of the integrated plant is investigated for different configurations and the results are compared. (orig.)

  2. Nuclear power plant security assessment technical manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Sharon L.; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Potter, Claude S., III

    2007-09-01

    This report (Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Technical Manual) is a revision to NUREG/CR-1345 (Nuclear Power Plant Design Concepts for Sabotage Protection) that was published in January 1981. It provides conceptual and specific technical guidance for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant design certification and combined operating license applicants as they: (1) develop the layout of a facility (i.e., how buildings are arranged on the site property and how they are arranged internally) to enhance protection against sabotage and facilitate the use of physical security features; (2) design the physical protection system to be used at the facility; and (3) analyze the effectiveness of the PPS against the design basis threat. It should be used as a technical manual in conjunction with the 'Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Format and Content Guide'. The opportunity to optimize physical protection in the design of a nuclear power plant is obtained when an applicant utilizes both documents when performing a security assessment. This document provides a set of best practices that incorporates knowledge gained from more than 30 years of physical protection system design and evaluation activities at Sandia National Laboratories and insights derived from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission technical staff into a manual that describes a development and analysis process of physical protection systems suitable for future nuclear power plants. In addition, selected security system technologies that may be used in a physical protection system are discussed. The scope of this document is limited to the identification of a set of best practices associated with the design and evaluation of physical security at future nuclear power plants in general. As such, it does not provide specific recommendations for the design and evaluation of physical security for any specific reactor design. These best practices should be applicable to the design and

  3. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  4. Possible genetic damage in the Czech nuclear power plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sram, Radim J. [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: sram@biomed.cas.cz; Roessner, Pavel [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Rubes, Jiri [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic); Beskid, Olena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Dusek, Zdik [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Chvatalova, Irena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Schmuczerova, Jana [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Milcova, Alena [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Solansky, Ivo [Laboratory of Genetic Ecotoxicology, Health Institute of Central Bohemia and Institute of Experimental Medicine AS CR, Videnska 1083, 142 20 Praha 4 (Czech Republic); Bavorova, Hana [National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 100 42 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Ocadlikova, Dana [National Institute of Public Health, Srobarova 48, 100 42 Praha 10 (Czech Republic); Kopecna, Olga [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic); Musilova, Petra [Veterinary Research Institute, Hudcova 70, 621 32 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2006-01-29

    The aim of our study was to identify occupational risk of irradiation exposure in the Czech nuclear power plant workers. We analyzed levels of chromosomal aberrations, a well-known biomarker of early biological effects and a predictor of cancer risk. We applied the conventional method of cytogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, whole chromosome painting for chromosomes 1 and 4, combined with a pancentromeric probe) to three groups: 123 subjects in the Temelin nuclear power plant (2 years in use), 114 subjects in the Dukovany nuclear power plant (20 years in use), and 53 matched controls from Ceske Budejovice. Nuclear power plant workers were divided into two groups: subjects with admittance into the monitored zone, and others. Following factors were also analyzed: GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, XPD, XRCC1, hOGG1, p53, MTHFR, and MS gene polymorphisms, levels of vitamins A, C, E, and folate in plasma, and level of cotinine in urine. Long-term exposure to ionizing radiation in the monitored zone was 0.47 {+-} 1.50 mSv (miliSievert) in the Temelin nuclear power plant and 5.74 {+-} 9.57 mSv in the Dukovany nuclear power plant. Using the conventional cytogenetic analysis, we observed 1.90 {+-} 0.95 and 1.82 {+-} 1.19% AB.C. (percent of aberrant cells) in the Temelin nuclear power plant, and 2.39 {+-} 1.01 and 2.33 {+-} 1.04% AB.C. in the Dukovany nuclear power plant, for monitored zone workers and others, respectively. In the control group, we found 2.25 {+-} 0.82% AB.C. Genomic frequency of translocations F {sub G}/100 measured by FISH was 1.89 {+-} 1.40 and 2.01 {+-} 1.68 in the Temelin nuclear power plant, and 2.48 {+-} 1.93 and 2.14 {+-} 1.62 in the Dukovany nuclear power plant for monitored zone workers and others, respectively. In the control group, F {sub G}/100 was 1.83 {+-} 1.19. Following factors were identified as potential confounders by the conventional cytogenetic analysis: XPD-6, by the FISH: age, GSTP1 and p53Bst genotypes, long-term use

  5. Technical efficiency of thermoelectric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana [Instituto de Economia e Gestao, Technical University of Lisbon, Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); Peypoch, Nicolas [GEREM, LAMPS, IAE, Universite de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 avenue Paul Alduy, F-66860 Perpignan (France)

    2008-11-15

    This paper analyses the technical efficiency of Portuguese thermoelectric power generating plants with a two-stage procedure. In the first stage, the plants' relative technical efficiency is estimated with DEA (data envelopment analysis) to establish which plants perform most efficiently. These plants could serve as peers to help improve performance of the least efficient plants. The paper ranks these plants according to their relative efficiency for the period 1996-2004. In a second stage, the Simar and Wilson [Simar, L., Wilson, P.W., 2007. Estimation and inference in two-stage, semi-parametric models of production processes. Journal of Econometrics 136, 1-34] bootstrapped procedure is adopted to estimate the efficiency drivers. Economic implications arising from the study are considered. (author)

  6. Efficiency improvement of thermal coal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourfar, D. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr Ag, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The discussion concerning an increase of the natural greenhouse effect by anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere has increased over the past years. The greenhouse effect has become an issue of worldwide debate. Carbon dioxide is the most serious emission of the greenhouse gases. Fossil-fired power plants have in the recent past been responsible for almost 30 % of the total CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany. Against this background the paper will describe the present development of CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations and present actual and future opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction. The significance attached to hard coal as one of today`s prime sources of energy with the largest reserves worldwide, and, consequently, its importance for use in power generation, is certain to increase in the years to come. The further development of conventional power plant technology, therefore, is vital, and must be carried out on the basis of proven operational experience. The main incentive behind the development work completed so far has been, and continues to be, the achievement of cost reductions and environmental benefits in the generation of electricity by increasing plant efficiency, and this means that, in both the short and the long term, power plants with improved conventional technology will be used for environmentally acceptable coal-fired power generation.

  7. POSSPOW: Possible Power of Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Göçmen, Tuhfe; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2013-01-01

    Introduction In recent years, the very large offshore wind farms were designed as wind power plants, including possibilities to contribute to the stability of the grid by offering grid services (also called ancillary services). One of those services is reserve power, which is achieved by down......-regulating the wind farm from its maximum possible power. The power can be ramped up quite quickly, but the influence of wakes makes it difficult to assess the exact amount of down-regulation available to sell. Currently, Transmission System Operators (TSOs) have no real way to determine exactly the possible power...... will be verified on some of the large offshore wind farms owned by Vattenfall, and possibly in a DONG Energy wind farm too. Dedicated experiments to the wind flow in large offshore wind farms are planned. Main body of abstract Modern wind turbines have a SCADA signal called possible power. In normal operation...

  8. Automation of hydroelectric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grasser, H.S. (Consolidated Papers, Inc., Wisconsin Rapids, WI (US))

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes how the author's company has been automating its hydroelectric generating plants. The early automations were achieved with a relay-type supervisory control system, relay logic, dc tachometer, and a pneumatic gate-position controller. While this system allowed the units to be started and stopped from a remote location, they were operated at an output that was preset by the pneumatic control at the generating site. The supervisory control system at the site provided such information as unit status, generator breaker status, and a binary coded decimal (BCD) value of the pond level. The generating units are started by energizing an on-site relay that sets the pneumatic gate controller to a preset value above the synchronous speed of the hydroelectric generator. The pneumatic controller then opens the water-wheel wicket gates to the preset startup position. As the hydroelectric generator starts to turn, the machine-mounted dc tachometer produces a voltage. At a dc voltage equivalent to synchronous speed, the generator main breaker closes, and a contact from the main breaker starts a field-delay timer. Within a few seconds, the field breaker closes. Once the cycle is complete, a relay changes the pneumatic setpoint to a preset operating point of about 8/10 wicket gate opening.

  9. Strategies in tower solar power plant optimization

    OpenAIRE

    RAMOS, A.; RAMOS, F.

    2012-01-01

    A method for optimizing a central receiver solar thermal electric power plant is studied. We parametrize the plant design as a function of eleven design variables and reduce the problem of finding optimal designs to the numerical problem of finding the minimum of a function of several variables. This minimization problem is attacked with different algorithms both local and global in nature. We find that all algorithms find the same minimum of the objective function. The performance of each of...

  10. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W. [and others

    1996-03-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP).

  11. Materials availability for fusion power plant construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, J.N.; Erickson, L.E.; Engel, R.L.; Foley, T.J.

    1976-09-01

    A preliminary assessment was made of the estimated total U.S. material usage with and without fusion power plants as well as the U.S. and foreign reserves and resources, and U.S. production capacity. The potential environmental impacts of fusion power plant material procurement were also reviewed including land alteration and resultant chemical releases. To provide a general measure for the impact of material procurement for fusion reactors, land requirements were estimated for mining and disposing of waste from mining.

  12. Is natural background or radiation from nuclear power plants leukemogenic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    The objective in this review is to provide some facts about normal hemopoietic cell proliferation relevant to leukemogenesis, physical, chemical, and biological facts about radiation effects with the hope that each person will be able to decide for themselves whether background radiation or emissions from nuclear power plants and facilities significantly add to the spontaneous leukemia incidence. 23 refs., 1 tab.

  13. Advanced coal-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebel, G.; Weirich, P.H.

    1988-02-01

    Reconstruction of coal-fired power plants under the aspects of higher economic efficiency and lower emissions has become more interesting as the petroleum and natural gas reserves have become shorter. A number of advanced concepts have been presented in the last few years and tested in experimental facilities, pilot plants and demonstration plants. If construction is envisaged within the next five years, better steam processes and coal gas turbines should be employed. Supercharged steam generators, which will bring about further improvements, will be available by the mid-Nineties.

  14. Guinea_WADC00321_ADBG_Guinea_Power_Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    United Nations Cartographic Section — Data for power plants with total installed generating capacity > 10 mw from the Platts World Electric Power Plants Database (WEPP 2006). Plants were georeferenced...

  15. Strategies in tower solar power plant optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, A

    2012-01-01

    A method for optimizing a central receiver solar thermal electric power plant is studied. We parametrize the plant design as a function of eleven design variables and reduce the problem of finding optimal designs to the numerical problem of finding the minimum of a function of several variables. This minimization problem is attacked with different algorithms both local and global in nature. We find that all algorithms find the same minimum of the objective function. The performance of each of the algorithms and the resulting designs are studied for two typical cases. We describe a method to evaluate the impact of design variables in the plant performance. This method will tell us what variables are key to the optimal plant design and which ones are less important. This information can be used to further improve the plant design and to accelerate the optimization procedure.

  16. Strategies in tower solar power plant optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, A.; Ramos, F.

    2012-09-01

    A method for optimizing a central receiver solar thermal electric power plant is studied. We parametrize the plant design as a function of eleven design variables and reduce the problem of finding optimal designs to the numerical problem of finding the minimum of a function of several variables. This minimization problem is attacked with different algorithms both local and global in nature. We find that all algorithms find the same minimum of the objective function. The performance of each of the algorithms and the resulting designs are studied for two typical cases. We describe a method to evaluate the impact of design variables in the plant performance. This method will tell us what variables are key to the optimal plant design and which ones are less important. This information can be used to further improve the plant design and to accelerate the optimization procedure.

  17. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  18. FUEL CELL MANPACK POWER SOURCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    battery provides required power density and instantly available power while the fuel cell efficiently converts a primary fuel to electrical power at a...field supply, afford an extremely high energy density making the hybrid fuel cell system competitive on cost per kilowatt hour with standard military zinc-carbon primary batteries. (Author)

  19. Assessment of Some Immune Parameters in Occupationally Exposed Nuclear Power Plants Workers: Flowcytometry Measurements of T, B, NK and NKT Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuleva, Ilona; Panova, Delyana; Djounova, Jana; Rupova, Ivanka; Penkova, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the results of a 10-year survey of the radiation effects of some immune parameters of occupationally exposed personnel from the Nuclear Power Plant "Kozloduy", Bulgaria. 438 persons working in NPP with cumulative doses between 0.06 mSv and 766.36mSv and a control group with 65 persons were studied. Flow cytometry measurements of T, B, natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cell lymphocyte populations were performed. Data were interpreted with regard to cumulative doses, length of service and age. The average values of the studied parameters of cellular immunity were in the reference range relative to age and for most of the workers were not significantly different from the control values. Low doses of ionizing radiation showed some trends of change in the number of CD3+CD4+ helper-inducer lymphocytes, CD3+ CD8+ and NKT cell counts. The observed changes in some of the studied parameters could be interpreted in terms of adaptation processes at low doses. At doses above 100-200 mSv, compensatory mechanisms might be involved to balance deviations in lymphocyte subsets. The observed variations in some cases could not be attributed only to the radiation exposure because of the impact of a number of other exogenous and endogenous factors on the immune system.

  20. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee) is the holder of Renewed..., ``Fatigue Management for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy......

  1. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit......

  2. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed......

  3. Turbomachinery for small solar power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bammert, K.; Heikal, H.; Mobarak, A.

    1981-01-01

    Conversion of solar energy into mechanical or electrical energy in small solar power plants (10 bis 500 kW) requires new design criteria, especially with regard to turbomachinery. The cycles suitable for solar power production are affected by many variables such as kinds of working fluid, range of power and maximum cycle temperature determined by the type of collector. Also, the size of the plant will influence the selection of the various components of the plant, especially that of the turbomachinery. A study of a suitable thermodynamic cycle and working fluid is done for different ranges of power and temperature. The working fluids considered are steam, toluene, and refrigerant 113 for the Rankine cycle systems and air for gas turbine systems. For Rankine cycles, turbine selection is a problem in the small power range. This is mainly due to the fact, that for high efficiency the enthalpy drop should be as high as possible, and the mass flow rate of the working fluid through the turbine becomes very small. This, in turn, requires high rotational speed, multistaging and partial admission, especially if water is the working fluid. Toluene offers better design criteria for the turbine in the same temperature and power range (50-200 kW). For the very small range (10 kW) refrigerant 113 or similar should be used, otherwise severe design problems with the turbine will occur. In this power range, photovoltaics may also be considered. For high concentration systems with Brayton cycles (800-1000/sup 0/C) only open-cycle gas turbine plants should be used.

  4. Elk and plants thrive near power lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustre, L.

    1997-11-01

    Butterflies and elk gather in clearings near power line right-of-ways and on the edges of such clearings, where the wild flowers and plants that have widely disappeared as a result of intensive farming and subsurface drainage of fields have found a good habitat. Ornamental coniferous trees, various herbs and assorted berries do well and can be harvested near power lines from woodland clearings once thought unfit for cultivation. IVS, the nationwide network company, takes part in many projects aiming both to increase productive utilization of land areas under power lines and to promote biodiversity

  5. Geothermal Cogeneration: Iceland's Nesjavellir Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy use in Iceland (population 283,000) is higher per capita than in any other country in the world. Some 53.2% of the energy is geothermal, which supplies electricity as well as heated water to swimming pools, fish farms, snow melting, greenhouses, and space heating. The Nesjavellir Power Plant is a major geothermal facility, supplying both…

  6. Report on Hawaii Geothermal Power Plant Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    The report describes the design, construction, and operation of the Hawaii Geothermal Generator Project. This power plant, located in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii, produces three megawatts of electricity from the steam phase of a geothermal well. (ACR)

  7. A Market-Based Virtual Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    The fast growing penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and the continuing trend towards a more liberalized electricity market requires more efficient energy management strategies to handle both emerging technical and economic issues. In this paper, a market-based Virtual Power Plant...

  8. Heber geothermal demonstration power plant. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    The binary power plant is to be a 45 MW net electrical facility deriving energy from the low salinity (14,000 ppM), moderate temperature (360/sup 0/F, 182/sup 0/C) Heber reservoir in Southern California. The optimized baseline design established for the power plant is described, and the design and optimization work that formed the basis for the baseline design is documented. The work accomplished during Phase II, Preliminary Design is also recorded, and a base provided from which detailed plant design could be continued. Related project activities in the areas of licensing, environmental, cost, and schedule are also described. The approach used to establish the Phase II optimized baseline design was to (1) review the EPRI Phase I conceptual design and feasibility studies; (2) identify current design criteria and state-of-the-art technology; and (3) develop a preliminary design optimized to the Heber site based on utiliity standards.

  9. Recent Advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Heon Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, recent advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants (ONPPs are reviewed, including their general arrangement, design parameters, and safety features. The development of ONPP concepts have continued due to initiatives taking place in France, Russia, South Korea, and the United States. Russia’s first floating nuclear power stations utilizing the PWR technology (KLT-40S and the spar-type offshore floating nuclear power plant designed by a research group in United States are considered herein. The APR1400 and SMART mounted Gravity Based Structure (GBS-type ONPPs proposed by a research group in South Korea are also considered. In addition, a submerged-type ONPP designed by DCNS of France is taken into account. Last, issues and challenges related to ONPPs are discussed and summarized.

  10. Model-Based Power Plant Master Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Katarina; Thomas, Jean; Funkquist, Jonas

    2010-08-15

    The main goal of the project has been to evaluate the potential of a coordinated master control for a solid fuel power plant in terms of tracking capability, stability and robustness. The control strategy has been model-based predictive control (MPC) and the plant used in the case study has been the Vattenfall power plant Idbaecken in Nykoeping. A dynamic plant model based on nonlinear physical models was used to imitate the true plant in MATLAB/SIMULINK simulations. The basis for this model was already developed in previous Vattenfall internal projects, along with a simulation model of the existing control implementation with traditional PID controllers. The existing PID control is used as a reference performance, and it has been thoroughly studied and tuned in these previous Vattenfall internal projects. A turbine model was developed with characteristics based on the results of steady-state simulations of the plant using the software EBSILON. Using the derived model as a representative for the actual process, an MPC control strategy was developed using linearization and gain-scheduling. The control signal constraints (rate of change) and constraints on outputs were implemented to comply with plant constraints. After tuning the MPC control parameters, a number of simulation scenarios were performed to compare the MPC strategy with the existing PID control structure. The simulation scenarios also included cases highlighting the robustness properties of the MPC strategy. From the study, the main conclusions are: - The proposed Master MPC controller shows excellent set-point tracking performance even though the plant has strong interactions and non-linearity, and the controls and their rate of change are bounded. - The proposed Master MPC controller is robust, stable in the presence of disturbances and parameter variations. Even though the current study only considered a very small number of the possible disturbances and modelling errors, the considered cases are

  11. Configuration management in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Configuration management (CM) is the process of identifying and documenting the characteristics of a facility's structures, systems and components of a facility, and of ensuring that changes to these characteristics are properly developed, assessed, approved, issued, implemented, verified, recorded and incorporated into the facility documentation. The need for a CM system is a result of the long term operation of any nuclear power plant. The main challenges are caused particularly by ageing plant technology, plant modifications, the application of new safety and operational requirements, and in general by human factors arising from migration of plant personnel and possible human failures. The IAEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) shows that on average 25% of recorded events could be caused by configuration errors or deficiencies. CM processes correctly applied ensure that the construction, operation, maintenance and testing of a physical facility are in accordance with design requirements as expressed in the d...

  12. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  13. ORC-mall scale power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Electromechanics

    1998-12-31

    In the conversion of low temperature heat into electricity, the greatest efficiency is obtained by using a Rankine cycle. The Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is a Rankine cycle where an organic fluid is used instead of water as the working fluid. In the conventional ORC-solution, an axial turbine drives a standard generator through a high-speed gearbox. The system includes a separate feed pump, vacuum pump, lubrication system and requires several saft seals. The seals of the turbine have a limited working life in particular due to the high speed required. Thus, the entire present conventional ORC-plant is rather complicated and requires maintenance. To avoid these problems, a project was initiated at the Lappeenranta University of Technology to develop a high-speed, process fluid lubricated turbogenerator-feed pump as the prime mover of the ORC. The project has been continued in co-operation with the Helsinki University of Technology under the NEMO 2 program, the main goal being to build a demonstration power plant and to commercialise the project. The goals of the project were: (1) to model the ORC process, turbogenerator, and inverter, (2) to simulate the power plant in different normal and abnormal states, (3) to assess the advantages and disadvantages of various control systems, (4) to study network disturbances such as voltage and current harmonics and to research ways of reducing these disturbances, (5) to optimise heat exchanging surfaces and process parameters, and (6) to participate in the design of the demonstration power plant

  14. Solar power plant performance evaluation: simulation and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natsheh, E. M.; Albarbar, A.

    2012-05-01

    In this work the performance of solar power plant is evaluated based on a developed model comprise photovoltaic array, battery storage, controller and converters. The model is implemented using MATLAB/SIMULINK software package. Perturb and observe (P&O) algorithm is used for maximizing the generated power based on maximum power point tracker (MPPT) implementation. The outcome of the developed model are validated and supported by a case study carried out using operational 28.8kW grid-connected solar power plant located in central Manchester. Measurements were taken over 21 month's period; using hourly average irradiance and cell temperature. It was found that system degradation could be clearly monitored by determining the residual (the difference) between the output power predicted by the model and the actual measured power parameters. It was found that the residual exceeded the healthy threshold, 1.7kW, due to heavy snow in Manchester last winter. More important, the developed performance evaluation technique could be adopted to detect any other reasons that may degrade the performance of the P V panels such as shading and dirt. Repeatability and reliability of the developed system performance were validated during this period. Good agreement was achieved between the theoretical simulation and the real time measurement taken the online grid connected solar power plant.

  15. Nuclear power plant operation and training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanae, Katsushige [Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan); Mitsumori, Kojiro

    1997-07-01

    In this report, the system for operation of a nuclear power plant and the qualities required for its operators were summarized. In Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Atomic Power Plant of the Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. operation is continuously made by 6 groups containing each 10 workers on three shifts. A group including the person in charge participates in the operation through cooperation of the control center and the respective spots. The group leaders are chosen from those approved as a person responsible to its operation. The conditions for the person responsible were as follows: to receive simulator training for senior operator, to have more than 7 years experience of operating a nuclear power plant, to pass a practical examination on the ordinary operation and the emergency one, to receive a training course to master the knowledge and techniques for operating an atomic reactor and to success the oral examination on practical knowledge required to perform the duty. Further, the simulators for ABWR training produced by Toshiba Corp. and Hitachi Ltd. were introduced as an example. And the practical training procedures to manipulate the simulator were presented. (M.N.)

  16. Market integration of Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon;

    2013-01-01

    We consider a direct control Virtual Power Plant, which is given the task of maximizing the profit of a portfolio of flexible consumers by trading flexibility in Energy Markets. Spot price optimization has been quite intensively researched in Smart Grid literature lately. In this work, however, w...... are penetrated, the size of the profit is strongly dependent on the type of flexibility considered. We also find that penetrating several markets makes profits surprisingly robust to spot price prediction errors.......We consider a direct control Virtual Power Plant, which is given the task of maximizing the profit of a portfolio of flexible consumers by trading flexibility in Energy Markets. Spot price optimization has been quite intensively researched in Smart Grid literature lately. In this work, however, we...... develop a three stage market model, which includes Day-Ahead (Spot), Intra-Day and Regulating Power Markets. This allows us to test the hypothesis that the Virtual Power Plant can generate additional profit by trading across several markets. We find that even though profits do increase as more markets...

  17. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deolalikar R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements.

  18. Safety in nuclear power plants in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deolalikar, R

    2008-12-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements.

  19. Operational monitoring in German nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibold, A. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Suedwest e.V., Filderstadt (Germany); Bartonicek, J. [GKN Neckarwestheim, Im Steinbruch, Neckarwestheim, D-74382 (Germany); Kockelmann, H. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA), University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    The Atomic Energy Act requires that measures made feasible by state of the art technology be adopted to avoid damage that could be caused as the result of the construction and operation of a nuclear plant. This stipulation constitutes the basis for deriving requirements for planning, design, construction, operation and decommissioning. Ensuring the function and integrity of those components and systems that are relevant to plant safety is of major significance with regard to operation of a nuclear power plant. The basis for ensuring these features is laid in planning, design and construction. Important as these foundations may be, it is absolutely essential to monitor the quality originally planned and achieved in an object as undeniably complex as a nuclear power plant. The RSK-Leitlinien fuer Druckwasserreaktoren (Reactor Safety Commission Guidelines for Pressurized Water Reactors) incorporate fundamental requirements for design, mechanical design, materials, manufacturing, testing and examination, and operation. Meeting these requirements makes it possible to exclude a catastrophic rupture of the components in the reactor cooling system pressure boundary (primary system), as has been demonstrated in detailed research and development work. The term basic safety was defined for this concept. Basic safety coupled with multiple redundancy suffices to exclude the possibility of large ruptures (rupture preclusion). The principle of plant monitoring and documentation (operational monitoring) implements redundancy in a significant manner within this concept. The monitoring techniques used in Germany have reached an advanced state of development and are still being optimized. Thus, operational monitoring is a major contributory factor in the safety and high availability of nuclear power plants. It also provides a means of expanding our knowledge of life time expectation. (orig.).

  20. Applying fuel cell experience to sustainable power products

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Joseph M.; O'Day, Michael J.

    Fuel cell power plants have demonstrated high efficiency, environmental friendliness, excellent transient response, and superior reliability and durability in spacecraft and stationary applications. Broader application of fuel cell technology promises significant contribution to sustainable global economic growth, but requires improvement to size, cost, fuel flexibility and operating flexibility. International Fuel Cells (IFC) is applying lessons learned from delivery of more than 425 fuel cell power plants and 3 million h of operation to the development of product technology which captures that promise. Key findings at the fuel cell power plant level include: (1) ancillary components account for more than 40% of the weight and nearly all unscheduled outages of hydrocarbon-fuelled power plants; a higher level of integration and simplification is required to achieve reasonable characteristics, (2) hydrocarbon fuel cell power plant components are highly interactive; the fuel processing approach and power plant operating pressure are major determinants of overall efficiency, and (3) achieving the durability required for heavy duty vehicles and stationary applications requires simultaneous satisfaction of electrochemical, materials and mechanical considerations in the design of the cell stack and other power plant components. Practical designs must minimize application specific equipment. Related lessons for stationary fuel cell power plants include: (1) within fuel specification limits, natural gas varies widely in heating value, minor constituents such as oxygen and nitrogen content and trace compounds such as the odorant; (2) city water quality varies widely; recovery of product water for process use avoids costly, complicated and site-specific water treatment systems, but water treatment is required to eliminate impurities and (3) the embedded protection functions for reliable operation of fuel cell power conditioners meet or exceed those required for connection to

  1. Maximisation of Combined Cycle Power Plant Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Kotowicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents concepts for increasing the efficiency of a modern combined cycle power plant. Improvement of gas turbine performance indicators as well as recovering heat from the air cooling the gas turbine’s flow system enable reaching gross electrical efficiencies of around 65%. Analyses for a wide range of compressor pressure ratios were performed. Operating characteristics were developed for the analysed combined cycle plant, for different types of open air cooling arrangements of the gas turbine’s expander: convective, transpiration and film.

  2. DCS emulator development for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakashima, Y. [Hitachi Canada Ltd., Power and Industry Div., Mississauga, Ontario (Canada); Ishii, K.; Chiba, D. [Hitachi Ltd., Information and Control Systems Div., Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    2009-07-01

    Continual training of operators is one of the principal means by which Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operational efficiency can be improved. Since this training cannot take place in the actual NPP, NPP simulator applications must be used instead. While digitalization scope of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems has been expanded to the entire plant by using Distributed Control System (DCS) implementation, Hitachi has implemented DCS emulator on a general purpose Personal Computer (PC) and applied it to simulator applications. This paper reviews such DCS emulator development for NPP by Hitachi. (author)

  3. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.;

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation...... of the plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  4. Concept and controllability of virtual power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Setiawan, E.A.

    2007-07-01

    In the end of 20th century the conception of electrical power supply is morphing gradually from centralized into decentralized system, indicated by increasing the installation of distributed generation on the main grid. With emerging of advanced communication and information technology, the aggregation control of several DG units can be developed as virtual power plant in order to provide added-value to the electric power system. This thesis presents definitions and types of Virtual Power Plants (VPP), then developing control through numerical simulation. The thesis proposes three DG controls namely Basic Autocontrol System (BAS), Smart Autocontrol System (SAS) and Tracking Efficiency Autocontrol System (TEAS). The BAS controls the DG output power with the objective to cover the local load demand. The drawback of this system is that the coordination among DG units is not established yet. In contrast to the BAS, the SAS has a control coordination centre which is responsible of controlling a certain number of DG units. The SAS controls and coordinates the operation of the dedicated DG units in order to minimize power exchange with the superior grid. However the efficiency issue is not considered at two previous control systems, therefore the TEAS was developed. Principally this system is similar to the SAS in terms of information exchange but additionally optimizes the operation efficiency of DG units. This is accomplished by tracking the systems' most efficient operation point. All control systems have been implemented into a simulation environment. The simulation results show that all developed control systems are capable to minimize the power exchange with the superior grid. The systems are able to follow changing load conditions. Furthermore the simulation results prove the ability of TEAS to optimize the system efficiency. Finally the contribution of VPP to voltage regulation is investigated with several scenarios. The influence of both, active and reactive

  5. Improved repowering techniques for power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbak, Niels; Andersen, Simon E.; Petersen, Stiig Bo;

    1998-01-01

    Repowering of existing coal-fired power plants is often accomplished by adding gas turbines. In this paper we assume that the gas turbine exhaust is used for feed water preheating.Typical gas turbine exhaust temperatures are in the range 450-600C whereas typical boiler inlet temperatures are 250......-300C. The big difference in temperature between exhaust and water prevents an efficient exchange of heat. One way to lower the exhaust temperature is to expand the gas to sub atmospheric pressure. The result is a 50% increase in possible installed gas turbine power....

  6. FACTS Devices for Large Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro;

    2010-01-01

    Growing number of wind turbines is changing electricity generation profile all over the world. However, high wind energy penetration affects power system safety and stability. For this reason transmission system operators (TSO) impose more stringent connection requirements on the wind power plant...... (WPP) owners. On the other hand flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) devices offer enhancement of grid stability and can facilitate grid code compliance for WPP. In this paper state-of-the-art in FACTS for large WPPs with AC connection is given. FACTS devices (excluding HVDC) with their properties...... are described. Academic and industrial research in FACTS applicability for WPPs is summarized....

  7. Experimental energetic analysis of gas natural-powered fuel cell cogeneration plant; Analise energetica experimental de uma planta de co-geracao com celulas a combustivel e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Jose G.M.; Lopes, Francisco C.; Silva Junior, Fernando R.; Soares, Guilherme F.W.; Serra, Eduardo T. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Power systems based on fuel cells have been considered for residential and commercial applications in energy Distributed Generation (DG) market as these systems can minimize their acquisition, installation and operation high costs. In this work we present an experimental analysis of a power generation system formed by a 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell unit and a natural gas reformer (fuel processor) for hydrogen production, of the CEPEL's Fuel Cell Laboratory. It was determined the electrical performance of the cogeneration system in function of the design and operational power plant parameters. Additionally, it was verified the influence of the activation conditions of the fuel cell electrocatalytic system on the system performance. It also appeared that the use of hydrogen produced from the natural gas catalytic reforming provided the system operation in excellent electrothermal stability conditions resulting in increase of the energy conversion efficiency and of the economy of the cogeneration power plant. The maximum electrical efficiency achieved was around 38% and in all power range unit operated with average potential per single fuel cell higher than 0.60 V. (author)

  8. Organelle Extensions in Plant Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaideep Mathur; Alena Mammone; Kiah A.Barton

    2012-01-01

    Cell walls lock each cell in a specific position within the supraorganization of a plant.Despite its fixed location,each cell must be able to sense alterations in its immediate environment and respond rapidly to ensure the optimal functioning,continued growth and development,and eventual long-term survival of the plant.The ultra-structural detail that underlies our present understanding of the plant cell has largely been acquired from fixed and processed material that does not allow an appreciation of the dynamic nature of sub-cellular events in the cell.In recent years,fluorescent proteinaided imaging of living plant cells has added to our understanding of the dynamic nature of the plant cell.One of the major outcomes of live imaging of plant cells is the growing appreciation that organelle shapes are not fixed,and many organelles extend their surface transiently in rapid response to environmental stimuli.In many cases,the extensions appear as tubules extending from the main organelle.Specific terms such as stromules from plastids,matrixules from mitochondria,and peroxules from peroxisomes have been coined to describe the extensions.Here,we review our present understanding of organelle extensions and discuss how they may play potential roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis in plant cells.

  9. Thermodynamics in nuclear power plant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics required to understand electrical power generation systems, honing in on the application of these principles to nuclear reactor powersystems. It includes all the necessary information regarding the fundamental laws to gain a complete understanding and apply them specifically to the challenges of operating nuclear plants. Beginning with definitions of thermodynamic variables such as temperature, pressure and specific volume, the book then explains the laws in detail, focusing on pivotal concepts such as enthalpy and entropy, irreversibilit

  10. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    OpenAIRE

    Deolalikar R

    2008-01-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operat...

  11. Virtual power plants with electric vehicles

    OpenAIRE

    Grau, Iñaki; Papadopoulos, Panagiotis; Skarvelis-Kazakos, Spyros; Cipcigan, Liana M.; Jenkins, Nick

    2010-01-01

    The benefits of integrating aggregated Electric Vehicles (EV) within the Virtual Power Plant (VPP) concept, are addressed. Two types of EV aggregators are identified: i) Electric Vehicle Residential Aggregator (EVRA), which is responsible for the management of dispersed and clustered EVs in a residential area and ii) Electric Vehicle Commercial Aggregator (EVCA), which is responsible for the management of EVs clustered in a single car park. A case study of a workplace EVCA is presented, provi...

  12. Alloy Design for a Fusion Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Kemp, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Fusion power is generated when hot deuterium and tritium nuclei react, producing alpha particles and 14 MeV neutrons. These neutrons escape the reaction plasma and are absorbed by the surrounding material structure of the plant, transferring the heat of the reaction to an external cooling circuit. In such high-energy neutron irradiation environments, extensive atomic displacement damage and transmutation production of helium affect the mechanical properties of materials. Among these effect...

  13. Fatigue monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes fatigue monitoring methods and surveys their application in the nuclear power industry. The paper is based on a review of the technical literature. Two main reasons for fatigue monitoring are more frequent occurrence of some transients than that assumed in the fatigue design analysis and the discovery of stressors that were not included in the fatigue design analysis but may cause significant fatigue damage at some locations. One fatigue monitoring method involves use of plant operating data and procedures to update the fatigue usage. Another method involves monitoring of plant operating parameters using existing, or if needed, supplementary plant instrumentation for online computation of fatigue usage. Use of fatigue monitoring has better defined the operational transients. Most operational transients have been found less severe and fewer in numbers than anticipated in the design fatigue analysis. Use of fatigue monitoring has assisted in quantifying newly discovered stressors and has helped in detecting the presence of thermal stratification of unsuspected locations.

  14. Construct ability Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.

  15. Methodology for Assessment of Inertial Response from Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte;

    2012-01-01

    High wind power penetration levels result in additional requirements from wind power in order to improve frequency stability. Replacement of conventional power plants with wind power plants reduces the power system inertia due to the wind turbine technology. Consequently, the rate of change...

  16. Celebrating Plant Cells: A Special Issue on Plant Cell Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A special issue on plant cell biology is long overdue for JIPB! In the last two decades or so, the plant biology community has been thrilled by explosive discoveries regarding the molecular and genetic basis of plant growth, development, and responses to the environment, largely owing to recent maturation of model systems like Arabidopsis thaliana and the rice Oryza sativa, as well as the rapid development of high throughput technologies associated with genomics and proteomics.

  17. Small-Scale Combined Heat and Power Plants Using Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon-Popa, Marianne [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2002-11-01

    In this time period where energy supply and climate change are of special concern, biomass-based fuels have attracted much interest due to their plentiful supply and favorable environmental characteristics (if properly managed). The effective capture and continued sustainability of this renewable resource requires a new generation of biomass power plants with high fuel energy conversion. At the same time, deregulation of the electricity market offers new opportunities for small-scale power plants in a decentralized scheme. These two important factors have opened up possibilities for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants based on biofuels. The objective of this pre-study is to assess the possibilities and technical limitations for increased efficiency and energy utilization of biofuels in small size plants (approximately 10 MWe or lower). Various energy conversion technologies are considered and proven concepts for large-scale fossil fuel plants are an especially important area. An analysis has been made to identify the problems, technical limitations and different possibilities as recognized in the literature. Beyond published results, a qualitative survey was conducted to gain first-hand, current knowledge from experts in the field. At best, the survey results together with the results of personal interviews and a workshop on the role of small-scale plants in distributed generation will serve a guideline for future project directions and ideas. Conventional and novel technologies are included in the survey such as Stirling engines, combustion engines, gas turbines, steam turbines, steam motors, fuel cells and other novel technologies/cycles for biofuels. State-of-the-art heat and power plants will be identified to clarify of the advantages and disadvantages as well as possible obstacles for their implementation.

  18. Overview of Past, Present and Future Marine Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Morsy El-Gohary

    2013-01-01

    In efforts to overcome an foreseeable energy crisis predicated on limited oil and gas supplies,reserves; economic variations facing the world,and of course the environmental side effects of fossil fuels,an urgent need for energy sources that provide sustainable,safe and economic supplies for the world is imperative.The current fossil fuel energy system must be improved to ensure a better and cleaner transportation future for the world.Despite the fact that the marine transportation sector consumes only 5% of global petroleum production; it is responsible for 15% of the world NOx and SOx emissions.These figures must be the engine that powers the scientific research worldwide to develop new solutions for a very old energy problem.In this paper,the most effective types of marine power plants were discussed.The history of the development of each type was presented first and the technical aspects were discussed second.Also,the fuel cells as a new type of power plants used in marine sector were briefed to give a complete overview of the past,present and future of the marine power plants development.Based on the increased worldwide concerns regarding harmful emissions,many researchers have introduced solutions to this problem,including the adoption of new cleaner fuels.This paper was guided using the same trend and by implementing the hydrogen as fuel for marine internal combustion engine,gas turbines,and fuel cells.

  19. Overview of past, present and future marine power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy El-Gohary, M.

    2013-06-01

    In efforts to overcome an foreseeable energy crisis predicated on limited oil and gas supplies, reserves; economic variations facing the world, and of course the environmental side effects of fossil fuels, an urgent need for energy sources that provide sustainable, safe and economic supplies for the world is imperative. The current fossil fuel energy system must be improved to ensure a better and cleaner transportation future for the world. Despite the fact that the marine transportation sector consumes only 5% of global petroleum production; it is responsible for 15% of the world NO x and SO x emissions. These figures must be the engine that powers the scientific research worldwide to develop new solutions for a very old energy problem. In this paper, the most effective types of marine power plants were discussed. The history of the development of each type was presented first and the technical aspects were discussed second. Also, the fuel cells as a new type of power plants used in marine sector were briefed to give a complete overview of the past, present and future of the marine power plants development. Based on the increased worldwide concerns regarding harmful emissions, many researchers have introduced solutions to this problem, including the adoption of new cleaner fuels. This paper was guided using the same trend and by implementing the hydrogen as fuel for marine internal combustion engine, gas turbines, and fuel cells.

  20. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed

  1. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed o

  2. 76 FR 66089 - Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide 5.66, ``Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide... Authorization Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants,'' and 10 CFR part 26, ``Fitness for Duty Programs.'' The......

  3. Goethermal power plant with Kalina cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, M.; Filipovic, A. [M+W Zander Facility Engineering GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Marketing-Communications

    2005-04-01

    Several factors are creating an increased market for small power plant technology. These include the need for distributed/decentralised power systems, the need to generate more electricity by non-combustion renewable processes, the need for sustainable power for economic growth in developing countries and the deregulation and privatization of the electrical generation sector. Basically there are 2 alternate principles to improve the efficiency of the Rankine steam cycle for low temperature applications: Replacing water by a one-component fluid with lower boiling points, e.g. different organic substances like n-pentane, isobutene, perfluoropen-tane. (Organic Rankine Cycle, ORC). Replacing water by a binary working fluid like ammonia-water as proposed by Kalina. Kalina and ORC power cycles are primarily used for lower temperature heat sources, such as goethermal or waste-heat recovery. The primary advantage of this technology is the operation at low temperature which is given at renewable heat sources and waste heat. Further the power cycles are simple and generally can be operated remotely, without licensed operators, allowing for increased use of self-diagnostics. M+W Zander is working closely with partners to establish an alternative technology for geothermal applications. (orig.)

  4. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  5. China’s Nuclear Power Plants in Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Qinshan Plant Phase I Located in Haiyan,Zhejiang Province,Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Phase I is t he first 300-megawatt pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant independently designed,constructed,operated and managed by China.The plant came into commercial operation in April 1994.

  6. Osmo-power - Theory and performance of an osmo-power pilot plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, H. H. G.; Masuda, H.

    A theoretical and experimental study of the production of useful energy by the natural process of osmosis is presented. Using the results of the study a conceptual design of an osmotic pilot plant is performed. The power produced by a 1.6 MW/sq km plant has a competitive cost with that produced by both fossil power plants and nuclear power plants.

  7. Energy sources and power plants; Energiequellen und Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Detlef [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ. / Univ. der Bundeswehr, Hamburg (Germany). Professur fuer Elektrische Energiesysteme; Schulz, Karen

    2013-07-01

    Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded. [German] Energie wird aus verschiedenen Energietraegern gewonnen (Kohle, Erdoel, Erdgas, Kernbrennstoffe, Windenergie, Solarenergie, Wasserkraft, Biomasse, Geothermie). Diese unterscheiden sich jeweils hinsichtlich ihrer Verfuegbarkeit, der Methoden ihrer Gewinnung und der benoetigten Kraftwerkstechnologien. Als Zukunftstechnologien werden Brennstoffzellen und Kernfusion gehandelt.

  8. Water treatment plants assessment at Talkha power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sebaie, Olfat D; Abd El-Kerim, Ghazy E; Ramadan, Mohamed H; Abd El-Atey, Magda M; Taha, Sahr Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Talkha power plant is the only power plant located in El-Mansoura. It generates electricity using two different methods by steam turbine and gas turbine. Both plants drew water from River Nile (208 m3 /h). The Nile raw water passes through different treatment processes to be suitable for drinking and operational uses. At Talkha power plant, there are two purification plants used for drinking water supply (100 m3/h) and for water demineralization supply (108 m3/h). This study aimed at studying the efficiency of the water purification plants. For drinking water purification plant, the annual River Nile water characterized by slightly alkaline pH (7.4-8), high annual mean values of turbidity (10.06 NTU), Standard Plate Count (SPC) (313.3 CFU/1 ml), total coliform (2717/100 ml), fecal coliform (0-2400/100 ml), and total algae (3 x 10(4) org/I). The dominant group of algae all over the study period was green algae. The blue green algae was abundant in Summer and Autumn seasons. The pH range, and the annual mean values of turbidity, TDS, total hardness, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, nitrites, fluoride, and residual chlorine for purified water were in compliance with Egyptian drinking water standards. All the SPC recorded values with an annual mean value of 10.13 CFU/1 ml indicated that chlorine dose and contact time were not enough to kill the bacteria. However, they were in compliance with Egyptian decree (should not exceed 50 CFU/1 ml). Although the removal efficiency of the plant for total coliform and blue green algae was high (98.5% and 99.2%, respectively), the limits of the obtained results with an annual mean values of 40/100 ml and 15.6 org/l were not in compliance with the Egyptian decree (should be free from total coliform, fecal coliform and blue green algae). For water demineralization treatment plant, the raw water was characterized by slightly alkaline pH. The annual mean values of conductivity, turbidity, and TDS were 354.6 microS/cm, 10.84 NTU, and 214

  9. Pilot plant straw biomass power plant; Demonstrationsanlage Strohkraftwerk Gronau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodegel, Stefan [Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH (CUTEC), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Lach, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Ueberlandwerk Leinetal GmbH, Gronau (Leine) (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Drastically increasing prices for oil and gas promote the change to renewable energies. Biomass has the advantage of the storability. However, it has the disadvantage of a small stocking density. This suggests decentralized power plants. Also the proven technology of water vapour cycles with use of turbine is questioned. In the rural district Hildesheim there are efforts of thermal utilisation straw from wheat cropping. For this, a feasibility study of the Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Technik GmbH (Clausthal Zellerfeld, Federal Republic of Germany) presents technical and economic possibilities exemplary for the industrial area West in Gronau (Federal Republic of Germany). Technical and economic chances and risks are pointed out.

  10. General digitalized system on nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akagi, Katsumi; Kadohara, Hozumi; Taniguchi, Manabu [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    Hitherto, instrumentation control system in a PWR nuclear power plant has stepwisely adopted digital technology such as application of digital instrumentation control device to ordinary use (primary/secondary system control device, and so on), application of CRT display system to monitoring function, and so forth, to realize load reduction of an operator due to expansion of operation automation range, upgrading of reliability and maintenance due to self-diagnosis function, reduction of mass in cables due to multiple transfer, and upgrading of visual recognition due to information integration. In next term PWR plant instrumentation control system, under consideration of application practice of conventional digital technology, application of general digitalisation system to adopt digitalisation of overall instrumentation control system containing safety protection system, and central instrumentation system (new type of instrumentation system) and to intend to further upgrade economics, maintenance, operability/monitoring under security of reliability/safety is planned. And, together with embodiment of construction program of the next-term plant, verification at the general digitalisation proto-system aiming at establishment of basic technology on the system is carried out. Then, here was described on abstract of the general digitalisation system and characteristics of a digital type safety protection apparatus to be adopted in the next-term plant. (G.K.)

  11. 75 FR 80547 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0... License No. NPF-63, which authorizes operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1... request to generically extend the rule's compliance date for all operating nuclear power plants, but...

  12. 75 FR 77919 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-14

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental... Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc., for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1...: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1--Final Report (NUREG-1437, Supplement 33).''...

  13. 75 FR 9958 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP). The license provides, among other things... operating nuclear power plants, but noted that the Commission's regulations provide mechanisms...

  14. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  15. Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Roman Miguel

    Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant is a focus of this dissertation. Specifically, the performance of the Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant in Arizona is examined. The analysis combines thermodynamic second law exergy analysis with economics in order to assign costs to the loss and destruction of exergy. This work was done entirely with an interacting spreadsheets notebook. The procedures are to first determine conventional energy flow, where the thermodynamic stream state points are calculated automatically. Exergy flow is then evaluated along with destruction and losses. The capital cost and fixed investment rate used for the economics do not apply specifically to the Palo Verde Plant. Exergy costing is done next involving the solution of about 90 equations by matrix inversion. Finally, the analysis assigns cost to the exergy destruction and losses in each component. In this work, the cost of electricity (exergy), including capital cost, leaving the generator came to 38,400 /hr. The major exergy destruction occurs in the reactor where fission energy transfer is limited by the maxiμm permissible clad temperature. Exergy destruction costs were: reactor--18,207 hr, the low pressure turbine-2,000 /hr, the condenser--1,700 hr, the steam generator-1,200 $/hr. The inclusion of capital cost and O&M are important in new system design assessments. When investigating operational performance, however, these are sunk costs; only fuel cost needs to be considered. The application of a case study is included based on a real modification instituted at Palo Verde to reduce corrosion steam generator problems; the pressure in the steam generator was reduced from 1072 to 980 psi. Exergy destruction costs increased in the low pressure turbine and in the steam generator, but decreased in the reactor vessel and the condenser. The dissertation demonstrates the procedures and tools required for exergoeconomic analysis whether in the evaluation of a new nuclear reactor system

  16. Nuclear power plants for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. The technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants are examined. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  17. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 which authorizes operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear...

  18. Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Heck, F.M.; Green, L.; Karbowski, J.S.; Murphy, J.H.; Tupper, R.B.; DeLuca, R.A.; Moazed, A.

    1983-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment.

  19. Power plant instrumentation and control handbook a guide to thermal power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Swapan

    2014-01-01

    The book discusses instrumentation and control in modern fossil fuel power plants, with an emphasis on selecting the most appropriate systems subject to constraints engineers have for their projects. It provides all the plant process and design details, including specification sheets and standards currently followed in the plant. Among the unique features of the book are the inclusion of control loop strategies and BMS/FSSS step by step logic, coverage of analytical instruments and technologies for pollution and energy savings, and coverage of the trends toward filed bus systems and integratio

  20. A thermally self-sustained micro-power plant with integrated micro-solid oxide fuel cells, micro-reformer and functional micro-fluidic carrier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherrer, B.; Evans, A.; Santis-Alvarez, A. J.; Jiang, B.; Martynczuk, J.; Galinski, H.; Nabavi, M.; Prestat, M.; Tölke, R.; Bieberle, A.; Poulikakos, D.; Muralt, P.; Niedermann, P.; Dommann, A.; Maeder, T.; Heeb, P.; Straessle, V.; Muller, C.; Gauckler, L. J.

    2014-01-01

    Low temperature micro-solid oxide fuel cell (micro-SOFC) systems are an attractive alternative power source for small-size portable electronic devices due to their high energy efficiency and density. Here, we report on a thermally self-sustainable reformer micro-SOFC assembly. The device consists of

  1. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-10-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  2. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  3. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan

    2002-04-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced

  4. Hydraulic Power Plant Machine Dynamic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Günther Poll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method how to perform an entire structural and hydraulic diagnosis of prototype Francis power machines is presented and discussed in this report. Machine diagnosis of Francis units consists on a proper evaluation of acquired mechanical, thermal and hydraulic data obtained in different operating conditions of several rotary and non rotary machine components. Many different physical quantities of a Francis machine such as pressure, strains, vibration related data, water flow, air flow, position of regulating devices and displacements are measured in a synchronized way so that a relation of cause an effect can be developed for each operating condition and help one to understand all phenomena that are involved with such kind of machine. This amount of data needs to be adequately post processed in order to allow correct interpretation of the machine dynamics and finally these data must be compared with the expected calculated data not only to fine tuning the calculation methods but also to accomplish fully understanding of the influence of the water passages on such machines. The way how the power plant owner has to operate its Francis machines, many times also determined by a central dispatcher, has a high influence on the fatigue life time of the machine components. The diagnostic method presented in this report helps one to understand the importance of adequate operation to allow a low maintenance cost for the entire power plant. The method how to acquire these quantities is discussed in details together with the importance of correct sensor balancing, calibration and adequate correlation with the physical quantities. Typical results of the dynamic machine behavior, with adequate interpretation, obtained in recent measurement campaigns of some important hydraulic turbines were presented. The paper highlights the investigation focus of the hydraulic machine behavior and how to tailor the measurement strategy to accomplish all goals. Finally some

  5. Power Ramp Limitation capabilities of Large PV Power Plants with Active Power Reserves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogdan, Craciun; Kerekes, Tamas; Sera, Dezso

    2017-01-01

    Power Ramp Limitation (PRL) is likely to become a requirement for large scale photovoltaic power plants (LPVPPs) in order to allow the increase of PV penetration levels. Especially in islands with reduced inertia capability, this problem is more stringent: high power ramp can be caused by either...... fast irradiance changes or other participant generators for example wind power, or loads. In order to compensate for the power mismatch, LPVPPs must use Active Power Reserve (APR), by either curtailment or auxiliary storage. The paper proposes a PRL control structure for dynamic APR sizing...... area of LPVPPs acts as filter against fast irradiance changes, the study reveals also the required plant size for which auxiliary storage is no longer needed in order to comply with PRL requirements – an important economical aspect....

  6. Operating experience with nuclear power plants 2015. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-07-01

    The VGB Technical Committee ''Nuclear Plant Operation'' has been exchanging operating experience about nuclear power plants for more than 30 years. Plant operators from several European countries are participating in the exchange. A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from Germany. The second part of this report will focus on nuclear power plant in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain.

  7. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  8. Laser-mediated perforation of plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Martin; Jacobs, Philipp; Esser, Dominik; Schinkel, Helga; Schillberg, Stefan

    2007-07-01

    The functional analysis of plant cells at the cellular and subcellular levels requires novel technologies for the directed manipulation of individual cells. Lasers are increasingly exploited for the manipulation of plant cells, enabling the study of biological processes on a subcellular scale including transformation to generate genetically modified plants. In our setup either a picosecond laser operating at 1064 nm wavelength or a continuous wave laser diode emitting at 405 nm are coupled into an inverse microscope. The beams are focused to a spot size of about 1.5 μm and the tobacco cell protoplasts are irradiated. Optoporation is achieved when targeting the laser focal spot at the outermost edge of the plasma membrane. In case of the picosecond laser a single pulse with energy of about 0.4 μJ was sufficient to perforate the plasma membrane enabling the uptake of dye or DNA from the surrounding medium into the cytosol. When the ultraviolet laser diode at a power level of 17 mW is employed an irradiation time of 200 - 500 milliseconds is necessary to enable the uptake of macromolecules. In the presence of an EYFP encoding plasmid with a C-terminal peroxisomal signal sequence in the surrounding medium transient transformation of tobacco protoplasts could be achieved in up to 2% of the optoporated cells. Single cell perforation using this novel optoporation method shows that isolated plant cells can be permeabilized without direct manipulation. This is a valuable procedure for cell-specific applications, particularly where the import of specific molecules into plant cells is required for functional analysis.

  9. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  10. Operating results 2015. Nuclear power plants. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-05-15

    A report is given on the opening results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in further issue.

  11. Armatures in thermal power plants; Armaturen in Waermekraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Thomas; Moenning, Wolfgang (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The book includes contributions on the following issues: (1) Fundamentals: Stop valves - minimal power loss due to full transmission. Safety valves - reliable overpressure protection. Indispensible feature of thermal power plant safety systems: the turbine bypass station. Condensate drain - safe discharge of harmful condensate. Safety armatures for gas consumption facilities. Electric actuators - automation of almost all armatures in power plants. (2) Case studies: Drainage armatures for power plant use. Steam cooling and saturation in thermal power plants - established techniques and solutions. Isolation flap for cooling water systems. Regulatory requirements and their practical implementation.

  12. Affective imagery and acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Carmen; Visschers, Vivianne; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between the content of spontaneous associations with nuclear power plants and the acceptance of using new-generation nuclear power plants to replace old ones. The study also considered gender as a variable. A representative sample of the German- and French-speaking population of Switzerland (N= 1,221) was used. Log-linear models revealed significant two-way interactions between the association content and acceptance, association content and gender, and gender and acceptance. Correspondence analysis revealed that participants who were opposed to nuclear power plants mainly associated nuclear power plants with risk, negative feelings, accidents, radioactivity, waste disposal, military use, and negative consequences for health and environment; whereas participants favoring nuclear power plants mainly associated them with energy, appearance descriptions of nuclear power plants, and necessity. Thus, individuals opposing nuclear power plants had both more concrete and more diverse associations with them than people who were in favor of nuclear power plants. In addition, participants who were undecided often mentioned similar associations to those participants who were in favor. Males more often expressed associations with energy, waste disposal, and negative health effects. Females more often made associations with appearance descriptions, negative feelings, and negative environmental effects. The results further suggest that acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants was higher in the German-speaking part of the country, where all of the Swiss nuclear power plants are physically located. Practical implications for risk communication are discussed.

  13. 75 FR 3942 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment...), for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP), located in New Hill, North... Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear......

  14. Using Service Oriented Architecture in a Generic Virtual Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Poulsen, Bjarne; Træholt, Chresten;

    2009-01-01

    interesting properties that can influence the future shape of power markets. The concept holds many promises including cheaper power to the consumer, a more flexible and responsive power production and the support of a more environment-friendly development. In order to realize a software solution supporting...... the Generic Virtual Power Plant, an array of different software design principles, patterns and architectures must be applied. Especially Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can aid in implementing the Generic Virtual Power Plant....

  15. Optical study of solar tower power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddhibi, F.; Ben Amara, M.; Balghouthi, M.; Guizani, A.

    2015-04-01

    The central receiver technology for electricity generation consists of concentrating solar radiation coming from the solar tracker field into a central receiver surface located on the top of the tower. The heliostat field is constituted of a big number of reflective mirrors; each heliostat tracks the sun individually and reflects the sunlight to a focal point. Therefore, the heliostat should be positioned with high precision in order to minimize optical losses. In the current work, a mathematical model for the analysis of the optical efficiency of solar tower field power plant is proposed. The impact of the different factors which influence the optical efficiency is analyzed. These parameters are mainly, the shading and blocking losses, the cosine effect, the atmospheric attenuation and the spillage losses. A new method for the calculation of blocking and shadowing efficiency is introduced and validated by open literature.

  16. Hydrogen embrittlement in power plant steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Dayal; N Parvathavarthini

    2003-06-01

    In power plants, several major components such as steam generator tubes, boilers, steam/water pipe lines, water box of condensers and the other auxiliary components like bolts, nuts, screws fasteners and supporting assemblies are commonly fabricated from plain carbon steels, as well as low and high alloy steels. These components often fail catastrophically due to hydrogen embrittlement. A brief overview of our current understanding of the phenomenon of such hydrogen damage in steels is presented in this paper. Case histories of failures of steel components due to hydrogen embrittlement, which are reported in literature, are briefly discussed. A phenomenological assessment of overall process of hydrogen embrittlement and classification of the various damage modes are summarized. Influence of several physical and metallurgical variables on the susceptibility of steels to hydrogen embrittlement, mechanisms of hydrogen embrittlement and current approaches to combat this problem are also presented.

  17. Detecting Cyber Attacks On Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rrushi, Julian; Campbell, Roy

    This paper proposes an unconventional anomaly detection approach that provides digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) with the capability to probabilistically discern between legitimate protocol frames and attack frames. The stochastic activity network (SAN) formalism is used to model the fusion of protocol activity in each digital I&C system and the operation of physical components of an NPP. SAN models are employed to analyze links between protocol frames as streams of bytes, their semantics in terms of NPP operations, control data as stored in the memory of I&C systems, the operations of I&C systems on NPP components, and NPP processes. Reward rates and impulse rewards are defined in the SAN models based on the activity-marking reward structure to estimate NPP operation profiles. These profiles are then used to probabilistically estimate the legitimacy of the semantics and payloads of protocol frames received by I&C systems.

  18. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.

  19. Heuristic Optimization for the Discrete Virtual Power Plant Dispatch Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon

    2014-01-01

    We consider a Virtual Power Plant, which is given the task of dispatching a fluctuating power supply to a portfolio of flexible consumers. The flexible consumers are modeled as discrete batch processes, and the associated optimization problem is denoted the Discrete Virtual Power Plant Dispatch P...

  20. Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basher, H.

    2003-10-20

    A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors.

  1. Emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2014-02-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and overuse of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics.Introduction of Emotional Consequences of Nuclear Power Plant Disasters (Video 2:15, http://links.lww.com/HP/A34).

  2. Status of development of the power plants on the base of MCFC in TFNC-VNIIEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novitski, E.Z.; Savkin, G.G.

    1996-04-01

    VNIIF started work on Molten Carbonate Fuel cells and power plants in 1991. Some results of VNIIF work in the direction of Autonomous Power Engineering are presented. Topics include molten carbonate fuel cell components, separator plates, manufacturing and testing, design, and goals.

  3. Power plant performance - resurrection of the AGR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kovan, Dick

    1994-04-01

    When the rest of the electricity supply industry was privatized in 1990, Nuclear Electric became responsible for the running of nuclear plants in England and Wales. These included five AGR stations, the output and revenue from which have increased dramatically. The absence of a fully representative prototype reactor led to deficiencies in the design and problems in the construction and commissioning of the AGR stations, particularly the first, Dungeness B. Subsequent plant and design improvements have led to the achievement of good performance, however, and Nuclear Electric's better understanding of AGR safety has been translated into higher output because it has been possible to run nearer to the limits on power ratings, temperatures and pressures. Increased efficiency in refuelling and greater productivity of boilers, gas circulators and turbines, together with improved servicing and maintenance procedures have all contributed to a reduction in reactor downtime. These and other actions which have been employed by Nuclear Electric to turn round the fortunes of the AGR stations are discussed. (UK).

  4. Modelling and simulation of thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eborn, J.

    1998-02-01

    Mathematical modelling and simulation are important tools when dealing with engineering systems that today are becoming increasingly more complex. Integrated production and recycling of materials are trends that give rise to heterogenous systems, which are difficult to handle within one area of expertise. Model libraries are an excellent way to package engineering knowledge of systems and units to be reused by those who are not experts in modelling. Many commercial packages provide good model libraries, but they are usually domain-specific and closed. Heterogenous, multi-domain systems requires open model libraries written in general purpose modelling languages. This thesis describes a model database for thermal power plants written in the object-oriented modelling language OMOLA. The models are based on first principles. Subunits describe volumes with pressure and enthalpy dynamics and flows of heat or different media. The subunits are used to build basic units such as pumps, valves and heat exchangers which can be used to build system models. Several applications are described; a heat recovery steam generator, equipment for juice blending, steam generation in a sulphuric acid plant and a condensing steam plate heat exchanger. Model libraries for industrial use must be validated against measured data. The thesis describes how parameter estimation methods can be used for model validation. Results from a case-study on parameter optimization of a non-linear drum boiler model show how the technique can be used 32 refs, 21 figs

  5. Power system stabilising features from wind power plants augmented with energy storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarnowski, Germán C.; Kjær, Philip C; Lærke, Rasmus

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a wind power plant augmented with energy storage, configured to provide ancillary services (primary reserve, inertial response, power oscillation damping) for enhancement of power system stability. Energy storage can complement wind power plants thus reducing the need for any...

  6. Development of an Equivalent Wind Plant Power-Curve: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Y. H.; Ela, E.; Orwig, K.

    2010-06-01

    Development of an equivalent wind plant power-curve becomes highly desirable and useful in predicting plant output for a given wind forecast. Such a development is described and summarized in this paper.

  7. Power electronics solution to dust emissions from thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power stations emit significant amounts of fly ash and ultra fine particles into the atmosphere. Electrostatic precipitators (ESP or electro filters remove flying ashes and fine particles from the flue gas before passing the gas into the chimney. Maximum allowable value of dust is 50 mg/m3 and it requires that the efficiency of the ESPs better than 99 %, which calls for an increase of active surface of the electrodes, hence increasing the filter volume and the weight of steel used for the filter. In previous decades, electrostatic precipitators in thermal power plants were fed by thyristor controlled, single phase fed devices having a high degree of reliability, but with a relatively low collection efficiency, hence requiring large effective surface of the collection plates and a large weight of steel construction in order to achieve the prescribed emission limits. Collection efficiency and energy efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator can be increased by applying high frequency high voltage power supply (HF HV. Electrical engineering faculty of the University of Belgrade (ETF has developed technology and HF HV equipment for the ESP power supply. This solution was subjected to extensive experimental investigation at TE Morava from 2008 to 2010. High frequency power supply is proven to reduce emission two times in controlled conditions while increasing energy efficiency of the precipitator, compared to the conventional thyristor controlled 50Hz supply. Two high frequency high voltage unit AR70/1000 with parameters 70 kV and 1000 mA are installed at TE Morava and thoroughly testes. It was found that the HF HV power supply of the ESP at TE Morava increases collection efficiency so that emission of fine particles and flying ashes are halved, brought down to only 50 % of the emissions encountered with conventional 50 Hz thyristor driven power supplies. On the basis of this study, conclusion is drawn that the equipment comprising HF HV

  8. Geothermal depth power plant; Geothermie Tiefenkraftwerk trademark (GTKW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemmerle, Hubert [Ehoch 10 Projektentwicklungs GmbH, Wien (Austria); Pilgerstorfer, Thomas; Schubert, Wulf [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Felsmechanik und Tunnelbau; Radoncic, Nedim

    2012-11-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on a new concept for the utilization of geothermal energy. This concept provides itself due to the size of the usable reservoir, its performance in the area of conventional caloric power plants and its pronounced availability as a base load substitution for nuclear power plants as well as conventional gas and coal-fired power plants. A basic feasibility study was concluded. In addition to basic research, a variety of development work is required.

  9. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  10. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  11. Next generation geothermal power plants. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, John; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1994-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop concepts for the next generation geothermal power plant(s) (NGGPP). This plant, compared to existing plants, will generate power for a lower levelized cost and will be more competitive with fossil fuel fired power plants. The NGGPP will utilize geothermal resources efficiently and will be equipped with contingencies to mitigate the risk of reservoir performance. The NGGPP design will attempt to minimize emission of pollutants and consumption of surface water and/or geothermal fluids for cooling service.

  12. Intelligent Energy Management System for Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braun, Philipp

    power plants (VPPs). In this work, VPPs refer to wind power plants (WPPs) connected to an electrical battery energy storage system (BESS) which is in close proximity to the WPP, and both plants are able to participate in the Danish power market (ancillary service markets and day-ahead market). BESSs......Wind power is the fastest growing renewable energy source with the highest share of power production in the Danish power system. Increasing wind power production also causes new challenges for the power system. One possibility to enable higher shares of wind power in the system is to build virtual...... demonstrated to be suitable storage technologies that have been integrated in power systems worldwide in recent years. Such storage systems are underlying a fast development track and have improved over the past decades considerably. This makes an increase in the number of VPPs more likely in future. Potential...

  13. Hot windbox repowering of coal-fired thermal power plants

    OpenAIRE

    YILMAZOĞLU, Mustafa Zeki; DURMAZ, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The repowering of thermal power plants could be the fastest way to respond to the energy demand while decreasing the CO2 emissions per kilowatt hour of energy generated. Hot windbox repowering of a thermal power plant was investigated in this study using Thermoflex simulations. The Soma A thermal power plant began operation in 1957 and was in service until 2010. In the current situation, the installed capacity of the power plant is 44 MWel, with 2 units. The boiler was designed to oper...

  14. Optimized post-combustion capture technology for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Moser; Sandra Schmidt; Georg Sieder; Hugo Garcia; Ilaria Ciattaglia; Dieter Mihailowitsch; Torsten Stoffregen [RWE Power AG, New Technologies, Essen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The construction and operation of the post-combustion capture pilot plant at RWE Power's lignite-fired power plant at Niederaussem is the first corner stone in a joint development programme of RWE Power, BASF and Linde that started in 2007. The pilot plant will be commissioned in mid-2009. The skid-mounted pilot plant - engineering, procurement and construction by procurement and construction by Linde - comprises all significant components of a large post-combustion capture plant but on a smaller scale. In the 18-month pilot plant testing programme optimized new solvents for the capture process will be evaluated. These solvents were selected by BASF in a multi-step procedure, starting with a pre-selection, followed by lab-screening, and finalized by mini plant runs. The pilot plant will validate the performance of some capture process optimization measures that are implemented to increase the overall efficiency and reduce the costs of a commercial capture plant. The results of the pilot plant testing will be directly used to optimize the capture process configuration for a base case power plant, a 1,100 MW lignite-fired power plant with lignite pre-drying technology. The development of the commercial capture plant needs an accurate analysis of all process steps to achieve a cost efficient plant design. Apart from energy efficiency, cost-effective equipment and the optimization of plant interfaces and plant configuration are also key factors to reach the ambitious goals of this project. Based on the results of the pilot plant tests and the full-scale design study, a demonstration plant concept will be developed to prove all innovative optimization measures and to avoid the risks involved in direct up-scaling from the pilot plant to the commercial plant scale without an intermediate step. 8 figs.

  15. Fault Diagnosis Strategies for SOFC-Based Power Generation Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Costamagna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The success of distributed power generation by plants based on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs is hindered by reliability problems that can be mitigated through an effective fault detection and isolation (FDI system. However, the numerous operating conditions under which such plants can operate and the random size of the possible faults make identifying damaged plant components starting from the physical variables measured in the plant very difficult. In this context, we assess two classical FDI strategies (model-based with fault signature matrix and data-driven with statistical classification and the combination of them. For this assessment, a quantitative model of the SOFC-based plant, which is able to simulate regular and faulty conditions, is used. Moreover, a hybrid approach based on the random forest (RF classification method is introduced to address the discrimination of regular and faulty situations due to its practical advantages. Working with a common dataset, the FDI performances obtained using the aforementioned strategies, with different sets of monitored variables, are observed and compared. We conclude that the hybrid FDI strategy, realized by combining a model-based scheme with a statistical classifier, outperforms the other strategies. In addition, the inclusion of two physical variables that should be measured inside the SOFCs can significantly improve the FDI performance, despite the actual difficulty in performing such measurements.

  16. Fault Diagnosis Strategies for SOFC-Based Power Generation Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costamagna, Paola; De Giorgi, Andrea; Gotelli, Alberto; Magistri, Loredana; Moser, Gabriele; Sciaccaluga, Emanuele; Trucco, Andrea

    2016-08-22

    The success of distributed power generation by plants based on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is hindered by reliability problems that can be mitigated through an effective fault detection and isolation (FDI) system. However, the numerous operating conditions under which such plants can operate and the random size of the possible faults make identifying damaged plant components starting from the physical variables measured in the plant very difficult. In this context, we assess two classical FDI strategies (model-based with fault signature matrix and data-driven with statistical classification) and the combination of them. For this assessment, a quantitative model of the SOFC-based plant, which is able to simulate regular and faulty conditions, is used. Moreover, a hybrid approach based on the random forest (RF) classification method is introduced to address the discrimination of regular and faulty situations due to its practical advantages. Working with a common dataset, the FDI performances obtained using the aforementioned strategies, with different sets of monitored variables, are observed and compared. We conclude that the hybrid FDI strategy, realized by combining a model-based scheme with a statistical classifier, outperforms the other strategies. In addition, the inclusion of two physical variables that should be measured inside the SOFCs can significantly improve the FDI performance, despite the actual difficulty in performing such measurements.

  17. Solid Waste from the Operation and Decommissioning of Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn Ann [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Arcy, Daniel [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Isha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Yufei [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-01-05

    This baseline report examines the solid waste generated by the U.S. electric power industry, including both waste streams resulting from electricity generation and wastes resulting from the decommissioning of power plants

  18. Possible Future SOFC - ST Based Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Scappin, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid systems consisting Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) on the top of a Steam Turbine (ST) are investigated. The plants are fired by natural gas. A desulfurization reactor removes the sulfur content in the NG while a pre-reformer break down the heavier hydrocarbons. The pre-treated fuel enters...... then into the anode side of the SOFC. The gases from the SOFC stacks enter into a burner to burn the rest of the fuel. The off-gases now enter into a heat recovery steam generator to produce steam for a Rankine cycle. Different system setups are considered. Cyclic efficiencies up to 67% are achieved which...... is considerably more than the conventional combined cycles (CC). Both ASR (Adiabatic Steam Reformer) and CPO (Catalytic Partial Oxidation) fuel reformer reactors are considered in this study....

  19. 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satomi, Tomohide; Koike, Shunichi [Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA), Osaka (Japan); Ishikawa, Ryou [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) have been conducting a joint project on development of a 5000kW urban energy center type PAFC power plant (pressurized) and a 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant (non-pressurized). The objective of the technical development of 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant is to realize a medium size power plant with an overall efficiency of over 70% and an electrical efficiency of over 36%, that could be installed in a large building as a cogeneration system. The components and system integration development work and the plant design were performed in 1991 and 1992. Manufacturing of the plant and installation at the test site were completed in 1994. PAC test was carried out in 1994, and generation test was started in January 1995. Demonstration test is scheduled for 1995 and 1996.

  20. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, H.L.; Naus, D.J.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-12-01

    Safety-related nuclear power plant (NPP) structures are designed to withstand loadings from a number of low-probability external and interval events, such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and loss-of-coolant accidents. Loadings incurred during normal plant operation therefore generally are not significant enough to cause appreciable degradation. However, these structures are susceptible to aging by various processes depending on the operating environment and service conditions. The effects of these processes may accumulate within these structures over time to cause failure under design conditions, or lead to costly repair. In the late 1980s and early 1990s several occurrences of degradation of NPP structures were discovered at various facilities (e.g., corrosion of pressure boundary components, freeze- thaw damage of concrete, and larger than anticipated loss of prestressing force). Despite these degradation occurrences and a trend for an increasing rate of occurrence, in-service inspection of the safety-related structures continued to be performed in a somewhat cursory manner. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the first of several new requirements to help ensure that adequate in-service inspection of these structures is performed. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Nondestructive examination techniques commonly used to inspect the NPP steel and concrete structures to identify and quantify the amount of damage present are reviewed. Finally, areas where nondestructive evaluation techniques require development (i.e., inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary, and thick heavily reinforced concrete sections are discussed.

  1. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    is a consequence of sizing wind turbine facilities for maximum active power level. The reactive power losses, due to active power transportation inside the plant (normally two transformers), and P-Q wind turbine characteristics define the P-Q reserve chart. By utilizing the intrinsic overrated reactive power...

  2. Steam generators, industrial power plants, and cogeneration plants. Lectures; Dampferzeuger, Industrie- und Heizkraftwerke 2010. Vortraege

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    The proceedings of the meeting on steam generators, industrial power plants, and cogeneration plants include the following lectures: Assignments and scopes of the VGB working group ''industry and thermal power plants, BHKW''. Combustion power and process control - application of feed grate firing in industrial technology - experiences and perspectives. A new possibility of biomass co-combustion. Biomass co-combustion in Vattenfall Waerme AG. Biomass plant with optimized control. The new energy supply concept for the paper plant in Plattling. Efficient steam boiler facilities for industry and thermal power plants - case studies. Adaptation of flue gas purification for co-combustion with experiences of prototype plants. Modern risk and insurance management for power plants. Reliability oriented maintenance. Surrogate fuel IHKW Gersthofen - planning, construction and preliminary operational experiences. Assignments and scopes of the VGB working group ''steam generators''. New developments in process safety management of E.ON UK coal-fired power plants. Station-supply reduction by power drive reconstruction to frequency control - modern injection technology at high plant parameters. Self-optimizing control of fuel/air regulation. CO{sub 2} reduction by automatic power plant modeling. Virtual reality as QA tool in 3D planning. Thermodynamic studies in power plants using VDI 2048. Heating surface cleaning with explosion generators - an alternative to soot blowers. results of laboratory study on urgent material questions.

  3. Nuclear lamina in plant cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪健; 杨澄; 翟中和

    1996-01-01

    By using selective extraction and diethylene glycol distearate (DGD) embedment and embedment-free electron microscopy, the nuclear lamina was demonstrated in carrot and Ginkgo male generative cells. Western blotting revealed that the nuclear lamina was composed of A-type and B-type lamins which contained at least 66-ku and 84-ku or 66-ku and 86-ku polypeptides, respectively. These lamin proteins were localized at the nudear periphery as shown by immunogold-labelling. In situ hybridization for light microscope and electron microscope showed that plant cells have the homologous sequences of animal lamin cDNA. The sorting site of lamin mRNA is mainly distributed in the cytoplasm near the nudear envelope. The data have verified that there indeed exists nudear lamina in plant cells.

  4. Selection and Performance-Degradation Modeling of LiMO2/Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4/C Battery Cells as Suitable Energy Storage Systems for Grid Integration With Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the development of energy storage technologies are making them attractive for grid integration together with wind power plants. Thus, the new system, the virtual power plant, is able to emulate the characteristics of today’s conventional power plants. However, at present, energy stora......-degradation models were developed for the two most suitable Li–ion chemistries for the primary frequency regulation service: LiMO2 /Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4/C....

  5. Power plant asset market evaluations: Forecasting the costs of power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefton, S.A.; Grunsrud, G.P. [Aptech Engineering Services, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation discusses the process of evaluating and valuing power plants for sale. It describes a method to forecast the future costs at a power plant using a portion of the past fixed costs, variable energy costs, and most importantly the variable cycling-related wear-and-tear costs. The presentation then discusses how to best determine market share, expected revenues, and then to forecast plant future costs based on future expected unit cycling operations. The presentation concludes with a section on recommendations to power plant buyers or sellers on how to manage the power plant asset and how to increase its market value. (orig.) 4 refs.

  6. Seismic hazard mitigation for nuclear power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frieder Seible

    2013-01-01

    The seismic safety of nuclear power plant(NPP) has always been a major consideration in the site selection,design,operation,and more recently recertification of existing installations.In addition to the actual NPP and all their operational and safety related support systems,the storage of spent fuel in temporary or permanent storage facilities also poses a seismic risk.This seismic risk is typically assessed with state-of-the-art modeling and analytical tools that capture everything from the ground rupture or source of the earthquake to the site specific ground shaking,taking geotechnical parameters and soil-foundation-structure-interaction (SFSI) into account to the non-linear structural response of the reactor core,the containment structure,the core cooling system and the emergency cooling system(s),to support systems,piping systems and non-structural components,and finally the performance of spent fuel storage in the probabilistically determined operational basis earthquake (OBE) or the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) scenario.The best and most meaningful validation and verification of these advanced analytical tools is in the form of full or very large scale experimental testing,designed and conducted in direct support of model and analysis tool calibration.This paper outlines the principles under which such calibration testing should be conducted and illustrates with examples the kind of testing and parameter evaluation required.

  7. Integrated diagnostic technique for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gofuku, Akio [Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama University, Okayama (Japan)

    2014-12-15

    It is very important to detect and identify small anomalies and component failures for the safe operation of complex and large-scale artifacts such as nuclear power plants. Each diagnostic technique has its own advantages and limitations. These facts inspire us not only to enhance the capability of diagnostic techniques but also to integrate the results of diagnostic subsystems in order to obtain more accurate diagnostic results. The article describes the outline of four diagnostic techniques developed for the condition monitoring of the fast breeder reactor 'Monju'. The techniques are (1) estimation technique of important state variables based on a physical model of the component, (2) a state identification technique by non-linear discrimination function applying SVM (Support Vector Machine), (3) a diagnostic technique applying WT (Wavelet Transformation) to detect changes in the characteristics of measurement signals, and (4) a state identification technique effectively using past cases. In addition, a hybrid diagnostic system in which a final diagnostic result is given by integrating the results from subsystems is introduced, where two sets of values called confidence values and trust values are used. A technique to determine the trust value is investigated under the condition that the confidence value is determined by each subsystem.

  8. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-30

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  9. Analysis of power balancing with fuel cells and hydrogen production plants in Denmark. Project report; CanDan 1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    In the past few years electric vehicles and other electric storage devices ability to hybridize the electric grid have gained increasing interest. Electric vehicles and their ability to hybridize the electric grid are especially interesting in a Danish context for two reasons. There is limited storage capacity in the Danish electric grid and it is therefore expensive to hybridize (balance power and energy supply and usage) in the Danish electric grid. An increasing use of fluctuating renewable energy, especially in the form of electricity from wind power, will make it more and more difficult and expensive to hybridise the Danish electricity grid. On top of this electric vehicles are getting closer and closer to the market because of better electric drive trains, better batteries, better fuel cells etc. The purpose of this report is therefore to analyse how future hydrogen production and hydrogen use in stationary fuel cells as well as fuel cells in vehicles can help balance power and energy in a future electric grid with high shares of fluctuating renewable energy. Emphasis is on future hydrogen production using high temperature solid oxide electrolysers and the use of this in 500.000 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV) or in 500.000 plug-in hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (hybrid HFCV). Analysis made by Aalborg University in the project show that vehicles using hydrogen are generally better at using excess electricity, i.e. to integrate fluctuating renewable energy than the battery electric vehicles. Already in 2012 the battery electric vehicles, which have the ability to charge at the right times, as well as hydrogen based vehicles may remove the excess electricity consumption. Although the hydrogen production at electrolysers may be able to remove excess electricity production, the efficiency is rather low. The battery electric vehicles have the lowest fuel consumption, already in the present energy system. The CO{sub 2}-emissions are also the lowest for the

  10. Vibrations of wind power plants; Schwingungen von Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the meeting of the department vibration engineering of the Association of German Engineers (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 3rd and 4th February, 2010 in Hanover (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures are presented: (1) Reduction of forced strengths generated by wagging and snaking of the rotor in the power strain of wind power plants (F. Mitsch); (2) Reduction of vibrations at wind power plants by means of active additional systems (S. Katz, S. Pankoke, N. Loix); (3) Reduction of vibrations by means of balancing and alignment (E. Becker, M. Kenzler); (4) Active absorber for reducing tonal emissions of vibration at wind power plants (R. Neugebauer, M. Linke, H. Kunze, M. Ulrich); (5) Control structures for damping torsion vibrations and peak loads in the power strain of wind power converters (C. Sourkounis); (6) Possibilities of a non-contact investigation of vibrations at wind power plants (R. Behrendt, E. Reimers, H. Wiegers); (7) Influences on the loadability of CMS statements (R. Wirth); (8) Recording modal structural properties with sensor grids and methods of operational modal analysis (A. Friedmann, D. Mayer, M. Koch, M. Kauba, T. Melz); (9) Early failure detection of damages of roller bearings in wind power gear units with variable speed (B. Hacke, G. Poll); (10) Condition monitoring in wind power plants - structure monitoring and life time monitoring of wind power plants (SCMS and LCMS) (H. Lange); (11) Development of a model-based structural health monitoring system for condition monitoring of rotor blades (C. Ebert, H. Friedmann, F.O. Henkel, B. Frankenstein, L. Schubert); (12) Efficient remote monitoring at wind power plants by means of an external diagnosis centre (G. Ceglarek); (13) Accurate turbine modelling at component and assembly level for durability and acoustic analysis (D. v. Werner, W. Hendricx); (14) Possibilities of the investigation of the dynamic behaviour of power strains in wind power plants by

  11. Baca geothermal demonstration project. Power plant detail design document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-01

    This Baca Geothermal Demonstration Power Plant document presents the design criteria and detail design for power plant equipment and systems, as well as discussing the rationale used to arrive at the design. Where applicable, results of in-house evaluations of alternatives are presented.

  12. Life management of fossil power plants - facing the challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronte, J.M. [Iberdrola, S.A. (Spain). Thermal Generation Technical Services

    1994-12-31

    Examines the use of life extension in Iberdrola`s fossil fuel power plants. Life extension allows the safe, reliable and efficient use of older units, deferring the need for the construction of new power plants. Describes the methodology used to assess the work required. 12 refs., 14 figs.

  13. Modeling the Buoyancy System of a Wave Energy Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.

    2009-01-01

    A nonlinear dynamic model of the buoyancy system in a wave energy power plant is presented. The plant ("Wave Dragon") is a floating device using the potential energy in overtopping waves to produce power. A water reservoir is placed on top of the WD, and hydro turbines lead the water to the sea...

  14. 77 FR 13156 - Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1. The license provides, among other things, that the facility is...) 50.46, ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light- water nuclear...

  15. Moldova Power Sources Development including Nuclear Power Plant possible participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comendant

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available For the new power market conditions Moldova power sources development options up to 2030 are evaluated, attempting to propose the best solutions in this respect and the ways they be realized.

  16. Stem cells: a plant biology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    A recent meeting at the Juan March Foundation in Madrid, Spain brought together plant biologists to discuss the characteristics of plant stem cells that are unique and those that are shared by stem cells from the animal kingdom

  17. Site selection for new nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Paul C.; Dubinsky, Melissa; Tastan, Erdem Onur, E-mail: paul.rizzo@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: melissa.dubinsky@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: onur.tastan@rizzoassoc.com [RIZZO Associates Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Miano, Sandra C., E-mail: scm27@psu.edu [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), RJ (Brazil); Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, State College, PA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The current methodology for selecting the most advantageous site(s) for nuclear power plant (NPP) development is based on the latest evolution of protocols originally established in the 1990's by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and others for programs in the USA, and more recently by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), among others. The methodology includes protocols that account for lessons learned from both the Gen III projects and the catastrophic event at Fukushima, Japan. In general, the approach requires consideration of Exclusionary or 'fatal flaw' Criteria first, based on safety as well as significant impact to the environment or human health. Sites must meet all of these Exclusionary Criteria to be considered for NPP development. Next, the remaining sites are evaluated for Avoidance Criteria that affect primarily ease of construction and operations, which allow a ranking of sites best suited for NPP development. Finally, Suitability Criteria are applied to the potential sites to better differentiate between closely ranked sites. Generally, final selection of a Preferred and an Alternate Site will require balancing of factors, expert judgment, and client input, as sites being compared will differ in their scores associated with different Avoidance Criteria and Suitability Criteria. RIZZO Associates (RIZZO) offers in this paper a modification to this methodology for selecting the site for NPP development, which accords to the categories of Exclusionary, Avoidance and Suitability Criteria strict definitions which can be considered as Absolute Factors, Critical Factors, and Economic Factors for a more focused approach to site selection. Absolute Factors include all of the safety-related Exclusionary Criteria. Critical Factors are those that are difficult to overcome unless extraordinary mitigation measures are implemented; they have a significant impact on the ability of the project to be successful and may cause the

  18. Facing technological challenges of Solar Updraft Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, F.; Borri, C.; Harte, R.; Krätzig, W. B.; Niemann, H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    The Solar Updraft Power Plant technology addresses a very challenging idea of combining two kinds of renewable energy: wind and solar. The working principle is simple: a Solar Updraft Power Plant (SUPP) consists of a collector area to heat the air due to the wide-banded ultra-violet solar radiation, the high-rise solar tower to updraft the heated air to the atmosphere, and in between the power conversion unit, where a system of coupled turbines and generators transforms the stream of heated air into electric power. A good efficiency of the power plant can only be reached with extra-large dimensions of the tower and/or the collector area. The paper presents an up-to-date review of the SUPP technology, focusing on the multi-physics modeling of the power plant, on the structural behavior of the tower and, last but not least, on the modeling of the stochastic wind loading process.

  19. Butinge Wind Power Plant - Pre-engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollestad, Knut A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study has been done for a wind farm at Butinge in Lithuania consisting of six 600 kW wind turbines. The location of the wind farm is planned near the border with Latvia and near the coast of the Baltic Sea. The preliminary study has through a relatively detailed technical examination of the project, primarily aimed at gathering basic data for budget estimation and cost calculations. Other relevant aspects of the project are also considered. These include an examination of the basis for the project, an analysis of wind conditions, consideration of the various environmental conditions, discussion about the form of organisation and division of responsibility, as well as an examination of the operational and maintenance framework. Based on wind measurements taken at IFE (Institute for Energy Technology), the annual mean wind is estimated to be 7.3 m/s at 45 m height (equivalent to the hub height for the proposed wind turbines). A production calculation has also been done, which shows that the total energy production of the entire wind farm is expected to 9.47 GWh per year. This is equivalent to a use time of 2630 hours respective to a load factor of 30%. The total cost is estimated at 30.2 mill NOK, and the energy price (including operational costs) delivered from the ''power plant wall'', based on this figure and the production estimate, is calculated at 0,32 NOK/kWh. This is based on a lifetime of 20 years for the facility and a 6.5% required rate of return. In addition, there is outlined a possible financial solution based on various price-scenarios and support arrangements. With an equity capital of 8% and 28% external support, the project meets the current energy price in Lithuania (3,4 US cents/kWh). Without support the sales price of the produced energy is increased by approx. 50%. (author)

  20. Analysis of power balancing with fuel cells and hydrogen production plants in Denmark. Project report; CanDan 1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    In the past few years electric vehicles and other electric storage devices ability to hybridize the electric grid have gained increasing interest. Electric vehicles and their ability to hybridize the electric grid are especially interesting in a Danish context for two reasons. There is limited storage capacity in the Danish electric grid and it is therefore expensive to hybridize (balance power and energy supply and usage) in the Danish electric grid. An increasing use of fluctuating renewable energy, especially in the form of electricity from wind power, will make it more and more difficult and expensive to hybridise the Danish electricity grid. On top of this electric vehicles are getting closer and closer to the market because of better electric drive trains, better batteries, better fuel cells etc. The purpose of this report is therefore to analyse how future hydrogen production and hydrogen use in stationary fuel cells as well as fuel cells in vehicles can help balance power and energy in a future electric grid with high shares of fluctuating renewable energy. Emphasis is on future hydrogen production using high temperature solid oxide electrolysers and the use of this in 500.000 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV) or in 500.000 plug-in hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (hybrid HFCV). Analysis made by Aalborg University in the project show that vehicles using hydrogen are generally better at using excess electricity, i.e. to integrate fluctuating renewable energy than the battery electric vehicles. Already in 2012 the battery electric vehicles, which have the ability to charge at the right times, as well as hydrogen based vehicles may remove the excess electricity consumption. Although the hydrogen production at electrolysers may be able to remove excess electricity production, the efficiency is rather low. The battery electric vehicles have the lowest fuel consumption, already in the present energy system. The CO{sub 2}-emissions are also the lowest for the

  1. Regio- and stereoselectivities in plant cell biotransformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, H. [Okayama Univ. of Science (Japan)

    1995-12-01

    The ability of plant cultured cells to convert foreign substrates into more useful substances is of considerable interest. Therefore I have studied biotransformation of foreign substrate by plant cell suspension cultures. In this presentation, I report regio- and stereoselectivities in biotransformation of steroids and indole alkaloids and taxol by plant (tobacco, periwinkle, moss, orchid) cell suspension cultures.

  2. Regulation of Water in Plant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowles, Richard V.

    2010-01-01

    Cell water relationships are important topics to be included in cell biology courses. Differences exist in the control of water relationships in plant cells relative to control in animal cells. One important reason for these differences is that turgor pressure is a consideration in plant cells. Diffusion and osmosis are the underlying factors…

  3. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel cell

  4. Valuing modular nuclear power plants in finite time decision horizon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jain, S.; Roelofs, F; Oosterlee, C.W.

    2013-01-01

    Small and medium sized reactors, SMRs, (according to IAEA, ‘small’ refers to reactors with power less than 300 MWe, and ‘medium’ with power less than 700 MWe) are considered as an attractive option for investment in nuclear power plants. SMRs may benefit from flexibility of investment, reduced upfro

  5. Introducing Model Predictive Control for Improving Power Plant Portfolio Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edlund, Kristian Skjoldborg; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Børresen, Simon

    2008-01-01

    This paper introduces a model predictive control (MPC) approach for construction of a controller for balancing the power generation against consumption in a power system. The objective of the controller is to coordinate a portfolio consisting of multiple power plant units in the effort to perform...

  6. Possible Power Estimation of Down-Regulated Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gögmen, Tuhfe

    The penetration of offshore wind power is continuously increasing in the Northern European grids. To assure safety in the operation of the power system, wind power plants are required to provide ancillary services, including reserve power attained through down-regulating the wind farm from its...... power plant. The developed procedure, the PossPOW algorithm, can also be used in the wind farm control as it yields a real-time wind farm power curve. The modern wind turbines have a possible power signal at the turbine level and the current state of the art is to aggregate those signals to achieve...

  7. Operation experience of Suralaya coal-fired power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saragi, M. [PT Indonesia Power (Indonesia). Suralaya Generation Business Unit

    2004-07-01

    Coal utilization for generating electricity at Suralaya coal-fired power plant has been increased from time to time. It has been driven by the growth of electricity demand from industry as well as consumption from the household sector. Generally, boilers for power plant were designed to burn the locally available coals with a limited specification range. Suralaya coal-fired power plant was built based on coal specifications from Bukit Asam (Sumatera Island), which categorized as sub-bituminous coal rank. Nowadays, supply of coal for Suralaya coal-fired power plant not only comes from Bukit Asam coal mine but also from Kalimantan coal mines. The utilization of coal from the other mines has brought other consequences on operating and equipment of the plant. It needs some effort to deal with the effect from different specifications of coal from the originated design of coal. 4 tabs.

  8. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date.

  9. Construction, Maintenance and Demolition of Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smet, Camiel de [Hilti Corporation, P.O. Box 333, FL-9494 Schaan (Liechtenstein)

    2008-07-01

    Hilti is your reliable partner in nuclear power plant construction, maintenance and demolition worldwide. Professional advice and innovative solutions for virtually every phase of construction and supply technologically leading products and systems to increase your productivity and help to create and maintain safe and lasting plants is offered. The solutions for nuclear power plants construction, maintenance and demolition have been employed with great success in many different countries on a wide variety of projects due in no small way to their worldwide availability. An unbroken, international exchange of experience upholds a permanent innovation process. This assures our customers that they always receive products on the very latest technological standard. This paper is not intended to cover all topics related to nuclear power plants. The idea is more to give a kind of an overview. The paper covers briefly the following topics: safety (corrosion and fire), fastenings, measuring and finally decommissioning of nuclear power plants. (author)

  10. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curiel, M. [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain); Palomo, M. J.; Verdu, G. [ISIRYM, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos, A., E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.co [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Sorolla Center, local 10, Av. de las Cortes Valencianas No. 58, 46015 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-10-15

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significance results in relation to the researching in preventive and predictive maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and the Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the power plants control and instrumentation department's technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the object to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish nuclear power plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance. (Author)

  11. On the form of the power equation for modeling solar chimney power plant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Fathi, Nima; Vorobieff, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Recently several mathematical models of a solar chimney power plant were derived, studied for a variety of boundary conditions, and compared against CFD calculations. The importance of these analyses is about the accuracy of the derived pressure drop and output power equation for solar chimney power plant systems (SCPPS). We examine the assumptions underlying the derivation and present reasons to believe that some of the derived equations, specifically the power equation in this model, may require a correction to be applicable in more realistic conditions. The analytical resutls are compared against the available experimental data from the Manzanares power plant.

  12. Performance Analysis of Supercritical Binary Geothermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Dagdas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is possible to generate electricity by utilizing medium-temperature geothermal sources in various closed cycles. These geothermal power plants are very important and valuable as they utilize the sources which have low exergy. In recent years, medium-temperature sources that are around 150°C are used widely for electricity generation. In this study, performance of a supercritical binary power plant, that uses such a geothermal source, is analyzed to find the optimum turbine inlet pressure that maximizes power generation. In this power plant different working fluids are analyzed to find the appropriate fluid that maximizes power generation and efficiency. The observed working fluids are R134a, isobutane, R404a, n-Butane, and R152a. The performance of the plant is calculated with these fluids separately and it is found that the best fluid for performance is R152a for pure fluid and R404a for mixture fluid.

  13. Preconstruction of the Honey Lake Hybrid Power Plant: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-04-30

    The work undertaken under this Contract is the prosecution of the preconstruction activities, including preliminary engineering design, well field development, completion of environmental review and prosecution of permits, and the economic and financial analysis of the facility. The proposed power plant is located in northeastern California in Lassen County, approximately 25 miles east of the town of Susanville. The power plant will use a combination of wood residue and geothermal fluids for power generation. The plant, when fully constructed, will generate a combined net output of approximately 33 megawatts which will be sold to Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PGandE) under existing long-term power sales contracts. Transfer of electricity to the PGandE grid will require construction of a 22-mile transmission line from the power plant to Susanville. 11 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

  14. First Aspect of Conventional Power System Assessment for High Wind Power Plants Penetration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Merzic

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Most power systems in underdeveloped and developing countries are based on conventional power plants, mainly "slow-response" thermal power plants and a certain number of hydro power plants; characterized by inflexible generating portfolios and traditionally designed to meet own electricity needs. Taking into account operational capabilities of conventional power systems, their development planning will face problems with integration of notable amounts of installed capacities in wind power plants (WPP. This is what highlights the purpose of this work and in that sense, here, possible variations of simulated output power from WPP in the 10 minute and hourly time interval, which need to be balanced, are investigated, presented and discussed. Comparative calculations for the amount of installed power in WPP that can be integrated into a certain power system, according to available secondary balancing power amounts, in case of concentrated and dispersed future WPP are given. The stated has been done using a part of the power system of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In the considered example, by planned geographically distributed WPP construction, even up to cca. 74% more in installed power of WPP can be integrated into the power system than in case of geographically concentrated WPP construction, for the same available amount of (secondary balancing power. These calculations have shown a significant benefit of planned, geographically distributed WPP construction, as an important recommendation for the development planning of conventional power systems, with limited balancing options. Keywords: balancing reserves,  geographical dispersion, output power  variations

  15. Dynamic Reactive Power Control in Offshore HVDC Connected Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Cutululis, Nicolaos Antonio; Rather, Zakir Hussain;

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a coordinated reactive power control for a HVDC connected cluster of offshore wind power plants (WPPs). The reactive power reference for the WPP cluster is estimated by an optimization algorithm aiming at minimum active power losses in the offshore AC Grid. For each optimal...

  16. Stillwater Hybrid Geo-Solar Power Plant Optimization Analyses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Daniel S.; Mines, Gregory L.; Turchi, Craig S.; Zhu, Guangdong; Cohan, Sander; Angelini, Lorenzo; Bizzarri, Fabrizio; Consoli, Daniele; De Marzo, Alessio

    2015-09-02

    The Stillwater Power Plant is the first hybrid plant in the world able to bring together a medium-enthalpy geothermal unit with solar thermal and solar photovoltaic systems. Solar field and power plant models have been developed to predict the performance of the Stillwater geothermal / solar-thermal hybrid power plant. The models have been validated using operational data from the Stillwater plant. A preliminary effort to optimize performance of the Stillwater hybrid plant using optical characterization of the solar field has been completed. The Stillwater solar field optical characterization involved measurement of mirror reflectance, mirror slope error, and receiver position error. The measurements indicate that the solar field may generate 9% less energy than the design value if an appropriate tracking offset is not employed. A perfect tracking offset algorithm may be able to boost the solar field performance by about 15%. The validated Stillwater hybrid plant models were used to evaluate hybrid plant operating strategies including turbine IGV position optimization, ACC fan speed and turbine IGV position optimization, turbine inlet entropy control using optimization of multiple process variables, and mixed working fluid substitution. The hybrid plant models predict that each of these operating strategies could increase net power generation relative to the baseline Stillwater hybrid plant operations.

  17. FORESIGHT - ECOSUSTAINABLE DETERMINANTS OF STRATEGIC MODERNIZATION OF HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Dovgan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the paper the foresight methodology as an ecosustainable determinants of strategic modernization of hydroelectric power plants in the conditions of the external challenges and threats is revealed. The strategic concepts of modernization and a mechanism of strategic modernization of hydroelectric power plants on the principles of public-private partnerships is allocated. Recommendations on the implementation of the results of the strategic foresight to the modernization of hydroelectric power plants in the interaction of public and private agents are formulated.

  18. Multilevel flow modeling of Monju Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Yoshikawa, Hidekazu; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2011-01-01

    Multilevel Flow Modeling is a method for modeling complex processes on multiple levels of means-end and part-whole abstraction. The modeling method has been applied on a wide range of processes including power plants, chemical engineering plants and power systems. The modeling method is supported...... functions and structure. The paper will describe how MFM can be used to represent the goals and functions of the Japanese Monju Nuclear Power Plant. A detailed explanation will be given of the model describing the relations between levels of goal, function and structural. Furthermore, it will be explained...

  19. Feasibility and Design Implications of Fuel Cell Power for Sealift Ships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    fuel cell ( SOFC ) module is proposed and the implications of the technology on fuel savings and...implementing fuel cells as the primary power source on a large military cargo ship. A notional solid oxide fuel cell ( SOFC ) module is proposed and...suitability. 4 3. Proposed Notional Fuel Cell Power Plants for LMSR In this section, a notional hybrid SOFC – gas turbine (GT) power plant

  20. Fuel cells and virtual power plants. Aspects of environmental and technology policy regarding an efficient energy supply for buildings; Brennstoffzellen und virtuelle Kraftwerke. Energie-, umwelt- und technologiepolitische Aspekte einer effizienten Hausenergieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste-Franke, Bert [Europaeische Akademie GmbH, Neuenahr-Ahrweiler (Germany); Berg, Holger; Koetter, Annette; Krueger, Joerg; Mause, Karsten; Pielow, Johann-Christian; Romey, Ingo; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    The possibilities of making sustainable use of available energy resources are currently a much-discussed topic. One instance of this are sustainable energy supply systems for buildings. Fuel cells in mini power plants which can be used in place of a heating system are an option to this end. When coupled and steered in a coordinated manner fuel cells function as virtual power plants which can be operated according to demand to cover the base load as well as peaks in demand. The present study points out ways of making sustainable use of two technologies for energy supply systems for buildings: the fuel cell and the virtual power plant. To begin with it compares competitor technologies, points out distortions of competition and analyses framework conditions. Taking this as a point of departure it elaborates strategies for the removal of innovation barriers and gives recommendations for action for dealing with these technologies in the realms of environmental, energy and technology policy. Amongst other things the authors identify challenges involved in designing technology promotion schemes, developing additional profit sources, avoiding the abuse of market power and creating a legal framework for the use of these technologies. This interdisciplinary research study brings together aspects from the fields of energy technology, technology assessment, political science, economics and jurisprudence. It is intended for readers from the realms of science, politics, the energy industry and the interested layperson. [German] Die nachhaltige Nutzung verfuegbarer Energieressourcen, deren Moeglichkeiten derzeit viel diskutiert werden, beinhaltet auch eine zukunftsfaehige Hausenergieversorgung. Eine Option dafuer stellen Brennstoffzellen in Minikraftwerken als Heizungsersatz dar, mit denen bei einer koordinierten Kopplung und Steuerung in sogenannten Virtuellen Kraftwerken durch bedarfsgerechte Fahrweise neben einer Grundversorgung auch Nachfragespitzen abgedeckt werden koennen

  1. Energy Management of an Off-Grid Hybrid Power Plant with Multiple Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Tribioli

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an off-grid hybrid power plant with multiple storage systems for an artificial island is designed and two possible strategies for the management of the stored energy are proposed. Renewable power sources (wind/solar technologies are used as primary power suppliers. A lead-acid battery pack (BAT and a reversible polymer electrolyte fuel cell are employed to fulfill the power demand and to absorb extra power. The reversible fuel cell allows reducing costs and occupied space and the fuel cell can be fed by the pure hydrogen produced by means of its reversible operation as an electrolyzer. A diesel engine is employed as backup system. While HOMER Pro® has been employed for a full-factorial-based optimization of the sizes of the renewable sources and the BAT, Matlab/Simulink® has been later used for simulating the plant operation and compare two possible power management control strategies. For the reversible fuel cell sizing, a sensitivity analysis has been carried out varying stack and hydrogen tank sizes. The final choice for plant configuration and power management control strategy has been made on the basis of a comparative analysis of the results, aimed at minimizing fossil fuel consumption and CO2 emissions, battery aging rate and at maximizing the power plant overall efficiency. The obtained results demonstrate the possibility of realizing a renewable power plant, able to match the needs of electrical power in a remote area, by achieving a good integration of different energy sources and facing the intermittent nature of renewable power sources, with very low use of fossil fuels.

  2. Demonstration of direct internal reforming for MCFC power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aasberg-Petersen, K.; Christensen, P.S.; Winther, S.K. [HALDOR TOPSOE A/S, Lynby (Denmark)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The conversion of methane into hydrogen for an MCFC by steam reforming is accomplished either externally or internally in the stack. In the case of external reforming the plant electrical efficiency is 5% abs. lower mainly because more parasitic power is required for air compression for stack cooling. Furthermore, heat produced in the stack must be transferred to the external reformer to drive the endothermic steam reforming reaction giving a more complex plant lay-out. A more suitable and cost effective approach is to use internal steam reforming of methane. Internal reforming may be accomplished either by Indirect Internal Reforming (DIR) and Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) in series or by DIR-only as illustrated. To avoid carbon formation in the anode compartment higher hydrocarbons in the feedstock are converted into hydrogen, methane and carbon oxides by reaction with steam in ail adiabatic prereformer upstream the fuel cell stack. This paper discusses key elements of the desire of both types of internal reforming and presents data from pilot plants with a combined total of more than 10,000 operating hours. The project is being carried out as part of the activities of the European MCFC Consortium ARGE.

  3. A COMPUTATIONAL WORKBENCH ENVIRONMENT FOR VIRTUAL POWER PLANT SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison; Connie Senior; Zumao Chen; Temi Linjewile; Adel Sarofim; Bene Risio

    2003-04-25

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT41047. The goal of the project is to develop and demonstrate a computational workbench for simulating the performance of Vision 21 Power Plant Systems. Within the last quarter, good progress has been made on all aspects of the project. Calculations for a full Vision 21 plant configuration have been performed for two gasifier types. An improved process model for simulating entrained flow gasifiers has been implemented into the workbench. Model development has focused on: a pre-processor module to compute global gasification parameters from standard fuel properties and intrinsic rate information; a membrane based water gas shift; and reactors to oxidize fuel cell exhaust gas. The data visualization capabilities of the workbench have been extended by implementing the VTK visualization software that supports advanced visualization methods, including inexpensive Virtual Reality techniques. The ease-of-use, functionality and plug-and-play features of the workbench were highlighted through demonstrations of the workbench at a DOE sponsored coal utilization conference. A white paper has been completed that contains recommendations on the use of component architectures, model interface protocols and software frameworks for developing a Vision 21 plant simulator.

  4. Market introduction of fuel cell products: Effects on mechanical engineering and power plant engineering. Preliminary research on products using alternative power and drive systems. Final report; Markteinfuehrung von Brennstoffzellen-Produkten: Auswirkungen auf den Maschinen- und Anlagenbau. Voruntersuchung zu Forschungsfeldern fuer die Herstellung von Produkten mit alternativen Energie- und Antriebssystemen. Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    The investigations had the following goals: 1. Analysis of the effects of the fuel cell technology on mechanical engineering and power plant engineering, i.e. a qualitative assessment and the development of scenarios for the seven VDMA associations (drives, construction machinery, fluidics, haulage, power systems, agricultural engineering, machine tools); 2. Analysis of research and development requirements, i.e. analysis of the necessary technologies for fuel cell production. [German] Zielsetzung der Untersuchung war 1. die Analyse der Auswirkungen der Brennstoffzellentechnologie auf den Maschinen- und Anlagenbau, d.h. - qualitative Bewertung der Auswirkungen auf den Maschinen-/Anlagenbau, und - Szenarien fuer sieben Fachverbaende des VDMA (d.h. Antriebstechnik, Baumaschinen, Fluidtechnik, Foerdertechnik, Power Systems, Landtechnik, Werkzeugmaschinen), sowie 2. die Analyse des FuE-Bedarfs, d.h. - Analyse der erforderlichen Produktionstechniken fuer die Herstellung von Brennstoffzellen. (orig.)

  5. 75 FR 61779 - R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-06

    ... COMMISSION R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and... Operating License No. DPR-18, issued to R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant (Ginna), located in Ontario, New York. In accordance with 10 CFR...

  6. Power plant technology 2014. Strategies, systems engineering and operation; Kraftwerkstechnik 2014. Strategien, Anlagentechnik und Betrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckmann, Michael; Hurtado, Antonio

    2014-07-01

    The book on power plant technology 2014 (strategies, systems engineering and operation) covers the following issues: Climate, politics and economy; wind power; fossil-fuel power plants, flexible power plants - plant operation, flexible power plants- materials, materials for energy technology, fuel feed and incineration, modeling of the water-vapor-circuit, corrosion, deposits and cleaning, vapor turbines, GUD power plants, fluidized bed combustion, energetic biomass use, combined heat and power generation and decentralized units, storage facilities, emissions - mitigation and measuring techniques.

  7. Power Oscillation Damping from VSC-HVDC Connected Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Eriksson, Robert; Goumalatsos, Spyridon

    2016-01-01

    The implementation of power oscillation damping service on offshore wind power plants connected to onshore grids by voltage-source-converter-based high voltage direct current transmission is discussed. Novel design guidelines for damping controllers on voltage-source converters and wind power plant...... regarding real wind power plants are discussed: 1) robustness against control/communication delays; 2) limitations due to mechanical resonances in wind turbine generators; 3) actual capability of wind power plants to provide damping without curtailing production; and 4) power-ramp rate limiters....... controllers are derived, using phasor diagrams and a test network model and are then verified on a generic power system model. The effect of voltage regulators is analyzed, which is important for selecting the most robust damping strategy. Furthermore, other often disregarded practical implementation aspects...

  8. Plant caspase-like proteases in plant programmed cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Qixian; Zhang, Lingrui

    2009-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically-controlled disassembly of the cell. In animal systems, the central core execution switch for apoptotic PCD is the activation of caspases (Cysteine-containing Aspartate-specific proteases). Accumulating evidence in recent years suggests the existence of caspase-like activity in plants and its functional involvement in various types of plant PCD, although no functional homologs of animal caspases were identified in plant genome. In this mini-review, ...

  9. Carbon dioxide recovery from gas-fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Ricardo Salgado; Barbosa, Joao Roberto [Centro Tecnico Aeroespacial, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. Tecnologico de Aeronautica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: martinsr@epenergy.com; barbosa@mec.ita.br; Prado, Eduardo Lanari [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Jones Graduate School of Business]. E-mail: pradoe@epenergy.com; Vieira, Adriana de Moura [Instituto Brasileiro de Mercado de Capitais (IBMEC), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Financas]. E-mail: vieiraa@epenergy.com

    2000-07-01

    Since 1996 the Brazilian electric sector has undergone a major restructuring. The aim of such change is to reduce the State's participation in the sector, and to induce the growth of private investments. In particular, this event created several opportunities for thermal power plant projects, leading to competition at the generation level. In this scenario of increased competition, the power plant efficiency becomes a key element for determining the feasibility and profitability of the project. Moreover, the utilization of the plant's own effluents as feedstock or as a source of additional revenue will impact positively in its economics. As an example, long term additional revenues could be created by the sale of CO{sub 2} extracted from the combustion products of thermal power plants. The production of CO{sub 2} also contributes to mitigate the environmental impacts of the power plant project by significantly reducing its airborne emissions. This paper shows how a gas-fired power plant can extract and utilize CO{sub 2} to generate additional revenue, contributing to a more competitive power plant. (author)

  10. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  11. Meteorological measurements at nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    On-site meteorological measurements are necessary for evaluating atmospheric dispersion of gaseous effluents. Radiation doses in a plant`s vicinity due to these effluents are calculated from the results of dispersion evaluations. The guide addresses the requirements for on-site meteorological measurement systems. Guide YVL 7.3 addresses atmospheric dispersion evaluations and calculation methods, Guide YVL 7.2 radiation dose calculations and Guide YVL 7.8 environmental data reporting. (5 refs.).

  12. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power...

  13. Wind Power Plants Fundamentals, Design, Construction and Operation

    CERN Document Server

    Twele, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    Wind power plants teaches the physical foundations of usage of Wind Power. It includes the areas like Construction of Wind Power Plants, Design, Development of Production Series, Control, and discusses the dynamic forces acting on the systems as well as the power conversion and its connection to the distribution system. The book is written for graduate students, practitioners and inquisitive readers of any kind. It is based on lectures held at several universities. Its German version it already is the standard text book for courses on Wind Energy Engineering but serves also as reference for practising engineers.

  14. Cogeneration power plant concepts using advanced gas turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huettenhofer, K.; Lezuo, A. [Siemens Power Generation, Erlangen (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    Cogeneration of heat and power (CHP) is undeniably the environmentally most favourable way of making efficient use of energy in the power generation industry. Cogeneration is also particularly appreciated by political decision makers because of its high yield from primary energy sources, and thus its contribution to the protection of the environment and the conservation of resources. Advanced gas turbines, along with an intelligent power plant design consisting of pre-engineered, modular power plant items, will help cogeneration to play an important role in future energy markets also from an economic point of view. (orig.)

  15. A COMPUTATIONAL WORKBENCH ENVIRONMENT FOR VIRTUAL POWER PLANT SIMULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mike Bockelie; Dave Swensen; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior

    2004-12-22

    In this report is described the work effort to develop and demonstrate a software framework to support advanced process simulations to evaluate the performance of advanced power systems. Integrated into the framework are a broad range of models, analysis tools, and visualization methods that can be used for the plant evaluation. The framework provides a tightly integrated problem-solving environment, with plug-and-play functionality, and includes a hierarchy of models, ranging from fast running process models to detailed reacting CFD models. The framework places no inherent limitations on the type of physics that can be modeled, numerical techniques, or programming languages used to implement the equipment models, or the type or amount of data that can be exchanged between models. Tools are provided to analyze simulation results at multiple levels of detail, ranging from simple tabular outputs to advanced solution visualization methods. All models and tools communicate in a seamless manner. The framework can be coupled to other software frameworks that provide different modeling capabilities. Three software frameworks were developed during the course of the project. The first framework focused on simulating the performance of the DOE Low Emissions Boiler System Proof of Concept facility, an advanced pulverized-coal combustion-based power plant. The second framework targeted simulating the performance of an Integrated coal Gasification Combined Cycle - Fuel Cell Turbine (IGCC-FCT) plant configuration. The coal gasifier models included both CFD and process models for the commercially dominant systems. Interfacing models to the framework was performed using VES-Open, and tests were performed to demonstrate interfacing CAPE-Open compliant models to the framework. The IGCC-FCT framework was subsequently extended to support Virtual Engineering concepts in which plant configurations can be constructed and interrogated in a three-dimensional, user-centered, interactive

  16. Manatee use of power plant effluents in Brevard County, Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shane, S.H.

    The relationship between manatees and power plants was investigated at 2 power plants on the Indian River in Brevard County, Florida from January 1978-February 1980. Manatee presence in the power plant effluent zones was correlated with cold air and water temperatures. When air temperatures were below 16 C most manatees in the country were found in the effluent zones. Manatees in the effluent zones move with the wind-blown warm water plume, demonstrating a sensitivity to small changes in water temperature. Some individuals were frequently resighted at 1 plant, while others moved between the 2 plants. Because industrial warm water sources are less reliable than natural warm water refuges, it is recommended that no new artificial warm water effluents be constructed north of the species' traditional winter range. 16 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  17. Structures and construction of nuclear power plants on lunar surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Katsunori; Kobatake, Masuhiko; Ogawa, Sachio; Kanamori, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasuhiko; Mano, Hideyuki; Takagi, Kenji

    1991-07-01

    The best structure and construction techniques of nuclear power plants in the severe environments on the lunar surface are studied. Facility construction types (functional conditions such as stable structure, shield thickness, maintainability, safety distances, and service life), construction conditions (such as construction methods, construction equipment, number of personnel, time required for construction, external power supply, and required transportation) and construction feasibility (construction method, reactor transportation between the moon and the earth, ground excavation for installation, loading and unloading, transportation, and installation, filling up the ground, electric power supply of plant S (300 kW class) and plant L (3000 kW class)) are outlined. Items to pay attention to in construction are (1) automation and robotization of construction; (2) cost reduction by multi functional robots; and (3) methods of supplying power to robots. A precast concrete block manufacturing plant is also outlined.

  18. The application of NERVA technology to Martian power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farbman, G. H.; Pierce, B. L.

    1991-09-01

    A Martian Nuclear Power Plant is described, based on the nuclear technologies developed and demonstrated in the NERVA nuclear propulsion program. The reactor is in a closed-cycle system, employing an inert gas coolant, while the power-turbine generator system is an open-cycle gas turbine which uses the Martian atmosphere as a working fluid. The two systems are connected by a double-walled heat exchanger which transfers energy from the reactor to the power turbine system. The plant is rated at 3 MWe and is capable of three years of power operation, at a capacity factor of 90 percent, before the fuel is depleted. The plant is arranged in modules, which are fully constructed on earth and then interconnected on the surface of Mars. A preliminary estimate of the module contents and masses leads to a total plant specific mass of 25.3 kg/kWe.

  19. US EPA Region 9 Coal-Fired Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Approximate locations of active coal-fired power plants located in US EPA's Region 9. Emission counts from the 2005 National Emissions Inventory (NEI) are included...

  20. U.S. Nuclear Power Reactor Plant Status

    Data.gov (United States)

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — Demographic data on U.S. commercial nuclear power reactors, including: plant name/unit number, docket number, location, licensee, reactor/containment type, nuclear...

  1. Voltage Control in Wind Power Plants with Doubly Fed Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Jorge Martinez

    In this work, the process of designing a wind power plant composed of; doubly fed induction generators, a static compensator unit, mechanically switched capacitors and on-load tap changer, for voltage control is shown. The selected control structure is based on a decentralized system, since...... supplied by the doubly fed induction generator wind turbines is overcome by installing a reactive power compensator, i.e. a static compensator unit, which is coordinated with the plant control by a specific dispatcher. This dispatcher is set according to the result of the wind power plant load flow....... To release the operation of the converters during steady-state disturbances, mechanically switched capacitors are installed in the wind power plant, which due to their characteristics, they are appropriate for permanent disturbances compensation. The mechanically switched capacitors are controlled to allow...

  2. [Emergy evaluation of power plant eco-industrial park].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lingmei; Zhang, Jintun

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, new emergy indices for the material circulation utilization and energy cascade utilization were presented to evaluate the emergy of power plant eco-industrial park. The common contribution of the members in power plant eco-industrial park should be accounted for emergy yield ratio (PEYR) and emergy investment ratio (PEIR), namely, PEYR = sigma(i = 1)6 (Fi + Ri + Ni)/sigma(i = 1)6 Fi and PEIR = sigma(i = 1)6 Fi/sigma(i = 1)6 (Ni + Ri). Saved renewable and nonrenewable resources and purchased resources and decreased environmental load should be accounted for environmental loading ratio (PELR) and index of sustainability (PESI), namely, PELR = sigma(i = 1)6 Fi/F' and PESI = PEYR/PELR. Case analysis on the Shuozhou power plant eco-industrial park showed that new emergy indices were practical in evaluating the power plant eco-industrial park.

  3. Applying Functional Modeling for Accident Management of Nuclear Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lind, Morten; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    The paper investigate applications of functional modeling for accident management in complex industrial plant with special reference to nuclear power production. Main applications for information sharing among decision makers and decision support are identified. An overview of Multilevel Flow...

  4. Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and Nuclear Physicists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsuka Takaharu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available I give an overview on the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Accident and a report on voluntary activities of Japanese nuclear physicists in this terrible event, including their major outcome.

  5. Monolithic fuel cell based power source for burst power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fee, D. C.; Blackburn, P. E.; Busch, D. E.; Dees, D. W.; Dusek, J.; Easler, T. E.; Ellingson, W. A.; Flandermeyer, B. K.; Fousek, R. J.; Heiberger, J. J.

    A unique fuel cell coupled with a low power nuclear reactor presents an attractive approach for SDI burst power requirements. The monolithic fuel cell looks attractive for space applications and represents a quantum jump in fuel cell technology. Such a breakthrough in design is the enabling technology for lightweight, low volume power sources for space based pulse power systems. The monolith is unique among fuel cells in being an all solid state device. The capability for miniaturization, inherent in solid state devices, gives the low volume required for space missions. In addition, the solid oxide fuel cell technology employed in the monolith has high temperature reject heat and can be operated in either closed or open cycles. Both these features are attractive for integration into a burst power system.

  6. Nuclear Power Plant Maintenance Optimization with Heuristic Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Andrija Volkanovski; Leon Cizelj

    2014-01-01

    The test and maintenance activities are conducted in the nuclear power plants in order to prevent or limit failures resulting from the ageing or deterioration. The components and systems are partially or fully unavailable during the maintenance activities. This is especially important for the safety systems and corresponding equipment because they are important contributors to the overall nuclear power plant safety. A novel method for optimization of the maintenance activities in the nuclear ...

  7. Modeling of air pollution from the power plant ash dumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksic, Nenad M.; Balać, Nedeljko

    A simple model of air pollution from power plant ash dumps is presented, with emission rates calculated from the Bagnold formula and transport simulated by the ATDL type model. Moisture effects are accounted for by assumption that there is no pollution on rain days. Annual mean daily sedimentation rates, calculated for the area around the 'Nikola Tesla' power plants near Belgrade for 1987, show reasonably good agreement with observations.

  8. Effective Parameters on Performance of Multipressure Combined Cycle Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Thamir K. Ibrahim; Rahman, M M

    2014-01-01

    A parametric analysis is performed for numerous configurations of a combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) power plant, including single-pressure, double-pressure, triple-pressure, triple-pressure with reheat, and supplementary triple-pressure with reheat. The compression ratio of the gas turbine and the steam pressure of the steam turbine are taken as design parameters. The thermodynamic model was developed based on an existing MARAFIQ CCGT power plant and performance model code developed using t...

  9. Nuclear power plants. Site choice; Usinas nucleoeletricas. Escolha de local

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atala, Drausio Lima

    2009-07-01

    This book establishes the standards for selection and development of criteria for evaluation of new nuclear sites in Brazil. The places where the new nuclear power plants will be installed must be adequate for construction and operation of the power plants will be submitted to Brazilian environmental and nuclear legislation of the Union, states and the local governments, besides to accomplish the world good practices of this activity.

  10. Technology qualification for IGCC power plant with CO2 Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Baig, Yasir

    2011-01-01

    Summary:This thesis presents the technology qualification plan for the integrated gasification combined cycle power plant (IGCC) with carbon dioxide capture based on DNV recommendations. Objectives of the thesis work were development of a qualification plan, heat balance, material balance and performance characteristics for IGCC with CO2 capture. GT PRO software by thermoflow was used for the development of heat balance, material balance and performance characteristics of power plant.IGCC wit...

  11. Analysis of the Effect of Chronic and Low-Dose Radiation Exposure on Spermatogenic Cells of Male Large Japanese Field Mice ( Apodemus speciosus ) after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takino, Sachio; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Sugano, Yukou; Fujishima, Yohei; Nakata, Akifumi; Kasai, Kosuke; Hayashi, Gohei; Urushihara, Yusuke; Suzuki, Masatoshi; Shinoda, Hisashi; Miura, Tomisato; Fukumoto, Manabu

    2017-02-01

    In this study we analyzed the effect of chronic and low-dose-rate (LDR) radiation on spermatogenic cells of large Japanese field mice ( Apodemus speciosus ) after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP) accident. In March 2014, large Japanese field mice were collected from two sites located in, and one site adjacent to, the FNPP ex-evacuation zone: Tanashio, Murohara and Akogi, respectively. Testes from these animals were analyzed histologically. External dose rate from radiocesium (combined (134)Cs and (137)Cs) in these animals at the sampling sites exhibited 21 μGy/day in Tanashio, 304-365 μGy/day in Murohara and 407-447 μGy/day in Akogi. In the Akogi group, the numbers of spermatogenic cells and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells per seminiferous tubule were significantly higher compared to the Tanashio and Murohara groups, respectively. TUNEL-positive apoptotic cells tended to be detected at a lower level in the Murohara and Akogi groups compared to the Tanashio group. These results suggest that enhanced spermatogenesis occurred in large Japanese field mice living in and around the FNPP ex-evacuation zone. It remains to be elucidated whether this phenomenon, attributed to chronic exposure to LDR radiation, will benefit or adversely affect large Japanese field mice.

  12. Inertial fusion power plant concept of operations and maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knutson, Brad; Dunne, Mike; Kasper, Jack; Sheehan, Timothy; Lang, Dwight; Anklam, Tom; Roberts, Valerie; Mau, Derek

    2015-02-01

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oil refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.

  13. Inertial Fusion Power Plant Concept of Operations and Maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anklam, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Knutson, B. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Dunne, A. M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kasper, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Sheehan, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lang, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Roberts, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Mau, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-15

    Parsons and LLNL scientists and engineers performed design and engineering work for power plant pre-conceptual designs based on the anticipated laser fusion demonstrations at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Work included identifying concepts of operations and maintenance (O&M) and associated requirements relevant to fusion power plant systems analysis. A laser fusion power plant would incorporate a large process and power conversion facility with a laser system and fusion engine serving as the heat source, based in part on some of the systems and technologies advanced at NIF. Process operations would be similar in scope to those used in chemical, oil refinery, and nuclear waste processing facilities, while power conversion operations would be similar to those used in commercial thermal power plants. While some aspects of the tritium fuel cycle can be based on existing technologies, many aspects of a laser fusion power plant presents several important and unique O&M requirements that demand new solutions. For example, onsite recovery of tritium; unique remote material handling systems for use in areas with high radiation, radioactive materials, or high temperatures; a five-year fusion engine target chamber replacement cycle with other annual and multi-year cycles anticipated for major maintenance of other systems, structures, and components (SSC); and unique SSC for fusion target waste recycling streams. This paper describes fusion power plant O&M concepts and requirements, how O&M requirements could be met in design, and how basic organizational and planning issues can be addressed for a safe, reliable, economic, and feasible fusion power plant.

  14. Microfluidic platforms for plant cells studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanati Nezhad, A

    2014-09-07

    Conventional methods of plant cell analysis rely on growing plant cells in soil pots or agarose plates, followed by screening the plant phenotypes in traditional greenhouses and growth chambers. These methods are usually costly, need a large number of experiments, suffer from low spatial resolution and disorderly growth behavior of plant cells, with lack of ability to locally and accurately manipulate the plant cells. Microfluidic platforms take advantage of miniaturization for handling small volume of liquids and providing a closed environment, with the purpose of in vitro single cell analysis and characterizing cell response to external cues. These platforms have shown their ability for high-throughput cellular analysis with increased accuracy of experiments, reduced cost and experimental times, versatility in design, ability for large-scale and combinatorial screening, and integration with other miniaturized sensors. Despite extensive research on animal cells within microfluidic environments for high-throughput sorting, manipulation and phenotyping studies, the application of microfluidics for plant cells studies has not been accomplished yet. Novel devices such as RootChip, RootArray, TipChip, and PlantChip developed for plant cells analysis, with high spatial resolution on a micrometer scale mimicking the internal microenvironment of plant cells, offering preliminary results on the capability of microfluidics to conquer the constraints of conventional methods. These devices have been used to study different aspects of plant cell biology such as gene expression, cell biomechanics, cellular mechanism of growth, cell division, and cells fusion. This review emphasizes the advantages of current microfluidic systems for plant science studies, and discusses future prospects of microfluidic platforms for characterizing plant cells response to diverse external cues.

  15. Nuclear Power Plant Maintenance Optimization with Heuristic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrija Volkanovski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The test and maintenance activities are conducted in the nuclear power plants in order to prevent or limit failures resulting from the ageing or deterioration. The components and systems are partially or fully unavailable during the maintenance activities. This is especially important for the safety systems and corresponding equipment because they are important contributors to the overall nuclear power plant safety. A novel method for optimization of the maintenance activities in the nuclear power plant considering the plant safety is developed and presented. The objective function of the optimization is the mean value of the selected risk measure. The risk measure is assessed from the minimal cut sets identified in the Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The optimal solution of the objective function is estimated with genetic algorithm. The proposed method is applied on probabilistic safety analysis model of the selected safety system of the reference nuclear power plant. Obtained results show that optimization of maintenance decreases the risk and thus improves the plant safety. The implications of the consideration of different constraints on the obtained results are investigated and presented. The future prospects for the optimization of the maintenance activities in the nuclear power plants with the presented method are discussed.

  16. 76 FR 55137 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory..., ``Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses Revision 4A to... Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' which provides methods that......

  17. 77 FR 30030 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses Revision 4A to Nuclear Management and Resources... Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants,'' Part 50, ``Domestic......

  18. Harmonic Resonances in Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Francisco Daniel Freijedo; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Teodorescu, Remus

    2015-01-01

    converters. Subsequently, pros and cons of frequency and time domain analysis methods are outlined. The next sections are devoted to mitigation methods implemented in the power electronics converters. From the wind turbine perspective, different techniques to enhance the robustness of the controller...... are analyzed. Subsequently, the suitability for active damping of harmonics using STATCOM devices is assessed, with focus both on control techniques and power converter technologies....

  19. Model Predictive Control of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    B. Wayne Bequette; Priyadarshi Mahapatra

    2010-08-31

    The primary project objectives were to understand how the process design of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant affects the dynamic operability and controllability of the process. Steady-state and dynamic simulation models were developed to predict the process behavior during typical transients that occur in plant operation. Advanced control strategies were developed to improve the ability of the process to follow changes in the power load demand, and to improve performance during transitions between power levels. Another objective of the proposed work was to educate graduate and undergraduate students in the application of process systems and control to coal technology. Educational materials were developed for use in engineering courses to further broaden this exposure to many students. ASPENTECH software was used to perform steady-state and dynamic simulations of an IGCC power plant. Linear systems analysis techniques were used to assess the steady-state and dynamic operability of the power plant under various plant operating conditions. Model predictive control (MPC) strategies were developed to improve the dynamic operation of the power plants. MATLAB and SIMULINK software were used for systems analysis and control system design, and the SIMULINK functionality in ASPEN DYNAMICS was used to test the control strategies on the simulated process. Project funds were used to support a Ph.D. student to receive education and training in coal technology and the application of modeling and simulation techniques.

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  1. Growing the Space Station's electrical power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Gale R.

    For over a decade NASA LeRC has been defining, demonstrating, and evaluating power electronic components and multi-kilowatt, multiply redundant, electrical power systems as part of OAST charter. Whether one considers aircraft (commercial transport/military), Space Station Freedom, growth station, launch vehicles, or the new Human Exploration Initiative, the conclusions remain the same: high frequency AC power distribution and control is superior to all other approaches for achieving a fast, smart, safe, versatile, and growable electrical power system that will meet a wide range of mission options. To meet the cost and operability goals of future aerospace missions that require significantly higher electrical power and longer durations, we must learn to integrate multiple technologies in ways that enhance overall system synergisms. The way NASA is doing business in space electric power is challenged and some approaches for evolving large space vehicles and platforms in well constructed steps to provide safe, ground testable, growable, smart systems that provide simple, replicative logic structures, which enable hardware and software verification, validation, and implementation are proposed. Viewgraphs are included.

  2. STARFIRE: a commercial tokamak fusion power plant study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    This volume contains chapters on each of the following topics: (1) radioactivity, (2) heat transport and energy conversion, (3) tritium systems, (4) electrical storage and power supplies, (5) support structure, (6) cryogenics, (7) instrumentation and control, (8) maintenance and operation, (9) balance of plant design, (10) safety and environmental analysis, (11) economic analysis, and (12) plant construction.

  3. Power Plant Optimization: Oh What a Tune-Up!

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubner, J.

    2010-01-01

    It takes around a decade to plan and build a power plant. As a result, within a few years of commissioning, most plants no longer meet the latest technological standards. But in many cases, replacement of key parts and adjustments to a plant’s control system can help it to meet evolving requirements

  4. Layout of China’s Nuclear Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Plants in operation Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant-total installed capacity of 2.956 gigawatts The first stage started construction in March 1985, was incorporated into grids in December 1991 and began business operation in April 1994. It has an installed capacity of 300

  5. Bituminous coal fired USC power plants for the European market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klebes, J.; Tigges, K.-D.; Klauke, F.; Busekrus, K. [Hitachi Power Europe GmbH (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The presentation, in slide/viewgraph form, is in sections entitled: Introduction; Steam generator design features; Optimization of plant efficiency; Steam turbine design features (USC material design principles; rotating and stationary blades; last stage blade (LP 48 inch)); and Future developments. The presentation includes a chart of recent highly efficient coal-fired power plants in Japan, China and Germany.

  6. Evaluation of creep damage in power plant applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auerkari, P.; Salonen, J. [VTT Manufacturing Technology, Espoo (Finland)] McNiven, U. [IVO Generation Services Ltd., Naantali (Finland)] Roennberg, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)] Borggreen, K. [FORCE Institute, Broendby (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Metallographic inspection of creep cavitation damage provides routine support for maintenance scheduling of high temperature components in power plants. The available European inspection experience has been reviewed, particularly considering the performance of thick-section steam systems outside the boiler. Applications are highlighted with examples from plant. (orig.) 8 refs.

  7. Phytomonitoring of air pollution around a thermal power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, M.; Agrawal, S. B.

    This study was undertaken in order to assess the impact of air pollutants on vegetation around Obra thermal power plant (1550 M W capacity) in the Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh. For this purpose, Mangifera indica, Citrus medico and Bouganvillaea spectabilis plants, most common at all sites, were selected as test plants. Five study sites were selected northeast (prevailing wind) of the thermal power plant. A control site was also selected at a distance of 30 km north of Obra. Responses of plants to pollutants in terms of presence of foliar injury symptoms and changes in chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and S content were measured. These changes were correlated with ambient SO 2 and suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations and the amount of dust settled on leaf surfaces. The SO 2 and SPM concentrations were quite high in the immediate vicinity of the power plant. There also exists a direct relationship between the concentration of SPM in air and amount of dust deposited on leaf surfaces. Maximum dust deposition was observed on M. indica plants. The levels of foliar injury, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid were found to decrease and that of S increase in plants around the power plant in comparison to those growing at a control site. The magnitude of such changes was maximum in M. indica and minimum in C. medica. A species specific direct relationship between the increase in the amount of S and decrease in chlorophyll content was observed. The study suggests that differential sensitivity of plants to SO 2 may be used in evaluating the air pollution impact around emission sources and M. indica plants can be used as an indicator plant for quantifying biological changes.

  8. Phytomonitoring of air pollution around a thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrawal, M.; Agrawal, S.B.

    1989-01-01

    This study was undertaken in order to assess the impact of air pollutants on vegetation around Obra thermal power plant (1550 MW capacity) in the Mirzapur district of Uttar Pradesh. For this purpose, Mangifera indica, Citrus medica and Bouganvillaea spectabilis plants, most common at all sites, were selected as test plants. Five study sites were selected northeast (prevailing wind) of the thermal power plant. A control site was also selected at a distance of 30 km north of Obra. Responses of plant to pollutants in terms of presence of foliar injury symptoms and changes in chlorophyll, ascorbic acid and S content were measured. These changes were correlated with ambient SO/sub 2/ and suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentrations and the amount of dust settled on leaf surfaces. The SO/sub 2/ and SPM concentrations were quite high in the immediate vicinity of the power plant. There also exists a direct relationship between the concentration of SPM in air and amount of dust deposited on leaf surfaces. Maximum dust deposition was observed on M. indica plants. The levels of foliar injury, chlorophyll and ascorbic acid were found to decrease and that of S increase in plants around the power plant in comparison to those growing at a control site. The magnitude of such changes was maximum in M. indica and minimum in C. medica. A species specific direct relationship between the increase in the amount of S and decrease in chlorophyll content was observed. The study suggests that differential sensitivity of plants to SO/sub 2/ may be used in evaluating the air pollution impact around emission sources and M. indica plants can be used as an indicator plant for quantifying biological changes. 28 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  9. Formation and maintenance of the Golgi apparatus in plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Yoko; Uemura, Tomohiro; Nakano, Akihiko

    2014-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus plays essential roles in intracellular trafficking, protein and lipid modification, and polysaccharide synthesis in eukaryotic cells. It is well known for its unique stacked structure, which is conserved among most eukaryotes. However, the mechanisms of biogenesis and maintenance of the structure, which are deeply related to ER-Golgi and intra-Golgi transport systems, have long been mysterious. Now having extremely powerful microscopic technologies developed for live-cell imaging, the plant Golgi apparatus provides an ideal system to resolve the question. The plant Golgi apparatus has unique features that are not conserved in other kingdoms, which will also give new insights into the Golgi functions in plant life. In this review, we will summarize the features of the plant Golgi apparatus and transport mechanisms around it, with a focus on recent advances in Golgi biogenesis by live imaging of plants cells.

  10. Wind Power Plant Prediction by Using Neural Networks: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Z.; Gao, W.; Wan, Y. H.; Muljadi, E.

    2012-08-01

    This paper introduces a method of short-term wind power prediction for a wind power plant by training neural networks based on historical data of wind speed and wind direction. The model proposed is shown to achieve a high accuracy with respect to the measured data.

  11. China's First Orimulsion-Fueled Power Plant Constructed in Zhanjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing Jianxiao

    2003-01-01

    @@ A ceremony commencement of Orimulsion-fueled electric power generation project was held in Zhanjiang City,Guangdong Province, on November 26. Vice Governor of Guangdong Province You Ningfeng, Vice President of PetroChina and other officials from the related departments attended the foundation-laying ceremony for the power plant.

  12. Reactive power control with CHP plants - A demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyeng, Preben; Østergaard, Jacob; Andersen, Claus A.;

    2010-01-01

    power rating of 7.3 MW on two synchronous generators. A closed-loop control is implemented, that remote controls the CHP plant to achieve a certain reactive power flow in a near-by substation. The solution communicates with the grid operator’s existing SCADA system to obtain measurements from...

  13. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  14. 78 FR 42556 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant Issuance of Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... COMMISSION Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant Issuance of Environmental..., 2011, with various implementation dates for each of the rule changes. Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company... ADAMS, which provides text and image files of NRC's public documents. If you do not have access to...

  15. Use of expert systems in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The application of technologies, particularly expert systems, to the control room activities in a nuclear power plant has the potential to reduce operator error and increase plant safety, reliability, and efficiency. Furthermore, there are a large number of nonoperating activities (testing, routine maintenance, outage planning, equipment diagnostics, and fuel management) in which expert systems can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of overall plant and corporate operations. This document presents a number of potential applications of expert systems in the nuclear power field. 36 refs., 2 tabs.

  16. Physiological functions of plant cell coverings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoson, Takayuki

    2002-08-01

    The cell coverings of plants have two important functions in plant life. Plant cell coverings are deeply involved in the regulation of the life cycle of plants: each stage of the life cycle, such as germination, vegetative growth, reproductive growth, and senescence, is strongly influenced by the nature of the cell coverings. Also, the apoplast, which consists of the cell coverings, is the field where plant cells first encounter the outer environment, and so becomes the major site of plant responses to the environment. In the regulation of each stage of the life cycle and the response to each environmental signal, some specific constituents of the cell coverings, such as xyloglucans in dicotyledons and 1,3,1,4-beta-glucans in Gramineae, act as the key component. The physiological functions of plant cell coverings are sustained by the metabolic turnover of these components. The components of the cell coverings are supplied from the symplast, but then they are modified or degraded in the apoplast. Thus, the metabolism of the cell coverings is regulated through the cross-talk between the symplast and the apoplast. The understanding of physiological functions of plant cell coverings will be greatly advanced by the use of genomic approaches. At the same time, we need to introduce nanobiological techniques for clarifying the minute changes in the cell coverings that occur in a small part within each cell.

  17. Cell cycle activation by plant parasitic nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goverse, A.; Almeida Engler, de J.; Verhees, J.; Krol, van der S.; Helder, J.; Gheysen, G.

    2000-01-01

    Sedentary nematodes are important pests of crop plants. They are biotrophic parasites that can induce the (re)differentiation of either differentiated or undifferentiated plant cells into specialized feeding cells. This (re)differentiation includes the reactivation of the cell cycle in specific plan

  18. State regulation and power plant productivity: background and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    This report was prepared by representatives of several state regulatory agencies. It is a guide to some of the activities currently under way in state agencies to promote increased availability of electrical generating power plants. Standard measures of plant performance are defined and the nature of data bases that report such measures is discussed. It includes reviews of current state, federal, and industry programs to enhance power plant productivity and provides detailed outlines of programs in effect in California, Illinois, Michigan, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, and Texas. A number of actions are presented that could be adopted by state regulatory agencies, depending on local conditions. They include: develop a commission position or policy statement to encourage productivity improvements by utilities; coordinate state efforts with ongoing industry and government programs to improve the acquisition of power plant performance data and the maintenance of quality information systems; acquire the capability to perform independent analyses of power plant productivity; direct the establishment of productivity improvement programs, including explicit performance objectives for both existing and planned power plants, and a performance program; establish a program of incentives to motivate productivity improvement activities; and participate in ongoing efforts at all levels and initiate new actions to promote productivity improvements.

  19. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-06-01

    During 1997 the PWRs in Ringhals performed extremely well (capability factors 85-90%), the unit Ringhals 2 reached the best capability factor since commercial operation started in 1976. The BWRs made an average 76% capability, which is somewhat less than in 1996. The slightly reduced capability derives from ongoing modernization projects at several units. At the youngest plants, Forsmark 3 and Oskarshamn 3, capability and utilization were very high. Events and data for 1997 are given for each reactor, together with operational statistics for the years 1990-1997. A number of safety-related events are reported, which occurred st the Swedish plants during 1997. These events are classified as level 1 or higher on the international nuclear event scale (INES).

  20. Development of nuclear power plant real-time engineering simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Meng; YANG Yan-Hua; ZHANG Rong-Hua; HU Rui

    2005-01-01

    A nuclear power plant real-time engineering simulator was developed based on general-purpose thermal-hydraulic system simulation code RELAP5. It main1y consists of three parts: improved thermal-hydraulic system simulation code RELAP5, control and protection system and human-machine interface. A normal transient of CHASHMA nuclear power plant turbine step load change from 100% to 90% of full power, was simulated by the engineering simulator as an application example. This paper presents structure and main features of the engineering simulator, and application results are shown and discussed.

  1. Model-free adaptive control of advanced power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, George Shu-Xing; Mulkey, Steven L.; Wang, Qiang

    2015-08-18

    A novel 3-Input-3-Output (3.times.3) Model-Free Adaptive (MFA) controller with a set of artificial neural networks as part of the controller is introduced. A 3.times.3 MFA control system using the inventive 3.times.3 MFA controller is described to control key process variables including Power, Steam Throttle Pressure, and Steam Temperature of boiler-turbine-generator (BTG) units in conventional and advanced power plants. Those advanced power plants may comprise Once-Through Supercritical (OTSC) Boilers, Circulating Fluidized-Bed (CFB) Boilers, and Once-Through Supercritical Circulating Fluidized-Bed (OTSC CFB) Boilers.

  2. The power plant among Three Gorges; Kraftstasjonen blant Tre kloefter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stensvold, Tore

    2003-07-01

    In 2009 the Three Gorges power station on the Yangtze River in China will be completed, with 26 turbines that together will produce 84.60 TWh/year. In this article a Norwegian expert describes his experience from a tourist visit, approaching the plant onboard a cruise ship. In addition to giving the main technical data he comments on peoples' resistance against being transferred, on scepticism and fear of a dam break, on the shortcomings of the power grid and on the not very extensive Norwegian contribution to the world's largest power plant.

  3. INDITEP: The first pre-commercial DSG solar power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarza, Eduardo; Rojas, M' a Esther; Gonzalez, Lourdes [Plataforma Solar de Almeria, CIEMAT, Apartado P.O. Box 22, 04200 Tabernas, Almeria (Spain); Caballero, Jose M' a [INITEC Energia, Principe de Vergara 120, 28002 Madrid (Spain); Rueda, Fernando [Iberdrola Ingenieria consultoria, Avda. de Burgos, 8B, Edif. Genesis, 28036 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-10-15

    This paper presents the conceptual design of the first solar power plant using Direct Steam Generation (DSG) in a parabolic-trough solar field. Experience and know-how in the DSG process acquired during the DISS project were applied in designing the solar field of this plant. The 5-MWe plant is composed of a DSG parabolic-trough solar field connected to a superheated steam Rankine power cycle. The solar field produces 410{sup o}C/70-bar superheated steam. Detail engineering of this plant is currently underway within the framework of the INDITEP project, which is promoted by a German-Spanish consortium with the financial support of the European Commission (Contract No. ENK5-CT-2001-00540). The main design objective is to assure high operational flexibility and reliability. This is the reason why a robust superheated steam turbine has been selected, though the efficiency of its power block is modest. (author)

  4. Condenser Optimization in Steam Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sukru Bekdemir; Recep Ozturk; Zehra Yumurtac

    2003-01-01

    In this paper the effects of the condenser design parameters (such as turbine inlet condition, turbine power and condenser pressure) on heat transfer area, cooling water flow-rate, condenser cost and specific energy generation cost are studied for surface type condenser.The results are given in the text and also shown as diagrams.

  5. Evaluation of Hybrid Power Plants using Biomass, Photovoltaics and Steam Electrolysis for Hydrogen and Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrakopoulou, F.; Sanz, J.

    2014-12-01

    Steam electrolysis is a promising process of large-scale centralized hydrogen production, while it is also considered an excellent option for the efficient use of renewable solar and geothermal energy resources. This work studies the operation of an intermediate temperature steam electrolyzer (ITSE) and its incorporation into hybrid power plants that include biomass combustion and photovoltaic panels (PV). The plants generate both electricity and hydrogen. The reference -biomass- power plant and four variations of a hybrid biomass-PV incorporating the reference biomass plant and the ITSE are simulated and evaluated using exergetic analysis. The variations of the hybrid power plants are associated with (1) the air recirculation from the electrolyzer to the biomass power plant, (2) the elimination of the sweep gas of the electrolyzer, (3) the replacement of two electric heaters with gas/gas heat exchangers, and (4) the replacement two heat exchangers of the reference electrolyzer unit with one heat exchanger that uses steam from the biomass power plant. In all cases, 60% of the electricity required in the electrolyzer is covered by the biomass plant and 40% by the photovoltaic panels. When comparing the hybrid plants with the reference biomass power plant that has identical operation and structure as that incorporated in the hybrid plants, we observe an efficiency decrease that varies depending on the scenario. The efficiency decrease stems mainly from the low effectiveness of the photovoltaic panels (14.4%). When comparing the hybrid scenarios, we see that the elimination of the sweep gas decreases the power consumption due to the elimination of the compressor used to cover the pressure losses of the filter, the heat exchangers and the electrolyzer. Nevertheless, if the sweep gas is used to preheat the air entering the boiler of the biomass power plant, the efficiency of the plant increases. When replacing the electric heaters with gas-gas heat exchangers, the

  6. Psychological empowerment in French nuclear power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Fillol, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Since the eighties, nuclear safety has been discussed in organizational studies and constitutes nowadays a specific stream with several standpoints. Regarding the reliability of nuclear plants, the nuclear safety literature has emphasized on the crucial role of individuals and human factors. Especially, some researchers have noticed rule breaking behavior and the impact of individual self-confidence on thebehavior; but without deepening their analyses. As high self-esteem and confidence, i.e....

  7. Existing large steam power plant upgraded for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanti, L.; Franzoni, A.; Traverso, A.; Massardo, A.F. [University of Genoa, Genoa (Italy)

    2011-05-15

    This paper presents and discusses the results of a complete thermoeconomic analysis of an integrated power plant for co-production of electricity and hydrogen via pyrolysis and gasification processes fed by various coals and mixture of coal and biomass, applied to an existing large steam power plant (ENEL Brindisi power plant - 660 MWe). Two different technologies for the syngas production section are considered: pyrolysis process and direct pressurized gasification. Moreover, the proximity of a hydrogen production and purification plants to an existing steam power plant favors the inter-exchange of energy streams, mainly in the form of hot water and steam, which reduces the costs of auxiliary equipment. The high quality of the hydrogen would guarantee its usability for distributed generation and for public transport. The results were obtained using WTEMP thermoeconomic software, developed by the Thermochemical Power Group of the University of Genoa, and this project has been carried out within the framework of the FISR National project 'Integrated systems for hydrogen production and utilization in distributed power generation'.

  8. Layouts of trigeneration plants for centralized power supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Il'ina, I. P.; Rozhnatovskii, V. D.; Burmakina, A. V.

    2016-06-01

    One of the possible and, under certain conditions, sufficiently effective methods for reducing consumption of fuel and energy resources is the development of plants for combined generation of different kinds of energy. In the power industry of Russia, the facilities have become widespread in which the cogeneration technology, i.e., simultaneous generation of electric energy and heat, is implemented. Such facilities can use different plants, viz., gas- and steam-turbine plants and gas-reciprocating units. Cogeneration power supply can be further developed by simultaneously supplying the users not only with electricity and heat but also with cold. Such a technology is referred to as trigeneration. To produce electricity and heat, trigeneration plants can use the same facilities that are used in cogeneration, namely, gas-turbine plants, steam-turbine plants, and gas-reciprocating units. Cold can be produced in trigeneration plants using thermotransformers of various kinds, such as vaporcompression thermotransformers, air thermotransformers, and absorption thermotransformers, that operate as chilling machines. The thermotransformers can also be used in the trigeneration plants to generate heat. The main advantage of trigeneration plants based on gas-turbine plants or gas-reciprocating units over cogeneration plants is the increased thermodynamic power supply efficiency owing to utilization of the waste-gas heat not only in winter but also in summer. In the steam-turbine-based trigeneration plants equipped with absorption thermotransformers, the enhancement of the thermodynamic power supply efficiency is determined by the increase in the heat extraction load during the nonheating season. The article presents calculated results that demonstrate higher thermodynamic efficiency of a gas-turbine-based plant with an absorption thermotransformer that operates in the trigeneration mode compared with a cogeneration gas-turbine plant. The structural arrangements of trigeneration

  9. Cell-penetrating peptides: From mammalian to plant cells

    OpenAIRE

    Eudes, François; Chugh, Archana

    2008-01-01

    Internalization of cell-penetrating peptides, well described in mammalian cell system, has recently been reported in a range of plant cells by three independent groups. Despite fundamental differences between animal cell and plant cell composition, the CPP uptake pattern between the mammalian system and the plant system is very similar. Tat, Tat-2 pVEC and transportan internalisation is concentration dependent and non saturable, enhanced at low temperature (4°C), and receptor independent. The...

  10. The first in Poland demonstrative ORC power plant of low power output

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Wladyslaw; Borsukiewicz-Gozdur, Aleksandra; Stachel, Aleksander A. [West Pomeranian Univ. of Technology, Szczecin (Poland); Klonowicz, Wojciech; Hanausek, Pawel [Turboservice Sp. z o.o., Lodz (Poland); Klonowicz, Piotr; Magiera, Radomir [Lodz Univ. of Technology (Poland)

    2010-07-01

    A description of the power plant working according to the organic Clausius-Rankine cycle (ORC) and developed at the Department of Heat Engineering (KTC), West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, is presented. The ORC power plant is powered by the low temperature heat of hot water with the temperature of up to 100 C. The hot water heat is here converted into mechanical energy that is generated by a turbine and used to drive a centrifugal air compressor. The ORC turbine is supplied with dry, saturated vapour of the R227ea working fluid of low boiling point. The working fluid vapour is generated in a combined preheater-evaporator heat exchanger. The results of calculations and experimental measurements are presented and supplemented with conclusions derived from the ORC power plant operation. Perspective modernization of the ORC power plant scheme is also outlined. (orig.)

  11. Bubbling fluidized bed boiler for Vanaja power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sormunen, R.; Haermae, P.; Vessonen, K.; Ketomaeki, A. [ed.

    1998-07-01

    At the Vanaja Power Plant, on the outskirts of Haemeenlinna, there have been changes which reflect the central goals in IVO`s product development work. At Vanaja, efficiency is combined with environmental friendliness. In the early 1980s, the plant was modernized to produce district heat in addition to electricity. At that time, along with the new gas turbine at the plant, the main fuel, coal, while remaining the fuel for the old boilers, was replaced by natural gas. This year a new type of bubbling fluidized bed boiler enabling continuous use of peat and trial use of biofuels along with coal was introduced at the plant. In addition to the Nordic countries, this kind of technology is required in central eastern Europe, where modernization of ageing power plants is being planned to achieve the best possible solutions in respect of production and the environment. IVO develops a new repair technique for underwater sites

  12. Preventive maintenance instrumentation results in Spanish nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomo Anaya, M. Jose; Verdu Martin, Gumersindo, E-mail: mpalomo@iqn.upv.es, E-mail: gverdu@iqn.upv.es [ISIRYM Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Valencia (Spain); Arnaldos Gonzalvez, Adoracion, E-mail: a.arnaldos@titaniast.com [TITANIA Servicios Tecnologicos SL, Valencia (Spain); Nieva, Marcelino Curiel, E-mail: m.curiel@lainsa.com [Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales SAU (LAINSA), Valencia (Spain)

    2011-07-01

    This paper is a recompilation of the most significant results in relation to the researching in Preventive and Predictive Maintenance in critical nuclear instrumentation for power plant operation, which it is being developed by Logistica y Acondicionamientos Industriales and The Isirym Institute of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. Instrumentation verification and test, it is a priority of the Power Plants Control and Instrumentation Department technicians. These procedures are necessary information for the daily power plant work. It is performed according to different procedures and in different moments of the fuel cycle depending on the instrumentation critical state and the monitoring process. Normally, this study is developed taking into account the instantaneous values of the instrumentation measures and, after their conversion to physical magnitude, they are analyzed according to the power plant operation point. Moreover, redundant sensors measurements are taken into consideration to the equipment and/or power plant monitoring. This work goes forward and it is in advanced to the instrument analysis as it is, independently of the operation point, using specific signal analysis techniques for preventive and predictive maintenance, with the aim to obtain not only information about possible malfunctions, but the degradation scale presented in the instrument or in the system measured. We present seven real case studies of Spanish Nuclear Power Plants each of them shall give a significant contribution to problem resolution and power plant performance: Fluctuations in sensor lines (case 1), Air presence in feed water lines (case 2), Root valve partially closed (case 3), Sensor malfunctions (case 4), Electrical source malfunctions (case 5), RTD malfunctions (case 6) and LPRM malfunctions (case 7). (author)

  13. Gas core reactor power plants designed for low proliferation potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowry, L.L. (comp.)

    1977-09-01

    The feasibility of gas core nuclear power plants to provide adequate power while maintaining a low inventory and low divertability of fissile material is studied. Four concepts were examined. Two used a mixture of UF/sub 6/ and helium in the reactor cavities, and two used a uranium-argon plasma, held away from the walls by vortex buffer confinement. Power levels varied from 200 to 2500 MWth. Power plant subsystems were sized to determine their fissile material inventories. All reactors ran, with a breeding ratio of unity, on /sup 233/U born from thorium. Fission product removal was continuous. Newly born /sup 233/U was removed continuously from the breeding blanket and returned to the reactor cavities. The 2500-MWth power plant contained a total of 191 kg of /sup 233/U. Less than 4 kg could be diverted before the reactor shut down. The plasma reactor power plants had smaller inventories. In general, inventories were about a factor of 10 less than those in current U.S. power reactors.

  14. HYBRID FUEL CELL-SOLAR CELL SPACE POWER SUBSYSTEM CAPABILITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report outlines the capabilities and limitations of a hybrid solar cell- fuel cell space power subsystem by comparing the proposed hybrid system...to conventional power subsystem devices. The comparisons are based on projected 1968 capability in the areas of primary and secondary battery, fuel ... cell , solar cell, and chemical dynamic power subsystems. The purpose of the investigation was to determine the relative merits of a hybrid power

  15. Investigation of valve failure problems in LWR power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-04-01

    An analysis of component failures from information in the computerized Nuclear Safety Information Center (NSIC) data bank shows that for both PWR and BWR plants the component category most responsible for approximately 19.3% of light water reactor (LWR) power plant shutdowns. This investigation by Burns and Roe, Inc. shows that the greatest cause of shutdowns in LWRs due to valve failures is leakage from valve stem packing. Both BWR plants and PWR plants have stem leakage problems (BWRs, 21% and PWRs, 34%).

  16. Analysis of engineering cycles power, refrigerating and gas liquefaction plant

    CERN Document Server

    Haywood, R W

    1991-01-01

    Extensively revised, updated and expanded, the fourth edition of this popular text provides a rigorous analytical treatment of modern energy conversion plant. Notable for both its theoretical and practical treatment of conventional and nuclear power plant, and its studies of refrigerating and gas-liquefaction plant. This fourth edition now includes material on topics of increasing concern in the fields of energy 'saving' and reduction of environmental pollution. This increased coverage deals specifically with the following areas: CHP (cogeneration) plant, studies of both gas and coal burning p

  17. Electric power plant emissions and public health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, A.B.; Roy, C. [Faculty of Maine Dartmouth Family Medical Residency, Fairfield, ME (United States)

    2008-02-15

    The generation of electric power is one important source of pollutants such as mercury, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and fine particulate matter that can affect the respiratory, cardiovascular, and central nervous systems and cause pregnancy complications. But protecting people from environmental health hazards has become increasingly complex. Air pollutants are often invisible and travel many miles virtually undetected. Nurses can play a critical role in preventive strategies, as well as in the national debate on energy production and dependence on fossil fuels.

  18. Plant stem cells as innovation in cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moruś, Martyna; Baran, Monika; Rost-Roszkowska, Magdalena; Skotnicka-Graca, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    The stem cells thanks to their ability of unlimited division number or transformation into different cell types creating organs, are responsible for regeneration processes. Depending on the organism in which the stem cells exists, they divide to the plant or animal ones. The later group includes the stem cells existing in both embryo's and adult human's organs. It includes, among others, epidermal stem cells, located in the hair follicle relieves and also in its basal layers, and responsible for permanent regeneration of the epidermis. Temporary science looks for method suitable for stimulation of the epidermis stem cells, amongst the other by delivery of e.g., growth factors for proliferation that decrease with the age. One of the methods is the use of the plant cell culture technology, including a number of methods that should ensure growth of plant cells, issues or organs in the environment with the microorganism-free medium. It uses abilities of the different plant cells to dedifferentiation into stem cells and coming back to the pluripotent status. The extracts obtained this way from the plant stem cells are currently used for production of both common or professional care cosmetics. This work describes exactly impact of the plant stem cell extract, coming from one type of the common apple tree (Uttwiler Spätlauber) to human skin as one of the first plant sorts, which are used in cosmetology and esthetic dermatology.

  19. [Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-03-01

    Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers.

  20. Chemistry in power plants 2011; Chemie im Kraftwerk 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    Within the VGB Powertech conference from 25th to 27th October, 2011, in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures and poster contributions were presented: (1) The revised VGB standard for water-steam-cycle Chemistry; (2) Switchover from neutral operation to oxygen treatment at the power station Stuttgart-Muenster of EnBW Kraftwerke AG; (3) Steam contamination with degradation products of organic matters present in the feedwater of the Lanxess-Rubber cogeneration plant; (4) Laboratory scale on-line noble metal deposition experiments simulating BWR plant conditions; (5) Building a new demin installation for the power plant EPZ in Borssele; (6) Replacement of the cooling tower installations in the nuclear power plant Goesgen-Daenien AG; (7) Aging of IEX resins in demin plants - Cost optimisation by adaptation of regenerants; (8) The largest DOW trademark EDI System at a combined cycled plant in Europe; (9) Upgrading river Main water to boiler feed water - Experiences with ultrafiltration; (10) Experiences with treatment of the water-steam-cycle in the RDF power plant Nehlsen Stavenhagen with film-forming amines; (11) Comparative modelling of the bubbles thermal collapse and cavitations for estimation of bubbles collapse influence; (12) Overcoming the steam quality - issues from an HRSG for the production of process steam; (13) Legionella - new requirements for power plant operation; (14) How the right chemistry in the FGD helps to improve the removal in the waste water treatment plant; (15) High efficiency filtration in dry/semi-dry FGD plants; (16) Expanding the variety of renewable fuels in the biomass power plant Timelkam using the chemical input control; (17) Corrosion, operating experiences and process improvements to increase the availability and operating time of the biomass power plant Timelkam; (18) The influence of temperature on the measurement of the conductivity of highly diluted solutions; (19) A multiparameter instrumentation approach

  1. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2004.

  2. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-10-27

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2005.

  3. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2005-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April 1 to June 30, 2005.

  4. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-07-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April 1 to June 30, 2006.

  5. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-04-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of January 1 to March 31, 2006.

  6. Boiler Materials for Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-01-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2005.

  7. Unit-sizing of hydro power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruzewski, P.; Rogeaux, C.; Laurier, P.

    2012-11-01

    In developing countries with great and unexploited renewable energy potential, Governments can exploit local resources for electricity supply, substantial energy savings and sustainable socio-economic development of these own countries. The decision-making process regarding the choice of renewable energy sources for energy supply in these countries is multidimensional, made up of a number of aspects at different levels such as economic, technical, environmental, and social. Therefore, reaching clear and unambiguous solutions may be very difficult. It is from this difficulty that the need arises to develop a tool for the design of hydro energy sources for electricity. The work involved in seeking a compromise solution requires an adequate technical assessment based on multiple criteria methods. One of the criteria is the assessment of the appropriate size of the hydropower plant. This paper presents the state-of-art of preliminary sizing of hydropower plant for the given renewable energy potential. The main step consists of carefully selecting and sizing the innovative hydraulic units based upon the suitability of the flow and head range. Since the flow and head data have now been confirmed, the potential annual energy generation can be properly assessed.

  8. Boiler Materials For Ultrasupercritical Coal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; M. Borden; W. Mohn; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2006-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). A limiting factor in this can be the materials of construction. The project goal is to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi). This goal seems achievable based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is further intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of July 1 to September 30, 2006.

  9. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-07-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of April to June 30, 2004.

  10. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; J. Shingledecker; J. Sarver; G. Stanko; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2004-04-23

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) have recently initiated a project aimed at identifying, evaluating, and qualifying the materials needed for the construction of the critical components of coal-fired boilers capable of operating at much higher efficiencies than current generation of supercritical plants. This increased efficiency is expected to be achieved principally through the use of ultrasupercritical steam conditions (USC). The project goal initially was to assess/develop materials technology that will enable achieving turbine throttle steam conditions of 760 C (1400 F)/35 MPa (5000 psi), although this goal for the main steam temperature had to be revised down to 732 C (1350 F), based on a preliminary assessment of material capabilities. The project is intended to build further upon the alloy development and evaluation programs that have been carried out in Europe and Japan. Those programs have identified ferritic steels capable of meeting the strength requirements of USC plants up to approximately 620 C (1150 F) and nickel-based alloys suitable up to 700 C (1300 F). In this project, the maximum temperature capabilities of these and other available high-temperature alloys are being assessed to provide a basis for materials selection and application under a range of conditions prevailing in the boiler. This report provides a quarterly status report for the period of October 1 to December 30, 2003.

  11. [On plant stem cells and animal stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yun; Jiang, Chao; Huang, Lu-Qi

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of plant and animal stem cells can highlight core aspects of stem-cell biology. In both kingdoms, stem cells are defined by their clonogenic properties and are maintained by intercellular signals. The signaling molecules are different in plants and animals stem cell niches, but the roles of argonaute and polycomb group proteins suggest that there are some molecular similarities.

  12. Simulating an ocean wave power plant with Homer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones S. Silva, Alexandre Beluco, Luiz Emílio B. de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, renewable resources have become an important alternative to increase the capacity of power generation. Among the resources available, the energy in the oceans have attracted more interest and experiencing a period of strong development. Wave energy is the one that is currently closest to reach a stage of technical and economic maturity. In this process, computational tools to facilitate evaluation of the feasibility of power systems including ocean wave power plants are critical. This paper presents the use of software Homer, version Legacy, for evaluation of technical and economic feasibility of hybrid energy systems including contribution of wave energy. Homer is a software designed for the optimization of micro power systems that has a very broad spectrum of applications. A case study in southern Brazil is presented, studying the inclusion of an ocean wave power plant in a wind biodiesel hybrid system and showing the functionality of Homer for this purpose.

  13. Business Intelligence Solutions for Wind Power Plants Operation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Vasilica OPREA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Union energy strategies imply significant changes in the power systems. These should contribute to sustainable development and protection of the environment by enabling the EU to achieve its targets set in the third package of legislative proposals for electricity and gas markets. Renewable energy sources (RES in Romania have been encouraged since 2007 and this lead to a large volume of projects. It took several years to have the first MW installed in wind power plants (WPP. Nowadays, the installed wind power in Romania is about 2642 MW, most of them (about 85% being concentrated in the south-eastern part of the country. Based on recorded data during four years in Romania, a couple of analyses have been performed. They contribute to a better integration of wind energy into power systems. This paper will describe how business intelligence solutions are applied on data regarding wind power plants operation and main conclusions that could be drawn.

  14. How to Avoid Severe Incidents at Pumped Storage Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Masashi; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2016-11-01

    Pumped storage is now increasing its importance as the most powerful and reliable tool for stabilizing the electrical network, especially under the increase of intermittent power sources like wind-power and solar-power. However, pumped storage power plants have generally more machinery troubles than the conventional hydropower plants and sometimes they encountered unexpected severe incidents having long-term outage and a considerable restoration cost. The present paper provides some study results about general tendencies of machinery troubles in pumped storage, some examples of severe incidents mainly about the electro-mechanical troubles but also about the flood and fire, and possible scenarios which may lead into a severe result. Finally, it provides lessons learned and some recommendations to avoid severe incidents based on experiences.

  15. Structural Materials and Fuels for Space Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Busby, Jeremy; Porter, Douglas

    2008-01-01

    A fission reactor combined with Stirling convertor power generation is one promising candidate in on-going Fission Surface Power (FSP) studies for future lunar and Martian bases. There are many challenges for designing and qualifying space-rated nuclear power plants. In order to have an affordable and sustainable program, NASA and DOE designers want to build upon the extensive foundation in nuclear fuels and structural materials. This talk will outline the current Fission Surface Power program and outline baseline design options for a lunar power plant with an emphasis on materials challenges. NASA first organized an Affordable Fission Surface Power System Study Team to establish a reference design that could be scrutinized for technical and fiscal feasibility. Previous papers and presentations have discussed this study process in detail. Considerations for the reference design included that no significant nuclear technology, fuels, or material development were required for near term use. The desire was to build upon terrestrial-derived reactor technology including conventional fuels and materials. Here we will present an overview of the reference design, Figure 1, and examine the materials choices. The system definition included analysis and recommendations for power level and life, plant configuration, shielding approach, reactor type, and power conversion type. It is important to note that this is just one concept undergoing refinement. The design team, however, understands that materials selection and improvement must be an integral part of the system development.

  16. Fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borisov, A.A.; Desjatov, A.V.; Izvolsky, I.M.; Serikov, A.G.; Smirnov, V.P.; Smirnov, Yu.N.; Shatalov, G.E.; Sheludjakov, S.V.; Vasiliev, N.N. E-mail: vasiliev@nfi.kiae.ru; Velikhov, E.P

    2001-11-01

    Development of industry and agriculture demands a huge fresh water consumption. Exhaust of water sources together with pollution arises a difficult problem of population, industry, and agriculture water supply. Request for additional water supply in next 50 years is expected from industrial and agricultural sectors of many countries in the world. The presented study of fusion power plant for water desalination and reuse is aimed to widen a range of possible fusion industrial applications. Fusion offers a safe, long-term source of energy with abundant resources and major environmental advantages. Thus fusion can provide an attractive energy option to society in the next century. Fusion power tokamak reactor based on RF DEMO-S project [Proc. ISFNT-5 (2000) in press; Conceptual study of RF DEMO-S fusion reactor (2000)] was chosen as an energy source. A steady state operation mode is considered with thermal power of 4.0 GW. The reactor has to operate in steady-state plasma mode with high fraction of bootstrap current. Average plant availability of {approx}0.7 is required. A conventional type of water cooled blanket is the first choice, helium or lithium coolants are under consideration. Desalination plant includes two units: reverse osmosis and distillation. Heat to electricity conversion schemes is optimized fresh water production and satisfy internal plant electricity demand The plant freshwater capacity is {approx}6000000 m{sup 3} per day. Fusion power plant of this capacity can provide a region of a million populations with fresh water, heat and electricity.

  17. Topping gas turbines improve steam power plant efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezuo, A. (Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany, F.R.). KWU Group)

    An interesting option for improving the efficiency and output of an existing conventional steam power plant is to convert it into a combined steam-and-gas cycle power plant by adding a topping gas turbine. The investment involved is relatively low, the payback period is short, and the low specific fuel consumption makes it possible to save on overall running costs. At the same time, the amount of residue for disposal and also pollutant emissions are drastically reduced. This article describes the configuration of a fully-fired combined-cycle power plant and discusses thermodynamic design and efficiency, operational aspects, emissions and residues and investment and economic viability. Both coal-fired and gas or oil-fired steam power plants can be converted by adding a topping cycle and the investment cost is about 20% of the cost of a new plant with the same output rating as the plant to be converted. Conversion reduces pollutant emission and residues produced (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO{sub 2}, dust, ash, gypsum, waste heat). 4 figs.

  18. Quantitative assessment of aquatic impacts of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenzie, D.H.; Arnold, E.M.; Skalski, J.R.; Fickeisen, D.H.; Baker, K.S.

    1979-08-01

    Progress is reported in a continuing study of the design and analysis of aquatic environmental monitoring programs for assessing the impacts of nuclear power plants. Analysis of data from Calvert Cliffs, Pilgrim, and San Onofre nuclear power plants confirmed the generic applicability of the control-treatment pairing design suggested by McKenzie et al. (1977). Substantial progress was made on the simulation model evaluation task. A process notebook was compiled in which each model equation was translated into a standardized notation. Individual model testing and evaluating was started. The Aquatic Generalized Environmental Impact Simulator (AGEIS) was developed and will be tested using data from Lake Keowee, South Carolina. Further work is required to test the various models and perfect AGEIS for impact analyses at actual power plant sites. Efforts on the hydrologic modeling task resulted in a compendium of models commonly applied to nuclear power plants and the application of two well-received hydrodynamic models to data from the Surry Nuclear Power Plant in Virginia. Conclusions from the study of these models indicate that slight inaccuracies of boundary data have little influence on mass conservation and accurate bathymetry data are necessary for conservation of mass through the model calculations. The hydrologic modeling task provides valuable reference information for model users and monitoring program designers.

  19. Insights into the Societal Risk of Nuclear Power Plant Accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Richard; Mubayi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    The elements of societal risk from a nuclear power plant accident are clearly illustrated by the Fukushima accident: land contamination, long-term relocation of large numbers of people, loss of productive farm area, loss of industrial production, and significant loss of electric capacity. NUREG-1150 and other studies have provided compelling evidence that the individual health risk of nuclear power plant accidents is effectively negligible relative to other comparable risks, even for people living in close proximity to a plant. The objective of this study is to compare the societal risk of nuclear power plant accidents to that of other events to which the public is exposed. We have characterized the monetized societal risk in the United States from major societally disruptive events, such as hurricanes, in the form of a complementary cumulative distribution function. These risks are compared with nuclear power plant risks, based on NUREG-1150 analyses and new MACCS code calculations to account for differences in source terms determined in the more recent SOARCA study. A candidate quantitative societal objective is discussed for potential adoption by the NRC. The results are also interpreted with regard to the acceptability of nuclear power as a major source of future energy supply.

  20. Design and construction of nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Schnell, Jürgen; Meiswinkel, Rüdiger; Bergmeister, Konrad; Fingerloos, Frank; Wörner, Johann-Dietrich

    2013-01-01

    Despite all the efforts being put into expanding renewable energy sources, large-scale power stations will be essential as part of a reliable energy supply strategy for a longer period. Given that they are low on CO2 emissions, many countries are moving into or expanding nuclear energy to cover their baseload supply.Building structures required for nuclear installations whose protective function means they are classified as safety-related, have to meet particular construction requirements more stringent than those involved in conventional construction. This book gives a comprehensive overv

  1. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Doorn, W.G.; Beers, E.P.; Dangl, J.L.;

    2011-01-01

    the classification of PCD in plants. Here we suggest a classification based on morphological criteria. According to this classification, the use of the term 'apoptosis' is not justified in plants, but at least two classes of PCD can be distinguished: vacuolar cell death and necrosis. During vacuolar cell death......Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about......, the cell contents are removed by a combination of autophagy-like process and release of hydrolases from collapsed lytic vacuoles. Necrosis is characterised by early rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinkage of the protoplast and absence of vacuolar cell death features. Vacuolar cell death is common during...

  2. Smart — STATCOM control strategy implementation in wind power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sintamarean, Nicolae Christian; Cantarellas, Antoni Mir; Miranda, H.;

    2012-01-01

    converters is increasing. This paper deals with an advanced control strategy design of a three-level converter performing STATCOM and Active Filter functionalities. The proposed system is called Smart-STATCOM since it has the capability of self-controlling reactive power and harmonic voltages at the same......High penetration of wind energy into the grid may introduce stability and power quality problems due to the fluctuating nature of the wind and the increasing complexity of the power system. By implementing advanced functionalities in power converters, it is possible to improve the performance...... of the wind farm and also to provide grid support, as it is required by the grid codes. One of the main compliance difficulties that can be found in such power plants are related to reactive power compensation and to keep the harmonics content between the allowed limits, even if the power of the WPP...

  3. Hydro power plants on the Middle Sava River section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryzanowski, A; Horvat, A; Brilly, M [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Civil and Geodetic Engineering, Chair of Hydrology and Hydraulic Engineering, Hajdrihova 28, Ljubljana (Slovenia)], E-mail: andrej.kryzanowski@geateh.si

    2008-11-01

    Construction of a chain of hydro power plants is planned on the Sava River from Medvode to the Slovenian-Croatian border which will, apart from the chain of HPPs on the Drava River, represent the linchpin of renewable energy production within the Slovenian power system. The mentioned chain of HPPs will also be one of the country's main renewable energy sources that can still be developed for power generation. Three hydro power plants, Moste, Mavccice and Medvode, are already operating on the Upper Sava River section. Construction of the chain is underway in the lower part of the stream where Vrhovo and Bosstanj HPPs are already in operation; HPP Blanca is under construction and the site planning procedures are taking place for Krsko, Brezice and Mokrice HPPs. The planned HPPs on the Middle Sava River section between Medvode and Zidani most will connect the HPPs on the Upper and Lower Sava River into a closed chain which will operate on the principle of run-of-river type power plants with daily storage. Completion of all stages will enable optimal development of available hydro potential. Apart from the energy effects, also other beneficial effects of hydro power plant construction in the region can be expected: flood protection; better water supply; waste water treatment; development of transport and energy networks as well as positive economic and social effects.

  4. Thermodynamic Analysis of Combined Cycle Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K.Tiwari,

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Air Bottoming Cycle (ABC can replace the heat recovery steam generator and the steam turbine of the conventionalcombined cycle plant. The exhaust energy of the topping gas turbine of existing combine cycle is sent to gas-air heat exchange, which heats the air in the secondary gas turbine cycle. In 1980’s the ABC was proposed as an alternative for the conventional steam bottoming cycle. In spite of the cost of reducing hardware installations it could achieve a thermal efficiency of 80%. The complete thermodynamic analysis of the system has been performed by using specially designed programme, enabling the variation of main independent variables. The result shows the gain in net work output as well as efficiency of combined cycle is 35% to 68%.

  5. Nuclear power plant safety related pump issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colaccino, J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper summarizes of a number of pump issues raised since the Third NRC/ASME Symposium on Valve and Pump Testing in 1994. General issues discussed include revision of NRC Inspection Procedure 73756, issuance of NRC Information Notice 95-08 on ultrasonic flow meter uncertainties, relief requests for tests that are determined by the licensee to be impractical, and items in the ASME OM-1995 Code, Subsection ISTB, for pumps. The paper also discusses current pump vibration issues encountered in relief requests and plant inspections - which include smooth running pumps, absolute vibration limits, and vertical centrifugal pump vibration measurement requirements. Two pump scope issues involving boiling water reactor waterlog and reactor core isolation cooling pumps are also discussed. Where appropriate, NRC guidance is discussed.

  6. Intelligent Component Monitoring for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefteri Tsoukalas

    2010-07-30

    Reliability and economy are two major concerns for a nuclear power generation system. Next generation nuclear power reactors are being developed to be more reliable and economic. An effective and efficient surveillance system can generously contribute toward this goal. Recent progress in computer systems and computational tools has made it necessary and possible to upgrade current surveillance/monitoring strategy for better performance. For example, intelligent computing techniques can be applied to develop algorithm that help people better understand the information collected from sensors and thus reduce human error to a new low level. Incidents incurred from human error in nuclear industry are not rare and have been proven costly. The goal of this project is to develop and test an intelligent prognostics methodology for predicting aging effects impacting long-term performance of nuclear components and systems. The approach is particularly suitable for predicting the performance of nuclear reactor systems which have low failure probabilities (e.g., less than 10-6 year-). Such components and systems are often perceived as peripheral to the reactor and are left somewhat unattended. That is, even when inspected, if they are not perceived to be causing some immediate problem, they may not be paid due attention. Attention to such systems normally involves long term monitoring and possibly reasoning with multiple features and evidence, requirements that are not best suited for humans.

  7. Smart Energy Management of Multiple Full Cell Powered Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammad S. Alam

    2007-04-23

    In this research project the University of South Alabama research team has been investigating smart energy management and control of multiple fuel cell power sources when subjected to varying demands of electrical and thermal loads together with demands of hydrogen production. This research has focused on finding the optimal schedule of the multiple fuel cell power plants in terms of electric, thermal and hydrogen energy. The optimal schedule is expected to yield the lowest operating cost. Our team is also investigating the possibility of generating hydrogen using photoelectrochemical (PEC) solar cells through finding materials for efficient light harvesting photoanodes. The goal is to develop an efficient and cost effective PEC solar cell system for direct electrolysis of water. In addition, models for hydrogen production, purification, and storage will be developed. The results obtained and the data collected will be then used to develop a smart energy management algorithm whose function is to maximize energy conservation within a managed set of appliances, thereby lowering O/M costs of the Fuel Cell power plant (FCPP), and allowing more hydrogen generation opportunities. The Smart Energy Management and Control (SEMaC) software, developed earlier, controls electrical loads in an individual home to achieve load management objectives such that the total power consumption of a typical residential home remains below the available power generated from a fuel cell. In this project, the research team will leverage the SEMaC algorithm developed earlier to create a neighborhood level control system.

  8. Catalysts of plant cell wall loosening

    OpenAIRE

    Cosgrove, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    The growing cell wall in plants has conflicting requirements to be strong enough to withstand the high tensile forces generated by cell turgor pressure while selectively yielding to those forces to induce wall stress relaxation, leading to water uptake and polymer movements underlying cell wall expansion. In this article, I review emerging concepts of plant primary cell wall structure, the nature of wall extensibility and the action of expansins, family-9 and -12 endoglucanases, family-16 xyl...

  9. [Genetic regulation of plant shoot stem cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al'bert, E V; Ezhova, T A

    2013-02-01

    This article describes the main features of plant stem cells and summarizes the results of studies of the genetic control of stem cell maintenance in the apical meristem of the shoot. It is demonstrated that the WUS-CLV gene system plays a key role in the maintenance of shoot apical stem cells and the formation of adventitious buds and somatic embryos. Unconventional concepts of plant stem cells are considered.

  10. Joint Operation of Several Types of Power Plants to Increasing Net Profit in Deregulated Power Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Sajedi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes joint operation of power plant and electric energy storage plant in order to maximizing overall profit in a restructured electricity market. The goal is investigating the coupling efficiency on profit increment considering various intensities of power plant’s fuel constraint. In order to reach this goal, the amount of overall profits of fuel-constrained power plant, battery plant and their coupling are first calculated in a specific time interval. Then, the coupling efficiency is determined using incremental profit rate. Having an appropriate strategy to calculate this parameter is essential. Hence, a comprehensive approach to selfschedule of individual and coupled plants is developed. This comprehensive self-scheduling approach is therefore formulated and solved as a Mixed Integer Non-linear Programming (MINLP problem. Numerical results for a case study are discussed.

  11. Reducing Power Penalty Related to PostCombustion CO2 Capture in Coal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Mihaela Negoi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering the important role of coal in energy security and in the same time the growing need to reduce CO2 emissions, amine-based post-combustion CO2 capture is considered as one of the most proper technologies to be implemented in coal fired power plants as well in natural gas fired plants, refinery gas, cement plants etc.. The main challenge for CO2 post-combustion is reducing the energy demand of the process, especially for solvent regeneration. In this paper, the energy reduction potential when waste heat of flue gases is integrated in the CO2 capture configuration scheme is discussed. The results are compared with a conventional coal power plant configuration when low-steam pressure is extracted from the water-steam cycle of the power plant.

  12. Wind Turbine and Wind Power Plant Modelling Aspects for Power System Stability Studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Göksu, Ömer;

    2014-01-01

    turbine model which is developed for the short-term voltage stability studies can be inaccurate and sufficient for the frequency stability studies. Accordingly, a complete and detailed wind power plant model for every kind of study is not feasible in terms of the computational time and also...... is not reasonable regarding the focus of the study. Therefore the power system operators should be aware of the modelling aspects of the wind power considering the related stability study and implement the required model in the appropriate power system toolbox. In this paper, the modelling aspects of wind turbines...... and wind power plants are reviewed for power system stability studies. Important remarks of the models are presented by means of simulations to emphasize the impact of these modelling details on the power system....

  13. Preparedness organisations at Nordic nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droeivoldsmo, A.; Porsmyr, J.; Nystad, E. (Institute for Energy Technology (IFE), Halden (Norway))

    2011-08-15

    The report presents an overview of Emergency Preparedness Organisations (EPO) in Sweden, Finland and Norway and presentations of insights from a study of the staff positions' work instructions in the command centre in an emergency situation. The results indicate potential for improvement in several areas. A number of the improvements are related to introduction of new technology and they should be seen in connection with ensuring safe and reliable communication lines and power supply. Analysis of the data identified four main categories where further studies could contribute to improvement: 1) Communication and exchange of information. 2) Tools and technology. 3) Staffing and organisation. 4) Procedures. The usefulness of the Man Technology and Organisation method in analysing the emergency management decision-making process within the authorities was considered as an interesting issue for continuation of the project. The interface between utility and authorities was pointed out as an important area for continuation. (Author)

  14. Bio-oil fueled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A. [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 and 1997 pyrolysis oil made of wood will be tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  15. Bio-oil fuelled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A. [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 pyrolysis oil made of wood was tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  16. Comparison of Power Plants Efficiency among 73 Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tser-Yieth Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Effective and efficient production of electricity is promised to be one of the critical factors to utilize energy for sustainable development. We employ data envelopment analysis (DEA, including undesirable CO2 emissions outputs, to evaluate power plants resource utilization efficiency within 73 countries in order to incorporate the global warming effect. We find that Asia enjoys the highest technical efficiency and European countries suffer from the lowest technical efficiency among Europe, Asia, and America continents. Besides, we compare models with and without CO2 emissions and find that they have significant differences among technical and pure technical efficiencies. We also set up three hypotheses to examine gross national product (GNP, urbanization, and electricity import level factors that potentially influence power plants efficiency by Tobit regression analysis. Results show that GNP and urbanization have significant effects on power plants efficiency except electricity import level.

  17. Appliance of software engineering in development of nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Y. W.; Kim, H. C.; Yun, C. [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, B. R. [KINS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-10-01

    Application of computer technology in nuclear power plant is also a necessary transformation as in other industry fields. But until now, application of software technology was not wide-spread because of its potential effect to safety in nuclear field. It is an urgent theme to develop evaluation guide and regulation techniques to guarantee safety, reliability and quality assurance. To meet these changes, techniques for development and operation should be enhanced to ensure the quality of software systems. In this study, we show the difference between waterfall model and software life-cycle needed in development of nuclear power plant and propose the consistent framework needed in development of instrumentation and control system of nuclear power plant.

  18. Gasification CFD Modeling for Advanced Power Plant Simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zitney, S.E.; Guenther, C.P.

    2005-09-01

    In this paper we have described recent progress on developing CFD models for two commercial-scale gasifiers, including a two-stage, coal slurry-fed, oxygen-blown, pressurized, entrained-flow gasifier and a scaled-up design of the PSDF transport gasifier. Also highlighted was NETL’s Advanced Process Engineering Co-Simulator for coupling high-fidelity equipment models with process simulation for the design, analysis, and optimization of advanced power plants. Using APECS, we have coupled the entrained-flow gasifier CFD model into a coal-fired, gasification-based FutureGen power and hydrogen production plant. The results for the FutureGen co-simulation illustrate how the APECS technology can help engineers better understand and optimize gasifier fluid dynamics and related phenomena that impact overall power plant performance.

  19. Study on evaluation system for Chinese nuclear power plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Song-bai; CHENG Jian-xiu

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyzes the meaning, structure, function and assessment methods of a nuclear power plant evaluation system, and the similarities and differences among various assessment methods. Based on this research an integrated and detailed suggestion is proposed on how to establish and improve internal and external evaluation systems for Chinese NPPs. It includes: to prepare and implement the nuclear power plant operational management program, to build an integrated performance indicator system, to improve the present audit system and conduct the comprehensive evaluation system, to set up and implement the integrated corrective action system, to position precisely the status of operation assessment of nuclear power plants, to conduct the assessment activities on constructing NPP, to initiate the specific assessment in some important areas, to establish industry performance indicator system, to improve the assessment methods, to share the assessment results, to select,cultivate and certify the reviewers, and to enhance international communication and cooperation.

  20. Pathological modifications of plant stem cell destiny

    Science.gov (United States)

    In higher plants, the shoot apex contains undifferentiated stem cells that give rise to various tissues and organs. The fate of these stem cells determines the pattern of plant growth as well as reproduction; and such fate is genetically preprogrammed. We found that a bacterial infection can derai...

  1. Plant cells: immobilization and oxygen transfer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulst, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The study described in this thesis is part of the integrated project 'Biotechnological production of non-persistent bioinsecticides by means of plant cells invitro ' and was done in close cooperation with the research Institute Ital within the framework of NOVAPLANT. The plant cells us

  2. Large Combined Heat and Power Plants for Sustainable Energy System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Rasmus Søgaard; Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    An energy supply based on 100% renewable energy in Denmark is the official goal for the Danish energy policy towards 2050. A smart energy system should be developed to integrate as much supply from fluctuating renewable sources and to utilise the scarce biomass resources as efficiently as possible....... CHP (combined heat and power) plants in Denmark will change their role from base load production to balancing the fluctuation in renewable energy supply, such as wind power and at the same time they have to change to renewable energy sources. Some solutions are already being planned by utilities...... in Denmark; conversion of pulverised fuel plants from coal to wood pellets and a circulating fluidised bed (CFB) plant for wood chips. From scientific research projects another solution is suggested as the most feasible; the combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) plant. In this study a four scenarios...

  3. High Rhine power plant Rheinfelden and hydroelectric power in Germany; Hochrheinkraftwerk Rheinfelden und Wasserkraft in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazurkiewicz, Jacek [EnBW Energie Baden-Wuerttemberg AG, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    In Germany, electric energy had been generated from water power since 1880; in the beginning, it was a dominating factor along with energy generation from coal, but it lost its importance as from 1950 when crude oil, natural gas and nuclear power became dominant. Since 1991, however, many small hydroelectric power plants have again been put into operation, or have been newly built, as a consequence of the government aids granted. In the Hochrhein (High Rhine) region, the German-Swiss power plant Rheinfelden was reconstructed, and other major hydroelectric power plants are being modernized. Technically, a much greater potential could be used, but this is currently not practicable for economical and ecological reasons. (orig.)

  4. A Fuzzy Control System of Turbine Rotate Speed and Power for a Power Plant Simulator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史小平; 王子才

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy control system of turbine rotate speed and power for a power plant simulator is designed. Rotate speed and power control is a rather important technique in a thermal power plant, because the rotate speed of the turbine rotor and the power of the generator must be enhanced gradually in order to prevent the relative expansion of the cylinder from increasing abruptly. The two parameters of a turbine used to be controlled manually or manual-automatically. To improve the control quality and the automation level, a fuzzy control method is developed for apower plant simulator to fit the DCS (Distributed Control System). The results of practical debugging on the simulator are shown in the paper to demonstrate the correctness and effectiveness of the presented fuzzy control law.

  5. Cell fusion and nuclear fusion in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Daisuke; Ohtsu, Mina; Higashiyama, Tetsuya

    2016-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells are surrounded by a plasma membrane and have a large nucleus containing the genomic DNA, which is enclosed by a nuclear envelope consisting of the outer and inner nuclear membranes. Although these membranes maintain the identity of cells, they sometimes fuse to each other, such as to produce a zygote during sexual reproduction or to give rise to other characteristically polyploid tissues. Recent studies have demonstrated that the mechanisms of plasma membrane or nuclear membrane fusion in plants are shared to some extent with those of yeasts and animals, despite the unique features of plant cells including thick cell walls and intercellular connections. Here, we summarize the key factors in the fusion of these membranes during plant reproduction, and also focus on "non-gametic cell fusion," which was thought to be rare in plant tissue, in which each cell is separated by a cell wall.

  6. Regulation of Power Conversion in Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Mu-zhong; ZHANG J.; K. Scott

    2004-01-01

    Here we report a regulation about power conversion in fuel cells. This regulation is expressed as that total power produced by fuel cells is always proportional to the square of the potential difference between the equilibrium potential and work potential. With this regulation we deduced fuel cell performance equation which can describe the potential vs. the current performance curves, namely, polarization curves of fuel cells with three power source parameters: equilibrium potential E0; internal resistance R; and power conversion coefficient K. The concept of the power conversion coefficient is a new criterion to evaluate and compare the characteristics and capacity of different fuel cells. The calculated values obtained with this equation agree with practical performance of different types of fuel cells.

  7. Annual Energy Production (AEP) optimization for tidal power plants based on Evolutionary Algorithms - Swansea Bay Tidal Power Plant AEP optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontoleontos, E.; Weissenberger, S.

    2016-11-01

    In order to be able to predict the maximum Annual Energy Production (AEP) for tidal power plants, an advanced AEP optimization procedure is required for solving the optimization problem which consists of a high number of design variables and constraints. This efficient AEP optimization procedure requires an advanced optimization tool (EASY software) and an AEP calculation tool that can simulate all different operating modes of the units (bidirectional turbine, pump and sluicing mode). The EASY optimization software is a metamodel-assisted Evolutionary Algorithm (MAEA) that can be used in both single- and multi-objective optimization problems. The AEP calculation tool, developed by ANDRITZ HYDRO, in combination with EASY is used to maximize the tidal annual energy produced by optimizing the plant operation throughout the year. For the Swansea Bay Tidal Power Plant project, the AEP optimization along with the hydraulic design optimization and the model testing was used to evaluate all different hydraulic and operating concepts and define the optimal concept that led to a significant increase of the AEP value. This new concept of a triple regulated “bi-directional bulb pump turbine” for Swansea Bay Tidal Power Plant (16 units, nominal power above 320 MW) along with its AEP optimization scheme will be presented in detail in the paper. Furthermore, the use of an online AEP optimization during operation of the power plant, that will provide the optimal operating points to the control system, will be also presented.

  8. Integrated Solar-Thermal Power Plants: TPP Bitola Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cingoski, Vlatko; Gelev, Saso; Stefanov, Goce; Sarac, Vasilija

    2016-01-01

    The potentials for usage of the solar energy as a renewable energy source, whether by its conversion only into heat, indirect conversion into electricity using a prior generated thermal energy, or direct conversion of solar energy into electric energy using the photoelectric effect, are enormous. This paper presents a study for the development of an integrated solar-thermal power plant (ISTPP) for repowering the existing goal-fired TPP Bitola. In the proposed plant, firstly sol...

  9. Optimum sizing of steam turbines for concentrated solar power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Poullikkas, Constantinos Rouvas, Ioannis Hadjipaschalis, George Kourtis

    2012-01-01

    In this work, a selection of the optimum steam turbine type and size for integration in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants is carried out. In particular, the optimum steam turbine input and output interfaces for a range of CSP plant capacity sizes are identified. Also, efficiency and electricity unit cost curves for various steam turbine capacities are estimated by using a combination of the Steam Pro software module of the Thermoflow Suite 18 package and the IPP v2.1 optimization software...

  10. Energy conversion/power plant cost-cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, K.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Kenneth Nichols, Barber-Nichols, Inc., is about cost-cutting in the energy conversion phase and power plant phase of geothermal energy production. Mr. Nichols discusses several ways in which improvements could be made, including: use of more efficient compressors and other equipment as they become available, anticipating reservoir resource decline and planning for it, running smaller binary systems independent of human operators, and designing plants so that they are relatively maintenance-free.

  11. Design and performance of a prototype fuel cell powered vehicle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, P.A.; Chamberlin, C.E. [Humboldt State Univ., Arcata, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The Schatz Energy Research Center (SERC) is now engaged in the Palm Desert Renewable Hydrogen Transportation System Project. The Project involves a consortium which includes the City of Palm Desert, SERC, the U.S. Department of Energy, the South Coast Air Quality Management District, and Sandia and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories. Its goal to develop a clean and sustainable transportation system for a community will be accomplished by producing a fleet of fuel cell vehicles, installing a refueling infrastructure utilizing hydrogen generated from solar and wind power, and developing and staffing a fuel cell service and diagnostic center. We will describe details of the project and performance goals for the fuel cell vehicles and associated peripheral systems. In the past year during the first stage in the project, SERC has designed and built a prototype fuel cell powered personal utility vehicle (PUV). These steps included: (1) Designing, building, and testing a 4.0 kW proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell as a power plant for the PUV. (2) Designing, building and testing peripherals including the air delivery, fuel storage/delivery, refueling, water circulation, cooling, and electrical systems. (3) Devising a control algorithm for the fuel cell power plant in the PUV. (4) Designing and building a test bench in which running conditions in the PUV could be simulated and the fuel cell and its peripheral systems tested. (5) Installing an onboard computer and associated electronics into the PUV (6) Assembling and road testing the PUV.

  12. Tecnatom support to new nuclear power plant projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manrique, A. B. [TECNATOM, S. A., Av. Montes de Oca 1, 28709 San Sebastian de los Reyes, Madrid (Spain)], e-mail: amanrique@tecnatom.es

    2009-10-15

    Tecnatom is a Spanish engineering company with more than 50 years of experience working for the nuclear industry all over the world. It has worked in over 30 countries in activities related to the operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. Along this half century of history. Tecnatom has been providing its services to nuclear utilities, regulators, NPP vendors, NPP owners / operators and nuclear fuel manufacturers not only in Spain but also abroad. It started to work in the design of new nuclear power plants in the early 90 s and since then has continued collaborating with different suppliers in the design and licensing of new reactors especially in the areas of plant systems design, man-machine interface design, main control room simulators building, training, qualification of equipment and PSI/ISI engineering services. Some challenges to the reactivation of nuclear power plants construction are common worldwide, including: regulatory processes, workforce availability, construction project management, etc. Being some keys to success the following: apply qualified resources, enough resources for early planning, project leadership, organization and integration, establish a strong integrated management team. The goal of this paper is to inform regarding the capabilities of Tecnatom in the construction of new power plants. (Author)

  13. Public controversies reveal wood-fired electric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frankena, F.

    1989-04-01

    This article reviews four critical controversies surrounding proposals to develop wood-fired power plants (WFPP)-two in Michigan and two in California. Three were defeated and one was built, and all were enveloped in controversy. Increased environmental awareness and the social movement it inspired redefined technology as a social problem. The author discusses the Hersey, Michigan proposal for a wood burning power plant and how the public defeated the plan through the local government. He states that if WFPP are to ever be successful, it must be proven that they are environmentally acceptable.

  14. High efficiency USC power plant - present status and future potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blum, R. [Faelleskemikerne I/S Fynsvaerket (Denmark); Hald, J. [Elsam/Elkraft/TU Denmark (Denmark)

    1998-12-31

    Increasing demand for energy production with low impact on the environment and minimised fuel consumption can be met with high efficient coal fired power plants with advanced steam parameters. An important key to this improvement is the development of high temperature materials with optimised mechanical strength. Based on the results of more than ten years of development a coal fired power plant with an efficiency above 50 % can now be realised. Future developments focus on materials which enable an efficiency of 52-55 %. (orig.) 25 refs.

  15. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  16. Geothermal power plants principles, applications, case studies and environmental impact

    CERN Document Server

    DiPippo, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    Ron DiPippo, Professor Emeritus at the University of Massachusetts Dartmouth, is a world-regarded geothermal expert. This single resource covers all aspects of the utilization of geothermal energy for power generation from fundamental scientific and engineering principles. The thermodynamic basis for the design of geothermal power plants is at the heart of the book and readers are clearly guided on the process of designing and analysing the key types of geothermal energy conversion systems. Its practical emphasis is enhanced by the use of case studies from real plants that increase the reader'

  17. Cable fire risk of a nuclear power plant; Ydinvoimalaitoksen kaapelipaloriski

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aulamo, H.

    1998-02-01

    The aim of the study is to carry out a comprehensive review of cable fire risk issues of nuclear power plants (NPP) taking into account latest fire and risk assessment research results. A special emphasis is put on considering the fire risk analysis of cable rooms in the framework of TVO Olkiluoto NPP probabilistic safety assessment. The assumptions made in the analysis are assessed. The literature study section considers significant fire events at nuclear power plants, the most severe of which have nearly led to a reactor core damage (Browns Ferry, Greifswald, Armenia, Belojarsk, Narora). Cable fire research results are also examined. 62 refs.

  18. Assessment of CCGT power plants - Comparison between new and repowering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giger, Francois; Lehougre, Jean-Francois [EDF/DPIT, Staint Denis (France)

    2013-04-01

    Since 2007, EDF has repowered the Martigues conventional oil-fired power plant and erected two 460 MWe combined cycle units with natural gas firing. The first unit went on line in 2012, the second is to be connected to the grid in 2013. A completely new 440 MWe combined cycle power plant was built at the Blenod site which went into operation in the autumn of 2011. Both projects were realised by EDF-in-house engineering teams. Post-building analysis confirmed the economic benefit anticipated at basic design stage of the repowering approach compared to a green field construction.

  19. A systems assessment of the five Starlite tokamak power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathke, C.G.

    1996-07-01

    The ARIES team has assessed the power-plant attractiveness of the following five tokamak physics regimes: (1) steady state, first stability regime; (2) pulsed, first stability regime; (3) steady state, second stability regime; (4) steady state, reversed shear; and (5) steady state, low aspect ratio. Cost-based systems analysis of these five tokamak physics regimes suggests that an electric power plant based upon a reversed-shear tokamak is significantly more economical than one based on any of the other four physics regimes. Details of this comparative systems analysis are described herein.

  20. Naegleria fowleri in cooling waters of power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerva, L.; Kasprzak, W.; Mazur, T.

    1982-01-01

    Six strains of nonvirulent and three strains of virulent variants of Naegleria fowleri amoebae were isolated from the examined cooling water samples from 9 power plants. The virulent variants were obtained solely from effluents discharged from power plants with a closed-circuit cooling N. fowleri was not detected outside the reach of the thermal pollution. A disinfection of out-flowing cooling water seems to be an unnecessary investment in our climate. Warm discharge water should under no conditions be used directly for sports and recreational purposes.

  1. A methodology for evaluating ``new`` technologies in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1994-06-01

    As obsolescence and spare parts issues drive nuclear power plants to upgrade with new technology (such as optical fiber communication systems), the ability of the new technology to withstand stressors present where it is installed needs to be determined. In particular, new standards may be required to address qualification criteria and their application to the nuclear power plants of tomorrow. This paper discusses the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber optic communication systems, and suggests a methodology for identifying when accelerated aging should be performed during qualification testing.

  2. Design data and safety features of commerical nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heddleson, F.A.

    1976-06-01

    Design data, safety features, and site characteristics are summarized for 34 nuclear power units in 17 power stations in the United States. Six pages of data are presented for each plant, consisting of thermal-hydraulic and nuclear factors, containment features, emergency-core-cooling systems, site features, circulating water system data, and miscellaneous factors. An aerial perspective is also presented for each plant. This volume covers Light Water Reactors (LWRs) with dockets 50-508 through 50-549, four HTGRs--50-171, 50-267, 50-450/451, 50-463/464, the Atlantic Floating Station 50-477/478, and the Clinch River Breeder 50-537.

  3. Reliability methods in nuclear power plant ageing management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simola, K. [VTT Automation, Espoo (Finland). Industrial Automation

    1999-07-01

    The aim of nuclear power plant ageing management is to maintain an adequate safety level throughout the lifetime of the plant. In ageing studies, the reliability of components, systems and structures is evaluated taking into account the possible time-dependent degradation. The phases of ageing analyses are generally the identification of critical components, identification and evaluation of ageing effects, and development of mitigation methods. This thesis focuses on the use of reliability methods and analyses of plant- specific operating experience in nuclear power plant ageing studies. The presented applications and method development have been related to nuclear power plants, but many of the approaches can also be applied outside the nuclear industry. The thesis consists of a summary and seven publications. The summary provides an overview of ageing management and discusses the role of reliability methods in ageing analyses. In the publications, practical applications and method development are described in more detail. The application areas at component and system level are motor-operated valves and protection automation systems, for which experience-based ageing analyses have been demonstrated. Furthermore, Bayesian ageing models for repairable components have been developed, and the management of ageing by improving maintenance practices is discussed. Recommendations for improvement of plant information management in order to facilitate ageing analyses are also given. The evaluation and mitigation of ageing effects on structural components is addressed by promoting the use of probabilistic modelling of crack growth, and developing models for evaluation of the reliability of inspection results. (orig.)

  4. Dealing with uncertainties in fusion power plant conceptual development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, R.; Lux, H.; Kovari, M.; Morris, J.; Wenninger, R.; Zohm, H.; Biel, W.; Federici, G.

    2017-04-01

    Although the ultimate goal of most current fusion research is to build an economically attractive power plant, the present status of physics and technology does not provide the performance necessary to achieve this goal. Therefore, in order to model how such plants may operate and what their output might be, extrapolations must be made from existing experimental data and technology. However, the expected performance of a plant built to the operating point specifications can only ever be a ‘best guess’. Extrapolations far beyond the current operating regimes are necessarily uncertain, and some important interactions, for example the coupling of conducted power from the scape-off layer to the divertor surface, lack reliable predictive models. This means both that the demands on plant systems at the target operating point can vary significantly from the nominal value, and that the overall plant performance may potentially fall short of design targets. In this contribution we discuss tools and techniques that have been developed to assess the robustness of the operating points for the EU-DEMO tokamak-based demonstration power plant, and the consequences for its design. The aim is to make explicit the design choices and areas where improved modelling and DEMO-relevant experiments will have the greatest impact on confidence in a successful DEMO design.

  5. Microtubule networks for plant cell division

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, de Jeroen; Mulder, B.M.; Janson, M.E.

    2014-01-01

    During cytokinesis the cytoplasm of a cell is divided to form two daughter cells. In animal cells, the existing plasma membrane is first constricted and then abscised to generate two individual plasma membranes. Plant cells on the other hand divide by forming an interior dividing wall, the so-called

  6. The Conceptual Design of a Tidal Power Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia-Shiuan Tsai

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Located on the northwestern of Taiwan, the Matsu archipelago is near mainland China and comprises four islands: Nangan, Beigan, Juguang, and Dongyin. The population of Matsu totals 11,196 and is chiefly concentrated on Nangan and Beigan. From 1971 to 2000, Matsu built five oil-fired power plants with a total installed capacity of 47 MW. However, the emissions and noise generated by the oil-fired power plant has caused damage to Matsu’s environment, and the cost of fuel is high due to the long-distance shipping from Taiwan. Developing renewable energy in Matsu has therefore been a fervent topic for the Taiwan government, and tidal power is considered to be of the highest priority due to Matsu’s large tidal range (4.29 m in average and its semidiurnal tide. Moreover, the islands of Nangan and Beigan are composed of granite and have natural harbors, rendering them ideal places for coastal engineering of tidal power plants. This paper begins with a renewable energy reserves assessment in Matsu to determine the amount of tidal energy. Next, a tidal turbine type of the lowest cost is chosen, and then its dynamic characteristic, performance, and related design are analyzed. Finally, the coastal engineering condition was investigated, and a conceptual design for tidal power plant is proposed.

  7. Planning of a Quadgeneration power plant for Jammerbugt energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Hoffmann, Jessica; Rosendahl, Lasse

    2011-01-01

    Quadgeneration is the simultaneous production of power, heat and cooling and different fuels from flexible feedstocks such as biomass, waste, refinery residue etc. In order to accommodate more renewable energy into the energy system, it is extremely necessary to develop new flexible power plants...... heating energy technology into a Quadgeneration energy system at Jammerbugt municipality in the north of Denmark in a creative and innovative manner that can reduce CO2 emission and fuel limitations, whilst not compromising security of delivering heat and power to the local resident. So, it is essential...... of some equipments in the Quadgeneration power plant. This paper presents two models for the investment planning of a Quadgeneration energy system in Jammerbugt municipality, and uses these models for different case studies addressing the system for production of heat, cooling, liquid fuels...

  8. Direct steam generation (DSG) solar thermal power plant in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukchai, Sukruedee; Chramsa-ard, Wisut; Sonsaree, Sorawit; Boonsu, Rungrudee [Naresuan Univ., Phitsanulok (Thailand). School of Renewable Energy Technology; Krueger, Joachim; Pandian, Yuvaraj [Solarlite GmbH, Duckwitz (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the total electricity consumption in Thailand was 149,301 GWh, increased by 10.5% compared with that in the previous year. The economic sector accounting for the highest share of national electricity consumption was the industrial sector, holding a share of 46%; while the household and commercial sectors accounted for a share of 22% and 15% respectively. The electricity is generated from natural gas, coal, oil, hydro, import and other of 72%, 18%, 0.4%, 3%, 4%, and 2% respectively. In the past, the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand (EGAT) was the sole power producer. Later, the government had formulated a policy promoting the private sector role in the power generation sector in order to encourage competition in the generation business. Currently, it is resulting in a growing number of Very Small Power Producers (VSPP), using renewable energy as main fuel, supplying power to the grid. In this presentation, general background and situation of solar thermal power plant (DSG) in Thailand will be presented. The resource potential which presented by solar map for the central, north and northeast parts of the country is quite clear sky that receive the highest direct normal irradiation of 1,350 - 1,400 kWh/m{sup 2}-year stand for 43% of the total areas of the country. Together with the high direct normal irradiation is received during summer from January to April about 14-17 MJ/m{sup 2}-day. The first of solar thermal power plant in Thailand is presented. Solar energy development that is one of renewable energy promotion program in the nation master plan has been reviewed and discussed to indicate the recommendation. Barriers as educational, technical and financial to promote solar thermal power plant is also presented. From the investigation, this presentation proposes some idea to be the guideline for policy setting, overcome the solar thermal power plant barrier in Thailand. (orig.)

  9. FGD Franchising Pilot Project of Thermal Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    According to the national policy on enhancing environmental protection,the five major power generation companies are required to carry out flue gas desulphurization(FGD) franchising pilot project in thermal power plants.This paper introduces the development of this pilot project,including the foundation,purpose,objects,demands and procedures.It also discusses some main problems encountered during implementation,involving the understanding,legislation,financing,taxation,pricing and management of franchise.At...

  10. Aging management guideline for commercial nuclear power plants - heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booker, S.; Lehnert, D.; Daavettila, N.; Palop, E.

    1994-06-01

    This Aging Management Guideline (AMG) describes recommended methods for effective detection and mitigation of age-related degradation mechanisms in commercial nuclear power plant heat exchangers important to license renewal. The intent of this AMG is to assist plant maintenance and operations personnel in maximizing the safe, useful life of these components. It also supports the documentation of effective aging management programs required under the License Renewal Rule 10 CFR 54. This AMG is presented in a manner that allows personnel responsible for performance analysis and maintenance to compare their plant-specific aging mechanisms (expected or already experienced) and aging management program activities to the more generic results and recommendations presented herein.

  11. High-speed simulation of transients in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wulff, W.; Cheng, H.S.; Lekach, S.V.; Mallen, A.N.

    1984-01-01

    A combination of advanced modeling techniques and modern, special-purpose peripheral minicomputer technology is presented which affords realistic predictions of plant transient and severe off-normal events in LWR power plants through on-line simulations at a speed ten times greater than actual process speeds. Results are shown for a BWR plant simulation. Results are shown to demonstrate computing capacity, accuracy, and speed. Simulation speeds have been achieved which are 110 times larger than those of a CDC-7600 mainframe computer or ten times greater than real-time speed.

  12. CONCEPT-5 user's manual. [Power plant costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1979-01-01

    The CONCEPT computer code package was developed to provide conceptual capital cost estimates for nuclear-fueled and fossil-fired power plants. Cost estimates can be made as a function of plant type, size, location, and date of initial operation. The output includes a detailed breakdown of the estimate into direct and indirect costs similar to the accounting system described in document NUS--531. Cost models are currently provided in CONCEPT 5 for single- and multiunit pressurized-water reactors, boiling-water reactors, and cost-fired plants with and without flue gas desulfurization equipment.

  13. External costs of material recycling strategies for fusion power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallberg, B. E-mail: bengt.hallberg@studsvik.se; Aquilonius, K.; Lechon, Y.; Cabal, H.; Saez, R.M.; Schneider, T.; Lepicard, S.; Ward, D.; Hamacher, T.; Korhonen, R

    2003-09-01

    This paper is based on studies performed within the framework of the project Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF3). Several fusion power plant designs (SEAFP Models 1-6) were compared focusing on part of the plant's life cycle: environmental impact of recycling the materials. Recycling was considered for materials replaced during normal operation, as well as materials from decommissioning of the plant. Environmental impact was assessed and expressed as external cost normalised with the total electrical energy output during plant operation. The methodology used for this study has been developed by the Commission of the European Union within the frame of the ExternE project. External costs for recycling, normalised with the energy production during plant operation, are very low compared with those for other energy sources. Results indicate that a high degree of recycling is preferable, at least when considering external costs, because external costs of manufacturing of new materials and disposal costs are higher.

  14. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were

  15. Enzymatic Modification of Plant Cell Wall Polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Øbro, Jens; Hayashi, Takahisa; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2011-01-01

    fibres, hydrocolloids, paper,textile, animal feeds or biofuels. Classical microbial-based fermentation systems could in the future face serious competition from plant-based expression systems for enzyme production. Plant expressed enzymes can either be targeted to specific cellular compartments......Plant cell walls are intricate structures with remarkable properties, widely used in almost every aspect of our life. Cell walls consist largely of complex polysaccharides and there is often a need for chemical and biochemical processing before industrial use. There is an increasing demand...... for sustainable processes that replace chemical treatments with white biotechnology. Plants can contribute significantly to this sustainable process by producing plant or microbialenzymes in planta that are necessary for plant cell wall modification or total degradation. This will give rise to superior food...

  16. Power up your plant - An introduction to integrated process and power automation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasel, Jeffrey

    2010-09-15

    This paper discusses how a single integrated system can increase energy efficiency, improve plant uptime, and lower life cycle costs. Integrated Process and Power Automation is a new system integration architecture and power strategy that addresses the needs of the process and power generation industries. The architecture is based on Industrial Ethernet standards such as IEC 61850 and Profinet as well as Fieldbus technologies. The energy efficiency gains from integration are discussed in a power generation use case. A power management system success story from a major oil and gas company, Petrobras, is also discussed.

  17. Determination of Main Noise Sources in a Thermal Power plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jahangiri

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The Power plants are as the major industries that have a large number of workers, providing they health is important. Exposure to occupational noise is the pervasive physical agent in industries like power plants and may impact health and for safety status for people. Determination of the sources of noise in workplaces is important step in noise control plans. This study aimed to assess noise pollution and determine the main sources of noise in a power plant for. .Material and Method: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on the ground floor of the turbine unit of a thermal power plant. Measurements was done based on the ISO-9612 and ISO-11200 standard using by the calibrated sound level meter model TES-1389 on “A” frequency weighting and “Slow” mode for time response. Surfer V.10 software was used for interpolation and noise maps producing. Based on grid method measuring for indicating of noise propagation, we set buffer of danger areas to determine main sources of noise. Also, we used the minimized grid method for measuring and study of noise denotation in vertical surface in each main sources. .Result: The results showed that the measured indoor sound pressure level in all areas where at the risk category of the units. The highest average sound pressure level was belonged to the unit 2, with 93.1 dB(A. We find the feed water pumps were the main sources in all of the studied units. Among the four main components of the main sources, the highest noise levels associated with the main pump and the gearbox section with about 100 9B(L and dominant frequency of 2000 Hz. .Conclusion: Considering that feed water pumps had major sources in indoor power plant noise pollution, engineering noise control such as providing enclosures is necessary to reduce noise pollution to safe levels in the studied plant it is necessary.

  18. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were

  19. Thermoeconomic Analysis of Hybrid Power Plant Concepts for Geothermal Combined Heat and Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heberle

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We present a thermo-economic analysis for a low-temperature Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC in a combined heat and power generation (CHP case. For the hybrid power plant, thermal energy input is provided by a geothermal resource coupled with the exhaust gases of a biogas engine. A comparison to alternative geothermal CHP concepts is performed by considering variable parameters like ORC working fluid, supply temperature of the heating network or geothermal water temperature. Second law efficiency as well as economic parameters show that hybrid power plants are more efficient compared to conventional CHP concepts or separate use of the energy sources.

  20. Construction of two 1000-MW units launched in Laizhou Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On March 10, the f irst construction phase of Huadian International Laizhou Power Plant with two 1 000-MW class generating units was formally started. This power plant is a key power source project of Shandong Province

  1. Plant cell proliferation inside an inorganic host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perullini, Mercedes; Rivero, María Mercedes; Jobbágy, Matías; Mentaberry, Alejandro; Bilmes, Sara A

    2007-01-10

    In recent years, much attention has been paid to plant cell culture as a tool for the production of secondary metabolites and the expression of recombinant proteins. Plant cell immobilization offers many advantages for biotechnological processes. However, the most extended matrices employed, such as calcium-alginate, cannot fully protect entrapped cells. Sol-gel chemistry of silicates has emerged as an outstanding strategy to obtain biomaterials in which living cells are truly protected. This field of research is rapidly developing and a large number of bacteria and yeast-entrapping ceramics have already been designed for different applications. But even mild thermal and chemical conditions employed in sol-gel synthesis may result harmful to cells of higher organisms. Here we present a method for the immobilization of plant cells that allows cell growth at cavities created inside a silica matrix. Plant cell proliferation was monitored for a 6-month period, at the end of which plant calli of more than 1 mm in diameter were observed inside the inorganic host. The resulting hybrid device had good mechanical stability and proved to be an effective barrier against biological contamination, suggesting that it could be employed for long-term plant cell entrapment applications.

  2. Optimal operation of cascaded hydroelectric power plants in the power market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡兴国; 马平; 林士颖

    2004-01-01

    An improved network flow algorithm, which includes the minimum cost network flow and the same period network flow, is proposed to solve the optimization of cascaded hydroelectric power plants in a competitive electricity market. The typical network flow is used to find the feasible flow and add the discharge water to different cascaded hydroelectric power plants at the same step. The same period network flow is used to find the optimal flow and add the power output at a different step. This new algorithm retains the advantages of the typical network flow, such as simplicity and ease of realization. The result of the case analysis indicates that the new algorithm can achieve high calculation precision and can be used to calculate the optimal operation of cascaded hydroelectric power plants.

  3. Compost in plant microbial fuel cell for bioelectricity generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moqsud, M A; Yoshitake, J; Bushra, Q S; Hyodo, M; Omine, K; Strik, David

    2015-02-01

    Recycling of organic waste is an important topic in developing countries as well as developed countries. Compost from organic waste has been used for soil conditioner. In this study, an experiment has been carried out to produce green energy (bioelectricity) by using paddy plant microbial fuel cells (PMFCs) in soil mixed with compost. A total of six buckets filled with the same soil were used with carbon fiber as the electrodes for the test. Rice plants were planted in five of the buckets, with the sixth bucket containing only soil and an external resistance of 100 ohm was used for all cases. It was observed that the cells with rice plants and compost showed higher values of voltage and power density with time. The highest value of voltage showed around 700 mV when a rice plant with 1% compost mixed soil was used, however it was more than 95% less in the case of no rice plant and without compost. Comparing cases with and without compost but with the same number of rice plants, cases with compost depicted higher voltage to as much as 2 times. The power density was also 3 times higher when the compost was used in the paddy PMFCs which indicated the influence of compost on bio-electricity generation.

  4. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov).

  5. Radon measurements in the Catalagzi Thermal Power Plant, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aytekin, H; Bayata, S; Baldik, R; Celebi, N

    2008-01-01

    The Catalağzi Thermal Power Plant (CTPP) (41(0)30'48.4('')N and 0.31(0)53'41.5('')E) is located at nearly 13 km North-east of Zonguldak city, which is located at the West Black Sea coast in Turkey. The middling products with high ash content of bituminous coals are used in this plant. Seasonal radon concentration measurements have been carried out by using CR-39 plastic track detectors in and around the CTPP. The annual average radon concentration has been found to vary from a minimum of 39.8 +/- 28.9 Bq m(-3) in the ash area to a maximum of approximately 75.0 +/- 15.7 Bq m(-3) in the service building of the power plant. The annual average radon concentration in the dwellings of the thermal power plant colony of the plant is 71.0 +/- 33.4 Bq m(-3). The effective dose has been found to vary from 0.38 to 0.71 mSv y(-1) with a mean value of 0.56 mSv y(-1), which is lower than the effective dose values 3-10 mSv given as the range of action levels recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection: Protection against radon-222 at home and at work, ICRP Publication 65 (1993).

  6. Radon measurements in the Catalagzi Thermal Power Plant, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aytekin, H.; Bayata, S.; Baldik, R.; Celebi, N. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Dept. of Physics

    2008-01-15

    The Catalagzi Thermal Power Plant (CTPP) is located at nearly 13 km North-east of Zonguldak city, which is located at the West Black Sea coast in Turkey. The middling products with high ash content of bituminous coals are used in this plant. Seasonal radon concentration measurements have been carried out by using CR-39 plastic track detectors in and around the CTPP. The annual average radon concentration has been found to vary from a minimum of 39.8 {+-} 28.9 Bq m{sup -3}) in the ash area to a maximum of about to 75.0 {+-} 15.7 Bq m{sup -3} in the service building of the power plant. The annual average radon concentration in the dwellings of the thermal power plant colony of the plant is 71.0 {+-} 33.4 Bq m{sup -3}. The effective dose has been found to vary from 0.38 to 0.71 mSv y{sup -1} with a mean value of 0.56 mSv y{sup -1}, which is lower than the effective dose values 3-10 mSv given as the range of action levels recommended by International Commission on Radiological Protection: Protection against radon-222 at home and at work, ICRP Publication 65 (1993).

  7. Maintenance of process instrumentation in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Hashemian, H M

    2006-01-01

    Compiles 30 years of practical knowledge gained by the author and his staff in testing the I and C systems of nuclear power plants around the world. This book focuses on process temperature and pressure sensors and the verification of these sensors' calibration and response time.

  8. Power Plants, Steam and Gas Turbines WebQuest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulloa, Carlos; Rey, Guillermo D.; Sánchez, Ángel; Cancela, Ángeles

    2012-01-01

    A WebQuest is an Internet-based and inquiry-oriented learning activity. The aim of this work is to outline the creation of a WebQuest entitled "Power Generation Plants: Steam and Gas Turbines." This is one of the topics covered in the course "Thermodynamics and Heat Transfer," which is offered in the second year of Mechanical…

  9. Delays in nuclear power plant construction. Volume II. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, G.E.; Larew, R.E.; Borcherding, J.D.; Okes, S.R. Jr.; Rad, P.F.

    1977-12-14

    The report identifies barriers to shortening nuclear power plant construction schedules and recommends research efforts which should minimize or eliminate the identified barriers. The identified barriers include (1) Design and Construction Interfacing Problems; (2) Problems Relating to the Selection and Use of Permanent Materials and Construction Methods; (3) Construction Coordination and Communication Problems; and (4) Problems Associated with Manpower Availability and Productivity.

  10. Discussion on: "Profit maximization of a power plant"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boomsma, Trine Krogh; Fleten, Stein-Erik

    2012-01-01

    objection applies to this figure. It should be noted that DONG Energy operates at Nord Pool, where such plans are piece-wise constant hour by hour. However, given both smaller and larger power ripples lasting for only minutes, the figure most likely shows the actual production of the plant. This indicates...

  11. 76 FR 75771 - Emergency Planning Guidance for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Commission. ACTION: Issuance of NUREG documents and interim staff guidance. SUMMARY: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing Supplement 3, ``Guidance for Protective Action Strategies,'' to NUREG... Guidance Emergency Planning for Nuclear Power Plants;'' and NUREG/CR-7002, ``Criteria for Development...

  12. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2007. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  13. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  14. 75 FR 13323 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-59, which authorizes operation...

  15. 75 FR 16520 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No. DPR-59, which authorizes operation...

  16. Mathematical Safety Assessment Approaches for Thermal Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Xiao Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available How to use system analysis methods to identify the hazards in the industrialized process, working environment, and production management for complex industrial processes, such as thermal power plants, is one of the challenges in the systems engineering. A mathematical system safety assessment model is proposed for thermal power plants in this paper by integrating fuzzy analytical hierarchy process, set pair analysis, and system functionality analysis. In the basis of those, the key factors influencing the thermal power plant safety are analyzed. The influence factors are determined based on fuzzy analytical hierarchy process. The connection degree among the factors is obtained by set pair analysis. The system safety preponderant function is constructed through system functionality analysis for inherence properties and nonlinear influence. The decision analysis system is developed by using active server page technology, web resource integration, and cross-platform capabilities for applications to the industrialized process. The availability of proposed safety assessment approach is verified by using an actual thermal power plant, which has improved the enforceability and predictability in enterprise safety assessment.

  17. Global thermal pollution of rivers from thermoelectric power plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raptis, C.E.; Vliet, van M.T.H.; Pfister, S.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide riverine thermal pollution patterns were investigated by combining mean annual heat rejection rates from power plants with once-through cooling systems with the global hydrological-water temperature model variable infiltration capacity (VIC)-RBM. The model simulates both streamflow and

  18. Choosing Actuators for Automatic Control Systems of Thermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunov, A. I., E-mail: gor@tornado.nsk.ru [JSC “Tornado Modular Systems” (Russian Federation); Serdyukov, O. V. [Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Automation and Electrometry (Russian Federation)

    2015-03-15

    Two types of actuators for automatic control systems of thermal power plants are analyzed: (i) pulse-controlled actuator and (ii) analog-controlled actuator with positioning function. The actuators are compared in terms of control circuit, control accuracy, reliability, and cost.

  19. Evaluation and assessment of nuclear power plant seismic methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernreuter, D.; Tokarz, F.; Wight, L.; Smith, P.; Wells, J.; Barlow, R.

    1977-03-01

    The major emphasis of this study is to develop a methodology that can be used to assess the current methods used for assuring the seismic safety of nuclear power plants. The proposed methodology makes use of system-analysis techniques and Monte Carlo schemes. Also, in this study, we evaluate previous assessments of the current seismic-design methodology.

  20. Innovative Technology Reduces Power Plant Emissions - Commercialization Success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Clyde

    2004-01-01

    Emission control system development includes: (1) Development of new oxidizer scrubber system to eliminate NOx waste and produce fertilizer (2) Technology licensed and a 1 to 3 MWatt-scale prototype installed on. power plant (3) Development of method to oxidize NO. to N02 (4) Experience gained from licensing NASA technology

  1. Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janzekovic, Helena

    2006-06-01

    Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success.

  2. Understanding Inertial and Frequency Response of Wind Power Plants: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.; Singh, M.; Santoso, S.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to analyze and quantify the inertia and frequency responses of wind power plants with different wind turbine technologies (particularly those of fixed speed, variable slip with rotor-resistance controls, and variable speed with vector controls).

  3. Report on aging of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ellingwood, B.R. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of Foreign Investment in Power Plants using Real Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Moritoshi; Zhou, Yicheng

    This paper proposes new methods for evaluating foreign investment in power plants under market uncertainty using a real options approach. We suppose a thermal power plant project in a deregulated electricity market. One of our proposed methods is that we calculate the cash flow generated by the project in a reference year using actual market data to incorporate periodic characteristics of energy prices into a yearly cash flow model. We make the stochastic yearly cash flow model with the initial value which is the cash flow in the reference year, and certain trend and volatility. Then we calculate the real options value (ROV) of the project which has abandonment options using the yearly cash flow model. Another our proposed method is that we evaluate foreign currency/domestic currency exchange rate risk by representing ROV in foreign currency as yearly pay off and exchanging it to ROV in domestic currency using a stochastic exchange rate model. We analyze the effect of the heat rate and operation and maintenance costs of the power plant on ROV, and evaluate exchange rate risk through numerical examples. Our proposed method will be useful for the risk management of foreign investment in power plants.

  5. Supercritical power plant 600 MW with cryogenic oxygen plant and CCS installation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Dryjańska, Aleksandra

    2013-09-01

    This article describes a thermodynamic analysis of an oxy type power plant. The analyzed power plant consists of: 1) steam turbine for supercritical steam parameters of 600 °C/29 MPa with a capacity of 600 MW; 2) circulating fluidized bed boiler, in which brown coal with high moisture content (42.5%) is burned in the atmosphere enriched in oxygen; 3) air separation unit (ASU); 4) CO2 capture installation, where flue gases obtained in the combustion process are compressed to the pressure of 150 MPa. The circulated fluidized bed (CFB) boiler is integrated with a fuel dryer and a cryogenic air separation unit. Waste nitrogen from ASU is heated in the boiler, and then is used as a coal drying medium. In this study, the thermal efficiency of the boiler, steam cycle thermal efficiency and power demand were determined. These quantities made possible to determine the net efficiency of the test power plant.

  6. Interdisciplinary Study of Numerical Methods and Power Plants Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana OPRIS

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of technology, electronics and computing opened the way for a cross-disciplinary research that brings benefits by combining the achievements of different fields. To prepare the students for their future interdisciplinary approach,aninterdisciplinary teaching is adopted. This ensures their progress in knowledge, understanding and ability to navigate through different fields. Aiming these results, the Universities introduce new interdisciplinary courses which explore complex problems by studying subjects from different domains. The paper presents a problem encountered in designingpower plants. The method of solvingthe problem isused to explain the numerical methods and to exercise programming.The goal of understanding a numerical algorithm that solves a linear system of equations is achieved by using the knowledge of heat transfer to design the regenerative circuit of a thermal power plant. In this way, the outcomes from the prior courses (mathematics and physics are used to explain a new subject (numerical methods and to advance future ones (power plants.

  7. Advanced targeted monitoring of high temperature components in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Maile, K.; Jovanovic, A. [MPA Stuttgart (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    The article presents the idea of targeted monitoring of high-temperature pressurized components in fossil-fueled power plants, implemented within a modular software system and using, in addition to pressure and temperature data, also displacement and strain measurement data. The concept has been implemented as a part of a more complex company-oriented Internet/Intranet system of MPA Stuttgart (ALIAS). ALIAS enables to combine smoothly the monitoring results with those of the off-line analysis, e. g. sensitivity analyses, comparison with preceding experience (case studies), literature search, search in material databases -(experimental and standard data), nonlinear FE-analysis, etc. The concept and the system have been implemented in real plant conditions several power plants in Germany and Europe: one of these applications and its results are described more in detail in the presentation. (orig.) 9 refs.

  8. Corrosion Investigations in Straw-Fired Power Plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montgomery, Melanie; Frandsen, Flemming; Karlsson, A

    2001-01-01

    In Denmark, straw and other types of biomass are used for generating energy in power plants. Straw has the advantage that it is a "carbon dioxide neutral fuel" and therefore environmentally acceptable. Straw combustion is associated with corrosion problems which are not encountered in coal...... of accelerated corrosion. The type of corrosion attack can be directly ascribed to the composition of the deposit and the metal surface temperature. A series of field tests have been undertaken in the various straw-fired power plants in Denmark, namely the Masnedø, Rudkøbing and Ensted CHP plants. Three types...... of exposure were undertaken to investigate corrosion: a) the exposure of metal rings on water/air cooled probes, b) the exposure of test tubes in a test superheater, and c) the exposure of test tubes in existing superheaters. Thus both austenitic steels and ferritic steels were exposed in the steam...

  9. External costs of silicon carbide fusion power plants compared to other advanced generation technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lechon, Y. E-mail: yolanda.lechon@ciemat.es; Cabal, H.; Saez, R.M.; Hallberg, B.; Aquilonius, K.; Schneider, T.; Lepicard, S.; Ward, D.; Hamacher, T.; Korhonen, R

    2003-09-01

    This study was performed in the framework of the Socio-Economic Research on Fusion (SERF3), which is jointly conducted by Euratom and the fusion associations. Assessments of monetarized external impacts of the fusion fuel-cycle were previously performed (SERF1 and SERF2). Three different power plant designs were studied, with the main difference being the structural materials and cooling system used. In this third phase of the SERF project the external costs of three additional fusion power plant models using silicon carbide as structural material have been analysed. A comparison with other advanced generation technologies expected to be in use around 2050, when the first fusion power plant would be operative, has also been performed. These technologies include advanced fossil technologies, such as Natural Gas Combined Cycle, Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle with carbon sequestration technologies; fuel cells and renewable technologies including geothermal energy, wind energy and photovoltaic systems with energy storage devices. Fusion power plants using silicon carbide as structural material have higher efficiencies than plants using steel and this fact has a very positive effect on the external costs per kW h. These external costs are in the lowest range of the external costs of advanced generation technologies indicating the outstanding environmental performance of fusion power.

  10. Suggestions on Promotion of FGD Industrialization of Thermal Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Penggao; Chu Xue

    2006-01-01

    @@ In order to thoroughly solve the problem of SO2 pollution and promote the sound development of thermal power FGD, this article proposes the technical principles of FGD process selection to standardize the supplying market and the post-assessment of FGD facilities. The selection principles can be detailed as: 1) the limestone-gypsum process is preferred in the case that the mass fraction of sulphur content in power coal is more than 1% and the capacity of a unit is no less than 200 MW. 2) the matured low-cost technologies such as dry or semi-dry processes are applicable in the case that the mass fraction of sulphur content in power coal is less than 1% and the capacity of a unit is less than 200 MW. 3) the seashore power plants with less than 1% mass fraction of sulphur content in power coal can take the seawater process into consideration.

  11. Experimentation with a reverse osmosis plant powered by renewable energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segura, L.; Gomez, A. [Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Univ., Las Palmas (Spain). Dept. of Process Engineering; Nuez, I. [Las Palmas de Gran Canaria Univ., Las Palmas (Spain). Dept. of Electronic and Automatic Engineering

    2006-07-01

    This paper described a set of tests conducted in a reverse osmosis plant powered by renewable energy sources. Variations on feed flow, reject flow, recovery and power consumption were investigated. The plant has a production of over 115 m{sup 3} per day. During the experiments, the plant was required to operate at variable loading conditions. An energy recovery system was then developed to operate effectively with the observed variable load conditions. The system was incorporated within the reject flow system and was comprised of a Pelton turbine matched to the axis of an asynchronous energy generator. The system was designed to avoid making changes to the actual hydraulic circuit of the plant. Recovery system failures did not necessitate plant stoppages during the testing period. Simulations conducted to assess the energy system showed that optimal performance of the plant was between 16 and 18 kW with a working pressure of between 57 to 67 bars. Results also suggested that installing the system in the evacuation brine line would maximize the use of kinetic energy. It was concluded that energy recovery systems are ideal for use in seawater installations where functioning pressure levels are high. 14 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  12. Hybrid intelligent monironing systems for thermal power plant trips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoum, Nader; Ismail, Firas Basim

    2012-11-01

    Steam boiler is one of the main equipment in thermal power plants. If the steam boiler trips it may lead to entire shutdown of the plant, which is economically burdensome. Early boiler trips monitoring is crucial to maintain normal and safe operational conditions. In the present work two artificial intelligent monitoring systems specialized in boiler trips have been proposed and coded within the MATLAB environment. The training and validation of the two systems has been performed using real operational data captured from the plant control system of selected power plant. An integrated plant data preparation framework for seven boiler trips with related operational variables has been proposed for IMSs data analysis. The first IMS represents the use of pure Artificial Neural Network system for boiler trip detection. All seven boiler trips under consideration have been detected by IMSs before or at the same time of the plant control system. The second IMS represents the use of Genetic Algorithms and Artificial Neural Networks as a hybrid intelligent system. A slightly lower root mean square error was observed in the second system which reveals that the hybrid intelligent system performed better than the pure neural network system. Also, the optimal selection of the most influencing variables performed successfully by the hybrid intelligent system.

  13. Hydrogen Production from Hydrogen Sulfide in IGCC Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias Stefanakos; Burton Krakow; Jonathan Mbah

    2007-07-31

    IGCC power plants are the cleanest coal-based power generation facilities in the world. Technical improvements are needed to help make them cost competitive. Sulfur recovery is one procedure in which improvement is possible. This project has developed and demonstrated an electrochemical process that could provide such an improvement. IGCC power plants now in operation extract the sulfur from the synthesis gas as hydrogen sulfide. In this project H{sub 2}S has been electrolyzed to yield sulfur and hydrogen (instead of sulfur and water as is the present practice). The value of the byproduct hydrogen makes this process more cost effective. The electrolysis has exploited some recent developments in solid state electrolytes. The proof of principal for the project concept has been accomplished.

  14. Optimization of a Virtual Power Plant to Provide Frequency Support.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neely, Jason C. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, Jay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gonzalez, Sigifredo [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Lave, Matthew Samuel [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Delhotal, Jarod James [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Increasing the penetration of distributed renewable sources, including photovoltaic (PV) sources, poses technical challenges for grid management. The grid has been optimized over decades to rely upon large centralized power plants with well-established feedback controls, but now non-dispatchable, renewable sources are displacing these controllable generators. This one-year study was funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot program and is intended to better utilize those variable resources by providing electric utilities with the tools to implement frequency regulation and primary frequency reserves using aggregated renewable resources, known as a virtual power plant. The goal is to eventually enable the integration of 100s of Gigawatts into US power systems.

  15. Operating experience from Swedish nuclear power plants 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The total production of electricity from Swedish nuclear power plants was 65.6 TWh during 2002, which is a decrease compared to 2001. The energy capability factor for the 11 Swedish reactors averaged 80.8%. The PWRs at Ringhals averaged 87.6%, while the BWRs, not counting Oskarshamn 1, reached 89.2%. No events, which in accordance to conventions should be reported to IAEA, have occurred during 2002. Operational statistics are presented for each Swedish reactor. The hydroelectric power was 66 TWh, 16% lower than 2000. Wind power contributed 0.5 TWh, and remaining production sources, mainly from solid fuel plants combined with district heating, contributed 10.9 TWh. The electricity generation totalled 143 TWh, considerably less than the record high 2001 figure of 158.7 TWh. The preliminary figures for export were 14.8 TWh and and for import 20.1 TWh.

  16. Optimisation of VSC-HVDC Transmission for Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Rodrigo Da

    Connection of Wind Power Plants (WPP), typically oshore, using VSCHVDC transmission is an emerging solution with many benefits compared to the traditional AC solution, especially concerning the impact on control architecture of the wind farms and the grid. The VSC-HVDC solution is likely to meet...... more stringent grid codes than a conventional AC transmission connection. The purpose of this project is to analyse how HVDC solution, considering the voltage-source converter based technology, for grid connection of large wind power plants can be designed and optimised. By optimisation, the project...... the requirements established by the operators in the multiterminal VSC-HVDC transmission system. Moreover, the possibility in minimising the overall transmission losses can be a solution for small grids and the minimisation in the dispatch error is a new solution for power deliver maximisation. The second study...

  17. FGD Capacity Prediction of Thermal Power Plants in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Fahua; Wang Sheng

    2005-01-01

    Through analyzing the proportion of SO2 emission from thermal power plants in the nationwide SO2 emission in USA, Japan etc. developed countries, and the developmental course of thermal power installed capacity and the FGD capacity in USA, the FGD capacity of thermal power plants in China is forecasted from two angles. One is to predict FGD capacity in accordance with the policy in force in China. The other is to predict FGD capacity based upon the emission right trading policy. As compared, it is held that FGD equipment should be mainly installed on the large size units burning high sulfur coal according to the emission right trading policy. Such a method of work not only can economize large amount of investments and operation costs, but also can realize the same environmental effect.

  18. Summary of operating experience in Swiss nuclear power plants 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    In 1994 the Swiss nuclear power plants produced their highest-ever combined annual output. Their contribution to total electricity generation in the country was 36%. At Muehleberg the power uprate, undertaken in 1993, was effective for the first time for an entire year. The larger capacity of the new steam generators installed in 1993 in unit 1 of the Beznau NPP allows for an electric output of 103% of nominal power. The plant efficiency of the Goesgen and Leibstadt units was increased by replacing the low pressure turbines by the new ones with a modern design. The application for a power uprate of the Leibstadt reactor is still pending. For the first time in Switzerland, one of the reactor units, Beznau 2, operated on an extended cycle of one and a half years, with no refuelling outage in 1994. In spite of the replacements of two of its three low pressure turbines, Goesgen had the shortest refuelling shutdown since the start of commercial operation. The average number of reactor scrams at the Swiss plants remained stable, at less than one scram per reactor year. Re-inspection of crack indications detected in 1990 in the core shroud of the Muehleberg reactor revealed no significant changes. A crack indication was found in one of the other welds inspected. The Swiss government issued a limited operating licence for Beznau 2 for the next ten years, i.e. until the end of 2004. The only other unit with a limited operating licence (until 2003) is Muehleberg. The remaining three reactor units, have no time limits on their operating licences, in accordance with the Atomic Law. Goesgen is the first Swiss nuclear power plant having now produced more than 100 billion kWh. As from January 1, 1995, the nominal net power of the largest Swiss reactor unit, Leibstadt, has been fixed at 1030 MW; that of the Goesgen NPP has been increased by 25 MW to 965 MW. (author) figs., tabs.

  19. Electron Tomography in Plant Cell Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This review focuses on the contribution of electron tomography-based techniques to our understanding of cellular processes in plant cells. Electron microscopy techniques have evolved to provide better three-dimensional resolution and improved preservation of the subcellular components. In particular, the combination of cryofixation/freeze substitution and electron tomography have allowed plant cell biologists to image organelles and macromolecular complexes in their native cellular context with unprecedented three-dimensional resolution (4-7 nm). Until now, electron tomography has been applied in plant cell biology for the study of cytokinesis, Golgi structure and trafficking, formation of plant endosome/prevacuolar compartments, and organization of photosynthetic membranes. We discuss in this review the new insights that these tomographic studies have brought to the plant biology field.

  20. Electricity generation by a plant microbial fuel cell with an integrated oxygen reducing biocathode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wetser, K.; Sudirjo, E.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Strik, D.P.B.T.B.

    2015-01-01

    In this study we show that a chemical ferricyanide cathode can be replaced by a biological oxygen reducing cathode in a plant microbial fuel cell (PMFC) with a new record power output. A biocathode was successfully integrated in a PMFC and operated for 151 days. Plants growth continued and the power