WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell power plants

  1. System Studies of Fuel Cell Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Kivisaari, Timo

    2001-01-01

    This thesis concerns system studies of power plants wheredifferent types of fuel cells accomplish most of the energyconversion. Ever since William Grove observed the fuel cell effect inthe late 1830s fuel cells have been the subject or more or lessintense research and development. Especially in the USA theseactivities intensified during the second part of the 1950s,resulting in the development of the fuel cells used in theApollo-program. Swedish fuel cell activities started in themid-1960s, w...

  2. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  3. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  4. Progress and prospects for phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonville, L.J.; Scheffler, G.W.; Smith, M.J. [International Fuel Cells Corp., South Windsor, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has developed the fuel cell power plant as a new, on-site power generation source. IFC`s commercial fuel cell product is the 200-kW PC25{trademark} power plant. To date over 100 PC25 units have been manufactured. Fleet operating time is in excess of one million hours. Individual units of the initial power plant model, the PC25 A, have operated for more than 30,000 hours. The first model {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} power plant has over 10,000 hours of operation. The manufacturing, application and operation of this power plant fleet has established a firm base for design and technology development in terms of a clear understanding of the requirements for power plant reliability and durability. This fleet provides the benchmark against which power plant improvements must be measured.

  5. Dynamic simulation of a direct carbonate fuel cell power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernest, J.B. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States); Ghezel-Ayagh, H.; Kush, A.K. [Fuel Cell Engineering, Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) is commercializing a 2.85 MW Direct carbonate Fuel Cell (DFC) power plant. The commercialization sequence has already progressed through construction and operation of the first commercial-scale DFC power plant on a U.S. electric utility, the 2 MW Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP), and the completion of the early phases of a Commercial Plant design. A 400 kW fuel cell stack Test Facility is being built at Energy Research Corporation (ERC), FCE`s parent company, which will be capable of testing commercial-sized fuel cell stacks in an integrated plant configuration. Fluor Daniel, Inc. provided engineering, procurement, and construction services for SCDP and has jointly developed the Commercial Plant design with FCE, focusing on the balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment outside of the fuel cell modules. This paper provides a brief orientation to the dynamic simulation of a fuel cell power plant and the benefits offered.

  6. Advanced coal gasifier-fuel cell power plant systems design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    Two advanced, high efficiency coal-fired power plants were designed, one utilizing a phosphoric acid fuel cell and one utilizing a molten carbonate fuel cell. Both incorporate a TRW Catalytic Hydrogen Process gasifier and regenerator. Both plants operate without an oxygen plant and without requiring water feed; they, instead, require makeup dolomite. Neither plant requires a shift converter; neither plant has heat exchangers operating above 1250 F. Both plants have attractive efficiencies and costs. While the molten carbonate version has a higher (52%) efficiency than the phosphoric acid version (48%), it also has a higher ($0.078/kWh versus $0.072/kWh) ten-year levelized cost of electricity. The phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant is probably feasible to build in the near term: questions about the TRW process need to be answered experimentally, such as weather it can operate on caking coals, and how effective the catalyzed carbon-dioxide acceptor will be at pilot scale, both in removing carbon dioxide and in removing sulfur from the gasifier.

  7. ERC product improvement activities for direct fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentley, C.; Carlson, G.; Doyon, J. [and others

    1995-08-01

    This program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current power plant demonstration status to the commercial design in an approximately five-year period. The specific objectives which will allow attainment of the overall program goal are: (1) Define market-responsive power plant requirements and specifications, (2) Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant, (3) Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial manufacturing facility, (4) Define the stack and BOP equipment packaging arrangement and define module designs, (5) Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and BOP equipment as required to prepare for commercial design, and (6) Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues and design, build, and field test a modular commercial prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry. A seven-task program, dedicated to attaining objective(s) in the areas noted above, was initiated in December 1994. Accomplishments of the first six months are discussed in this paper.

  8. Integrating fuel cell power systems into building physical plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carson, J. [KCI Technologies, Inc., Hunt Valley, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses the integration of fuel cell power plants and absorption chillers to cogenerate chilled water or hot water/steam for all weather air conditioning as one possible approach to building system applications. Absorption chillers utilize thermal energy in an absorption based cycle to chill water. It is feasible to use waste heat from fuel cells to provide hydronic heating and cooling. Performance regimes will vary as a function of the supply and quality of waste heat. Respective performance characteristics of fuel cells, absorption chillers and air conditioning systems will define relationships between thermal and electrical load capacities for the combined systems. Specifically, this paper develops thermodynamic relationships between bulk electrical power and cooling/heating capacities for combined fuel cell and absorption chiller system in building applications.

  9. Direct fuel cell power plants: the final steps to commercialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Donald R.

    Since the last paper presented at the Second Grove Fuel Cell Symposium, the Energy Research Corporation (ERC) has established two commercial subsidiaries, become a publically-held firm, expanded its facilities and has moved the direct fuel cell (DFC) technology and systems significantly closer to commercial readiness. The subsidiaries, the Fuel Cell Engineering Corporation (FCE) and Fuel Cell Manufacturing Corporation (FCMC) are perfecting their respective roles in the company's strategy to commercialize its DFC technology. FCE is the prime contractor for the Santa Clara Demonstration and is establishing the needed marketing, sales, engineering, and servicing functions. FCMC in addition to producing the stacks and stack modules for the Santa Clara demonstration plant is now upgrading its production capability and product yields, and retooling for the final stack scale-up for the commercial unit. ERC has built and operated the tallest and largest capacities-to-date carbonate fuel cell stacks as well as numerous short stacks. While most of these units were tested at ERC's Danbury, Connecticut (USA) R&D Center, others have been evaluated at other domestic and overseas facilities using a variety of fuels. ERC has supplied stacks to Elkraft and MTU for tests with natural gas, and RWE in Germany where coal-derived gas were used. Additional stack test activities have been performed by MELCO and Sanyo in Japan. Information from some of these activities is protected by ERC's license arrangements with these firms. However, permission for limited data releases will be requested to provide the Grove Conference with up-to-date results. Arguably the most dramatic demonstration of carbonate fuel cells in the utility-scale, 2 MW power plant demonstration unit, located in the City of Santa Clara, California. Construction of the unit's balance-of-plant (BOP) has been completed and the installed equipment has been operationally checked. Two of the four DFC stack sub-modules, each

  10. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell – Gas Turbine Hybrid Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Henke, Moritz; Willich, Caroline; Steilen, Mike; Kallo, Josef; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    2013-01-01

    A model of a hybrid power plant consisting of SOFC and a gas turbine is presented. Simulations are carried out for a different number of SOFC stacks while keeping the output power of the SOFC constant. Results show that the effect of stack number on system performance is only marginal within the investigated range. Operating conditions of the SOFC, however, are strongly influenced.

  11. 1000kW phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant. Outline of the plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinobe, Kenji; Suzuki, Kazuo; Kaneko, Hideo

    1988-02-10

    The outline of the 1000KW phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant, developed as part of the Moonlight plan, was described. The plant was composed of 4 stacks of 260KW DC output. They were devided into two train with 680V and 765A. The generation efficiency of the plant was 40% and more. Steam reforming of natural gas was used. As the fuel, fuel cell exhaust gas was used in composition with the natural gas. The DC-AC inverter had an efficiency of 96%. The capacity of hot water generator and demineralized water plant for cell cooling were 2t/h and 1.6t/h, respectively, and air-system was incorporated. In September of 1987, the plant has succeeded in 1000KW power generation, and put in operation now. Under the 100% loaded condition, each cell had a voltage of 0.7V with little variation, and the current was 200mA/cm/sup 2/. No problems were found in cooling conditions and in the control of interpole differential pressure. The reformer has been operated for 1200h scince its commisioning, and had experiences of 100 times on start up-shut down operations, the reformer also indicated good performances in the gas compositions. The starting time of 8h and the load follow-up rate 10%/min remain as the subjects for shortening. DC-AC conversion was good. The concentration of NOx and the noise level satisfied the target values. (12 figs, 1 tab)

  12. Power conversion and quality of the Santa Clara 2 MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skok, A.J. [Fuel Cell Engineering Corp., Danbury, CT (United States); Abueg, R.Z. [Basic Measuring Instruments, Santa Clara, CA (United States); Schwartz, P. [Fluor Daniel, Inc., Irvine, CA (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is the first application of a commercial-scale carbonate fuel cell power plant on a US electric utility system. It is also the largest fuel cell power plant ever operated in the United States. The 2MW plant, located in Santa Clara, California, utilizes carbonate fuel cell technology developed by Energy Research Corporation (ERC) of Danbury, Connecticut. The ultimate goal of a fuel cell power plant is to deliver usable power into an electrical distribution system. The power conversion sub-system does this for the Santa Clara Demonstration Plant. A description of this sub-system and its capabilities follows. The sub-system has demonstrated the capability to deliver real power, reactive power and to absorb reactive power on a utility grid. The sub-system can be operated in the same manner as a conventional rotating generator except with enhanced capabilities for reactive power. Measurements demonstrated the power quality from the plant in various operating modes was high quality utility grade power.

  13. Integration of A Solid Oxide Fuel Cell into A 10 MW Gas Turbine Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denver F. Cheddie

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Power generation using gas turbine power plants operating on the Brayton cycle suffers from low efficiencies. In this work, a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC is proposed for integration into a 10 MW gas turbine power plant, operating at 30% efficiency. The SOFC system utilizes four heat exchangers for heat recovery from both the turbine outlet and the fuel cell outlet to ensure a sufficiently high SOFC temperature. The power output of the hybrid plant is 37 MW at 66.2% efficiency. A thermo-economic model predicts a payback period of less than four years, based on future projected SOFC cost estimates.

  14. Special considerations on operating a fuel cell power plant using natural gas with marginal heating value

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, L. Ng; Chien-Liang Lin [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan (China); Ya-Tang Cheng [Power Research Institute, Taiwan (China)

    1996-12-31

    In realizing new power generation technologies in Taiwan, a phosphoric acid fuel cell power plant (model PC2513, ONSI Corporation) has been installed in the premises of the Power Research Institute of the Taiwan Power Company in Taipei County of Taiwan. The pipeline gas supplying to the site of this power plant has a high percentage of carbon dioxide and thus a slightly lower heating value than that specified by the manufacturer. Because of the lowering of heating value of input gas, the highest Output power from the power plant is understandably less than the rated power of 200 kW designed. Further, the transient response of the power plant as interrupted from the Grid is also affected. Since this gas is also the pipeline gas supplying to the heavily populated Taipei Municipal area, it is conceivable that the success of the operations of fuel cells using this fuel is of vital importance to the promotion of the use of this power generation technology in Taiwan. Hence, experiments were set up to assess the feasibility of this fuel cell power plant using the existing pipeline gas in this part of Taiwan where fuel cells would most likely find useful.

  15. Binary co-generation power plant with night-temperature (SOFC) fuel cells of natural gas, v. 15(57)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binary co-generation power plant with height-temperature SOFC fuel cells of natural gas are presented in this paper. Based on before optimization calculations for this type of power plants is made: basic measures, number of modules, electric power and fuel cell efficiency; gas turbine electric power and efficiency; co-generation steam turbine electric and heat power efficiency. Compare analysis of binary co-generation power plant with SOFC fuel cells and co-generative power plant without fuel cells in relation of efficiency, ecological benefits and profitability (economy analysis) is given. (Author)

  16. Placement of Combined Heat, Power and Hydrogen Production Fuel Cell Power Plants in a Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahman Bahmanifirouzi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new Fuzzy Adaptive Modified Particle Swarm Optimization algorithm (FAMPSO for the placement of Fuel Cell Power Plants (FCPPs in distribution systems. FCPPs, as Distributed Generation (DG units, can be considered as Combined sources of Heat, Power, and Hydrogen (CHPH. CHPH operation of FCPPs can improve overall system efficiency, as well as produce hydrogen which can be stored for the future use of FCPPs or can be sold for profit. The objective functions investigated are minimizing the operating costs of electrical energy generation of distribution substations and FCPPs, minimizing the voltage deviation and minimizing the total emission. In this regard, this paper just considers the placement of CHPH FCPPs while investment cost of devices is not considered. Considering the fact that the objectives are different, non-commensurable and nonlinear, it is difficult to solve the problem using conventional approaches that may optimize a single objective. Moreover, the placement of FCPPs in distribution systems is a mixed integer problem. Therefore, this paper uses the FAMPSO algorithm to overcome these problems. For solving the proposed multi-objective problem, this paper utilizes the Pareto Optimality idea to obtain a set of solution in the multi-objective problem instead of only one. Also, a fuzzy system is used to tune parameters of FAMPSO algorithm such as inertia weight. The efficacy of the proposed approach is validated on a 69-bus distribution system.

  17. Assessment and comparison of 100-MW coal gasification phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Cheng-Yi

    1988-01-01

    One of the advantages of fuel cell (FC) power plants is fuel versatility. With changes only in the fuel processor, the power plant will be able to accept a variety of fuels. This study was performed to design process diagrams, evaluate performance, and to estimate cost of 100 MW coal gasifier (CG)/phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) power plant systems utilizing coal, which is the largest single potential source of alternate hydrocarbon liquids and gases in the United States, as the fuel. Results of this study will identify the most promising integrated CG/PAFC design and its near-optimal operating conditions. The comparison is based on the performance and cost of electricity which is calculated under consistent financial assumptions.

  18. Fuzzy Logic Based Controller for a Grid-Connected Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Chatterjee, Kalyan; Shankar, Ravi; Kumar, Amit

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a mathematical model of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) power plant integrated in a multimachine power system. The utilization factor of a fuel stack maintains steady state by tuning the fuel valve in the fuel processor at a rate proportional to a current drawn from the fuel stack. A suitable fuzzy logic control is used for the overall system, its objective being controlling the current drawn by the power conditioning unit and meet a desirable output power demand. The prop...

  19. Kansas Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — The Kansas Power Plants database depicts, as point features, the locations of the various types of power plant locations in Kansas. The locations of the power...

  20. Wind power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stiller, W.

    1980-01-01

    Wind power plants have practically faded into oblivion in Germany. These wind power plants are systems converting wind power into other usable energy forms, mainly into electric current. The irregularity of wind currents requires storage of the energy produced. The cost situation is calculated for a small wind power plant.

  1. Temperature Effect to Solar Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Modestas Pikutis

    2015-01-01

    There are a lot of different efficiency photovoltaic cells, which are used in solar power plants. All of these different photovoltaic cells are affected by different environment conditions. Maximum power point tracking is the main way to increase solar power plant efficiency. Mostly systems of maximum power point tracking are slow or inaccurate, that means the system cannot stay in maximum power point in solar power plant. This is the main reason why mostly of solar power plants are working n...

  2. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  3. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant having a bootstrap start-up system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lines, Michael T

    2016-10-04

    The bootstrap start-up system (42) achieves an efficient start-up of the power plant (10) that minimizes formation of soot within a reformed hydrogen rich fuel. A burner (48) receives un-reformed fuel directly from the fuel supply (30) and combusts the fuel to heat cathode air which then heats an electrolyte (24) within the fuel cell (12). A dilute hydrogen forming gas (68) cycles through a sealed heat-cycling loop (66) to transfer heat and generated steam from an anode side (32) of the electrolyte (24) through fuel processing system (36) components (38, 40) and back to an anode flow field (26) until fuel processing system components (38, 40) achieve predetermined optimal temperatures and steam content. Then, the heat-cycling loop (66) is unsealed and the un-reformed fuel is admitted into the fuel processing system (36) and anode flow (26) field to commence ordinary operation of the power plant (10).

  4. Intermediate-sized natural gas fueled carbonate fuel cell power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudhoff, Frederick A.; Fleming, Donald K.

    1994-04-01

    This executive summary of the report describes the accomplishments of the joint US Department of Energy's (DOE) Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) and M-C POWER Corporation's Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) No. 93-013. This study addresses the intermediate power plant size between 2 megawatt (MW) and 200 MW. A 25 MW natural-gas, fueled-carbonate fuel cell power plant was chosen for this purpose. In keeping with recent designs, the fuel cell will operate under approximately three atmospheres of pressure. An expander/alternator is utilized to expand exhaust gas to atmospheric conditions and generate additional power. A steam-bottoming cycle is not included in this study because it is not believed to be cost effective for this system size. This study also addresses the simplicity and accuracy of a spreadsheet-based simulation with that of a full Advanced System for Process Engineering (ASPEN) simulation. The personal computer can fully utilize the simple spreadsheet model simulation. This model can be made available to all users and is particularly advantageous to the small business user.

  5. Thermo-economic modeling of an indirectly coupled solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheddie, Denver F. [Center for Energy Studies, University of Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva (Trinidad and Tobago); Tobago; Murray, Renique [Natural Gas Institute of the Americas, University of Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva (Trinidad and Tobago); Tobago

    2010-12-15

    Power generation using gas turbine (GT) power plants operating on the Brayton cycle suffers from low efficiencies, resulting in poor fuel to power conversion. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is proposed for integration into a 10 MW gas turbine power plant, operating at 30% efficiency, in order to improve system efficiencies and economics. The SOFC system is indirectly coupled to the gas turbine power plant, paying careful attention to minimize the disruption to the GT operation. A thermo-economic model is developed for the hybrid power plant, and predicts an optimized power output of 20.6 MW at 49.9% efficiency. The model also predicts a break-even per-unit energy cost of USD 4.65 cents kWh{sup -1} for the hybrid system based on futuristic mass generation SOFC costs. This shows that SOFCs may be indirectly integrated into existing GT power systems to improve their thermodynamic and economic performance. (author)

  6. Fuel cell power plants for decentralised CHP applications; Brennstoffzellen-Kraftwerke fuer dezentrale KWK-Anwendungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmer, Martin; Mattner, Katja [FuelCell Energy Solutions GmbH, Dresden (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    Fuel cells are the most efficient technology to convert chemical energy into electricity and heat and thus they could have a major impact on reducing fuel consumption, CO{sub 2} and other emissions (NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulate matter). Fired with natural or biogas and operated with an efficiency of up to 49 % a significant reduction of fuel costs can be achieved in decentralised applications. Combined heat and power (CHP) configurations add value for a wide range of industrial applications. The exhaust heat of approximately 400 C can be utilised for heating purposes and the production of steam. Besides, it can be also fed directly to adsorption cooling systems. With more than 110 fuel cell power plants operating worldwide, this technology is a serious alternative to conventional gas turbines or gas engines.

  7. Two-loop controller for maximizing performance of a grid-connected photovoltaic - fuel cell hybrid power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ro, Kyoungsoo

    The study started with the requirement that a photovoltaic (PV) power source should be integrated with other supplementary power sources whether it operates in a stand-alone or grid-connected mode. First, fuel cells for a backup of varying PV power were compared in detail with batteries and were found to have more operational benefits. Next, maximizing performance of a grid-connected PV-fuel cell hybrid system by use of a two-loop controller was discussed. One loop is a neural network controller for maximum power point tracking, which extracts maximum available solar power from PV arrays under varying conditions of insolation, temperature, and system load. A real/reactive power controller (RRPC) is the other loop. The RRPC meets the system's requirement for real and reactive powers by controlling incoming fuel to fuel cell stacks as well as switching control signals to a power conditioning subsystem. The RRPC is able to achieve more versatile control of real/reactive powers than the conventional power sources since the hybrid power plant does not contain any rotating mass. Results of time-domain simulations prove not only effectiveness of the proposed computer models of the two-loop controller, but also their applicability for use in transient stability analysis of the hybrid power plant. Finally, environmental evaluation of the proposed hybrid plant was made in terms of plant's land requirement and lifetime COsb2 emissions, and then compared with that of the conventional fossil-fuel power generating forms.

  8. Hydrogen Gas Production from Nuclear Power Plant in Relation to Hydrogen Fuel Cell Technologies Nowadays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusibani, Elin; Kamil, Insan; Suud, Zaki

    2010-06-01

    Recently, world has been confused by issues of energy resourcing, including fossil fuel use, global warming, and sustainable energy generation. Hydrogen may become the choice for future fuel of combustion engine. Hydrogen is an environmentally clean source of energy to end-users, particularly in transportation applications because without release of pollutants at the point of end use. Hydrogen may be produced from water using the process of electrolysis. One of the GEN-IV reactors nuclear projects (HTGRs, HTR, VHTR) is also can produce hydrogen from the process. In the present study, hydrogen gas production from nuclear power plant is reviewed in relation to commercialization of hydrogen fuel cell technologies nowadays.

  9. Orange County Littoral Cell CRSMP Wastewater and Power Plant Discharge Structures

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Graphical depiction of wastewater and power plant discharge pipelines/outlets locations in Southern California.The shapefile was collected by Everest International...

  10. Solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solar thermal power plant technology, the opportunities it presents and the developments in the market are outlined. The focus is on the technology of parabolic trough power plants, a proven technology for solar power generation on a large scale. In a parabolic trough power plant, trough-shaped mirrors concentrate the solar irradiation onto a pipe in the focal line of the collector. The thermal energy thus generated is used for electricity generation in a steam turbine. Parabolic trough plants can be combined with thermal storage and fossil or biomass fired heat exchangers to generate electricity even when the sun is not shining. Solar Millennium AG in Erlangen has developed the first power plant of this kind in Europe. After two years of construction the plant started operation in Southern Spain in 2008. This one and its sister projects are important steps leading the way for the whole market. The paper also covers the technological challenges, the key components used and the research and development activities concerning this technology. Solar thermal power plants are ideal for covering peak and medium loads in power grids. In hybrid operation they can also cover base-load. The Solar Chimney power plant, another striking technology for the conversion of solar into electric energy, is described briefly. The paper concludes with a look at the future - the import of solar energy from the deserts of North Africa to central Europe. (author)

  11. Power plant chemical technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    17 contributions covering topies of fossil fuel combustion, flue gas cleaning, power plant materials, corrosion, water/steam cycle chemistry, monitoring and control were presented at the annual meeting devoted to Power Plant Chemical Technology 1996 at Kolding (Denmark) 4-6 September 1996. (EG)

  12. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  13. The Kuroshio power plant

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Falin

    2013-01-01

    By outlining a new design or the Kuroshio power plant, new approaches to turbine design, anchorage system planning, deep sea marine engineering and power plant operations and maintenance are explored and suggested. The impact on the local environment, particularly in the face of natural disasters, is also considered to provide a well rounded introduction to plan and build a 30MW pilot power plant. Following a literature review, the six chapters of this book propose a conceptual design by focusing on the plant's core technologies and establish the separate analysis logics for turbine design and

  14. A practical algorithm for optimal operation management of distribution network including fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, Taher; Meymand, Hamed Zeinoddini; Nayeripour, Majid [Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran)

    2010-08-15

    Fuel cell power plants (FCPPs) have been taken into a great deal of consideration in recent years. The continuing growth of the power demand together with environmental constraints is increasing interest to use FCPPs in power system. Since FCPPs are usually connected to distribution network, the effect of FCPPs on distribution network is more than other sections of power system. One of the most important issues in distribution networks is optimal operation management (OOM) which can be affected by FCPPs. This paper proposes a new approach for optimal operation management of distribution networks including FCCPs. In the article, we consider the total electrical energy losses, the total electrical energy cost and the total emission as the objective functions which should be minimized. Whereas the optimal operation in distribution networks has a nonlinear mixed integer optimization problem, the optimal solution could be obtained through an evolutionary method. We use a new evolutionary algorithm based on Fuzzy Adaptive Particle Swarm Optimization (FAPSO) to solve the optimal operation problem and compare this method with Genetic Algorithm (GA), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO), Differential Evolution (DE), Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Tabu Search (TS) over two distribution test feeders. (author)

  15. Energy sources and power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded.

  16. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant with an anode recycle loop turbocharger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, Kazuo; Skiba, Tommy; Patel, Kirtikumar H.

    2016-09-27

    An anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) has a turbocharger turbine (102) secured in fluid communication with a compressed oxidant stream within an oxidant inlet line (218) downstream from a compressed oxidant supply (104), and the anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) also includes a turbocharger compressor (106) mechanically linked to the turbocharger turbine (102) and secured in fluid communication with a flow of anode exhaust passing through an anode exhaust recycle loop (238) of the solid oxide fuel cell power plant (200). All or a portion of compressed oxidant within an oxidant inlet line (218) drives the turbocharger turbine (102) to thereby compress the anode exhaust stream in the recycle loop (238). A high-temperature, automotive-type turbocharger (100) replaces a recycle loop blower-compressor (52).

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell power plant with an anode recycle loop turbocharger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuo; Skiba, Tommy; Patel, Kirtikumar H.

    2015-07-14

    An anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) has a turbocharger turbine (102) secured in fluid communication with a compressed oxidant stream within an oxidant inlet line (218) downstream from a compressed oxidant supply (104), and the anode exhaust recycle turbocharger (100) also includes a turbocharger compressor (106) mechanically linked to the turbocharger turbine (102) and secured in fluid communication with a flow of anode exhaust passing through an anode exhaust recycle loop (238) of the solid oxide fuel cell power plant (200). All or a portion of compressed oxidant within an oxidant inlet line (218) drives the turbocharger turbine (102) to thereby compress the anode exhaust stream in the recycle loop (238). A high-temperature, automotive-type turbocharger (100) replaces a recycle loop blower-compressor (52).

  18. Nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The legal aspects of nuclear power plant construction in Brazil, derived from governamental political guidelines, are presented. Their evolution, as a consequence of tecnology development is related. (A.L.S.L.)

  19. Advanced stellarator power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.

    1994-07-01

    The stellarator is a class of helical/toroidal magnetic fusion devices. Recent international progress in stellarator power plant conceptual design is reviewed and comparisons in the areas of physics, engineering, and economics are made with recent tokamak design studies.

  20. Power plants 2010. Lectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings include the following lectures: Facing the challenges - new structures for electricity production. Renewable energies in Europe - chances and challenges. Nuclear outlook in the UK. Sustainable energy for Europe. Requirements of the market and the grid operator at the electricity production companies. Perspectives for the future energy production. Pumped storage plants - status and perspectives. Nuclear power/renewable energies -partners or opponents? New fossil fired power stations in Europe - status and perspectives. Nuclear energy: outlook for new build and lifetime extension in Europe. Biomass in the future European energy market - experiences for dong energy. Meeting the EU 20:20 renewable energy targets: the offshore challenges. DESERTEC: sustainable electricity for Europe, Middle East and North Africa. New power plants in Europe - a challenge for project and quality management. Consideration of safely in new build activities of power plants. Challenges to an integrated development in Maasvlakte, Netherlands. Power enhancement in EnBW power plants. Operational experiences of CCS pilot plants worldwide. Two years of operational experiences with Vattenfall's oxyfuel pilot plant. Pre-conditions for CCS. Storage technologies for a volatile generation. Overview: new generation of gas turbines.

  1. State participation in the creation of fuel-cell-based power plants to meet civilian demand in Russia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pekhota, F.N.

    1996-04-01

    At present, up to 70% of Russian territory is not covered by central electrical distribution systems. In the field of fuel cell power plants, Russia is at parity with the leading foreign countries with respect to both technical and economic performance and the level of research being conducted. Civilian use of these generating systems on a broad scale, however, demands that a number of problems be solved, particularly those relating to the need for longer plant service life, lower unit cost of electricity, etc. The Ministry of Science and technical Policy of the Russian Federation issued a decree creating a new are of concentration, `Fuel Cell Based Power Plants for Civilian Needs,` in the GNTPR `Environmentally Clean Power Industry,` which will form the basis for financial support in this area out of the federal budget.

  2. Performance Comparison on Repowering of a Steam Power Plant with Gas Turbines and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Rokni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Repowering is a process for transforming an old power plant for greater capacity and/or higher efficiency. As a consequence, the repowered plant is characterized by higher power output and less specific CO2 emissions. Usually, repowering is performed by adding one or more gas turbines into an existing steam cycle which was built decades ago. Thus, traditional repowering results in combined cycles (CC. High temperature fuel cells (such as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC could also be used as a topping cycle, achieving even higher global plant efficiency and even lower specific CO2 emissions. Decreasing the operating temperature in a SOFC allows the use of less complex materials and construction methods, consequently reducing plant and the electricity costs. A lower working temperature makes it also suitable for topping an existing steam cycle, instead of gas turbines. This is also the target of this study, repowering of an existing power plant with SOFC as well as gas turbines. Different repowering strategies are studied here, repowering with one gas turbine with and without supplementary firing, repowering with two gas turbines with and without supplementary firing and finally repowering using SOFC. Plant performances and CO2 emissions are compared for the suggested repowered plants.

  3. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  4. Geothermal Power Generation Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya [Oregon Inst. of Technology, Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196°F resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  5. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  6. Project proposals on the creation of Russian-American joint enterprise for investigation, development and manufacture of power plants on the basis of solid oxide fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smotrov, N.V.; Kleschev, Yu.N.

    1996-04-01

    This paper describes a proposal for a joint Russian-American enterprise for performing scientific investigations, development, and manufacture of fuel cell power plants on the basis of the solid oxide fuel cell. RASOFCo. Russian-American Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Company. RASOFCo will provide the series output of the electrochemical generator (ECG) of 1kW power, then of 5kW and 10kW as well as the development and the output of 10kW power plant with the subsequent output of a power plant of greater power. An ECG based on solid oxide fuel cells uses methane as a fuel. Predicted technical characteristics, market analysis, assessment of potential demands for power plants of low power for Tyumentransgas, participants of the joint enterprise and their founding contributions, strategy for manufacture and financing, and management of RASOFCo are discussed.

  7. Impact of fuel cell power plants on multi-objective optimal operation management of distribution network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, T. [Electrical and Electronic Engineering Department, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zeinoddini-Meymand, H. [Islamic Azad University, Kerman Branch, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    This paper presents an interactive fuzzy satisfying method based on hybrid modified honey bee mating optimization and differential evolution (MHBMO-DE) to solve the multi-objective optimal operation management (MOOM) problem, which can be affected by fuel cell power plants (FCPPs). The objective functions are to minimize total electrical energy losses, total electrical energy cost, total pollutant emission produced by sources, and deviation of bus voltages. A new interactive fuzzy satisfying method is presented to solve the multi-objective problem by assuming that the decision-maker (DM) has fuzzy goals for each of the objective functions. Through the interaction with the DM, the fuzzy goals of the DM are quantified by eliciting the corresponding membership functions. Then, by considering the current solution, the DM acts on this solution by updating the reference membership values until the satisfying solution for the DM can be obtained. The MOOM problem is modeled as a mixed integer nonlinear programming problem. Evolutionary methods are used to solve this problem because of their independence from type of the objective function and constraints. Recently researchers have presented a new evolutionary method called honey bee mating optimization (HBMO) algorithm. Original HBMO often converges to local optima, in order to overcome this shortcoming, we propose a new method that improves the mating process and also, combines the modified HBMO with DE algorithm. Numerical results for a distribution test system have been presented to illustrate the performance and applicability of the proposed method. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Power plant process computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of instrumentation and control in nuclear power plants incorporates the use of process computers for tasks which are on-line in respect to real-time requirements but not closed-loop in respect to closed-loop control. The general scope of tasks is: - alarm annunciation on CRT's - data logging - data recording for post trip reviews and plant behaviour analysis - nuclear data computation - graphic displays. Process computers are used additionally for dedicated tasks such as the aeroball measuring system, the turbine stress evaluator. Further applications are personal dose supervision and access monitoring. (orig.)

  9. Nuclear turbine power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose : To improve the heat cycle balance in a nuclear turbine power plant or the like equipped with a moisture separating and reheating device, by eliminating undesired overcooling of the drains in the pipes of a heat transmission pipe bundle. Constitution : A high pressure turbine is driven by main steams from a steam generator. The steams after driving the high pressure turbine are removed with moistures by way of a moisture separator and then re-heated. Extracted steams from the steam generator or the high pressure turbine are used as a heating source for the reheating. In the nuclear turbine power plant having such a constitution, a vessel for separating the drains and the steams resulted from the heat exchange is provided at the outlet of the reheating device and the steams in the vessel are introduced to the inlet of the moisture separator. (Aizawa, K.)

  10. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To suppress corrosion at the inner surfaces of equipments and pipeways in nuclear power plants. Constitution: An injection device comprising a chemical injection tank and a plunger type chemical injection pump for injecting hydrazine as an oxygen remover and ammonia as a pH controller is disposed to the downstream of a condensate desalter column for primary coolant circuits. Since dessolved oxygen in circuit water injected with these chemicals is substantially reduced to zero and pH is adjuted to about 10 - 11, occurrence of stress corrosion cracks in carbon steels and stainless steels as main constituent materials for the nuclear power plant and corrosion products are inhibited in high temperature water, and of corrosion products are inhibited from being introduced as they are through leakage to the reactor core, by which the operators' exposure does can be decreased significantly. (Sekiya, K.)

  11. Power plant design model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the Power Plant Design Model (PPDM) which is an interactive FORTRAN/2020 program with over 15,000 lines of code that allows a user to create an engineering model of a grass roots solid fuel-fired facility capable of generating steam for electrical power generation and/or sale. Capital, operating, and maintenance cost estimates of the modeled plant are also generated. The model's technical output contains complete material and energy balances of all major streams, parasitic power calculations, boiler operating data and a major equipment list. The economic output consists of a capital cost estimate for the plant in a spreadsheet format detailing the material, labor and indirect costs associated with each piece of equipment. The model was intended for use as a marketing tool to replace engineering feasibility studies which are needed to determine the viability of a project. The model provides preliminary economics at a fraction of time and manpower effort normally associated with this task

  12. Large size biogas-fed Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power plants with carbon dioxide management: Technical and economic optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curletti, F.; Gandiglio, M.; Lanzini, A.; Santarelli, M.; Maréchal, F.

    2015-10-01

    This article investigates the techno-economic performance of large integrated biogas Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) power plants. Both atmospheric and pressurized operation is analysed with CO2 vented or captured. The SOFC module produces a constant electrical power of 1 MWe. Sensitivity analysis and multi-objective optimization are the mathematical tools used to investigate the effects of Fuel Utilization (FU), SOFC operating temperature and pressure on the plant energy and economic performances. FU is the design variable that most affects the plant performance. Pressurized SOFC with hybridization with a gas turbine provides a notable boost in electrical efficiency. For most of the proposed plant configurations, the electrical efficiency ranges in the interval 50-62% (LHV biogas) when a trade-off of between energy and economic performances is applied based on Pareto charts obtained from multi-objective plant optimization. The hybrid SOFC is potentially able to reach an efficiency above 70% when FU is 90%. Carbon capture entails a penalty of more 10 percentage points in pressurized configurations mainly due to the extra energy burdens of captured CO2 pressurization and oxygen production and for the separate and different handling of the anode and cathode exhausts and power recovery from them.

  13. Initiative against nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication of the Initiative of Austrian Nuclear Power Plant Opponents contains articles on radiactive waste dispoasal in Austria and and discusses safety issues of the nuclear power plant 'Zwentendorf'. (kancsar)

  14. Obrigheim nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1973 the 345 MW pressurized water nuclear power plant at Obrigheim operated on base load, generating approximately 2.63 TWh, approximately 2.5 TWh of which was supplied to the KWO members. The plant availability for the year was 89.9%. Of the 10.1% non-availability, 6.4% (23 d) was caused by refuelling, including inspection, overhaul and repair operations and routine tests carried out in September 1973. 3.3% was due to stoppages for repairs to a steam generator and the two main cooling pumps, while 0.4% resulted from failures in the electrical section of the plant. The plant was shut down seven times in all, including three scrams. The average core burnup at the end of the fourth cycle (1 September 1973) was 18900 MWd/tU, representing an average burnup of approximately 37500 MWd/tU for a fuel element used in all four cycles. The operating performance of the steam generators and the result of the steam generator inspection carried out during refuelling in 1973 suggest no progressive damage. The quantities of radioactive materials released to the environment in 1973 were well below the officially permitted levels. The availability of the plant from the beginning of pilot operation in 1969 to the end of 1973 was 83.7 %

  15. Obrigheim nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gross output of the 345MWe pressurized water nuclear power station at Obrigheim, operation on base load, amounted to about 2.57TWh in 1974, the net power fed to the grid being about 2.44TWh. The core was used to its full capacity until 10 May 1974. Thereafter, the reactor was on stretch-out operation with steadily decreasing load until refuelled in August 1974. Plant availability in 1974 amounted to 92.1%. Of the 7.9% non-availability, 7.87% was attributable to the refuelling operation carried out from 16 August to 14 September and to the inspection, overhaul and repair work and the routine tests performed during this period. The plant was in good condition. Only two brief shutdowns occurred in 1974, the total outage time being 21/2 hours. From the beginning of trial operation in March 1969 to the end of 1974, the plant achieved an availability factor of 85.2%. The mean core burnup at the end of the fifth cycle was 19600 MWd/tonne U, with one fuel element that had been used for four cycles achieving a mean burnup of 39000 MWd/tonne U. The sipping test on the fuel elements revealed defective fuel-rods in a prototype plutonium fuel element, a high-efficiency uranium fuel element and a uranium fuel element. The quantities of radioactive substances released to the environment in 1974 were far below the officially permitted values. In july 1974, a reference preparation made up in the nuclear power station in October 1973 was discovered by outsiders on the Obrigheim municipality rubbish tip. The investigations revealed that this reference preparation had very probably been abstracted from the plant in October 1973 and arrived at the rubbish tip in a most irregular manner shortly before its discovery

  16. Power electronics for local fuel cell/-battery plants; Leistungselektronik fuer dezentrale Brennstoffzellen/-Batterieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krykunov, Oleksandr

    2009-10-13

    With their high efficiency and modular structure, fuel cells are an attractive option for decentral power supply. An important component of decentral power supply systems is the power-electronic control element for supply of electric power from the fuel cell to the three-phase electricity grid. Control elements can be constructed of a unidirectional DC/DC converter with a current inverter connnected in series. The investigation focused on the development of the DC/DC converter with minimum constructional and control requirements and optimum adaption of the DC/DC converter to the characteristics of the fuel cell. (orig.) [German] Die Brennstoffzelle stellt mit ihrem hohen Wirkungsgrad und ihrem modularen Aufbau eine attraktive Option fuer die Verwendung in einem dezentralen Energieversorgungssystem dar. Eine wichtige Komponente des dezentralen Energieversorgungssystems sind die leistungselektronischen Stellglieder fuer die Einspeisung der elektrischen Energie aus der Brennstoffzelle in das dreiphasige Netz. Die leistungselektronischen Stellglieder koennen aus einem undirektionalen DC/DC-Wandler und einem nachgeschalteten Wechselrichter realisiert werden. Die Entwicklung des DC/DC-Wandlers mit einem moeglichst geringeren Bauelemente- und Steuerungsaufwand fuer diese leistungselektronischen Stellglieder und die Anpassung des DC/DC-Wandlers an die Eigenschaften der Brennstoffzelle war das Ziel dieser Arbeit. (orig.)

  17. Electrochemical Power Plant for Terrestrial Flight Platforms Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An electrochemical power plant is proposed by MicroCell Technologies to provide power to terrestrial flight platforms. Our power plant is based upon a proton...

  18. Nuclear Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Analia Bonelli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A description of the results for a Station Black-Out analysis for Atucha 2 Nuclear Power Plant is presented here. Calculations were performed with MELCOR 1.8.6 YV3165 Code. Atucha 2 is a pressurized heavy water reactor, cooled and moderated with heavy water, by two separate systems, presently under final construction in Argentina. The initiating event is loss of power, accompanied by the failure of four out of four diesel generators. All remaining plant safety systems are supposed to be available. It is assumed that during the Station Black-Out sequence the first pressurizer safety valve fails stuck open after 3 cycles of water release, respectively, 17 cycles in total. During the transient, the water in the fuel channels evaporates first while the moderator tank is still partially full. The moderator tank inventory acts as a temporary heat sink for the decay heat, which is evacuated through conduction and radiation heat transfer, delaying core degradation. This feature, together with the large volume of the steel filler pieces in the lower plenum and a high primary system volume to thermal power ratio, derives in a very slow transient in which RPV failure time is four to five times larger than that of other German PWRs.

  19. Garigliano nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the period under review, the Garigliano power station produced 1,028,77 million kWh with a utilization factor of 73,41% and an availability factor of 85,64%. The disparity between the utilization and availability factors was mainly due to a shutdown of about one and half months owing to lack of staff at the plant. The reasons for nonavailability (14.36%) break down as follows: nuclear reasons 11,49%; conventional reasons 2,81%; other reasons 0,06%. During the period under review, no fuel replacements took place. The plant functioned throughout with a single reactor reticulation pump and resulting maximum available capacity of 150 MWe gross. After the month of August, the plant was operated at levels slightly below the maximum available capacity in order to lengthen the fuel cycle. The total number of outages during the period under review was 11. Since the plant was brought into commercial operation, it has produced 9.226 million kWh

  20. Myosin-Powered Membrane Compartment Drives Cytoplasmic Streaming, Cell Expansion and Plant Development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valera V Peremyslov

    Full Text Available Using genetic approaches, particle image velocimetry and an inert tracer of cytoplasmic streaming, we have made a mechanistic connection between the motor proteins (myosins XI, cargo transported by these motors (distinct endomembrane compartment defined by membrane-anchored MyoB receptors and the process of cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. It is shown that the MyoB compartment in Nicotiana benthamiana is highly dynamic moving with the mean velocity of ~3 μm/sec. In contrast, Golgi, mitochondria, peroxisomes, carrier vesicles and a cytosol flow tracer share distinct velocity profile with mean velocities of 0.6-1.5 μm/sec. Dominant negative inhibition of the myosins XI or MyoB receptors using overexpression of the N. benthamiana myosin cargo-binding domain or MyoB myosin-binding domain, respectively, resulted in velocity reduction for not only the MyoB compartment, but also each of the tested organelles, vesicles and cytoplasmic streaming. Furthermore, the extents of this reduction were similar for each of these compartments suggesting that MyoB compartment plays primary role in cytosol dynamics. Using gene knockout analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, it is demonstrated that inactivation of MyoB1-4 results in reduced velocity of mitochondria implying slower cytoplasmic streaming. It is also shown that myosins XI and MyoB receptors genetically interact to contribute to cell expansion, plant growth, morphogenesis and proper onset of flowering. These results support a model according to which myosin-dependent, MyoB receptor-mediated transport of a specialized membrane compartment that is conserved in all land plants drives cytoplasmic streaming that carries organelles and vesicles and facilitates cell growth and plant development.

  1. Myosin-Powered Membrane Compartment Drives Cytoplasmic Streaming, Cell Expansion and Plant Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peremyslov, Valera V.; Cole, Rex A.; Fowler, John E.; Dolja, Valerian V.

    2015-01-01

    Using genetic approaches, particle image velocimetry and an inert tracer of cytoplasmic streaming, we have made a mechanistic connection between the motor proteins (myosins XI), cargo transported by these motors (distinct endomembrane compartment defined by membrane-anchored MyoB receptors) and the process of cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. It is shown that the MyoB compartment in Nicotiana benthamiana is highly dynamic moving with the mean velocity of ~3 μm/sec. In contrast, Golgi, mitochondria, peroxisomes, carrier vesicles and a cytosol flow tracer share distinct velocity profile with mean velocities of 0.6–1.5 μm/sec. Dominant negative inhibition of the myosins XI or MyoB receptors using overexpression of the N. benthamiana myosin cargo-binding domain or MyoB myosin-binding domain, respectively, resulted in velocity reduction for not only the MyoB compartment, but also each of the tested organelles, vesicles and cytoplasmic streaming. Furthermore, the extents of this reduction were similar for each of these compartments suggesting that MyoB compartment plays primary role in cytosol dynamics. Using gene knockout analysis in Arabidopsis thaliana, it is demonstrated that inactivation of MyoB1-4 results in reduced velocity of mitochondria implying slower cytoplasmic streaming. It is also shown that myosins XI and MyoB receptors genetically interact to contribute to cell expansion, plant growth, morphogenesis and proper onset of flowering. These results support a model according to which myosin-dependent, MyoB receptor-mediated transport of a specialized membrane compartment that is conserved in all land plants drives cytoplasmic streaming that carries organelles and vesicles and facilitates cell growth and plant development. PMID:26426395

  2. Exergy Analysis of Gas Turbine – Fuel cell based combined Cycle Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Sreeramulu,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The increase in demand for electrical energy leads to the newer power generation systems. Though it is not new, fuel cell technology is one of the promising systems for cleaner and competitive alternate power generation system. When the fuel cells are integrated with the Gas Turbines, the total thermal efficiency of the combined cycle is obtained greater than 60%. In this paper, thermodynamic analysis of SOFC-GT combined system (2.898MW has been carried out, exergy efficiency and exergy destruction of each component are calculated.The effect of compression ratio (rp, turbine inlet temperature (TIT and ambient temperature of air, on the performance of the system has been analyzed. Outcome of the system modeling reveals that SOFC andcombustion chamber are the main sources of exergy destruction. At the optimum compression ratio 9, the total thermal efficiency and exergy efficiency are found to be 63.3% and 60.85% respectively.

  3. Current power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, J.H.

    1979-03-06

    A current power plant is described that includes a shaft mounted turbine wheel for employment in water current, a housing adjacent the impeller and to which the shaft extends, a ramp positioned on the upstream side of the impellar, and a frame on which the turbine wheel is mounted. The frame is mounted by rollers on a tract such that the impeller and frame may be rolled on the tracks inside the housing, whereafter doors are closed, and water around the turbine wheel may be pumped out to facilitate turbine repair.

  4. Demonstration tokamak power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdou, M.; Baker, C.; Brooks, J.; Ehst, D.; Mattas, R.; Smith, D.L.; DeFreece, D.; Morgan, G.D.; Trachsel, C.

    1983-01-01

    A conceptual design for a tokamak demonstration power plant (DEMO) was developed. A large part of the study focused on examining the key issues and identifying the R and D needs for: (1) current drive for steady-state operation, (2) impurity control and exhaust, (3) tritium breeding blanket, and (4) reactor configuration and maintenance. Impurity control and exhaust will not be covered in this paper but is discussed in another paper in these proceedings, entitled Key Issues of FED/INTOR Impurity Control System.

  5. Wind power plant system services

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Altin, Müfit

    Traditionally, conventional power plants have the task to support the power system, by supplying power balancing services. These services are required by the power system operators in order to secure a safe and reliable operation of the power system. However, as in the future the wind power...... is going more and more to replace conventional power plants, the sources of conventional reserve available to the system will be reduced and fewer conventional plants will be available on-line to share the regulation burden. The reliable operation of highly wind power integrated power system might...... then beat risk unless the wind power plants (WPPs) are able to support and participate in power balancing services. The objective of this PhD project is to develop and analyse control strategies which can increase the WPPs capability to provide system services, such as active power balancing control...

  6. Modelling for part-load operation of solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, S. H.; Ho, H. K.; Tian, Y.

    This paper presents the work on part-load operation of a power generation system composed of a solid oxide fuel cell and a gas turbine (SOFC-GT) which operate on natural gas. The system consists of an internal reforming SOFC (IRSOFC) stack, an external combustor, two turbines, two compressors, two recuperators and one heat-recovery steam generator (HRSG). Based on experience in different levels of modelling of the fuel cell, fuel cell stack and integrated system and the inherent characteristics of a IRSOFC-GT hybrid power plant, a practical approach for simplifying part-load operation of the system is proposed. Simulation results show that an IRSOFC-GT hybrid system could achieve a net electrical efficiency and system efficiency (including waste heat recovery for steam generation) of greater than 60 and 80%, respectively, under full-load operation. Due to the complexity of the interaction of the components and safety requirements, the part-load performance of a IRSOFC-GT hybrid power plant is poorer than that under full-load operation.

  7. Thermo-economic modeling of a solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine power plant with semi-direct coupling and anode recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheddie, Denver F. [Center for Energy Studies, University of Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva (Trinidad and Tobago); Tobago; Murray, Renique [Natural Gas Institute of the Americas, University of Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva (Trinidad and Tobago); Tobago

    2010-10-15

    Power generation using gas turbine (GT) power plants operating on the Brayton cycle suffers from low efficiencies, resulting in poor fuel to power conversion. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is proposed for integration into a 10 MW gas turbine power plant, operating at 30% efficiency in order to improve system efficiencies and economics. The SOFC system is semi-directly coupled to the gas turbine power plant, with careful attention paid to minimize the disruption to the GT operation. A thermo-economic model is developed for the hybrid power plant, and predicts an optimized power output of 21.6 MW at 49.2% efficiency. The model also predicts a breakeven per-unit energy cost of USD 4.70 cents /kWh for the hybrid system based on futuristic mass generation SOFC costs. Results show that SOFCs can be semi-directly integrated into existing GT power systems to improve their thermodynamic and economic performance. (author)

  8. Generator module architecture for a large solid oxide fuel cell power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillett, James E.; Zafred, Paolo R.; Riggle, Matthew W.; Litzinger, Kevin P.

    2013-06-11

    A solid oxide fuel cell module contains a plurality of integral bundle assemblies, the module containing a top portion with an inlet fuel plenum and a bottom portion receiving air inlet feed and containing a base support, the base supports dense, ceramic exhaust manifolds which are below and connect to air feed tubes located in a recuperator zone, the air feed tubes passing into the center of inverted, tubular, elongated, hollow electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells having an open end above a combustion zone into which the air feed tubes pass and a closed end near the inlet fuel plenum, where the fuel cells comprise a fuel cell stack bundle all surrounded within an outer module enclosure having top power leads to provide electrical output from the stack bundle, where the fuel cells operate in the fuel cell mode and where the base support and bottom ceramic air exhaust manifolds carry from 85% to all 100% of the weight of the stack, and each bundle assembly has its own control for vertical and horizontal thermal expansion control.

  9. Power Plant- A Scientific Disaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dharmateja Bandlamudi, Sahithi Avirneni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present paper emphasisesthe society’s movement towards improvement of power sector as a pavement of luxury and on the benighted dark side of it. This produces the reasons for enchanting power plant as a scientific disaster. This paper gives the detailed list of effects caused by the power plants mainly on coal fired, nuclear and hydroelectric power plants, their adverse effects on environment and in turn human life.

  10. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, January 1-March 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, H. C.; Sanderson, R. A.; Wertheim, F. J.; Farris, P. F.; Mientek, A. P.; Maricle, D. L.; Briggs, T. A.; Preston, Jr., J. L.; Louis, G. A.; Abrams, M. L.; Bushnell, C. L.; Nickols, R. C.; Gelting, R. L.; Katz, M.; Stewart, R. C.; Kunz, H. R.; Gruver, G. A.; Bregoli, L. J.; Steuernagel, W. H.; Smith, R.; Smith, S. W.; Szymanski, S. T.

    1980-08-01

    The overall objective of this 29-month program is to develop and verify the design of a prototype molten carbonate fuel cell stack which meets the requirements of 1990's competitive coal-fired electrical utility central station or industrial cogeneration power plants. During this quarter, effort was continued in all four major task areas: Task 1 - system studies to define the reference power plant design; Task 2 - cell and stack design, development and verification; Task 3 - preparation for fabrication and testing of the full-scale prototype stack; and Task 4 - developing the capability for operation of stacks on coal-derived gas. In the system study activity of Task 1, preliminary module and cell stack design requirements were completed. Fuel processor characterization has been completed by Bechtel National, Inc. Work under Task 2 defined design approaches for full-scale stack busbars and electrical isolation of reactant manifolds and reactant piping. Preliminary design requirements were completed for the anode. Conductive nickel oxide for cathode fabrication has been made by oxidation and lithiation of porous nickel sheet stock. A method of mechanizing the tape casting process for increased production rates was successfully demonstrated under Task 3. In Task 4, theoretical calculations indicated that hydrogen cyanide and ammonia, when present as impurities in the stack fuel gas, will have no harmful effects. Laboratory experiments using higher than anticipated levels of ethylene showed no harmful effects. Components for the mobile test facility are being ordered.

  11. Modelling and Simulation of a Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Coupled with a Gas Turbine Power Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Andreassi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The paper presents a simulation of a hybrid solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine (SOFC-GT power generation system fueled by natural gas. In the system considered, the unreacted fuel from a topping solid oxide fuel cell is burnt in an afterburner to feed a bottoming gas turbine and produce additional power. Combustion gas expands in the gas turbine after having preheated the inlet air and fuel and it is used to generate steam required by the reforming reactions. A novel thermodynamic model has been developed for the fuel cell and implemented into the library of a modular object-oriented Process Simulator, CAMELPro™. The relevant plant performance indicators have been analyzed to evaluate the incremental increase in efficiency brought about by the introduction of the gas turbine and heat regeneration system. Simulations were performed for different values of the main plant parameters.

    • This paper is an updated version of a paper published in the ECOS'08 proceedings. 

  12. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  13. Power Plant Replacement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  14. Power plant removal costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The financial, regulatory and political significance of the estimated high removal costs of nuclear power plants has generated considerable interest in recent years, and the political significance has resulted in the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) eliminating the use of conventional depreciation accounting for the decontamination portion of the removal (decommissioning). While nuclear plant licensees are not precluded from utilizing conventional depreciation accounting for the demolition of non-radioactive structures and site restoration, state and federal utility regulators have not been favorably inclined to requests for this distinction. The realization that steam-generating units will be more expensive to remove, relative to their original cost, predates the realization that nuclear units will be expensive. However, the nuclear issues have overshadowed this realization, but are unlikely to continue to do so. Numerous utilities have prepared cost estimates for steam generating units, and this presentation discusses the implications of a number of such estimates that are a matter of public record. The estimates cover nearly 400 gas, oil, coal and lignite generating units. The earliest estimate was made in 1978, and for analysis purposes the author has segregated them between gas and oil units, and coal and lignite units

  15. SOFC solid oxide fuel cell power plants for the decentralised electric energy supply; SOFC-Brennstoffzellen-Kraftwerke fuer die dezentrale elektrische Energieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogang Tchonla, Etienne

    2012-07-01

    To use the fuel cell economically, the efficiency of the system must still be raised so that it can be set up in the market. Within the scope of analysis on this topic, a 120-kW-SOFC-demonstration power plant was to be considered. Since not enough information about the demonstration power plant from the operator was available for the investigation, we had to calculate with the help of the known technical data of similar power plants. After that a model was build and simulated by means of MATLAB/Simulink. Before that the single power plant components were being described. Two of them (the boost converter as well as the inverter) were looked at more thoroughly. As a result of the analysis, it was found that a standard inverter which had been conceived for other applications, for example, Photovoltaic or Wind Power can also be used for fuel cells. Unfortunately, this was not the case for the added boost converter. It had to be precisely conceived for the used fuel cell type. After this discovery information was won for the realization of a 1-MW-Fuel Cell Power Plant. The topology of the 1-MW-power plant was fixed on the basis of the 120-kW-system. A parallel connection of eight 120-kW SOFC-fuel cell aggregates is intended, as well as a connection at the outlet side 120-kW boost converters. A standard inverter with 1 MW electrical power as well as a 1-MVA-transformer could be used for the realization of the 1-MW-power plant. The binding of the power plant in the three-phase current network was examined in view of the norms, laws and connection conditions. Beside the distinction of the operating forms of the power plant (parallel or isolated operation) the security of the plant was emphasized with regard to quick fault recognition, safe supply line isolation in the fault case as well as a compliance of the prescribed regulations. To verify the calculated results as well as the provided models, a 10-kW-labor sample was built and examined in the lab. This experimental

  16. Development of a lignite-fired power plant concept with integrated pressurised fluidised-bed drying and fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidich, F.U.; Breitenfelder, R. [ALSTOM Power Generation AG, Mannheim (Germany); Mandel, H. [Vattenfall Europe Generation AG and Co., Cottbus (Germany); Krautz, J. [Technical Univ., Cottbus (Germany); Gniazdowski, M. [Babcock Borsik Service GmbH, Oberhausen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    In the coming decades, lignite will become one of the most important fuels for power production in Germany. In the last five years, Vattenfall Europe and RWE have put power plants of the 800-1000 MW class with efficiency of up to more than 43% into service. Four to five per cent efficiency can further be gained by using pre-dried lignite as fuel (BOA plus concept of RWE). Additional steps are possible if the lignite-drying process and combustion are operated under pressure. This paper describes the first steps based on the A.M. technology whereby the waste heat of fuel cells is used for operation of the lignite dryer to achieve highest efficiency levels. (author)

  17. Energy Analysis of a Combined Solid Oxide Fuel Cell with a Steam Turbine Power Plant for Marine Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yousri M. A. Welaya; M. Mosleh; Nader R. Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Strong restrictions on emissions from marine power plants (particularly SOx, NOx) will probably be adopted in the near future. In this paper, a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and steam turbine fuelled by natural gas is proposed as an attractive option to limit the environmental impact of the marine sector. The analyzed variant of the combined cycle includes a SOFC operated with natural gas fuel and a steam turbine with a single-pressure waste heat boiler. The calculations were performed for two types of tubular and planar SOFCs, each with an output power of 18 MW. This paper includes a detailed energy analysis of the combined system. Mass and energy balances are performed not only for the whole plant but also for each component in order to evaluate the thermal efficiency of the combined cycle. In addition, the effects of using natural gas as a fuel on the fuel cell voltage and performance are investigated. It has been found that a high overall efficiency approaching 60%may be achieved with an optimum configuration using the SOFC system. The hybrid system would also reduce emissions, fuel consumption, and improve the total system efficiency.

  18. Use of fuel cells in multi-MW-thermal power plants; Brennstoffzelleneinsatz im Mehr-MW-Heizkraftwerk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lezuo, A. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Knappstein, H. [Thyssengas GmbH, Duisburg (Germany); Langnickel, U. [Gas-, Elektrizitaets- und Wasserwerke Koeln AG (GEW) (Germany); Nymoen, H. [Ruhrgas AG, Essen (Germany)

    1995-09-01

    Natural gas fuel cells with phosphoric acid electrolyte today are already used in small series of compact units ranging up to 500 kW electric capacity. They thus represent a successful contribution to decentralised power production through cogeneration. Their use in multi-MW thermal power stations is technically possible and, in view of their low emissions and great efficiency, a very attractive alternative. This technology merits intensive development work in order to acquire through practical experience the know-how for bringing costs down to an acceptable level. Manufacturers and operators will need to prepare themselves for modifications regarding the operation and maintenance of these larger plants. The results of a feasibility study for a 1.5 MW thermal power plant presented in this article could come in useful here. (orig.) [Deutsch] Erdgasbetriebene Brennstoffzellen mit Phosphorsaeure-Elektrolyt werden heute bereits in Kleinserien als kompakte Einheiten mit einer elektrischen Leistung von bis zu 500 kW gebaut und mit Erfolg in der dezentralen Energieerzeugung auf Basis der Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung betrieben. Der Einsatz in Mehr-MW-Heizkraftwerken ist ebenfalls moeglich und sollte unter dem Aspekt einer schadstoffarmen und effizienten Energieerzeugung intensiv weiter verfolgt werden, um ueber die gewonnenen Erfahrungen die angestrebten Kostenziele zu erreichen. Technologiebedingt muessen sich Hersteller und Betreiber auf die veraenderten Anforderungen bezueglich Betrieb und Wartung rechtzeitig einstellen. Die nachfolgend vorgestellten Ergebnisse einer Machbarkeitsstudie fuer ein 1,5-MW-Heizkraftwerk koennen dabei hilfreich sein. (orig.)

  19. CLIMATE CHANGE FUEL CELL PROGRAM 200 kW - PC25C FUEL CELL POWER PLANT FOR THE ST.-AGNES-HOSPITAL, BOCHOLT, GERMANY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dipl.-Ing. Knut Stahl

    2002-01-31

    Since the beginning of the Year 2001, the Saint-Agnes-Hospital in Bocholt, Germany, operates a phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) to provide the base load of electrical power as well as heat in Winter and air conditioning in Summer. The project was made possible by federal funding from the U.S. Department of Energy as well as by a strategic alliance with the local utility company, the Bocholter Energie- und Wasserversorgung GmbH (BEW), and with the gas supplier of BEW, the Thyssengas GmbH. The fuel cell power plant is combined with an absorption chiller. It is highly efficient and has an excellent power to heat ratio. The operation during the first Year went smoothly and nearly free of trouble.

  20. Producing Electricity in Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Khabrana, Ahmed; Ageeli, Jaber

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This Bachelor thesis has been written at the Blekinge Institute of Technology. The thesis describes electricity production in Shoaiba Steam Power plant in Saudi Arabia. Shoaiba Power Plant is located 100 km South of Jeddah city in Saudi Arabia. Total power production ability reaches 4400 MW. Shoaiba Power Plant has two stages and is constructed with 11 units, each unit produces 400 MW at line voltage 24 kV and line current 16 kA. Main pieces of equipment and their function in the sta...

  1. System Design of a Natural Gas PEM Fuel Cell Power Plant for Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joe Ferrall, Tim Rehg, Vesna Stanic

    2000-09-30

    The following conclusions are made based on this analysis effort: (1) High-temperature PEM data are not available; (2) Stack development effort for Phase II is required; (3) System results are by definition preliminary, mostly due to the immaturity of the high-temperature stack; other components of the system are relatively well defined; (4) The Grotthuss conduction mechanism yields the preferred system characteristics; the Grotthuss conduction mechanism is also much less technically mature than the vehicle mechanism; (5) Fuel processor technology is available today and can be procured for Phase II (steam or ATR); (6) The immaturity of high-temperature membrane technology requires that a robust system design be developed in Phase II that is capable of operating over a wide temperature and pressure range - (a) Unpressurized or Pressurized PEM (Grotthuss mechanism) at 140 C, Highest temperature most favorable, Lowest water requirement most favorable, Pressurized recommended for base loaded operation, Unpressurized may be preferred for load following; (b) Pressurized PEM (vehicle mechanism) at about 100 C, Pressure required for saturation, Fuel cell technology currently available, stack development required. The system analysis and screening evaluation resulted in the identification of the following components for the most promising system: (1) Steam reforming fuel processor; (2) Grotthuss mechanism fuel cell stack operating at 140 C; (3) Means to deliver system waste heat to a cogeneration unit; (4) Pressurized system utilizing a turbocompressor for a base-load power application. If duty cycling is anticipated, the benefits of compression may be offset due to complexity of control. In this case (and even in the base loaded case), the turbocompressor can be replaced with a blower for low-pressure operation.

  2. AND THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alduhov Oleg Aleksandrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the atmospheric dispersion as part of the process of selection of sites to accommodate nuclear and thermal power plants is performed to identify concentration fields of emissions and to assess the anthropogenic impact produced on the landscape components and human beings. Scattering properties of the atmospheric boundary layer are mainly determined by the turbulence intensity and the wind field. In its turn, the turbulence intensity is associated with the thermal stratification of the boundary layer. Therefore, research of the atmospheric dispersion is reduced to the study of temperature and wind patterns of the boundary layer. Statistical processing and analysis of the upper-air data involves the input of the data collected by upper-air stations. Until recently, the upper-air data covering the standard period between 1961 and 1970 were applied for these purposes, although these data cannot assure sufficient reliability of assessments in terms of the properties of the atmospheric dispersion. However, recent scientific and technological developments make it possible to substantially increase the data coverage by adding the upper-air data collected within the period between 1964 and 2010. The article has a brief overview of BL_PROGS, a specialized software package designated for the processing of the above data. The software package analyzes the principal properties of the atmospheric dispersion. The use of the proposed software package requires preliminary development of a database that has the information collected by an upper-air station. The software package is noteworthy for the absence of any substantial limitations imposed onto the amount of the input data that may go up in proportion to the amount of the upper-air data collected by upper-air stations.

  3. Simulating solar power plant variability :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lave, Matthew Samuel; Ellis, Abraham; Stein, Joshua.

    2013-06-01

    It is important to be able to accurately simulate the variability of solar PV power plants for grid integration studies. We aim to inform integration studies of the ease of implementation and application-specific accuracy of current PV power plant output simulation methods. This report reviews methods for producing simulated high-resolution (sub-hour or even sub-minute) PV power plant output profiles for variability studies and describes their implementation. Two steps are involved in the simulations: estimation of average irradiance over the footprint of a PV plant and conversion of average irradiance to plant power output. Six models are described for simulating plant-average irradiance based on inputs of ground-measured irradiance, satellite-derived irradiance, or proxy plant measurements. The steps for converting plant-average irradiance to plant power output are detailed to understand the contributions to plant variability. A forthcoming report will quantify the accuracy of each method using application-specific validation metrics.

  4. Repowering of an Existing Power Plant by Means of Gas Turbine and Solid Oxide Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    , reaching global plant efficiency even higher and specific CO2 emissions even lower. Decreasing the operating temperature in a SOFC allows the use of less compl ex materials and construction methods, consequently reducing plant and the electricity cost. A lower working temperature makes it also suitable...

  5. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  6. Asbury power plant, Asbury, Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wicker, K.

    2005-08-01

    The Asbury power plant in rural southwest Missouri is off the beaten path in more ways than one. Three years ago, Empire District Electric Co., the plant's owner/operator, began mixing pieces of discarded tires into its coal fuel supply. Each ensuing year, without compromising local air quality, the plant has rid the area of millions of tires that otherwise would have ended up in a landfill. For demonstrating that a blight can be made right, Asbury is one of Power's 2005 top plants. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Energy and exergy based performance analyses of a solid oxide fuel cell integrated combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Energy and exergy based performance of SOFC integrated combined cycle is presented. • The system utilize the GT exhaust for fuel preheating, air preheating and steam generation. • The study considers the effect of additional fuel burning in the combustion chamber. • Detail parametric analysis is presented to show the effect of various operating parameters. • System performance is compared with another system with air recuperator before fuel recuperator. - Abstract: This article provides the energy and exergy based performance analysis of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) – gas turbine (GT) – steam turbine (ST) combined cycle power plant. The system utilizes the GT exhaust heat for fuel and air preheating subsequently in a fuel recuperator (FR) and an air recuperator (AR) before finally producing steam in a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) coupled with the ST cycle. It considers 30% external reforming in a pre-reformer (PR) by steam extracted from the bottoming ST plant. The study considers the effect of additional fuel burning in the combustion chamber (CC) as a means for increasing the net GT and ST power output. A detailed parametric analysis based on variation of compressor pressure ratio (CPR), fuel flow rate (FFR), air flow rate (AFR), current density, single level boiler pressure and ST inlet temperature (STIT) is also provided. Results indicate improved system performance at higher CPR. The optimum single level boiler pressure is found to be 40 bar with 50% additional fuel burning. Burning of additional fuel improves the GT and ST power output, however with reduction in the plant’s overall efficiency. Further comparison of performance with a similar other system where the AR is placed head of the FR indicates slightly better performance of the proposed system with FR ahead of AR (FRAOAR)

  8. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  9. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology. Quarterly technical progress report No. 5, October 1, 1980-December 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to develop and verify the design of a prototype molten carbonate fuel cell stack which meets the requirements of a 1990's-competitive coal-fired electrical utility central station or industrial cogeneratin power plants. During this quarter, activity continued in all four task areas: Task 1 - system studies to define the reference power plant design; Task 2 - cell and stack design, development and verification; Task 3 - preparation for fabrication and testing of the full-scale prototype stack; and Task 4 - development of the capability to operate stacks on coal-derived gas.

  10. PV power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the international seminar of the Ostbayerisches Technologie-Transfer-Institut e.V. (OTTI) at 11th June, 2012 in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Technical due diligence (Dietmar Obst); (2) Certification / rating system for large PV plants (Robert Pfatischer); (3) O and M requirements (Lars Rulf); (4) IR photography for large scale systems (Bernhard Weinreich); (5) New market models for PV systems - direct marketing and sales of PV electricity (Martin Schneider); (6) Needs and benefits for plant certification for grid connection and operation (Christoph Luetke-Lengerich); (7) Lare volume module testing / Screening in the field and workshop (Semir Merzoug); (8) Dismantling costs of large scale PV plants (Siegfried Schimpf).

  11. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide provides detailed guidance on the provisions of the Code on the Safety in Nuclear Power Plants: Operation, IAEA Safety Series No. 50-C-O(Rev.1) on the maintenance of structures, systems and components. Like the Code, the Guide forms part of the IAEA's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. Effective maintenance is essential for safe operation of a nuclear power plant. It not only ensures that the level of reliability and effectiveness of all plant structures, systems and components having a bearing on safety remains in accordance with design assumptions and intent, but also that the safety status of the plant is not adversely affected after commencement of operation. Nuclear power plant maintenance requires special attention because of: Limitations set by requirements that a minimum number of components remain operable even when the plant is shut down in order to ensure that all necessary safety functions are guaranteed; Difficulty of access to some plant items even when the plant is shut down, due to radiation protection constraints; Potential radiological hazards to site personnel and the public. This Guide covers the organizational and procedural aspects of maintenance but does not give detailed technical advice on the maintenance of particular plant items. It gives guidance on preventive and remedial measures necessary to ensure that all structures, systems and components important to safety are capable of performing as intended. The Guide covers the organizational and administrative requirements for establishing and implementing preventive maintenance schedules, repairing defective plant items, selecting and training maintenance personnel, providing maintenance facilities and equipment, procuring stores and spare parts, reviewing, controlling and carrying out plant modifications, and generating, collecting and retaining maintenance records for establishing and

  12. Photothermoelectric cell for thermophotovoltaic systems and solar power plants with concentrators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have attempted to justify the appropriateness of the photoelectric and thermoelectric (photothermoelectric) cells in the development of efficient thermophotovoltaic systems and facilities with photoelectric converters and concentrators of solar radiation. These cells are p-n structures based on narrow-band semiconductors capable of the simultaneous thermo- and photogeneration of electron-hole pairs under the effects of irradiation. We discuss the reduction of losses in the course energy conversion carried out with a photothermo-electric cell instead of separate thermo- and photoelectric cells. In addition, we describe the characteristic features and estimate the efficiency of photothermoelectric cells in the thermophotoelectric systems and facilities for the photoelectric conversion of the concentrated solar radiation. (author)

  13. Pyranometers and Reference Cells: Part 2: What Makes the Most Sense for PV Power Plants?; Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meydbray, J.; Riley, E.; Dunn, L.; Emery, K.; Kurtz, S.

    2012-10-01

    As described in Part 1 of this two-part series, thermopile pyranometers and photovoltaic (PV) reference cells can both be used to measure irradiance; however, there are subtle differences between the data that are obtained. This two-part article explores some implications of uncertainty and subtleties of accurately measuring PV efficiency in the field. Part 2 of the series shows how reference cells can be used to more confidently predict PV performance, but how this could best be accomplished if historic irradiance data could be available in PV-technology-specific formats.

  14. Providing emergency supply of nuclear power plants

    OpenAIRE

    ROZMILER, Jiří

    2013-01-01

    Work "Providing emergency power nuclear power plant" describes how solving their own consumption nuclear power plant, as emergency power supply is designed and how it should be a solution of known states of emergency, having an immediate impact on the power consumption of their own nuclear power plants. The aim of this thesis is to propose options to strengthen its own emergency power consumption of nuclear power plants, one might say-more resistant to harsh extremes, which could lead to loss...

  15. Submarine nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To provide a ballast tank, and nuclear power facilities within the containment shell of a pressure resistance structure and a maintenance operator's entrance and a transmission cable cut-off device at the outer part of the containment shell, whereby after the construction, the shell is towed, and installed by self-submerging, and it can be refloated for repairs by its own strength. Constitution: Within a containment shell having a ballast tank and a pressure resisting structure, there are provided nuclear power facilities including a nuclear power generating chamber, a maintenance operator's living room and the like. Furthermore, a maintenance operator's entrance and exit device and a transmission cable cut-off device are provided within the shell, whereby when it is towed to a predetermined a area after the construction, it submerges by its own strength and when any repair inspection is necessary, it can float up by its own strength, and can be towed to a repair dock or the like. (Yoshihara, H.)

  16. Multi-objective stochastic distribution feeder reconfiguration problem considering hydrogen and thermal energy production by fuel cell power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the operation and management of electrical energy, hydrogen production and thermal load supplement by the Fuel Cell Power Plants (FCPP) in the distribution systems with regard to the uncertainties which exist in the load demand as well as the price of buying natural gas for FCPPs, fuel cost for residential loads, tariff for purchasing electricity, tariff for selling electricity, hydrogen selling price, operation and maintenance cost and the price of purchasing power from the grid. Therefore, a new modified multi-objective optimization algorithm called Teacher-Learning Algorithm (TLA) is proposed to integrate the optimal operation management of Proton Exchange Membrane FCPPs (PEM-FCPPs) and the optimal configuration of the system through an economic model of the PEM-FCPP. In order to improve the total ability of TLA for global search and exploration, a new modification process is suggested such that the algorithm will search the total search space globally. Also, regarding the uncertainties of the new complicated power systems, in this paper for the first time, the DFR problem is investigated in a stochastic environment by the use of probabilistic load flow technique based on Point Estimate Method (PEM). In order to see the feasibility and the superiority of the proposed method, a standard test system is investigated as the case study. The simulation results are investigated in four different scenarios to show the effect of hydrogen production and thermal recovery more evidently. -- Highlights: ► Present an economical and thermal modeling of PEM-FCPPs. ► Present an approach for optimal operation of PEM-FCPPs in a stochastic environment. ► Consider benefits of thermal recovery and Hydrogen production for PEM-FCPPs. ► Present several scenarios for management of PEM-FCPPs.

  17. Ammonia in power plant emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerich, Mads; Henningsen, J. O.; Olafsson, Ari

    1990-08-01

    Ammonia monitoring is needed in most schemes for denitrification of power plant emission. In the PALAMON system we use a 500 MHz tunable, single mode, single line, CO2 laser as light source for a low pressure, high temperature, photoacoustic cell. With this cell we can resolve the sR(5,O) line of the ammonia spectrum, and suppress the interfering C02(9R30) absorption line down to a lppm NH3 detection limit. The validity of the measured ammonia concentrations is strongly dependent on details of the sampling system and on the reliability of the calibration routines. In particular calibration with certified mixtures of NH3:N2 has proved insufficient due to the multiple and long time constants caused by adsorption of ammonia to different materials in the system. Presence of water vapor in the gas greatly reduces these time constants. Therefore a number of methods for simple production of moist calibration gases from macroscopic amounts of NH3 are applied. The calibrations are translated to response from an easily managable absorber in order to allow automated recalibration of the photoacoustic response. Data from a field test of the system, and calibration data will be presented.

  18. Energy and exergy analysis and optimal design of the hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell power plant and carbon dioxide capturing process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • An hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell systems is analyzed. • Power generation and carbon dioxide capturing is done in a process. • Advanced exergy analysis is applied on a fuel cell system. - Abstract: A hybrid molten carbonate fuel cell power plant and carbon dioxide capturing process is investigated through the exergy and advanced exergy analysis. The results show that the greatest exergy destruction (181 MW) occurs in the combustion chamber. It is because of irreversibility of the chemical reactions in the combustion process. Also the lowest exergy efficiency is related to the fuel cell. Advanced exergy analysis shows that the most portion of the exergy destruction is avoidable (more than 65%). Optimal design of the process is done by adjusting the effective operating conditions for reducing the power consumption and carbon dioxide emission of the process. Results of the optimization shows that the power consumption in the compressors can be reduced up to 33%

  19. Chemistry in power plants 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the VGB Powertech conference from 25th to 27th October, 2011, in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures and poster contributions were presented: (1) The revised VGB standard for water-steam-cycle Chemistry; (2) Switchover from neutral operation to oxygen treatment at the power station Stuttgart-Muenster of EnBW Kraftwerke AG; (3) Steam contamination with degradation products of organic matters present in the feedwater of the Lanxess-Rubber cogeneration plant; (4) Laboratory scale on-line noble metal deposition experiments simulating BWR plant conditions; (5) Building a new demin installation for the power plant EPZ in Borssele; (6) Replacement of the cooling tower installations in the nuclear power plant Goesgen-Daenien AG; (7) Aging of IEX resins in demin plants - Cost optimisation by adaptation of regenerants; (8) The largest DOW trademark EDI System at a combined cycled plant in Europe; (9) Upgrading river Main water to boiler feed water - Experiences with ultrafiltration; (10) Experiences with treatment of the water-steam-cycle in the RDF power plant Nehlsen Stavenhagen with film-forming amines; (11) Comparative modelling of the bubbles thermal collapse and cavitations for estimation of bubbles collapse influence; (12) Overcoming the steam quality - issues from an HRSG for the production of process steam; (13) Legionella - new requirements for power plant operation; (14) How the right chemistry in the FGD helps to improve the removal in the waste water treatment plant; (15) High efficiency filtration in dry/semi-dry FGD plants; (16) Expanding the variety of renewable fuels in the biomass power plant Timelkam using the chemical input control; (17) Corrosion, operating experiences and process improvements to increase the availability and operating time of the biomass power plant Timelkam; (18) The influence of temperature on the measurement of the conductivity of highly diluted solutions; (19) A multiparameter instrumentation approach

  20. Financing solar thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been built following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply states, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects form the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  1. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised in debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies

  2. Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The analysis of the reliability and availability of power plants is frequently based on simple indexes that do not take into account the criticality of some failures used for availability analysis. This criticality should be evaluated based on concepts of reliability which consider the effect of a component failure on the performance of the entire plant. System reliability analysis tools provide a root-cause analysis leading to the improvement of the plant maintenance plan.   Taking in view that the power plant performance can be evaluated not only based on  thermodynamic related indexes, such as heat-rate, Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis focuses on the presentation of reliability-based tools used to define performance of complex systems and introduces the basic concepts of reliability, maintainability and risk analysis aiming at their application as tools for power plant performance improvement, including: ·         selection of critical equipment and components, ·         defini...

  3. Nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To prevent liquid wastes from being discharged out of the system by processing to recover them in the nuclear reactor and reusing them. Constitution: Discharge of liquid wastes to the surrounding atmosphere are completely eliminated by collecting floor drains, a part of processing water for the regeneration of liquid wastes, non-radioactive steam drains and laundry drains conventionally discharged so far out of the system, processing them in a concentrator, a desalter or the like into water of a high purity and extremely low radioactive concentration, storing the water in an exclusive storage tank and supplying it as a steam or supplementing water to each portion in the plant that requires water of such high purity and extremely low radioactivity. (Yoshihara, H.)

  4. Distillate fuel-oil processing for phosphoric acid fuel-cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushiba, K. K.

    1980-02-01

    The current efforts to develop distillate oil-steam reforming processes are reviewed, and the applicability of these processes for integration with the fuel cell are discussed. The development efforts can be grouped into the following processing approaches: high-temperature steam reforming (HTSR); autothermal reforming (ATR); autothermal gasification (AG); and ultra desulfurization followed by steam reforming. Sulfur in the feed is a key problem in the process development. A majority of the developers consider sulfur as an unavoidable contaminant of distillate fuel and are aiming to cope with it by making the process sulfur-tolerant. In the HTSR development, the calcium aluminate catalyst developed by Toyo Engineering represents the state of the art. United Technology (UTC), Engelhard, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are also involved in the HTSR research. The ATR of distillate fuel is investigated by UTC and JPL. The autothermal gasification (AG) of distillate fuel is being investigated by Engelhard and Siemens AG. As in the ATR, the fuel is catalytically gasified utilizing the heat generated by in situ partial combustion of feed, however, the goal of the AG is to accomplish the initial breakdown of the feed into light gases and not to achieve complete conversion to CO and H/sub 2/. For the fuel-cell integration, a secondary reforming of the light gases from the AG step is required. Engelhard is currently testing a system in which the effluent from the AG section enters the steam-reforming section, all housed in a single vessel. (WHK)

  5. Ocean power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dembicki, E.

    1982-01-01

    In the fall of 1980 on the shores of the Hawaiian Islands, a floating laboratory of the United States was successfully introduced for testing a heat exchanger and pipes for collecting cold water of the OTES with power of 1 MW. The first American OTES N=10-40 MW should start operation in 1985. By the year 2000, ..sigma..N of the U.S. OTES should reach 10 GW. The Japanese OTES N=10-25 MW should start up in 1989. The experimental OTES N=100 KW has been in operation since October 1981 on the Nauru Island. An OTES of 2 MW is under construction. The concern Empain-Schneider is involved in planning the OTES of closed cycle in France, and the concern CGE is planning the OTES of open cycle.

  6. Analysis of Power Balancing with Fuel Cells & Hydrogenproduction Plants in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Brian Vad

    system for 2050. In the future however, it is likely that both electrolysers and battery electric vehicles will have to compete with other technologies. In this situation the solutions with the lowest electricity demand is best of. The socio-economic results reveal that the battery electric vehicles have...... lower costs than all the configurations of hydrogen fuel cells vehicles, also in hybrid solutions. This is the case in all the energy systems analysed towards 100 % renewable energy systems as well as for low, medium and high fuel prices. Thus the battery electric vehicles are less vulnerable...... electricity production the hydrogen solutions cannot compete with the battery electric vehicles. The battery electric vehicles represents the most promising solution for integrating renewable energy based on the analyses presented here. These vehicles also represent an efficient strategy for local consumption...

  7. Plant stem cell niches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aichinger, Ernst; Kornet, Noortje; Friedrich, Thomas; Laux, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Multicellular organisms possess pluripotent stem cells to form new organs, replenish the daily loss of cells, or regenerate organs after injury. Stem cells are maintained in specific environments, the stem cell niches, that provide signals to block differentiation. In plants, stem cell niches are situated in the shoot, root, and vascular meristems-self-perpetuating units of organ formation. Plants' lifelong activity-which, as in the case of trees, can extend over more than a thousand years-requires that a robust regulatory network keep the balance between pluripotent stem cells and differentiating descendants. In this review, we focus on current models in plant stem cell research elaborated during the past two decades, mainly in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. We address the roles of mobile signals on transcriptional modules involved in balancing cell fates. In addition, we discuss shared features of and differences between the distinct stem cell niches of Arabidopsis.

  8. Packing solutions for power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbestos packings are being replaced in more and more countries with alternative products. This paper discusses modern packing solutions for valves and pumps in power plants. Die-moulded packing rings made of expanded graphite foil are described m detail, with recommendations for correct installation. Application examples for spring-loaded valves and cover lid seals are given. As an alternative for repair and service use, a braided expanded graphite packing reinforced with Inconel wire is described. Proposals for sealing various pump applications in power plants are also made. (Author)

  9. Plant power supply device in an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To avoid tripping of a 6.9 kV class bus line and to decrease a large electric current momentarily flown into a start transformer, in despite of the fact that the bus line is not changed over resulted from actuation of a generator lock-out relay. Structure: An atomic power plant comprising a bus line for a two-system plant power supply and a start transformer receiving power from an exterior system, characterized by the provision of a breaker for effecting the change-over of only one system bus line simultaneously with the reactor scrum and a breaker for effecting the change-over of the other bus line before a generator is tripped as a result of actuation of a generator lock-out relay in a predetermined period of time after the reactor scrum, to thereby reduce the momentary large current to the start transformer. (Kamimura, M.)

  10. Loviisa nuclear power plant analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The APROS Simulation Environment has been developed since 1986 by Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) and the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). It provides tools, solution algorithms and process components for use in different simulation systems for design, analysis and training purposes. One of its main nuclear applications is the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant Analyzer (LPA). The Loviisa Plant Analyzer includes all the important plant components both in the primary and in the secondary circuits. In addition, all the main control systems, the protection system and the high voltage electrical systems are included. (orig.)

  11. Power plant perspectives for sugarcane mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass, integral to life, is one of the main energy sources that modern technologies could widely develop, overcoming inefficient and pollutant uses. The sugarcane bagasse is one of the more abundant biomass. Moreover, the fluctuating sugar and energy prices force the sugarcane companies to implement improved power plants. Thanks to a multiyear collaboration between University of Rome and University of Piura and Chiclayo, this paper investigates, starting from the real data of an old sugarcane plant, the energy efficiency of the plant. Furthermore, it explores possible improvements as higher temperature and pressure Rankine cycles and innovative configurations based on gasifier plus hot gas conditioning and gas turbine or molten carbonate fuel cells. Even if the process of sugar extraction from sugarcane and the relative Rankine cycles power plants are well documented in literature, this paper shows that innovative power plant configurations can increase the bagasse-based cogeneration potential. Sugarcane companies can become electricity producers, having convenience in the use of sugarcane leaves and trash (when it is feasible). The worldwide implementation of advanced power plants, answering to a market competition, will improve significantly the renewable electricity produced, reducing CO2 emissions, and increasing economic and social benefits.

  12. Two-Loop Controller for Maximizing Performance of a Grid-Connected Photovoltaic-Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ro, Kyoungsoo

    1997-01-01

    The study started with the requirement that a photovoltaic (PV) power source should be integrated with other supplementary power sources whether it operates in a stand-alone or grid-connected mode. First, fuel cells for a backup of varying PV power were compared in detail with batteries and were found to have more operational benefits. Next, maximizing performance of a grid-connected PV-fuel cell hybrid system by use of a two-loop controller was discussed. One loop is a neural network control...

  13. Solar thermionic power plant. II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Elfotouh, F.; Almassary, M.; Fatmi, H.

    It has been shown that the geometric configuration of a central receiver solar electric power plant SEPP can be optimized for the high power density and concentration required for the operation of a thermionic converter. The working period of a TDC constructed on the top of a SEPP in Riyadh area is 5 to 6 hours per day in winter and 6 to 8 hours in summer. At the 25 percent conversion efficiency achieved by a laboratory test model, a reduction in the cost per unit power of 8-12 per cent is expected. The spectral behavior and work functions of the working surface of the thermionic electrodes were investigated

  14. World nuclear power plant capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the background information for statistics and analysis developed by NUKEM in its monthly Market Report on the Nuclear Fuel Cycle. The assessments in this Special Report are based on the continuous review of individual nuclear power plant projects. This Special Report begins with tables summarizing a variety of nuclear power generating capacity statistics for 1990. It continues with a brief review of the year's major events regarding each country's nuclear power program. The standard NUKEM Market Report tables on nuclear plant capacity are given on pages 24 and 25. Owing to space limitations, the first year shown is 1988. Please refer to previous Special Reports for data covering earlier years. Detailed tables for each country list all existing plants as well as those expected by NUKEM to be in commercial operation by the end of 2005. An Appendix containing a list of abbreviations can be found starting on page 56. Only nuclear power plants intended for civilian use are included in this Special Report. Reactor lifetimes are assumed to be 35 years for all light water reactors and 30 years for all other reactor types, unless other data or definite decommissioning dates have been published by the operators. (orig./UA)

  15. Docommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The German utilities operating nuclear power plants have long concerned themselves with aspects of decommissioning and for this purpose an engineering company was given a contract to study the entire spectrum of decommissioning. The results of this study have been available in autumn 1980 and it is possible to discuss all the aspects of decommissioning on a new basis. Following these results no change in the design concept of LWR nuclear power plants in operation or under construction is necessary because the techniques, necessary for decommissioning, are fully available today. The technical feasibility of decommissioning for power plants of Biblis A and KRB type has been shown in detail. The calculations of the quantity of waste produced during removal of a nuclear power plant could be confirmed and it could be determined with high procedure. The radiation dose to the decommissioning personnel is in the range of the radiation protection regulations and is in the same range as the radiation dose to the personnel within a yearly inservice inspection. (AF)

  16. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, H. W.; Kistner, R.

    1999-11-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised i n debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

  17. MCFC power plant with CO{sub 2} separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Noboru [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell power plant has been developed for many years with expectation of high system efficiency. In the meantime the gas turbine combined cycle has shown its considerable progress in improving system efficiency. Fuel cell power plant will no longer be attractive unless it exceeds the gas turbine combined cycle at least in the system efficiency. It is said CO{sub 2} separation could improve the efficiency of fuel cell power plant. IHI has developed the CO{sub 2} separator for fuel cell power plant. This study describes that the CO{sub 2} separator can increase the efficiency of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant by 5% and the expected efficiency reaches 63 % in HHV basis.

  18. Performance Comparison on Repowering of a Steam Power Plant with Gas Turbines and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    into an existing steam cycle which was built decades ago. Thus, traditional repowering results in combined cycles (CC). High temperature fuel cells (such as solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC)) could also be used as a topping cycle, achieving even higher global plant efficiency and even lower specific CO2 emissions....... Decreasing the operating temperature in a SOFC allows the use of less complex materials and construction methods, consequently reducing plant and the electricity costs. A lower working temperature makes it also suitable for topping an existing steam cycle, instead of gas turbines. This is also the target...

  19. Nuclear power plants and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of nuclear power plants is analysed in details. The fundamental principles of reactors are described as well as the problems of safety involved with the reactor operation and the quantity and type of radioactive released to the environment. It shows that the amount of radioactive is very long. The reactor accidents has occurred, as three mile island, are also analysed. (M.I.A.)

  20. Tidal Power Plant Energy Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva–Casarín R.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a methodology is presented which allows a quick and simple means of estimating the potential energy that can be obtained from a tidal power plant. The evaluation is made using a normalised nomograph, which is a function of the area of the tidal basin against the electricity installed capacity to thus obtain the potential energy for any location. The results describe two means of operation, one of "flow tide" and the other "flow–ebb tides", with two tidal basin systems operating: single and double reservoir systems. To obtain the normalised nomograph the numerical results for simulations of several tidal power plants under differing operational conditions over a period of one year. These conditions were established by varying the electricity installed capacity, the hydraulic conditions in "flow tide", "ebb tides" or both and with single or double reservoir systems and using sea level information taken every 15 minutes. To validate the model information from the tidal power plant at Rance, France, was used, which includes data concerning production, electricity installed capacity, turbine characteristics and tidal ranges. A very good correlation was found between the results of the numerical model and those reported in various technical reports.

  1. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This 2003 version of Elecnuc contents information, data and charts on the nuclear power plants in the world and general information on the national perspectives concerning the electric power industry. The following topics are presented: 2002 highlights; characteristics of main reactor types and on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; the worldwide status of nuclear power plants on 2002/12/3; units distributed by countries; nuclear power plants connected to the Grid by reactor type groups; nuclear power plants under construction; capacity of the nuclear power plants on the grid; first electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit; electrical generation from nuclear plants by country at the end 2002; performance indicator of french PWR units; trends of the generation indicator worldwide from 1960 to 2002; 2002 cumulative Load Factor by owners; nuclear power plants connected to the grid by countries; status of license renewal applications in Usa; nuclear power plants under construction; Shutdown nuclear power plants; exported nuclear power plants by type; exported nuclear power plants by countries; nuclear power plants under construction or order; steam generator replacements; recycling of Plutonium in LWR; projects of MOX fuel use in reactors; electricity needs of Germany, Belgium, Spain, Finland, United Kingdom; electricity indicators of the five countries. (A.L.B.)

  2. Modelling a Combined Heat and Power Plant based on Gasification, Micro Gas Turbine and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Møller, Christian; Rokni, Masoud

    2009-01-01

    A system level modelling study on two combined heat and power (CHP) systems both based on biomass gasification. One system converts the product gas in a micro gas turbine (MGT) and the other in a combined solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and MGT arrangement. An electrochemical model of the SOFC has...

  3. The Plant Cell Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anne-Mie C.Emons; Kurt V.Fagerstedt

    2010-01-01

    @@ Multicellular organization and tissue construction has evolved along essentially different lines in plants and animals. Since plants do not run away, but are anchored in the soil, their tissues are more or less firm and stiff. This strength stems from the cell walls, which encase the fragile cytoplasm, and protect it.

  4. High power density carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Doyon, J.; Allen, J. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient and environmentally clean source of power generation. Many organizations worldwide are actively pursuing the development of the technology. Field demonstration of multi-MW size power plant has been initiated in 1996, a step toward commercialization before the turn of the century, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) is planning to introduce a 2.85MW commercial fuel cell power plant with an efficiency of 58%, which is quite attractive for distributed power generation. However, to further expand competitive edge over alternative systems and to achieve wider market penetration, ERC is exploring advanced carbonate fuel cells having significantly higher power densities. A more compact power plant would also stimulate interest in new markets such as ships and submarines where space limitations exist. The activities focused on reducing cell polarization and internal resistance as well as on advanced thin cell components.

  5. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all the numerical data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the French CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The following aspects are reviewed: 1997 highlights; main characteristics of the reactor types in operation, under construction or on order; map of the French nuclear power plants; worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1997; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and on order; capacity of nuclear power plants in operation; net and gross capacity of nuclear power plants on the grid and in commercial operation; forecasts; first power generation of nuclear origin per country, achieved or expected; performance indicator of PWR units in France; worldwide trend of the power generation indicator; nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, shutdown, and exported; planning of steam generators replacement; MOX fuel program for plutonium recycling. (J.S.)

  6. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 12: Fuel cells. [energy conversion efficiency of, for use in electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warde, C. J.; Ruka, R. J.; Isenberg, A. O.

    1976-01-01

    A parametric assessment of four fuel cell power systems -- based on phosphoric acid, potassium hydroxide, molten carbonate, and stabilized zirconia -- has shown that the most important parameters for electricity-cost reduction and/or efficiency improvement standpoints are fuel cell useful life and power density, use of a waste-heat recovery system, and fuel type. Typical capital costs, overall energy efficiencies (based on the heating value of the coal used to produce the power plant fuel), and electricity costs are: phosphoric acid $350-450/kWe, 24-29%, and 11.7 to 13.9 mills/MJ (42 to 50 mills/kWh); alkaline $450-700/kWe, 26-31%, and 12.8 to 16.9 mills/MJ (46 to 61 mills/kWh); molten carbonate $480-650/kWe, 32-46%, and 10.6 to 19.4 mills/MJ (38 to 70 mills/kWh), stabilized zirconia $420-950/kWe, 26-53%, and 9.7 to 16.9 mills/MJ (35 to 61 mills/kWh). Three types of fuel cell power plants -- solid electrolytic with steam bottoming, molten carbonate with steam bottoming, and solid electrolyte with an integrated coal gasifier -- are recommended for further study.

  7. Development of molten carbonate fuel cell power plant technology. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, October 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Healy, H. C.; Sanderson, R. A.; Wertheim, R. J.; Farris, P. F.; Mientek, A. P.; Nickols, R. C.; Katz, M.; Iczkowski, R. P.; Fredley, R. R.; Stewart, R. C.; Kunz, H. R.; Gruver, G. A.; Bregoli, L. J.; Smith, S. W.; Steuernagel, W. H.; Szymanski, S. T.

    1980-03-01

    The overall objective of this 29-month program is to develop and verify the design of a prototype molten carbonate fuel cell stack which meets the requirements of 1990's competitive coal-fired electrical utility central station or industrial cogeneration power plants. During the first quarter, effort was initiated in all four major task areas: Task 1 - system studies to define the reference power plant design; Task 2 - cell and stack design, development and verification; Task 3 - preparation for fabrication and testing of the full-scale prototype stack; and Task-4 developing the capability for operation of stacks on coal-derived gas. In the system study task, a study baseline fuel cell system and module configuration were established. Studies to determine user requirements and to characterize the fuel cell power block and coal gasifier subsystems were initiated. Cell stack design was initiated with completion of preliminary design requirements for the cell cathodes. Laboratory tests were also initiated to identify alternative materials for separator plates, reactant manifold seals, and electrolyte tile fillers. A mechanical tape casting technique for producing 18 x 24 inch sheets of electrolyte matrix tape was successfully demonstrated in Task 3. In Task 4, theoretical and experimental studies were initiated to define the effects of known sulfur contaminants on cell performance. A literature survey was initiated to identify other possible contaminants. Planning and design efforts for construction of a mobile cell test unit were initiated. The mobile unit will be used to verify the molten carbonate cell's ability to operate on gasified coal by tests at a gasifier site.

  8. Advanced Coordinating Control System for Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Peng; WEI Shuangying

    2006-01-01

    The coordinating control system is popular used in power plant. This paper describes the advanced coordinating control by control methods and optimal operation, introduces their principals and features by using the examples of power plant operation. It is wealthy for automation application in optimal power plant operation.

  9. Wind Power Plant Control - An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Altin, Müfit; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; RODRIGUEZ, Pedro; Iov, Florin; Kjær, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent developments in wind turbine technology go towards installation of larger Wind Power Plants (WPPs). Therefore, power system operators have been challenged by the WPP penetration impacts in order to maintain reliabillity and stability of the power system. The revised grid codes have concentrated on the WPP connection point and as a result a WPP is considered as a single power plant. Nevertheless, compared to conventional power plants, WPPs have different inherent features such as conver...

  10. Design of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The criteria of design and safety, applied internationally to systems and components of PWR type reactors, are described. The main criteria of the design analysed are: thermohydraulic optimization; optimized arrangement of buildings and components; low costs of energy generation; high level of standardization; application of specific safety criteria for nuclear power plants. The safety criteria aim to: assure the safe reactor shutdown; remove the residual heat and; avoid the release of radioactive elements for environment. Some exemples of safety criteria are given for Angra-2 and Angra-3 reactors. (M.C.K.)

  11. Tidal Power Plant Energy Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Silva–Casarín R.; Hiriart–Le Bert G.; López–González J.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a methodology is presented which allows a quick and simple means of estimating the potential energy that can be obtained from a tidal power plant. The evaluation is made using a normalised nomograph, which is a function of the area of the tidal basin against the electricity installed capacity to thus obtain the potential energy for any location. The results describe two means of operation, one of "flow tide" and the other "flow–ebb tides", with two tidal basin systems operating:...

  12. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. PMID:25979740

  13. The atlas of large photovoltaic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document reports all the photovoltaic power plants whose installed power is over 1 MWc and that are operating in France or in project. 446 power plants have been reviewed and their cumulated power reaches 2822 MWc. For each plant the following information is listed: the name of the municipality, the operator, the power capacity, the manufacturer of the photovoltaic panels and the type of technology used, the type of installation (on the ground, on the roof, on the facade, as sun protection,...), the yearly power output (kWh), and the date of commissioning. This review shows that 86% of these plants are ground-based. (A.C.)

  14. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  15. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented

  16. HIGH EFFICIENCY FOSSIL POWER PLANT (HEFPP) CONCEPTUALIZATION PROGRAM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.L. Justice

    1999-03-25

    This study confirms the feasibility of a natural gas fueled, 20 MW M-C Power integrated pressurized molten carbonate fuel cell combined in a topping cycle with a gas turbine generator plant. The high efficiency fossil power plant (HEFPP) concept has a 70% efficiency on a LHV basis. The study confirms the HEFPP has a cost advantage on a cost of electricity basis over the gas turbine based combined cycle plants in the 20 MW size range. The study also identifies the areas of further development required for the fuel cell, gas turbine generator, cathode blower, inverter, and power module vessel. The HEFPP concept offers an environmentally friendly power plant with minuscule emission levels when compared with the combined cycle power plant.

  17. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the IAEA's PRIS and AREVA-CEA's GAIA databases. The following aspects are reviewed: 2007 highlights; Main characteristics of reactor types; Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2007/01/01; Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2007); Units distributed by countries; Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups; Nuclear power plants under construction on 2007; Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid; First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country; Electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2007; Performance indicator of French PWR units; Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type; Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity; Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2007; Status of licence renewal applications in USA; Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2007; Shutdown reactors; Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe; Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid; Exported nuclear power plants under construction; Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction; Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2007; Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2007; COL (combined licences) applications in the USA; Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences; Mox licence plants projects; Appendix - historical development; Meaning of the used acronyms; Glossary

  18. Efficiency of Modern Power Plants of Thermal Power Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. V. Yakovlev

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers efficiency and prospects in development of different types of fossil-fuel power plants – gas turbine, steam turbine and combined (gas and steam cycles.The paper provides information on plant selection, fuel consumption, specific output cost. It describes main advantages of various power plants.

  19. Thermal power plant design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Sarkar, Dipak

    2015-01-01

    Thermal Power Plant: Design and Operation deals with various aspects of a thermal power plant, providing a new dimension to the subject, with focus on operating practices and troubleshooting, as well as technology and design. Its author has a 40-long association with thermal power plants in design as well as field engineering, sharing his experience with professional engineers under various training capacities, such as training programs for graduate engineers and operating personnel. Thermal Power Plant presents practical content on coal-, gas-, oil-, peat- and biomass-fueled thermal power

  20. High efficiency fuel cell/advanced turbine power cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morehead, H. [Westinghouse Electric Corp., Orlando, FL (United States)

    1995-10-19

    An outline of the Westinghouse high-efficiency fuel cell/advanced turbine power cycle is presented. The following topics are discussed: The Westinghouse SOFC pilot manufacturing facility, cell scale-up plan, pressure effects on SOFC power and efficiency, sureCell versus conventional gas turbine plants, sureCell product line for distributed power applications, 20 MW pressurized-SOFC/gas turbine power plant, 10 MW SOFC/CT power plant, sureCell plant concept design requirements, and Westinghouse SOFC market entry.

  1. Infrared imaging of power plant components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teskey, Mike E.; Adamson, R. D.

    1995-05-01

    The application of infrared thermography (IR) to electric utility applications is discussed. A joint program with electric power research institute (EPRI) demonstrated the inspection of specific power plant components including boiler casing, condenser air-inleakage, and condenser tube leakage. Infrared thermography was successfully demonstrated as a predictive maintenance tool for power plant applications and real dollar savings by the utility.

  2. QA programs in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an overview of quality assurance programs in nuclear power plants, the energy picture as it appears today is reviewed. Nuclear power plants and their operations are described and an attempt is made to place in proper perspective the alleged ''threats'' inherent in nuclear power. Finally, the quality assurance programs being used in the nuclear industry are described

  3. Economics of hybrid photovoltaic power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breyer, Christian

    2012-08-16

    The global power supply stability is faced to several severe and fundamental threats, in particular steadily increasing power demand, diminishing and degrading fossil and nuclear energy resources, very harmful greenhouse gas emissions, significant energy injustice and a structurally misbalanced ecological footprint. Photovoltaic (PV) power systems are analysed in various aspects focusing on economic and technical considerations of supplemental and substitutional power supply to the constraint conventional power system. To infer the most relevant system approach for PV power plants several solar resources available for PV systems are compared. By combining the different solar resources and respective economics, two major PV systems are identified to be very competitive in almost all regions in the world. The experience curve concept is used as a key technique for the development of scenario assumptions on economic projections for the decade of the 2010s. Main drivers for cost reductions in PV systems are learning and production growth rate, thus several relevant aspects are discussed such as research and development investments, technical PV market potential, different PV technologies and the energetic sustainability of PV. Three major market segments for PV systems are identified: off-grid PV solutions, decentralised small scale on-grid PV systems (several kWp) and large scale PV power plants (tens of MWp). Mainly by application of 'grid-parity' and 'fuel-parity' concepts per country, local market and conventional power plant basis, the global economic market potential for all major PV system segments is derived. PV power plant hybridization potential of all relevant power technologies and the global power plant structure are analyzed regarding technical, economical and geographical feasibility. Key success criteria for hybrid PV power plants are discussed and comprehensively analysed for all adequate power plant technologies, i.e. oil, gas and

  4. Simulators predict power plant operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peltier, R.

    2002-07-01

    Mix the complexity of a new construction or major retrofit project with today's 'do more with less', a pinch of 'personnel inexperience,' and a dash of 'unintended consequences', and you have got a recipe for insomnia. Advanced simulation tools, however, can help you wring out your design train your operators before the first wire is terminated and just may be get a good night's rest. The article describes several examples of uses of simulation tools. Esscor recently completed a simulation project for a major US utility exploring the potential for furnace/duct implosion that could result from adding higher volumetric flow induced-draft fans and selective catalytic reduction to a 650-MW coal-fired plant. CAF Electronics Inc. provided a full-scope simulator for Alstom's KA24-1 combined-cycle power plant in Paris, France. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools are being used by the Gas Technology Institute to simulate the performance of the next generation of pulverized coal combustors. 5 figs.

  5. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analyses Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.S. Samuelsen; A.D. Rao

    2006-02-06

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include ''Zero Emission'' power plants and the ''FutureGen'' H{sub 2} co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the ''Vision 21'' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  6. Advanced Power Plant Development and Analysis Methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.D. Rao; G.S. Samuelsen; F.L. Robson; B. Washom; S.G. Berenyi

    2006-06-30

    Under the sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory, a multi-disciplinary team led by the Advanced Power and Energy Program of the University of California at Irvine is defining the system engineering issues associated with the integration of key components and subsystems into advanced power plant systems with goals of achieving high efficiency and minimized environmental impact while using fossil fuels. These power plant concepts include 'Zero Emission' power plants and the 'FutureGen' H2 co-production facilities. The study is broken down into three phases. Phase 1 of this study consisted of utilizing advanced technologies that are expected to be available in the 'Vision 21' time frame such as mega scale fuel cell based hybrids. Phase 2 includes current state-of-the-art technologies and those expected to be deployed in the nearer term such as advanced gas turbines and high temperature membranes for separating gas species and advanced gasifier concepts. Phase 3 includes identification of gas turbine based cycles and engine configurations suitable to coal-based gasification applications and the conceptualization of the balance of plant technology, heat integration, and the bottoming cycle for analysis in a future study. Also included in Phase 3 is the task of acquiring/providing turbo-machinery in order to gather turbo-charger performance data that may be used to verify simulation models as well as establishing system design constraints. The results of these various investigations will serve as a guide for the U. S. Department of Energy in identifying the research areas and technologies that warrant further support.

  7. Dynamic Frequency Response of Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit

    capability of WPPs would be investigated. The objective of this project is to analyze and identify the power system requirements for the synchronizing power support and inertial response control of WPPs in high wind power penetration scenarios. The dynamic frequency response of WPPs is realized...... to maintain sustainable and reliable operation of the power system for these targets, transmission system operators (TSOs) have revised the grid code requirements. Also, the TSOs are planning the future development of the power system with various wind penetration scenarios to integrate more wind power...... according to their grid codes. In these scenarios particularly with high wind power penetration cases, conventional power plants (CPPs) such as old thermal power plants are planned to be replaced with wind power plants (WPPs). Consequently, the power system stability will be affected and the control...

  8. Probabilistic multiobjective operation management of MicroGrids with hydrogen storage and polymer exchange fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niknam, T.; Golestaneh, F. [Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Shiraz University of Technology, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    This paper models and solves the operation management problem of MicroGrids (MGs) including cost and emissions minimization under uncertain environment. The proposed model emphasizes on fuel cells (FCs) as a prime mover of combined heat and power (CHP) systems. An electro-chemical model of the proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is used and linked to the daily operating cost and emissions of the MGs. A reformer is considered to produce hydrogen for PEMFCs. Moreover, in high thermal load intervals, in order to make the MG more efficient, a part of produced hydrogen is stored in a hydrogen tank. The stored hydrogen can be reused by PEMFCs to generate electricity or be sold to other hydrogen consumers. A probabilistic optimization algorithm is devised which consists of 2m + 1 point estimate method to handle the uncertainty in input random variables (IRVs) and a multi-objective Self-adaptive Bee Swarm Optimization (SBSO) algorithm to minimize the cost and emissions simultaneously. Several techniques are proposed in the SBSO algorithm to make it a powerful black-box optimization tool. The efficiency of the proposed approach is verified on a typical grid-connected MG with several distributed energy sources. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TOSHIBA aims to secure safety, increase reliability and improve efficiency through the engineering for nuclear power plant using Computer Aided Engineering (CAE). TOSHIBA CAE system for nuclear power plant consists of numbers of sub-systems which had been integrated centering around the Nuclear Power Plant Engineering Data Base (PDBMS) and covers all stage of engineering for nuclear power plant from project management, design, manufacturing, construction to operating plant service and preventive maintenance as it were 'Plant Life-Cycle CAE System'. In recent years, TOSHIBA has been devoting to extend the system for integrated intelligent CAE system with state-of-the-art computer technologies such as computer graphics and artificial intelligence. This paper shows the outline of CAE system for nuclear power plant in TOSHIBA. (author)

  10. Fusion power plant availability study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The consideration of fusion as an alternative energy source will need to demonstrate that Fusion Power Plant (FPP) design, operating and maintenance characteristics meet the electrical market requirements forecast for the second half of this century. Until now, fusion has been developed in the framework of research and development programmes following natural technological trends. To bring a greater sense of realism to commercial viability and to guarantee that technology-driven fusion development responds to the demands of the market, a conceptual study of future commercial FPPs has been performed with a Power Plant Availability (PPA) study aimed at identifying the aspects affecting the availability and generating costs of FPPs. EFET, who has also been involved in the study, can visualise it from two different points of view; that of the industry (ANSALDO, IBERTEF, SIEMENS, NNC) and that of the utilities (BELGATOM, FRAMATOME, FORTUM). The work carried out covered the following points: socio-economic forecasting; safety and licensing; operation and maintenance; waste and decommissioning; availability and reliability. The following are the most relevant findings, conclusions and recommendations for all these aspects: Demonstrate definitively that the physical principles of nuclear fusion have been validated by means of experiments; Establish a European Industrial Group to support the demonstration phases; Create the financial and contracting framework required to construct these installations. Secure the necessary budgets for the European Union's 5th and 6th Research Programmes. Look for supplementary long term financing sources; The existing Regulatory Bodies should combine to form a single Working Group with responsibility for fusion reactor safety and licensing activities, working on the harmonisation of the regulatory processes, developing FPP safety criteria and guidelines and reviewing industry standards; To be competitive, FPPs should have high availability

  11. Applications of power from Temelin nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contain 10 papers of which 9 fall under the INIS scope. They all concern the intentions and possibilities of using heat from nuclear power plants, especially from the Temelin power plant. Waste heat will be used for district heating of adjacent conurbations and for agricultural purposes. Various projects are presented using heat from nuclear power plants, such as greenhouse heating, soil heating, cultivation of algae and fish in warmed-up water. The existing experience is described with the use of heat from the Bohunice nuclear power plant. (M.D.). 15 figs., 6 tabs., 17 refs

  12. Methodology for Scaling Fusion Power Plant Availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normally in the U.S. fusion power plant conceptual design studies, the development of the plant availability and the plant capital and operating costs makes the implicit assumption that the plant is a 10th of a kind fusion power plant. This is in keeping with the DOE guidelines published in the 1970s, the PNL report1, 'Fusion Reactor Design Studies - Standard Accounts for Cost Estimates. This assumption specifically defines the level of the industry and technology maturity and eliminates the need to define the necessary research and development efforts and costs to construct a one of a kind or the first of a kind power plant. It also assumes all the 'teething' problems have been solved and the plant can operate in the manner intended. The plant availability analysis assumes all maintenance actions have been refined and optimized by the operation of the prior nine or so plants. The actions are defined to be as quick and efficient as possible. This study will present a methodology to enable estimation of the availability of the one of a kind (one OAK) plant or first of a kind (1st OAK) plant. To clarify, one of the OAK facilities might be the pilot plant or the demo plant that is prototypical of the next generation power plant, but it is not a full-scale fusion power plant with all fully validated 'mature' subsystems. The first OAK facility is truly the first commercial plant of a common design that represents the next generation plant design. However, its subsystems, maintenance equipment and procedures will continue to be refined to achieve the goals for the 10th OAK power plant.

  13. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celina, Mathias Christopher; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  14. Economy of small-scale power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic requirement for profitable generation of power and heat is sufficient and even heat load. The investment required by a plant based on cogeneration is always higher than that of a plant producing only heat, and hence the full time operation of the plant should be ensured since the beginning of the plant operational age. The second requirement for profitable operation of a small-scale power plant is the homogenous heat and power consumption profiles. Because the plants always cause remarkable capital costs and other fixed costs it is important to make an economic survey of the costs before the decision making in the preliminary planning phase. The presentation gives a review of the factors effecting on the economy of small-scale power plant, the distribution of the costs, and the methods used for investigation of the economy are reviewed

  15. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  16. Maintenance of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance action of nuclear power plant (NPP) was described. Maintenance of NPP aimed at assurance of required function of NPP's equipment so as to prevent release of radioactive materials into the environment as well as attainment of stable operation of NPP. Philosophy of NPP safety was based on defense-in-depth or multiple barriers requiring specified function for the equipment. Preventive maintenance was essential to NPP's equipment and the scope of maintenance was decided on priority with adequate method and frequency of inspection. Most inspection was conducted during periodic inspection at outage. Repair or improvement works were performed if needed. Periodic inspection period was very long and then capacity factor of NPP was low in Japan compared with foreign data although frequency of unscheduled shutdown was very low. Introduction of reability- centered maintenance was requested based on past experiences of overhaul inspection. Technical evaluation of aged NPP had been conducted on aging phenomena and promotion of advanced maintenance was more needed. (T. Tanaka)

  17. Citizens contra nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Is Wyhl the beginning of a new citizens' movement against official policies concerning atomic energy or is it the end of citizens' initiatives of latter years. Did democracy pass its test in Wyhl, or was the state's authority undermined. The danger of atomic energy was not the only concern of the citizens of the Rhine valley who demonstrated against the planned nuclear power plant, but also the quality of industrial and energy planning in which the democratic foundations have to be safeguarded. In the meantime, the doubts increase that this source of energy is of a not dangerous nature, and the myth of supposedly cheap atomic energy has been scattered. The dangers in connection with waste transport and storage were made public beyond the boundaries of the places in question, in particular as a result of the demonstrations. The publication documents the course of the demonstration and the site occupation from the beginning of Febuary 1975 onwards. The occupation still continued when the booklet was published despite the decision of the Administrative Court in Freiburg at the end of March (prohibition of commencement of building until the verdict on the principal suit against the overall project has been reached, the final decision to be made by the Higher Administrative Court in Mannheim). The author aims at describing the new quality of citizens' commitments in this booklet. (orig./LN)

  18. Calcium in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Schwartau

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives the review on the role of calcium in many physiological processes of plant organisms, including growth and development, protection from pathogenic influences, response to changing environmental factors, and many other aspects of plant physiology. Initial intake of calcium ions is carried out by Ca2+-channels of plasma membrane and they are further transported by the xylem owing to auxins’ attractive ability. The level of intake and selectivity of calcium transport to ove-ground parts of the plant is controlled by a symplast. Ca2+enters to the cytoplasm of endoderm cells through calcium channels on the cortical side of Kaspary bands, and is redistributed inside the stele by the symplast, with the use of Ca2+-АТPases and Ca2+/Н+-antiports. Owing to regulated expression and activity of these calcium transporters, calclum can be selectively delivered to the xylem. Important role in supporting calcium homeostasis is given to the vacuole which is the largest depo of calcium. Regulated quantity of calcium movement through the tonoplast is provided by a number of potential-, ligand-gated active transporters and channels, like Ca2+-ATPase and Ca2+/H+ exchanger. They are actively involved in the inactivation of the calcium signal by pumping Ca2+ to the depo of cells. Calcium ATPases are high affinity pumps that efficiently transfer calcium ions against the concentration gradient in their presence in the solution in nanomolar concentrations. Calcium exchangers are low affinity, high capacity Ca2+ transporters that are effectively transporting calcium after raising its concentration in the cell cytosol through the use of protons gradients. Maintaining constant concentration and participation in the response to stimuli of different types also involves EPR, plastids, mitochondria, and cell wall. Calcium binding proteins contain several conserved sequences that provide sensitivity to changes in the concentration of Ca2+ and when you

  19. Thermal power plant simulation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Flynn, Damian

    2013-01-01

    Contributors of world-class excellence are brought together in Thermal Power Plant Simulation and Control to illustrate how current areas of research can be applied to power plant operation, leading to enhanced unit performance, asset management andplant competitiveness through intelligent monitoring and control strategies.

  20. Lessons learned from existing biomass power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    2000-02-24

    This report includes summary information on 20 biomass power plants, which represent some of the leaders in the industry. In each category an effort is made to identify plants that illustrate particular points. The project experiences described capture some important lessons learned that lead in the direction of an improved biomass power industry.

  1. Nuclear power plants for protecting the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some figures are presented comparing date on the CO2 emission and oxygen consumption of nuclear, natural gas fired, advanced coal fired and oil fired power plants, for the same amounts of electricity generated. The data were deduced from the Paks Nuclear Power Plant, Hungary. (R.P.)

  2. Harmonics in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preciado, V.; Madrigal, M.; Muljadi, E.; Gevorgian, V.

    2015-04-02

    Wind power generation has been growing at a very fast pace for the past decade, and its influence and impact on the electric power grid is significant. As in a conventional power plant, a wind power plant (WPP) must ensure that the quality of the power being delivered to the grid is excellent. At the same time, the wind turbine should be able to operate immune to small disturbances coming from the grid. Harmonics are one of the more common power quality issues presented by large WPPs because of the high switching frequency of the power converters and the possible nonlinear behavior from electric machines (generator, transformer, reactors) within a power plant. This paper presents a summary of the most important issues related to harmonics in WPPs and discusses practical experiences with actual Type 1 and Type 3 wind turbines in two WPPs.

  3. Proposal of the visual inspection of the integrity of the storage cells of spent fuel from the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the evaluation of the structural integrity of the components of nuclear plants, particularly those applying for life extension is necessary to carry out inspections and nondestructive testing to determine the state meet. In many cases these activities are carried out in areas with high levels of radiation and contamination difficult to access, so that are required to use equipment or robotic systems operated remotely. Among others, the frames and cells of the storage pools for spent fuel are structures subject to a program of tests and inspections, and become relevant because the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde (NPP-LV) is processing the license to extend the operational life of its reactors. Of non-destructive testing can be used to verify the physical condition of the frames and storage cells, is the remote visual inspection which is a test that allows determine the physical integrity of the components by one or more video cameras designed to applications in underwater environments with radiation, and are used to identify and locate adverse conditions such as ampoules, protuberances, pitting, cracks, stains or buckling, which could affect the three main functions for which the store components are designed: to maintain the physical integrity of spent fuels, store them properly guaranteeing their free insertion and removal, and ensure that the store as a whole meets the criticality criteria that keff is less than 0.95 throughout the life of the plant. This paper describes a proposal to carry out the visual inspection of the storage cells of spent fuel from the NPP-LV using a probe including one or more video cameras along with your recorder, and its corresponding control program. It is noted that due to the obtained results, the nuclear power plant personnel can make decisions regarding remedial actions or applying complementary methods to verify that the cells and frames have not lost their physical integrity, or in particular that the cover plates

  4. Human factors in nuclear power plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants

  5. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes some of the human factors problems in nuclear power plants and the technology that can be employed to reduce those problems. Many of the changes to improve the human factors in existing plants are inexpensive, and the expected gain in human reliability is substantial. The human factors technology is well-established and there are practitioners in most countries that have nuclear power plants. (orig.)

  6. Program increasing of nuclear power plant safeness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results achieved within the project of national task 'Program increasing of nuclear power plant safeness' are presented in the document. The project was aimed to extend and deepen activities relating to safety increase of nuclear power units WWER-440 which play significant part in electricity production in the Slovak Republic. The application of advanced foreign calculating programs and calculation of radionuclide spreading in environment and techniques will influence the increase of extent, quality and international acceptance of safety analysis of nuclear power plant blocks WWER-440 and the risk valuation from operating nuclear power plants. Methodic resources for coping in emergency situation in nuclear energetics will be used for support in decision making in real time during radiation emergency on nuclear plant, region and state level. A long-term strategy in dealing with burnt fuel and radioactive substance formatting during nuclear power plant liquidation particularly with waste which is un acceptable in regional dump, has developed into a theoretical and practical preparation of solvable group for operating the converting centre Bohunice and in inactivating the nuclear power plant A-1. The diagnostic activities in nuclear power plants in the Slovak Republic have been elaborated into a project of norm documents in accordance with international norms for diagnostic systems. Presentation of new technologies and materials for repairs and reconstructions of components and nuclear power plant knots qualify increase in their reliability, safety and life. New objective methods and criterions for valuation and monitoring of the residual life and safety of fixed nuclear power plants. Results of problem solving linked with connecting the blocks of nuclear power plants to frequency regulation in electric network in the Slovak Republic are also presented in the document

  7. EDITORIAL: Safety aspects of fusion power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbasov, B. N.

    2007-07-01

    This special issue of Nuclear Fusion contains 13 informative papers that were initially presented at the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Power Plant Safety held in Vienna, Austria, 10-13 July 2006. Following recommendation from the International Fusion Research Council, the IAEA organizes Technical Meetings on Fusion Safety with the aim to bring together experts to discuss the ongoing work, share new ideas and outline general guidance and recommendations on different issues related to safety and environmental (S&E) aspects of fusion research and power facilities. Previous meetings in this series were held in Vienna, Austria (1980), Ispra, Italy (1983), Culham, UK (1986), Jackson Hole, USA (1989), Toronto, Canada (1993), Naka, Japan (1996) and Cannes, France (2000). The recognized progress in fusion research and technology over the last quarter of a century has boosted the awareness of the potential of fusion to be a practically inexhaustible and clean source of energy. The decision to construct the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) represents a landmark in the path to fusion power engineering. Ongoing activities to license ITER in France look for an adequate balance between technological and scientific deliverables and complying with safety requirements. Actually, this is the first instance of licensing a representative fusion machine, and it will very likely shape the way in which a more common basis for establishing safety standards and policies for licensing future fusion power plants will be developed. Now that ITER licensing activities are underway, it is becoming clear that the international fusion community should strengthen its efforts in the area of designing the next generations of fusion power plants—demonstrational and commercial. Therefore, the 8th IAEA Technical Meeting on Fusion Safety focused on the safety aspects of power facilities. Some ITER-related safety issues were reported and discussed owing to their potential

  8. Plant life management and maintenance technologies for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power generation occupying an important position for energy source in Japan and supplying about one third of total electric power usage is now required for further upgrading of its economics under regulation relaxation of electric power business. And, under execution retardation of its new planning plant, it becomes important to operate the already established plants for longer term and to secure their stability. Therefore, technical development in response to the plant life elongation is promoted under cooperation of the Ministry of Economics and Industries, electric power companies, literate, and plant manufacturers. Under such conditions, the Hitachi, Ltd. has progressed some technical developments on check inspection, repairs and maintenance for succession of the already established nuclear power plants for longer term under securing of their safety and reliability. And in future, by proposing the check inspection and maintenance program combined with these technologies, it is planned to exert promotion of maintenance program with minimum total cost from a viewpoint of its plant life. Here were described on technologies exerted in the Hitachi, Ltd. such as construction of plant maintenance program in response to plant life elongation agreeing with actual condition of each plant, yearly change mechanism grasping, life evaluation on instruments and materials necessary for maintenance, adequate check inspection, repairs and exchange, and so forth. (G.K.)

  9. Nuclear power plant after Fukushima incident: Lessons from Japan to Thailand for choosing power plant options

    OpenAIRE

    Tatcha Sudtasan; Komsan Suriya

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates four power plant options in Thailand to suggest whether the country should adopt nuclear power plants. It includes a scenario that nuclear power plants are forced to be shut because of natural disaster like what happened at Fukushima Daiishi nuclear power plant in Japan. The results found that, in terms of net present value both in duration of 30 and 50 years, nuclear power plants is the best choice under certainty of no severe natural disaster that would interrupt the op...

  10. Economic evaluation of tokamak power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study reports the impact of plasma operating characteristics, engineering options, and technology on the capital cost trends of tokamak power plants. Tokamak power systems are compared to other advanced energy systems and found to be economically competitive. A three-phase strategy for demonstrating commercial feasibility of fusion power, based on a common-site multiple-unit concept, is presented

  11. Photovoltaic power plants: production calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cirillo, E.; Lazzarin, R.

    Rational sizing of a photovoltaic plant requires a good evaluation of the obtainable electric energy as a function of the many meteorological and plant parameters. A computing procedure is described in detail together with a fully developed numerical example. The procedure is based on monthly usability. It is reliable and it allows designers to take into account the influence of the main plant parameters within rather wide ranges.

  12. Modeling of advanced fossil fuel power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihian, Farshid

    The first part of this thesis deals with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from fossil fuel-fired power stations. The GHG emission estimation from fossil fuel power generation industry signifies that emissions from this industry can be significantly reduced by fuel switching and adaption of advanced power generation technologies. In the second part of the thesis, steady-state models of some of the advanced fossil fuel power generation technologies are presented. The impacts of various parameters on the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) overpotentials and outputs are investigated. The detail analyses of operation of the hybrid SOFC-gas turbine (GT) cycle when fuelled with methane and syngas demonstrate that the efficiencies of the cycles with and without anode exhaust recirculation are close, but the specific power of the former is much higher. The parametric analysis of the performance of the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle indicates that increasing the system operating pressure and SOFC operating temperature and fuel utilization factor improves cycle efficiency, but the effects of the increasing SOFC current density and turbine inlet temperature are not favourable. The analysis of the operation of the system when fuelled with a wide range of fuel types demonstrates that the hybrid SOFC-GT cycle efficiency can be between 59% and 75%, depending on the inlet fuel type. Then, the system performance is investigated when methane as a reference fuel is replaced with various species that can be found in the fuel, i.e., H2, CO2, CO, and N 2. The results point out that influence of various species can be significant and different for each case. The experimental and numerical analyses of a biodiesel fuelled micro gas turbine indicate that fuel switching from petrodiesel to biodiesel can influence operational parameters of the system. The modeling results of gas turbine-based power plants signify that relatively simple models can predict plant performance with acceptable accuracy. The unique

  13. Biomass-fueled power plants in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raiko, M. [IVO Power Engineering Ltd., Vantaa (Finland); Hulkkonen, S. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-07-01

    Combined heat and power production (CHP) from biomass is a commercially viable alternative when district heat or process steam is needed in small towns or in a process industry. The high nominal investment cost of a small power plant that uses local biomass fuels is compensated by the revenues from the heat. The price of the district heat or the steam generated in the CHP-plant can be valued at the same price level as the heat from a mere steam boiler. Also, the price of heat produced by a small-generation-capacity plant is local and higher, whereas electricity has a more general market price. A typical small Finnish CHP-plant consists of a bubbling fluidized bed boiler and a simplified steam turbine cycle generating 4 to 10 MW of electricity and 10 to 30 MW of district heat or process steam. There are about 10 power plants of this type in commercial operation in Finland. As a whole, biomass, which is used in more than 200 plants, provides about 20% of the primary energy consumption in Finland. Roughly half of these produce only heat but the rest are combined heat and power plants. The majority of the plants is in pulp and paper industry applications. Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) is the biggest energy producer in Finland. IVO builds, owns and operates several biomass-fired power plants and carries out active R and D work to further develop the biomass-fueled small power plant. This paper discusses the experiences of the biomass-fueled power plants. (author)

  14. Systems Analysis Of Advanced Coal-Based Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrall, Joseph F.; Jennings, Charles N.; Pappano, Alfred W.

    1988-01-01

    Report presents appraisal of integrated coal-gasification/fuel-cell power plants. Based on study comparing fuel-cell technologies with each other and with coal-based alternatives and recommends most promising ones for research and development. Evaluates capital cost, cost of electricity, fuel consumption, and conformance with environmental standards. Analyzes sensitivity of cost of electricity to changes in fuel cost, to economic assumptions, and to level of technology. Recommends further evaluation of integrated coal-gasification/fuel-cell integrated coal-gasification/combined-cycle, and pulverized-coal-fired plants. Concludes with appendixes detailing plant-performance models, subsystem-performance parameters, performance goals, cost bases, plant-cost data sheets, and plant sensitivity to fuel-cell performance.

  15. Power plant technology 2014. Strategies, systems engineering and operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book on power plant technology 2014 (strategies, systems engineering and operation) covers the following issues: Climate, politics and economy; wind power; fossil-fuel power plants, flexible power plants - plant operation, flexible power plants- materials, materials for energy technology, fuel feed and incineration, modeling of the water-vapor-circuit, corrosion, deposits and cleaning, vapor turbines, GUD power plants, fluidized bed combustion, energetic biomass use, combined heat and power generation and decentralized units, storage facilities, emissions - mitigation and measuring techniques.

  16. Sustainability in Large Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Faria, Roberto Censi; Kniess, Cláudia Terezinha; Maccari, Emerson Antonio

    2012-01-01

    No business activity today can be implemented without take into account the aspects of sustainability. The concept of sustainable development that was born of the years 1970 and 1980 and was enshrined in the concept of the three pillars of John Elkington - economic, social and environmental issues, the "triple bottom line" is a constraint for all types of enterprises, especially for large hydropower plants. Large hydropower plants have been for a while the great enemy of development, because ...

  17. Power plant construction. Plan, build, repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern thermal power plants can now convert up to 90 % of the energy input into electricity. This increase in efficiency has been made possible through technological progress, but also through improvements in power plant construction. Despite a distinct rise in the proportion of renewable energies in electricity supplies, traditional power stations are still responsible for guaranteeing a large share of our energy supplies. Air pollution control, noise control, protection of natural waters and soils plus careful use of resources are the key themes in the design, construction and maintenance of power plants. Publishing house Ernst and Sohn provides competent, up-to-date information for civil and structural engineers entrusted with such challenging engineering tasks. The special issue ''Power Plant Construction'' brings together the appropriate articles from the journals ''Bautechnik'', ''Stahlbau'', ''Beton- und Stahlbetonbau'' and ''Geomechanics and Tunnelling''. The themes in this compendium cover a wide range of topics, including analysis and design of power plant installations, power station refurbishment and maintenance, special structures such as cooling towers, chimneys and boiler house frames plus the engineering aspects of coal-fired, nuclear and hydroelectric power stations. Reports on current products and projects complement the technical papers. (orig.)

  18. EPA Facility Registry Service (FRS): Power Plants

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains data on power plants, based on the Energy Information Administration's EIA-860 dataset and supplemented with data from EPA's Facility...

  19. Industrial accidents in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 12 nuclear power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany with a total of 3678 employees, 25 notifiable company personnel accidents and 46 notifiable outside personnel accidents were reported for an 18-month period. (orig./HP)

  20. Environmental hazards from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article discusses the radiation exposure due to nuclear power stations in normal operation and after reactor incidents. Also mentioned is the radiation exposure to the emissions from fuel reprocessing plants and radioactive waste facilities. (RW/AK)

  1. Report concerning Zarnowiec nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Report of the Team of the President of the National Atomic Energy Agency regarding Zarnowiec nuclear power plant contains the analysis of situation in Poland in June 1990, the assessment of public opinion, as well as the description of ecological, technical and economical problems. The team's conclusions are given together with the general conclusion to stop the construction of Zarnowiec nuclear power plant. 5 appendixes, 6 enclosures, 1 documents list, 1 tab. (A.S.)

  2. Training of nuclear power plant operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proceedings are presented containing 13 papers on the training of nuclear power plant personnel, especially personnel of WWER type plants. The questions are discussed such as care of personnel, the position of operators and maintenance workers, factors affecting their reliable work, the human factor in reliability and safety of big power facilities, the assurance of a standard system of operators' training with associated social and sociological aspects, the development of psychodiagnostic methodologies for testing and selecting workers for individual jobs. (B.S.)

  3. Quality assurance organization for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide provides requirements, recommendations and illustrative examples for structuring, staffing and documenting the organizations that perform activities affecting quality of a nuclear power plant. It also provides guidance on control of organization interfaces, and establishment of lines for direction, communication and co-ordination. The provisions of this Guide are applicable to all organizations participating in any of the constituent areas of activities affecting quality of a nuclear power plant, such as design, manufacture, construction, commissioning and operation

  4. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klevans, E.H.; Edwards, R.M.; Ray, A.; Lee, K.Y.; Garcia, H.E.: Chavez, C.M.; Turso, J.A.; BenAbdennour, A.

    1991-01-01

    In September of 1989 work began on the DOE University Program grant DE-FG07-89ER12889. The grant provides support for a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. The body of this Second Annual Technical Progress report covers the period from September 1990 to September 1991. It summarizes the second year accomplishments while the appendices provide detailed information presented at conference meetings. These are two primary goals of this research. The first is to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz, a project consultant during the first year of the project. This philosophy, as presented in the first annual technical progress report, is to improve public perception of the safety of nuclear power plants by incorporating a high degree automation where greatly simplified operator control console minimizes the possibility of human error in power plant operations. A hierarchically distributed control system with automated responses to plant upset conditions is the focus of our research to achieve this goal. The second goal is to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-II steam plant.

  5. Simulation model of a PWR power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simulation model of a hypothetical PWR power plant is described. A large number of disturbances and failures in plant function can be simulated. The model is written as seven modules to the modular simulation system for continuous processes DYSIM and serves also as a user example of this system. The model runs in Fortran 77 on the IBM-PC-AT. (author)

  6. Parabolic Trough Organic Rankine Cycle Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canada, S.; Cohen, G.; Cable, R.; Brosseau, D.; Price, H.

    2005-01-01

    Arizona Public Service (APS) is required to generate a portion of its electricity from solar resources in order to satisfy its obligation under the Arizona Environmental Portfolio Standard (EPS). In recent years, APS has installed and operates over 4.5 MWe of fixed, tracking, and concentrating photovoltaic systems to help meet the solar portion of this obligation and to develop an understanding of which solar technologies provide the best cost and performance to meet utility needs. During FY04, APS began construction of a 1-MWe parabolic trough concentrating solar power plant. This plant represents the first parabolic trough plant to begin construction since 1991. The plant will also be the first commercial deployment of the Solargenix parabolic trough collector technology developed under contract to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The plant will use an organic Rankine cycle (ORC) power plant, provided by Ormat. The ORC power plant is much simpler than a conventional steam Rankine cycle power plant and allows unattended operation of the facility.

  7. OUT Success Stories: Solar Trough Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J.

    2000-08-01

    The Solar Electric Generating System (SEGS) plants use parabolic-trough solar collectors to capture the sun's energy and convert it to heat. The SEGS plants range in capacity from 13.8 to 80 MW, and they were constructed to meet Southern California Edison Company's periods of peak power demand.

  8. Operations quality assurance for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This standard covers the quality assurance of all activities concerned with the operation and maintenance of plant equipment and systems in CANDU-based nuclear power plants during the operations phase, the period between the completion of commissioning and the start of decommissioning

  9. Operation of Finnish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarterly reports on the operation of Finnish nuclear power plants describe events and observations, relating to nuclear and radiation safety, which the Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety considers significant. Also other events of general interest are reported. The reports also include a summary of the radiation safety of plant personnel and the environment, as well as tabulated data on the plants' production and load factors

  10. Commissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic objective of commissioning programs is to demonstrate that systems will operate as designed. This involves testing under conditions which simulate normal, upset and accident conditions. Experience with commissioning of plants supports the current commissioning practices and suggests improvements that should be made

  11. Maintenance of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Guide covers the organizational and procedural aspects of maintenance but does not give detailed technical advice on the maintenance of particular plant items. It gives guidance on preventive and remedial measures necessary to ensure that all structures, systems and components important to safety are capable of performing as intended. The Guide covers the organizational and administrative requirements for establishing and implementing preventive maintenance schedules, repairing defective plant items, providing maintenance facilities and equipment, procuring stores and spare parts, selecting and training maintenance personnel, reviewing and controlling plant modifications arising from maintenance, and for generating, collecting and retaining maintenance records. Maintenance shall be subject to quality assurance in all aspects important to safety. Because quality assurance has been dealt with in detail in other Safety Guides, it is only included here in specific instances where emphasis is required. Maintenance is considered to include functional and performance testing of plant, surveillance and in-service inspection, where these are necessary either to support other maintenance activities or to ensure continuing capability of structures, systems and components important to safety to perform their intended functions

  12. Advanced nuclear power plants in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP) is the largest power company among the six subsidiaries that separated from Korea Electric Power Corporation (KEPCO) in 2001, accounting for approximately 25% of electricity producing facilities, hydro and nuclear combined. KHNP operates 20 nuclear power plants in Kori, Yonggwang, Ulchin and Wolsong site and several hydroelectric power generation facilities, providing approximately 36% of the national power supply. As a major source of electricity generation in Korea, nuclear energy contributes greatly to the stability of national electricity supply and energy security. KHNP's commercial nuclear power plant operation, which started with Kori Unit 1 in 1978, has achieved an average capacity factor more than 90% since 2000 and a high record of 93.4% in 2008. Following the introduction of nuclear power plants in the 1970's, Korea accumulated its nuclear technology in the 1980's, developed OPR 1000(Optimized Power Reactor) and demonstrated advanced level of its nuclear technology capabilities in the 2000's by developing an advanced type reactor, APR 1400(Advanced Power Reactor) which is being constructed at Shin-Kori Unit 3 and 4 for the first time. By 2022, KHNP will construct additional 12 nuclear power plants in order to ensure a stable power supply according to the Government Plan of Long-Term Electricity supply and Demand. 4 units of OPR 1000 reactor model will be commissioned by 2013 and 8 units of APR 1400 are under construction and planned. At the end of 2022, the nuclear capacity will reach 33% share of total generation capacity in Korea and account for 48% of national power generation. (author)

  13. Estimation of environmental external costs between coal fired power plant and nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    First of all, this study evaluated the impacts on the health and the environment of air pollutants emitted from coal power plant and nuclear power pant, two major electric power generating options in Korea. Then, the environmental external costs of those two options were estimated by transforming the health and environment impact into monetary values. To do this, AIRPACTS and Impacts of Atmospheric Release model developed by IAEA were used. The environmental external cost of Samcheonpo coal power plant was estimated about 25 times as much as that of Younggwang nuclear power plant. This result implies that nuclear power plant is a clean technology compared with coal power plant. This study suggests that the external cost should be reflected in the electric system expansion plan in order to allocate energy resources efficiently and to reduce economic impact stemming from the environmental regulation emerged recently on a global level

  14. FACTS Devices for Large Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adamczyk, Andrzej Grzegorz; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro;

    2010-01-01

    Growing number of wind turbines is changing electricity generation profile all over the world. However, high wind energy penetration affects power system safety and stability. For this reason transmission system operators (TSO) impose more stringent connection requirements on the wind power plant...

  15. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  16. Informatization of Power Plant and Its Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhenghai

    2006-01-01

    @@ This paper presents the working procedure of power generating enterprises and explains the framework of an e-power-plant and its information system, puts forward the guideline and the general goal of informatization construction while focusing on the construction goal in the applied system, the implementing strategy, the project management and organization.

  17. Harmonic Resonances in Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez, Francisco Daniel Freijedo; Chaudhary, Sanjay; Teodorescu, Remus;

    2015-01-01

    This work reviews the state-of-the-art in the field of harmonic resonance problems in Wind Power Plants (WPPs). Firstly, a generic WPP is modeled according to the equivalent circuits of its passive and active components. Main focus is put on modeling active components, i.e. the ones based on power...

  18. Our Car as Power Plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijk, A.J.M.; Verhoef, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cell cars can provide more efficient and cleaner transportation. However, we use our cars for transportation only 5% of the time. When parked, the fuel cell in the car can produce electricity from hydrogen, which is cleaner and more efficient than the current electricity system, generating usef

  19. Natural Circulation Performance in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with a study of natural circulation in PWR systems, The study consists of two parts: in the first one, natural circulation in experimental facilities simulating PWR plants was analyzed. This made it possible to gather a broad data base which was assumed as a reference for the subsequent part of the research. Seven Nuclear Power Plants nodalizations and additional experimental data from ''non-PWR'' facilities have been considered in the second part of the paper. Conclusions are drawn about natural circulation capabilities derived for the seven Nuclear Power Plants nodalizations and from data base pertinent to three ''non-PWR'' facilities. (author)

  20. Cooling water requirements and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indian nuclear power programme is poised to scuttle the energy crisis of our time by proposing joint ventures for large power plants. Large fossil/nuclear power plants (NPPs) rely upon water for cooling and are therefore located near coastal areas. The amount of water a power station uses and consumes depends on the cooling technology used. Depending on the cooling technology utilized, per megawatt existing NPPs use and consume more water (by a factor of 1.25) than power stations using other fuel sources. In this context the distinction between 'use' and 'consume' of water is important. All power stations do consume some of the water they use; this is generally lost as evaporation. Cooling systems are basically of two types; Closed cycle and Once-through, of the two systems, the closed cycle uses about 2-3% of the water volumes used by the once-through system. Generally, water used for power plant cooling is chemically altered for purposes of extending the useful life of equipment and to ensure efficient operation. The used chemicals effluent will be added to the cooling water discharge. Thus water quality impacts on power plants vary significantly, from one electricity generating technology to another. In light of massive expansion of nuclear power programme there is a need to develop new ecofriendly cooling water technologies. Seawater cooling towers (SCT) could be a viable option for power plants. SCTs can be utilized with the proper selection of materials, coatings and can achieve long service life. Among the concerns raised about the development of a nuclear power industry, the amount of water consumed by nuclear power plants compared with other power stations is of relevance in light of the warming surface seawater temperatures. A 1000 MW power plant uses per day ∼800 ML/MW in once through cooling system; while SCT use 27 ML/MW. With the advent of new marine materials and concrete compositions SCT can be constructed for efficient operation. However, the

  1. Advanced coal-fired power plant technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klauke, F. [Babcock Borsig Power Energy GmbH (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents the joint efforts of a large European group of manufacturers, utilities and institutes co-operating in a phased long-term project named 'Advanced 700{degree}C PF Power Plant'. Net efficiences of more than 50% will be reached through development of a super critical steam cycle operating at maximum steam temperatures in the range of 700{degree}C. The principal efforts are based on development of creep resistent nickel-based materials named super-alloys for the hottest areas of the water/steam cycle. The Advanced 700{degree}C PF Power Plant project will improve the competitiveness of coal-fired power generation. Furthermore, it will provide a major reduction of CO{sub 2} from coal-fired power plants in the range of 15% from the best PF power plants presently and up to 40% from older plants. The demonstration programme will leave the possibility of any plant output between 400 and 1000 MW. The project will run to the end of 2003. 8 figs.

  2. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjellstroem, B. [Luleaa Univ. of Technology (Sweden)

    1996-12-31

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs.

  3. Safety Assessment - Swedish Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the reactor accident at Three Mile Island, the Swedish nuclear power plants were equipped with filtered venting of the containment. Several types of accidents can be identified where the filtered venting has no effect on the radioactive release. The probability for such accidents is hopefully very small. It is not possible however to estimate the probability accurately. Experiences gained in the last years, which have been documented in official reports from the Nuclear Power Inspectorate indicate that the probability for core melt accidents in Swedish reactors can be significantly larger than estimated earlier. A probability up to one in a thousand operating years can not be excluded. There are so far no indications that aging of the plants has contributed to an increased accident risk. Maintaining the safety level with aging nuclear power plants can however be expected to be increasingly difficult. It is concluded that the 12 Swedish plants remain a major threat for severe radioactive pollution of the Swedish environment despite measures taken since 1980 to improve their safety. Closing of the nuclear power plants is the only possibility to eliminate this threat. It is recommended that until this is done, quantitative safety goals, same for all Swedish plants, shall be defined and strictly enforced. It is also recommended that utilities distributing misleading information about nuclear power risks shall have their operating license withdrawn. 37 refs

  4. Market integration of Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer; Hansen, Lars Henrik; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon;

    2013-01-01

    We consider a direct control Virtual Power Plant, which is given the task of maximizing the profit of a portfolio of flexible consumers by trading flexibility in Energy Markets. Spot price optimization has been quite intensively researched in Smart Grid literature lately. In this work, however, we...... develop a three stage market model, which includes Day-Ahead (Spot), Intra-Day and Regulating Power Markets. This allows us to test the hypothesis that the Virtual Power Plant can generate additional profit by trading across several markets. We find that even though profits do increase as more markets are...

  5. Th-100 Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenkampskraal Thorium Limited (STL) is a private company which is designing, marketing, licensing and commercializing a 100MWt thorium fueled pebble bed reactor. The concept plant design has been completed and work on the basic design has started. First site to determine the fuel cycle employed. Strong emphasis is placed on modular construction to reduce costs. STL hopes to start the licensing process within the next 6-8 months

  6. Perspectives on Magnetized Target Fusion Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, R. L.

    2007-06-01

    One approach to Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) builds upon the ongoing experimental effort (FRX-L) to generate a Field Reversed Configuration (FRC) target plasma suitable for translation and cylindrical-liner (i.e., converging flux conserver) implosion. Numerical modeling is underway to elucidate key performance drivers for possible future power-plant extrapolations. The fusion gain, Q (ratio of DT fusion yield to the sum of initial liner kinetic energy plus plasma formation energy), sets the power-plant duty cycle for a nominal design electric power [ e.g. 1,000 MWe(net)]. A pulsed MTF power plant of this type derives from the historic Fast Liner Reactor (FLR) concept and shares attributes with the recent Inertial Fusion Energy (IFE) Z-pinch and laser-driven pellet HYLIFE-II conceptual designs.

  7. Integration of torrefaction with steam power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakri, B.; Saari, J.; Sermyagina, E.; Vakkilainen, E.

    2013-09-01

    Torrefaction is one of the pretreatment technologies to enhance the fuel characteristics of biomass. The efficient and continuous operation of a torrefaction reactor, in the commercial scale, demands a secure biomass supply, in addition to adequate source of heat. Biorefinery plants or biomass-fuelled steam power plants have the potential to integrate with the torrefaction reactor to exchange heat and mass, using available infrastructure and energy sources. The technical feasibility of this integration is examined in this study. A new model for the torrefaction process is introduced and verified by the available experimental data. The torrefaction model is then integrated in different steam power plants to simulate possible mass and energy exchange between the reactor and the plants. The performance of the integrated plant is investigated for different configurations and the results are compared. (orig.)

  8. Does Brazil need new nuclear power plants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Joaquim F. de [Graduate Program on Energy, University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: jfdc35@uol.com.br; Sauer, Ildo L. [Graduate Program on Energy, University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Institute of Electrotechnics and Energy, University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: illsauer@iee.usp.br

    2009-04-15

    In October 2008, the Brazilian Government announced plans to invest US$212 billion in the construction of nuclear power plants, totaling a joint capacity of 60,000 MW. Apart from this program, officials had already announced the completion of the construction of the nuclear plant Angra III; the construction of large-scale hydroelectric plans in the Amazon and the implantation of natural gas, biomass and coal thermoelectric plants in other regions throughout the country. Each of these projects has its proponents and its opponents, who bring forth concerns and create heated debates in the specialized forums. In this article, some of these concerns are explained, especially under the perspective of the comparative analysis of costs involved. Under such merit figures, the nuclear option, when compared to hydro plants, combined with conventional thermal and biomass-fueled plants, and even wind, to expand Brazilian power-generation capacity, does not appear as a priority.

  9. Does Brazil need new nuclear power plants?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Carvalho, Joaquim F. [Graduate Program on Energy, University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Sauer, Ildo L. [Graduate Program on Energy, University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]|[Institute of Electrotechnics and Energy, University of Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-04-15

    In October 2008, the Brazilian Government announced plans to invest US$212 billion in the construction of nuclear power plants, totaling a joint capacity of 60,000 MW. Apart from this program, officials had already announced the completion of the construction of the nuclear plant Angra III; the construction of large-scale hydroelectric plans in the Amazon and the implantation of natural gas, biomass and coal thermoelectric plants in other regions throughout the country. Each of these projects has its proponents and its opponents, who bring forth concerns and create heated debates in the specialized forums. In this article, some of these concerns are explained, especially under the perspective of the comparative analysis of costs involved. Under such merit figures, the nuclear option, when compared to hydro plants, combined with conventional thermal and biomass-fueled plants, and even wind, to expand Brazilian power-generation capacity, does not appear as a priority. (author)

  10. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  11. Decentralised electrical distribution network in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A centralised network is a dominating network solution in today's power plants. In this study a centralised and a decentralised network were designed in order to compare them economically and technically. The emphasis of this study was on economical aspects, but also the most important technical aspects were included. The decentralised network requires less space and less cabling since there is no switchgear building and distribution transformers are placed close to the consumption in the field of a power plant. MV-motors and distribution transformers build up a ring. Less cabling and an absent switchgear building cause considerable savings. Component costs of both of the networks were estimated by using data from fulfilled power plant projects and turned out to be smaller for the decentralised network. Simulations for the decentralised network were done in order to find a way to carry out earth fault protection and location. It was found out that in high resistance earthed system the fault distance can be estimated by a relatively simple method. The decentralised network uses a field bus, which offers many new features to the automation system of a power plant. Diversified information can be collected from the protection devices in order to schedule only the needed maintenance duties at the right time. Through the field bus it is also possible to control remotely a power plant. The decentralised network is built up from ready-to-install modules. These modules are tested by the module manufacturer decreasing the need for field testing dramatically. The work contribution needed in the electrification and the management of a power plant project reduces also due the modules. During the lifetime of a power plant, maintenance is easier and more economical. (orig.)

  12. Assessment of Some Immune Parameters in Occupationally Exposed Nuclear Power Plants Workers: Flowcytometry Measurements of T, B, NK and NKT Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyuleva, Ilona; Panova, Delyana; Djounova, Jana; Rupova, Ivanka; Penkova, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to analyze the results of a 10-year survey of the radiation effects of some immune parameters of occupationally exposed personnel from the Nuclear Power Plant "Kozloduy", Bulgaria. 438 persons working in NPP with cumulative doses between 0.06 mSv and 766.36mSv and a control group with 65 persons were studied. Flow cytometry measurements of T, B, natural killer (NK) and natural killer T (NKT) cell lymphocyte populations were performed. Data were interpreted with regard to cumulative doses, length of service and age. The average values of the studied parameters of cellular immunity were in the reference range relative to age and for most of the workers were not significantly different from the control values. Low doses of ionizing radiation showed some trends of change in the number of CD3+CD4+ helper-inducer lymphocytes, CD3+ CD8+ and NKT cell counts. The observed changes in some of the studied parameters could be interpreted in terms of adaptation processes at low doses. At doses above 100-200 mSv, compensatory mechanisms might be involved to balance deviations in lymphocyte subsets. The observed variations in some cases could not be attributed only to the radiation exposure because of the impact of a number of other exogenous and endogenous factors on the immune system. PMID:26675014

  13. The Oil-Fired MHD Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been shown in an earlier paper what thermal efficiencies can be hoped for from a combined MHD-steam power station for different fuels, seeding, magnetic field strength, etc. However, a large pilot-plant is required to prove the intrinsic reliability of the MHD-power station, and also its probable competitiveness with a conventional power station. In this paper a possible pilot plant, a heavy-fuel-oil-fired MHD-steam power station is described. Residual fuel oil has been steadily increasing in significance in European power station practice over the past few decades. The MHD pilot plant must be as simple as possible in concept, so that the question of its reliability can be answered. The two essential unknowns are the designs of the MHD duct and the large superconducting magnets. Both preheating of the air above about 800°C and oxygen enrichment should be dispensed with for the time being. The combustion chamber should be constructed according to well-proved principles. It is proposed as well-that the seeding problem should be simply handled. In the example discussed, it seems possible that the specific plant costs of the whole power station will be kept to the level prevailing for steam power stations of the same output, while the thermal efficiency, after taking into account all the losses which can at the moment be assessed, is still 15% higher than that of the regular power station. If only the proposed pilot plant is considered, then the enormous development costs for the high temperature preheater and other costly items can be postponed until a later date, when the further development of the open cycle MHD-power station can be fully justified. (author)

  14. Possible genetic damage in the Czech nuclear power plant workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of our study was to identify occupational risk of irradiation exposure in the Czech nuclear power plant workers. We analyzed levels of chromosomal aberrations, a well-known biomarker of early biological effects and a predictor of cancer risk. We applied the conventional method of cytogenetic analysis and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH, whole chromosome painting for chromosomes 1 and 4, combined with a pancentromeric probe) to three groups: 123 subjects in the Temelin nuclear power plant (2 years in use), 114 subjects in the Dukovany nuclear power plant (20 years in use), and 53 matched controls from Ceske Budejovice. Nuclear power plant workers were divided into two groups: subjects with admittance into the monitored zone, and others. Following factors were also analyzed: GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTP1, XPD, XRCC1, hOGG1, p53, MTHFR, and MS gene polymorphisms, levels of vitamins A, C, E, and folate in plasma, and level of cotinine in urine. Long-term exposure to ionizing radiation in the monitored zone was 0.47 ± 1.50 mSv (miliSievert) in the Temelin nuclear power plant and 5.74 ± 9.57 mSv in the Dukovany nuclear power plant. Using the conventional cytogenetic analysis, we observed 1.90 ± 0.95 and 1.82 ± 1.19% AB.C. (percent of aberrant cells) in the Temelin nuclear power plant, and 2.39 ± 1.01 and 2.33 ± 1.04% AB.C. in the Dukovany nuclear power plant, for monitored zone workers and others, respectively. In the control group, we found 2.25 ± 0.82% AB.C. Genomic frequency of translocations F G/100 measured by FISH was 1.89 ± 1.40 and 2.01 ± 1.68 in the Temelin nuclear power plant, and 2.48 ± 1.93 and 2.14 ± 1.62 in the Dukovany nuclear power plant for monitored zone workers and others, respectively. In the control group, F G/100 was 1.83 ± 1.19. Following factors were identified as potential confounders by the conventional cytogenetic analysis: XPD-6, by the FISH: age, GSTP1 and p53Bst genotypes, long-term use of medication, alcohol consumption

  15. Nuclear power plant security assessment technical manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Sharon L.; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Potter, Claude S., III

    2007-09-01

    This report (Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Technical Manual) is a revision to NUREG/CR-1345 (Nuclear Power Plant Design Concepts for Sabotage Protection) that was published in January 1981. It provides conceptual and specific technical guidance for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant design certification and combined operating license applicants as they: (1) develop the layout of a facility (i.e., how buildings are arranged on the site property and how they are arranged internally) to enhance protection against sabotage and facilitate the use of physical security features; (2) design the physical protection system to be used at the facility; and (3) analyze the effectiveness of the PPS against the design basis threat. It should be used as a technical manual in conjunction with the 'Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Format and Content Guide'. The opportunity to optimize physical protection in the design of a nuclear power plant is obtained when an applicant utilizes both documents when performing a security assessment. This document provides a set of best practices that incorporates knowledge gained from more than 30 years of physical protection system design and evaluation activities at Sandia National Laboratories and insights derived from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission technical staff into a manual that describes a development and analysis process of physical protection systems suitable for future nuclear power plants. In addition, selected security system technologies that may be used in a physical protection system are discussed. The scope of this document is limited to the identification of a set of best practices associated with the design and evaluation of physical security at future nuclear power plants in general. As such, it does not provide specific recommendations for the design and evaluation of physical security for any specific reactor design. These best practices should be applicable to the design and

  16. Water processing in power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surface water can be treated to a high degree of efficiency by means of new compact processes. The quantity of chemicals to be dosed can easily be adjusted to the raw water composition by intentional energy supply via agitators. In-line coagulations is a new filtration process for reducing organic substances as well as colloids present in surface water. The content of organic substances can be monitored by measuring the plugging index. Advanced ion-exchanger processes (fluidised-bed, compound fluidised-bed and continuously operating ion exchanger plants) allow the required quantity of chemicals as well as the plant's own water consumption to be reduced, thus minimising the adverse effect on the environment. The reverse-osmosis process is becoming more and more significant due to the low adverse effect on the environment and the given possibilities of automation. As not only ionogenic substances but also organic matter are removed by reverse osmosis, this process is particularly suited for treating surface water to be used as boiler feed water. The process of vacuum degassing has become significant for the cold removal of oxygen. (orig.)

  17. 76 FR 1469 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, for operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant... for light-water nuclear power reactors,'' which requires that the calculated emergency core...

  18. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skiba, James M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Scherer, Carolynn P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  19. Organelle Extensions in Plant Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jaideep Mathur; Alena Mammone; Kiah A.Barton

    2012-01-01

    Cell walls lock each cell in a specific position within the supraorganization of a plant.Despite its fixed location,each cell must be able to sense alterations in its immediate environment and respond rapidly to ensure the optimal functioning,continued growth and development,and eventual long-term survival of the plant.The ultra-structural detail that underlies our present understanding of the plant cell has largely been acquired from fixed and processed material that does not allow an appreciation of the dynamic nature of sub-cellular events in the cell.In recent years,fluorescent proteinaided imaging of living plant cells has added to our understanding of the dynamic nature of the plant cell.One of the major outcomes of live imaging of plant cells is the growing appreciation that organelle shapes are not fixed,and many organelles extend their surface transiently in rapid response to environmental stimuli.In many cases,the extensions appear as tubules extending from the main organelle.Specific terms such as stromules from plastids,matrixules from mitochondria,and peroxules from peroxisomes have been coined to describe the extensions.Here,we review our present understanding of organelle extensions and discuss how they may play potential roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis in plant cells.

  20. A BWR power plant simulator for Barsebaeck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer simulator of a Barsebaeck power plant unit has been developed in cooperation between Sydkraft AB, Lund Institute of Technology, and Risoe National Laboratory. The simulator is of the kind often referred to as a compact simulator, because it involves only a computer with display screens and other input/output devices plus the software needed for calculation and presentation of the plant state as a function of time, and no sort of model of the control room as in large reactor simulators for operator training. The purpose of training courses with the compact simulator is to give students a better understanding of the behaviour of the power plant under transient conditions by displaying variables, e.g. pressures, temperatures, reactivity, nuclear power, as functions of time, thereby showing the interactions between different parts of the plant during the transient and the influence of a number of possible operator actions. The present paper describes the Barsebaeck compact simulator with the emphasis on the software developed at Risoe National Laboratory. The Risoe work comprises the programming of the dynamic plant model, in the form of a number of Fortran subroutines containing the physical description of the power plant. (author)

  1. The assessment of the environmental external costs of power plants for both coal-fired plant and nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Efforts were made to assess the environmental external costs of power plants for both Samchonpo coal-fired plant and Younggwang nuclear power plant by using the computer program developed by the IAEA. In the case that the emission control devices such as precipitator for particulates reduction, wet scrubber for SO2, and low-NOx burner for NOx were installed in the coal-fired power plant, total environmental external cost was estimated as 33.97Won/kWh, much higher than 0.76Won/kWh of Younggwang nuclear power plant. And this study also assessed and compared the environmental external costs when Younggwang nuclear power plant was replaced by the coal-fired power plant at the same site and with the same capacity. According to the result, total environmental external cost of coal-fired power plant, with the emisison control devices installed, was estimated as 792 million US$ and it was about 50 times higher than 15 million US$ of Younggwang nuclear power plant. Although the result of this study had some limits due to using the simplified model, it was still true that nuclear power was much more environmentally friendly power source than coal-fired power

  2. Technical efficiency of thermoelectric power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana [Instituto de Economia e Gestao, Technical University of Lisbon, Rua Miguel Lupi, 20, 1249-078 Lisbon (Portugal); Peypoch, Nicolas [GEREM, LAMPS, IAE, Universite de Perpignan Via Domitia, 52 avenue Paul Alduy, F-66860 Perpignan (France)

    2008-11-15

    This paper analyses the technical efficiency of Portuguese thermoelectric power generating plants with a two-stage procedure. In the first stage, the plants' relative technical efficiency is estimated with DEA (data envelopment analysis) to establish which plants perform most efficiently. These plants could serve as peers to help improve performance of the least efficient plants. The paper ranks these plants according to their relative efficiency for the period 1996-2004. In a second stage, the Simar and Wilson [Simar, L., Wilson, P.W., 2007. Estimation and inference in two-stage, semi-parametric models of production processes. Journal of Econometrics 136, 1-34] bootstrapped procedure is adopted to estimate the efficiency drivers. Economic implications arising from the study are considered. (author)

  3. Efficiency improvement of thermal coal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hourfar, D. [VEBA Kraftwerke Ruhr Ag, Gelsenkirchen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The discussion concerning an increase of the natural greenhouse effect by anthropogenic changes in the composition of the atmosphere has increased over the past years. The greenhouse effect has become an issue of worldwide debate. Carbon dioxide is the most serious emission of the greenhouse gases. Fossil-fired power plants have in the recent past been responsible for almost 30 % of the total CO{sub 2} emissions in Germany. Against this background the paper will describe the present development of CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations and present actual and future opportunities for CO{sub 2} reduction. The significance attached to hard coal as one of today`s prime sources of energy with the largest reserves worldwide, and, consequently, its importance for use in power generation, is certain to increase in the years to come. The further development of conventional power plant technology, therefore, is vital, and must be carried out on the basis of proven operational experience. The main incentive behind the development work completed so far has been, and continues to be, the achievement of cost reductions and environmental benefits in the generation of electricity by increasing plant efficiency, and this means that, in both the short and the long term, power plants with improved conventional technology will be used for environmentally acceptable coal-fired power generation.

  4. Dukovany nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presentation covers recommended safety issues for the Dukovany NPP which have been solved with satisfactory conclusions. Safety issues concerned include: radiation safety; nuclear safety; security; emergency preparedness; health protection at work; fire protection; environmental protection; chemical safety; technical safety. Quality assurance programs at all stages on NPP life time is described. Report includes description of NPP staff training provision, training simulator, emergency operating procedures, emergency preparedness, Year 2000 problem, inspections and life time management. Description of Dukovany Plant Safety Analysis Projects including integrity of the equipment, modernisation, equipment innovation and safety upgrading program show that this approach corresponds to the actual practice applied in EU countries, and fulfilment of current IAEA requirements for safety enhancement of the WWER 440/213 units in the course of MORAWA Equipment Upgrading program

  5. Slovak power stations, Nuclear Power Plants Mochovce (Annual report 1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Mochovce in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Director's foreword; (2) Power plant management; (3) Highlights of 1997; (4) Capital construction; (5) Nuclear safety; (6) Radiation safety; (7) Work safety and health protection at work; (9) Fire protection; (10) Units upgrading - safety measures; (11) Maintenance; (12) Operation; (13) Environmental impacts of operations; (14) List of balances; (15) Human sources; (16) International co-operation; (17) Public relations

  6. Ground acceleration in a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology that adopts the recommendations of international organizations for determining the ground acceleration at a nuclear power plant is outlined. Systematic presented here emphasizes the type of geological, geophysical and geotechnical studies in different areas of influence, culminating in assessments of Design Basis earthquake and the earthquake Operating Base. The methodology indicates that in regional areas where the site of the nuclear power plant is located, failures are identified in geological structures, and seismic histories of the region are documented. In the area of detail geophysical tools to generate effects to determine subsurface propagation velocities and spectra of the induced seismic waves are used. The mechanical analysis of drill cores allows estimating the efforts that generate and earthquake postulate. Studies show that the magnitude of the Fukushima earthquake, did not affect the integrity of nuclear power plants due to the rocky settlement found. (Author)

  7. POSSPOW: Possible Power of Offshore Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Göçmen, Tuhfe; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar;

    2013-01-01

    , using the ambient flow as input and wake flow as output. Conclusion The poster presents a new Danish project on the possible power from a down-regulated wind farm. Project partners are DTU, Vestas, Siemens, Vattenfall and DONG. We aim at a verified and internationally accepted way to determine......Introduction In recent years, the very large offshore wind farms were designed as wind power plants, including possibilities to contribute to the stability of the grid by offering grid services (also called ancillary services). One of those services is reserve power, which is achieved by down......-regulating the wind farm from its maximum possible power. The power can be ramped up quite quickly, but the influence of wakes makes it difficult to assess the exact amount of down-regulation available to sell. Currently, Transmission System Operators (TSOs) have no real way to determine exactly the possible power...

  8. Costs of Decommissioning Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While refurbishments for the long-term operation of nuclear power plants and for the lifetime extension of such plants have been widely pursued in recent years, the number of plants to be decommissioned is nonetheless expected to increase in future, particularly in the United States and Europe. It is thus important to understand the costs of decommissioning so as to develop coherent and cost-effective strategies, realistic cost estimates based on decommissioning plans from the outset of operations and mechanisms to ensure that future decommissioning expenses can be adequately covered. This study presents the results of an NEA review of the costs of decommissioning nuclear power plants and of overall funding practices adopted across NEA member countries. The study is based on the results of this NEA questionnaire, on actual decommissioning costs or estimates, and on plans for the establishment and management of decommissioning funds. Case studies are included to provide insight into decommissioning practices in a number of countries. (authors)

  9. Development of concentrated solar power and conventional power plant hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Suojanen, Suvi

    2016-01-01

    CSP hybrids are one of the possible technical solutions in order to increase the share of renewable energy and decrease greenhouse gas emission levels as well as fuel consump-tion. The main objectives of the thesis are to research state-of-the-art technologies in concentrated solar power (CSP) and conventional power plants, to comprehensively study the possible integration options and to develop one CSP hybrid configuration by using Advanced Process Simulator (Apros), which is a dynamic model...

  10. Power plant conceptual studies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) has been a study of conceptual designs for commercial fusion power plants. It focussed on five power plant models, named PPCS A, B, AB, C and D, which are illustrative of a wider spectrum of possibilities. They are all based on the tokamak concept and they have approximately the same net electrical power output, 1500 MWe. These span a range from relatively near-term, based on limited technology and plasma physics extrapolations, to an advanced conception. All five PPCS plant models differ substantially from the models that formed the basis of earlier European studies. They also differ from one another, which lead to differences in economic performance and in the details of safety and environmental impacts. The main emphasis of the study was on system integration. Systems analyses were used to produce self-consistent plant parameter sets with approximately optimal economic characteristics for all models. In the PPCS models, the favourable, inherent, features of fusion have been exploited to provide substantial safety and environmental advantages. The broad features of the safety and environmental conclusions of previous studies have been confirmed and demonstrated with increased confidence. Two key innovative developments made within the PPCS study are worthy of a special note. One is the development of a scheme for the scheduled replacement of the internal components which shows the potential for an overall plant availability in excess of 75%. The other is a conceptual design for a helium-cooled divertor, which permits the toleration of heat loads of at least 10 MW/m2. The PPCS study has highlighted the need for specific design and R and D activities, in addition to those already underway within the European long term R and D programme, as well as the need to clarify the concept of DEMO, the device that will bridge the gap between ITER and the first-of-a-kind fusion power plant. (author)

  11. OPTIMIZING THE PERFORMANCE OF THERMAL POWER PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Sushila Mishra; Ganesh Chembedu

    2016-01-01

    Failure of boiler tubes has been a familiar phenomenon in power plants resulting in unscheduled plant shut down; in consequence, there are heavy losses in industrial production. The failure of boiler tubes appears in the form of bending, bulging, cracking, wearing or rupture, causing leakage of the tubes. The failure can be caused by one or more modes such as overheating, stress corrosion cracking (SCC), hydrogen embrittlement, creep, flame impingement, sulfide attack, weld attack, ash erosio...

  12. Nuclear power plant outage optimisation strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Competitive environment for electricity generation has significant implications for nuclear power plant operations, including among others the need of efficient use of resources, effective management of plant activities such as on-line maintenance and outages. Nuclear power plant outage management is a key factor for good, safe and economic nuclear power plant performance which involves many aspects: plant policy, co-ordination of available resources, nuclear safety, regulatory and technical requirements and, all activities and work hazards, before and during the outage. This technical publication aims to communicate these practices in a way they can be used by operators and utilities in the Member States of the IAEA. It intends to give guidance to outage managers, operating staff and to the local industry on planning aspects, as well as examples and strategies experienced from current plants in operation on the optimization of outage period. This report discusses the plant outage strategy and how this strategy is actually implemented. The main areas identified as most important for outage optimization by the utilities and government organizations participating in this report are: organization and management; outage planning and preparation, outage execution, safety outage review, and counter measures to avoid extension of outages and to easier the work in forced outages. This report was based on discussions and findings by the authors of the annexes and the participants of an Advisory Group Meeting on Determinant Causes for Reducing Outage Duration held in June 1999 in Vienna. The report presents the consensus of these experts regarding best common or individual good practices that can be used at nuclear power plants with the aim to optimize

  13. Strategies in tower solar power plant optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, A.; Ramos, F.

    2012-01-01

    A method for optimizing a central receiver solar thermal electric power plant is studied. We parametrize the plant design as a function of eleven design variables and reduce the problem of finding optimal designs to the numerical problem of finding the minimum of a function of several variables. This minimization problem is attacked with different algorithms both local and global in nature. We find that all algorithms find the same minimum of the objective function. The performance of each of...

  14. Experience in operation of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a brief description of the structure, financing and generating plant of Sydkraft, the Barsebaeck plant is briefly described. The construction schedule and personnel are outlinrd as are the investment and operating costs, which are compared with the utility's oil-fired generating costs. The causes of outages are briefly presented and discussed. The wastes from generating the same amount of power as Barsebaeck in 1977 using oil fuel are compared with the radioactive waste for that year. (JIW)

  15. Seismic instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seismic instrumentation system used in Nuclear Power Plants to monitor the design parameters of systems, structures and components, needed to provide safety to those plants, against the action of earth quarks is described. The instrumentation is based on the nuclear standards and other components used, as well as their general localization is indicated. The operation of the instrumentation system as a whole and the handling of the recovered data are dealt with accordingly. The accelerometer is described in detail. (Author)

  16. The EU power plant conceptual study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) was launched in 1988 in the frame of the European Fusion Programme. The objective of the PPCS is to demonstrate: the credibility of fusion power plant design(s); the claims for the safety and environmental advantages and for the economic viability of fusion power. In addition results of the PPCS Programme will help to define the R and D Programme. The strategy of the PPCS is to study a limited number of Plant Models that span the expected range of possibilities. These range from an advanced version of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) through to the presently foreseen ultimately achievable values of the plasma physics and technology parameters, together with a range of blanket and high heat flux technologies. The primary focus of detailed studies, and the first work to be undertaken, is on two Plant Models that emphasise limited extrapolation, since credibility within the philosophy of a possible fast-track development of fusion power is a major aim of the study. The remainder of this paper discusses the physics studies and the preliminary technology studies that have formed the launching pad for the detailed studies of Plant Models within the PPCS. The discussion concentrates on the 'limited extrapolation' Models that are being studied first, with brief reference to the Models that are further from ITER

  17. Ground assessment methods for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is needless to say that nuclear power plant must be constructed on the most stable and safe ground. Reliable assessment method is required for the purpose. The Ground Integrity Sub-committee of the Committee of Civil Engineering of Nuclear Power Plant started five working groups, the purpose of which is to systematize the assessment procedures including geological survey, ground examination and construction design. The works of working groups are to establishing assessment method of activities of faults, standardizing the rock classification method, standardizing assessment and indication method of ground properties, standardizing test methods and establishing the application standard for design and construction. Flow diagrams for the procedures of geological survey, for the investigation on fault activities and ground properties of area where nuclear reactor and important outdoor equipments are scheduled to construct, were established. And further, flow diagrams for applying investigated results to design and construction of plant, and for determining procedure of liquidification nature of ground etc. were also established. These systematized and standardized methods of investigation are expected to yield reliable data for assessment of construction site of nuclear power plant and lead to the safety of construction and operation in the future. In addition, the execution of these systematized and detailed preliminary investigation for determining the construction site of nuclear power plant will make much contribution for obtaining nation-wide understanding and faith for the project. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  18. Nuclear power plant siting: Hydrogeologic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide gives guidelines and methods for determining the ground water concentration of radionuclides that could result from postulated releases from nuclear power plants. The Guide gives recommendations on the data to be collected and the investigations to be performed at various stages of nuclear power plant siting in relation to the various aspects of the movement of accidentally released radioactive material through the ground water, the selection of an appropriate mathematical or physical model for the hydrodynamic dispersion even two-phase distribution of the radioactive material and an appropriate monitoring programme

  19. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP)

  20. Intelligent distributed control for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This project was initiated in September 1989 as a three year project to develop and demonstrate Intelligent Distributed Control (IDC) for Nuclear Power Plants. There were two primary goals of this research project. The first goal was to combine diagnostics and control to achieve a highly automated power plant as described by M.A. Schultz. The second goal was to apply this research to develop a prototype demonstration on an actual power plant system, the EBR-2 steam plant. Described in this Final (Third Annual) Technical Progress Report is the accomplishment of the project's final milestone, an in-plant intelligent control experiment conducted on April 1, 1993. The development of the experiment included: simulation validation, experiment formulation and final programming, procedure development and approval, and experimental results. Other third year developments summarized in this report are: (1) a theoretical foundation for Reconfigurable Hybrid Supervisory Control, (2) a steam plant diagnostic system, (3) control console design tools and (4) other advanced and intelligent control

  1. Celebrating Plant Cells: A Special Issue on Plant Cell Biology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ A special issue on plant cell biology is long overdue for JIPB! In the last two decades or so, the plant biology community has been thrilled by explosive discoveries regarding the molecular and genetic basis of plant growth, development, and responses to the environment, largely owing to recent maturation of model systems like Arabidopsis thaliana and the rice Oryza sativa, as well as the rapid development of high throughput technologies associated with genomics and proteomics.

  2. Investment scenarios for Chinese power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis is provided of returns for investment in power plants in China and India. Three sample investment scenarios are compared to illustrate the relative merits of each financing arrangement. The best returns would seem to be offered by a mix of debt and equity financing. The potential problem of gradual currency depreciation can be overcome by early cash payments. Foreign investment in China's power generation industry would be more readily forthcoming if easier access to debt finance were available. (UK)

  3. Alpha-nuclides in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The behaviour of alpha-nuclides in nuclear power plants is subject of the investigations presented. The source of alpha-nuclides is a contamination with fissile material (so called tramp uranium or tramp fuel) which deposits on fuel rod surfaces and leads to the build-up of transuranium nuclides. The determination of a defect situation with fuel release as well as the quantification of the fissile material contamination background is given for BWR and PWR plants. The quantification of the fuel release and the tramp uranium background can be calculated with different, measurable nuclides in BWR and PWR plants. (orig.)

  4. The earthquake security of the Paks Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The seismic safety of Paks Nuclear Power Plant is analyzed. Assessment of earthquake risk has been done at the site of the plant, and seismic resistance of the nuclear power plant is analyzed together. (TRA)

  5. Strategies in tower solar power plant optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, A

    2012-01-01

    A method for optimizing a central receiver solar thermal electric power plant is studied. We parametrize the plant design as a function of eleven design variables and reduce the problem of finding optimal designs to the numerical problem of finding the minimum of a function of several variables. This minimization problem is attacked with different algorithms both local and global in nature. We find that all algorithms find the same minimum of the objective function. The performance of each of the algorithms and the resulting designs are studied for two typical cases. We describe a method to evaluate the impact of design variables in the plant performance. This method will tell us what variables are key to the optimal plant design and which ones are less important. This information can be used to further improve the plant design and to accelerate the optimization procedure.

  6. Experimental energetic analysis of gas natural-powered fuel cell cogeneration plant; Analise energetica experimental de uma planta de co-geracao com celulas a combustivel e gas natural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furtado, Jose G.M.; Lopes, Francisco C.; Silva Junior, Fernando R.; Soares, Guilherme F.W.; Serra, Eduardo T. [Centro de Pesquisas de Energia Eletrica (CEPEL), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Power systems based on fuel cells have been considered for residential and commercial applications in energy Distributed Generation (DG) market as these systems can minimize their acquisition, installation and operation high costs. In this work we present an experimental analysis of a power generation system formed by a 5 kW proton exchange membrane fuel cell unit and a natural gas reformer (fuel processor) for hydrogen production, of the CEPEL's Fuel Cell Laboratory. It was determined the electrical performance of the cogeneration system in function of the design and operational power plant parameters. Additionally, it was verified the influence of the activation conditions of the fuel cell electrocatalytic system on the system performance. It also appeared that the use of hydrogen produced from the natural gas catalytic reforming provided the system operation in excellent electrothermal stability conditions resulting in increase of the energy conversion efficiency and of the economy of the cogeneration power plant. The maximum electrical efficiency achieved was around 38% and in all power range unit operated with average potential per single fuel cell higher than 0.60 V. (author)

  7. Safer design for a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the regulatory process for the issuing of the construction permit and the operating licence of the first Austrian nuclear power plant, more than 1200 injunctions have been issued for increasing its safety standard. In principle they belong to three groups: quality assurance and quality control; the improvement of the design; and probabilistic issues. Examples of all these three groups are given. When discussions with the parties in the regulatory process on the issuing of the operating licence were going on, work at the nuclear power plant was suddenly terminated following the negative outcome of a referendum. The main content of the discussions was that the nuclear inspectors keep permanent control over the plant and have a permanent record of occurrences there, that participation of the regulatory body is included in all issues which might influence the safety standard of the plant, and that the regulatory body may issue new injunctions on the operation of the plant if new standards arise from backfitting ensuing from lessons learned, from the treatment of generic issues, from new rules and regulations and from reactor safety research. Special attention is given to the process of mothballing the plant as was necessary after the referendum. The work on the plant was terminated in an orderly way; a final report was issued which stated what still would have to be done at the plant in order to go into operation. The mothballing began by demounting some systems, emptying others and shutting down a third group. Some ventilation systems are in operation. These activities are also recorded in reports; these, together with a final report of the status reached, could be the basis for revitalization work. Finally it is shown how Austria, with its limited means in terms of funds and personnel, is dealing with the problems of keeping the safety standard of the plant as high as at the plants in other countries with more funds and personnel available. (author)

  8. Institutional approach to power plant safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thesis of this paper is that the requirements for safety culture in nuclear power plants can be failing to recognize contradictions in the various pressures on the organization that have to be balanced in an optimal manner. Nuclear power plants are influenced by pressures from both external and internal sources, that can be viewed as comprising the two main institutionalizing influences on the organization. Most of the effort on safety culture definition and implementation has addressed the utility and the power plant, producing definitions of good practices and of hindrances to good utility safety culture. These often lack formal representation of the demands of the organization and of its environment that are related to institutional processes rather than to productivity. This paper adopts an institutional approach to organizations as a way of clarifying the nature of the interfaces between the power plant and its external agencies, and their respective safety culture requirements. The plant must respond to its own internal organizational demands that are both technical, related to efficiency and productivity, and institutionalizing in terms of organizational processes. External agencies create environmental demands that are primatily institutionalizing in nature, such as the legitimate requirements of society as represented by the regulatory body ; standards of practice desctibed by professional groups; or obligation to conform to international commitments. These inputs mu st be cognizant of all of the parameters of the plant's functioning if they are not to risk detracting from plant efficiency, and so safety. This is a measure of the safety culture of these external agencies. The utility's safety culture is dependent on its abi1ity to balance external demands , internal processes and technical imperatives. (author)

  9. Recent advances in nuclear power plant simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The field of industrial simulation has experienced very significant progress in recent years, and power plant simulation in particular has been an extremely active area. Improvements may be recorded in practically all simulator subsystems. In Europe, the construction of new full- or optimized-scope nuclear power plant simulators during the middle 1990's has been remarkable intense. In fact, it is possible to identify a distinct simulator generation, which constitutes a new de facto simulation standard. Thomson Training and Simulation has taken part in these developments by designing, building, and validation several of these new simulators for Dutch, German and French nuclear power plants. Their characteristics are discussed in this paper. The following main trends may be identified: Process modeling is clearly evolving towards obtaining engineering-grade performance, even under the added constraints of real-time operation and a very wide range of operating conditions to be covered; Massive use of modern graphic user interfaces (GUI) ensures an unprecedented flexibility and user-friendliness for the Instructor Station; The massive use of GUIs also allows the development of Trainee Stations (TS), which significantly enhance the in-depth training value of the simulators; The development of powerful Software Development Environments (SDE) enables the simulator maintenance teams to keep abreast of modifications carried out in the reference plants; Finally, simulator maintenance and its compliance with simulator fidelity requirements are greatly enhanced by integrated Configuration Management Systems (CMS). In conclusion, the power plant simulation field has attained a strong level of maturity, which benefits its approximately forty years of service to the power generation industry. (author)

  10. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed on an integrated assessment of probabilistic cancer mortality risks due to possible accidental releases from the European nuclear power plants. For each of the European nuclear power plants the prob...

  11. Safety assessment of emergency power systems for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is intended to assist the safety assessor within a regulatory body, or one working as a consultant, in assessing the safety of a given design of the emergency power systems (EPS) for a nuclear power plant. The present publication refers closely to the NUSS Safety Guide 50-SG-D7 (Rev. 1), Emergency Power Systems at Nuclear Power Plants. It covers therefore exactly the same technical subject as that Safety Guide. In view of its objective, however, it attempts to help in the evaluation of possible technical solutions which are intended to fulfill the safety requirements. Section 2 clarifies the scope further by giving an outline of the assessment steps in the licensing process. After a general outline of the assessment process in relation to the licensing of a nuclear power plant, the publication is divided into two parts. First, all safety issues are presented in the form of questions that have to be answered in order for the assessor to be confident of a safe design. The second part presents the same topics in tabulated form, listing the required documentation which the assessor has to consult and those international and national technical standards pertinent to the topics. An extensive reference list provides information on standards. 1 tab

  12. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and...

  13. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2.... DPR-53 and DPR-69, for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (CCNPP), respectively... (ISFSI), currently held by Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC as owner and licensed...

  14. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-07

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee) is the holder of Renewed..., ``Fatigue Management for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI)...

  15. Elk and plants thrive near power lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lustre, L.

    1997-11-01

    Butterflies and elk gather in clearings near power line right-of-ways and on the edges of such clearings, where the wild flowers and plants that have widely disappeared as a result of intensive farming and subsurface drainage of fields have found a good habitat. Ornamental coniferous trees, various herbs and assorted berries do well and can be harvested near power lines from woodland clearings once thought unfit for cultivation. IVS, the nationwide network company, takes part in many projects aiming both to increase productive utilization of land areas under power lines and to promote biodiversity

  16. The Daya Bay nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Daya Bay plant is nearing completion for the Guangdong Nuclear Power Joint Venture Company (GNPJVC), formed by the Chinese Government (75%) in conjunction with China Light Power, the Hong Kong utility (25%). 70% of generated power from two French-design 900 MWe class PWRs will be supplied to Hong Kong (the reference units: France's Gravelines-5 and -6). The Advanced Fuel Assembly designed by Framatome is used. The turbines are British-built (GEC) and designed differently from those installed in French units. 1 fig

  17. Medium-size power plants. Economic options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the authors describe a method for economic evaluation of a nuclear power plant project such as advocated by the IAEA but modified through the introduction of various parameters that may affect the evaluation, i.e. the weighted evaluation rate, the annual increase in the cost of fuel, and the discount rate. The method is applied to barge-based medium-size reactors (125 MW(e)). The authors calculate the investment cost, together with the costs of administration, operation and maintenance; use is made of current assumptions regarding the price of fuel for the case of a reference nuclear plant and an oil-fired plant of the same power and in the same programme. In this way the authors derive the discounted cost of the nuclear programme and concurrent conventional programme on the basis of the following assumptions: a weighted inflation rate varying between 0 and 6% per year; an annual increase in real fuel prices ranging from 0 to 3%; and a real discount rate, equal to the real interest rate, varying between 4 and 7% per year and corresponding to nominal discount rates of up to 13.4%. The conclusion reached is that, given the real interest rates actually prevailing on the financial market, a weighted inflation rate foreseen by the majority of experts, and a rise in real fuel prices of the order of 1% per year, the medium-size nuclear power plant is more economical than a conventional plant of the same output. (author)

  18. Reliability improvement method for BWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of the nuclear power generating facilities in Japan was commenced by the import of technological know-how from the United States, but in ten years since then, they reached the stage of improvement and standardization by the effort for the domestic production and the accumulated technological ability. But the unscheduled stop of operation was not able to avoid centering around the initially imported plants, and it cannot be said that the sufficient rate of operation was attained. In Japan, plant manufacturers deliver the whole installations including nuclear reactors in the lump, and carry out the planning, design, manufacture, construction, periodic inspection and maintenance, accordingly the feedback of the operational results can be made quickly, differing from the U.S. system. As the result, No. 1 plant of the Shimane Nuclear Power Station, Chugoku Electric Power Co., Inc., which was constructed by the domestic technology, has attained about 72% of the average rate of operation in six years, and showed the high reliability of the domestically produced plants. The measures for improving system reliability in system planning and the reliability of machinery and equipments, the method of evaluating the reliability of systems, machines and equipments, the quality of nuclear power generating facilities and the quality assurance, and the management of maintenance in Hitachi Ltd. are explained. (Kako, I.)

  19. Decontamination techniques for BWR power generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report describes various techniques used for decontamination in BWR power generation plants. Objectives and requirements for decontamination in BWR power plants are first discussed focusing on reduction in dose, prevention of spread of contamination, cleaning of work environments, exposure of equipment parts for inspection, re-use of decontaminated resources, and standards for decontamination. Then, the report outlines major physical, chemical and electrochemical decontamination techniques generally used in BWR power generation plants. The physical techniques include suction of deposits in tanks, jet cleaning, particle blast cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, coating with special paints, and flushing cleaning. The chemical decontamination techniques include the use of organic acids etc. for dissolution of oxidized surface layers and treatment of secondary wastes such as liquids released from primary decontamination processes. Other techniques are used for removal of penetrated contaminants, and soft and hard cladding in and on equipment and piping that are in direct contact with radioactive materials used in nuclear power generation plants. (N.K.)

  20. Utility-Scale Solar Photovoltaic Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    International Finance Corporation

    2015-01-01

    With an installed capacity greater than 137 gigawatts (GWs) worldwide and annual additions of about 40 GWs in recent years, solar photovoltaic (PV) technology has become an increasingly important energy supply option. A substantial decline in the cost of solar PV power plants (80 percent reduction since 2008) has improved solar PV’s competitiveness, reducing the needs for subsidies and ena...

  1. Geothermal Cogeneration: Iceland's Nesjavellir Power Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Energy use in Iceland (population 283,000) is higher per capita than in any other country in the world. Some 53.2% of the energy is geothermal, which supplies electricity as well as heated water to swimming pools, fish farms, snow melting, greenhouses, and space heating. The Nesjavellir Power Plant is a major geothermal facility, supplying both…

  2. Environmental effects of thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reviewing critically the present literature, the effects of thermal power plants on the environment are studied. At first, the loads of the different power plant types are compiled. With regard to the effects of emission reduction proceedings the pollutant emissions are quantified. The second chapter shows the effects on the ecological factors, which could be caused by the most important emission components of thermal power plants. Where it is possible, relations between immissions respectively depositions and their effects on climate, man, flora, fauna and materials will be given. This shows that many effects depend strongly on the local landscape, climate and use of natural resources. Therefore, it appears efficient to ascertain different load limits. The last chapter gives a suggestion for an ecological compatibility test (ECT) of thermal power plants. In modular form the ECT deals with the emission fields, waste heat, pollution burden of air and water, noise, loss of area and aesthetical aspects. Limits depending on local conditions and use of area will be discussed. (orig.)

  3. A Market-Based Virtual Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    You, Shi; Træholt, Chresten; Poulsen, Bjarne

    2009-01-01

    The fast growing penetration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) and the continuing trend towards a more liberalized electricity market requires more efficient energy management strategies to handle both emerging technical and economic issues. In this paper, a market-based Virtual Power Plant...

  4. Thermal and nuclear power plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research on heat transfer processes makes use of the concept of exergy or usable energy. The design of thermal power plants, which produce energy, make use of this fundamental entity, that conditions the final balance of work production. The different types of thermal power plant of the steam and gas type, together with nuclear power plants are reviewed. Heat losses, equal to more than half of the heat input, are the consequence of irreversible transformations of the energy of the fuel employed. It is important to implement resuperheating, so as to reduce the energy loss at high temperature. This is also enhanced by the use of a high steam pressure. The major parameters inherent in the design of the firebox associated with the gas turbine, are identified. The use of combined gas/steam cycles, allowing low exergy losses, has been spreading in recent years. The different systems used for nuclear power plants, for which the heat transfer aspect is crucial are examined. Future developments will depend on the high temperature behaviour of materials, because of the vital importance of thermal fatigue

  5. Effort on Nuclear Power Plants safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prospects of nuclear power plant on designing, building and operation covering natural safety, technical safety, and emergency safety are discussed. Several problems and their solutions and nuclear energy operation in developing countries especially control and permission are also discussed. (author tr.)

  6. Fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safety Guide gives design and some operational guidance for protection from fire and fire-related explosions in nuclear power plants (NPP). It confines itself to fire protection of items important to safety, leaving the aspects of fire protection not related to safety in NPP to be decided upon the basis of the national practices and regulations

  7. Programmed system for nuclear power plant protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress in the field of microprocessors and large scale integration circuits, have incited to introduce this new technologies into nuclear power plant protection system. The hardware and software design principles are briefly listed; then, a quad-redundant protection system for 1300 MWe PWR, developed in France is described

  8. Radiation protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The organization of workers' protection in a nuclear power plant is stated. Considering the nature and magnitude of potential risks and protection procedures, an inventory of occupational safety is made, taking account of accident statistics. It shows the credit to nuclear energy can be granted as to occupational safety

  9. Market Integration of Virtual Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Kirschmeyer

    . It does however significantly sharpen the discussion of the flexibility concept and provides a categorization of flexible systems. This Thesis also investigates what value can be created from the different types of flexibility by assuming that the Virtual Power Plant will generate profit by trading...

  10. Geodesy problems in nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The special geodetic problems encountered during the construction of the Paks nuclear power plants are treated. The main building with its hermetically connected components including the reactor, the steam generators, the circulation pumps etc. impose special requirements on the control net of datum points. The geodesy tasks solved during the construction of the main building are presented in details. (R.P.)

  11. Safety analysis of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study about the safety analysis of nuclear power plant, giving emphasis to how and why to do is presented. The utilization of the safety analysis aiming to perform the licensing requirements is discussed, and an example of the Angra 2 and 3 safety analysis is shown. Some presented tendency of the safety analysis are presented and examples are shown.(E.G.)

  12. Report on Hawaii Geothermal Power Plant Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    The report describes the design, construction, and operation of the Hawaii Geothermal Generator Project. This power plant, located in the Puna District on the island of Hawaii, produces three megawatts of electricity from the steam phase of a geothermal well. (ACR)

  13. Three run-of-river power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-12-31

    Three `run-of-river` hydroelectric power plants in the Montreal area in the province of Quebec were described visually and in sound. A run-of-river generating station is one that has no reservoir behind the generating facilities. Instead of a reservoir, the generating station draws its power from the strong flow of the whole river as it passes through the turbines. The first generating station described was the Beauharnois power plant completed in 1963 which became the most powerful generating station in Canada at that time. Today, it ranks fourth after the La Grande complex. In winter, it supplies electricity primarily to the Quebec power system, but between April and November, 90 per cent of its power is destined for export. The Carillon power station on the Ottawa River, the second to be discussed in this videotape presentation, was completed in 1964 with a total generating capacity of 654 MW. Today, it is the tenth largest of its kind in Quebec. The Rivieres des Prairies generating station, the third and last one described was completed in 1930; today it has a generating capacity of 45 MW. Some of the efforts made by Hydro-Quebec to protect and enhance the natural environment were shown in action, including regular removal and recycling of debris at the gateways to the generating stations, construction of fish spawning ladders, and the control of zebra mussels.

  14. Fusion power plant studies in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The European fusion programme is reactor oriented and it is aimed at the successive demonstration of the scientific, the technological and the economic feasibility of fusion power. For a reactor-oriented fusion development programme, it is essential to have a clear idea of the ultimate goal of the programme, namely a series of models of fusion power plants, in order to define the correct strategy and to assess the pertinence of the on-going activities. The European Power Plant Conceptual Study (PPCS) has been a study of conceptual designs for commercial fusion power plants. It focused on five power plant models, named PPCS A, B, AB, C and D, which are illustrative of a wider spectrum of possibilities. They are all based on the tokamak concept and they have approximately the same net electrical power output, 1500 MWe. These span a range from relatively near-term, based on limited technology and plasma physics extrapolations, to an advanced conception. All five PPCS plant models differ substantially from the models that formed the basis of earlier European studies. They also differ from one another, which lead to differences in economic performance and in the details of safety and environmental impacts. The main emphasis of the PPCS was on system integration. Systems analyses were used to produce self-consistent plant parameter sets with approximately optimal economic characteristics for all models. In the PPCS models, the favourable, inherent, features of fusion have been exploited to provide substantial safety and environmental advantages. The broad features of the safety and environmental conclusions of previous studies have been confirmed and demonstrated with increased confidence. The PPCS study highlighted the need for specific design and R and D activities, in addition to those already underway within the European long term R and D programme, as well as the need to clarify the concept of DEMO, the device that will bridge the gap between ITER and the first

  15. Training of nuclear power plant operating personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collection is presented containing 11 papers submitted at a conference on the selection and education of specialists for operation and maintenance of nuclear power plants. The conference was attended by specialists from universities and colleges, research institutes and production plants. It debated the methods and aims of both general and specialized theoretical and practical personnel education, the proposals for teaching centre equipment, the use of simulators, computers and other aids in the teaching process; training on school reactors was included. A proposal was put forward of the system of education, the teaching process itself, the content of the basic theoretical subjects, and the method of testing pupils' knowledge. The importance was stressed of establishing a national coordination centre to safeguard the syllabus, methodology, teaching aids, and also the training proper. The system of personnel education in the Paks nuclear power plant, Hungary, is presented as an example. (M.S.)

  16. Commissioning procedures for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide was prepared as part of the Agency's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to nuclear power plants. It deals with the commissioning of all types of land-based stationary thermal neutron power plants. Its purpose is to give guidance on the good practices currently adopted, the implementation of which will enable commissioning to proceed safely. It will also enable the necessary assurances to be provided that the plant has been constructed and can operate in accordance with the design intent. The Guide covers commissioning programme requirements, organization and management, test and review procedures, and the interfaces with construction and with operating activities. It also covers the control of changes and the documentation required during commissioning

  17. Managing the first nuclear power plant project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy is essential for national development. Nearly every aspect of development - from reducing poverty and raising living standards to improving health care, industrial and agricultural productivity - requires reliable access to modern energy resources. States may have different reasons for considering starting a nuclear power project to achieve their national energy needs, such as: lack of available indigenous energy resources, the desire to reduce dependence upon imported energy, the need to increase the diversity of energy resources and/or mitigation of carbon emission increases. The start of a nuclear power plant project involves several complex and interrelated activities with long duration. Experience shows that the time between the initial policy decision by a State to consider nuclear power up to the start of operation of its first nuclear power plant is about 10 to 15 years and that before specific project management can proceed, several key infrastructure issues have to be in place. The proper management of the wide scope of activities to be planned and implemented during this period represents a major challenge for the involved governmental, utility, regulatory, supplier and other supportive organizations. The main focus is to ensure that the project is implemented successfully from a commercial point of view while remaining in accordance with the appropriate engineering and quality requirements, safety standards and security guides. This publication is aimed at providing guidance on the practical management of a first nuclear power project in a country. There are many other issues, related to ensuring that the infrastructure in the country has been prepared adequately to ensure that the project will be able to be completed, that are only briefly addressed in this publication. The construction of the first nuclear power plant is a major undertaking for any country developing a nuclear power programme. Worldwide experience gained in the last 50 years

  18. Safety culture in nuclear power plants. Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a consequence of the INSAG-4 report on 'safety culture', published by the IAEA in 1991, the Federal Commission for the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants (KSA) decided to hold a one-day seminar as a first step in this field. The KSA is an advisory body of the Federal Government and the Federal Department of Transport and Energy (EVED). It comments on applications for licenses, observes the operation of nuclear power plants, assists with the preparation of regulations, monitors the progress of research in the field of nuclear safety, and makes proposals for research tasks. The objective of this seminar was to familiarise the participants with the principles of 'safety culture', with the experiences made in Switzerland and abroad with existing concepts, as well as to eliminate existing prejudices. The main points dealt with at this seminar were: - safety culture from the point of view of operators, - safety culture from the point of view of the authorities, - safety culture: collaboration between power plants, the authorities and research organisations, - trends and developments in the field of safety culture. Invitations to attend this seminar were extended to the management boards of companies operating Swiss nuclear power plants, and to representatives of the Swiss authorities responsible for the safety of nuclear power plants. All these organisations were represented by a large number of executive and specialist staff. We would like to express our sincerest thanks to the Head of the Federal Department of Transport and Energy for his kind patronage of this seminar. (author) figs., tabs., refs

  19. Construction and operation of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    How does a nuclear power plant work. Which reactor types are in use. What safety measures are being taken. These questions and the like are frequently asked by those interested in nuclear power generation. The respective answers are to be found in the report ''Construction and Operation of Nuclear Power Plants''. Nuclear-physical fundamentals and the basic safety measures are explained, and four reactor types that are most common in the Federal Republic of Germany are described: PWR-, BWR-, HTR-type and faster breeder reactors. For each reactor type, the principle of operation, steam generator system, auxiliary and service buildings as well as the respective safety devices are indicated, and visualized by means of numerous illustrations. The report is meant to be instrumental to the purpose of getting objectiveness into the public discussion on the peaceful use of nuclear energy. (orig.)

  20. Artificial intelligence in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Specialists' Meeting on Artificial Intelligence in Nuclear Power Plants was arranged in Helsink/Vantaa, Finland, on October 10-12, 1989, under auspices of the International Working Group of Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA/IWG NPPCI). Technical Research Centre of Finland together with Imatran Voima Oy and Teollisuuden Voima Oy answered for the practical arrangements of the meeting. 105 participants from 17 countries and 2 international organizations took part in the meeting and 58 papers were submitted for presentation. These papers gave a comprehensive picture of the recent status and further trends in applying the rapidly developing techniques of artificial intelligence and expert systems to improve the quality and safety in designing and using of nuclear power worldwide

  1. Recent Advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang-Heon Lee

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, recent advances in Ocean Nuclear Power Plants (ONPPs are reviewed, including their general arrangement, design parameters, and safety features. The development of ONPP concepts have continued due to initiatives taking place in France, Russia, South Korea, and the United States. Russia’s first floating nuclear power stations utilizing the PWR technology (KLT-40S and the spar-type offshore floating nuclear power plant designed by a research group in United States are considered herein. The APR1400 and SMART mounted Gravity Based Structure (GBS-type ONPPs proposed by a research group in South Korea are also considered. In addition, a submerged-type ONPP designed by DCNS of France is taken into account. Last, issues and challenges related to ONPPs are discussed and summarized.

  2. Model-Based Power Plant Master Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boman, Katarina; Thomas, Jean; Funkquist, Jonas

    2010-08-15

    The main goal of the project has been to evaluate the potential of a coordinated master control for a solid fuel power plant in terms of tracking capability, stability and robustness. The control strategy has been model-based predictive control (MPC) and the plant used in the case study has been the Vattenfall power plant Idbaecken in Nykoeping. A dynamic plant model based on nonlinear physical models was used to imitate the true plant in MATLAB/SIMULINK simulations. The basis for this model was already developed in previous Vattenfall internal projects, along with a simulation model of the existing control implementation with traditional PID controllers. The existing PID control is used as a reference performance, and it has been thoroughly studied and tuned in these previous Vattenfall internal projects. A turbine model was developed with characteristics based on the results of steady-state simulations of the plant using the software EBSILON. Using the derived model as a representative for the actual process, an MPC control strategy was developed using linearization and gain-scheduling. The control signal constraints (rate of change) and constraints on outputs were implemented to comply with plant constraints. After tuning the MPC control parameters, a number of simulation scenarios were performed to compare the MPC strategy with the existing PID control structure. The simulation scenarios also included cases highlighting the robustness properties of the MPC strategy. From the study, the main conclusions are: - The proposed Master MPC controller shows excellent set-point tracking performance even though the plant has strong interactions and non-linearity, and the controls and their rate of change are bounded. - The proposed Master MPC controller is robust, stable in the presence of disturbances and parameter variations. Even though the current study only considered a very small number of the possible disturbances and modelling errors, the considered cases are

  3. Reviewing computer capabilities in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OSART programme of the IAEA has become an effective vehicle for promoting international co-operation for the enhancement of plant operational safety. In order to maintain consistency in the OSART reviews, OSART Guidelines have been developed which are intended to ensure that the reviewing process is comprehensive. Computer technology is an area in which rapid development is taking place and new applications may be computerized to further enhance safety and the effectiveness of the plant. Supplementary guidance and reference material is needed to help attain comprehensiveness and consistency in OSART reviews. This document is devoted to the utilization of on-site and off-site computers in such a way that the safe operation of the plant is supported. In addition to the main text, there are several annexes illustrating adequate practices as found at various operating nuclear power plants. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Configuration management in nuclear power plants

    CERN Document Server

    2003-01-01

    Configuration management (CM) is the process of identifying and documenting the characteristics of a facility's structures, systems and components of a facility, and of ensuring that changes to these characteristics are properly developed, assessed, approved, issued, implemented, verified, recorded and incorporated into the facility documentation. The need for a CM system is a result of the long term operation of any nuclear power plant. The main challenges are caused particularly by ageing plant technology, plant modifications, the application of new safety and operational requirements, and in general by human factors arising from migration of plant personnel and possible human failures. The IAEA Incident Reporting System (IRS) shows that on average 25% of recorded events could be caused by configuration errors or deficiencies. CM processes correctly applied ensure that the construction, operation, maintenance and testing of a physical facility are in accordance with design requirements as expressed in the d...

  5. Nuclear power plant transients: where are we

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is in part a postconference review and summary of the American Nuclear Society sponsored Anticipated and Abnormal Plant Transients in Light Water Reactors Conference held in Jackson, Wyoming, September 26-29, 1983, and in part a reflection upon the issues of plant transients and their impact on the viability of nuclear power. This document discusses state-of-the-art knowledge, deficiencies, and future directions in the plant transients area as seen through this conference. It describes briefly what was reported in this conference, emphasizes areas where it is felt there is confidence in the nuclear industry, and also discusses where the experts did not have a consensus. Areas covered in the document include major issues in operational transients, transient management, transient events experience base, the status of the analytical tools and their capabilities, probabilistic risk assessment applications in operational transients, and human factors impact on plant transients management

  6. SWOT of nuclear power plant sustainable development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SWOT Analysis is a Useful tool that can he applied to most projects or business ventures. In this article we are going to examine major strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of nuclear power plants in view of sustainable development. Nuclear power plants have already attained widespread recognition for its benefits in fossil pollution abatement, near-zero green house gas emission, price stability and security of energy supply. The impressive new development is that these virtues are now a cost -free bonus, because, in long run, nuclear energy has become an inexpensive way to generate electricity. Nuclear energy's pre-eminence economically and environmentally has two implications for government policy. First, governments should ensure that nuclear licensing and safety oversight arc not only rigorous but also efficient in facilitating timely development of advanced power plants. Second, governments should be bold incentivizing the transformation to clean energy economics, recognizing that such short-term stimulus will, in the case of nuclear plants, simply accelerate desirable changes that now have their own long-term momentum. The increased competitiveness of nuclear power plant is the result of cost reductions in all aspects of nuclear economics: Construction, financing, operations, waste management and decommissioning. Among the cost-lowering factors are the evolution to standardized reactor designs, shorter construction periods, new financing techniques, more efficient generation technologies, higher rates of reactor utilization, and longer plant lifetimes. U.S World Nuclear Association report shows that total electricity costs for power plant construction and operation were calculated at two interest rates. At 10%, midrange generating costs per kilowatt-hour are nuclear at 4 cents, coal at 4.7 cents and natural gas at 5.1 cent. At a 5% interest rate, mid-range costs per KWh fall to nuclear at 2.6 cents, coal at 3.7 cents and natural gas at 4.3 cents

  7. Safety aspects of nuclear power plant ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear community is facing new challenges as commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) of the first generation get older. At present, some of the plants are approaching or have even exceeded the end of their nominal design life. Experience with fossil fired power plants and in other industries shows that reliability of NPP components, and consequently general plant safety and reliability, may decline in the middle and later years of plant life. Thus, the task of maintaining operational safety and reliability during the entire plant life and especially, in its later years, is of growing importance. Recognizing the potential impact of ageing on plant safety, the IAEA convened a Working Group in 1985 to draft a report to stimulate relevant activities in the Member States. This report provided the basis for the preparation of the present document, which included a review in 1986 by a Technical Committee and the incorporation of relevant results presented at the 1987 IAEA Symposium on the Safety Aspects of the Ageing and Maintenance of NPPs and in available literature. The purpose of the present document is to increase awareness and understanding of the potential impact of ageing on plant safety; of ageing processes; and of the approach and actions needed to manage the ageing of NPP components effectively. Despite the continuing growth in knowledge on the subject during the preparation of this report it nevertheless contains much that will be of interest to a wide technical and managerial audience. Furthermore, more specific technical publications on the evaluation and management of NPP ageing and service life are being developed under the Agency's programme, which is based on the recommendations of its 1988 Advisory Group on NPP ageing. Refs, figs and tabs

  8. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  9. ORC-mall scale power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokinen, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Electromechanics

    1998-12-31

    In the conversion of low temperature heat into electricity, the greatest efficiency is obtained by using a Rankine cycle. The Organic Rankine cycle (ORC) is a Rankine cycle where an organic fluid is used instead of water as the working fluid. In the conventional ORC-solution, an axial turbine drives a standard generator through a high-speed gearbox. The system includes a separate feed pump, vacuum pump, lubrication system and requires several saft seals. The seals of the turbine have a limited working life in particular due to the high speed required. Thus, the entire present conventional ORC-plant is rather complicated and requires maintenance. To avoid these problems, a project was initiated at the Lappeenranta University of Technology to develop a high-speed, process fluid lubricated turbogenerator-feed pump as the prime mover of the ORC. The project has been continued in co-operation with the Helsinki University of Technology under the NEMO 2 program, the main goal being to build a demonstration power plant and to commercialise the project. The goals of the project were: (1) to model the ORC process, turbogenerator, and inverter, (2) to simulate the power plant in different normal and abnormal states, (3) to assess the advantages and disadvantages of various control systems, (4) to study network disturbances such as voltage and current harmonics and to research ways of reducing these disturbances, (5) to optimise heat exchanging surfaces and process parameters, and (6) to participate in the design of the demonstration power plant

  10. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deolalikar R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements.

  11. Operational monitoring in German nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seibold, A. [Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Suedwest e.V., Filderstadt (Germany); Bartonicek, J. [GKN Neckarwestheim, Im Steinbruch, Neckarwestheim, D-74382 (Germany); Kockelmann, H. [Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt (MPA), University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1995-10-01

    The Atomic Energy Act requires that measures made feasible by state of the art technology be adopted to avoid damage that could be caused as the result of the construction and operation of a nuclear plant. This stipulation constitutes the basis for deriving requirements for planning, design, construction, operation and decommissioning. Ensuring the function and integrity of those components and systems that are relevant to plant safety is of major significance with regard to operation of a nuclear power plant. The basis for ensuring these features is laid in planning, design and construction. Important as these foundations may be, it is absolutely essential to monitor the quality originally planned and achieved in an object as undeniably complex as a nuclear power plant. The RSK-Leitlinien fuer Druckwasserreaktoren (Reactor Safety Commission Guidelines for Pressurized Water Reactors) incorporate fundamental requirements for design, mechanical design, materials, manufacturing, testing and examination, and operation. Meeting these requirements makes it possible to exclude a catastrophic rupture of the components in the reactor cooling system pressure boundary (primary system), as has been demonstrated in detailed research and development work. The term basic safety was defined for this concept. Basic safety coupled with multiple redundancy suffices to exclude the possibility of large ruptures (rupture preclusion). The principle of plant monitoring and documentation (operational monitoring) implements redundancy in a significant manner within this concept. The monitoring techniques used in Germany have reached an advanced state of development and are still being optimized. Thus, operational monitoring is a major contributory factor in the safety and high availability of nuclear power plants. It also provides a means of expanding our knowledge of life time expectation. (orig.).

  12. Coal Moisture Estimation in Power Plant Mills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Palle; Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Pedersen, Tom S.;

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of moisture content in raw coal feed to a power plant coal mill is of importance for efficient operation of the mill. The moisture is commonly measured approximately once a day using offline chemical analysis methods; however, it would be advantageous for the dynamic operation of the...... plant if an on-line estimate were available. In this paper we such propose an on-line estimator (an extended Kalman filter) that uses only existing measurements. The scheme is tested on actual coal mill data collected during a one-month operating period, and it is found that the daily measured moisture...

  13. Maximisation of Combined Cycle Power Plant Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Kotowicz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents concepts for increasing the efficiency of a modern combined cycle power plant. Improvement of gas turbine performance indicators as well as recovering heat from the air cooling the gas turbine’s flow system enable reaching gross electrical efficiencies of around 65%. Analyses for a wide range of compressor pressure ratios were performed. Operating characteristics were developed for the analysed combined cycle plant, for different types of open air cooling arrangements of the gas turbine’s expander: convective, transpiration and film.

  14. Integrated CAE system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and engineering of nuclear power plant covers various technical fields. The information created in many fields is exchanged and utilized in many places at the same time. As CAE systems are applied to several plants, large and diverse information has been accumulated on the data base management system. Discrepancies in information and complicated data handling has come to light at routine work on large scale CAE systems. In view of the above, TOSHIBA has integrated CAE system to utilize information more efficiently. This paper describes that TOSHIBA has been improving user interface in an integrated environment and building intelligent applications specialized for nuclear engineering. (author)

  15. Seismic instrumentation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A seismic instrumentation system used in Nuclear Power Plants to monitor the design parameters of systems, structures and components, needed to provide safety to those Plants, against the action of earthquakes is described. The instrumentation described is based on the nuclear standards in force. The minimum amount of sensors and other components used, as well as their general localization, is indicated. The operation of the instrumentation system as a whole and the handling of the recovered data are dealt with accordingly. The various devices used are not covered in detail, except for the accelerometer, which is the seismic instrumentation basic component. (Author)

  16. Management of delayed nuclear power plant projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the available information at the IAEA PRIS (Power Reactor Information System) at the end of 1998 there were more than 40 nuclear power plant projects with delays of five or more years with respect to the originally scheduled commercial operation. The degree of conformance with original construction schedules showed large variations due to several issues, including financial, economic and public opinion factors. Taking into account the number of projects with several years delay in their original schedules, it was considered useful to identify the subject areas where exchange of experience among Member States would be mutually beneficial in identification of problems and development of guidance for successful management of the completion of these delayed projects. A joint programme of the IAEA Departments of Nuclear Energy (Nuclear Power Engineering Section) and Technical Co-operation (Europe Section, with additional support from the Latin America and West Asia Sections) was set up during the period 1997-1998. The specific aim of the programme was to provide assistance in the management of delayed nuclear power plants regarding measures to maintain readiness for resuming the project implementation schedule when the conditions permit. The integration of IAEA interdepartmental resources enabled the participation of 53 experts from 14 Member States resulting in a wider exchange of experience and dissemination of guidance. Under the framework of the joint programme, senior managers directly responsible for delayed nuclear power plant projects identified several issues or problem areas that needed to be addressed and guidance on management be provided. A work plan for the development of several working documents, addressing the different issues, was established. Subsequently these documents were merged into a single one to produce the present publication. This publication provides information and practical examples on necessary management actions to preserve

  17. Environmental impacts of nonfusion power systems. [Data on environmental effects of all power sources that may be competitive with fusion reactor power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brouns, R.J.

    1976-09-01

    Data were collected on the environmental effects of power sources that may be competitive with future fusion reactor power plants. Data are included on nuclear power plants using HTGR, LMBR, GCFR, LMFBR, and molten salt reactors; fossil-fuel electric power plants; geothermal power plants; solar energy power plants, including satellite-based solar systems; wind energy power plants; ocean thermal gradient power plants; tidal energy power plants; and power plants using hydrogen and other synthetic fuels as energy sources.

  18. Planning for decommissioning power plants in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Junji (Research Association for Nuclear Facility Decommissioning, Tokaimura, Ibaraki (Japan))

    1993-02-01

    The first decommissioning of a commercial nuclear power plant in Japan is not expected before the early 2000s, but the technology and regulations needed are being developed now. Valuable technical experience is being gained from three current projects. These are the decommissioning of the Japan Reprocessing Test Facility, the Japan Power Demonstration Reactor and the nuclear ship Mutsu. Improving and commercialising the technology are seen as essential for the future to reduce occupational radiation exposure, the amount of waste and costs. International cooperation and information exchange are of increasing importance for developing technology and regulations. (U.K.).

  19. Improved repowering techniques for power plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houbak, Niels; Andersen, Simon E.; Petersen, Stiig Bo;

    1998-01-01

    Repowering of existing coal-fired power plants is often accomplished by adding gas turbines. In this paper we assume that the gas turbine exhaust is used for feed water preheating.Typical gas turbine exhaust temperatures are in the range 450-600C whereas typical boiler inlet temperatures are 250......-300C. The big difference in temperature between exhaust and water prevents an efficient exchange of heat. One way to lower the exhaust temperature is to expand the gas to sub atmospheric pressure. The result is a 50% increase in possible installed gas turbine power....

  20. Possible Future SOFC - ST Based Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rokni, Masoud; Scappin, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    Hybrid systems consisting Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) on the top of a Steam Turbine (ST) are investigated. The plants are fired by natural gas. A desulfurization reactor removes the sulfur content in the NG while a pre-reformer break down the heavier hydrocarbons. The pre-treated fuel enters...

  1. Laser-mediated perforation of plant cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Martin; Jacobs, Philipp; Esser, Dominik; Schinkel, Helga; Schillberg, Stefan

    2007-07-01

    The functional analysis of plant cells at the cellular and subcellular levels requires novel technologies for the directed manipulation of individual cells. Lasers are increasingly exploited for the manipulation of plant cells, enabling the study of biological processes on a subcellular scale including transformation to generate genetically modified plants. In our setup either a picosecond laser operating at 1064 nm wavelength or a continuous wave laser diode emitting at 405 nm are coupled into an inverse microscope. The beams are focused to a spot size of about 1.5 μm and the tobacco cell protoplasts are irradiated. Optoporation is achieved when targeting the laser focal spot at the outermost edge of the plasma membrane. In case of the picosecond laser a single pulse with energy of about 0.4 μJ was sufficient to perforate the plasma membrane enabling the uptake of dye or DNA from the surrounding medium into the cytosol. When the ultraviolet laser diode at a power level of 17 mW is employed an irradiation time of 200 - 500 milliseconds is necessary to enable the uptake of macromolecules. In the presence of an EYFP encoding plasmid with a C-terminal peroxisomal signal sequence in the surrounding medium transient transformation of tobacco protoplasts could be achieved in up to 2% of the optoporated cells. Single cell perforation using this novel optoporation method shows that isolated plant cells can be permeabilized without direct manipulation. This is a valuable procedure for cell-specific applications, particularly where the import of specific molecules into plant cells is required for functional analysis.

  2. Capacity Value of Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madaeni, S. H.; Sioshansi, R.; Denholm, P.

    2011-06-01

    This study estimates the capacity value of a concentrating solar power (CSP) plant at a variety of locations within the western United States. This is done by optimizing the operation of the CSP plant and by using the effective load carrying capability (ELCC) metric, which is a standard reliability-based capacity value estimation technique. Although the ELCC metric is the most accurate estimation technique, we show that a simpler capacity-factor-based approximation method can closely estimate the ELCC value. Without storage, the capacity value of CSP plants varies widely depending on the year and solar multiple. The average capacity value of plants evaluated ranged from 45%?90% with a solar multiple range of 1.0-1.5. When introducing thermal energy storage (TES), the capacity value of the CSP plant is more difficult to estimate since one must account for energy in storage. We apply a capacity-factor-based technique under two different market settings: an energy-only market and an energy and capacity market. Our results show that adding TES to a CSP plant can increase its capacity value significantly at all of the locations. Adding a single hour of TES significantly increases the capacity value above the no-TES case, and with four hours of storage or more, the average capacity value at all locations exceeds 90%.

  3. Supervisory monitoring system in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monitoring of a power plant is one of the essential tasks during operation and the computer-based implementations are nowadays seemingly quite mature. However, presently these are still not satisfactory enough to meet the high standards to the licensing requirements and they are mostly not truly integrated to the plant's design-based monitoring system. This is basically due to the robustness problem as the majority of the methods are not robust enough for the monitoring of the safety parameter set in a plant or intelligent supervision. Therefore, a supervisory monitoring system (SMS) in a plant is necessary to supervise the monitoring tasks: determining the objectives to be obtained and finding the means to support them. SMS deals with the changing plant status and the coordination of the information flow among the monitoring subunits. By means of these robustness and consistency in monitoring is achieved. The paper will give the guidelines of knowledge and data management techniques in a framework of robust comprehensive and coordinated monitoring which is presented as supervisory monitoring. Such a high level monitoring serves for consistent and immediate actions in fault situations while this particularly has vital importance in preventing imminent severe accidents next to the issues of recognition of the monitoring procedures for licensing and enhanced plant safety. (author). 8 refs, 5 figs

  4. Simulators for training nuclear power plant personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulator training and retraining of operations personnel is essential for their acquiring the necessary knowledge, skills and qualification for operating a nuclear power plant, and for effective feedback of experience including human based operating errors. Simulator training is the most effective way by far of training operations personnel in co-operation and communication in a team, which also involves instilling attitudes and approaches for achieving excellence and individual responsibility and alertness. This technical document provides guidance to Member States on the procurement, setting up and utilization of a simulator training centre; it will also be useful for organizations with previous experience in the use of simulators for training. The document is the result of a series of advisory and consultants meetings held in the framework of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation in 1989-1992. 17 refs, 2 tabs

  5. Constitutional determinants of nuclear power plant upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Around half a year ago the European stress test for nuclear power plants, a precautionary measure initiated by the European Council in March 2011 in response to the Fukushima disaster, revealed that while German nuclear power plants show a high degree of robustness compared with those in other European countries, they nevertheless required upgrading in one or the other respect (earthquake warning systems, protection against crashing civil passenger airplanes). The present article investigates whether this upgrading requirement can justify an injunction to carry out structural retrofitting measures or whether obligations to this end can be excluded on grounds of reasonability in view of the recent decision taken by the German parliament to phase out nuclear energy.

  6. Earthquake protection of nuclear power plant equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nawrotzki, Peter [GERB Vibration Control Systems, Berlin (Germany)

    2010-05-15

    Power plant machinery can be dynamically decoupled from the substructure by the effective use of helical steel springs and viscous dampers. Turbine foundations, boiler feed pumps and other machine foundations benefit from this type of elastic support systems to mitigate the transmission of operational vibration. The application of these devices may also be used to protect against earthquakes and other catastrophic events, i.e. airplane crash, of particular importance in nuclear facilities. This article illustrates basic principles of elastic support systems and applications on power plant buildings in medium and high seismic areas. Spring-damper combinations with special stiffness properties are used to reduce seismic acceleration levels of turbine components and other safety or non-safety related structures. For turbine buildings, the integration of the turbine substructure into the machine building can further reduce stress levels in all structural members. (orig.)

  7. Quality assurance auditing for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Guide provides requirements and recommendations for establishing and implementing a system of internal and external audits during the design, manufacture, construction, commissioning and operation of nuclear power plants. It provides for the planning, performance, reporting and follow-up of the quality assurance audit activity. It defines in general terms the responsibilities of the auditing and audited organizations. The Guide also covers auditing in the context of supplier evaluation; it does not include inspection for the sole purpose of process control or product acceptance. Like the Code, the present Guide was prepared as part of the IAEA's programme, referred to as the NUSS programme, for establishing Codes of Practice and Safety Guides relating to land-based stationary thermal neutron power plants

  8. The Dukovany nuclear power plant in 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1992, the Dukovany nuclear power plant generated 12,250,230 MWh and supplied 11,475,241 MWh of electricity to the grid, which was 100.8% with respect to the plan of supplies. The profit was 177.5 million CZK (Czechoslovak crowns). The power plant had 2475 people on staff. Major repairs were made on all the 4 units. Inspectors of the State Surveillance over Nuclear Safety recorded 115 failures, 4 of which were evaluated as level 1 on the INES scale, the other were level 0. Data on gaseous and liquid effluents are given in tables. No health physics limit was surpassed in 1992. (M.D.). 10 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Decommissioning of the Loviisa power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In accordance with the provisions laid in the decision of the Ministry for Trade and Industry Imatran Voima Oy has revised the decommissioning plan for the Loviisa power plant, and submitted it to the authorities for review in December 1993. The plan outlines the technical measures needed to dismantle the radioactive parts of the Loviisa power plant, explains how the resulting waste will be packed and disposed of, and estimates how many people will be needed for the decommissioning waste will be. A general timetable and a cost estimate have also been drawn up on the basis of a detailed working plan. In this report the plan has been revised for cost estimate, activity inventory of the decommissioning waste and radiation dose caused by dismantling work. (orig.). (11 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.)

  10. The design of solar tower power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretz, J.

    The conversion of solar energy into electricity in solar thermal tower power plants is examined. Mirrors attached to mobile, sun-following heliostats concentrate solar rays into the opening of a receiver mounted on a tower. In the receiver, the radiant energy is absorbed by a system of pipes filled with a flowing material which is heated and drives a turbogenerator directly or via a heat exchanger. It is shown that the optics involved in this concept preclude the optimization of the pipe material, since the local distribution of rays in the heater of tower power plants varies diurnally and annually. This requires each pipe section to be designed for maximum stress, even though that stress occurs only at brief intervals during the day.

  11. Non-conventional Power Plants in Aviation

    OpenAIRE

    Voronovs, V; Šestakovs, V

    2014-01-01

    Power plants on the basis of heat engines except for reciprocating internal combustion engines and jet propulsion engines are classified by the authors of the paper as non- conventional ones. The article also presents the results of research carried out in this field by scientists of the Institute of Aeronautics of Riga Technical University. The article describes the two patents. The first patent to be considered was received for a rotary-piston engine, the second one – for the Stirling engin...

  12. Nuclear power plant safety in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Code of Practice for the Safe Operation of Nuclear Power Plants states that: 'In discharging its responsibility for public health and safety, the government should ensure that the operational safety of a nuclear reactor is subject to surveillance by a regulatory body independent of the operating organization'. In Brazil this task is being carried out by the Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear in accordance with the best international practice. (orig./RW)

  13. Special aspects of nuclear power plant construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The very strict safety and quality requirements as well as the necessity of strengthened schedule and investment control make good project management even more important to the construction of nuclear power plant than conventional projects. For developing countries, to increase the extent of local participation becomes an essential way to reduce the construction costs and improve the nuclear competitiveness. Modular construction approach and design for construct ability are discussed as viable means to further reduce construction time and costs

  14. Thermodynamics in nuclear power plant systems

    CERN Document Server

    Zohuri, Bahman

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the fundamentals of thermodynamics required to understand electrical power generation systems, honing in on the application of these principles to nuclear reactor powersystems. It includes all the necessary information regarding the fundamental laws to gain a complete understanding and apply them specifically to the challenges of operating nuclear plants. Beginning with definitions of thermodynamic variables such as temperature, pressure and specific volume, the book then explains the laws in detail, focusing on pivotal concepts such as enthalpy and entropy, irreversibilit

  15. Nuclear power plant construction activity, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cost estimates, chronological data on construction progress, and the physical characteristics of nuclear units in commercial operation and units in the construction pipeline as of December 31, 1986, are presented. This report, which is updated annually, was prepared to provide an overview of the nuclear power plant construction industry. The report contains information on the status of nuclear generating units, average construction costs and lead-times, and construction milestones for individual reactors

  16. Fatigue monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N. [Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes fatigue monitoring methods and surveys their application in the nuclear power industry. The paper is based on a review of the technical literature. Two main reasons for fatigue monitoring are more frequent occurrence of some transients than that assumed in the fatigue design analysis and the discovery of stressors that were not included in the fatigue design analysis but may cause significant fatigue damage at some locations. One fatigue monitoring method involves use of plant operating data and procedures to update the fatigue usage. Another method involves monitoring of plant operating parameters using existing, or if needed, supplementary plant instrumentation for online computation of fatigue usage. Use of fatigue monitoring has better defined the operational transients. Most operational transients have been found less severe and fewer in numbers than anticipated in the design fatigue analysis. Use of fatigue monitoring has assisted in quantifying newly discovered stressors and has helped in detecting the presence of thermal stratification of unsuspected locations.

  17. Wireless Technology Application to Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Kweon; Jeong, See Chae; Jeong, Ki Hoon; Oh, Do Young; Kim, Jae Hack [KOPEC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-10-15

    Wireless technologies are getting widely used in various industrial processes for equipment condition monitoring, process measurement and other applications. In case of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP), it is required to review applicability of the wireless technologies for maintaining plant reliability, preventing equipment failure, and reducing operation and maintenance costs. Remote sensors, mobile technology and two-way radio communication may satisfy these needs. The application of the state of the art wireless technologies in NPPs has been restricted because of the vulnerability for the Electromagnetic Interference and Radio Frequency Interference (EMI/RFI) and cyber security. It is expected that the wireless technologies can be applied to the nuclear industry after resolving these issues which most of the developers and vendors are aware of. This paper presents an overview and information on general wireless deployment in nuclear facilities for future application. It also introduces typical wireless plant monitoring system application in the existing NPPs.

  18. Nuclear power plant safety and reliability assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The philosophy of nuclear power plant safety is that design should follow established and conservative engineering practices, there should be safety margins in all modes of plant operations, special systems should be provided for response to accidents, and safety systems should have redundant components. This philosophy provides ''defense in depth.'' In recent years, with the accumulation of operating experience and the unexpected complexity of the present generation of light water reactors, the defense in depth philosophy has been supplemented by risk and reliability assessments. Reliability assurance programs based on these probabilistic engineering assessments provide a means of integrating design review, maintenance, testing, replacement of parts, failure reporting, and corrective action, so that the protection of the plant and the public can be systematically ensured

  19. Construct ability Improvement for Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dae Soo; Lee, Jong Rim; Kim, Jong Ku [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of this study was to identify methods for improving the construct ability of nuclear power plants. This study reviewed several references of current construction practices of domestic and overseas nuclear plants in order to identify potential methods for improving construct ability. The identified methods for improving construct ability were then evaluated based on the applicability to domestic nuclear plant construction. The selected methods are expected to reduce the construction period, improve the quality of construction, cost, safety, and productivity. Selection of which methods should be implemented will require further evaluation of construction modifications, design changes, contract revisions. Among construction methods studied, platform construction methods can be applied through construction sequence modification without significant design changes, and Over the Top construction method of the NSSS, automatic welding of RCL pipes, CLP modularization, etc., are considered to be applied after design modification and adjustment of material lead time. (author). 49 refs., figs., tabs.

  20. Power plant productivity improvement in New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    The New York Public Service Commission (PSC), under contract with the US Department of Energy (DOE), began a joint program in September 1978 to improve the productivity of coal and nuclear electric generating units in New York State. The project had dual objectives: to ensure that the utilities in New York State have or develop a systematic permanent, cost-effective productivity improvement program based on sound engineering and economic considerations, and to develop a model program for Power Plant Productivity Improvement, which, through DOE, can also be utilized by other regulatory commissions in the country. To accomplish these objectives, the program was organized into the following sequence of activities: compilation and analysis of power plant performance data; evaluation and comparison of utility responses to outage/derating events; power plant productivity improvement project cost-benefit analysis; and evaluation of regulatory procedures and policies for improving productivity. The program that developed for improving the productivity of coal units is substantially different than for nuclear units. Each program is presented, and recommendations are made for activities of both the utilities and regulatory agencies which will promote improved productivity.

  1. Decontamination of operational nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the radiation fields around nuclear power plants, and, consequently, to limit the radiation exposure of and dose commitments to the operating and maintenance personnel, the contamination build-up should be kept to a minimum. The most fruitful approach, from the point of view of economics and efficiency, is to tackle the problems of contamination and decontamination in the design and construction phases of the reactor. To do this, knowledge gained from the operation of existing power reactors should be used to make improvements in new designs. New structural materials with low corrosion rates or whose constituents are not activated by neutrons should also be used. For older reactors, in most cases it is already too late to incorporate design changes without extensive and expensive modifications. For these plants, decontamination remains the most efficient way to reduce radiation fields. The aim of this report is to deal with the different decontamination methods that may be applied to nuclear power plant circuits and equipment during operation. The factors that have to be considered in determining the type and the extent of the methods used are the engineering and the planning of the decontamination operation and the treatment of the resulting waste generated during the process are also discussed

  2. Environmental monitoring around nuclear power plant sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The environmental monitoring around nuclear power plant sites is presented. The basic policy that no part of the ecosystem should be subjected to excessive (above natural) radiation exposure is realized by predictive methodology of environmental and dosimetric models. The validation of these models is achieved through environmental monitoring around nuclear power plant sites right from the pre-operational period through operational phase. The 'potential contaminated media' are monitored in pre-operational phase. The measurements carried out in the environmental matrices for assessment of the impact on the population demonstrate that the objectives of the Department of Atomic Energy are fully realized. These activities are carried out at each nuclear power plant site by establishing an Environmental Survey Laboratory, which operates under the administrative and technical control of the Health Physics Division of BARC. This arrangement ensures independence from the operating organisation and better public acceptance of data generated. The results of environmental monitoring indicate that the radiation dose received by members of the public is well below the regulatory limits. (author)

  3. Safety goals for nuclear power plant operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents and discusses the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's, Policy Statement on Safety Goals for the Operation of Nuclear Power Plants. The safety goals have been formulated in terms of qualitative goals and quantitative design objectives. The qualitative goals state that the risk to any individual member of the public from nuclear power plant operation should not be a significant contributor to that individual's risk of accidental death or injury and that the societal risks should be comparable to or less than those of viable competing technologies. The quantitative design objectives state that the average risks to individual and the societal risks of nuclear power plant operation should not exceed 0.1% of certain other risks to which members of the US population are exposed. A subsidiary quantitative design objective is established for the frequency of large-scale core melt. The significance of the goals and objectives, their bases and rationale, and the plan to evaluate the goals are provided. In addition, public comments on the 1982 proposed policy statement and responses to a series of questions that accompanied the 1982 statement are summarized

  4. Regional economic impacts of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study of economic and social impacts of nuclear power facilities compares a nuclear energy center (NEC) consisting of three surrogate sites in Ocean County, New Jersey with nuclear facilities dispersed in the Pennsylvania - New Jersey - Maryland area. The NEC studied in this report is assumed to contain 20 reactors of 1200 MW(e) each, for a total NEC capacity of 24,000 MW(e). Following the Introductory chapter, Chapter II discusses briefly the methodological basis for estimating impacts. This part of the analysis only considers impacts of wages and salaries and not purchase of construction materials within the region. Chapters III and IV, respectively, set forth the scenarios of an NEC at each of three sites in Ocean County, N.J. and of a pattern of dispersed nuclear power plants of total equivalent generating capacity. In each case, the economic impacts (employment and income) are calculated, emphasizing the regional effects. In Chapter V these impacts are compared and some more general conclusions are reported. A more detailed analysis of the consequences of the construction of a nuclear power plant is given in Chapter VI. An interindustry (input-output) study, which uses rather finely disaggregated data to estimate the impacts of a prototype plant that might be constructed either as a component of the dispersed scenario or as part of an NEC, is given. Some concluding remarks are given in Chapter VII, and policy questions are emphasized

  5. The challenge of financing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To date, more then 500 nuclear power reactors have been successfully financed and built. Experience in recent nuclear projects confirms that nuclear power will not cease to be a viable option due to a worldwide financing constraint. For financing nuclear plants there are special considerations: large investment; long lead and construction times; complex technology; regulatory risk and political risk. The principal preconditions to financing are a national policy supporting nuclear power; creditworthiness; economic competitiveness; project feasibility; assurance of adequate revenues; acceptability of risks; and no open-ended liabilities. Generally, nuclear power plants are financed conventionally through multi-sources, where a package covers the entire cost. The first source, the investor/owner/operator responsible for building and operating the plant, should cover a sizable portion of the overall investment. In addition, bond issues, domestic bank credits etc. and, in case of State-owned or controlled enterprises, donations and credits from public entities or the governmental budget, should complete the financing. A financially sound utility should be able to meet this challenge. For importing technology, bids are invited. Export credits should form the basis of foreign financing, because these have favorable terms and conditions. Suppliers from several countries may join in a consortium subdividing the scope of supply and involve several Export Credit Agencies (ECAs). There are also innovative financing approaches that could be applied to nuclear projects. Evolutionary Reactors with smaller overall investment, shorter construction times, reliance on proven technology, together with predictable regulatory regimes and reliable long-term national policies favorable to nuclear power, should make it easier to meet the future challenges of financing. (author)

  6. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  7. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  8. Small-Scale Combined Heat and Power Plants Using Biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salomon-Popa, Marianne [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Energy Technology

    2002-11-01

    In this time period where energy supply and climate change are of special concern, biomass-based fuels have attracted much interest due to their plentiful supply and favorable environmental characteristics (if properly managed). The effective capture and continued sustainability of this renewable resource requires a new generation of biomass power plants with high fuel energy conversion. At the same time, deregulation of the electricity market offers new opportunities for small-scale power plants in a decentralized scheme. These two important factors have opened up possibilities for small-scale combined heat and power (CHP) plants based on biofuels. The objective of this pre-study is to assess the possibilities and technical limitations for increased efficiency and energy utilization of biofuels in small size plants (approximately 10 MWe or lower). Various energy conversion technologies are considered and proven concepts for large-scale fossil fuel plants are an especially important area. An analysis has been made to identify the problems, technical limitations and different possibilities as recognized in the literature. Beyond published results, a qualitative survey was conducted to gain first-hand, current knowledge from experts in the field. At best, the survey results together with the results of personal interviews and a workshop on the role of small-scale plants in distributed generation will serve a guideline for future project directions and ideas. Conventional and novel technologies are included in the survey such as Stirling engines, combustion engines, gas turbines, steam turbines, steam motors, fuel cells and other novel technologies/cycles for biofuels. State-of-the-art heat and power plants will be identified to clarify of the advantages and disadvantages as well as possible obstacles for their implementation.

  9. Overview of Past, Present and Future Marine Power Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Morsy El-Gohary

    2013-01-01

    In efforts to overcome an foreseeable energy crisis predicated on limited oil and gas supplies,reserves; economic variations facing the world,and of course the environmental side effects of fossil fuels,an urgent need for energy sources that provide sustainable,safe and economic supplies for the world is imperative.The current fossil fuel energy system must be improved to ensure a better and cleaner transportation future for the world.Despite the fact that the marine transportation sector consumes only 5% of global petroleum production; it is responsible for 15% of the world NOx and SOx emissions.These figures must be the engine that powers the scientific research worldwide to develop new solutions for a very old energy problem.In this paper,the most effective types of marine power plants were discussed.The history of the development of each type was presented first and the technical aspects were discussed second.Also,the fuel cells as a new type of power plants used in marine sector were briefed to give a complete overview of the past,present and future of the marine power plants development.Based on the increased worldwide concerns regarding harmful emissions,many researchers have introduced solutions to this problem,including the adoption of new cleaner fuels.This paper was guided using the same trend and by implementing the hydrogen as fuel for marine internal combustion engine,gas turbines,and fuel cells.

  10. VAr reserve concept applied to a wind power plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro;

    2011-01-01

    to wind power plants. This paper proposes two different VAr reserve control strategies for a wind power plant. The amount of dynamic VAr available most of the operation time, makes the wind power plant (WPP) a good candidate to include a VAr reserve management system. Two different ways of implementing...... a VAr management system are proposed and analyzed. Such a reactive power reserve may be provided by the wind power plant since the amount of reactive power installed for most active power working points exceeds the demand required by the grid operator. Basically, this overrated reactive power capacity...... is a consequence of sizing wind turbine facilities for maximum active power level. The reactive power losses, due to active power transportation inside the plant (normally two transformers), and P-Q wind turbine characteristics define the P-Q reserve chart. By utilizing the intrinsic overrated reactive power...

  11. Energy expenditure involved in building and operating nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the public discussion about the economic benefits of nuclear power it was argued recently that more energy was required to build and operate nuclear power plants than would be generated by those plants. Three authors, one of them working at a nuclear research center (KFA Juelich), one with a utility (RWE), and one with a reactor manufacturer (KWU), have studied this question. It is seen that the energy expenditure is roughly the same for a coal fired power plant and a nuclear power plant and that all the energy needed to build a nuclear power plant can be 'recovered' in one month of full power operation. (orig.)

  12. Osiris and SOMBRERO inertial confinement fusion power plant designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conceptual designs and assessments have been completed for two inertial fusion energy (IFE) electric power plants. The detailed designs and results of the assessment studies are presented in this report. Osiris is a heavy-ion-beam (HIB) driven power plant and SOMBRERO is a Krypton-Fluoride (KrF) laser-driven power plant. Both plants are sized for a net electric power of 1000 MWe

  13. Selection and Performance-Degradation Modeling of LiMO2/Li4Ti5O12 and LiFePO4/C Battery Cells as Suitable Energy Storage Systems for Grid Integration With Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef; Stroe, Daniel Ioan; Stan, Ana-Irina;

    2014-01-01

    Advances in the development of energy storage technologies are making them attractive for grid integration together with wind power plants. Thus, the new system, the virtual power plant, is able to emulate the characteristics of today’s conventional power plants. However, at present, energy stora...

  14. Nuclear power plant reliability database management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the development of a probabilistic safety project on site (notion of living PSA), Saint Laurent des Eaux NPP implements a specific EDF reliability database. The main goals of this project at Saint Laurent des Eaux are: to expand risk analysis and to constitute an effective local basis of thinking about operating safety by requiring the participation of all departments of a power plant: analysis of all potential operating transients, unavailability consequences... that means to go further than a simple culture of applying operating rules; to involve nuclear power plant operators in experience feedback and its analysis, especially by following up behaviour of components and of safety functions; to allow plant safety managers to outline their decisions facing safety authorities for notwithstanding, preventive maintenance programme, operating incident evaluation. To hit these goals requires feedback data, tools, techniques and development of skills. The first step is to obtain specific reliability data on the site. Raw data come from plant maintenance management system which processes all maintenance activities and keeps in memory all the records of component failures and maintenance activities. Plant specific reliability data are estimated with a Bayesian model which combines these validated raw data with corporate generic data. This approach allow to provide reliability data for main components modelled in PSA, to check the consistency of the maintenance program (RCM), to verify hypothesis made at the design about component reliability. A number of studies, related to components reliability as well as decision making process of specific incident risk evaluation have been carried out. This paper provides also an overview of the process management set up on site from raw database to specific reliability database in compliance with established corporate objectives. (authors). 4 figs

  15. Radiation emergency preparedness in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of planning for radiation emergency response is to ensure adequate preparedness for protection of the plant personnel and members of the public from significant radiation exposures in the unlikely event of an accident. With a number of safety features in the reactor design and sound operating procedures, the probability of a major accident resulting in the releases of large quantities of radioactivity is extremely small. However, as an abundant cautious approach a comprehensive radiation emergency response preparedness is in place in all the nuclear power plants (NPPs). Radiation Emergency in NPPs is broadly categorized into three types; plant emergency, site emergency and off-site emergency. During off site emergency conditions, based on levels of radiation in the environment, Civil Authorities may impose several counter measures such as sheltering, administering prophylaxis (stable iodine for thyroid blocking) and evacuation of people from the affected area. Environmental Survey Laboratory (ESL) carries out environmental survey extensively in the affected sector identified by the meteorological survey laboratory. To handle emergency situations, Emergency Control Centre with all communication facility and Emergency Equipment Centre having radiation measuring instruments and protective equipment are functional at all NPPs. AERB stipulates certain periodicity for conducting the exercises on plant, site and off site emergency. These exercises are conducted and deficiencies corrected for strengthening the emergency preparedness system. In the case of off site emergency exercise, observers are invited from AERB and Crisis Management Group of Department of Atomic Energy (DAE). The emergency exercises conducted by Nuclear Power Plant Sites have been very satisfactory. (author)

  16. Energy sources and power plants; Energiequellen und Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, Detlef [Helmut-Schmidt-Univ. / Univ. der Bundeswehr, Hamburg (Germany). Professur fuer Elektrische Energiesysteme; Schulz, Karen

    2013-07-01

    Energy is obtained from various energy sources (coal, petroleum, natural gas, nuclear fuels, wind energy, solar energy, hydro power, biomass, geothermal energy). These differ in each case with respect to their availability, methods of their production and the required power plant technologies. As technologies of the future fuel cells and nuclear fusion are traded. [German] Energie wird aus verschiedenen Energietraegern gewonnen (Kohle, Erdoel, Erdgas, Kernbrennstoffe, Windenergie, Solarenergie, Wasserkraft, Biomasse, Geothermie). Diese unterscheiden sich jeweils hinsichtlich ihrer Verfuegbarkeit, der Methoden ihrer Gewinnung und der benoetigten Kraftwerkstechnologien. Als Zukunftstechnologien werden Brennstoffzellen und Kernfusion gehandelt.

  17. Fuel cells for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having first briefly illustrated the basic design, construction and operating principles of fuel cells, this paper assesses the progress that has been achieved to date in the development of the phosphoric acid (PAFC), molten carbonate (MCFC) and solid oxide (SOFC) fuel cells. Special attention is given to the design, performance and cost characteristics of the phosphoric acid fuel cells. For example, the paper cites the IFC/Toshiba 4.8 and 11.0 MW models, which have attained efficiencies of 37.5 and 41.0% respectively, and points out that these fuel cells, with efficiencies comparable to those of conventional poly-fuelled and combined cycle power plants, offer the advantages of compact size and better environmental compatibility with respect to the latter. However, fuel cells cannot yet compete with the lower per kWh costs of fossil fuel power plants. The paper concludes with an assessment of Italian fuel cell commercialization efforts, especially those centered around the use of methane fuelled PAFC's, and reviews the status of coordinated international research programs involving Japan, the USA and Italy

  18. 76 FR 66089 - Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide 5.66, ``Access Authorization Program for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide... Authorization Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants,'' and 10 CFR part 26, ``Fitness for Duty Programs.'' The...

  19. 78 FR 55118 - Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION..., ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition... Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition'' (SRP, from the current Revision 2 to...

  20. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed

  1. Risks of potential accidents of nuclear power plants in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaper H; Eggink GJ; Blaauboer RO

    1993-01-01

    Over 200 nuclear power plants for commercial electricity production are presently operational in Europe. The 1986 accident with the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl has shown that severe accidents with a nuclear power plant can lead to a large scale contamination of Europe. This report is focussed o

  2. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs

  3. Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The meeting of the International Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (IWG-NPPCI) was organized in order to summarize operating experience of nuclear power plant control systems, gain a general overview of activities in development of modern control systems and receive recommendations on the further directions and particular measures within the Agency's programme. The meeting was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna and was attended by 21 national delegates and observers from 18 countries. The present volume contains: (1) report on the meeting of the IWG-NPPCI, Vienna, 8-10 May 1989, (2) report of the scientific secretary on the major activities of IAEA during 1987-89 in the NPPCI area, (3) terms of reference International Working Group on NPPCI and (4) reports of the national representatives to the International Working Group on NPPCI. The paper and discussions with practical experience and described actual problems encountered. Emphasis was placed on the technical, industrial and economical aspects of the introduction of modern control systems and on the improvement of plant availability and safety. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers presented by members of the International Working Group. Refs, figs and tabs

  4. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  5. Goethermal power plant with Kalina cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renz, M.; Filipovic, A. [M+W Zander Facility Engineering GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany). Marketing-Communications

    2005-04-01

    Several factors are creating an increased market for small power plant technology. These include the need for distributed/decentralised power systems, the need to generate more electricity by non-combustion renewable processes, the need for sustainable power for economic growth in developing countries and the deregulation and privatization of the electrical generation sector. Basically there are 2 alternate principles to improve the efficiency of the Rankine steam cycle for low temperature applications: Replacing water by a one-component fluid with lower boiling points, e.g. different organic substances like n-pentane, isobutene, perfluoropen-tane. (Organic Rankine Cycle, ORC). Replacing water by a binary working fluid like ammonia-water as proposed by Kalina. Kalina and ORC power cycles are primarily used for lower temperature heat sources, such as goethermal or waste-heat recovery. The primary advantage of this technology is the operation at low temperature which is given at renewable heat sources and waste heat. Further the power cycles are simple and generally can be operated remotely, without licensed operators, allowing for increased use of self-diagnostics. M+W Zander is working closely with partners to establish an alternative technology for geothermal applications. (orig.)

  6. Availability statistics for thermal power plants 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denmark, Finland and Sweden have adopted almost the same methods of recording and calculation of availability data. For a number of years comparable availability and outage data for thermal power have been summarized and published in one report. The purpose of the report is to produce basic information on existing kinds of thermal power in the countries concerned. With this information as a basis additional and more detailed information can be exchanged in direct contacts between bodies in the above mentioned countries according to forms established for that purpose. The report includes fossil steam power, nuclear power and gas turbines. The information is presented in separate diagrams for each country, but for plants burning fossil fuel also in a joint NORDEL statistics with data grouped according to type of fuel used. The grouping of units into classes of capacity has been made in accordance with the classification adopted by UNIPEDE/WEC. Values based on energy have been adopted as basic availability data. The same applies to the preference made in the definitions outlined by UNIPEDE and UNIPEDE/WEC. Some data based on time have been included to make possible comparisons with certain international values and for further illustration of the performance. For values given in the report, the definitions in the NORDEL document ''Concepts of Availability for Thermal Power'', September 1977, have been applied. (au)

  7. Availability statistics for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denmark, Finland and Sweden have adopted almost the same methods of recording and calculation of availability data. For a number of years comparable availability and outage data for thermal power have been summarized and published in one report. The purpose of the report now presented for 1989 containing general statistical data is to produce basic information on existing kinds of thermal power in the countries concerned. With this information as a basis additional and more detailed information can be exchanged in direct contacts between bodies in the above mentioned countries according to forms established for that purpose. The report includes fossil steam power, nuclear power and gas turbines. The information is presented in separate diagrams for each country, but for plants burning fossil fuel also in a joint NORDEL statistics with data grouped according to type of fuel used. The grouping of units into classes of capacity has been made in accordance with the classification adopted by UNIPEDE/WEC. Values based on energy have been adopted as basic availability data. The same applies to the preference made in the definitions outlined by UNIPEDE and UNIPEDE/WEC. Some data based on time have been included to make possible comparisons with certain international values and for further illustration of the performance. For values given in the report, the definitions in the NORDEL document ''Concepts of Availability for Thermal Power, September 1977'', have been applied. (author)

  8. Availability statistics for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denmark, Finland and Sweden have adopted almost the same methods of recording and calculation of availability data. For a number of years comparable availability and outage data for thermal power have been summarized and published in one report. The purpose of the report now presented for 1991 containing general statistical data is to produce basic information on existing kinds of thermal power in the countries concerned. With this information as a basis additional and more detailed information can be exchanged in direct contacts between bodies in the above mentioned countries according to forms established for that purpose. The report includes fossil steam power, nuclear power and gas turbines. The information is presented in separate diagrams for each country, but for plants burning fossil fuel also in a joint NORDEL statistics with data grouped according to type of fuel used. The grouping af units into classes of capacity has been made in accordance with the classification adopted by UNIPEDE/WEC. Values based on energy have been adopted as basic availability data. The same applies to the preference made in the definitions outlined by UNIPEDE and UNIPEDE/WEC. Some data based on time have been included to make possible comparisons with certain international values and for further illustration of the performance. For values given in the report, the definitions in the NORDEL document ''Concepts of Availability for Thermal Power'', September 1977, have been applied. (au)

  9. Availability statistics for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denmark, Finland and Sweden have adopted almost the same methods of recording and calculation of availability data. For a number of years comparable availability and outage data for thermal power have been summarized and published in one report. The purpose of the report now presented for 1988 containing general statistical data is to produce basic information on existing kinds of thermal power in the countries concerned. With this information as a basis additional and more detailed information can be exchanged in direct contacts between bodies in the above mentioned countries according to forms established for that purpose. The report includes fossil steam power, nuclear power and gas turbines. The information is presented in separate diagrams for each country, but for plants burning fossil fuel also in a joint NORDEL statistics with data grouped according to type of fuel used. The grouping of units into classes of capacity has been made in accordance with the classification adopted by UNIPEDE/WEC. Values based on energy have been adopted as basic availability data. The same applies to the preference made in the definitions outlined by UNIPEDE and UNIPEDE/WEC. Some data based on time have been included to make possible comparisons with certain international values and for further illustration of the performance. For values given in the report, the definitions in the NORDEL document ''Concepts of Availability for Thermal Power, September 1977'', have been applied. (author)

  10. China’s Nuclear Power Plants in Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Qinshan Plant Phase I Located in Haiyan,Zhejiang Province,Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant Phase I is t he first 300-megawatt pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant independently designed,constructed,operated and managed by China.The plant came into commercial operation in April 1994.

  11. Water treatment plants assessment at Talkha power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sebaie, Olfat D; Abd El-Kerim, Ghazy E; Ramadan, Mohamed H; Abd El-Atey, Magda M; Taha, Sahr Ahmed

    2002-01-01

    Talkha power plant is the only power plant located in El-Mansoura. It generates electricity using two different methods by steam turbine and gas turbine. Both plants drew water from River Nile (208 m3 /h). The Nile raw water passes through different treatment processes to be suitable for drinking and operational uses. At Talkha power plant, there are two purification plants used for drinking water supply (100 m3/h) and for water demineralization supply (108 m3/h). This study aimed at studying the efficiency of the water purification plants. For drinking water purification plant, the annual River Nile water characterized by slightly alkaline pH (7.4-8), high annual mean values of turbidity (10.06 NTU), Standard Plate Count (SPC) (313.3 CFU/1 ml), total coliform (2717/100 ml), fecal coliform (0-2400/100 ml), and total algae (3 x 10(4) org/I). The dominant group of algae all over the study period was green algae. The blue green algae was abundant in Summer and Autumn seasons. The pH range, and the annual mean values of turbidity, TDS, total hardness, sulfates, chlorides, nitrates, nitrites, fluoride, and residual chlorine for purified water were in compliance with Egyptian drinking water standards. All the SPC recorded values with an annual mean value of 10.13 CFU/1 ml indicated that chlorine dose and contact time were not enough to kill the bacteria. However, they were in compliance with Egyptian decree (should not exceed 50 CFU/1 ml). Although the removal efficiency of the plant for total coliform and blue green algae was high (98.5% and 99.2%, respectively), the limits of the obtained results with an annual mean values of 40/100 ml and 15.6 org/l were not in compliance with the Egyptian decree (should be free from total coliform, fecal coliform and blue green algae). For water demineralization treatment plant, the raw water was characterized by slightly alkaline pH. The annual mean values of conductivity, turbidity, and TDS were 354.6 microS/cm, 10.84 NTU, and 214

  12. Pilot plant straw biomass power plant; Demonstrationsanlage Strohkraftwerk Gronau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vodegel, Stefan [Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Institut GmbH (CUTEC), Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany); Lach, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Ueberlandwerk Leinetal GmbH, Gronau (Leine) (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Drastically increasing prices for oil and gas promote the change to renewable energies. Biomass has the advantage of the storability. However, it has the disadvantage of a small stocking density. This suggests decentralized power plants. Also the proven technology of water vapour cycles with use of turbine is questioned. In the rural district Hildesheim there are efforts of thermal utilisation straw from wheat cropping. For this, a feasibility study of the Claustahler Umwelttechnik-Technik GmbH (Clausthal Zellerfeld, Federal Republic of Germany) presents technical and economic possibilities exemplary for the industrial area West in Gronau (Federal Republic of Germany). Technical and economic chances and risks are pointed out.

  13. Maintenance technologies on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As nuclear power plants in Japan are proud of their operation results with high reliability at a viewpoint of the world, one of main factors supporting on this high reliability is 'maintenance'. On the other hand, U.S.A. has not carried out thorough preventive maintenance like Japan but systematically progressed adequacy of maintenance at a center of condition based maintenance (CBM) under its success. In Japan, reduction of periodical inspection time and introduction of the CBM are begun to wrestle with adequacy of maintenance. Here was introduced on efforts on maintenance, inspection and technical development carried out at the nuclear power plants, and also on actions on 'maintenance' in Japan. Here were described on present state of maintenance and inspection in the nuclear power stations, efforts to reduce periodical inspection time, efforts on countermeasure for high aging, conditions on technical development of maintenance and inspection, working results on renewal engineering of large scale apparatuses, and efforts on upgrading of technology on maintenance and inspection. (G.K.)

  14. Southpoint power plant final environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document is the Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for a proposed lease of acreage on the Fort Mojave Indian Reservation in Mohave County, Arizona for development of a natural gas fired 500 megawatt combined cycle power plant. The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) serves as the federal lead agency and the Fort Mojave Indian Tribe (FMIT) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) are cooperating agencies for the EIS process. The purpose of this document is to provide information to the public and to interested public agencies regarding the environmental consequences of the approval of a long-term lease for the construction and operation of the proposed Southpoint power plant. The FEIS, prepared by Hallock/Gross, Inc. under the direction of the BIA and in cooperation with the FMIT and WAPA, addresses the comparative analysis of alternatives and evaluates the environmental consequences of such alternatives on various resources and addresses public comments. A number of technical reports were used in the preparation of the Draft EIS and FEIS and are available for review as Appendices to this document under separate cover that can be reviewed at the BIA offices which are listed

  15. General digitalized system on nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akagi, Katsumi; Kadohara, Hozumi; Taniguchi, Manabu [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    2000-08-01

    Hitherto, instrumentation control system in a PWR nuclear power plant has stepwisely adopted digital technology such as application of digital instrumentation control device to ordinary use (primary/secondary system control device, and so on), application of CRT display system to monitoring function, and so forth, to realize load reduction of an operator due to expansion of operation automation range, upgrading of reliability and maintenance due to self-diagnosis function, reduction of mass in cables due to multiple transfer, and upgrading of visual recognition due to information integration. In next term PWR plant instrumentation control system, under consideration of application practice of conventional digital technology, application of general digitalisation system to adopt digitalisation of overall instrumentation control system containing safety protection system, and central instrumentation system (new type of instrumentation system) and to intend to further upgrade economics, maintenance, operability/monitoring under security of reliability/safety is planned. And, together with embodiment of construction program of the next-term plant, verification at the general digitalisation proto-system aiming at establishment of basic technology on the system is carried out. Then, here was described on abstract of the general digitalisation system and characteristics of a digital type safety protection apparatus to be adopted in the next-term plant. (G.K.)

  16. General digitalized system on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitherto, instrumentation control system in a PWR nuclear power plant has stepwisely adopted digital technology such as application of digital instrumentation control device to ordinary use (primary/secondary system control device, and so on), application of CRT display system to monitoring function, and so forth, to realize load reduction of an operator due to expansion of operation automation range, upgrading of reliability and maintenance due to self-diagnosis function, reduction of mass in cables due to multiple transfer, and upgrading of visual recognition due to information integration. In next term PWR plant instrumentation control system, under consideration of application practice of conventional digital technology, application of general digitalisation system to adopt digitalisation of overall instrumentation control system containing safety protection system, and central instrumentation system (new type of instrumentation system) and to intend to further upgrade economics, maintenance, operability/monitoring under security of reliability/safety is planned. And, together with embodiment of construction program of the next-term plant, verification at the general digitalisation proto-system aiming at establishment of basic technology on the system is carried out. Then, here was described on abstract of the general digitalisation system and characteristics of a digital type safety protection apparatus to be adopted in the next-term plant. (G.K.)

  17. High-power LEDs for plant cultivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamulaitis, Gintautas; Duchovskis, Pavelas; Bliznikas, Zenius; Breive, Kestutis; Ulinskaite, Raimonda; Brazaityte, Ausra; Novickovas, Algirdas; Zukauskas, Arturas; Shur, Michael S.

    2004-10-01

    We report on high-power solid-state lighting facility for cultivation of greenhouse vegetables and on the results of the study of control of photosynthetic activity and growth morphology of radish and lettuce imposed by variation of the spectral composition of illumination. Experimental lighting modules (useful area of 0.22 m2) were designed based on 4 types of high-power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with emission peaked in red at the wavelengths of 660 nm and 640 nm (predominantly absorbed by chlorophyll a and b for photosynthesis, respectively), in blue at 455 nm (phototropic function), and in far-red at 735 nm (important for photomorphology). Morphological characteristics, chlorophyll and phytohormone concentrations in radish and lettuce grown in phytotron chambers under lighting with different spectral composition of the LED-based illuminator and under illumination by high pressure sodium lamps with an equivalent photosynthetic photon flux density were compared. A well-balanced solid-state lighting was found to enhance production of green mass and to ensure healthy morphogenesis of plants compared to those grown using conventional lighting. We observed that the plant morphology and concentrations of morphologically active phytohormones is strongly affected by the spectral composition of light in the red region. Commercial application of the LED-based illumination for large-scale plant cultivation is discussed. This technology is favorable from the point of view of energy consumption, controllable growth, and food safety but is hindered by high cost of the LEDs. Large scale manufacturing of high-power red AlInGaP-based LEDs emitting at 650 nm and a further decrease of the photon price for the LEDs emitting in the vicinity of the absorption peak of chlorophylls have to be achieved to promote horticulture applications.

  18. Pile foundation of nuclear power plant structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject of pile foundation used for nuclear power plant structures, considering the experience gained by the designers of the Angra Nuclear Power Plant, Units 2 and 3 in Brazil is dealt with. The general concept of the pile foundations, including types and execution of the piles, is described briefly. Then the two basic models, i.e. the static model and the dynamic one, used in the design are shown, and the pertinent design assumptions as related to the Angra project are mentioned. The criteria which established the loading capacity of the piles are discussed and the geological conditions of the Angra site are also explained briefly, justifying the reasons why pile foundations are necessary in this project. After that, the design procedures and particularly the tools - i.e. the computer programs - are described. It is noted that the relatively simple but always time consuming job of loading determination calculations can be computerized too, as it was done on this project through the computer program SEASA. The interesting aspects of soil/structure interaction, applicable to static models, are covered in detail, showing the theoretical base wich was used in the program PILMAT. Then the advantage resulting from computerizing of the job of pile reinforcement design are mentioned, describing briefly the jobs done by the two special programs PILDES and PILTAB. The point is stressed that the effort computerizing the structural design of this project was not so much due to the required accuracy of the calculations, but mainly due to the need to save on the design time, as to allow to perform the design task within the relatively tight time schedule. A conclusion can be drawn that design of pile foundations for nuclear power plant structures is a more complex task than the design of bearing type of foundation for the same structures, but that the task can be always made easier when the design process can be computerized. (Author)

  19. Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Roman Miguel

    Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant is a focus of this dissertation. Specifically, the performance of the Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant in Arizona is examined. The analysis combines thermodynamic second law exergy analysis with economics in order to assign costs to the loss and destruction of exergy. This work was done entirely with an interacting spreadsheets notebook. The procedures are to first determine conventional energy flow, where the thermodynamic stream state points are calculated automatically. Exergy flow is then evaluated along with destruction and losses. The capital cost and fixed investment rate used for the economics do not apply specifically to the Palo Verde Plant. Exergy costing is done next involving the solution of about 90 equations by matrix inversion. Finally, the analysis assigns cost to the exergy destruction and losses in each component. In this work, the cost of electricity (exergy), including capital cost, leaving the generator came to 38,400 /hr. The major exergy destruction occurs in the reactor where fission energy transfer is limited by the maxiμm permissible clad temperature. Exergy destruction costs were: reactor--18,207 hr, the low pressure turbine-2,000 /hr, the condenser--1,700 hr, the steam generator-1,200 $/hr. The inclusion of capital cost and O&M are important in new system design assessments. When investigating operational performance, however, these are sunk costs; only fuel cost needs to be considered. The application of a case study is included based on a real modification instituted at Palo Verde to reduce corrosion steam generator problems; the pressure in the steam generator was reduced from 1072 to 980 psi. Exergy destruction costs increased in the low pressure turbine and in the steam generator, but decreased in the reactor vessel and the condenser. The dissertation demonstrates the procedures and tools required for exergoeconomic analysis whether in the evaluation of a new nuclear reactor system

  20. Psychological empowerment in French nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the eighties, nuclear safety has been discussed in organizational studies and constitutes nowadays a specific stream with several standpoints. Regarding the reliability of nuclear plants, the nuclear safety literature has emphasized on the crucial role of individuals and human factors. Especially, some researchers have noticed rule breaking behavior and the impact of individual self-confidence on the behavior; but without deepening their analyses. As high self-esteem and confidence, i.e. psychological empowerment, naturally lead to innovation and rule breaking, the behavior can be analyzed, in such a regulated industry, as opposite to safety. Thus, this article aims at explaining the roots and discernable features of the observed psychological empowerment. Methods include an in-depth qualitative study in 4 nuclear power plants owned by Electricite de France (EDF), the French national nuclear power operator. Focused on the leading team of the plant, the set of data is composed of 35 interviews, 6 weeks of non-participant observation and internal documents. The content analysis has revealed two main pillars of psychological empowerment. On the first hand, the strong professional identity developed at the opening of the plants is based on initiative and risk-taking. In some ways, this professional identify fostered by commitment to a demanding job and the team, influences behavior more than do professional rules. On the second hand, the management discourse is perceived as ambiguous towards the strict application of the rules and tacitly legitimizes rule breaking behavior. This article details and exemplifies these phenomena and discusses the implications. (author)

  1. Cycle improvement for nuclear steam power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pressure-increasig ejector element is disposed in an extraction line intermediate to a high pressure turbine element and a feedwater heater. The ejector utilizes high pressure fluid from a reheater drain as the motive fluid to increase the pressure at which the extraction steam is introduced into the feedwater heater. The increase in pressure of the extraction steam entering the feedwater heater due to the steam passage through the ejector increases the heat exchange capability of the extraction steam thus increasing the overall steam power plant efficiency

  2. Nuclear power plants. Safe and efficient decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huger, Helmut [TUEV SUED Energietechnik GmbH, Filderstadt (Germany). Div. of Radiation Protection, Waste Management and Decommissioning; Woodcock, Richard [TUEV SUED Nuclear Technologies, Warrington, Cheshire (United Kingdom). Environment and Radioactive Waste Management

    2016-02-15

    The process of dismantling a nuclear power plant consists of several phases that involve significant challenges along the way for authorities, operators, and suppliers. It is necessary to ensure safety at all times and to achieve certainty in respect of key project parameters, especially time and cost. Therefore, careful planning as well as detailed knowledge of local standards and regulations, best available techniques and practical implementation strategies are crucial. Independent expertise and knowledge service can be utilised for demanding projects worldwide. This guarantees safety for people and the environment in every phase of decommissioning. The article gives an overview on different decommissioning options and their challenges.

  3. Knowledge management in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article aims to show the importance of knowledge management from different perspectives. In this first part part of the article, the overall approach that performs CNAT of knowledge management is described. In the second part, a specific aspect of knowledge management in ANAV, tacit knowledge transfer is showed. finally, the third part discusses the strategies and actions that are followed in CNCO for knowledge management. All this aims to show an overview of knowledge management held in the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  4. Dynamic analysis of Leningrad nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the scope of this study a preliminary dynamic analysis for the detonation explosion and earthquake load cases was carried out for the Leningrad Nuclear Power Plant. A soil model was added to the three-dimensional shell model which was taken over from IVO (Finland). During this Research Program the model was translated into the STARDYNE program and was investigated by means of time history modal analysis. Since the status quo of the documentation available at that time had to be completed through useful technical assumptions this report only considers exemplary selected results

  5. Environmental charges levied on power plants

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Ptak

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to analyze the financial burden on energy sector in Poland resulting from charges on the use of the environment. The estimation of the amount of charges paid by the power plants is based on data on emissions of basic pollutants from this sector. The starting point for the analysis is the brief evaluation of the impact of Polish energy sector on the environment. The impact is quite significant due the fact that electricity generation is mainly based on solid fuels, su...

  6. Organizational processes and nuclear power plant safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the effects organizational factors have on the risk associated with the operation of nuclear power plants. The described research project addresses three methods for identifying the organizational factors that impact safety. The first method consists of an elaborate theory-based protocol dealing with decision making procedures, interdepartmental coordination of activities, and communications. The second, known as goals/means/measures protocol, deals with identifying safey related goals. The third method is known as behaviorally anchored rating scale development. The paper discusses the importance of the convergence of these three methods to identify organizational factors essential to reactor safety

  7. Power Balance of a Hybrid Power Source in a Power Plant for a Small Propulsion Aircraft

    OpenAIRE

    Bataller Planes, Elena; Lapena Rey, Nieves; Mosquera, Jonay; Ortí, Fortunato; Oliver Ramírez, Jesús Angel; García Suárez, Oscar; Moreno González, Felix Antonio; Portilla Berrueco, Jorge; Torroja Fungairiño, Yago; Vasic, Miroslav; Huerta Oliveres, Santa Concepción; Trocki, M.; Zumel Vaquero, Pablo; Cobos Márquez, José Antonio

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes two different architectures for a hybrid power source comprising a PEM (Polymer Electrolyte Membrane) fuel cell and a Li ion battery. The hybrid power source feeds the propulsion motor of an all electrical aircraft, the Boeing Fuel Cell Demonstrator. The architectures are an unregulated and a regulated hybrid power source. The regulation is achieved by means of a controllable series boost converter (SBC) connected in series with the fuel cell. Both architectures have been ...

  8. Surveillance dosimetry of operating power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main focus of the research efforts presently underway is the LWR power reactor surveillance program in which metallurgical test specimens of the reactor PV and dosimetry sensors are placed in three or more surveillance capsules at or near the reactor PV inner wall. They are then irradiated in a temperature and neutron flux-spectrum environment as similar as possible to the PV itself for periods of about 1.5 to 15 effective full-power years (EFPY), with removal of the last capsule at a fluence corresponding to the 30- to 40-year plant end-of-life (EOL) fluence. Because the neutron flux level at the surveillance position is greater than at the vessel, the test is accelerated wit respect to the vessel exposure, allowing early assessment of EOL conditions

  9. Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment

  10. Modular stellarator reactor: a fusion power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.L.; Bathke, C.G.; Krakowski, R.A.; Heck, F.M.; Green, L.; Karbowski, J.S.; Murphy, J.H.; Tupper, R.B.; DeLuca, R.A.; Moazed, A.

    1983-07-01

    A comparative analysis of the modular stellarator and the torsatron concepts is made based upon a steady-state ignited, DT-fueled, reactor embodiment of each concept for use as a central electric-power station. Parametric tradeoff calculations lead to the selection of four design points for an approx. 4-GWt plant based upon Alcator transport scaling in l = 2 systems of moderate aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-aspect ratio. The four design points represent high-(0.08) and low-(0.04) beta versions of the modular stellarator and torsatron concepts. The physics basis of each design point is described together with supporting engineering and economic analyses. The primary intent of this study is the elucidation of key physics and engineering tradeoffs, constraints, and uncertainties with respect to the ultimate power reactor embodiment.

  11. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  12. Nuclear lamina in plant cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪健; 杨澄; 翟中和

    1996-01-01

    By using selective extraction and diethylene glycol distearate (DGD) embedment and embedment-free electron microscopy, the nuclear lamina was demonstrated in carrot and Ginkgo male generative cells. Western blotting revealed that the nuclear lamina was composed of A-type and B-type lamins which contained at least 66-ku and 84-ku or 66-ku and 86-ku polypeptides, respectively. These lamin proteins were localized at the nudear periphery as shown by immunogold-labelling. In situ hybridization for light microscope and electron microscope showed that plant cells have the homologous sequences of animal lamin cDNA. The sorting site of lamin mRNA is mainly distributed in the cytoplasm near the nudear envelope. The data have verified that there indeed exists nudear lamina in plant cells.

  13. Alarm-Processing in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information overload due to the activation of a great number of alarms in a short time is a common problem for the operator in the control room of a industrial plant, mainly in complex process like the nuclear power plants.The problem is the conventional conception of the alarm system, that defines each alarm like a separated and independent entity of the global situation of the plant.A direct consequence is the generation of multiple alarms during a significative disturbance in the process, being most of them redundant and irrelevant to the actual process state wich involves an extra load to the operator, who wastes time in acting selecting the important alarms of the group that appears or lead to a an erroneous action.The present work first describes the techniques developed in the last years to attack the avalanche of alarms problem.Later we present our approach to alarm-processing: an expert system as alarm-filter.Our objective is collect in the system the state of the art in the development of advanced alarm systems, offering an improvement of the information flow to the operators through the suppression of nonsignificant alarms and a structured visualization of the process state.Such support is important during a disturbance for the identification of plant state, diagnosis, consequence prediction and corrective actions.The system is arranged in three stages: alarm-generation, alarm-filter and alarm-presentation.The alarm-generation uses conventional techniques or receives them from an external system.The alarm-filter uses suppression techniques based on: irrelevance analysis with the operation mode and the state of components, causal reasoning and static importance analysis.The alarm presentation is made through a structured way using a priority scheme with three level.The knowledge representation of each alarm is based on frames and a graph of alarms for global knowledge, where the connections between nodes represent causal and irrelevance relations

  14. Availability statistics for thermal power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denmark, Finland and Sweden have adopted almost the same methods of recording and calculation of availability data. For a number of years comparable availability and outage data for thermal power have been summarized and published in one report. The purpose of the report now presented for 1990 containing general statistical data is to produce basic information on existing kinds of thermal power in the countries concerned. With this information as a basis additional and more detailed information can be exchanged in direct contacts between bodies in the above mentioned countries according to forms established for that purpose. The report includes fossil steam power, nuclear power and gas turbines. The information is presented in separate diagrams for each country, but for plants burning fossil fuel also in a joint NORDEL statistics with data grouped according to type of fuel used. The grouping of units into classes of capacity has been made in accordance with the classification adopted by UNIPEDE/WEC. Values based on energy have been adopted as basic availability data. The same applied to the preference made in the definitions outlined by UNIPEDE and UNIPEDE/WEC. Some data based on time have been included to make possible comparisons with certain international values and for futher illustration of the performance. (au)

  15. Power plant instrumentation and control handbook a guide to thermal power plants

    CERN Document Server

    Basu, Swapan

    2014-01-01

    The book discusses instrumentation and control in modern fossil fuel power plants, with an emphasis on selecting the most appropriate systems subject to constraints engineers have for their projects. It provides all the plant process and design details, including specification sheets and standards currently followed in the plant. Among the unique features of the book are the inclusion of control loop strategies and BMS/FSSS step by step logic, coverage of analytical instruments and technologies for pollution and energy savings, and coverage of the trends toward filed bus systems and integratio

  16. Harmonics in Offshore Wind Power Plants Employing Power Electronic Devices in the Transmission System

    OpenAIRE

    Glasdam, Jakob Bærholm

    2015-01-01

    IntroductionThe trend in power generation is to partly replace conventional power plants with renewable energy sources. Offshore wind power has been selected to take up a significant proportion of the renewable energy production. The grid codes have been updated to accommodate the rising share of wind power. The onshore as well as offshore wind power plants (OWPPs) therefore have to meet the same stringent requirement as the conventional power plants. This can be accommodated by employment of...

  17. Human factors in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the results of a study on the functions of operating and maintenance personnel in nuclear power plants. Since an effective power plant design must take into systematic account the possibilities and limitations of the human element, the basic aim of the study was to identify what the human operators are required to do and how they achieve it. Information was acquired by direct observation and by interviews as well as by evaluation of written documents (e.g. incident reports, procedures manuals, work regulations) and of working conditions (e.g. equipment and workplace design). A literature search and evaluation carried out within the scope of this study has been published as a separate document. The main part of the report is devoted to discussions and conclusions on selected areas of potential improvements. The topics include control room design, factors of the physical environment including radiation, problems of maintainability, design of written documents, problems in communicating information, design and control of tasks, placement and training. A separate section deals with problems of recording human errors. (orig.)

  18. Reviewing industrial safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains guidance and reference materials for Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) experts, in addition to the OSART Guidelines (TECDOC-449), for use in the review of industrial safety activities at nuclear power plants. It sets out objectives for an excellent industrial safety programme, and suggests investigations which should be made in evaluating industrial safety programmes. The attributes of an excellent industrial safety programme are listed as examples for comparison. Practical hints for reviewing industrial safety are discussed, so that the necessary information can be obtained effectively through a review of documents and records, discussions with counterparts, and field observations. There are several annexes. These deal with major features of industrial safety programmes such as safety committees, reporting and investigation systems and first aid and medical facilities. They include some examples which are considered commendable. The document should be taken into account not only when reviewing management, organization and administration but also in the review of related areas, such as maintenance and operations, so that all aspects of industrial safety in an operating nuclear power plant are covered

  19. Impact the nuclear power plant on electrical grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to the limited fossil fuel energy resources and the almost fully utilized hydro energy, Egypt has been considering for sometime the various options for satisfying the increasing demand for electricity, including nuclear energy. This thesis emphasizes decisions concerning the impact of nuclear power plant on Egyptian Electrical Grid.This work presents the dynamic modeling and simulation of load flow and transient stability analysis to evaluate the Egyptian Electrical grid. The complex power system is modeled and simulated using Power System Simulator for Engineer (PSS/E). The building blocks of the dynamic model of a power system are presented. A detail of modeling for Egyptian Electrical power network is discussed. It presents an introduction of the load forecasting, and proposal on Egyptian Electrical grid in year 2018. This work presents definitions of nuclear power plant (NPP) and the most widespread power plant reactor types. A detailed representation, analysis, mathematical model, simulation of nuclear power plant and simulation results is also given.This thesis explains the characteristics of the electric grid, its relationship with the NPP, the interaction of electrical grid and nuclear power plant, and the reasons why a reliable grid is so important to the NPP.This thesis proposes a new design of power plant reactor controller for the nuclear power plant. A detailed representation, analysis, mathematical model, simulation of nuclear power plant control and simulation for different disturbance of nuclear power plant on the Egyptian Electrical Grid results is also presented.

  20. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan

    2002-04-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced

  1. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  2. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-10-15

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to

  3. Economic performance indicators for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a global perspective, it is clear that there is no single group of key economic and financial measures that are applicable and useful for all countries and regions. The extent to which deregulation and privatization is occurring varies considerably throughout the world, with some countries continuing to foster regulated monopolies or government subsidies for power generation, while in others retail and wholesale electricity is sold in truly open market, competitive situations. Consequently, the requirement for key measures of financial and economic success for the nuclear power industry will continue to be diverse from one region or country to another. This report has been prepared for the benefit of nuclear plant managers and operators. Its primary purpose is to identify and define a number of economic performance measures for use at nuclear power plants operating in deregulated, competitive electricity markets. In addressing the value of economic measures, the report presents and discusses a general definition and classifications of nuclear economic indicators within the context of regulation, competition and the economic requirements for constructing, operating and decommissioning nuclear plants. Categories of economic measures, traditionally used in competitive enterprises, that have potential application in the operation of nuclear plants are also presented. A number of industry observations are discussed and presented as critical factors leading to a series of improvement strategies for the continued development and implementation of economic indicators, beyond those provided in this report, as well as for other related IAEA activities on the implementation and further development of the Nuclear Economic Performance Information System. On the basis of the collective opinions and judgements of the representatives of the participating countries, the report provides a 'preliminary' set of nuclear economic performance indicators, presented in standard Excel

  4. Peculiar Features of Nuclear Power and Steam and Gas Plant of Thermal Power Station

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Bokoun

    2014-01-01

    The paper reveals peculiar features concerning of power generation at a nuclear power station and a steam and gas plant of a thermal power station. According to technical and economical indices a nuclear power station is at a disadvantage in relation to a steam and gas plant of a thermal power station.

  5. Hydraulic Power Plant Machine Dynamic Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Günther Poll

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A method how to perform an entire structural and hydraulic diagnosis of prototype Francis power machines is presented and discussed in this report. Machine diagnosis of Francis units consists on a proper evaluation of acquired mechanical, thermal and hydraulic data obtained in different operating conditions of several rotary and non rotary machine components. Many different physical quantities of a Francis machine such as pressure, strains, vibration related data, water flow, air flow, position of regulating devices and displacements are measured in a synchronized way so that a relation of cause an effect can be developed for each operating condition and help one to understand all phenomena that are involved with such kind of machine. This amount of data needs to be adequately post processed in order to allow correct interpretation of the machine dynamics and finally these data must be compared with the expected calculated data not only to fine tuning the calculation methods but also to accomplish fully understanding of the influence of the water passages on such machines. The way how the power plant owner has to operate its Francis machines, many times also determined by a central dispatcher, has a high influence on the fatigue life time of the machine components. The diagnostic method presented in this report helps one to understand the importance of adequate operation to allow a low maintenance cost for the entire power plant. The method how to acquire these quantities is discussed in details together with the importance of correct sensor balancing, calibration and adequate correlation with the physical quantities. Typical results of the dynamic machine behavior, with adequate interpretation, obtained in recent measurement campaigns of some important hydraulic turbines were presented. The paper highlights the investigation focus of the hydraulic machine behavior and how to tailor the measurement strategy to accomplish all goals. Finally some

  6. Development of materials for nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haenninen, H. (Aalto Univ. School of Science and Technology, Eng. Materials, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-05-15

    Concerns to material failures of nuclear power plant components have been changing during the years. Corrosion related failures of stainless steel components have been the major concern, especially pipe cracking due to weld sensitization has caused outages and repairs in BWRs. IGSCC of locally cold-worked stainless steel components without sensitization is an emerging problem in aging plants. The major issue concerning failures of stainless steel components has also been environment-assisted cracking (IGSCC and IASCC) of reactor core internal components, where handling of highly active stainless steel materials in repairs is causing also a major concern. In PWRs the long-time concern has been the steam generator tube corrosion damage both on the primary and secondary side as well as the irradiation embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel steel and its weldments. The new big issue is the Ni-alloy weld metal cracking in reactor pressure vessel safe-end welds and in reactor head and bottom penetrations. Many of these failure modes are time-dependent and, are expected to become more prevalent when the plants are aging. (orig.)

  7. Nuclear power plant Severe Accident Research Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Severe Accident Research Plan (SARP) will provide technical information necessary to support regulatory decisions in the severe accident area for existing or planned nuclear power plants, and covers research for the time period of January 1982 through January 1986. SARP will develop generic bases to determine how safe the plants are and where and how their level of safety ought to be improved. The analysis to address these issues will be performed using improved probabilistic risk assessment methodology, as benchmarked to more exact data and analysis. There are thirteen program elements in the plan and the work is phased in two parts, with the first phase being completed in early 1984, at which time an assessment will be made whether or not any major changes will be recommended to the Commission for operating plants to handle severe accidents. Additionally at this time, all of the thirteen program elements in Chapter 5 will be reviewed and assessed in terms of how much additional work is necessary and where major impacts in probabilistic risk assessment might be achieved. Confirmatory research will be carried out in phase II to provide additional assurance on the appropriateness of phase I decisions. Most of this work will be concluded by early 1986

  8. New nuclear power plants for Ontario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towards the end of this year the Ontario government will select the technology for its future nuclear power plants. To clarify the differences between the contending reactors I have put together the following quick overview. Ontario's requirement is for a stand-alone two-unit nuclear power plant to provide around 2,000 to 3,500 MWe of baseload generating capacity at a site to he specified with an option for one or two additional units. It is likely that the first units will be located at either the Darlington site near Bowmanville or the Bruce site near Kincardine. However the output from the Bruce site is presently transmission constrained. All nuclear-electric generation in Ontario comes from Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's (AECL) CANDU reactors at Pickering, Darlington and Bruce. The contenders are, AECL's 1085 MWe (net) ACR-1000 (Advanced CANDU Reactor), Westinghouse Electric Company's 1117 MWe (net) AP1000 (Advanced Passive), AREVA NP's 1600 MWe (net) U.S. EPR (United States Evolutionary Pressurized Reactor) and the 1550 MWe (net) GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy's ESBWR (Economic and Simplified Boiling Water Reactor). Westinghouse has Toshiba as a majority shareholder, AREVA has the government of France as a majority shareholder and GE-Hitachi has GE as the major shareholder. AECL is a federal crown corporation and is part of Team CANDU consisting of Babcock and Wilcox Canada, GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy Canada Inc., Hitachi Canada Limited and SNC-Lavalin Nuclear Inc. Generally the engineering split in Team CANDU would be, AECL, Mississauga, Ontario, responsible for the design of the nuclear steam plant including reactor and safety systems; Babcock and Wilcox Canada, Cambridge, Ontario, responsible for supply of the steam generators and other pressure retaining components; GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy Canada Inc., Peterborough, Ontario for the fuel handling equipment; Hitachi Canada Limited, Mississauga, for the balance of plant steam to electricity conversion

  9. Nuclear power plants in the world - 2010 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the IAEA's PRIS and AREVA-CEA's GAIA databases. The following aspects are reviewed: 2009 highlights, Main characteristics of reactor types, Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2010/01/01, Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2009), Units distributed by countries, Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups, Nuclear power plants under construction on 2009, Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid, First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country, Electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2009, Performance indicator of french PWR units, Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type, Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity, Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2009, Status of licence renewal applications in USA, Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2009, Shutdown reactors, Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe, Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid, Exported nuclear power plants under construction, Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction, Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2009, Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2009, COL applications in the USA, Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences, Mox licence plants projects, Appendix - historical development, Meaning of the used acronyms, Glossary

  10. ELECNUC Nuclear power plants in the world - 2013 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This small booklet summarizes in a series of tables the figures relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. Data come from the IAEA's PRIS database and from specific I-tese studies. The following aspects are reviewed: 2012 highlights; Main characteristics of reactor types; Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2012/01/01; Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2012); Units distributed by countries; Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups; Nuclear power plants under construction on 2012; Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid; First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country; Electrical generation from nuclear power plants by country at the end 2012; Performance indicator of french PWR units; Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type; Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity; Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2012; Status of licence renewal applications in USA; Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2012; Shutdown reactors; Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe; Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid; Exported nuclear power plants under construction; Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction; Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2012; Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2012; COL (Combined Licence) applications in the USA; Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences; Mox licence plants projects; Appendix - historical development; Meaning of the used acronyms; Glossary

  11. Operating experience with nuclear power plants 2015. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VGB Technical Committee ''Nuclear Plant Operation'' has been exchanging operating experience about nuclear power plants for more than 30 years. Plant operators from several European countries are participating in the exchange. A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from Germany. The second part of this report will focus on nuclear power plant in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain.

  12. Operating experience with nuclear power plants 2015. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-07-01

    The VGB Technical Committee ''Nuclear Plant Operation'' has been exchanging operating experience about nuclear power plants for more than 30 years. Plant operators from several European countries are participating in the exchange. A report is given on the operating results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from Germany. The second part of this report will focus on nuclear power plant in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain.

  13. Status of development of the power plants on the base of MCFC in TFNC-VNIIEF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novitski, E.Z.; Savkin, G.G.

    1996-04-01

    VNIIF started work on Molten Carbonate Fuel cells and power plants in 1991. Some results of VNIIF work in the direction of Autonomous Power Engineering are presented. Topics include molten carbonate fuel cell components, separator plates, manufacturing and testing, design, and goals.

  14. Strategies for competitive nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This technical publication on competitive strategies for nuclear power plants (NPPs) is part of an ongoing project on management of NPP operations in a competitive environment. The overall objective of this project is to assist the management of operating organizations and NPPs in identifying and implementing appropriate measures to remain competitive in a rapidly changing business environment. Other documents that have been written on this topic have focused on how the environment in which NPPs operate is changing. This report instead focuses on strategies and techniques that operating organization and NPP managers can use to succeed in this environment. Of particular note is ongoing OECD/NEA work to describe the environment for nuclear power in competitive electricity markets. The main objective of the OECD/NEA study is to review the impacts of increasing market competition on the nuclear power sectors in OECD Member countries. The OECD/NEA study is identifying various nuclear aspects which have to be considered in relation to the regulatory reform of the electricity sector in OECD Member States. The OECD/NEA work was co-ordinated with the development of this IAEA report; staff members from the two organizations participated in the development and review of the associated documents. Thus, the strategies and techniques identified in this report are consistent with the impacts of increasing market competition identified in the OECD/NEA study

  15. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) has long been a key element of qualification for mission critical instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) systems used by the U.S. military. The potential for disruption of safety-related I ampersand C systems by electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI), or power surges is also an issue of concern for the nuclear industry. Experimental investigations of the potential vulnerability of advanced safety systems to EMI/RFI, coupled with studies of reported events at nuclear power plants (NPPs) that are attributed to EMI/RFI, confirm the safety significance of EMC for both analog and digital technology. As a result, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in the development of the technical basis for guidance that addresses EMC for safety-related I ampersand C systems in NPPs. This research has involved the identification of engineering practices to minimize the potential impact of EMI/RFI and power surges and an evaluation of the ambient electromagnetic environment at NPPs to tailor those practices for use by the nuclear industry. Recommendations for EMC guidance have been derived from these research findings and are summarized in this paper

  16. Stem cells: a plant biology perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheres, B.J.G.

    2005-01-01

    A recent meeting at the Juan March Foundation in Madrid, Spain brought together plant biologists to discuss the characteristics of plant stem cells that are unique and those that are shared by stem cells from the animal kingdom

  17. Effect of power plant emissions on plant community structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J.; Agrawal, M.; Narayan, D. (Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi (India))

    1994-06-01

    A field study was conducted around two coal-fired thermal power plants (TPP) to analyse the impact of their emission on the structure of herbaceous communities in a dry tropical area. Phytosociological studies reflected that Cassia tora, Cynodon dactylon and Dichanthium annulatum dominate at heavily polluted sites. Alsycarpus monilifer, Convolvulus pluricaulis, and Desmodium triflorum are uniformly distributed, whereas Paspalidium flavidum, Phyllanthus simplex, and Rungia repens are dominant at less polluted sites. On the basis of Importance Value Index, the species were classified as sensitive, intermediate and resistant to TPP emissions. Shannon-Wiener Index of species diversity, species richness and evenness were inversely related to the pollution load in the area. Significant negative correlation between ambient SO[sub 2] concentration and species diversity suggested selective elimination of sensitive species from the heavily polluted sites.

  18. Selecting safety standards for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Today, many thousands of documents are available describing the requirements, guidelines, and industrial standards which can be used as bases for a nuclear power plant programme. Many of these documents relate to nuclear safety which is currently the focus of world-wide attention. The multitude of documents available on the subject, and their varying status and emphasis, make the processes of selection and implementation very important. Because nuclear power plants are technically intricate and advanced, particularly in relation to the technological status of many developing countries, these processes are also complicated. These matters were the subject of a seminar held at the Agency's headquarters in Vienna last December. The IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards (NUSS) programme was outlined and explained at the Seminar. The five areas of the NUSS programme for nuclear power plants cover, governmental organization, siting, design; operation; quality assurance. In each area the Agency has issued Codes of Practice and is developing Safety Guides. These provide regulatory agencies with a framework for safety. The Seminar recognized that the NUSS programme should enable developing countries to identify priorities in their work, particularly the implementation of safety standards. The ISO activities in the nuclear field are carried out in the framework of its Technical Committee 85 (ISO/TC85). The work is distributed in sub-committees. Seminar on selection and implementation of safety standards for nuclear power plants, jointly organized by the IAEA and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and held in Vienna from 15 to 18 December 1980 concerned with: terminology, definitions, units and symbols (SC-1), radiation protection (SC-2), power reactor technology (SC-3), nuclear fuel technology (SC-5). There was general agreement that the ISO standards are complementary to the NUSS codes and guides. ISO has had close relations with the IAEA for several years

  19. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  20. Regulation of Water in Plant Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowles, Richard V.

    2010-01-01

    Cell water relationships are important topics to be included in cell biology courses. Differences exist in the control of water relationships in plant cells relative to control in animal cells. One important reason for these differences is that turgor pressure is a consideration in plant cells. Diffusion and osmosis are the underlying factors…

  1. Elecnuc - Nuclear power plants in the world - 2009 edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This small booklet summarizes in tables all data relative to the nuclear power plants worldwide. These data come from the IAEA's PRIS and AREVA-CEA's GAIA databases. The following aspects are reviewed: 2008 highlights, Main characteristics of reactor types, Map of the French nuclear power plants on 2008/01/01, Worldwide status of nuclear power plants (12/31/2008), Units distributed by countries, Nuclear power plants connected to the Grid- by reactor type groups, Nuclear power plants under construction on 2008, Evolution of nuclear power plants capacities connected to the grid, First electric generations supplied by a nuclear unit in each country, Electrical generation from nuclear powe plants by country at the end 2008, Performance indicator of french PWR units, Evolution of the generation indicators worldwide by type, Nuclear operator ranking according to their installed capacity, Units connected to the grid by countries at 12/31/2008, Status of licence renewal applications in USA, Nuclear power plants under construction at 12/31/2008, Shutdown reactors, Exported nuclear capacity in net MWe, Exported and national nuclear capacity connected to the grid, Exported nuclear power plants under construction, Exported and national nuclear capacity under construction, Nuclear power plants ordered at 12/31/2008, Long term shutdown units at 12/31/2008, COL applications in the USA, Recycling of Plutonium in reactors and experiences, Mox licence plants projects, Appendix - historical development, Meaning of the used acronyms, Glossary

  2. Operating results 2015. Nuclear power plants. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A report is given on the opening results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in further issue.

  3. Operating results 2015. Nuclear power plants. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2016-05-15

    A report is given on the opening results achieved in 2015, events important to plant safety, special and relevant repair, and retrofit measures from nuclear power plants in Germany. Reports about nuclear power plants in Belgium, Finland, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and Spain will be published in further issue.

  4. Armatures in thermal power plants; Armaturen in Waermekraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Thomas; Moenning, Wolfgang (eds.)

    2011-07-01

    The book includes contributions on the following issues: (1) Fundamentals: Stop valves - minimal power loss due to full transmission. Safety valves - reliable overpressure protection. Indispensible feature of thermal power plant safety systems: the turbine bypass station. Condensate drain - safe discharge of harmful condensate. Safety armatures for gas consumption facilities. Electric actuators - automation of almost all armatures in power plants. (2) Case studies: Drainage armatures for power plant use. Steam cooling and saturation in thermal power plants - established techniques and solutions. Isolation flap for cooling water systems. Regulatory requirements and their practical implementation.

  5. Hydroelectric power plants. 2. enl. ed. Wasserkraftanlagen; Klein- und Kleinstkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palffy, S.O.; Brada, K.; Hartenstein, R.; Mueller, U.; Nowotny, G.; Partzsch, P.; Roemer, K.H.; Schlimgen, W.; Tratz, D.; Walcher, H.

    1994-01-01

    Small-scale power plants in the range below 500 kW make an important contribution to power generation. The book contains practical information on hydroelectric power plants, criteria for turbine selection, electric equipment, and the Ossberger turbine. Problems concerning taxation and energy and water legislation are gone into. Also discussed are economic criteria during acquisition, new construction, and modernisation for the purpose of electric power generation and grid power supply. (DG). 174 figs.

  6. Localization of nuclear power plant technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -effective localization of nuclear power in Asia. Nuclear power is more capital intensive than most other power generation options. This results in the electricity cost to the end user being more influenced by the initial cost than fuel, and other operations and maintenance expenses. Because developing nations typically have lower wages, it's a natural conclusion to maximize local capabilities to drive the capital cost as low as possible. To facilitate localization, new approaches to expediting the formation of a credible nuclear technology infrastructure in these emerging commercial nuclear power nations is discussed. This paper will examine localization of nuclear technology as one of the most promising methods to make nuclear power more affordable to the emerging markets in Asia. Localization will allow for the utilization of lower cost, local labor in the design, manufacture and construction of new nuclear power plants. ABB's practical localization philosophy is discussed with reference to previous experience and future expectations. (author)

  7. Detecting Cyber Attacks On Nuclear Power Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rrushi, Julian; Campbell, Roy

    This paper proposes an unconventional anomaly detection approach that provides digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) with the capability to probabilistically discern between legitimate protocol frames and attack frames. The stochastic activity network (SAN) formalism is used to model the fusion of protocol activity in each digital I&C system and the operation of physical components of an NPP. SAN models are employed to analyze links between protocol frames as streams of bytes, their semantics in terms of NPP operations, control data as stored in the memory of I&C systems, the operations of I&C systems on NPP components, and NPP processes. Reward rates and impulse rewards are defined in the SAN models based on the activity-marking reward structure to estimate NPP operation profiles. These profiles are then used to probabilistically estimate the legitimacy of the semantics and payloads of protocol frames received by I&C systems.

  8. Risk perception among nuclear power plant employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation protection training and general employee training within the nuclear industry are designed to reduce workers' concerns about radiation and to develop skills that will protect against unwarranted exposures. Inaccurate perceptions about radiation by workers can cause a lack of adequate concern or exaggerated fears, which in turn can result in unnecessary radiation exposure to the worker or co-workers. The purpose of the study is threefold: (a) to identify health and safety concerns among nuclear power plant employees, (b) to discover variables that influence the perception of risk among employees, and (c) to ascertain if attitudes of the family, community, and the media affect workers' perception of risk. Workers identified five areas of concern: shift work, radiation, industrial safety, stress, and sabotage

  9. Industrial psychology aspects of power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper gives a survey of the development of the negotiationes that have taken place from the beginning 1976 between representatives of BMI and VDWE to examine whether psychological qualification examinations for the shift personal of nuclear power plants will be appropriate. As a result it is shown that first- and reexaminations shall be carried out according principle 25, the psychological part of this examination should, however, be renounced to a still pending standardisation and testing. The more detailed examination of the sense organs, proposed on this occasion, will be defined by the representatives of VDEW by a new proposal. The routine psychological judgement along with a documentation of the superiors is, however, not considered suitable. (orig./HP)

  10. Materials qualification for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supply of materials to be used in the fabrication of components submitted to pressure destined to Atucha II nuclear power plant must fulfill the quality assurance requirements in accordance with the international standards. With the aim of promoting the national participation in CNA II, ENACE had the need to adapt these requirements to the national industry conditions and to the availability of official entities' qualification and inspection. As a uniform and normalized assessment for the qualification of materials did not exist in the country, ENACE had to develop a materials suppliers qualification system. This paper presents a suppliers qualification procedure, its application limits and the alternative procedures for the acceptance of individual stock and for the stock materials purchase. (Author)

  11. Severe accidents in Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the assessment of the safety of nuclear power plants it is of great importance the analyses of severe accidents since they allow to estimate the possible failure models of the containment, and also permit knowing the magnitude and composition of the radioactive material that would be released to the environment in case of an accident upon population and the environment. This paper presents in general terms the basic principles for conducting the analysis of severe accidents, the fundamental sources in the generation of radionuclides and aerosols, the transportation and deposition processes, and also makes reference to de main codes used in the modulation of severe accidents. The final part of the paper contents information on how severe accidents are dialed with the regulatory point view in different countries

  12. Optical study of solar tower power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddhibi, F.; Ben Amara, M.; Balghouthi, M.; Guizani, A.

    2015-04-01

    The central receiver technology for electricity generation consists of concentrating solar radiation coming from the solar tracker field into a central receiver surface located on the top of the tower. The heliostat field is constituted of a big number of reflective mirrors; each heliostat tracks the sun individually and reflects the sunlight to a focal point. Therefore, the heliostat should be positioned with high precision in order to minimize optical losses. In the current work, a mathematical model for the analysis of the optical efficiency of solar tower field power plant is proposed. The impact of the different factors which influence the optical efficiency is analyzed. These parameters are mainly, the shading and blocking losses, the cosine effect, the atmospheric attenuation and the spillage losses. A new method for the calculation of blocking and shadowing efficiency is introduced and validated by open literature.

  13. Hydrogen embrittlement in power plant steels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R K Dayal; N Parvathavarthini

    2003-06-01

    In power plants, several major components such as steam generator tubes, boilers, steam/water pipe lines, water box of condensers and the other auxiliary components like bolts, nuts, screws fasteners and supporting assemblies are commonly fabricated from plain carbon steels, as well as low and high alloy steels. These components often fail catastrophically due to hydrogen embrittlement. A brief overview of our current understanding of the phenomenon of such hydrogen damage in steels is presented in this paper. Case histories of failures of steel components due to hydrogen embrittlement, which are reported in literature, are briefly discussed. A phenomenological assessment of overall process of hydrogen embrittlement and classification of the various damage modes are summarized. Influence of several physical and metallurgical variables on the susceptibility of steels to hydrogen embrittlement, mechanisms of hydrogen embrittlement and current approaches to combat this problem are also presented.

  14. Regulatory control of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this book is to support IAEA training courses and workshops in the field of regulatory control of nuclear power plants as well as to support the regulatory bodies of Member States in their own training activities. The target group is the professional staff members of nuclear safety regulatory bodies supervising nuclear power plants and having duties and responsibilities in the following regulatory fields: regulatory framework; regulatory organization; regulatory guidance; licensing and licensing documents; assessment of safety; and regulatory inspection and enforcement. Important topics such as regulatory competence and quality of regulatory work as well as emergency preparedness and public communication are also covered. The book also presents the key issues of nuclear safety such as 'defence-in-depth' and safety culture and explains how these should be taken into account in regulatory work, e.g. during safety assessment and regulatory inspection. The book also reflects how nuclear safety has been developed during the years on the basis of operating experience feedback and results of safety research by giving topical examples. The examples cover development of operating procedures and accident management to cope with complicated incidents and severe accidents to stress the importance of regulatory role in nuclear safety research. The main target group is new staff members of regulatory bodies, but the book also offers good examples for more experienced inspectors to be used as comparison and discussion basis in internal workshops organized by the regulatory bodies for refreshing and continuing training. The book was originally compiled on the basis of presentations provided during the two regulatory control training courses in 1997 and 1998. The textbook was reviewed at the beginning of the years 2000 and 2002 by IAEA staff members and consistency with the latest revisions of safety standards have been ensured. The textbook was completed in the

  15. Corrosion protection system for nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cathodic corrosion protection system for a nuclear power plant which employs an ion tank adjacent the main fresh water feed pipe leading to the steam generator to treat water from the main feed pipe and then return the treated water to the main feed pipe to form a corrosion protecting alkaline layer on surfaces of the main feed pipe and the secondary side of the steam generator. The ion tank receives measured amounts of hydrazine to render the water therein substantially conductive and contains ionizable metal anodes which release free metal ions as electric current flows between the anodes and a cathode connection on an ion tank outlet pipe near the main feed water pipe

  16. The role of nuclear power plant designers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When design of a nuclear power plant begins its designers, owners, and regulators make a safety judgement based on their knowledge and collective experience. As time goes on safety criteria change, methods improve, new scientific understanding is gained, and the cost of safety increases in relation to the benefits gained. In spite of that, the fundamental safety of CANDU remains and will continue high. However, the designer's job has become more difficult. The process of designing a product to satisfy a customer using a perceived view of that benefits society is no longer simple. Is the customer the utility or an amalgam of government departments and various factions of the public? How is the designer to make judgements on social acceptability when society speaks with so many voices and so little leadership

  17. 75 FR 16520 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc... the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP). The license provides, among other things, that... physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological...

  18. Emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2014-02-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and overuse of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics.Introduction of Emotional Consequences of Nuclear Power Plant Disasters (Video 2:15, http://links.lww.com/HP/A34).

  19. Analysis of power balancing with fuel cells and hydrogen production plants in Denmark. Project report; CanDan 1.5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-03-15

    In the past few years electric vehicles and other electric storage devices ability to hybridize the electric grid have gained increasing interest. Electric vehicles and their ability to hybridize the electric grid are especially interesting in a Danish context for two reasons. There is limited storage capacity in the Danish electric grid and it is therefore expensive to hybridize (balance power and energy supply and usage) in the Danish electric grid. An increasing use of fluctuating renewable energy, especially in the form of electricity from wind power, will make it more and more difficult and expensive to hybridise the Danish electricity grid. On top of this electric vehicles are getting closer and closer to the market because of better electric drive trains, better batteries, better fuel cells etc. The purpose of this report is therefore to analyse how future hydrogen production and hydrogen use in stationary fuel cells as well as fuel cells in vehicles can help balance power and energy in a future electric grid with high shares of fluctuating renewable energy. Emphasis is on future hydrogen production using high temperature solid oxide electrolysers and the use of this in 500.000 hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (HFCV) or in 500.000 plug-in hybrid hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (hybrid HFCV). Analysis made by Aalborg University in the project show that vehicles using hydrogen are generally better at using excess electricity, i.e. to integrate fluctuating renewable energy than the battery electric vehicles. Already in 2012 the battery electric vehicles, which have the ability to charge at the right times, as well as hydrogen based vehicles may remove the excess electricity consumption. Although the hydrogen production at electrolysers may be able to remove excess electricity production, the efficiency is rather low. The battery electric vehicles have the lowest fuel consumption, already in the present energy system. The CO{sub 2}-emissions are also the lowest for the

  20. One solution of main controller in thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radmilović Nebojša

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes functionality between pressure regulation of steam boiler and electrical power regulation of turbine-generator system at thermal power plants. Importans of this control is essentially in coordinate work mode when these complex and non-linear systems have to work as one integrated entity with tendency to produce electrical power at optimal and stable way. Steam generator - boiler is system with long transport delay and here is recommendation for improving pressure regulation. This regulation realized at thermal power plant nominal power 308MW and given working results in real time. Index Terms - boiler control, combustion control, thermal power plants, PID controller.

  1. Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection Research Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal is to develop test data and analytical capabilities to support the evaluation of: (1) the contribution of fires to the risk from nuclear power plants; (2) the effects of fires on control room equipment and operations; and (3) the effects of actuation of fire suppression systems on safety equipment. A range of fire sources will be characterized with respect to their energy and mass evolution, including smoke, corrosion products, and electrically conductive products of combustion. An analytical method for determining the environment resulting from fire will be developed. This method will account for the source characteristics, the suppression action following detection of the fire, and certain parameters specific to the plant enclosure in which the fire originates, such as the geometry of the enclosure and the ventilation rate. The developing local environment in the vicinity of safety-related equipment will be expressed in terms of temperatures, temperature rise rates, heat fluxes, and moisture and certain species content. The response of certain safe shutdown equipment and components to the environmental conditions will be studied. The objective will be to determine the limits of environmental conditions that a component may be exposed to without impairment of its ability to function

  2. Comprehensive signal validation for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Signal validation is the detection, isolation and characterization of faulty signals. A signal validation technique utilizing a process hypercube comparison (PHC) was originated during the research and other methods were extended. The hypercube is merely a multi-dimensional joint histogram of the process conditions. The hypercube is created off-line during a learning phase. In the event that a newly observed plant state does not match with those in the learned hypercube, the PHC algorithm performs signal validation by progressively hypothesizing that one or more signals is in error. This assumption is then either substantiated or denied. In the case where many signals are found to be in error, a conclusion that the process conditions are abnormal is reached. A comprehensive signal validation software system has been developed for application to nuclear power plants. This system combines some previously established fault detection methodologies as well as some newly developed ones. The techniques have been implemented in a modular architecture which allows the addition or removal of signal validation modules as deemed necessary. Intra-module confidence factors describing the validity of a given signal are derived using fuzzy membership functions. A final evaluation of signal status is made by the System Executive (SE) based on results from each signal validation module. In order to make reliable decisions in this parallel system a positive decision maker (PDM) was developed

  3. Information presentation in power plant control rooms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study is to support operators' work especially in the control rooms of power plant. The exemplified process is a pressurized water (nuclear) reactor (PWR). The man-process interface is an information system that covers information refining, information presentation, information system handling, and process control. THe emphasis in this study is on the organization and presentation of information and on the alert function that is part of the information system. Another goal is to design the alert function so as to radically reduce the number of alarms during plant shutdown, e.g. during the refuelling or maintenance period and during a disturbance. Further, the experimental validation of CFMS (Critical Function Monitoring System), developed by Combustion Engineering, Inc. in the U.S.A. is described briefly. The validation was made at the Loviisa training simulator in the autumn of 1982. CFMS is a safety-related functional alarm system. The functional decomposition of information has turned out to be successful and it is helpful in designing displays. Preliminary criteria for designing displays, the structure of the information presentation system and the illustration of main interactions are presented. General practical ideas on designing the alert function seem very promising. Preliminary results of the CFMS validation are presented. Further, some ideas are presented on how to carry out the analysis and how to make such validations in the future. A new idea for the evaluation of core safety is presented, based on control theory concepts

  4. Modelling and simulation of thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eborn, J.

    1998-02-01

    Mathematical modelling and simulation are important tools when dealing with engineering systems that today are becoming increasingly more complex. Integrated production and recycling of materials are trends that give rise to heterogenous systems, which are difficult to handle within one area of expertise. Model libraries are an excellent way to package engineering knowledge of systems and units to be reused by those who are not experts in modelling. Many commercial packages provide good model libraries, but they are usually domain-specific and closed. Heterogenous, multi-domain systems requires open model libraries written in general purpose modelling languages. This thesis describes a model database for thermal power plants written in the object-oriented modelling language OMOLA. The models are based on first principles. Subunits describe volumes with pressure and enthalpy dynamics and flows of heat or different media. The subunits are used to build basic units such as pumps, valves and heat exchangers which can be used to build system models. Several applications are described; a heat recovery steam generator, equipment for juice blending, steam generation in a sulphuric acid plant and a condensing steam plate heat exchanger. Model libraries for industrial use must be validated against measured data. The thesis describes how parameter estimation methods can be used for model validation. Results from a case-study on parameter optimization of a non-linear drum boiler model show how the technique can be used 32 refs, 21 figs

  5. Alpha nuclides in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a joint research project of VGB and AREVA NP GmbH the behavior of alpha nuclides in nuclear power plants has been investigated since 2005. The main source of alpha nuclides is core contamination with fissile material (so called tramp uranium or tramp fuel) which deposits on fuel rod surfaces and leads to the build-up of transuranium nuclides. Such alpha-nuclides are of special interest for health physics due to their high biological effectiveness. Having very high dose factors they lead to high dose weighting in case of incorporation. At NPC 2008 first results of the joint research project were presented concerning tramp fuel and its impact to alpha nuclides. The present publication will cover the ongoing results of this research project. A special focus is taken to deduce recommendations which allow plant operation personal to recognize situations in advance which can lead to enhanced appearance of alpha nuclides. Depending on the fuel conditions in the core and the activity level of fission products of the reactor coolant a better prediction of the alpha situation at the following outage and maintenance can be deduced. (author)

  6. Training diagnostic skills for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operators of large-scale industrial process plants such as nuclear power stations and chemical plants are faced with a critical and complex task when confronted with disturbances in normal operation caused by technical failures or mainte- nances errors. Great care must be taken to prepare and support the operators during such situations. Procedural systems are provided, trained on full-scale highfidelity simulators is often a prerequisite and decision-support systems are starting to be incorporated, especially in modern control rooms. During recent years, it has become increasingly clear from ''real-life'' studies in complex production and transport industries that professional highly skilled troubleshooters can develop effective general purpose search strategies for locating and dealing with faults and, most importantly, with new and not previously experienced faults. This research has indicated that means for training of these general diagnostic abilities can be developed. In addition, other work has dealt with the problem of observing and analyzing operator behaviour in coping with disturbances. The NKA/LIT-4 project has continued these efforts in studying methods for training diagnostic skills as well as for observing and testing operator behaviour on training simulators. (author)

  7. Methodology for Assessment of Inertial Response from Wind Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altin, Müfit; Teodorescu, Remus; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte;

    2012-01-01

    High wind power penetration levels result in additional requirements from wind power in order to improve frequency stability. Replacement of conventional power plants with wind power plants reduces the power system inertia due to the wind turbine technology. Consequently, the rate of change...... of frequency and the maximum frequency deviation increase after a disturbance such as generation loss, load increase, etc. Having no inherent inertial response, wind power plants need additional control concepts in order to provide an additional active power following a disturbance. Several control concepts...... have been implemented in the literature, but the assessment of these control concepts with respect to power system requirements has not been specified. In this paper, a methodology to assess the inertial response from wind power plants is proposed. Accordingly, the proposed methodology is applied...

  8. 75 FR 80547 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0... License No. NPF-63, which authorizes operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1... nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage,'' published as a final rule in the Federal...

  9. 75 FR 9958 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0... of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP). The license provides, among other things... for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological...

  10. Comprehensive evaluation of cost effectiveness of solar electric power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibragimov, D. Y.; Filatov, A. I.

    1984-02-01

    The cost effectiveness of constructing a solar heating and electric power plant is evaluated on the basis of a compatibility analysis of its combination with a thermal electric power plant and a boiler-type heating plant, taking into account comprehensively economic factors as well as power requirements. Two variants of such a combination are considered and compared, assuming equal heating power and equal electric power respectively. Equations are set up for each variant covering fixed and variable costs of generating electric power and generating heat, as basis for comparing the two variants and optimizing them with respect to normalized annual total cost. Nomograms plotted for convenient numerical calculation of maximum economically worthwhile capital investment in a solar heating and electric power plant, depending on changes in various operating parameters, reveal that, as the time for constructing such a plant becomes longer, this maximum worthwhile investment in it increases for variant 1 and decreases for variant 2.

  11. Knowledge management for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes background, objectives and select conceptual components of knowledge management for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants. The concept focuses on the transfer of personal practice experience within and between nuclear power plants. The conceptual insights embrace aspects of knowledge content, structure, KM processes, organization, cooperation, culture, persuasion, leadership, technology, infrastructure, business impact and resilience. Key challenges are discussed, and related advice is provided for KM practitioners with similar endeavours in the field of nuclear power plant decommissioning. (author)

  12. Geothermal depth power plant; Geothermie Tiefenkraftwerk trademark (GTKW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haemmerle, Hubert [Ehoch 10 Projektentwicklungs GmbH, Wien (Austria); Pilgerstorfer, Thomas; Schubert, Wulf [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Felsmechanik und Tunnelbau; Radoncic, Nedim

    2012-11-01

    The authors of the contribution under consideration report on a new concept for the utilization of geothermal energy. This concept provides itself due to the size of the usable reservoir, its performance in the area of conventional caloric power plants and its pronounced availability as a base load substitution for nuclear power plants as well as conventional gas and coal-fired power plants. A basic feasibility study was concluded. In addition to basic research, a variety of development work is required.

  13. Human resource management in the nuclear power plant

    OpenAIRE

    BAZGIEROVÁ, Barbora

    2016-01-01

    This Bachelor thesis investigates particularities in human resource management in the nuclear power plant. The goal of this work is to describe basic models of human resource management and their use in practise including models of human resource management that are used in the monitored nuclear power plant. This work contains options how to manage people, recruitment and education or remuneration of employees. The paper deals with human resource management in the specific nuclear power plant...

  14. Environmental impacts of fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Large power plants burning fossil fuels generate emissions with a high content of sulphur dioxide and a content of noxious aerosols and radioisotopes whose radioactivity exceeds the limits set for nuclear power plants. The main problem of nuclear power plants is to secure radiation safety namely in case of an accident even though the probability of such an event is very small. The most complicated problems are related to the treatment of spent fuel, its transport, processing and storage. (B.H.)

  15. Fault Diagnosis Strategies for SOFC-Based Power Generation Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costamagna, Paola; De Giorgi, Andrea; Gotelli, Alberto; Magistri, Loredana; Moser, Gabriele; Sciaccaluga, Emanuele; Trucco, Andrea

    2016-08-22

    The success of distributed power generation by plants based on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is hindered by reliability problems that can be mitigated through an effective fault detection and isolation (FDI) system. However, the numerous operating conditions under which such plants can operate and the random size of the possible faults make identifying damaged plant components starting from the physical variables measured in the plant very difficult. In this context, we assess two classical FDI strategies (model-based with fault signature matrix and data-driven with statistical classification) and the combination of them. For this assessment, a quantitative model of the SOFC-based plant, which is able to simulate regular and faulty conditions, is used. Moreover, a hybrid approach based on the random forest (RF) classification method is introduced to address the discrimination of regular and faulty situations due to its practical advantages. Working with a common dataset, the FDI performances obtained using the aforementioned strategies, with different sets of monitored variables, are observed and compared. We conclude that the hybrid FDI strategy, realized by combining a model-based scheme with a statistical classifier, outperforms the other strategies. In addition, the inclusion of two physical variables that should be measured inside the SOFCs can significantly improve the FDI performance, despite the actual difficulty in performing such measurements.

  16. Fault Diagnosis Strategies for SOFC-Based Power Generation Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Costamagna

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The success of distributed power generation by plants based on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs is hindered by reliability problems that can be mitigated through an effective fault detection and isolation (FDI system. However, the numerous operating conditions under which such plants can operate and the random size of the possible faults make identifying damaged plant components starting from the physical variables measured in the plant very difficult. In this context, we assess two classical FDI strategies (model-based with fault signature matrix and data-driven with statistical classification and the combination of them. For this assessment, a quantitative model of the SOFC-based plant, which is able to simulate regular and faulty conditions, is used. Moreover, a hybrid approach based on the random forest (RF classification method is introduced to address the discrimination of regular and faulty situations due to its practical advantages. Working with a common dataset, the FDI performances obtained using the aforementioned strategies, with different sets of monitored variables, are observed and compared. We conclude that the hybrid FDI strategy, realized by combining a model-based scheme with a statistical classifier, outperforms the other strategies. In addition, the inclusion of two physical variables that should be measured inside the SOFCs can significantly improve the FDI performance, despite the actual difficulty in performing such measurements.

  17. Fault Diagnosis Strategies for SOFC-Based Power Generation Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costamagna, Paola; De Giorgi, Andrea; Gotelli, Alberto; Magistri, Loredana; Moser, Gabriele; Sciaccaluga, Emanuele; Trucco, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The success of distributed power generation by plants based on solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) is hindered by reliability problems that can be mitigated through an effective fault detection and isolation (FDI) system. However, the numerous operating conditions under which such plants can operate and the random size of the possible faults make identifying damaged plant components starting from the physical variables measured in the plant very difficult. In this context, we assess two classical FDI strategies (model-based with fault signature matrix and data-driven with statistical classification) and the combination of them. For this assessment, a quantitative model of the SOFC-based plant, which is able to simulate regular and faulty conditions, is used. Moreover, a hybrid approach based on the random forest (RF) classification method is introduced to address the discrimination of regular and faulty situations due to its practical advantages. Working with a common dataset, the FDI performances obtained using the aforementioned strategies, with different sets of monitored variables, are observed and compared. We conclude that the hybrid FDI strategy, realized by combining a model-based scheme with a statistical classifier, outperforms the other strategies. In addition, the inclusion of two physical variables that should be measured inside the SOFCs can significantly improve the FDI performance, despite the actual difficulty in performing such measurements. PMID:27556472

  18. Steam-Electric Power-Plant-Cooling Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonnichsen, J.C.; Carlson, H.A.; Charles, P.D.; Jacobson, L.D.; Tadlock, L.A.

    1982-02-01

    The Steam-Electric Power Plant Cooling Handbook provides summary data on steam-electric power plant capacity, generation and number of plants for each cooling means, by Electric Regions, Water Resource Regions and National Electric Reliability Council Areas. Water consumption by once-through cooling, cooling ponds and wet evaporative towers is discussed and a methodology for computation of water consumption is provided for a typical steam-electric plant which uses a wet evaporative tower or cooling pond for cooling.

  19. Power electronics solution to dust emissions from thermal power plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukosavić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermal power stations emit significant amounts of fly ash and ultra fine particles into the atmosphere. Electrostatic precipitators (ESP or electro filters remove flying ashes and fine particles from the flue gas before passing the gas into the chimney. Maximum allowable value of dust is 50 mg/m3 and it requires that the efficiency of the ESPs better than 99 %, which calls for an increase of active surface of the electrodes, hence increasing the filter volume and the weight of steel used for the filter. In previous decades, electrostatic precipitators in thermal power plants were fed by thyristor controlled, single phase fed devices having a high degree of reliability, but with a relatively low collection efficiency, hence requiring large effective surface of the collection plates and a large weight of steel construction in order to achieve the prescribed emission limits. Collection efficiency and energy efficiency of the electrostatic precipitator can be increased by applying high frequency high voltage power supply (HF HV. Electrical engineering faculty of the University of Belgrade (ETF has developed technology and HF HV equipment for the ESP power supply. This solution was subjected to extensive experimental investigation at TE Morava from 2008 to 2010. High frequency power supply is proven to reduce emission two times in controlled conditions while increasing energy efficiency of the precipitator, compared to the conventional thyristor controlled 50Hz supply. Two high frequency high voltage unit AR70/1000 with parameters 70 kV and 1000 mA are installed at TE Morava and thoroughly testes. It was found that the HF HV power supply of the ESP at TE Morava increases collection efficiency so that emission of fine particles and flying ashes are halved, brought down to only 50 % of the emissions encountered with conventional 50 Hz thyristor driven power supplies. On the basis of this study, conclusion is drawn that the equipment comprising HF HV

  20. Heat power plants in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of conventional power plants in the past years has been almost exclusively dominated by plants for the heat market. The technology of fluidised bed combustion has been successfully introduced due to its small space requirement, low toxic emissions and relatively low plant costs. Due to pollution legislation it is difficult for new, small heat power plants to produce district heat at competitive prices. At present district heat can only be economically generated by condensation power plants with heat decoupling. The authors elaborate on this technology. (orig.)

  1. Next generation geothermal power plants. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, John; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1994-12-01

    The goal of this project is to develop concepts for the next generation geothermal power plant(s) (NGGPP). This plant, compared to existing plants, will generate power for a lower levelized cost and will be more competitive with fossil fuel fired power plants. The NGGPP will utilize geothermal resources efficiently and will be equipped with contingencies to mitigate the risk of reservoir performance. The NGGPP design will attempt to minimize emission of pollutants and consumption of surface water and/or geothermal fluids for cooling service.

  2. Transient Stability of the Grid with a Wind Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Pai, M. A.

    2009-03-15

    This paper reports on an investigation of the impact of wind power plant penetration on the transient stability of the grid. Transient stability for different faults is investigated via simulation. A wind power plant with 22 turbines operated in variable speed mode will be used as the subject of the study. As a comparison, we replace the wind power plant with a conventional wind power plant (synchronous generator) and compare the results for the same faults. We also consider the effect of different locations.

  3. Safety and environmental impact of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The proceedings contains the full texts of 12 papers which all fall under the INIS scope. The papers deal with the general aspects of nuclear safety, such as the physical and technical principles of nuclear reactors and the socio-legal aspects of the preparation of the construction and operation of nuclear power plants. Also discussed are questions of quality assurance of equipment and questions of operating safety, the disposal of radioactive wastes and nuclear power plant accidents and the environmental impacts of nuclear power plants, including a comparison of their impact with that of conventional power plants. (Z.M.)

  4. Optimized post-combustion capture technology for power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Moser; Sandra Schmidt; Georg Sieder; Hugo Garcia; Ilaria Ciattaglia; Dieter Mihailowitsch; Torsten Stoffregen [RWE Power AG, New Technologies, Essen (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The construction and operation of the post-combustion capture pilot plant at RWE Power's lignite-fired power plant at Niederaussem is the first corner stone in a joint development programme of RWE Power, BASF and Linde that started in 2007. The pilot plant will be commissioned in mid-2009. The skid-mounted pilot plant - engineering, procurement and construction by procurement and construction by Linde - comprises all significant components of a large post-combustion capture plant but on a smaller scale. In the 18-month pilot plant testing programme optimized new solvents for the capture process will be evaluated. These solvents were selected by BASF in a multi-step procedure, starting with a pre-selection, followed by lab-screening, and finalized by mini plant runs. The pilot plant will validate the performance of some capture process optimization measures that are implemented to increase the overall efficiency and reduce the costs of a commercial capture plant. The results of the pilot plant testing will be directly used to optimize the capture process configuration for a base case power plant, a 1,100 MW lignite-fired power plant with lignite pre-drying technology. The development of the commercial capture plant needs an accurate analysis of all process steps to achieve a cost efficient plant design. Apart from energy efficiency, cost-effective equipment and the optimization of plant interfaces and plant configuration are also key factors to reach the ambitious goals of this project. Based on the results of the pilot plant tests and the full-scale design study, a demonstration plant concept will be developed to prove all innovative optimization measures and to avoid the risks involved in direct up-scaling from the pilot plant to the commercial plant scale without an intermediate step. 8 figs.

  5. 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant development and demonstration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satomi, Tomohide; Koike, Shunichi [Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA), Osaka (Japan); Ishikawa, Ryou [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO), Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cell Technology Research Association (PAFC-TRA) and New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) have been conducting a joint project on development of a 5000kW urban energy center type PAFC power plant (pressurized) and a 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant (non-pressurized). The objective of the technical development of 1000kW on-site PAFC power plant is to realize a medium size power plant with an overall efficiency of over 70% and an electrical efficiency of over 36%, that could be installed in a large building as a cogeneration system. The components and system integration development work and the plant design were performed in 1991 and 1992. Manufacturing of the plant and installation at the test site were completed in 1994. PAC test was carried out in 1994, and generation test was started in January 1995. Demonstration test is scheduled for 1995 and 1996.

  6. Solar energy powered microbial fuel cell with a reversible bioelectrode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, D.P.B.T.B.; Hamelers, H.V.M.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    The solar energy powered microbial fuel cell is an emerging technology for electricity generation via electrochemically active microorganisms fueled by solar energy via in situ photosynthesized metabolites from algae, cyanobacteria, or living higher plants. A general problem with microbial fuel cell

  7. Using Service Oriented Architecture in a Generic Virtual Power Plant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bach; Poulsen, Bjarne; Træholt, Chresten;

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to find and describe a suitable software framework that can be used to help implement the concept of a Generic Virtual Power Plant in the future power system. The Generic Virtual Power Plant concept, along with the utilization of distributed energy resources, has many...... interesting properties that can influence the future shape of power markets. The concept holds many promises including cheaper power to the consumer, a more flexible and responsive power production and the support of a more environment-friendly development. In order to realize a software solution supporting...... the Generic Virtual Power Plant, an array of different software design principles, patterns and architectures must be applied. Especially Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) can aid in implementing the Generic Virtual Power Plant....

  8. Polynucleotide phosphorylase from plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher-Wittkopf, E; Richter, G; Schulze, S

    1984-06-01

    The isolation of polynucleotide phosphorylase (EC 2. 7. 7. 8) from suspension cultured plant cells of parsley (Petroselinum sativum) and from tomato seedlings (Lycopersicon esculentum) is described. The procedure includes an ultracentrifugation step, a glycerol density gradient centrifugation and preparative gel electrophoresis under nondenaturing conditions. Isoelectric focusing gives rise to a major component (pI ≈ 7.5) and to a minor one (pI ≈ 5). The enzyme contains five subunits with apparent Mr values of 160 000, 140 000, 70 000, 34 000 and 12 000, the 70 000-dalton one being a glycoprotein. PMID:24253429

  9. Ecological impacts and damage - comparison of selected components for nuclear and conventional power plants (example of Mochovce nuclear power plant)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison is given of ecological damage for the nuclear power plant in Mochovce and a conventional power plant with the same power. Ecological effects and damage are divided into three groups: comparable damage, ecological damage caused only by conventional power plants and ecological damage caused only by nuclear power plants. In the first group the factors compared are land requisition, consumption of utility water and air consumption. In the second group are enumerated losses of crops (cereals, sugar beet, potatoes, oleaginous plants) and losses caused by increased disease rate owing to polluted environment by conventional power plants. In the third group health hazards are assessed linked with ionizing radiation. Also considered are vent stack escapes. (E.S.)

  10. Elecnuc. Nuclear power plants in the world. 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This small booklet provides information about all type of nuclear power plants worldwide. It is based on the data taken from the CEA/DSE/SEE Elecnuc database. The content comprises: the 1996 highlights, the main characteristics of the different type of reactors in operation or under construction, the map of the French nuclear power plant sites, the worldwide status of nuclear power plants at the end of 1996, the nuclear power plants in operation, under construction or on order (by groups of reactor-types), the power capacity evolution of power plants in operation, the net and gross capacity of the power plants on the grid, the commercial operation and grid connection forecasts, the first achieved or expected power generation supplied by a nuclear reactor for each country and the power generation from nuclear reactors, the performance indicator of the PWR units in France, the trends of the power generation indicator worldwide, the nuclear power plants in operation, under construction, on order, planned, cancelled, decommissioned and exported worldwide, the schedule of steam generator replacements, and the MOX fuel plutonium recycling programme. (J.S.)

  11. Operational experience, availability and reliability of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture presents a survey on nuclear power production and plant performance in the Western World covering all reactor types and light-water reactors in particular and discusses key parameters such as load factors and non-availability analysis, outlines the main reasons for the reliable performance of Swiss nuclear power plants and explains the management function as applied at the Beznau Nuclear Power Station to ensure high power productivity and reliability. (orig./RW)

  12. CO2 Capture from Coal fired Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dugstad, Tore; Jensen, Esben Tonning

    2008-01-01

    Coal is the most common fossil resource for power production worldwide and generates 40% of the worlds total electricity production. Even though coal is considered a pollutive resource, the great amounts and the increasing power demand leads to extensive use even in new developed power plants. To cover the world's future energy demand and at the same time limit our effect on global warming, coal fired power plants with CO2 capture is probably a necessity. An Integrated Gasification Combine...

  13. Seismic evaluation of existing nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA nuclear safety standards publications address the site evaluation and the design of new nuclear power plants (NPPs), including seismic hazard assessment and safe seismic design, at the level of the Safety Requirements as well as at the level of dedicated Safety Guides. It rapidly became apparent that the existing nuclear safety standards documents were not adequate for handling specific issues in the seismic evaluation of existing NPPs, and that a dedicated document was necessary. This is the purpose of this Safety Report, which is written in the spirit of the nuclear safety standards and can be regarded as guidance for the interpretation of their intent. Worldwide experience shows that an assessment of the seismic capacity of an existing operating facility can be prompted for the following: (a) Evidence of a greater seismic hazard at the site than expected before, owing to new or additional data and/or to new methods; (b) Regulatory requirements, such as periodic safety reviews, to ensure that the plant has adequate margins for seismic loads; (c) Lack of anti-seismic design or poor anti-seismic design; (d) New technical finding such as vulnerability of some structures (masonry walls) or equipment (relays), other feedback and new experience from real earthquakes. Post-construction evaluation programmes evaluate the current capability of the plant to withstand the seismic concern and identify any necessary upgrades or changes in operating procedures. Seismic qualification is distinguished from seismic evaluation primarily in that seismic qualification is intended to be performed at the design stage of a plant, whereas seismic evaluation is intended to be applied after a plant has been constructed. Although some guidelines do exist for the evaluation of existing NPPs, these are not established at the level of a regulatory guide or its equivalent. Nevertheless, a number of existing NPPs throughout the world have been and are being subjected to review of their

  14. Nuclear power plant operating experience. Annual report, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the fifth in a series of reports issued annually that summarizes the operating experience of US nuclear power plants in commercial operation. Power generation statistics, plant outages, reportable occurrences, fuel element performance, occupational radiation exposure for each plant are presented. Summary highlights of these areas are discussed. The report includes 1978 data from 65 plants - 25 boiling water reactor plants and 40 pressurized water reactor plants. Discussion of radioactive effluents which has been a part of this report in previous years, has not been included in this issue because of late acquisition of data

  15. Dynamic behaviour of pipelines in power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calonius, K. (VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland))

    2010-05-15

    Dynamic excitation due to a pipe break can cause pipe to abruptly displace and hit the components, instrumentation and equipment nearby. In order to minimize the risk of such damage by pipe whips in a power plant, different types of restraints and supports are designed for the pipelines. The usability of different types of elements provided by Abaqus, a commercial general-purpose finite element code, in modelling the dynamic behaviour of pipelines is tested. A relatively short pipe line section with one bend and one restraint is chosen as a test case. Simple and typical nuclear power plant pipeline geometry and materials are chosen. The stiffness of the restraint as well as the flexural stiffness of the pipe cross-section are solved with static compression simulations with a detailed model using three-dimensional solid and shell elements. After that, the model is substituted with couple of simpler models using pipe and/or elbow elements for the pipe and a spring element for the restraint. The eigenmodes of models are calculated and compared with each other. The pipe whip is simulated with nonlinear dynamic analyses with the most adequate models according to the preliminary linear analyses. The displacement and stress results of different models are compared with each other and the reliability and adequacy of different element types are discussed. Sensitivity study is made by varying analysis type, material properties, mesh density, element properties and inner pressure. The result of the most adequate simple models with the right combinations of special-purpose elements provided by Abaqus corresponded well to the ones of the much larger three-dimensional solid and shell element models. The post-yield behaviour of the pipe steel material has some notable effect on the behaviour of the pipe in a guillotine pipe break. Obviously, rate dependence makes the structure slightly dynamically stiffer. The inner pressure of the pipe and its assumed decay after the pipe break

  16. Data retrieval techniques for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data retrieval, processing retrieved data, and maintaining the plant documentation system to reflect the as-built condition of the plant are challenging tasks for most existing nuclear facilities. The information management systems available when these facilities were designed and constructed are archaic by today's standards. Today's plant documentation systems generally include hard copy drawings and text, drawings in various CAD formats, handwritten information, and incompatible databases. These existing plant documentation systems perpetuate inefficiency for the plant technical staff in the performance of their daily activities. This paper discusses data retrieval techniques and tools available to nuclear facilities to minimize the impacts of the existing plant documentation system on plant technical staff productivity

  17. Quality management of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the various approaches to quality management and the progressive development from traditional quality assurance (QA) concepts through integrated and performance based quality management systems to total quality management. Experience has shown that in many cases the traditional implementation of QA in nuclear power plant life-cycle activities has resulted in limited benefits. The paper outlines the advantages of developing an integrated quality management system, which, besides satisfying the QA standards, focuses on the performance of an organization. This reflects the approach implicit in the proposed revisions of the IAEA QA standards (code and guides). Such a quality management system provides the framework within which processes are controlled to meet the business objectives and is capable of accommodating easily new requirements, such as environmental management. An integrated quality management system should not be focused specifically on regulatory (and hence nuclear safety) issues, but should constitute the whole management system of the organization, of which safety and the environment are of course important elements. The paper gives a practical example of this approach implemented company wide. This approach is similar to other approaches in place or being developed by many Foratom members. The paper also lists the components of total quality management, which is considered to constitute the future direction for the nuclear power industry. The quality management system is the primary vehicle to meet the fundamental objectives, but total quality can only be realized by developing the full potential of people through team work in order to continuously improve the system and the performance of the organization by focusing on internal as well as external customers. (author). 6 refs, 3 figs, 2 tab

  18. ISI NDE Total Support System for Korean Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structural integrity of nuclear components is important for a safe operation of nuclear power plants. Therefore, nuclear power plants require to perform reliable, periodic inservice inspections. Korea Electric Power Company(KEPCO) operates the entire Korean nuclear power plants. Since nuclear power plant safety and the associated inservice inspection(ISI) are under the plant owner's responsibility, Korea Electric Power Research Institute(KEPRI), the R and D division of KEPCO, has established the ISI NDE Total Support system(TSS) for an efficient performance of ISI tasks, and initiated both key ISI NDE technology development program and training and qualification system development program for an independent ISI operation. This paper describes details of these programs

  19. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-30

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  20. Demonstration tokamak-power-plant study (DEMO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of a Demonstration Tokamak Power Plant (DEMO) has been completed. The study's objective was to develop a conceptual design of a prototype reactor which would precede commercial units. Emphasis has been placed on defining and analyzing key design issues and R and D needs in five areas: noninductive current drivers, impurity control systems, tritium breeding blankets, radiation shielding, and reactor configuration and maintenance features. The noninductive current drive analysis surveyed a wide range of candidates and selected relativistic electron beams for the reference reactor. The impurity control analysis considered both a single-null poloidal divertor and a pumped limiter. A pumped limiter located at the outer midplane was selected for the reference design because of greater engineering simplicity. The blanket design activity focused on two concepts: a Li2O solid breeder with high pressure water cooling and a lead-rich Li-Pb eutectic liquid metal breeder (17Li-83Pb). The reference blanket concept is the Li2O option with a PCA structural material. The first wall concept is a beryllium-clad corrugated panel design. The radiation shielding effort concentrated on reducing the cost of bulk and penetration shielding; the relatively low-cost outborad shield is composed of concrete, B4C, lead, and FE 1422 structural material

  1. Organization and safety in nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcus, A.A.; Nichols, M.L.; Bromiley, P.; Olson, J.; Osborn, R.N.; Scott, W.; Pelto, P.; Thurber, J. (Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (USA). Strategic Management Research Center)

    1990-05-01

    Perspectives from industry, academe, and the NRC are brought together in this report and used to develop a logical framework that links management and organization factors and safety in nuclear power plant performance. The framework focuses on intermediate outcomes which can be predicted by organizational and management factors, and which are subsequently linked to safety. The intermediate outcomes are efficiency, compliance, quality, and innovation. The organization and management factors can be classified in terms of environment, context, organizational governance, organizational design, and emergent processes. Initial empirical analyses were conducted on a limited set of hypotheses derived from the framework. One set of hypotheses concerned the relationships between one of the intermediate outcome variables, efficiency, as measured by critical hours and outage rate, and safety, as measured by 5 NRC indicators. Results of the analysis suggest that critical hours and outage rates and safety, as measured in this study, are not related to each other. Hypotheses were tested concerning the effects on safety and efficiency of utility financial resources and the lagged recognition and correction of problems that accompanies the reporting of major violations and licensee event reports. The analytical technique employed was regression using polynomial distributed lags. Results suggest that both financial resources and organizational problem solving/learning have significant effects on the outcome variables when time is properly taken into account. Conclusions are drawn which point to this being a promising direction to proceed, though with some care, due to the current limitations of the study. 138 refs., 36 figs., 9 tabs.

  2. Design and construction of nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meiswinkel, Ruediger [MBI Bautechnik GmbH, Enkenbach-Alsenborn (Germany); Meyer, Julian [Hochtief Solutions AG Consult IKS Energy, Frankfurt (Germany); Schnell, Juergen [Technical Univ. Kaiserslautern (Germany). Inst. of Concrete Structures and Structural Engineering

    2013-07-01

    Despite all the efforts being put into expanding renewable energy sources, large-scale power stations will be essential as part of a reliable energy supply strategy for a longer period. Given that they are low on CO2 emissions, many countries are moving into or expanding nuclear energy to cover their baseload supply. Building structures required for nuclear installations whose protective function means they are classified as safety-related, have to meet particular construction requirements more stringent than those involved in conventional construction. This book gives a comprehensive overview from approval aspects given by nuclear and construction law, with special attention to the interface between plant and construction engineering, to a building structure classification. All life cycle phases are considered, with the primary focus on execution. Accidental actions on structures, the safety concept and design and fastening systems are exposed to a particular treatment. Selected chapters of the German concrete yearbook ''Beton-Kalender'' are now available in English. The new English BetonKalender Series delivers internationally useful engineering expertise and industrial know-how from Germany.

  3. Instrumentation control system in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To improve the reliability of instrumentation control system in a nuclear power plant by using an optical fiber cable as a transmission path between a multiplexer and a central control room to thereby eliminate noises resulted from electromagnetic inductions or the likes. Constitution: Signals from neutron detectors are sent by way of ceramic-insulated cables to pre-amplifiers disposed outside of the pressure vessel of a nuclear reactor, converted into voltage pulse signals and then sent by way of coaxial cables to a multiplexer. The multiplexer receives a plurality of voltage pulse signals corresponding to the neutron detectors respectively, converts them into a time-shared electric signal train and sends it to an optical pulse transmitter. The transmitter converts the supplied signals into an optical pulse signal train corresponding to the electric signal train from the multiplexer and sends it by way of an optical fiber cable to an optical pulse receiver disposed in a central control room. (Kawakami, Y.)

  4. Innovative ultrasonics for power plant commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the commissioning of a nuclear power plant, the usual role of ultrasonics is associated with nondestructive testing of welds. There is, however, a variety of undesirable conditions associated with the fluids carried through the various reactor systems which may be just as important to station operation. A variety of unusual ultrasonic techniques has been developed for testing fluid systems at the Point Lepreau Generating Station. This paper uses the experience gained at the Point Lepreau reactor to illustrate the valuable information which can be gained from these measurements, such as: fluid level in pipes and headers; fluid level in pressure vessels; detection, and sizing of debris in pipes; in situ measurement and verification of orifice condition; detection and location of cavitation, water hammer, valve leakage; quantitative measurement of gate movement within the body of an inservice valve; determination of valve position; detection and imaging of flow separation; detection and location of leaks in concrete containment structures; verification of design flows; balancing of loop flows; and detection of low flow. The application of these techniques at other reactor sites is also discussed

  5. Seismic hazard mitigation for nuclear power plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frieder Seible

    2013-01-01

    The seismic safety of nuclear power plant(NPP) has always been a major consideration in the site selection,design,operation,and more recently recertification of existing installations.In addition to the actual NPP and all their operational and safety related support systems,the storage of spent fuel in temporary or permanent storage facilities also poses a seismic risk.This seismic risk is typically assessed with state-of-the-art modeling and analytical tools that capture everything from the ground rupture or source of the earthquake to the site specific ground shaking,taking geotechnical parameters and soil-foundation-structure-interaction (SFSI) into account to the non-linear structural response of the reactor core,the containment structure,the core cooling system and the emergency cooling system(s),to support systems,piping systems and non-structural components,and finally the performance of spent fuel storage in the probabilistically determined operational basis earthquake (OBE) or the safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) scenario.The best and most meaningful validation and verification of these advanced analytical tools is in the form of full or very large scale experimental testing,designed and conducted in direct support of model and analysis tool calibration.This paper outlines the principles under which such calibration testing should be conducted and illustrates with examples the kind of testing and parameter evaluation required.

  6. Organization and safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perspectives from industry, academe, and the NRC are brought together in this report and used to develop a logical framework that links management and organization factors and safety in nuclear power plant performance. The framework focuses on intermediate outcomes which can be predicted by organizational and management factors, and which are subsequently linked to safety. The intermediate outcomes are efficiency, compliance, quality, and innovation. The organization and management factors can be classified in terms of environment, context, organizational governance, organizational design, and emergent processes. Initial empirical analyses were conducted on a limited set of hypotheses derived from the framework. One set of hypotheses concerned the relationships between one of the intermediate outcome variables, efficiency, as measured by critical hours and outage rate, and safety, as measured by 5 NRC indicators. Results of the analysis suggest that critical hours and outage rates and safety, as measured in this study, are not related to each other. Hypotheses were tested concerning the effects on safety and efficiency of utility financial resources and the lagged recognition and correction of problems that accompanies the reporting of major violations and licensee event reports. The analytical technique employed was regression using polynomial distributed lags. Results suggest that both financial resources and organizational problem solving/learning have significant effects on the outcome variables when time is properly taken into account. Conclusions are drawn which point to this being a promising direction to proceed, though with some care, due to the current limitations of the study. 138 refs., 36 figs., 9 tabs

  7. Virtual power plant mid-term dispatch optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Mid-term virtual power plant dispatching. ► Linear modeling. ► Mixed-integer linear programming applied to mid-term dispatch scheduling. ► Operation profit maximization combining bilateral contracts and the day-ahead market. -- Abstract: Wind power plants incur practically zero marginal costs during their operation. However, variable and uncertain nature of wind results in significant problems when trying to satisfy the contracted quantities of delivered electricity. For this reason, wind power plants and other non-dispatchable power sources are combined with dispatchable power sources forming a virtual power plant. This paper considers a weekly self-scheduling of a virtual power plant composed of intermittent renewable sources, storage system and a conventional power plant. On the one hand, the virtual power plant needs to fulfill its long-term bilateral contracts, while, on the other hand, it acts in the market trying to maximize its overall profit. The optimal dispatch problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming model which maximizes the weekly virtual power plant profit subject to the long-term bilateral contracts and technical constraints. The self-scheduling procedure is based on stochastic programming. The uncertainty of the wind power and solar power generation is settled by using pumped hydro storage in order to provide flexible operation, as well as by having a conventional power plant as a backup. The efficiency of the proposed model is rendered through a realistic case study and analysis of the results is provided. Additionally, the impact of different storage capacities and turbine/pump capacities of pumped storage are analyzed.

  8. Power plant asset market evaluations: Forecasting the costs of power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation discusses the process of evaluating and valuing power plants for sale. It describes a method to forecast the future costs at a power plant using a portion of the past fixed costs, variable energy costs, and most importantly the variable cycling-related wear-and-tear costs. The presentation then discusses how to best determine market share, expected revenues, and then to forecast plant future costs based on future expected unit cycling operations. The presentation concludes with a section on recommendations to power plant buyers or sellers on how to manage the power plant asset and how to increase its market value. (orig.) 4 refs

  9. Power plant asset market evaluations: Forecasting the costs of power production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefton, S.A.; Grunsrud, G.P. [Aptech Engineering Services, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    This presentation discusses the process of evaluating and valuing power plants for sale. It describes a method to forecast the future costs at a power plant using a portion of the past fixed costs, variable energy costs, and most importantly the variable cycling-related wear-and-tear costs. The presentation then discusses how to best determine market share, expected revenues, and then to forecast plant future costs based on future expected unit cycling operations. The presentation concludes with a section on recommendations to power plant buyers or sellers on how to manage the power plant asset and how to increase its market value. (orig.) 4 refs.

  10. Almaraz Nuclear Power Plant en 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the beginning of the year, both Units were connected to the grid and operating stably at 100% power. During 2001, 16,343 million kWh were generated. The year's accumulated capability factor for both units was greater than 96% (99.81% in Unit I and 92.34% in Unit II). The operating factor was 99.86% in Unit I and 94.05% in Unit II. Unit I was operating all year in its fifteenth operating cicle. The most important activity was the thirteenth refueling and maintenance outage in Unit II. The time spent to complete the programmed activities was 21 days and 4 jours. Both units as a whole have surpassed the production objectives by 3% Unit 1 by 2.31% and Unit II by 3.74%. The main reasons that have contributed to achieving these objectives were, on one hand, the low number of incidents recorded throughout the year and, on the other, the fact that the refueling outage was executed in less than the scheduled time. The multiple milestones achieved in 2001 include the highest figure for electric power produced in one year by the plant, the highest unit capability factor (Unit 1 with 99.8%) a historical record of monthly gross energy production with 727 million kWh (Unit II in December), and the shortest refueling outage. The gross electric power produced by Unit I during the year was 8,458 million kWh, and accumulated production from source was 131,890million kWh. As for Unit II, production was 7.885 million kWh, and accumulated production from source was 127,789 million kWh. At year's end both Units were operating at 100% power, with Unit I supplying 976 MWe and UNit II 979 MWe. The annual emergency drill was carried out on May 24. The main feature was the scope of category IV, ''General Electric'', with the resulting Site evacuation. All involved organizations were mobilized during the drill to check coordination between them and the established channels of communication. The results were qualified as satisfactory. In addition, on November 21, a general PENCA (Caceres

  11. Power Oscillation Damping. Capabilities of Wind Power Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Morató Armengol, Josep

    2010-01-01

    Wind power is growing in capacity and wind farms are reaching productions similar to those of conventional synchronous generators. If wind turbines gradually replace the production of the synchronous generators, many aspects of the power system operation and control might be affected, in which the small signal stability is included. Because wind turbine generators have to participate in the power oscillation damping, the impact of wind power on electromechanical power system oscillations is a...

  12. Vibrations of wind power plants; Schwingungen von Windenergieanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Within the meeting of the department vibration engineering of the Association of German Engineers (Duesseldorf, Federal Republic of Germany) between 3rd and 4th February, 2010 in Hanover (Federal Republic of Germany) the following lectures are presented: (1) Reduction of forced strengths generated by wagging and snaking of the rotor in the power strain of wind power plants (F. Mitsch); (2) Reduction of vibrations at wind power plants by means of active additional systems (S. Katz, S. Pankoke, N. Loix); (3) Reduction of vibrations by means of balancing and alignment (E. Becker, M. Kenzler); (4) Active absorber for reducing tonal emissions of vibration at wind power plants (R. Neugebauer, M. Linke, H. Kunze, M. Ulrich); (5) Control structures for damping torsion vibrations and peak loads in the power strain of wind power converters (C. Sourkounis); (6) Possibilities of a non-contact investigation of vibrations at wind power plants (R. Behrendt, E. Reimers, H. Wiegers); (7) Influences on the loadability of CMS statements (R. Wirth); (8) Recording modal structural properties with sensor grids and methods of operational modal analysis (A. Friedmann, D. Mayer, M. Koch, M. Kauba, T. Melz); (9) Early failure detection of damages of roller bearings in wind power gear units with variable speed (B. Hacke, G. Poll); (10) Condition monitoring in wind power plants - structure monitoring and life time monitoring of wind power plants (SCMS and LCMS) (H. Lange); (11) Development of a model-based structural health monitoring system for condition monitoring of rotor blades (C. Ebert, H. Friedmann, F.O. Henkel, B. Frankenstein, L. Schubert); (12) Efficient remote monitoring at wind power plants by means of an external diagnosis centre (G. Ceglarek); (13) Accurate turbine modelling at component and assembly level for durability and acoustic analysis (D. v. Werner, W. Hendricx); (14) Possibilities of the investigation of the dynamic behaviour of power strains in wind power plants by

  13. Fuel Cell and Battery Powered Forklifts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhe; Mortensen, Henrik H.; Jensen, Jes Vestervang;

    2013-01-01

    A hydrogen-powered materials handling vehicle with a fuel cell combines the advantages of diesel/LPG and battery powered vehicles. Hydrogen provides the same consistent power and fast refueling capability as diesel and LPG, whilst fuel cells provide energy efficient and zero emission Electric...... propulsion similar to batteries. In this paper, the performance of a forklift powered by PEM fuel cells and lead acid batteries as auxiliary energy source is introduced and investigated. In this electromechanical propulsion system with hybrid energy/power sources, fuel cells will deliver average power...

  14. Life management of fossil power plants - facing the challenge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronte, J.M. [Iberdrola, S.A. (Spain). Thermal Generation Technical Services

    1994-12-31

    Examines the use of life extension in Iberdrola`s fossil fuel power plants. Life extension allows the safe, reliable and efficient use of older units, deferring the need for the construction of new power plants. Describes the methodology used to assess the work required. 12 refs., 14 figs.

  15. Implementation of the Embalse nuclear power plant's commissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work points out the main experiences gathered during the Embalse nuclear power plant start-up, which after the first years of operation arise as quite convenient to be taken into account for future nuclear power plants' start-up. (Author)

  16. Valuation of Embalse Nuclear Power Plant and of heavy water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the Nuclear Power Plant characteristics, the building work, the heavy water valuation criteria and the reasons why he considers that any capital good can be valuated by means of cash-flow. The value of replacement of Embalse Nuclear Power Plant is of U$S 1.593.538.000 (authors)

  17. Embalse nuclear power plant and heavy water valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes the nuclear power plant characteristics, the building work, the heavy water valuation criteria and the reasons why he considers that any capital good can be valued by the cash-flow method. The Embalse nuclear power plant replacement value is of U$S 1.593.538.000. (author)

  18. Safety goals for nuclear power plants: a discussion paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report includes a proposed policy statement on safety goals for nuclear power plants published by the Commission for public comment and a supporting discussion paper. Proposed qualitative goals and associated numerical guidelines for nuclear power-plant accident risks are presented. The significance of the goals and guidelines, their bases and rationale, and their proposed mode of implementation are discussed

  19. Wild fire evaluation for Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evaluation of wild fire effect to Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant is described. The analysis of input data on Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant builds using FARSITE has given time of arrival, fireline intensity, flame length, and rate of spread etc. (M.H.)

  20. Slovenske elektrarne, a.s., Enterprise Vojany power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brochure describes the Enterprise Vojany power plant (SE-EVO) is described. This is brown coal burning ((EVO II) and natural gas or fuel oil burning (EVO I) power plant. Technical data in detail of SE-EVO as well as results of up-grade of the SE-EVO are presented

  1. Research on psychological evaluation method for nuclear power plant operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The qualitative and quantitative psychology evaluation methods to the nuclear power plant operators were analyzed and discussed in the paper. The comparison analysis to the scope and result of application was carried out between method of outline figure fitted and method of fuzzy synthetic evaluation. The research results can be referenced to the evaluation of nuclear power plant operators. (authors)

  2. Fault Detection in Coal Mills used in Power Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odgaard, Peter Fogh; Mataji, Babak

    2006-01-01

    In order to achieve high performance and efficiency of coal-fired power plants, it is highly important to control the coal flow into the furnace in the power plant. This means suppression of disturbances and force the coal mill to deliver the required coal flow, as well as monitor the coal mill...

  3. Condition monitoring of power plants using extended Kalman filtering

    OpenAIRE

    Øyvin Skarstein

    1988-01-01

    Extended Kalman Filtering (EKF) is applied to the condition monitoring of hydro-power production plants. This method is well suited to real-time failure detection and identification. This paper presents one important application: monitoring of hydraulic performance of hydro-power plants.

  4. Operating experience of double-flash geothermal power plant (Hatchobaru)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, K.; Tanaka, K.; Kusunoki, K.

    1983-09-01

    Hatchobaru No. 1 Unit (55 MW) was completed in 1977 as the world's first double-flash type geothermal power plant and has been operating satisfactorily since that time. The operating record of the Hatchobaru Power Plant and group of wells, including recent findings are described.

  5. Code on the safety of nuclear power plants: Governmental organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Code recommends requirements for a regulatory body responsible for regulating the siting, design, construction, commissioning, operation and decommissioning of nuclear power plants for safety. It forms part of the Agency's programme for establishing Codes and Safety Guides relating to land based stationary thermal neutron power plants

  6. Control strategies based on effective power factor for distributed generation power plants during unbalanced grid voltage

    OpenAIRE

    Camacho Santiago, Antonio; Castilla Fernández, Miguel; Miret Tomàs, Jaume; Matas Alcalá, José; Guzmán Solà, Ramon; de Sousa Pérez, Óscar; Martí Colom, Pau; García de Vicuña Muñoz de la Nava, José Luis

    2013-01-01

    Unbalanced voltages in three-phase power systems is a common perturbation propagated along the grid. Distributed Generation plants have gained widespread attention due to their capability to improve power quality in a distributed manner, including voltage unbalance mitigation. A conventional control strategy to command power plants during balanced grid voltages, is the use of power factor to inject/absorb reactive power depending on grid conditions. Advanced control strategies during unbalanc...

  7. Fuel cells and virtual power plants. Aspects of environmental and technology policy regarding an efficient energy supply for buildings; Brennstoffzellen und virtuelle Kraftwerke. Energie-, umwelt- und technologiepolitische Aspekte einer effizienten Hausenergieversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Droste-Franke, Bert [Europaeische Akademie GmbH, Neuenahr-Ahrweiler (Germany); Berg, Holger; Koetter, Annette; Krueger, Joerg; Mause, Karsten; Pielow, Johann-Christian; Romey, Ingo; Ziesemer, Thomas

    2009-07-01

    The possibilities of making sustainable use of available energy resources are currently a much-discussed topic. One instance of this are sustainable energy supply systems for buildings. Fuel cells in mini power plants which can be used in place of a heating system are an option to this end. When coupled and steered in a coordinated manner fuel cells function as virtual power plants which can be operated according to demand to cover the base load as well as peaks in demand. The present study points out ways of making sustainable use of two technologies for energy supply systems for buildings: the fuel cell and the virtual power plant. To begin with it compares competitor technologies, points out distortions of competition and analyses framework conditions. Taking this as a point of departure it elaborates strategies for the removal of innovation barriers and gives recommendations for action for dealing with these technologies in the realms of environmental, energy and technology policy. Amongst other things the authors identify challenges involved in designing technology promotion schemes, developing additional profit sources, avoiding the abuse of market power and creating a legal framework for the use of these technologies. This interdisciplinary research study brings together aspects from the fields of energy technology, technology assessment, political science, economics and jurisprudence. It is intended for readers from the realms of science, politics, the energy industry and the interested layperson. [German] Die nachhaltige Nutzung verfuegbarer Energieressourcen, deren Moeglichkeiten derzeit viel diskutiert werden, beinhaltet auch eine zukunftsfaehige Hausenergieversorgung. Eine Option dafuer stellen Brennstoffzellen in Minikraftwerken als Heizungsersatz dar, mit denen bei einer koordinierten Kopplung und Steuerung in sogenannten Virtuellen Kraftwerken durch bedarfsgerechte Fahrweise neben einer Grundversorgung auch Nachfragespitzen abgedeckt werden koennen

  8. Direct Measurement of Mercury Reactions In Coal Power Plant Plumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard Levin

    2005-12-31

    Recent field and pilot-scale results indicate that divalent mercury emitted from power plants may rapidly transform to elemental mercury within the power plant plumes. Simulations of mercury chemistry in plumes based on measured rates to date have improved regional model fits to Mercury Deposition Network wet deposition data for particular years, while not degrading model verification fits for remaining years of the ensemble. The years with improved fit are those with simulated deposition in grid cells in the State of Pennsylvania that have matching MDN station data significantly less than the model values. This project seeks to establish a full-scale data basis for whether or not significant reduction or oxidation reactions occur to mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants, and what numerical redox rate should apply for extension to other sources and for modeling of power plant mercury plumes locally, regionally, and nationally. Although in-stack mercury (Hg) speciation measurements are essential to the development of control technologies and to provide data for input into atmospheric fate and transport models, the determination of speciation in a cooling coal combustion plume is more relevant for use in estimating Hg fate and effects through the atmosphere. It is mercury transformations that may occur in the plume that determine the eventual rate and patterns of mercury deposited to the earth's surface. A necessary first step in developing a supportable approach to modeling any such transformations is to directly measure the forms and concentrations of mercury from the stack exit downwind to full dispersion in the atmosphere. As a result, a study was sponsored by EPRI and jointly funded by EPRI, the U.S Department of Energy (DOE), and the Wisconsin Department of Administration. The study was designed to further our understanding of plume chemistry. The study was carried out at the We Energies Pleasant Prairie Power Plant, Pleasant Prairie, Wisconsin

  9. The use of BEACON monitoring in plant power uprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BEACON is the core support software technology that provides Utilities with continuous 3-D core power distribution monitoring, operational analysis capability, and operations support capability. BEACON monitoring delivers quantifiable plant margins for both reload design and plant operations improvement. When linked to Plant Power Upratings, BEACON permits an improvement in fuel cycle economics through higher peaking factors, higher power levels and higher discharge burnups. Operational flexibility of Uprated Plants is enhanced through elimination of axial power shape and core power tilt specifications. Also, the number of flux maps for these plants is reduced and local power is monitored continuously, permitting faster power escalation. Integrated 3-D power distribution analysis capabilities provide core designers with historical margin data that permits a reduction in core follow requirements as well as reduced curve book data related scope. Examples of specific Uprated Plant applications will be discussed. In anticipation of future needs of Uprated Plants, plans to integrate the technology of BEACON with COLSS are being executed. Finally, the capability to monitor Crud Induced Power Shift (axial offset) is also planned for incorporation into BEACON in the near future and will be discussed

  10. Annual report 1986 of Grohnde nuclear power plant (KWG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1986 annual report about the activities of the Grohnde nuclear power plant discusses the operation, engineering, electro-technics, physics and chemistry of the plant as well as the training aspect. The section referring to the operation of the plant deals with the operational diagram, electric power generation and electric power consumption, availability aspects, cooling modes, notifiable accidents, the up-dating of specific events, etc. Apart from giving a general survey, the engineering section focuses on work orders. The electro-technics section deals with the range of possible events, the breakdown of structural components, the frequency of incidents, and with relevant measures with regard to nuclear power plant revisions. Radiation protection falls under the section on physics and chemistry. The final section refers to the training of nuclear power plant staff. (HAG)

  11. Refractive index of plant cell walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausman, H. W.; Allen, W. A.; Escobar, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    Air was replaced with media of higher refractive indices by vacuum infiltration in leaves of cucumber, blackeye pea, tomato, and string bean plants, and reflectance of noninfiltrated and infiltrated leaves was spectrophotometrically measured. Infiltrated leaves reflected less light than noninfiltrated leaves over the 500-2500-nm wavelength interval because cell wall-air interfaces were partly eliminated. Minimal reflectance should occur when the average refractive index of plant cell walls was matched by the infiltrating fluid. Although refractive indices that resulted in minimal reflectance differed among the four plant genera, an average value of 1.425 approximates the refractive index of plant cell walls for the four plant genera.

  12. Insurance in the construction of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear power plant and the different kinds of insurance applied to it in the different phases of its lifetime are described. Besides, the scope of the coverage until the beginning of the commercial operation of the plant and the reasons for making a plant construction insurance are characterized. (A.L)

  13. Computing and cognition in future power-plant operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The intent of this paper is to speculate on the nature of future interactions between people and computers in the operation of power plants. In particular, the authors offer a taxonomy for examining the differing functions of operators in interacting with the plant and its computers, and the differing functions of the computers in interacting with the plant and its operators

  14. Methods for tornado frequency calculation of nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to take probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear power plant tornado attack event, a method to calculate tornado frequency of nuclear power plant is introduced based on HAD 101/10 and NUREG/CR-4839 references. This method can consider history tornado frequency of the plant area, construction dimension, intensity various along with tornado path and area distribution and so on and calculate the frequency of different scale tornado. (authors)

  15. Site selection for new nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzo, Paul C.; Dubinsky, Melissa; Tastan, Erdem Onur, E-mail: paul.rizzo@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: melissa.dubinsky@rizzoassoc.com, E-mail: onur.tastan@rizzoassoc.com [RIZZO Associates Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Miano, Sandra C., E-mail: scm27@psu.edu [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), RJ (Brazil); Pennsylvania State University, Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, State College, PA (United States)

    2015-07-01

    The current methodology for selecting the most advantageous site(s) for nuclear power plant (NPP) development is based on the latest evolution of protocols originally established in the 1990's by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and others for programs in the USA, and more recently by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), among others. The methodology includes protocols that account for lessons learned from both the Gen III projects and the catastrophic event at Fukushima, Japan. In general, the approach requires consideration of Exclusionary or 'fatal flaw' Criteria first, based on safety as well as significant impact to the environment or human health. Sites must meet all of these Exclusionary Criteria to be considered for NPP development. Next, the remaining sites are evaluated for Avoidance Criteria that affect primarily ease of construction and operations, which allow a ranking of sites best suited for NPP development. Finally, Suitability Criteria are applied to the potential sites to better differentiate between closely ranked sites. Generally, final selection of a Preferred and an Alternate Site will require balancing of factors, expert judgment, and client input, as sites being compared will differ in their scores associated with different Avoidance Criteria and Suitability Criteria. RIZZO Associates (RIZZO) offers in this paper a modification to this methodology for selecting the site for NPP development, which accords to the categories of Exclusionary, Avoidance and Suitability Criteria strict definitions which can be considered as Absolute Factors, Critical Factors, and Economic Factors for a more focused approach to site selection. Absolute Factors include all of the safety-related Exclusionary Criteria. Critical Factors are those that are difficult to overcome unless extraordinary mitigation measures are implemented; they have a significant impact on the ability of the project to be successful and may cause the

  16. Radon in coal power plant areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radon, the radioactive colourless and inodorous noble gas, represents more than 55% of the natural average radioactivity. It is permanently released from the soil and majority of building materials, it builds up in the mine galleries, in dwelling houses and in other closed rooms. Radon gained increasingly in importance, particularly after 1990 when was doubtless identified as the second cause of lung cancer if a given concentration threshold is surpassed. This threshold is established differentially by each country as a function of the particular site and generally ranges between 150 Bq.m-3 and 600 Bq.m-3. The telluric radon consists of two isotopes, 222Rn, a daughter of radium descending from uranium, which induces 90% of the effects, and 220Rn from thorium series which have too short a lifetime to count in the risk assessments of radon inhalation. The interest of the authorities and population for diminishing the radon effects was illustrated by specific studies which in USA were managed by the National Counsel of Research, the BEIR VI committee of which has issued a report concerning the lung cancer produced by radon and its descendants. Coal mining, the transport, processing, burning, slag and ash disposal are activities entailing radon release. The miners' dwellings are placed in areas with the high radon potential. The local building materials have a high content of radioactive elements from the uranium or thorium series so that radon can build up in the closed rooms of these buildings. Hence the social responsible authorities in the coal power industry zones should consider this aspect long time ignored in the Balkans macro zone so far. The radon issue must be differentially approached in different areas hence a zonal mapping of the radon emission should be first done. It is worth to underline that the gaseous radioactive emission from operational nuclear power plants amounts up to a few percents of the radon natural emissions what entails a corresponding

  17. Butinge Wind Power Plant - Pre-engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollestad, Knut A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study has been done for a wind farm at Butinge in Lithuania consisting of six 600 kW wind turbines. The location of the wind farm is planned near the border with Latvia and near the coast of the Baltic Sea. The preliminary study has through a relatively detailed technical examination of the project, primarily aimed at gathering basic data for budget estimation and cost calculations. Other relevant aspects of the project are also considered. These include an examination of the basis for the project, an analysis of wind conditions, consideration of the various environmental conditions, discussion about the form of organisation and division of responsibility, as well as an examination of the operational and maintenance framework. Based on wind measurements taken at IFE (Institute for Energy Technology), the annual mean wind is estimated to be 7.3 m/s at 45 m height (equivalent to the hub height for the proposed wind turbines). A production calculation has also been done, which shows that the total energy production of the entire wind farm is expected to 9.47 GWh per year. This is equivalent to a use time of 2630 hours respective to a load factor of 30%. The total cost is estimated at 30.2 mill NOK, and the energy price (including operational costs) delivered from the ''power plant wall'', based on this figure and the production estimate, is calculated at 0,32 NOK/kWh. This is based on a lifetime of 20 years for the facility and a 6.5% required rate of return. In addition, there is outlined a possible financial solution based on various price-scenarios and support arrangements. With an equity capital of 8% and 28% external support, the project meets the current energy price in Lithuania (3,4 US cents/kWh). Without support the sales price of the produced energy is increased by approx. 50%. (author)

  18. The PBMR electric power generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has as purpose to diffuse in a general way the technology of the one modulate reactor of pebble bed. Because our country is in developing ways, the electric power demand goes in increase with that which it is presented the great challenge of satisfying this necessity, not only being in charge of the one fact per se, but also involving the environmental aspect and of security. Both factors are covered by the PBMR technology, which we approach in their basic aspects with the purpose that the public opinion knows it and was familiarized with this type of reactors that well could represent a solution for our growing electricity demand. We will treat this reactor visualizing it like part of a generation plant defining in first place to the itself reactor. We will see because that the system PBMR consists of 2 main sections: the reactor and the unit of energy conversion, highlighting that the principle of the PBMR reactor operation is based on the thermodynamic Brayton cycle cooled by helium and that, in turn, it transmits the energy in form of heat toward a gas turbine. In what concerns to the fuel, it peculiar design due to its spherical geometry is described, aspect that make to this reactor different from the traditional ones that use fuel rods. In fact in the fuel spheres of the PBMR it is where it resides great part of it inherent security since each particle of fuel, consistent in uranium dioxide, is lined one with coal and silicon carbide those which form an impenetrable barrier containing to the fuel and those radioactive products that result of the nuclear reactions. Such particles are encapsulated in graphite to form the sphere or 'pebble', of here born the name of this innovative technology. (Author)

  19. Melanoma screening in a hungarian nuclear power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Veronika; Somlai, Beáta; Hatvani, Zsófia; Szakonyi, József; Gaudi, István; Kárpáti, Sarolta

    2013-04-01

    The industrial use of the ionizing radiation (IR) particularly stresses the safe work, regular health control is inevitable. Since previous occupational cohorts reported contradictory data on the incidence of melanoma among nuclear industry workers, and in few publications significant increase of it has been described, our clinic was requested by the industry to screen malignant skin tumours among the workers of a power plant. Within a year we have investigated 556 workers, 275 females and 281 males. Out of them 283, majorly males had been officially confirmed as to be employed at hazardous, but strictly controlled environment for an average of 18 years (1-32 years). To distinguish between IR and environmental UV (UVA+UVB) induced cutaneous malignancies we determined the sun and tanning bed exposure of the workers. One in situ melanoma developed in a woman with type I skin, bullous sunburns in the history, who had worked in safe environment for 26 years. Basal cell carcinoma was identified in two men, each of them worked for more than 20 years with IR (in hazardous environment). One had type I skin, the other had type II skin. These results didn't differ significantly (chi-squared test; p = 0, 2437 and 1, 0) from the national population data and the results of Euromelanoma screening campaign in Hungary. Our data clearly show, that 1./UV exposure and skin type should be evaluated in occupation cohort studies. 2./The melanoma incidence was not significantly higher among the employees of the power plant than in the general Hungarian population, according to the results of our study, the only Hungarian power plant is safe as far as the skin carcinogenesis is concerned. PMID:23242566

  20. Life cycle assessment of a pumped storage power plant

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Octavio

    2011-01-01

    Wind and solar power plants are gaining increasing attention due to low green house gas emissions associated with electricity generation. The installed capacity of these resources is rapidly growing, while it is argued that the stability of the grid is threatened since these resources depend on actual weather conditions and their output cannot be easily adjusted to follow instantenous electricity demand. Another reliable low carbon power supply such as nuclear power plants cannot help in stab...