WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell power generation

  1. Scheduling of Power System Cells Integrating Stochastic Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy supply and climate change are nowadays two of the most outstanding problems which societies have to cope with under a context of increasing energy needs. Public awareness of these problems is driving political willingness to take actions for tackling them in a swift and efficient manner. Such actions mainly focus in increasing energy efficiency, in decreasing dependence on fossil fuels, and in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. In this context, power systems are undergoing important changes in the way they are planned and managed. On the one hand, vertically integrated structures are being replaced by market structures in which power systems are un-bundled. On the other, power systems that once relied on large power generation facilities are witnessing the end of these facilities' life-cycle and, consequently, their decommissioning. The role of distributed energy resources such as wind and solar power generators is becoming increasingly important in this context. However, the large-scale integration of such type of generation presents many challenges due, for instance, to the uncertainty associated to the variability of their production. Nevertheless, advanced forecasting tools may be combined with more controllable elements such as energy storage devices, gas turbines, and controllable loads to form systems that aim to reduce the impacts that may be caused by these uncertainties. This thesis addresses the management under market conditions of these types of systems that act like independent societies and which are herewith named power system cells. From the available literature, a unified view of power system scheduling problems is also proposed as a first step for managing sets of power system cells in a multi-cell management framework. Then, methodologies for performing the optimal day-ahead scheduling of single power system cells are proposed, discussed and evaluated under both a deterministic and a stochastic framework that directly integrates the

  2. AC power generation from microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, Fernanda Leite; Wang, Heming; Forrestal, Casey; Ren, Zhiyong Jason

    2015-11-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) directly convert biodegradable substrates to electricity and carry good potential for energy-positive wastewater treatment. However, the low and direct current (DC) output from MFC is not usable for general electronics except small sensors, yet commercial DC-AC converters or inverters used in solar systems cannot be directly applied to MFCs. This study presents a new DC-AC converter system for MFCs that can generate alternating voltage in any desired frequency. Results show that AC power can be easily achieved in three different frequencies tested (1, 10, 60 Hz), and no energy storage layer such as capacitors was needed. The DC-AC converter efficiency was higher than 95% when powered by either individual MFCs or simple MFC stacks. Total harmonic distortion (THD) was used to investigate the quality of the energy, and it showed that the energy could be directly usable for linear electronic loads. This study shows that through electrical conversion MFCs can be potentially used in household electronics for decentralized off-grid communities.

  3. Fuel cells for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After having first briefly illustrated the basic design, construction and operating principles of fuel cells, this paper assesses the progress that has been achieved to date in the development of the phosphoric acid (PAFC), molten carbonate (MCFC) and solid oxide (SOFC) fuel cells. Special attention is given to the design, performance and cost characteristics of the phosphoric acid fuel cells. For example, the paper cites the IFC/Toshiba 4.8 and 11.0 MW models, which have attained efficiencies of 37.5 and 41.0% respectively, and points out that these fuel cells, with efficiencies comparable to those of conventional poly-fuelled and combined cycle power plants, offer the advantages of compact size and better environmental compatibility with respect to the latter. However, fuel cells cannot yet compete with the lower per kWh costs of fossil fuel power plants. The paper concludes with an assessment of Italian fuel cell commercialization efforts, especially those centered around the use of methane fuelled PAFC's, and reviews the status of coordinated international research programs involving Japan, the USA and Italy

  4. Fuel cells make gains in power generation market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ultra-low emission, highly efficient natural gas-fueled fuel cell system is beginning to penetrate the electric power generation market in the US and abroad as the fuel cell industry lowers product costs. And, even as the current market continues to grow, fuel cell companies are developing new technology with even higher levels of energy efficiency. The paper discusses fuel cell efficiency, business opportunities, work to reduce costs, and evolving fuel cell technology

  5. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    A. Hajizadeh; Hassanzadeh, F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid ...

  6. Power generation properties of Direct Flame Fuel Cell (DFFC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigated the effect of cell temperature and product species concentration induced by small-jet flame on the power generation performance of Direct Flame Fuel Cell (DFFC). The cell is placed above the small flame and heated product gas is impinged toward it and this system is the simplest and smallest unit of the power generation device to be developed. Equivalence ratio (φ) and the distance between the cell and the burner surface (d) are considered as main experimental parameters. It turns out that open circuit voltage (OCV) increases linearly with the increase of temperature in wide range of equivalence ratios. However, it increases drastically at which the equivalence ratio became small (φ ≤ 2.0) showing inner flame clearly. This result suggests that OCV depends on not only cell temperature but also the species concentration exposed to the cell. It is suggested that Nernst equation might work satisfactory to predict OCV of DFFC

  7. Intelligent Power Management of hybrid Wind/ Fuel Cell/ Energy Storage Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hajizadeh

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent power management strategy for hybrid wind/ fuel cell/ energy storage power generation system. The dynamic models of wind turbine, fuel cell and energy storage have been used for simulation of hybrid power system. In order to design power flow control strategy, a fuzzy logic control has been implemented to manage the power between power sources. The optimal operation of the hybrid power system is a main goal of designing power management strategy. The hybrid power system is simulated in MATLAB/ SIMIULINK environment and different operating conditions have been considered to evaluate the response of power management strategy.

  8. Novel power electronic interface for grid-connected fuel cell power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A fuel cell power generation system was composed of a DC–DC power converter and a DC–AC inverter. • A voltage doubler based topology was adopted to configure the DC–DC power converter. • A dual buck power converter and a full-bridge power converter were applied to the DC–AC inverter. • The DC–AC inverter outputs a five-level voltage. • The DC–AC inverter performs the functions of DC–AC power conversion and active power filter. - Abstract: A novel power electronic interface for the grid-connected fuel cell power generation system is proposed in this paper. This power electronic interface is composed of a DC–DC power converter and a DC–AC inverter. A voltage doubler based topology is adopted to configure the DC–DC power converter to perform high step-up gain for boosting the output voltage of the fuel cell to a higher voltage. Moreover, the input current ripple of the fuel cell is suppressed by controlling the DC–DC power converter. The DC–AC inverter is configured by a dual buck power converter and a full-bridge power converter to generate a five-level AC output voltage. The DC–AC inverter can perform the functions of DC–AC power conversion and active power filtration. A 1.2 kW hardware prototype is developed to verify the performance of the proposed power electronic interface for the grid-connected fuel cell power generation system. The experimental results show that the proposed power electronic interface for the grid-connected fuel cell power generation system has the expected performance

  9. Fuel cell - An alternative for power and heat generating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most promising energy generating technologies is the fuel cell (FC) because of its high efficiency and low emissions. There are even zero chemical emissions FC and cogeneration plants based on FC generate low heat emissions too. FC was invented 160 years ago but it was usually used only since 1960 in space missions. A FC farm tractor was tested 40 years ago. FC was again taken into account by power engineering since 1990 and it is now considered a credible alternative to power and heat generating. The thermal power engineers (and not only they) have two problems of cardinal importance for mankind to solve: - Energy saving (by increasing of energy generating efficiency) and - Environmental protection (by reducing chemical and heat emissions). The possibilities to use FC to generate power and heat are practically endless: on the earth, in the air and outer space, by and under water, in numberless areas of human activities. FC are now powering buses, cars, trains, boats, plains, scooters, highway road signs etc. There are already miniature FC for portable electronics. Homes, schools, hospitals, institutes, banks, police stations, etc are using FC to generate power and heat for their facilities. The methane gas produced by wastewater treatment plants and landfills is converted into electricity by using FC. Being less expensive than nuclear and solar source of energy, FC is now generally used in the space missions (in addition FC generates water). In this work an analysis of the possibilities to use FC especially for combined power and heat generating is presented. FC is favourite as energy source in space missions because it is less expensive than nuclear or solar sources. All major automobile companies have FC powered automobiles in testing stage. Mini FC for phone, laptop, and electronics are already on market. FC will be use to pagers, video recorders, small portable tools, miniature robots, special devices as hearing aid various devices, smoke detectors

  10. Copper anode corrosion affects power generation in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhu, Xiuping

    2013-07-16

    Non-corrosive, carbon-based materials are usually used as anodes in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In some cases, however, metals have been used that can corrode (e.g. copper) or that are corrosion resistant (e.g. stainless steel, SS). Corrosion could increase current through galvanic (abiotic) current production or by increasing exposed surface area, or decrease current due to generation of toxic products from corrosion. In order to directly examine the effects of using corrodible metal anodes, MFCs with Cu were compared with reactors using SS and carbon cloth anodes. MFCs with Cu anodes initially showed high current generation similar to abiotic controls, but subsequently they produced little power (2 mW m-2). Higher power was produced with microbes using SS (12 mW m-2) or carbon cloth (880 mW m-2) anodes, with no power generated by abiotic controls. These results demonstrate that copper is an unsuitable anode material, due to corrosion and likely copper toxicity to microorganisms. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Power generation from furfural using the microbial fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Yong; Liu, Guangli; Zhang, Renduo; Zhang, Cuiping [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510275 (China)

    2010-01-01

    Furfural is a typical inhibitor in the ethanol fermentation process using lignocellulosic hydrolysates as raw materials. In the literature, no report has shown that furfural can be utilized as the fuel to produce electricity in the microbial fuel cell (MFC), a device that uses microbes to convert organic compounds to generate electricity. In this study, we demonstrated that electricity was successfully generated using furfural as the sole fuel in both the ferricyanide-cathode MFC and the air-cathode MFC. In the ferricyanide-cathode MFC, the maximum power densities reached 45.4, 81.4, and 103 W m{sup -3}, respectively, when 1000 mg L{sup -1} glucose, a mixture of 200 mg L{sup -1} glucose and 5 mM furfural, and 6.68 mM furfural were used as the fuels in the anode solution. The corresponding Coulombic efficiencies (CE) were 4.0, 7.1, and 10.2% for the three treatments, respectively. For pure furfural as the fuel, the removal efficiency of furfural reached up to 95% within 12 h. In the air-cathode MFC using 6.68 mM furfural as the fuel, the maximum values of power density and CE were 361 mW m{sup -2} (18 W m{sup -3}) and 30.3%, respectively, and the COD removal was about 68% at the end of the experiment (about 30 h). Increase in furfural concentrations from 6.68 to 20 mM resulted in increase in the maximum power densities from 361 to 368 mW m{sup -2}, and decrease in CEs from 30.3 to 20.6%. These results indicated that some toxic and biorefractory organics such as furfural might still be suitable resources for electricity generation using the MFC technology. (author)

  12. Power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the second half of twentieth century, nuclear power became an industrial reality. Now the operating 433 power plants, the 37 plants under construction, near 9000 years/reactor with only one serious accident with emission of radioactive material to the environment (Chernobyl) show the maturity of this technology. Today nuclear power contribute a 17% to the global generation and an increase of 75 % of the demand of electricity is estimated for 2020 while this demand is expected to triplicate by 2050. How this requirement can be satisfied? All the indicators seems to demonstrate that nuclear power will be the solution because of the shortage of other sources, the increase of the prices of the non renewable fuels and the scarce contribution of the renewable ones. In addition, the climatic changes produced by the greenhouse effect make even more attractive nuclear power. The situation of Argentina is analyzed and compared with other countries. The convenience of an increase of nuclear power contribution to the total national generation seems clear and the conclusion of the construction of the Atucha II nuclear power plant is recommended

  13. Fuel-cell based power generating system having power conditioning apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Sudip K.; Pradhan, Sanjaya K.

    2010-10-05

    A power conditioner includes power converters for supplying power to a load, a set of selection switches corresponding to the power converters for selectively connecting the fuel-cell stack to the power converters, and another set of selection switches corresponding to the power converters for selectively connecting the battery to the power converters. The power conveners output combined power that substantially optimally meets a present demand of the load.

  14. Direct power generation from waste coffee grounds in a biomass fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hansaem; Ocon, Joey D.; Lee, Seunghwa; Lee, Jae Kwang; Lee, Jaeyoung

    2015-11-01

    We demonstrate the possibility of direct power generation from waste coffee grounds (WCG) via high-temperature carbon fuel cell technology. At 900 °C, the WCG-powered fuel cell exhibits a maximum power density that is twice than carbon black. Our results suggest that the heteroatoms and hydrogen contained in WCG are crucial in providing good cell performance due to its in-situ gasification, without any need for pre-reforming. As a first report on the use of coffee as a carbon-neutral fuel, this study shows the potential of waste biomass (e.g. WCG) in sustainable electricity generation in fuel cells.

  15. Binary co-generation power plant with night-temperature (SOFC) fuel cells of natural gas, v. 15(57)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binary co-generation power plant with height-temperature SOFC fuel cells of natural gas are presented in this paper. Based on before optimization calculations for this type of power plants is made: basic measures, number of modules, electric power and fuel cell efficiency; gas turbine electric power and efficiency; co-generation steam turbine electric and heat power efficiency. Compare analysis of binary co-generation power plant with SOFC fuel cells and co-generative power plant without fuel cells in relation of efficiency, ecological benefits and profitability (economy analysis) is given. (Author)

  16. Optimal design of PEM fuel cells to generate maximum power: A CFD study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher A.R. Sadiq Al-Baghdadi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A full three-dimensional, multi-phase computational fluid dynamics model of a PEM fuel cell has been developed. The parametric study using this model has been performed and discussed in detail. Optimization study of a PEM fuel cell performance has been performed. The study quantifies and analyses the impact of operating, design, and material parameters on fuel cell performance and get an optimal design for PEM fuel cells to generate maximum power. To generate maximum power, the results show that the cell must be operate at higher cell operating temperature, higher cell operating pressure, higher stoichiometric flow ratio, and must have higher GDL porosity, higher GDL thermal conductivity, narrower gases channels, and thinner membrane. At these optimum conditions, the result shows that the total displacement and the degree of the deformation inside the MEA were decreased. However, the Miss stress in the membrane was increased due to higher cell operating temperature.

  17. Cochlear Outer-Hair-Cell Power Generation and Viscous Fluid Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Yanli Wang; Steele, Charles R.; Sunil Puria

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of otoacoustic emissions and outer hair cell (OHC) motility, the fundamental question of whether the cochlea produces mechanical power remains controversial. In the present work, direct calculations are performed on power loss due to fluid viscosity and power generated by the OHCs. A three-dimensional box model of the mouse cochlea is used with a feed-forward/feed-backward approximation representing the organ of Corti cytoarchitecture. The model is fit to in vivo basilar m...

  18. Electric power generation. Thermal power generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a manuscript for a lecture contents: 1) Steam power and fundamentals of the steam power process, 3) conventional, nuclear and other steam generation processes, 4) cooling systems for steam power plants, 5) gas turbine power plants and combined-cycle power plants, 6) cogeneration, 7) development of thermal power plants and environmental effects. (GL)

  19. Major design issues of molten carbonate fuel cell power generation unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, T.P.

    1996-04-01

    In addition to the stack, a fuel cell power generation unit requires fuel desulfurization and reforming, fuel and oxidant preheating, process heat removal, waste heat recovery, steam generation, oxidant supply, power conditioning, water supply and treatment, purge gas supply, instrument air supply, and system control. These support facilities add considerable cost and system complexity. Bechtel, as a system integrator of M-C Power`s molten carbonate fuel cell development team, has spent substantial effort to simplify and minimize these supporting facilities to meet cost and reliability goals for commercialization. Similiar to other fuels cells, MCFC faces design challenge of how to comply with codes and standards, achieve high efficiency and part load performance, and meanwhile minimize utility requirements, weight, plot area, and cost. However, MCFC has several unique design issues due to its high operating temperature, use of molten electrolyte, and the requirement of CO2 recycle.

  20. A polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack for stationary power generation from hydrogen fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zawodzinski, C.; Wilson, M.; Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The fuel cell is the most efficient device for the conversion of hydrogen fuel to electric power. As such, the fuel cell represents a key element in efforts to demonstrate and implement hydrogen fuel utilization for electric power generation. A central objective of a LANL/Industry collaborative effort supported by the Hydrogen Program is to integrate PEM fuel cell and novel stack designs at LANL with stack technology of H-Power Corporation (H-Power) in order to develop a manufacturable, low-cost/high-performance hydrogen/air fuel cell stack for stationary generation of electric power. A LANL/H-Power CRADA includes Tasks ranging from exchange, testing and optimization of membrane-electrode assemblies of large areas, development and demonstration of manufacturable flow field, backing and bipolar plate components, and testing of stacks at the 3-5 cell level and, finally, at the 4-5 kW level. The stack should demonstrate the basic features of manufacturability, overall low cost and high energy conversion efficiency. Plans for future work are to continue the CRADA work along the time line defined in a two-year program, to continue the LANL activities of developing and testing stainless steel hardware for longer term stability including testing in a stack, and to further enhance air cathode performance to achieve higher energy conversion efficiencies as required for stationary power application.

  1. A polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack for stationary power generation from hydrogen fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-09-01

    The fuel cell is the most efficient device for the conversion of hydrogen fuel to electric power. As such, the fuel cell represents a key element in efforts to demonstrate and implement hydrogen fuel utilization for electric power generation. The low temperature, polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has recently been identified as an attractive option for stationary power generation, based on the relatively simple and benign materials employed, the zero-emission character of the device, and the expected high power density, high reliability and low cost. However, a PEMFC stack fueled by hydrogen with the combined properties of low cost, high performance and high reliability has not yet been demonstrated. Demonstration of such a stack will remove a significant barrier to implementation of this advanced technology for electric power generation from hydrogen. Work done in the past at LANL on the development of components and materials, particularly on advanced membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs), has contributed significantly to the capability to demonstrate in the foreseeable future a PEMFC stack with the combined characteristics described above. A joint effort between LANL and an industrial stack manufacturer will result in the demonstration of such a fuel cell stack for stationary power generation. The stack could operate on hydrogen fuel derived from either natural gas or from renewable sources. The technical plan includes collaboration with a stack manufacturer (CRADA). It stresses the special requirements from a PEMFC in stationary power generation, particularly maximization of the energy conversion efficiency, extension of useful life to the 10 hours time scale and tolerance to impurities from the reforming of natural gas.

  2. Hydrogen Fuel Cell Analysis: Lessons Learned from Stationary Power Generation Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott E. Grasman; John W. Sheffield; Fatih Dogan; Sunggyu Lee; Umit O. Koylu; Angie Rolufs

    2010-04-30

    This study considered opportunities for hydrogen in stationary applications in order to make recommendations related to RD&D strategies that incorporate lessons learned and best practices from relevant national and international stationary power efforts, as well as cost and environmental modeling of pathways. The study analyzed the different strategies utilized in power generation systems and identified the different challenges and opportunities for producing and using hydrogen as an energy carrier. Specific objectives included both a synopsis/critical analysis of lessons learned from previous stationary power programs and recommendations for a strategy for hydrogen infrastructure deployment. This strategy incorporates all hydrogen pathways and a combination of distributed power generating stations, and provides an overview of stationary power markets, benefits of hydrogen-based stationary power systems, and competitive and technological challenges. The motivation for this project was to identify the lessons learned from prior stationary power programs, including the most significant obstacles, how these obstacles have been approached, outcomes of the programs, and how this information can be used by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies Program to meet program objectives primarily related to hydrogen pathway technologies (production, storage, and delivery) and implementation of fuel cell technologies for distributed stationary power. In addition, the lessons learned address environmental and safety concerns, including codes and standards, and education of key stakeholders.

  3. Characterization of a microfluidic microbial fuel cell as a power generator based on a nickel electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardanpour, Mohammad Mahdi; Yaghmaei, Soheila

    2016-05-15

    This study reports the fabrication of a microfluidic microbial fuel cell (MFC) using nickel as a novel alternative for conventional electrodes and a non-phatogenic strain of Escherichia coli as the biocatalyst. The feasibility of a microfluidic MFC as an efficient power generator for production of bioelectricity from glucose and urea as organic substrates in human blood and urine for implantable medical devices (IMDs) was investigated. A maximum open circuit potential of 459 mV was achieved for the batch-fed microfluidic MFC. During continuous mode operation, a maximum power density of 104 Wm(-3) was obtained with nutrient broth. For the glucose-fed microfluidic MFC, the maximum power density of 5.2 μW cm(-2) obtained in this study is significantly greater than the power densities reported previously for microsized MFCs and glucose fuel cells. The maximum power density of 14 Wm(-3) obtained using urea indicates the successful performance of a microfluidic MFC using human excreta. It features high power density, self-regeneration, waste management and a low production cost (<$1), which suggest it as a promising alternative to conventional power supplies for IMDs. The performance of the microfluidic MFC as a power supply was characterized based on polarization behavior and cell potential in different substrates, operational modes, and concentrations. PMID:26720922

  4. Power generation performance of direct flame fuel cell (DFFC) impinged by small jet flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Yuji; Endo, Shota

    2015-10-01

    This paper investigated the effect of cell temperature and product species concentration induced by a small jet flame on the power generation performance of a direct flame fuel cell (DFFC). The cell is placed above the small-scale jet flame and the heated product’s gases are impinged toward it. This system is considered to be the simplest and smallest unit of such power generation devices to have been developed. Methane is used as fuel and an equivalence ratio (φ ) of the mixture (with oxygen) and the distance between the cell and the burner surface (d) are considered as the experimental parameters. It turns out that open circuit voltage increases linearly with the increase of temperature in a wide range of equivalence ratios. However, it increases drastically to the point at which the equivalence ratio becomes small enough (φ   ⩽  2.0 in the present study) within the specific distance range to bring about the appearance of an inner flame. This could provide sufficient heat and oxygen for the anode, contributing to the generation of the cell’s high electric potential. It is also noted that the appearance of the inner flame does not promise to better the performance unless the preferred conditions (high temperature, low oxygen, rich fuel) near the cell are achieved. The Nernst equation works well for predicting the open circuit voltage under the conditions studied. Systematic design of the entire power generation system is preferable when a miniaturized power generation system is considered by applying DFFC.

  5. Combined Power Generation and Carbon Sequestration Using Direct FuelCell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2006-03-01

    The unique chemistry of carbonate fuel cell offers an innovative approach for separation of carbon dioxide from greenhouse gases (GHG). The carbonate fuel cell system also produces electric power at high efficiency. The simultaneous generation of power and sequestration of greenhouse gases offer an attractive scenario for re-powering the existing coal-fueled power plants, in which the carbonate fuel cell would separate the carbon dioxide from the flue gas and would generate additional pollutant-free electric power. Development of this system is concurrent with emergence of Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) technology for generation of electric power from fossil fuels. DFC is based on carbonate fuel cell featuring internal reforming. This technology has been deployed in MW-scale power plants and is readily available as a manufactured product. This final report describes the results of the conceptualization study conducted to assess the DFC-based system concept for separation of CO2 from GHG. Design and development studies were focused on integration of the DFC systems with coal-based power plants, which emit large amounts of GHG. In parallel to the system design and simulation activities, operation of laboratory scale DFC verified the technical concept and provided input to the design activity. The system was studied to determine its effectiveness in capturing more than ninety percent of CO2 from the flue gases. Cost analysis was performed to estimate the change in cost of electricity for a 200 MW pulverized coal boiler steam cycle plant retrofitted with the DFC-based CO2 separation system producing an additional 127 MW of electric power. The cost increments as percentage of levelized cost of electricity were estimated for a range of separation plant installations per year and a range of natural gas cost. The parametric envelope meeting the goal (<20% increase in COE) was identified. Results of this feasibility study indicated that DFC-based separation

  6. Generating electricity from biofluid with a nanowire-based biofuel cell for self-powered nanodevices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Caofeng; Wu, Hui; Ahmad, Mashkoor; Luo, Zhixiang; Xie, Jianbo; Yan, Xinxu; Wu, Lihua; Zhu, Jing [Beijing National Center for Electron Microscopy, Laboratory of Advanced Materials, State Key Laboratory of New Ceramics and Fine Processing, Department of Material Science and Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); The National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST) of China, Beijing 100080 (China); Fang, Ying; Li, Qiang [The National Center for Nanoscience and Technology (NCNST) of China, Beijing 100080 (China); Wang, Zhong Lin [School Materials Science and Engineering, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta Georgia 30332-0245 (United States)

    2010-12-14

    We report a nanowire-based biofuel cell based on a single proton conductive polymer nanowire for converting chemical energy from biofluids, such as glucose/blood, into electricity, with glucose oxidase and laccase as catalyst. The glucose is supplied from the biofluid, the nanowire serves as the proton conductor, and the whole cell can be realized at the nano/micrometer scale. The biofuel cell composed of a single nanowire generates an output power as high as 0.5-3 {mu}W, and it has been integrated with a set of nanowire-based sensors for performing self-powered sensing. This study shows the feasibility of building self-powered nanodevices for the biological sciences, environmental monitoring, defense technology, and even personal electronics. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. A Maximum Power Point Tracking Control Method of a Photovoltaic Power Generator with Consideration of Dynamic Characteristics of Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Takashi; Yoshida, Toshiya; Ohniwa, Katsumi

    This paper discusses a new control strategy for photovoltaic power generation systems with consideration of dynamic characteristics of the photovoltaic cells. The controller estimates internal currents of an equivalent circuit for the cells. This estimated, or the virtual current and the actual voltage of the cells are fed to a conventional Maximum-Power-Point-Tracking (MPPT) controller. Consequently, this MPPT controller still tracks the optimum point even though it is so designed that the seeking speed of the operating point is extremely high. This system may suit for applications, which are installed in rapidly changeable insolation and temperature-conditions e.g. automobiles, trains, and airplanes. The proposed method is verified by experiment with a combination of this estimating function and the modified Boehringer's MPPT algorithm.

  8. Design of a mediated enzymatic fuel cell to generate power from renewable fuel sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkut, Seyda; Kilic, Muhammet Samet

    2016-01-01

    The present work reported a compartment-less enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) based on newly synthesized Poly(pyrrole-2-carboxylic acid-co-3-thiophene acetic acid) film containing glucose oxidase and laccase effectively wired by p-benzoquinone incorporated into the copolymer structure. The resulting system generated a power density of 18.8 µW/cm(2) with 30 mM of glucose addition at +0.94 V at room temperature. Improvements to maximize the power output were ensured with step-by-step optimization of electrode fabrication design and operational parameters for operating the system with renewable fuel sources. We demonstrated that the improved fuel cell could easily harvest glucose produced during photosynthesis to produce electrical energy in a simple, renewable and sustainable way by generating a power density of 10 nW/cm(2) in the plant leaf within 2 min. An EFC for the first time was successfully operated in municipal wastewater which contained glycolytic substances to generate electrical energy with a power output of 3.3 µW/cm(2). PMID:26102352

  9. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We examine proton exchange membrane fuel cells on-board commercial airplanes. ► We model the added fuel cell system’s effect on overall airplane performance. ► It is feasible to implement an on-board fuel cell system with current technology. ► Systems that maximize waste heat recovery are the best performing. ► Current PEM and H2 storage technology results in an airplane performance penalty. -- Abstract: Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they could offer a performance advantage for the airplane when using today’s off-the-shelf technology. We also examine the effects of the fuel cell system on airplane performance with (1) different electrical loads, (2) different locations on the airplane, and (3) expected advances in fuel cell and hydrogen storage technologies. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic simulation, we found that an additional fuel cell system on a commercial airplane is technically feasible using current technology. Although applied to a Boeing 787-type airplane, the method presented is applicable to other airframes as well. Recovery and on-board use of the heat and water that is generated by the fuel cell is an important method to increase the benefit of such a system. The best performance is achieved when the fuel cell is coupled to a load that utilizes the full output of the fuel cell for the entire flight. The effects of location are small and location may be better determined by other considerations such as safety and modularity. Although the PEM fuel cell generates power more efficiently than the gas turbine generators currently used, when considering the effect of the fuel cell system on the airplane’s overall performance we found that an overall

  10. Electric power generation by a submersible microbial fuel cell equipped with a membrane electrode assembly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Booki; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Thygesen, Anders; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-08-01

    Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were incorporated into the cathode chamber of a submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC). A close contact of the electrodes could produce high power output from SMFC in which anode and cathode electrodes were connected in parallel. In polarization test, the maximum power density was 631 mW/m(2) at current density of 1772 mA/m(2) at 82 Ω. With 180-Ω external resistance, one set of the electrodes on the same side could generate more power density of 832±4 mW/m(2) with current generation of 1923±4 mA/m(2). The anode, inclusive a biofilm behaved ohmic, whereas a Tafel type behavior was observed for the oxygen reduction. The various impedance contributions from electrodes, electrolyte and membrane were analyzed and identified by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Air flow rate to the cathode chamber affected microbial voltage generation, and higher power generation was obtained at relatively low air flow less than 2 mL/min. PMID:22705964

  11. Thermoelectric Power Generation in a Vacuum Cell of Decomposing Liquid Potassium-Ammonia Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jibeom Kim

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the design of high-efficiency reversible thermoelectric conversion devices for thermoelectric power generation through liquid potassium-ammonia (K-NH3 solutions. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed design is verified by thermoelectric experiments using two kinds of “U”-shaped vacuum cells with a NH3-gas passageway connecting both legs of “U”, one of which has a waist in the middle of a liquid flow passage. The experimental results show that the gas passageway provides a stable and reliable reaction by preventing an internal pressure imbalance due to NH3 gasification during solution decomposition; hence, long-term, reversible thermoelectric power can be effectively derived by stably inducing two separate phase transitions in the cell. In addition, the effect of the narrow waist in the cell’s middle is verified to cause an increase in thermoelectric conversion efficiency due to improved electric conductivity of liquid in the vacuum cell. Consequently, using these technologies in thermoelectric cell potentially leads to long-time, high-efficiency thermoelectric power generation through liquid K-NH3 solutions.

  12. Superconducting Power Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Rabinowitz, M

    2000-01-01

    The superconducting ac generator has the greatest potential for large-scale commercial application of superconductivity that can benefit the public. Electric power is a vital ingredient of modern society, and generation may be considered to be the vital ingredient of a power system. This articles gives background, and an insight into the physics and engineering of superconducting power generation.

  13. Development of planar solid oxide fuel cells for power generation applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minh, N.Q. [AlliedSignal Aerospce Equipment Systems, Torrance, CA (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for a variety of electric power generation application. The planar design offers simple cell geometry, high power density, and multiple fabrication and gas manifolding options. Planar SOFC technology has received much attention recently, and significant progress has been made in this area. Recent effort at AlliedSignal has focused on the development of high-performance, lightweight planar SOFCs, having thin-electrolyte films, that can be operated efficiently at reduced temperatures (< 1000{degrees}C). The advantages of reduced-temperature operation include wider material choice (including use of metallic interconnects), expected longer cell life, reduced thermal stress, improved reliability, and reduced fuel cell cost. The key aspect in the development of thin-film SIFCs is to incorporate the thin electrolyte layer into the desired structure of cells in a manner that yields the required characteristics. AlliedSignal has developed a simple and cost-effective method based on tape calendering for the fabrication of thin-electrolyte SOFCs. Thin-electrolyte cells made by tape calendering have shown extraordinary performance, e.g., producing more than 500mW/cm{sup 2} at 700{degrees}C and 800mW/cm{sup 2} at 800{degrees}C with hydrogen as fuel and air is oxidant. thin-electrolyte single cells have been incorporated into a compliant metallic stack structure and operated at reduced and operated at reduced-temperature conditions.

  14. Fuel-Cell Power Systems Incorporating Mg-Based H2 Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindler, Andrew; Narayan, Sri R.

    2009-01-01

    Two hydrogen generators based on reactions involving magnesium and steam have been proposed as means for generating the fuel (hydrogen gas) for such fuel-cell power systems as those to be used in the drive systems of advanced motor vehicles. The hydrogen generators would make it unnecessary to rely on any of the hydrogen storage systems developed thus far that are, variously, too expensive, too heavy, too bulky, and/or too unsafe to be practical. The two proposed hydrogen generators are denoted basic and advanced, respectively. In the basic hydrogen generator (see figure), steam at a temperature greater than or equals 330 C would be fed into a reactor charged with magnesium, wherein hydrogen would be released in the exothermic reaction Mg + H2O yields MgO + H2. The steam would be made in a flash boiler. To initiate the reaction, the boiler could be heated electrically by energy borrowed from a storage battery that would be recharged during normal operation of the associated fuel-cell subsystem. Once the reaction was underway, heat from the reaction would be fed to the boiler. If the boiler were made an integral part of the hydrogen-generator reactor vessel, then the problem of transfer of heat from the reactor to the boiler would be greatly simplified. A pump would be used to feed water from a storage tank to the boiler.

  15. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of MHD power generation, principles of operation of the MHD generator, its design, types, MHD generator cycles, technological problems to be overcome, the current state of the art in USA and USSR are described. Progress of India's experimental 5 Mw water-gas fired open cycle MHD power generator project is reported in brief. (M.G.B.)

  16. MHD Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantrowitz, Arthur; Rosa, Richard J.

    1975-01-01

    Explains the operation of the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) generator and advantages of the system over coal, oil or nuclear powered generators. Details the development of MHD generators in the United States and Soviet Union. (CP)

  17. Development of reversible solid oxide fuel cell for power generation and hydrogen production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, G. B.; Chen, J. Y.; Lin, C. Y.; Chan, S. H.

    2011-06-01

    A reversible solid oxide fuel cell (RSOFC) provides the dual function of performing energy storage and power generation, all in one unit. When functioning as an energy storage device, the RSOFC acts like an electrolyzer in water electrolysis mode; whereby the electric energy is stored as (electrolyzed) hydrogen and oxygen gases. While hydrogen is useful as a transportation fuel and in other industrial applications, the RSOFC also acts as a fuel cell in power generation mode to produce electricity when needed. The RSOFC would be a competitive technology in the upcoming hydrogen economy on the basis of its low cost, simple structure, and high efficiency. This paper reports on the design and manufacturing of its membrane electrode assembly using commercially available materials. Also reported are the resulting performance, both in electrolysis and fuel cell modes, as a function of its operating parameters such as temperature and current density. We found that the RSOFC performance improved with increasing temperature and its fuel cell mode had a better performance than its electrolysis mode due to a limited humidity inlet causing concentration polarization.

  18. Increasing power generation for scaling up single-chamber air cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cheng, Shaoan

    2011-03-01

    Scaling up microbial fuel cells (MFCs) requires a better understanding the importance of the different factors such as electrode surface area and reactor geometry relative to solution conditions such as conductivity and substrate concentration. It is shown here that the substrate concentration has significant effect on anode but not cathode performance, while the solution conductivity has a significant effect on the cathode but not the anode. The cathode surface area is always important for increasing power. Doubling the cathode size can increase power by 62% with domestic wastewater, but doubling the anode size increases power by 12%. Volumetric power density was shown to be a linear function of cathode specific surface area (ratio of cathode surface area to reactor volume), but the impact of cathode size on power generation depended on the substrate strength (COD) and conductivity. These results demonstrate the cathode specific surface area is the most critical factor for scaling-up MFCs to obtain high power densities. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.

  19. A simulation study of Solid Oxide fuel cell for IGCC power generation using Aspen Plus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Kim, Hyung Taek

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technology for electricity generation. Sulfur free syngas from the gas cleaning unit serves as a fuel for SOFC in IGFC (Integrated gasification Fuel cell) power plant. It converts the chemical energy of the fuel gas directly to electric energy and...... more accurate fuel cell model giving an advantage over previous system studies based on simplified SOFC models. The objective of this work is to develop a simulation model of a SOFC for IGFC system, flexible enough for use in future development, capable of predicting system performance under various...... operating conditions and using diverse fuels. The SOFC stack model developed using the chemical process flow sheet simulator Aspen Plus which is of equilibrium type and is based on Gibbs free energy minimization. The SOFC model performs heat and mass balances and considers the ohmic, activation and...

  20. Variation of power generation at different buffer types and conductivities in single chamber microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Nam, Joo-Youn

    2010-01-15

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are operated with solutions containing various chemical species required for the growth of electrochemically active microorganisms including nutrients and vitamins, substrates, and chemical buffers. Many different buffers are used in laboratory media, but the effects of these buffers and their inherent electrolyte conductivities have not been examined relative to current generation in MFCs. We investigated the effect of several common buffers (phosphate, MES, HEPES, and PIPES) on power production in single chambered MFCs compared to a non-buffered control. At the same concentrations the buffers produced different solution conductivities which resulted in different ohmic resistances and power densities. Increasing the solution conductivities to the same values using NaCl produced comparable power densities for all buffers. Very large increases in conductivity resulted in a rapid voltage drop at high current densities. Our results suggest that solution conductivity at a specific pH for each buffer is more important in MFC studies than the buffer itself given relatively constant pH conditions. Based on our analysis of internal resistance and a set neutral pH, phosphate and PIPES are the most useful buffers of those examined here because pH was maintained close to the pKa of the buffer, maximizing the ability of the buffer to contribute to increase current generation at high power densities. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermoelectric Power Generation in a Vacuum Cell of Decomposing Liquid Potassium-Ammonia Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Jibeom Kim; Kyuchol Shim; Joonhyeon Jeon

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design of high-efficiency reversible thermoelectric conversion devices for thermoelectric power generation through liquid potassium-ammonia (K-NH 3 ) solutions. The validity and effectiveness of the proposed design is verified by thermoelectric experiments using two kinds of “U†-shaped vacuum cells with a NH 3 -gas passageway connecting both legs of “U†, one of which has a waist in the middle of a liquid flow passage. The experimental results show that the gas...

  2. Power generation enhancement in novel microbial carbon capture cells with immobilized Chlorella vulgaris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Minghua; He, Huanhuan; Jin, Tao; Wang, Hongyu

    2012-09-01

    With the increasing concerns for global climate change, a sustainable, efficient and renewable energy production from wastewater is imperative. In this study, a novel microbial carbon capture cell (MCC), is constructed for the first time by the introduction of immobilized microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) into the cathode chamber of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to fulfill the zero discharge of carbon dioxide. This process can achieve an 84.8% COD removal, and simultaneously the maximum power density can reach 2485.35 mW m-3 at a current density of 7.9 A m-3 and the Coulombic efficiency is 9.40%, which are 88% and 57.7% greater than that with suspended C. vulgaris, respectively. These enhancements in performance demonstrate the feasibility of an economical and effective approach for the simultaneous wastewater treatment, electricity generation and biodiesel production from microalgae.

  3. Design and implementation of a hybrid power generation system with fuel cells and batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hua, C.C.; Syu, W.C. [National Yunlin Univ. of Science and Technology, Douliou, Yunlin, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    A hybrid power generation system with fuel cells and batteries was presented with particular reference to its soft-switching method and control scheme for an isolated step-up full bridge converter. The design considered leakage inductance of the transformer to assist energy conversion. This can improve the low efficiency and control problems resulting from leakage inductance. A set of clamping-diodes was used to mitigate the ringing of the transformer and output filter diodes. The converter can operate in low temperature and low voltage stress caused by the low efficiency and ringing. A soft-commutating criterion was also discussed. Zero-voltage-switching was achieved for the switches of the full-bridge converter that can efficiently reduce the switching losses. The system can operate in a continuous 740 W. Peak 1 kW was built using a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) having a voltage range of about 22 to 42 V and two 26 Ah lead-acid batteries in series with nominal voltage 24 V, respectively. The bi-directional converter with flexible control strategy can provide power sharing and energy storage at different load conditions, rendering it suitable for PEMFC powered AC applications. Tested results were presented to verify the performance of the system. 11 refs., 15 figs.

  4. Microbial carbon capture cell using cyanobacteria for simultaneous power generation, carbon dioxide sequestration and wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Soumya; Nayak, Bikram Kumar; Das, Debabrata

    2012-03-01

    Microbial carbon capture cells (MCCs) were constructed with cyanobacteria growing in a photo biocathode in dual-chambered flat plate mediator-less MFCs separated by an anion exchange membrane from the anode compartment containing Shewanella putrefaciens. The performance of the MCC with Anabaena sparged with CO(2)-air mixture was compared with that of a conventional cathode sparged with air only. The power densities achieved were 57.8 mW/m(2) for Anabaena sparged with a CO(2)-air mixture, 39.2 mW/m(2) for CO(2)-air mixture sparging only, 29.7 mW/m(2) for Anabaena sparged with air, and 19.6 mW/m(2) for air sparging only. The pH of the cathode containing Anabaena gradually increased from 7 to 9.12 and power generation decreased from 34.7 to 23.8 mW/m(2) 17 due to pH imbalance associated voltage losses without CO(2)-air mixture sparging. Sparging with a 5% CO(2)-air mixture produced maximum power of 100.1 mW/m(2). In addition, the power density of MCC increased by 31% when nitrate was added into the catholyte. PMID:22221988

  5. Power generation technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Breeze, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The new edition of Power Generation Technologies is a concise and readable guide that provides an introduction to the full spectrum of currently available power generation options, from traditional fossil fuels and the better established alternatives such as wind and solar power, to emerging renewables such as biomass and geothermal energy. Technology solutions such as combined heat and power and distributed generation are also explored. However, this book is more than just an account of the technologies - for each method the author explores the economic and environmental costs and risk factor

  6. Effect of C/N ratio and salinity on power generation in compost microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Md Khudzari, Jauharah; Tartakovsky, Boris; Raghavan, G S Vijaya

    2016-02-01

    In this work, compost Microbial Fuel Cells (cMFCs) were used to generate electricity from a mix of fruit and vegetable wastes, and soil with different C/N ratios and salinities. Experiments were carried out in 500mL cMFCs equipped with carbon felt anodes and manganese dioxide cathodes. The cMFCs were loaded with fresh compost and operated at 20-23°C for up to 97days. The low C/N ratio (C/N 24) had a greater power production with a maximum power density of 5.29mW/m(2) (71.43mW/m(3)), indicating a more favorable condition for microbial growth. High-saline cMFCs produced lower power, suggesting that their level of salinity (10g/L of NaCl) inhibited electricigenic microorganisms. The closed-circuit cMFC showed an improved degradation of organic matter by 6% to 8% compared to the control MFC operated in an open circuit mode (no external resistor attached). PMID:26611399

  7. Power generation statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The frost in February increased the power demand in Finland significantly. The total power consumption in Finland during January-February 2001 was about 4% higher than a year before. In January 2001 the average temperature in Finland was only about - 4 deg C, which is nearly 2 degrees higher than in 2000 and about 6 degrees higher than long term average. Power demand in January was slightly less than 7.9 TWh, being about 0.5% less than in 2000. The power consumption in Finland during the past 12 months exceeded 79.3 TWh, which is less than 2% higher than during the previous 12 months. In February 2001 the average temperature was - 10 deg C, which was about 5 degrees lower than in February 2000. Because of this the power consumption in February 2001 increased by 5%. Power consumption in February was 7.5 TWh. The maximum hourly output of power plants in Finland was 13310 MW. Power consumption of Finnish households in February 2001 was about 10% higher than in February 2000, and in industry the increase was nearly zero. The utilization rate in forest industry in February 2001 decreased from the value of February 2000 by 5%, being only about 89%. The power consumption of the past 12 months (Feb. 2000 - Feb. 2001) was 79.6 TWh. Generation of hydroelectric power in Finland during January - February 2001 was 10% higher than a year before. The generation of hydroelectric power in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was nearly 2.7 TWh, corresponding to 17% of the power demand in Finland. The output of hydroelectric power in Finland during the past 12 months was 14.7 TWh. The increase from the previous 12 months was 17% corresponding to over 18% of the power demand in Finland. Wind power generation in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was exceeded slightly 10 GWh, while in 2000 the corresponding output was 20 GWh. The degree of utilization of Finnish nuclear power plants in Jan. - Feb. 2001 was high. The output of these plants was 3.8 TWh, being about 1% less than in Jan. - Feb. 2000. The main cause for the

  8. Design and Experimental Validation of a Robust Control Method for a Hybrid Fuel Cell Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Torres, David; Riu, Delphine; Sename, Olivier

    2010-01-01

    In this article a robust control methodology is proposed for an hybrid power generation structure composed by a Fuel Cell and a Super-capacitor. The control strategy and the desired performances are written as inequality constraints so they can be solved using Linear Matrix Inequalities methods. Using this method a multivariable PI control with H∞ performance is computed, which is used to control the power converters associated with the Fuel Cell and the Super-capacitor respectively. The cont...

  9. Electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apart from discussing some principles of power industry the present text deals with the different ways of electric power generation. Both the conventional methods of energy conversion in heating and water power stations and the facilities for utilizing regenerative energy sources (sun, wind, ground heat, tidal power) are considered. The script represents the essentials of the lecture of the same name which is offered to the students of the special subject 'electric power engineering' at the Fachhochschule Hamburg. It does not require any special preliminary knowledge except for the general principles of electrical engineering. It is addressing students of electrical engineering who have passed their preliminary examination at technical colleges and universities. Moreover, it shall also be of use for engineers who want to obtain a quick survey of the structure and the operating characteristics of the extremely different technical methods of power generation. (orig.)

  10. Engine-integrated solid oxide fuel cells for efficient electrical power generation on aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Daniel F.; Cadou, Christopher P.

    2015-06-01

    This work investigates the use of engine-integrated catalytic partial oxidation (CPOx) reactors and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) to reduce fuel burn in vehicles with large electrical loads like sensor-laden unmanned air vehicles. Thermodynamic models of SOFCs, CPOx reactors, and three gas turbine (GT) engine types (turbojet, combined exhaust turbofan, separate exhaust turbofan) are developed and checked against relevant data and source material. Fuel efficiency is increased by 4% and 8% in the 50 kW and 90 kW separate exhaust turbofan systems respectively at only modest cost in specific power (8% and 13% reductions respectively). Similar results are achieved in other engine types. An additional benefit of hybridization is the ability to provide more electric power (factors of 3 or more in some cases) than generator-based systems before encountering turbine inlet temperature limits. A sensitivity analysis shows that the most important parameters affecting the system's performance are operating voltage, percent fuel oxidation, and SOFC assembly air flows. Taken together, this study shows that it is possible to create a GT-SOFC hybrid where the GT mitigates balance of plant losses and the SOFC raises overall system efficiency. The result is a synergistic system with better overall performance than stand-alone components.

  11. Bioelectricity generation and microcystins removal in a blue-green algae powered microbial fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bioelectricity production from blue-green algae was examined in a single chamber tubular microbial fuel cell (MFC). The blue-green algae powered MFC produced a maximum power density of 114 mW/m2 at a current density of 0.55 mA/m2. Coupled with the bioenergy generation, high removal efficiencies of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and nitrogen were also achieved in MFCs. Over 78.9% of total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD), 80.0% of soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), 91.0% of total nitrogen (total-N) and 96.8% ammonium-nitrogen (NH3-N) were removed under closed circuit conditions in 12 days, which were much more effective than those under open circuit and anaerobic reactor conditions. Most importantly, the MFC showed great ability to remove microcystins released from blue-green algae. Over 90.7% of MC-RR and 91.1% of MC-LR were removed under closed circuit conditions (500 Ω). This study showed that the MFC could provide a potential means for electricity production from blue-green algae coupling algae toxins removal.

  12. Power generation by packed-bed air-cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan

    2013-08-01

    Catalysts and catalyst binders are significant portions of the cost of microbial fuel cell (MFC) cathodes. Many materials have been tested as aqueous cathodes, but air-cathodes are needed to avoid energy demands for water aeration. Packed-bed air-cathodes were constructed without expensive binders or diffusion layers using four inexpensive carbon-based materials. Cathodes made from activated carbon produced the largest maximum power density of 676±93mW/m2, followed by semi-coke (376±47mW/m2), graphite (122±14mW/m2) and carbon felt (60±43mW/m2). Increasing the mass of activated carbon and semi-coke from 5 to ≥15g significantly reduced power generation because of a reduction in oxygen transfer due to a thicker water layer in the cathode (~3 or ~6cm). These results indicate that a thin packed layer of activated carbon or semi-coke can be used to make inexpensive air-cathodes for MFCs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Power generation from organic substrate in batch and continuous flow microbial fuel cell operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Power generation was investigated in a single MFC at batch and continuous modes. → Continuous MFCs offer some advantages over batch systems for practical applications. → Polarity and cyclic voltammetry, were adopted to analyze experimental data. → OCV was stable for the duration of 72 h of operation time in batch system. → At optimum HRT (6.7 h), maximum output were 1210 mA m-2 and 283 mW m-2, respectively. -- Abstract: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are biochemical-catalyzed systems in which electricity is produced by oxidizing biodegradable organic matters in presence of either bacteria or enzyme. This system can serve as a device for generating clean energy and, also wastewater treatment unit. In this paper, production of bioelectricity in MFC in batch and continuous systems were investigated. A dual chambered air-cathode MFC was fabricated for this purpose. Graphite plates were used as electrodes and glucose as a substrate with initial concentration of 30 g l-1 was used. Cubic MFC reactor was fabricated and inoculated with Saccharomyces cerevisiae PTCC 5269 as active biocatalyst. Neutral red with concentration of 200 μmol l-1 was selected as electron shuttle in anaerobic anode chamber. In order to enhance the performance of MFC, potassium permanganate at 400 μmol l-1 concentration as oxidizer was used. The performance of MFC was analyzed by the measurement of polarization curve and cyclic volatmmetric data as well. Closed circuit voltage was obtained using a 1 kΩ resistance. The voltage at steady-state condition was 440 mV and it was stable for the entire operation time. In a continuous system, the effect of hydraulic retention time (HRT) on performance of MFC was examined. The optimum HRT was found to be around 7 h. Maximum produced power and current density at optimum HRT were 1210 mA m-2 and 283 mW m-2, respectively.

  14. Gearless wind power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, L.; Ridanpaeae, P.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-12-31

    During the wind power generator project a design algorithm for a gearless permanent magnet generator with an axially orientated magnetic flux was developed and a 10 kW model machine was constructed. Utilising the test results a variable wind speed system of 100 kW was designed that incorporates a permanent magnet generator, a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller. This system produces about 5-15% more energy than existing types and stresses to the blades are minimised. The type of generator designed in the project represents in general a gearless solution for slow-speed electrical drives. (orig.)

  15. Electric power generating bicycle

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Nuno; Ribeiro, Luís; Esteves, João Sena

    2006-01-01

    It is manifest the growing interest in both personal health and environmental issues. The device described on this paper contemplates both aspects: generating environment-friendly electric power while keeping fit. A car alternator excited through a 12V battery is coupled to a mountain bicycle, and this arrangement enables the lighting of six halogen lamps, if a cyclist pedals fast enough. Such a machine gives rise to the thought of a self-powered gymnasium. Considerable physical effort is req...

  16. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1988 and 1989. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. The statistics for December 1994 comprise 2328 wind turbines

  17. Electrogasdynamic Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EGD power generation is one of many so-called direct energy conversion methods being considered for application to large-scale power generation. A typical cycle would consist of the following: Air and fuel are burned at relatively high pressure (120-450 lb/in2) in a combustion chamber. The combustion gas is then introduced into tubes made of a dielectric material (ceramic with high resistivity). At the entrance of these tubes, the gas is partially ionized by a corona discharge. The tubes are provided with an attractor electrode near the entrance and a collector electrode near the exit. An electric field in the tube is established by virtue of the external resistance in the connection between attractor and collector electrodes. This field offers resistance to the flow of gas seeded with ions. In the process of overcoming this resistance, kinetic energy of the gas stream is used. As the ions are pushed downstream they are collected on the collector electrode where they build up a high charge. In many ways this EGD process is like a Van de Graaff generator with the gas stream taking the place of the mechanically driven belt used in Van de Graaff machines. The great advantage of EGD power generation over MHD is the fact that high electrical conductivity of the gas stream is not necessary for EGD. For this reason the EGD process can be carried out at temperatures which are well within the limits of today’s technology. This same reason provides a second advantage; it is not necessary to limit the total amount of power generated in the direct conversion section. In MHD schemes, the conductivity of the gas is so low at temperatures below 3600°F (∼1980°C) that subsequent extraction of power from the gas stream has to be accomplished by conventional steam generation. This has the effect of degrading the overall efficiency of the cycle. In EGD systems, work can be extracted directly from the gas stream down to near atmospheric temperatures. High thermal efficiencies are

  18. Magnetohydrodynamic power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes research and development in the field of magnetohydrodynamic power generation technology, based on discussions held in the Joint IAEA/UNESCO International Liaison Group on MHD electrical power generation. Research and development programmes on open cycle, closed cycle plasma and liquid-metal MHD are described. Open cycle MHD has now entered the engineering development stage. The paper reviews the results of cycle analyses and economic and environmental evaluations: substantial agreement has been reached on the expected overall performance and necessary component specifications. The achievement in the Soviet Union on the U-25 MHD pilot plant in obtaining full rated electrical power of 20.4 MW is described, as well as long duration testing of the integrated operation of MHD components. Work in the United States on coal-fired MHD generators has shown that, with slagging of the walls, a run time of about one hundred hours at the current density and electric field of a commercial MHD generator has been achieved. Progress obtained in closed cycle plasma and liquid metal MHD is reviewed. Electrical power densities of up to 140 MWe/m3 and an enthalpy extraction as high as 24 per cent have been achieved in noble gas MHD generator experiments. (Auth.)

  19. Energy production from marine biomass: Fuel cell power generation driven by methane produced from seaweed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoyama, S.; Imou, K. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Biological and Environmental Engineering; Jonouchi, K. [Yanmar Co. Ltd., Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Human Resources

    2008-07-01

    Global warming has become one of the most serious environmental problems. To cope with the problem, it is necessary to substitute renewable energy for nonrenewable fossil fuel. Biomass, which is one of the renewable energies, is considered to be carbon-neutral, meaning that the net CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere remains unchanged provided the CO{sub 2} emitted by biomass combustion and that fixed by photosynthesis are balanced. Biomass is also unique because it is the only organic matter among renewable energies. In other words, fuels and chemicals can be produced from biomass in addition to electricity and heat. Marine biomass has attracted less attention than terrestrial biomass for energy utilization so far, but is work considering especially for a country like Japan which has long available coastlines. This paper discusses the utilization of marine biomass as an energy resource in Japan. A marine biomass energy system in Japan was proposed consisting of seaweed cultivation (Laminaria japonica) at offshore marine farms, biogas production via methane fermentation of the seaweeds, and fuel cell power generation driven by the generated biogas. The authors estimated energy output, energy supply potential, and CO{sub 2} mitigation in Japan on the basis of the proposed system. As a result, annual energy production was estimated to be 1.02 x 10{sup 9} kWh/yr at nine available sites. Total CO{sub 2} mitigation was estimated to be 1.04 x 10{sup 6} tonnes per annum at the nine sites. However, the CO{sub 2} emission for the construction of relevant facilities is not taken into account in this paper. The estimated CO{sub 2} mitigation is equivalent to about 0.9% of the required CO{sub 2} mitigation for Japan per annum under the Kyoto Protocol framework.

  20. Nuclear power generation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a PWR type reactor, a free piston type stirling engine is disposed instead of a conventional steam generator and a turbine. Since the stirling engine does not cause radiation leakage in view of the structure, safety and reliability of the nuclear power generation are improved. Further, the thermal cycle, if it operates theoretically, is equivalent with a Carnot cycle having the highest thermodynamical heat efficiency, thereby enabling to obtain a high heat efficiency in an actual engine. (N.H.)

  1. The changing nature of the power generation market — does it create opportunities for fuel cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cragg, C. T.

    This paper surveys the global power industry seeking trends that might encourage greater use of full cells. The subject is broken into four basic themes: (i) an increasing demand for electricity, and this may not be solved by the traditional form of the integrated state-owned, centralised power utility, with a large infrastructure grid attached, the load curves of these integrated grids becoming unmanageable; (ii) a general trend towards privatisation and deregulation in the power sector, that is shifting its control from an engineering to a commercial paradigm, with unforseen consequences; (iii) contrary to (ii), the need for supplying security in its most basic sense is increasing rather than declining as power-dependent technology becomes progressively more important in the modern economy, and (iv) the trend in technology, particularly environmental-friendly technology, is towards smaller size of production centres. Within these inter-related themes these are encouraging prospects for the fuel cell community.

  2. Anode modification with formic acid: A simple and effective method to improve the power generation of microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Weifeng; Cheng, Shaoan, E-mail: shaoancheng@zju.edu.cn; Guo, Jian

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Carbon cloth anode is modified with formic acid by a simple and reliable approach. • The modification significantly enhances the power output of microbial fuel cells. • The modified anode surface favors the bacterial attachment and growth on anode. • The electron transfer rate of anode is promoted. - Abstract: The physicochemical properties of anode material directly affect the anodic biofilm formation and electron transfer, thus are critical for the power generation of microbial fuel cells (MFCs). In this work, carbon cloth anode was modified with formic acid to enhance the power production of MFCs. Formic acid modification of anode increased the maximum power density of a single-chamber air-cathode MFC by 38.1% (from 611.5 ± 6 mW/m{sup 2} to 877.9 ± 5 mW/m{sup 2}). The modification generated a cleaner electrode surface and a reduced content of oxygen and nitrogen groups on the anode. The surface changes facilitated bacterial growth on the anode and resulted in an optimized microbial community. Thus, the electron transfer rate on the modified anodes was enhanced remarkably, contributing to a higher power output of MFCs. Anode modification with formic acid could be an effective and simple method for improving the power generation of MFCs. The modification method holds a huge potential for large scale applications and is valuable for the scale-up and commercialization of microbial fuel cells.

  3. MHD power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present invention provides a power generation system of high energy efficiency comprising, in combination, a FBR type reactor using liquid metal as coolants and a liquid MHD power generator. That is, a preheater is disposed to the downstream of a condenser in a turbine power generation system and a heat exchanger is disposed to the upstream of a mixer in a gas system. Then, a high temperature gas from a separator is introduced into the preheater and sufficiently lowered for the temperature and then pressurized in a pump. Then, the pressurized gas is passed through the heat exchanger and heated. Thus, heat energy possessed in the high temperature gas from the separator is used for preheating the hydraulic fluid of the turbine power generation system through the preheater. Accordingly, the heat energy can effectively be utilized instead of being discharged out of the system as usual. Further, when the gas deprived of heat energy and cooled to a lower temperature is pressurized by the pump and heated by the heat exchanger, the heat energy is received from liquid metals of FBR type reactor and, accordingly, the energy efficiency can be improved as compared with the conventional re-heating system. (I.S.)

  4. Energy Supply Characteristics of a Combined Solar Cell and Diesel Engine System with a Prediction Algorithm for Solar Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Abeer Galal; Obara, Shin'ya

    The production of electricity from the solar cells continues to attract interest as a power source for distributed energy generation. It is important to be able to estimate solar cell power to optimize system energy management. This paper proposes a prediction algorithm based on a neural network (NN) to predict the electricity production from a solar cell. The operation plan for a combined solar cell and diesel engine generator system is examined using the NN prediction algorithm. Two systems are examined in this paper: one with and one without a power storage facility. Comparisons are presented of the results from the two systems with respect to the actual calculations of output power and the predicted electricity production from the solar cell. The exhaust heat from the engine is used to supply the heat demand. A back-up boiler is operated when the engine exhaust heat is insufficient to meet the heat demand. Electricity and heat are supplied to the demand side from the proposed systems, and no external sources are used. When the NN production-of-electricity prediction was introduced, the engine generator operating time was reduced by 12.5% in December and 16.7% for March and September. Moreover, an operation plan for the combined system exhaust heat is proposed, and the heat output characteristics of the back-up boiler are characterized.

  5. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells for electrical power generation on-board commercial airplanes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curgus, Dita Brigitte; Munoz-Ramos, Karina (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Pratt, Joseph William; Akhil, Abbas Ali (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM); Klebanoff, Leonard E.; Schenkman, Benjamin L. (Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-05-01

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today's technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  6. Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells for Electrical Power Generation On-Board Commercial Airplanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Joesph W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Klebanoff, Leonard E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Munoz-Ramos, Karina [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Akhil, Abbas A. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Curgus, Dita B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schenkman, Benjamin L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Deployed on a commercial airplane, proton exchange membrane fuel cells may offer emissions reductions, thermal efficiency gains, and enable locating the power near the point of use. This work seeks to understand whether on-board fuel cell systems are technically feasible, and, if so, if they offer a performance advantage for the airplane as a whole. Through hardware analysis and thermodynamic and electrical simulation, we found that while adding a fuel cell system using today’s technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage is technically feasible, it will not likely give the airplane a performance benefit. However, when we re-did the analysis using DOE-target technology for the PEM fuel cell and hydrogen storage, we found that the fuel cell system would provide a performance benefit to the airplane (i.e., it can save the airplane some fuel), depending on the way it is configured.

  7. Electric power generation by a submersible microbial fuel cell equipped with a membrane electrode assembly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Min, Booki; Poulsen, Finn Willy; Thygesen, Anders;

    2012-01-01

    Membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) were incorporated into the cathode chamber of a submersible microbial fuel cell (SMFC). A close contact of the electrodes could produce high power output from SMFC in which anode and cathode electrodes were connected in parallel. In polarization test, the...

  8. Treatment of carbon fiber brush anodes for improving power generation in air–cathode microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Feng, Yujie

    2010-04-02

    Carbon brush electrodes have been used to provide high surface areas for bacterial growth and high power densities in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). A high-temperature ammonia gas treatment has been used to enhance power generation, but less energy-intensive methods are needed for treating these electrodes in practice. Three different treatment methods are examined here for enhancing power generation of carbon fiber brushes: acid soaking (CF-A), heating (CF-H), and a combination of both processes (CF-AH). The combined heat and acid treatment improve power production to 1370 mW m-2, which is 34% larger than the untreated control (CF-C, 1020 mW m-2). This power density is 25% higher than using only acid treatment (1100 mW m-2) and 7% higher than that using only heat treatment (1280 mW m-2). XPS analysis of the treated and untreated anode materials indicates that power increases are related to higher N1s/C1s ratios and a lower C-O composition. These findings demonstrate efficient and simple methods for improving power generation using graphite fiber brushes, and provide insight into reasons for improving performance that may help to further increase power through other graphite fiber modifications. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Future nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book includes an introduction then it speaks about the options to secure sources of energy, nuclear power option, nuclear plants to generate energy including light-water reactors (LWR), heavy-water reactors (HWR), advanced gas-cooled reactors (AGR), fast breeder reactors (FBR), development in the manufacture of reactors, fuel, uranium in the world, current status of nuclear power generation, economics of nuclear power, nuclear power and the environment and nuclear power in the Arab world. A conclusion at the end of the book suggests the increasing demand for energy in the industrialized countries and in a number of countries that enjoy special and economic growth such as China and India pushes the world to search for different energy sources to insure the urgent need for current and anticipated demand in the near and long-term future in light of pessimistic and optimistic outlook for energy in the future. This means that states do a scientific and objective analysis of the currently available data for the springboard to future plans to secure the energy required to support economy and welfare insurance.

  10. Assessment of the implementation issues for fuel cells in domestic and small scale stationary power generation and CHP applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, G.; Cruden, A.; Hart, J.

    2002-07-01

    This report discusses implementation issues associated with the use of fuel cells in <10 kW domestic, small-scale power generation and combined heat and power (CHP) operations in the UK. The report examines the key issues (fuel cell system standards and certification, fuel infrastructure, commercial issues and competing CHP technologies), before discussing non-technical issues including finance, ownership, import and export configuration, pricing structure, customer acceptability, installation, operation and training of servicing and commissioning personnel. The report goes on to discuss market and technical drivers, grid connection issues and solutions, operations and maintenance. Recommendations for the future are made.

  11. Increased power generation from primary sludge by a submersible microbial fuel cell and optimum operational conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vologni, Valentina; Kakarla, Ramesh; Angelidaki, Irini;

    2013-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have received attention as a promising renewable energy technology for waste treatment and energy recovery. We tested a submersible MFC with an innovative design capable of generating a stable voltage of 0.250 ± 0.008 V (with a fixed 470 Ω resistor) directly from primary...

  12. Analysis and control of an in situ hydrogen generation and fuel cell power system for automotive applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolavennu, Panini K.

    A new future in automotive transportation is approaching where vehicles are powered by new, clean and efficient energy sources. While different technologies will contribute to this future, many see fuel cells as the leading long term candidate for becoming the power source for emissions-free, mass produced light vehicles. The development of emissions-free vehicles, which run directly on hydrogen, is the true long term goal. However significant difficulties exist in developing these vehicles, due to hydrogen storage problems. For automotive applications, it is desirable to use a carbon-based hydrogenous fuel. The focus of this research was to analyze a fuel cell system for automotive applications, which generated hydrogen in situ using methane as a fuel source. This system consists of four parts: (1) an in situ hydrogen generation subsystem, (2) a power generation subsystem, (3) a thermal management subsystem and (4) a switching control subsystem. The novelty of this research lies in the fact that the entire system was considered from a systems engineering viewpoint with realistic constraints. A fuel processor subsystem was designed and its volume optimized to less than 100 liters. A relationship between the fuel fed into the fuel processor and the hydrogen coming out of it was developed. Using a fuel cell model an overall relationship between the fuel feed rate and the power output was established. The fuel cell car must be fully operational within a minute or so of a cold-start and must respond to rapidly varying loads. Significant load transitions occur frequently as a result of changes in driving conditions. These engineering constraints were addressed by coupling a battery to the fuel cell. A switching controller was designed and it was validated using realistic power profiles. Finally, a model reference adaptive controller was designed to handle nonlinearities and load transitions. The adaptive controller performance was enhanced by adding dead zone

  13. Power Generation Enhancement by Utilizing Plant Photosynthate in Microbial Fuel Cell Coupled Constructed Wetland System

    OpenAIRE

    Shentan Liu; Hailiang Song; Xianning Li; Fei Yang

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, a new technology that coupled constructed wetland (CW) with microbial fuel cell (MFC) (CW-MFC) was developed to convert solar energy into electricity on the principles of photosynthetic MFC by utilizing root exudates of Ipomoea aquatica as part of fuel. The maximum power density of 12.42 mW m−2 produced from the CW-MFC planted with Ipomoea aquatica was 142% higher than that of 5.13 mW m−2 obtained from the unplanted CW-MFC. The maximum power output for the planted CW-MFC...

  14. Pretreated Landfill Gas Conversion Process via a Catalytic Membrane Reactor for Renewable Combined Fuel Cell-Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Ziaka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new landfill gas-based reforming catalytic processing system for the conversion of gaseous hydrocarbons, such as incoming methane to hydrogen and carbon oxide mixtures, is described and analyzed. The exit synthesis gas (syn-gas is fed to power effectively high-temperature fuel cells such as SOFC types for combined efficient electricity generation. The current research work is also referred on the description and design aspects of permreactors (permeable reformers carrying the same type of landfill gas-reforming reactions. Membrane reactors is a new technology that can be applied efficiently in such systems. Membrane reactors seem to perform better than the nonmembrane traditional reactors. The aim of this research includes turnkey system and process development for the landfill-based power generation and fuel cell industries. Also, a discussion of the efficient utilization of landfill and waste type resources for combined green-type/renewable power generation with increased processing capacity and efficiency via fuel cell systems is taking place. Moreover, pollution reduction is an additional design consideration in the current catalytic processors fuel cell cycles.

  15. Power generation using an activated carbon fiber felt cathode in an upflow microbial fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Deng, Qian

    2010-02-01

    An activated carbon fiber felt (ACFF) cathode lacking metal catalysts is used in an upflow microbial fuel cell (UMFC). The maximum power density with the ACFF cathode is 315 mW m-2, compared to lower values with cathodes made of plain carbon paper (67 mW m-2), carbon felt (77 mW m-2), or platinum-coated carbon paper (124 mW m-2, 0.2 mg-Pt cm-2). The addition of platinum to the ACFF cathode (0.2 mg-Pt cm-2) increases the maximum power density to 391 mW m-2. Power production is further increased to 784 mW m-2 by increasing the cathode surface area and shaping it into a tubular form. With ACFF cutting into granules, the maximum power is 481 mW m-2 (0.5 cm granules), and 667 mW m-2 (1.0 cm granules). These results show that ACFF cathodes lacking metal catalysts can be used to substantially increase power production in UMFC compared to traditional materials lacking a precious metal catalyst. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  16. Power Generation Enhancement by Utilizing Plant Photosynthate in Microbial Fuel Cell Coupled Constructed Wetland System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shentan Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a new technology that coupled constructed wetland (CW with microbial fuel cell (MFC (CW-MFC was developed to convert solar energy into electricity on the principles of photosynthetic MFC by utilizing root exudates of Ipomoea aquatica as part of fuel. The maximum power density of 12.42 mW m−2 produced from the CW-MFC planted with Ipomoea aquatica was 142% higher than that of 5.13 mW m−2 obtained from the unplanted CW-MFC. The maximum power output for the planted CW-MFC could be divided into two parts: the maximum power yield from in the water body was 66.05 KJ Kg−1  , and the maximum power transformation from plant photosynthesis was 2.31 GJ ha−1 year−1. The average COD removal efficiencies were 92.1% and 94.8% in the unplanted CW-MFC and planted CW-MFC, respectively; the average TN removal efficiencies amounted to 54.4% and 90.8% in the unplanted CW-MFC and planted CW-MFC. This research demonstrates that planting Ipomoea aquatica in the CW-MFC achieved a higher power density and nutrient removal of nitrogen simultaneously.

  17. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  18. Super power generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PROTO II, a super power generator, is presently undergoing testing at Sandia Laboratories. It has operated with an 80 ns, 50 ns, 35 ns, and 20 ns positive output pulse high voltage mode and achieved total current rates of rise of 4 x 1014 A/s. The two sided disk accelerator concept using two diodes has achieved voltages of 1.5 MV and currents of 4.5 MA providing a power exceeding 6 TW in the electron beam and 8 TW in the transmission lines. A new test bed named MITE (Magnetically Insulated Transmission Experiment) was designed and is now being tested. The pulse forming lines are back to back short pulse Blumleins which use untriggered water switching. Output data showing a ten ns half width power pulse peaking above one terrawatt were obtained. MITE is a module being investigated for use in the Electron Beam Fusion Accelerator and will be used to test the effects of short pulses propagating down vacuum transmission lines

  19. A polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack for stationary power generation from hydrogen fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.S.; Moeller-Holst, S.; Webb, D.M.; Zawodzinski, C.; Gottesfeld, S. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Div.

    1998-08-01

    The objective is to develop and demonstrate a 4 kW, hydrogen-fueled polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) stack, based on non-machined stainless steel hardware and on membrane/electrode assemblies (MEAs) of low catalyst loadings. The stack is designed to operate at ambient pressure on the air-side and can accommodate operation at higher fuel pressures, if so required. This is to be accomplished by working jointly with a fuel cell stack manufacturer, based on a CRADA. The performance goals are 57% energy conversion efficiency hydrogen-to-electricity (DC) at a power density of 0.9 kW/liter for a stack operating at ambient inlet pressures. The cost goal is $600/kW, based on present materials costs.

  20. Generation of electrical power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A heat-to-electricity converter is disclosed which includes a radioactive heat source and a thermoelectric element of relatively short overall length capable of delivering a low voltage of the order of a few tenths of a volt. Such a thermoelectric element operates at a higher efficiency than longer higher-voltage elements; for example, elements producing 6 volts. In the generation of required power, the thermoelectric element drives a solid-state converter which is controlled by input current rather than input voltage and operates efficiently for a high signal-plus-noise to signal ratio of current. The solid-state converter has the voltage gain necessary to deliver the required voltage at the low input of the thermoelectric element

  1. Power generation using an activated carbon and metal mesh cathode in a microbial fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Fang

    2009-11-01

    An inexpensive activated carbon (AC) air cathode was developed as an alternative to a platinum-catalyzed electrode for oxygen reduction in a microbial fuel cell (MFC). AC was cold-pressed with a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) binder to form the cathode around a Ni mesh current collector. This cathode construction avoided the need for carbon cloth or a metal catalyst, and produced a cathode with high activity for oxygen reduction at typical MFC current densities. Tests with the AC cathode produced a maximum power density of 1220 mW/m2 (normalized to cathode projected surface area; 36 W/m3 based on liquid volume) compared to 1060 mW/m2 obtained by Pt catalyzed carbon cloth cathode. The Coulombic efficiency ranged from 15% to 55%. These findings show that AC is a cost-effective material for achieving useful rates of oxygen reduction in air cathode MFCs. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Study of a small heat and power PEM fuel cell system generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, Charles-Emile; Achard, Patrick; Metkemeijer, Rudolf

    A micro-cogenerator based on a natural gas reformer and a PEMFC is studied in its entirety, pointing out the links between different sub-systems. The study is conducted within the EPACOP project, which aims at testing PEMFC systems on user sites to evaluate development and acceptance of this technology for small stationary applications. Five units were installed from November 2002 to May 2003 and have been operated until now, in real life conditions. They deliver up to 4 kW of AC power and about 6 kW of heat. Center for Energy and Processes (CEP), one of the scientific partners, processes and analyses the experimental data from the five units, running in different regions of France. This database and the study of the flowsheet enable to propose changes to enhance the efficiency of the system composed of a steam reforming, a shift and a preferential oxidation reactor, a fuel cell stack and heat exchangers. The steady state modelling and optimisation of the system is done with Thermoptim ®, a software developed within CEP for applied thermodynamics. At constant power, main targets are to decrease natural gas consumption, to increase heat recovery and to improve the water balance. This study is made using the pinch point analysis, at full load and partial load. Main results of this study are different system configurations that allow improvement of gross electrical and thermal efficiency and enable to obtain a positive water balance.

  3. Power generation using carbon mesh cathodes with different diffusion layers in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Luo, Yong

    2011-11-01

    An inexpensive carbon material, carbon mesh, was examined to replace the more expensive carbon cloth usually used to make cathodes in air-cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Three different diffusion layers were tested using carbon mesh: poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), and Goretex cloth. Carbon mesh with a mixture of PDMS and carbon black as a diffusion layer produced a maximum power density of 1355 ± 62 mW m -2 (normalized to the projected cathode area), which was similar to that obtained with a carbon cloth cathode (1390 ± 72 mW m-2). Carbon mesh with a PTFE diffusion layer produced only a slightly lower (6.6%) maximum power density (1303 ± 48 mW m-2). The Coulombic efficiencies were a function of current density, with the highest value for the carbon mesh and PDMS (79%) larger than that for carbon cloth (63%). The cost of the carbon mesh cathode with PDMS/Carbon or PTFE (excluding catalyst and binder costs) is only 2.5% of the cost of the carbon cloth cathode. These results show that low cost carbon materials such as carbon mesh can be used as the cathode in an MFC without reducing the performance compared to more expensive carbon cloth. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Task 5 Report Use of Fuel Cell Technology in Electric Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Ahluwalia, Rajesh K.

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess the performance of high temperature membranes and observe the impact of different parameters, such as water-to-carbon ratio, carbon formation, hydrogen formation, efficiencies, methane formation, fuel and oxidant utilization, sulfur reduction, and the thermal efficiency/electrical efficiency relationship, on fuel cell performance. A 250 KW PEM fuel cell model was simulated [in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) with the help of the fuel cell computer software model (GCtool)] which would be used to produce power of 250 kW and also produce steam at 120oC that can be used for industrial applications. The performance of the system was examined by estimating the various electrical and thermal efficiencies achievable, and by assessing the effect of supply water temperature, process water temperature, and pressure on thermal performance. It was concluded that increasing the fuel utilization increases the electrical efficiency but decreases the thermal efficiency. The electrical and thermal efficiencies are optimum at ~85% fuel utilization. The low temperature membrane (70oC) is unsuitable for generating high-grade heat suitable for useful cogeneration. The high temperature fuel cells are capable of producing steam through 280oC that can be utilized for industrial applications. Increasing the supply water temperature reduces the efficiency of the radiator. Increasing the supply water temperature beyond the dew point temperature decreases the thermal efficiency with the corresponding decrease in high-grade heat utilization. Increasing the steam pressure decreases the thermal efficiency. The environmental impacts of fuel cell use depend upon the source of the hydrogen rich fuel used. By using pure hydrogen, fuel cells have virtually no emissions except water. Hydrogen is rarely used due to problems with storage and transportation, but in the future, the growth of a “solar hydrogen economy” has been projected

  5. Gearless wind power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, L.; Ridanpaeae, P.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-10-01

    In the project a 100 kW axial flux permanent magnet wind power generator has been designed. The toroidal stator with air gap winding is placed between two rotating discs with permanent magnets. The magnet material is NdBFe due to its excellent magnetic properties compared to other materials. This type of topology enables a very large number of poles compared to conventional machine of the same size. A large number of poles is required to achieve a low rotational speed and consequently a direct driven system. The stator winding is formed by rectangular coils. The end winding is very short leading to small resistive losses. On the other hand, the absence of iron teeth causes eddy current losses in the conductors. These can be restricted to an acceptable level by keeping the wire diameter and flux density small. This means that the number of phases should be large. Several independent three phase systems may be used. The toothless stator also means that the iron losses are small and there exists no cogging torque

  6. Solar thermal aided power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossil fuel based power generation is and will still be the back bone of our world economy, albeit such form of power generation significantly contributes to global CO2 emissions. Solar energy is a clean, environmental friendly energy source for power generation, however solar photovoltaic electricity generation is not practical for large commercial scales due to its cost and high-tech nature. Solar thermal is another way to use solar energy to generate power. Many attempts to establish solar (solo) thermal power stations have been practiced all over the world. Although there are some advantages in solo solar thermal power systems, the efficiencies and costs of these systems are not so attractive. Alternately by modifying, if possible, the existing coal-fired power stations to generate green sustainable power, a much more efficient means of power generation can be reached. This paper presents the concept of solar aided power generation in conventional coal-fired power stations, i.e., integrating solar (thermal) energy into conventional fossil fuelled power generation cycles (termed as solar aided thermal power). The solar aided power generation (SAPG) concept has technically been derived to use the strong points of the two technologies (traditional regenerative Rankine cycle with relatively higher efficiency and solar heating at relatively low temperature range). The SAPG does not only contribute to increase the efficiencies of the conventional power station and reduce its emission of the greenhouse gases, but also provides a better way to use solar heat to generate the power. This paper presents the advantages of the SAPG at conceptual level.

  7. Power Generation Characteristics of Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Operated with Simulated Coal Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Uchida, Y.; Sasaki, K.; Susuki, K.; Hori, Y.-I.; Teraoka, Y.; Eguchi, K.; Ueno, A.; Hiwatashi, K.-I.; Aizawa, M.

    2002-06-01

    Power generation characteristics of SOFCs are studied for simulated coal gas, consisting mainly of CO, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and carrier gas. Current- voltage characteristics were measured as a function of H{sub 2}-to-CO ratio. The SOFC voltage only slightly decreased with increasing CO concentration. The dependence of H{sub 2}-to-CO ratio on SOFC performance was analyzed by impedance spectroscopy. We have found that the current-voltage characteristics depend on the kind of carrier gas, indicating the importance of gas diffusion in porous anodes for anodic polarization. The influence of H{sub 2}S, one of the typical impurities in coal gas, to SOFC performance were measured as a function of H{sub 2}S concentration, H{sub 2}-to-CO ratio and operating temperature. The SOFC voltage decreased, when H{sub 2}S was added to the fuel. The voltage drop increased with increasing H{sub 2}S concentration. In addition, at a low operational temperature and/or a high CO concentration, the influence of H{sub 2}S became very significant. (author)

  8. Trace heavy metal ions promoted extracellular electron transfer and power generation by Shewanella in microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yu-Shang; Zheng, Tao; Yong, Xiao-Yu; Zhai, Dan-Dan; Si, Rong-Wei; Li, Bing; Yu, Yang-Yang; Yong, Yang-Chun

    2016-07-01

    Although microbial fuel cells (MFCs) is considered as one of the most promising technology for renewable energy harvesting, low power output still accounts one of the bottlenecks and limits its further development. In this work, it is found that Cu(2+) (0.1μgL(-1)-0.1mgL(-1)) or Cd(2+) (0.1μgL(-1)-1mgL(-1)) significantly improve the electricity generation in MFCs. The maximum power output achieved with trace level of Cu(2+) (∼6nM) or Cd(2+) (∼5nM) is 1.3 times and 1.6 times higher than that of the control, respectively. Further analysis verifies that addition of Cu(2+) or Cd(2+) effectively improves riboflavin production and bacteria attachment on the electrode, which enhances bacterial extracellular electron transfer (EET) in MFCs. These results unveil the mechanism for power output enhancement by Cu(2+) or Cd(2+) addition, and suggest that metal ion addition should be a promising strategy to enhance EET as well as power generation of MFCs. PMID:27038263

  9. Sustainable Power Generation in Continuous Flow Microbial Fuel Cell Treating Actual Wastewater: Influence of Biocatalyst Type on Electricity Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainab Z. Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Microbial fuel cells (MFCs have the potential to simultaneously treat wastewater for reuse and to generate electricity. This study mainly considers the performance of an upflow dual-chambered MFC continuously fueled with actual domestic wastewater and alternatively biocatalyzed with aerobic activated sludge and strain of Bacillus Subtilis. The behavior of MFCs during initial biofilm growth and characterization of anodic biofilm were studied. After 45 days of continuous operation, the biofilms on the anodic electrode were well developed. The performance of MFCs was mainly evaluated in terms of COD reductions and electrical power output. Results revealed that the COD removal efficiency was 84% and 90% and the stabilized power outputs were clearly observed achieving a maximum value of 120 and 270 mW/m2 obtained for MFCs inoculated with mixed cultures and Bacillus Subtilis strain, respectively.

  10. Power generation costs. Coal - nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This supplement volume contains 17 separate chapters investigating the parameters which determine power generation costs on the basis of coal and nuclear power and a comparison of these. A detailed calculation model is given. The complex nature of this type of cost comparison is shown by a review of selected parameter constellation for coal-fired and nuclear power plants. The most favourable method of power generation can only be determined if all parameters are viewed together. One quite important parameter is the load factor, or rather the hours of operation. (UA) 891 UA/UA 892 AMO

  11. CO2 Fixation, Lipid Production, and Power Generation by a Novel Air-Lift-Type Microbial Carbon Capture Cell System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xia; Liu, Baojun; Zhou, Jiti; Jin, Ruofei; Qiao, Sen; Liu, Guangfei

    2015-09-01

    An air-lift-type microbial carbon capture cell (ALMCC) was constructed for the first time by using an air-lift-type photobioreactor as the cathode chamber. The performance of ALMCC in fixing high concentration of CO2, producing energy (power and biodiesel), and removing COD together with nutrients was investigated and compared with the traditional microbial carbon capture cell (MCC) and air-lift-type photobioreactor (ALP). The ALMCC system produced a maximum power density of 972.5 mW·m(-3) and removed 86.69% of COD, 70.52% of ammonium nitrogen, and 69.24% of phosphorus, which indicate that ALMCC performed better than MCC in terms of power generation and wastewater treatment efficiency. Besides, ALMCC demonstrated 9.98- and 1.88-fold increases over ALP and MCC in the CO2 fixation rate, respectively. Similarly, the ALMCC significantly presented a higher lipid productivity compared to those control reactors. More importantly, the preliminary analysis of energy balance suggested that the net energy of the ALMCC system was significantly superior to other systems and could theoretically produce enough energy to cover its consumption. In this work, the established ALMCC system simultaneously achieved the high level of CO2 fixation, energy recycle, and municipal wastewater treatment effectively and efficiently. PMID:26270956

  12. Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Thermoelectric Generator for Maximum Power Output in Micro-CHP Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosendahl, L. A.; Mortensen, Paw V.; Enkeshafi, Ali A.

    2011-05-01

    One of the most obvious early market applications for thermoelectric generators (TEG) is decentralized micro combined heat and power (CHP) installations of 0.5 kWe to 5 kWe based on fuel cell technology. Through the use of TEG technology for waste heat recovery it is possible to increase the electricity production in micro-CHP systems by more than 15%, corresponding to system electrical efficiency increases of some 4 to 5 percentage points. This will make fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems very competitive and profitable and will also open opportunities in a number of other potential business and market segments which are not yet quantified. This paper quantifies a micro-CHP system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a high-performance TE generator. Based on a 3 kW fuel input, the hybrid SOFC implementation boosts electrical output from 945 W to 1085 W, with 1794 W available for heating purposes.

  13. Hybrid Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Thermoelectric Generator for Maximum Power Output in Micro-CHP Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosendahl, Lasse; Mortensen, Paw Vestergård; Enkeshafi, Ali A.

    2011-01-01

    market segments which are not yet quantified. This paper quantifies a micro-CHP system based on a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and a high-performance TE generator. Based on a 3 kW fuel input, the hybrid SOFC implementation boosts electrical output from 945 W to 1085 W, with 1794 W available for heating...... electricity production in micro-CHP systems by more than 15%, corresponding to system electrical efficiency increases of some 4 to 5 percentage points. This will make fuel cell-based micro-CHP systems very competitive and profitable and will also open opportunities in a number of other potential business and......One of the most obvious early market applications for thermoelectric generators (TEG) is decentralized micro combined heat and power (CHP) installations of 0.5 kWe to 5 kWe based on fuel cell technology. Through the use of TEG technology for waste heat recovery it is possible to increase the...

  14. Power Quality Improvement of a Distributed Generation Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panga Harish

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to improve the power quality for Distributed Generation (DG with power storage system. Power quality is the combination of voltage quality and current quality. Power quality is the set of limits of electrical properties that allows electrical systems to function in their intended manner without significant loss of performance or life. The electrical power quality is more concerned issue. The main problems are stationery and transient distortions in the line voltage such as harmonics, flicker, swells, sags and voltage asymmetries. Distributed Generation (DG also called as site generation, dispersed generation, embedded generation, decentralized generation, decentralized energy or distributed energy, generates electricity from the many small energy sources. In recent years, micro electric power systems such as photovoltaic generation systems, wind generators and micro gas turbines, etc., have increased with the deregulation and liberalization of the power market. Under such circumstances the environment surrounding the electric power industry has become ever more complicated and provides high-quality power in a stable manner which becomes an important topic. Here DG is assumed to include Wind power Generation (WG and Fuel Cells (FC, etc. Advantages of this system are constant power supply, constant voltage magnitude, absence of harmonics insupply voltage, un-interrupted power supply. In this project the electric power qualities in two cases will be compared. Case I: With the storage battery when it is introduced. Case II: Without the storage battery. The storage battery executes the control that maintains the voltage in the power system. It will be found that the Electric power quality will be improved, when storage battery is introduced. The model system used in this Project work is composed of a Wind Turbine, an Induction Generator, Fuel Cells, An Inverter and a Storage Battery. A miniature Wind Power Generator is

  15. Performance analysis of an integrated biomass gasification and PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) system: Hydrogen and power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PEMFC (proton exchange membrane fuel cell) is expected to play a significant role in next-generation energy systems. Because most hydrogen that is used as a fuel for PEMFCs is derived from the reforming of natural gas, the use of renewable energy sources such as biomass to produce this hydrogen offers a promising alternative. This study is focused on the performance analysis of an integrated biomass gasification and PEMFC system. The combined heat and power generation output of this integrated system is designed for residential applications, taking into account thermal and electrical demands. A flowsheet model of the integrated PEMFC system is developed and employed to analyze its performance with respect to various key operating parameters. A purification process consisting of a water–gas shift reactor and a preferential oxidation reactor is also necessary in order to reduce the concentration of CO in the synthesis gas to below 10 ppm for subsequent use in the PEMFC. The effect of load level on the performance of the PEMFC system is investigated. Based on an electrical load of 5 kW, it is found that the electrical efficiency of the PEMFC integrated system is 22%, and, when waste heat recovery is considered, the total efficiency of the PEMFC system is 51%. - Highlights: • Performance of a biomass gasification and PEMFC integrated system is analyzed. • A flowsheet model of the PEMFC integrated system is developed. • Effect of biomass sources and key parameters on hydrogen and power generation is presented. • The PEMFC integrated system is designed for small-scale power demand. • Effect of load changes on the performance of PEMFC is investigated

  16. Power Generation for River and Tidal Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wright, Alan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, Vahan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Donegan, James [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); Marnagh, Cian [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States); McEntee, Jarlath [Ocean Renewable Power Company (ORPC), Portland, ME (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Renewable energy sources are the second largest contributor to global electricity production, after fossil fuels. The integration of renewable energy continued to grow in 2014 against a backdrop of increasing global energy consumption and a dramatic decline in oil prices during the second half of the year. As renewable generation has become less expensive during recent decades, and it becomes more accepted by the global population, the focus on renewable generation has expanded from primarily wind and solar to include new types with promising future applications, such as hydropower generation, including river and tidal generation. Today, hydropower is considered one of the most important renewable energy sources. In river and tidal generation, the input resource flow is slower but also steadier than it is in wind or solar generation, yet the level of water turbulent flow may vary from one place to another. This report focuses on hydrokinetic power conversion.

  17. RF power generation

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, R G

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews the main types of r.f. power amplifiers which are, or may be, used for particle accelerators. It covers solid-state devices, tetrodes, inductive output tubes, klystrons, magnetrons, and gyrotrons with power outputs greater than 10 kW c.w. or 100 kW pulsed at frequencies from 50 MHz to 30 GHz. Factors affecting the satisfactory operation of amplifiers include cooling, matching and protection circuits are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of the state of the art for the different technologies.

  18. Power generation, operation and control

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Allen J; Sheblé, Gerald B

    2013-01-01

    Since publication of the second edition, there have been extensive changes in the algorithms, methods, and assumptions in energy management systems that analyze and control power generation. This edition is updated to acquaint electrical engineering students and professionals with current power generation systems. Algorithms and methods for solving integrated economic, network, and generating system analysis are provided. Also included are the state-of-the-art topics undergoing evolutionary change, including market simulation, multiple market analysis, multiple interchange contract analysis, c

  19. Monolithic solid oxide fuel cell technology advancement for coal-based power generation. Final report, September 1989--March 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    This project has successfully advanced the technology for MSOFCs for coal-based power generation. Major advances include: tape-calendering processing technology, leading to 3X improved performance at 1000 C; stack materials formulations and designs with sufficiently close thermal expansion match for no stack damage after repeated thermal cycling in air; electrically conducting bonding with excellent structural robustness; and sealants that form good mechanical seals for forming manifold structures. A stack testing facility was built for high-spower MSOFC stacks. Comprehensive models were developed for fuel cell performance and for analyzing structural stresses in multicell stacks and electrical resistance of various stack configurations. Mechanical and chemical compatibility properties of fuel cell components were measured; they show that the baseline Ca-, Co-doped interconnect expands and weakens in hydrogen fuel. This and the failure to develop adequate sealants were the reason for performance shortfalls in large stacks. Small (1-in. footprint) two-cell stacks were fabricated which achieved good performance (average area-specific-resistance 1.0 ohm-cm{sup 2} per cell); however, larger stacks had stress-induced structural defects causing poor performance.

  20. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  1. Continuous power generation and microbial community structure of the anode biofilms in a three-stage microbial fuel cell system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Kyungmi; Okabe, Satoshi [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Urban and Environmental Engineering

    2009-07-15

    A mediator-less three-stage two-chamber microbial fuel cell (MFC) system was developed and operated continuously for more than 1.5 years to evaluate continuous power generation while treating artificial wastewater containing glucose (10 mM) concurrently. A stable power density of 28 W/m3 was attained with an anode hydraulic retention time of 4.5 h and phosphate buffer as the cathode electrolyte. An overall dissolved organic carbon removal ratio was about 85%, and coulombic efficiency was about 46% in this MFC system. We also analyzed the microbial community structure of anode biofilms in each MFC. Since the environment in each MFC was different due to passing on the products to the next MFC in series, the microbial community structure was different accordingly. The anode biofilm in the first MFC consisted mainly of bacteria belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria, identified as Aeromonas sp., while the Firmicutes dominated the anode biofilms in the second and third MFCs that were mainly fed with acetate. Cyclic voltammetric results supported the presence of a redox compound(s) associated with the anode biofilm matrix, rather than mobile (dissolved) forms, which could be responsible for the electron transfer to the anode. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the anode biofilms were comprised of morphologically different cells that were firmly attached on the anode surface and interconnected each other with anchor-like filamentous appendages, which might support the results of cyclic voltammetry. (orig.)

  2. Maximum power output and load matching of a phosphoric acid fuel cell-thermoelectric generator hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaohang; Wang, Yuan; Cai, Ling; Zhou, Yinghui

    2015-10-01

    Based on the current models of phosphoric acid fuel cells (PAFCs) and thermoelectric generators (TGs), a new hybrid system is proposed, in which the effects of multi-irreversibilities resulting from the activation, concentration, and ohmic overpotentials in the PAFC, Joule heat and heat leak in the TG, finite-rate heat transfer between the TG and the heat reservoirs, and heat leak from the PAFC to the environment are taken into account. Expressions for the power output and efficiency of the PAFC, TG, and hybrid system are analytically derived and directly used to discuss the performance characteristics of the hybrid system. The optimal relationship between the electric currents in the PAFC and TG is obtained. The maximum power output is numerically calculated. It is found that the maximum power output density of the hybrid system will increase about 150 Wm-2, compared with that of a single PAFC. The problem how to optimally match the load resistances of two subsystems is discussed. Some significant results for practical hybrid systems are obtained.

  3. Sustainable energy recovery in wastewater treatment by microbial fuel cells: stable power generation with nitrogen-doped graphene cathode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuan; Liu, Hong; Wang, Chuan; Hou, Shuang-Xia; Yang, Nuan

    2013-12-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) recover energy sustainably in wastewater treatment. Performance of non-noble cathode catalysts with low cost in neutral medium is vital for stable power generation. Nitrogen-doped graphene (NG) as cathode catalyst was observed to exhibit high and durable activity at buffered pH 7.0 during electrochemical measurements and in MFCs with respect to Pt/C counterpart. Electrochemical measurements showed that the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on NG possessed sustained activity close to the state-of-art Pt/C in terms of onset potential and electron transfer number. NG-MFCs displayed maximum voltage output of 650 mV and maximum power density of 776 ± 12 mW m(-2), larger than 610 mV and 750 ± 19 mW m(-2) of Pt/C-MFCs, respectively. Furthermore, long-time test lasted over 90 days, during which the maximum power density of NG-MFCs declined by 7.6%, with stability comparable to Pt/C-MFCs. Structure characterization of NG implied that the relatively concentrated acidic oxygen-containing groups improved such long-time stability by repelling the protons due to the same electrostatic force, and thus the C-N active centers for ORR were left undestroyed. These findings demonstrated the competitive advantage of NG to advance the application of MFCs for recovering biomass energy in treatment of wastewater with neutral pH. PMID:24219223

  4. An investigation of a carbon dioxide-based fuel cell system as a power generation alternative for Mars exploration applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas Mejia, Oscar Roberto

    The possibility of using a bifunctional carbon dioxide-based fuel cell system as the core of a propulsion system for a Mars exploration rotorcraft is investigated here. This concept involves the production of electricity by a stack of fuel cells that rely on carbon monoxide as the fuel and oxygen as the oxidizer. These two reactants are harvested from the Martian atmosphere by employing the same stack of cells as an electrolyzing unit. The general objectives of this research are to: prove the feasibility of the concept, produce a comprehensive model that allows the prediction of performance, and offer recommendations for the successful implementation of the concept. In this work, it is pointed out and demonstrated that, at least in theory, the overall electrochemical reaction required by this concept can be achieved by transporting hydrogen protons, hydroxyl radicals, carbonate radicals, or oxygen ions between the electrodes. Complete sets of reactions are prescribed for different types of fuel cells. Anodic and cathodic reactions are presented for acid, alkaline, carbonate, and solid oxide electrolytes. Subsequently, a more detailed consideration of all relevant phenomena is done by coupling elements of chemical kinetics, electrodics, electrochemistry, and thermodynamics with experimental data, to complete the demonstration of the feasibility of the carbon dioxide-based bifunctional fuel cell system. The understanding and inclusion of key processes and mechanisms allows the construction of a model that predicts the performance of the power generation subsystem advocated here. The model adopted in this work couples mechanistics with elements derived from the application of linear regression modeling techniques. Mechanistics are used to determine: thermodynamic equilibrium potential, overvoltages due to activation, ohmic resistance, and mass transport. This approach is empirical in part because the numerical parametric expressions suggested here have to be precised

  5. Self-stacked submersible microbial fuel cell (SSMFC) for improved remote power generation from lake sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2012-01-01

    external resistance (≤400 Ω in this study) was applied. In addition, the internal resistance and OCV were the most important parameters for predicting which cell unit had the highest probability to undergo voltage reversal. Use of a capacitor was found to be an effective way to prevent voltage reversal and...

  6. Solar Power Generation Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert L. Johnson Jr.; Gary E. Carver

    2011-10-28

    This project centered on creating a solar cell prototype enabling significant reductions in module cost and increases in module efficiency. Low cost was addressed by using plentiful organic materials that only comprise 16% of the total module cost, and by leveraging building integrated PV concepts that reduce the cost of key module components to zero. High efficiency was addressed by implementing multiband organic PV, low cost spectral splitting, and possibly integrating photovoltaic and photothermal mechanisms. This research has contributed to the design of multiband organic PV, and the sealing of organic PV cells. If one assumes that the aggregate multiband efficiency can reach 12%, projected cost would be $0.97/W. If the sealing technology enables 10 to 20 year lifetimes, the LCOE will match that of domestic coal. The final report describes progress towards these goals.

  7. Power generation, operation, and control

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, Allen J

    2012-01-01

    A comprehensive text on the operation and control of power generation and transmission systems In the ten years since Allen J. Wood and Bruce F. Wollenberg presented their comprehensive introduction to the engineering and economic factors involved in operating and controlling power generation systems in electric utilities, the electric power industry has undergone unprecedented change. Deregulation, open access to transmission systems, and the birth of independent power producers have altered the structure of the industry, while technological advances have created a host of new opportunities

  8. Nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case for nuclear power, from both a world and a British standpoint, is first discussed, with particular reference to oil supply and demand. It is considered that oil and gas should in future be used as a feedstock for the chemical industry, for transportation purposes, and as a starting point for protein food for animals and later for humans; to squander so much by burning simply as a crude fuel cannot be right. It is considered that Britain should continue constructing nuclear stations at a steady modest rate, and that the fast reactor should receive increasing attention, despite the anti-nuclear lobby. The case for the fast breeder reactor is discussed in detail, including its development at UKAEA Harwell and Dounreay. Accusations against the fast reactor are considered, particularly those concerned with safety, and with the use or misuse of Pu. Public debates are discussed. (U.K.)

  9. Nuclear power generation modern power station practice

    CERN Document Server

    1971-01-01

    Nuclear Power Generation focuses on the use of nuclear reactors as heat sources for electricity generation. This volume explains how nuclear energy can be harnessed to produce power by discussing the fundamental physical facts and the properties of matter underlying the operation of a reactor. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with an overview of nuclear physics, first by considering the structure of matter and basic physical concepts such as atomic structure and nuclear reactions. The second chapter deals with the requirements of a reactor as a heat source, along with the diff

  10. Nuclear power generation cost methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified calculational procedure for the estimation of nuclear power generation cost is outlined. The report contains a discussion of the various components of power generation cost and basic equations for calculating that cost. An example calculation is given. The basis of the fixed-charge rate, the derivation of the levelized fuel cycle cost equation, and the heavy water charge rate are included as appendixes

  11. Intermittent contact of fluidized anode particles containing exoelectrogenic biofilms for continuous power generation in microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Jia

    2014-09-01

    Current generation in a microbial fuel cell can be limited by the amount of anode surface area available for biofilm formation, and slow substrate degradation kinetics. Increasing the anode surface area can increase the amount of biofilm, but performance will improve only if the anode material is located near the cathode to minimize solution internal resistance. Here we demonstrate that biofilms do not have to be in constant contact with the anode to produce current in an MFC. Granular activated carbon particles enriched with exoelectrogenic biofilm are fluidized (by stirring) in the anode chamber of the MFC, resulting in only intermittent contact between the particles and the anode current collector. The maximum power density generated is 951 ± 10 mW m-2, compared to 813 ± 2 mW m-2 for the control without stirring (packed bed), and 525 ± 1 mW m-2 in the absence of GAC particles and without stirring. GAC-biofilm particles demonstrate capacitor-like behavior, but achieve nearly constant discharge conditions due to the large number of particles that contact the current collector. These results provide proof of concept for the development of flowable electrode reactors, where anode biofilms can be electrically charged in a separate storage tank and then rapidly discharged in compact anode chambers. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Exergetic and exergoeconomic evaluation of a solid-oxide fuel-cell-based combined heat and power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Exergy-based evaluations of a SOFC-based power generation system have been made. • The exergy of fuel and the exergy of product are rigorously defined. • Cost balance and auxiliary equations are formulated for the exergoeconomic analysis. • The cost structure of the overall system has been analyzed. • Suggestions are made for improving the cost effectiveness of the entire system. - Abstract: Exergetic and exergoeconomic evaluations have been carried out for a 100 kW-class solid-oxide fuel-cell-based combined heat and power generation system, to find out the measures that would improve its efficiency, and, more importantly, its cost effectiveness. The exergoeconomic analysis is an appropriate combination of an exergetic analysis and an economic analysis; through exergoeconomics, we obtain the real cost associated with each stream and with the inefficiencies within each component in a system. For the analyses, the exergies of fuel and the exergies of product for all components have been defined. Subsequently, the exergetic efficiency of each component has been evaluated. By combining the results obtained from an economic analysis with the results of the exergetic analysis, the cost structure of the overall system has been figured out. The components, showing higher exergoeconomic factors such as SOFC stack, fuel blower, heat recovery water pump, and inverter, need reduction of investment cost, even if the associated efficiency would decreased because of this cost reduction. For the components, exhibiting lower exergoeconomic factors such as integrated reformer, fuel/water pre-heater, and air pre-heater, the main focus should be on efficiency improvements, even if higher investment expenditures would be associated with such improvements

  13. Powerful microsecond voltage pulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A microsecond voltage pulse generator, designed for investigations of high-power electron and ion beams generation in diode systems connected in parallel into a circuit with an inductive storage and plasma-erosion switch, is described. The generator consists of eight parallel pulsed voltage generators with 12 stages in each, assembled according to the Arkadiev-Marx scheme with two capacitors in each stage. The generator total energy at charged voltage of 80kV is 250 kJ. The main generator parameters are the following: the proper inductance is ≅0.7μH, wave resistance is ≅1.140hm, oscillation period is ≅3.83μs, attenuation is ≅105s-1. The results of the first experiments on generation of a microsecond high-current relativistic electron beam in a coaxial magnetically insulated diode are described

  14. Taming power: Generative historical consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, David G

    2016-04-01

    Power is a necessary dimension of all human enterprises. It can inspire and illuminate, but it can also corrupt, oppress, and destroy. Therefore, taming power has been a central moral and political question for most of human history. Writers, theorists, and researchers have suggested many methods and mechanisms for taming power: through affiliation and love, intellect and reason, responsibility, religion and values, democratic political structures, and separation of powers. Historical examples and social science research suggest that each has some success, but also that each is vulnerable to being hijacked by power itself. I therefore introduce generative historical consciousness (GHC) as a concept and measure that might help to secure the benefits of power while protecting against its outrages and excesses. I conclude by discussing the role that GHC may have played in the peaceful resolution of the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. PMID:26011649

  15. Power Generation from Coal 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This report focuses mainly on developments to improve the performance of coal-based power generation technologies, which should be a priority -- particularly if carbon capture and storage takes longer to become established than currently projected. A close look is taken of the major ongoing developments in process technology, plant equipment, instrumentation and control. Coal is an important source of energy for the world, particularly for power generation. To meet the growth in demand for energy over the past decade, the contribution from coal has exceeded that of any other energy source. Additionally, coal has contributed almost half of total growth in electricity over the past decade. As a result, CO2 emissions from coal-fired power generation have increased markedly and continue to rise. More than 70% of CO2 emissions that arise from power generation are attributed to coal. To play its role in a sustainable energy future, its environmental footprint must be reduced; using coal more efficiently is an important first step. Beyond efficiency improvement, carbon capture and storage (CCS) must be deployed to make deep cuts in CO2 emissions. The need for energy and the economics of producing and supplying it to the end-user are central considerations in power plant construction and operation. Economic and regulatory conditions must be made consistent with the ambition to achieve higher efficiencies and lower emissions. In essence, clean coal technologies must be more widely deployed.

  16. Solar power generation technology, new concepts & policy

    CERN Document Server

    Reddy, P Jayarama

    2012-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the current state of affairs in the field of solar power engineering from a global perspective. In four parts, this well-researched volume informs about (1) established solar PV (photovoltaic) technologies; (2) third-generation PV technologies based on new materials with potential for low-cost large-scale production; (3) solar cell technology based on new (third-generation) concepts such as quantum dot solar cells and nano wire solar cells using silicon and compound semiconductors; and (4) economic implications and effects, as well as policies and incentives i

  17. Power generation from solid fuels

    CERN Document Server

    Spliethoff, Hartmut

    2010-01-01

    Power Generation from Solid Fuels introduces the different technologies to produce heat and power from solid fossil (hard coal, brown coal) and renewable (biomass, waste) fuels, such as combustion and gasification, steam power plants and combined cycles etc. The book discusses technologies with regard to their efficiency, emissions, operational behavior, residues and costs. Besides proven state of the art processes, the focus is on the potential of new technologies currently under development or demonstration. The main motivation of the book is to explain the technical possibilities for reduci

  18. Generation 'Next' and nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    My generation was labeled by Russian mass media as generation 'Next.' My technical education is above average. My current position is as a mechanical engineer in the leading research and development institute for Russian nuclear engineering for peaceful applications. It is noteworthy to point out that many of our developments were really first-of-a-kind in the history of engineering. However, it is difficult to grasp the importance of these accomplishments, especially since the progress of nuclear technologies is at a standstill. Can generation 'Next' be independent in their attitude towards nuclear power or shall we rely on the opinions of elder colleagues in our industry? (authors)

  19. Power generation with sour gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, B. [Mercury Energy, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    This paper presents an overview of Mercury Energy and its experience with microturbines for power generation with sour gas. The economics of sour gas versus sweet gas were presented along with operational considerations for gas turbines and reciprocating engines. Mercury Electric was formed in 1995 as an independent power producer using waste gas. It tested the prototype and early production of microturbines for sour gas. Mercury Electric subsequently became Mercury Energy in 2002, and is now focused on exploration and production. The installation of the Gainsborough Battery in Saskatchewan offered insight into exhaust stacks, corrosion on microturbine exhaust enclosure, and the premium for low volume, sour trim compression required for hydrogen sulfide fuel gas. It was noted that small scale (less than 500 kW) sour gas fired generation is not competitive with grid power, but it may be viable for remote areas where grid power is not available. Larger scale (more than 1 MW) sour gas fired generation can compete with grid power under the right conditions. 2 tabs., 1 fig.

  20. Future Photovoltaic Power Generation for Space-Based Power Utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, S.; Landis, G.; Raffaelle, R.; Hepp, A.

    2002-01-01

    A recent NASA program, Space Solar Power Exploratory Research and Technology (SERT), investigated the technologies needed to provide cost-competitive ground baseload electrical power from space based solar energy conversion. This goal mandated low cost, light weight gigawatt (GW) power generation. Investment in solar power generation technologies would also benefit high power military, commercial and science missions. These missions are generally those involving solar electric propulsion, surface power systems to sustain an outpost or a permanent colony on the surface of the moon or mars, space based lasers or radar, or as large earth orbiting power stations which can serve as central utilities for other orbiting spacecraft, or as in the SERT program, potentially beaming power to the earth itself. This paper will discuss requirements for the two latter options, the current state of the art of space solar cells, and a variety of both evolving thin film cells as well as new technologies which may impact the future choice of space solar cells for a high power mission application. The space world has primarily transitioned to commercially available III-V (GaInP/GaAs/Ge) cells with 24-26% air mass zero (AMO) efficiencies. Research in the III-V multi-junction solar cells has focused on fabricating either lattice-mismatched materials with optimum stacking bandgaps or new lattice matched materials with optimum bandgaps. In the near term this will yield a 30% commercially available space cell and in the far term possibly a 40% cell. Cost reduction would be achieved if these cells could be grown on a silicon rather than a germanium substrate since the substrate is ~65% of the cell cost or, better yet, on a polyimide or possibly a ceramic substrate. An overview of multi-junction cell characteristics will be presented here. Thin film cells require substantially less material and have promised the advantage of large area, low cost manufacturing. However, space cell requirements

  1. Preliminary study of the influence of solar cell degradation due to ESD on solar array power generation

    OpenAIRE

    Okumura, Teppei; Toyoda, Kazuhiro; Kawakita, Shiro; Imaizumi, Mitsuru; 奥村 哲平; 豊田 和弘; 川北 史朗; 今泉 充; Cho, Mengu

    2008-01-01

    In space, an ElectroStatic Discharge (ESD) can occur on a solar array due to the plasma interaction. One of the issues of ESD is the degradation of solar cell electric performance. To establish the power degradation estimation method due to ESD in solar arrays, light current-voltage characteristics are evaluated in the current value at maximum power. From the results of the calculation, InGaP/GaAs/Ge solar arrays potentially suffer more serious power degradation than Si solar array.

  2. Fuel cell generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A high temperature solid electrolyte fuel cell generator comprising a housing means defining a plurality of chambers including a generator chamber and a combustion products chamber, a porous barrier separating the generator and combustion product chambers, a plurality of elongated annular fuel cells each having a closed end and an open end with the open ends disposed within the combustion product chamber, the cells extending from the open end through the porous barrier and into the generator chamber, a conduit for each cell, each conduit extending into a portion of each cell disposed within the generator chamber, each conduit having means for discharging a first gaseous reactant within each fuel cell, exhaust means for exhausting the combustion product chamber, manifolding means for supplying the first gaseous reactant to the conduits with the manifolding means disposed within the combustion product chamber between the porous barrier and the exhaust means and the manifolding means further comprising support and bypass means for providing support of the manifolding means within the housing while allowing combustion products from the first and a second gaseous reactant to flow past the manifolding means to the exhaust means, and means for flowing the second gaseous reactant into the generator chamber

  3. Water reactive hydrogen fuel cell power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Andrew P; Melack, John M; Lefenfeld, Michael

    2014-01-21

    A water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes devices and methods to combine reactant fuel materials and aqueous solutions to generate hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is converted in a fuel cell to provide electricity. The water reactive hydrogen fueled power system includes a fuel cell, a water feed tray, and a fuel cartridge to generate power for portable power electronics. The removable fuel cartridge is encompassed by the water feed tray and fuel cell. The water feed tray is refillable with water by a user. The water is then transferred from the water feed tray into a fuel cartridge to generate hydrogen for the fuel cell which then produces power for the user.

  4. Next Generation Geothermal Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brugman, John; Hattar, Mai; Nichols, Kenneth; Esaki, Yuri

    1995-09-01

    A number of current and prospective power plant concepts were investigated to evaluate their potential to serve as the basis of the next generation geothermal power plant (NGGPP). The NGGPP has been envisaged as a power plant that would be more cost competitive (than current geothermal power plants) with fossil fuel power plants, would efficiently use resources and mitigate the risk of reservoir under-performance, and minimize or eliminate emission of pollutants and consumption of surface and ground water. Power plant concepts were analyzed using resource characteristics at ten different geothermal sites located in the western United States. Concepts were developed into viable power plant processes, capital costs were estimated and levelized busbar costs determined. Thus, the study results should be considered as useful indicators of the commercial viability of the various power plants concepts that were investigated. Broadly, the different power plant concepts that were analyzed in this study fall into the following categories: commercial binary and flash plants, advanced binary plants, advanced flash plants, flash/binary hybrid plants, and fossil/geothed hybrid plants. Commercial binary plants were evaluated using commercial isobutane as a working fluid; both air-cooling and water-cooling were considered. Advanced binary concepts included cycles using synchronous turbine-generators, cycles with metastable expansion, and cycles utilizing mixtures as working fluids. Dual flash steam plants were used as the model for the commercial flash cycle. The following advanced flash concepts were examined: dual flash with rotary separator turbine, dual flash with steam reheater, dual flash with hot water turbine, and subatmospheric flash. Both dual flash and binary cycles were combined with other cycles to develop a number of hybrid cycles: dual flash binary bottoming cycle, dual flash backpressure turbine binary cycle, dual flash gas turbine cycle, and binary gas turbine

  5. Electric power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1985, some 25% of all Chinese were still without electricity (totalling some 260 million people exclamation point). In 1990. per capita electricity consumption was 520 kWh/year, about one-fourth of the world average. Yet all this is changing very quickly. As part of the government's reform and open policy, designed to speed economic development, the electric power industry is being challenged to match the economic growth rate one-for-one. The planned annual growth of installed generating capacity this decade is 9%. Newly added capacity is expected to be between 13 and 15 GW per year. (In 1991, installed capacity was 151 GW, while total electric energy produced was 677.5 TWh - enough to place fourth in production behind the United States, Japan and Germany.) To achieve these goals, the government is working to increase the number of financing channels available for new electric power construction, and to grant more decision-making power to electric power enterprises. Efforts are also under way to improve energy conservation, enhance international exchange and speed up the electrification of rural areas. This paper takes a look at the various power generation activities in China that are based on diesel, gas and gas turbine engines. 10 figs

  6. Adoption of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article develops a model of the innovation-adoption decision. The model allows the economic situation of a utility and its perception of uncertainty associated with an innovation to affect the probability of adopting it. This model is useful when uncertainties affecting decisions about adoption persist throughout the diffusion process, thereby making the usual adoption model implicit in rate-of-diffusion studies inappropriate. An empirical test of the model finds that firm size, power pool size, and selected aspects of uncertainty about the innovation are significant predictors of US utility companies' decisions on whether or not to adopt nuclear power generation. 17 references, 2 tables

  7. Power generation in microbial fuel cell fed with post methanation distillery effluent as a function of pH microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Anubha; Chetal, Anu

    2013-11-01

    The effect of anolyte and catholyte pH on power generation in an MFC using post methanation distillery effluent (PMDE) was studied in batch mode. Higher anodic pH (7-9) and low cathodic pH (2) were more favorable and at the optimal cathode:anode pH ratio of 2:8, power density attained was 0.457 W/m(3). An initial feed solution pH up to 10 was tolerated by the MFC. However, internal resistance increased 1.5 times and power density decreased by 60% at pH 10 as compared to that at pH 7, the normal anolyte pH. Internal resistance of the MFC was minimum (266 ohms) at cathodic pH 2, thus favoring better power generation. Under low cathodic and high anodic pH ratio of the MFC, a low internal resistance favored both high current density and power density. PMID:23994694

  8. The Development of Fuel Cell Technology for Electric Power Generation - From Spacecraft Applications to the Hydrogen Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, John H.

    2005-01-01

    The fuel cell uses a catalyzed reaction between a fuel and an oxidizer to directly produce electricity. Its high theoretical efficiency and low temperature operation made it a subject of much study upon its invention ca. 1900, but its relatively high life cycle costs kept it as "solution in search of a problem" for its first half century. The first problem for which fuel cells presented a cost effective solution was, starting in the 1960's that of a power source for NASA's manned spacecraft. NASA thus invested, and continues to invest, in the development of fuel cell power plants for this application. However, starting in the mid-1990's, prospective environmental regulations have driven increased governmental and industrial interest in "green power" and the "Hydrogen Economy." This has in turn stimulated greatly increased investment in fuel cell development for a variety of terrestrial applications. This investment is bringing about notable advances in fuel cell technology, but these advances are often in directions quite different from those needed for NASA spacecraft applications. This environment thus presents both opportunities and challenges for NASA's manned space program.

  9. Reference costs for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the 2003 study of reference costs for power generation has been completed. It was carried out by the General Directorate for Energy and Raw Materials (DGEMP) of the French Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industry, with the collaboration of power-plant operators, construction firms and many other experts. A Review Committee of experts including economists (Forecasting Department, French Planning Office), qualified public figures, representatives of power-plant construction firms and operators, and non-governmental organization (NGO) experts, was consulted in the final phase. The study examines the costs of power generated by different methods (i.e. nuclear and fossil-fuel [gas-, coal-, and oil-fired] power plants) in the context of an industrial operation beginning in the year 2015. - The second part of the study relating to decentralized production methods (wind, photovoltaic, combined heat and power) is still in progress and will be presented at the beginning of next year. - 1. Study approach: The study is undertaken mainly from an investor's perspective and uses an 8% discount rate to evaluate the expenses and receipts from different years. In addition, the investment costs are considered explicitly in terms of interest during construction. - 2. Plant operating on a full-time basis (year-round): The following graph illustrates the main conclusions of the study for an effective operating period of 8000 hours. It can be seen that nuclear is more competitive than the other production methods for a year-round operation with an 8% discount rate applied to expenses. This competitiveness is even better if the costs related to greenhouse-gas (CO2) emission are taken into account in estimating the MWh cost price. Integrating the costs resulting from CO2 emissions by non-nuclear fuels (gas, coal), which will be compulsory as of 2004 with the transposition of European directives, increases the total cost per MWh of these power generation methods. Two

  10. Induction generator powered coaxial launchers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most coaxial accelerator concepts to date have used switched power supplies to energize coils in the vicinity of the projectile, or have tolerated a grossly oversized power supply which energizes all coils during the course of the launch. Coordination of the switching, while engineeringly possible, provides opportunities for failure which reduces the reliability of the system as compared to a passively activated system requiring no switching. Excitation of un-used sections of a launcher dramatically reduces launch efficiency, and increases both power supply and cooling requirements. A launcher design which avoids the need for switching and automatically excites only the windings in the vicinity of the projectile is presented in this paper. The energy store for the launcher consists of rotating induction machines. The excitation for the launcher is provided by an excitation winding on the projectile, which makes the projectile act like the rotor of a synchronous condenser. This combination of super-synchronous induction machines (the energy stores) and synchronous alternators (the projectile) is called an induction generator. This paper provides a description of the induction generator powered launcher concept, and investigates scaling laws to assess the applicability of this technology for tactical and space launch applications

  11. Fuel cells multi-stack power architectures and experimental validation of 1 kW parallel twin stack PEFC generator based on high frequency magnetic coupling dedicated to on board power unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study of a polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) multi-stack generator and its power electronic interface dedicated to an on board vehicle power unit. A parallel electric architecture has been designed and tested. First, a dynamic model of the PEFC stack, valid for high frequencies and compatible with power converter interactions, has been developed. This model is used for simulations of the global fuel cell and power converter behaviors. Second, an inventory of generic multi-stack fuel cells architectures is presented in order to couple electrically the fuel cell stacks to an on board DC bus (in series, parallel, through magnetic coupling..). This state of the art is completed by an overview of several candidate power converter topologies for fuel cells. Then, among all the possible technical solutions, an original power converter architecture using a high frequency planar transformer is proposed, which allows parallel and series magnetic couplings of two fuel cell stacks. Then, the study focuses on a first step, which is the association of two PEFC stacks. Such a structure, having good efficiency, is well adapted for testing and operation of fuel cells in normal and degraded working modes, which correspond to real constraints on board a vehicle. Finally, experimental validations on a 2 x 500 W twin stack PEFC with power converter interface demonstrate the technological feasibility for the embarked multi-stack fuel cells generator. The 1 kW power level chosen for the experimentation is close to that of a small on board PEFC auxiliary power unit (APU)

  12. Transforming Ontario's Power Generation Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The OPG Review Committee was formed by the Ontario Ministry of Energy to provide recommendations and advice on the future role of Ontario Power Generation Inc. (OPG) in the electricity sector. This report describes the future structure of OPG with reference to the appropriate corporate governance and senior management structure. It also discusses the potential refurbishing of the Pickering A nuclear generating Units 1, 2 and 3. The electricity system in Ontario is becoming increasingly fragile. The province relies heavily on electricity imports and the transmission system is being pushed to near capacity. Three nuclear generating units are out of service. The problems can be attributed to the fact that the electricity sector has been subjected to unpredictable policy changes for more than a decade, and that the largest electricity generator (OPG) has not been well governed. OPG has had frequent senior management change, accountability has been weak, and cost overruns have delayed the return to service of the Pickering nuclear power Unit 4. It was noted that the generating assets owned and operated by OPG are capable of providing more than 70 per cent of Ontario's electricity supply. Decisive action is needed now to avoid a potential supply shortage of about 5,000 to 7,000 megawatts by 2007. In its current state, OPG risks becoming a burden on ratepayers. Forty recommendations were presented, some of which suggest that OPG should become a rate-regulated commercial utility focused on running and maintaining its core generating assets. This would require that the government act as a shareholder, and the company operate like a commercial business. It was also emphasized that the market must be allowed to bring in new players. refs., tabs., figs

  13. Electric power generation the changing dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Tagare, D M

    2011-01-01

    "This book offers an analytical overview of established electric generation processes, along with the present status & improvements for meeting the strains of reconstruction. These old methods are hydro-electric, thermal & nuclear power production. The book covers climatic constraints; their affects and how they are shaping thermal production. The book also covers the main renewable energy sources, wind and PV cells and the hybrids arising out of these. It covers distributed generation which already has a large presence is now being joined by wind & PV energies. It covers their accommodation in the present system. It introduces energy stores for electricity; when they burst upon the scene in full strength are expected to revolutionize electricity production. In all the subjects covered, there are references to power marketing & how it is shaping production. There will also be a reference chapter on how the power market works"--Provided by publisher.

  14. New energy technologies for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intensive R and D activity in the recent years is responsible for the development of various new technologies for power generation including fluidized bed combustion systems, gasifier-combined cycle plants, fuel cells and magneto-hydrodynamic power plants, advanced nuclear technologies such as fast-breeder reactor and fusion technology and renewable technologies such as solar, wind, hydro, geothermal, and ocean-thermal conversion plants. In this paper, the technical and economic facts regarding some of these technologies are briefly presented for the purpose of consistent technology evaluation and future planning for power generation. Most of these technologies are not yet commercialized or demonstrated and much uncertainty lies in any projections of their cost and performance data. For these technologies, the projections of cost and performance assume that the technology has already been successfully developed and is in a mature state of commercial use. (author)

  15. Treatment of seafood processing wastewater using upflow microbial fuel cell for power generation and identification of bacterial community in anodic biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayashree, C; Tamilarasan, K; Rajkumar, M; Arulazhagan, P; Yogalakshmi, K N; Srikanth, M; Banu, J Rajesh

    2016-09-15

    Tubular upflow microbial fuel cell (MFC) utilizing sea food processing wastewater was evaluated for wastewater treatment efficiency and power generation. At an organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.6 g d(-1), the MFC accomplished total and soluble chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal of 83 and 95%, respectively. A maximum power density of 105 mW m(-2) (2.21 W m(-3)) was achieved at an OLR of 2.57 g d(-1). The predominant bacterial communities of anode biofilm were identified as RB1A (LC035455), RB1B (LC035456), RB1C (LC035457) and RB1E (LC035458). All the four strains belonged to genera Stenotrophomonas. The results of the study reaffirms that the seafood processing wastewater can be treated in an upflow MFC for simultaneous power generation and wastewater treatment. PMID:27254294

  16. Photovoltaic technologies for commercial power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photovoltaic power generation is an attractive source of energy since it involves the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity with no moving parts and no pollution. Following the demonstration of the first solar cell 35 years ago at Bell Laboratories, a steady stream of scientific and commercial progress has led to a rapid increase in applications in recent years. The first commercial application of solar cells occurred more than 20 years ago when they were used to supply power for space satellites, and even today photovoltaic arrays are used to supply electricity for most satellites and space probes. This paper reviews the status of the various photovoltaic technologies as well as present applications. The prospects for both distributed and central station grid-connected systems are discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the institutional and political factors that will affect the introduction of grid-connected photovoltaic power systems

  17. Photovoltaic technologies for commerical power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author reports photovoltaic power generation is an attractive source of energy since it involves the direct conversion of sunlight into electricity with no moving parts and no pollution. Following the demonstration of the first solar cell 35 years ago at Bell Laboratories, a steady stream of scientific and commercial progress has led to a rapid increase in applications in recent years. The first commercial application of solar cells occurred more than 20 years ago when they were used to supply power for space satellites, and even today photovoltaic arrays are used to supply electricity for most satellites and space probes. This paper reviews the status of the various photovoltaic technologies as well as present applications. The prospects for both distributed and central station grid-connected systems are discussed. The paper concludes with a discussion of the institutional and political factors that will affect the introduction of grid-connected photovoltaic power systems

  18. Gas-fired electric power generating technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop that was held in Madrid 25-27 May 1994 included participation by experts from 16 countries. They represented such diverse fields and disciplines as technology, governmental regulation, economics, and environment. Thus, the participants provided an excellent cross section of key areas and a diversity of viewpoints. At the workshop, a broad range of topics regarding gas-fired electric power generation was discussed. These included political, regulatory and financial issues as well as more specific technical questions regarding the environment, energy efficiency, advanced generation technologies and the status of competitive developments. Important technological advances in gas-based power and CHP technologies have already been achieved including higher energy efficiency and lower emissions, with further improvements expected in the near future. Advanced technology trends include: (a) The use of gas technology to reduce emissions from existing coal-fired power plants. (b) The wide-spread application of combined-cycle gas turbines in new power plants and the growing use of aero-derivative gas turbines in CHP applications. (c) Phosphoric acid fuel cells that are being introduced commercially. Their market penetration will grow over the next 10 years. The next generation of fuel cells (solid oxide and molten carbonate) is expected to enter the market around the year 2000. (EG)

  19. Performance of two different types of anodes in membrane electrode assembly microbial fuel cells for power generation from domestic wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Hays, Sarah

    2011-10-01

    Graphite fiber brush electrodes provide high surface areas for exoelectrogenic bacteria in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but the cylindrical brush format limits more compact reactor designs. To enable MFC designs with closer electrode spacing, brush anodes were pressed up against a separator (placed between the electrodes) to reduce the volume occupied by the brush. Higher maximum voltages were produced using domestic wastewater (COD = 390 ± 89 mg L-1) with brush anodes (360 ± 63 mV, 1000 Ω) than woven carbon mesh anodes (200 ± 81 mV) with one or two separators. Maximum power densities were similar for brush anode reactors with one or two separators after 30 days (220 ± 1.2 and 240 ± 22 mW m-2), but with one separator the brush anode MFC power decreased to 130 ± 55 mW m-2 after 114 days. Power densities in MFCs with mesh anodes were very low (<45 mW m-2). Brush anodes MFCs had higher COD removals (80 ± 3%) than carbon mesh MFCs (58 ± 7%), but similar Coulombic efficiencies (8.6 ± 2.9% brush; 7.8 ± 7.1% mesh). These results show that compact (hemispherical) brush anodes can produce higher power and more effective domestic wastewater treatment than flat mesh anodes in MFCs. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Is it possible to design a portable power generator based on micro-solid oxide fuel cells? A finite volume analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pla, D.; Sánchez-González, A.; Garbayo, I.; Salleras, M.; Morata, A.; Tarancón, A.

    2015-10-01

    The inherent limited capacity of current battery technology is not sufficient for covering the increasing power requirements of widely extended portable devices. Among other promising alternatives, recent advances in the field of micro-Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (μ-SOFCs) converted this disruptive technology into a serious candidate to power next generations of portable devices. However, the implementation of single cells in real devices, i.e. μ-SOFC stacks coupled to the required balance-of-plant elements like fuel reformers or post combustors, still remains unexplored. This work aims addressing this system-level research by proposing a new compact design of a vertically stacked device fuelled with ethanol. The feasibility and design optimization for achieving a thermally self-sustained regime and a rapid and low-power consuming start-up is studied by finite volume analysis. An optimal thermal insulation strategy is defined to maintain the steady-state operation temperature of the μ-SOFC at 973 K and an external temperature lower than 323 K. A hybrid start-up procedure, based on heaters embedded in the μ-SOFCs and heat released by chemical reactions in the post-combustion unit, is analyzed allowing start-up times below 1 min and energy consumption under 500 J. These results clearly demonstrate the feasibility of high temperature μ-SOFC power systems fuelled with hydrocarbons for portable applications, therefore, anticipating a new family of mobile and uninterrupted power generators.

  1. Power Generation from Coal 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Coal is the biggest single source of energy for electricity production and its share is growing. The efficiency of converting coal into electricity matters: more efficient power plants use less fuel and emit less climate-damaging carbon dioxide. This book explores how efficiency is measured and reported at coal-fired power plants. With many different methods used to express efficiency performance, it is often difficult to compare plants, even before accounting for any fixed constraints such as coal quality and cooling-water temperature. Practical guidelines are presented that allow the efficiency and emissions of any plant to be reported on a common basis and compared against best practice. A global database of plant performance is proposed that would allow under-performing plants to be identified for improvement. Armed with this information, policy makers would be in a better position to monitor and, if necessary, regulate how coal is used for power generation. The tools and techniques described will be of value to anyone with an interest in the more sustainable use of coal.

  2. Reactive power of the ozone generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the analysis of the reactive power flow in the ozone generator power system and discusses some possibilities of its minimization. Discharge elements of the ozone generator comprise strong non-linear capacitive energy receiver and supply system should provide the ozone generator with the active power P necessary to carry out reactions in the inter-electrode zone, the reactive capacitive power Qc that is to generate electric field at the gap and the dielectric of the discharge elements and the distortion power QD due to the ozone generator non-linearity. The reactive power is provided to the circuit from the power network and the same amount is returned during every period of supply voltage resulting in the energy loss at the elements of the power system. Their minimizations in the ozone generators allow reducing power loss in the process of the ozone generation and improve overall efficiency of the system. (author)

  3. Electronic load for testing power generating devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, E. B.; Stepfer, G.

    1968-01-01

    Instrument tests various electric power generating devices by connecting the devices to the input of the load and comparing their outputs with a reference voltage. The load automatically adjusts until voltage output of the power generating device matches the reference.

  4. Performance of two different types of anodes in membrane electrode assembly microbial fuel cells for power generation from domestic wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Sarah; Zhang, Fang; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-10-01

    Graphite fiber brush electrodes provide high surface areas for exoelectrogenic bacteria in microbial fuel cells (MFCs), but the cylindrical brush format limits more compact reactor designs. To enable MFC designs with closer electrode spacing, brush anodes were pressed up against a separator (placed between the electrodes) to reduce the volume occupied by the brush. Higher maximum voltages were produced using domestic wastewater (COD = 390 ± 89 mg L-1) with brush anodes (360 ± 63 mV, 1000 Ω) than woven carbon mesh anodes (200 ± 81 mV) with one or two separators. Maximum power densities were similar for brush anode reactors with one or two separators after 30 days (220 ± 1.2 and 240 ± 22 mW m-2), but with one separator the brush anode MFC power decreased to 130 ± 55 mW m-2 after 114 days. Power densities in MFCs with mesh anodes were very low (wastewater treatment than flat mesh anodes in MFCs.

  5. Numerical analysis of electrical power generation and internal reforming characteristics in seal-less disk-type solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Takanobu; Momma, Akihiko; Takano, Kiyonami; Kato, Tohru

    For seal-less type solid oxide fuel cells, its power generation characteristics and distribution of the gas composition depend on not only the electrochemical reaction, but also complex kinetics and transport phenomena, because the internal reforming reaction and the water-gas shift reaction take place together with reverse diffusion of the ambient gas from the surroundings of the cell. The purpose of this paper is to theoretically explain the experimental results of the anodic concentration profile of gaseous species previously reported in a practical seal-less disk-type cell which used pre-reforming methane with steam as a fuel. A numerical model that takes into account the transport phenomena of the gaseous species and the internal reforming reaction with the water-gas shift reaction together with the assumption of the cell outlet boundary condition was constructed to numerically analyse the gas composition distribution and power generation characteristics. Numerical analyses by the model were conducted for the several cases reported as the experiment. The calculated results in the anode gas concentration profile and in the voltage-current characteristics show good agreement with the experimental data in every case, and then the validity of the simulation model was verified. Therefore, the model is useful for a seal-less disk-type cell which is operated by a fuel including non-reformed methane.

  6. Renewable Electricity Generation via Solar-Powered Methanol Reforming: Hybrid Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Systems Based on Novel Non-Concentrating, Intermediate-Temperature Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Real, Daniel J.

    Tremendous research efforts have been conducted studying the capturing and conversion of solar energy. Solar thermal power systems offer a compelling opportunity for renewable energy utilization with high efficiencies and excellent cost-effectiveness. The goal of this work was to design a non-concentrating collector capable of reaching temperatures above 250 °C, use this collector to power methanol steam reforming, and operate a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell using the generated hydrogen. The study presents the construction and characterization of a non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature, fin-in-tube evacuated solar collector, made of copper and capable of reaching stagnation temperatures of 268.5 °C at 1000 W/m2 irradiance. The collector was used to power methanol steam reforming, including the initial heating and vaporization of liquid reactants and the final heating of the gaseous reactants. A preferential oxidation (PROX) catalyst was used to remove CO from simulated reformate gas, and this product gas was used to operate a PEM fuel cell. The results show 1) that the outlet temperature is not limited by heat transfer from the absorber coating to the heat transfer fluid, but by the amount of solar energy absorbed. This implicates a constant heat flux description of the heat transfer process and allows for the usage of materials with lower thermal conductivity than copper. 2) It is possible to operate a PEM fuel cell from reformate gas if a PROX catalyst is used to remove CO from the gas. 3) The performance of the fuel cell is only slightly decreased (~4%) by CO2 dilution present in the reformate and PROX gas. These results provide a foundation for the first renewable electricity generation via solar-powered methanol reforming through a hybrid PEM fuel cell system based on novel non-concentrating, intermediate-temperature solar collectors.

  7. Integration of stochastic generation in power systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Papaefthymiou, G.

    2007-01-01

    Stochastic Generation is the electrical power production by the use of an uncontrollable prime energy mover, corresponding mainly to renewable energy sources. For the large-scale integration of stochastic generation in power systems, methods are necessary for the modeling of power generation uncerta

  8. Assembly of coupled redox fuel cells using copper as electron acceptors to generate power and its in-situ retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui-Min; Xu, Wei; Li, Gang; Liu, Zhan-Meng; Wu, Zu-Cheng; Li, Bo-Geng

    2016-02-01

    Energy extraction from waste has attracted much interest nowadays. Herein, a coupled redox fuel cell (CRFC) device using heavy metals, such as copper, as an electron acceptor is assembled to testify the recoveries of both electricity and the precious metal without energy consumption. In this study, a NaBH4-Cu(II) CRFC was employed as an example to retrieve copper from a dilute solution with self-electricity production. The properties of the CRFC have been characterized, and the open circuit voltage was 1.65 V with a maximum power density of 7.2 W m-2 at an initial Cu2+ concentration of 1,600 mg L-1 in the catholyte. 99.9% of the 400 mg L-1 copper was harvested after operation for 24 h, and the product formed on the cathode was identified as elemental copper. The CRFC demonstrated that useful chemicals were recovered and the electricity contained in the chemicals was produced in a self-powered retrieval process.

  9. Different electrode configurations to optimize performance of multi-electrode microbial fuel cells for generating power or treating domestic wastewater

    KAUST Repository

    Ahn, Yongtae

    2014-03-01

    Scaling-up of microbial fuel cells (MFCs) for practical applications requires compact, multiple-electrode designs. Two possible configurations are a separator electrode assembly (SEA) or closely spaced electrodes (SPA) that lack a separator. It is shown here that the optimal configuration depends on whether the goal is power production or rate of wastewater treatment. SEA MFCs produced a 16% higher maximum power density (328 ± 11 mW m-2) than SPA MFCs (282 ± 29 mW m-2), and higher coulombic efficiencies (SEAs, 9-31%; SPAs, 2-23%) with domestic wastewater. However, treatment was accomplished in only 12 h with the SPA MFC, compared to 36 h with the SEA configuration. Ohmic resistance was not a main factor in performance as this component contributed only 4-7% of the total internal resistance. Transport simulations indicated that hindered oxygen diffusion into the SEA reactor was the primary reason for the increased treatment time. However, a reduction in the overall rate of substrate diffusion also may contribute to the long treatment time with the SEA reactor. These results suggest that SEA designs can more effectively capture energy from wastewater, but SPA configurations will be superior in terms of treatment efficiency due to a greatly reduced time needed for treatment. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Silicon quantum dots embedded in amorphous SiC matrix for third-generation solar cells: Microstructure control by RF discharge power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qijin; Levchenko, Igor; Song, Denyuan; Xu, Shuyan; Ostrikov, Kostya Ken

    2015-04-01

    A low-frequency (460 kHz), low-pressure, thermally non-equilibrium, high-density inductively coupled plasma (ICP) has been used to synthesize a novel, advanced photovoltaic material suitable for fabrication of third-generation solar cells. Silicon quantum dots (SQDs) embedded in an amorphous silicon carbide matrix were prepared at a very low substrate temperature of approximately 200°C without any hydrogen dilution. The effect of the radio-frequency (RF) power of the plasma discharge on the morphology and structure of the embedded quantum dots was studied. A brief discussion on the possible mechanisms of the quantum dot formation in the ICP is presented. This study is relevant to third-generation photovoltaic solar cells.

  11. Combined heat and power generation with fuel cells in residential buildings in the future energy system; Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung mit Brennstoffzellen in Wohngebaeuden im zukuenftigen Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbluth, C.H.

    2007-04-27

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is regarded as one of the cornerstones of a future sustainable energy system. The application of this approach can be substantially extended by employing fuel cell technologies in small units for supplying heat to residential buildings. This could create an additional market for combined heat and power generation corresponding to approx. 25% of the final energy demand in Germany today. In parallel, the extensive application of distributed fuel cell systems in residential buildings would have substantial effects on energy infrastructures, primary energy demand, the energy mix and greenhouse gas emissions. It is the aim of the present study to quantify these effects via scenario modelling of energy demand and supply for Germany up to the year 2050. Two scenarios, reference and ecological commitment, are set up, and the application and operation of fuel cell plants in the future stock of residential buildings is simulated by a bottom-up approach. A model of the building stock was developed for this purpose, consisting of 213 types of reference buildings, as well as detailed simulation models of the plant operation modes. The aim was, furthermore, to identify economically and ecologically optimised plant designs and operation modes for fuel cells in residential buildings. Under the assumed conditions of the energy economy, economically optimised plant sizes for typical one- or two-family homes are in the range of a generating capacity of a few hundred watts of electrical power. Plant sizes of 2 to 4.7 kW{sub el} as discussed today are only economically feasible in multifamily dwellings. The abolition of the CHP bonus reduces profitability, especially for larger plants operated by contractors. In future, special strategies for power generation and supply can be an economically useful addition for the heat-oriented operation mode of fuel cells. On the basis of the assumed conditions of the energy economy, a technical potential for

  12. Microfluidic fuel cells for energy generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdar, M; Jänis, J; Sánchez, S

    2016-08-01

    Sustainable energy generation is of recent interest due to a growing energy demand across the globe and increasing environmental issues caused by conventional non-renewable means of power generation. In the context of microsystems, portable electronics and lab-on-a-chip based (bio)chemical sensors would essentially require fully integrated, reliable means of power generation. Microfluidic-based fuel cells can offer unique advantages compared to conventional fuel cells such as high surface area-to-volume ratio, ease of integration, cost effectiveness and portability. Here, we summarize recent developments which utilize the potential of microfluidic devices for energy generation. PMID:27367869

  13. Specification for dispersed fuel-cell generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, L. M.; Cohen, R.

    1981-11-01

    A general description and performance definition for a standard 11-mw fuel cell power plant designed for electric utility dispersed-generation applications are provided. Additional features available at the option of the purchaser are also described. The power plant can operate singly or grouped with other power plants to produce larger mutli-megawatt power stations. A 33-mw station is discussed as representative of multiple power plant installations. The power plant specification defines power rating, heat rate, fuels, operating modes, siting characteristics, and available options. A general description included in the attachments covers equipment, typical site arrangement, auxiliary subsystems, maintenance, fuel flexibility, and general fluid and electrical schematics.

  14. Coal gasification integration with solid oxide fuel cell and chemical looping combustion for high-efficiency power generation with inherent CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A novel power system integrating coal gasification with SOFC and chemical looping combustion. • The plant net power efficiency reaches 49.8% with complete CO2 separation. • Energy and exergy analysis of the entire plant is conducted. • Sensitivity analysis shows a nearly constant power output when SOFC temperature and pressure vary. • NiO oxygen carrier shows higher plant efficiency than using Fe2O3 and CuO. - Abstract: Since solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) produce electricity with high energy conversion efficiency, and chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a process for fuel conversion with inherent CO2 separation, a novel combined cycle integrating coal gasification, solid oxide fuel cell, and chemical looping combustion was configured and analyzed. A thermodynamic analysis based on energy and exergy was performed to investigate the performance of the integrated system and its sensitivity to major operating parameters. The major findings include that (1) the plant net power efficiency reaches 49.8% with ∼100% CO2 capture for SOFC at 900 °C, 15 bar, fuel utilization factor = 0.85, fuel reactor temperature = 900 °C and air reactor temperature = 950 °C, using NiO as the oxygen carrier in the CLC unit. (2) In this parameter neighborhood the fuel utilization factor, the SOFC temperature and SOFC pressure have small effects on the plant net power efficiency because changes in pressure and temperature that increase the power generation by the SOFC tend to decrease the power generation by the gas turbine and steam cycle, and v.v.; an advantage of this system characteristic is that it maintains a nearly constant power output even when the temperature and pressure vary. (3) The largest exergy loss is in the gasification process, followed by those in the CO2 compression and the SOFC. (4) Compared with the CLC Fe2O3 and CuO oxygen carriers, NiO results in higher plant net power efficiency. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first analysis

  15. Electronic power generators for ultrasonic frequencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciovica, D.

    1974-01-01

    The design and construction of an ultrasonic frequency electronic power generator are discussed. The principle design elements of the generator are illustrated. The generator provides an inductive load with an output power of two kilowatts and a variable output frequency in the fifteen to thirty KiloHertz range. The method of conducting the tests and the results obtained with selected materials are analyzed.

  16. Low Power Microrobotics Utilizing Biologically Inspired Energy Generation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Description: building a small microrover that employs energy generated by a bacterial source Objective: investigate the usability of a microbial fuel cell to power...

  17. Wind Generators and Market Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misir, Nihat

    Electricity production from wind generators holds significant importance in European Union’s 20% renewable energy target by 2020. In this paper, I show that ownership of wind generators affects market outcomes by using both a Cournot oligopoly model and a real options model. In the Cournot...... oligopoly model, ownership of the wind generators by owners of fossil-fueled (peakload) generators decreases total peakload production and increases the market price. These effects increase with total wind generation and aggregate wind generator ownership. In the real options model, start up and shut down...

  18. AGAPUTE - Advanced gas purification technologies for co-gasification of coal, refinery by-products, biomass & waste, targeted to clean power produced from gas & steam turbine generator sets and fuel cells. FINAL REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    Di Donato, Antonello; Puigjaner Corbella, Lluís; Velo García, Enrique; Nougués, José María; Pérez Fortes, María del Mar; Bojarski, Aarón David

    2010-01-01

    Informe Final del Projecte ECSC RFC-CR-04006: AGAPUTE - Advanced gas purification technologies for co-gasification of coal, refinery by-products, biomass & waste, targeted to clean power produced from gas & steam turbine generator sets and fuel cells

  19. Biofuel Cells – Alternative Power Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy generation from renewable sources and effective waste treatment are two key challenges for the sustainable development. Microbiological (or Bio-) Fuel Cells provide an elegant solution by linking both tasks. Biofuel cells, which can directly generate electricity from biodegradable substances, have rapidly gained increasing research attention. Widely available fuel sources and moderate operational conditions make them promising in renewable energy generation, wastewater treatment, power sources for remote devices, etc. This paper reviews the use of microorganisms as biocatalysts in microbiological fuel cells. The principle of biofuel cells and their construction elements are discussed. Keywords: alternative power sources, biofuel cells, biocatalysts

  20. Distributed Generation and Resilience in Power Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Scala, Antonio; Chessa, Alessandro; Caldarelli, Guido; Damiano, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    We study the effects of the allocation of distributed generation on the resilience of power grids. We find that an unconstrained allocation and growth of the distributed generation can drive a power grid beyond its design parameters. In order to overcome such a problem, we propose a topological algorithm derived from the field of Complex Networks to allocate distributed generation sources in an existing power grid.

  1. An integrated power generation system combining solid oxide fuel cell and oxy-fuel combustion for high performance and CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integrated power generation system combining solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and oxy-fuel combustion technology is proposed. The system is revised from a pressurized SOFC-gas turbine hybrid system to capture CO2 almost completely while maintaining high efficiency. The system consists of SOFC, gas turbine, oxy-combustion bottoming cycle, and CO2 capture and compression process. An ion transport membrane (ITM) is used to separate oxygen from the cathode exit air. The fuel cell operates at an elevated pressure to facilitate the use of the ITM, which requires high pressure and temperature. The remaining fuel at the SOFC anode exit is completely burned with oxygen at the oxy-combustor. Almost all of the CO2 generated during the reforming process of the SOFC and at the oxy-fuel combustor is extracted from the condenser of the oxy-combustion cycle. The oxygen-depleted high pressure air from the SOFC cathode expands at the gas turbine. Therefore, the expander of the oxy-combustion cycle and the gas turbine provides additional power output. The two major design variables (steam expander inlet temperature and condenser pressure) of the oxy-fuel combustion system are determined through parametric analysis. There exists an optimal condenser pressure (below atmospheric pressure) in terms of global energy efficiency considering both the system power output and CO2 compression power consumption. It was shown that the integrated system can be designed to have almost equivalent system efficiency as the simple SOFC-gas turbine hybrid system. With the voltage of 0.752 V at the SOFC operating at 900 oC and 8 bar, system efficiency over 69.2% is predicted. Efficiency penalty due to the CO2 capture and compression up to 150 bar is around 6.1%.

  2. Electric power generation using photovoltaic solar cells for low income rural population; Geracao de energia eletrica com celula solar fotovoltaica para populacao rural de baixa renda

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gastaldi, Andre Fava; Souza, Teofilo Miguel de; Mesquita, Rafael Pimenta [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Centro de Energias Renovaveis], e-mail: teofilo@feg.unesp.br

    2004-07-01

    With the growing electric energy use demand and almost not expansion of the energy mesh (basically composed by hydroelectric plants) existing in the country, several others methods of alternative energy generation may be necessary. Beyond that, the usually employed energy is becoming much more costly, rarer and politically more impracticable like burn fuels as oil and coal. The use of renewable approaches of energy, that are 'infinite' energies (as the wind and the light of the sun, for example), can become an excellent alternative. In this new energy group, the solar energy transformed by the use of photo voltage cells is becoming very important. The 'clear' solar radiation tends to be a more intelligent and practical option, and the future technology of energy storage will be able to solve the problem of the regions that have less sunny days. Its main advantages on the other alternative sources of energy are the trustworthiness and the previsibility. Its biggest disadvantage consists on the fact that technical limitations can not allow a solar energy generator to distribute electricity for a city. It is interesting to notice that with the development of projects as this in alternative energy, isolated areas that does not access electricity distribution network (as some far regions), it has become the most viable option of generation of electric energy. Another point is that even with the distribution network it has to be checked if it is possible to use this electricity consulting the company credential that work at those localities of consumption. Moreover, many regions of the country already installed the solar energy system for water heating, confirming that, the existing structure allows the installation of a a solar cells generation energy system without many problems. In this project, we introduce a method for electric energy generation by solar cells for rural population of low gains. This option uses low cost materials but with a good

  3. Decentralized power generation from biogas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Areva Bioenergies proposes ready-to-use biogas production and valorization units that use industrial effluents (liquid effluents, spent water, solid wastes). Biogas valorization is performed through cogeneration plants with an output power of 500 kW to 10 MW. This brochure presents Areva's global offer in methanation projects (support, engineering, optimization). Areva Bioenergies counts 20 dual-purpose power plants in operation or under construction in the world which represent an installed power of 220 MW

  4. Directly driven generators for wind power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampola, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Electromechanics

    1995-12-31

    The article deals with an analysis of directly driven, low-speed wind generators. The generators studied were a permanent-magnet synchronous machine and an asynchronous machine. The machines were compared with a typical generator of a wind power plant. The electromagnetic optimization of the machines was done by the finite element method. The rated power of the generators was 500 kW and the rotational speed was 40 rpm. (author)

  5. Development of Micro-sized Microbial Fuel Cells as Ultra-Low Power Generators Using Nano-engineered Materials and Sustainable Designs

    KAUST Repository

    Mink, Justine E.

    2013-12-01

    Many of the most pressing global challenges today and in the future center around the scarcity of sustainable energy and water sources. The innovative microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology addresses both as it utilizes bacteria to convert wastewaters into electricity. Advancing this technology requires a better understanding of the optimal materials, designs and conditions involved. The micro-sized MFC was recently developed to serve this need by providing a rapid testing device requiring only a fraction of the materials. Further, development of micro-liter scale MFCs has expanded into potential applications such as remote and self-sustained power sources as well as on-chip energy generators. By using microfabrication, the fabrication and assembly of microsized MFCs is potentially inexpensive and mass produced. The objective of the work within this dissertation was to explore and optimize the micro-sized MFC to maximize power and current generation towards the goal of a usable and application-oriented device. Micro-sized MFCs were examined and developed using four parameters/themes considered most important in producing a high power generating, yet usable device: Anode- The use of nano-engineered carbon nanomaterials, carbon nanotubes and graphene, as anode as well as testing semiconductor industry standard anode contact area materials for enhanced current production. 5 Cathode- The introduction of a membrane-less air cathode to eliminate the need for continuous chemical refills and making the entire device mobile. Reactor design- The testing of four different reactor designs (1-75 μLs) with various features intended to increase sustainability, cost-effectiveness, and usability of the microsized MFC. Fuels- The utilization of real-world fuels, such as industrial wastewaters and saliva, to power micro-sized MFCs. The micro-sized MFC can be tailored to fit a variety of applications by varying these parameters. The device with the highest power production here was

  6. Conscience of Japanese on nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are considerably many investigations and researches on the attitude of general public to nuclear power generation, but those which analyzed the contents of attitude or the research which got into the problem of what method is desirable to obtain the understanding of nuclear power generation for power generation side is rarely found. Therefore, the research on where is its cause was begun. As the result, since the attitude to nuclear power generation is related to the attitudes to many things that surround nuclear power generation in addition to that directly to nuclear power generation, it is necessary to elucidate the problem synthetically. The social investigation was carried out for the public of from 18 to 79 years old who live in the supply area of Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc. The data were obtained from those selected by probabilistic sampling, 1000 in urban area (rate of recovery 76%) and 440 in country area (rate of recovery 77%). The way of thinking on making questionnaire is shown. The investigation and the analysis of the obtained data were carried out. What do you recollect as a dangerous matter, the attitude to nuclear power generation, the structure of the conscience to nuclear power generation and its significance, the type classification of people and its features are reported and discussed. (K.I.)

  7. Radio-frequency power generation

    OpenAIRE

    Carter, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the main types of radio-frequency power amplifiers which are, or may be, used for high-power hadron accelerators. It covers tetrodes, inductive output tubes, klystrons and magnetrons with power outputs greater than 10 kW continuous wave or 100 kW pulsed at frequencies from 50 MHz to 30 GHz. Factors affecting the satisfactory operation of amplifiers include cooling, matching and protection circuits are discussed. The paper concludes with a summary of the state of the art for...

  8. Forecasting Electric Power Generation of Photovoltaic Power System for Energy Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudo, Mitsuru; Takeuchi, Akira; Nozaki, Yousuke; Endo, Hisahito; Sumita, Jiro

    Recently, there has been an increase in concern about the global environment. Interest is growing in developing an energy network by which new energy systems such as photovoltaic and fuel cells generate power locally and electric power and heat are controlled with a communications network. We developed the power generation forecast method for photovoltaic power systems in an energy network. The method makes use of weather information and regression analysis. We carried out forecasting power output of the photovoltaic power system installed in Expo 2005, Aichi Japan. As a result of comparing measurements with a prediction values, the average prediction error per day was about 26% of the measured power.

  9. Power generation using photovoltaic induction in an isolated power network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owing to increased emphasis on renewable resources, the development of suitable isolated power generators driven by energy sources, the development of suitable isolated power generators driven by energy sources such as photovoltaic, wind, small hydroelectric, biogas and etc. has recently assumed greater significance. A single phase capacitor self excited induction generator has emerged as a suitable candidate of isolated power sources. This paper presents performance analysis of a single phase self-excited induction generator driven by photovoltaic (P V) system for low power isolated stand-alone applications. A single phase induction machine can work as a self-excited induction generator when its rotor is driven at suitable speed by an photovoltaic powered do motor. Its excitation is provided by connecting a single phase capacitor bank at a stator terminals. Either to augment grid power or to get uninterrupted power during grid failure stand-alone low capacity ac generators are used. These are driven by photovoltaic, wind power or I C engines using kerosene, diesel, petrol or biogas as fuel. Self-excitation with capacitors at the stator terminals of the stator terminals of the induction machines is well demonstrated experimentally on a P V powered dc motor-induction machine set. The parameters and the excitation requirements of the induction machine run in self-excited induction generator mode are determined. The effects of variations in prime mover speed,terminal capacitance and load power factor on the machine terminal voltage are studied

  10. Infrared power cells for satellite power conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summers, Christopher J.

    1991-01-01

    An analytical investigation is performed to assess the feasibility of long-wavelength power converters for the direct conversion of IR radiation onto electrical power. Because theses devices need to operate between 5 and 30 um the only material system possible for this application is the HgCdTe system which is currently being developed for IR detectors. Thus solar cell and IR detector theories and technologies are combined. The following subject areas are covered: electronic and optical properties of HgCdTe alloys; optimum device geometry; junction theory; model calculation for homojunction power cell efficiency; and calculation for HgCdTe power cell and power beaming.

  11. Miniature Gas-Turbine Power Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Dean; Vargo, Stephen; White, Victor; Shcheglov, Kirill

    2003-01-01

    A proposed microelectromechanical system (MEMS) containing a closed- Brayton-cycle turbine would serve as a prototype of electric-power generators for special applications in which high energy densities are required and in which, heretofore, batteries have been used. The system would have a volume of about 6 cm3 and would operate with a thermal efficiency >30 percent, generating up to 50 W of electrical power. The energy density of the proposed system would be about 10 times that of the best battery-based systems now available, and, as such, would be comparable to that of a fuel cell. The working gas for the turbine would be Xe containing small quantities of CO2, O2, and H2O as gaseous lubricants. The gas would be contained in an enclosed circulation system, within which the pressure would typically range between 5 and 50 atm (between 0.5 and 5 MPa). The heat for the Brayton cycle could be supplied by any of a number of sources, including a solar concentrator or a combustor burning a hydrocarbon or other fuel. The system would include novel heat-transfer and heat-management components. The turbine would be connected to an electric power generator/starter motor. The system would include a main rotor shaft with gas bearings; the bearing surfaces would be made of a ceramic material coated with nanocrystalline diamond. The shaft could withstand speed of 400,000 rpm or perhaps more, with bearing-wear rates less than 10(exp -)4 those of silicon bearings and 0.05 to 0.1 those of SiC bearings, and with a coefficient of friction about 0.1 that of Si or SiC bearings. The components of the system would be fabricated by a combination of (1) three-dimensional xray lithography and (2) highly precise injection molding of diamond-compatible metals and ceramic materials. The materials and fabrication techniques would be suitable for mass production. The disadvantages of the proposed system are that unlike a battery-based system, it could generate a perceptible amount of sound, and

  12. Powerful nanosecond pulse train generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generator permitting to shape on the load pulsed with the repetition frequency of 103-106 Hz and more is described. The amplitude of shaped voltage pulses is up to 150 kV at pulse duration equal to 50 ns. The generator comprises connected in-series with the load two shaping and two transmission lines realized on the base of the KVI-300 low-ohmic cable. The shaping lines are supplied from two independently connected pulse voltage generators for obtaining time interval between pulses > 10-6 s; they may be also supplied from one generator for obtaining time interval -6 s. At the expense of reducing losses in the discharge circuit the amplitude of the second pulse grows with increase of time interval between pulses up to 300 ns, further on the curve flat-topping exists. The described generator is used in high-current accelerators, in which the primary negative pulse results in generation of explosive-emission plasma, and the second positive pulse provides ion beam shaping including ions of heavy metal used for production of a potential electrode. The generator multipulse mode is used for successive ion acceleration in the transport system

  13. On Maximal Power Point of Photovoltaic Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Eko; Hodaka, Ichijo

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have been developed to get the maximum power of photovoltaic (PV). Most of the studies assume that the maximum power will be reached when the PV works at the maximum power point (MPP). Since the real target is maximizing power at the load-side, that assumption should be clarified. This paper presents an analysis of photovoltaic power generation system. Some numerical value is applied to realize the value. Based on the analysis, difference value of photovoltaic MPP and load MP...

  14. High power density carbonate fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuh, C.; Johnsen, R.; Doyon, J.; Allen, J. [Energy Research Corp., Danbury, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Carbonate fuel cell is a highly efficient and environmentally clean source of power generation. Many organizations worldwide are actively pursuing the development of the technology. Field demonstration of multi-MW size power plant has been initiated in 1996, a step toward commercialization before the turn of the century, Energy Research Corporation (ERC) is planning to introduce a 2.85MW commercial fuel cell power plant with an efficiency of 58%, which is quite attractive for distributed power generation. However, to further expand competitive edge over alternative systems and to achieve wider market penetration, ERC is exploring advanced carbonate fuel cells having significantly higher power densities. A more compact power plant would also stimulate interest in new markets such as ships and submarines where space limitations exist. The activities focused on reducing cell polarization and internal resistance as well as on advanced thin cell components.

  15. A large capacity turbine generator for nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In future large capacity nuclear power plant, capacity of a generator to be applied will be 1800 MVA of the largest class in the world. In response to this, the Mitsubishi Electric Co., Ltd. began to carry out element technology verification of a four-pole large capacity turbine generator mainly using upgrading technique of large capacity, since 1994 fiscal year. And, aiming at reliability verification of the 1800 MVA class generator, a model generator with same cross-section as that of an actual one was manufactured, to carry out some verifications on its electrified tests, and so on. Every performance evaluation result of tests on the model generator were good, and high reliability to design and manufacturing technique of the 1800 MVA class generator could be verified. In future, on the base of these technologies, further upgrading of reliability on the large capacity turbine generator for nuclear power generation is intended to be carried out. (G.K.)

  16. Generate light with wind power

    OpenAIRE

    Iqbal, Fowad

    2013-01-01

    The report explain the steps taken to improve a product (SOLVINDEN), which uses sun and wind energy to generate light and is used for outdoor decoration. The research involves improvements in both designas well function. As the form follows function in the product functionality of the form is very important in selection of the form. Some of important topics which are considered are different way of using wind to charge batteries, blades profiles and shape, way of optimizing generator, ratio o...

  17. Probabilistic Evaluation of Wind Power Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power supplied by wind turbine generators (WTG) is widely random following the stochastic nature of weather conditions. For planning and decision making purposes, understanding and evaluation of the behaviour and distribution of WTG's output power are crucial. Monte Carlo simulation enables the realization of artificial futures by generating a huge number of sample paths of outcomes to perform this analysis. The paper presents an algorithm developed for a random wind speed generator governed by the probability density function of Weibull distribution and evaluates the WTG's output by using the power curve of wind turbines. The method may facilitate assessment of suitable turbine site as well as generator selection and sizing.

  18. Cycloidal tidal power generation - Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report summarises the findings of a project investigating the economic and technical viability of a cycloidal tidal stream generator and developing a performance prediction model to assess the applicability of cycloidal turbines to power generation. The concept of cycloidal power generation is described along with the use of the model to examine the performance of six designs in the tidal flow off the west coast of Scotland. Details are given of the estimated power generated and cost reductions using optimised designs. Areas to be examined for design optimisation are listed.

  19. Probabilistic Evaluation of Wind Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhamad Razali, N. M.; Misbah, Muizzuddin

    2013-06-01

    The power supplied by wind turbine generators (WTG) is widely random following the stochastic nature of weather conditions. For planning and decision making purposes, understanding and evaluation of the behaviour and distribution of WTG's output power are crucial. Monte Carlo simulation enables the realization of artificial futures by generating a huge number of sample paths of outcomes to perform this analysis. The paper presents an algorithm developed for a random wind speed generator governed by the probability density function of Weibull distribution and evaluates the WTG's output by using the power curve of wind turbines. The method may facilitate assessment of suitable turbine site as well as generator selection and sizing.

  20. Solar energy thermally powered electrical generating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, William R. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A thermally powered electrical generating system for use in a space vehicle is disclosed. The rate of storage in a thermal energy storage medium is controlled by varying the rate of generation and dissipation of electrical energy in a thermally powered electrical generating system which is powered from heat stored in the thermal energy storage medium without exceeding a maximum quantity of heat. A control system (10) varies the rate at which electrical energy is generated by the electrical generating system and the rate at which electrical energy is consumed by a variable parasitic electrical load to cause storage of an amount of thermal energy in the thermal energy storage system at the end of a period of insolation which is sufficient to satisfy the scheduled demand for electrical power to be generated during the next period of eclipse. The control system is based upon Kalman filter theory.

  1. Microwave power engineering generation, transmission, rectification

    CERN Document Server

    Okress, Ernest C

    1968-01-01

    Microwave Power Engineering, Volume 1: Generation, Transmission, Rectification considers the components, systems, and applications and the prevailing limitations of the microwave power technology. This book contains four chapters and begins with an introduction to the basic concept and developments of microwave power technology. The second chapter deals with the development of the main classes of high-power microwave and optical frequency power generators, such as magnetrons, crossed-field amplifiers, klystrons, beam plasma amplifiers, crossed-field noise sources, triodes, lasers. The third

  2. Electric power generation. Thermal power generating systems. 2. rev. and enl. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a manuscript for a lecture contents: 1. Steam power and fundamentals of the steam power process, 2. conventional, nuclear and other steam generation processes, 3. cooling systems for steam power plants, 4. gas turbine power plants and combined-cycle power plants, 5. cogeneration, 6. development of thermal power plants and environmental effects. (orig.)

  3. Generator technology for HTGR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 15% of the worlds installed capacity in electric energy production is from generators developed and manufactured by GEC Alsthom. GEC Alsthom is now working on the application of generators for HTGR power conversion systems. The main generator characteristics induced by the different HTGR power conversion technology include helium immersion, high helium pressure, brushless excitation system, magnetic bearings, vertical lineshaft, high reliability and long periods between maintenance. (author)

  4. Vietnam Power Sector : Generation Options

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2009-01-01

    This report discusses the energy sector in Vietnam. The central task for the energy sector is to meet demands for electricity in sufficient quantity and of an acceptable quality, in as commercially and financially efficient a way as possible. Several issues arise if this task is to be accomplished in the short and medium term. They are: optimizing power investments; financing the investmen...

  5. Performance Analysis and Optimum Operation Planning of Distributed Energy System Based on Micro Gas Turbine-Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid Power Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Aina; Kimijima, Shinji

    In this paper, the economical and energy saving advantages of the distributed energy system, which consists of a micro gas turbine-solid oxide fuel cell hybrid power generation system, waste heat recovery devices and air-conditioning equipments, are investigated. Firstly, the thermodynamical performance evaluation of the hybrid system with the heat recovery devices is discussed to estimate the energy conversion efficiency of the whole system. Secondly, by using 1inear programming technique, the optimum operation planning of the cogeneration plant based on the hybrid system is discussed to predict the reduction of the primary fuel consumption and utility cost. Throughout detailed investigation, it is found that the energy conversion efficiency, which includes the waste heat utilization, reaches over 80% (LHV). In addition, the optimum operation of the hybrid system, of which power generation capacity is appropriate for the energy demand, achieve the highly effective energy saving against the traditional energy supply scheme, that is, the fuel reduction reaches around 40% to the conventional value.

  6. Economic feasibility analysis of distributed electric power generation based upon the natural gas-fired fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    The final report provides a summary of results of the Cost of Ownership Model and the circumstances under which a distributed fuel cell is economically viable. The analysis is based on a series of micro computer models estimates of the capital and operations cost of a fuel cell central utility plant configuration. Using a survey of thermal and electrical demand profiles, the study defines a series of energy user classes. The energy user class demand requirements are entered into the central utility plant model to define the required size the fuel cell capacity and all supporting equipment. The central plant model includes provisions that enables the analyst to select optional plant features that are most appropriate to a fuel cell application, and that are cost effective. The model permits the choice of system features that would be suitable for a large condominium complex or a residential institution such as a hotel, boarding school or prison. Other applications are also practical; however, such applications have a higher relative demand for thermal energy, a characteristic that is well-suited to a fuel cell application with its free source of hot water or steam. The analysis combines the capital and operation from the preceding models into a Cost of Ownership Model to compute the plant capital and operating costs as a function of capacity and principal features and compares these estimates to the estimated operating cost of the same central plant configuration without a fuel cell.

  7. Capacity value evaluation of photovoltaic power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents an example of capacity value (kW-value) evaluation of photovoltaic generation from power companies generation planning point of view. The method actually applied to evaluate the supplying capability of conventional generation plants is briefly described. 21 figs, 1 tab

  8. Ergonomics and nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design and construction of nuclear power plants are executed to rigorous standards of safety and reliability. Similarly the human interface within the nuclear power plant must meet very high standards, and these must be demonstrated to be maintained and assured through time. The control room, as the operating nerve-centre of the plant, carries a large part of this responsibility. It is the work space dimension within which the operator-instrumentation interface must function as efficiently as possible. This paper provides an overview of how ergonomics has been used as a major tool in reshaping the man-machine interface within the control room in the interest of safety and reliability. Topics covered in the paper include workspace design, control panel layout, demarcation and labelling, switch and meter types, and annunciated and unannunciated alarms

  9. The generation of sex cells

    OpenAIRE

    Deglincerti, Alessia; Brivanlou, Ali H.

    2015-01-01

    Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the earliest population of germ cells established during embryonic development and constitute the beginning of the totipotent state. A recent study provides a new protocol for the efficient generation of PGC-like cells from human embryonic stem cells, providing an in vitro platform to study human PGC differentiation and specification.

  10. Converters for Distributed Power Generation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaabjerg, Frede; Yang, Yongheng

    2015-01-01

    Power electronics technology has become the enabling technology for the integration of distributed power generation systems (DPGS) such as offshore wind turbine power systems and commercial photovoltaic power plants. Depending on the applications, a vast array of DPGS-based power converter...... topologies has been developed and more are coming into the market in order to achieve an efficient and reliable power conversion from the renewables. In addition, stringent demands from both the distribution system operators and the consumers have been imposed on the renewable-based DPGS. This article...

  11. Power: towards a third generation definition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zaaiman

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Power is a well-established concept in the social sciences especially in the political sciences. Although it is widely used in scientific discourse, different definitions and perspectives prevail with regard to it. This article aims to explore the possibilities of taking the debate further towards a third generation definition of social power. Although first generation definitions (associated with Weber and Dahl and second generation definitions (associated with inter alia Giddens and Morriss are still widely used in the academic field, they do not reflect the depth of the continuous debate on the concept of power. Viewpoints, especially with regard to agency and freedom, are not reflected in current definitions. To this can also be added the important dynamic relationship between power and change. This article summarises the important aspects of power debates relevant for defining power and discusses possible ways in which this can be accommodated in a definition of power. The current debate on the relationship between power and change is also reinterpreted with regard to defining social power. The article concludes by proposing necessary aspects of a third generation definition of power and suggests such a definition.

  12. Microscale combustion and power generation

    CERN Document Server

    Cadou, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Recent advances in microfabrication technologies have enabled the development of entirely new classes of small-scale devices with applications in fields ranging from biomedicine, to wireless communication and computing, to reconnaissance, and to augmentation of human function. In many cases, however, what these devices can actually accomplish is limited by the low energy density of their energy storage and conversion systems. This breakthrough book brings together in one place the information necessary to develop the high energy density combustion-based power sources that will enable many of

  13. Electric power generation in large-scale power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Future electric power consumption will be depending on the economic development of the Federal Republic of Germany. Thermal power plants are fueled with non-renewable energy sources, i.e. coal, petroleum, natural gas or nuclear power. It is therefore important to assess the global coverage of these energy sources and to take stock of the reserves of the Federal Republic of Germany. If the waste heat left from electric power generation was made use of in dual-purpose power plants total energy consumption could be considerably reduced. Large-scale power plants do have to face and cope with the lack of distribution networks to supply the consumer. (DG)

  14. Liberation of electric power and nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan, as the Rule on Electric Business was revised after an interval of 35 years in 1995, and a competitive bid on new electric source was adopted after 1996 fiscal year, investigation on further competition introduction to electric power market was begun by establishment of the Basic Group of the Electric Business Council in 1997. By a report proposed on January, 1999 by the Group, the Rule was revised again on March, 1999 to start a partial liberation or retail of the electric power from March, 2000. From a viewpoint of energy security and for solution of global environmental problem in Japan it has been decided to positively promote nuclear power in future. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate how the competition introduction affects to development of nuclear power generation and what is a market liberation model capable of harmonizing with the development on liberation of electric power market. Here was elucidated on effect of the introduction on previous and future nuclear power generation, after introducing new aspects of nuclear power problems and investigating characteristic points and investment risks specific to the nuclear power generation. And, by investigating some possibilities to development of nuclear power generation under liberation models of each market, an implication was shown on how to be future liberation on electric power market in Japan. (G.K.)

  15. Exoelectrogenic bacteria that power microbial fuel cells

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2009-03-30

    There has been an increase in recent years in the number of reports of microorganisms that can generate electrical current in microbial fuel cells. Although many new strains have been identified, few strains individually produce power densities as high as strains from mixed communities. Enriched anodic biofilms have generated power densities as high as 6.9 W per m2 (projected anode area), and therefore are approaching theoretical limits. To understand bacterial versatility in mechanisms used for current generation, this Progress article explores the underlying reasons for exocellular electron transfer, including cellular respiration and possible cell-cell communication.

  16. Power Smoothing and MPPT for Grid-connected Wind Power Generation with Doubly Fed Induction Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yuji; Kaneda, Hirotoshi; Kobayashi, Daichi; Tanaka, Akio

    Recently, doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and synchronous generator are mostly applied for wind power generation, and variable speed control and power factor control are executed for high efficiently for wind energy capture and high quality for power system voltage. In variable speed control, a wind speed or a generator speed is used for maximum power point tracking. However, performances of a wind generation power fluctuation due to wind speed variation have not yet investigated for those controls. The authors discuss power smoothing by those controls for the DFIG inter-connected to 6.6kV distribution line. The performances are verified using power system simulation software PSCAD/EMTDC for actual wind speed data and are examined from an approximate equation of wind generation power fluctuation for wind speed variation.

  17. Development of micro power generators - A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The demand for energy sources that are compact, lightweight and powerful has significantly increased in recent years. Traditional chemical batteries which are highly developed are unable to meet the demand for high energy intensity. This gap is expected to widen in the future as electronic devices need more power to support enhanced functionalities. Hydrocarbon fuels have energy densities much greater than the best batteries. Therefore, taking advantage of the high energy density of chemical fuels to generate power becomes an attractive technological alternative to batteries. To address the growing demand for smaller scale and higher energy density power sources, various combustion-based micro power generators are being developed around the world. This review paper provides an update on recent progresses and developments in micro-scale combustion and micro power generators. The paper, broadly divided into four main sections, begins with a review of various methods to enhance and stabilize the combustion at micro-scale, subsequently improving the efficiency. This is followed by a description of various micro-thermophotovoltaic power generators. The third section focuses on MEMS based solid propellant micro-propulsion system. Lastly, a brief review is made to other micro power generators.

  18. Sustainable Power Generation by Plasma Physics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyaegbunam F. N. C. (Ph.D.

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available One of the greatest challenges of developing countries today is electric power generation. The demand for Electric power is far above generation and distribution capacities. For instance, only about 4000MW of electricity is available for nearly 170 million people in Nigeria today. On the other hand, the cities are littered with municipal solid wastes in open dumps which are dangerous to health and environment. Sustainable and successful waste management should be safe, effective, environmentally friendly and economically viable.Application of plasma Physics in waste to energy can be one of the novel ways of sustainable power generation. In plasma gasifying cupola, the organic waste materials are gasified to generate a syngas and steam which can be used to generate electricity by integrated gasification combine circle. The inorganic part of the waste is vitrified to a benign residue used for construction. This paper describes the physics and technology involved, reviews the power situation in Nigeria and the benefits of implementation of this technology in waste to electric power generation. This might be an environmentally Safe and sustainable economic solution for waste management and alternative clean power generation

  19. Power and the future generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this keynote address, the author, who was acting president of AECL at the time of the conference, emphasizes the importance of nuclear energy to Canada, and its future importance to the developing countries. In 1992, nuclear energy supplied 15% of Canada's electricity, employed 30,000 people in Canada, created at least 10,000 jobs in other sectors, generated federal tax revenues of C$700 million, and by supplanting coal and gas imports saved about C$1 billion. Export sales prospects in China, Korea, Turkey, the Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand are indicated. AECL is presently undergoing reorganization for greater efficiency. A public opinion poll indicated about 70% Canadian public support for nuclear energy

  20. The third generation of nuclear power development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Developing nations use the nuclear plant option to satisfy important overall national development objectives, in addition to providing economical electric power. The relative importance of these two objectives changes as the nuclear program develops and the interim milestones are reached. This paper describes the three typical stages of nuclear power development programs. The first and the second generations are development phases with the third generation reaching self sufficiency. Examples are presented of European and Far East countries or regions which have reached of are about to step into the third generation phase of development. The paper concludes that to achieve the objective of a nuclear power self sufficiency, other than merely filling the need of economical electric power, a careful technology transfer plan must be followed which sets realistic and achievable goals and establishes the country as a reliable and technically competent member of the nuclear power industry. (author)

  1. Sustainable Power Generation by Plasma Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Anyaegbunam F. N. C. (Ph.D.)

    2013-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges of developing countries today is electric power generation. The demand for Electric power is far above generation and distribution capacities. For instance, only about 4000MW of electricity is available for nearly 170 million people in Nigeria today. On the other hand, the cities are littered with municipal solid wastes in open dumps which are dangerous to health and environment. Sustainable and successful waste management should be safe, effective, environmen...

  2. Bike-powered electricity generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ŞTEFAN MOCANU

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Finding new energy sources is an important challenge of our times. A lot of research focuses on identifying such sources that can also be exploited with relatively simple and efficient systems. These sources can be either new materials that can be used to generate energy, or solutions to scavenge already existing forms of energy. Part of the latter class of solutions, the system presented in this paper converts the energy consumed by many people in gyms (or even at home, during exercise into electric energy. This energy exists anyway, because people want to be healthier or to look better. Currently, this significant (in our opinion amount of energy is actually wasted and transformed into heat. Instead, in this study, a prototype scavenging system (dedicated to fitness/stationary bikes to collect and (reuse this energy is presented. Specifically, we depict the design of a low-budget system that uses existing, discrete components and is able to scavenge some of the energy spent by the biker. The experimental results show that the system is functional, but its efficiency is limited by (mechanical losses before the collection.

  3. Bipolar high voltage pulse power generator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Petr; Člupek, Martin; Babický, Václav; Šunka, Pavel

    Monterey, 2005, s. 44. [IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference/15th./. Portola Plaza Hotel, Monterey, CA, USA (US), 13.06.2005-17.06.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2043105 Keywords : bipolar * pulse power generator * corona discharge Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  4. Reactive power management of power networks with wind generation

    CERN Document Server

    Amaris, Hortensia; Ortega, Carlos Alvarez

    2012-01-01

    As the energy sector shifts and changes to focus on renewable technologies, the optimization of wind power becomes a key practical issue. Reactive Power Management of Power Networks with Wind Generation brings into focus the development and application of advanced optimization techniques to the study, characterization, and assessment of voltage stability in power systems. Recent advances on reactive power management are reviewed with particular emphasis on the analysis and control of wind energy conversion systems and FACTS devices. Following an introduction, distinct chapters cover the 5 key

  5. Nuclear power generation through a diagram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It composed of a lot of charts about energy use and civilization, energy for food, clothing and shelter, tendency of consumption of world energy, distribution chart energy resources of the world and dependence of energy import in major countries, increased demand of electric power, influence of outage, plan for development of power long term in Korea, nuclear power generation of the world, nuclear reactor use, trend electric charges in Korea, radiation and management of radioactive waste, all kinds of disasters and public opinions.

  6. Space photovoltaic power generation. Uchu taiyo hatsuden ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, I. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-07-20

    Introduction is made of space photovoltaic power generation which is the ultimate clean energy source. This is a system to obtain electric energy from the solar cells placed on a geostatic orbit and transmit the power onto the earth by microwave. The US formulates a plan of placing 60[times]5GW power generation satellites to obtain 300GW power on the earth in 2000. As for the scale of space structure, the array of solar cells is dimensionally 10km[times]5km and the power transmitting antenna is 1km in diameter. The electric energy is amplified to microwave and power-transmitted by wireless onto the earth. The ground rectenna which receives it is dimensionally 10km[times]13km. The biggest difficulty consists in transportation of construction materials onto the orbit. In Japan, activity comprises three matters, which are research committee organized three years ago by the Agency of Industrial Science and technology, 10MW class model conceptually designed by the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, and experiment conducted by Kyoto University on the power transmission by wireless. Pertaining to the research on the space power generation, the following two points are judged still unclarified: Reason for which the electric power companies did not apply the power transmission by wireless regarded as high in transmission efficiency. Influence of the microwave on the ionosphere and biosystem. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  7. Thinking small: Onsite power generation may soon be big

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utilities are retheinking the way they do business. Eventually, smaller and cleaner generation units located near major load centers could begin to supplement power from central plants. The technologies necessary to this transition are emerging in the form of open-quotes distributed generation.close quotes These technologies typically produce power on a relatively small scale (less than 50 MW per unit) and can be sited in congested urban areas as well as near remote customers. This allows utilities to meet new demand for electricity without building central generating stations and without substantially expanding or upgrading the power delivery system-in other words, at lower cost. Some distributed-generation technologies, such as fuel cells and solar energy harnessed by photovoltaic (PV) cells, are just beginning to carve out niches in th power market. Others, such as engine generator sets and battery storage, have evolved into robust, high-technology systems. In the case of fuel cells and engine-driven systems, natural gas is emerging as an environmentally friendly fuel that should remain available for decades at competitive prices. As gas-fueled distributed power is deployed, utility infrastructures for delivering gas and electricity to customers could become more integrated, allowing planners to smooth load profiles for energy services and creating greater synergies between the two. As distributed-generation technologies become more practical and cost-effective, utilities may find that change can be a path toward least-cost service and sustainable profitability

  8. Nuclear power generation incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Myerscough, PB

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power generation has undergone major expansion and developments in recent years; this third edition contains much revised material in presenting the state-of-the-art of nuclear power station designs currently in operation throughout the world. The volume covers nuclear physics and basic technology, nuclear station design, nuclear station operation, and nuclear safety. Each chapter is independent but with the necessary technical overlap to provide a complete work on the safe and economic design and operation of nuclear power stations.

  9. Fuel cycles for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An illustrative data base is presented of material quantities and environmental effluents in the fuel cycles for alternative technologies of thermally generated power. The entire fuel cycle for each of ten alternative technologies is outlined for a representative power plant generating 1000 Mw of electrical power. The required utilization of material resources and the fuel cycle material quantities are indicated on a flow sheet for each technology. The technologies considered include: light-water nuclear reactors, coal, residual fuel oil, natural gas, geothermal steam, breeder fission reactors, solar energy, and thermonuclear fusion

  10. Draft, development and optimization of a fuel cell system for residential power generation with steam reformer; Entwurf, Aufbau und Optimierung eines PEM-Brennstoffzellensystems zur Hausenergieversorgung mit Dampfreformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandt, H.

    2006-05-17

    The first development cycle of a residential power generation system is described. A steam reformer was chosen to produce hydrogen out of natural gas. After carbon monoxide purification with a preferential oxidation (PrOx) unit the hydrogen rich reformat gas is feed to the anode of the PEM-fuel cell, where due to the internal reaction with air oxygen form the cathode side water, heat and electricity is produced. Due to an incomplete conversion the anode off gas contains hydrogen and residual methane, which is feed to the burner of the steam reformer to reduce the needed amount of external fuel to heat the steam reformer. To develop the system the components are separately investigated and optimized in their construction or operation to meet the system requirements. After steady state and dynamic characterization of the components they were coupled one after another to build the system. To operate the system a system control was developed to operate and characterize this complex system. After characterization the system was analyzed for further optimization. During the development of the system inventions like a water cooled PrOx, an independent fuel cell controller or a burner for anodic off gas recirculation were made. The work gives a look into the interactions between the components and allows to understand the problems by coupling such components. (orig.)

  11. Identification and characterization of a highly variable region in mitochondrial genomes of fusarium species and analysis of power generation from microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Haider Mousa

    In the microbial fuel cell (MFC) project, power generation from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 was analyzed looking for a novel system for both energy generation and sustainability. The results suggest the possibility of generating electricity from different organic substances, which include agricultural and industrial by-products. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 generates usable electrons at 30°C using both submerged and solid state cultures. In the MFC biocathode experiment, most of the CO2 generated at the anodic chamber was converted into bicarbonate due the activity of carbonic anhydrase (CA) of the Gluconobacter sp.33 strain. These findings demonstrate the possibility of generation of electricity while at the same time allowing the biomimetic sequestration of CO2 using bacterial CA. In the mitochondrial genomes project, the filamentous fungal species Fusarium oxysporum was used as a model. This species causes wilt of several important agricultural crops. A previous study revealed that a highly variable region (HVR) in the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of three species of Fusarium contained a large, variable unidentified open reading frame (LV-uORF). Using specific primers for two regions of the LV-uORF, six strains were found to contain the ORF by PCR and database searches identified 18 other strains outside of the Fusarium oxysporum species complex. The LV-uORF was also identified in three isolates of the F. oxysporum species complex. Interestingly, several F. oxysporum isolates lack the LV-uORF and instead contain 13 ORFs in the HVR, nine of which are unidentified. The high GC content and codon usage of the LV-uORF indicate that it did not co-evolve with other mt genes and was horizontally acquired and was introduced to the Fusarium lineage prior to speciation. The nonsynonymous/synonymous (dN/dS) ratio of the LV-uORFs (0.43) suggests it is under purifying selection and the putative polypeptide is predicted to be located in the mitochondrial membrane. Growth assays

  12. Nanostructured electrodes for Solar Power Generation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The key to achieving high-power solar arrays for NASA applications is the development of high-efficiency, thin-film solar cells that can be fabricated directly on...

  13. Conditional prediction intervals of wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Kariniotakis, Georges

    2010-01-01

    A generic method for the providing of prediction intervals of wind power generation is described. Prediction intervals complement the more common wind power point forecasts, by giving a range of potential outcomes for a given probability, their so-called nominal coverage rate. Ideally they inform...... integrate expertise on the characteristics of prediction errors for providing conditional interval forecasts. By simultaneously generating prediction intervals with various nominal coverage rates, one obtains full predictive distributions of wind generation. Adapted resampling is applied here to the case of...

  14. Power Generation and Distribution via Distributed Coordination Control

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Byeong-Yeon; Oh, Kwang-Kyo; Ahn, Hyo-Sung

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents power coordination, power generation, and power flow control schemes for supply-demand balance in distributed grid networks. Consensus schemes using only local information are employed to generate power coordination, power generation and power flow control signals. For the supply-demand balance, it is required to determine the amount of power needed at each distributed power node. Also due to the different power generation capacities of each power node, coordination of pow...

  15. Certification of power generation from sewage gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article discusses the certification of power generated from sewage gas in packaged co-generation units in Switzerland. Since 2003, such electricity can be sold as 'green power' to consumers, who pay an additional charge for this ecologically generated power. Since the eco-balance of this electricity generated in wastewater treatment plant is considered as being excellent, the prestigious 'Naturemade Star' label has been awarded to it. This label sets most stringent requirements. The Canius wastewater treatment plant in the 'Lenzerheide' in eastern Switzerland is taken as an example to illustrate the procedure that has to be gone through to receive certification. This certification is carried out by independent auditors and guarantees that the 'green' electricity offered by the utility meets the high ecological criteria set by the label

  16. NaBH4 (sodium borohydride) hydrogen generator with a volume-exchange fuel tank for small unmanned aerial vehicles powered by a PEM (proton exchange membrane) fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proton exchange membrane fuel cell system integrated with a NaBH4 (sodium borohydride) hydrogen generator was developed for small UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles). The hydrogen generator was composed of a catalytic reactor, liquid pump and volume-exchange fuel tank, where the fuel and spent fuel exchange the volume within a single fuel tank. Co–B catalyst supported on a porous ceramic material was used to generate hydrogen from the NaBH4 solution. Considering the power consumption according to the mission profile of a UAV, the power output of the fuel cell and auxiliary battery was distributed passively as an electrical load. A blended wing-body was selected considering the fuel efficiency and carrying capability of fuel cell components. First, the fuel cell stack and hydrogen generator were evaluated under the operating conditions, and integrated into the airframe. The ground test of the complete fuel cell UAV was performed under a range of load conditions. Finally, the fuel cell powered flight test was made for 1 h. The volume-exchange fuel tank minimized the fuel sloshing and the change in center of gravity due to fuel consumption during the flight, so that much stable operation of the fuel cell system was validated at different flight modes. - Highlights: • PEMFC system with a NaBH4 hydrogen source was developed for small UAVs. • Volume-exchange fuel tank was used to reduce the size of the fuel cell system. • Passive power management was used for a stable power output during the flight. • BWB UAV was selected by taking the fuel cell integration into consideration. • Stable operation of the fuel cell system was verified from the flight test

  17. Economics of power generation from imported biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attention is paid to the economics of import of biomass to the Netherlands, and subsequent utilisation for power generation, as a means to reduce dependence on (imported) fossil fuels and to reduce CO2 emission. Import of wood to the extent of 40 PJ or more from Baltic and South American states seems to be readily achievable. Import of biomass has various advantages, not only for the European Union (reduced CO2 emissions) but also for the countries of origin (employment creation). However, possible disadvantages or risks should be taken into account. With that in mind, import of biomass from Baltic states seems very interesting, although it should be noted that in some of those countries the alternative of fuel-switching to biomass seems to be more cost-effective than import of biomass from those countries. Given the expected increase in inland biomass consumption in the Baltic countries and the potential substantial future demand for biomass in other Western European countries it is expected that the biomass supply from Baltic countries will not be sufficient to fulfill the demand. An early focus on import from other countries seems advisable. Several power generation options are available with short to medium term potential and long term potential. The margin between costs of biomass-fuelled power and of coal fired power will be smaller, due to substantial improvements in power generating efficiency and reductions of investment costs of options for power generation from biomass, notably Biomass Gasification Combined Cycle. 18 refs

  18. Flywheel-powered X-ray generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedband, M. P.

    1984-01-01

    The use of a small flywheel appears to be a practical alternative to other power sources for mobile X-ray system applications. A 5 kg flywheel has been constructed which runs at 10 krpm and stores 30 KJ while requiring less than 500 W to bring the system up to speed. The wheel is coupled to an aircraft alternator and can yield pulsed power levels over 50 KWp. The aircraft alternator has the advantage of high frequency output which has also permitted the design of smaller high voltage transformers. A series of optical sensors detecting shaft position function as an electronic commutator so that the alternator may operate as a motor to bring the wheel up to operating speed. The system permits the generation of extremely powerful X-rays from a variety of low power sources such as household power outlets, automobile batteries or sources of poorly regulated electrical power such as those found in third world countries.

  19. LPGC, Levelized Steam Electric Power Generator Cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 - Description of program or function: LPGC is a set of nine microcomputer programs for estimating power generation costs for large steam-electric power plants. These programs permit rapid evaluation using various sets of economic and technical ground rules. The levelized power generation costs calculated may be used to compare the relative economics of nuclear and coal-fired plants based on life-cycle costs. Cost calculations include capital investment cost, operation and maintenance cost, fuel cycle cost, decommissioning cost, and total levelized power generation cost. These programs can be used for quick analyses of power generation costs using alternative economic parameters, such as interest rate, escalation rate, inflation rate, plant lead times, capacity factor, fuel prices, etc. The two major types of electric generating plants considered are pressurized-water reactor (PWR) and pulverized coal-fired plants. Data are also provided for the Large Scale Prototype Breeder (LSPB) type liquid metal reactor. Costs for plant having either one or two units may be obtained. 2 - Method of solution: LPGC consists of nine individual menu-driven programs controlled by a driver program, MAINPWR. The individual programs are PLANTCAP, for calculating capital investment costs; NUCLOM, for determining operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for nuclear plants; COALOM, for computing O and M costs for coal-fired plants; NFUEL, for calculating levelized fuel costs for nuclear plants; COALCOST, for determining levelized fuel costs for coal-fired plants; FCRATE, for computing the fixed charge rate on the capital investment; LEVEL, for calculating levelized power generation costs; CAPITAL, for determining capitalized cost from overnight cost; and MASSGEN, for generating, deleting, or changing fuel cycle mass balance data for use with NFUEL. LPGC has three modes of operation. In the first, each individual code can be executed independently to determine one aspect of the total

  20. Microfabricated thermoelectric power-generation devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleurial, Jean-Pierre (Inventor); Ryan, Margaret A. (Inventor); Borshchevsky, Alex (Inventor); Phillips, Wayne (Inventor); Kolawa, Elizabeth A. (Inventor); Snyder, G. Jeffrey (Inventor); Caillat, Thierry (Inventor); Kascich, Thorsten (Inventor); Mueller, Peter (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A device for generating power to run an electronic component. The device includes a heat-conducting substrate (composed, e.g., of diamond or another high thermal conductivity material) disposed in thermal contact with a high temperature region. During operation, heat flows from the high temperature region into the heat-conducting substrate, from which the heat flows into the electrical power generator. A thermoelectric material (e.g., a BiTe alloy-based film or other thermoelectric material) is placed in thermal contact with the heat-conducting substrate. A low temperature region is located on the side of the thermoelectric material opposite that of the high temperature region. The thermal gradient generates electrical power and drives an electrical component.

  1. Fast generation of dendritic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kvistborg, P; Bøgh, Marie; Claesson, M H; Pedersen, A W

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are potent antigen presenting cells capable of inducing immune responses. DC are widely used as vaccine adjuvant in experimental clinical settings. DC-based vaccines are normally generated using a standard 8day DC protocol (SDDC). In attempts to shorten the vaccine production...

  2. Hydropower generator and power system interaction

    OpenAIRE

    Bladh, Johan

    2012-01-01

    After decades of routine operation, the hydropower industry faces new challenges. Large-scale integration of other renewable sources of generation in the power system accentuates the role of hydropower as a regulating resource. At the same time, an extensive reinvestment programme has commenced where many old components and apparatus are being refurbished or replaced. Introduction of new technical solutions in existing power plants requires good systems knowledge and careful consideration. Im...

  3. Bipolar high voltage pulse power generator

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lukeš, Petr; Člupek, Martin; Babický, Václav; Šunka, Pavel

    Monterey : IEEE, 2007 - (Maenchen, J.; Schamiloglu, E.), s. 1061-1064 ISBN 0-7803-9190-X. [IEEE International Pulsed Power Conference/15th./. Portola Plaza Hotel, Monterey (US), 13.06.2005-17.06.2005] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK2043105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : bipolar * pulse power generator * corona discharge Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics

  4. Smart Grid Technologies: Next Generation Power Sy

    OpenAIRE

    Jyotsna P. Gabhane; Manisha N.Nimbalkar; Tejal Irkhede

    2013-01-01

    In the next-generation electric power systems that incorporate diversified renewable energy resources, automated and intelligent management is a critical component that determines the effectiveness and efficiency of these power systems. The management automation and intelligence are envisioned to offer a variety of advantages over the current systems in terms of digitalization, flexibility, intelligence, resilience, sustainability, and customization, which entitles the name Smart Grid to the ...

  5. On reliability optimization for power generation systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The reliability level of a power generation system is an important problem which is concerned by both electricity producers and electricity consumers. Why? It is known that the high reliability level may result in additional utility cost, and the low reliability level may result in additional consumer's cost, so the optimum reliability level should be determined such that the total cost can reach its minimum. Four optimization models for power generation system reliability are constructed, and the proven efficient solutions for these models are also given.

  6. Mechanism of power generation - the MHD way

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic physical principles of magnetohydrodynamics and the application of this principle for power generation (direct energy conversion) are explained. A magnetohydrodynamic generator (MHDG) is described both in the Faraday and Hall modes. The advantages of the Faraday mode and the Hall mode for different geometries of the generator are mentioned. The conductor used is a fluid - an ionised gas (plasma) or a liquid metal at high temperature. The difficulties in maintaining high temperature and high velocity for the gas and very low temperature at the same time side by side for superconducting magnets to produce a strong magnetic field, are pointed out. The most commonly used gas is purified air. The advantages of MHD generators and the present power crisis have compelled further research in this field in spite of the high costs involved. (A.K.)

  7. Power generator system for HCL reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A power generation system includes a nuclear reactor having a core which in addition to generating heat generates a high frequency electromagnetic radiation. An electromagnetic radiation chamber is positioned to receive at least a portion of the radiation generated by the reactor core. Hydrogen and chlorine are connected into the electromagnetic reactor chamber and react with controlled explosive violence when exposed to the radiation from the nuclear reactor. Oxygen is fed into the reactor chamber as a control medium. The resulting gases under high pressure and temperature are utilized to drive a gas turbine generators. In an alternative embodiment the highly ionized gases, hydrogen and chlorine are utilized as a fluid medium for use in magnetohydrodynamic generators which are attached to the electromagnetic reactor chambers

  8. Globally Secured Power Generation through Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nimika Aggarwal

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Global security is an important basis of the entire human security system. Since Industry revolution, human began to suffer from many kinds of pollution and ecosystem degradation, such as air pollution, water pollution, soil loss and degradation, etc. The need to generate power (or say electricity is the demand for today’s life because of the fact that even if there is a lot of medium to generate power then there are lot of medium for pollution as well so there would still be a shortage of clean electricity. Comparison of different forms of commercial power generation by use of the fuel cycle methods developed in European studies shows that the health burdens are extreme in areas where power stations (based on coal, Ignite, and oil are situated as they pollute the outdoor air to large extent therefore one has to overcome this state. This paper reviews the state of knowledge regarding the generation of electricity by pressure or vibration produced by our footsteps which make the generation eco-friendly and easy.

  9. Electricity generation and microbial community structure of air-cathode microbial fuel cells powered with the organic fraction of municipal solid waste and inoculated with different seeds

    KAUST Repository

    El-Chakhtoura, Joline

    2014-08-01

    The organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW), normally exceeding 60% of the waste stream in developing countries, could constitute a valuable source of feed for microbial fuel cells (MFCs). This study tested the start-up of two sets of OFMSW-fed air-cathode MFCs inoculated with wastewater sludge or cattle manure. The maximum power density obtained was 123±41mWm-2 in the manure-seeded MFCs and 116±29mWm-2 in the wastewater-seeded MFCs. Coulombic efficiencies ranged between 24±5% (manure-seeded MFCs) and 23±2% (wastewater-seeded MFCs). Chemical oxygen demand removal was >86% in all the MFCs and carbohydrate removal >98%. Microbial community analysis using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing demonstrated the dominance of the phylum Firmicutes (67%) on the anode suggesting the possible role of members of this phylum in electricity generation. Principal coordinate analysis showed that the microbial community structure in replicate MFCs converged regardless of the inoculum source. This study demonstrates efficient electricity production coupled with organic treatment in OFMSW-fueled MFCs inoculated with manure or wastewater. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Iron-nitrogen-activated carbon as cathode catalyst to improve the power generation of single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yajun; Mo, Xiaoping; Li, Kexun; Pu, Liangtao; Liu, Di; Yang, Tingting

    2016-04-01

    In order to improve the performance of microbial fuel cell (MFC), iron-nitrogen-activated carbon (Fe-N-C) as an excellent oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) catalyst was prepared here using commercial activated carbon (AC) as matrix and employed in single chamber MFC. In MFC, the maximum power density increased to 2437±55mWm(-2), which was 2 times of that with AC. The open circuit potential (OCP) of Fe-N-C cathode (0.47) was much higher than that of AC cathode (0.21V). The R0 of Fe-N-C decreased by 47% from 14.36Ω (AC) to 7.6Ω (Fe-N-C). From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), pyridinic nitrogen, quaternary nitrogen and iron species were present, which played an important role in the ORR performance of Fe-N-C. These results demonstrated that the as-prepared Fe-N-C material provided a potential alternative to Pt in AC air cathode MFC for relatively desirable energy generation and wastewater treatment. PMID:26898678

  11. Power generation alternatives for the XXI century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forecasts from different specialized sources indicate that the power consumption in the world will continue to increase. In Argentina it is expected that for the year 2020 the consumption will double the present values. In 2003, in our country, fossil fuels - carbon, oil, gas - contributed approximately 48% to the power generation, while hydroelectricity was 43% and nuclear power 9%. Fossil fuels have some advantages, main ones are present low cost and easy transport, but they have also many disadvantages in terms of contamination, environmental effects and non-renewable resources. The Carbon Dioxide (CO2), that is produced when burning fossil fuels, is considered as one of the major sources of global warming in earth (Greenhouse effect), with devastating climate consequences in certain regions as dry seasons, floods etc. In Argentina total CO2 emissions in year 1998 (last measured) were 114 million Tons. Although absolute emission values are not high, when compared with those of certain developed countries, some mitigation measures could be adopted. Emissions due to transport are diminishing thanks to a strong reconversion of public and private vehicles to run on natural gas instead of gasoline or diesel. But what are we going to do to optimize Power Generation lowering fossil fuels consumption? Some environmental NGO's insist that the only solution is to use the 'so called' renewable energies - Solar, Wind, Biomas, Geothermal - but these sources contribute only with less than 0,03% to Power Generation in our country. Figures provided by the World Energy Council shows that only 2% of Power used commercially all around the world comes from 'renewables'. Although this output could be increased in the future, WEC estimates very difficult to reach even 5% for year 2020 Solar energy is employed successfully in some countries to heat water for household purposes or to produce little amount of electricity for specific purposes. It is tempting to think that wind and sun

  12. PEOPLE - The cutting edge in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As competition for the United States power consumer increases, generating companies must seek new ways to do business. One way to keep up with the pace of change is to implement unique ideas into various areas of daily operation at the generating station. From subtle new management styles to ambitious employee education programs, changes in operating the management techniques can produce valuable results over time. An educated confident workforce is capable of vast improvement in efficiency and technical competence. We become empowered

  13. Controller For Standalone Hybrid Renewable Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    P. Madhu Prabhuraj #1 R.M. Sasiraja

    2013-01-01

    The project utilizes the resources available locally like sunlight, wind and biogas plant which can be installed with aids from government. A controller is designed to switch between generation sources with preference to renewable modes. When renewable energy is excess, the biogas is shut down and the power is used to pump water to a higher level, which can later be used for agriculture and micro hydro generation. In the hybrid system, energy has a higher reliability, can be cost effective an...

  14. Contribution to MPC coordination of distributed and power generation systems

    OpenAIRE

    Sandoval Moreno, John Anderson

    2014-01-01

    This thesis is mainly about coordination of distributed systems, with a special attention to multi-energy electric power generation ones. For purposes of optimality, as well as constraint enforcement, Model Predictive Control (MPC) is chosen as the underlying tool, while wind turbines, fuel cells, photovoltaic panels, and hydroelectric plants are mostly considered as power sources to be controlled and coordinated. In the first place, an application of MPC to a micro-grid system is proposed, i...

  15. Joint venture power generation - a successful experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to boost the development plans and to maintain the pace of economic activities, a strong need was felt to find out alternative ways and means for setting up new power generation projects to meet the rapidly growing demand. The most feasible way to overcome above difficulties, to a great extent, is to establish a power plant by joining of hands by a group of continuous process industries situated in some industrial area. One such experiment of setting up joint power plant has, very successfully, been carried out. A glance at the experiment in retrospect would be interesting. (author)

  16. Development of low grade waste heat thermoelectric power generator

    OpenAIRE

    Suvit Punnachaiya; Paiboon Kovitcharoenkul; Decho Thong-aram

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to develop a 50 watt thermoelectric power generator using low grade waste heat as a heat source,in order to recover and utilize the excess heat in cooling systems of industrial processes and high activity radioisotope sources. Electricity generation was based on the reverse operation of a thermoelectric cooling (TEC) device. The TEC devices weremodified and assembled into a set of thermal cell modules operating at a temperature less than 100°C. The developed powergenerator...

  17. ANALYSING SOLAR-WIND HYBRID POWER GENERATING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Mustafa ENGİN; Metin ÇOLAK

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, a solar-wind hybrid power generating, system that will be used for security lighting was designed. Hybrid system was installed and solar cells, wind turbine, battery bank, charge regulators and inverter performance values were measured through the whole year. Using measured values of overall system efficiency, reliability, demanded energy cost per kWh were calculated, and percentage of generated energy according to resources were defined. We also include in the paper a discussi...

  18. Optimal power flow for distribution networks with distributed generation

    OpenAIRE

    Radosavljević Jordan; Jevtić Miroljub; Klimenta Dardan; Arsić Nebojša

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a genetic algorithm (GA) based approach for the solution of the optimal power flow (OPF) in distribution networks with distributed generation (DG) units, including fuel cells, micro turbines, diesel generators, photovoltaic systems and wind turbines. The OPF is formulated as a nonlinear multi-objective optimization problem with equality and inequality constraints. Due to the stochastic nature of energy produced from renewable sources, i....

  19. Unconventional systems for lunar base power generation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent advances in thin film solar photovoltaic converters (PV's) can furnish multimegawatt power levels during lunar daylight periods with only modest mass requirements. The extended duration of lunar night (ca. 354 hr) and the high specific mass of earth-imported energy storage systems (regenerative fuel cells, batteries, etc.) render PV plus import storage power systems non-competitive with nuclear power plants for lunar bases. However, power storage or generation methods which can be constructed using primarily lunar materials, used either alone or with lightweight PV's, can be attractive alternatives to nuclear power. Three separate generic systems which can provide favorable low import mass goals have been identified and studied. These are: gravitational energy generation using lunar soil, thermal energy storage using basalt rock or glass, and electrochemical storage using lunar derived electrodes or fuels. Design, structural and operational features of these methods are described

  20. Microelectromechanical power generator and vibration sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Christenson, Todd R.

    2006-11-28

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) apparatus is disclosed which can be used to generate electrical power in response to an external source of vibrations, or to sense the vibrations and generate an electrical output voltage in response thereto. The MEM apparatus utilizes a meandering electrical pickup located near a shuttle which holds a plurality of permanent magnets. Upon movement of the shuttle in response to vibrations coupled thereto, the permanent magnets move in a direction substantially parallel to the meandering electrical pickup, and this generates a voltage across the meandering electrical pickup. The MEM apparatus can be fabricated by LIGA or micromachining.

  1. Green power perspectives on sustainable electricity generation

    CERN Document Server

    Neiva de Figueiredo, Joao

    2014-01-01

    Green Power: Perspectives on Sustainable Electricity Generation; João Neiva de Figueiredo and Mauro GuillénAn Overview of Electricity Generation Sources; Akhil Jariwala and Saumil JariwalaGermany's Energy Revolution; José Carlos Thomaz, Jr. and Sean MichalsonChina's Energy Profile and the Importance of Coal; Julia Zheng and Xiaoting ZhengChina's Search for Cleaner Electricity Generation Alternatives; Julia Zheng and Xiaoting ZhengRenewable Energy in Spain: A Quest for Energy Security; José Normando Bezerra, Jr.Renewable Energy in French Polynesia: From Unpredictable to Energy Independence? Dia

  2. Wind power generation and dispatch in competitive power markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Lisias

    Wind energy is currently the fastest growing type of renewable energy. The main motivation is led by more strict emission constraints and higher fuel prices. In addition, recent developments in wind turbine technology and financial incentives have made wind energy technically and economically viable almost anywhere. In restructured power systems, reliable and economical operation of power systems are the two main objectives for the ISO. The ability to control the output of wind turbines is limited and the capacity of a wind farm changes according to wind speeds. Since this type of generation has no production costs, all production is taken by the system. Although, insufficient operational planning of power systems considering wind generation could result in higher system operation costs and off-peak transmission congestions. In addition, a GENCO can participate in short-term power markets in restructured power systems. The goal of a GENCO is to sell energy in such a way that would maximize its profitability. However, due to market price fluctuations and wind forecasting errors, it is essential for the wind GENCO to keep its financial risk at an acceptable level when constituting market bidding strategies. This dissertation discusses assumptions, functions, and methodologies that optimize short-term operations of power systems considering wind energy, and that optimize bidding strategies for wind producers in short-term markets. This dissertation also discusses uncertainties associated with electricity market environment and wind power forecasting that can expose market participants to a significant risk level when managing the tradeoff between profitability and risk.

  3. Magnetic field generation device for magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An existent magnetic field generation device for magnetohydrodynamic electric power generation comprises at least a pair of permanent magnets disposed to an inner circumferential surface of a yoke having such a cross sectional area that two pairs of parallel sides are present, in which different magnetic poles are opposed while interposing a flow channel for a conductive fluid therebetween. Then, first permanent magnets which generate main magnetic fields are disposed each at a gap sandwiching a plane surface including a center axis of a flow channel for the conductive fluid. Second permanent magnets which generate auxiliary magnetic fields are disposed to an inner circumferential surface of a yoke intersecting the yoke to which the first permanent magnets are disposed. The magnetic poles on the side of the flow channel for the second permanent magnets have identical polarity with that of the magnetic poles of the adjacent first permanent magnets. As a result, a magnetic flux density in the flow channel for the conductive fluid can be kept homogeneous and at a high level from a position of the axial line of the flow channel to the outer circumference, thereby enabling to remarkably improve a power generation efficiency. (N.H.)

  4. Plasma plume MHD power generator and method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, J.H.

    1993-08-10

    A method is described of generating power at a situs exposed to the solar wind which comprises creating at separate sources at the situs discrete plasma plumes extending in opposed directions, providing electrical communication between the plumes at their source and interposing a desired electrical load in the said electrical communication between the plumes.

  5. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An energy security index was developed to measure how the introduction of nuclear power generation improved the national security of energy supply in Korea. Using the developed index, a quantitative effort was made to analyze the relationship between the nuclear power generation and the national energy security. Environmental impacts were evaluated and a simplified external cost of a specific coal-fired power plant in Korea was estimated using the QUERI program, which was developed by IAEA. In doing so, efforts were made to quantify the health impacts such as mortality, morbidity, and respiratory hospital admissions due to particulates, SOx, and Nox. The effects of CO2 emission regulation on the national economy were evaluated. In doing so, the introduction of carbon tax was assumed. Several scenarios were established about the share of nuclear power generation and an effort was made to see how much contribution nuclear energy could make to lessen the burden of the regulation on the national economy. This study re-evaluated the methods for estimating and distributing decommissioning cost of nuclear power plant over lifetime. It was resulted out that the annual decommissioning deposit and consequently, the annual decommissioning cost could vary significantly depending on estimating and distributing methods. (author). 24 refs., 44 tabs., 9 figs

  6. On risk of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When energy consumption becomes high and industrial activities become active, the risk of the death due to traffic accidents and work place accidents becomes high. On the other hand, if energy consumption is very low, and industrial activities are not active, there is the demerit or risk that human life becomes short as the result. In this study, on the viewpoint of the effects that poverty, electric power generation, nuclear reactor accidents, various disasters and spreading diseases exert to human life, the risks were determined quantitatively, and the risk of nuclear power generation was investigated by comparing it with other risks. When the relation of the energy consumption per one person with human life was investigated in various countries, there was considerably good correlation. In order to clarify the factors that exert influence to average life, the survival number curves of now and in the past were discussed on their change. The effects on average human life of poverty, the atmospheric contamination caused by power stations, the serious accidents in nuclear power stations such as that in Chernobyl, unexpected disasters such as Great Hanshin Earthquake and spreading diseases are reported. The comparison of the risk of nuclear power generation with other risks is shown. (K.I.)

  7. Nitrate as an Oxidant in the Cathode Chamber of a Microbial Fuel Cell for Both Power Generation and Nutrient Removal Purposes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fang, Cheng; Min, Booki; Angelidaki, Irini

    2011-01-01

    operation without catalyst. Nitrate was reduced to nitrite and ammonia in the liquid phase at a ratio of 0.6% and 51.8% of the total nitrate amount. These results suggest that nitrate can be successfully used as an oxidant for power generation without aeration and also nitrate removal from water in MFC...

  8. Comprehensive standards: the power generation case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents an illustrative data base of material quantities and environmental effluents in the fuel cycles for alternative technologies of thermally generated power. The entire fuel cycle for each of the alternative ten technologies is outlined for a representative power plant generating 1000 Mw of electrical power. The required utilization of material resources and the fuel-cycle material quantities are indicated on a flow sheet for each technology. The technologies considered are: (1) Light Water Nuclear Reactor; (2)Coal: Appalachian Bituminous and Northwestern Sub-bituminous; (3) Residual fuel oil; (4) Natural Gas; (5) High Sulfur Coal, with Coal Gasification and Sulfur Removal; (6) High Sulfur Coal, with SO2 recovery by Wet-Limestone Scrubbing; (7) Geothermal Steam; (8) Breeder Fission Reactor; (9) Solar Energy; and (10) Thermonuclear Fusion

  9. Optical generation of radio-frequency power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An optical technique for high-power radio-frequency (RF) signal generation is described. The technique uses a unique photodetector based on a traveling-wave design driven by an appropriately modulated light source. The traveling-wave photodetector (TWPD) exhibits simultaneously a theoretical quantum efficiency approaching 100 % and a very large electrical bandwidth. Additionally, it is capable of dissipating the high-power levels required for the RF generation technique. The modulated light source is formed by either the beating together of two lasers or by the direct modulation of a light source. A system example is given which predicts RF power levels of 100's of mW's at millimeter wave frequencies with a theoretical ''wall-plug'' efficiency approaching 34%

  10. Feasibility of wind power generation in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical appraisal, cost-benefit analysis, energy payback time and energy ratio have been examined to assess the feasibility of wind power generation in Ghana. At a site of average wind speed of 6.23 m/s and a height of 30 m, a 7.5 kW turbine of up-wind horizontal rotor of 6.3 m diameter produced 17.65 MW-h of energy. For payback period of 10 years, the projected cost of the energy produced by a single turbine was estimated to be GHC 0.30 (∼ 20 cents) per kWh (compared to 14 cents/kWh for photovoltaic generation and 10 cents/kWh for solar thermal), which therefore makes large scale optimized wind power generation competitive in Ghana (each renewable energy conversion system requires very high initial capital investment). For the wind aero-generation system of 20 years life span, the energy ratio estimated was 2.1; indicating that wind power generation is a feasible investment project. A computer code was developed for the financial analysis and to predict the net present value of the investment depending on the prevailing cost indices. (au)

  11. Recent advances in RF power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is a review of the progress and methods used in RF generation for particle accelerators. The frequencies of interest are from a few megahertz to 100 GHz, and the powers are for super linear collider applications, but in this case the pulses are short, generally below 1 μs. The very high-power, short-pulse generators are only lightly reviewed here, and for more details the reader should follow the specialized references. Different RF generators excel over various parts of the frequency spectrum. Below 100 MHz solid-state devices and gridded tubes prevail, while the region between 400 MHz and 3 GHz, the cyclotron-resonant devices predominate, and above 250 GHz, Free-Electron Lasers and ubitrons are the most powerful generators. The emphasis for this review is on microwave generation at frequencies below 20 GHz, so the cyclotron-resonant devices are only partially reviewed, while the progress on free-electron laser and ubitrons is not reviewed in this paper. 39 refs., 4 figs

  12. Into the future with combined heat and power generation. Fuel cells for heat and power supply; Mit dem KWK-Prinzip in die Zukunft. Strom und Waerme aus der Brennstoffzelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barth, Tobias [EWE Energie AG, Oldenburg (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The global climate is changing, and resources are limited. Energy efficiency therefore is one of the greatest challenges for the future. Against this background, the fuel cell technology is of strategic importance. Fuel cells can contribute significantly to sustainable power supply and to the conservation of resources. EWE Energie AG of Oldenburg, Germany, is a producer of fuel cell heating systems for domestic heat and power supply. (orig.)

  13. Efficient, monochromatic, high-power microwave generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microwave generation by electron beams in virtual cathode configurations can achieve significant power levels. However, most designs inherently have two competing mechanisms generating microwaves; namely the oscillating virtual cathode and the reflexing electrons. These two mechanisms tend to interfere destructively with each other. Specifically, the reflexing electrons subject the electron beam to two-stream instability, causing considerable heating of the electron beam. In addition, the space-charge of the reflexing electrons can cause the diode independence to fluctuate, resulting in oscillations of the electron beam energy. We have investigated a novel idea to remove these undesirable effects and we found that high-power, narrow-band, and monochromatic microwaves could be generated with efficiency of 10 to 20%. 16 refs., 7 figs

  14. Electrical power systems for distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, T.A.; Huval, S.J. [Stewart & Stevenson Services, Inc., Houston, TX (United States)

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}Distributed Generation{close_quotes} has become the {open_quotes}buzz{close_quotes} word of an electric utility industry facing deregulation. Many industrial facilities utilize equipment in distributed installations to serve the needs of a thermal host through the capture of exhaust energy in a heat recovery steam generator. The electrical power generated is then sold as a {open_quotes}side benefit{close_quotes} to the cost-effective supply of high quality thermal energy. Distributed generation is desirable for many different reasons, each with unique characteristics of the product. Many years of experience in the distributed generation market has helped Stewart & Stevenson to define a range of product features that are crucial to most any application. The following paper will highlight a few of these applications. The paper will also examine the range of products currently available and in development. Finally, we will survey the additional services offered by Stewart & Stevenson to meet the needs of a rapidly changing power generation industry.

  15. Power Consideration in a Piezoelectric Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Tardiveau

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A piezoelectric generator converts mechanical energy into electricity and is used in energy harvesting devices. In this paper, synchronisation conditions in regard to the excitation vibration are studied. We show that a phase shift of ninety degrees between the vibration excitation and the bender’s displacement provides the maximum power from the mechanical excitation. However, the piezoelectric material is prone to power losses; hence the bender’s displacement amplitude is optimised in order to increase the amount of power which is converted into electricity. In the paper, we use active energy harvesting to control the power flow, and all the results are achieved at a frequency of 200 Hz which is well below the generator’s resonant frequency.

  16. Improvement of power quality using distributed generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Munoz, A.; Lopez-Rodriguez, M.A.; Flores-Arias, J.M.; Bellido-Outerino, F.J. [Universidad de Cordoba, Departamento A.C., Electronica y T.E., Escuela Politecnica Superior, Campus de Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain); de-la-Rosa, J.J.G. [Universidad de Cadiz, Area de Electronica, Dpto. ISA, TE y Electronica, Escuela Politecnica Superior Avda, Ramon Puyol, S/N, E-11202-Algeciras-Cadiz (Spain); Ruiz-de-Adana, M. [Universidad de Cordoba, Departamento de Quimica Fisica y Termodinamica Aplicada, Campus de Rabanales, E-14071 Cordoba (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    This paper addresses how Distributed Generation (DG), particularly when configured in Combined Heat and Power (CHP) mode, can become a powerful reliability solution in highlight automated factories, especially when integrated with complimentary Power Quality (PQ) measures. The paper presents results from the PQ audit conducted at a highly automated plant over last year. It was found that the main problems for the equipment installed were voltage sags. Among all categories of electrical disturbances, the voltage sag (dip) and momentary interruption are the nemeses of the automated industrial process. The paper analyzes the capabilities of modern electronic power supplies and the convenience of embedded solution. Finally it is addressed the role of the DG/CHP on the reliability of digital factories. (author)

  17. Siemens power generation - answers to questions on power production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The company Siemens AG is the world electrotechnical concern with place of business in Germany. The company Siemens s. r. o. Bratislava represents activities of the concern in Slovakia and was established in 1993 as a subsidiary firm of Siemens AG Germany. Its principal activities are sales, design, services and other activities within all areas of electronics, electrical engineering, as well as power engineering including industrial systems. Power engineering projects of the concern Siemens such as nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice and Mochovce, steam gas-cycle Bratislava, reconstruction of the Refuse Incinerating Plant in Bratislava belong to the major projects in Slovakia. In the area of nuclear power engineering Siemens Power Generati-on is developing its activities in co-operation with the company Framatome ANP, which is the joint venture of companies AREVA and Siemens. An example of their active co-operation is the order on construction of the nuclear power plant in Finland, which was delivered to the consortium Framatome ANP and Siemens in December last year. Their task is to build a nuclear power plant in the town Olkiluoto in western part of Finland on the base of European Pressurised-water Reactor (EPR). This type of a reactor represents a great technology within the up-to-date nuclear power engineering development. The power plant under construction is designed for the planned output 1600 MW. The plant is planned to be put in commercial operation in 2009. In the next part fossil power engineering as well as natural gas power engineering of Siemens AG are described

  18. Decontamination techniques for BWR power generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present report describes various techniques used for decontamination in BWR power generation plants. Objectives and requirements for decontamination in BWR power plants are first discussed focusing on reduction in dose, prevention of spread of contamination, cleaning of work environments, exposure of equipment parts for inspection, re-use of decontaminated resources, and standards for decontamination. Then, the report outlines major physical, chemical and electrochemical decontamination techniques generally used in BWR power generation plants. The physical techniques include suction of deposits in tanks, jet cleaning, particle blast cleaning, ultrasonic cleaning, coating with special paints, and flushing cleaning. The chemical decontamination techniques include the use of organic acids etc. for dissolution of oxidized surface layers and treatment of secondary wastes such as liquids released from primary decontamination processes. Other techniques are used for removal of penetrated contaminants, and soft and hard cladding in and on equipment and piping that are in direct contact with radioactive materials used in nuclear power generation plants. (N.K.)

  19. Power oscillation damping by a converter-based power generation device

    OpenAIRE

    Andresen, Bjørn; Frydensbjerg, Michael Nørtoft; Knüppel, Thyge

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a power generation park comprising a power output for providing electrical output power to an electricity network . A power generation device comprises a converter device configured for receiving input power from a power generator and providing, in response hereto, the electrical output power to the power output. The power generation park further comprises a controller being configured for receiving an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in the el...

  20. Simulation of IGFC power generation system by Aspen Plus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudra, Souman; Rosendahl, Lasse; Sayem, Abu Sadahat;

    2010-01-01

    The solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is a promising technology for electricity generation. Sulfur free syngas from the gas cleaning unit serves as a fuel for SOFC in IGFC (Integrated gasification Fuel cell) power plant. It converts the chemical energy of the fuel gas directly to electric energy and...... therefore, very high efficiencies can be achieved. The outputs from SOFC can be utilized by HRSG which drives steam turbine for electricity production. The SOFC stack model developed using the process flow sheet simulator Aspen Plus which is of equilibrium type. The results indicate there must be tread off...... efficiency and power with respect to a variety of SOFC inputs. HRSG which is located after the SOFC is also included in current simulation study with various operating parameters. This paper also describes for the IGFC Power Plants, the optimization of the Heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG) is of...

  1. Power Delivery from an Actual Thermoelectric Generation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaibe, Hiromasa; Kajihara, Takeshi; Nagano, Kouji; Makino, Kazuya; Hachiuma, Hirokuni; Natsuume, Daisuke

    2014-06-01

    Similar to photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cells, thermoelectric generators (TEGs) supply direct-current (DC) power, essentially requiring DC/alternating current (AC) conversion for delivery as electricity into the grid network. Use of PVs is already well established through power conditioning systems (PCSs) that enable DC/AC conversion with maximum-power-point tracking, which enables commercial use by customers. From the economic, legal, and regulatory perspectives, a commercial PCS for PVs should also be available for TEGs, preferably as is or with just simple adjustment. Herein, we report use of a PV PCS with an actual TEG. The results are analyzed, and proper application for TEGs is proposed.

  2. COAL FIRED POWER GENERATION POTENTIAL OF BALOCHISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal Mushtaq; Abdul Qadeer; Fahad Mir; Adnan Aftab

    2012-01-01

    Socio-Economic development in Balochistan has always been stressed due to the lack of an adequateand dependable electricity supply. To meet the needs for power generation not only over burdenthat existing infra-structure but also put pressure on oil and gas resources. The share of coal in thepower generation of Pakistan is merely 1%. The unexploited coal resources of Pakistan may generatemore than 100 GW of electricity for the next 30 years by converting coal to a clean gas, which canthen be ...

  3. Unregulated generation relationships at Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper examines the contractual and mandated power generation pricing relationships between an electric utility and unregulated power generation stations. The topics of the paper include types of generation facilities, current capacity of unregulated generators, rights to power markets, utility planning, responding to a changing market, power purchase agreement relationships, enforcement and renegotiation

  4. Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ∼3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs. (paper)

  5. Complementary power output characteristics of electromagnetic generators and triboelectric generators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Feng-Ru; Tang, Wei; Yao, Yan; Luo, Jianjun; Zhang, Chi; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2014-04-01

    Recently, a triboelectric generator (TEG) has been invented to convert mechanical energy into electricity by a conjunction of triboelectrification and electrostatic induction. Compared to the traditional electromagnetic generator (EMG) that produces a high output current but low voltage, the TEG has different output characteristics of low output current but high output voltage. In this paper, we present a comparative study regarding the fundamentals of TEGs and EMGs. The power output performances of the EMG and the TEG have a special complementary relationship, with the EMG being a voltage source and the TEG a current source. Utilizing a power transformed and managed (PTM) system, the current output of a TEG can reach as high as ∼3 mA, which can be coupled with the output signal of an EMG to enhance the output power. We also demonstrate a design to integrate a TEG and an EMG into a single device for simultaneously harvesting mechanical energy. In addition, the integrated NGs can independently output a high voltage and a high current to meet special needs. PMID:24595200

  6. Catalytic microreactors for portable power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karagiannidis, Symeon [Paul Scherer Institute, Villigen (Switzerland)

    2011-07-01

    ''Catalytic Microreactors for Portable Power Generation'' addresses a problem of high relevance and increased complexity in energy technology. This thesis outlines an investigation into catalytic and gas-phase combustion characteristics in channel-flow, platinum-coated microreactors. The emphasis of the study is on microreactor/microturbine concepts for portable power generation and the fuels of interest are methane and propane. The author carefully describes numerical and experimental techniques, providing a new insight into the complex interactions between chemical kinetics and molecular transport processes, as well as giving the first detailed report of hetero-/homogeneous chemical reaction mechanisms for catalytic propane combustion. The outcome of this work will be widely applied to the industrial design of micro- and mesoscale combustors. (orig.)

  7. Network integration of distributed power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dondi, Peter; Bayoumi, Deia; Haederli, Christoph; Julian, Danny; Suter, Marco

    The world-wide move to deregulation of the electricity and other energy markets, concerns about the environment, and advances in renewable and high efficiency technologies has led to major emphasis being placed on the use of small power generation units in a variety of forms. The paper reviews the position of distributed generation (DG, as these small units are called in comparison with central power plants) with respect to the installation and interconnection of such units with the classical grid infrastructure. In particular, the status of technical standards both in Europe and USA, possible ways to improve the interconnection situation, and also the need for decisions that provide a satisfactory position for the network operator (who remains responsible for the grid, its operation, maintenance and investment plans) are addressed.

  8. Plasma focus experiments powered by explosive generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The plasma focus project began as an effort to develop an intense, pulsed, expendable neutron radiographic source. Since previous efforts to power a plasma focus with explosive generators had been successful, we proposed to couple our plate generators to a coaxial-geometry plasma focus to achieve this goal. Utilizing a small capacitor bank and a selected set of diagnostics, the explosive experiments were successfully conducted with maximum currents of 1.5 MA to 2.4 MA. A maximum neutron yield of approx. 3 x 1011 (DD) neutrons was achieved at the 2.4 MA level. Since the neutron yield did scale as a power of the maximum delivered current, and the neutron-producing source region was small, we conclude that this approach is an attractive option to achieve a neutron radiographic source. The need for a reliable open-circuiting switch at several megamperes has resulted in postponement of the project

  9. Heat Management in Thermoelectric Power Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebarjadi, M.

    2016-04-01

    Thermoelectric power generators are used to convert heat into electricity. Like any other heat engine, the performance of a thermoelectric generator increases as the temperature difference on the sides increases. It is generally assumed that as more heat is forced through the thermoelectric legs, their performance increases. Therefore, insulations are typically used to minimize the heat losses and to confine the heat transport through the thermoelectric legs. In this paper we show that to some extend it is beneficial to purposely open heat loss channels in order to establish a larger temperature gradient and therefore to increase the overall efficiency and achieve larger electric power output. We define a modified Biot number (Bi) as an indicator of requirements for sidewall insulation. We show cooling from sidewalls increases the efficiency for Bi values less than one, and decreases the efficiency for Bi values larger than one.

  10. Heat Management in Thermoelectric Power Generators

    CERN Document Server

    Zebarjadi, Mona

    2015-01-01

    Thermoelectric power generators are used to convert heat into electricity. Like any other heat engine, the performance of a thermoelectric generator increases as the temperature difference on the sides increases. It is generally assumed that as more heat is forced through the thermoelectric legs, their performance increases. Therefore, insulations are typically used to minimize the heat losses and to confine the heat transport through the thermoelectric legs. In this paper we show that to some extend it is beneficial to purposely open heat loss channels in order to establish a larger temperature gradient and therefore to increase the overall efficiency and achieve larger electric power output. We define a modified Biot number (Bi) as an indicator of requirements for sidewall insulation. We show that if Bi1, it lowers the conversion efficiency.

  11. Power generation from refuse derived fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The beginning of the third millennium has been characterized by a progressive increase in the demand for fossil fuels, which has caused a steep rise in oil price. At the same time, several environmental disasters have increased the sensitivity of world-wide public opinion towards the effect that environmental pollution has on human health and climate change. These conditions have fostered a renewed interest in renewable energy like solar energy, wind energy, biomass and solid wastes. In addition, the disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW) has become a critical and costly problem. The traditional landfill method requires large amounts of land and contaminates air, water and soil. The increase in socio-economic condition during the past ten years has also significantly increased the amount of solid waste generated. There are around 1200 tons of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated daily, of which the combustibles namely plastics, paper and textile waste represent 28%, and with the present generation rate, the landfill will be filled by 2012. The study was, therefore, initiated to assess the potential of power generation from refused derived fuels (RDF) from municipal solid waste (MSW) in order to reduce the dependency on fossil fuels. There are 336 tons which is equivalent to 12 tons/ h of RDF that can be generated daily from the MSW and this would generate 19.2 MW power. There will be 312 kg/ h of ash that would be generated and the NOx and SO2 concentration were found to be 395.5 and 43.3 mg/ Nm3 respectively. It was also found that the amount of non-biogenic CO2 produced was 471 g/ kWhe. (author)

  12. Experimental performance of a thermoelectric power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camargo, J.R.; Santos, L.P.; Silva, J.M.; Silva, R.E. [University of Taubate (UNITAU), SP (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2009-07-01

    It is known that reversible thermal and electrical effects can be detected in a circuit consisting on two similar semiconductor material having their junctions at different temperatures. This phenomenon, called Seebeck effect and Peltier effect, can be used to generate electric power and cooling. The Seebeck effect was first observed by the physician Thomas Johann Seebeck, in 1821, when he was studying thermoelectric phenomenon, and it consists in the production of an electric power between two semiconductors joint of semiconductor material, when they are submitted to different temperatures. The thermoelectric modules are made of several thermoelectric pairs made of semiconductors materials joined in series and sealed between two surfaces of ceramic, one covers the hot joins and the other covers the cold ones, through which a continuous current flows and, according to its way, one board becomes hot or cold, and the dissipated power is a function of the electric current flowing through the module. This research presents, initially, the theoretical equations which allow evaluating the thermoelectric modules' performance applied to electric power generation and the experimental results of this elements association. During tests there were used an electrical resistance as heat source, thermocouples to evaluate the temperatures in the thermoelectric module's heat and cold sides, thermo anemometers to measure the air speed and temperature measurements in the heat sink and a software to obtain, store and analyze the data. The main objective is to know the behavior of the most important design parameters that are the efficiency and the electric power generated by the thermoelectric system. (author)

  13. Nuclear Power and Ghana's Future Electricity Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major challenges facing Ghana in her developmental efforts is the generation of adequate and affordable electricity to meet increasing demand. Problems with the dependency on hydro power has brought insecurity in electricity supply due to periodic droughts. Thermal power systems have been introduced into the electricity generation mix to complement the hydro power supply but there are problems associated with their use. The high price of crude oil on the international market has made them expensive to run and the supply of less expensive gas from Steps are being taken to run the thermal plants on less expensive gas from Nigeria has delayed due to conflicts in the Niger Delta region and other factors. The existing situation has therefore called for the diversification of the electricity generation mix so as to ensure energy security and affordable power supply. This paper presents the nuclear option as a suitable alternative energy source which can be used to address the energy supply problems facing the nation as well the steps being taken towards its introduction in the national energy mix. In addition, electricity demand projections using the MAED model as well as other studies are presented. The expected electricity demand of 350000 GWh (4000MWyr) in 2030, exceeds the total electricity supply capability of the existing hydropower system, untapped hydro resources and the maximum amount of gas that can be imported from Nigeria through the West Africa pipeline. Also presented is a technological assessment on the type of nuclear reactor to be used. The technological assessment which was done based on economics, grid size, technological maturity, passive safety and standardization of reactor design, indicate that a medium sized pressurized water reactor (i.e. a PWR with capacity 300MW to 700MW) is the most favourable type of reactor. In addition the challenges facing the implementation of the nuclear power programme in Ghana are presented. (author)

  14. Photovoltaic power generation system free of bypass diodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Okandan, Murat; Nielson, Gregory N.

    2015-07-28

    A photovoltaic power generation system that includes a solar panel that is free of bypass diodes is described herein. The solar panel includes a plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules, wherein at least two of photovoltaic sub-modules in the plurality of photovoltaic sub-modules are electrically connected in parallel. A photovoltaic sub-module includes a plurality of groups of electrically connected photovoltaic cells, wherein at least two of the groups are electrically connected in series. A photovoltaic group includes a plurality of strings of photovoltaic cells, wherein a string of photovoltaic cells comprises a plurality of photovoltaic cells electrically connected in series. The strings of photovoltaic cells are electrically connected in parallel, and the photovoltaic cells are microsystem-enabled photovoltaic cells.

  15. POWERED LED LIGHTING SUPPLIED FROM PV CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tirshu M.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with practical realization of efficient lighting system based on LED’s of 80W total power mounted on corridor ceiling total length of which is 120m and substitutes existing traditional lighting system consisting of 29 lighting blocks with 4 fluorescent lamps each of them and summary power 2088W. Realized lighting system is supplied from two photovoltaic panels of power 170W. Generated energy by PV cells is accumulated in two accumulators of 75Ah capacity and from battery by means of specialized convertor is applied to lighting system. Additionally, paper present data measured by digital weather station (solar radiation and UV index, which is mounted near of PV cells and comparative analyze of solar energy with real energy generated by PV cells is done. Measured parameters by digital weather station are stored by computer in on-line mode.

  16. Young people's view of power generation and power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asked about what they think are the most urgent political problems, the young people ranked unemployment and environmental pollution higher (80 pic) than the problems of energy generation and supply, which are in the third place together with peaceful policy and terrorism (55% priority for each). Young people's problem awareness in the energy sector rather concentrates on nuclear power generation and its hazards than on aspects of future energy supplies. In fact, currently only 38% of the young people expect any electricity supply shortages in the FRG, as compared to 47% in 1982. But as in 1982, seven per cent of the young people today assume that power consumption in the FRG will continue to rise. (orig.)

  17. Cummins Power Generation SECA Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles Vesely

    2007-08-17

    The following report documents the progress of the Cummins Power Generation (CPG) SECA Phase 1 SOFC development and final testing under the U.S. Department of Energy Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) contract DE-FC26-01NT41244. This report overviews and summarizes CPG and partner research development leading to successful demonstration of the SECA Phase 1 objectives and significant progress towards SOFC commercialization. Significant Phase 1 Milestones: (1) Demonstrated: (a) Operation meeting Phase 1 requirements on commercial natural gas. (b) LPG and Natural Gas CPOX fuel reformers. (c) SOFC systems on dry CPOX reformate. (c) Steam reformed Natural Gas operation. (d) Successful start-up and shut-down of SOFC system without inert gas purge. (e) Utility of stack simulators as a tool for developing balance of plant systems. (2) Developed: (a) Low cost balance of plant concepts and compatible systems designs. (b) Identified low cost, high volume components for balance of plant systems. (c) Demonstrated high efficiency SOFC output power conditioning. (d) Demonstrated SOFC control strategies and tuning methods. The Phase 1 performance test was carried out at the Cummins Power Generation facility in Minneapolis, Minnesota starting on October 2, 2006. Performance testing was successfully completed on January 4, 2007 including the necessary steady-state, transient, efficiency, and peak power operation tests.

  18. Indian experience in nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power generation in India commenced in 1969 with the operation of Tarapur Atomic Power Station, which consists of two boiling-water reactor units of 210 MW(e) each. However, an early decision was made in favour of the pressurized-heavy-water reactor as the principal type of power reactor to be set up in the country and the first pressurized-heavy-water reactor unit commenced commercial operation in 1973. The second unit at this station was synchronized to the grid for the first time on 1st November 1980 and began commercial operation in April 1981. The paper describes the operational experience gained from thirteen years of operation of the BWR units at Tarapur and eight years of operation of the PHWR units at Rajasthan. Certain aspects of nuclear power generation are highlighted which are peculiar to a developing country, such as problems faced in operating relatively big nuclear units in medium and small grids, long lead times required for recruitment and training of personnel for manning the stations and spares management, especially in an environment of insufficient industrial infrastructure. The need for operation and maintenance staff to be self-sufficient in the absence of adequate external support is emphasized. A large number of design modifications are described that were carried out to improve the performance of the station and the safety of the plant, and to safeguard the environment and the health of the personnel. (author)

  19. Controller For Standalone Hybrid Renewable Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Madhu Prabhuraj #1 R.M. Sasiraja

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The project utilizes the resources available locally like sunlight, wind and biogas plant which can be installed with aids from government. A controller is designed to switch between generation sources with preference to renewable modes. When renewable energy is excess, the biogas is shut down and the power is used to pump water to a higher level, which can later be used for agriculture and micro hydro generation. In the hybrid system, energy has a higher reliability, can be cost effective and improve the quality of life in small town. At large scale and hybrid system will independently provide a stable power source and daily gas for small towns. Hybrid power system that aims to increase the system efficiency and increase use of renewable energy based hybrid power system. In order to meet sustained load demands during varying natural conditions, different renewable energy sources need to be integrated with each other like solar ,wind , waste of energy municipal waste/ liquid waste, small hydro.

  20. Using thermoelectric nuclear power generators in spacecraft power-generation propulsion complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreev, P.V.; Galkin, A.Ya.; Gryaznov, G.M. [and others

    1994-04-01

    Power-generation and propulsion complexes for spacecraft, universal space platforms (US) which combine a power unit and high- and low-thrust propulsion unions, make it possible to efficiently solve problems involved in creating satellite communication systems, environmental monitoring systems, industrial technology platforms, interorbital shuttles, etc. Electrical power consumed by prospective spacecraft designed for communication or environmental monitoring may be as high as 20-30 kW. Manufacturing of semiconductors and biological materials in space may require electrical power of 30-l00 kW in the coming decades. The power required to transport loads between orbits using ion-plasma jet engines will amount to tens to hundreds of kilowatts. For all these missions, nuclear power units have important advantages over solar photoelectric power units in their mass, size, cost, and performance characteristics. There is a good reason to consider the use of thermoelectric Nuclear Power Generators (NPG) for USPs due to their small bulk, their capacity for generating greatly increased power in the high-power mode during 15-20% of the total length of the mission, and minimal disturbance of the motion of the spacecraft.

  1. Research on Low Power Marine Current Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkai Peng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a simple topological structure and power control method for a small scale stand alone marine current system, in which a diode rectifier, DC/DC boost converter for the maximum power control, battery as a storage element and a single phase inverter to link with load. The study establishes the steady-state mathematical model of marine current power generation system and derives the formula between the maximum power point and dc battery voltage. Then use the measurements of DC voltage and DC current to obtain Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT by controlling the duty cycle of the boost converter switch in order to simplify the system structure and the control strategies. In this case, the hill climbing searching algorithm is employed to get maximum power point and the double closed loops control strategy is used to improve the dynamic and static performance of single phase inverter. The simulation model is developed in MATLAB/Simulink. And the control method is executed in dSPACE1104 real-time platform. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility and validity of the proposed control strategies.

  2. Problems of coal-based power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current problems of and future trends in coal-based power generation are discussed. The present situation is as follows: coal, oil and gas contribute to world fossil fuel resources 75%, 14%, and 11%, respectively, and if the current trend will continue, will be depleted in 240, 50, and 60 years, respectively; the maximum resource estimates (including resources that have not yet been discovered) are 50% higher for oil and 100% higher for gas, for coal such estimates have not been made. While the world prices of coal are expected to remain virtually constant, the prices of gas will probably increase to be twice as high in 2010. Thus, the role of coal may be higher in the next century than it is now, provided that due attention is paid to improving the efficiency of coal-fired power plants and reducing their adverse environmental effects. A comparison of economic data for coal-fired and gas-fired power plants is as follows: Investment cost (USD/kW): 1400, 800; fixed running cost (USD/kW.y): 33.67, 9.0; variable running cost (USD/kWh): 0.30, 0.15; power use (kJ/kWh): 10.29, 7.91; annual availability (%): 70, 50; fuel price (USD/GJ): 1.00, 4.30; power price (USD/kWh): 4.28, 5.52. The investment cost for coal-fired plants covers new construction including flue gas purification. The integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) seems to be the future of coal-based power generation. The future problems to be addressed include ways to reduce air pollution, improving the efficiency of the gas-steam cycle, and improving the combustion process particularly with a view to reducing substantially its environmental impact. (P.A.). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 9 refs

  3. Improvement of power generation using Shewanella putrefaciens mediated bioanode in a single chambered microbial fuel cell: effect of different anodic operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Soumya; Khilari, Santimoy; Roy, Shantonu; Pradhan, Debabrata; Das, Debabrata

    2014-08-01

    Three different approaches were employed to improve single chambered microbial fuel cell (sMFC) performance using Shewanella putrefaciens as biocatalyst. Taguchi design was used to identify the key process parameter (anolyte concentration, CaCl₂ and initial anolyte pH) for maximization of volumetric power. Supplementation of CaCl₂ was found most significant and maximum power density of 4.92 W/m(3) was achieved. In subsequent approaches, effect on power output by riboflavin supplementation to anolyte and anode surface modification using nano-hematite (Fe₂O₃) was observed. Volumetric power density was increased by 44% with addition of 100 nM riboflavin to anolyte while with 0.8 mg/cm(2) nano-Fe₂O₃ impregnated anode power density and columbic efficiency increased by 40% and 33% respectively. Cyclic voltammetry revealed improvement in electrochemical activity of Shewanella with nano-Fe₂O₃ loading and electrochemical impedance depicted inverse relationship between charge transfer resistance and nano-Fe₂O₃ loading. This study suggests anodic improvement strategies for maximization of power output. PMID:24935006

  4. Wind energy-hydrogen storage hybrid power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenjei Yang; Orhan Aydin [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics

    2001-07-01

    In this theoretical investigation, a hybrid power generation system utilizing wind energy and hydrogen storage is presented. Firstly, the available wind energy is determined, which is followed by evaluating the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system. A revised model of windmill is proposed from which wind power density and electric power output are determined. When the load demand is less than the output of the generation, the excess electric power is relayed to the electrolytic cell where it is used to electrolyse the de-ionized water. Hydrogen thus produced can be stored as hydrogen compressed gas or liquid. Once the hydrogen is stored in an appropriate high-pressure vessel, it can be used in a combustion engine, fuel cell, or burned in a water-cooled burner to produce a very high-quality steam for space heating, or to drive a turbine to generate electric power. It can also be combined with organic materials to produce synthetic fuels. The conclusion is that the system produces no harmful waste and depletes no resources. Note that this system also works well with a solar collector instead of a windmill. (author)

  5. ZERO EMISSION POWER GENERATION TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronald Bischoff; Stephen Doyle

    2005-01-20

    Clean Energy Systems (CES) was previously funded by DOE's ''Vision 21'' program. This program provided a proof-of-concept demonstration that CES' novel gas generator (combustor) enabled production of electrical power from fossil fuels without pollution. CES has used current DOE funding for additional design study exercises which established the utility of the CES-cycle for retrofitting existing power plants for zero-emission operations and for incorporation in zero-emission, ''green field'' power plant concepts. DOE funding also helped define the suitability of existing steam turbine designs for use in the CES-cycle and explored the use of aero-derivative turbines for advanced power plant designs. This work is of interest to the California Energy Commission (CEC) and the Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum & Energy. California's air quality districts have significant non-attainment areas in which CES technology can help. CEC is currently funding a CES-cycle technology demonstration near Bakersfield, CA. The Norwegian government is supporting conceptual studies for a proposed 40 MW zero-emission power plant in Stavager, Norway which would use the CES-cycle. The latter project is called Zero-Emission Norwegian Gas (ZENG). In summary, current engineering studies: (1) supported engineering design of plant subsystems applicable for use with CES-cycle zero-emission power plants, and (2) documented the suitability and availability of steam turbines for use in CES-cycle power plants, with particular relevance to the Norwegian ZENG Project.

  6. Powering Kuwait into the 21. century: Alternatives for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwait is facing a surge in the consumption of power. The current power fuel mix, based on oil, appears unsustainable. Yet Kuwait has a large number of assets. The power fuel mix can be optimized and diversified to include alternatives to oil such as gas or renewables, so as to benefit from the opportunity cost of oil (the price at which this oil could be sold on international market). The country has gas reserves and a good potential in renewable technologies. If energy efficiency can be considered as a potential resource, then much can be achieved in this area as well, given Kuwait's current power and water per capita consumption rates, which are among the highest in the world. The present tendency has been to go for step-by-step fixes, adding emergency power plants which have increased power generation costs and a non-optimized system. Kuwait is on the verge of defining a new power fuel mix, with more gas, and developing new R and D projects. In this context, this memorandum looks at alternatives, and concludes that in the long term a diversified power mix has to be developed. The current gas glut at the world level, resulting both from the production of unconventional gas resources and the economic recession hitting Europe, offers a sizable opportunity for gas imports. A transition strategy for the power sector could make use of gas imports. In the longer term, however, Kuwait should not make a one-way bet and develop its domestic gas resources. This paper urges the adoption of a common gas strategy integrated into a power sector strategy, through consultation with all actors. It would include reserves, costs, feasibility and potential uses, as well as economic opportunities. As the region is facing gas shortages and Kuwait ranks independence of supply among its policy priorities, renewable, and in particular solar have their own place in the power mix. The country indeed disposes of substantial and relatively predictable renewable energy resources. Those are

  7. Analysis of the design and economics of molten carbonate fuel cell tri-generation systems providing heat and power for commercial buildings and H2 for FC vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuping; Ogden, Joan; Yang, Christopher

    2013-11-01

    This study models the operation of molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) tri-generation systems for “big box” store businesses that combine grocery and retail business, and sometimes gasoline retail. Efficiency accounting methods and parameters for MCFC tri-generation systems have been developed. Interdisciplinary analysis and an engineering/economic model were applied for evaluating the technical, economic, and environmental performance of distributed MCFC tri-generation systems, and for exploring the optimal system design. Model results show that tri-generation is economically competitive with the conventional system, in which the stores purchase grid electricity and NG for heat, and sell gasoline fuel. The results are robust based on sensitivity analysis considering the uncertainty in energy prices and capital cost. Varying system sizes with base case engineering inputs, energy prices, and cost assumptions, it is found that there is a clear tradeoff between the portion of electricity demand covered and the capital cost increase of bigger system size. MCFC Tri-generation technology provides lower emission electricity, heat, and H2 fuel. With NG as feedstock the CO2 emission can be reduced by 10%-43.6%, depending on how the grid electricity is generated. With renewable methane as feedstock CO2 emission can be further reduced to near zero.

  8. Utilization of proteinaceous materials for power generation in a mediatorless microbial fuel cell by a new electrogenic bacteria Lysinibacillus sphaericus VA5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandy, Arpita; Kumar, Vikash; Kundu, Patit P

    2013-10-10

    In this study, a bacterial strain, Lysinibacillus sphaericus which is relatively new in the vast list of biocatalysts known to produce electricity has been tested for its potential in power production. It is cited from the literature that the organism is deficient in some sugar or polysaccharide processing enzymes and thus is tested for its ability to utilize substrates mainly rich in protein components like beef extract and with successive production of electricity. The particular species has been found to generate a maximum power density of 85mW/m(2) and current density of ≈270mA/m(2) using graphite felt as electrode. The maximum Open Circuit Voltage and current has been noted as 0.7Vand 0.8mA during these operational cycles. Cyclic voltammetry studies indicate the presence of some electroactive compounds which can facilitate electron transfer from bacteria to electrode. The number of electrogens able to generate electricity in mediator free conditions are few, and the study introduces more divergence to that population. Substrate specificity and electricity generation efficacy of the strain in treating wastewater, specially rich in protein content has been reported in the study. As the species has been found to be efficient in utilizing proteinaceous material, the technique can be useful to treat specific type of wastewaters like wastewater from slaughterhouses or from meat packaging industry. Treating them in a more economical way which generates electricity as a outcome must be preferred over the conventional aerobic treatments. Emphasizing on substrate specificity, the study introduces this novel Lysinibacillus strain as a potent biocatalyst and its sustainable role in MFC application for bioenergy generation. PMID:24034433

  9. Self-Powered Functional Device Using On-Chip Power Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2012-01-26

    An apparatus, system, and method for a self-powered device using on-chip power generation. In some embodiments, the apparatus includes a substrate, a power generation module on the substrate, and a power storage module on the substrate. The power generation module may include a thermoelectric generator made of bismuth telluride.

  10. Nuclear power and Ghana's future electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: One of the major challenges facing Ghana in her developmental efforts is how to meet the increasing electricity demand. Ghana's electricity generation system depends heavily on hydro power which accounts for 68% of total installed capacity. The remaining is taken by thermal power systems. The heavy dependency on hydro systems has led to shortfall in power supply in case of drought. To deal with this situation the necessary steps are being taken to build more thermal plants to complement the hydro systems. The thermal plants currently run on imported light crude oil but steps are being taken to run them on less expensive gas imported from Nigeria through the West African gas pipeline. The conflicts in the Niger Delta, the source of the gas has threatened the security of gas supply and this coupled with the fact that gas price is indexed to that of crude oil have raised concerns about the supply of gas from Nigeria. This paper presents the results of the assessment made in the Ghana electricity generation system and the role of nuclear power in Ghana's energy mix using MAED projections and the MESSAGE model. This assessment forms part of the IAEA-TC project 'Planning for Sustainable Energy Development in Ghana' which is meant among other things to develop a sustainable energy mix for the country. Energy projections made by using the MAED model have shown that Ghana's electricity demand expected to increase to about 4000MWyr in 2030. This expected electricity demand far exceeds the total electricity supply capability of the existing hydropower system, untapped hydro resources and the maximum amount of gas that can be imported from Nigeria through the West Africa pipeline. Technological assessment on the suitability of the various nuclear power technologies has been done based on the grid size, technological maturity, passivity and standardization of reactor designs and it has been found that a water cooled SMR with capacity not exceeding 400MW(e) is the

  11. International cost relations in electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In spite of the fact that analyses of the cost of electric power generation as the result of international comparative evaluations are indisputably relevant, problems pending in connection with the costs of representative power plant technologies are of the methodological bind. German authors have hitherto also been failing to clear up and consider all aspects connected with the problems of data acquisition and the adequate interpretation of results. The analysis presented by the paper abstracted therefore aims at the following: 1) Systematization of the different categories of cost relevant in connection with international comparative evaluation. Classification into different categories of decision making and development of standards meeting the requirements of international comparative evaluation. 2) Calculation of relevant average financial costs of Western German, America and French fossil-fuel and nuclear power plants by means of adequate calculation models, that is the assessment of costs with regard to countries and power plant technologies which are relevant to the Federal Republic of Germany. 3) Analysis of the resulting differences and determinantal interpretation. (orig./UA)

  12. Integrated control of next generation power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2010-02-28

    The multi-agent system (MAS) approach has been applied with promising results for enhancing an electric power distribution circuit, such as the Circuit of the Future as developed by Southern California Edison. These next generation power system results include better ability to reconfigure the circuit as well as the increased capability to improve the protection and enhance the reliability of the circuit. There were four main tasks in this project. The specific results for each of these four tasks and their related topics are presented in main sections of this report. Also, there were seven deliverables for this project. The main conclusions for these deliverables are summarized in the identified subtask section of this report. The specific details for each of these deliverables are included in the “Project Deliverables” section at the end of this Final Report.

  13. High power passive μDMFC with low catalyst loading for small power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main constraint for commercialization of micro direct methanol fuel cell (μDMFC) for small power generation is the performance of the fuel cell. In this study, a high power μDMFC with a power output of 56 mW and an active area of 4 cm2 was successfully developed. The cell required low catalyst loading of 5 mg cm-2 and 0.5 mg cm-2 at the anode and cathode, respectively. Optimal design parameters for methanol concentration and catalyst loading were examined. Finally, long-term performance testing was performed and OCV curves are reported. The results obtained for this gives the highest power density at low catalyst loading as compare to other researchers in this area.

  14. Corrosion products in power generating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The important mechanisms of corrosion and corrosion product movement and fouling in the heat transport systems of thermal electric generating stations are reviewed. Oil- and coal-fired boilers are considered, along with nuclear power systems - both direct and indirect cycle. Thus, the fireside and waterside in conventional plants, and the primary coolant and steam-raising circuits in water-cooled reactors, are discussed. Corrosion products in organic- and liquid-metal-cooled reactors also are shown to cause problems if not controlled, while their beneficial effects on the cooling water side of condensers are described. (auth)

  15. Distributed power generation using biogas fuelled microturbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research sought to analyse the market for small scale biogas fuelled distributed power generation, to demonstrate the concept of a biogas fuelled microturbine using the Capstone microturbine in conjunction with an anaerobic digester, and undertake a technico-economic evaluation of the biogas fuelled microturbine concept. Details are given of the experimental trials using continuous and batch digesters, and feedstocks ranging from cow and pig slurries to vegetable wastes and municipal solid waste. The yields of methane are discussed along with the successful operation of the microturbine with biogas fuels, and anaerobic digestion projects

  16. Distributed power generation using biogas fuelled microturbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pointon, K.; Langan, M.

    2002-07-01

    This research sought to analyse the market for small scale biogas fuelled distributed power generation, to demonstrate the concept of a biogas fuelled microturbine using the Capstone microturbine in conjunction with an anaerobic digester, and undertake a technico-economic evaluation of the biogas fuelled microturbine concept. Details are given of the experimental trials using continuous and batch digesters, and feedstocks ranging from cow and pig slurries to vegetable wastes and municipal solid waste. The yields of methane are discussed along with the successful operation of the microturbine with biogas fuels, and anaerobic digestion projects.

  17. Cycloidal tidal power generation - phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report describes the second phase of a study aimed at addressing the technical and economic viability of cycloidal tidal power generation with the objective of examining design optimisation, the building and testing a scale model, and the use of an enhanced model to estimated the overall system economic performance. Details are given of the analytical and physical modelling studies, the use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CDF) analysis to understand the fluid flow through the cycloidal unit, the optimisation of the turbine blades, and performance predictions.

  18. Construction of Ozone Generator Power Supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A power supply with output voltage of 12.5 kV and its frequency of 1.4 kHz has been constructed. This RF source has been applied to drive a coaxial ozone generator tube with its electrode surface area of 60 cm2. The flow rate optimum of the input gas is 1 I/minute on the pressure of 3 atm. The input gas is air or oxygen. The test result shows that the RF source and the generator tube temperature is 1oC higher than the room temperature, when the system is operated for 3.3 hours continuously and the ozone production rate is 0.05 mg/Wsec and 0.015 mg/Wsec for oxygen and air as input gas respectively. (author)

  19. Porous La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ thin film cathodes for large area micro solid oxide fuel cell power generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garbayo, A.; Esposito, Vincenzo; Sanna, Simone;

    2014-01-01

    Porous La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ thin films were fabricated by pulsed laser deposition for being used as a cathode for micro solid oxide fuel cell applications as MEMS power generators. Symmetrical La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ/ yttria-stabilized zirconia/La0.6Sr0.4CoO3-δ free-standing membranes were fabricated using...

  20. Explosive-generator-powered vacuum-power-flow experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have fielded an explosive-generator-powered, vacuum-power-flow experiment. The purpose of this test was to qualify this assembly for future tests that would power live loads for times ≥ 1 μs. A 13.2-cm x 52.8-cm, plate generator was energized with an initial current of --1.8 MA and reached a final current of --6.8 MA before burning out after its 14 μs run. The magnetically-insulated transmission line (MIT-Line) was connected to the generator via a detonator-actuated switch (closed at 12 μs) and a 7.5:1 step-up transformer. This MIT-Line had a center conductor with a diameter of 33.6 cm and an outer conductor with an inner diameter of 39.3 cm. A 20-cm-wide band of velvet was placed around and very near the end of the cathode. The purpose of the velvet was to start emission from the end of the cathode and guarantee magnetic insulation along the length of the MIT-Line at the earliest time in the discharge. During this experiment, a maximum voltage of --360 kV was delivered to the MIT-Line with a duration of ≥2 μs for the voltage above 100 kV. After the first 1.2 μs, the MIT-Line experienced a streamer instability which disrupted uniform current flow. However, the subsequent discharge was sufficiently pinched that the reflected impedance of the vacuum load remained close to the 2.5 Ω of the early MIT-Line performance

  1. Agent Based Control of Electric Power Systems with Distributed Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saleem, Arshad

    Distributed generation, decentralized and local control, self organization and autonomy are evident trends of today's electric power systems focusing on innovative control architectures such as MicroGrids, Virtual Power Plants, Cell based systems, plug-in electric vehicles and real time markets...... subsystems that are able to coordinate, communicate, cooperate, adapt to emerging situations and self organize in an intelligent way. At the same time, rapid development in information and and communication technologies (ICT) have brought new opportunities and elucidations. New Technologies and standards...

  2. Membrane-based processes for sustainable power generation using water

    KAUST Repository

    Logan, Bruce E.

    2012-08-15

    Water has always been crucial to combustion and hydroelectric processes, but it could become the source of power in membrane-based systems that capture energy from natural and waste waters. Two processes are emerging as sustainable methods for capturing energy from sea water: pressure-retarded osmosis and reverse electrodialysis. These processes can also capture energy from waste heat by generating artificial salinity gradients using synthetic solutions, such as thermolytic salts. A further source of energy comes from organic matter in waste waters, which can be harnessed using microbial fuel-cell technology, allowing both wastewater treatment and power production. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  3. POWERED LED LIGHTING SUPPLIED FROM PV CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Tirshu M.; Uzun M; Speian A.; Spivac V.; Bogdan A.

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with practical realization of efficient lighting system based on LED’s of 80W total power mounted on corridor ceiling total length of which is 120m and substitutes existing traditional lighting system consisting of 29 lighting blocks with 4 fluorescent lamps each of them and summary power 2088W. Realized lighting system is supplied from two photovoltaic panels of power 170W. Generated energy by PV cells is accumulated in two accumulators of 75Ah capacity and from battery by me...

  4. Power Generation Strategy Development in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electricity generation as an economic sector contributes to the national GDP through increasing investments and exports. In the period from 2000 to 2008 the annual growth rate of final electricity demand was 3,8% which was higher than for any other energy form. Almost 1200 MW of thermal power plants will go out of system due to lifetime (more than 30 years). Energy Strategy is a basic document of the Energy Act with the purpose to define energy policy and future plans for energy development of the Republic of Croatia till 2020. Based on the adopted strategy the Government will create the Energy Strategy Implementation Programme for the four-year period. Croatian's energy development should be based on best available technologies as well as on energy-related, economic and environmental assessment of all available energy options. Energy strategy of Croatia (NN 130/09) puts up next goals: 300 MW hydro power plants (bigger than 10 MW), 1200 MW gas-fired thermal power plants (including 300 MW of cogeneration), 1200 MW of coal-fired thermal power plants, and 35% of renewable (including hydro). The market, i.e. a competitive generation, is the driving force in the construction of new power plants. The main stimulus for the construction is the possibility of definite return of invested capital as well as earning of reasonable profit for investors. Choose of location, environmental impact and competitiveness are main criteria for decision making. Technological and financial terms of new power plant is under influence of the law of supply and demand, so short marginal costs are in the first view - power plant life is at least 30 years - how to deal with this conditions, who will invest in long-term projects with condition of short pay-back period. Climate change and greenhouse gas emissions have become a priority development issue. The main challenge is a long-term development of economy with decreased emission of carbon dioxide. Kyoto protocol obligations, Copenhagen Accord

  5. Fuel Cell Powered Lift Truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moulden, Steve [Sysco Food Service, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-08-20

    This project, entitled “Recovery Act: Fuel Cell-Powered Lift Truck Sysco (Houston) Fleet Deployment”, was in response to DOE funding opportunity announcement DE-PS36-08GO98009, Topic 7B, which promotes the deployment of fuel cell powered material handling equipment in large, multi-shift distribution centers. This project promoted large-volume commercialdeployments and helped to create a market pull for material handling equipment (MHE) powered fuel cell systems. Specific outcomes and benefits involved the proliferation of fuel cell systems in 5-to 20-kW lift trucks at a high-profile, real-world site that demonstrated the benefits of fuel cell technology and served as a focal point for other nascent customers. The project allowed for the creation of expertise in providing service and support for MHE fuel cell powered systems, growth of existing product manufacturing expertise, and promoted existing fuel cell system and component companies. The project also stimulated other MHE fleet conversions helping to speed the adoption of fuel cell systems and hydrogen fueling technology. This document also contains the lessons learned during the project in order to communicate the successes and difficulties experienced, which could potentially assist others planning similar projects.

  6. Power generation investment in electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most IEA countries are liberalizing their electricity markets, shifting the responsibility for financing new investment in power generation to private investors. No longer able to automatically pass on costs to consumers, and with future prices of electricity uncertain, investors face a much riskier environment for investment in electricity infrastructure. This report looks at how investors have responded to the need to internalize investment risk in power generation. While capital and total costs remain the parameters shaping investment choices, the value of technologies which can be installed quickly and operated flexibly is increasingly appreciated. Investors are also managing risk by greater use of contracting, by acquiring retail businesses, and through mergers with natural gas suppliers. While liberalization was supposed to limit government intervention in the electricity market, volatile electricity prices have put pressure on governments to intervene and limit such prices. This study looks at several cases of volatile prices in IEA countries' electricity markets, and finds that while market prices can be a sufficient incentive for new investment in peak capacity, government intervention into the market to limit prices may undermine such investment

  7. Power supply controlled for plasma torch generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high density of energy furnished by thermal plasma is profited in a wide range of applications, such as those related with welding fusion, spray coating and at the present in waste destruction. The waste destruction by plasma is a very attractive process because the remaining products are formed by inert glassy grains and non-toxic gases. The main characteristics of thermal plasmas are presented in this work. Techniques based on power electronics are utilized to achieve a good performance in thermal plasma generation. This work shown the design and construction of three phase control system for electric supply of thermal plasma torch, with 250 kw of capacity, as a part of the project named 'Destruction of hazard wastes by thermal plasma' actually working in the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ). The characteristics of thermal plasma and its generation are treated in the first chapter. The A C controllers by thyristors applied in three phase arrays are described in the chapter II, talking into account the power transformer, rectifiers bank and aliasing coil. The chapter III is dedicated in the design of the trigger module which controls the plasma current by varying the trigger angle of the SCR's; the protection and isolating unit are also presented in this chapter. The results and conclusions are discussed in chapter IV. (Author)

  8. Feasibility of the direct generation of hydrogen for fuel-cell-powered vehicles by on-board steam reforming of naphtha

    OpenAIRE

    Darwish, Naif A.; Hilal, Nidal; Versteeg, Geert; Heesink, Bert

    2004-01-01

    A process flow sheet for the production of hydrogen to run a 50 kW fuel-cell-powered-vehicle by steam reforming of naphtha is presented. The major units in the flow sheet involve a desulfurization unit, a steam reformer, a low temperature (LT) shift reactor, a methanation reactor, and a membrane separator unit. The flow sheet is simulated using HYSYS (a steady state simulator) and the material and energy flows for each stream are obtained. For the peak load of 50 kW, it is found that 14 l/h n...

  9. Force propagation and force generation in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonas, Oliver; Duschl, Claus

    2010-09-01

    Determining how forces are produced by and propagated through the cytoskeleton (CSK) of the cell is of great interest as dynamic processes of the CSK are intimately correlated with many molecular signaling pathways. We are presenting a novel approach for integrating measurements on cell elasticity, transcellular force propagation, and cellular force generation to obtain a comprehensive description of dynamic and mechanical properties of the CSK under force loading. This approach uses a combination of scanning force microscopy (SFM) and Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy. We apply well-defined loading schemes onto the apical cell membrane of fibroblasts using the SFM and simultaneously use TIRF microscopy to image the topography of the basal cell membrane. The locally distinct changes of shape and depth of the cytoskeletal imprints onto the basal membrane are interpreted as results of force propagation through the cytoplasm. This observation provides evidence for the tensegrity model and demonstrates the usefulness of our approach that does not depend on potentially disturbing marker compounds. We confirm that the actin network greatly determines cell stiffness and represents the substrate that mediates force transduction through the cytoplasm of the cell. The latter is an essential feature of tensegrity. Most importantly, our new finding that, both intact actin and microtubule networks are required for enabling the cell to produce work, can only be understood within the framework of the tensegrity model. We also provide, for the first time, a direct measurement of the cell's mechanical power output under compression at two femtowatts. PMID:20607861

  10. The O2-assisted Al/CO2 electrochemical cell: A system for CO2 capture/conversion and electric power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sadat, Wajdi I; Archer, Lynden A

    2016-07-01

    Economical and efficient carbon capture, utilization, and sequestration technologies are a requirement for successful implementation of global action plans to reduce carbon emissions and to mitigate climate change. These technologies are also essential for longer-term use of fossil fuels while reducing the associated carbon footprint. We demonstrate an O2-assisted Al/CO2 electrochemical cell as a new approach to sequester CO2 emissions and, at the same time, to generate substantial amounts of electrical energy. We report on the fundamental principles that guide operations of these cells using multiple intrusive electrochemical and physical analytical methods, including chronopotentiometry, cyclic voltammetry, direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and coupled thermogravimetric analysis-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. On this basis, we demonstrate that an electrochemical cell that uses metallic aluminum as anode and a carbon dioxide/oxygen gas mixture as the active material in the cathode provides a path toward electrochemical generation of a valuable (C2) species and electrical energy. Specifically, we show that the cell first reduces O2 at the cathode to form superoxide intermediates. Chemical reaction of the superoxide with CO2 sequesters the CO2 in the form of aluminum oxalate, Al2(C2O4)3, as the dominant product. On the basis of an analysis of the overall CO2 footprint, which considers emissions associated with the production of the aluminum anode and the CO2 captured/abated by the Al/CO2-O2 electrochemical cell, we conclude that the proposed process offers an important strategy for net reduction of CO2 emissions. PMID:27453949

  11. The O2-assisted Al/CO2 electrochemical cell: A system for CO2 capture/conversion and electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sadat, Wajdi I.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2016-01-01

    Economical and efficient carbon capture, utilization, and sequestration technologies are a requirement for successful implementation of global action plans to reduce carbon emissions and to mitigate climate change. These technologies are also essential for longer-term use of fossil fuels while reducing the associated carbon footprint. We demonstrate an O2-assisted Al/CO2 electrochemical cell as a new approach to sequester CO2 emissions and, at the same time, to generate substantial amounts of electrical energy. We report on the fundamental principles that guide operations of these cells using multiple intrusive electrochemical and physical analytical methods, including chronopotentiometry, cyclic voltammetry, direct analysis in real-time mass spectrometry, energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and coupled thermogravimetric analysis–Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. On this basis, we demonstrate that an electrochemical cell that uses metallic aluminum as anode and a carbon dioxide/oxygen gas mixture as the active material in the cathode provides a path toward electrochemical generation of a valuable (C2) species and electrical energy. Specifically, we show that the cell first reduces O2 at the cathode to form superoxide intermediates. Chemical reaction of the superoxide with CO2 sequesters the CO2 in the form of aluminum oxalate, Al2(C2O4)3, as the dominant product. On the basis of an analysis of the overall CO2 footprint, which considers emissions associated with the production of the aluminum anode and the CO2 captured/abated by the Al/CO2-O2 electrochemical cell, we conclude that the proposed process offers an important strategy for net reduction of CO2 emissions.

  12. Nuclear power generation and global heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Professionals Association and Nuclear Activity of National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) are following with great interest the worldwide discussions on global heating and the role that nuclear power is going to play. The Association has an active presence, as part of the WONUC (recognized by the United Nations as a Non-Governmental Organization) in the COP4, which was held in Buenos Aires in November 1998. The environmental problems are closely related to human development, the way of power production, the techniques for industrial production and exploitation fields. CO2 is the most important gas with hothouse effects, responsible of progressive climatic changes, as floods, desertification, increase of average global temperature, thermal expansion in seas and even polar casks melting and ice falls. The consequences that global heating will have on the life and economy of human society cannot be sufficiently emphasized, great economical impact, destruction of ecosystems, loss of great coast areas and complete disappearance of islands owing to water level rise. The increase of power retained in the atmosphere generates more violent hurricanes and storms. In this work, the topics presented in the former AATN Meeting is analyzed in detail and different technological options and perspectives to mitigate CO2 emission, as well as economical-financial aspects, are explored. (author)

  13. An MHD Power Generator - ETL Mark II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some experimental work on M H D power generation had been carried out on the ETL Mark I. However, this equipment was not large enough , to obtain satisfactory results on the M H D characteristics, because of relatively large viscous effects. For this reason, a larger facility, the Mark II, was constructed. The purpose of the present work is to investigate some important M H D properties. The MHD characteristics of a generator for practical use will be regarded as analogous to that observed in the. facility. The experimental system is operated at the final flow condition for a period of five minutes. Research on the materials problems associated with generator channel walls will be examined on other equipment. Major components parts of the Mark II generator are: (l)the combustion chamber, which has been designed for a thermal output of 24 MW at maximum by burning 0.6 kg/sec of kerosene together with 1.8 kg/sec of oxygen and potassium salt seeding; (2) the generator channel, which contains 30 pairs of separate graphite electrodes used with magnesia slabs for insulation. The flow channel is of the conventional rectangular type with a cross-section of 10 cm x 10 cm at the inlet and a length of 120 cm. The ratio of the cross-sectional areas at the outlet to the inlet is about 2.5, that is designed for the optimum condition of a constant velocity; and (3) The magnetic field is provided by an iron-core electromagnet. The weights of the iron and the copper coil are approximately 70 t and 10 t, respectively. The end face of the pole piece is 26 cm x 120 cm and the nominal air gap is 16 cm. The magnet, designed and tested by small models, can be run at 3.5 T with an exciting power of 1200 kW for five minutes. Future work will be oriented towards operating with the air or oxygen-enriched air pre-heated up to about 1500°K by a pebble bed heater. (author)

  14. Stationary power fuel cell commercialization status worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M.C. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell technologies for stationary power are set to play a role in power generation applications worldwide. The worldwide fuel cell vision is to provide powerplants for the emerging distributed generation and on-site markets. Progress towards commercialization has occurred in all fuel cell development areas. Around 100 ONSI phosphoric acid fuel cell (PAFC) units have been sold, with significant foreign sales in Europe and Japan. Fuji has apparently overcome its PAFC decay problems. Industry-driven molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) programs in Japan and the U.S. are conducting megawatt (MW)-class demonstrations, which are bringing the MCFC to the verge of commercialization. Westinghouse Electric, the acknowledged world leader in tubular solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) technology, continues to set performance records and has completed construction of a 4-MW/year manufacturing facility in the U.S. Fuel cells have also taken a major step forward with the conceptual development of ultra-high efficiency fuel cell/gas turbine plants. Many SOFC developers in Japan, Europe, and North America continue to make significant advances.

  15. Impact of Dispersed Generation on Optimization of Power Exports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dispersed generation (DG is defined as any source of electrical energy of limited size that is connected directly to the distribution system of a power network. It is also called decentralized generation, embedded generation or distributed generation. Dispersed generation is any modular generation located at or near the load center. It can be applied in the form of rechargeable, such as, mini-hydro, solar, wind and photovoltaic system or in the form of fuel-based systems, such as, fuel cells and micro-turbines. This paper presents the impact of dispersed generation on the optimization of power exports. Computer simulation was carried out using the hourly loads of the selected distribution feeders on Kaduna distribution system as input parameters for the computation of the line loss reduction ratio index (LLRI. The result showed that the line loss reduced from 163.56MW to 144.61 MW when DG was introduced which is an indication of a reduction in line losses with the installation of DG at the various feeders of the distribution system. In all the feeders where DG is integrated, the average magnitude of the line loss reduction index is 0.8754 MW which is less than 1 indicating a reduction in the electrical line losses with the introduction of DG. The line loss reduction index confirmed that by integrating DG into the distribution system, the distribution losses are reduced and optimization of power exports is achieved The results of this research paper will form a basis to establish that proper location of distributed generation units have significant impact on their effective capacity.

  16. CO2 reduction in power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the UN Climate Conferenc held in Berlin in April 1995, the German Federal Government once more confirmed its program of CO2 minimization, reinforcing its goal to curb CO2 emissions due to power generation by 25% or 30% by the year 2005. This is based on conditions in 1987, when CO2 emissions in the old German federal states amounted to 715 million tons and, in the new federal states, to 345 million tons, i.e a total of 1060 million tons of CO2. The national program is part of the strategy of climate protection pursued by the European Union, and also of the basic international convention on protection of the global climate. That strategy is to limit to a tolerable level all manmade changes in climate. The greenhouse effect plays an improtant role in this respect. (orig.)

  17. 43 CFR 418.16 - Using water for power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Using water for power generation. 418.16... Operations and Management § 418.16 Using water for power generation. All use of Project water for power generation must be incidental to releases charged against Project diversions, precautionary...

  18. 18 CFR 801.12 - Electric power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... generation. 801.12 Section 801.12 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER BASIN COMMISSION GENERAL POLICIES § 801.12 Electric power generation. (a) Significant uses are presently being made of the waters of the basin for the generation of electric power at hydro, pumped storage,...

  19. Nuclear power generation of electricity in Sri Lanka?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brief description of how nuclear power is used to generate electricity, advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power, and the main factors that should be taken into consideration in dividing to use nuclear power in Sri Lanka

  20. 78 FR 32385 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; CER Generation II, LLC; Constellation Mystic Power, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-30

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Exelon Generation Company, LLC; CER Generation II, LLC; Constellation Mystic Power, LLC; Constellation NewEnergy, Inc.; Constellation Power Source Generation, Inc.; Criterion Power... Commission's (Commission) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.207, Exelon Generation Company,...

  1. Analysis and NN-based control of doubly fed induction generator in wind power generation

    OpenAIRE

    Soares, Orlando; Gonçalves, Henrique; Martins, António; Carvalho, Adriano

    2009-01-01

    With the increasing size of wind power generation it is required to perform power system stability analysis that uses dynamic wind generator models. In this paper are presented all the wind power system components, including the turbine, the generator, the power electronic converter and controllers. The aim is to study the Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) operation and its connection to the power system, either during normal operation or during transient grid faul...

  2. Licensing strategies for electric power generating facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siting and licensing electric power generating facilities can be a time-consuming, costly, and frustrating process. An aggressive and constantly changing regulatory climate, heightened public awareness of environmental issues, and the proliferation and resilience of opposition groups have created a permitting atmosphere in which the developer must shoulder the burden of proof that the environmental impacts of his project will be acceptable; and today, acceptable is fast becoming negligible. Throughout this complex process, it is important that the developer not lose sight of the objective of environmental permitting, environmental protection in order to ensure successful facility implementation and operation. Done properly, the environmental permitting process can also ensure continued good community relations long after the facility comes on line. As discussed in this paper, important keys to the successful licensing of a power project include assembling the right permitting team at the right stage in the development process, selecting the right site within the right host community, developing and implementing a sound permitting strategy, and executing a careful public interaction program

  3. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  4. Smart Generation : powering Ontario with renewable energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etcheverry, J.; Gipe, P.; Kemp, W.; Samson, R.; Vis, M.; Eggertson, B.; McMonagle, R.; Marchildon, S.; Marshall, D.

    2004-10-01

    This report describes how Ontario can develop renewable energy sources to replace fossil fuels currently used for heating and cooling homes. A switch to renewable energy to power the electricity system would promote energy efficiency and conservation and would add $9 billion to the Ontario economy by 2010. An added benefit would be a more reliable electricity system and cleaner air. The economic benefits of the 5 main sources of renewable energy were discussed. These included wind, hydropower, biomass, geothermal and solar energy. Specific policy recommendations for rebuilding Ontario's electricity system with these renewable energy sources were presented. The report showed how Ontario could install 8,000 MW of wind power by 2012 and generate 9 per cent of current electricity demand. Farmers view wind energy as a new cash crop because they can earn thousands of dollars per year by installing wind turbines on their farms. The Ontario government has responded to public concerns about air pollution by promising to close down five coal-fired power plants by 2007. The closures will result in an imbalance between electricity supply and demand. The imbalance of about 7,500 MW can be filled with cheaper and more reliable renewable energy. Canada's first full-scale solar manufacturing plant was built in Cambridge, Ontario and was operational in June 2004. The report suggests that Ontario can install more than 12,000 MW of renewable energy by 2020, enough to phase out coal plants in Ontario. The economic benefits of installing 8,000 MW of wind energy are in the order of $14 billion. refs., tabs., figs.

  5. Recent developments of thermoelectric power generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUAN Weiling; TU Shantung

    2004-01-01

    One form of energy generation that is expected to be on the rise in the next several decades is thermoelectric power generation (TEPG) which converts heat directly to electricity. Compared with other methods, TEPG possesses the salient features of being compact, light-weighted,noiseless in operation, highly reliable, free of carbon dioxide emission and radioactive substances. Low current conversion efficiency and high cost, however, are some of the disadvantages. Use of TEPG is therefore justified to hightech applications associated with aerospace, military operation,tel-communication and navigation, instrumentation of unmanned vehicles monitored from remote locations. Moreover, TEPG does not contribute to the depletion of natural resource and pollution of the environment such as climate warming that has been a concern in recent times. This work is concerned with providing an overview of the state of the art of TEPG with emphases placed on assessing its current and potential application. Pointed out are the ways to fabricate high performance thermoelectric material, a hurdle to overcome for the enhancement of TEPG device efficiency.

  6. Solar thermoelectric power generation for mercury orbiter missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mercury orbiter mission study results have shown that conventional silicon solar cell array technology is not adequate to produce power because of expected temperatures which range from -900C to +2850C in about 50 min for 16 sun eclipses per day. The solar thermoelectric generator (STG), which requires relatively high temperatures, is being developed as a replacement power source. Several thermoelectric technologies (i.e., lead telluride alloys, bismuth telluride, copper and gadolynium selenide, and silicon-germanium alloys) have been examined for their suitability. Detailed results are presented, and show that an STG design based on the use of silicon-germanium alloy thermoelectric material and using high-voltage thermopiles with individual minicompound parabolic concentrators presents the optimum combination of technology and configuration for minimizing power source mass. 9 refs

  7. Fuel cells for distributed generation in developing countries - an analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauen, A. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Energy Policy and Technology; E4tech (UK) Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Hart, D. [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Energy Policy and Technology; Chase, A. [E4tech (UK) Ltd., London (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    Fuel cells are still in development as power generation technologies. They are potentially efficient and low-emissions power generation technologies with a wide range of applications. Their deployment world wide and in developing countries in particular could result in mitigation of future greenhouse gas emissions and possibly other environmental and social benefits. The economics of the systems and their competitiveness with other power generation systems will be heavily dependent on local costs and infrastructure. Modelling, based energy demand projection and on fuel cell demand curves derived from expert interviews, suggests that worldwide, projected future cost reductions in fuel cells could result in fuel cell penetration of up to 50% of the world distributed generation market by 2020. This penetration, coupled with the use of a mix of low-carbon fuels, such as natural gas, would result in significant avoided emissions of CO{sub 2} over the same period. Also, a comparison of the levelised costs of generation for the Philippines and South Africa suggests that some fuel cell technologies could become competitive with centralised generation within the next decade. Assuming that fuel cell durability can be demonstrated, the potential for fuel cells to be introduced into distributed generation in certain developing countries appears high, from a technical, economic and environmental perspective. (author)

  8. New Development of Power Distribution System Resulting from Dispersed Generations and Current Interruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokomizu, Yasunobu

    Dispersed generation systems, such as micro gas-turbines and fuel cells, have been installed on some of commercial facilities. Smaller dispersed generators like solar photovoltaics have been also located on the several of individual homes. The trends in the introduction of the these generation systems seem to continue in the future and to cause the power system to have the enormous number of the dispersed generation systems. The present report discusses the near-future power distribution systems.

  9. The central government power generating capacity- reforms and the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The alarming resource gap that the states were facing in 1970's has prompted the Central Government to augment the resources for power generation by creating two new entities in November 1975 viz the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) and National Hydro Power Corporation (NHPC). Few other organisations also exist in central sector which are engaged in power generation like Nuclear Power Corporation (NPC). NTPC being the leading player in the power sector, it can neither be indifferent nor dissociate itself from the reforms sweeping the sector today. The article describes the Central Government's role in power generation, reforms and NTPC and further prospects of NTPC

  10. Finite Generation of Algebras Associated to Powers of Ideals

    OpenAIRE

    Cutkosky, Steven Dale; Herzog, Juergen; Srinivasan, Hema

    2008-01-01

    We study generalized symbolic powers and form ideals of powers of ideals and compare their growth with the growth of ordinary powers, and we discuss the question of when the graded rings attached to symbolic powers or to form ideals of powers are finitely generated.

  11. Innovative gasification technology for future power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahajan, K.; Shadle, L.J. [Dept. of Energy, Morgantown, WV (United States); Sadowski, R.S. [Jacobs-Sirrine Engineers, Inc., Greenville, SC (United States)

    1995-07-01

    Ever tightening environmental regulations have changed the way utility and non-utility electric generation providers currently view their fuels choices. While coal is still, by far, the major fuel utilized in power production, the general trend over the past 20 years has been to switch to low-sulfur coal and/or make costly modifications to existing coal-fired facilities to reach environmental compliance. Unfortunately, this approach has led to fragmented solutions to balance our energy and environmental needs. To date, few integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) suppliers have been able to compete with the cost of other more conventional technologies or fuels. One need only look at the complexity of many IGCC approaches to understand that unless a view toward IEC is adopted, the widespread application of such otherwise potentially attractive technologies will be unlikely in our lifetime. Jacobs-Sirrine Engineers and Riley Stoker Corporation are working in partnership with the Department of Energy`s Morgantown Energy Technology Center to help demonstrate an innovative coal gasification technology called {open_quotes}PyGas{trademark},{close_quotes} for {open_quotes}pyrolysis-gasification{close_quotes}. This hybrid variation of fluidized-bed and fixed-bed gasification technologies is being developed with the goal to efficiently produce clean gas at costs competitive with more conventional systems by incorporating many of the principles of IEC within the confines of a single-gasifier vessel. Our project is currently in the detailed design stage of a 4 ton-per-hour gasification facility to be built at the Fort Martin Station of Allegheny Power Services. By locating the test facility at an existing coal-fired plant, much of the facility infrastructure can be utilized saving significant costs. Successful demonstration of this technology at this new facility is a prerequisite to its commercialization.

  12. Power generation from nuclear reactors in aerospace applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    English, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere. A program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion.

  13. Power generation from nuclear reactors in aerospace applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere. A program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion

  14. Cascade Failures from Distributed Generation in Power Grids

    OpenAIRE

    Scala, Antonio; Pahwa, Sakshi; Scoglio, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Power grids are nowadays experiencing a transformation due to the introduction of Distributed Generation based on Renewable Sources. At difference with classical Distributed Generation, where local power sources mitigate anomalous user consumption peaks, Renewable Sources introduce in the grid intrinsically erratic power inputs. By introducing a simple schematic (but realistic) model for power grids with stochastic distributed generation, we study the effects of erratic sources on the robustn...

  15. Fuel-Cell-Powered Vehicle with Hybrid Power Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenberg, Dennis J.

    2010-01-01

    Figure 1 depicts a hybrid electric utility vehicle that is powered by hydrogenburning proton-exchange-membrane (PEM) fuel cells operating in conjunction with a metal hydride hydrogen-storage unit. Unlike conventional hybrid electric vehicles, this vehicle utilizes ultracapacitors, rather than batteries, for storing electric energy. This vehicle is a product of continuing efforts to develop the technological discipline known as hybrid power management (HPM), which is oriented toward integration of diverse electric energy-generating, energy-storing, and energy- consuming devices in optimal configurations. Instances of HPM were reported in five prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, though not explicitly labeled as HPM in the first three articles: "Ultracapacitors Store Energy in a Hybrid Electric Vehicle" (LEW-16876), Vol. 24, No. 4 (April 2000), page 63; "Photovoltaic Power Station With Ultracapacitors for Storage" (LEW- 17177), Vol. 27, No. 8 (August 2003), page 38; "Flasher Powered by Photovoltaic Cells and Ultracapacitors" (LEW-17246), Vol. 27, No. 10 (October 2003), page 37; "Hybrid Power Management" (LEW-17520), Vol. 29, No. 12 (December 2005), page 35; and "Ultracapacitor-Powered Cordless Drill" (LEW-18116-1), Vol. 31, No. 8 (August 2007), page 34. To recapitulate from the cited prior articles: The use of ultracapacitors as energy- storage devices lies at the heart of HPM. An ultracapacitor is an electrochemical energy-storage device, but unlike in a conventional rechargeable electrochemical cell or battery, chemical reactions do not take place during operation. Instead, energy is stored electrostatically at an electrode/electrolyte interface. The capacitance per unit volume of an ultracapacitor is much greater than that of a conventional capacitor because its electrodes have much greater surface area per unit volume and the separation between the electrodes is much smaller.

  16. Generation of rabbit pluripotent stem cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Tancos, Z.; Nemes, C.; Polgar, Z.; Gocza, E; Daniel, N; Stout, T. A. E.; P. Maraghechi; Pirity, M.K.; Osteil, P.; Tapponnier, Y.; Markossian, S.; Godet, M.; Afanassieff, M.; Bosze, Z.; Duranthon, V

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells have the capacity to divide indefinitely and to differentiate into all somatic cells and tissue lines. They can be genetically manipulated in vitro by knocking genes in or out, and therefore serve as an excellent tool for gene function studies and for the generation of models for some human diseases. Since 1981, when the first mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) line was generated, many attempts have been made to generate pluripotent stem cell lines from other species. Comp...

  17. Wind power, distrubted generation and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    possibilities for integration of even more wind power using new power balancing strategies that exploit the possibilities given by the existence of CHP plants as well as the impact of heat pumps for district heating. The analyses demonstrate that it is possible to accommodate 50% or more wind power without...... power balancing strategies are not applied, costly grid expansions will follow expansions in installed wind power capacity....

  18. Power Generation From Low- Temperature Heat Source

    OpenAIRE

    Lakew, Amlaku Abie

    2012-01-01

    The potential of low-temperature heat sources for power production has been discussed for decades. The diversity and availability of low-temperature heat sources makes it interesting for power production. The thermodynamic power cycle is one of the promising technologies to produce electricity from low-temperature heat sources. There are different working fluids to be used in a thermodynamic power cycle. Working fluid selection is essential for the performance of the power cycle. Over the las...

  19. Calculation of guaranteed mean power from wind turbine generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A method for calculating the 'guaranteed mean' power output of a wind turbine generator is proposed. The term 'mean power' refers to the average power generated at specified wind speeds during short-term tests. Correlation of anemometers, the method of bins for analyzing non-steady data, the PROP Code for predicting turbine power, and statistical analysis of deviations in test data from theory are discussed. Guaranteed mean power density for the Clayton Mod-OA system was found to be 8 watts per square meter less than theoretical power density at all power levels, with a confidence level of 0.999. This amounts to 4 percent of rated power.

  20. Generation technologies of the future for Polish power system

    OpenAIRE

    Bolesław Zaporowski

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents an analysis of electricity generation technologies, as well as heat and electricity cogeneration technologies of the future for Polish power system. The analysis focuses on technologies used in three types of power plants: system large power plants, large and medium power CHP plants and small power CHP plants (distributed sources). Individual solutions are characterised by their specifi c CO2 emissions (kg CO2/kWh) and specifi c electricity generation cost discounted for 20...

  1. The electric power engineering handbook electric power generation, transmission, and distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Grigsby, Leonard L

    2012-01-01

    Featuring contributions from worldwide leaders in the field, the carefully crafted Electric Power Generation, Transmission, and Distribution, Third Edition (part of the five-volume set, The Electric Power Engineering Handbook) provides convenient access to detailed information on a diverse array of power engineering topics. Updates to nearly every chapter keep this book at the forefront of developments in modern power systems, reflecting international standards, practices, and technologies. Topics covered include: * Electric Power Generation: Nonconventional Methods * Electric Power Generation

  2. Integrated biofuel facility, with carbon dioxide consumption and power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powell, E.E.; Hill, G.A. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2009-07-01

    This presentation provided details of an economical design for a large-scale integrated biofuel facility for coupled production of bioethanol and biodiesel, with carbon dioxide capture and power generation. Several designs were suggested for both batch and continuous culture operations, taking into account all costs and revenues associated with the complete plant integration. The microalgae species Chlorella vulgaris was cultivated in a novel photobioreactor (PBR) in order to consume industrial carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). This photosynthetic culture can also act as a biocathode in a microbial fuel cell (MFC), which when coupled to a typical yeast anodic half cell, results in a complete biological MFC. The photosynthetic MFC produces electricity as well as valuable biomass and by-products. The use of this novel photosynthetic microalgae cathodic half cell in an integrated biofuel facility was discussed. A series of novel PBRs for continuous operation can be integrated into a large-scale bioethanol facility, where the PBRs serve as cathodic half cells and are coupled to the existing yeast fermentation tanks which act as anodic half cells. These coupled MFCs generate electricity for use within the biofuel facility. The microalgae growth provides oil for biodiesel production, in addition to the bioethanol from the yeast fermentation. The photosynthetic cultivation in the cathodic PBR also requires carbon dioxide, resulting in consumption of carbon dioxide from bioethanol production. The paper also discussed the effect of plant design on net present worth and internal rate of return. tabs., figs.

  3. Power generation in India: analysing trends and outlook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to provide up-to-date data, critical analysis and information encompassing all aspects of power generation in India. The report provides historic and future outlook for power generation in India. It also provides an evaluation of private participation in power generation segment of India and investment opportunities in Indian power sector. In addition, the report examines policies, regulatory framework and financing of power generation in India. It also highlights key issues and challenges that are restricting the accelerated development of this sector. The report has thirteen chapters in total. (author)

  4. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    better control performance under the unbalanced AC source. It is concluded that power electronics will play more important role and regulate all the generated power in the next generation wind turbine system. In this case, the stress in the converter components becomes more critical because the power......The wind power generation has been steadily growing both for the total installed capacity and for the individual turbine size. Due to much more significant impacts to the power grid, the power electronics, which can change the behavior of wind turbines from an unregulated power source to an active...... generation unit, are becoming crucial in the wind turbine system. The objective of this project is to study the power electronics technology used for the next generation wind turbines. Some emerging challenges as well as potentials like the cost of energy and reliability are going to be addressed. First...

  5. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    The wind power generation has been steadily growing both for the total installed capacity and for the individual turbine size. Due to much more significant impacts to the power grid, the power electronics, which can change the behavior of wind turbines from an unregulated power source to an active...... generation unit, are becoming crucial in the wind turbine system. The objective of this project is to study the power electronics technology used for the next generation wind turbines. Some emerging challenges as well as potentials like the cost of energy and reliability are going to be addressed. First...... better control performance under the unbalanced AC source. It is concluded that power electronics will play more important role and regulate all the generated power in the next generation wind turbine system. In this case, the stress in the converter components becomes more critical because the power...

  6. Design Analysis of a Novel Synchronous Generator for Wind Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Higuchi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A novel synchronous generator is proposed for wind power generation. The field flux is generated by the half-wave rectified excitation method. The generator does not require slip rings and brushes for field power supply, as well as permanent magnets. In this paper, the excitation method is explained, and then, the basic characteristics are calculated using the finite element method analysis. Furthermore, the generator is designed for increasing the output power and efficiency.

  7. The changing face of international power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsay, I. [World Energy Council, London (United Kingdom)

    1997-12-31

    The author limits his remarks to a discussion of the international generator`s marketplace, especially aimed at the developing countries. He discusses future global electricity demand, generating capacity build, its financing issues, and to the commercial generating opportunities which now abound outside the US.

  8. Research on Comparisons of New Clean Power Generation Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of introducing clean power generation technologies, the author calculated and analyzed the investment, economy and environmental protection of these technologies, posed his views of giving the priorities to the development of supercritical and ultra-supercritical pressure coal-fired power generation technologies and taking vigorous action to nuclear power generation technology within the following 5-10 years, exploiting wind power within the following 10-15 years, and suggested that the installed capacity of nuclear power reach 80-100 GW and that of wind power reach 50-80 GW by 2020.

  9. Fuel cell power trains for road traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höhlein, Bernd; Biedermann, Peter; Grube, Thomas; Menzer, Reinhard

    Legal regulations, especially the low emission vehicle (LEV) laws in California, are the driving forces for more intensive technological developments with respect to a global automobile market. In the future, high efficient vehicles at very low emission levels will include low temperature fuel cell systems (e.g., polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC)) as units of hydrogen-, methanol- or gasoline-based electric power trains. In the case of methanol or gasoline/diesel, hydrogen has to be produced on-board using heated steam or partial oxidation reformers as well as catalytic burners and gas cleaning units. Methanol could also be used for direct electricity generation inside the fuel cell (direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC)). The development potentials and the results achieved so far for these concepts differ extremely. Based on the experience gained so far, the goals for the next few years include cost and weight reductions as well as optimizations in terms of the energy management of power trains with PEFC systems. At the same time, questions of fuel specification, fuel cycle management, materials balances and environmental assessment will have to be discussed more intensively. On the basis of process engineering analyses for net electricity generation in PEFC-powered power trains as well as on assumptions for both electric power trains and vehicle configurations, overall balances have been carried out. They will lead not only to specific energy demand data and specific emission levels (CO 2, CO, VOC, NO x) for the vehicle but will also present data of its full fuel cycle (FFC) in comparison to those of FFCs including internal combustion engines (ICE) after the year 2005. Depending on the development status (today or in 2010) and the FFC benchmark results, the advantages of balances results of FFC with PEFC vehicles are small in terms of specific energy demand and CO 2 emissions, but very high with respect to local emission levels.

  10. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2008-09-30

    This report summarizes the progress made in development of Direct FuelCell/Turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T system employs an indirectly heated Turbine Generator to supplement fuel cell generated power. The concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, minimal emissions, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. Proof-of-concept tests using a sub-MW-class DFC/T power plant at FuelCell Energy's (FCE) Danbury facility were conducted to validate the feasibility of the concept and to measure its potential for electric power production. A 400 kW-class power plant test facility was designed and retrofitted to conduct the tests. The initial series of tests involved integration of a full-size (250 kW) Direct FuelCell stack with a 30 kW Capstone microturbine. The operational aspects of the hybrid system in relation to the integration of the microturbine with the fuel cell, process flow and thermal balances, and control strategies for power cycling of the system, were investigated. A subsequent series of tests included operation of the sub-MW Direct FuelCell/Turbine power plant with a Capstone C60 microturbine. The C60 microturbine extended the range of operation of the hybrid power plant to higher current densities (higher power) than achieved in initial tests using the 30kW microturbine. The proof-of-concept test results confirmed the stability and controllability of operating a fullsize (250 kW) fuel cell stack in combination with a microturbine. Thermal management of the system was confirmed and power plant operation, using the microturbine as the only source of fresh air supply

  11. Integrated engine-generator concept for aircraft electric secondary power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secunde, R. R.; Macosko, R. P.; Repas, D. S.

    1972-01-01

    The integrated engine-generator concept of locating an electric generator inside an aircraft turbojet or turbofan engine concentric with, and driven by, one of the main engine shafts is discussed. When properly rated, the generator can serve as an engine starter as well as a generator of electric power. The electric power conversion equipment and generator controls are conveniently located in the aircraft. Preliminary layouts of generators in a large engine together with their physical sizes and weights indicate that this concept is a technically feasible approach to aircraft secondary power.

  12. Alternative power generation concepts for space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With the advent of the NASA Space Station, there has emerged a general realization that large quantities of power in space are necessary and, in fact, enabling. This realization has led to the examination of alternative options to the ubiquitous solar array/battery power system. Several factors led to the consideration of solar dynamic and nuclear power systems. These include better scaling to high power levels, higher efficiency conversion and storage subsystems, and lower system specific mass. The objective of this paper is to present the results of trade and optimization studies that high-light the potential of solar and nuclear dynamic systems relative to photovoltaic power systems

  13. The PBMR electric power generation plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work has as purpose to diffuse in a general way the technology of the one modulate reactor of pebble bed. Because our country is in developing ways, the electric power demand goes in increase with that which it is presented the great challenge of satisfying this necessity, not only being in charge of the one fact per se, but also involving the environmental aspect and of security. Both factors are covered by the PBMR technology, which we approach in their basic aspects with the purpose that the public opinion knows it and was familiarized with this type of reactors that well could represent a solution for our growing electricity demand. We will treat this reactor visualizing it like part of a generation plant defining in first place to the itself reactor. We will see because that the system PBMR consists of 2 main sections: the reactor and the unit of energy conversion, highlighting that the principle of the PBMR reactor operation is based on the thermodynamic Brayton cycle cooled by helium and that, in turn, it transmits the energy in form of heat toward a gas turbine. In what concerns to the fuel, it peculiar design due to its spherical geometry is described, aspect that make to this reactor different from the traditional ones that use fuel rods. In fact in the fuel spheres of the PBMR it is where it resides great part of it inherent security since each particle of fuel, consistent in uranium dioxide, is lined one with coal and silicon carbide those which form an impenetrable barrier containing to the fuel and those radioactive products that result of the nuclear reactions. Such particles are encapsulated in graphite to form the sphere or 'pebble', of here born the name of this innovative technology. (Author)

  14. Current Status of Research on Hybrid Power Generation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madan A. Sendhil

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this paper is a detailed study of recent developments in hybrid power generation systems. Renewable energy sources nowadays play a vital role in efficient and pollution free electric power generation systems as a recent trend. Solar energy and wind energy are the most popular sources of power generation in many developing countries. This study presents a detailed analysis of recent research works that are made in the field of renewable power generation systems and a study of various hybridization methodologies of electric power generation schemes and electrical energy utilization from solar, wind, diesel, biomass and thermal power generating systems. In this study various IEEE journals, magazines and conference proceedings has been analyzed and are concluded.

  15. Managing strategic alliances in the power generation industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kumar, Rajesh

    2003-01-01

    Highlights the challenges for power development developers in initiating alliances in the power generation industry. Importance of strategic alliances in the industry; Nature of the alliances in the independent power industry; Strategies for creating and sustaining value in global power development......; Management of tensions inherent in internal and external alliances....

  16. Renewable energy power generation projects started construction in Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    On March 19, the construction of a 10-MW photovoltaic power plant and a 1 000-kW new type geothermal power generation project were started by Guodian Longyuan Group in Yanbajing Town, Dangxiong County of Tibet.

  17. Generating Functions for the Powers of Fibonacci Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrana, D.; Chen, H.

    2007-01-01

    In this note, based on the Binet formulas and the power-reducing techniques, closed forms of generating functions for the powers of Fibonacci sequences are presented. The corresponding results are extended to some other famous sequences as well.

  18. Application of Artificial Neural Networks for Predicting Generated Wind Power

    OpenAIRE

    Vijendra Singh

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses design and development of an artificial neural network based system for prediction of wind energy produced by wind turbines. Now in the last decade, renewable energy emerged as an additional alternative source for electrical power generation. We need to assess wind power generation capacity by wind turbines because of its non-exhaustible nature. The power generation by electric wind turbines depends on the speed of wind, flow direction, fluctuations, density of air, gener...

  19. Photovoltaic Generation Model for Power System Transient Stability Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Linan Qu; Dawei Zhao; Tao Shi; Ning Chen; Jie Ding

    2013-01-01

    It is necessary to model photovoltaic generation system based power system electromechanical transient time scales for large-scale PV connected to power system stability analysis. The model should reflect the non-linear output characteristics, fault ride-through response characteristics and output limits of photovoltaic generation system. A PV model used to meet these demands is proposed in this paper. Base on a 3-generator, 9-bus power system, the comparison and verification of the model is ...

  20. High-power laser experiments to study collisionless shock generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakawa Y.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A collisionless Weibel-instability mediated shock in a self-generated magnetic field is studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation [Kato and Takabe, Astophys. J. Lett. 681, L93 (2008]. It is predicted that the generation of the Weibel shock requires to use NIF-class high-power laser system. Collisionless electrostatic shocks are produced in counter-streaming plasmas using Gekko XII laser system [Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 175002 (2011]. A NIF facility time proposal is approved to study the formation of the collisionless Weibel shock. OMEGA and OMEGA EP experiments have been started to study the plasma conditions of counter-streaming plasmas required for the NIF experiment using Thomson scattering and to develop proton radiography diagnostics.

  1. CO-GENERATION AND OPERATING NETWORK CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John Eli

    2008-01-01

    In Denmark several thousands of generators are connected to the distribution system (10 kV and 0.4 kV). The production from these generators many times exceeds the load. The generators can be divided into two types, Wind turbines and CHP generators. These generators have one thing in common......, the power system they are connected to, has never been designed to accommodate so many generators. In Denmark we now expect a third type of generators: the microgenerators. This time we want to be prepared. Denmark therefore now participates in a lot of research and full scale demonstration projects. A key...

  2. Secondary electric power generation with minimum engine bleed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagge, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Secondary electric power generation with minimum engine bleed is discussed. Present and future jet engine systems are compared. The role of auxiliary power units is evaluated. Details of secondary electric power generation systems with and without auxiliary power units are given. Advanced bleed systems are compared with minimum bleed systems. A cost model of ownership is given. The difference in the cost of ownership between a minimum bleed system and an advanced bleed system is given.

  3. A Robust Adaptive Hydraulic Power Generation System for Jet Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Ronco, Pierantonio; Sorli, Massimo; Mornacchi, Andrea; Jacazio, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The paper presents an innovative hydraulic power generation system able to enhance performance, reliability and survivability of hydraulic systems used in military jet engines, as well as to allow a valuable power saving. This is obtained by a hydraulic power generation system architecture that uses variable pressure, smart control, emergency power source and suitable health management procedures. A key issue is to obtain all these functions while reducing to a minimum the number of additiona...

  4. Aggregated wind power generation probabilistic forecasting based on particle filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A new method for probabilistic forecasting of aggregated wind power generation. • A dynamic system is established based on a numerical weather prediction model. • The new method handles the non-Gaussian and time-varying wind power uncertainties. • Particle filter is applied to forecast predictive densities of wind generation. - Abstract: Probability distribution of aggregated wind power generation in a region is one of important issues for power system daily operation. This paper presents a novel method to forecast the predictive densities of the aggregated wind power generation from several geographically distributed wind farms, considering the non-Gaussian and non-stationary characteristics in wind power uncertainties. Based on a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model, a dynamic system is established to formulate the relationship between the atmospheric and near-surface wind fields of geographically distributed wind farms. A recursively backtracking framework based on the particle filter is applied to estimate the atmospheric state with the near-surface wind power generation measurements, and to forecast the possible samples of the aggregated wind power generation. The predictive densities of the aggregated wind power generation are then estimated based on these predicted samples by a kernel density estimator. In case studies, the new method presented is tested on a 9 wind farms system in Midwestern United States. The testing results that the new method can provide competitive interval forecasts for the aggregated wind power generation with conventional statistical based models, which validates the effectiveness of the new method

  5. Circuit Simulation of Light Ⅱ-A Pulsed Power Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Light Ⅱ-A pulsed power generator could be divided into the following parts, a Marx generator consisting of 12 spark gap switches and 24 low inductance capacitors (Maxwell Corporation products)

  6. Drying of biomass for power generation: A case study on power generation from empty fruit bunch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foreseeing a promising future of utilizing bio-energy, more and more small-scale biomass power plants are recently built. Biomasses with high moisture content such as sludge or Empty Fruit Bunch are often used as fuel in small-scale power plant without proper drying. These highly moist biomasses reduce the efficiency of the boiler but on the other hand drying the biofuel is also an energy intensive process. This paper aims to investigate how drying would affect the overall energy efficiency while proper heat integration in between the drying and power plant is under consideration. A 12.5 MW biomass power plant that burns EFB with 60 wt% moisture is used as a base case. Two types of dryer, Hot Air Dryer (HAD) and Superheated Steam Dryer (SSD), are proposed for the drying process. These two dryers require heat at different temperature levels to provide a better chance for heat integration. Material and energy balance models of the dryers and boilers are derived in this paper and the steam power plant model is constructed in Aspen Plus. The results of this study show that with proper drying and heat integration, the overall efficiency can be improved by more than 5%, when compared to process without drying. - Highlights: • Mathematical model for biomass drying targeting power generation is presented. • Case studies of a drying process for EFB containing 60% moisture. • Mass and energy balances and simulation through ASPEN Plus. • We proposed the integration of Hot Air Dryer and Superheated Steam Dryer. • This caused a significant improvement to the overall efficiency

  7. Development of low grade waste heat thermoelectric power generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvit Punnachaiya

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to develop a 50 watt thermoelectric power generator using low grade waste heat as a heat source,in order to recover and utilize the excess heat in cooling systems of industrial processes and high activity radioisotope sources. Electricity generation was based on the reverse operation of a thermoelectric cooling (TEC device. The TEC devices weremodified and assembled into a set of thermal cell modules operating at a temperature less than 100°C. The developed powergenerator consisted of 4 modules, each generating 15 watts. Two cascade modules were connected in parallel. Each modulecomprised of 96 TEC devices, which were connected in series. The hot side of each module was mounted on an aluminumheat transfer pipe with dimensions 12.212.250 cm. Heat sinks were installed on the cold side with cooling fans to provideforced air cooling.To test electricity generation in the experiment, water steam was used as a heat source instead of low grade waste heat.The open-circuit direct current (DC of 250 V and the short-circuit current of 1.2 A was achieved with the following operatingconditions: a hot side temperature of 96°C and a temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of 25°C. The DC poweroutput was inverted to an AC power source of 220 V with 50 Hz frequency, which can continuously supply more than 50 wattsof power to a resistive load as long as the heat source was applied to the system. The system achieved an electrical conversionefficiency of about 0.47 percent with the capital cost of 70 US$/W.

  8. Power oscillation damping by a converter-based power generation device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    There is provided a power generation park comprising a power output for providing electrical output power to an electricity network . A power generation device comprises a converter device configured for receiving input power from a power generator and providing, in response hereto, the electrical...... response to the oscillation indicating signal; the converter device being configured for modulating the electrical output power in response to the damping control signal so as to damp the power oscillation in the electricity network....... output power to the power output. The power generation park further comprises a controller being configured for receiving an oscillation indicating signal indicative of a power oscillation in the electricity network, the controller being further configured for providing a damping control signal in...

  9. Financing of nuclear power plant using resources of power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is proved that during the lifetime of a power plant, financial resources are produced from depreciation and from the profit for the delivered electrical power in an amount allowing to meet the cost of construction, interests of credits, the corporation taxes, and the means usable by the utility for simple reproduction of the power plant, additional investment, or for the ultimate decommissioning of the nuclear power plant. The considerations are simplified to 1 MW of installed capacity of a WWER-440 nuclear power plant. The breakdown is shown of the profit and the depreciation over the power plant lifetime, the resources of regular payments of credit instalments for the construction and the method of its calculation, and the income for the state budget and for the utility during the plant liofetime. (J.B.). 5 tabs., 5 refs

  10. A Maximum Power Tracker for Improved Thermophotovoltaic Power Generation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) are critical for future flagship exploration missions in space and on planetary surfaces. Small improvements in the RPS...

  11. New generation of reactors for space power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Space nuclear reactor power is expected to enable many new space missions that will require several times to several orders of magnitude anything flown in space to date. Power in the 100-kW range may be required in high earth orbit spacecraft and planetary exploration. The technology for this power system range is under development for the Department of Energy with the Los Alamos National Laboratory responsible for the critical components in the nuclear subsystem. The baseline design for this particular nuclear sybsystem technology is described in this paper; additionally, reactor technology is reviewed from previous space power programs, a preliminary assessment is made of technology candidates covering an extended power spectrum, and the status is given of other reactor technologies

  12. Thermodynamic irreversibility and performance characteristics of thermoelectric power generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermodynamic irreversibility and performance characteristics of a thermoelectric power generator are investigated. The influence of the external load parameter, the thermal conductivity ratio, the figure of Merit, and the conductance ratio on the efficiency, the output power, and the entropy generation rate is predicted for various device operating parameters. It is found that the device efficiency increases to reach its maximum at the critical value of the output power and operating the device beyond the critical output power lowers the thermal efficiency and enhances the entropy generation rate significantly in the device. - Highlights: • The thermodynamic irreversibility in thermoelectric generator is studied. • Thermodynamic characteristics of thermoelectric device are investigated. • Influence of various parameters on performance is presented. • The device efficiency reaches its maximum at a critical output power. • The entropy generation increases beyond the critical output power

  13. Comparative cost analysis of wind and photovoltaic power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power generation from wind power and solar radiation is at present - and this can be described as generally accepted consent of energy economy - considered as the electricity generation option which is characterized by the lowest environmental loads. Greatest disadvantage of energy generation by using these renewable energy sources are - compared to conventional power generation options - the still to high production costs for electric power. Therefore government promotional programs have been initiated (e.g. 250 MW wind program and 1000-roof program) in order to attain cost reductions and thus to make a broader use of these energy sources possible. Against this background this study aims at presenting and discussing the production costs of power generation from wind power and solar radiation with and without government promotion under the meteorological conditions in the FRG. (orig.)

  14. Self power generating piezoelectric elements applied to switching circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, we focused on lead zirconate titanate (PZT) as a power generating piezoelectric element. Niobium was added to each of the PZT elements to improve their power generation characteristics. The purpose of the study was to develop a high-efficiency PZT generator element that utilizes the vibration loads in the support members of a structure. We have previously reported the power generation characteristics of laminated PZT elements under vibration loads. Effect of vibration load, vibration frequency and number of PZT layers on generation characteristics of PZT elements was evaluated in the vibration test. We evaluate the power generation of laminated PZT elements and present the results of an experiment using a switching circuit as a load circuit in order to confirm the suitability of the laminated PZT element as a power source

  15. Department of Energy power generation programs for natural gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bajura, R.A.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring two major programs to develop high efficiency, natural gas fueled power generation technologies. These programs are the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program and the Fuel Cell Program. While natural gas is gaining acceptance in the electric power sector, the improved technology from these programs will make gas an even more attractive fuel, particularly in urban areas where environmental concerns are greatest. Under the auspices of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EE), the 8-year ATS Program is developing and will demonstrate advanced gas turbine power systems for both large central power systems and smaller industrial-scale systems. The large-scale systems will have efficiencies significantly greater than 60 percent, while the industrial-scale systems will have efficiencies with at least an equivalent 15 percent increase over the best 1992-vintage technology. The goal is to have the system ready for commercial offering by the year 2000.

  16. Power generation from tidal energy. Chosekiter dot choryu hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiho, S. (Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan). College of Science and Technology)

    1992-05-20

    Both the tidal height difference and current power generations are generally explained to make the tide as an energy source. Because of lowness in density of tidal energy, what has been put to practical use is only one 240000kW power station in France and all the others are still at the stage of demonstration. The tidal height difference power generation is a system to generate the power through rotating the water wheel by the difference in seawater level at the entrance to a bay, large in difference between the tidal rise and fall. In Japan, there is no place where such a tidal height difference may be considerably good for the power generation. Judging for the economical performance from an example in the tidal power station in Rance, France, the tidal power generation, as high in embankment construction cost for the dam, is about twice as costly as the hydraulic power generation in general. As utilizing the phenomenon for the tidal current velocity to be high at a narrow entrance to the bay, the tidal current power generation is to generate the power from the current as natural without embankment and other constructions. Japan{prime}s tidal current energy in total is estimated to be 60TWh in annually generated quantity of power. The highest tidal current velocity is about 4m/sec in Japan, which estimates 6.4 to 12.8kW. In the tidal current power generation, the efficiency of water wheel is an important element. 5 refs., 16 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. A Vector Control for Grid-connected Wind Power Generation with Doubly Fed Induction Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai, Takaaki; Tanaka, Yuji; Kaneda, Hirotoshi; Kobayashi, Daichi; Tanaka, Akio

    Recently, doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) and synchronous generator are mostly applied for wind power generation due to high efficiently for wind energy capture. An inverter system is required to control wind turbine speed and power factor in those generators. The inverter rating of the synchronous generator equals to generator rating. However, DFIG has the advantage that the inverter rating is about 25% to the generator rating. The paper describes a vector control of DFIG inter-connected to power line. The performance of proposed vector control is examined using power system simulation software PSCAD/EMTDC for the DFIG inter-connected to 6.6kv distribution line. The results show good dynamic responses and high accuracy to the stator active power control and the stator reactive power control.

  18. Synchrophasor Applications for Wind Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.; Allen, A.; Singh, M.; Gevorgian, V.; Wan, Y. H.

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. power industry is undertaking several initiatives that will improve the operations of the electric power grid. One of those is the implementation of wide-area measurements using phasor measurement units to dynamically monitor the operations and status of the network and provide advanced situational awareness and stability assessment. The overviews of synchrophasors and stability analyses in this report are intended to present the potential future applications of synchrophasors for power system operations under high penetrations of wind and other renewable energy sources.

  19. Entropy-generated power and its efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golubeva, N.; Imparato, A.; Esposito, M.

    2013-01-01

    We propose a simple model for a motor that generates mechanical motion by exploiting an entropic force arising from the topology of the underlying phase space. We show that the generation of mechanical forces in our system is surprisingly robust to local changes in kinetic and topological...

  20. Generation of rho zero cells

    OpenAIRE

    Schubert, Susanne; Heller, Sandra; Löffler, Birgit; Schäfer, Ingo; Seibel, Martina; Villani, Gaetano; Seibel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is located in discrete DNA-protein complexes, so called nucleoids. These structures can be easily visualized in living cells by utilizing the fluorescent stain PicoGreen®. In contrary, cells devoid of endogenous mitochondrial genomes (ρ0 cells) display no mitochondrial staining in the cytoplasm. A modified restriction enzyme can be targeted to mitochondria to cleave the mtDNA molecules in more than two fragments, thereby activating endogenous nucleases. B...

  1. Design and exergetic analysis of a novel carbon free tri-generation system for hydrogen, power and heat production from natural gas, based on combined solid oxide fuel and electrolyser cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perdikaris, N.; Hofmann, Ph.; Spyrakis, S. [Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, School of Mechanical Engineering, Thermal Engineering Section, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou Ave., Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Panopoulos, K.D. [Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 4th km N.R. Ptolemais-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, 50200 Ptolemais (Greece); Kakaras, E. [Laboratory of Steam Boilers and Thermal Plants, School of Mechanical Engineering, Thermal Engineering Section, National Technical University of Athens, 9 Heroon Polytechniou Ave., Zografou, 15780 Athens (Greece); Institute for Solid Fuels Technology and Applications, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, 4th km N.R. Ptolemais-Kozani, P.O. Box 95, 50200 Ptolemais (Greece)

    2010-03-15

    The Solid Oxide Cells (SOCs) are able to operate in two modes: (a) the Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) that produce electricity and heat and (b) the Solid Oxide Electrolyser Cells (SOEC) that consume electricity and heat to electrolyse water and produce hydrogen and oxygen. The present paper presents a carbon free SOEC/SOFC combined system for the production of hydrogen, electricity and heat (tri-generation) from natural gas fuel. Hydrogen can be locally used as automobile fuel whereas the oxygen produced in the SOEC is used to combust the depleted fuel from the SOFC, which is producing electricity and heat from natural gas. In order to achieve efficient carbon capture in such a system, water steam should be used as the SOEC anode sweep gas, to allow the production of nitrogen free flue gases. The SOEC and SOFC operations were matched through modeling of all components in Aspenplus trademark. The exergetic efficiency of the proposed decentralised system is 28.25% for power generation and 18.55% for production of hydrogen. The system is (a) carbon free because it offers an almost pure pressurised CO{sub 2} stream to be driven for fixation via parallel pipelines to the natural gas feed, (b) does not require any additional water for its operation and (c) offers 26.53% of its energetic input as hot water for applications. (author)

  2. On Board Hydrogen Generation for Fuel Cell Powered Electric Cars. a Review of Various Available Techniques Production d'hydrogène embarquée pour véhicules électriques à piles. Aperçu de différentes techniques envisageables

    OpenAIRE

    Prigent M.

    2006-01-01

    Various methods allowing onboard hydrogen generation for fuel cell powered electric cars are reviewed. The following primary fuels are considered : ammonia, methanol, ethanol, and hydrocarbons. The catalytic cracking of ammonia allows generation of a CO2-free mixture containing 75% hydrogen, which is consequently suitable without subsequent purification for the supply of alkaline fuel cells. The problems posed by this primary fuel are toxicity in the event of leaks and the risk of generating ...

  3. Environmental impact of thermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioactive radon gas emitting from power stations contributes the largest fraction of the natural radiation dose to populations. If not curtailed to requisite level, it poses health hazards fuelling respiratory deceases apart from causing water pollution and land degradation like sulphur oxide emissions. This article suggests steps to minimise the adverse effects of pollutants from fly ash and coal dust emitted by thermal power plants. (author)

  4. Coal gasification for electric power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, D F; Gluckman, M J; Alpert, S B

    1982-03-26

    The electric utility industry is being severely affected by rapidly escalating gas and oil prices, restrictive environmental and licensing regulations, and an extremely tight money market. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have the potential to be economically competitive with present commercial coal-fired power plants while satisfying stringent emission control requirements. The current status of gasification technology is discussed and the critical importance of the 100-megawatt Cool Water IGCC demonstration program is emphasized. PMID:17788466

  5. Progress and prospects for phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonville, L.J.; Scheffler, G.W.; Smith, M.J. [International Fuel Cells Corp., South Windsor, CT (United States)

    1996-12-31

    International Fuel Cells (IFC) has developed the fuel cell power plant as a new, on-site power generation source. IFC`s commercial fuel cell product is the 200-kW PC25{trademark} power plant. To date over 100 PC25 units have been manufactured. Fleet operating time is in excess of one million hours. Individual units of the initial power plant model, the PC25 A, have operated for more than 30,000 hours. The first model {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} power plant has over 10,000 hours of operation. The manufacturing, application and operation of this power plant fleet has established a firm base for design and technology development in terms of a clear understanding of the requirements for power plant reliability and durability. This fleet provides the benchmark against which power plant improvements must be measured.

  6. Atomic power generation and future technical progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of the world's first atomic power station in the Soviet Union in 1954 not only marked the beginning of a new trend in power engineering but also clearly demonstrated the practicability of human utilization of the vast resource of nuclear energy. The discovery of the fundamental possibility of using the energy released by the chain reactions associated with fission of heavy nuclei and fusion of light nuclei was a stupendous gift of science. The full significance of these revelations will appear later, at the end of this century, but it is already clear that the widespread use of nuclear energy from fission and fusion is inevitable, as the only technically and economically satisfactory way of overcoming the shortage of cheap fuels such as oil and gas. The large-scale development of atomic power engineering for various purposes - electric power, process heat and district heating, heat and power supplies for the metallurgical industry, power and heat for different branches of the chemical industry and radiation stimulation of chemical products - will help to save oil and gas so that they can be used for purposes where they are most difficult to replace

  7. An overview of advanced power generation technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is intended as a brief review of the technologies currently applied in Australian electricity generation and the technologies which are likely to be employed in the future. The paper opens with a review of the primary energy resources available for the generation of electricity in Australia, and the technologies currently employed. The development of advanced generation technologies around the world is reviewed, and the most likely technologies to be employed in Australia are described. There are a number of renewable and alternative technologies, such as generation from sewage digester, landfill or mine gases. Their impact would, however, be disproportionate because of the strong climate forcing effect of methane. Of the wide range of other emerging renewable technologies examined, solar thermal offers the best prospect of maturing into a financially-competitive technology for large scale generation in the next 20 years. However, will remain unable to compete with non-renewable technologies in normal financial terms, at least until 2005 and probably well beyond that date. Generation using the fission of nuclear fuels is a mature, proven technology. Based on the most likely fuel and other assumptions made in this study, the costs of nuclear generation are only moderately higher than conventional coal-fired options. Nuclear generation is thus a relatively low cost route to reductions in carbon dioxide emission for new plant, at $19/tonne CO2 saved, in comparison with conventional black coal technology, and $13/tonne CO2 compared with conventional brown coal firing. While major considerations of societal acceptance clearly exist, nuclear generation has the necessary technical and financial qualifications for serious consideration as an element in any greenhouse strategy. 5 tab., 2 figs

  8. Development of a novel cascading TPV and TE power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A novel cascading thermophotovoltaic (TPV) and thermoelectric (TE) power generation system is proposed and developed. ► The used heat stream is taken from the TPV and applied to the input of a TE converter in the system. ► A prototype was built and tested where GaSb TPV cells and PbSnTe-based TE converter were used. ► The TPV cells generate 123.5 We whereas the TE converter generates 306.2 We in the prototype. ► It is shown the cascading power generation is feasible in fuel-fired furnaces and can be applied to micro-CHP. -- Abstract: Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) cells can convert infrared radiation into electricity. They open up possibilities for silent and stand-alone power production in fuel-fired heating equipment. Similarly, thermoelectric (TE) devices convert thermal energy directly into electricity with no moving parts. However, TE devices have relatively low efficiency for electric power generation. In this study, the concept of cascading TPV and TE power generation was developed where the used heat stream is taken from the TPV and applied to the input of a TE converter. A prototype cascading TPV and TE generation system was built and tested. GaSb TPV cells and an integrated semiconductor TE converter were used in the cascading power system. The electric output characteristics of the TPV cells and the TE converter have been investigated in the power generation system at various operating conditions. Experimental results show that the cascading power generation is feasible and has the potential for certain applications.

  9. DOWNHOLE POWER GENERATION AND WIRELESS COMMUNICATIONS FOR INTELLIGENT COMPLETIONS APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Tubel

    2004-02-01

    The development work during this quarter was focused in the assembly of the downhole power generator hardware and its electronics module. The quarter was also spent in the development of the surface system electronics and software to extract the acoustic data transmitted from downhole to the surface from the noise generated by hydrocarbon flow in wells and to amplify very small acoustic signals to increase the distance between the downhole tool and the surface receiver. The tasks accomplished during this report period were: (1) Assembly of the downhole power generator mandrel for generation of electrical power due to flow in the wellbore. (2) Test the piezoelectric wafers to assure that they are performing properly prior to integrating them to the mechanical power generator mandrel. (3) Coat the power generator wafers to prevent water from shorting the power generator wafers. (4) Test of the power generator using a water tower and an electric pump to create a water flow loop. (5) Test the power harvesting electronics module. (6) Upgrade the signal condition and amplification from downhole into the surface system. (7) Upgrade the surface processing system capability to process data faster. (8) Create a new filtering technique to extract the signal from noise after the data from downhole is received at the surface system.

  10. 43 CFR 431.6 - Power generation estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Power generation estimates. 431.6 Section... BOULDER CANYON PROJECT, ARIZONA/NEVADA § 431.6 Power generation estimates. Reclamation shall submit annually on or before April 15 to Western and Contractors, an estimated annual operation schedule for...

  11. Development of power supply package for electret vibration generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of power supply package for electret vibration generator. To use the electret vibration generator widely in the market the power supply unit of the package where the circuit of making to direct current had been integrated with the control circuit was developed. And the application was examined

  12. Refurbishment Status of Light Ⅱ-A Pulsed Power Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Light Ⅱ-A pulsed power generator, formerly used to pump KrF laser, was updated around the year 2000 from the original Light Ⅱ, a pulsed power generator built in 1980s at CIAE. This machine was

  13. Windfarm Generation Assessment for ReliabilityAnalysis of Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, Nicola Barberis; Holmstrøm, Ole; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Sørensen, Poul

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fast development of wind generation in the past ten years, increasing interest has been paid to techniques for assessing different aspects of power systems with a large amount of installed wind generation. One of these aspects concerns power system reliability. Windfarm modelling plays a...

  14. Windfarm Generation Assessment for Reliability Analysis of Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barberis Negra, Nicola; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Holmstrøm, O.; Sørensen, P.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fast development of wind generation in the past ten years, increasing interest has been paid to techniques for assessing different aspects of power systems with a large amount of installed wind generation. One of these aspects concerns power system reliability. Windfarm modelling plays a...

  15. Windfarm generation assessment for reliability analysis of power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, N.B.; Holmstrøm, O.; Bak-Jensen, B.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fast development of wind generation in the past ten years, increasing interest has been paid to techniques for assessing different aspects of power systems with a large amount of installed wind generation. One of these aspects concerns power system reliability. Windfarm modelling plays a...

  16. Survey, design, development, and installation of micro hydel power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the survey, design, development and installation Of micro hydel power generation using low head Kaplan water turbine. Electricity production from hydro power has been and still is today, the first renewable source used to generate electricity. The development of energy from renewable is very important step in reduction of carbon emissions(CO/sub 2/).

  17. Implications of high temperature superconductors for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superconducting generators for high power applications have been of interest for a number of years. Superconducting generators using low temperature superconductors (LTS) have been manufactured to produce up to 20 MW of electrical power and have been configured in either synchronous alternators which have an AC output that may be subsequently rectified to produce DC and homopolar generators which produce low voltage DC. Typically these generators require scrupulous attention to vacuum integrity for cryogenic insulation at 4.2K and tend to be somewhat fragile because of extensive thermal and magnetic shields that are not required in conventional power generators. Recently, high purity aluminum composites have been developed for a high power AC generator that is cooled by cryogenic hydrogen at 21K. This aluminum generator is very compact and lightweight and is much more robust than a generator made with LTS because extensive thermal and magnetic shields are not required internally. The advent of high temperature superconductors (HTS) has resulted in new potential for the superconducting generator because HTS can operate at and above 21K in a generator that does not require elaborate thermal and electromagnetic shields similar to the aluminum generator. since the great advantage of cryogenic generators is gained at high power, the paper is limited to generators of roughly one megawatt and greater. The implications of HTS for high power generator applications are discussed with emphasis on conceptualizing an early feasibility demonstrator that benefits from rudimentary HTS that exist now or in the near future. While the technology of HTS is in its infancy, the successful early demonstration of the feasibility of a powerful generator employing HTS should lead to future applications

  18. Development of power generation and nuclear power plant siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is presented of Czechoslovak WWER type nuclear power plants in operation, under construction and planned. Regional geological surveying is being performed for nuclear power plant siting, covering an area of about 100 to 200 km in radius, as well as engineering and geological surveying aimed at obtaining data on the bearing capacity and stability of the area, on the subsidence of foundation soil due to construction, on ground water level, etc. The basic engineering and geological properties of suitable nuclear power plant sites are listed. A description is given of the method of seismic subdivision of the site into micro-areas and of the system of automatic earthquake protection used for securing the seismic safety of the power plants. (E.J.). 3 refs

  19. Operation analysis of distribution feeders with wind power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, C.T.; Chen, C.S.; Lee, Y.D. [National Sun Yat-sen Univ., Kaohsiung, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Hsu, C.T. [Southern Taiwan Univ., Tainan, Taiwan (China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    2008-07-01

    The government of Taiwan aims to increase the percent of renewable power generation to 10 per cent of total generation capacity, or 5139 MW, by 2010. This study explored the impact of wind power generation to the distribution systems. In particular, a practical distribution feeder from the Taiwan Power Company (TPC) was used for a computer simulation of a wind powered micro-grid system. For the normal operation of the test feeder, the system voltage variation was derived by considering the daily load profile of test feeder with wind power generation. For the permanent fault in the distribution system, the load shedding scheme was developed for the islanding micro-grid so that stable operation could be restored with the proper pitch angle control for the wind power generator. The seasonal wind power generated by wind turbines was calculated by applying the exponential rate and Weibull possibility distribution model according to the actual minutely wind speed data from the Hengchun area in Taiwan. The mean value and standard deviation of seasonal wind power output were determined for the design of the load shedding scheme when the distribution feeder had been isolated for the islanding operation. For a permanent fault at the outlet of the test feeder, the islanding operation of the isolated power system was formulated after the feeder circuit breaker was tripped. Following 3 stages of load shedding and pitch angle control, the micro-grid stabilized to maintain the power service at critical loads in the distribution feeder. 7 refs., 17 figs.

  20. Application of Artificial Neural Networks for Predicting Generated Wind Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijendra Singh

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses design and development of an artificial neural network based system for prediction of wind energy produced by wind turbines. Now in the last decade, renewable energy emerged as an additional alternative source for electrical power generation. We need to assess wind power generation capacity by wind turbines because of its non-exhaustible nature. The power generation by electric wind turbines depends on the speed of wind, flow direction, fluctuations, density of air, generator hours, seasons of an area, and wind turbine position. During a particular season, wind power generation access can be increased. In such a case, wind energy generation prediction is crucial for transmission of generated wind energy to a power grid system. It is advisable for the wind power generation industry to predict wind power capacity to diagnose it. The present paper proposes an effort to apply artificial neural network technique for measurement of the wind energy generation capacity by wind farms in Harshnath, Sikar, Rajasthan, India.

  1. A Proposed Method to Generate Electricity through Power Stair

    OpenAIRE

    Arvind Upadhyaya; Shweta Upadhyaya

    2016-01-01

    We are using the non-renewable energy sources such as petroleum as well as renewable sources like solar, wind, tidal power etc., but still we couldn’t overcome our power needs. So we have to generate electricity through each and every possible ways. Power can be generated through we are stepping on the stairs; the generated power will be stored and can be used for domestic purposes. This system can be installed at homes, colleges, railway stations, where the people move around the clock. The ...

  2. Power generation from conductive droplet sliding on electret film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaochu; Halvorsen, Einar; Dong, Tao

    2012-05-01

    Generating electrical power from low frequency vibration to power portable devices is a challenge that potentially can be met by nonresonant electrostatic energy harvesters. We propose a generator employing a conductive droplet sliding on a microfabricated electret film which is sputtered onto an interdigital electrode and charged already during deposition. Droplet motion causes a capacitance variation that is used to generate electric power. A prototype of the fluidic energy harvester demonstrated a peak output power at 0.18 µW with a single droplet having a diameter of 1.2 mm and sliding on a 2 -µm thick electret film.

  3. Gas-fired Power Generation in India: Challenges and opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    India's fast growing economy needs to add 100,000 MW power generating capacity between 2002-2012. Given limitations to the use of coal in terms of environmental considerations, quality and supply constraints, gas is expected to play an increasingly important role in India's power sector. This report briefs NMC Delegates on the potential for gas-fired power generation in India and describes the challenges India faces to translate the potential for gas-fired power generation into reality.

  4. High-power generator of singlet oxygen

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirásek, Vít; Čenský, Miroslav; Špalek, Otomar; Kodymová, Jarmila

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 10 (2013), s. 1755-1763. ISSN 0930-7516 Grant ostatní: Laser Science and Technology Centre(IN) LASTEC/FE/RKT/54/10-11 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : high-pressure singlet oxygen generator * spray generator * centrifugal separation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.175, year: 2013

  5. Prospect of laser fusion power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inertial fusion ignition, burn and energy gain are expected to be achieved within the first decade of next century with new Megajoule laser facilities which are under construction in the USA and France. Fusion reactor design studies indicate that Inertial Fusion Energy(IFE) power plants are technically feasible and have attractive safety and environmental features. The recent progress on implosion physics and relevant technologies require us to consider a strategic approach toward IFE development. The design study for a laser fusion power plant KOYO has been conducted as a joint program of universities, national laboratories and industries in Japan and also with international collaborations. The progress of high power laser technology gives us feasible project toward a laser driven IFE Power Plant. The technical breakthrough in the field of diode pumped solid state laser (DPSSL) has opened wide application of power laser to industrial technologies. Laser fusion energy development will be proceeded jointly with industrial photonics research and development. International collaborations are also promoted for efficient progress and activation of R and D on advanced technologies which are required for IFE and also useful for modern industries. (author). 7 refs., 1 tab., 7 figs

  6. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East.

  7. Conceptual survey of Generators and Power Electronics for Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.H.; Helle, L.; Blaabjerg, F.; Ritchie, E.; Munk-Nielsen, S.; Bindner, H.; Soerensen, P.; Bak-Jensen, B.

    2001-12-01

    This report presents a survey on generator concepts and power electronic concepts for wind turbines. The report is aimed as a tool for decision-makers and development people with respect to wind turbine manufactures, utilities, and independent system operators as well as manufactures of generators and power electronics. The survey is focused on the electric development of wind turbines and it yields an overview on: State of the art on generators and power electronics; future concepts and technologies within generators and power electronics; market needs in the shape of requirements to the grid connection, and; consistent system solutions, plus an evaluation of these seen in the prospect of market needs. This survey on of generator and power electronic concepts was carried out in co-operation between Aalborg University and Risoe National Laboratory in the scope of the research programme Electric Design and Control. (au)

  8. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East

  9. FEATURES OF CALCULATION OF THE NONCONTACT ELECTRIC POWER GENERATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvitko A. V.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The article shows that to improve the performance of autonomous systems we need new methods and principles of their design, associated with both the use of renewable sources and the application of new technical solutions of electromechanical generators and static stabilizers and inverters electric power settings. We have disclosed modern requirements for generators of electric power, as well as features of calculating the parameters of contactless electrical power generators: asynchronous generators capacitive excitation and asynchronous generators with permanent magnets. The article presents some analytical expressions for calculating the electrical losses and the efficiency of the generators, specific weight and power. It is shown, that expedient to designing contactless electrical power generators to carry out as part of the autonomous electricity supply systems, as it is sometimes advantageous to understate the main criteria of efficiency of generators, in order to improve, for example, weight and overall dimensions of static converters. The conclusion is made that in order to improve the efficiency of designing contactless electrical power generators in the early stages of designing it is necessary to carry out a preliminary assessment of the main criteria of efficiency of contactless electrical machines. We have also discussed analytical expressions, which might be used for preliminary evaluation of application features for various types of contactless generators in the stand-alone electricity supply systems taking into account the conditions of use

  10. Human factor problem in nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since a nuclear power plant accident at Threemile Island in U.S.A. occurred in March, 1979, twenty years have passed. After the accident, the human factor problem became focussed in nuclear power, to succeed its research at present. For direct reason of human error, most of factors at individual level or work operation level are often listed at their center. Then, it is natural that studies on design of a machine or apparatus suitable for various human functions and abilities and on improvement of relationship between 'human being and machine' and 'human being and working environment' are important in future. Here was, as first, described on outlines of the human factor problem in a nuclear power plant developed at a chance of past important accident, and then was described on educational training for its countermeasure. At last, some concrete researching results obtained by human factor research were introduced. (G.K.)

  11. Power generation planning: a survey from monopoly to competition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last two decades electric power generation industry in many countries and regions around the world has undergone a significant transformation from being a centrally coordinated monopoly to a deregulated liberalized market. In the majority of those countries, competition has been introduced through the adoption of a competitive wholesale electricity spot market. Short-term efficiency of power generators under competitive environment has attracted considerable effort from researchers, while long-term investment performance has received less attention. In this context, the paper aims to serve as a comprehensive review basis for generation planning methods applied in a competitive electric power generation market. The traditional modeling techniques developed for generation expansion planning under monopoly are initially presented in an effort to assess the evolution of generation planning according to the evolution of the structure of the electric power market. (author)

  12. Application of additional diesel generators in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to enlarge the nuclear safety margin, ensure safe shutdown of nuclear reactors under loss of on-site and offsite power supply, and raise the unit availability through elongation of diesel fallback time under unavailability of emergency diesel generators, at present, nuclear power stations of most countries and zones in the world such as France, the U.S., south Africa, South Korea and Taiwan have been equipped with additional diesel generators, making the safety performance of above-mentioned nuclear power stations advanced in the world. The wiring procedures, power supply mode, testing methods and the power supply and connection schemes of motor control center are described

  13. Thermochemical Heat Storage for Baseload Concentrated Solar Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Sattler, Christian; Agrafiotis, Christos; Roeb, Martin; Tescari, Stefania; Wong, Bunsen

    2015-01-01

    Recent developments in solar-thermal power generation aim as well to achieve higher temperatures to increase the efficiencies of the power cycles as to store the solar energy to enable baseload power generation from a transient energy source. Thermochemical redox processes are an option to store large amounts of solar energy in a compact storage system. The enthalpy effects of these reversible chemical reactions can be exploited. Oxides of multivalent metals in particular, capable of being...

  14. Environmental and Safety Concerns for Nuclear Power Generation in Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel Ampomah-Amoako; Edward H. K. Akaho; Nyarko, Benjamin J. B.; Isaac Ennison; Odoi, Henry C.; Abrefah, Rex G.; Sogbadji, Robert B. M.; Birikorang, Sylvester A.; Aboh, Innocent J. K.; Kwaku A. Danso; Ekua Mensimah; Kwame Gyamfi

    2011-01-01

    Misconception about nuclear reactor safety has led several nuclear power projects to be abandoned. Safety was taken into consideration even before the first fission chain reaction was initiated. These safety precautions coupled with half a century of experience in nuclear power generation have made nuclear power the best choice for base load electricity generation in several countries across the globe. The storage of nuclear waste has been extensively studied over the years and several opport...

  15. Energy situation and role of nuclear power generation in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increase of electric power demand in Italy slowed down during the last several years, but the maximum load continued to increase steadily. The electrical power consumption in Italy is 2375 kwh per person in 1974, which is much less than that in Germany, England and other countries in Europe. The energy resources in Italy consists of hydraulic power generation which has the capability about 11 x 103 MWe in operation in 1975, thermal power generation including both steam power and gas turbine with about 19 x 103 MWe and 0.4 MWe, respectively, and the geothermal power generation that is a special resource in Italy with the capacity of about 1/3 in the world. Research has not been carried out in the field of tidal power generation, but solar energy is developed in Italy. ENEL has exerted its best effort to scale up the thermal power generation since 1960s with the standardization of plant capacity into 160 MWe, 320 MWe and 660 MWe. The multiformity of fuel is considered in these thermal power generating plants recently, and coal is also looked for again. As for the nuclear power generation, about 600 MWe is now in operation. It is considered about the nuclear power generation that safety and financial problems exist which are connected to the public sense of unease with no ground, the solution of social economy problem around the sites, the necessity of much funds, and the licensing problem. Much effort is concentrated in the standardization of the plants, considering safety improvement and technical development. The lead time in the construction of a nuclear power plant is very long, and it is necessary to establish the siting law, promote the technical development and secure the public acceptance. (Nakai, Y.)

  16. Primary electric power generation systems for advanced-technology engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, M. J.

    1983-01-01

    The advantages of the all electric airplane are discussed. In the all electric airplane the generator is the sole source of electric power; it powers the primary and secondary flight controls, the environmentals, and the landing gear. Five candidates for all electric power systems are discussed and compared. Cost benefits of the all electric airplane are discussed.

  17. The price of fuel oil for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study establishes a break-even analysis model for fuel oil generation. The authors calculate the break-even points of the international fuel oil prices for the existing coal-fired power plants, the nuclear power plants and the newly-built coal/oil-fired power plants

  18. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den

    2002-01-01

    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond th

  19. Proceedings of steam turbine-generator developments for the power generation industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains proceedings of Steam Turbine Generator developments for the power industry. Topics covered include: areas of current concentration and continuing expansion and development in the power generation industry; the combined cycle; the continuing development of more reliable and more efficient low-pressure steam turbine designs; several techniques and processes under development which may provide significant improvements in the future thermal performance of power generation systems

  20. Optimal power flow for distribution networks with distributed generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosavljević Jordan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a genetic algorithm (GA based approach for the solution of the optimal power flow (OPF in distribution networks with distributed generation (DG units, including fuel cells, micro turbines, diesel generators, photovoltaic systems and wind turbines. The OPF is formulated as a nonlinear multi-objective optimization problem with equality and inequality constraints. Due to the stochastic nature of energy produced from renewable sources, i.e. wind turbines and photovoltaic systems, as well as load uncertainties, a probabilisticalgorithm is introduced in the OPF analysis. The Weibull and normal distributions are employed to model the input random variables, namely the wind speed, solar irradiance and load power. The 2m+1 point estimate method and the Gram Charlier expansion theory are used to obtain the statistical moments and the probability density functions (PDFs of the OPF results. The proposed approach is examined and tested on a modified IEEE 34 node test feeder with integrated five different DG units. The obtained results prove the efficiency of the proposed approach to solve both deterministic and probabilistic OPF problems for different forms of the multi-objective function. As such, it can serve as a useful decision-making supporting tool for distribution network operators. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR33046

  1. Hybrid biomass-wind power plant for reliable energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massive implementation of renewable energy resources is a key element to reduce CO2 emissions associated to electricity generation. Wind resources can provide an important alternative to conventional electricity generation mainly based on fossil fuels. However, wind generators are greatly affected by the restrictive operating rules of electricity markets because, as wind is naturally variable, wind generators may have serious difficulties on submitting accurate generation schedules on a day ahead basis, and on complying with scheduled obligations in real-time operation. In this paper, an innovative system combining a biomass gasification power plant, a gas storage system and stand-by generators to stabilize a generic 40 MW wind park is proposed and evaluated with real data. The wind park power production model is based on real data about power production of a Spanish wind park and a probabilistic approach to quantify fluctuations and so, power compensation needs. The hybrid wind-biomass system is analysed to obtain main hybrid system design parameters. This hybrid system can mitigate wind prediction errors and so provide a predictable source of electricity. An entire year cycle of hourly power compensations needs has been simulated deducing storage capacity, extra power needs of the biomass power plant and stand-by generation capacity to assure power compensation during critical peak hours with acceptable reliability. (author)

  2. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

  3. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included

  4. Concepts for central solar electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kintigh, J. K.

    1974-01-01

    The investigation reported was conducted to select the best conceptual design of a power plant for the dynamic conversion of solar heat to electricity. Conversion of thermal energy to electricity was to be an accomplished with conventional turbomachinery. Questions of site selection are discussed along with solar energy collection systems, aspects of candidate system definition, and reference systems.

  5. Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sulc, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

  6. Design of improved fuel cell controller for distributed generation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen Berenguer, F.A. [Instituto de Energia Electrica, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Av. Libertador San Martin Oeste, 1109, J5400ARL San Juan (Argentina); Molina, M.G. [CONICET, Instituto de Energia Electrica, Universidad Nacional de San Juan, Av. Libertador San Martin Oeste, 1109, J5400ARL San Juan (Argentina)

    2010-06-15

    The world has been undergoing a deregulation process which allowed competition in the electricity generation sector. This situation is bringing the opportunity for electricity users to generate power by using small-scale generation systems with emerging technologies, allowing the development of distributed generation (DG). A fuel cell power plant (FCPP) is a distributed generation technology with a rapid development because it has promising characteristics, such as low pollutant emissions, silent operation, high efficiency and long lifetime because of its small number of moving parts. The power conditioning system (PCS) is the interface that allows the effective connection to the electric power system. With the appropriate topology of the PCS and its control system design, the FCPP unit is capable of simultaneously performing both instantaneous active and reactive power flow control. This paper describes the design and implementation of a novel high performance PCS of an FCPP and its controller, for applications in distributed generation systems. A full detailed model of the FCPP is derived and a new three-level control scheme is designed. The dynamic performance of the proposed system is validated by digital simulation in SimPowerSystems (SPS) of MATLAB/Simulink. (author)

  7. International comparison of energy efficiency of fossil power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study is to compare the energy efficiency of fossil-fired power generation for Australia, China, France, Germany, India, Japan, Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway aggregated), South Korea, United Kingdom and Ireland, and United States. Together these countries generate 65% of worldwide fossil power generation. Separate benchmark indicators are calculated for the energy efficiency of natural gas, oil and coal-fired power generation, based on weighted-average energy efficiencies. These indicators are aggregated to an overall benchmark for fossil-fired power generation. The weighted average efficiencies are 35% for coal, 45% for natural gas and 38% for oil-fired power generation. The Nordic countries, Japan and United Kingdom and Ireland are found to perform best in terms of fossil power generating efficiency and are, respectively 8%, 8% and 7% above average in 2003. South Korea and Germany are, respectively 6% and 4% above average and the United States and France are, respectively 2% and 4% below average. Australia, China and India perform 7%, 9% and 13%, respectively below average. The energy savings potential and CO2 emission reduction potential if all countries produce electricity at the highest efficiencies observed (42% for coal, 52% for natural gas and 45% for oil-fired power generation), corresponds to 10 EJ and 860 Mtonne CO2, respectively

  8. Generation of functional eyes from pluripotent cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Viczian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent cells such as embryonic stem (ES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are the starting point from which to generate organ specific cell types. For example, converting pluripotent cells to retinal cells could provide an opportunity to treat retinal injuries and degenerations. In this study, we used an in vivo strategy to determine if functional retinas could be generated from a defined population of pluripotent Xenopus laevis cells. Animal pole cells isolated from blastula stage embryos are pluripotent. Untreated, these cells formed only epidermis, when transplanted to either the flank or eye field. In contrast, misexpression of seven transcription factors induced the formation of retinal cell types. Induced retinal cells were committed to a retinal lineage as they formed eyes when transplanted to the flanks of developing embryos. When the endogenous eye field was replaced with induced retinal cells, they formed eyes that were molecularly, anatomically, and electrophysiologically similar to normal eyes. Importantly, induced eyes could guide a vision-based behavior. These results suggest the fate of pluripotent cells may be purposely altered to generate multipotent retinal progenitor cells, which differentiate into functional retinal cell classes and form a neural circuitry sufficient for vision.

  9. Protective, Modular Wave Power Generation System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vvedensky, Jane M.; Park, Robert Y.

    2012-11-27

    The concept of small wave energy conversion modules that can be built into large, scalable arrays, in the same vein as solar panels, has been developed. This innovation lends itself to an organic business and development model, and enables the use of large-run manufacturing technology to reduce system costs. The first prototype module has been built to full-scale, and tested in a laboratory wave channel. The device has been shown to generate electricity and dissipate wave energy. Improvements need to be made to the electrical generator and a demonstration of an array of modules should be made in natural conditions.

  10. Large scale renewable power generation advances in technologies for generation, transmission and storage

    CERN Document Server

    Hossain, Jahangir

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses on the issues of integrating large-scale renewable power generation into existing grids. The issues covered in this book include different types of renewable power generation along with their transmission and distribution, storage and protection. It also contains the development of medium voltage converters for step-up-transformer-less direct grid integration of renewable generation units, grid codes and resiliency analysis for large-scale renewable power generation, active power and frequency control and HVDC transmission. The emerging SMES technology for controlling and int

  11. Compensation for Harmonic Currents and Reactive Power in Wind Power Generation System using PWM Inverter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Katsuji; Shinhatsubo, Kurato; Iimori, Kenichi; Yamamoto, Kichiro; Saruban, Takamichi; Yamaemori, Takahiro

    In recent year, consciousness of environmental problems is enhancing, and the price of the electric power purchased by an electric power company is established expensive for the power plant utilizing the natural energy. So, the introduction of the wind power generation is promoted in Japan. Generally, squirrel-cage induction machines are widely used as a generator in wind power generation system because of its small size, lightweight and low-cost. However, the induction machines do not have a source of excitation. Thus, it causes the inrush currents and the instantaneous voltage drop when the generator is directly connected to a power grid. To reduce the inrush currents, an AC power regulator is used. Wind power generations are frequently connected to and disconnected from the power grid. However, when the inrush currents are reduced, harmonic currents are caused by phase control of the AC power regulator. And the phase control of AC power regulator cannot control the power factor. Therefore, we propose the use of the AC power regulator to compensate for the harmonic currents and reactive power in the wind power generation system, and demonstrate the validity of its system by simulated and experimental results.

  12. A long-term degradation study of power generation characteristics of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells using LaNi(Fe)O{sub 3} electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Takeshi; Watanabe, Kimitaka; Arakawa, Masayasu; Arai, Hajime [NTT Corporation, NTT Energy and Environment Systems Laboratories, Morinosato-Wakamiya 3-1, Atsugi-shi, Kanagawa 243-0198 (Japan)

    2009-09-05

    The long-term operation of an anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell was examined to study the degradation factor. The cell was constructed using LaNi{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 0.4}O{sub 3} (LNF), alumina-doped scandia stabilized zirconia (SASZ), and NiO-SASZ as the cathode, electrolyte, and anode respectively. The cell had Pt current collectors and was operated for 6500 h. The test was carried out at 1073 K with a constant load of 0.4 A cm{sup -2} and included thermal cycling. The cell voltage degradation rate was below 0.86%/1000 h when the cell was operated for up to 5200 h. Changes in the resistance of the cells during the experiments were analyzed by impedance spectroscopy. The cathode polarization resistance and ohmic resistance increased with time. The elements (Si and B) contained in the water condensed from the cathode exhaust gas were identified using inductively coupled plasma (ICP). (author)

  13. General principles of maintaining the secure and reliable power generation on Ukrainian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major problems of the electrical equipment exploitation at the nuclear power plants (NPP) have ben analyzed, with an account of generation structure and the transmission lines configuration of the All-Ukrainian Power System. Directions have been elaborated to provide a secure and reliable NPP generation via optimization of the power facilities structure and the introduction of inherently new equipment

  14. Power generation today - responsibility for the environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the years following the war, the electric power utilities built up a reliable and economic energy supply with the mandate of the people, thereby also taking the environment into account in the technical development of the power stations. Due to the change in public opinion after the build-up phase, environmental protection was brought to the forefront of the public debate. Today, roles must be reassigned in the division of labour between politics and industry, tried and tested during many years. It is politics' task to dictate the long-term and calculable goals of environmental policy while taking into account their effect on the economy. With this as a basis, the individual companies must then be allowed to develop their own sense of responsibility for environmental protection. In addition to this, environmental protection needs to be accorded a permanent position in strategic and operational corporate planning. (orig./UA)

  15. High power microwave generation in vircators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vircator as high-power microwave source has recently become an intensive area of research. It is the device in which own beams fields dominate. Triod with reflex cathode investigated by H. Barkhausen and K. Kurz has been considered as low current analog of vircator. It is shown that such analogy is not correct, but parametric amplifier which is based on triod with reflex cathode is real analog of vircator. The theory of vircator is developed for broad range of electron velocities

  16. Electricity generation and transmission planning in deregulated power markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yang

    This dissertation addresses the long-term planning of power generation and transmission facilities in a deregulated power market. Three models with increasing complexities are developed, primarily for investment decisions in generation and transmission capacity. The models are presented in a two-stage decision context where generation and transmission capacity expansion decisions are made in the first stage, while power generation and transmission service fees are decided in the second stage. Uncertainties that exist in the second stage affect the capacity expansion decisions in the first stage. The first model assumes that the electric power market is not constrained by transmission capacity limit. The second model, which includes transmission constraints, considers the interactions between generation firms and the transmission network operator. The third model assumes that the generation and transmission sectors make capacity investment decisions separately. These models result in Nash-Cournot equilibrium among the unregulated generation firms, while the regulated transmission network operator supports the competition among generation firms. Several issues in the deregulated electric power market can be studied with these models such as market powers of generation firms and transmission network operator, uncertainties of the future market, and interactions between the generation and transmission sectors. Results deduced from the developed models include (a) regulated transmission network operator will not reserve transmission capacity to gain extra profits; instead, it will make capacity expansion decisions to support the competition in the generation sector; (b) generation firms will provide more power supplies when there is more demand; (c) in the presence of future uncertainties, the generation firms will add more generation capacity if the demand in the future power market is expected to be higher; and (d) the transmission capacity invested by the

  17. Solar powered Stirling cycle electrical generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltens, Richard K.

    1991-03-01

    Under NASA's Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI), the NASA Lewis Research Center is developing the technology needed for free-piston Stirling engines as a candidate power source for space systems in the late 1990's and into the next century. Space power requirements include high efficiency, very long life, high reliability, and low vibration. Furthermore, system weight and operating temperature are important. The free-piston Stirling engine has the potential for a highly reliable engine with long life because it has only a few moving parts, non-contacting gas bearings, and can be hermetically sealed. These attributes of the free-piston Stirling engine also make it a viable candidate for terrestrial applications. In cooperation with the Department of Energy, system designs are currently being completed that feature the free-piston Stirling engine for terrestrial applications. Industry teams were assembled and are currently completing designs for two Advanced Stirling Conversion Systems utilizing technology being developed under the NASA CSTI Program. These systems, when coupled with a parabolic mirror to collect the solar energy, are capable of producing about 25 kW of electricity to a utility grid. Industry has identified a niche market for dish Stirling systems for worldwide remote power application. They believe that these niche markets may play a major role in the introduction of Stirling products into the commercial market.

  18. Power generation from fuelwood by the Nicaraguan sugar mills

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro de Miranda, R.; Broek, R. van den

    2002-01-01

    With new concept development for the sugar industry and with new power market opportunities, two sugar mills in Nicaragua initiated projects aimed at becoming power plants during the sugar cane off-season. Basically the idea is to use more efficient boilers and turbines, and generate power beyond the mill's needs fueled by bagasse during the sugar cane crushing season ,and by fuelwood from eucalyptus plantations during the sugar cane off season. The surplus power in both seasons will be sold ...

  19. Coupling an induction motor type generator to ac power lines. [making windmill generators compatible with public power lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A system for coupling an induction motor type generator to an A.C. power line includes an electronic switch means that is controlled by a control system and is regulated to turn on at a relatively late point in each half cycle of its operation. The energizing power supplied by the line to the induction motor type generator is decreased and the net power delivered to the line is increased.

  20. A mechatronic power boosting design for piezoelectric generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Haili; Liang, Junrui, E-mail: liangjr@shanghaitech.edu.cn; Ge, Cong [School of Information Science and Technology, ShanghaiTech University, No. 8 Building, 319 Yueyang Road, Shanghai 200031 (China)

    2015-10-05

    It was shown that the piezoelectric power generation can be boosted by using the synchronized switch power conditioning circuits. This letter reports a self-powered and self-sensing mechatronic design in substitute of the auxiliary electronics towards a compact and universal synchronized switch solution. The design criteria are derived based on the conceptual waveforms and a two-degree-of-freedom analytical model. Experimental result shows that, compared to the standard bridge rectifier interface, the mechatronic design leads to an extra 111% increase of generated power from the prototyped piezoelectric generator under the same deflection magnitude excitation. The proposed design has introduced a valuable physical insight of electromechanical synergy towards the improvement of piezoelectric power generation.

  1. Nuclear energy in the world electric power generation 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In vol. 12/82 of the monthly bulletin 'Electricity' which is published by the Statistics Authority of the European Community (eurostat) the statistical data on the electric power supply in the world and the generation by nuclear power plants (with their share in the total electric power generation) in 1981 were published. According to this, the year of 1981 was marked by a slow-down of the increase in the electric power supply. With a total worldwide generation of 7970 TWh, the increase in comparison to 1980 was only +2.2%. This marks the high increase rates of electric power generation out of nuclear energy even more important. (orig./UA)

  2. Combined fuel and air staged power generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabovitser, Iosif K; Pratapas, John M; Boulanov, Dmitri

    2014-05-27

    A method and apparatus for generation of electric power employing fuel and air staging in which a first stage gas turbine and a second stage partial oxidation gas turbine power operated in parallel. A first portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the first stage gas turbine which generates a first portion of electric power and a hot oxidant. A second portion of fuel and oxidant are provided to the second stage partial oxidation gas turbine which generates a second portion of electric power and a hot syngas. The hot oxidant and the hot syngas are provided to a bottoming cycle employing a fuel-fired boiler by which a third portion of electric power is generated.

  3. A mechatronic power boosting design for piezoelectric generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haili; Liang, Junrui; Ge, Cong

    2015-10-01

    It was shown that the piezoelectric power generation can be boosted by using the synchronized switch power conditioning circuits. This letter reports a self-powered and self-sensing mechatronic design in substitute of the auxiliary electronics towards a compact and universal synchronized switch solution. The design criteria are derived based on the conceptual waveforms and a two-degree-of-freedom analytical model. Experimental result shows that, compared to the standard bridge rectifier interface, the mechatronic design leads to an extra 111% increase of generated power from the prototyped piezoelectric generator under the same deflection magnitude excitation. The proposed design has introduced a valuable physical insight of electromechanical synergy towards the improvement of piezoelectric power generation.

  4. Stochastic Modeling and Analysis of Power System with Renewable Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan

    evaluation can be achieved through a probabilistic analysis that takes into account the stochastic behavior of wind power generation (WPG) and load demand. Such a probabilistic analysis may help network operators to cut down the cost associated with system planning. Thus, the objective of this thesis is to...... control and energy curtailment of WTs, subject to voltage and current constraints. These developed models and proposed algorithms serve as effective tools to assist network operators in decision-making during the operation and planning of power systems.......Unlike traditional fossil-fuel based power generation, renewable generation such as wind power relies on uncontrollable prime sources such as wind speed. Wind speed varies stochastically, which to a large extent determines the stochastic behavior of power generation from wind farms. With the...

  5. A mechatronic power boosting design for piezoelectric generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was shown that the piezoelectric power generation can be boosted by using the synchronized switch power conditioning circuits. This letter reports a self-powered and self-sensing mechatronic design in substitute of the auxiliary electronics towards a compact and universal synchronized switch solution. The design criteria are derived based on the conceptual waveforms and a two-degree-of-freedom analytical model. Experimental result shows that, compared to the standard bridge rectifier interface, the mechatronic design leads to an extra 111% increase of generated power from the prototyped piezoelectric generator under the same deflection magnitude excitation. The proposed design has introduced a valuable physical insight of electromechanical synergy towards the improvement of piezoelectric power generation

  6. Conceptual survey of generators and power electronics for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.H.; Helle, L.; Blaabjerg, F.;

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a survey on generator concepts and power electronic concepts for wind turbines. The report is aimed as a tool for decision-makers and development people with respect to wind turbine manufactures, utilities, and independent systemoperators as well as manufactures of generators...... and power electronics. The survey is focused on the electric development of wind turbines and it yields an overview on: - State of the art on generators and power electronics. - future concepts andtechnologies within generators and power electronics. - market needs in the shape of requirements to the grid...... connection, and - consistent system solutions, plus an evaluation of these seen in the prospect of market needs. This survey on of generatorand power electronic concepts was carried out in co-operation between Aalborg University and Risø National Laboratory in the scope of the research programme Electric...

  7. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs., E-mail: tazsolt@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Cormos, C. C., E-mail: cormos@chem.ubbcluj.ro; Agachi, P. S. [Babes-Bolyai University, Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, 11 Arany Janos, Postal code: 400028, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO{sub 2} emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  8. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zs.; Cormos, C. C.; Agachi, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint.

  9. Optimization of power generation from shrouded wind turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Foote, Ramesh Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In past several years, several studies have shown that the shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of shrouded wind turbines for increased power generation by conducting numerical simulations. An analytical/computational study is performed by employing the well-known commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software FLUENT. An actuator disc model is used to model the turbine. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a two equation realizable k – ε model are employed in the calculations. The power coefficient Cp and generated power are calculated for a large number of cases for horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT of various diameters and wind speeds for both bare and shrouded turbines. The design of the shroud is optimized by employing a single objective genetic algorithm; the objective being the maximization of the power coefficient Cp. It was found that the shroud indeed increases the Cp beyond the Betz’s limit significantly and as a result the generated power; this effect is consistent with that found in the recent literature that the shrouded wind-turbines can generate greater power than the bare turbines. The optimized shape of the shroud or diffuser further increases the generated power and Cp.

  10. Hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is evaluating two power generation concepts based on hydrogen produced from bioethanol steam reforming at industrial scale without and with carbon capture. The power generation from bioethanol conversion is based on two important steps: hydrogen production from bioethanol catalytic steam reforming and electricity generation using a hydrogen-fuelled gas turbine. As carbon capture method to be assessed in hydrogen-based power generation from bioethanol steam reforming, the gas-liquid absorption using methyl-di-ethanol-amine (MDEA) was used. Bioethanol is a renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Steam reforming of bioethanol (SRE) provides a promising method for hydrogen and power production from renewable resources. SRE is performed at high temperatures (e.g. 800-900°C) to reduce the reforming by-products (e.g. ethane, ethene). The power generation from hydrogen was done with M701G2 gas turbine (334 MW net power output). Hydrogen was obtained through catalytic steam reforming of bioethanol without and with carbon capture. For the evaluated plant concepts the following key performance indicators were assessed: fuel consumption, gross and net power outputs, net electrical efficiency, ancillary consumptions, carbon capture rate, specific CO2 emission etc. As the results show, the power generation based on bioethanol conversion has high energy efficiency and low carbon footprint

  11. Optimization of power generation from shrouded wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, Tudor; Agarwal, Ramesh [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In past several years, several studies have shown that the shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of shrouded wind turbines for increased power generation by conducting numerical simulations. An analytical/computational study is performed by employing the well-known commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT. An actuator disc model is used to model the turbine. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations. The power coefficient Cp and generated power are calculated for a large number of cases for horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) of various diameters and wind speeds for both bare and shrouded turbines. The design of the shroud is optimized by employing a single objective genetic algorithm; the objective being the maximization of the power coefficient Cp. It was found that the shroud indeed increases the Cp beyond the Betz’s limit significantly and as a result the generated power; this effect is consistent with that found in the recent literature that the shrouded wind-turbines can generate greater power than the bare turbines. The optimized shape of the shroud or diffuser further increases the generated power and Cp.

  12. Stabilized x-ray generator power supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    X-ray diffraction and X-ray fluorescence analysis are very much adopted in laboratories to determine the type and structure of the constituent compounds in solid materials, chemical composition of materials, stress developed on metals etc. These experiments need X-ray beam of fixed intensity and wave length. This can only be achieved by X-ray generator having highly stabilized tube voltage and tube current. This paper describes how X-ray tube high voltage and electron beam current are stabilized. This paper also highlights generation of X-rays, diffractometry and X-ray fluorescence analysis and their wide applications. Principle of operation for stabilizing the X-ray tube voltage and current, different protection circuits adopted, special features of the mains H.V. transformer and H.T. tank are described in this report. (author)

  13. Comparison of various alternatives of electric power generation in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To establish a coherent policy of developing the electric power generation facilities, it is necessary to know the long-term evolution of the electric power consumption, the generation technologies, the local fuel production, the worldwide fuel price prognosis and the environmental requirements. To determine the best solution for long-term power plant development, high performance programs, like WASP (Wien Automatic System Planning package), are used in order to minimize the updated total costs. The results of analyses carried out by means of WASP program for various patterns of evolution of the electric power consumption, taking into account the present situation of the groups in the Romanian power system, the fuel supply limits, the fuel price evolution and the new technology of electrical and thermal power generation are presented. (authors)

  14. Cascade Failures from Distributed Generation in Power Grids

    CERN Document Server

    Scala, Antonio; Scoglio, Caterina

    2012-01-01

    Power grids are nowadays experiencing a transformation due to the introduction of Distributed Generation based on Renewable Sources. At difference with classical Distributed Generation, where local power sources mitigate anomalous user consumption peaks, Renewable Sources introduce in the grid intrinsically erratic power inputs. By introducing a simple schematic (but realistic) model for power grids with stochastic distributed generation, we study the effects of erratic sources on the robustness of several IEEE power grid test networks with up to 2000 buses. We find that increasing the penetration of erratic sources causes the grid to fail with a sharp transition. We compare such results with the case of failures caused by the natural increasing power demand.

  15. Evaluation of electric power generation system biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass energy systems having 100MW scale of electricity generation were designed and evaluated using thermal efficiency, economics, energy pay-back time and CO2 emissions as the basis of measure. The systems investigated were of four cases characterized by the combination of liquefaction and gasification processes, and boiler and combined cycles. The evaluation result indicated that each system seemed to be economically competitive and environmentally benign. (author)

  16. The development situation of biomass gasification power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the development situation of biomass gasification power generation technology in China and analyzes the difficulty and challenge in the development process. For China, a large agricultural country with abundant biomass resources, the utilization of biomass gasification power generation technology is of special importance, because it can contribute to the electricity structure diversification under the present coal-dominant electricity structure, ameliorate the environmental impact, provide energy to electricity-scarce regions and solve the problems facing agriculture. Up to now, China has developed biomass gasification power generation plants of different types and scales, including simple gas engine-based power generation systems with capacity from several kW to 3 MW and integrated gasification combined cycle systems with capacity of more than 5 MW. In recent years, due to the rising cost of biomass material, transportation, manpower, etc., the final cost of biomass power generation has increased greatly, resulting in a serious challenge in the Chinese electricity market even under present preferential policy for biomass power price. However, biomass gasification power generation technology is generally in accord with the characteristics of biomass resources in China, has relatively good adaptability and viability, and so has good prospect in China in the future. - Highlights: ► Biomass gasification power generation of 2 kW–2 MW has wide utilization in China. ► 5.5 MW biomass IGCC demonstration plant has maximum power efficiency of up to 30%. ► Biomass power generation is facing a serious challenge due to biomass cost increase.

  17. Modeling and Simulation of Generator Side Converter of Doubly Fed Induction Generator-Based Wind Power Generation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2010-01-01

    A real wind power generation system is given in this paper. SVM control strategy and vector control is applied for generator side converter and doubly fed induction generator respectively. First the mathematical models of the wind turbine rotor, drive train, generator side converter are described...

  18. Optimization in the scale of nuclear power generation and the economy of nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the not too distant future, the economy of nuclear power will have to be restudied. Various conditions and circumstances supporting this economy of nuclear power tend to change, such as the decrease in power demand and supply, the diversification in base load supply sources, etc. The fragility in the economic advantage of nuclear power may thus be revealed. In the above connection, on the basis of the future outlook of the scale of nuclear power generation, that is, the further reduction of the current nuclear power program, and of the corresponding supply and demand of nuclear fuel cycle quantities, the aspect of the economic advantage of nuclear power was examined, for the purpose of optimizing the future scale of nuclear power generation (the downward revision of the scale, the establishment of the schedule of nuclear fuel cycle the stagnation of power demand and nuclear power generation costs). (Mori, K.)

  19. Design and Modeling of Grid Connected Hybrid Renewable Energy Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kishore Reddy,

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a design and modeling of grid connected hybrid renewable energy power generation. The energy system having a photo voltaic (PV panel, Srg wind turbine and fuel cell (sofc for continuous power flow management. Fuel cells (storage & generating are added to ensure uninterrupted power supply due to the discontinuous nature of solar and wind resources. Renewable energy generated during times of plenty can be stored for use during periods when sufficient electricity is not available. But storing this energy is a difficult task: batteries and similar technologies perform well over short timescales, but over periods of weeks or months a different approach is necessary. Energy storage in the form of hydrogen is one such possibility: excess electricity is fed into an electrolyser to split water into its constituent parts, oxygen and hydrogen. The hydrogen is then used in fuel cells to produce electricity when needed which will overcome the problem of storage. This work is mainly concentrated on the design, analysis and modelling of Fuel cells and Analysis and modelling of Switched Reluctance Generator (SRG in the application of Wind Energy Generation and pv cell. Also an effective approach is proposed in this thesis to ensure renewable energy diversity and effective utilization. The pv cell, wind and fuel cell renewable energy system is digitally simulated using the MATLAB/SIMULINK software environment and fully validated for efficient energy utilizations and enhanced interface power quality under different operating conditions and load excursions

  20. Next-Generation Shipboard DC Power System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zheming; Sulligoi, Giorgio; Cuzner, Rob;

    2016-01-01

    present, the research of dc microgrid has investigated and developed a series of advanced methods in control, management and objective-oriented optimization, which would found the technical interface enabling the future applications in multiple industrial areas, such as smart buildings, electric vehicles......In recent years, more and more evidence suggests that the global energy system is on the verge of a drastic revolution. The evolutionary development in power electronic technologies, the emerging high-performance energy storage devices, as well as the ever increasing penetration of renewable energy...

  1. Economic analysis of nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major contents in this study are as follows : 1) Efforts are made to examine the role of nuclear energy considering environmental regulation. An econometric model for energy demand and supply including carbon tax imposition is established. 2) Analysis for the learning effect of nuclear power plant operation is performed. The study is focused to measure the effect of technology homogeneity on the operation performance. 3) A preliminary capital cost of the KALIMER is estimated by using cost computer program, which is developed in this study. (author). 36 refs.,46 tabs., 15 figs

  2. Reservoir management and thermal power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermoelectric power stations on regulated rivers may cause violations in stream temperature standards if the dilution water from the upstream reservoir is not adequate. However, it is possible that such violations would occur over a short period or that there exists an acceptable temperature violation range. A minmax model is developed for determining the minimum value of the maximum violation of the temperature standard, the reservoir storage, and release levels for reservoir-river systems. The model is applied to the Shellmouth Reservoir in Manitoba, Canada

  3. Restructuring in Turkish power generation and transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restructuring of power sector is an evolutionary process and it is in its early days. As the reform proceeds and the market evolve and become more efficient, a number of unresolved issues shall be overcomed through re-regulations. So, the most important point is the smooth transition to the liberalized markets. The solution is dependent upon the assimilation, acceptation and supporting of the reform by the parties concerned. Market participants' acceptance and actions will be the key element for the success of the new market. (author)

  4. Promotion of public awareness relating nuclear power in young generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although nuclear power presents problems of waste, safety and non-proliferation, many people understand that it is an essential energy for addressing the global climate and reducing CO2. However, a vague negative-image to the radiation and nuclear power is deep-rooted among the public. Young generation is not an exception. It is very important to transfer many information from the experienced generation in the industry to young generations. In this paper, the research that applied the information intelligence to nuclear power, which involves of the nuclear fuel cycle, and the communication related activities for the social acceptance and improvement. (author)

  5. Optimal generator bidding strategies for power and ancillary services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinec, Allen G.

    As the electric power industry transitions to a deregulated market, power transactions are made upon price rather than cost. Generator companies are interested in maximizing their profits rather than overall system efficiency. A method to equitably compensate generation providers for real power, and ancillary services such as reactive power and spinning reserve, will ensure a competitive market with an adequate number of suppliers. Optimizing the generation product mix during bidding is necessary to maximize a generator company's profits. The objective of this research work is to determine and formulate appropriate optimal bidding strategies for a generation company in both the energy and ancillary services markets. These strategies should incorporate the capability curves of their generators as constraints to define the optimal product mix and price offered in the day-ahead and real time spot markets. In order to achieve such a goal, a two-player model was composed to simulate market auctions for power generation. A dynamic game methodology was developed to identify Nash Equilibria and Mixed-Strategy Nash Equilibria solutions as optimal generation bidding strategies for two-player non-cooperative variable-sum matrix games with incomplete information. These games integrated the generation product mix of real power, reactive power, and spinning reserve with the generators's capability curves as constraints. The research includes simulations of market auctions, where strategies were tested for generators with different unit constraints, costs, types of competitors, strategies, and demand levels. Studies on the capability of large hydrogen cooled synchronous generators were utilized to derive useful equations that define the exact shape of the capability curve from the intersections of the arcs defined by the centers and radial vectors of the rotor, stator, and steady-state stability limits. The available reactive reserve and spinning reserve were calculated given a

  6. Optimal design of a hybrid photovoltaic and fuel cell power generation system, to supply isolated communities in the Brazilian Amazon; Dimensionamento otimo de sistemas hibridos, com geracao fotovoltaica e celula a combustivel, para atendimento a comunidades isoladas na Amazonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sergio Batista da

    2010-11-15

    The lack of electricity in isolated communities in the Brazilian Amazon has become one of the greatest barrier for the development of the region. Currently, the main technologies that provide electricity to these communities are diesel generators, batteries and dry cells. These non-renewable energy sources may pose serious problems to the environment and human health and have high maintenance and operational costs. Therefore, the search for renewable energy sources, such as water and sunlight, which are highly abundant in the region, has become a great challenge. This thesis presents the studies on application of solar photovoltaic (PV) and fuel cell (FC) technologies to supply electric power in an uninterrupted manner. Outlined are the technical and cost issues of a pilot project set up in an environmentally protected area, next to Bananal island, located in the Southwestern region of the state of Tocantins. The pilot project relies on PV solar power as the primary source of energy for the production of electricity. The surplus energy is stored in the form of hydrogen produced by electrolysis of the water supplied locally, which is reconverted into electric power by fuel cells during periods when there is little or no sunlight. In this context, the aim of the study was to propose a sizing of a hybrid distributed generation system (HDGS), comprised of a PV system, FC and batteries, that optimizes implementation and operational costs, as a potential source of energy for isolated communities in the Amazon. The work was carried out with the help of simulation software HOMER (Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable) developed by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Simulations and a comparative study were carried out of the technologies and potential configurations that meet the needs of these isolated communities. The results showed an optimal solution of HGDS PV-FC batteries with a reduction in the initial cost of the project in about 60% compared to

  7. Proton Exchange Membrane from the Blend of Copolymers of Vinyl Acetate- Acrylic Ester and Styrene-Acrylic Ester for Power Generation Using Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Realpe

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Proton exchange membranes for fuel cells were synthesized from the blend of copolymers of vinyl acetate-acrylic ester and styrene-acrylic ester, which were modified by sulfonation and addition of silica gel. Water uptake, ion exchange capacity, infrared spectroscopy and tensile tests were applied to characterize the prepared membranes. The results show that the prepared membranes with the processes of sulfonation and loaded with silica have the highest water uptake (92,7%. On the other hand, the sulfonation process lead to membranes with high ion exchange capacity and high mechanical strength (0,68 meq/g and 1,29 MPa, respectively. Therefore, the sulfonated membrane represents an alternative for the application as proton exchange membrane in fuel cells.

  8. Stochastic reactive power dispatch in hybrid power system with intermittent wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental concerns besides fuel costs are the predominant reasons for unprecedented escalating integration of wind turbine on power systems. Operation and planning of power systems are affected by this type of energy due to the intermittent nature of wind speed inputs with high uncertainty in the optimization output variables. Consequently, in order to model this high inherent uncertainty, a PRPO (probabilistic reactive power optimization) framework should be devised. Although MC (Monte-Carlo) techniques can solve the PRPO with high precision, PEMs (point estimate methods) can preserve the accuracy to attain reasonable results when diminishing the computational effort. Also, this paper introduces a methodology for optimally dispatching the reactive power in the transmission system, while minimizing the active power losses. The optimization problem is formulated as a LFP (linear fuzzy programing). The core of the problem lay on generation of 2m + 1 point estimates for solving PRPO, where n is the number of input stochastic variables. The proposed methodology is investigated using the IEEE-14 bus test system equipped with HVDC (high voltage direct current), UPFC (unified power flow controller) and DFIG (doubly fed induction generator) devices. The accuracy of the method is demonstrated in the case study. - Highlights: • This paper uses stochastic loads in optimization process. • AC–DC load flow is modified to use some advantages of DC part in optimization process. • UPFC and DFIG are simulated in a way that could be effective in optimization process. • Fuzzy set has been used as an uncertainty analysis tool in the optimization

  9. Fuel Cell Assisted PhotoVoltaic Power Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Tesfahunegn, Samson Gebre

    2012-01-01

    Distributed generation (DG) systems as local power sources have great potential to contribute toward energy sustainability, energy efficiency and supply reliability. This thesis deals with DGs that use solar as primary energy input, hydrogen energy storage and conversion technologies (fuel cells and water electrolyzers) as long term backup and energy storage batteries and supercapacitors as short term backup. Standalone power systems isolated from the grid such as those used to power remote a...

  10. An ABC analysis for power generation project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batool Hasani

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the primary concerns on performance measurement is to know how much a particular project cost. However, using traditional method on project-based products often leads to inappropriate results. In this paper, we re-examine this issue by comparing the cost of a power station construction project using ABC versus traditional method. The results of survey show that ABC method is capable of providing better estimates for overhead costs compared with traditional method. In other words, ABC method helps reduce some of the unnecessary overhead cost items and increase on some other cost components. This helps increase the relative efficiency of the system by reducing total cost of project.

  11. Stochastic Electric Power Generation Unit Commitment in Deregulated Power Market Environment

    OpenAIRE

    F. Gharehdaghi; H. Jamali; M. Deysi; A. Khalili

    2012-01-01

    Utilities participating in deregulated markets observe increasing uncertainty in load (i.e., demand for electric power) and prices for fuel and electricity on spot and contract markets. This study proposes a new formulation of the unit commitment problem of electric power generators in a restructured electricity market. Under these conditions, an electric power generation company will have the option to buy or sell from a power pool in addition to producing electricity on its own. The unit co...

  12. Sliding Mode Control of the Battery Bank for the Fuel Cell-based Distributed Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Junsheng Jiao

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic models for the fuel cell power and the configuration of the fuel cell distributed generation system are shown in this paper. Due to nonlinear characteristics of fuel cell model, the output voltage of fuel cell varies greatly when the load changes. A novel interface is designed to provide a constant output voltage for charging of the battery bank of the fuel cell distributed generation. The thesis presents a sliding mode control design of PEMFC distributed generation system. A casc...

  13. Thermoelectric generators for efficiency improvement of power generation by motor generators – Environmental and economic perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► TEGs can save costs and reduce environmental burden in a wide range of conditions. ► Reduction of the environmental burden is still possible under worse conditions. ► Under the same conditions steam expanders produce bigger amounts of electricity. ► Steam expanders are more eco-efficient in the upper performance range. ► TEG production plays only a small role for the overall assessment. -- Abstract: The use of waste heat from exhaust gas of internal combustion engines in power plants and CHP plants is considered a promising application field for thermoelectrics (TE). Some recent studies have provided important knowledge on the energy efficiency of current and future thermoelectric generators (TEGs). The focus of these studies has been primarily on the precise modelling of power units and their operation, i.e., the quantification of power production by TEGs. One of the studies additionally assessed the costs and the CO2 emissions of fuel combustion, without equipment and fuel supply. Until now, there was no life cycle-related analysis considering TEG and power unit manufacture, environmental impacts beyond climate change and competing technologies for waste heat utilisation. In order to fill this gap, the present study applies the life cycle approach, takes account of a variety of environmental impacts and costs and compares TEGs with the competing steam expander technology. The results show that, under many conditions, TEGs in power units can save energy costs and reduce the environmental burden, i.e., they are eco-efficient. With additional expenditure, energy savings and environmental benefits can be achieved even under disadvantageous conditions. However, in the upper power range the performance of steam expanders in terms of electricity production and eco-efficiency is better. The reduction costs of greenhouse gas emissions and environmental impacts as eco-efficiency indicators show identical patterns. Under reasonable operating

  14. On the Robust Control of DC-DC Converters: Application to a Hybrid Power Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Hernandez-Torres, David; Sename, Olivier; Riu, Delphine; Druart, Florence

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a complete robust control synthesis is performed for a hybrid power generation structure composed by a Fuel Cell and a Supercapacitor. The control strategies are applied to the DC-DC boost power converters associated to each power source. Multivariable PI control with H∞ performance, H∞ full and reduced order controllers are designed and compared. The multivariable PI controller is designed through an optimization procedure based on solving some Linear Matrix Inequalities. A μ-a...

  15. A power conditioning system for radioisotope thermoelectric generator energy sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillis, J. A., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The use of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTG) as the primary source of energy in unmanned spacecraft is discussed. RTG output control, power conditioning system requirements, the electrical design, and circuit performance are also discussed.

  16. APPLICATION OF MEMBRANE TECHNOLOGY TO POWER GENERATION WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three membrane technlogies (reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, and electrodialysis) for wastewater treatment and reuse at electric generating power plants were examined. Recirculating condenser water, ash sluice water, coal pile drainage, boiler blowdown and makeup treatment waste...

  17. UF6 breeder reactor power plants for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reactor concept analyzed is a 233UF6 core surrounded by a molten salt (Li7F, BeF2, ThF4) blanket. Nuclear survey calculations were carried out for both spherical and cylindrical geometries. A maximum breeding ratio of 1.22 was found. Thermodynamic cycle calculations were performed for a variety of Rankine cycles. Optimization of a Rankine cycle for a gas core breeder reactor employing an intermediate heat exchanger gave a maximum efficiency of 37 percent. A conceptual design is presented along with a system layout for a 1000 MW stationary power plant. The advantages of the GCBR are as follows: (1) high efficiency, (2) simplified on-line reprocessing, (3) inherent safety considerations, (4) high breeding ratio, (5) possibility of burning all or most of the long-lived nuclear waste actinides, and (6) possibility of extrapolating the technology to higher temperatures and MHD direct conversion

  18. UF6 breeder reactor power plants for electric power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, J. H.; Clement, J. D.; Hohl, F.

    1976-01-01

    The reactor concept analyzed is a U-233F6 core surrounded by a molten salt (Li(7)F, BeF2, ThF4) blanket. Nuclear survey calculations were carried out for both spherical and cylindrical geometries. Thermodynamic cycle calculations were performed for a variety of Rankine cycles. A conceptual design is presented along with a system layout for a 1000 MW stationary power plant. Advantages of the gas core breeder reactor (GCBR) are as follows: (1) high efficiency; (2) simplified on-line reprocessing; (3) inherent safety considerations; (4) high breeding ratio; (5) possibility of burning all or most of the long-lived nuclear waste actinides; and (6) possibility of extrapolating the technology to higher temperatures and MHD direct conversion.

  19. World nuclear power generation market and prospects of industry reorganization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In late years there are many trends placing nuclear energy with important energy in various countries in the world due to a remarkable rise to an energy price, importance of energy security and a surge of recognition to a global environment problem. Overseas nuclear industry's acquisition by a Japanese nuclear power plant maker and its capital or business tie-up with an overseas company, were announced in succession in 2006. A nuclear power plant maker has played an extremely important role supporting wide technology in all stages of a design, construction, operation and maintenance in a nuclear power generation business. After having surveyed the recent trend of world nuclear power generation situation, a background and the summary of these acquisition/tie-ups made were investigated and analyzed to consider the influence that movement of such an industry gives a world nuclear power generation market. (T. Tanaka)

  20. Nuclear power generation in Japan - present status and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper outlines the present status and future prospects of nuclear power generation in Japan with emphasis on the situations peculiar to Japan. It first describes why among the many kinds of energy resources available, Japan has decided to follow a nuclear energy policy. Next presented is the current status of nuclear power generation with a brief review of nuclear power technology development. All phases of nuclear power generation from procurement of nuclear fuel to waste disposal are covered. Social, political and technological problems that the Japanese electric power industry has to tackle in order to utilize fully nuclear energy are also discussed, together with the new technologies that will need to be developed to solve the problems effectively. As many quantitative data as possible are presented throughout the paper to provide a precise description. (Author)

  1. Power microwave pulse generation of resonant relativistic backward wave tube with power supply based on explosive magnetocumulative generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-power microwave radiation has been generated using a resonant relativistic backward wave oscillator (BWO) powered by a high voltage source comprising an inductive energy storage and an electric-explosion current switch, the results of the experiment are provided. The high voltage source and the BWO magnetic system are energy pumped by explosive magnetocumulative generators. In the experiments the setup generated 30-ns single-mode radiation pulses with a carrier frequency of 3.6 GHz at a peak power of 0.75 GW

  2. Fossil fuel combined cycle power generation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labinov, Solomon D [Knoxville, TN; Armstrong, Timothy R [Clinton, TN; Judkins, Roddie R [Knoxville, TN

    2008-10-21

    A method for converting fuel energy to electricity includes the steps of converting a higher molecular weight gas into at least one mixed gas stream of lower average molecular weight including at least a first lower molecular weight gas and a second gas, the first and second gases being different gases, wherein the first lower molecular weight gas comprises H.sub.2 and the second gas comprises CO. The mixed gas is supplied to at least one turbine to produce electricity. The mixed gas stream is divided after the turbine into a first gas stream mainly comprising H.sub.2 and a second gas stream mainly comprising CO. The first and second gas streams are then electrochemically oxidized in separate fuel cells to produce electricity. A nuclear reactor can be used to supply at least a portion of the heat the required for the chemical conversion process.

  3. Probabilistic projection of nuclear and coal electric power generation costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the results of an analysis of future nuclear and coal-fired plant power generation costs in which the probability distributions of key variables are used with a Monte Carlo driver code to obtain power generation cost distributions for the options. The resulting distributions are compared to deterministic estimates based on recommended parameters given in the US Dept. of Energy's Nuclear Energy Cost Data Base (NECDB)

  4. Modal Analysis of Power Systems with Doubly Fed Induction Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jialin

    2010-01-01

    To ensure the reliable operation of the power system, stability analysis considering the interaction between wind power and power system must be understood. In this thesis, the impact of wind power on the stability of Nordic32A power system is of interest. Many wind farms nowadays employ doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) variable speed wind turbines. In this thesis, a third order DFIG model and its control circuits are employed. The particle swarm optimization algorithm is developed to tu...

  5. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor Foote, Ramesh K. Agarwal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable k – ε model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  6. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, Tudor [Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [William Palm Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  7. Xenon suppression in a nuclear fueled electric power generation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fissile inventory required in operating a negative power coefficient nuclear reactor in an electric power generating system is reduced by cycling the load imposed on the system when 100% power can no longer be maintained at equilibrium due to xenon poisoning in order to induce an oscillation in the xenon concentration which is in antiphase with the power requirements so that 100% power can be maintained at least during part of the day. The load can be progressively reduced by a preset amount each night or a xenon suppression controller which forecasts the xenon reactivity at the time selected for a return to full power as a function of reactor history, current reactor flux and an arbitrary load schedule can be used to determine the maximum reduced power level that will permit operation at full power at the selected time. (author)

  8. Methanol-steam reforming using a microstructured reactor for hydrogen generation for fuel cell powered vehicles; Methanol-Dampf Reformierung im Mikrostrukturreaktor zur Wasserstofferzeugung fuer Brennstoffzellenfahrzeuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pfeifer, P.

    2003-08-01

    On-board hydrogen production in automotive systems is of great interest in order to fulfil the legal requirements of emission control in the near future and to produce zero emission cars. The demand of high dynamics of the on-board hydrogen generation leads to newer technologies like microreaction technology. Excellent heat and mass transfer in microstructured reactors/heat exchangers increase the possibility to reduce the system size and to decrease parasitic heat loss, additionally. The present work describes the development of a coating technology, a catalyst system, catalyst characterisation and the test of these catalysts considering modelling of the reaction and scale-up of metallic microreactors for the catalytic steam reforming of methanol. The appropriateness of the catalyst coatings and of the metallic microreactors for the chosen reaction and dynamic operation has been demonstrated successfully. The coating of the metallic microchannels in the diameter range 100-300 {mu}m was done by the modification of the conventional washcoating process using a solvent-polymer-nanoparticle slurry. Pre-Coating (coating before assembling the foils to a reactor) and Post-Coating (coating after assembling the microstructured foils to a reactor) were shown to be feasible, which is an important fact considering the assembling procedure. Homogeneity of the coating was proven experimentally by hot wire anemometry. (orig.)

  9. Electricity saving potential of the power generation industry in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the electricity saving potential of China’s power generation industry using the macroeconomic approach. In order to forecast future electricity saving potential, we apply cointegration techniques combined with risk analysis model to estimate future (APRauxiliary power ratio) of the national power plant. It is found that power structure, technology and AUH (annual utilization hours) of power equipment are all important macro-factors that affect APR. The high proportion of thermal power is the main reason for the high APR. However, the improvements in technology and AUH help to reduce the APR. Therefore, implementation of the “Replacing Small Units with Large ones” policy and promotion of large-capacity high-parameter units have contributed to electricity conservation in China’s power generation industry. With constraints of relevant energy policies, the scenario analysis concludes that electricity saving potential at the power generation side appears more significant and could reach over 40 TWh (terawatt hour) in 2020. Finally, using the results of the scenario analysis, future policy priorities for energy conservation in China’s power industry are assessed in this paper. -- Highlights: ► The electricity saving potential of China’s power industry is evaluated. ► A cointegration approach combined with risk analysis is developed. ► Technology, power structure, annual utilization hours affect auxiliary power ratio. ► The electricity saving amount of China’s power industry will be 41.3 TWh in 2020. ► Future policies for energy saving in China’s power industry are suggested.

  10. Active screening of magnetic field near power stations generator buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Kuznetsov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study technique for a prototyping system of active screening of power-frequency magnetic field distortions near power station generator buses via controllable magnetic field sources is presented. Results of experimental research on a proto-typing active screening system with different control algorithms are given.

  11. Future perspective of electric power generation and storage technology, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power generation facilities in Japan were 36 plants of 28.05 million kW capacity as of February, 1988, and ranked fourth in the world. The proportion of nuclear power generation to the total electric power demand increases from 31.7 % in the 1987 to 40 % in 2000, and 77.5 % of the increase of demand is met with nuclear power. The required addition of the facilities is 23 plants of 1100 MW class. In this way, the nuclear power generation in Japan is regarded as the main power source having excellent supply stability, and the steady growth of nuclear power generation can be expected in future worldwide. The capacity factor of LWRs in Japan in 1987 was 79.5 %. The age of LWRs being the main facilities seems to continue hereafter, and the main subjects are the further improvement of reliability and economical efficiency and the effective utilization of uranium resources. The prototype FBR 'Monju' of 280 MWe is under construction, and the practical use of FBRs is expected in 2020s in Japan. The demonstration ATR is developed now. The initial target condition close to the critical plasma condition was attained in October, 1987, in JT-60. The recent instrumentation, control and operation support system for nuclear power stations is systematized as a synthetic digital system. (Kako, I.)

  12. Power generation from landfill gas workshop discussion of Session 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discussion following presentations on the UK Dept. of Energy's involvement with power generation form landfill gas and the UK Government's attitude to pollution prevention from landfill gas power production is presented. The discussion focusses particularly on the Non-Fossil Fuel Obligation. (UK)

  13. The Environmental Impact of Electrical Power Generation: Nuclear and Fossil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennsylvania State Dept. of Education, Harrisburg.

    This text was written to accompany a course concerning the need, environmental costs, and benefits of electrical power generation. It was compiled and written by a committee drawn from educators, health physicists, members of industry and conservation groups, and environmental scientists. Topics include: the increasing need for electrical power,…

  14. Amplified spontaneous emission pulses for high-power supercontinuum generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Huan Liu

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The authors demonstrate an incoherent light source based on a reflective semiconductor optical amplifier as pump for high-power supercontinuum generation for the first time. The obtained power level is about 160 mW and 20 dB spectral bandwidth is around 170 nm.

  15. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    This book presents recent studies on the power electronics used for the next generation wind turbine system. Some criteria and tools for evaluating and improving the critical performances of the wind power converters have been proposed and established. The book addresses some emerging problems...

  16. PRESSURIZED SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL/GAS TURBINE POWER SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.L. Lundberg; G.A. Israelson; R.R. Moritz(Rolls-Royce Allison); S.E. Veyo; R.A. Holmes; P.R. Zafred; J.E. King; R.E. Kothmann (Consultant)

    2000-02-01

    Power systems based on the simplest direct integration of a pressurized solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) generator and a gas turbine (GT) are capable of converting natural gas fuel energy to electric power with efficiencies of approximately 60% (net AC/LHV), and more complex SOFC and gas turbine arrangements can be devised for achieving even higher efficiencies. The results of a project are discussed that focused on the development of a conceptual design for a pressurized SOFC/GT power system that was intended to generate 20 MWe with at least 70% efficiency. The power system operates baseloaded in a distributed-generation application. To achieve high efficiency, the system integrates an intercooled, recuperated, reheated gas turbine with two SOFC generator stages--one operating at high pressure, and generating power, as well as providing all heat needed by the high-pressure turbine, while the second SOFC generator operates at a lower pressure, generates power, and provides all heat for the low-pressure reheat turbine. The system cycle is described, major system components are sized, the system installed-cost is estimated, and the physical arrangement of system components is discussed. Estimates of system power output, efficiency, and emissions at the design point are also presented, and the system cost of electricity estimate is developed.

  17. Market power and technological bias in electricity generation markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is difficult or very costly to avoid all market power in electricity markets. A recurring response is that a limited amount of market power is accepted with the justification that it is necessary to produce revenues to cover some of the fixed costs. It is assumed that all market participants benefit equally from the increased prices. However, this assumption is not satisfied if different production technologies are used. We assess the case of a generation mix of conventional generation and intermittent generation with exogenously varying production levels. If all output is sold in the spot market, then intermittent generation benefits less from market power than conventional generation. If forward contracts or option contracts are signed, then market power might be reduced but the bias against returns to intermittent generators persists. Thus allowing some level of market power as a means of encouraging investment in new generation may result in a bias against intermittent technologies or increase the costs of strategic deployment to achieve renewable quotas. (Author)

  18. The Carem reactor: Bridging the gap to nuclear power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An idea is presented as an alternative for the introduction of nuclear power in presently non-nuclear countries. This idea involves going through an intermediate step between the traditional research reactor and the first commercial nuclear power plant. This intermediate step would consist of a very small nuclear power plant, with the principal goal of gaining in experience in the country on all the processes involved in introducing commercial nuclear generation. (author)

  19. Vircator experiments on repetitive pulsed power generator 'ETIGO-IV'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new configuration of virtual cathode oscillator is proposed and tested experimentally. A resonant cavity is used to enhance the field feedback to the virtual cathode oscillation. The experiments were carried out on repetitive pulsed power generator 'ETIGO-IV' (400 kV, 13 kA, 120 ns, 1 Hz). The diagnostic results have shown the peak microwave output power of ∼ 450 MW, giving peak-to-peak microwave power efficiency of ∼ 9%

  20. Pulsed power generator using solid-state LTD modules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linear transformer driver (LTD) modules using power MOSFETs as switches have been developed and tested for applications to repetitive, compact pulsed power sources. It is based on the same principle as large-scale LTDs being developed abroad for fusion and high energy-density physics purposes, while having advantages in high repetition rate and turning-off capability. It is expected to become a new approach leading to innovative compact pulsed power generators. (author)