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Sample records for cell potassium channels

  1. KV7 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stott, Jennifer B; Jepps, Thomas Andrew; Greenwood, Iain A

    2014-01-01

    Potassium channels are key regulators of smooth muscle tone, with increases in activity resulting in hyperpolarisation of the cell membrane, which acts to oppose vasoconstriction. Several potassium channels exist within smooth muscle, but the KV7 family of voltage-gated potassium channels have been...

  2. Molecular basis of potassium channels in pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, M.; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Potassium channels regulate excitability, epithelial ion transport, proliferation, and apoptosis. In pancreatic ducts, K channels hyperpolarize the membrane potential and provide the driving force for anion secretion. This review focuses on the molecular candidates of functional K channels...... in pancreatic duct cells, including KCNN4 (K 3.1), KCNMA1 (K1.1), KCNQ1 (K7.1), KCNH2 (K11.1), KCNH5 (K10.2), KCNT1 (K4.1), KCNT2 (K4.2), and KCNK5 (K5.1). We will give an overview of K channels with respect to their electrophysiological and pharmacological characteristics and regulation, which we know from...... other cell types, preferably in epithelia, and, where known, their identification and functions in pancreatic ducts and in adenocarcinoma cells. We conclude by pointing out some outstanding questions and future directions in pancreatic K channel research with respect to the physiology of secretion...

  3. Molecular basis of potassium channels in pancreatic duct epithelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashi, M.; Novak, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    Potassium channels regulate excitability, epithelial ion transport, proliferation, and apoptosis. In pancreatic ducts, K channels hyperpolarize the membrane potential and provide the driving force for anion secretion. This review focuses on the molecular candidates of functional K channels...

  4. Extract from Buthus martensii Karsch is associated with potassium channels on glioma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingxian Li; Hongmei Meng; Shao Wang; Min Huang; Li Cui; Weihong Lin

    2011-01-01

    Catilan extracted from Leiurus quinquestriatus is a specific ion channel blocker.It can specifically bind chloride channels of glioma cells and kill these tumor cells.The questions remain as to whether antigliomatin,the extract from scorpion venom of Buthus martensii Karsch in China,can inhibit glioma growth,and whether this inhibition is correlated with ion channels of tumor cells.The present study treated rat C6 glioma cells with 0.8,1.2,and 1.6 μg/mL antigliomatin for 20 hours.Whole-cell patch clamp technique showed that antigliomatin delayed rectifier potassium channels of C6 glioma cells.Antigliomatin inhibited tumor growth,which could potentially involve potassium channels of tumor cells.

  5. Cardiac potassium channel subtypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmitt, Nicole; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2014-01-01

    About 10 distinct potassium channels in the heart are involved in shaping the action potential. Some of the K(+) channels are primarily responsible for early repolarization, whereas others drive late repolarization and still others are open throughout the cardiac cycle. Three main K(+) channels...

  6. Effects of arsenic trioxide on voltage-dependent potassium channels and on cell proliferation of human multiple myeloma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jin; WANG Wei; WEI Qing-fang; FENG Tie-ming; TAN Li-jun; YANG Bao-feng

    2007-01-01

    @@ Arsenic trioxide (ATO) can induce cellular apoptosis and inhibit the activities of multiple myeloma (MM)cells in vitro,1 but how it works is not very clear. Recent studies showed that ATO worked on the voltagedependent potassium channel and L-type calcium channel in myocardial cells,2-5 but the effect of ATO on ion channels of tumor cells was rarely reported. As the potassium channel plays an important role in controlling cell proliferation,6 we studied the effects of ATO on the voltage-dependent potassium current (Ikv) of the voltage-dependent potassium channel in an MM cell line,and probed into the relationship between changes of the Ikv caused by ATO and cell proliferation.

  7. Vascular potassium channels in NVC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, K

    2016-01-01

    It has long been proposed that the external potassium ion ([K(+)]0) works as a potent vasodilator in the dynamic regulation of local cerebral blood flow. Astrocytes may play a central role for producing K(+) outflow possibly through calcium-activated potassium channels on the end feet, responding to a rise in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration, which might well reflect local neuronal activity. A mild elevation of [K(+)]0 in the end feet/vascular smooth muscle space could activate Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase concomitant with inwardly rectifying potassium (Kir) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, leading to a hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle and relaxation of smooth muscle actin-positive vessels. Also proposed notion is endothelial calcium-activated potassium channels and/or inwardly rectifying potassium channel-mediated hyperpolarization of vascular smooth muscle. A larger elevation of [K(+)]0, which may occur pathophysiologically in such as spreading depression or stroke, can trigger a depolarization of vascular smooth muscle cells and vasoconstriction instead.

  8. Development of New Openers of ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels of the Cell Membranes

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    Strutynskyi, R.B.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Two innovative libraries (413 cyclosulfamides and 709 orthopyridine sulfamides of potential new openers of ATP-sensitive potassium channels of cell membranes were developed. It is shown experimentally that at least ten new original compounds have properties of pharmacological openers of the channels. Seven compounds, namely Z851154982, Z56762024, Z1269122570, Z31153162, Z45679561, Z756371174 and Z649723638, open channels of both types — sarcoplasmic as well as mitochondrial membranes: Simultaneously, Z734043408 compound is a potent activator of aforementioned channels of sarcolemmal membrane only. Z31197374 and Z666664306 compounds show the affinity onlyto КATP-channels of mitochondrial type. The results of the work can be used by pharmaceutical companies and scientific research institutes.

  9. Basolateral localisation of KCNQ1 potassium channels in MDCK cells: molecular identification of an N-terminal targeting motif

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Hanne B; Grunnet, Morten;

    2004-01-01

    KCNQ1 potassium channels are expressed in many epithelial tissues as well as in the heart. In epithelia KCNQ1 channels play an important role in salt and water transport and the channel has been reported to be located apically in some cell types and basolaterally in others. Here we show that KCNQ...

  10. Expression of Potassium Channels in Uterine Smooth Muscle Cells from Patients with Adenomyosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing-Hua Shi; Li Jin; Jin-Hua Leng; Jing-He Lang

    2016-01-01

    Background:Adenomyosis (AM) has impaired contraction.This study aimed to explore the expression of potassium channels related to contraction in myometrial smooth muscle cells (MSMCs) of AM.Methods:Uterine tissue samples from 22 patients (cases) with histologically confirmed AM and 12 (controls) with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia were collected for both immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the expression of large conductance calcium-and voltage-sensitive K+ channel (BKCa)-α/β subunits,voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv) 4.2,and Kv4.3.Student's t-test was used to compare the expression.Results:The BKCa-α/β subunits,Kv4.2,and Kv4.3 were located in smooth muscle cells,glandular epithelium,and stromal cells.However,BKCa-β subunit expression in endometrial glands of the controls was weak,and Kv4.3 was almost undetectable in the controls.The expression of BKCa-α messenger RNA (mRNA) (0.62 ± 0.19-fold decrease,P < 0.05) and Kv4.3 mRNA (0.67 ± 0.20-fold decrease,P < 0.05) decreased significantly in the M SMCs of the control group compared with the AM group.However,there were no significant differences in BKCa-β subunit mRNA or Kv4.2 mRNA.Conclusions:The BKCa-α mRNA and the Kv4.3 mRNA are expressed significantly higher in AM than those in the control group,that might cause the abnormal uterus smooth muscle contractility,change the microcirculation of uterus to accumulate the inflammatory factors,impair the endometrium further,and aggravate the pain.

  11. Expression of Potassium Channels in Uterine Smooth Muscle Cells from Patients with Adenomyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing-Hua Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adenomyosis (AM has impaired contraction. This study aimed to explore the expression of potassium channels related to contraction in myometrial smooth muscle cells (MSMCs of AM. Methods: Uterine tissue samples from 22 patients (cases with histologically confirmed AM and 12 (controls with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia were collected for both immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the expression of large conductance calcium- and voltage-sensitive K + channel (BKCa-α/β subunits, voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv 4.2, and Kv4.3. Student′s t-test was used to compare the expression. Results: The BKCa-α/β subunits, Kv4.2, and Kv4.3 were located in smooth muscle cells, glandular epithelium, and stromal cells. However, BKCa-β subunit expression in endometrial glands of the controls was weak, and Kv4.3 was almost undetectable in the controls. The expression of BKCa-α messenger RNA (mRNA (0.62 ± 0.19-fold decrease, P < 0.05 and Kv4.3 mRNA (0.67 ± 0.20-fold decrease, P < 0.05 decreased significantly in the MSMCs of the control group compared with the AM group. However, there were no significant differences in BKCa-β subunit mRNA or Kv4.2 mRNA. Conclusions: The BKCa-α mRNA and the Kv4.3 mRNA are expressed significantly higher in AM than those in the control group, that might cause the abnormal uterus smooth muscle contractility, change the microcirculation of uterus to accumulate the inflammatory factors, impair the endometrium further, and aggravate the pain.

  12. Expression of G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRKs in lung cancer cell lines

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    Schuller Hildegard M

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous data from our laboratory has indicated that there is a functional link between the β-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway and the G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1 in human breast cancer cell lines. We wanted to determine if GIRK channels were expressed in lung cancers and if a similar link exists in lung cancer. Methods GIRK1-4 expression and levels were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and real-time PCR. GIRK protein levels were determined by western blots and cell proliferation was determined by a 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU assay. Results GIRK1 mRNA was expressed in three of six small cell lung cancer (SCLC cell lines, and either GIRK2, 3 or 4 mRNA expression was detected in all six SCLC cell lines. Treatment of NCI-H69 with β2-adrenergic antagonist ICI 118,551 (100 μM daily for seven days led to slight decreases of GIRK1 mRNA expression levels. Treatment of NCI-H69 with the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (10 μM decreased growth rates in these cells. The GIRK inhibitor U50488H (2 μM also inhibited proliferation, and this decrease was potentiated by isoproterenol. In the SCLC cell lines that demonstrated GIRK1 mRNA expression, we also saw GIRK1 protein expression. We feel these may be important regulatory pathways since no expression of mRNA of the GIRK channels (1 & 2 was found in hamster pulmonary neuroendocrine cells, a suggested cell of origin for SCLC, nor was GIRK1 or 2 expression found in human small airway epithelial cells. GIRK (1,2,3,4 mRNA expression was also seen in A549 adenocarcinoma and NCI-H727 carcinoid cell lines. GIRK1 mRNA expression was not found in tissue samples from adenocarcinoma or squamous cancer patients, nor was it found in NCI-H322 or NCI-H441 adenocarcinoma cell lines. GIRK (1,3,4 mRNA expression was seen in three squamous cell lines, GIRK2 was only expressed in one squamous cell line. However, GIRK1 protein

  13. Expression patterns of two potassium channel genes in skeletal muscle cells of patients with familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis

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    June-Bum Kim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by episodic attacks of muscle weakness with hypokalemia. The combination of sarcolemmal depolarization and hypokalemia has been attributed to abnormalities of the potassium conductance governing the membrane potential; however, the molecular mechanism that causes hypokalemia has not yet been determined. Aim: To test the hypothesis that the expression patterns of delayed rectifier potassium channel genes in the skeletal muscle cells of patients with familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis differ from those in normal cells. Material and Methods: We examined both mRNA and protein levels of two major delayed rectifier potassium channel genes KCNQ3 and KCNQ5 in the skeletal muscle cells from three patients with familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis and three healthy controls. Results: When normal cells were exposed to 50 mM potassium buffer, which was used to induce depolarization, the KCNQ3 protein level significantly increased in the membrane fraction but decreased in the cytosolic fraction, whereas the opposite was true in patient cells. Conclusion: Abnormal subcellular distribution of the KCNQ3 protein was observed in patient cells. Our results suggest that the altered expression of KCNQ3 in patient cells exposed to high extracellular potassium levels could possibly hinder normal function of the channel protein. These findings may provide an important clue to understanding the molecular mechanism of familial hypokalemic periodic paralysis.

  14. Distinct axo-somato-dendritic distributions of three potassium channels in CA1 hippocampal pyramidal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirizs, Tekla; Kerti-Szigeti, Katalin; Lorincz, Andrea; Nusser, Zoltan

    2014-06-01

    Potassium channels comprise the most diverse family of ion channels and play critical roles in a large variety of physiological and pathological processes. In addition to their molecular diversity, variations in their distributions and densities on the axo-somato-dendritic surface of neurons are key parameters in determining their functional impact. Despite extensive electrophysiological and anatomical investigations, the exact location and densities of most K(+) channels in small subcellular compartments are still unknown. Here we aimed at providing a quantitative surface map of two delayed-rectifier (Kv1.1 and Kv2.1) and one G-protein-gated inwardly rectifying (Kir3.2) K(+) channel subunits on hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells (PCs). Freeze-fracture replica immunogold labelling was employed to determine the relative densities of these K(+) channel subunits in 18 axo-somato-dendritic compartments. Significant densities of the Kv1.1 subunit were detected on axon initial segments (AISs) and axon terminals, with an approximately eight-fold lower density in the latter compartment. The Kv2.1 subunit was found in somatic, proximal dendritic and AIS plasma membranes at approximately the same densities. This subunit has a non-uniform plasma membrane distribution; Kv2.1 clusters are frequently adjacent to, but never overlap with, GABAergic synapses. A quasi-linear increase in the Kir3.2 subunit density along the dendrites of PCs was detected, showing no significant difference between apical dendritic shafts, oblique dendrites or dendritic spines at the same distance from the soma. Our results demonstrate that each subunit has a unique cell-surface distribution pattern, and predict their differential involvement in synaptic integration and output generation at distinct subcellular compartments.

  15. Effect of genistein on voltage-gated potassium channels in guinea pig proximal colon smooth muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Ying Li; Bin-Bin Huang; Shou Ouyang

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the action of genistein (GST), a broad spectrum tyrosine kinase inhibitor, on voltagegated potassium channels in guinea pig proximal colon smooth muscle cells.METHODS: Smooth muscle cells in guinea pig proximal colon were enzymatically isolated. Nystatin-perforated whole cell patch clamp technique was used to record potassium currents including fast transient outward current (IKto) and delayed rectifier current (IKdr), two of which were isolated pharmacologically with 10 mmol/L tetraethylammonium or 5 mmol/L 4-aminopyridine.Contamination of calcium-dependent potassium currents was minimized with no calcium and 0.2 mmol/L CdCl2 in an external solution.RESULTS: GST (10-100 μmol/L) reversibly and dosedependently reduced the peak amplitude of IKto with an IC50value of 22.0±6.9 μmol/L. To a lesser extent, IKdr was also inhibited in both peak current and sustained current.GST could not totally block the outward potassium current as a fraction of the outWard potassium current,which was insensitive to GST. GST had no effect on the steady-state activation (n = 6) and inactivation kinetics(n =6) of IKto. Sodium orthovanadate (1 mmol/L), a potent inhibitor of tyrosine phosphatase, significantly inhibited GST-induced inhibition (P< 0.05).CONCLUSION: GST can dose-dependently and reversibly block voltage-gated potassium channels in guinea pig proximal colon smooth muscle cells.

  16. Kv3.4 potassium channel-mediated electrosignaling controls cell cycle and survival of irradiated leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palme, Daniela; Misovic, Milan; Schmid, Evi; Klumpp, Dominik; Salih, Helmut R; Rudner, Justine; Huber, Stephan M

    2013-08-01

    Aberrant ion channel expression in the plasma membrane is characteristic for many tumor entities and has been attributed to neoplastic transformation, tumor progression, metastasis, and therapy resistance. The present study aimed to define the function of these "oncogenic" channels for radioresistance of leukemia cells. Chronic myeloid leukemia cells were irradiated (0-6 Gy X ray), ion channel expression and activity, Ca(2+)- and protein signaling, cell cycle progression, and cell survival were assessed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, patch-clamp recording, fura-2 Ca(2+)-imaging, immunoblotting, flow cytometry, and clonogenic survival assays, respectively. Ionizing radiation-induced G2/M arrest was preceded by activation of Kv3.4-like voltage-gated potassium channels. Channel activation in turn resulted in enhanced Ca(2+) entry and subsequent activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase-II, and inactivation of the phosphatase cdc25B and the cyclin-dependent kinase cdc2. Accordingly, channel inhibition by tetraethylammonium and blood-depressing substance-1 and substance-2 or downregulation by RNA interference led to release from radiation-induced G2/M arrest, increased apoptosis, and decreased clonogenic survival. Together, these findings indicate the functional significance of voltage-gated K(+) channels for the radioresistance of myeloid leukemia cells.

  17. Researches toward potassium channels on tumor progressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zheng; Yang, Qian; You, Qidong

    2009-01-01

    As trans-membrane proteins located in cytoplasm and organelle membrane, potassium (K(+)) channels are generally divided into four super-families: voltage-gated K(+) channels (K(v)), Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (K(Ca)), inwardly rectifying K(+) channels (K(ir)) and two-pore domain K(+) channels (K(2P)). Since dysfunctions of K(+) channels would induce many diseases, various studies toward their functions in physiologic and pathologic process have been extensively launched. This review focuses on the recent advances of K(+) channels in tumor progression, including the brief introduction of K(+) channels, the role of K(+) channels in tumor cells, the possible mechanism of action at cellular level, and the possible application of K(+) channel modulators in cancer chemotherapy.

  18. Genetic Control of Potassium Channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amin, Ahmad S; Wilde, Arthur A M

    2016-06-01

    Approximately 80 genes in the human genome code for pore-forming subunits of potassium (K(+)) channels. Rare variants (mutations) in K(+) channel-encoding genes may cause heritable arrhythmia syndromes. Not all rare variants in K(+) channel-encoding genes are necessarily disease-causing mutations. Common variants in K(+) channel-encoding genes are increasingly recognized as modifiers of phenotype in heritable arrhythmia syndromes and in the general population. Although difficult, distinguishing pathogenic variants from benign variants is of utmost importance to avoid false designations of genetic variants as disease-causing mutations.

  19. Potassium channels in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucherat, Olivier; Chabot, Sophie; Antigny, Fabrice; Perros, Frédéric; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien

    2015-10-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating cardiopulmonary disorder with various origins. All forms of PAH share a common pulmonary arteriopathy characterised by vasoconstriction, remodelling of the pre-capillary pulmonary vessel wall, and in situ thrombosis. Although the pathogenesis of PAH is recognised as a complex and multifactorial process, there is growing evidence that potassium channels dysfunction in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells is a hallmark of PAH. Besides regulating many physiological functions, reduced potassium channels expression and/or activity have significant effects on PAH establishment and progression. This review describes the molecular mechanisms and physiological consequences of potassium channel modulation. Special emphasis is placed on KCNA5 (Kv1.5) and KCNK3 (TASK1), which are considered to play a central role in determining pulmonary vascular tone and may represent attractive therapeutic targets in the treatment of PAH.

  20. Functional coupling between sodium-activated potassium channels and voltage-dependent persistent sodium currents in cricket Kenyon cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Izumi; Yoshino, Masami

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we examined the functional coupling between Na(+)-activated potassium (KNa) channels and Na(+) influx through voltage-dependent Na(+) channels in Kenyon cells isolated from the mushroom body of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus. Single-channel activity of KNa channels was recorded with the cell-attached patch configuration. The open probability (Po) of KNa channels increased with increasing Na(+) concentration in a bath solution, whereas it decreased by the substitution of Na(+) with an equimolar concentration of Li(+). The Po of KNa channels was also found to be reduced by bath application of a high concentration of TTX (1 μM) and riluzole (100 μM), which inhibits both fast (INaf) and persistent (INaP) Na(+) currents, whereas it was unaffected by a low concentration of TTX (10 nM), which selectively blocks INaf. Bath application of Cd(2+) at a low concentration (50 μM), as an inhibitor of INaP, also decreased the Po of KNa channels. Conversely, bath application of the inorganic Ca(2+)-channel blockers Co(2+) and Ni(2+) at high concentrations (500 μM) had little effect on the Po of KNa channels, although Cd(2+) (500 μM) reduced the Po of KNa channels. Perforated whole cell clamp analysis further indicated the presence of sustained outward currents for which amplitude was dependent on the amount of Na(+) influx. Taken together, these results indicate that KNa channels could be activated by Na(+) influx passing through voltage-dependent persistent Na(+) channels. The functional significance of this coupling mechanism was discussed in relation to the membrane excitability of Kenyon cells and its possible role in the formation of long-term memory.

  1. A novel potassium channel in photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

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    Manuela Zanetti

    Full Text Available Elucidation of the structure-function relationship of a small number of prokaryotic ion channels characterized so far greatly contributed to our knowledge on basic mechanisms of ion conduction. We identified a new potassium channel (SynK in the genome of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, a photosynthetic model organism. SynK, when expressed in a K(+-uptake-system deficient E. coli strain, was able to recover growth of these organisms. The protein functions as a potassium selective ion channel when expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. The location of SynK in cyanobacteria in both thylakoid and plasmamembranes was revealed by immunogold electron microscopy and Western blotting of isolated membrane fractions. SynK seems to be conserved during evolution, giving rise to a TPK (two-pore K(+ channel family member which is shown here to be located in the thylakoid membrane of Arabidopsis. Our work characterizes a novel cyanobacterial potassium channel and indicates the molecular nature of the first higher plant thylakoid cation channel, opening the way to functional studies.

  2. Calcitriol inhibits Ether-a go-go potassium channel expression and cell proliferation in human breast cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Becerra, Rocio [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Diaz, Lorenza, E-mail: lorenzadiaz@gmail.com [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Camacho, Javier [Department of Pharmacology, Centro de Investigacion y de Estudios Avanzados, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Av. Instituto Politecnico Nacional 2508, San Pedro Zacatenco 07360, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Barrera, David; Ordaz-Rosado, David; Morales, Angelica [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Ortiz, Cindy Sharon [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Avila, Euclides [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bargallo, Enrique [Department of Breast Tumors, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Arrecillas, Myrna [Department of Pathology, Instituto Nacional de Cancerologia, Av. San Fernando No. 22, Tlalpan 14080, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Halhali, Ali; Larrea, Fernando [Department of Reproductive Biology, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Medicas y Nutricion Salvador Zubiran, Vasco de Quiroga No. 15, Tlalpan 14000 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2010-02-01

    Antiproliferative actions of calcitriol have been shown to occur in many cell types; however, little is known regarding the molecular basis of this process in breast carcinoma. Ether-a-go-go (Eag1) potassium channels promote oncogenesis and are implicated in breast cancer cell proliferation. Since calcitriol displays antineoplastic effects while Eag1 promotes tumorigenesis, and both factors antagonically regulate cell cycle progression, we investigated a possible regulatory effect of calcitriol upon Eag1 as a mean to uncover new molecular events involved in the antiproliferative activity of this hormone in human breast tumor-derived cells. RT real-time PCR and immunocytochemistry showed that calcitriol suppressed Eag1 expression by a vitamin D receptor (VDR)-dependent mechanism. This effect was accompanied by inhibition of cell proliferation, which was potentiated by astemizole, a nonspecific Eag1 inhibitor. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot demonstrated that Eag1 and VDR abundance was higher in invasive-ductal carcinoma than in fibroadenoma, and immunoreactivity of both proteins was located in ductal epithelial cells. Our results provide evidence of a novel mechanism involved in the antiproliferative effects of calcitriol and highlight VDR as a cancer therapeutic target for breast cancer treatment and prevention.

  3. Types of voltage—dependent calcium channels involved in high potassium depolarization—induced amylase secretion in the exocrine pancreatic tumour cell line AR4—2J

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUIZONGJIE

    1998-01-01

    In the perifused fura-2 loaded exocrine pancreatic acinar cell line AR4-2J pulses of high potassium induced repetitive increases in intracellular calcium,Attached cells when stimulated with high potassium secreted large amount of amylase.High potassium-induced secretion was dependent both on the concentration of potassium and duration of stimulation.High potassium induced increases in intracellular calcium were inhibited by voltage-dependent calcium channel anatagonists with an order of potency as follows:nifedipine>ω-agatoxin IVA>ω-conotoxin GVIA.In contrast,the L-type calcium channel anatagonist nifedipine almost completely inhibited potassium-induced amylase secretion,whereas the N-type channel antagonist ω-conotoxin GVIA was without effect.The P-type channel antagonist ω-agatoxin IVA had a small inhibitory effect,but this inhibition was not significant at the level of amylase secretion.In conclusion,the AR4-2J cell line posesses different voltage-dependent calcium channels(L,P,N)with the L-type predominantly involved in depolarization induced amylase secretion.

  4. Apical Ca2+-activated potassium channels in mouse parotid acinar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almassy, Janos; Won, Jong Hak; Begenisich, Ted B; Yule, David I

    2012-02-01

    Ca(2+) activation of Cl and K channels is a key event underlying stimulated fluid secretion from parotid salivary glands. Cl channels are exclusively present on the apical plasma membrane (PM), whereas the localization of K channels has not been established. Mathematical models have suggested that localization of some K channels to the apical PM is optimum for fluid secretion. A combination of whole cell electrophysiology and temporally resolved digital imaging with local manipulation of intracellular [Ca(2+)] was used to investigate if Ca(2+)-activated K channels are present in the apical PM of parotid acinar cells. Initial experiments established Ca(2+)-buffering conditions that produced brief, localized increases in [Ca(2+)] after focal laser photolysis of caged Ca(2+). Conditions were used to isolate K(+) and Cl(-) conductances. Photolysis at the apical PM resulted in a robust increase in K(+) and Cl(-) currents. A localized reduction in [Ca(2+)] at the apical PM after photolysis of Diazo-2, a caged Ca(2+) chelator, resulted in a decrease in both K(+) and Cl(-) currents. The K(+) currents evoked by apical photolysis were partially blocked by both paxilline and TRAM-34, specific blockers of large-conductance "maxi-K" (BK) and intermediate K (IK), respectively, and almost abolished by incubation with both antagonists. Apical TRAM-34-sensitive K(+) currents were also observed in BK-null parotid acini. In contrast, when the [Ca(2+)] was increased at the basal or lateral PM, no increase in either K(+) or Cl(-) currents was evoked. These data provide strong evidence that K and Cl channels are similarly distributed in the apical PM. Furthermore, both IK and BK channels are present in this domain, and the density of these channels appears higher in the apical versus basolateral PM. Collectively, this study provides support for a model in which fluid secretion is optimized after expression of K channels specifically in the apical PM.

  5. Intractable hyperkalemia due to nicorandil induced potassium channel syndrome

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    Vivek Chowdhry

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Nicorandil is a commonly used antianginal agent, which has both nitrate-like and ATP-sensitive potassium (K ATP channel activator properties. Activation of potassium channels by nicorandil causes expulsion of potassium ions into the extracellular space leading to membrane hyperpolarization, closure of voltage-gated calcium channels and finally vasodilatation. However, on the other hand, being an activator of K ATP channel, it can expel K + ions out of the cells and can cause hyperkalemia. Here, we report a case of nicorandil induced hyperkalemia unresponsive to medical treatment in a patient with diabetic nephropathy.

  6. Effect of background potassium channels on potassium homeostasis in healthy and epileptic hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Päsler, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    In the frequent neurological disease of epilepsy, focal extracellular potassium concentration in the brain increases to pathological values. The underlying mechanisms are not yet fully understood. Two-pore-domain potassium channels (K2P channels), postulated in the 1950s and cloned and investigated in the past years, came into scientific view. A contribution of these channels on keeping membrane’s resting potential of glial cells is proven. In the present study, the contribution of K2P channe...

  7. Intermediate-Conductance-Ca2-Activated K Channel Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel (IKCa1) is Upregulated and Promotes Cell Proliferation in Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ling; Zhan, Ping; Nie, Dan; Fan, Lingye; Lin, Hairui; Gao, Lanyang; Mao, Xiguang

    2017-01-01

    Background Accumulating data point to intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (IKCa1) as a key player in controlling cell cycle progression and proliferation of human cancer cells. However, the role that IKCa1 plays in the growth of human cervical cancer cells is largely unexplored. Material/Methods In this study, Western blot analysis, immunohistochemical staining, and RT-PCR were first used for IKCa1protein and gene expression assays in cervical cancer tissues and HeLa cells. Then, IKCa1 channel blocker and siRNA were employed to inhibit the functionality of IKCa1 and downregulate gene expression in HeLa cells, respectively. After these treatments, we examined the level of cell proliferation by MTT method and measured IKCa1 currents by conventional whole-cell patch clamp technique. Cell apoptosis was assessed using the Annexin V-FITC/Propidium Iodide (PI) double-staining apoptosis detection kit. Results We demonstrated that IKCa1 mRNA and protein are preferentially expressed in cervical cancer tissues and HeLa cells. We also showed that the IKCa1 channel blocker, clotrimazole, and IKCa1 channel siRNA can be used to suppress cervical cancer cell proliferation and decrease IKCa1 channel current. IKCa1 downregulation by specific siRNAs induced a significant increase in the proportion of apoptotic cells in HeLa cells. Conclusions IKCa1 is overexpressed in cervical cancer tissues, and IKCa1 upregulation in cervical cancer cell linea enhances cell proliferation, partly by reducing the proportion of apoptotic cells. PMID:28280257

  8. Plant adaptation to fluctuating environment and biomass production are strongly dependent on guard cell potassium channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebaudy, Anne; Vavasseur, Alain; Hosy, Eric; Dreyer, Ingo; Leonhardt, Nathalie; Thibaud, Jean-Baptiste; Véry, Anne-Aliénor; Simonneau, Thierry; Sentenac, Hervé

    2008-01-01

    At least four genes encoding plasma membrane inward K+ channels (Kin channels) are expressed in Arabidopsis guard cells. A double mutant plant was engineered by disruption of a major Kin channel gene and expression of a dominant negative channel construct. Using the patch-clamp technique revealed that this mutant was totally deprived of guard cell Kin channel (GCKin) activity, providing a model to investigate the roles of this activity in the plant. GCKin activity was found to be an essential effector of stomatal opening triggered by membrane hyperpolarization and thereby of blue light-induced stomatal opening at dawn. It improved stomatal reactivity to external or internal signals (light, CO2 availability, and evaporative demand). It protected stomatal function against detrimental effects of Na+ when plants were grown in the presence of physiological concentrations of this cation, probably by enabling guard cells to selectively and rapidly take up K+ instead of Na+ during stomatal opening, thereby preventing deleterious effects of Na+ on stomatal closure. It was also shown to be a key component of the mechanisms that underlie the circadian rhythm of stomatal opening, which is known to gate stomatal responses to extracellular and intracellular signals. Finally, in a meteorological scenario with higher light intensity during the first hours of the photophase, GCKin activity was found to allow a strong increase (35%) in plant biomass production. Thus, a large diversity of approaches indicates that GCKin activity plays pleiotropic roles that crucially contribute to plant adaptation to fluctuating and stressing natural environments. PMID:18367672

  9. VKCDB: Voltage-gated potassium channel database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallin Warren J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of voltage-gated potassium channels comprises a functionally diverse group of membrane proteins. They help maintain and regulate the potassium ion-based component of the membrane potential and are thus central to many critical physiological processes. VKCDB (Voltage-gated potassium [K] Channel DataBase is a database of structural and functional data on these channels. It is designed as a resource for research on the molecular basis of voltage-gated potassium channel function. Description Voltage-gated potassium channel sequences were identified by using BLASTP to search GENBANK and SWISSPROT. Annotations for all voltage-gated potassium channels were selectively parsed and integrated into VKCDB. Electrophysiological and pharmacological data for the channels were collected from published journal articles. Transmembrane domain predictions by TMHMM and PHD are included for each VKCDB entry. Multiple sequence alignments of conserved domains of channels of the four Kv families and the KCNQ family are also included. Currently VKCDB contains 346 channel entries. It can be browsed and searched using a set of functionally relevant categories. Protein sequences can also be searched using a local BLAST engine. Conclusions VKCDB is a resource for comparative studies of voltage-gated potassium channels. The methods used to construct VKCDB are general; they can be used to create specialized databases for other protein families. VKCDB is accessible at http://vkcdb.biology.ualberta.ca.

  10. Specific functions of synaptically localized potassium channels in synaptic transmission at the neocortical GABAergic fast-spiking cell synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Ethan M; Watanabe, Shigeo; Chang, Su Ying; Joho, Rolf H; Huang, Z Josh; Leonard, Christopher S; Rudy, Bernardo

    2005-05-25

    Potassium (K+) channel subunits of the Kv3 subfamily (Kv3.1-Kv3.4) display a positively shifted voltage dependence of activation and fast activation/deactivation kinetics when compared with other voltage-gated K+ channels, features that confer on Kv3 channels the ability to accelerate the repolarization of the action potential (AP) efficiently and specifically. In the cortex, the Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 proteins are expressed prominently in a subset of GABAergic interneurons known as fast-spiking (FS) cells and in fact are a significant determinant of the fast-spiking discharge pattern. However, in addition to expression at FS cell somata, Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 proteins also are expressed prominently at FS cell terminals, suggesting roles for Kv3 channels in neurotransmitter release. We investigated the effect of 1.0 mM tetraethylammonium (TEA; which blocks Kv3 channels) on inhibitory synaptic currents recorded in layer II/III neocortical pyramidal cells. Spike-evoked GABA release by FS cells was enhanced nearly twofold by 1.0 mM TEA, with a decrease in the paired pulse ratio (PPR), effects not reproduced by blockade of the non-Kv3 subfamily K+ channels also blocked by low concentrations of TEA. Moreover, in Kv3.1/Kv3.2 double knock-out (DKO) mice, the large effects of TEA were absent, spike-evoked GABA release was larger, and the PPR was lower than in wild-type mice. Together, these results suggest specific roles for Kv3 channels at FS cell terminals that are distinct from those of Kv1 and large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (also present at the FS cell synapse). We propose that at FS cell terminals synaptically localized Kv3 channels keep APs brief, limiting Ca2+ influx and hence release probability, thereby influencing synaptic depression at a synapse designed for sustained high-frequency synaptic transmission.

  11. Potassium channel currents in intact stomatal guard cells: rapid enhancement by abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, M R

    1990-02-01

    Evidence of a role for abscisic acid (ABA) in signalling conditions of water stress and promoting stomatal closure is convincing, but past studies have left few clues as to its molecular mechanism(s) of action; arguments centred on changes in H(+)-pump activity and membrane potential, especially, remain ambiguous without the fundamental support of a rigorous electrophysiological analysis. The present study explores the response to ABA of K(+) channels at the membrane of intact guard cells of Vicia faba L. Membrane potentials were recorded before and during exposures to ABA, and whole-cell currents were measured at intervals throughout to quantitate the steady-state and time-dependent characteristics of the K(+) channels. On adding 10 μM ABA in the presence of 0.1, 3 or 10 mM extracellular K(+), the free-running membrane potential (V m) shifted negative-going (-)4-7 mV in the first 5 min of exposure, with no consistent effect thereafter. Voltage-clamp measurements, however, revealed that the K(+)-channel current rose to between 1.84- and 3.41-fold of the controls in the steady-state with a mean halftime of 1.1 ± 0.1 min. Comparable changes in current return via the leak were also evident and accounted for the minimal response in V m. Calculated at V m, the K(+) currents translated to an average 2.65-fold rise in K(+) efflux with ABA. Abscisic acid was not observed to alter either K(+)-current activation or deactivation.These results are consistent with an ABA-evoked mobilization of K(+) channels or channel conductance, rather than a direct effect of the phytohormone on K(+)-channel gating. The data discount notions that large swings in membrane voltage are a prerequisite to controlling guard-cell K(+) flux. Instead, thev highlight a rise in membrane capacity for K(+) flux, dependent on concerted modulations of K(+)-channel and leak currents, and sufficiently rapid to account generally for the onset of K(+) loss from guard cells and stomatal closure in ABA.

  12. Emerging role of calcium-activated potassium channel in the regulation of cell viability following potassium ions challenge in HEK293 cells and pharmacological modulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Tricarico

    Full Text Available Emerging evidences suggest that Ca(2+activated-K(+-(BK channel is involved in the regulation of cell viability. The changes of the cell viability observed under hyperkalemia (15 mEq/L or hypokalemia (0.55 mEq/L conditions were investigated in HEK293 cells expressing the hslo subunit (hslo-HEK293 in the presence or absence of BK channel modulators. The BK channel openers(10(-11-10(-3M were: acetazolamide(ACTZ, Dichlorphenamide(DCP, methazolamide(MTZ, bendroflumethiazide(BFT, ethoxzolamide(ETX, hydrochlorthiazide(HCT, quercetin(QUERC, resveratrol(RESV and NS1619; and the BK channel blockers(2 x 10(-7M-5 x 10(-3M were: tetraethylammonium(TEA, iberiotoxin(IbTx and charybdotoxin(ChTX. Experiments on cell viability and channel currents were performed using cell counting kit-8 and patch-clamp techniques, respectively. Hslo whole-cell current was potentiated by BK channel openers with different potency and efficacy in hslo-HEK293. The efficacy ranking of the openers at -60 mV(Vm was BFT> ACTZ >DCP ≥RESV≥ ETX> NS1619> MTZ≥ QUERC; HCT was not effective. Cell viability after 24 h of incubation under hyperkalemia was enhanced by 82+6% and 33+7% in hslo-HEK293 cells and HEK293 cells, respectively. IbTx, ChTX and TEA enhanced cell viability in hslo-HEK293. BK openers prevented the enhancement of the cell viability induced by hyperkalemia or IbTx in hslo-HEK293 showing an efficacy which was comparable with that observed as BK openers. BK channel modulators failed to affect cell currents and viability under hyperkalemia conditions in the absence of hslo subunit. In contrast, under hypokalemia cell viability was reduced by -22+4% and -23+6% in hslo-HEK293 and HEK293 cells, respectively; the BK channel modulators failed to affect this parameter in these cells. In conclusion, BK channel regulates cell viability under hyperkalemia but not hypokalemia conditions. BFT and ACTZ were the most potent drugs either in activating the BK current and in preventing the

  13. Emerging role of calcium-activated potassium channel in the regulation of cell viability following potassium ions challenge in HEK293 cells and pharmacological modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tricarico, Domenico; Mele, Antonietta; Calzolaro, Sara; Cannone, Gianluigi; Camerino, Giulia Maria; Dinardo, Maria Maddalena; Latorre, Ramon; Conte Camerino, Diana

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidences suggest that Ca(2+)activated-K(+)-(BK) channel is involved in the regulation of cell viability. The changes of the cell viability observed under hyperkalemia (15 mEq/L) or hypokalemia (0.55 mEq/L) conditions were investigated in HEK293 cells expressing the hslo subunit (hslo-HEK293) in the presence or absence of BK channel modulators. The BK channel openers(10(-11)-10(-3)M) were: acetazolamide(ACTZ), Dichlorphenamide(DCP), methazolamide(MTZ), bendroflumethiazide(BFT), ethoxzolamide(ETX), hydrochlorthiazide(HCT), quercetin(QUERC), resveratrol(RESV) and NS1619; and the BK channel blockers(2 x 10(-7)M-5 x 10(-3)M) were: tetraethylammonium(TEA), iberiotoxin(IbTx) and charybdotoxin(ChTX). Experiments on cell viability and channel currents were performed using cell counting kit-8 and patch-clamp techniques, respectively. Hslo whole-cell current was potentiated by BK channel openers with different potency and efficacy in hslo-HEK293. The efficacy ranking of the openers at -60 mV(Vm) was BFT> ACTZ >DCP ≥RESV≥ ETX> NS1619> MTZ≥ QUERC; HCT was not effective. Cell viability after 24 h of incubation under hyperkalemia was enhanced by 82+6% and 33+7% in hslo-HEK293 cells and HEK293 cells, respectively. IbTx, ChTX and TEA enhanced cell viability in hslo-HEK293. BK openers prevented the enhancement of the cell viability induced by hyperkalemia or IbTx in hslo-HEK293 showing an efficacy which was comparable with that observed as BK openers. BK channel modulators failed to affect cell currents and viability under hyperkalemia conditions in the absence of hslo subunit. In contrast, under hypokalemia cell viability was reduced by -22+4% and -23+6% in hslo-HEK293 and HEK293 cells, respectively; the BK channel modulators failed to affect this parameter in these cells. In conclusion, BK channel regulates cell viability under hyperkalemia but not hypokalemia conditions. BFT and ACTZ were the most potent drugs either in activating the BK current and in preventing

  14. Clinical relevance of ATP-dependent potassium channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, JJM; vanHaeften, TW; Links, TP; Smit, AJ

    1995-01-01

    Many cells are equipped with so-called potassium (K+) channels which have an important role in maintaining transmembrane potential. Closure of these channels leads to membrane depolarization, which can be followed by cell-specific activity such as contraction of vascular smooth muscle, or secretion

  15. Niflumic acid hyperpolarizes smooth muscle cells via calcium-activated potassium channel in spiral modiolar artery of guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li LI; Ke-tao MA; Lei ZHAO; Jun-qiang SI; Zhong-shuang ZHANG; He ZHU; Jing LI

    2008-01-01

    Aim: The influence of niflumic acid (NFA), a C1- channel antagonist, on the mem-brane potentials in smooth muscle cells (SMC) of the cochlear spiral modiolar artery (SMA) in guinea pigs was examined. Methods: The intracellular recording and whole-cell recording technique were used to record the NFA-induced re-sponse on the acutely-isolated SMA preparation. Results: The SMC had 2 stable but mutually convertible levels of resting potentials (RP), that is, one was near-45 mV and the other was approximately -75 mV, termed as low and high RP, respectively. The bath application of NFA could cause a hyperpolarization in all the low RP cells, but had little effect on high RP cells. The induced responses were concentration-dependent. Large concentrations of NFA (≥100 μmol/L) often in-duced a shift of a low RP to high RP in cells with an initial RP at low level, and NFA (up to 100 μmol/L) had little effect on the membrane potentials of the high RP cells. However, when the high RP cells were depolarized to a level beyond -45 mV by barium and ouabain, NFA hyperpolarized these cells with the similar effect on those cells initially being the low RP. The NFA-induced response was almost completely blocked by charybdotoxin, iberiotoxin, tetraethylammonium, 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N,N,N,-tetraacetic acid tetrakis acetoxymethyl ester, but not by 4-aminopyridine, barium, glipizide, apamin, ouabain, and CdC12. Conclusion: NFA induces a concentration-dependent reversible hyperpolarization in SMC in the cochlear SMA via activation of the Ca2+-activated potassium channels.

  16. A cell model study of calcium influx mechanism regulated by calcium-dependent potassium channels in Purkinje cell dendrites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chono, Koji; Takagi, Hiroshi; Koyama, Shozo; Suzuki, Hideo; Ito, Etsuro

    2003-10-30

    The present study was designed to elucidate the roles of dendritic voltage-gated K+ channels in Ca2+ influx mechanism of a rat Purkinje cell using a computer simulation program. First, we improved the channel descriptions and the maximum conductance in the Purkinje cell model to mimic both the kinetics of ion channels and the Ca2+ spikes, which had failed in previous studies. Our cell model is, therefore, much more authentic than those in previous studies. Second, synaptic inputs that mimic stimulation of parallel fibers and induce sub-threshold excitability were simultaneously applied to the spiny dendrites. As a result, transient Ca2+ responses were observed in the stimulation points and they decreased with the faster decay rate in the cell model including high-threshold Ca2+-dependent K+ channels than in those excluding these channels. Third, when a single synaptic input was applied into a spiny dendrite, Ca2+-dependent K+ channels suppressed Ca2+ increases at stimulation and recording points. Finally, Ca2+-dependent K+ channels were also found to suppress the time to peak Ca2+ values in the recording points. These results suggest that the opening of Ca2+-dependent K+ channels by Ca2+ influx through voltage-gated Ca2+ channels hyperpolarizes the membrane potentials and deactivates these Ca2+ channels in a negative feedback manner, resulting in local, weak Ca2+ responses in spiny dendrites of Purkinje cells.

  17. The Ketogenic Diet and Potassium Channel Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The overall objective of this Discovery Award is to explore the hypothesis the ketogenic diet regulates neuronal excitability by influencing...potassium channel activity via the auxiliary potassium channel subunit Kv Beta 2. To test this hypothesis we have examining the impact of the ketogenic diet on...vitro bursting activity (seizures) which is reversed by treatment with the ketogenic diet (KD). Conversely, the latency to the first in vitro burst

  18. Inhibition of SK4 Potassium Channels Suppresses Cell Proliferation, Migration and the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Panshi; Yang, Xiaowei; Yin, Qian; Yi, Jilin; Shen, Wenzhuang; Zhao, Lu; Zhu, Zhi; Liu, Jinwen

    2016-01-01

    Treatments for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are limited; intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK4) channels are closely involved in tumor progression, but little is known about these channels in TNBC. We aimed to investigate whether SK4 channels affect TNBC. First, by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and western blotting (WB), increased SK4 protein expression in breast tumor tissues was detected relative to that in non-tumor breast tissues, but there was no apparent expression difference between various subtypes of breast cancer (p>0.05). Next, functional SK4 channels were detected in the TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231 using WB, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence and patch-clamp recording. By employing SK4 specific siRNAs and blockers, including TRAM-34 and clotrimazole, in combination with an MTT assay, a colony-formation assay, flow cytometry and a cell motility assay, we found that the suppression of SK4 channels significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration and promoted apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells (pMDA-MB-231 cells to undergo the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and to show increased SK4 mRNA expression. In addition, the down-regulation of SK4 expression inhibited the EMT markers Vimentin and Snail1. Collectively, our findings suggest that SK4 channels are expressed in TNBC and are involved in the proliferation, apoptosis, migration and EMT processes of TNBC cells.

  19. A novel potassium channel in skeletal muscle mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skalska, Jolanta; Piwońska, Marta; Wyroba, Elzbieta; Surmacz, Liliana; Wieczorek, Rafal; Koszela-Piotrowska, Izabela; Zielińska, Joanna; Bednarczyk, Piotr; Dołowy, Krzysztof; Wilczynski, Grzegorz M; Szewczyk, Adam; Kunz, Wolfram S

    2008-01-01

    In this work we provide evidence for the potential presence of a potassium channel in skeletal muscle mitochondria. In isolated rat skeletal muscle mitochondria, Ca(2+) was able to depolarize the mitochondrial inner membrane and stimulate respiration in a strictly potassium-dependent manner. These potassium-specific effects of Ca(2+) were completely abolished by 200 nM charybdotoxin or 50 nM iberiotoxin, which are well-known inhibitors of large conductance, calcium-activated potassium channels (BK(Ca) channel). Furthermore, NS1619, a BK(Ca)-channel opener, mimicked the potassium-specific effects of calcium on respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential. In agreement with these functional data, light and electron microscopy, planar lipid bilayer reconstruction and immunological studies identified the BK(Ca) channel to be preferentially located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of rat skeletal muscle fibers. We propose that activation of mitochondrial K(+) transport by opening of the BK(Ca) channel may be important for myoprotection since the channel opener NS1619 protected the myoblast cell line C2C12 against oxidative injury.

  20. Dendritic potassium channels in hippocampal pyramidal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, D; Hoffman, D A; Magee, J C; Poolos, N P; Watanabe, S; Colbert, C M; Migliore, M

    2000-05-15

    Potassium channels located in the dendrites of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons control the shape and amplitude of back-propagating action potentials, the amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials and dendritic excitability. Non-uniform gradients in the distribution of potassium channels in the dendrites make the dendritic electrical properties markedly different from those found in the soma. For example, the influence of a fast, calcium-dependent potassium current on action potential repolarization is progressively reduced in the first 150 micrometer of the apical dendrites, so that action potentials recorded farther than 200 micrometer from the soma have no fast after-hyperpolarization and are wider than those in the soma. The peak amplitude of back-propagating action potentials is also progressively reduced in the dendrites because of the increasing density of a transient potassium channel with distance from the soma. The activation of this channel can be reduced by the activity of a number of protein kinases as well as by prior depolarization. The depolarization from excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) can inactivate these A-type K+ channels and thus lead to an increase in the amplitude of dendritic action potentials, provided the EPSP and the action potentials occur within the appropriate time window. This time window could be in the order of 15 ms and may play a role in long-term potentiation induced by pairing EPSPs and back-propagating action potentials.

  1. Inhibition of SK4 Potassium Channels Suppresses Cell Proliferation, Migration and the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panshi Zhang

    Full Text Available Treatments for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC are limited; intermediate-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK4 channels are closely involved in tumor progression, but little is known about these channels in TNBC. We aimed to investigate whether SK4 channels affect TNBC. First, by immunohistochemistry (IHC and western blotting (WB, increased SK4 protein expression in breast tumor tissues was detected relative to that in non-tumor breast tissues, but there was no apparent expression difference between various subtypes of breast cancer (p>0.05. Next, functional SK4 channels were detected in the TNBC cell line MDA-MB-231 using WB, real-time PCR, immunofluorescence and patch-clamp recording. By employing SK4 specific siRNAs and blockers, including TRAM-34 and clotrimazole, in combination with an MTT assay, a colony-formation assay, flow cytometry and a cell motility assay, we found that the suppression of SK4 channels significantly inhibited cell proliferation and migration and promoted apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells (p<0.05. Further investigation revealed that treatment with epidermal growth factor (EGF/basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF caused MDA-MB-231 cells to undergo the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT and to show increased SK4 mRNA expression. In addition, the down-regulation of SK4 expression inhibited the EMT markers Vimentin and Snail1. Collectively, our findings suggest that SK4 channels are expressed in TNBC and are involved in the proliferation, apoptosis, migration and EMT processes of TNBC cells.

  2. Potassium channels and human epileptic phenotypes: an updated overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eVilla

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Potassium (K+ channels are expressed in almost every cells and are ubiquitous in neuronal and glial cell membranes. These channels have been implicated in different disorders, in particular in epilepsy. K+ channel diversity depends on the presence in the human genome of a large number of genes either encoding pore-forming or accessory subunits. More than 80 genes encoding the K+ channels were cloned and they represent the largest group of ion channels regulating the electrical activity of cells in different tissues, including the brain. It is therefore not surprising that mutations in these genes lead to K+ channels dysfunctions linked to inherited epilepsy in humans and non-human model animals.This article reviews genetic and molecular progresses in exploring the pathogenesis of different human epilepsies, with special emphasis on the role of K+ channels in monogenic forms.

  3. Epigenetic regulation of Kcna3-encoding Kv1.3 potassium channel by cereblon contributes to regulation of CD4+ T-cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Jung-Ah; Park, Sang-Heon; Jeong, Sang Phil; Han, Min-Hee; Lee, Cho-Rong; Lee, Kwang Min; Kim, Namhee; Song, Mi-Ryoung; Choi, Murim; Ye, Michael; Jung, Guhung; Lee, Won-Woo; Eom, Soo Hyun; Park, Chul-Seung; Park, Sung-Gyoo

    2016-08-02

    The role of cereblon (CRBN) in T cells is not well understood. We generated mice with a deletion in Crbn and found cereblon to be an important antagonist of T-cell activation. In mice lacking CRBN, CD4(+) T cells show increased activation and IL-2 production on T-cell receptor stimulation, ultimately resulting in increased potassium flux and calcium-mediated signaling. CRBN restricts T-cell activation via epigenetic modification of Kcna3, which encodes the Kv1.3 potassium channel required for robust calcium influx in T cells. CRBN binds directly to conserved DNA elements adjacent to Kcna3 via a previously uncharacterized DNA-binding motif. Consequently, in the absence of CRBN, the expression of Kv1.3 is derepressed, resulting in increased Kv1.3 expression, potassium flux, and CD4(+) T-cell hyperactivation. In addition, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in T-cell-specific Crbn-deficient mice was exacerbated by increased T-cell activation via Kv1.3. Thus, CRBN limits CD4(+) T-cell activation via epigenetic regulation of Kv1.3 expression.

  4. Oxidative Stress and Maxi Calcium-Activated Potassium (BK Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Hermann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available All cells contain ion channels in their outer (plasma and inner (organelle membranes. Ion channels, similar to other proteins, are targets of oxidative impact, which modulates ion fluxes across membranes. Subsequently, these ion currents affect electrical excitability, such as action potential discharge (in neurons, muscle, and receptor cells, alteration of the membrane resting potential, synaptic transmission, hormone secretion, muscle contraction or coordination of the cell cycle. In this chapter we summarize effects of oxidative stress and redox mechanisms on some ion channels, in particular on maxi calcium-activated potassium (BK channels which play an outstanding role in a plethora of physiological and pathophysiological functions in almost all cells and tissues. We first elaborate on some general features of ion channel structure and function and then summarize effects of oxidative alterations of ion channels and their functional consequences.

  5. Aberrant expression of ether à go-go potassium channel in colorectal cancer patients and cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-Wu Ding; Juan-Juan Yan; Ping An; Peng Lü; He-Sheng Luo

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To study the expression of ether à go-go (Eag1) potassium channel in colorectal cancer and the relation ship between their expression and clinico-pathological features.METHODS: The expression levels of Eag1 protein were determined in 76 cancer tissues with paired noncancerous matched tissues as well as 9 colorectal adenoma tissues by immunohistochemistry. Eag1 mRNA expression was detected in 13 colorectal cancer tissues with paired non-cancerous matched tissues and 4 colorectal adenoma tissues as well as two colorectal cancer cell lines (LoVo and HT-29) by reverse transcription PCR.RESULTS: The frequency of positive expression of Eag1 protein was 76.3% (58/76) and Eag1 mRNA was 76.9% (10/13) in colorectal cancer tissue. Expression level of Eag1 protein was dependent on the tumor size,lymphatic node metastasis, other organ metastases and Dukes' stage (P < 0.05), while not dependent on age,sex, site and degree of differentiation. Eag1 protein and mRNA were negative in normal colorectal tissue, and absolutely negative in colorectal adenomas except that one case was positively stained for Eag1 protein.CONCLUSION: Eag1 protein and mRNA are aberrantly expressed in colorectal cancer and occasionally expressed in colorectal adenoma. The high frequency of expression of Eag1 in tumors and the restriction of normal expression to the brain suggest the potential of this protein for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic purposes.

  6. A whole-genome RNAi screen uncovers a novel role for human potassium channels in cell killing by the parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Chelsea; Verkerke, Hans P; Theodorescu, Dan; Petri, William A

    2015-09-08

    The parasite Entamoeba histolytica kills human cells resulting in ulceration, inflammation and invasion of the colonic epithelium. We used the cytotoxic properties of ameba to select a genome-wide RNAi library to reveal novel host factors that control susceptibility to amebic killing. We identified 281 candidate susceptibility genes and bioinformatics analyses revealed that ion transporters were significantly enriched among susceptibility genes. Potassium (K(+)) channels were the most common transporter identified. Their importance was further supported by colon biopsy of humans with amebiasis that demonstrated suppressed K(+) channel expression. Inhibition of human K(+) channels by genetic silencing, pharmacologic inhibitors and with excess K(+) protected diverse cell types from E. histolytica-induced death. Contact with E. histolytica parasites triggered K(+) channel activation and K(+) efflux by intestinal epithelial cells, which preceded cell killing. Specific inhibition of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels was highly effective in preventing amebic cytotoxicity in intestinal epithelial cells and macrophages. Blockade of K(+) efflux also inhibited caspase-1 activation, IL-1β secretion and pyroptotic death in THP-1 macrophages. We concluded that K(+) channels are host mediators of amebic cytotoxicity in multiple cells types and of inflammasome activation in macrophages.

  7. Dendritic Kv3.3 potassium channels in cerebellar purkinje cells regulate generation and spatial dynamics of dendritic Ca2+ spikes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagha, Edward; Manita, Satoshi; Ross, William N; Rudy, Bernardo

    2010-06-01

    Purkinje cell dendrites are excitable structures with intrinsic and synaptic conductances contributing to the generation and propagation of electrical activity. Voltage-gated potassium channel subunit Kv3.3 is expressed in the distal dendrites of Purkinje cells. However, the functional relevance of this dendritic distribution is not understood. Moreover, mutations in Kv3.3 cause movement disorders in mice and cerebellar atrophy and ataxia in humans, emphasizing the importance of understanding the role of these channels. In this study, we explore functional implications of this dendritic channel expression and compare Purkinje cell dendritic excitability in wild-type and Kv3.3 knockout mice. We demonstrate enhanced excitability of Purkinje cell dendrites in Kv3.3 knockout mice, despite normal resting membrane properties. Combined data from local application pharmacology, voltage clamp analysis of ionic currents, and assessment of dendritic Ca(2+) spike threshold in Purkinje cells suggest a role for Kv3.3 channels in opposing Ca(2+) spike initiation. To study the physiological relevance of altered dendritic excitability, we measured [Ca(2+)](i) changes throughout the dendritic tree in response to climbing fiber activation. Ca(2+) signals were specifically enhanced in distal dendrites of Kv3.3 knockout Purkinje cells, suggesting a role for dendritic Kv3.3 channels in regulating propagation of electrical activity and Ca(2+) influx in distal dendrites. These findings characterize unique roles of Kv3.3 channels in dendrites, with implications for synaptic integration, plasticity, and human disease.

  8. Potent suppression of Kv1.3 potassium channel and IL-2 secretion by diphenyl phosphine oxide-1 in human T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhao

    Full Text Available Diphenyl phosphine oxide-1 (DPO-1 is a potent Kv1.5 channel inhibitor that has therapeutic potential for the treatment of atrial fibrillation. Many other Kv1.5 channel blockers also potently inhibit the Kv1.3 channel, but whether DPO-1 blocks Kv1.3 channels has not been investigated. The Kv1.3 channel is highly expressed in activated T cells, which is considered a favorable target for immunomodulation. Accordingly, we hypothesized that DPO-1 may exert immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting Kv1.3 channel activity. In this study, DPO-1 blocked Kv1.3 current in a voltage-dependent and concentration-dependent manner, with IC₅₀ values of 2.58 µM in Jurkat cells and 3.11 µM in human peripheral blood T cells. DPO-1 also accelerated the inactivation rate and negatively shifted steady-state inactivation. Moreover, DPO-1 at 3 µM had no apparent effect on the Ca²⁺ activated potassium channel (K(Ca current in both Jurkat cells and human peripheral blood T cells. In Jurkat cells, pre-treatment with DPO-1 for 24 h decreased Kv1.3 current density, and protein expression by 48±6% and 60±9%, at 3 and 10 µM, respectively (both p<0.05. In addition, Ca²⁺ influx to Ca²⁺-depleted cells was blunted and IL-2 production was also reduced in activated Jurkat cells. IL-2 secretion was also inhibited by the Kv1.3 inhibitors margatoxin and charybdotoxin. Our results demonstrate for the first time that that DPO-1, at clinically relevant concentrations, blocks Kv1.3 channels, decreases Kv1.3 channel expression and suppresses IL-2 secretion. Therefore, DPO-1 may be a useful treatment strategy for immunologic disorders.

  9. Effects of cisplatin on potassium currents in CT26 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Sharma

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Potassium currents were detected in CT26 cells and the currents were reduced by the application of tetraethylammonium (TEA chloride, iberiotoxin, a big conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blocker and barium. The potassium currents were enhanced to 192< by the application of cisplatin (0.5 mM. Moreover, the increase of potassium currents by cisplatin was further inhibited by the application of TEA confirming the action of cisplatin on potassium channels. In addition, relative current induced by cisplatin in CT26 cells was bit larger than in normal IEC-6 cells.

  10. Sea Anemone Toxins Affecting Potassium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diochot, Sylvie; Lazdunski, Michel

    The great diversity of K+ channels and their wide distribution in many tissues are associated with important functions in cardiac and neuronal excitability that are now better understood thanks to the discovery of animal toxins. During the past few decades, sea anemones have provided a variety of toxins acting on voltage-sensitive sodium and, more recently, potassium channels. Currently there are three major structural groups of sea anemone K+ channel (SAK) toxins that have been characterized. Radioligand binding and electrophysiological experiments revealed that each group contains peptides displaying selective activities for different subfamilies of K+ channels. Short (35-37 amino acids) peptides in the group I display pore blocking effects on Kv1 channels. Molecular interactions of SAK-I toxins, important for activity and binding on Kv1 channels, implicate a spot of three conserved amino acid residues (Ser, Lys, Tyr) surrounded by other less conserved residues. Long (58-59 amino acids) SAK-II peptides display both enzymatic and K+ channel inhibitory activities. Medium size (42-43 amino acid) SAK-III peptides are gating modifiers which interact either with cardiac HERG or Kv3 channels by altering their voltage-dependent properties. SAK-III toxins bind to the S3C region in the outer vestibule of Kv channels. Sea anemones have proven to be a rich source of pharmacological tools, and some of the SAK toxins are now useful drugs for the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases.

  11. Proapoptotic Role of Potassium Ions in Liver Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenglin Xia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Potassium channels are transmembrane proteins that selectively promote the infiltration of potassium ions. The significance of these channels for tumor biology has become obvious. However, the effects of potassium ions on the tumor or normal cells have seldom been studied. To address this problem, we studied the biological effects of L02 and HepG2 cells with ectogenous potassium ions. Cell proliferation, cell cycle, and apoptosis rate were analyzed. Our results indicated that potassium ions inhibited proliferation of L02 and HepG2 cells and promoted their apoptosis. Potassium ions induced apoptosis through regulating Bcl-2 family members and depolarized the mitochondrial membrane, especially for HepG2 cell. These biological effects were associated with channel protein HERG. By facilitating expression of channel protein HERG, potassium ions may prevent it from being shunted to procancerous pathways by inducing apoptosis. These results demonstrated that potassium ions may be a key regulator of liver cell function. Thus, our findings suggest that potassium ions could inhibit tumorigenesis through inducing apoptosis of hepatoma cells by upregulating potassium ions transport channel proteins HERG and VDAC1.

  12. Optogenetics. Engineering of a light-gated potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosentino, Cristian; Alberio, Laura; Gazzarrini, Sabrina; Aquila, Marco; Romano, Edoardo; Cermenati, Solei; Zuccolini, Paolo; Petersen, Jan; Beltrame, Monica; Van Etten, James L; Christie, John M; Thiel, Gerhard; Moroni, Anna

    2015-05-01

    The present palette of opsin-based optogenetic tools lacks a light-gated potassium (K(+)) channel desirable for silencing of excitable cells. Here, we describe the construction of a blue-light-induced K(+) channel 1 (BLINK1) engineered by fusing the plant LOV2-Jα photosensory module to the small viral K(+) channel Kcv. BLINK1 exhibits biophysical features of Kcv, including K(+) selectivity and high single-channel conductance but reversibly photoactivates in blue light. Opening of BLINK1 channels hyperpolarizes the cell to the K(+) equilibrium potential. Ectopic expression of BLINK1 reversibly inhibits the escape response in light-exposed zebrafish larvae. BLINK1 therefore provides a single-component optogenetic tool that can establish prolonged, physiological hyperpolarization of cells at low light intensities.

  13. Activation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels enhances DMT1-mediated iron uptake in SK-N-SH cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xixun; Xu, Huamin; Shi, Limin; Jiang, Zhifeng; Song, Ning; Jiang, Hong; Xie, Junxia

    2016-01-01

    Iron importer divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) plays a crucial role in the nigal iron accumulation in Parkinson’s disease (PD). Membrane hyperpolarization is one of the factors that could affect its iron transport function. Besides iron, selective activation of the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels also contributes to the vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons in PD. Interestingly, activation of KATP channels could induce membrane hyperpolarization. Therefore, it is of vital importance to study the effects of activation of KATP channels on DMT1-mediated iron uptake function. In the present study, activation of KATP channels by diazoxide resulted in the hyperpolarization of the membrane potential and increased DMT1-mediated iron uptake in SK-N-SH cells. This led to an increase in intracellular iron levels and a subsequent decrease in the mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in ROS production. Delayed inactivation of the Fe2+-evoked currents by diazoxide was recorded by patch clamp in HEK293 cells, which demonstrated that diazoxide could prolonged DMT1-facilitated iron transport. While inhibition of KATP channels by glibenclamide could block ferrous iron influx and the subsequent cell damage. Overexpression of Kir6.2/SUR1 resulted in an increase in iron influx and intracellular iron levels, which was markedly increased after diazoxide treatment. PMID:27646472

  14. Serum Starvation-Induced Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Kv7.5 Expression and Its Regulation by Sp1 in Canine Osteosarcoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Hyung Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The KCNQ gene family, whose members encode Kv7 channels, belongs to the voltage-gated potassium (Kv channel group. The roles of this gene family have been widely investigated in nerve and muscle cells. In the present study, we investigated several characteristics of Kv7.5, which is strongly expressed in the canine osteosarcoma cell line, CCL-183. Serum starvation upregulated Kv7.5 expression, and the Kv7 channel opener, flupirtine, attenuated cell proliferation by arresting cells in the G0/G1 phase. We also showed that Kv7.5 knockdown helps CCL-183 cells to proliferate. In an effort to find an endogenous regulator of Kv7.5, we used mithramycin A to reduce the level of the transcription factor Sp1, and it strongly inhibited the induction of Kv7.5 in CCL-183 cells. These results suggest that the activation of Kv7.5 by flupirtine may exert an anti-proliferative effect in canine osteosarcoma. Therefore, Kv7.5 is a possible molecular target for canine osteosarcoma therapy.

  15. A unique role for Kv3 voltage-gated potassium channels in starburst amacrine cell signaling in mouse retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaita, Ander; Petit-Jacques, Jerome; Völgyi, Béla; Ho, Chi Shun; Joho, Rolf H; Bloomfield, Stewart A; Rudy, Bernardo

    2004-08-18

    Direction-selective retinal ganglion cells show an increased activity evoked by light stimuli moving in the preferred direction. This selectivity is governed by direction-selective inhibition from starburst amacrine cells occurring during stimulus movement in the opposite or null direction. To understand the intrinsic membrane properties of starburst cells responsible for direction-selective GABA release, we performed whole-cell recordings from starburst cells in mouse retina. Voltage-clamp recordings revealed prominent voltage-dependent K(+) currents. The currents were mostly blocked by 1 mm TEA, activated rapidly at voltages more positive than -20 mV, and deactivated quickly, properties reminiscent of the currents carried by the Kv3 subfamily of K+ channels. Immunoblots confirmed the presence of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 proteins in retina and immunohistochemistry revealed their expression in starburst cell somata and dendrites. The Kv3-like current in starburst cells was absent in Kv3.1-Kv3.2 knock-out mice. Current-clamp recordings showed that the fast activation of the Kv3 channels provides a voltage-dependent shunt that limits depolarization of the soma to potentials more positive than -20 mV. This provides a mechanism likely to contribute to the electrical isolation of individual starburst cell dendrites, a property thought essential for direction selectivity. This function of Kv3 channels differs from that in other neurons where they facilitate high-frequency repetitive firing. Moreover, we found a gradient in the intensity of Kv3.1b immunolabeling favoring proximal regions of starburst cells. We hypothesize that this Kv3 channel gradient contributes to the preference for centrifugal signal flow in dendrites underlying direction-selective GABA release from starburst amacrine cells

  16. [The characteristics and oxidative modulation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in guinea-pig colon smooth muscle cells.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wei-Feng; Ouyang, Shou; Zhang, Hui

    2009-06-25

    To investigate the characteristics of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels (BK(Ca)) and the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) on BK(Ca) in guinea-pig proximal colon smooth muscle cells, single smooth muscle cells of guinea-pig colon were enzymatically isolated in low calcium solution containing papain (3 mg/mL), DTT (2 mg/mL), and bovine serum albumin (BSA, 2 mg/mL). Tissues were incubated at 36 degrees C in enzyme solution for 15 min and were then suspended in enzyme-free low calcium solution. Inside-out single channel recording technique was used to record BK(Ca) current. The intracellular (bath) and microelectrode solution both contained symmetrical high potassium. The BK(Ca) in guinea-pig colon smooth muscle cell possesses: 1) voltage-dependence, 2) high selectivity for potassium ion, 3) large conductance (223.7 pS+/-9.2 pS), 4) dependence of [Ca(2+)](i). Intracellular application of H2O2 decreased the open probability (P(o)) of BK(Ca) at low concentration (Ca) at high concentration (5 mmol/L), without affecting the unitary conductance. The effects of H2O2 were reversed by reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT). Similarly, cysteine specific oxidizing agent, DTNB, also increased or decreased P(o) of BK(Ca) and DTT partially reversed the effect of DTNB. It is thus suggested that H2O2 and DTNB may modulate P(o) of BK(Ca) via the oxidation of cysteine residue.

  17. Developmental changes in the expression of calbindin and potassium-channel subunits Kv3.1b and Kv3.2 in mouse Renshaw cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Z-M; Hu, J; Rudy, B; Redman, S J

    2006-05-12

    One class of spinal interneurons, the Renshaw cells, is able to discharge at very high frequencies in adult mammals. Neuronal firing at such high frequencies requires voltage-gated potassium channels to rapidly repolarize the membrane potential after each action potential. We sought to establish the pattern of expression of calbindin and potassium channels with Kv3.1b and Kv3.2 subunits in Renshaw cells at different developmental stages of postnatal mice. The pattern of expression of calbindin changed dramatically during early postnatal development. An adult pattern of calbindin reactive neurons started to emerge from postnatal day 10 to postnatal day 14, with cells in laminae I and II of superficial dorsal horn and the ventral lamina VII. Renshaw cells were identified immunohistochemically by their expression of calbindin and their location in the ventral horn of the spinal cord. Western blot results of the lumbar spinal cord showed that Kv3.1b expression became faintly evident from postnatal day 10, reached a maximum at postnatal day 21 and was maintained through postnatal day 49. Double labeling results showed that all Renshaw cells expressed Kv3.1b weakly from postnatal day 14, and strongly at postnatal day 21. Western blot results showed that Kv3.2 expression became detectable in the lumbar cord from postnatal day 12, and increased steadily until reaching an adult level at postnatal day 28. In contrast to the Kv3.1b results, Kv3.2 was not expressed in Renshaw cells, although some neurons located at laminae VIII and VI expressed Kv3.2. We conclude that Renshaw cells express Kv3.1b but not Kv3.2 from postnatal day 14.

  18. Pore size matters for potassium channel conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldenhauer, Hans; Pincuntureo, Matías

    2016-01-01

    Ion channels are membrane proteins that mediate efficient ion transport across the hydrophobic core of cell membranes, an unlikely process in their absence. K+ channels discriminate K+ over cations with similar radii with extraordinary selectivity and display a wide diversity of ion transport rates, covering differences of two orders of magnitude in unitary conductance. The pore domains of large- and small-conductance K+ channels share a general architectural design comprising a conserved narrow selectivity filter, which forms intimate interactions with permeant ions, flanked by two wider vestibules toward the internal and external openings. In large-conductance K+ channels, the inner vestibule is wide, whereas in small-conductance channels it is narrow. Here we raise the idea that the physical dimensions of the hydrophobic internal vestibule limit ion transport in K+ channels, accounting for their diversity in unitary conductance. PMID:27619418

  19. Extracellular potassium inhibits Kv7.1 potassium channels by stabilizing an inactivated state

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anders Peter; Steffensen, Annette Buur; Grunnet, Morten;

    2011-01-01

    Kv7.1 (KCNQ1) channels are regulators of several physiological processes including vasodilatation, repolarization of cardiomyocytes, and control of secretory processes. A number of Kv7.1 pore mutants are sensitive to extracellular potassium. We hypothesized that extracellular potassium also...... modulates wild-type Kv7.1 channels. The Kv7.1 currents were measured in Xenopus laevis oocytes at different concentrations of extracellular potassium (1-50 mM). As extracellular potassium was elevated, Kv7.1 currents were reduced significantly more than expected from theoretical calculations based...... on the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz flux equation. Potassium inhibited the steady-state current with an IC(50) of 6.0 ± 0.2 mM. Analysis of tail-currents showed that potassium increased the fraction of channels in the inactivated state. Similarly, the recovery from inactivation was slowed by potassium, suggesting...

  20. Effects of Ginkgo biloba extracts with mirodenafil on the relaxation of corpus cavernosal smooth muscle and the potassium channel activity of corporal smooth muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jung Jun Kim; Sung Won Lee; Deok Hyun Han; Soo Hyun Lim; Tae Hun Kim; Mee Ree Chae; Kyung Jin Chung; Sung Chul Kam; Ju-Hong Jeon; Jong Kwan Parks

    2011-01-01

    @@ In this study,we investigated the effects of a combination of Ginkgo biloba extracts (GBE) and phosphodiesterase type 5 (IRDE-5)inhibitors on the muscular tone of the corpus cavernosum and potassium channel activity of corporal smooth muscle cells.Strips of corpus cavernosum from male New Zealand white rabbits were mounted in organ baths for isometric tension studies.After contraction with 1 x 10-5 mol I-1 norepinephrine,GBE (0.01-1 mg ml-1) and mirodenafil (0.01-100 nmoll-1) were added together into the organ bath.In electrophysiological studies,whole-cell currents were recorded by the conventional patch-clamp technique in cultured smooth muscle cells of the human corpus cavernosum.The corpus cavernosum was relaxed in response to GBE in a dose-dependent manner (from 0.64%a18.35% at 0.01 mg ml一'to 52.28%±11.42% at 1 mg ml-1).After pre-treatment with 0.03 mg ml-1of GBE,the relaxant effects of mirodenafil were increased at all concentrations.After tetraethylammonium (TEA) (1 mmoll-1) administration,the increased effects were inhibited (P<0.01).Extracellular administration of GBE increased the whole-cell K+ outward currents in a dose-dependent fashion.The increase of the outward current was inhibited by 1 mmoll-1 TEA.These results suggest that GBE could increase the relaxant potency of mirodenafil even at a minimally effective dose.The K+ flow through potassium channels might be one of the mechanisms involved in this synergistic relaxation.

  1. Spinocerebellar ataxia-13 Kv3.3 potassium channels: arginine-to-histidine mutations affect both functional and protein expression on the cell surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Zhu, Jing; Thornhill, William B

    2013-09-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.3 is the causative gene of SCA13 (spinocerebellar ataxia type 13), an autosomal dominant neurological disorder. The four dominant mutations identified to date cause Kv3.3 channels to be non-functional or have altered gating properties in Xenopus oocytes. In the present paper, we report that SCA13 mutations affect functional as well as protein expression of Kv3.3 channels in a mammalian cell line. The reduced protein level of SCA13 mutants is caused by a shorter protein half-life, and blocking the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway increases the total protein of SCA13 mutants more than wild-type. SCA13 mutated amino acids are highly conserved, and the side chains of these residues play a critical role in the stable expression of Kv3.3 proteins. In addition, we show that mutant Kv3.3 protein levels could be partially rescued by treatment with the chemical chaperone TMAO (trimethylamine N-oxide) and to a lesser extent with co-expression of Kv3.1b. Thus our results suggest that amino acid side chains of SCA13 positions affect the protein half-life and/or function of Kv3.3, and the adverse effect on protein expression cannot be fully rescued.

  2. Motor dysfunction and altered synaptic transmission at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse in mice lacking potassium channels Kv3.1 and Kv3.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Hiroshi; Wolf, Alexander M; Matsushita, Shinichi; Joho, Rolf H; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2003-08-20

    Micelacking both Kv3.1 and both Kv3.3 K+ channel alleles display severe motor deficits such as tremor, myoclonus, and ataxic gait. Micelacking one to three alleles at the Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 loci exhibit in an allele dose-dependent manner a modest degree of ataxia. Cerebellar granule cells coexpress Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 K+ channels and are therefore candidate neurons that might be involved in these behavioral deficits. Hence, we investigated the synaptic mechanisms of transmission in the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell system. Action potentials of parallel fibers were broader in mice lacking both Kv3.1 and both Kv3.3 alleles and in mice lacking both Kv3.1 and a single Kv3.3 allele compared with those of wild-type mice. The transmission of high-frequency trains of action potentials was only impaired at 200 Hz but not at 100 Hz in mice lacking both Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 genes. However, paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) at parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapses was dramatically reduced in a gene dose-dependent manner in mice lacking Kv3.1 or Kv3.3 alleles. Normal PPF could be restored by reducing the extracellular Ca2+ concentration indicating that increased activity-dependent presynaptic Ca2+ influx, at least in part caused the altered PPF in mutant mice. Induction of metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated EPSCs was facilitated, whereas longterm depression was not impaired but rather facilitated in Kv3.1/Kv3.3 double-knockout mice. These results demonstrate the importance of Kv3 potassium channels in regulating the dynamics of synaptic transmission at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse and suggest a correlation between short-term plasticity at the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell synapse and motor performance.

  3. TRESK potassium channel in human T lymphoblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sánchez-Miguel, Dénison Selene, E-mail: amurusk@hotmail.com [Center for Biomedical Research, University of Colima, Av. 25 de Julio 965, Villa San Sebastian, C.P. 28045 Colima (Mexico); García-Dolores, Fernando, E-mail: garciaddf@yahoo.com [Department of Pathology, Institute of Forensic Sciences, Av. Niños Héroes 130, Col. Doctores, C.P. 06720 Mexico, DF (Mexico); Rosa Flores-Márquez, María, E-mail: mariafo31@yahoo.com.mx [National Medical Center of Occident (CMNO) IMSS, Belisario Dominguez 735, Col. Independencia Oriente, C.P. 44340 Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Delgado-Enciso, Iván [University of Colima, School of Medicine, Av. Universidad 333, Col. Las Viboras, C.P. 28040 Colima (Mexico); Pottosin, Igor, E-mail: pottosin@ucol.mx [Center for Biomedical Research, University of Colima, Av. 25 de Julio 965, Villa San Sebastian, C.P. 28045 Colima (Mexico); Dobrovinskaya, Oxana, E-mail: oxana@ucol.mx [Center for Biomedical Research, University of Colima, Av. 25 de Julio 965, Villa San Sebastian, C.P. 28045 Colima (Mexico)

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: • TRESK (KCNK18) mRNA is present in different T lymphoblastic cell lines. • KCNK18 mRNA was not found in resting peripheral blood lymphocytes. • Clinical samples of T lymphoblastic leukemias and lymphomas were positive for TRESK. • TRESK in T lymphoblasts has dual localization, in plasma membrane and intracellular. -- Abstract: TRESK (TWIK-related spinal cord K{sup +}) channel, encoded by KCNK18 gene, belongs to the double-pore domain K{sup +} channel family and in normal conditions is expressed predominantly in the central nervous system. In our previous patch-clamp study on Jurkat T lymphoblasts we have characterized highly selective K{sup +} channel with pharmacological profile identical to TRESK. In the present work, the presence of KCNK18 mRNA was confirmed in T lymphoblastic cell lines (Jurkat, JCaM, H9) but not in resting peripheral blood lymphocytes of healthy donors. Positive immunostaining for TRESK was demonstrated in lymphoblastic cell lines, in germinal centers of non-tumoral lymph nodes, and in clinical samples of T acute lymphoblastic leukemias/lymphomas. Besides detection in the plasma membrane, intracellular TRESK localization was also revealed. Possible involvement of TRESK channel in lymphocyte proliferation and tumorigenesis is discussed.

  4. Expression and localization of inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kit2.1 in glia cells of native bovine retina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Ai-hua; LUO Xue-gang

    2005-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to identify the molecular basis of the contacting -neuron membrane K+ conductance in glia cells of native bovine retina. Methods RT-PCR, Northern blot and Western blot analyses were used to detect the expression of the inwardly rectifying K+ (Kir) channel subunits Kir2.1 in native bovine RPE and neural retina. The distribution of Kir2.1 protein was determined in frozen sections of bovine retina-RPEchoroid by indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Results RT-PCR analysis reveals Kir2.1 transcript in both RPE and neural retina. In Northern blots, Kir2.1 probe hybridizes to an appropriately sized-transcript in neural retina but not in RPE. In Western blots, Kir2.1 antibody recognizes a major monomer of about 60 kDa in neural retina but not in RPE. Immunofluorescence reveals that Kir2.1 immunostaining is expressed at many parts of Muller cells, especially in the membrane domains of Muller cells that contact retinal neurons, i. e. , along the two stem processes,over the soma, and in the side branches extending into the synaptic layers. No immunostaining is seen in RPE. Doubling staining shows that Kir2.1 proteins and glutamine synthetase proteins which are a marker of Muller cell co-localized well. Conclusions These results reveal that Kir2.1 is localized in the Muller cells, no Kir2.1 in RPE. These data suggests that Kir2.1 may be involved in the transport of K+ in the bovine neural retina.

  5. Dynamical Properties of Potassium Ion Channels with a Hierarchical Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Yong; AN Hai-Long; YU Hui; ZHANG Su-Hua; HAN Ying-Rong

    2006-01-01

    @@ It is well known that potassium ion channels have higher permeability than K ions, and the permeable rate of a single K ion channel is about 108 ions per second. We develop a hierarchical model of potassium ion channel permeation involving ab initio quantum calculations and Brownian dynamics simulations, which can consistently explain a range of channel dynamics. The results show that the average velocity of K ions, the mean permeable time of K ions and the permeable rate of single channel are about 0.92nm/ns, 4.35ns and 2.30×108 ions/s,respectively.

  6. Acetylcholine modulates transient outward potassium channel in acutely isolated cerebral cortical neurons of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lanwei Cui; Tao Sun; Lihui Qu; Yurong Li; Haixia Wen

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND:The neuronal transient outward potassium channel has been shown to be highly associated with acetylcholine.However,the influence of acetylcholine on the transient outward potassium current in cerebral cortical neurons remains poorly understood.OBJECTIVE:To investigate acetylcholine modulation on transient outward potassium current in rat parietal cortical neurons using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique.DESIGN,TIME AND SETTING:A neuroelectrophysiology study was performed at the Department of Physiology,Harbin Medical University between January 2005 and January 2006.MATERIALS:Wistar rats were provided by the Animal Research Center,the Second Hospital of Harbin Medical University;PC-IIC patch-clamp amplifier and IBBClamp data collection analysis system were provided by Huazhong University for Science and Technology,Wuhan,China;PP-83 microelectrode puller was purchased from Narrishage,Japan.METHODS:The parietal somatosensory cortical neurons were acutely dissociated,and the modulation of acetylcholine (0.1,1,10,100 μmol/L) on transient outward potassium channel was recorded using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Influence of acetylcholine on transient outward potassium current,potassium channel activation,and inactivation.RESULTS:The inhibitory effect of acetylcholine on transient outward potassium current was dose- and voltage-dependent (P<0.01).Acetylcholine was found to significantly affect the activation process of transient outward potassium current,i.e.,the activation curve of transient outward potassium current was left-shifted,while the inactivation curve was shifted to hyperpolarization.Acetylcholine significantly prolonged the time constant of recovery from inactivation of transient outward potassium current (P<0.01).CONCLUSION:These results suggest that acetylcholine inhibits transient outward potassium current by regulating activation and inactivation processes of the transient outward potassium channel.

  7. Optogenetic techniques for the study of native potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Guillaume; Levitz, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Optogenetic tools were originally designed to target specific neurons for remote control of their activity by light and have largely been built around opsin-based channels and pumps. These naturally photosensitive opsins are microbial in origin and are unable to mimic the properties of native neuronal receptors and channels. Over the last 8 years, photoswitchable tethered ligands (PTLs) have enabled fast and reversible control of mammalian ion channels, allowing optical control of neuronal activity. One such PTL, maleimide-azobenzene-quaternary ammonium (MAQ), contains a maleimide (M) to tether the molecule to a genetically engineered cysteine, a photoisomerizable azobenzene (A) linker and a pore-blocking quaternary ammonium group (Q). MAQ was originally used to photocontrol SPARK, an engineered light-gated potassium channel derived from Shaker. Potassium channel photoblock by MAQ has recently been extended to a diverse set of mammalian potassium channels including channels in the voltage-gated and K2P families. Photoswitchable potassium channels, which maintain native properties, pave the way for the optical control of specific aspects of neuronal function and for high precision probing of a specific channel's physiological functions. To extend optical control to natively expressed channels, without overexpression, one possibility is to develop a knock-in mouse in which the wild-type channel gene is replaced by its light-gated version. Alternatively, the recently developed photoswitchable conditional subunit technique provides photocontrol of the channel of interest by molecular replacement of wild-type complexes. Finally, photochromic ligands also allow photocontrol of potassium channels without genetic manipulation using soluble compounds. In this review we discuss different techniques for optical control of native potassium channels and their associated advantages and disadvantages.

  8. Tyrosine phosphatases epsilon and alpha perform specific and overlapping functions in regulation of voltage-gated potassium channels in Schwann cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiran, Zohar; Peretz, Asher; Sines, Tal

    2006-01-01

    Tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) epsilon and alpha are closely related and share several molecular functions, such as regulation of Src family kinases and voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels. Functional interrelationships between PTPepsilon and PTPalpha and the mechanisms by which they regulate K...... but are not fully redundant. We conclude that PTPepsilon and PTPalpha differ significantly in their regulation of Kv channels and Src in the system examined and that similarity between PTPs does not necessarily result in full functional redundancy in vivo....

  9. Big Potassium (BK) ion channels in biology, disease and possible targets for cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Lisheng; Hoa, Neil T; Wilson, Zechariah; Arismendi-Morillo, Gabriel; Kong, Xiao-Tang; Tajhya, Rajeev B; Beeton, Christine; Jadus, Martin R

    2014-10-01

    The Big Potassium (BK) ion channel is commonly known by a variety of names (Maxi-K, KCNMA1, slo, stretch-activated potassium channel, KCa1.1). Each name reflects a different physical property displayed by this single ion channel. This transmembrane channel is found on nearly every cell type of the body and has its own distinctive roles for that tissue type. The BKα channel contains the pore that releases potassium ions from intracellular stores. This ion channel is found on the cell membrane, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi and mitochondria. Complex splicing pathways produce different isoforms. The BKα channels can be phosphorylated, palmitoylated and myristylated. BK is composed of a homo-tetramer that interacts with β and γ chains. These accessory proteins provide a further modulating effect on the functions of BKα channels. BK channels play important roles in cell division and migration. In this review, we will focus on the biology of the BK channel, especially its role, and its immune response towards cancer. Recent proteomic studies have linked BK channels with various proteins. Some of these interactions offer further insight into the role that BK channels have with cancers, especially with brain tumors. This review shows that BK channels have a complex interplay with intracellular components of cancer cells and still have plenty of secrets to be discovered.

  10. KR-31378, a potassium-channel opener, induces the protection of retinal ganglion cells in rat retinal ischemic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Anho; Choi, Jun-Sub; Yoon, Yone-Jung; Kim, Kyung-A; Joo, Choun-Ki

    2009-04-01

    KR-31378 is a newly developed K(ATP)-channel opener. To investigate the ability of KR-31378 to protect retinal ganglion cells (RGC), experiments were conducted using two retinal ischemia models. Retinal ischemia was induced by transient high intraocular pressure (IOP) for acute ischemia and by three episcleral vein occlusion for chronic retinal ischemia. KR-31378 was injected intraperitoneally and administered orally in the acute and chronic ischemia models, respectively. Under the condition of chronic ischemia, RGC density in the KR-31378-treated group was statistically higher than that in the non-treated group, and IOP was reduced. In the acute retinal ischemia model, 90% of RGC were degenerated after one week in non-treated retina, but, RGC in KR-31378-treated retina were protected from ischemic damage in a dose-dependent manner and showed inhibited glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression. Furthermore, the KR-31378 protective effect was inhibited by glibenclamide treatment in acute ischemia. These findings indicate that systemic KR-31378 treatment may protect against ischemic injury-induced ganglion cell loss in glaucoma.

  11. Adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener protects PC12 cells against hypoxia-induced apoptosis through PI3K/Akt and Bcl-2 signaling pathways

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Zhang; Chunhong Jia; Danyang Zhao; Yang Lu; Runling Wang; Jia Li

    2010-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown the neuroprotective effects of the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel opener against ischemic neuronal damage, little is known about the mechanisms involved. Phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/v-akt murine thy-moma viral oncogene homolog (Akt) and Bcl-2 are thought to be important factors that mediate neuroprotection. The present study investigated the effects of KATP openers on hypoxia-induced PC12 cell apoptosis, as well as mRNA and protein expression of Akt and Bcl-2. Results demon-strated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with pinacidil, a KATP opener, resulted in decreased PC12 cell apoptosis following hypoxia, as detected by Annexin-V fluorescein isothiocyanate/ propidium iodide double staining flow cytometry. In addition, mRNA and protein expression of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) and Bcl-2 increased, as detected by immunofluorescence, Western blot analysis, and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. The protective effect of this preconditioning was attenuated by glipizide, a selective KATP blocker. These results demonstrate for the first time that the protective mechanisms of KATP openers on PC12 cell apoptosis following hypoxia could result from activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, which further activates expression of the downstream Bcl-2 gene.

  12. Optogenetic techniques for the study of native potassium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Eric Sandoz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Optogenetic tools were originally designed to target specific neurons for remote control of their activity by light and have largely been built around opsin-based channels and pumps. These naturally photosensitive opsins are microbial in origin and are unable to mimic the properties of native neuronal receptors and channels. Over the last 8 years, photoswitchable-tethered ligands (PTLs have enabled fast and reversible control of mammalian ion channels, allowing optical control of neuronal activity. One such PTL, MAQ, contains a maleimide (M to tether the molecule to a genetically engineered cysteine, a photoisomerizable azobenzene (A linker and a pore-blocking quaternary ammonium group (Q. MAQ was originally used to photo-control SPARK, an engineered light-gated potassium channel derived from Shaker. Potassium channel photo-block by MAQ has recently been extended to a diverse set of mammalian potassium channels including channels in the voltage-gated and K2P families. Photoswitchable potassium channels, which maintain native properties, pave the way for the optical control of specific aspects of neuronal function and for high precision probing of a specific channel’s physiological functions. To extend optical control to natively expressed channels, without overexpression, one possibility is to develop a knock-in mouse in which the wild type channel gene is replaced by its light-gated version. Alternatively, the recently developed photoswitchable-conditional-subunit technique (PCS provides photocontrol of the channel of interest by molecular replacement of wild type complexes. Finally, photochromic ligands (PCLs also allow photocontrol of potassium channels without genetic manipulation using soluble compounds. In this review we discuss different techniques for optical control of native potassium channels and their associated advantages and disadvantages.

  13. Expression of Kv3.1b potassium channel is widespread in macaque motor cortex pyramidal cells: A histological comparison between rat and macaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, David; Goldrick, Isabelle; Lemon, Roger N; Kraskov, Alexander; Greensmith, Linda; Kalmar, Bernadett

    2017-02-18

    There are substantial differences across species in the organisation and function of the motor pathways. These differences extend to basic electrophysiological properties. Thus, in rat motor cortex, pyramidal cells have long duration action potentials, while in the macaque, some pyramidal neurons exhibit short duration 'thin' spikes. These differences may be related to the expression of the fast potassium channel Kv3.1b, which in rat interneurons is associated with generation of thin spikes. Rat pyramidal cells typically lack these channels, while there are reports that they are present in macaque pyramids. Here we made a systematic, quantitative comparison of the expression of Kv3.1b in sections from macaque and rat motor cortex, using two different antibodies (NeuroMab, Millipore). As our standard reference, we examined, in the same sections, Kv3.1b staining in parvalbumin-positive interneurons, which show strong Kv3.1b immunoreactivity. In macaque motor cortex, a large sample of pyramidal neurons were nearly all found to express Kv3.1b in their soma membranes. These labelled neurons were identified as pyramidal based either by expression of SMI32 (a pyramidal marker), or by their shape and size, lack of expression of parvalbumin (a marker for some classes of interneuron). Large (Betz cells), medium and small pyramidal neurons all expressed Kv3.1b. In rat motor cortex, SMI32-postive pyramidal neurons expressing Kv3.1b were very rare and weakly stained. Thus, there is a marked species difference in the immunoreactivity of Kv3.1b in pyramidal neurons, and this may be one of the factors explaining the pronounced electrophysiological differences between rat and macaque pyramidal neurons. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  14. Adenine nucleotides and intracellular Ca2+ regulate a voltage-dependent and glucose-sensitive potassium channel in neurosecretory cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onetti, C G; Lara, J; García, E

    1996-05-01

    Effects of membrane potential, intracellular Ca2+ and adenine nucleotides on glucose-sensitive channels from X organ (XO) neurons of the crayfish were studied in excised inside-out patches. Glucose- sensitive channels were selective to K+ ions; the unitary conductance was 112 pS in symmetrical K+, and the K+ permeability (PK) was 1.3 x 10(-13) cm x s(-1). An inward rectification was observed when intracellular K+ was reduced. Using a quasi-physiological K+ gradient, a non-linear K+ current/voltage relationship was found showing an outward rectification and a slope conductance of 51 pS. The open-state probability (Po) increased with membrane depolarization as a result of an enhancement of the mean open time and a shortening of the longer period of closures. In quasi-physio- logical K+ concentrations, the channel was activated from a threshold of about -60 mV, and the activation midpoint was -2 mV. Po decreased noticeably at 50 microM internal adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), and single-channel activity was totally abolished at 1 mM ATP. Hill analysis shows that this inhibition was the result of simultaneous binding of two ATP molecules to the channel, and the half-blocking concentration of ATP was 174 microM. Internal application of 5'-adenylylimidodiphosphate (AMP-PNP) as well as glibenclamide also decreased Po. By contrast, the application of internal ADP (0.1 to 2 mM) activated this channel. An optimal range of internal free Ca2+ ions (0.1 to 10 microM) was required for the activation of this channel. The glucose--sensitive K+ channel of XO neurons could be considered as a subtype of ATP-sensitive K+ channel, contributing substantially to macroscopic outward current.

  15. Expression and clinical significance of the Kv3.4 potassium channel subunit in the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Sofía Tirados; Rodrigo, Juan P; Allonca, Eva; García-Carracedo, Darío; Alvarez-Alija, Gustavo; Casado-Zapico, Sara; Fresno, Manuel F; Rodríguez, Carmen; Suárez, Carlos; García-Pedrero, Juana M

    2010-08-01

    The concept of ion channels as membrane therapeutic targets and diagnostic/prognostic biomarkers has attracted growing attention. We therefore investigated the expression pattern and clinical significance of the Kv3.4 potassium channel subunit during the development and progression of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCCs). KCNC4 mRNA levels were determined by real-time RT-PCR in both HNSCC tissue specimens and derived cell lines. Kv3.4 protein expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tissue specimens from 84 patients with laryngeal/pharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas and 67 patients with laryngeal dysplasias. Molecular alterations were correlated with clinicopathological parameters and patient outcome. Increased KCNC4 mRNA levels were found in 15 (54%) of 28 tumours, compared to the corresponding normal epithelia and varied mRNA levels were detected in 12 HNSCC-derived cell lines analysed. Increased Kv3.4 protein expression was observed in 34 (40%) of 84 carcinomas and also at early stages of HNSCC tumourigenesis. Thus, 35 (52%) of 67 laryngeal lesions displayed Kv3.4-positive staining in the dysplastic areas, whereas both stromal cells and normal adjacent epithelia exhibited negligible expression. No significant correlations were found between Kv3.4-positive expression in HNSCC and clinical data; however, Kv3.4 expression tended to diminish in advanced-stage tumours. Interestingly, patients carrying Kv3.4-positive dysplasias experienced a significantly higher laryngeal cancer incidence than did those with negative lesions (p = 0.0209). In addition, functional studies using HNSCC cells revealed that inhibition of Kv3.4 expression by siRNA leads to the inhibition of cell proliferation via selective cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase without affecting apoptosis. Collectively, these data demonstrate for the first time that Kv3.4 expression is frequently increased during HNSCC tumourigenesis and correlated significantly with a

  16. The Eag potassium channel as a new prognostic marker in ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schalkwyk Gerhard V

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ovarian cancer is the second most common cancer of the female genital tract in the United Kingdom (UK, accounting for 6% of female deaths due to cancer. This cancer is associated with poor survival and there is a need for new treatments in addition to existing chemotherapy to improve survival. Potassium (K+ channels have been shown to be overexpressed in various cancers where they appear to play a role in cell proliferation and progression. Objectives To determine the expression of the potassium channels Eag and HERG in ovarian cancer tissue and to assess their role in cell proliferation. Methods The expression of Eag and HERG potassium channels was examined in an ovarian cancer tissue microarray. Their role in cell proliferation was investigated by blocking voltage-gated potassium channels in an ovarian cancer cell line (SK-OV-3. Results We show for the first time that high expression of Eag channels in ovarian cancer patients is significantly associated with poor survival (P = 0.016 unlike HERG channel expression where there was no correlation with survival. There was also a significant association of Eag staining with high tumour grade (P = 0.014 and presence of residual disease (P = 0.011. Proliferation of SK-OV-3 cells was significantly (P + channel blockers. Conclusion This novel finding demonstrates a role for Eag as a prognostic marker for survival in patients with ovarian cancer.

  17. The effect of protein kinase C on voltage-gated potassium channel in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from rats exposed to chronic hypoxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永昶; 倪望; 张珍祥; 徐永健

    2004-01-01

    Background Chronic hypoxia can cause pulmonary hypertension and pulmonary heart disease with high mortality.The signal transduction pathway of protein kinase C (PKC) plays an important role in chronic pulmonary hypertension. So it is necessary to investigate the effect of PKC on voltage-gated potassium (K+) channels in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells of rats exposed to chronic hypoxia.Methods Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group (group A) and a chronic hypoxia group (group B). Group B received hypoxia [oxygen concentration (10±1)%] eight hours per day for four consecutive weeks. Single pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells were obtained using an acute enzyme separation method. Conventional whole cell patch clamp technique was used to record resting membrane potential, membrane capacitance and voltage-gated K+ currents. The changes in voltage-gated K+ currents before and after applying paramethoxyamphetamine (PMA) (500 nmol/L), an agonist of PKC, and PMA plus carbohydrate mixture of glucose, fructose and xylitol (GFX) (30 nmol/L), an inhibitor of PKC, were compared between the two groups. Results The resting membrane potential in group B was significantly lower than that of group A: -(29.0±4.8) mV (n=18) vs -(42.5±4.6) mV (n=35) (P0.05). The voltage-gated K+ currents were significantly inhibited by PMA in group A, and this effect was reversed by GFX. However, the voltage-gated K+ currents in group B were not affected by PMA.Conclusions The resting membrane potential and voltage-gated K+ currents in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from rats exposed to chronic hypoxia decreased significantly. It seems that PKC has different effects on the voltage-gated K+ currents of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells under different conditions.

  18. Pharmacological rescue of trafficking-impaired ATP-sensitive potassium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory M. Martin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channels link cell metabolism to membrane excitability and are involved in a wide range of physiological processes including hormone secretion, control of vascular tone, and protection of cardiac and neuronal cells against ischemic injuries. In pancreatic β-cells, KATP channels play a key role in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion, and gain or loss of channel function results in neonatal diabetes or congenital hyperinsulinism, respectively. The β-cell KATP channel is formed by co-assembly of four Kir6.2 inwardly rectifying potassium channel subunits encoded by KCNJ11 and four sulfonylurea receptor 1 subunits encoded by ABCC8. Many mutations in ABCC8 or KCNJ11 cause loss of channel function, thus congenital hyperinsulinism by hampering channel biogenesis and hence trafficking to the cell surface. The trafficking defects caused by a subset of these mutations can be corrected by sulfonylureas, KATP channel antagonists that have long been used to treat type 2 diabetes. More recently, carbamazepine, an anticonvulsant that is thought to target primarily voltage-gated sodium channels has been shown to correct KATP channel trafficking defects. This article reviews studies to date aimed at understanding the mechanisms by which mutations impair channel biogenesis and trafficking and the mechanisms by which pharmacological ligands overcome channel trafficking defects. Insight into channel structure-function relationship and therapeutic implications from these studies are discussed.

  19. Permeation study of the potassium channel from streptomyces Lividans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Xiuzhi; ZHAN Yong; ZHAO Tongjun

    2004-01-01

    A three-state hopping model is established according to experiments to study permeation of an open-state potassium channel from Streptomyces Lividans (KcsA potassium channel). The master equations are used to characterize the dynamics of the system. In this model, ion conduction involves transitions of three states, with one three-ion state and two two-ion states in the selectivity filter respectively. In equilibrium, the well-known Nernst equation is deduced. It is further shown that the current follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics in steady state. According to the parameters provided by Nelson, the current-voltage relationship is proved to be ohmic and the current-concentration relationship is also obtained reasonably. Additional validation of the model in the characteristic time to reach the steady state for the potassium channel is also discussed. This model lays a possible physical basis for the permeation of ion channel, and opens an avenue for further research.

  20. Deafness in LIMP2-deficient mice due to early loss of the potassium channel KCNQ1/KCNE1 in marginal cells of the stria vascularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knipper, Marlies; Claussen, Cathrin; Rüttiger, Lukas; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa; Schröder, Jenny; Schwake, Michael; Saftig, Paul

    2006-10-01

    Our previous studies revealed a critical role of the lysosomal membrane protein LIMP2 in the regulation of membrane transport processes in the endocytic pathway. Here we show that LIMP2-deficient mice display a progressive high-frequency hearing loss and decreased otoacoustic emissions as early as 4 weeks of age. In temporal overlap to hearing impairment, fluorescence immunohistochemical studies revealed that the potassium channel KCNQ1 and its beta-subunit KCNE1 were almost completely lost in the luminal part of marginal cells in the stria vascularis, affecting first higher and later also lower frequency processing cochlear turns. Concomitant with this, the expression of megalin, a multiligand endocytic receptor, was reduced in luminal surfaces of marginal cells within the stria vascularis. KCNQ1/KCNE1 and megalin were also lost in the dark cells of the vestibular system. Although LIMP2 is normally expressed in all cells of the stria vascularis, in the organ of Corti and cochlear neurons, the lack of LIMP2 preferentially caused a loss of KCNQ1/KCNE1 and megalin, and structural changes were only seen months later, indicating that these proteins are highly sensitive to disturbances in the lysosomal pathway. The spatio-temporal correlation of the loss of KCNQ1/KCNE1 surface expression and loss of hearing thresholds supports the notion that the decline of functional KCNQ1/KCNE1 is likely to be the primary cause of the hearing loss. Our findings suggest an important role for LIMP2 in the control of the localization and the level of apically expressed membrane proteins such as KCNQ1, KCNE1 and megalin in the stria vascularis.

  1. Kv3.3 potassium channels and spinocerebellar ataxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yalan; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2016-08-15

    The voltage-dependent potassium channel subunit Kv3.3 is expressed at high levels in cerebellar Purkinje cells, in auditory brainstem nuclei and in many other neurons capable of firing at high rates. In the cerebellum, it helps to shape the very characteristic complex spike of Purkinje cells. Kv3.3 differs from other closely related channels in that human mutations in the gene encoding Kv3.3 (KCNC3) result in a unique neurodegenerative disease termed spinocerebellar ataxia type 13 (SCA13). This primarily affects the cerebellum, but also results in extracerebellar symptoms. Different mutations produce either early onset SCA13, associated with delayed motor and impaired cognitive skill acquisition, or late onset SCA13, which typically produces cerebellar degeneration in middle age. This review covers the localization and physiological function of Kv3.3 in the central nervous system and how the normal function of the channel is altered by the disease-causing mutations. It also describes experimental approaches that are being used to understand how Kv3.3 mutations are linked to neuronal survival, and to develop strategies for treatment.

  2. NONLINEAR PROPERTY MEMBRANE RECTIFIER POTASSIUM CHANNEL AND INHIBITORY EFFECTS OF OXYGEN FREE RADICAL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍光宏; 于德洁; 刘宇; 刘东梅

    1996-01-01

    There are at least eight kinds of different potassium chennels on cardiac cell membrane. This paperpresents a nonlinear property membrane outward; current going rectifying potassium channel and the in-hibitory efeets of oxygen free radical on this channel. The current-vohage relation of this nonlimmr-mem-brahe can be defined by an equation I=8a3/(0.01v2+4a2)2 and the maximum conductance of this channel is-75.3pS.

  3. A potent potassium channel blocker from Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bin; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Zhu, Shunyi

    2010-12-01

    Scorpion venom-derived peptidyl toxins are valuable pharmacological tools for investigating the structure-function relationship of ion channels. Here, we report the purification, sequencing and functional characterization of a new K(+) channel blocker (MeuKTX) from the venom of the scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus. Effects of MeuKTX on ten cloned potassium channels in Xenopus oocytes were evaluated using two-electrode voltage-clamp recordings. MeuKTX is the orthologue of BmKTX (α-KTx3.6), a known Kv1.3 blocker from the scorpion Mesobuthus martensii, and classified as α-KTx3.13. MeuKTX potently blocks rKv1.1, rKv1.2 and hKv1.3 channels with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 203.15 ± 4.06 pM, 8.92 ± 2.3 nM and 171 ± 8.56 pM, respectively, but does not affect rKv1.4, rKv1.5, hKv3.1, rKv4.3, and hERG channels even at 2 μM concentration. At this high concentration, MeuKTX is also active on rKv1.6 and Shaker IR. Our results also demonstrate that MeuKTX and BmKTX have the same channel spectrum and similar pharmacological potency. Analysis of the structure-function relationships of α-KTx3 subfamily toxins allows us to recognize several key sites which may be useful for designing toxins with improved activity on hKv1.3, an attractive target for T-cell mediated autoimmune diseases.

  4. Novel treatment strategies for smooth muscle disorders: Targeting Kv7 potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haick, Jennifer M; Byron, Kenneth L

    2016-09-01

    Smooth muscle cells provide crucial contractile functions in visceral, vascular, and lung tissues. The contractile state of smooth muscle is largely determined by their electrical excitability, which is in turn influenced by the activity of potassium channels. The activity of potassium channels sustains smooth muscle cell membrane hyperpolarization, reducing cellular excitability and thereby promoting smooth muscle relaxation. Research over the past decade has indicated an important role for Kv7 (KCNQ) voltage-gated potassium channels in the regulation of the excitability of smooth muscle cells. Expression of multiple Kv7 channel subtypes has been demonstrated in smooth muscle cells from viscera (gastrointestinal, bladder, myometrial), from the systemic and pulmonary vasculature, and from the airways of the lung, from multiple species, including humans. A number of clinically used drugs, some of which were developed to target Kv7 channels in other tissues, have been found to exert robust effects on smooth muscle Kv7 channels. Functional studies have indicated that Kv7 channel activators and inhibitors have the ability to relax and contact smooth muscle preparations, respectively, suggesting a wide range of novel applications for the pharmacological tool set. This review summarizes recent findings regarding the physiological functions of Kv7 channels in smooth muscle, and highlights potential therapeutic applications based on pharmacological targeting of smooth muscle Kv7 channels throughout the body.

  5. Sleep disturbances in voltage-gated potassium channel antibody syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Daniel A; Krieger, Ana C

    2016-05-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKCs) are a family of membrane proteins responsible for controlling cell membrane potential. The presence of antibodies (Ab) against neuronal VGKC complexes aids in the diagnosis of idiopathic and paraneoplastic autoimmune neurologic disorders. The diagnosis of VGKC Ab-associated encephalopathy (VCKC Ab syndrome) should be suspected in patients with subacute onset of disorientation, confusion, and memory loss in the presence of seizures or a movement disorder. VGKC Ab syndrome may present with sleep-related symptoms, and the purpose of this communication is to alert sleep and neurology clinicians of this still-under-recognized condition. In this case, we are presenting the VGKC Ab syndrome which improved after treatment with solumedrol. The prompt recognition and treatment of this condition may prevent the morbidity associated with cerebral atrophy and the mortality associated with intractable seizures and electrolyte disturbances.

  6. Distinct abscisic acid signaling pathways for modulation of guard cell versus mesophyll cell potassium channels revealed by expression studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, F.; Paul, S. S.; Wang, X. Q.; Assmann, S. M.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    Regulation of guard cell ion transport by abscisic acid (ABA) and in particular ABA inhibition of a guard cell inward K(+) current (I(Kin)) is well documented. However, little is known concerning ABA effects on ion transport in other plant cell types. Here we applied patch clamp techniques to mesophyll cell protoplasts of fava bean (Vicia faba cv Long Pod) plants and demonstrated ABA inhibition of an outward K(+) current (I(Kout)). When mesophyll cell protoplast mRNA (mesophyll mRNA) was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, I(Kout) was generated that displayed similar properties to I(Kout) observed from direct analysis of mesophyll cell protoplasts. I(Kout) expressed by mesophyll mRNA-injected oocytes was inhibited by ABA, indicating that the ABA signal transduction pathway observed in mesophyll cells was preserved in the frog oocytes. Co-injection of oocytes with guard cell protoplast mRNA and cRNA for KAT1, an inward K(+) channel expressed in guard cells, resulted in I(Kin) that was similarly inhibited by ABA. However, oocytes co-injected with mesophyll mRNA and KAT1 cRNA produced I(Kin) that was not inhibited by ABA. These results demonstrate that the mesophyll-encoded signaling mechanism could not substitute for the guard cell pathway. These findings indicate that mesophyll cells and guard cells use distinct and different receptor types and/or signal transduction pathways in ABA regulation of K(+) channels.

  7. Novel expression and regulation of voltage-dependent potassium channels in placentas from women with preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistry, Hiten D; McCallum, Laura A; Kurlak, Lesia O; Greenwood, Iain A; Broughton Pipkin, Fiona; Tribe, Rachel M

    2011-09-01

    Preeclampsia is associated with structural/functional alterations in placental and maternal vasculature. Voltage-dependant potassium channels encoded by KCNQ1-5 genes have been detected in several types of blood vessels where they promote vascular relaxation. Voltage-dependant potassium channel function can be modulated by KCNE1-5-encoded accessory proteins. The aim of this study was to determine whether KCNQ and KCNE genes are differentially expressed in placentas from women with preeclampsia compared with normotensive controls and to examine any differences in those who delivered preterm (voltage-dependant potassium channels are expressed and markedly modulated in placentas from preeclamptic women. Differential expression of isoforms may lead to altered cell proliferation. The correlation between KCNQ3 and KCNE5 expression is indicative of a novel channel complex and warrants further investigation.

  8. Expression of T-cell KV 1.3 potassium channel correlates with pro-inflammatory cytokines and disease activity in ulcerative colitis✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Lars Koch; Sevelsted-Møller, Linda; Rabjerg, Maj; Larsen, Dorte; Hansen, Tine Plato; Klinge, Lone; Wulff, Heike; Knudsen, Torben; Kjeldsen, Jens; Köhler, Ralf

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims Potassium channels, KV1.3 and KCa3.1, have been suggested to control T-cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production and may thus constitute targets for anti-inflammatory therapy. Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease characterized by excessive T-cell infiltration and cytokine production. It is unknown if KV1.3 and KCa3.1 in the inflamed mucosa are markers of active UC. We hypothesized that KV1.3 and KCa3.1 correlate with disease activity and cytokine production in patients with UC. Methods Mucosal biopsies were collected from patients with active UC (n = 33) and controls (n = 15). Protein and mRNA expression of KV1.3 and KCa3.1, immune cell markers, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were determined by quantitative-real-time-polymerase-chain-reaction (qPCR) and immunofluorescence, and correlated with clinical parameters of inflammation. In-vitro cytokine production was measured in human CD3+ T-cells after pharmacological blockade of KV1.3 and KCa3.1. Results Active UC KV1.3 mRNA expression was increased 5-fold compared to controls. Immunofluorescence analyses revealed that KV1.3 protein was present in inflamed mucosa in 57% of CD4+ and 23% of CD8+ T-cells. KV1.3 was virtually absent on infiltrating macrophages. KV1.3 mRNA expression correlated significantly with mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α (R2 = 0.61) and IL-17A (R2 = 0.51), the mayo endoscopic subscore (R2 = 0.13), and histological inflammation (R2 = 0.23). In-vitro blockade of T-cell KV1.3 and KCa3.1 decreased production of IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-17A. Conclusions High levels of KV1.3 in CD4 and CD8 positive T-cells infiltrates are associated with production of pro-inflammatory IL-17A and TNF-α in active UC. KV1.3 may serve as a marker of disease activity and pharmacological blockade might constitute a novel immunosuppressive strategy. PMID:24793818

  9. Overexpression of potassium channel genes in rice plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    China′ s potassium fertilizer mainly depends on import and the utilization efficiency of K fertilizer was only 30% . So it is very important to enhance utilization efficiency and to reduce its applying amount by improving nutrition characteristics of plant with bioengineering techinques. Potassium channel genes AKT1 and KAT1 were the genes involved in K+ uptake. To investigate the role of heterogeneous K channel genes in the enhancement of K absorbing, genes AKT1 and KAT1 were transferred into four rice varieties, i.e. Zhonghua 8, Zhonghua 9, Zhonghua 13, and 8706.

  10. Effects of potassium channel on shear stress - induced signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells%K离子通道在剪切力诱导血管内皮细胞信号转导中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡金麟

    1999-01-01

    Fluid shear stress play an important role in many physiological and pathophysiological processes of cardiovascular system. Shear stress - induced signal transduction throughout the vascular endothelial cell includes ion channels,G- protein linked receptors, tyrosine kinase receptors and integrins. The one impossible pathway of shear stress - induced signal transduction was biochemical reaction through second messenger, activating protein kinases and cytosolic transcription factors, and then regulating gene transcription . The other pathway was cytoskeletal system. This article reviewed the cellular and molecular mechanism of potassium channel signal transduction resulting from shear stress.

  11. Effects of fractal gating of potassium channels on neuronal behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, De-Jiang; Zeng, Shang-You; Zhang, Zheng-Zhen

    2010-10-01

    The classical model of voltage-gated ion channels assumes that according to a Markov process ion channels switch among a small number of states without memory, but a bunch of experimental papers show that some ion channels exhibit significant memory effects, and this memory effects can take the form of kinetic rate constant that is fractal. Obviously the gating character of ion channels will affect generation and propagation of action potentials, furthermore, affect generation, coding and propagation of neural information. However, there is little previous research on this series of interesting issues. This paper investigates effects of fractal gating of potassium channel subunits switching from closed state to open state on neuronal behaviours. The obtained results show that fractal gating of potassium channel subunits switching from closed state to open state has important effects on neuronal behaviours, increases excitability, rest potential and spiking frequency of the neuronal membrane, and decreases threshold voltage and threshold injected current of the neuronal membrane. So fractal gating of potassium channel subunits switching from closed state to open state can improve the sensitivity of the neuronal membrane, and enlarge the encoded strength of neural information.

  12. The KCNQ1 potassium channel: from gene to physiological function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Thomas; Grunnet, Morten; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2005-01-01

    The voltage-gated KCNQ1 (KvLQT1, Kv7.1) potassium channel plays a crucial role in shaping the cardiac action potential as well as in controlling the water and salt homeostasis in several epithelial tissues. KCNQ1 channels in these tissues are tightly regulated by auxiliary proteins and accessory...... factors, capable of modulating the properties of the channel complexes. This paper reviews the current knowledge about the KCNQ1 channel with a major focus on interacting proteins and physiological functions....

  13. Expression and distribution of Kv4 potassium channel subunits and potassium channel interacting proteins in subpopulations of interneurons in the basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrowska, J; Rainnie, D G

    2010-12-15

    The Kv4 potassium channel α subunits, Kv4.1, Kv4.2, and Kv4.3, determine some of the fundamental physiological properties of neurons in the CNS. Kv4 subunits are associated with auxiliary β-subunits, such as the potassium channel interacting proteins (KChIP1 - 4), which are thought to regulate the trafficking and gating of native Kv4 potassium channels. Intriguingly, KChIP1 is thought to show cell type-selective expression in GABA-ergic inhibitory interneurons, while other β-subunits (KChIP2-4) are associated with principal glutamatergic neurons. However, nothing is known about the expression of Kv4 family α- and β-subunits in specific interneurons populations in the BLA. Here, we have used immunofluorescence, co-immunoprecipitation, and Western Blotting to determine the relative expression of KChIP1 in the different interneuron subtypes within the BLA, and its co-localization with one or more of the Kv4 α subunits. We show that all three α-subunits of Kv4 potassium channel are found in rat BLA neurons, and that the immunoreactivity of KChIP1 closely resembles that of Kv4.3. Indeed, Kv4.3 showed almost complete co-localization with KChIP1 in the soma and dendrites of a distinct subpopulation of BLA neurons. Dual-immunofluorescence studies revealed this to be in BLA interneurons immunoreactive for parvalbumin, cholecystokin-8, and somatostatin. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation studies showed that KChIP1 was associated with all three Kv4 α subunits. Together our results suggest that KChIP1 is selectively expressed in BLA interneurons where it may function to regulate the activity of A-type potassium channels. Hence, KChIP1 might be considered as a cell type-specific regulator of GABAergic inhibitory circuits in the BLA.

  14. Heterodimerization within the TREK channel subfamily produces a diverse family of highly regulated potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitz, Joshua; Royal, Perrine; Comoglio, Yannick; Wdziekonski, Brigitte; Schaub, Sébastien; Clemens, Daniel M; Isacoff, Ehud Y; Sandoz, Guillaume

    2016-04-12

    Twik-related K(+) channel 1 (TREK1), TREK2, and Twik-related arachidonic-acid stimulated K(+) channel (TRAAK) form the TREK subfamily of two-pore-domain K(+) (K2P) channels. Despite sharing up to 78% sequence homology and overlapping expression profiles in the nervous system, these channels show major differences in their regulation by physiological stimuli. For instance, TREK1 is inhibited by external acidification, whereas TREK2 is activated. Here, we investigated the ability of the members of the TREK subfamily to assemble to form functional heteromeric channels with novel properties. Using single-molecule pull-down (SiMPull) from HEK cell lysate and subunit counting in the plasma membrane of living cells, we show that TREK1, TREK2, and TRAAK readily coassemble. TREK1 and TREK2 can each heterodimerize with TRAAK, but do so less efficiently than with each other. We functionally characterized the heterodimers and found that all combinations form outwardly rectifying potassium-selective channels but with variable voltage sensitivity and pH regulation. TREK1-TREK2 heterodimers show low levels of activity at physiological external pH but, unlike their corresponding homodimers, are activated by both acidic and alkaline conditions. Modeling based on recent crystal structures, along with mutational analysis, suggests that each subunit within a TREK1-TREK2 channel is regulated independently via titratable His. Finally, TREK1/TRAAK heterodimers differ in function from TRAAK homodimers in two critical ways: they are activated by both intracellular acidification and alkalinization and are regulated by the enzyme phospholipase D2. Thus, heterodimerization provides a means for diversifying functionality through an expansion of the channel types within the K2P channels.

  15. Chronic salt-loading downregulates large-conductance Ca~(2+)-activated potassium channel in mesenteric arterial smooth muscle cells from SD rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Objective Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium(BKCa)channel modulates vascular smooth muscle tone.In the present study,we tested the hypothesis that salt,one of the factors which significantly influence blood pressure(BP),can regulate BKCa activity and then elevate blood pressure.Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats aged 6 weeks were randomized into high salt diet group(HS)and control group,fed with high salt diet(containing 5% NaCl)and standard rat chow(containing 0.4% NaCl)respectively for 16 weeks.T...

  16. Regulation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels suppresses the toxic effects of amyloid-beta peptide (25-35)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Kong; Maowen Ba; Hui Liang; Peng Shao; Tianxia Yu; Ying Wang

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we treated PC12 cells with 0-20 μM amyloid-β peptide (25-35) for 24 hours to induce cytotoxicity, and found that 5-20 μM amyloid-β peptide (25-35) decreased PC12 cell viability, but adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel activator diazoxide suppressed the decrease reactive oxygen species levels. These protective effects were reversed by the selective mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel blocker 5-hydroxydecanoate. An inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, Nω-nitro-L-arginine, also protected PC12 cells from intracellular reactive oxygen species levels. However, the H2O2-degrading enzyme catalase could that the increases in both mitochondrial membrane potential and reactive oxygen species levels adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels and nitric oxide. Regulation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels suppresses PC12 cell cytotoxicity induced by amyloid-β

  17. G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-fei GAO; Hai-lin ZHANG; Zhen-dong YOU; Chang-lin LU; Cheng HE

    2007-01-01

    Aim: G protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium channels (GIRK) are important for neuronal signaling and membrane excitability. In the present study, we intend to find whether GIRK channels express functionally in adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons. Methods: We used RT-PCR to detect mRNA for4 subunits of GIRK in the adult DRG. The whole-cell patch clamp recording was used to confirm GIRK channels functionally expressed. Results: The mRNA for the 4 subunits of GIRK were detected in the adult DRG. GTPγS enhanced inwardly rectifying potassium (K+) currents of the DRG neurons, while Ba2+inhibited such currents. Furthermore, the GIRK channels were shown to be coupled to the GABAB receptor, a member of the G protein-coupled receptor family, as baclofen increased the inwardly rectifying K+ currents. Conclusion: GIRK channels are expressed and functionally coupled with GABAB receptors in adult rat DRG neurons.

  18. ATP-dependent potassium channels and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, Dianne Heloisa; Alcazar, Larissa Pontes; Arakaki, Priscila Akemi; Martins, Laysa Toschi; Agustini, Bruna Carla; de Moraes Rego, Fabiane Gomes; Frigeri, Henrique Ravanhol

    2015-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a public health problem, which affects a millions worldwide. Most diabetes cases are classified as type 2 diabetes mellitus, which is highly associated with obesity. Type 2 diabetes is considered a multifactorial disorder, with both environmental and genetic factors contributing to its development. An important issue linked with diabetes development is the failure of the insulin releasing mechanism involving abnormal activity of the ATP-dependent potassium channel, KATP. This channel is a transmembrane protein encoded by the KCNJ11 and ABCC8 genes. Furthermore, polymorphisms in these genes have been linked to type 2 diabetes because of the role of KATP in insulin release. While several genetic variations have been reported to be associated with this disease, the E23K polymorphism is most commonly associated with this pathology, as well as to obesity. Here, we review the molecular genetics of the potassium channel and discusses its most described polymorphisms and their associations with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  19. Neuronal trafficking of voltage-gated potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla S; Rasmussen, Hanne Borger; Misonou, Hiroaki

    2011-01-01

    The computational ability of CNS neurons depends critically on the specific localization of ion channels in the somatodendritic and axonal membranes. Neuronal dendrites receive synaptic inputs at numerous spines and integrate them in time and space. The integration of synaptic potentials....... The physiological significance of proper Kv channel localization is emphasized by the fact that defects in the trafficking of Kv channels are observed in several neurological disorders including epilepsy. In this review, we will summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms of Kv channel trafficking...... is regulated by voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels, such as Kv4.2, which are specifically localized in the dendritic membrane. The synaptic potentials eventually depolarize the membrane of the axon initial segment, thereby activating voltage-gated sodium channels to generate action potentials. Specific Kv...

  20. The phytoestrogen ginsensoside Re activates potassium channels of vascular smooth muscle cells through PI3K/Akt and nitric oxide pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaya, Yutaka; Mawatari, Kazuaki; Takahashi, Akira; Harada, Nagakatsu; Hata, Akiko; Yasui, Sonoko

    2007-08-01

    In vascular smooth muscle cells, large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels (K(Ca) channels) play a pivotal role in determining membrane potential, and thereby the vascular tone. Ginsenoside Re, a phytochemical from ginseng, is reported to activate this channel, but its precise mechanism is unsolved. Patch clamp studies showed that ginsenoside Re activates K(Ca) channels in the arterial smooth muscle cell line A10 in a dose-dependent manner. The channel-opening effect of ginsenoside Re was inhibited by 1 microM L-NIO, an inhibitor of eNOS, but not by 3 microM SMTC, an inhibitor of nNOS, indicating that ginsenoside Re activated K(Ca) channels through activation of eNOS. SH-6 (10 microM), an Akt inhibitor, and wortmannin, a PI3-kinase inhibitor, completely blocked activation of K(Ca) channels by ginsenoside Re, indicating that it activates eNOS via a c-Src/PI3-kinase/Akt-dependent mechanism. In addition, the ginsenoside Re-induced activation of eNOS and K(Ca) channel was blocked by 10 microM ICI 182, 780, an inhibitor of membrane estrogen receptor-alpha, suggesting that eNOS activation occurs via a non-genomic pathway of this receptor. In conclusion, ginsenoside Re releases NO via a membrane sex steroid receptors, resulting in K(Ca) channel activation in vascular smooth muscle cells, promoting vasodilation and preventing severe arterial contraction.

  1. POTASSIUM CHANNELS IN HYPOKALEMIC PERIODIC PARALYSIS - A KEY TO THE PATHOGENESIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LINKS, TP; SMIT, AJ; OOSTERHUIS, HJGH; REITSMA, WD

    1993-01-01

    1. A possible role for the ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the pathogenesis of hypokalaemic periodic paralysis was investigated. 2. We assessed insulin release and muscle strength after intravenous glucose loading with and without the potassium channel opener pinacidil and the potassium channel

  2. Estradiol rapidly induces the translocation and activation of the intermediate conductance calcium activated potassium channel in human eccrine sweat gland cells.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Muchekehu, Ruth W

    2009-02-01

    Steroid hormones target K+ channels as a means of regulating electrolyte and fluid transport. In this study, ion transporter targets of Estradiol (E2) were investigated in the human eccrine sweat gland cell line NCL-SG3.

  3. Whole-cell recordings of calcium and potassium currents in acutely isolated smooth muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Cai; Zhong-Liang Zhu; Xiao-Li Fan

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To record calcium and potassium currents in acutely isolated smooth muscle cells of mesenteric arterial branches in rats.METHODS: Smooth muscle cells were freshly isolated by collagenase digest and mechanical trituration with polished pipettes. Patch clamp technique in whole-cell mode was employed to record calcium and potassium currents.RESULTS: The procedure dissociated smooth muscle cells without impairing the electrophysiological characteristics of the cells. The voltage-gated Ca2+ and potassium currents were successfully recorded using whole-cell patch clamp configuration.CONCLUSION: The method dissociates smooth muscle cells from rat mesenteric arterial branches. Voltage-gated channel currents can be recorded in this preparation.

  4. Potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle and essential hypertension%血管平滑肌钾通道与原发性高血压

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周述芝; 魏宗德

    2003-01-01

    Essential hypertension(EH)is characterized by an increased total peripheral resistance.There are four types of potassium channels in vascular smooth muscle cells,including Kca,Kv,Kir,KATP,which play an important role in regulating the diameter of vascular.The change of potassium channels may have something to do with the pathogenesis of hypertension.This article reviews the characters of potassium channels and their roles in EH.

  5. Glucose deprivation activates diversity of potassium channels in cultured rat hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Myrian; García, Esperanza; Onetti, Carlos G

    2006-05-01

    1. Glucose is one of the most important substrates for generating metabolic energy required for the maintenance of cellular functions. Glucose-mediated changes in neuronal firing pattern have been observed in the central nervous system of mammals. K(+) channels directly regulated by intracellular ATP have been postulated as a linkage between cellular energetic metabolism and excitability; the functional roles ascribed to these channels include glucose-sensing to regulate energy homeostasis and neuroprotection under energy depletion conditions. The hippocampus is highly sensitive to metabolic insults and is the brain region most sensitive to ischemic damage. Because the identity of metabolically regulated potassium channels present in hippocampal neurons is obscure, we decided to study the biophysical properties of glucose-sensitive potassium channels in hippocampal neurons. 2. The dependence of membrane potential and the sensitivity of potassium channels to glucose and ATP in rat hippocampal neurons were studied in cell-attached and excised inside-out membrane patches. 3. We found that under hypoglycemic conditions, at least three types of potassium channels were activated; their unitary conductance values were 37, 147, and 241 pS in symmetrical K(+), and they were sensitive to ATP. For K(+) channels with unitary conductance of 37 and 241, when the membrane potential was depolarized the longer closed time constant diminished and this produced an increase in the open-state probability; nevertheless, the 147-pS channels were not voltage-dependent. 4. We propose that neuronal glucose-sensitive K(+) channels in rat hippocampus include subtypes of ATP-sensitive channels with a potential role in neuroprotection during short-term or prolonged metabolic stress.

  6. Pharmacodynamics of potassium channel openers in cultured neuronal networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Calvin; V Gopal, Kamakshi; Lukas, Thomas J; Gross, Guenter W; Moore, Ernest J

    2014-06-01

    A novel class of drugs - potassium (K(+)) channel openers or activators - has recently been shown to cause anticonvulsive and neuroprotective effects by activating hyperpolarizing K(+) currents, and therefore, may show efficacy for treating tinnitus. This study presents measurements of the modulatory effects of four K(+) channel openers on the spontaneous activity and action potential waveforms of neuronal networks. The networks were derived from mouse embryonic auditory cortices and grown on microelectrode arrays. Pentylenetetrazol was used to create hyperactivity states in the neuronal networks as a first approximation for mimicking tinnitus or tinnitus-like activity. We then compared the pharmacodynamics of the four channel activators, retigabine and flupirtine (voltage-gated K(+) channel KV7 activators), NS1619 and isopimaric acid ("big potassium" BK channel activators). The EC50 of retigabine, flupirtine, NS1619, and isopimaric acid were 8.0, 4.0, 5.8, and 7.8µM, respectively. The reduction of hyperactivity compared to the reference activity was significant. The present results highlight the notion of re-purposing the K(+) channel activators for reducing hyperactivity of spontaneously active auditory networks, serving as a platform for these drugs to show efficacy toward target identification, prevention, as well as treatment of tinnitus.

  7. Two-pore Domain Potassium Channels in Astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryoo, Kanghyun

    2016-01-01

    Two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channels have a distinct structure and channel properties, and are involved in a background K+ current. The 15 members of the K2P channels are identified and classified into six subfamilies on the basis of their sequence similarities. The activity of the channels is dynamically regulated by various physical, chemical, and biological effectors. The channels are expressed in a wide variety of tissues in mammals in an isoform specific manner, and play various roles in many physiological and pathophysiological conditions. To function as channels, the K2P channels form dimers, and some isoforms form heterodimers that provide diversity in channel properties. In the brain, TWIK1, TREK1, TREK2, TRAAK, TASK1, and TASK3 are predominantly expressed in various regions, including the cerebral cortex, dentate gyrus, CA1-CA3, and granular layer of the cerebellum. TWIK1, TREK1, and TASK1 are highly expressed in astrocytes, where they play specific cellular roles. Astrocytes keep leak K+ conductance, called the passive conductance, which mainly involves TWIK1-TREK1 heterodimeric channel. TWIK1 and TREK1 also mediate glutamate release from astrocytes in an exocytosis-independent manner. The expression of TREK1 and TREK2 in astrocytes increases under ischemic conditions, that enhance neuroprotection from ischemia. Accumulated evidence has indicated that astrocytes, together with neurons, are involved in brain function, with the K2P channels playing critical role in these astrocytes. PMID:27790056

  8. Upregulation of the inwardly rectifying potassium channel Kir2.1 (KCNJ2) modulates multidrug resistance of small-cell lung cancer under the regulation of miR-7 and the Ras/MAPK pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Huanxin; Huang, Jie; Peng, Juan; WU, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Weiliang; Guo, Linlang

    2015-01-01

    Background KCNJ2/Kir2.1, a member of the classical inwardly rectifying potassium channel family, is commonly expressed in a wide range of tissues and cell types. Previous studies indicated that Kir2.1 may be associated with SCLC multidrug resistance (MDR). However, whether Kir2.1 can regulate MDR and its underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood in SCLC. Methods KCNJ2/Kir2.1 expression was examined in tissues from fifty-two SCLC cases by immunohistochemistry. Overexpression or knockdown ...

  9. Cardiac potassium channels in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A M

    1997-05-01

    Cardiac K(+)currents regulate resting membrane potential and action potential duration. These tasks are accomplished for the most part by four membrane currents: an inwardly rectifying current (I(K1)), a transient outward current (I(To)), and rapid (I(Kr)), and slow (I(Ks)) delayed rectifier currents. Recent studies have revealed far greater complexity at the molecular level. I(K1) may be produced by at least three genes from the Kir 2 subfamily of the supergene Kir family. The remaining currents appear to be produced by the supergene Kvα family, sometimes in association with the cytoplasmic protein Kvβ family. I(To) may be produced by the Kv4 subfamily, but members of the Kv1 subfamily could contribute, particularly if associated with Kvβ genes. Very rapid currents could be produced by Kv1.5, but Kvs 1.2 and 2.1 might also participate. Additional levels of complexity are possible because members within a Kv subfamily may form heterotetramers, and these, in turn, may associate with different Kvβs. The situation may be simpler for I(Kr) and I(Ks), which at present appear to be produced by the Kv HER gene and the KvLQT1 gene, respectively. Mutations of these two genes have been linked to two forms of hereditary long QT syndrome, and heterologous expression of mutant HERGs has reproduced the pathophysiological phenotype satisfactorily. Sporadic mutations in these and other cardiac K(+)channel genes may provide a basis for hypersensitivity to cardioactive or cardiotoxic drugs. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:118-124). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  10. G-Protein Inwardly Rectifying Potassium Channel 1 (GIRK1 Knockdown Decreases Beta-Adrenergic, MAP Kinase and Akt Signaling in the MDA-MB-453 Breast Cancer Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael W. Hance

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous data from our laboratory have indicated that there is a functional link between the beta-adrenergic receptor signaling pathway and the G-protein inwardly rectifying potassium channel (GIRK1 in breast cancer cell lines and that these pathways are involved in growth regulation of these cells. To determine functionality, MDA-MB-453 breast cancer cells were stimulated with ethanol, known to open GIRK channels. Decreased GIRK1 protein levels were seen after treatment with 0.12% ethanol. In addition, serum-free media completely inhibited GIRK1 protein expression. This data indicates that there are functional GIRK channels in breast cancer cells and that these channels are involved in cellular signaling. In the present research, to further define the signaling pathways involved, we performed RNA interference (siRNA studies. Three stealth siRNA constructs were made starting at bases 1104, 1315, and 1490 of the GIRK1 sequence. These constructs were transfected into MDA-MB-453 cells, and both RNA and protein were isolated. GIRK1, β2-adrenergic and 18S control levels were determined using real-time PCR 24 hours after transfection. All three constructs decreased GIRK1 mRNA levels. However, β2 mRNA levels were unchanged by the GIRK1 knockdown. GIRK1 protein levels were also reduced by the knockdown, and this knockdown led to decreases in beta-adrenergic, MAP kinase and Akt signaling.

  11. PKC and AMPK regulation of Kv1.5 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Martin Nybo; Skibsbye, Lasse; Tang, Chuyi

    2015-01-01

    The voltage-gated Kv1.5 potassium channel, conducting the ultra-rapid rectifier K(+) current (IKur), is regulated through several pathways. Here we investigate if Kv1.5 surface expression is controlled by the 2 kinases PKC and AMPK, using Xenopus oocytes, MDCK cells and atrial derived HL-1 cells......-expression of Nedd4-2 in Xenopus oocytes. These results indicate that Kv1.5 channels are regulated by both kinases, although through different molecular mechanisms in different cell systems....

  12. Delayed rectifier and A-type potassium channels associated with Kv 2.1 and Kv 4.3 expression in embryonic rat neural progenitor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean O Smith

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because of the importance of voltage-activated K(+ channels during embryonic development and in cell proliferation, we present here the first description of these channels in E15 rat embryonic neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone (SVZ. Activation, inactivation, and single-channel conductance properties of recorded progenitor cells were compared with those obtained by others when these Kv gene products were expressed in oocytes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Neural progenitor cells derived from the subventricular zone of E15 embryonic rats were cultured under conditions that did not promote differentiation. Immunocytochemical and Western blot assays for nestin expression indicated that almost all of the cells available for recording expressed this intermediate filament protein, which is generally accepted as a marker for uncommitted embryonic neural progenitor cells. However, a very small numbers of the cells expressed GFAP, a marker for astrocytes, O4, a marker for immature oligodendrocytes, and betaIII-tubulin, a marker for neurons. Using immunocytochemistry and Western blots, we detected consistently the expression of Kv2.1, and 4.3. In whole-cell mode, we recorded two outward currents, a delayed rectifier and an A-type current. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that Kv2.1, and 4.3 are expressed in E15 SVZ neural progenitor cells, and we propose that they may be associated with the delayed-rectifier and the A-type currents, respectively, that we recorded. These results demonstrate the early expression of delayed rectifier and A-type K(+ currents and channels in embryonic neural progenitor cells prior to the differentiation of these cells.

  13. Mechanism of electromechanical coupling in voltage-gated potassium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikard eBlunck

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated ion channels play a central role in the generation of action potentials in the nervous system. They are selective for one type of ion – sodium, calcium or potassium. Voltage-gated ion channels are composed of a central pore that allows ions to pass through the membrane and four peripheral voltage sensing domains that respond to changes in the membrane potential. Upon depolarization, voltage sensors in voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv undergo conformational changes driven by positive charges in the S4 segment and aided by pairwise electrostatic interactions with the surrounding voltage sensor. Structure-function relations of Kv channels have been investigated in detail, and the resulting models on the movement of the voltage sensors now converge to a consensus; the S4 segment undergoes a combined movement of rotation, tilt and vertical displacement in order to bring 3-4 e+ each through the electric field focused in this region. Nevertheless, the mechanism by which the voltage sensor movement leads to pore opening, the electromechanical coupling, is still not fully understood. Thus, recently, electromechanical coupling in different Kv channels has been investigated with a multitude of techniques including electrophysiology, 3D crystal structures, fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulations. Evidently, the S4-S5 linker, the covalent link between the voltage sensor and pore, plays a crucial role. The linker transfers the energy from the voltage sensor movement to the pore domain via an interaction with the S6 C-termini, which are pulled open during gating. In addition, other contact regions have been proposed. This review aims to provide (i an in-depth comparison of the molecular mechanisms of electromechanical coupling in different Kv channels; (ii insight as to how the voltage sensor and pore domain influence one another; and (iii theoretical predictions on the movement of the cytosolic face of the KV channels

  14. Neuroprotective role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-shuo SUN; Zhong-ping FENG

    2013-01-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are weak,inward rectifiers that couple metabolic status to cell membrane electrical activity,thus modulating many cellular functions.An increase in the ADP/ATP ratio opens KATP channels,leading to membrane hyperpolarization.KATP channels are ubiquitously expressed in neurons located in different regions of the brain,including the hippocampus and cortex.Brief hypoxia triggers membrane hyperpolarization in these central neurons.In vivo animal studies confirmed that knocking out the Kir6.2 subunit of the KATP channels increases ischemic infarction,and overexpression of the Kir6.2 subunit reduces neuronal injury from ischemic insults.These findings provide the basis for a practical strategy whereby activation of endogenous KATP channels reduces cellular damage resulting from cerebral ischemic stroke.KATP channel modulators may prove to be clinically useful as part of a combination therapy for stroke management in the future.

  15. Distance-dependent homeostatic synaptic scaling mediated by A-type potassium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi T Ito

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Many lines of evidence suggest that the efficacy of synapses on CA1 pyramidal neuron dendrites increases as a function of distance from the cell body. The strength of an individual synapse is also dynamically modulated by activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, which raises the question as to how a neuron can reconcile individual synaptic changes with the maintenance of the proximal-to-distal gradient of synaptic strength along the dendrites. As the density of A-type potassium channels exhibits a similar gradient from proximal (low-to-distal (high dendrites, the A-current may play a role in coordinating local synaptic changes with the global synaptic strength gradient. Here we describe a form of homeostatic plasticity elicited by conventional activity blockade (with TTX coupled with a block of the A-type potassium channel. Following A-type potassium channel inhibition for 12 hrs, recordings from CA1 somata revealed a significantly higher miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC frequency, whereas in dendritic recordings, there was no change in mEPSC frequency. Consistent with mEPSC recordings, we observed a significant increase in AMPA receptor density in stratum pyramidale but not stratum radiatum. Based on these data, we propose that the differential distribution of A-type potassium channels along the apical dendrites may create a proximal-to-distal membrane potential gradient. This gradient may regulate AMPA receptor distribution along the same axis. Taken together, our results indicate that A-type potassium channels play an important role in controlling synaptic strength along the dendrites, which may help to maintain the computational capacity of the neuron.

  16. Two outward potassium current types are expressed during the neural differentiation of neural stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bai, Ruiying; Gao, Guowei; Xing, Ying; Xue, Hong

    2013-01-01

    The electrophysiological properties of potassium ion channels are regarded as a basic index for determining the functional differentiation of neural stem cells. In this study, neural stem cells from the hippocampus of newborn rats were induced to differentiate with neurotrophic growth factor, and the electrophysiological properties of the voltage-gated potassium ion channels were observed. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the rapidly proliferating neural stem cells formed spheres in vi...

  17. A new pH-sensitive rectifying potassium channel in mitochondria from the embryonic rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajma, Anna; Szewczyk, Adam

    2012-10-01

    Patch-clamp single-channel studies on mitochondria isolated from embryonic rat hippocampus revealed the presence of two different potassium ion channels: a large-conductance (288±4pS) calcium-activated potassium channel and second potassium channel with outwardly rectifying activity under symmetric conditions (150/150mM KCl). At positive voltages, this channel displayed a conductance of 67.84pS and a strong voltage dependence at holding potentials from -80mV to +80mV. The open probability was higher at positive than at negative voltages. Patch-clamp studies at the mitoplast-attached mode showed that the channel was not sensitive to activators and inhibitors of mitochondrial potassium channels but was regulated by pH. Moreover, we demonstrated that the channel activity was not affected by the application of lidocaine, an inhibitor of two-pore domain potassium channels, or by tertiapin, an inhibitor of inwardly rectifying potassium channels. In summary, based on the single-channel recordings, we characterised for the first time mitochondrial pH-sensitive ion channel that is selective for cations, permeable to potassium ions, displays voltage sensitivity and does not correspond to any previously described potassium ion channels in the inner mitochondrial membrane. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: 17th European Bioenergetics Conference (EBEC 2012).

  18. Studying of Membrane Localization of Recombinant Potassium Channels in E.coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagway, A.; Ignatova, A.; Feofanov, A.; Kirpichnikov, M.

    2009-01-01

    The effective expression of recombinant membrane proteins in E.coli depends upon the targeting and insertion of proteins into the cellular membrane, as well as on those proteins adopting the correct spatial structure. A significant technological problem involves the design of approaches for detecting the location of target proteins within a host cell. Using a hybrid potassium channel KcsA-Kv1.3 as a model, we developed a technological scheme which is suitable for the study of membrane localization in E.coli cells of recombinant proteins containing voltage-gated eukaryotic potassium channels as the functional active site. The scheme involves both biochemical and fluorescent methods for detecting target proteins in the cytoplasmic membrane of E.coli, as well as the study of the ligand-binding activity of membrane-embedded proteins. PMID:22649591

  19. Structural and functional diversity of acidic scorpion potassium channel toxins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zong-Yun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the basic scorpion K(+ channel toxins (KTxs are well-known pharmacological tools and potential drug candidates, characterization the acidic KTxs still has the great significance for their potential selectivity towards different K(+ channel subtypes. Unfortunately, research on the acidic KTxs has been ignored for several years and progressed slowly. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we describe the identification of nine new acidic KTxs by cDNA cloning and bioinformatic analyses. Seven of these toxins belong to three new α-KTx subfamilies (α-KTx28, α-KTx29, and α-KTx30, and two are new members of the known κ-KTx2 subfamily. ImKTx104 containing three disulfide bridges, the first member of the α-KTx28 subfamily, has a low sequence homology with other known KTxs, and its NMR structure suggests ImKTx104 adopts a modified cystine-stabilized α-helix-loop-β-sheet (CS-α/β fold motif that has no apparent α-helixs and β-sheets, but still stabilized by three disulfide bridges. These newly described acidic KTxs exhibit differential pharmacological effects on potassium channels. Acidic scorpion toxin ImKTx104 was the first peptide inhibitor found to affect KCNQ1 channel, which is insensitive to the basic KTxs and is strongly associated with human cardiac abnormalities. ImKTx104 selectively inhibited KCNQ1 channel with a K(d of 11.69 µM, but was less effective against the basic KTxs-sensitive potassium channels. In addition to the ImKTx104 toxin, HeTx204 peptide, containing a cystine-stabilized α-helix-loop-helix (CS-α/α fold scaffold motif, blocked both Kv1.3 and KCNQ1 channels. StKTx23 toxin, with a cystine-stabilized α-helix-loop-β-sheet (CS-α/β fold motif, could inhibit Kv1.3 channel, but not the KCNQ1 channel. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings characterize the structural and functional diversity of acidic KTxs, and could accelerate the development and clinical use of acidic KTxs as pharmacological tools and

  20. Potassium Channels Blockers from the Venom of Androctonus mauretanicus mauretanicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie-France Martin-Eauclaire

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available K+ channels selectively transport K+ ions across cell membranes and play a key role in regulating the physiology of excitable and nonexcitable cells. Their activation allows the cell to repolarize after action potential firing and reduces excitability, whereas channel inhibition increases excitability. In eukaryotes, the pharmacology and pore topology of several structural classes of K+ channels have been well characterized in the past two decades. This information has come about through the extensive use of scorpion toxins. We have participated in the isolation and in the characterization of several structurally distinct families of scorpion toxin peptides exhibiting different K+ channel blocking functions. In particular, the venom from the Moroccan scorpion Androctonus mauretanicus mauretanicus provided several high-affinity blockers selective for diverse K+ channels  (SKCa,  Kv4.x, and  Kv1.x K+ channel families. In this paper, we summarize our work on these toxin/channel interactions.

  1. Voltage-dependent gating of hERG potassium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen May eCheng

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms by which voltage-gated channels sense changes in membrane voltage and energetically couple this with opening of the ion conducting pore has been the source of significant interest. In voltage-gated potassium (Kv channels, much of our knowledge in this area comes from Shaker-type channels, for which voltage-dependent gating is quite rapid. In these channels, activation and deactivation are associated with rapid reconfiguration of the voltage-sensing domain unit that is electromechanically coupled, via the S4-S5 linker helix, to the rate-limiting opening of an intracellular pore gate. However, fast voltage-dependent gating kinetics are not typical of all Kv channels, such as Kv11.1 (human ether-a-go-go related gene, hERG, which activates and deactivates very slowly. Compared to Shaker channels, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying slow hERG gating is much poorer. Here, we present a comparative review of the structure-function relationships underlying voltage-dependent gating in Shaker and hERG channels, with a focus on the roles of the voltage sensing domain and the S4-S5 linker that couples voltage sensor movements to the pore. Measurements of gating current kinetics and fluorimetric analysis of voltage sensor movement are consistent with models suggesting that the hERG activation pathway contains a voltage independent step, which limits voltage sensor transitions. Constraints upon hERG voltage sensor movement may result from loose packing of the S4 helices and additional intra-voltage sensor counter charge interactions. More recent data suggest that key amino acid differences in the hERG voltage sensing unit and S4-S5 linker, relative to fast activating Shaker-type Kv channels, may also contribute to the increased stability of the resting state of the voltage sensor.

  2. Cooperative transition between open and closed conformations in potassium channels.

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    Turkan Haliloglu

    Full Text Available Potassium (K+ ion channels switch between open and closed conformations. The nature of this important transition was revealed by comparing the X-ray crystal structures of the MthK channel from Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum, obtained in its open conformation, and the KcsA channel from Streptomyces lividans, obtained in its closed conformation. We analyzed the dynamic characteristics and energetics of these homotetrameric structures in order to study the role of the intersubunit cooperativity in this transition. For this, elastic models and in silico alanine-scanning mutagenesis were used, respectively. Reassuringly, the calculations manifested motion from the open (closed towards the closed (open conformation. The calculations also revealed a network of dynamically and energetically coupled residues. Interestingly, the network suggests coupling between the selectivity filter and the gate, which are located at the two ends of the channel pore. Coupling between these two regions was not observed in calculations that were conducted with the monomer, which emphasizes the importance of the intersubunit interactions within the tetrameric structure for the cooperative gating behavior of the channel.

  3. Modulation of hERG potassium channel gating normalizes action potential duration prolonged by dysfunctional KCNQ1 potassium channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongkang; Zou, Beiyan; Yu, Haibo; Moretti, Alessandra; Wang, Xiaoying; Yan, Wei; Babcock, Joseph J.; Bellin, Milena; McManus, Owen B.; Tomaselli, Gordon; Nan, Fajun; Laugwitz, Karl-Ludwig; Li, Min

    2012-01-01

    Long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a genetic disease characterized by a prolonged QT interval in an electrocardiogram (ECG), leading to higher risk of sudden cardiac death. Among the 12 identified genes causal to heritable LQTS, ∼90% of affected individuals harbor mutations in either KCNQ1 or human ether-a-go-go related genes (hERG), which encode two repolarizing potassium currents known as IKs and IKr. The ability to quantitatively assess contributions of different current components is therefore important for investigating disease phenotypes and testing effectiveness of pharmacological modulation. Here we report a quantitative analysis by simulating cardiac action potentials of cultured human cardiomyocytes to match the experimental waveforms of both healthy control and LQT syndrome type 1 (LQT1) action potentials. The quantitative evaluation suggests that elevation of IKr by reducing voltage sensitivity of inactivation, not via slowing of deactivation, could more effectively restore normal QT duration if IKs is reduced. Using a unique specific chemical activator for IKr that has a primary effect of causing a right shift of V1/2 for inactivation, we then examined the duration changes of autonomous action potentials from differentiated human cardiomyocytes. Indeed, this activator causes dose-dependent shortening of the action potential durations and is able to normalize action potentials of cells of patients with LQT1. In contrast, an IKr chemical activator of primary effects in slowing channel deactivation was not effective in modulating action potential durations. Our studies provide both the theoretical basis and experimental support for compensatory normalization of action potential duration by a pharmacological agent. PMID:22745159

  4. Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels in Ischemia Reperfusion: A Brief Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Yves eTano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia and reperfusion (IR injury constitutes one of the major causes of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The discovery of new therapies to block/mediate the effects of IR is therefore an important goal in the biomedical sciences. Dysfunction associated with IR involves modification of calcium-activated potassium channels (KCa through different mechanisms, which are still under study. Respectively, the KCa family, major contributors to plasma membrane calcium influx in cells and essential players in the regulation of the vascular tone are interesting candidates. This family is divided into two groups including the large conductance (BKCa and the small/intermediate conductance (SKCa/IKCa K+ channels. In the heart and brain, these channels have been described to offer protection against IR injury. BKCa and SKCa channels deserve special attention since new data demonstrate that these channels are also expressed in mitochondria. More studies are however needed to fully determine their potential use as therapeutic targets.

  5. Mechanisms underlying KCNQ1channel cell volume sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammami, Sofia

    Cells are constantly exposed to changes in cell volume during cell metabolism, nutrient uptake, cell proliferation, cell migration and salt and water transport. In order to cope with these perturbations, potassium channels in line with chloride channels have been shown to be likely contributors...... to the process of cell volume adjustments. A great diversity of potassium channels being members of either the 6TM, 4 TM or 2 TM K+ channel gene family have been shown to be strictly regulated by small, fast changes in cell volume. However, the precise mechanism underlying the K+ channel sensitivity to cell...... mechanism of regulation. Besides being regulated by cell volume, KCNQ1 is also modulated by the interaction of the ß subunit KCNE1 giving rise to the cardiac IKs delayed rectifier potassium current. Apart from altering the kinetic characteristics of the KCNQ1 channel current, KCNE1 also augments the KCNQ1...

  6. Differential regulation of voltage- and calcium-activated potassium channels in human B lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partiseti, M; Choquet, D; Diu, A; Korn, H

    1992-06-01

    The expression and characteristics of K+ channels of human B lymphocytes were studied by using single and whole-cell patch-clamp recordings. They were gated by depolarization (voltage-gated potassium current, IKv, 11-20 pS) and by an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration (calcium-activated potassium current, IKCa, 26 pS), respectively. The level of expression of these channels was correlated with the activational status of the cell. Both conductances are blocked by tetraethylammonium, verapamil, and charybdotoxin, and are insensitive to apamin; 4-aminopyridine blocks IK, preferentially. We used a protein kinase C activator (PMA) or antibodies to membrane Ig (anti-mu) to activate resting splenocytes in culture. Although IKv was recorded in the majority of the resting lymphocytic population, less than 20% of the activated cells expressed this conductance. However, in this subset the magnitude of IKv was 20-fold larger than in resting cells. On the other hand, IKCa was detected in nearly one half of the resting cells, whereas all activated cells expressed this current. The magnitude of IKCa was, on average, 30 times larger in activated than in nonactivated cells. These results probably reflect that during the course of activation 1) the number of voltage-dependent K+ channels per cell decreases and increases in a small subset and 2) the number of Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels per cell increases in all cells. We suggest that the expression of functional Ca(2+)- and voltage-activated K+ channels are under the control of different regulatory signals.

  7. The molecular mechanisms and pharmacotherapy of ATP-sensitive potassium channel gene mutations underlying neonatal diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Lang

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Veronica Lang, Peter E LightDepartment of Pharmacology and Alberta Diabetes Institute, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, School of Molecular and Systems Medicine, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaAbstract: Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM is a monogenic disorder caused by mutations in genes involved in regulation of insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Mutations in the KCNJ11 and ABCC8 genes, encoding the adenosine triphosphate (ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channel Kir6.2 and SUR1 subunits, respectively, are found in ~50% of NDM patients. In the pancreatic β-cell, KATP channel activity couples glucose metabolism to insulin secretion via cellular excitability and mutations in either KCNJ11 or ABCC8 genes alter KATP channel activity, leading to faulty insulin secretion. Inactivation mutations decrease KATP channel activity and stimulate excessive insulin secretion, leading to hyperinsulinism of infancy. In direct contrast, activation mutations increase KATP channel activity, resulting in impaired insulin secretion, NDM, and in severe cases, developmental delay and epilepsy. Many NDM patients with KCNJ11 and ABCC8 mutations can be successfully treated with sulfonylureas (SUs that inhibit the KATP channel, thus replacing the need for daily insulin injections. There is also strong evidence indicating that SU therapy ameliorates some of the neurological defects observed in patients with more severe forms of NDM. This review focuses on the molecular and cellular mechanisms of mutations in the KATP channel that underlie NDM. SU pharmacogenomics is also discussed with respect to evaluating whether patients with certain KATP channel activation mutations can be successfully switched to SU therapy.Keywords: neonatal diabetes, KCNJ11, ABCC8, ATP-sensitive potassium channels

  8. The potassium channel KCa3.1 as new therapeutic target for the prevention of obliterative airway disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hua, Xiaoqin; Deuse, Tobias; Chen, Yi-Je

    2013-01-01

    The calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 is critically involved in T-cell activation as well as in the proliferation of smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts. We sought to investigate whether KCa3.1 contributes to the pathogenesis of obliterative airway disease (OAD) and whether knockout...... or pharmacologic blockade would prevent the development of OAD....

  9. Inhibition of HERG potassium channels by celecoxib and its mechanism.

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    Roman V Frolov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Celecoxib (Celebrex, a widely prescribed selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, can modulate ion channels independently of cyclooxygenase inhibition. Clinically relevant concentrations of celecoxib can affect ionic currents and alter functioning of neurons and myocytes. In particular, inhibition of Kv2.1 channels by celecoxib leads to arrhythmic beating of Drosophila heart and of rat heart cells in culture. However, the spectrum of ion channels involved in human cardiac excitability differs from that in animal models, including mammalian models, making it difficult to evaluate the relevance of these observations to humans. Our aim was to examine the effects of celecoxib on hERG and other human channels critically involved in regulating human cardiac rhythm, and to explore the mechanisms of any observed effect on the hERG channels. METHODS AND RESULTS: Celecoxib inhibited the hERG, SCN5A, KCNQ1 and KCNQ1/MinK channels expressed in HEK-293 cells with IC(50s of 6.0 µM, 7.5 µM, 3.5 µM and 3.7 µM respectively, and the KCND3/KChiP2 channels expressed in CHO cells with an IC(50 of 10.6 µM. Analysis of celecoxib's effects on hERG channels suggested gating modification as the mechanism of drug action. CONCLUSIONS: The above channels play a significant role in drug-induced long QT syndrome (LQTS and short QT syndrome (SQTS. Regulatory guidelines require that all new drugs under development be tested for effects on the hERG channel prior to first administration in humans. Our observations raise the question of celecoxib's potential to induce cardiac arrhythmias or other channel related adverse effects, and make a case for examining such possibilities.

  10. KCNE3 is an inhibitory subunit of the Kv4.3 potassium channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Alicia; Olesen, Søren-Peter

    2006-01-01

    The mammalian Kv4.3 potassium channel is a fast activating and inactivating K+ channel widely distributed in mammalian tissues. Kv4.3 is the major component of various physiologically important currents ranging from A-type currents in the CNS to the transient outward potassium conductance...

  11. Upregulation of voltage-activated potassium channels in hippocampus of Aβ25.35-treated rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-liangWANG; Ya-pingPAN

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Potassium channels dysfunction has been indicated in Alzheimer disease. In the present study, the mRNA and protein expression alterations and the functional changes ot VOltage- activated potassium channels were studied in rat hippocampus after a single intracerebro- ventricular injection of β-amyloid peptide 25-35 (Aβ25.35). METHODS: The expressions of mRNA

  12. Glucose- and interleukin-1beta-induced beta-cell apoptosis requires Ca2+ influx and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation and is prevented by a sulfonylurea receptor 1/inwardly rectifying K+ channel 6.2 (SUR/Kir6.2) selective potassium channel opener in human islets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maedler, Kathrin; Størling, Joachim; Sturis, Jeppe

    2004-01-01

    -regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, an effect that was abrogated by 3 micromol/l NN414. Similarly, 1 micromol/l of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase 1/2 inhibitor PD098059 or 1 micromol/l of the l-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nimodipine prevented glucose- and IL-1beta-induced ERK activation, beta......Increasing evidence indicates that a progressive decrease in the functional beta-cell mass is the hallmark of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The underlying causes, beta-cell apoptosis and impaired secretory function, seem to be partly mediated by macrophage production of interleukin (IL)-1beta...... and/or high-glucose-induced beta-cell production of IL-1beta. Treatment of type 1 and type 2 diabetic patients with the potassium channel opener diazoxide partially restores insulin secretion. Therefore, we studied the effect of diazoxide and of the novel potassium channel opener NN414, selective...

  13. Free RCK arrangement in Kch, a putative escherichia coli potassium channel, as suggested by electron crystallography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Qie; Purhonen, Pasi; Jegerschöld, Caroline; Koeck, Philip J B; Hebert, Hans

    2015-01-01

    The ligand-gated potassium channels are stimulated by various kinds of messengers. Previous studies showed that ligand-gated potassium channels containing RCK domains (the regulator of the conductance of potassium ion) form a dimer of tetramer structure through the RCK octameric gating ring in the presence of detergent. Here, we have analyzed the structure of Kch, a channel of this type from Escherichia coli, in a lipid environment using electron crystallography. By combining information from the 3D map of the transmembrane part of the protein and docking of an atomic model of a potassium channel, we conclude that the RCK domains face the solution and that an RCK octameric gating ring arrangement does not form under our crystallization condition. Our findings may be applied to other potassium channels that have an RCK gating ring arrangement.

  14. Cooperative endocytosis of the endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renigunta, Vijay; Fischer, Thomas; Zuzarte, Marylou; Kling, Stefan; Zou, Xinle; Siebert, Kai; Limberg, Maren M; Rinné, Susanne; Decher, Niels; Schlichthörl, Günter; Daut, Jürgen

    2014-06-15

    The endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 interacts with the acid-sensitive potassium channel TASK-1. The functional relevance of this interaction was studied by heterologous expression of these proteins (and mutants thereof) in Xenopus oocytes and in mammalian cell lines. Coexpression of syntaxin-8 caused a fourfold reduction in TASK-1 current, a corresponding reduction in the expression of TASK-1 at the cell surface, and a marked increase in the rate of endocytosis of the channel. TASK-1 and syntaxin-8 colocalized in the early endosomal compartment, as indicated by the endosomal markers 2xFYVE and rab5. The stimulatory effect of the SNARE protein on the endocytosis of the channel was abolished when both an endocytosis signal in TASK-1 and an endocytosis signal in syntaxin-8 were mutated. A syntaxin-8 mutant that cannot assemble with other SNARE proteins had virtually the same effect as wild-type syntaxin-8. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed formation and endocytosis of vesicles containing fluorescence-tagged clathrin, TASK-1, and/or syntaxin-8. Our results suggest that the unassembled form of syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1 are internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a cooperative manner. This implies that syntaxin-8 regulates the endocytosis of TASK-1. Our study supports the idea that endosomal SNARE proteins can have functions unrelated to membrane fusion.

  15. Potassium channel agonists cause penile erection in cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellstrom, Wayne J.G.; Wang, Run; Kadowitz, Philip J.; Domer, Floyd R.

    2013-01-01

    Using a feline model, erections caused by a new class of vasodilator agents that specifically activate potassium (K+-ATP) channels (lemakalim, nicorandil, and pinacidil) were compared to baseline and maximal erections induced by a standard drug combination (1.65 mg papaverine, 25 μg phentolamine and 0.5 μg PGE1) injected intracavernosally. The responses were characterized by the maximal intracavernosal pressure, the duration of maximal pressure, the total duration of drug effect, the change in penile length, and alterations in systemic arterial blood pressure. All three K+-ATP channel openers caused erections in a dose-dependent manner. All agents caused similar increases in penile length with full erection, but the duration of maximal pressure and duration of action were significantly shorter (P<0.01) than with the standard drug combination. Lemakalim did not decrease systemic blood pressure as did nicorandil, pinacidil, and the standard drug combination. This study supports the use of an in-vivo feline model for the evaluation of vasoactive agents and suggests that a new class of agents can pharmacologically activate the erectile response selectively by an alternate pathway. PMID:25530677

  16. Nitric oxide regulates neuronal activity via calcium-activated potassium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ray Zhong

    Full Text Available Nitric oxide (NO is an unconventional membrane-permeable messenger molecule that has been shown to play various roles in the nervous system. How NO modulates ion channels to affect neuronal functions is not well understood. In gastropods, NO has been implicated in regulating the feeding motor program. The buccal motoneuron, B19, of the freshwater pond snail Helisoma trivolvis is active during the hyper-retraction phase of the feeding motor program and is located in the vicinity of NO-producing neurons in the buccal ganglion. Here, we asked whether B19 neurons might serve as direct targets of NO signaling. Previous work established NO as a key regulator of growth cone motility and neuronal excitability in another buccal neuron involved in feeding, the B5 neuron. This raised the question whether NO might modulate the electrical activity and neuronal excitability of B19 neurons as well, and if so whether NO acted on the same or a different set of ion channels in both neurons. To study specific responses of NO on B19 neurons and to eliminate indirect effects contributed by other cells, the majority of experiments were performed on single cultured B19 neurons. Addition of NO donors caused a prolonged depolarization of the membrane potential and an increase in neuronal excitability. The effects of NO could mainly be attributed to the inhibition of two types of calcium-activated potassium channels, apamin-sensitive and iberiotoxin-sensitive potassium channels. NO was found to also cause a depolarization in B19 neurons in situ, but only after NO synthase activity in buccal ganglia had been blocked. The results suggest that NO acts as a critical modulator of neuronal excitability in B19 neurons, and that calcium-activated potassium channels may serve as a common target of NO in neurons.

  17. Expression and localization of voltage dependent potassium channel Kv4.2 in epilepsy associated focal lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aronica, E.; Boer, K.; Doorn, K.J.; Zurolo, E.; Spliet, W.G.M.; van Rijen, P.C.; Baayen, J.C.; Gorter, J.A.; Jeromin, A.

    2009-01-01

    An increasing number of observations suggest an important role for voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels in epilepsy. We studied the cell-specific distribution of Kv4.2, phosphorylated (p) Kv4.2 and the Kv4.2 interacting protein NCS-1 using immunocytochemistry in different epilepsy-associated focal

  18. Specific Sorting and Post-Golgi trafficking of Dendritic Potassium Channels in Living Neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Camilla Stampe; Watanabe, Shoji; Rasmussen, Hanne Borger

    2014-01-01

    localization in distinct dendritic sub-compartments are largely unknown. Here, we developed a quantitative live-cell imaging method to analyze protein sorting and post-Golgi vesicular trafficking. We focused on two dendritic voltage-gated potassium channels which exhibit distinct localizations; Kv2.......1 in proximal dendrites and Kv4.2 in distal dendrites. Our results show that Kv2.1 and Kv4.2 channels are sorted into two distinct populations of vesicles at the Golgi apparatus. The targeting of Kv2.1 and Kv4.2 vesicles occurred by distinct mechanisms evidenced by their requirement for specific peptide motifs...... that the sorting of ion channels at the Golgi apparatus and their subsequent trafficking by unique molecular mechanisms, are crucial for their specific localizations within dendrites....

  19. Characteristics of Transient Outward Potassium Channel Exposed to 3 mT Static Magnetic Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Gang; CHENG Lijun; QIAO Xiaoyan; LIN Ling; ZHANG Lu; LI Yuanyuan

    2009-01-01

    Acutely isolated mouse hippocampai CA3 pyramidal neurons were exposed to 3 mT static magnetic field, and the characteristics of transient outward K+ channel were studied using the whole-cell patch-clamp tech-nique. The experiment revealed that the amplitude of transient outward potassium channel current was reduced. The maximum activated current densities of control group and exposure group were 163.62±20.68 pA/pF and 98.74±16.57 pA/pF(n=12, P0.05)and the slope factor of the inactivation curves from 8.69±0.80 mV to 10.87±1.02 mV(n=12, P<0.05). The results show that the static magnetic field can change the characteristics of transient outward K+ channel, and affect the physiological functions of neurons.

  20. Effect of Heavy Metal Cadmium lon on Outward Potassium Channel in Cell%重金属Cd2+对细胞外向K+通道的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜春蕾; 王丽红; 江娜; 黄晓华

    2011-01-01

    重金属镉(Cd)污染及其对动植物的伤害机理,已成为中外相关专家研究的热点,但是细胞毒害机理依然不清楚.分布于细胞膜上的通道蛋白,不仅是外来物质作用于生物体的首要位点,且会影响离子通道的功能.为阐释镉(Cd)污染致病与毒害的细胞学机理,选择具有重要生理功能的细胞钾离子(K+)通道为示踪,并应用全细胞膜片钳技术,研究了Cd2+对hERG(K+)通道电流的影响.结果表明:(1)Cd2+能显著抑制hERG K+通道的稳态电流和尾电流,干扰通道蛋白正常开关;(2)当10,50,200 μg/LCd2+作用细胞后,hERG(K+)通道激活曲线右移,斜率因子不变;(3)当10μg/L Cd2+作用细胞后,hERG K+通道电流迅速下降,且随Cd2+浓度增加,此抑制作用未发生明显改变.本工作从一新的角度揭示了Cd2+细胞毒性机理.结果提示,钾通道可作为镉污染致病与毒害的细胞学机理研究的靶点.%Cadmium (Cd) contamination leads to a variety of clinical diseases. Potassium ion (K+) channel is the most diverse and ubiquitous class of ion channels, and it plays the important physiological roles in human. In order to elucidate the cellular mechanism of the pathogenic and toxic effect of Cd2+pollution, the effects of Cd2+on the currents of a human ether-a-go-go related gene (hERG) K+channel was investigated by a whole-cell patch clamp method. The results indicated that Cd2+ significantly inhibited the steady-state and tail currents of hERG K+channel. When cells were treated with 10, 50, 200 μg/L Cd2+, the activation curve of hERG K+channel was right-shifted, and the slope factor was not changed. The currents of hERG K+ channel was not significantly changed with increasing the concentration of Cd2+. The results suggested that potassium channels can be used as the target of the research on the cellular mechanism of the pathogenic and toxic effect of Cd2+pollution.

  1. Scorpion Toxins Specific for Potassium (K+ Channels: A Historical Overview of Peptide Bioengineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary L. Bergeron

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Scorpion toxins have been central to the investigation and understanding of the physiological role of potassium (K+ channels and their expansive function in membrane biophysics. As highly specific probes, toxins have revealed a great deal about channel structure and the correlation between mutations, altered regulation and a number of human pathologies. Radio- and fluorescently-labeled toxin isoforms have contributed to localization studies of channel subtypes in expressing cells, and have been further used in competitive displacement assays for the identification of additional novel ligands for use in research and medicine. Chimeric toxins have been designed from multiple peptide scaffolds to probe channel isoform specificity, while advanced epitope chimerization has aided in the development of novel molecular therapeutics. Peptide backbone cyclization has been utilized to enhance therapeutic efficiency by augmenting serum stability and toxin half-life in vivo as a number of K+-channel isoforms have been identified with essential roles in disease states ranging from HIV, T-cell mediated autoimmune disease and hypertension to various cardiac arrhythmias and Malaria. Bioengineered scorpion toxins have been monumental to the evolution of channel science, and are now serving as templates for the development of invaluable experimental molecular therapeutics.

  2. Effect of La3+ on myocardiac potassium channels revealed by patch-clamp technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Shaowu; YANG Pin

    2005-01-01

    The effect of La3+ on potassium channels in rat ventricular myocytes was investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp recording mode. The Ca2+-independent voltage- activated outward K+ current was activated by the depolarizing pulse in enzymatically isolated rat ventricular myocytes. After addition of different concentrations La3+ to the bath solution, the outward K+ current was depressed gradually. The inhibition effect was in a concentration-dependent manner. The phenomena of the outward K+ current, being the main repolarizing current suppressed by La3+, suggest that the effect of lanthanides on myocardial function should be exploited further.

  3. Two outward potassium current types are expressed during the neural differentiation of neural stem cells**

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruiying Bai; Guowei Gao; Ying Xing; Hong Xue

    2013-01-01

    The electrophysiological properties of potassium ion channels are regarded as a basic index for determining the functional differentiation of neural stem cells. In this study, neural stem cells from the hippocampus of newborn rats were induced to differentiate with neurotrophic growth factor, and the electrophysiological properties of the voltage-gated potassium ion channels were observed. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the rapidly proliferating neural stem cells formed spheres in vitro that expressed high levels of nestin. The differentiated neurons were shown to express neuron-specific enolase. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the neural stem cells were actively dividing and the percentage of cells in the S + G2/M phase was high. However, the ratio of cells in the S + G2/M phase decreased obviously as differentiation proceeded. Whole-cellpatch-clamp re-cordings revealed apparent changes in potassium ion currents as the neurons differentiated. The potassium ion currents consisted of one transient outward potassium ion current and one delayed rectifier potassium ion current, which were blocked by 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium, respectively. The experimental findings indicate that neural stem cells from newborn rat hippo-campus could be cultured and induced to differentiate into functional neurons under defined condi-tions in vitro. The differentiated neurons expressed two types of outward potassium ion currents similar to those of mature neurons in vivo.

  4. Inhibition by acrolein of light-induced stomatal opening through inhibition of inward-rectifying potassium channels in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Moshiul; Ye, Wenxiu; Matsushima, Daiki; Khokon, Md Atiqur Rahman; Munemasa, Shintaro; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Acrolein is a reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehyde derived from lipid peroxides, which are produced in plants under a variety of stress. We investigated effects of acrolein on light-induced stomatal opening using Arabidopsis thaliana. Acrolein inhibited light-induced stomatal opening in a dose-dependent manner. Acrolein at 100 μM inhibited plasma membrane inward-rectifying potassium (Kin) channels in guard cells. Acrolein at 100 μM inhibited Kin channel KAT1 expressed in a heterologous system using Xenopus leaves oocytes. These results suggest that acrolein inhibits light-induced stomatal opening through inhibition of Kin channels in guard cells.

  5. G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium channels involved in corticostriatal presynaptic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, David; Mateos, Verónica; Islas, Gustavo; Barral, Jaime

    2015-09-01

    Presynaptic modulation has been associated mainly with calcium channels but recent data suggests that inward rectifier potassium channels (K(IR)) also play a role. In this work we set to characterize the role of presynaptic K(IR) channels in corticostriatal synaptic transmission. We elicited synaptic potentials in striatum by stimulating cortical areas and then determined the synaptic responses of corticostriatal synapsis by using paired pulse ratio (PPR) in the presence and absence of several potassium channel blockers. Unspecific potassium channels blockers Ba(2+) and Cs(+) reduced the PPR, suggesting that these channels are presynaptically located. Further pharmacological characterization showed that application of tertiapin-Q, a specific K(IR)3 channel family blocker, also induced a reduction of PPR, suggesting that K(IR)3 channels are present at corticostriatal terminals. In contrast, exposure to Lq2, a specific K(IR)1.1 inward rectifier potassium channel, did not induce any change in PPR suggesting the absence of these channels in the presynaptic corticostriatal terminals. Our results indicate that K(IR)3 channels are functionally expressed at the corticostriatal synapses, since blockage of these channels result in PPR decrease. Our results also help to explain how synaptic activity may become sensitive to extracellular signals mediated by G-protein coupled receptors. A vast repertoire of receptors may influence neurotransmitter release in an indirect manner through regulation of K(IR)3 channels.

  6. Pulmonary vasoconstrictor action of KCNQ potassium channel blockers

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    Balan Prabhu

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background KCNQ channels have been widely studied in the nervous system, heart and inner ear, where they have important physiological functions. Recent reports indicate that KCNQ channels may also be expressed in portal vein where they are suggested to influence spontaneous contractile activity. The biophysical properties of K+ currents mediated by KCNQ channels resemble a current underlying the resting K+ conductance and resting potential of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells. We therefore investigated a possible role of KCNQ channels in regulating the function of pulmonary arteries by determining the ability of the selective KCNQ channel blockers, linopirdine and XE991, to promote pulmonary vasoconstriction. Methods The tension developed by rat and mouse intrapulmonary or mesenteric arteries was measured using small vessel myography. Contractile responses to linopirdine and XE991 were measured in intact and endothelium denuded vessels. Experiments were also carried out under conditions that prevent the contractile effects of nerve released noradrenaline or ATP, or block various Ca2+ influx pathways, in order to investigate the mechanisms underlying contraction. Results Linopirdine and XE991 both contracted rat and mouse pulmonary arteries but had little effect on mesenteric arteries. In each case the maximum contraction was almost as large as the response to 50 mM K+. Linopirdine had an EC50 of around 1 μM and XE991 was almost 10-fold more potent. Neither removal of the endothelium nor exposure to phentolamine or α,β-methylene ATP, to block α1-adrenoceptors or P2X receptors, respectively, affected the contraction. Contraction was abolished in Ca2+-free solution and in the presence of 1 μM nifedipine or 10 μM levcromakalim. Conclusion The KCNQ channel blockers are potent and powerful constrictors of pulmonary arteries. This action may be selective for the pulmonary circulation as mesenteric arteries showed little response. The

  7. Voltage dependent potassium channel remodeling in murine intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dong-Hai; Huang, Xu; Guo, Xin; Meng, Xiang-Min; Wu, Yi-Song; Lu, Hong-Li; Zhang, Chun-Mei; Kim, Young-chul; Xu, Wen-Xie

    2014-01-01

    Partial obstruction of the small intestine causes obvious hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells and motility disorder in the bowel proximate to the obstruction. To identify electric remodeling of hypertrophic smooth muscles in partially obstructed murine small intestine, the patch-clamp and intracellular microelectrode recording methods were used to identify the possible electric remodeling and Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation were utilized to examine the channel protein expression and phosphorylation level changes in this research. After 14 days of obstruction, partial obstruction caused obvious smooth muscle hypertrophy in the proximally located intestine. The slow waves of intestinal smooth muscles in the dilated region were significantly suppressed, their amplitude and frequency were reduced, whilst the resting membrane potentials were depolarized compared with normal and sham animals. The current density of voltage dependent potassium channel (KV) was significantly decreased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells and the voltage sensitivity of KV activation was altered. The sensitivity of KV currents (IKV) to TEA, a nonselective potassium channel blocker, increased significantly, but the sensitivity of IKv to 4-AP, a KV blocker, stays the same. The protein levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were up-regulated in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cell membrane. The serine and threonine phosphorylation levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were significantly increased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells. Thus this study represents the first identification of KV channel remodeling in murine small intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction. The enhanced phosphorylations of KV4.3 and KV2.2 may be involved in this process.

  8. Voltage dependent potassium channel remodeling in murine intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Hai Liu

    Full Text Available Partial obstruction of the small intestine causes obvious hypertrophy of smooth muscle cells and motility disorder in the bowel proximate to the obstruction. To identify electric remodeling of hypertrophic smooth muscles in partially obstructed murine small intestine, the patch-clamp and intracellular microelectrode recording methods were used to identify the possible electric remodeling and Western blot, immunofluorescence and immunoprecipitation were utilized to examine the channel protein expression and phosphorylation level changes in this research. After 14 days of obstruction, partial obstruction caused obvious smooth muscle hypertrophy in the proximally located intestine. The slow waves of intestinal smooth muscles in the dilated region were significantly suppressed, their amplitude and frequency were reduced, whilst the resting membrane potentials were depolarized compared with normal and sham animals. The current density of voltage dependent potassium channel (KV was significantly decreased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells and the voltage sensitivity of KV activation was altered. The sensitivity of KV currents (IKV to TEA, a nonselective potassium channel blocker, increased significantly, but the sensitivity of IKv to 4-AP, a KV blocker, stays the same. The protein levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were up-regulated in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cell membrane. The serine and threonine phosphorylation levels of KV4.3 and KV2.2 were significantly increased in the hypertrophic smooth muscle cells. Thus this study represents the first identification of KV channel remodeling in murine small intestinal smooth muscle hypertrophy induced by partial obstruction. The enhanced phosphorylations of KV4.3 and KV2.2 may be involved in this process.

  9. Escitalopram block of hERG potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Yun Ju; Jeon, Ji Hyun; Lee, Hong Joon; Kim, In-Beom; Choi, Jin-Sung; Sung, Ki-Wug; Hahn, Sang June

    2014-01-01

    Escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is the pharmacologically active S-enantiomer of the racemic mixture of RS-citalopram and is widely used in the treatment of depression. The effects of escitalopram and citalopram on the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) channels expressed in human embryonic kidney cells were investigated using voltage-clamp and Western blot analyses. Both drugs blocked hERG currents in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 value of 2.6 μM for escitalopram and an IC50 value of 3.2 μM for citalopram. The blocking of hERG by escitalopram was voltage-dependent, with a steep increase across the voltage range of channel activation. However, voltage independence was observed over the full range of activation. The blocking by escitalopram was frequency dependent. A rapid application of escitalopram induced a rapid and reversible blocking of the tail current of hERG. The extent of the blocking by escitalopram during the depolarizing pulse was less than that during the repolarizing pulse, suggesting that escitalopram has a high affinity for the open state of the hERG channel, with a relatively lower affinity for the inactivated state. Both escitalopram and citalopram produced a reduction of hERG channel protein trafficking to the plasma membrane but did not affect the short-term internalization of the hERG channel. These results suggest that escitalopram blocked hERG currents at a supratherapeutic concentration and that it did so by preferentially binding to both the open and the inactivated states of the channels and by inhibiting the trafficking of hERG channel protein to the plasma membrane.

  10. Large-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium channels in secretory neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, J; Acevedo, J J; Onetti, C G

    1999-09-01

    Large-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (BK) are believed to underlie interburst intervals and contribute to the control of hormone release in several secretory cells. In crustacean neurosecretory cells, Ca2+ entry associated with electrical activity could act as a modulator of membrane K+ conductance. Therefore we studied the contribution of BK channels to the macroscopic outward current in the X-organ of crayfish, and their participation in electrophysiological activity, as well as their sensitivity toward intracellular Ca2+, ATP, and voltage, by using the patch-clamp technique. The BK channels had a conductance of 223 pS and rectified inwardly in symmetrical K+. These channels were highly selective to K+ ions; potassium permeability (PK) value was 2.3 x 10(-13) cm(3) s(-1). The BK channels were sensitive to internal Ca2+ concentration, voltage dependent, and activated by intracellular MgATP. Voltage sensitivity (k) was approximately 13 mV, and the half-activation membrane potentials depended on the internal Ca2+ concentration. Calcium ions (0.3-3 microM) applied to the internal membrane surface caused an enhancement of the channel activity. This activation of BK channels by internal calcium had a KD(0) of 0.22 microM and was probably due to the binding of only one or two Ca2+ ions to the channel. Addition of MgATP (0.01-3 mM) to the internal solution increased steady state-open probability. The dissociation constant for MgATP (KD) was 119 microM, and the Hill coefficient (h) was 0.6, according to the Hill analysis. Ca2+-activated K+ currents recorded from whole cells were suppressed by either adding Cd2+ (0.4 mM) or removing Ca2+ ions from the external solution. TEA (1 mM) or charybdotoxin (100 nM) blocked these currents. Our results showed that both BK and K(ATP) channels are present in the same cell. Even when BK and K(ATP) channels were voltage dependent and modulated by internal Ca2+ and ATP, the profile of sensitivity was quite different for each kind

  11. Changes of Ca2+ activated potassium channels and cellular proliferation in autogenous vein grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱济先; 宋胜云; 马保安; 范清宇

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate changes of Ca2+ activated potassium channels (KCa) in autogenous vein grafts. Methods: Contraction of venous ring was measured by means of perfusion in vitro. The intimal rabbits proliferation of vascular and proliferation of cultured smooth muscle cells(vascular smooth muscle cells, VSMCs)were observed by the means of computerised image analysis and MTT method respectively. Furthermore, whole cell mode of patch clamp was used to record KCa of VSMCs isolated from autogenous vein grafts. Results: One week after transplantation there were no significant differences of contraction and intimal relative thickness between autogenous vein grafts and control. Contraction and intimal relative thickness of autogenous vein graft were significantly increased 2 weeks after transplantation (P<0.05, n=8 vs control), and they was more enhanced 4 weeks after vein transplantation (P<0.01, n=8 vs control).TEA(blocker of Ca2+ activated potassium channels)increased MTT A490 nm value of VSMCs from femoral vein in a dose dependent manner(P<0.05, n=8). KCa current density was significantly attenuated in VSMCs from autogenous vein grafts (1-4) week after transplantation(P<0.05, n=5).Conclusion: KCa is inhibited in autogenous vein graft, which account for vasospasm and intimal proliferation.

  12. The MiRP2-Kv3.4 potassium channel: muscling in on Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Eun; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2007-09-01

    In this issue of Molecular Pharmacology (p. 665), Pannacione et al. provide evidence of a role for the voltage-gated potassium channel alpha subunit Kv3.4 and its ancillary subunit MiRP2 in beta-amyloid (Abeta) peptide-mediated neuronal death. The MiRP2-Kv3.4 channel complex-previously found to be important in skeletal myocyte physiology-is now argued to be a molecular correlate of the transient outward potassium current up-regulated by Abeta peptide, considered a significant step in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease. The authors conclude that MiRP2 and Kv3.4 are up-regulated by Abeta peptide in a nuclear factor kappaB-dependent fashion at the transcriptional level, and the sea anemone toxin BDS-I is shown to protect against Abeta peptide-mediated cell death by specific blockade of Kv3.4-generated current. The findings lend weight to the premise that specific channels, such as MiRP2-Kv3.4, could hold promise as future therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's disease and potentially other neurodegenerative disorders.

  13. Alteration in rectification of potassium channels in perinatal hypoxia ischemia brain damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Penghui; Wang, Liyan; Deng, Qiyue; Ruan, Huaizhen; Cai, Wenqin

    2015-01-15

    Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) are susceptible to perinatal hypoxia ischemia brain damage (HIBD), which results in infant cerebral palsy due to the effects on myelination. The origin of OPC vulnerability in HIBD, however, remains controversial. In this study, we defined the HIBD punctate lesions by MRI diffuse excessive high signal intensity (DEHSI) in postnatal 7-day-old rats. The electrophysiological functional properties of OPCs in HIBD were recorded by patch-clamp in acute cerebral cortex slices. The slices were intracellularly injected with Lucifer yellow and immunohistochemically labeled with NG2 antibody to identify local OPCs. Passive membrane properties and K(+) channel functions in OPCs were analyzed to estimate the onset of vulnerability in HIBD. The resting membrane potential, membrane resistance, and membrane capacitance of OPCs were increased in both the gray and white matter of the cerebral cortex. OPCs in both the gray and white matter exhibited voltage-dependent K(+) currents, which consisted of the initiated rectified potassium currents (IA) and the sustained rectified currents (IK). The significant alternation in membrane resistance was influenced by the diversity of potassium channel kinetics. These findings suggest that the rectification of IA and IK channels may play a significant role in OPC vulnerability in HIBD.

  14. The voltage-gated potassium channel subunit, Kv1.3, is expressed in epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunnet, Morten; Rasmussen, Hanne B; Hay-Schmidt, Anders;

    2003-01-01

    The Shaker-type voltage-gated potassium channel, Kv1.3, is believed to be restricted in distribution to lymphocytes and neurons. In lymphocytes, this channel has gained intense attention since it has been proven that inhibition of Kv1.3 channels compromise T lymphocyte activation. To investigate...

  15. Potassium channels in airway smooth muscle and airway hyperreactivity in asthma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xian-sheng; XU Yong-jian

    2005-01-01

    @@ Our knowledge of the physiology of ion channels has increased tremendously during the past 20 years because of the advances of the single-channel recording and molecular cloning techniques. More than 50 different identified potassium channels have already been found.

  16. The Sodium-Activated Potassium Channel Slack Is Required for Optimal Cognitive Flexibility in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausch, Anne E.; Dieter, Rebekka; Nann, Yvette; Hausmann, Mario; Meyerdierks, Nora; Kaczmarek, Leonard K.; Ruth, Peter; Lukowski, Robert

    2015-01-01

    "Kcnt1" encoded sodium-activated potassium channels (Slack channels) are highly expressed throughout the brain where they modulate the firing patterns and general excitability of many types of neurons. Increasing evidence suggests that Slack channels may be important for higher brain functions such as cognition and normal intellectual…

  17. Immunolocalization and expression of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in human myometrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbaum, Sofia T; Svalø, Julie; Nielsen, Karsten;

    2012-01-01

    Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK3) channels have been detected in human myometrium and we have previously shown a functional role of SK channels in human myometrium in vitro. The aims of this study were to identify the precise localization of SK3 channels and to quantify SK3 mRNA...

  18. Mechanism of Action of Novel Glibenclamide Derivatives on Potassium and Calcium Channels for Insulin Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederico, Marisa Jádson Silva; Castro, Allisson Jhonatan Gomes; Menegaz, Danusa; De Bernardis Murat, Cahuê; Mendes, Camila Pires; Mascarello, Alessandra; Nunes, Ricardo José; Silva, Fátima Regina Mena Barreto

    2016-06-14

    Glibenclamide is widely used and remains a cornerstone and an effective antihyperglycemic drug. After the casual discovery of its hypoglycemic potential, this compound was introduced for diabetes treatment. However, the long-term side effects reveal that glibenclamide should be replaced by new molecules able to maintain the health of β-cells, protecting them from hyperstimulation/hyperexcitability, hyperinsulinemia, functional failure and cell death. The aim of this review was to highlight the main mechanism of action of glibenclamide and the influence of its derivatives, such as acyl-hydrazones, sulfonamides and sulfonylthioureas on β-cells potassium and calcium channels for insulin secretion as well as the contribution of these new compounds to restore glucose homeostasis. Furthermore, the role of glibenclamide-based novel structures that promise less excitability of β-cell in a long-term treatment with effectiveness and safety for diabetes therapy was discussed.

  19. SLO BK Potassium Channels Couple Gap Junctions to Inhibition of Calcium Signaling in Olfactory Neuron Diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alqadah, Amel; Hsieh, Yi-Wen; Schumacher, Jennifer A; Wang, Xiaohong; Merrill, Sean A; Millington, Grethel; Bayne, Brittany; Jorgensen, Erik M; Chuang, Chiou-Fen

    2016-01-01

    The C. elegans AWC olfactory neuron pair communicates to specify asymmetric subtypes AWCOFF and AWCON in a stochastic manner. Intercellular communication between AWC and other neurons in a transient NSY-5 gap junction network antagonizes voltage-activated calcium channels, UNC-2 (CaV2) and EGL-19 (CaV1), in the AWCON cell, but how calcium signaling is downregulated by NSY-5 is only partly understood. Here, we show that voltage- and calcium-activated SLO BK potassium channels mediate gap junction signaling to inhibit calcium pathways for asymmetric AWC differentiation. Activation of vertebrate SLO-1 channels causes transient membrane hyperpolarization, which makes it an important negative feedback system for calcium entry through voltage-activated calcium channels. Consistent with the physiological roles of SLO-1, our genetic results suggest that slo-1 BK channels act downstream of NSY-5 gap junctions to inhibit calcium channel-mediated signaling in the specification of AWCON. We also show for the first time that slo-2 BK channels are important for AWC asymmetry and act redundantly with slo-1 to inhibit calcium signaling. In addition, nsy-5-dependent asymmetric expression of slo-1 and slo-2 in the AWCON neuron is necessary and sufficient for AWC asymmetry. SLO-1 and SLO-2 localize close to UNC-2 and EGL-19 in AWC, suggesting a role of possible functional coupling between SLO BK channels and voltage-activated calcium channels in AWC asymmetry. Furthermore, slo-1 and slo-2 regulate the localization of synaptic markers, UNC-2 and RAB-3, in AWC neurons to control AWC asymmetry. We also identify the requirement of bkip-1, which encodes a previously identified auxiliary subunit of SLO-1, for slo-1 and slo-2 function in AWC asymmetry. Together, these results provide an unprecedented molecular link between gap junctions and calcium pathways for terminal differentiation of olfactory neurons.

  20. Membrane lipids tune synaptic transmission by direct modulation of presynaptic potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carta, Mario; Lanore, Frederic; Rebola, Nelson; Szabo, Zsolt; Da Silva, Silvia Viana; Lourenço, Joana; Verraes, Agathe; Nadler, André; Schultz, Carsten; Blanchet, Christophe; Mulle, Christophe

    2014-02-19

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are involved in action potential (AP) repolarization in excitable cells. Exogenous application of membrane-derived lipids, such as arachidonic acid (AA), regulates the gating of Kv channels. Whether membrane-derived lipids released under physiological conditions have an impact on neuronal coding through this mechanism is unknown. We show that AA released in an activity-dependent manner from postsynaptic hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells acts as retrograde messenger, inducing a robust facilitation of mossy fiber (Mf) synaptic transmission over several minutes. AA acts by broadening presynaptic APs through the direct modulation of Kv channels. This form of short-term plasticity can be triggered when postsynaptic cell fires with physiologically relevant patterns and sets the threshold for the induction of the presynaptic form of long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal Mf synapses. Hence, direct modulation of presynaptic Kv channels by activity-dependent release of lipids serves as a physiological mechanism for tuning synaptic transmission.

  1. Structural analysis of the S4-S5 linker of the human KCNQ1 potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Shovanlal; Li, Qingxin; Kang, CongBao

    2015-01-02

    KCNQ1 plays important roles in the cardiac action potential and consists of an N-terminal domain, a voltage-sensor domain, a pore domain and a C-terminal domain. KCNQ1 is a voltage-gated potassium channel and its channel activity is regulated by membrane potentials. The linker between transmembrane helices 4 and 5 (S4-S5 linker) is important for transferring the conformational changes from the voltage-sensor domain to the pore domain. In this study, the structure of the S4-S5 linker of KCNQ1 was investigated by solution NMR, circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopic studies. The S4-S5 linker adopted a helical structure in detergent micelles. The W248 may interact with the cell membrane.

  2. Genetic variation in genes encoding airway epithelial potassium channels is associated with chronic rhinosinusitis in a pediatric population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael T Purkey

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Apical potassium channels regulate ion transport in airway epithelial cells and influence air surface liquid (ASL hydration and mucociliary clearance (MCC. We sought to identify whether genetic variation within genes encoding airway potassium channels is associated with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS. METHODS: Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP genotypes for selected potassium channels were derived from data generated on the Illumnia HumanHap550 BeadChip or Illumina Human610-Quad BeadChip for 828 unrelated individuals diagnosed with CRS and 5,083 unrelated healthy controls from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP. Statistical analysis was performed with set-based tests using PLINK, and corrected for multiple testing. RESULTS: Set-based case control analysis revealed the gene KCNMA1 was associated with CRS in our Caucasian subset of the cohort (598 CRS cases and 3,489 controls; p = 0.022, based on 10,000 permutations. In addition there was borderline evidence that the gene KCNQ5 (p = 0.0704 was associated with the trait in our African American subset of the cohort (230 CRS cases and 1,594 controls. In addition to the top significant SNPs rs2917454 and rs6907229, imputation analysis uncovered additional genetic variants in KCNMA1 and in KCNQ5 that were associated with CRS. CONCLUSIONS: We have implicated two airway epithelial potassium channels as novel susceptibility loci in contributing to the pathogenesis of CRS.

  3. Differential blockage of two types of potassium channels in the crab giant axon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, B; Arispe, N; Quinta-Ferreira, M E; Rojas, E

    1985-01-01

    Measurements were made of the kinetic and steady-state characteristics of the potassium conductance in the giant axon of the crabs Carcinus maenas and Cancer pagirus. The conductance increase during depolarizing voltage-clamp pulses was analyzed assuming that two separate types of potassium channels exist in these axons (M.E. Quinta-Ferreira, E. Rojas and N. Arispe, J. Membrane Biol. 66:171-181, 1982). It is shown here that, with small concentrations of conventional K+-channel blockers, it is possible to differentially inhibit these channels. The potassium channels with activation and fast inactivation gating (m3h, Hodgkin-Huxley kinetics) were blocked by external application of 4 amino-pyridine (4-AP). The potassium channels with standard gating (n4, Hodgkin-Huxley kinetics) were preferentially inhibited by externally applied tetraethylammonium (TEA). The differential blockage of the two types of potassium conductance changes suggests that they represent two different populations of potassium channels. It is further shown here that blocking the early transient conductance increase leads to the inhibition of the repetitive electrical activity induced by constant depolarizing current injection in fibers from Cardisoma guanhumi.

  4. Activation of protein kinase C inhibits potassium currents in cultured endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H; Weir, B; Daniel, E E

    1995-04-01

    The effect of protein kinase C on potassium channels in cultured endothelial cells was investigated by using whole-cell patch-clamp techniques. Activation of protein kinase C by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu), but not phorbol 12-monomyristate (PMM), an inactive analogue of phorbol esters, depressed an outward calcium-dependent potassium current. The inhibitory actions of PMA and PDBu could be reversed by the kinase inhibitor H-7. Cyclopiazonic acid, an inhibitor of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump, and LP-805, a novel vasodilator which also releases endothelium-derived relaxing factors, activated the outward calcium-dependent potassium conductance. PMA and PDBu, but not PMM, reduced the outward conductance induced by cyclopiazonic acid and LP-805. These effects of PMA and PDBu on potassium currents may be mediated either by phosphorylation of ion channels, or by decreasing intracellular calcium concentration.

  5. Comparison of the effects of DC031050,a class Ⅲ antiarrhythmic agent, on hERG channel and three neuronal potassium channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ping LI; Hai-feng SUN; Ping-zheng ZHOU; Chao-ying MA; Guo-yuan HU; Hua-liang JIANG; Min LI; Hong LIU; Zhao-bing GAO

    2012-01-01

    Aim:This study was conducted to test the selectivity of DC031050 on cardiac and neuronal potassium channels.Methods:Human ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG),KCNQ and Kv1.2 channels were expressed in CHO cells.The delayed rectifier potassium current (IK) was recorded from dissociated hippocampal pyramidal neurons of neonatal rats.Whole-cell voltage patch clamp was used to record the voltage-activated potassium currents.Drug-containing solution was delivered using a RSC-100 Rapid Solution Changer.Results:Both DC031050 and dofetilide potently inhibited hERG currents with IC50 values of 2.3±1.0 and 17.9±1.2 nmol/L,respectively.DC031050 inhibited the IK current with an IC50 value of 2.7±1.5 μmol/L,which was >1000 times the concentration required to inhibit hERG current.DC031050 at 3 μmol/L did not significantly affect the voltage-dependence of the steady activation,steady inactivation of IK,or the rate of IK from inactivation.Intracellular application of DC031050 (5μmol/L) was insufficient to inhibit IK.DC031050 up to 10μmol/L had no effects on KCNQ2 and Kv1.2 channel currents.Conclusion:DC031050 is a highly selective hERG potassium channel blocker with a substantial safety margin of activity over neuronal potassium channels,thus holds significant potential for therapeutic application as a class Ⅲ antiarrhythmic agent.

  6. Endocytic regulation of voltage-dependent potassium channels in the heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kuniaki; Norota, Ikuo; Obara, Yutaro

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the regulation of cardiac ion channels is critical for the prevention of arrhythmia caused by abnormal excitability. Ion channels can be regulated by a change in function (qualitative) and a change in number (quantitative). Functional changes have been extensively investigated for many ion channels including cardiac voltage-dependent potassium channels. By contrast, the regulation of ion channel numbers has not been widely examined, particularly with respect to acute modulation of ion channels. This article briefly summarizes stimulus-induced endocytic regulation of major voltage-dependent potassium channels in the heart. The stimuli known to cause their endocytosis include receptor activation, drugs, and low extracellular [K(+)], following which the potassium channels undergo either clathrin-mediated or caveolin-mediated endocytosis. Receptor-mediated endocytic regulation has been demonstrated for Kv1.2, Kv1.5, KCNQ1 (Kv7.1), and Kv4.3, while drug-induced endocytosis has been demonstrated for Kv1.5 and hERG. Low [K(+)](o)-induced endocytosis might be unique for hERG channels, whose electrophysiological characteristics are known to be under strong influence of [K(+)](o). Although the precise mechanisms have not been elucidated, it is obvious that major cardiac voltage-dependent potassium channels are modulated by endocytosis, which leads to changes in cardiac excitability.

  7. Three-dimensional structure of the S4-S5 segment of the Shaker potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlenschläger, Oliver; Hojo, Hironobu; Ramachandran, Ramadurai; Görlach, Matthias; Haris, Parvez I

    2002-06-01

    The propagation of action potentials during neuronal signal transduction in phospholipid membranes is mediated by ion channels, a diverse group of membrane proteins. The S4-S5 linker peptide (S4-S5), that connects the S4 and S5 transmembrane segments of voltage-gated potassium channels is an important region of the Shaker ion-channel protein. Despite its importance, very little is known about its structure. Here we provide evidence for an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation of a synthetic S4-S5 peptide of the voltage-gated Drosophila melanogaster Shaker potassium channel in water/trifluoroethanol and in aqueous phospholipid micelles. The three-dimensional solution structures of the S4-S5 peptide were obtained by high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and distance-geometry/simulated-annealing calculations. The detailed structural features are discussed with respect to model studies and available mutagenesis data on the mechanism and selectivity of the potassium channel.

  8. Modeling of the Binding of Peptide Blockers to Voltage-Gated Potassium Channels: Approaches and Evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novoseletsky, V N; Volyntseva, A D; Shaitan, K V; Kirpichnikov, M P; Feofanov, A V

    2016-01-01

    Modeling of the structure of voltage-gated potassium (KV) channels bound to peptide blockers aims to identify the key amino acid residues dictating affinity and provide insights into the toxin-channel interface. Computational approaches open up possibilities for in silico rational design of selective blockers, new molecular tools to study the cellular distribution and functional roles of potassium channels. It is anticipated that optimized blockers will advance the development of drugs that reduce over activation of potassium channels and attenuate the associated malfunction. Starting with an overview of the recent advances in computational simulation strategies to predict the bound state orientations of peptide pore blockers relative to KV-channels, we go on to review algorithms for the analysis of intermolecular interactions, and then take a look at the results of their application.

  9. Potassium ions in the cavity of a KcsA channel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Zhenwei; Qiao, Baofu; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2013-12-01

    The high rate of ion flux and selectivity of potassium channels has been attributed to the conformation and dynamics of the ions in the filter which connects the channel cavity and the extracellular environment. The cavity serves as the reservoir for potassium ions diffusing from the intracellular medium. The cavity is believed to decrease the dielectric barrier for the ions to enter the filter. We study here the equilibrium and dynamic properties of potassium ions entering the water-filled cavity of a KcsA channel model. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations that are supplemented by electrostatic calculations reveal the important role of water molecules and the partially charged protein helices at the bottom of the cavity in overcoming the energy barrier and stabilizing the potassium ion in the cavity. We further show that the average time for a potassium ion to enter the cavity is much shorter than the conduction rate of a potassium passing through the filter, and this time duration is insensitive over a wide range of the membrane potential. The conclusions drawn from the study of the channel model are applicable in generalized contexts, including the entry of ions in artificial ion channels and other confined geometries.

  10. Efflux of potassium ion is an important reason of HL-60 cells apoptosis induced by tachyplesin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-tao ZHANG; Jun WU; Hai-feng ZHANG; Qi-feng ZHU

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the role of intercellular potassium in tachyplesin-induced HL-60 cells apoptosis. Methods: The concentration of intercellular potassium, cell volume and mitochondrial membrane potential were examined by flow cytometry. Results: The concentration of intercellular potassium reduced in a time-dependent manner in tachyplesin-treated HL-60 cells. In addition, the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential was tightly coupled with the shrinkage of cell volume. Different caspase inhibitors protected against DNA degradation but did not prevent the loss of HL-60 cell viability induced by tachyplesin. Ba2+, which was a kind of blocker of volume-regulatory K+ channels, increased the viability of tachyplesin-treated HL-60 cells and maintained mitochondrial membrane potential and cell volume. Conclusion: Efflux of K+ was an important reason for apoptosis in tachyplesin-treated HL-60 cells. Efflux of K+ affected the viability of tachyplesin-treated HL-60 cells independent of the process of caspase activation.

  11. Exploring Arterial Smooth Muscle Kv7 Potassium Channel Function using Patch Clamp Electrophysiology and Pressure Myography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggemann, Lioubov I.; Mani, Bharath K.; Haick, Jennifer; Byron, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Contraction or relaxation of smooth muscle cells within the walls of resistance arteries determines the artery diameter and thereby controls flow of blood through the vessel and contributes to systemic blood pressure. The contraction process is regulated primarily by cytosolic calcium concentration ([Ca2+]cyt), which is in turn controlled by a variety of ion transporters and channels. Ion channels are common intermediates in signal transduction pathways activated by vasoactive hormones to effect vasoconstriction or vasodilation. And ion channels are often targeted by therapeutic agents either intentionally (e.g. calcium channel blockers used to induce vasodilation and lower blood pressure) or unintentionally (e.g. to induce unwanted cardiovascular side effects). Kv7 (KCNQ) voltage-activated potassium channels have recently been implicated as important physiological and therapeutic targets for regulation of smooth muscle contraction. To elucidate the specific roles of Kv7 channels in both physiological signal transduction and in the actions of therapeutic agents, we need to study how their activity is modulated at the cellular level as well as evaluate their contribution in the context of the intact artery. The rat mesenteric arteries provide a useful model system. The arteries can be easily dissected, cleaned of connective tissue, and used to prepare isolated arterial myocytes for patch clamp electrophysiology, or cannulated and pressurized for measurements of vasoconstrictor/vasodilator responses under relatively physiological conditions. Here we describe the methods used for both types of measurements and provide some examples of how the experimental design can be integrated to provide a clearer understanding of the roles of these ion channels in the regulation of vascular tone. PMID:23007713

  12. A Shab potassium channel contributes to action potential broadening in peptidergic neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quattrocki, E A; Marshall, J; Kaczmarek, L K

    1994-01-01

    We have cloned the gene for a potassium channel, Aplysia Shab, that is expressed in the bag cell neurons of Aplysia. The voltage dependence and kinetics of the Aplysia Shab current in oocytes match those of IK2, one of the two delayed rectifiers in these neurons. Like IK2, but in contrast with other members of the Shab subfamily, the Aplysia Shab current inactivates within several hundred milliseconds. This inactivation occurs by a process whose properties do not match those previously described for C-type and N-type mechanisms. Neither truncation of the N-terminus nor block by tetraethylammonium alters the time course of inactivation. By incorporating the characteristics of Aplysia Shab into a computational model, we have shown how this current contributes to the normal enhancement of action potentials that occurs in the bag cell neurons at the onset of neuropeptide secretion.

  13. Ionic channels in plants: potassium transport Canais iônicos em plantas: o transporte de potássio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Costa de Oliveira

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of potassium channels on the plasma membrane has helped to elucidate important mechanisms in animal and plant physiology. Plant growth and development associated mechanisms, such as germination, leaf movements, stomatal action, ion uptake in roots, phloem transport and nutrient storage are linked to potassium transport. Studies describing potassium transport regulation by abscisic acid (ABA, Ca++, light and other factors are presented here. Also the types of channels that regulate potassium uptake and efflux in the cell, and the interaction of these channels with external signals, are discussed.A descoberta de canais iônicos presentes na membrana plasmática tem ajudado a elucidar importantes mecanismos fisiológicos em animais e plantas. Mecanismos associados ao crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas, tais como germinação, movimento foliar, abertura e fechamento de estômatos, absorção de íons pelas raízes e armazenamento de nutrientes estão ligados ao transporte de potássio. Estudos descrevendo a regulação do transporte deste nutriente por ácido abscísico (ABA, Ca++, luz e outros fatores são apresentados. Os tipos de canais que regulam a saída e entrada de potássio na célula, e as interações destes com os sinais externos, são discutidos.

  14. Activation of ERG2 potassium channels by the diphenylurea NS1643

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmedyb, Pernille; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Grunnet, Morten

    2007-01-01

    Three members of the ERG potassium channel family have been described (ERG1-3 or Kv 11.1-3). ERG1 is by far the best characterized subtype and it constitutes the molecular component of the cardiac I(Kr) current. All three channel subtypes are expressed in neurons but their function remains unclear...

  15. Differential effects of sulfonylurea derivatives on vascular ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engbersen, R.H.G.; Masereeuw, R.; Gestel, M.A. van; Siero, H.L.M.; Moons, M.M.; Smits, P.; Russel, F.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfonylurea drugs exert their insulinotropic action by inhibiting ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the pancreas. However, these channels are also expressed in myocardial and vascular smooth muscle, implicating possible detrimental cardiovascular effects. Aim of the present study was to investiga

  16. Role of calcium activated potassium channels in atrial fibrillation pathophysiology and therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Jonas G.; Bentzen, Bo H.; S. Sørensen, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    Small-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium (SK) channels are relative newcomers within the field of cardiac electrophysiology. In recent years, an increased focus has been given to these channels since they might constitute a relatively atrial selective target. The present review will give...

  17. Expression of T-cell KV1.3 potassium channel correlates with pro-inflammatory cytokines and disease activity in ulcerative colitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch Hansen, Lars; Møller, Linda Maria Sevelsted; Rabjerg, Maj;

    2014-01-01

    by excessive T-cell infiltration and cytokine production. It is unknown if KV1.3 and KCa3.1 in the inflamed mucosa are markers of active UC. We hypothesized that KV1.3 and KCa3.1 correlate with disease activity and cytokine production in patients with UC. METHODS: Mucosal biopsies were collected from patients...

  18. Lack of potassium channel induces proliferation and survival causing increased neurogenesis and two-fold hippocampus enlargement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almgren, Malin; Persson, Ann-Sophie; Fenghua, Chen

    2007-01-01

    The megencephaly mice show dramatic progressive increase in brain size and seizures. The overgrowth affects primarily the hippocampus and ventral cortex. The phenotype originates from a mutation in the Shaker-like voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.1 brain, which results in a malfunctioning prot...... of age. This phenotype is a result, at least in DG, from increased proliferation, neurogenesis, and enhanced general hippocampal cell survival. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-null...

  19. 14-3-3θ is a binding partner of rat Eag1 potassium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Po-Hao Hsu

    Full Text Available The ether-à-go-go (Eag potassium (K(+ channel belongs to the superfamily of voltage-gated K(+ channel. In mammals, the expression of Eag channels is neuron-specific but their neurophysiological role remains obscure. We have applied the yeast two-hybrid screening system to identify rat Eag1 (rEag1-interacting proteins from a rat brain cDNA library. One of the clones we identified was 14-3-3θ, which belongs to a family of small acidic protein abundantly expressed in the brain. Data from in vitro yeast two-hybrid and GST pull-down assays suggested that the direct association with 14-3-3θ was mediated by both the N- and the C-termini of rEag1. Co-precipitation of the two proteins was confirmed in both heterologous HEK293T cells and native hippocampal neurons. Electrophysiological studies showed that over-expression of 14-3-3θ led to a sizable suppression of rEag1 K(+ currents with no apparent alteration of the steady-state voltage dependence and gating kinetics. Furthermore, co-expression with 14-3-3θ failed to affect the total protein level, membrane trafficking, and single channel conductance of rEag1, implying that 14-3-3θ binding may render a fraction of the channel locked in a non-conducting state. Together these data suggest that 14-3-3θ is a binding partner of rEag1 and may modulate the functional expression of the K(+ channel in neurons.

  20. Glutamate Transporters Regulate Extrasynaptic NMDA Receptor Modulation of Kv2.1 Potassium Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Mulholland, Patrick J.; Carpenter-Hyland, Ezekiel P.; Hearing, Matthew C.; Becker, Howard C.; Woodward, John J.; Chandler, L. Judson

    2008-01-01

    Delayed-rectifier Kv2.1 potassium channels regulate somatodendritic excitability during periods of repetitive, high-frequency activity. Recent evidence suggests Kv2.1 channel modulation is linked to glutamatergic neurotransmission. Since NMDA-type glutamate receptors are critical regulators of synaptic plasticity, we investigated NMDA receptor modulation of Kv2.1 channels in rodent hippocampus and cortex. Bath application of NMDA potently unclustered and dephosphorylated Kv2.1 and produced a ...

  1. Activity-dependent Phosphorylation of Neuronal Kv2.1 Potassium Channels by CDK5*

    OpenAIRE

    Cerda, Oscar; Trimmer, James S.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic modulation of ion channel expression, localization, and/or function drives plasticity in intrinsic neuronal excitability. Voltage-gated Kv2.1 potassium channels are constitutively maintained in a highly phosphorylated state in neurons. Increased neuronal activity triggers rapid calcineurin-dependent dephosphorylation, loss of channel clustering, and hyperpolarizing shifts in voltage-dependent activation that homeostatically suppress neuronal excitability. These changes are reversible,...

  2. MinK, MiRP1, and MiRP2 diversify Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 potassium channel gating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Anthony; McCrossan, Zoe A; Abbott, Geoffrey W

    2004-02-27

    High frequency firing in mammalian neurons requires ultra-rapid delayed rectifier potassium currents generated by homomeric or heteromeric assemblies of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 potassium channel alpha subunits. Kv3.1 alpha subunits can also form slower activating channels by coassembling with MinK-related peptide 2 (MiRP2), a single transmembrane domain potassium channel ancillary subunit. Here, using channel subunits cloned from rat and expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells, we show that modulation by MinK, MiRP1, and MiRP2 is a general mechanism for slowing of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 channel activation and deactivation and acceleration of inactivation, creating a functionally diverse range of channel complexes. MiRP1 also negatively shifts the voltage dependence of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 channel activation. Furthermore, MinK, MiRP1, and MiRP2 each form channels with Kv3.1-Kv3.2 heteromers that are kinetically distinct from one another and from MiRP/homomeric Kv3 channels. The findings illustrate a mechanism for dynamic expansion of the functional repertoire of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 potassium currents and suggest roles for these alpha subunits outside the scope of sustained rapid neuronal firing.

  3. Scorpion Potassium Channel-blocking Defensin Highlights a Functional Link with Neurotoxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lanxia; Xie, Zili; Zhang, Qian; Li, Yang; Yang, Fan; Chen, Zongyun; Li, Wenxin; Cao, Zhijian; Wu, Yingliang

    2016-03-25

    The structural similarity between defensins and scorpion neurotoxins suggests that they might have evolved from a common ancestor. However, there is no direct experimental evidence demonstrating a functional link between scorpion neurotoxins and defensins. The scorpion defensin BmKDfsin4 from Mesobuthus martensiiKarsch contains 37 amino acid residues and a conserved cystine-stabilized α/β structural fold. The recombinant BmKDfsin4, a classical defensin, has been found to have inhibitory activity against Gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, and Micrococcus luteusas well as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Interestingly, electrophysiological experiments showed that BmKDfsin4,like scorpion potassium channel neurotoxins, could effectively inhibit Kv1.1, Kv1.2, and Kv1.3 channel currents, and its IC50value for the Kv1.3 channel was 510.2 nm Similar to the structure-function relationships of classical scorpion potassium channel-blocking toxins, basic residues (Lys-13 and Arg-19) of BmKDfsin4 play critical roles in peptide-Kv1.3 channel interactions. Furthermore, mutagenesis and electrophysiological experiments demonstrated that the channel extracellular pore region is the binding site of BmKDfsin4, indicating that BmKDfsin4 adopts the same mechanism for blocking potassium channel currents as classical scorpion toxins. Taken together, our work identifies scorpion BmKDfsin4 as the first invertebrate defensin to block potassium channels. These findings not only demonstrate that defensins from invertebrate animals are a novel type of potassium channel blockers but also provide evidence of a functional link between defensins and neurotoxins.

  4. Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blackberries Root vegetables, such as carrots and potatoes Citrus fruits, such as oranges and grapefruit Your kidneys help to keep the right amount of potassium in your body. If you have chronic kidney disease, your kidneys may not remove extra potassium from ...

  5. Potassium currents in human myogenic cells from healthy and congenital myotonic dystrophy foetuses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurowska, Ewa; Constanti, Andrew; Dworakowska, Beata; Mouly, Vincent; Furling, Denis; Lorenzon, Paola; Pietrangelo, Tiziana; Dołowy, Krzysztof; Ruzzier, Fabio

    2009-01-01

    The whole-cell patch clamp technique was used to record potassium currents in in vitro differentiating myoblasts isolated from healthy and myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) foetuses carrying 2000 CTG repeats. The fusion of the DM1 myoblasts was reduced in comparison to that of the control cells. The dystrophic muscle cells expressed less voltage-activated K(+) (delayed rectifier and non-inactivating delayed rectifier) and inward rectifier channels than the age-matched control cells. However, the resting membrane potential was not significantly different between the control and the DM1 cells. After four days in a differentiation medium, the dystrophic cells expressed the fast-inactivating transient outward K(+) channels, which were not observed in healthy cells. We suggest that the low level of potassium currents measured in differentiated DM1 cells could be related to their impaired fusion.

  6. Effect of methamphetamine on the microglial damage: role of potassium channel Kv1.3.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    Full Text Available Methamphetamine (Meth abusing represents a major public health problem worldwide. Meth has long been known to induce neurotoxicity. However, the mechanism is still remained poorly understood. Growing evidences indicated that the voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv were participated in neuronal damage and microglia function. With the whole cell patch clamp, we found that Meth significantly increased the outward K⁺ currents, therefore, we explored whether Kv1.3, one of the major K⁺ channels expressed in microglia, was involved in Meth-induced microglia damage. Our study showed that Meth significantly increased the cell viability in a dose dependent manner, while the Kv blocker, tetraethylamine (TEA, 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP and Kv1.3 specific antagonist margatoxin (MgTx, prevented against the damage mediated by Meth. Interestingly, treatment of cells with Meth resulted in increasing expression of Kv1.3 rather than Kv1.5, at both mRNA and protein level, which is partially blocked by MgTx. Furthermore, Meth also stimulated a significant increased expression of IL-6 and TNF-α at protein level, which was significantly inhibited by MgTx. Taken together, these results demonstrated that Kv1.3 was involved in Meth-mediated microglial damage, providing the potential target for the development of therapeutic strategies for Meth abuse.

  7. Regulation of voltage-gated potassium channels by PI(4,5)P2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Martin; Hammond, Gerald R V; Hille, Bertil

    2012-08-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)) regulates activities of numerous ion channels including inwardly rectifying potassium (K(ir)) channels, KCNQ, TRP, and voltage-gated calcium channels. Several studies suggest that voltage-gated potassium (K(V)) channels might be regulated by PI(4,5)P(2). Wide expression of K(V) channels in different cells suggests that such regulation could have broad physiological consequences. To study regulation of K(V) channels by PI(4,5)P(2), we have coexpressed several of them in tsA-201 cells with a G protein-coupled receptor (M(1)R), a voltage-sensitive lipid 5-phosphatase (Dr-VSP), or an engineered fusion protein carrying both lipid 4-phosphatase and 5-phosphatase activity (pseudojanin). These tools deplete PI(4,5)P(2) with application of muscarinic agonists, depolarization, or rapamycin, respectively. PI(4,5)P(2) at the plasma membrane was monitored by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) from PH probes of PLCδ1 simultaneously with whole-cell recordings. Activation of Dr-VSP or recruitment of pseudojanin inhibited K(V)7.1, K(V)7.2/7.3, and K(ir)2.1 channel current by 90-95%. Activation of M(1)R inhibited K(V)7.2/7.3 current similarly. With these tools, we tested for potential PI(4,5)P(2) regulation of activity of K(V)1.1/K(V)β1.1, K(V)1.3, K(V)1.4, and K(V)1.5/K(V)β1.3, K(V)2.1, K(V)3.4, K(V)4.2, K(V)4.3 (with different KChIPs and DPP6-s), and hERG/KCNE2. Interestingly, we found a substantial removal of inactivation for K(V)1.1/K(V)β1.1 and K(V)3.4, resulting in up-regulation of current density upon activation of M(1)R but no changes in activity upon activating only VSP or pseudojanin. The other channels tested except possibly hERG showed no alteration in activity in any of the assays we used. In conclusion, a depletion of PI(4,5)P(2) at the plasma membrane by enzymes does not seem to influence activity of most tested K(V) channels, whereas it does strongly inhibit members of the K(V)7 and K(ir) families.

  8. [Effects of beta-cypermethrin on voltage-gated potassium channels in rat hippocampal CA3 neurons].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Zhi-Yan; DU, Chun-Yun; Yao, Yang; Liu, Chao-Wei; Tian, Yu-Tao; He, Bing-Jun; Zhang, Tao; Yang, Zhuo

    2007-02-25

    The effects of beta-cypermethrin (consisting of alpha-cypermethrin and theta-cypermethrin) on the transient outward potassium current (I(A)) and delayed rectifier potassium current (I(K)) in freshly dissociated hippocampal CA3 neurons of rats were studied using whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The results indicated that alpha-cypermethrin increased the value of I(A) and theta-cypermethrin decreased the value of I(A), though both of them shifted steady activation curve of I(A) towards negative potential. theta-cypermethrin contributed to the inactivation of I(A). The results also showed that alpha-cypermethrin and theta-cypermethrin decreased the value of I(K), and shifted the steady state activation curve of I(K) towards negative potential. Both alpha-cypermethrin and theta-cypermethrin had no obvious effects on the inactivation of I(K). theta-cypermethrin prolonged recovery process of I(K). These results imply that both transient outward potassium channels and delayed rectified potassium channels are the targets of beta-cypermethrin, which may explain the mechanism of toxical effects of beta-cypermethrin on mammalian neurons.

  9. The role of Kv3-type potassium channels in cerebellar physiology and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joho, Rolf H; Hurlock, Edward C

    2009-09-01

    Different subunits of the Kv3 subfamily of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels (Kv3.1-Kv3.4) are expressed in distinct neuronal subpopulations in the cerebellum. Behavioral phenotypes in Kv3-null mutant mice such as ataxia with prominent hypermetria and heightened alcohol sensitivity are characteristic of cerebellar dysfunction. Here, we review how the unique biophysical properties of Kv3-type potassium channels, fast activation and fast deactivation that enable cerebellar neurons to generate brief action potentials at high frequencies, affect firing patterns and influence cerebellum-mediated behavior.

  10. Evidences for an ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) in muscle and fat body mitochondria of insect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocinska, Malgorzata; Lubawy, Jan; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa; Rosinski, Grzegorz

    2013-11-01

    In the present study, we describe the existence of mitochondrial ATP-dependent K(+) channel (mitoKATP) in two different insect tissues, fat body and muscle of cockroach Gromphadorhina coquereliana. We found that pharmacological substances known to modulate potassium channel activity influenced mitochondrial resting respiration. In isolated mitochondria oxygen consumption increased by about 13% in the presence of potassium channel openers (KCOs) such as diazoxide and pinacidil. The opening of mitoKATP was reversed by glibenclamide (potassium channel blocker) and 1 mM ATP. Immunological studies with antibodies raised against the Kir6.1 and SUR1 subunits of the mammalian ATP-sensitive potassium channel, indicated the existence of mitoKATP in insect mitochondria. MitoKATP activation by KCOs resulted in a decrease in superoxide anion production, suggesting that protection against mitochondrial oxidative stress may be a physiological role of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel in insects.

  11. Uncoupling charge movement from channel opening in voltage-gated potassium channels by ruthenium complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Oseguera, Andrés; Ishida, Itzel G; Rangel-Yescas, Gisela E; Espinosa-Jalapa, Noel; Pérez-Guzmán, José A; Elías-Viñas, David; Le Lagadec, Ronan; Rosenbaum, Tamara; Islas, León D

    2011-05-06

    The Kv2.1 channel generates a delayed-rectifier current in neurons and is responsible for modulation of neuronal spike frequency and membrane repolarization in pancreatic β-cells and cardiomyocytes. As with other tetrameric voltage-activated K(+)-channels, it has been proposed that each of the four Kv2.1 voltage-sensing domains activates independently upon depolarization, leading to a final concerted transition that causes channel opening. The mechanism by which voltage-sensor activation is coupled to the gating of the pore is still not understood. Here we show that the carbon-monoxide releasing molecule 2 (CORM-2) is an allosteric inhibitor of the Kv2.1 channel and that its inhibitory properties derive from the CORM-2 ability to largely reduce the voltage dependence of the opening transition, uncoupling voltage-sensor activation from the concerted opening transition. We additionally demonstrate that CORM-2 modulates Shaker K(+)-channels in a similar manner. Our data suggest that the mechanism of inhibition by CORM-2 may be common to voltage-activated channels and that this compound should be a useful tool for understanding the mechanisms of electromechanical coupling.

  12. Mechanism of functional interaction between potassium channel Kv1.3 and sodium channel NavBeta1 subunit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Tomoya; Correa, Ana M.; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2017-01-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channel subfamily A member 3 (Kv1.3) dominantly expresses on T cells and neurons. Recently, the interaction between Kv1.3 and NavBeta1 subunits has been explored through ionic current measurements, but the molecular mechanism has not been elucidated yet. We explored the functional interaction between Kv1.3 and NavBeta1 through gating current measurements using the Cut-open Oocyte Voltage Clamp (COVC) technique. We showed that the N-terminal 1–52 sequence of hKv1.3 disrupts the channel expression on the Xenopus oocyte membrane, suggesting a potential role as regulator of hKv1.3 expression in neurons and lymphocytes. Our gating currents measurements showed that NavBeta1 interacts with the voltage sensing domain (VSD) of Kv1.3 through W172 in the transmembrane segment and modifies the gating operation. The comparison between G-V and Q-V with/without NavBeta1 indicates that NavBeta1 may strengthen the coupling between hKv1.3-VSD movement and pore opening, inducing the modification of kinetics in ionic activation and deactivation. PMID:28349975

  13. Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... high in potassium include bananas, cantaloupe, grapefruit, oranges, tomato or prune juice, honeydew melons, prunes, molasses and ... of a Heart Attack 10 Angina (Chest Pain) *Red Dress ™ DHHS, Go Red ™ AHA ; National Wear Red ...

  14. Targeting Potassium Channels for Increasing Delivery of Imaging Agents and Therapeutics to Brain Tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra Sanyasihally Ningaraj

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Every year in the US, 20,000 new primary and nearly 200,000 metastatic brain tumor cases are reported. The cerebral microvessels/ capillaries that form the blood–brain barrier (BBB not only protect the brain from toxic agents in the blood but also pose a significant hindrance to the delivery of small and large therapeutic molecules. Different strategies have been employed to circumvent the physiological barrier posed by blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB. Studies in our laboratory have identified significant differences in the expression levels of certain genes and proteins between normal and brain tumor capillary endothelial cells. In this study, we validated the non-invasive and clinically relevant Dynamic Contrast Enhancing-Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DCE-MRI method with invasive, clinically irrelevant but highly accurate Quantitative Autoradiography (QAR method using rat glioma model. We also showed that DCE-MRI metric of tissue vessel perfusion-permeability is sensitive to changes in blood vessel permeability following administration of calcium-activated potassium (BKCa channel activator NS-1619. Our results show that human gliomas and brain tumor endothelial cells that overexpress BKCa channels can be targeted for increased BTB permeability for MRI enhancing agents to brain tumors. We conclude that monitoring the outcome of increased MRI enhancing agents’ delivery to microsatellites and leading tumor edges in glioma patients would lead to beneficial clinical outcome.

  15. Non-Michaelis-Menten kinetics model for conductance of low-conductance potassium ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolokh, Igor S; Tolokh, Illya I; Cho, Hee Cheol; D'Avanzo, Nazzareno; Backx, Peter H; Goldman, Saul; Gray, C G

    2005-02-01

    A reduced kinetics model is proposed for ion permeation in low-conductance potassium ion channels with zero net electrical charge in the selectivity filter region. The selectivity filter is assumed to be the only conductance-determining part of the channel. Ion entry and exit rate constants depend on the occupancy of the filter due to ion-ion interactions. The corresponding rates are assumed slow relative to the rates of ion motion between binding sites inside the filter, allowing a reduction of the kinetics model of the filter by averaging the entry and exit rate constants over the states with a particular occupancy number. The reduced kinetics model for low-conductance channels is described by only three states and two sets of effective rate constants characterizing transitions between these states. An explicit expression for the channel conductance as a function of symmetrical external ion concentration is derived under the assumption that the average electrical mobility of ions in the selectivity filter region in a limited range of ion concentrations does not depend on these concentrations. The simplified conductance model is shown to provide a good description of the experimentally observed conductance-concentration curve for the low-conductance potassium channel Kir2.1, and also predicts the mean occupancy of the selectivity filter of this channel. We find that at physiological external ion concentrations this occupancy is much lower than the value of two ions observed for one of the high-conductance potassium channels, KcsA.

  16. Block of a Ca(2+)-activated potassium channel by cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premkumar, L S

    2005-04-01

    The primary target for cocaine is believed to be monoamine transporters because of cocaine's high-affinity binding that prevents re-uptake of released neurotransmitter. However, direct interaction with ion channels has been shown to be important for certain pharmacological/toxicological effects of cocaine. Here I show that cocaine selectively blocks a calcium-dependent K(+) channel in hippocampal neurons grown in culture (IC(50)=approximately 30 microM). Single-channel recordings show that in the presence of cocaine, the channel openings are interrupted with brief closures (flicker block). As the concentration of cocaine is increased the open-time is reduced, whereas the duration of brief closures is independent of concentration. The association and dissociation rate constants of cocaine for the neuronal Ca(2+)-activated K(+ )channels are 261+/-37 microM: (-1)s(-1) and 11451+/-1467 s(-1). The equilibrium dissociation constant (K(B)) for cocaine, determined from single-channel parameters, is 43 microM. The lack of voltage dependence of block suggests that cocaine probably binds to a site at the mouth of the pore. Block of Ca(2+)-dependent K(+) channels by cocaine may be involved in functions that include broadening of the action potential, which would facilitate transmitter release, enhancement of smooth muscle contraction particularly in blood vessels, and modulation of repetitive neuronal firing by altering the repolarization and afterhyperpolarization phases of the action potential.

  17. Ionic channels in plants: potassium transport Canais iônicos em plantas: o transporte de potássio

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Costa de Oliveira

    1995-01-01

    The discovery of potassium channels on the plasma membrane has helped to elucidate important mechanisms in animal and plant physiology. Plant growth and development associated mechanisms, such as germination, leaf movements, stomatal action, ion uptake in roots, phloem transport and nutrient storage are linked to potassium transport. Studies describing potassium transport regulation by abscisic acid (ABA), Ca++, light and other factors are presented here. Also the types of channels that regul...

  18. Calcium-activated potassium channels mediated blood-brain tumor barrier opening in a rat metastatic brain tumor model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ong John M

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The blood-brain tumor barrier (BTB impedes the delivery of therapeutic agents to brain tumors. While adequate delivery of drugs occurs in systemic tumors, the BTB limits delivery of anti-tumor agents into brain metastases. Results In this study, we examined the function and regulation of calcium-activated potassium (KCa channels in a rat metastatic brain tumor model. We showed that intravenous infusion of NS1619, a KCa channel agonist, and bradykinin selectively enhanced BTB permeability in brain tumors, but not in normal brain. Iberiotoxin, a KCa channel antagonist, significantly attenuated NS1619-induced BTB permeability increase. We found KCa channels and bradykinin type 2 receptors (B2R expressed in cultured human metastatic brain tumor cells (CRL-5904, non-small cell lung cancer, metastasized to brain, human brain microvessel endothelial cells (HBMEC and human lung cancer brain metastasis tissues. Potentiometric assays demonstrated the activity of KCa channels in metastatic brain tumor cells and HBMEC. Furthermore, we detected higher expression of KCa channels in the metastatic brain tumor tissue and tumor capillary endothelia as compared to normal brain tissue. Co-culture of metastatic brain tumor cells and brain microvessel endothelial cells showed an upregulation of KCa channels, which may contribute to the overexpression of KCa channels in tumor microvessels and selectivity of BTB opening. Conclusion These findings suggest that KCa channels in metastatic brain tumors may serve as an effective target for biochemical modulation of BTB permeability to enhance selective delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs to metastatic brain tumors.

  19. Behavioral motor dysfunction in Kv3-type potassium channel-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joho, R H; Street, C; Matsushita, S; Knöpfel, T

    2006-08-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channels Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 are expressed in several distinct neuronal subpopulations in brain areas known to be involved in motor control such as cortex, basal ganglia and cerebellum. Depending on the lack of Kv3.1 or Kv3.3 channel subunits, mutant mice show different Kv3-null allele-dependent behavioral alterations that include constitutive hyperactivity, sleep loss, impaired motor performance and, in the case of the Kv3.1/Kv3.3 double mutant, also severe ataxia, tremor and myoclonus (Espinosa et al. 2001, J Neurosci 21, 6657-6665, Genes, Brain Behav 3, 90-100). The lack of Kv3.1 channel subunits is mainly responsible for the constitutively increased locomotor activity and for sleep loss, whereas the absence of Kv3.3 subunits affects cerebellar function, in particular Purkinje cell discharges and olivocerebellar system properties (McMahon et al. 2004, Eur J Neurosci 19, 3317-3327). Here, we describe two sensitive and non-invasive tests to reliably quantify normal and abnormal motor functions, and we apply these tests to characterize motor dysfunction in Kv3-mutant mice. In contrast to wildtype and Kv3.1-single mutants, Kv3.3-single mutants and Kv3 mutants lacking three and four Kv3 alleles display Kv3-null allele-dependent gait alterations. Although the Kv3-null allele-dependent gait changes correlate with reduced motor performance, they appear to not affect the training-induced improvement of motor performance. These findings suggest that altered cerebellar physiology in the absence of Kv3.3 channels is responsible for impaired motor task execution but not motor task learning.

  20. Structural dynamics of potassium-channel gating revealed by single-molecule FRET.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shizhen; Vafabakhsh, Reza; Borschel, William F; Ha, Taekjip; Nichols, Colin G

    2016-01-01

    Crystallography has provided invaluable insights regarding ion-channel selectivity and gating, but to advance understanding to a new level, dynamic views of channel structures within membranes are essential. We labeled tetrameric KirBac1.1 potassium channels with single donor and acceptor fluorophores at different sites and then examined structural dynamics within lipid membranes by single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET). We found that the extracellular region is structurally rigid in both closed and open states, whereas the N-terminal slide helix undergoes marked conformational fluctuations. The cytoplasmic C-terminal domain fluctuates between two major structural states, both of which become less dynamic and move away from the pore axis and away from the membrane in closed channels. Our results reveal mobile and rigid conformations of functionally relevant KirBac1.1 channel motifs, implying similar dynamics for similar motifs in eukaryotic Kir channels and in cation channels in general.

  1. Structural dynamics of potassium channel gating revealed by single molecule FRET

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borschel, William F.; Ha, Taekjip; Nichols, Colin G.

    2016-01-01

    Crystallography has provided invaluable insights to ion channel selectivity and gating, but to advance understanding to a new level, dynamic views of channel structures within membranes are essential. We labeled tetrameric KirBac1.1 potassium channels with single donor and acceptor fluorophores at different sites, and examined structural dynamics within lipid membranes by single molecule FRET. We found that the extracellular region is structurally rigid in both closed and open states, whereas the N-terminal slide helix undergoes marked conformational fluctuations. The cytoplasmic C-terminal domain fluctuates between two major structural states both of which become less dynamic and move away from the pore axis and away from the membrane in closed channels. Our results reveal mobile and rigid conformations of functionally relevant KirBac1.1 channel motifs, implying similar dynamics for similar motifs in eukaryotic Kir channels and for cation channels in general. PMID:26641713

  2. Interspike interval analysis in a patient with peripheral nerve hyperexcitability and potassium channel antibodies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleine, B.U.; Stegeman, D.F.; Drost, G.; Zwarts, M.J.

    2008-01-01

    Neuromyotonia or Isaacs' syndrome is a rare peripheral nerve hyperexcitability disorder caused by antibodies against potassium channels of myelinated axons. We present the high-density surface electromyographic (EMG) recordings of a patient with fasciculations and cramps due to neuromyotonia. To cha

  3. Modification of sodium and potassium channel gating kinetics by ether and halothane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, B.P.; Shrager, P.; Goldstein, D.A.

    1981-03-01

    The effects of ether and halothane on the kinetics of sodium and potassium currents were investigated in the crayfish giant axon. Both general anesthetics produced a reversible, dose-dependent speeding up of sodium current inactivation at all membrane potentials, with no change in the rising phase of the currents. Double-pulse inactivation experiments with ether also showed faster inactivation, but the rate of recovery from inactivation at negative potentials was not affected. Ether shifted the midpoint of the steady-state fast inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction and made the curve steeper. The activation of potassium currents was faster with ether present, with no change in the voltage dependence of steady-state potassium currents. Ether and halothane are known to perturb the structure of lipid bilayer membranes; the alterations in sodium and potassium channel gating kinetics are consistent with the hypothesis that the rats of the gating processes of the channels can be affected by the state of the lipids surrounding the channels, but a direct effect of ether and halothane on the protein part of the channels cannot be ruled out.

  4. Suggestive evidence for association of two potassium channel genes with different idiopathic generalised epilepsy syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chioza, B; Osei-Lah, A; Wilkie, H; Nashef, L; McCormick, D; Asherson, P; Makoff, A J

    2002-12-01

    Several potassium channel genes have been implicated in epilepsy. We have investigated three such genes, KCNJ3, KCNJ6 and KCNQ2, by association studies using a broad sample of idiopathic generalised epilepsy (IGE) unselected by syndrome. One of the two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) examined in one of the inward rectifying potassium channel genes, KCNJ3, was associated with IGE by genotype (P=0.0097), while its association by allele was of borderline significance (P=0.051). Analysis of the different clinical subgroups within the IGE sample showed more significant association with the presence of absence seizures (P=0.0041) and which is still significant after correction for multiple testing. Neither SNP in the other rectifying potassium channel gene, KCNJ6, was associated with IGE or any subgroup. None of the three SNPs in the voltage-gated potassium channel gene, KCNQ2, was associated with IGE. However, one SNP was associated with epilepsy with generalised tonic clonic seizures only (P=0.016), as was an SNP approximately 56 kb distant in the closely linked nicotinic acetylcholine gene CHRNA4 (P=0.014). These two SNPs were not in linkage disequilibrium with each other, suggesting that if they are not true associations they have independently occurred by chance. Neither association remains significant after correcting for multiple testing.

  5. Role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in modulating nociception in rat model of bone cancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hui; Zhang, Dengwen; Yang, Shijie; Wang, Yu; Xu, Lin; Wu, Jinjing; Ren, Jing; Yao, Wenlong; Fan, Longchang; Zhang, Chuanhan; Tian, Yuke; Pan, Hui-Lin; Wang, Xueren

    2014-03-20

    Bone cancer pain is a major clinical problem and remains difficult to treat. ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels may be involved in regulating nociceptive transmission at the spinal cord level. We determined the role of spinal KATP channels in the control of mechanical hypersensitivity in a rat model of bone cancer pain. The rat model of bone cancer pain was induced by implanting rat mammary gland carcinoma cells (Walker256) into the tibias. KATP modulators (pinacidil and glibenclamide) or the specific Kir6.2-siRNA were injected via an intrathecal catheter. The mechanical withdrawal threshold of rats was tested using von Frey filaments. The Kir6.2 mRNA and protein levels were measured by quantitative PCR and western blots, respectively. Intrathecal injection of pinacidil, a KATP channel opener, significantly increased the tactile withdrawal threshold of cancer cell-injected rats in a dose-dependent manner. In contrast, intrathecal delivery of glibenclamide, a KATP channel blocker, or the specific Kir6.2-siRNA significantly reduced the tactile withdrawal threshold of cancer cell-injected rats. The mRNA and protein levels of Kir6.2 in the spinal cord of cancer cell-injected rats were significantly lower than those in control rats. Our findings suggest that the KATP channel expression level in the spinal cord is reduced in bone cancer pain. Activation of KATP channels at the spinal level reduces pain hypersensitivity associated with bone cancer pain.

  6. Distribution of Kv3.3 potassium channel subunits in distinct neuronal populations of mouse brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Su Ying; Zagha, Edward; Kwon, Elaine S; Ozaita, Andres; Bobik, Marketta; Martone, Maryann E; Ellisman, Mark H; Heintz, Nathaniel; Rudy, Bernardo

    2007-06-20

    Kv3.3 proteins are pore-forming subunits of voltage-dependent potassium channels, and mutations in the gene encoding for Kv3.3 have recently been linked to human disease, spinocerebellar ataxia 13, with cerebellar and extracerebellar symptoms. To understand better the functions of Kv3.3 subunits in brain, we developed highly specific antibodies to Kv3.3 and analyzed immunoreactivity throughout mouse brain. We found that Kv3.3 subunits are widely expressed, present in important forebrain structures but particularly prominent in brainstem and cerebellum. In forebrain and midbrain, Kv3.3 expression was often found colocalized with parvalbumin and other Kv3 subunits in inhibitory neurons. In brainstem, Kv3.3 was strongly expressed in auditory and other sensory nuclei. In cerebellar cortex, Kv3.3 expression was found in Purkinje and granule cells. Kv3.3 proteins were observed in axons, terminals, somas, and, unlike other Kv3 proteins, also in distal dendrites, although precise subcellular localization depended on cell type. For example, hippocampal dentate granule cells expressed Kv3.3 subunits specifically in their mossy fiber axons, whereas Purkinje cells of the cerebellar cortex strongly expressed Kv3.3 subunits in axons, somas, and proximal and distal, but not second- and third-order, dendrites. Expression in Purkinje cell dendrites was confirmed by immunoelectron microscopy. Kv3 channels have been demonstrated to rapidly repolarize action potentials and support high-frequency firing in various neuronal populations. In this study, we identified additional populations and subcellular compartments that are likely to sustain high-frequency firing because of the expression of Kv3.3 and other Kv3 subunits.

  7. Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels facilitate transmitter release in salamander rod synapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jian Wei; Slaughter, Malcolm M

    2005-08-17

    Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels are colocalized with calcium channels at sites of exocytosis at the presynaptic terminals throughout the nervous system. It is expected that their activation would provide negative feedback to transmitter release, but the opposite is sometimes observed. Attempts to resolve this apparent paradox based on alterations in action potential waveform have been ambiguous. In an alternative approach, we investigated the influence of this channel on neurotransmitter release in a nonspiking neuron, the salamander rod photoreceptors. Surprisingly, the BK channel facilitates calcium-mediated transmitter release from rods. The two presynaptic channels form a positive coupled loop. Calcium influx activates the BK channel current, leading to potassium efflux that increases the calcium current. The normal physiological voltage range of the rod is well matched to the dynamics of this positive loop. When the rod is further depolarized, then the hyperpolarizing BK channel current exceeds its facilitatory effect, causing truncation of transmitter release. Thus, the calcium channel-BK channel linkage performs two functions at the synapse: nonlinear potentiator and safety brake.

  8. Permeation mechanism of a two-state potassium channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiangqun; ZHAO Tongjun; SONG Yang; ZHAN Yong

    2007-01-01

    A two-state hopping model was proposed to study the permeation of ion channel.The Nemst equation in equilibrium and the Michaelis-Menten relation in steady state were derived from the two-state kinetic model.The currentvoltage relationship obtained in the symmetrical solutions case was linear when the applied potential was less than 100 mV,which met Ohm's law.The conductance-concentration relationship exhibited the saturation property.Moreover,the characteristic time reaching the steady state of the KcsA channel was also discussed.

  9. Kv3 voltage-gated potassium channels regulate neurotransmitter release from mouse motor nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Ruth E; Moores, Thomas S; Morris, Neil P; Parson, Simon H; Deuchars, Jim

    2004-12-01

    Voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels are critical to regulation of neurotransmitter release throughout the nervous system but the roles and identity of the subtypes involved remain unclear. Here we show that Kv3 channels regulate transmitter release at the mouse neuromuscular junction (NMJ). Light- and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry revealed Kv3.3 and Kv3.4 subunits within all motor nerve terminals of muscles examined [transversus abdominus, lumbrical and flexor digitorum brevis (FDB)]. To determine the roles of these Kv3 subunits, intracellular recordings were made of end-plate potentials (EPPs) in FDB muscle fibres evoked by electrical stimulation of tibial nerve. Tetraethylammonium (TEA) applied at low concentrations (0.05-0.5 mM), which blocks only a few known potassium channels including Kv3 channels, did not affect muscle fibre resting potential but significantly increased the amplitude of all EPPs tested. Significantly, this effect of TEA was still observed in the presence of the large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel blockers iberiotoxin (25-150 nM) and Penitrem A (100 nM), suggesting a selective action on Kv3 subunits. Consistent with this, 15-microM 4-aminopyridine, which blocks Kv3 but not large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels, enhanced evoked EPP amplitude. Unexpectedly, blood-depressing substance-I, a toxin selective for Kv3.4 subunits, had no effect at 0.05-1 microM. The combined presynaptic localization of Kv3 subunits and pharmacological enhancement of EPP amplitude indicate that Kv3 channels regulate neurotransmitter release from presynaptic terminals at the NMJ.

  10. Effect of methamphetamine on microglia cells of rats through potassium channel subtype Kv1.3 and Kv1.5%甲基苯丙胺对大鼠小胶质细胞损伤作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晶晶; 钱文溢; 刘景丽; 周景; 高蓉; 王军; 肖杭

    2013-01-01

    目的 观察甲基苯丙胺(Meth)通过电压门控钾离子通道亚型1.3、1.5(Kv1.3、Kv1.5)对大鼠胎鼠小胶质细胞的损伤作用.方法 SD胎鼠原代培养小胶质细胞,细胞计数试剂盒(CCK-8)检测细胞活力和原位末端转移酶标记技术(TUNEL)检测细胞凋亡;采用蛋白质印迹法和实时荧光定量聚合酶链反应法观察Kv1.3、Kv1.5表达变化.结果 Meth呈浓度依赖性降低小胶质细胞活力,增加小胶质细胞凋亡;Kv1.3的抑制剂MgTx对Meth所致小胶质细胞损伤有部分保护作用;与对照组(1.047±0.165)比较,300 μmol/L Meth组小胶质细胞Kv1.3 mR-NA表达(7.453±0.675)增高(P<0.05),MgTx组Kv1.3 mRNA表达(1.684±0.875)低于Meth 300 μmol/L组(P <0.05);Meth对Kv1.5 mRNA表达无影响.结论 Meth可引起小胶质细胞损伤,其机制可能与Kv1.3表达变化有关.%Objectlve To investigate the effect of methamphetamine (Meth) on the expression of voltage-gated potassium channel subtype 1.3 and 1.5 (Kv1.3 and Kv1.5) with primary cultured fetal rat cortical microglia.Methods The cell viability and apoptosis were detected with CCK-8 as well as terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated biotin-16-dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay.The expression of Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 mediated by Meth was evaluated with real-time PCR and western blot.Results Meth reduced cell viability and increased cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner.Compared with that of the control(1.047 ± 0.165),Meth could increase the mRNA expression of Kv1.3(7.453 ±0.675).But this process could be partly retarded by MgTx(1.684 ±0.875).The mRNA expression of Kv1.3,but not Kv1.5,was up-regulated by Meth.Conclusion Kv1.3 is involved in Meth mediated microglia cell injury.

  11. Kif5b is an essential forward trafficking motor for the Kv1.5 cardiac potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadeh, Alireza Dehghani; Cheng, Yvonne; Xu, Hongjian; Wong, Nathan; Wang, Zhuren; Goonasekara, Charitha; Steele, David F; Fedida, David

    2009-10-01

    We have investigated the role of the kinesin I isoform Kif5b in the trafficking of a cardiac voltage-gated potassium channel, Kv1.5. In Kv1.5-expressing HEK293 cells and H9c2 cardiomyoblasts, current densities were increased from control levels of 389 +/- 50.0 and 317 +/- 50.3 pA pF(1), respectively, to 614 +/- 74.3 and 580 +/- 90.9 pA pF(1) in cells overexpressing the Kif5b motor. Overexpression of the Kif5b motor increased Kv1.5 expression additively with several manipulations that reduce channel internalization, suggesting that it is involved in the delivery of the channel to the cell surface. In contrast, expression of a Kif5b dominant negative (Kif5bDN) construct increased Kv1.5 expression non-additively with these manipulations. Thus, the dominant negative acts by indirectly inhibiting endocytosis. The increase in Kv1.5 currents induced by wild-type Kif5b was dependent on Golgi function; a 6 h treatment with Brefeldin A reduced Kv1.5 currents to control levels in Kif5b-overexpressing cells but had little effect on the increase associated with Kif5bDN expression. Finally, expression of the Kif5bDN prior to induction of Kv1.5 in a tetracycline inducible system blocked surface expression of the channel in both HEK293 cells and H9c2 cardiomyoblasts. Thus, Kif5b is essential to anterograde trafficking of a cardiac voltage-gated potassium channel.

  12. Effects of K+ channel agonists cromakalim and pinacidil on rat basilar artery smooth muscle cells are mediated by Ca(++)-activated K+ channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockbridge, N; Zhang, H; Weir, B

    1991-11-27

    Whole-cell and cell-free inside-out patch-clamp recording techniques were used to examine the actions of potassium channel openers pinacidil and cromakalim in enzymatically isolated smooth muscle cells of rat basilar artery. Delayed rectifier and calcium-dependent potassium currents were identified from the whole-cell recordings. Only the calcium-dependent potassium current was increased by cromakalim and pinacidil. Recordings from inside-out membrane patches revealed a large conductance voltage- and calcium-dependent potassium channel, which was blocked by charybdotoxin but unaffected by ATP less than 10 mM. Cromakalim and pinacidil increased the open probability of this channel. On the basis of these results, we suggest that such drugs, acting on cerebral arterial smooth muscle cell potassium channels, may be of some benefit in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  13. Developmental Expression of Kv Potassium Channels at the Axon Initial Segment of Cultured Hippocampal Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ponce, Diana; DeFelipe, Javier; Garrido, Juan José; Muñoz, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Axonal outgrowth and the formation of the axon initial segment (AIS) are early events in the acquisition of neuronal polarity. The AIS is characterized by a high concentration of voltage-dependent sodium and potassium channels. However, the specific ion channel subunits present and their precise localization in this axonal subdomain vary both during development and among the types of neurons, probably determining their firing characteristics in response to stimulation. Here, we characterize the developmental expression of different subfamilies of voltage-gated potassium channels in the AISs of cultured mouse hippocampal neurons, including subunits Kv1.2, Kv2.2 and Kv7.2. In contrast to the early appearance of voltage-gated sodium channels and the Kv7.2 subunit at the AIS, Kv1.2 and Kv2.2 subunits were tethered at the AIS only after 10 days in vitro. Interestingly, we observed different patterns of Kv1.2 and Kv2.2 subunit expression, with each confined to distinct neuronal populations. The accumulation of Kv1.2 and Kv2.2 subunits at the AIS was dependent on ankyrin G tethering, it was not affected by disruption of the actin cytoskeleton and it was resistant to detergent extraction, as described previously for other AIS proteins. This distribution of potassium channels in the AIS further emphasizes the heterogeneity of this structure in different neuronal populations, as proposed previously, and suggests corresponding differences in action potential regulation. PMID:23119056

  14. Atomic basis for therapeutic activation of neuronal potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Robin Y; Yau, Michael C; Galpin, Jason D

    2015-01-01

    chemical interactions required for retigabine action. Introduction of a non-natural isosteric H-bond-deficient Trp analogue abolishes channel potentiation, indicating that retigabine effects rely strongly on formation of a H-bond with the conserved pore Trp. Supporting this model, substitution...... with fluorinated Trp analogues, with increased H-bonding propensity, strengthens retigabine potency. In addition, potency of numerous retigabine analogues correlates with the negative electrostatic surface potential of a carbonyl/carbamate oxygen atom present in most KCNQ activators. These findings functionally...... pinpoint an atomic-scale interaction essential for effects of retigabine and provide stringent constraints that may guide rational improvement of the emerging drug class of KCNQ channel activators....

  15. Potassium channel conductance: a mechanism affecting hair growth both in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhl, A E; Waldon, D J; Conrad, S J; Mulholland, M J; Shull, K L; Kubicek, M F; Johnson, G A; Brunden, M N; Stefanski, K J; Stehle, R G

    1992-03-01

    The opening of intracellular potassium channels has been suggested as a mechanism regulating hair growth. Enhancing the flux of potassium ions is a mechanism shared by several structurally diverse antihypertensive agents including minoxidil sulfate (the active metabolite of minoxidil), pinacidil, P-1075 (a potent pinacidil analog), RP-49,356, diazoxide, cromakalim, and nicorandil. Of these drugs, minoxidil, pinacidil, and diazoxide have been reported to elicit hypertrichosis in humans. This potassium channel hypothesis was examined by testing these drugs for effects on hair growth both in vitro and in vivo. For the in vitro studies, mouse vibrissae follicles were cultured for 3 d with drug and the effects on hair growth were measured by metabolic labeling. All drugs, except diazoxide, enhanced cysteine incorporation into the hair shafts of the cultured vibrissae. Diazoxide was poorly soluble and thus was tested only at low doses. Minoxidil, P-1075, cromakalim, and RP-49,356 were also evaluated in vivo by measuring hair growth effects in balding stumptail macaque monkeys. The drugs were administered topically to defined sites on balding scalps once per day for 4-5 months and the amount of hair grown was determined by monthly measurements of shaved hair weight. Three of the drugs produced significant increases in hair weight whereas, the RP-49,356 had no effect. These studies provide correlative evidence that the opening of potassium channels is an important regulatory mechanism for hair growth. This provides the impetus for further studies on this potentially important mechanism affecting hair biology.

  16. Three-dimensional structure of the S4-S5 segment of the Shaker potassium channel.

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The propagation of action potentials during neuronal signal transduction in phospholipid membranes is mediated by ion channels, a diverse group of membrane proteins. The S4-S5 linker peptide (S4-S5), that connects the S4 and S5 transmembrane segments of voltage-gated potassium channels is an important region of the Shaker ion-channel protein. Despite its importance, very little is known about its structure. Here we provide evidence for an amphipathic alpha-helical conformation of a synthetic ...

  17. The solution structure of the S4-S5 linker of the hERG potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Shovanlal; Li, Qingxin; Kang, CongBao

    2012-02-01

    The human ether-à-go-go related gene (hERG) encodes a protein that forms a voltage-gated potassium channel and plays an important role in the heart by controlling the rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current (I(Kr)). The S4-S5 linker was shown to be important for the gating of the hERG channel. Nuclear magnetic resonance study showed that a peptide derived from the S4-S5 linker had no well-ordered structure in aqueous solution and adopted a 3(10) -helix (E544-Y545-G546) structure in detergent micelles. The existence of an amphipathic helix was confirmed, which may be important for interaction with cell membrane. Close contact between side chains of residues R541 and E544 was observed, which may be important for its regulation of channel gating.

  18. Domain structure and function of matrix metalloprotease 23 (MMP23): role in potassium channel trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Charles A; Nguyen, Hai M; George Chandy, K; Smith, Brian J; Norton, Raymond S

    2014-04-01

    MMP23 is a member of the matrix metalloprotease family of zinc- and calcium-dependent endopeptidases, which are involved in a wide variety of cellular functions. Its catalytic domain displays a high degree of structural homology with those of other metalloproteases, but its atypical domain architecture suggests that it may possess unique functional properties. The N-terminal MMP23 pro-domain contains a type-II transmembrane domain that anchors the protein to the plasma membrane and lacks the cysteine-switch motif that is required to maintain other MMPs in a latent state during passage to the cell surface. Instead of the C-terminal hemopexin domain common to other MMPs, MMP23 contains a small toxin-like domain (TxD) and an immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecule (IgCAM) domain. The MMP23 pro-domain can trap Kv1.3 but not closely-related Kv1.2 channels in the endoplasmic reticulum, preventing their passage to the cell surface, while the TxD can bind to the channel pore and block the passage of potassium ions. The MMP23 C-terminal IgCAM domain displays some similarity to Ig-like C2-type domains found in IgCAMs of the immunoglobulin superfamily, which are known to mediate protein-protein and protein-lipid interactions. MMP23 and Kv1.3 are co-expressed in a variety of tissues and together are implicated in diseases including cancer and inflammatory disorders. Further studies are required to elucidate the mechanism of action of this unique member of the MMP family.

  19. Nitric oxide activates ATP-sensitive potassium channels in mammalian sensory neurons: action by direct S-nitrosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok Wai-Meng

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channels in neurons regulate excitability, neurotransmitter release and mediate protection from cell-death. Furthermore, activation of KATP channels is suppressed in DRG neurons after painful-like nerve injury. NO-dependent mechanisms modulate both KATP channels and participate in the pathophysiology and pharmacology of neuropathic pain. Therefore, we investigated NO modulation of KATP channels in control and axotomized DRG neurons. Results Cell-attached and cell-free recordings of KATP currents in large DRG neurons from control rats (sham surgery, SS revealed activation of KATP channels by NO exogenously released by the NO donor SNAP, through decreased sensitivity to [ATP]i. This NO-induced KATP channel activation was not altered in ganglia from animals that demonstrated sustained hyperalgesia-type response to nociceptive stimulation following spinal nerve ligation. However, baseline opening of KATP channels and their activation induced by metabolic inhibition was suppressed by axotomy. Failure to block the NO-mediated amplification of KATP currents with specific inhibitors of sGC and PKG indicated that the classical sGC/cGMP/PKG signaling pathway was not involved in the activation by SNAP. NO-induced activation of KATP channels remained intact in cell-free patches, was reversed by DTT, a thiol-reducing agent, and prevented by NEM, a thiol-alkylating agent. Other findings indicated that the mechanisms by which NO activates KATP channels involve direct S-nitrosylation of cysteine residues in the SUR1 subunit. Specifically, current through recombinant wild-type SUR1/Kir6.2 channels expressed in COS7 cells was activated by NO, but channels formed only from truncated isoform Kir6.2 subunits without SUR1 subunits were insensitive to NO. Further, mutagenesis of SUR1 indicated that NO-induced KATP channel activation involves interaction of NO with residues in the NBD1 of the SUR1 subunit. Conclusion NO

  20. Effects of Potassium Currents upon Action Potential of Cardiac Cells Exposed to External Electric fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An-Ying Zhang; Xiao-Feng Pang

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies show that exposure to high-voltage electric fields would influence the electro cardiogram both in experimental animate and human beings. The effects of the external electric fields upon action potential of cardiac cells are studied in this paper based on the dynamical model, LR91. Fourth order Runger-Kuta is used to analyze the change of potassium ion channels exposed to external electric fields in detail. Results indicate that external electric fields could influence the current of potassium ion by adding an induced component voltage on membrane. This phenomenon might be one of the reasons of heart rate anomaly under the high-voltage electric fields.

  1. Developmental expression of potassium-channel subunit Kv3.2 within subpopulations of mouse hippocampal inhibitory interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, Emily Phillips; Chow, Alan; Rudy, Bernardo; McBain, Chris J

    2002-01-01

    The developmental expression of the voltage-gated potassium channel subunit, Kv3.2, and its localization within specific mouse hippocampal inhibitory interneuron populations were determined using immunoblotting and immunohistochemical techniques. Using immunoblotting techniques, the Kv3.2 protein was weakly detected at postnatal age day 7 (P7), and full expression was attained at P21 in tissue extracts from homogenized hippocampal preparations. A similar developmental profile was observed using immunohistochemical techniques in hippocampal tissue sections. Kv3.2 protein expression was clustered on the somata and proximal dendrites of presumed inhibitory interneurons. Using double immunofluorescence, Kv3.2 subunit expression was detected on subpopulations of GABAergic inhibitory interneurons. Kv3.2 was detected in approximately 100% of parvalbumin-positive interneurons, 86% of interneurons expressing nitric oxide synthase, and approximately 50% of somatostatin-immunoreactive cells. Kv3.2 expression was absent from both calbindin- and calretinin-containing interneurons. Using immunoprecipitation, we further demonstrate that Kv3.2 and its related subunit Kv3.1b are coexpressed within the same protein complexes in the hippocampus. These data demonstrate that potassium channel subunit Kv3.2 expression is developmentally regulated in a specific set of interneurons. The vast majority of these interneuron subpopulations possess a "fast-spiking" phenotype, consistent with a role for currents through Kv3.2 containing channels in determining action potential kinetics in these cells.

  2. Ropivacaine-Induced Contraction Is Attenuated by Both Endothelial Nitric Oxide and Voltage-Dependent Potassium Channels in Isolated Rat Aortae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Ho Ok

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated endothelium-derived vasodilators and potassium channels involved in the modulation of ropivacaine-induced contraction. In endothelium-intact rat aortae, ropivacaine concentration-response curves were generated in the presence or absence of the following inhibitors: the nonspecific nitric oxide synthase (NOS inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, the neuronal NOS inhibitor Nω-propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride, the inducible NOS inhibitor 1400W dihydrochloride, the nitric oxide-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (GC inhibitor ODQ, the NOS and GC inhibitor methylene blue, the phosphoinositide-3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin, the cytochrome p450 epoxygenase inhibitor fluconazole, the voltage-dependent potassium channel inhibitor 4-aminopyridine (4-AP, the calcium-activated potassium channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium (TEA, the inward-rectifying potassium channel inhibitor barium chloride, and the ATP-sensitive potassium channel inhibitor glibenclamide. The effect of ropivacaine on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was examined by western blotting. Ropivacaine-induced contraction was weaker in endothelium-intact aortae than in endothelium-denuded aortae. L-NAME, ODQ, and methylene blue enhanced ropivacaine-induced contraction, whereas wortmannin, Nω-propyl-L-arginine hydrochloride, 1400W dihydrochloride, and fluconazole had no effect. 4-AP and TEA enhanced ropivacaine-induced contraction; however, barium chloride and glibenclamide had no effect. eNOS phosphorylation was induced by ropivacaine. These results suggest that ropivacaine-induced contraction is attenuated primarily by both endothelial nitric oxide and voltage-dependent potassium channels.

  3. A naturally occurring omega current in a Kv3 family potassium channel from a platyhelminth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Andrew N

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Voltage-gated ion channels are membrane proteins containing a selective pore that allows permeable ions to transit the membrane in response to a change in the transmembrane voltage. The typical selectivity filter in potassium channels is formed by a tetrameric arrangement of the carbonyl groups of the conserved amino-acid sequence Gly-Tyr-Gly. This canonical pore is opened or closed by conformational changes that originate in the voltage sensor (S4, a transmembrane helix with a series of positively charged amino acids. This sensor moves through a gating pore formed by elements of the S1, S2 and S3 helices, across the plane of the membrane, without allowing ions to pass through the membrane at that site. Recently, synthetic mutagenesis studies in the Drosophila melanogaster Shaker channel and analysis of human disease-causing mutations in sodium channels have identified amino acid residues that are integral parts of the gating-pore; when these residues are mutated the proteins allow a non-specific cation current, known as the omega current, to pass through the gating-pore with relatively low selectivity. Results The N.at-Kv3.2 potassium channel has an unusual weak inward rectifier phenotype. Several mutations of two amino acids in the voltage sensing (S4 transmembrane helix change the phenotype to a typical delayed rectifier. The inward rectifier channels (wild-type and mutant are sensitive to 4-aminopyridine (4-AP but not tetra-ethyl ammonium (TEA, whereas the delayed rectifier mutants are sensitive to TEA but not 4-AP. The inward rectifier channels also manifest low cation selectivity. The relative selectivity for different cations is sensitive to specific mutations in the S4 helix, Conclusion N.at-Kv3.2, a naturally occurring potassium channel of the Kv3 sequence family, mediates ion permeation through a modified gating pore, not the canonical, highly selective pore typical of potassium channels. This channel has evolved to

  4. M-type potassium channels modulate Schaffer collateral-CA1 glutamatergic synaptic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianli; Kapur, Jaideep

    2012-08-15

    Previous studies have suggested that muscarinic receptor activation modulates glutamatergic transmission. M-type potassium channels mediate the effects of muscarinic activation in the hippocampus, and it has been proposed that they modulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission. We tested whether M1 muscarinic receptor activation enhances glutamatergic synaptic transmission via the inhibition of the M-type potassium channels that are present in Schaffer collateral axons and terminals. Miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs) were recorded from CA1 pyramidal neurons. The M1 receptor agonist, NcN-A-343, increased the frequency of mEPSCs, but did not alter their amplitude. The M-channel blocker XE991 and its analogue linopirdine also increased the frequency of mEPSCs. Flupirtine, which opens M-channels, had the opposite effect. XE991 did not enhance mEPSCs frequency in a calcium-free external medium. Blocking P/Q- and N-type calcium channels abolished the effect of XE991 on mEPSCs. These data suggested that the inhibition of M-channels increases presynaptic calcium-dependent glutamate release in CA1 pyramidal neurons. The effects of these agents on the membrane potentials of presynaptic CA3 pyramidal neurons were studied using current clamp recordings; activation of M1 receptors and blocking M-channels depolarized neurons and increased burst firing. The input resistance of CA3 neurons was increased by the application of McN-A-343 and XE991; these effects were consistent with the closure of M-channels. Muscarinic activation inhibits M-channels in CA3 pyramidal neurons and its efferents – Schaffer collateral, which causes the depolarization, activates voltage-gated calcium channels, and ultimately elevates the intracellular calcium concentration to increase the release of glutamate on CA1 pyramidal neurons.

  5. Fluorescent protein-scorpion toxin chimera is a convenient molecular tool for studies of potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenkov, Alexey I; Nekrasova, Oksana V; Kudryashova, Kseniya S; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Stepanov, Alexey V; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P; Grishin, Eugene V; Feofanov, Alexey V; Vassilevski, Alexander A

    2016-09-21

    Ion channels play a central role in a host of physiological and pathological processes and are the second largest target for existing drugs. There is an increasing need for reliable tools to detect and visualize particular ion channels, but existing solutions suffer from a number of limitations such as high price, poor specificity, and complicated protocols. As an alternative, we produced recombinant chimeric constructs (FP-Tx) consisting of fluorescent proteins (FP) fused with potassium channel toxins from scorpion venom (Tx). In particular, we used two FP, eGFP and TagRFP, and two Tx, OSK1 and AgTx2, to create eGFP-OSK1 and RFP-AgTx2. We show that these chimeras largely retain the high affinity of natural toxins and display selectivity to particular ion channel subtypes. FP-Tx are displaced by other potassium channel blockers and can be used as an imaging tool in ion channel ligand screening setups. We believe FP-Tx chimeras represent a new efficient molecular tool for neurobiology.

  6. CNTF-Treated Astrocyte Conditioned Medium Enhances Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel Activity in Rat Cortical Neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meiqun; Liu, Hongli; Xu, Huanbai; Wang, Hongtao; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-08-01

    Seizure activity is linked to astrocyte activation as well as dysfunctional cortical neuron excitability produced from changes in calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel function. Ciliary neurotrophic factor-treated astrocyte conditioned medium (CNTF-ACM) can be used to investigate the peripheral effects of activated astrocytes upon cortical neurons. However, CNTF-ACM's effect upon KCa channel activity in cultured cortical neurons has not yet been investigated. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings were performed in rat cortical neurons to evaluate CNTF-ACM's effects upon charybdotoxin-sensitive large-conductance KCa (BK) channel currents and apamin-sensitive small-conductance KCa (SK) channel current. Biotinylation and RT-PCR were applied to assess CNTF-ACM's effects upon the protein and mRNA expression, respectively, of the SK channel subunits SK2 and SK3 and the BK channel subunits BKα1 and BKβ3. An anti-fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) monoclonal neutralizing antibody was used to assess the effects of the FGF-2 component of CNTF-ACM. CNTF-ACM significantly increased KCa channel current density, which was predominantly attributable to gains in BK channel activity (p ACM produced a significant increase in BKα1 and BKβ3 expression (p  0.05). Blocking FGF-2 produced significant reductions in KCa channel current density (p > 0.05) as well as BKα1 and BKβ3 expression in CNTF-ACM-treated neurons (p > 0.05). CNTF-ACM significantly enhances BK channel activity in rat cortical neurons and that FGF-2 is partially responsible for these effects. CNTF-induced astrocyte activation results in secretion of neuroactive factors which may affect neuronal excitability and resultant seizure activity in mammalian cortical neurons.

  7. Inhibitory Effects of Glycyrrhetinic Acid on the Delayed Rectifier Potassium Current in Guinea Pig Ventricular Myocytes and HERG Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delin Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Licorice has long been used to treat many ailments including cardiovascular disorders in China. Recent studies have shown that the cardiac actions of licorice can be attributed to its active component, glycyrrhetinic acid (GA. However, the mechanism of action remains poorly understood. Aim. The effects of GA on the delayed rectifier potassium current (IK, the rapidly activating (IKr and slowly activating (IKs components of IK, and the HERG K+ channel expressed in HEK-293 cells were investigated. Materials and Methods. Single ventricular myocytes were isolated from guinea pig myocardium using enzymolysis. The wild type HERG gene was stably expressed in HEK293 cells. Whole-cell patch clamping was used to record IK (IKr, IKs and the HERG K+ current. Results. GA (1, 5, and 10 μM inhibited IK (IKr, IKs and the HERG K+ current in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion. GA significantly inhibited the potassium currents in a dose- and voltage-dependent manner, suggesting that it exerts its antiarrhythmic action through the prolongation of APD and ERP owing to the inhibition of IK (IKr, IKs and HERG K+ channel.

  8. A specific two-pore domain potassium channel blocker defines the structure of the TASK-1 open pore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streit, Anne K; Netter, Michael F; Kempf, Franca; Walecki, Magdalena; Rinné, Susanne; Bollepalli, Murali K; Preisig-Müller, Regina; Renigunta, Vijay; Daut, Jürgen; Baukrowitz, Thomas; Sansom, Mark S P; Stansfeld, Phillip J; Decher, Niels

    2011-04-22

    Two-pore domain potassium (K(2P)) channels play a key role in setting the membrane potential of excitable cells. Despite their role as putative targets for drugs and general anesthetics, little is known about the structure and the drug binding site of K(2P) channels. We describe A1899 as a potent and highly selective blocker of the K(2P) channel TASK-1. As A1899 acts as an open-channel blocker and binds to residues forming the wall of the central cavity, the drug was used to further our understanding of the channel pore. Using alanine mutagenesis screens, we have identified residues in both pore loops, the M2 and M4 segments, and the halothane response element to form the drug binding site of TASK-1. Our experimental data were used to validate a K(2P) open-pore homology model of TASK-1, providing structural insights for future rational design of drugs targeting K(2P) channels.

  9. Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC with cerebellar involvement in a teenager

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan M Langille

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC typically presents with limbic encephalitis and medial temporal lobe involvement on neuroimaging. We describe a case of 13 year girl female with encephalitis due to antibodies to VGKC with signal changes in the cerebellar dentate nuclei bilaterally and clinical features that suggested predominant cerebellar involvement. These have never been reported previously in the literature. Our case expands the phenotypic spectrum of this rare condition.

  10. Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) with cerebellar involvement in a teenager.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langille, Megan M; Desai, Jay

    2015-01-01

    Encephalitis due to antibodies to voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) typically presents with limbic encephalitis and medial temporal lobe involvement on neuroimaging. We describe a case of 13 year girl female with encephalitis due to antibodies to VGKC with signal changes in the cerebellar dentate nuclei bilaterally and clinical features that suggested predominant cerebellar involvement. These have never been reported previously in the literature. Our case expands the phenotypic spectrum of this rare condition.

  11. Place of Mitochondrial Potassium-ATP Channels in The Mechanism of Effect of Ischemic Conditionings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker Şengül

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Ischemia-reperfusion episodes in a short interval “just before” ischemia performed experimentally have been called preconditioning, where as “just after” ischemia have been called postconditioning and tissue protective effects of these endogenous mechanisms have been shown in various organs via various studies. Although multipl mechanisms have been being propounded about these phenomenons which have been found area of usage from hearth surgery to organ transplantation, mitochondrial potassium ATP-channels have been maintaining its importance.

  12. Pungent agents from Szechuan peppers excite sensory neurons by inhibiting two-pore potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bautista, Diana M; Sigal, Yaron M; Milstein, Aaron D; Garrison, Jennifer L; Zorn, Julie A; Tsuruda, Pamela R; Nicoll, Roger A; Julius, David

    2008-07-01

    In traditional folk medicine, Xanthoxylum plants are referred to as 'toothache trees' because their anesthetic or counter-irritant properties render them useful in the treatment of pain. Psychophysical studies have identified hydroxy-alpha-sanshool as the compound most responsible for the unique tingling and buzzing sensations produced by Szechuan peppercorns or other Xanthoxylum preparations. Although it is generally agreed that sanshool elicits its effects by activating somatosensory neurons, the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain a matter of debate. Here we show that hydroxy-alpha-sanshool excites two types of sensory neurons, including small-diameter unmyelinated cells that respond to capsaicin (but not mustard oil) as well as large-diameter myelinated neurons that express the neurotrophin receptor TrkC. We found that hydroxy-alpha-sanshool excites neurons through a unique mechanism involving inhibition of pH- and anesthetic-sensitive two-pore potassium channels (KCNK3, KCNK9 and KCNK18), providing a framework for understanding the unique and complex psychophysical sensations associated with the Szechuan pepper experience.

  13. The KCNQ1 potassium channel is down-regulated by ubiquitylating enzymes of the Nedd4/Nedd4-like family

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jespersen, Thomas; Membrez, Mathieu; Nicolas, Céline S;

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The voltage-gated KCNQ1 potassium channel regulates key physiological functions in a number of tissues. In the heart, KCNQ1 alpha-subunits assemble with KCNE1 beta-subunits forming a channel complex constituting the delayed rectifier current I(Ks). In epithelia, KCNQ1 channels...

  14. Stereoselective inhibition of the hERG1 potassium channel

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    Liliana eSintra Grilo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A growing number of drugs have been shown to prolong cardiac repolarization, predisposing individuals to life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias known as Torsades de Pointes. Most of these drugs are known to interfere with the human ether à-gogo related gene 1 (hERG1 channel, whose current is one of the main determinants of action potential duration. Prolonged repolarization is reflected by lengthening of the QT interval of the electrocardiogram, as seen in the suitably named drug-induced long QT syndrome. Chirality (presence of an asymmetric atom is a common feature of marketed drugs, which can therefore exist in at least two enantiomers with distinct three-dimensional structures and possibly distinct biological fates. Both the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties can differ between enantiomers, as well as also between individuals who take the drug due to metabolic polymorphisms. Despite the large number of reports about drugs reducing the hERG1 current, potential stereoselective contributions have only been scarcely investigated. In this review, we present a non-exhaustive list of clinically important molecules which display chiral toxicity that may be related to hERG1-blocking properties. We particularly focus on methadone cardiotoxicity, which illustrates the importance of the stereoselective effect of drug chirality as well as individual variations resulting from pharmacogenetics. Furthermore, it seems likely that, during drug development, consideration of chirality in lead optimization and systematic assessment of the hERG1 current block with all enantiomers could contribute to the reduction of the risk of drug-induced LQTS.

  15. Role of inward rectifier potassium channels in salivary gland function and sugar feeding of the fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    The arthropod salivary gland is of critical importance for horizontal transmission of pathogens, yet a detailed understanding of the ion conductance pathways responsible for saliva production and excretion is lacking. A superfamily of potassium ion channels, known as inward rectifying potassium (Ki...

  16. Gain-of-function mutations in potassium channel subunit KCNE2 associated with early-onset lone atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas Bille; Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Olesen, Morten Salling;

    2014-01-01

    Aims: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia. Disturbances in cardiac potassium conductance are considered as one of the disease mechanisms in AF. We aimed to investigate if mutations in potassium-channel β-subunits KCNE2 and KCNE3 are associated with early-onset lone AF. ...

  17. Variations in potassium channel genes are associated with breast pain in women prior to breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Dale J; West, Claudia; Elboim, Charles; Cooper, Bruce A; Abrams, Gary; Paul, Steven M; Schmidt, Brian L; Levine, Jon D; Merriman, John D; Dhruva, Anand; Neuhaus, John; Leutwyler, Heather; Baggott, Christina; Sullivan, Carmen Ward; Aouizerat, Bradley E; Miaskowski, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Preoperative breast pain in women with breast cancer may result from a number of causes. Previous work from our team found that breast pain occurred in 28.2% of women (n = 398) who were about to undergo breast cancer surgery. The occurrence of preoperative breast pain was associated with a number of demographic and clinical characteristics, as well as variation in two cytokine genes. Given that ion channels regulate excitability of sensory neurons, we hypothesized that variations in potassium channel genes would be associated with preoperative breast pain in these patients. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated for associations between single-nucleotide polymorphisms and inferred haplotypes among 10 potassium channel genes and the occurrence of preoperative breast pain in patients scheduled to undergo breast cancer surgery. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify those genetic variations that were associated with the occurrence of preoperative breast pain while controlling for age and genomic estimates of and self-reported race/ethnicity. Variations in four potassium channel genes: (1) potassium voltage-gated channel, delayed rectifier, subfamily S, member 1 (KCNS1); (2) potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 3 (KCNJ3); (3) KCNJ6; and (4) potassium channel, subfamily K, member 9 (KCNK9) were associated with the occurrence of breast pain. Findings from this study warrant replication in an independent sample of women who report breast pain following one or more breast biopsies.

  18. Altered ATP-sensitive potassium channels may underscore obesity-triggered increase in blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-hong FAN; Hong-yan TIAN; Ai-qun MA; Zhi HU; Jian-hua HUO; Yong-xiao CAO

    2008-01-01

    Aim:To determine whether ATP-sensitive potassium channels are altered in VSMC from arotas and mesenteric arteries of obese rat,and their association with obesity-triggered increase in blood pressure.Methods:Obesity was induced by 24 weeks of high-fat diet feeding in male Sprague-Dawley rats.Control rats were fed with standard laboratory rat chow.Blood pressure and body weight of these rats were measured every 4 weeks.At the end of 24 weeks,KATP channel-mediated relaxation responses in the aortas and mesenteric arteries,KATP channel current,and gene expression were examined,respectively.Results:Blood pres-sure and body weight were increased in rats fed with high-fat diet.KATP channel-mediated relaxation responses,currents,and KATP expression in VSMC of both aortas and mesenteric arteries were inhibited in these rats.Conclusion:Altered ATP-sensitive potassium channels in obese rats may underscore obesity-triggered increase in blood pressure.

  19. Structural insight into the transmembrane segments 3 and 4 of the hERG potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qingxin; Wong, Ying Lei; Ng, Hui Qi; Gayen, Shovanlal; Kang, CongBao

    2014-12-01

    The hERG (human ether-a-go-go related gene) potassium channel is a voltage-gated potassium channel containing an N-terminal domain, a voltage-sensor domain, a pore domain and a C-terminal domain. The transmembrane segment 4 (S4) is important for sensing changes of membrane potentials through positively charge residues. A construct containing partial S2-S3 linker, S3, S4 and the S4-S5 linker of the hERG channel was purified into detergent micelles. This construct exhibits good quality NMR spectrum when it was purified in lyso-myristoyl phosphatidylglycerol (LMPG) micelles. Structural study showed that S3 contains two short helices with a negatively charged surface. The S4 and S4-S5 linker adopt helical structures. The six positively charged residues in S4 localize at different sides, suggesting that they may have different functions in channel gating. Relaxation studies indicated that S3 is more flexible than S4. The boundaries of S3-S4 and S4-S4-S5 linker were identified. Our results provided structural information of the S3 and S4, which will be helpful to understand their roles in channel gating.

  20. Cell volume and membrane stretch independently control K+ channel activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholtz, Sofia Hammami; Willumsen, Niels J; Olsen, Hervør L;

    2009-01-01

    A number of potassium channels including members of the KCNQ family and the Ca(2+) activated IK and SK, but not BK, are strongly and reversibly regulated by small changes in cell volume. It has been argued that this general regulation is mediated through sensitivity to changes in membrane stretch....... To test this hypothesis we have studied the regulation of KCNQ1 and BK channels after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Results from cell-attached patch clamp studies (approximately 50 microm(2) macropatches) in oocytes expressing BK channels demonstrate that the macroscopic volume-insensitive BK current...... was not affected by membrane stretch. The results indicate that (1) activation of BK channels by local membrane stretch is not mimicked by membrane stress induced by cell swelling, and (2) activation of KCNQ1 channels by cell volume increase is not mediated by local tension in the cell membrane. We conclude...

  1. Variations in potassium channel genes are associated with distinct trajectories of persistent breast pain after breast cancer surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, Dale J; Paul, Steven M; West, Claudia M; Dunn, Laura B; Levine, Jon D; Kober, Kord M; Dodd, Marylin J; Miaskowski, Christine; Aouizerat, Bradley E

    2015-03-01

    Persistent pain after breast cancer surgery is a common clinical problem. Given the role of potassium channels in modulating neuronal excitability, coupled with recently published genetic associations with preoperative breast pain, we hypothesized that variations in potassium channel genes will be associated with persistent postsurgical breast pain. In this study, associations between 10 potassium channel genes and persistent breast pain were evaluated. Using growth mixture modeling (GMM), 4 distinct latent classes of patients, who were assessed before and monthly for 6 months after breast cancer surgery, were identified previously (ie, No Pain, Mild Pain, Moderate Pain, Severe Pain). Genotyping was done using a custom array. Using logistic regression analyses, significant differences in a number of genotype or haplotype frequencies were found between: Mild Pain vs No Pain and Severe Pain vs No Pain classes. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across 5 genes (ie, potassium voltage-gated channel, subfamily A, member 1 [KCNA1], potassium voltage-gated channel, subfamily D, member 2 [KCND2], potassium inwardly rectifying channel, subfamily J, members 3 and 6 (KCNJ3 and KCNJ6), potassium channel, subfamily K, member 9 [KCNK9]) were associated with membership in the Mild Pain class. In addition, 3 SNPs and 1 haplotype across 4 genes (ie, KCND2, KCNJ3, KCNJ6, KCNK9) were associated with membership in the Severe Pain class. These findings suggest that variations in potassium channel genes are associated with both mild and severe persistent breast pain after breast cancer surgery. Although findings from this study warrant replication, they provide intriguing preliminary information on potential therapeutic targets.

  2. Systemic Administration of Substance P Recovers Beta Amyloid-Induced Cognitive Deficits in Rat: Involvement of Kv Potassium Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Patrizia Campolongo; Patrizia Ratano; Maria Teresa Ciotti; Fulvio Florenzano; Stefania Lucia Nori; Roberta Marolda; Maura Palmery; Anna Maria Rinaldi; Cristina Zona; Roberta Possenti; Pietro Calissano; Cinzia Severini

    2013-01-01

    Reduced levels of Substance P (SP), an endogenous neuropeptide endowed with neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic properties, have been found in brain and spinal fluid of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Potassium (K(+)) channel dysfunction is implicated in AD development and the amyloid-β (Aβ)-induced up-regulation of voltage-gated potassium channel subunits could be considered a significant step in Aβ brain toxicity. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether SP could reduce, in vivo, Aβ-...

  3. Myoclonus epilepsy and ataxia due to potassium channel mutation (MEAK) is caused by heterozygous KCNC1 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Fábio A; Andrade, Danielle M

    2016-09-01

    Progressive myoclonus epilepsy (PME) is a distinct group of seizure disorders characterized by gradual neurological decline with ataxia, myoclonus and recurring seizures. There are several forms of PME, among which the most recently described is MEAK - myoclonus epilepsy and ataxia due to potassium channel mutation. This particular subtype is caused by a recurrent de novo heterozygous mutation (c.959G>A, p.Arg320His) in the KCNC1 gene, which maps to chromosome 11 and encodes for the Kv3.1 protein (a subunit of the Kv3 subfamily of voltage-gated potassium channels). Loss of Kv3 function disrupts the firing properties of fast-spiking neurons, affects neurotransmitter release and induces cell death. Specifically regarding Kv3.1 malfunctioning, the most affected neurons include inhibitory GABAergic interneurons and cerebellar neurons. Impairment of the former cells is believed to contribute to myoclonus and seizures, whereas dysfunction of the latter to ataxia and tremor. Phenotypically, MEAK patients generally have a normal early development. At the age of 6 to 14 years, they present with myoclonus, which tends to progressively worsen with time. Tonic-clonic seizures may or may not be present, and some patients develop mild cognitive impairment following seizure onset. Typical electroencephalographic features comprise generalized epileptiform discharges and, in some cases, photosensitivity. Brain imaging is either normal or shows cerebellar atrophy. The identification of MEAK has both expanded the phenotypic and genotypic spectra of PME and established an emerging role for de novo mutations in PME.

  4. Cloning and characterization of a human delayed rectifier potassium channel gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, B; Lorra, C; Stocker, M; Pongs, O

    1993-01-01

    A human genomic DNA library was screened for sequences homologues to the rat delayed rectifier Kv 2.1 (DRK1) K+ channel cDNA. Three phages were isolated which hybridized to Kv 2.1 cDNA probes. Alignment of the human genomic DNA sequence with the rat cDNA sequence indicated that the open reading frame (ORF) is interrupted by a large intervening sequence, that separates exons encoding the membrane spanning core region of the K+ channel polypeptide. The Kv 2.1 gene occurs once in the human genome and has been mapped to chromosome 20. The human, mouse and rat Kv 2.1 proteins have been highly conserved, showing only a few substitutions outside of the membrane spanning domains in the amino- and carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic domains. Nevertheless, expression of human DRK1 channels in Xenopus oocytes showed that mouse, rat and human Kv 2.1 channels have distinct pharmacological and electrophysiological properties. The observed differences in activation, voltage-dependence, 4-aminopyridine sensitivity and single-channel conductance have to be attributed to amino acid substitutions in the amino-and/or carboxy-terminal cytoplasmic domains. Obviously, these domains of Kv 2.1 channels influence biophysical K+ channel properties, which are thought to be determined solely by the membrane spanning core domain of potassium channels.

  5. Two distinct pools of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in the somatic plasma membrane of central principal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, W.A.; Kasugai, Y.; Ferraguti, F.; Storm, J.F.

    2010-01-01

    Although nerve cell membranes are often assumed to be uniform with respect to electrical properties, there is increasing evidence for compartmentalization into subdomains with heterogeneous impacts on the overall cell function. Such microdomains are characterized by specific sets of proteins determining their functional properties. Recently, clustering of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels was shown at sites of subsurface membrane cisterns in cerebellar Purkinje cells (PC), where they likely participate in building a subcellular signaling unit, the 'PLasmERosome'. By applying SDS-digested freeze-fracture replica labeling (SDS-FRL) and postembedding immunogold electron microscopy, we have now studied the spatial organization of somatic BKCa channels in neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons, principal neurons of the central and basolateral amygdaloid nuclei, hippocampal pyramidal neurons and dentate gyrus (DG) granule cells to establish whether there is a common organizational principle in the distribution of BKCa channels in central principal neurons. In all cell types analyzed, somatic BKCa channels were found to be non-homogenously distributed in the plasma membrane, forming two pools of channels with one pool consisting of clustered channels and the other of scattered channels in the extrasynaptic membrane. Quantitative analysis by means of SDS-FRL revealed that about two-thirds of BKCa channels belong to the scattered pool and about one-third to the clustered pool in principal cell somata. Overall densities of channels in both pools differed in the different cell types analyzed, although being considerably lower compared to cerebellar PC. Postembedding immunogold labeling revealed association of clustered channels with subsurface membrane cisterns and confirmed extrasynaptic localization of scattered channels. This study indicates a common organizational principle for somatic BKCa channels in central principal neurons with the

  6. Two distinct pools of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels in the somatic plasma membrane of central principal neurons

    OpenAIRE

    Kaufmann, W.A.; Kasugai, Y.; Ferraguti, F.; Storm, J F

    2010-01-01

    Although nerve cell membranes are often assumed to be uniform with respect to electrical properties, there is increasing evidence for compartmentalization into subdomains with heterogeneous impacts on the overall cell function. Such microdomains are characterized by specific sets of proteins determining their functional properties. Recently, clustering of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels was shown at sites of subsurface membrane cisterns in cerebellar Purkinje cel...

  7. Modulation of Potassium Channel Activity in the Balance of ROS and ATP Production by Durum Wheat Mitochondria - An amazing defence tool against hyperosmotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela eTrono

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In plants, the existence of a mitochondrial potassium channel was firstly demonstrated about fifteen years ago in durum wheat as an ATP-dependent potassium channel (PmitoKATP. Since then, both properties of the original PmitoKATP and occurrence of different mitochondrial potassium channels in a number of plant species (monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous and tissues/organs (etiolated and green have been shown. Here, an overview of the current knowledge is reported; in particular, the issue of PmitoKATP physiological modulation is addressed. Similarities and differences with other potassium channels, as well as possible cross-regulation with other mitochondrial proteins (Plant Uncoupling Protein, Alternative Oxidase, Plant Inner Membrane Anion Channel are also described. PmitoKATP is inhibited by ATP and activated by superoxide anion, as well as by free fatty acids (FFAs and acyl-CoAs. Interestingly, channel activation increases electrophoretic potassium uptake across the inner membrane towards the matrix, so collapsing membrane potential (ΔΨ, the main component of the protonmotive force (Δp in plant mitochondria; moreover, cooperation between PmitoKATP and the K+/H+ antiporter allows a potassium cycle able to dissipate also ΔpH. Interestingly, ΔΨ collapse matches with an active control of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS production. Fully open channel is able to lower superoxide anion up to 35-fold compared to a condition of ATP-inhibited channel. On the other hand, ΔΨ collapse by PmitoKATP was unexpectedly found to not affect ATP synthesis via oxidative phosphorylation. This may probably occur by means of a controlled collapse due to ATP inhibition of PmitoKATP; this brake to the channel activity may allow a loss of the bulk phase Δp, but may preserve a non-classically detectable localized driving force for ATP synthesis. This ability may become crucial under environmental/oxidative stress. In particular, under moderate

  8. Environment-Sensitive Fluorescent Probe for the Human Ether-a-go-go-Related Gene Potassium Channel

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Jiang, Tianyu; Wang, Beilei; Ke, Bowen; Zhou, Yubin; Du, Lupei; Li, Minyong

    2016-01-01

    A novel environment-sensitive probe S2 with turn-on switch for Human Ether-a-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) potassium channel was developed herein. After careful evaluation, this fluorescent probe showed high binding affinity with hERG potassium channel with an IC50 value of 41.65 nM and can be well applied to hERG channel imaging or cellular distribution study for hERG channel blockers. Compared with other imaging techniques, such as immunofluorescence and fluorescent protein-based approaches, th...

  9. Human beta-defensin 1, a new animal toxin-like blocker of potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jing; Xie, Zili; Yang, Weishan; Zhao, Yonghui; Xiang, Fang; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin; Chen, Zongyun; Wu, Yingliang

    2016-04-01

    The discovery of human β-defensin 2 (hBD2), as a Kv1.3 channel inhibitor with the unique molecular mechanism and novel immune modulatory function, suggests that human β-defensins are a novel class of channel ligands. Here, the function and mechanism of the human β-defensin 1 (hBD1) binding to potassium channels was investigated. Based on the structural similarity between hBD1 and Kv1.3 channel-sensitive hBD2, hBD1 was found to selectively inhibit human and mouse Kv1.3 channels with IC50 values of 11.8 ± 3.1 μM and 13.2 ± 4.0 μM, respectively. Different from hBD2 modifying Kv1.3 channel activation and increasing activation time constant, hBD1 did not affect the activation feature of both human and mouse Kv1.3 channels. In comparison with hBD2 simultaneously interacting with the extracellular S1-S2 linker and pore region of Kv1.3 channel, the chimeric channel and mutagenesis experiments showed that hBD1 only bound to the extracellular pore region of Kv1.3 channel instead of extracellular S1-S2 linker or S3-S4 linker. Together, these findings enhance knowledge of hBD1 as a new immune-related Kv1.3 channel blocker and highlight the major functional differences between hBD1 and hBD2 to explore in future research.

  10. Biochemical engineering of the N-acyl side chain of sialic acids alters the kinetics of a glycosylated potassium channel Kv3.1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M Kristen; Reutter, Werner; Lindhorst, Thisbe; Schwalbe, Ruth A

    2011-10-20

    The sialic acid of complex N-glycans can be biochemically engineered by substituting the physiological precursor N-acetylmannosamine with non-natural N-acylmannosamines. The Kv3.1 glycoprotein, a neuronal voltage-gated potassium channel, contains sialic acid. Western blots of the Kv3.1 glycoprotein isolated from transfected B35 neuroblastoma cells incubated with N-acylmannosamines verified sialylated N-glycans attached to the Kv3.1 glycoprotein. Outward ionic currents of Kv3.1 transfected B35 cells treated with N-pentanoylmannosamine or N-propanoylmannosamine had slower activation and inactivation rates than those of untreated cells. Therefore, the N-acyl side chain of sialic acid is intimately connected with the activation and inactivation rates of this glycosylated potassium channel.

  11. Functional and molecular identification of a TASK-1 potassium channel regulating chloride secretion through CFTR channels in the shark rectal gland: implications for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Connor J; Decker, Sarah E; Motley, William W; Peters, Alexander W; Mehr, Ali Poyan; Frizzell, Raymond A; Forrest, John N

    2016-12-01

    In the shark rectal gland (SRG), apical chloride secretion through CFTR channels is electrically coupled to a basolateral K(+) conductance whose type and molecular identity are unknown. We performed studies in the perfused SRG with 17 K(+) channel inhibitors to begin this search. Maximal chloride secretion was markedly inhibited by low-perfusate pH, bupivicaine, anandamide, zinc, quinidine, and quinine, consistent with the properties of an acid-sensitive, four-transmembrane, two-pore-domain K(+) channel (4TM-K2P). Using PCR with degenerate primers to this family, we identified a TASK-1 fragment in shark rectal gland, brain, gill, and kidney. Using 5' and 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends PCR and genomic walking, we cloned the full-length shark gene (1,282 bp), whose open reading frame encodes a protein of 375 amino acids that was 80% identical to the human TASK-1 protein. We expressed shark and human TASK-1 cRNA in Xenopus oocytes and characterized these channels using two-electrode voltage clamping. Both channels had identical current-voltage relationships (outward rectifying) and a reversal potential of -90 mV. Both were inhibited by quinine, bupivicaine, and acidic pH. The pKa for current inhibition was 7.75 for shark TASK-1 vs. 7.37 for human TASK-1, values similar to the arterial pH for each species. We identified this protein in SRG by Western blot and confocal immunofluorescent microscopy and detected the protein in SRG and human airway cells. Shark TASK-1 is the major K(+) channel coupled to chloride secretion in the SRG, is the oldest 4TM 2P family member identified, and is the first TASK-1 channel identified to play a role in setting the driving force for chloride secretion in epithelia. The detection of this potassium channel in mammalian lung tissue has implications for human biology and disease.

  12. Ethanol affects network activity in cultured rat hippocampus: mediation by potassium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Korkotian

    Full Text Available The effects of ethanol on neuronal network activity were studied in dissociated cultures of rat hippocampus. Exposure to low (0.25-0.5% ethanol concentrations caused an increase in synchronized network spikes, and a decrease in the duration of individual spikes. Ethanol also caused an increase in rate of miniature spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents. Higher concentrations of ethanol eliminated network spikes. These effects were reversible upon wash. The effects of the high, but not the low ethanol were blocked by the GABA antagonist bicuculline. The enhancing action of low ethanol was blocked by apamin, an SK potassium channel antagonist, and mimicked by 1-EBIO, an SK channel opener. It is proposed that in cultured hippocampal networks low concentration of ethanol is associated with SK channel activity, rather than the GABAergic receptor.

  13. The Role of Potassium Channels in the Temperature Control of Stomatal Aperture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilan, N.; Moran, N.; Schwartz, A.

    1995-07-01

    We used the patch-clamp technique to examine the effect of temperature (13-36[deg]C) on the depolarization-activated K channels (KD channels) and on the hyperpolarization-activated channels (KH channels) in the plasma membrane of Vicia faba guard-cell protoplasts. The steady-state whole-cell conductance of both K channel types increased with temperature up to 20[deg]C. However, whereas the whole-cell conductance of the KH channels increased further and saturated at 28[deg]C, that of KD channels decreased at higher temperatures. The unitary conductance of both channel types increased with temperature like the rate of diffusion in water (temperature quotient of approximately 1.5), constituting the major contribution to the conductance increase in the whole cells. The mean number of available KH channels was not affected significantly by temperature, but the mean number of available KD channels increased significantly between 13 and 20[deg]C and declined drastically above 20[deg]C. This decrease and the reduced steady-state voltage-dependent probability of opening of the KD channels above 28[deg]C (because of a shift of voltage dependence by +21 mV) account for the depression of the whole-cell KD conductance at the higher temperatures. This may be a basic mechanism by which leaves of well-watered plants keep their stomata open during heat stress to promote cooling by transpiration.

  14. Calcium-activated potassium channels sustain calcium signaling in T lymphocytes. Selective blockers and manipulated channel expression levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanger, C M; Rauer, H; Neben, A L; Miller, M J; Rauer, H; Wulff, H; Rosa, J C; Ganellin, C R; Chandy, K G; Cahalan, M D

    2001-04-13

    To maintain Ca(2+) entry during T lymphocyte activation, a balancing efflux of cations is necessary. Using three approaches, we demonstrate that this cation efflux is mediated by Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (K(Ca)) channels, hSKCa2 in the human leukemic T cell line Jurkat and hIKCa1 in mitogen-activated human T cells. First, several recently developed, selective and potent pharmacological inhibitors of K(Ca) channels but not K(V) channels reduce Ca(2+) entry in Jurkat and in mitogen-activated human T cells. Second, dominant-negative suppression of the native K(Ca) channel in Jurkat T cells by overexpression of a truncated fragment of the cloned hSKCa2 channel decreases Ca(2+) influx. Finally, introduction of the hIKCa1 channel into Jurkat T cells maintains rapid Ca(2+) entry despite pharmacological inhibition of the native small conductance K(Ca) channel. Thus, K(Ca) channels play a vital role in T cell Ca(2+) signaling.

  15. Inhibitory effects of hesperetin on Kv1.5 potassium channels stably expressed in HEK 293 cells and ultra-rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current in human atrial myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Wang, Hong-Fei; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yu-Fang; Ma, Rong; Xiang, Ji-Zhou; Du, Xin-Ling; Tang, Qiang

    2016-10-15

    In the present study, the inhibitory effects of hesperetin (HSP) on human cardiac Kv1.5 channels expressed in HEK 293 cells and the ultra-rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current (Ikur) in human atrial myocytes were examined by using the whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp techniques. We found that hesperetin rapidly and reversibly suppressed human Kv1.5 current in a concentration dependent manner with a half-maximal inhibition (IC50) of 23.15 μΜ with a Hill coefficient of 0.89. The current was maximally diminished about 71.36% at a concentration of 300μM hesperetin. Hesperetin significantly positive shifted the steady-state activation curve of Kv1.5, while negative shifted the steady-state inactivation curve. Hesperetin also accelerated the inactivation and markedly slowed the recovery from the inactivation of Kv1.5 currents. Block of Kv1.5 currents by hesperetin was in a frequency dependent manner. However, inclusion of 30μM hesperetin in pipette solution produced no effect on Kv1.5 channel current, while the current were remarkable and reversibly inhibited by extracellular application of 30μM hesperetin. We also found that hesperetin potently and reversibly inhibited the ultra-repaid delayed K(+) current (Ikur) in human atrial myocytes, which is in consistent with the effects of hesperetin on Kv1.5 currents in HEK 293 cells. In conclusion, hesperetin is a potent inhibitor of Ikur (which is encoded by Kv1.5), with blockade probably due to blocking of both open state and inactivated state channels from outside of the cell.

  16. The Molecular Basis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Interactions with the Shaker Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Yazdi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Voltage-gated potassium (KV channels are membrane proteins that respond to changes in membrane potential by enabling K+ ion flux across the membrane. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs induce channel opening by modulating the voltage-sensitivity, which can provide effective treatment against refractory epilepsy by means of a ketogenic diet. While PUFAs have been reported to influence the gating mechanism by electrostatic interactions to the voltage-sensor domain (VSD, the exact PUFA-protein interactions are still elusive. In this study, we report on the interactions between the Shaker KV channel in open and closed states and a PUFA-enriched lipid bilayer using microsecond molecular dynamics simulations. We determined a putative PUFA binding site in the open state of the channel located at the protein-lipid interface in the vicinity of the extracellular halves of the S3 and S4 helices of the VSD. In particular, the lipophilic PUFA tail covered a wide range of non-specific hydrophobic interactions in the hydrophobic central core of the protein-lipid interface, while the carboxylic head group displayed more specific interactions to polar/charged residues at the extracellular regions of the S3 and S4 helices, encompassing the S3-S4 linker. Moreover, by studying the interactions between saturated fatty acids (SFA and the Shaker KV channel, our study confirmed an increased conformational flexibility in the polyunsaturated carbon tails compared to saturated carbon chains, which may explain the specificity of PUFA action on channel proteins.

  17. Hair cell BK channels interact with RACK1, and PKC increases its expression on the cell surface by indirect phosphorylation

    OpenAIRE

    Surguchev, Alexei; Bai, Jun-Ping; Joshi, Powrnima; Navaratnam, Dhasakumar

    2012-01-01

    Large conductance (BK) calcium activated potassium channels (Slo) are ubiquitous and implicated in a number of human diseases including hypertension and epilepsy. BK channels consist of a pore forming α-subunit (Slo) and a number of accessory subunits. In hair cells of nonmammalian vertebrates these channels play a critical role in electrical resonance, a mechanism of frequency selectivity. Hair cell BK channel clusters on the surface and currents increase along the tonotopic axis and contrib...

  18. Voltage-gated potassium channel Kvl.3 in rabbit ciliary epithelium regulates the membrane potential via coupling intracellular calcium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yan-feng; ZHUO Ye-hong; BI Wei-na; BAI Yu-jing; LI Yan-na; WANG Zhi-jian

    2008-01-01

    Background The cell layer of the ciliary epithelium is responsible for aqueous humor secretion and maintenance.Ion channels play an important role in these processes.The main aim of this study was to determine whether the well-characterized members of the Kvl family (Kv1.3) contribute to the Kv currents in ciliary epithelium.Methods New Zealand White rabbits were maintained in a 12 hours light/dark cycle.Ciliary epithelium samples were isolated from the rabbits.We used Western blotting and immunocytochemistry to identify the expression and location of a voltage-gated potassium channel Kvl.3 in ciliary body epithelium.Membrane potential change after adding of Kv1.3 inhibitor margatoxin (MgTX) was observed with a fluorescence method.Results Western blotting and immunocytochemical studies showed that the Kv1.3 protein expressed in pigment ciliary epithelium and nonpigment ciliary epithelium,however it seemed to express more in the apical membrane of the nonpigmented epithelial cells.One nmol/L margatoxin,a specific inhibitor of Kv1.3 channels caused depolarization of the cultured nonpigmented epithelium (NPE) membrane potential.The cytosotic calcium increased after NPE cell depolarization,this increase of cytosolic calcium was partially blocked by 12.5 μmol/L dantrolene and 10 μmol/L nifedipine.These observations suggest that Kv1.3 channels modulate ciliary epithelium potential and effect calcium dependent mechanisms.Conclusion Kv1.3 channels contribute to K+ efflux at the membrane of rabbit ciliary epithelium.

  19. Inhibition of T cell proliferation by selective block of Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B S; Odum, Niels; Jorgensen, N K;

    1999-01-01

    T lymphocytes express a plethora of distinct ion channels that participate in the control of calcium homeostasis and signal transduction. Potassium channels play a critical role in the modulation of T cell calcium signaling, and the significance of the voltage-dependent K channel, Kv1.3, is well...... established. The recent cloning of the Ca(2+)-activated, intermediate-conductance K(+) channel (IK channel) has enabled a detailed investigation of the role of this highly Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) channel in the calcium signaling and subsequent regulation of T cell proliferation. The role IK channels play in T...

  20. Heterozygous disruption of renal outer medullary potassium channel in rats is associated with reduced blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zuo; Shin, Myung Kyun; Horwitz, Sarah Beth; Levorse, John M; Zhu, Lei; Sharif-Rodriguez, Wanda; Streltsov, Denis Y; Dajee, Maya; Hernandez, Melba; Pan, Yi; Urosevic-Price, Olga; Wang, Li; Forrest, Gail; Szeto, Daphne; Zhu, Yonghua; Cui, Yan; Michael, Bindhu; Balogh, Leslie Ann; Welling, Paul A; Wade, James B; Roy, Sophie; Sullivan, Kathleen A

    2013-08-01

    The renal outer medullary potassium channel (ROMK, KCNJ1) mediates potassium recycling and facilitates sodium reabsorption through the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporter in the loop of Henle and potassium secretion at the cortical collecting duct. Human genetic studies indicate that ROMK homozygous loss-of-function mutations cause type II Bartter syndrome, featuring polyuria, renal salt wasting, and hypotension; humans heterozygous for ROMK mutations identified in the Framingham Heart Study have reduced blood pressure. ROMK null mice recapitulate many of the features of type II Bartter syndrome. We have generated an ROMK knockout rat model in Dahl salt-sensitive background by using zinc finger nuclease technology and investigated the effects of knocking out ROMK on systemic and renal hemodynamics and kidney histology in the Dahl salt-sensitive rats. The ROMK(-/-) pups recapitulated features identified in the ROMK null mice. The ROMK(+/-) rats, when challenged with a 4% salt diet, exhibited a reduced blood pressure compared with their ROMK(+/+) littermates. More importantly, when challenged with an 8% salt diet, the Dahl salt-sensitive rats with 50% less ROMK expression showed increased protection from salt-induced blood pressure elevation and signs of protection from renal injury. Our findings in ROMK knockout Dahl salt-sensitive rats, together with the previous reports in humans and mice, underscore a critical role of ROMK in blood pressure regulation.

  1. MstX and a putative potassium channel facilitate biofilm formation in Bacillus subtilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew E Lundberg

    Full Text Available Biofilms constitute the predominant form of microbial life and a potent reservoir for innate antibiotic resistance in systemic infections. In the spore-forming bacterium Bacillus subtilis, the transition from a planktonic to sessile state is mediated by mutually exclusive regulatory pathways controlling the expression of genes required for flagellum or biofilm formation. Here, we identify mstX and yugO as novel regulators of biofilm formation in B. subtilis. We show that expression of mstX and the downstream putative K+ efflux channel, yugO, is necessary for biofilm development in B. subtilis, and that overexpression of mstX induces biofilm assembly. Transcription of the mstX-yugO operon is under the negative regulation of SinR, a transcription factor that governs the switch between planktonic and sessile states. Furthermore, mstX regulates the activity of Spo0A through a positive autoregulatory loop involving KinC, a histidine kinase that is activated by potassium leakage. The addition of potassium abrogated mstX-mediated biofilm formation. Our findings expand the role of Spo0A and potassium homeostasis in the regulation of bacterial development.

  2. BK potassium channels control transmitter release at CA3-CA3 synapses in the rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, Giacomo; Saviane, Chiara; Mohajerani, Majid H; Pedarzani, Paola; Cherubini, Enrico

    2004-05-15

    Large conductance calcium- and voltage-activated potassium channels (BK channels) activate in response to calcium influx during action potentials and contribute to the spike repolarization and fast afterhyperpolarization. BK channels targeted to active zones in presynaptic nerve terminals have been shown to limit calcium entry and transmitter release by reducing the duration of the presynaptic spike at neurosecretory nerve terminals and at the frog neuromuscular junction. However, their functional role in central synapses is still uncertain. In the hippocampus, BK channels have been proposed to act as an 'emergency brake' that would control transmitter release only under conditions of excessive depolarization and accumulation of intracellular calcium. Here we demonstrate that in the CA3 region of hippocampal slice cultures, under basal experimental conditions, the selective BK channel blockers paxilline (10 microM) and iberiotoxin (100 nM) increase the frequency, but not the amplitude, of spontaneously occurring action potential-dependent EPSCs. These drugs did not affect miniature currents recorded in the presence of tetrodotoxin, suggesting that their action was dependent on action potential firing. Moreover, in double patch-clamp recordings from monosynaptically interconnected CA3 pyramidal neurones, blockade of BK channels enhanced the probability of transmitter release, as revealed by the increase in success rate, EPSC amplitude and the concomitant decrease in paired-pulse ratio in response to pairs of presynaptic action potentials delivered at a frequency of 0.05 Hz. BK channel blockers also enhanced the appearance of delayed responses, particularly following the second action potential in the paired-pulse protocol. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that BK channels are powerful modulators of transmitter release and synaptic efficacy in central neurones.

  3. High extracellular potassium ion concentration attenuates the blockade action of ketanserin on Kvl.3 channels expressed in xenopus oocytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background Ketanserin (KT), a selective serotonin (5-HT) 2-receptor antagonist, reduces peripheral blood pressure by blocking the activation of peripheral 5-HT receptors. In this study electrophysiological method was used to investigate the effect of KT and potassium ion on Kv1.3 potassium channels and explore the role of blocker KT in the alteration of channel kinetics contributing to the potassium ion imbalances. Methods Kvl.3 channels were expressed in xenopus oocytes, and currents were measured using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. Results KCI made a left shift of activation and an inactivation curve of Kv1.3 current and accelerated the activation and inactivation time constant. High extracellular [K+] attenuated the blockade effect of KT on Kv1.3 channels. In the presence of KT and KCI the activation and inactivation time constants were not influenced significantly no matter what was administered first. KT did not significantly inhibit Kv1.3 current induced by tetraethylammonium (TEA). Conclusions KT is a weak blocker of Kv1.3 channels at different concentrations of extracellular potassium and binds to the intracellular side of the channel pore. The inhibitor KT of ion channels is not fully effective in clinical use because of high [K+]o and other electrolyte disorders.

  4. Role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the piracetam induced blockade of opioid effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehni, Ashish K; Singh, Nirmal; Jindal, Seema

    2007-12-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the effect of piracetam on morphine/ buprenorphine-induced antinociception in rats and effect of piracetam on morphine or minoxidil induced relaxation in KCl-precontracted isolated rat aortic ring preparation. Nociceptive threshold was measured by the tail flick test in rats. The cumulative dose responses of morphine or minoxidil were recorded in KCl-precontracted isolated rat aortic ring preparation. Piracetam attenuated buprenorphine-induced antinociception in rats. Piracetam significantly reduced the morphine and minoxidil induced relaxation in KCl precontracted isolated rat aortic ring preparation suggesting that piracetam interferes with opioid receptor and ATP-sensitive potassium channel (KATP) opener mediated responses in vitro. Thus, it may be suggested that piracetam attenuates opioid effects by an opioid receptor-KATP channel linked mechanism.

  5. Pharmacologic inhibition of the renal outer medullary potassium channel causes diuresis and natriuresis in the absence of kaliuresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Maria L; Priest, Birgit T; Alonso-Galicia, Magdalena; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Felix, John P; Brochu, Richard M; Bailey, Timothy; Thomas-Fowlkes, Brande; Liu, Jessica; Swensen, Andrew; Pai, Lee-Yuh; Xiao, Jianying; Hernandez, Melba; Hoagland, Kimberly; Owens, Karen; Tang, Haifeng; de Jesus, Reynalda K; Roy, Sophie; Kaczorowski, Gregory J; Pasternak, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK) channel, which is located at the apical membrane of epithelial cells lining the thick ascending loop of Henle and cortical collecting duct, plays an important role in kidney physiology by regulating salt reabsorption. Loss-of-function mutations in the human ROMK channel are associated with antenatal type II Bartter's syndrome, an autosomal recessive life-threatening salt-wasting disorder with mild hypokalemia. Similar observations have been reported from studies with ROMK knockout mice and rats. It is noteworthy that heterozygous carriers of Kir1.1 mutations associated with antenatal Bartter's syndrome have reduced blood pressure and a decreased risk of developing hypertension by age 60. Although selective ROMK inhibitors would be expected to represent a new class of diuretics, this hypothesis has not been pharmacologically tested. Compound A [5-(2-(4-(2-(4-(1H-tetrazol-1-yl)phenyl)acetyl)piperazin-1-yl)ethyl)isobenzofuran-1(3H)-one)], a potent ROMK inhibitor with appropriate selectivity and characteristics for in vivo testing, has been identified. Compound A accesses the channel through the cytoplasmic side and binds to residues lining the pore within the transmembrane region below the selectivity filter. In normotensive rats and dogs, short-term oral administration of compound A caused concentration-dependent diuresis and natriuresis that were comparable to hydrochlorothiazide. Unlike hydrochlorothiazide, however, compound A did not cause any significant urinary potassium losses or changes in plasma electrolyte levels. These data indicate that pharmacologic inhibition of ROMK has the potential for affording diuretic/natriuretic efficacy similar to that of clinically used diuretics but without the dose-limiting hypokalemia associated with the use of loop and thiazide-like diuretics.

  6. Effects of fluoxetine on protein expression of potassium ion channels in the brain of chronic mild stress rats

    OpenAIRE

    Chunlin Chen; Ling Wang; Xianfang Rong; Weiping Wang; Xiaoliang Wang

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the expression of major potassium channel subtypes in the brain of chronical mild stress (CMS) rats and reveal the effects of fluoxetine on the expression of these channels. Rats were exposed to a variety of unpredictable stress for three weeks and induced anhedonia, lower sucrose preference, locomotor activity and lower body weight. The protein expressions were determined by Western blot. CMS significantly increased the expression of Kv2.1 channel ...

  7. Huntington disease skeletal muscle is hyperexcitable owing to chloride and potassium channel dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Christopher W; Varuzhanyan, Grigor; Talmadge, Robert J; Voss, Andrew A

    2013-05-28

    Huntington disease is a progressive and fatal genetic disorder with debilitating motor and cognitive defects. Chorea, rigidity, dystonia, and muscle weakness are characteristic motor defects of the disease that are commonly attributed to central neurodegeneration. However, no previous study has examined the membrane properties that control contraction in Huntington disease muscle. We show primary defects in ex vivo adult skeletal muscle from the R6/2 transgenic mouse model of Huntington disease. Action potentials in diseased fibers are more easily triggered and prolonged than in fibers from WT littermates. Furthermore, some action potentials in the diseased fibers self-trigger. These defects occur because of decreases in the resting chloride and potassium conductances. Consistent with this, the expression of the muscle chloride channel, ClC-1, in Huntington disease muscle was compromised by improper splicing and a corresponding reduction in total Clcn1 (gene for ClC-1) mRNA. Additionally, the total Kcnj2 (gene for the Kir2.1 potassium channel) mRNA was reduced in disease muscle. The resulting muscle hyperexcitability causes involuntary and prolonged contractions that may contribute to the chorea, rigidity, and dystonia that characterize Huntington disease.

  8. Effects of the hypoglycaemic drugs repaglinide and glibenclamide on ATP-sensitive potassium-channels and cytosolic calcium levels in beta TC3 cells and rat pancreatic beta cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromada, J; Dissing, S; Kofod, Hans;

    1995-01-01

    -maximal steady-state inhibition of the ATP-sensitive K+ currents is observed at 89 pmol/l repaglinide and at 47 pmol/l glibenclamide in whole-cell experiments of longer duration (30 min). Applying digital Ca2+ imaging on single beta TC3 cells we found that repaglinide and glibenclamide induced a concentration...

  9. Molecular mechanism underlying β1 regulation in voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Karen; Contreras, Gustavo F; Pupo, Amaury; Torres, Yolima P; Neely, Alan; González, Carlos; Latorre, Ramon

    2015-04-14

    Being activated by depolarizing voltages and increases in cytoplasmic Ca(2+), voltage- and calcium-activated potassium (BK) channels and their modulatory β-subunits are able to dampen or stop excitatory stimuli in a wide range of cellular types, including both neuronal and nonneuronal tissues. Minimal alterations in BK channel function may contribute to the pathophysiology of several diseases, including hypertension, asthma, cancer, epilepsy, and diabetes. Several gating processes, allosterically coupled to each other, control BK channel activity and are potential targets for regulation by auxiliary β-subunits that are expressed together with the α (BK)-subunit in almost every tissue type where they are found. By measuring gating currents in BK channels coexpressed with chimeras between β1 and β3 or β2 auxiliary subunits, we were able to identify that the cytoplasmic regions of β1 are responsible for the modulation of the voltage sensors. In addition, we narrowed down the structural determinants to the N terminus of β1, which contains two lysine residues (i.e., K3 and K4), which upon substitution virtually abolished the effects of β1 on charge movement. The mechanism by which K3 and K4 stabilize the voltage sensor is not electrostatic but specific, and the α (BK)-residues involved remain to be identified. This is the first report, to our knowledge, where the regulatory effects of the β1-subunit have been clearly assigned to a particular segment, with two pivotal amino acids being responsible for this modulation.

  10. Study of the interaction of unaggregated and aggregated amyloid β protein (10-21) with outward potassium channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Metal ion-induced aggregation of Aβinto insoluble plaques is a central factor in Alzheimer's disease. Zn2+ is the only physiologically available transition metal ion responsible for aggregating Aβ at pH 7.4. To make it clear that the neurotoxicity of Zn2+-induced aggregation of Aβ on neurons is the key to understand Aβ mechanism of action further. In this paper, we choose Aβ (10-21) as the model fragment to research hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons. For the first time, we adopt the combination of spectral analysis with patch-clamp technique for the preliminary study of the mutual relations of Zn2+, Aβ and ion channel from the cell level. The following expounds upon the effects and mode of action of two forms (unaggregated and aggregated) of Aβ (10-21) on hippocampus outward potassium channel three processes (activation, inactivation and reactivation). It also shows the molecular mechanics of AD from the channel level. These results are significant for the further study of Aβ nosogenesis and the development of new types of target drugs for the treatment of AD.

  11. Urocortin2 prolongs action potential duration and modulates potassium currents in guinea pig myocytes and HEK293 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Zhen; Zhu, Yi-Chun

    2015-07-01

    We previously reported that activation of corticotropin releasing factor receptor type 2 by urocortin2 up-regulates both L-type Ca(2+) channels and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in ventricular myocytes and plays an important role in cardiac contractility and arrhythmogenesis. This study goal was to further test the hypothesis that urocortin2 may modulate action potentials as well as rapidly and slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents. With whole cell patch-clamp techniques, action potentials and slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents were recorded in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes, respectively. And rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents were tested in hERG-HEK293 cells. Urocortin2 produced a time- and concentration-dependent prolongation of action potential duration. The EC50 values of action potential duration and action potential duration at 90% of repolarization were 14.73 and 24.3nM respectively. The prolongation of action potential duration of urocortin2 was almost completely or partly abolished by H-89 (protein kinase A inhibitor) or KB-R7943 (Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange inhibitor) pretreatment respectively. And urocortin2 caused reduction of rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents in hERG-HEK293 cells. In addition, urocortin2 slowed the rate of slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium channel activation, and rightward shifted the threshold of slowly activating delayed rectifier potassium currents to more positive potentials. Urocortin2 prolonged action potential duration via activation of protein kinase A and Na(+)/ Ca(2+) exchange in isolated guinea pig ventricular myocytes in a time- and concentration- dependent manner. In hERG-HEK293 cells, urocortin2 reduced rapidly activating delayed rectifier potassium current density which may contribute to action potential duration prolongation.

  12. Molecular characterization of genes encoding inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels in the bed bug (Cimex lectularius).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamidala, Praveen; Mittapelly, Priyanka; Jones, Susan C; Piermarini, Peter M; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2013-04-01

    The molecular genetics of inward-rectifier potassium (Kir) channels in insects is poorly understood. To date, Kir channel genes have been characterized only from a few representative dipterans (i.e., fruit flies and mosquitoes). The goal of the present study was to characterize Kir channel cDNAs in a hemipteran, the bed bug (Cimex lectularius). Using our previously reported bed bug transcriptome (RNA-seq), we identified two cDNAs that encode putative Kir channels. One was a full-length cDNA that encodes a protein belonging to the insect 'Kir3' clade, which we designate as 'ClKir3'. The other was a partial cDNA that encodes a protein with similarity to both the insect 'Kir1' and 'Kir2' clades, which we designate as 'ClKir1/2'. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that ClKir1/2 and ClKir3 exhibited peak expression levels in late-instar nymphs and early-instar nymphs, respectively. Furthermore, ClKir3, but not ClKir1/2, showed tissue-specific expression in Malpighian tubules of adult bed bugs. Lastly, using an improved procedure for delivering double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to male and female bed bugs (via the cervical membrane) we demonstrate rapid and systemic knockdown of ClKir3 transcripts. In conclusion, we demonstrate that the bed bug possesses at least two genes encoding Kir channels, and that RNAi is possible for at least Kir3, thereby offering a potential approach for elucidating the roles of Kir channel genes in bed bug physiology.

  13. Molecular cell biology of KATP channels: implications for neonatal diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew J; Taneja, Tarvinder K; Mankouri, Jamel; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu

    2007-08-01

    ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels play a key role in the regulation of insulin secretion by coupling glucose metabolism to the electrical activity of pancreatic beta-cells. To generate an electric signal of suitable magnitude, the plasma membrane of the beta-cell must contain an appropriate number of channels. An inadequate number of channels can lead to congenital hyperinsulinism, whereas an excess of channels can result in the opposite condition, neonatal diabetes. KATP channels are made up of four subunits each of Kir6.2 and the sulphonylurea receptor (SUR1), encoded by the genes KCNJ11 and ABCC8, respectively. Following synthesis, the subunits must assemble into an octameric complex to be able to exit the endoplasmic reticulum and reach the plasma membrane. While this biosynthetic pathway ensures supply of channels to the cell surface, an opposite pathway, involving clathrin-mediated endocytosis, removes channels back into the cell. The balance between these two processes, perhaps in conjunction with endocytic recycling, would dictate the channel density at the cell membrane. In this review, we discuss the molecular signals that contribute to this balance, and how an imbalance could lead to a disease state such as neonatal diabetes.

  14. Sodium/Potassium Homeostasis in the Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Michael Jakob; Poulsen, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    Metallomics and the Cell provides in an authoritative and timely manner in 16 stimulating chapters, written by 37 internationally recognized experts from 9 nations, and supported by more than 3000 references, several tables, and 110 illustrations, mostly in color, a most up-to-date view of the "m......Metallomics and the Cell provides in an authoritative and timely manner in 16 stimulating chapters, written by 37 internationally recognized experts from 9 nations, and supported by more than 3000 references, several tables, and 110 illustrations, mostly in color, a most up-to-date view...... of the "metallomes" which, as defined in the "omics" world, describe the entire set of biomolecules that interact with or are affected by each metal ion. The most relevant tools for visualizing metal ions in the cell and the most suitable bioinformatic tools for browsing genomes to identify metal-binding proteins...

  15. The KCNQ5 potassium channel from mouse: a broadly expressed M-current like potassium channel modulated by zinc, pH, and volume changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henrik Sindal; Callø, Kirstine; Jespersen, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    H-dependent potentiation by Zn2+ (EC50 = 21.8 microM at pH 7.4), inhibition by acidification (IC50 = 0.75 microM; pKa = 6.1), and regulation by small changes in cell volume. Furthermore, the channels are activated by the anti-convulsant drug retigabine (EC50 = 2.0 microM) and inhibited by the M-current blockers...

  16. Inhibition of hERG Potassium Channels by Celecoxib and Its Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, Roman V.; Ignatova, Irina I.; Singh, Satpal

    2011-01-01

    Background Celecoxib (Celebrex), a widely prescribed selective inhibitor of cyclooxygenase-2, can modulate ion channels independently of cyclooxygenase inhibition. Clinically relevant concentrations of celecoxib can affect ionic currents and alter functioning of neurons and myocytes. In particular, inhibition of Kv2.1 channels by celecoxib leads to arrhythmic beating of Drosophila heart and of rat heart cells in culture. However, the spectrum of ion channels involved in human cardiac excitability differs from that in animal models, including mammalian models, making it difficult to evaluate the relevance of these observations to humans. Our aim was to examine the effects of celecoxib on hERG and other human channels critically involved in regulating human cardiac rhythm, and to explore the mechanisms of any observed effect on the hERG channels. Methods and Results Celecoxib inhibited the hERG, SCN5A, KCNQ1 and KCNQ1/MinK channels expressed in HEK-293 cells with IC50s of 6.0 µM, 7.5 µM, 3.5 µM and 3.7 µM respectively, and the KCND3/KChiP2 channels expressed in CHO cells with an IC50 of 10.6 µM. Analysis of celecoxib's effects on hERG channels suggested gating modification as the mechanism of drug action. Conclusions The above channels play a significant role in drug-induced long QT syndrome (LQTS) and short QT syndrome (SQTS). Regulatory guidelines require that all new drugs under development be tested for effects on the hERG channel prior to first administration in humans. Our observations raise the question of celecoxib's potential to induce cardiac arrhythmias or other channel related adverse effects, and make a case for examining such possibilities. PMID:22039467

  17. BK and Kv3.1 potassium channels control different aspects of deep cerebellar nuclear neurons action potentials and spiking activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedroarena, Christine M

    2011-12-01

    Deep cerebellar nuclear neurons (DCNs) display characteristic electrical properties, including spontaneous spiking and the ability to discharge narrow spikes at high frequency. These properties are thought to be relevant to processing inhibitory Purkinje cell input and transferring well-timed signals to cerebellar targets. Yet, the underlying ionic mechanisms are not completely understood. BK and Kv3.1 potassium channels subserve similar functions in spike repolarization and fast firing in many neurons and are both highly expressed in DCNs. Here, their role in the abovementioned spiking characteristics was addressed using whole-cell recordings of large and small putative-glutamatergic DCNs. Selective BK channel block depolarized DCNs of both groups and increased spontaneous firing rate but scarcely affected evoked activity. After adjusting the membrane potential to control levels, the spike waveforms under BK channel block were indistinguishable from control ones, indicating no significant BK channel involvement in spike repolarization. The increased firing rate suggests that lack of DCN-BK channels may have contributed to the ataxic phenotype previously found in BK channel-deficient mice. On the other hand, block of Kv3.1 channels with low doses of 4-aminopyridine (20 μM) hindered spike repolarization and severely depressed evoked fast firing. Therefore, I propose that despite similar characteristics of BK and Kv3.1 channels, they play different roles in DCNs: BK channels control almost exclusively spontaneous firing rate, whereas DCN-Kv3.1 channels dominate the spike repolarization and enable fast firing. Interestingly, after Kv3.1 channel block, BK channels gained a role in spike repolarization, demonstrating how the different function of each of the two channels is determined in part by their co-expression and interplay.

  18. Repression of a potassium channel by nuclear hormone receptor and TGF-β signaling modulates insulin signaling in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donha Park

    Full Text Available Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β signaling acts through Smad proteins to play fundamental roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and metabolism. The Receptor associated Smads (R-Smads interact with DNA and other nuclear proteins to regulate target gene transcription. Here, we demonstrate that the Caenorhabditis elegans R-Smad DAF-8 partners with the nuclear hormone receptor NHR-69, a C. elegans ortholog of mammalian hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α HNF4α, to repress the exp-2 potassium channel gene and increase insulin secretion. We find that NHR-69 associates with DAF-8 both in vivo and in vitro. Functionally, daf-8 nhr-69 double mutants show defects in neuropeptide secretion and phenotypes consistent with reduced insulin signaling such as increased expression of the sod-3 and gst-10 genes and a longer life span. Expression of the exp-2 gene, encoding a voltage-gated potassium channel, is synergistically increased in daf-8 nhr-69 mutants compared to single mutants and wild-type worms. In turn, exp-2 acts selectively in the ASI neurons to repress the secretion of the insulin-like peptide DAF-28. Importantly, exp-2 mutation shortens the long life span of daf-8 nhr-69 double mutants, demonstrating that exp-2 is required downstream of DAF-8 and NHR-69. Finally, animals over-expressing NHR-69 specifically in DAF-28-secreting ASI neurons exhibit a lethargic, hypoglycemic phenotype that is rescued by exogenous glucose. We propose a model whereby DAF-8/R-Smad and NHR-69 negatively regulate the transcription of exp-2 to promote neuronal DAF-28 secretion, thus demonstrating a physiological crosstalk between TGF-β and HNF4α-like signaling in C. elegans. NHR-69 and DAF-8 dependent regulation of exp-2 and DAF-28 also provides a novel molecular mechanism that contributes to the previously recognized link between insulin and TGF-β signaling in C. elegans.

  19. Basolateral potassium channels of rabbit colon epithelium: role in sodium absorption and chloride secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnheim, Klaus; Plass, Herbert; Wyskovsky, Wolfgang

    2002-02-18

    In order to assess the role of different classes of K(+) channels in recirculation of K(+) across the basolateral membrane of rabbit distal colon epithelium, the effects of various K(+) channel inhibitors were tested on the activity of single K(+) channels from the basolateral membrane, on macroscopic basolateral K(+) conductance, and on the rate of Na(+) absorption and Cl(-) secretion. In single-channel measurements using the lipid bilayer reconstitution system, high-conductance (236 pS), Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels were most frequently detected; the second most abundant channel was a low-conductance K(+) channel (31 pS) that exhibited channel rundown. In addition to Ba(2+) and charybdotoxin (ChTX), the BK(Ca) channels were inhibited by quinidine, verapamil and tetraethylammonium (TEA), the latter only when present on the side of the channel from which K(+) flow originates. Macroscopic basolateral K(+) conductance, determined in amphotericin-permeabilised epithelia, was also markedly reduced by quinidine and verapamil, TEA inhibited only from the lumen side, and serosal ChTX was without effect. The chromanol 293B and the sulphonylurea tolbutamide did not affect BK(Ca) channels and had no or only a small inhibitory effect on macroscopic basolateral K(+) conductance. Transepithelial Na(+) absorption was partly inhibited by Ba(2+), quinidine and verapamil, suggesting that BK(Ca) channels are involved in basolateral recirculation of K(+) during Na(+) absorption in rabbit colon. The BK(Ca) channel inhibitors TEA and ChTX did not reduce Na(+) absorption, probably because TEA does not enter intact cells and ChTX is 'knocked off' its extracellular binding site by K(+) outflow from the cell interior. Transepithelial Cl(-) secretion was inhibited completely by Ba(2+) and 293B, partly by quinidine but not by the other K(+) channel blockers, indicating that the small (<3 pS) K(V)LQT1 channels are responsible for basolateral K(+) exit during Cl(-) secretion. Hence

  20. Position and motions of the S4 helix during opening of the Shaker potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, L Revell; Swartz, Kenton J

    2010-12-01

    The four voltage sensors in voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channels activate upon membrane depolarization and open the pore. The location and motion of the voltage-sensing S4 helix during the early activation steps and the final opening transition are unresolved. We studied Zn(2+) bridges between two introduced His residues in Shaker Kv channels: one in the R1 position at the outer end of the S4 helix (R362H), and another in the S5 helix of the pore domain (A419H or F416H). Zn(2+) bridges readily form between R362H and A419H in open channels after the S4 helix has undergone its final motion. In contrast, a distinct bridge forms between R362H and F416H after early S4 activation, but before the final S4 motion. Both bridges form rapidly, providing constraints on the average position of S4 relative to the pore. These results demonstrate that the outer ends of S4 and S5 remain in close proximity during the final opening transition, with the S4 helix translating a significant distance normal to the membrane plane.

  1. Increased motor drive and sleep loss in mice lacking Kv3-type potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, F; Marks, G; Heintz, N; Joho, R H

    2004-04-01

    The voltage-gated potassium channels Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 are widely expressed in the brain, including areas implicated in the control of motor activity and in areas thought to regulate arousal states. Although Kv3.1 and Kv3.3-single mutants show some physiological changes, previous studies revealed relatively subtle behavioral alterations suggesting that Kv3.1 and Kv3.3 channel subunits may be encoded by a pair of redundant genes. In agreement with this hypothesis, Kv3.1/Kv3.3-deficient mice display a 'strong' mutant phenotype that includes motor dysfunction (ataxia, myoclonus, tremor) and hyperactivity when exposed to a novel environment. In this paper we report that Kv3.1/Kv3.3-deficient mice are also constitutively hyperactive. Compared to wildtype mice, double mutants display 'restlessness' that is particularly prominent during the light period, when mice are normally at rest, characterized by more than a doubling of ambulatory and stereotypic activity, and accompanied by a 40% sleep reduction. When we reinvestigated both single mutants, we observed constitutive increases of ambulatory and stereotypic activity in conjunction with sleep loss in Kv3.1-single mutants but not in Kv3.3-single mutants. These findings indicate that the absence of Kv3.1-channel subunits is primarily responsible for the increased motor drive and the reduction in sleep time.

  2. Bidirectional regulation of dendritic voltage-gated potassium channels by the fragile X mental retardation protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye Young; Ge, Woo-Ping; Huang, Wendy; He, Ye; Wang, Gordon X; Rowson-Baldwin, Ashley; Smith, Stephen J; Jan, Yuh Nung; Jan, Lily Yeh

    2011-11-17

    How transmitter receptors modulate neuronal signaling by regulating voltage-gated ion channel expression remains an open question. Here we report dendritic localization of mRNA of Kv4.2 voltage-gated potassium channel, which regulates synaptic plasticity, and its local translational regulation by fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) linked to fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common heritable mental retardation. FMRP suppression of Kv4.2 is revealed by elevation of Kv4.2 in neurons from fmr1 knockout (KO) mice and in neurons expressing Kv4.2-3'UTR that binds FMRP. Moreover, treating hippocampal slices from fmr1 KO mice with Kv4 channel blocker restores long-term potentiation induced by moderate stimuli. Surprisingly, recovery of Kv4.2 after N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-induced degradation also requires FMRP, likely due to NMDAR-induced FMRP dephosphorylation, which turns off FMRP suppression of Kv4.2. Our study of FMRP regulation of Kv4.2 deepens our knowledge of NMDAR signaling and reveals a FMRP target of potential relevance to FXS.

  3. Presence of voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibody in a case of genetic prion disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jammoul, Adham; Lederman, Richard J; Tavee, Jinny; Li, Yuebing

    2014-06-05

    Voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibody-mediated encephalitis is a recently recognised entity which has been reported to mimic the clinical presentation of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD). Testing for the presence of this neuronal surface autoantibody in patients presenting with subacute encephalopathy is therefore crucial as it may both revoke the bleak diagnosis of prion disease and allow institution of potentially life-saving immunotherapy. Tempering this optimistic view is the rare instance when a positive VGKC complex antibody titre occurs in a definite case of prion disease. We present a pathologically and genetically confirmed case of CJD with elevated serum VGKC complex antibody titres. This case highlights the importance of interpreting the result of a positive VGKC complex antibody with caution and in the context of the overall clinical manifestation.

  4. High Grade Glioma Mimicking Voltage Gated Potassium Channel Complex Associated Antibody Limbic Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilan Athauda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Though raised titres of voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC complex antibodies have been occasionally associated with extracranial tumours, mainly presenting as Morvan's Syndrome or neuromyotonia, they have not yet been reported to be associated with an intracranial malignancy. This is especially important as misdiagnosis of these conditions and delay of the appropriate treatment can have important prognostic implications. We describe a patient with a high grade glioma presenting with clinical, radiological, and serological features consistent with the diagnosis of VGKC antibody associated limbic encephalitis (LE. This is the first association between a primary brain tumour and high titre of VGKC complex antibodies. Clinicoradiological progression despite effective immunosuppressive treatment should prompt clinicians to look for alternative diagnoses. Further studies to elucidate a possible association between VGKC complex and other surface antigen antibodies with primary brain tumours should be carried out.

  5. High grade glioma mimicking voltage gated potassium channel complex associated antibody limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athauda, Dilan; Delamont, R S; Pablo-Fernandez, E De

    2014-01-01

    Though raised titres of voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex antibodies have been occasionally associated with extracranial tumours, mainly presenting as Morvan's Syndrome or neuromyotonia, they have not yet been reported to be associated with an intracranial malignancy. This is especially important as misdiagnosis of these conditions and delay of the appropriate treatment can have important prognostic implications. We describe a patient with a high grade glioma presenting with clinical, radiological, and serological features consistent with the diagnosis of VGKC antibody associated limbic encephalitis (LE). This is the first association between a primary brain tumour and high titre of VGKC complex antibodies. Clinicoradiological progression despite effective immunosuppressive treatment should prompt clinicians to look for alternative diagnoses. Further studies to elucidate a possible association between VGKC complex and other surface antigen antibodies with primary brain tumours should be carried out.

  6. Mass spectrometry study of N-alkylbenzenesulfonamides with potential antagonist activity to potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Carina C; Bassetto, Carlos A Zanutto; Santos, Jandyson M; Eberlin, Marcos N; Magalhães, Alvicler; Varanda, Wamberto; Gonzalez, Eduardo R Perez

    2016-02-01

    Herein, we report the synthesis and mass spectrometry studies of several N-alkylbenzenesulfonamides structurally related to sulfanilic acid. The compounds were synthesized using a modified Schotten-Baumann reaction coupled with Meisenheimer arylation. Sequential mass spectrometry by negative mode electrospray ionization (ESI(-)-MS/MS) showed the formation of sulfoxylate anion (m/z 65) observed in the mass spectrum of p-chloro-N-alkylbenzenesulfonamides. Investigation of the unexpected loss of two water molecules, as observed by electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS) analysis of p-(N-alkyl)lactam sulfonamides, led to the proposal of corresponding fragmentation pathways. These compounds showed loss of neutral iminosulfane dioxide molecule (M-79) with formation of ions observed at m/z 344 and 377. These ions were formed by rearrangement on ESI(+)-MS/MS analysis. Some of the molecules showed antagonistic activity against Kv3.1 voltage-gated potassium channels.

  7. The acrylamide (S)-1 differentially affects Kv7 (KCNQ) potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Bo Hjorth; Schmitt, Nicole; Calloe, Kirstine;

    2006-01-01

    .g., retigabine) for treatment of epilepsy and neuropathic pain. We investigated the effect of a Bristol-Myers Squibb compound (S)-N-[1-(3-morpholin-4-yl-phenyl)-ethyl]-3-phenyl-acrylamide [(S)-1] on cloned human Kv7.1-5 potassium channels expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Using two-electrode voltage......-clamp recordings we found that (S)-1 blocks Kv7.1 and Kv7.1/KCNE1 currents. In contrast, (S)-1 produced a hyperpolarizing shift of the activation curve for Kv7.2, Kv7.2/Kv7.3, Kv7.4 and Kv7.5. Further, the compound enhanced the maximal current amplitude at all potentials for Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 whereas the combined...

  8. Normal insulin release during sustained hyperglycaemia in hypokalaemic periodic paralysis : Role of the potassium channel opener pinacidil in impaired muscle strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligtenberg, JJM; VanHaeften, TW; VanderKolk, LE; Smit, AJ; Sluiter, WJ; Links, TP

    1996-01-01

    1. Hypokalaemic periodic paralysis is characterized by attacks of muscle weakness, Glucose, insulin and an abnormal regulation of ATP-sensitive potassium channels may be involved in these attacks, We studied the effect of hyperglycaemia and of the potassium channel opener pinacidil on insulin releas

  9. Environment-Sensitive Fluorescent Probe for the Human Ether-a-go-go-Related Gene Potassium Channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenzhen; Jiang, Tianyu; Wang, Beilei; Ke, Bowen; Zhou, Yubin; Du, Lupei; Li, Minyong

    2016-02-02

    A novel environment-sensitive probe S2 with turn-on switch for Human Ether-a-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) potassium channel was developed herein. After careful evaluation, this fluorescent probe showed high binding affinity with hERG potassium channel with an IC50 value of 41.65 nM and can be well applied to hERG channel imaging or cellular distribution study for hERG channel blockers. Compared with other imaging techniques, such as immunofluorescence and fluorescent protein-based approaches, this method is convenient and affordable, especially since a washing procedure is not needed. Meanwhile, this environment-sensitive turn-on design strategy may provide a good example for the probe development for these targets that have no reactive or catalytic activity.

  10. Voltage-gated potassium channel-complex autoimmunity and associated clinical syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irani, Sarosh R; Vincent, Angela

    2016-01-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex antibodies are defined by the radioimmunoprecipitation of Kv1 potassium channel subunits from brain tissue extracts and were initially discovered in patients with peripheral nerve hyperexcitability (PNH). Subsequently, they were found in patients with PNH plus psychosis, insomnia, and dysautonomia, collectively termed Morvan's syndrome (MoS), and in a limbic encephalopathy (LE) with prominent amnesia and frequent seizures. Most recently, they have been described in patients with pure epilepsies, especially in patients with the novel and distinctive semiology termed faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). In each of these conditions, there is a close correlation between clinical measures and antibody levels. The VGKC-complex is a group of proteins that are strongly associated in situ and after extraction in mild detergent. Two major targets of the autoantibodies are leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein 2 (CASPR2). The patients with PNH or MoS are most likely to have CASPR2 antibodies, whereas LGI1 antibodies are found characteristically in patients with FBDS and LE. Crucially, each of these conditions has a good response to immunotherapies, often corticosteroids and plasma exchange, although optimal regimes require further study. VGKC-complex antibodies have also been described in neuropathic pain syndromes, chronic epilepsies, a polyradiculopathy in porcine abattoir workers, and some children with status epilepticus. Increasingly, however, the antigenic targets in these patients are not defined and in some cases the antibodies may be secondary rather than the primary cause. Future serologic studies should define all the antigenic components of the VGKC-complex, and further inform mechanisms of antibody pathogenicity and related inflammation.

  11. A heme-binding domain controls regulation of ATP-dependent potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Mark J; Kapetanaki, Sofia M; Chernova, Tatyana; Jamieson, Andrew G; Dorlet, Pierre; Santolini, Jérôme; Moody, Peter C E; Mitcheson, John S; Davies, Noel W; Schmid, Ralf; Raven, Emma L; Storey, Nina M

    2016-04-01

    Heme iron has many and varied roles in biology. Most commonly it binds as a prosthetic group to proteins, and it has been widely supposed and amply demonstrated that subtle variations in the protein structure around the heme, including the heme ligands, are used to control the reactivity of the metal ion. However, the role of heme in biology now appears to also include a regulatory responsibility in the cell; this includes regulation of ion channel function. In this work, we show that cardiac KATP channels are regulated by heme. We identify a cytoplasmic heme-binding CXXHX16H motif on the sulphonylurea receptor subunit of the channel, and mutagenesis together with quantitative and spectroscopic analyses of heme-binding and single channel experiments identified Cys628 and His648 as important for heme binding. We discuss the wider implications of these findings and we use the information to present hypotheses for mechanisms of heme-dependent regulation across other ion channels.

  12. Potassium channel and NKCC cotransporter involvement in ocular refractive control mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila G Crewther

    Full Text Available Myopia affects well over 30% of adult humans globally. However, the underlying physiological mechanism is little understood. This study tested the hypothesis that ocular growth and refractive compensation to optical defocus can be controlled by manipulation of potassium and chloride ion-driven transretinal fluid movements to the choroid. Chicks were raised with +/-10D or zero power optical defocus rendering the focal plane of the eye in front of, behind, or at the level of the retinal photoreceptors respectively. Intravitreal injections of barium chloride, a non-specific inhibitor of potassium channels in the retina and RPE or bumetanide, a selective inhibitor of the sodium-potassium-chloride cotransporter were made, targeting fluid control mechanisms. Comparison of refractive compensation to 5 mM Ba(2+ and 10(-5 M bumetanide compared with control saline injected eyes shows significant change for both positive and negative lens defocus for Ba(2+ but significant change only for negative lens defocus with bumetanide (Rx(SAL(-10D = -8.6 +/- .9 D; Rx(Ba2+(-10D = -2.9 +/- .9 D; Rx(Bum(-10D = -2.9 +/- .9 D; Rx(SAL(+10D = +8.2 +/- .9 D; Rx(Ba2+(+10D = +2.8 +/- 1.3 D; Rx(Bum(+10D = +8.0 +/- .7 D. Vitreous chamber depths showed a main effect for drug conditions with less depth change in response to defocus shown for Ba(2+ relative to Saline, while bumetanide injected eyes showed a trend to increased depth without a significant interaction with applied defocus. The results indicate that both K channels and the NKCC cotransporter play a role in refractive compensation with NKCC blockade showing far more specificity for negative, compared with positive, lens defocus. Probable sites of action relevant to refractive control include the apical retinal pigment epithelium membrane and the photoreceptor/ON bipolar synapse. The similarities between the biometric effects of NKCC inhibition and biometric reports of the blockade of the retinal ON response, suggest a

  13. Calcium-activated potassium channel SK1 is widely expressed in the peripheral nervous system and sensory organs of adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabo, R; Zichichi, R; Viña, E; Guerrera, M C; Vázquez, G; García-Suárez, O; Vega, J A; Germanà, A

    2013-10-25

    Sensory cells contain ion channels involved in the organ-specific transduction mechanisms that convert different types of stimuli into electric energy. Here we focus on small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel 1 (SK1) which plays an important role in all excitable cells acting as feedback regulators in after-hyperpolarization. This study was undertaken to analyze the pattern of expression of SK1 in the zebrafish peripheral nervous system and sensory organs using RT-PRC, Westernblot and immunohistochemistry. Expression of SK1 mRNA was observed at all developmental stages analyzed (from 10 to 100 days post fertilization, dpf), and the antibody used identified a protein with a molecular weight of 70kDa, at 100dpf (regarded to be adult). Cell expressing SK1 in adult animals were neurons of dorsal root and cranial nerve sensory ganglia, sympathetic neurons, sensory cells in neuromasts of the lateral line system and taste buds, crypt olfactory neurons and photoreceptors. Present results report for the first time the expression and the distribution of SK1 in the peripheral nervous system and sensory organs of adult zebrafish, and may contribute to set zebrafish as an interesting experimental model for calcium-activated potassium channels research. Moreover these findings are of potential interest because the potential role of SK as targets for the treatment of neurological diseases and sensory disorders.

  14. A conserved residue cluster that governs kinetics of ATP-dependent gating of Kir6.2 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Roger S; Wright, Jordan; Pless, Stephan Alexander;

    2015-01-01

    that these residues play a role in lowering the transition state energy barrier between open and closed channel states. Using unnatural amino acid incorporation, we demonstrate the requirement for a planar amino acid at Kir6.2 position 68 for normal channel gating, potentially necessary to localize the ε-amine of Lys......ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are heteromultimeric complexes of an inwardly-rectifying Kir channel (Kir6.x) and sulfonylurea receptors (SUR). Their regulation by intracellular ATP and ADP generates electrical signals in response to changes in cellular metabolism. We investigated channel...... elements that control the kinetics of ATP-dependent regulation of KATP (Kir6.2 + SUR1) channels using rapid concentration jumps. WT Kir6.2 channels re-open after rapid washout of ATP with a time constant of approximately 60 ms. Extending similar kinetic measurements to numerous mutants revealed fairly...

  15. Inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore contributes to the neuroprotection induced by activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-pingWU; FangSHEN; QiangXIA

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the neuroprotection via activating mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (mitoKTP) is mediated by the inhibition of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). METHODS: Adult male Sprague-Dawleyrats were undergoing 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion(MCAO) by introducing a nylon monofilament through the external

  16. Students' Understanding of External Representations of the Potassium Ion Channel Protein Part II: Structure-Function Relationships and Fragmented Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    Research that has focused on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations. This study focuses on students' understanding of three external representations (ribbon diagram, wireframe, and hydrophobic/hydrophilic) of the potassium ion channel protein. Analysis…

  17. The molecular mechanism of toxin-induced conformational changes in a potassium channel : relation to C-type inactivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zachariae, U.; Schneider, R.; Velisetty, P.; Lange, A.; Seeliger, D.; Wacker, S.J.; Karimi-Nejad, Y.; Vriend, G.; Becker, S.; Pongs, O.; Baldus, M.; Groot, B.L. de

    2008-01-01

    Recently, a solid-state NMR study revealed that scorpion toxin binding leads to conformational changes in the selectivity filter of potassium channels. The exact nature of the conformational changes, however, remained elusive. We carried out all-atom molecular dynamics simulations that enabled us to

  18. The calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 is an important modulator of hepatic injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Linda Maria Sevelsted; Fialla, Annette Dam; Schierwagen, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The calcium-activated potassium channel KCa3.1 controls different cellular processes such as proliferation and volume homeostasis. We investigated the role of KCa3.1 in experimental and human liver fibrosis. KCa3.1 gene expression was investigated in healthy and injured human and rodent liver. Ef...

  19. K+ CHANNELEPSY: progress in the neurobiology of potassium channels and epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina D'Adamo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available K+ channels are important determinants of seizure susceptibility. These membrane proteins, encoded by more than 70 genes, make the largest group of ion channels that fine-tune the electrical activity of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the brain. Their ubiquity and extremely high genetic and functional diversity, unmatched by any other ion channel type, place K+ channels as primary targets of genetic variations or perturbations in K+-dependent homeostasis, even in the absence of a primary channel defect. It is therefore not surprising that numerous inherited or acquired K+ channels dysfunctions have been associated with several neurologic syndromes, including epilepsy, which often generate confusion in the classification of the associated diseases. Therefore, we propose to name the K+ channels defects underlying distinct epilepsies as K+ channelepsies, and introduce a new nomenclature (e.g. Kx.y-channelepsy, following the widely used K+ channel classification, which could be also adopted to easily identify other channelopathies involving Na+ (e.g. Navx.y-phenotype, Ca2+ (e.g. Cavx.y-phenotype, and Cl- channels. Furthermore, we discuss novel genetic defects in K+ channels and associated proteins that underlie distinct epileptic phenotypes in humans, and analyze critically the recent progress in the neurobiology of this disease that has also been provided by investigations on valuable animal models of epilepsy. The abundant and varied lines of evidence discussed here strongly foster assessments for variations in genes encoding for K+ channels and associated proteins in patients with idiopathic epilepsy, provide new avenues for future investigations, and highlight these proteins as critical pharmacological targets.

  20. Alterations in potassium channel gene expression in atria of patients with persistent and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation : Differential regulation of protein and mRNA levels for K+ channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brundel, BJJM; Van Gelder, IC; Henning, RH; Tuinenburg, AE; Wietses, M; Grandjean, JG; Wilde, AAM; Van Gilst, WH; Crijns, HJGM

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Our purpose was to determine whether patients with persistent atrial fibrillation (AF) and patients with paroxysmal AF show alterations in potassium channel expression. BACKGROUND Persistent AF is associated with a sustained shortening of the atrial action potential duration and atrial re

  1. Mirrored serpentine flow channels for fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rock, Jeffrey Allan (Rochester, NY)

    2000-08-08

    A PEM fuel cell having serpentine flow field channels wherein the input/inlet legs of each channel border the input/inlet legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field, and the output/exit legs of each channel border the output/exit legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field. The serpentine fuel flow channels may be longer, and may contain more medial legs, than the serpentine oxidant flow channels.

  2. The ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate fungicide Mancozeb activates voltage-gated KCNQ2 potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ping; Zhu, Jin; Kong, Qingya; Jiang, Baifeng; Wan, Xia; Yue, Jinfeng; Li, Min; Jiang, Hualiang; Li, Jian; Gao, Zhaobing

    2013-06-07

    Mancozeb (manganese/zinc ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate) is an organometallic fungicide that has been associated with human neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration. In a high-throughput screen for modulators of KCNQ2 channel, a fundamental player modulating neuronal excitability, Mancozeb, was found to significantly potentiate KCNQ2 activity. Mancozeb was validated electrophysiologically as a KCNQ2 activator with an EC50 value of 0.92±0.23μM. Further examination showed that manganese but not zinc ethylene bis-dithiocarbamate is the active component for the positive modulation effects. In addition, the compounds are effective when the metal ions are substituted by iron but lack potentiation activity when the metal ions are substituted by sodium, signifying the importance of the metal ion. However, the iron (Fe(3+)) alone, organic ligands alone or the mixture of iron with the organic ligand did not show any potentiation effect, suggesting as the active ingredient is a specific complex rather than two separate additive or synergistic components. Our study suggests that potentiation on KCNQ2 potassium channels might be the possible mechanism of Mancozeb toxicity in the nervous system.

  3. Dynamic memory of a single voltage-gated potassium ion channel: A stochastic nonequilibrium thermodynamic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, Kinshuk, E-mail: kbpchem@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Calcutta, 92 A.P.C. Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India)

    2015-05-14

    In this work, we have studied the stochastic response of a single voltage-gated potassium ion channel to a periodic external voltage that keeps the system out-of-equilibrium. The system exhibits memory, resulting from time-dependent driving, that is reflected in terms of dynamic hysteresis in the current-voltage characteristics. The hysteresis loop area has a maximum at some intermediate voltage frequency and disappears in the limits of low and high frequencies. However, the (average) dissipation at long-time limit increases and finally goes to saturation with rising frequency. This raises the question: how diminishing hysteresis can be associated with growing dissipation? To answer this, we have studied the nonequilibrium thermodynamics of the system and analyzed different thermodynamic functions which also exhibit hysteresis. Interestingly, by applying a temporal symmetry analysis in the high-frequency limit, we have analytically shown that hysteresis in some of the periodic responses of the system does not vanish. On the contrary, the rates of free energy and internal energy change of the system as well as the rate of dissipative work done on the system show growing hysteresis with frequency. Hence, although the current-voltage hysteresis disappears in the high-frequency limit, the memory of the ion channel is manifested through its specific nonequilibrium thermodynamic responses.

  4. Polyunsaturated fatty acids are cerebral vasodilators via the TREK-1 potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondeau, Nicolas; Pétrault, Olivier; Manta, Stella; Giordanengo, Valérie; Gounon, Pierre; Bordet, Régis; Lazdunski, Michel; Heurteaux, Catherine

    2007-07-20

    Vessel occlusion is the most frequent cause for impairment of local blood flow within the brain resulting in neuronal damage and is a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and especially alpha-linolenic acid improve brain resistance against cerebral ischemia. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids and particularly alpha-linolenic acid on the cerebral blood flow and on the tone of vessels that regulate brain perfusion. alpha-Linolenic acid injections increased cerebral blood flow and induced vasodilation of the basilar artery but not of the carotid artery. The saturated fatty acid palmitic acid did not produce vasodilation. This suggested that the target of the polyunsaturated fatty acids effect was the TREK-1 potassium channel. We demonstrate the presence of this channel in basilar but not in carotid arteries. We show that vasodilations induced by the polyunsaturated fatty acid in the basilar artery as well as the laser-Doppler flow increase are abolished in TREK-1(-/-) mice. Altogether these data indicate that TREK-1 activation elicits a robust dilation that probably accounts for the increase of cerebral blood flow induced by polyunsaturated fatty acids such as alpha-linolenic acid or docosahexanoic acid. They suggest that the selective expression and activation of TREK-1 in brain collaterals could play a significant role in the protective mechanisms of polyunsaturated fatty acids against stroke by providing residual circulation during ischemia.

  5. Screening for cardiac HERG potassium channel interacting proteins using the yeast two-hybrid technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Qingyan; Yu, Hong; Lin, Jijin; Sun, Yifan; Shen, Xinyuan; Ren, Li

    2014-02-01

    The human ERG protein (HERG or Kv 11.1) encoded by the human ether-a-go-go-related gene (herg) is the pore-forming subunit of the cardiac delayed rectifier potassium current (IKr) responsible for action potential (AP) repolarization. Mutations in HERG lead to long-QT syndrome, a major cause of arrhythmias. Protein-protein interactions are fundamental for ion channel trafficking, membrane localization, and functional modulation. To identify proteins involved in the regulation of the HERG channel, we conducted a yeast two-hybrid screen of a human heart cDNA library using the C-terminus or N-terminus of HERG as bait. Fifteen proteins were identified as HERG amino terminal (HERG-NT)-interacting proteins, including Caveolin-1 (a membrane scaffold protein with multiple interacting partners, including G-proteins, kinases and NOS), the zinc finger protein, FHL2 and PTPN12 (a non-receptor tyrosine phosphatase). Eight HERG carboxylic terminal (HERG-CT)-interacting proteins were also identified, including the NF-κB-interacting protein myotrophin, We have identified multiple potential interacting proteins that may regulate cardiac IKr through cytoskeletal interactions, G-protein modulation, phosphorylation and downstream second messenger and transcription cascades. These findings provide further insight into dynamic modulation of HERG under physiological conditions and arrhythmogenesis.

  6. Sequence Alterations of I(Ks Potassium Channel Genes in Kazakhstani Patients with Atrial Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainur Akilzhanova

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common sustained arrhythmia, and it results in significant morbidity and mortality. However, the pathogenesis of AF remains unclear to date. Recently, more pieces of evidence indicated that AF is a multifactorial disease resulting from the interaction between environmental factors and genetics. Recent studies suggest that genetic mutation of the slow delayed rectifier potassium channel (I(Ks may underlie AF.Objective. To investigate sequence alterations of I(Ks potassium channel genes KCNQ1, KCNE1 and KCNE2 in Kazakhstani patients with atrial fibrillation.Methods. Genomic DNA of 69 cases with atrial fibrillation and 27 relatives were analyzed for mutations in all protein-coding exons and their flanking splice site regions of the genes KCNQ1 (NM_000218.2 and NM_181798.1, KCNE1 (NM_000219.2, and KCNE2 (NM_172201.1 using bidirectional sequencing on the ABI 3730xL DNA Analyzer (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA, USA.Results. In total, a disease-causing mutation was identified in 39 of the 69 (56.5% index cases. Of these, altered sequence variants in the KCNQ1 gene accounted for 14.5% of the mutations, whereas a KCNE1 mutation accounted for 43.5% of the mutations and KCNE2 mutation accounted for 1.4% of the mutations. The majority of the distinct mutations were found in a single case (80%, whereas 20% of the mutations were observed more than once. We found two sequence variants in KCNQ1 exon 13 (S546S G1638A and exon 16 (Y662Y, C1986T in ten patients (14.5%. In KCNE1 gene in exon 3 mutation, S59G A280G was observed in 30 of 69 patients (43.5% and KCNE2 exon 2 T10K C29A in 1 patient (1.4%. Genetic cascade screening of 27 relatives to the 69 index cases with an identified mutation revealed 26.9% mutation carriers  who were at risk of cardiac events such as syncope or sudden unexpected death.Conclusion. In this cohort of Kazakhstani index cases with AF, a disease-causing mutation was identified in

  7. Differential expression of Kv3.1b and Kv3.2 potassium channel subunits in interneurons of the basolateral amygdala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, A J; Mascagni, F

    2006-01-01

    The expression of Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 voltage-gated potassium channel subunits appears to be critical for high-frequency firing of many neuronal populations. In the cortex these subunits are mainly associated with fast-firing GABAergic interneurons containing parvalbumin or somatostatin. Since the basolateral nuclear complex of the amygdala contains similar interneurons, it is of interest to determine if these potassium channel subunits are expressed in these same interneuronal subpopulations. To investigate this issue, peroxidase and dual-labeling fluorescence immunohistochemistry combined with confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to determine which interneuronal subpopulations in the basolateral nuclear complex of the rat amygdala express Kv3.1b and Kv3.2 subunits. Antibodies to parvalbumin, somatostatin, calretinin, and cholecystokinin were used to label separate subsets of basolateral amygdalar interneurons. Examination of immunoperoxidase preparations suggested that the expression of both channels was restricted to nonpyramidal interneurons in the basolateral amygdala. Somata and proximal dendrites were intensely-stained, and axon terminals arising from presumptive basket cells and chandelier cells were lightly stained. Immunofluorescence observations revealed that parvalbumin+ neurons were the main interneuronal subpopulation expressing the Kv3.1b potassium channel subunit in the basolateral amygdala. More than 92-96% of parvalbumin+ neurons were Kv3.1b+, depending on the nucleus. These parvalbumin+/Kv3.1b+ double-labeled cells constituted 90-99% of all Kv3.1b+ neurons. Parvalbumin+ neurons were also the main interneuronal subpopulation expressing the Kv3.2 potassium channel subunit. More than 67-78% of parvalbumin+ neurons were Kv3.2+, depending on the nucleus. However, these parvalbumin+/Kv3.2+ double-labeled cells constituted only 71-81% of all Kv3.2+ neurons. Most of the remaining neurons with significant levels of the Kv3.2 subunit were somatostatin

  8. Inhibition of human ether-a-go-go-related gene potassium channels by alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dierk; Wimmer, Anna-Britt; Wu, Kezhong; Hammerling, Bettina C; Ficker, Eckhard K; Kuryshev, Yuri A; Kiehn, Johann; Katus, Hugo A; Schoels, Wolfgang; Karle, Christoph A

    2004-05-01

    Human ether-a-go-go-related gene (HERG) potassium channels are expressed in multiple tissues including the heart and adenocarcinomas. In cardiomyocytes, HERG encodes the alpha-subunit underlying the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium current, I(Kr), and pharmacological reduction of HERG currents may cause acquired long QT syndrome. In addition, HERG currents have been shown to be involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis. Selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists are commonly used in the treatment of hypertension and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Recently, doxazosin has been associated with an increased risk of heart failure. Moreover, quinazoline-derived alpha 1-inhibitors induce apoptosis in cardiomyocytes and prostate tumor cells independently of alpha1-adrenoceptor blockade. To assess the action of the effects of prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin on HERG currents, we investigated their acute electrophysiological effects on cloned HERG potassium channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes and HEK 293 cells.Prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin blocked HERG currents in Xenopus oocytes with IC(50) values of 10.1, 18.2, and 113.2 microM respectively, whereas the IC(50) values for HERG channel inhibition in human HEK 293 cells were 1.57 microM, 585.1 nM, and 17.7 microM. Detailed biophysical studies revealed that inhibition by the prototype alpha 1-blocker prazosin occurred in closed, open, and inactivated channels. Analysis of the voltage-dependence of block displayed a reduction of inhibition at positive membrane potentials. Frequency-dependence was not observed. Prazosin caused a negative shift in the voltage-dependence of both activation (-3.8 mV) and inactivation (-9.4 mV). The S6 mutations Y652A and F656A partially attenuated (Y652A) or abolished (F656A) HERG current blockade, indicating that prazosin binds to a common drug receptor within the pore-S6 region. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that HERG

  9. Classification of 2-pore domain potassium channels based on rectification under quasi-physiological ionic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haijun; Zuo, Dongchuan; Zhang, Jianing; Zhou, Min; Ma, Liqun

    2014-01-01

    It is generally expected that 2-pore domain K(+) (K2P) channels are open or outward rectifiers in asymmetric physiological K(+) gradients, following the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz (GHK) current equation. Although cloned K2P channels have been extensively studied, their current-voltage (I-V) relationships are not precisely characterized and previous definitions are contradictory. Here we study all the functional channels from 6 mammalian K2P subfamilies in transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells with patch-clamp technique, and examine whether their I-V relationships are described by the GHK current equation. K2P channels display 2 distinct types of I-V curves in asymmetric physiological K(+) gradients. Two K2P isoforms in the TWIK subfamily conduct large inward K(+) currents and have a nearly linear I-V curve. Ten isoforms from 5 other K2P subfamilies conduct small inward K(+) currents and exhibit open rectification, but fits with the GHK current equation cannot precisely reveal the differences in rectification among K2P channels. The Rectification Index, a ratio of limiting I-V slopes for outward and inward currents, is used to quantitatively describe open rectification of each K2P isoform, which is previously qualitatively defined as strong or weak open rectification. These results systematically and precisely classify K2P channels and suggest that TWIK K(+) channels have a unique feature in regulating cellular function.

  10. Interactions of drugs and toxins with permeant ions in potassium, sodium, and calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhorov, B S

    2011-07-01

    Ion channels in cell membranes are targets for a multitude of ligands including naturally occurring toxins, illicit drugs, and medications used to manage pain and treat cardiovascular, neurological, autoimmune, and other health disorders. In the past decade, the x-ray crystallography revealed 3D structures of several ion channels in their open, closed, and inactivated states, shedding light on mechanisms of channel gating, ion permeation and selectivity. However, atomistic mechanisms of the channel modulation by ligands are poorly understood. Increasing evidence suggest that cationophilic groups in ion channels and in some ligands may simultaneously coordinate permeant cations, which form indispensible (but underappreciated) components of respective receptors. This review describes ternary ligand-metal-channel complexes predicted by means of computer-based molecular modeling. The models rationalize a large body of experimental data including paradoxes in structure-activity relationships, effects of mutations on the ligand action, sensitivity of the ligand action to the nature of current-carrying cations, and action of ligands that bind in the ion-permeation pathway but increase rather than decrease the current. Recent mutational and ligand-binding experiments designed to test the models have confirmed the ternary-complex concept providing new knowledge on physiological roles of metal ions and atomistic mechanisms of action of ion channel ligands.

  11. Eliciting renal failure in mosquitoes with a small-molecule inhibitor of inward-rectifying potassium channels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Raphemot

    Full Text Available Mosquito-borne diseases such as malaria and dengue fever take a large toll on global health. The primary chemical agents used for controlling mosquitoes are insecticides that target the nervous system. However, the emergence of resistance in mosquito populations is reducing the efficacy of available insecticides. The development of new insecticides is therefore urgent. Here we show that VU573, a small-molecule inhibitor of mammalian inward-rectifying potassium (Kir channels, inhibits a Kir channel cloned from the renal (Malpighian tubules of Aedes aegypti (AeKir1. Injection of VU573 into the hemolymph of adult female mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti disrupts the production and excretion of urine in a manner consistent with channel block of AeKir1 and renders the mosquitoes incapacitated (flightless or dead within 24 hours. Moreover, the toxicity of VU573 in mosquitoes (Ae. aegypti is exacerbated when hemolymph potassium levels are elevated, suggesting that Kir channels are essential for maintenance of whole-animal potassium homeostasis. Our study demonstrates that renal failure is a promising mechanism of action for killing mosquitoes, and motivates the discovery of selective small-molecule inhibitors of mosquito Kir channels for use as insecticides.

  12. Calcium-dependent potassium channels play a critical role for burst termination in the locomotor network in lamprey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Manira, A; Tegnér, J; Grillner, S

    1994-10-01

    1. The possible involvement of calcium-dependent potassium channels (KCa) in the termination of locomotor bursts was investigated by administration of a specific blocker, apamin, in the lamprey spinal cord in vitro. The effects were examined by recording the efferent activity in ventral roots and by intracellular recording from interneurons and motoneurons. During fictive locomotion induced by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), apamin was found to affect both the frequency of bursting and the regularity of the locomotor pattern. 2. At the single cell level, NMDA can induce pacemaker-like membrane potential oscillations in individual neurons after administration of tetrodotoxin. Apamin (2.5 microM) produced a marked increase of the duration of the depolarizing plateau phase occurring during these NMDA-induced oscillations; this shows that the repolarization of the plateau is initiated by a progressive activation of apamin-sensitive KCa-channels. 3. The action potential is followed by an afterhyperpolarization (AHP) with a fast and a slow phase (sAHP). The latter is known to be caused by apamin-sensitive KCa-channels. During repetitive firing, the interspike interval is dependent on the amplitude and the duration of the sAHP. Apamin caused a reduction of the spike frequency adaptation with a concomitant increase in the firing frequency. In some cells, apamin in addition reduced the threshold for the action potential. Apamin-sensitive KCa-channels thus will be involved in controlling both the onset and the duration of neuronal firing in the lamprey spinal cord. 4. During fictive locomotion induced by NMDA (40-200 microM), a blockade of KCa-channels by apamin produced an increase of the coefficient of variation (mean = 167%, n = 26), which was statistically significant in 21 out of 26 experiments. At 40-150 microM NMDA, an average increase in cycle duration was 77% and statistically significant in 15 out of 20 preparations. At 200 microM NMDA (corresponding to higher burst

  13. Adenosine activates ATP-sensitive potassium channels in arterial myocytes via A2 receptors and cAMP-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleppisch, T; Nelson, M T

    1995-01-01

    The mechanism by which the endogenous vasodilator adenosine causes ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels in arterial smooth muscle to open was investigated by the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Adenosine induced voltage-independent, potassium-selective currents, which were inhibited by glibenclamide, a blocker of KATP currents. Glibenclamide-sensitive currents were also activated by the selective adenosine A2-receptor agonist 2-p-(2-carboxethyl)-phenethylamino-5'-N- ethylcarboxamidoadenosine hydrochloride (CGS-21680), whereas 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CCPA), a selective adenosine A1-receptor agonist, failed to induce potassium currents. Glibenclamide-sensitive currents induced by adenosine and CGS-21680 were largely reduced by blockers of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (Rp-cAMP[S], H-89, protein kinase A inhibitor peptide). Therefore, we conclude that adenosine can activate KATP currents in arterial smooth muscle through the following pathway: (i) Adenosine stimulates A2 receptors, which activates adenylyl cyclase; (ii) the resulting increase intracellular cAMP stimulates protein kinase A, which, probably through a phosphorylation step, opens KATP channels. PMID:8618917

  14. Deafness and permanently reduced potassium channel gene expression and function in hypothyroid Pit1dw mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Mirna; Fang, Qing; Gong, Tzy-Wen; Dolan, David F; Raphael, Yehoash; Camper, Sally A; Duncan, R Keith

    2009-01-28

    The absence of thyroid hormone (TH) during late gestation and early infancy can cause irreparable deafness in both humans and rodents. A variety of rodent models have been used in an effort to identify the underlying molecular mechanism. Here, we characterize a mouse model of secondary hypothyroidism, pituitary transcription factor 1 (Pit1(dw)), which has profound, congenital deafness that is rescued by oral TH replacement. These mutants have tectorial membrane abnormalities, including a prominent Hensen's stripe, elevated beta-tectorin composition, and disrupted striated-sheet matrix. They lack distortion product otoacoustic emissions and cochlear microphonic responses, and exhibit reduced endocochlear potentials, suggesting defects in outer hair cell function and potassium recycling. Auditory system and hair cell physiology, histology, and anatomy studies reveal novel defects of hormone deficiency related to deafness: (1) permanently impaired expression of KCNJ10 in the stria vascularis of Pit1(dw) mice, which likely contributes to the reduced endocochlear potential, (2) significant outer hair cell loss in the mutants, which may result from cellular stress induced by the lower KCNQ4 expression and current levels in Pit1(dw) mutant outer hair cells, and (3) sensory and strial cell deterioration, which may have implications for thyroid hormone dysregulation in age-related hearing impairment. In summary, we suggest that these defects in outer hair cell and strial cell function are important contributors to the hearing impairment in Pit1(dw) mice.

  15. Calcium-dependent modulation and plasma membrane targeting of the AKT2 potassium channel by the CBL4/ CIPK6 calcium sensor/protein kinase complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Katrin Held; Jean-Baptiste Thibaud; J(o)rg Kudla; Francois Pascaud; Christian Eckert; Pawel Gajdanowicz; Kenji Hashimoto; Claire Corratgé-Faillie; Jan Niklas Offenborn; Beno(i)t Lacombe; Ingo Dreyer

    2011-01-01

    Potassium (K+) channel function is fundamental to many physiological processes. However, components and mechanisms regulating the activity of plant K+ channels remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the calcium (Ca2+)sensor CBL4 together with the interacting protein kinase CIPK6 modulates the activity and plasma membrane (PM)targeting of the K+ channel AKT2 from Arabidopsis thaliana by mediating translocation of AKT2 to the PM in plant cells and enhancing AKT2 activity in oocytes. Accordingly, akt2, cbl4 and cipk6 mutants share similar developmental and delayed flowering pheuotypes. Moreover, the isolated regulatory C-terminal domain of CIPK6 is sufficient for mediating CBL4- and Ca2+-dependent channel translocation from the endoplasmic reticulum membrane to the PM by a novel targeting pathway that is dependent on dual lipid modifications of CBL4 by myristoylation and palmitoylation. Thus, we describe a critical mechanism of ion-channel regulation where a Ca2+ sensor modulates K+ channel activity by promoting a kinase interaction-dependent but phosphorylation-independent translocation of the channel to the PM.

  16. Renal fibrosis is attenuated by targeted disruption of KCa3.1 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grgic, Ivica; Kiss, Eva; Kaistha, Brajesh P

    2009-01-01

    Proliferation of interstitial fibroblasts is a hallmark of progressive renal fibrosis commonly resulting in chronic kidney failure. The intermediate-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (K(Ca)3.1) has been proposed to promote mitogenesis in several cell types and contribute to disease states...

  17. Structural Dynamics of the Potassium Channel Blocker ShK: SRLS Analysis of (15)N Relaxation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meirovitch, Eva; Tchaicheeyan, Oren; Sher, Inbal; Norton, Raymond S; Chill, Jordan H

    2015-12-10

    The 35-residue ShK peptide binds with high affinity to voltage-gated potassium channels. The dynamics of the binding surface was studied recently with (microsecond to millisecond) (15)N relaxation dispersion and (picosecond to nanosecond) (15)N spin relaxation of the N-H bonds. Relaxation dispersion revealed microsecond conformational-exchange-mediated exposure of the functionally important Y23 side chain to the peptide surface. The spin relaxation parameters acquired at 14.1 and 16.45 T have been subjected to model-free (MF) analysis, which yielded a squared generalized order parameter, S(2), of approximately 0.85 for virtually all of the N-H bonds. Only a "rigid backbone" evaluation could be inferred. We ascribe this limited information to the simplicity of MF in the context of challenging data. To improve the analysis, we apply the slowly relaxing local structure (SRLS) approach, which is a generalization of MF. SRLS describes N-H bond dynamics in ShK in terms of a local potential, u, ranging from 10 to 18.5 kBT, and a local diffusion rate, D2, ranging from 4.2 × 10(8) to 2.4 × 10(10) s(-1). This analysis shows that u is outstandingly strong for Y23 and relatively weak for K22, whereas D2 is slow for Y23 and fast for K22. These observations are relevant functionally because of the key role of the K22-Y23 dyad in ShK binding to potassium channels. The disulfide-bond network exhibits a medium-strength potential and an alternating wave-like D2 pattern. This is indicative of moderate structural restraints and motional plasticity, in support of, although not directly correlated with, the microsecond binding-related conformational exchange process detected previously. Thus, new information on functionally important residues in ShK and its overall conformational stability emerged from the SRLS analysis, as compared with the previous MF-based estimate of backbone dynamics as backbone rigidity.

  18. Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension and novel ATP-sensitive potassium channel opener: the new hope on the horizon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu JIN; Wei-ping XIE; Hong WANG

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a syndrome characterized by the increase of pulmonary vascular tone and the structural remodeling of peripheral pulmonary arteries.The aim of specific therapies for hypoxic pulmonary hypertension is to reduce pulmonary vascular resistance,reverse pulmonary vascular remodeling,and thereby improving right ventricular function.Iptakalim,a lipophilic para-amino compound with a low molecular weight,has been demonstrated to be a new selective ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel opener via pharmacological,electrophysiological,biochemical studies,and receptor binding tests.In hypoxia-induced animal models,iptakalim decreases the elevated mean pressure in pulmonary arteries,and attenuates remodeling in the right ventricle,pulmonary arteries and airways.Furthermore,iptakalim has selective antihypertensive effects,selective vasorelaxation effects on smaller arteries,and protective effects on endothelial cells,but no effects on the central nervous,respiratory,digestive or endocrine systems at therapeutic dose.Our previous studies demonstrated that iptakalim inhibited the effects of endothelin-1,reduced the intracellular calcium concentration and inhibited the proliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.Since iptakalim has been shown safe and effective in both experimental animal models and phase I clinical trials,it can be a potential candidate of HPH in the future.

  19. Block by a putative antiarrhythmic agent of a calcium-dependent potassium channel in cultured hippocampal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarnon, J G

    1990-05-04

    The actions of a new, putative antiarrhythmic drug, KC-8851 on single channel currents in hippocampal CA1 neurons have been studied. A calcium-dependent potassium current IK(Ca) was activated in the cultured neurons when a solution containing 140 mM K+ and 0.2 mM Ca2+ was applied to inside-out patches. Addition of the compound KC-8851, at concentrations between 1-50 microM, resulted in significant, dose-dependent, decreases in the mean open times of the K channel. The onward (blocking) rate constant was determined from a simple channel blockade scheme and was 5 x 10(7) M-1s-1; this rate constant was not dependent on voltage. Addition of KC-8851 to the solution bath with outside-out patches also caused significant decreases in the mean open times of the IK(Ca) channel consistent with channel blockade by the drug.

  20. Effect of NIP-142 on potassium channel alpha-subunits Kv1.5, Kv4.2 and Kv4.3, and mouse atrial repolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Hikaru; Namekata, Iyuki; Hamaguchi, Shogo; Kawamura, Taro; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yoshio; Iida-Tanaka, Naoko; Takahara, Akira

    2010-01-01

    Effects of NIP-142, a benzopyran compound which terminates experimental atrial arrhythmia, on potassium channel alpha-subunits and mouse atrial repolarization were examined. NIP-142 concentration-dependently blocked the outward current through potassium channel alpha subunits Kv1.5, Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. In isolated mouse atrial myocardia, NIP-142 prolonged the action potential duration and effective refractory period, and increased the contractile force. These results suggest that NIP-142 blocks the potassium channels underlying the transient and sustained outward currents, which may contribute to its antiarrhythmic activity.

  1. Voltage-gated potassium channels autoantibodies in a child with rasmussen encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitz, Marie-Aude; Dubois-Teklali, Fanny; Vercueil, Laurent; Sabourdy, Cécile; Nugues, Frédérique; Vincent, Angela; Oliver, Viviana; Bulteau, Christine

    2014-10-01

    Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a severe epileptic and inflammatory encephalopathy of unknown etiology, responsible for focal neurological signs and cognitive decline. The current leading hypothesis suggests a sequence of immune reactions induced by an indeterminate factor. This sequence is thought to be responsible for the production of autoantibody-mediated central nervous system degeneration. However, these autoantibodies are not specific to the disease and not all patients present with them. We report the case of a 4-year-old girl suffering from RE displaying some atypical features such as fast evolution and seizures of left parietal onset refractory to several antiepileptics, intravenous immunoglobulins, and corticosteroids. Serum autoantibodies directed against voltage-gated potassium channels (VGKC) were evidenced at 739 pM, a finding never previously reported in children. This screening was performed because of an increased signal in the temporolimbic areas on brain magnetic resonance imaging, which was similar to what is observed during limbic encephalitis. The patient experienced epilepsia partialis continua with progressive right hemiplegia and aphasia. She underwent left hemispherotomy at the age of 5.5 years after which she became seizure free with great cognitive improvement. First described in adults, VGKC autoantibodies have been recently described in children with various neurological manifestations. The implication of VGKC autoantibodies in RE is a new observation and opens up new physiopathological and therapeutic avenues of investigation.

  2. Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Antibody Paraneoplastic Limbic Encephalitis Associated with Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Alcantara

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Among paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS associated with malignant hemopathies, there are few reports of PNS of the central nervous system and most of them are associated with lymphomas. Limbic encephalitis is a rare neurological syndrome classically diagnosed in the context of PNS. We report the case of a 81-year-old man who presented with a relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML with minimal maturation. He was admitted for confusion with unfavorable evolution as he presented a rapidly progressive dementia resulting in death. A brain magnetic resonance imaging, performed 2 months after the onset, was considered normal. An electroencephalogram showed non-specific bilateral slow waves. We received the results of the blood screening of neuronal autoantibodies after the patient's death and detected the presence of anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC antibodies at 102 pmol/l (normal at <30 pmol/l. Other etiologic studies, including the screening for another cause of rapidly progressive dementia, were negative. To our knowledge, this is the first case of anti-VGKC paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis related to AML.

  3. Circadian rhythm in QT interval is preserved in mice deficient of potassium channel interacting protein 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Lisa A; Lubberding, Anniek; Larsen, Anders Peter;

    2016-01-01

    Potassium Channel Interacting Protein 2 (KChIP2) is suggested to be responsible for the circadian rhythm in repolarization duration, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden cardiac death. We investigated the hypothesis that there is no circadian rhythm in QT interval in the absence of KChIP2. Implanted...... telemetric devices recorded electrocardiogram continuously for 5 days in conscious wild-type mice (WT, n = 9) and KChIP2(-/-) mice (n = 9) in light:dark periods and in complete darkness. QT intervals were determined from all RR intervals and corrected for heart rate (QT100 = QT/(RR/100)(1/2)). Moreover, QT...... intervals were determined from complexes within the RR range of mean-RR ± 1% in the individual mouse (QTmean-RR). We find that RR intervals are 125 ± 5 ms in WT and 123 ± 4 ms in KChIP2(-/-) (p = 0.81), and QT intervals are 52 ± 1 and 52 ± 1 ms, respectively(p = 0.89). No ventricular arrhythmias or sudden...

  4. Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis associated with acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcantara, Marion; Bennani, Omar; Verdure, Pierre; Leprêtre, Stéphane; Tilly, Hervé; Jardin, Fabrice

    2013-05-01

    Among paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) associated with malignant hemopathies, there are few reports of PNS of the central nervous system and most of them are associated with lymphomas. Limbic encephalitis is a rare neurological syndrome classically diagnosed in the context of PNS. We report the case of a 81-year-old man who presented with a relapsed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) with minimal maturation. He was admitted for confusion with unfavorable evolution as he presented a rapidly progressive dementia resulting in death. A brain magnetic resonance imaging, performed 2 months after the onset, was considered normal. An electroencephalogram showed non-specific bilateral slow waves. We received the results of the blood screening of neuronal autoanti-bodies after the patient's death and detected the presence of anti-voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) antibodies at 102 pmol/l (normal at <30 pmol/l). Other etiologic studies, including the screening for another cause of rapidly progressive dementia, were negative. To our knowledge, this is the first case of anti-VGKC paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis related to AML.

  5. Supratentorial white matter blurring associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex limbic encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbach, H.; Mader, I. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Rauer, S.; Baumgartner, A. [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Neurology, Freiburg (Germany); Paus, S. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Bonn (Germany); Wagner, J. [University Medical Center, Department of Epileptology, Bonn (Germany); Malter, M.P. [University of Cologne, Department of Neurology, Cologne (Germany); Pruess, H. [Charite - Universitaetsmedizin Berlin, Department of Neurology, Berlin (Germany); Lewerenz, J.; Kassubek, J. [Ulm University, Department of Neurology, Ulm (Germany); Hegen, H.; Auer, M.; Deisenhammer, F. [University Innsbruck, Department of Neurology, Innsbruck (Austria); Ufer, F. [University Medical Center, Department of Neurology, Hamburg (Germany); Bien, C.G. [Epilepsy Centre Bethel, Bielefeld-Bethel (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Limbic encephalitis (LE) associated with voltage-gated potassium channel-complex antibodies (VGKC-LE) is frequently non-paraneoplastic and associated with marked improvement following corticosteroid therapy. Mesial temporal lobe abnormalities are present in around 80 % of patients. If associated or preceded by faciobrachial dystonic seizures, basal ganglia signal changes may occur. In some patients, blurring of the supratentorial white matter on T2-weighted images (SWMB) may be seen. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of SWMB and whether it is specific for VGKC-LE. Two experienced neuroradiologists independently evaluated signal abnormalities on FLAIR MRI in 79 patients with LE while unaware on the antibody type. SWMB was independently assessed as present in 10 of 36 (28 %) compared to 2 (5 %) of 43 non-VGKC patients (p = 0.009). It was not related to the presence of LGI1 or CASPR2 proteins of VGKC antibodies. MRI showed increased temporomesial FLAIR signal in 22 (61 %) VGKC compared to 14 (33 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.013), and extratemporomesial structures were affected in one VGKC (3 %) compared to 11 (26 %) non-VGKC patients (p = 0.005). SWMB is a newly described MRI sign rather specific for VGKC-LE. (orig.)

  6. Straightforward approach to produce recombinant scorpion toxins-Pore blockers of potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasova, Oksana; Kudryashova, Ksenia; Fradkov, Arkadiy; Yakimov, Sergey; Savelieva, Maria; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail; Feofanov, Alexey

    2017-01-10

    Scorpion venom peptide blockers (KTx) of potassium channels are a valuable tool for structure-functional studies and prospective candidates for medical applications. Low yields of recombinant KTx hamper their wide application. We developed convenient and efficient bioengineering approach to a large-scale KTx production that meets increasing demands for such peptides. Maltose-binding protein was used as a carrier for cytoplasmic expression of folded disulfide-rich KTx in E. coli. TEV protease was applied for in vitro cleavage of the target peptide from the carrier. To produce KTx with retained native N-terminal sequence, the last residue of TEV protease cleavage site (CSTEV) was occupied by the native N-terminal residue of a target peptide. It was shown that decreased efficiency of hydrolysis of fusion proteins with non-canonical CSTEV can be overcome without by-product formation. Disulfide formation and folding of a target peptide occurred in cytoplasm eliminating the need for renaturation procedure in vitro. Advantages of this approach were demonstrated by producing six peptides with three disulfide bonds related to four KTx sub-families and achieving peptide yields of 12-22mg per liter of culture. The developed approach can be of general use for low-cost production of various KTx, as well as other disulfide-rich peptides and proteins.

  7. Changes of Expression of Stretch-activated Potassium Channel TREK-1 mRNA and Protein in Hypertrophic Myocardium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The expression of stretch-activated potassium channel TREK-1 mRNA and protein of hypertrophic myocardium was measured. Using a model of hypertrophy induced by coarctation of abdominal aorta in male Wistar rats, the expression of TREK-1 mRNA and protein was detected by using semi quantitative RT PCR and Western blot respectively. At 4th and 8th week after constriction of the abdominal aorta, rats developed significant left ventricular hypertrophy. As compared to sham operated group, stretch activated potassium channel TREK-1 mRNA was strongly expressed and protein was up regulated in operation groups (P<0.05). It was concluded that the expression of TREK 1 was up regulated in hypertrophic myocardium induced by chronic pressure overload in Wistar rats.

  8. Aminoglycosides block the Kv3.1 potassium channel and reduce the ability of inferior colliculus neurons to fire at high frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Si-Qiong J; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2005-03-01

    The Kv3.1 potassium channel is expressed at high levels in auditory nuclei and contributes to the ability of auditory neurons to fire at high frequencies. We have tested the effects of streptomycin, an agent that produces progressive hearing loss, on the firing properties of inferior colliculus neurons and on Kv3.1 currents in transfected cells. We found that in inferior colliculus neurons, intracellular streptomycin decreased the current density of a high threshold, noninactivating outward current and reduced the rate of repolarization of action potentials and the ability of these neurons to fire at high frequencies. Furthermore, potassium current in CHO cells transfected with the Kv3.1 gene was reduced by 50% when cells were cultured in the presence of streptomycin or when streptomycin was introduced intracellularly in the pipette solution. In the presence of intracellular streptomycin, the activation rate of Kv3.1 current increased and inhibition by extracellular TEA become voltage-dependent. The data indicate that streptomycin inhibits Kv3.1 currents by inducing a conformational change in the Kv3.1 channel. The hearing loss caused by aminoglycoside antibiotics may be partially mediated by their inhibition of Kv3.1 current in auditory neurons.

  9. Cloning and characterization of SK2 channel from chicken short hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, T M; Duncan, R K; Zidanic, M; Michael, T H; Fuchs, P A

    2005-06-01

    In the inner ear of birds, as in mammals, reptiles and amphibians, acetylcholine released from efferent neurons inhibits hair cells via activation of an apamin-sensitive, calcium-dependent potassium current. The particular potassium channel involved in avian hair cell inhibition is unknown. In this study, we cloned a small-conductance, calcium-sensitive potassium channel (gSK2) from a chicken cochlear library. Using RT-PCR, we demonstrated the presence of gSK2 mRNA in cochlear hair cells. Electrophysiological studies on transfected HEK293 cells showed that gSK2 channels have a conductance of approximately 16 pS and a half-maximal calcium activation concentration of 0.74+/-0.17 microM. The expressed channels were blocked by apamin (IC(50)=73.3+/-5.0 pM) and d-tubocurarine (IC(50)=7.6+/-1.0 microM), but were insensitive to charybdotoxin. These characteristics are consistent with those reported for acetylcholine-induced potassium currents of isolated chicken hair cells, suggesting that gSK2 is involved in efferent inhibition of chicken inner ear. These findings imply that the molecular mechanisms of inhibition are conserved in hair cells of all vertebrates.

  10. Leucine-rich glioma inactivated-1 and voltage gated potassium channel autoimmune encephalitis associated with ischemic stroke; A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Patryce McGinley

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmune encephalitis is associated with a wide variety of antibodies and clinical presentations. Voltage gated potassium channel (VGKC antibodies are a cause of autoimmune non-paraneoplastic encephalitis characterized by memory impairment, psychiatric symptoms, and seizures. We present a case of VGKC encephalitis likely preceding an ischemic stroke. Reports of autoimmune encephalitis associated with ischemic stroke are rare. Several hypothesizes linking these two disease processes are proposed.

  11. Deletion of the Kv2.1 delayed rectifier potassium channel leads to neuronal and behavioral hyperexcitability

    OpenAIRE

    Speca, DJ; Ogata, G; Mandikian, D; Bishop, HI; Wiler, SW; Eum, K; Wenzel, HJ; Doisy, ET; Matt, L; Campi, KL; Golub, MS; Nerbonne, JM; Hell, JW; Trainor, BC; Sack, JT

    2014-01-01

    The Kv2.1 delayed rectifier potassium channel exhibits high-level expression in both principal and inhibitory neurons throughout the central nervous system, including prominent expression in hippocampal neurons. Studies of in vitro preparations suggest that Kv2.1 is a key yet conditional regulator of intrinsic neuronal excitability, mediated by changes in Kv2.1 expression, localization and function via activity-dependent regulation of Kv2.1 phosphorylation. Here we identify neurological and b...

  12. Steroid hormone regulation of the voltage-gated, calcium-activated potassium channel expression in developing muscular and neural systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Sheldon L; Witten, Jane L

    2010-11-01

    A precise organization of gene expression is required for developing neural and muscular systems. Steroid hormones can control the expression of genes that are critical for development. In this study we test the hypothesis that the steroid hormone ecdysone regulates gene expression of the voltage-gated calcium-activated potassium ion channel, Slowpoke or KCNMA1. Late in adult development of the tobacco hawkmoth Manduca sexta, slowpoke (msslo) levels increased contributing to the maturation of the dorsal longitudinal flight muscles (DLMs) and CNS. We show that critical components of ecdysteroid gene regulation were present during upreglation of msslo in late adult DLM and CNS development. Ecdysteroid receptor complex heterodimeric partner proteins, the ecdysteroid receptor (EcR) and ultraspiracle (USP), and the ecdysone-induced early gene, msE75B, were expressed at key developmental time points, suggesting that ecdysteroids direct aspects of gene expression in the DLMs during these late developmental stages. We provide evidence that ecdysteroids suppress msslo transcription in the DLMs; when titers decline msslo transcript levels increase. These results are consistent with msslo being a downstream gene in an ecdysteroid-mediated gene cascade during DLM development. We also show that the ecdysteroids regulate msslo transcript levels in the developing CNS. These results will contribute to our understanding of how the spatiotemporal regulation of slowpoke transcription contributes to tailoring cell excitability to the differing physiological and behavioral demands during development.

  13. A novel muscarinic receptor-independent mechanism of KCNQ2/3 potassium channel blockade by Oxotremorine-M.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwart, Ruud; Reed, Hannah; Clarke, Sophie; Sher, Emanuele

    2016-11-15

    Inhibition of KCNQ (Kv7) potassium channels by activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors has been well established, and the ion currents through these channels have been long known as M-currents. We found that this cross-talk can be reconstituted in Xenopus oocytes by co-transfection of human recombinant muscarinic M1 receptors and KCNQ2/3 potassium channels. Application of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist Oxotremorine-methiodide (Oxo-M) between voltage pulses to activate KCNQ2/3 channels caused inhibition of the subsequent KCNQ2/3 responses. This effect of Oxo-M was blocked by the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist atropine. We also found that KCNQ2/3 currents were inhibited when Oxo-M was applied during an ongoing KCNQ2/3 response, an effect that was not blocked by atropine, suggesting that Oxo-M inhibits KCNQ2/3 channels directly. Indeed, also in oocytes that were transfected with only KCNQ2/3 channels, but not with muscarinic M1 receptors, Oxo-M inhibited the KCNQ2/3 response. These results show that besides the usual muscarinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated inhibition, Oxo-M also inhibits KCNQ2/3 channels by a direct mechanism. We subsequently tested xanomeline, which is a chemically distinct muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, and oxotremorine, which is a close analogue of Oxo-M. Both compounds inhibited KCNQ2/3 currents via activation of M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors but, in contrast to Oxo-M, they did not directly inhibit KCNQ2/3 channels. Xanomeline and oxotremorine do not contain a positively charged trimethylammonium moiety that is present in Oxo-M, suggesting that such a charged moiety could be a crucial component mediating this newly described direct inhibition of KCNQ2/3 channels.

  14. Up-regulation of the Kv3.4 potassium channel subunit in early stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo, Ester; Noé, Véronique; Casadó, Vicent; Mallol, Josefa; Gomez-Isla, Teresa; Lluis, Carmen; Ferrer, Isidre; Ciudad, Carlos J; Franco, Rafael

    2004-11-01

    Gene expression throughout the different stages of Alzheimer's disease was analysed in samples from cerebral cortex. The gene encoding the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv3.4 was already overexpressed in early stages of the disease, and in advanced stages Kv3.4 was present at high levels in neurodegenerative structures. This subunit regulates delayed-rectifier currents, which are primary determinants of spike repolarization in neurones. In unique samples from a patient with Alzheimer's disease whose amount of amyloid plaques was decreased by beta amyloid immunization, Kv3.4 was overexpressed. The channel subunit was expressed in the neuropil, in the remaining conventional plaques in the frontal cortex and in collapsed plaques in the orbitary cortex. Therefore, amyloid deposition in plaques does not seem to be responsible for the increase in Kv3.4 levels. Nevertheless, Kv3.4 up-regulation is related to amyloid pathology, given that transgenic mice with the Swedish mutation of amyloid precursor protein showed increased expression of Kv3.4. Up-regulation of voltage-gated potassium channel subunits alters potassium currents in neurones and leads to altered synaptic activity that may underlie the neurodegeneration observed in Alzheimer's disease. Thus, Kv3.4 likely represents a novel therapeutic target for the disease.

  15. Activation of Mitochondrial Uncoupling Protein 4 and ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel Cumulatively Decreases Superoxide Production in Insect Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocińska, Malgorzata; Rosinski, Grzegorz; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2016-01-01

    It has been evidenced that mitochondrial uncoupling protein 4 (UCP4) and ATP-regulated potassium channel (mKATP channel) of insect Gromphadorhina coqereliana mitochondria decrease superoxide anion production. We elucidated whether the two energy-dissipating systems work together on a modulation of superoxide level in cockroach mitochondria. Our data show that the simultaneous activation of UCP4 by palmitic acid and mKATP channel by pinacidil revealed a cumulative effect on weakening mitochondrial superoxide formation. The inhibition of UCP4 by GTP (and/or ATP) and mKATP channel by ATP elevated superoxide production. These results suggest a functional cooperation of both energy-dissipating systems in protection against oxidative stress in insects.

  16. Deletion of TRAAK Potassium Channel Affects Brain Metabolism and Protects against Ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laigle, Christophe; Confort-Gouny, Sylviane; Le Fur, Yann; Cozzone, Patrick J.; Viola, Angèle

    2012-01-01

    Cerebral stroke is a worldwide leading cause of disability. The two-pore domain K+ channels identified as background channels are involved in many functions in brain under physiological and pathological conditions. We addressed the hypothesis that TRAAK, a mechano-gated and lipid-sensitive two-pore domain K+ channel, is involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia. We studied the effects of TRAAK deletion on brain morphology and metabolism under physiological conditions, and during temporary focal cerebral ischemia in Traak−/− mice using a combination of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques and multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) methods. We provide the first in vivo evidence establishing a link between TRAAK and neurometabolism. Under physiological conditions, Traak−/− mice showed a particular metabolic phenotype characterized by higher levels of taurine and myo-inositol than Traak+/+ mice. Upon ischemia, Traak−/− mice had a smaller infarcted volume, with lower contribution of cellular edema than Traak+/+ mice. Moreover, brain microcirculation was less damaged, and brain metabolism and pH were preserved. Our results show that expression of TRAAK strongly influences tissue levels of organic osmolytes. Traak−/− mice resilience to cellular edema under ischemia appears related to their physiologically high levels of myo-inositol and of taurine, an aminoacid involved in the modulation of mitochondrial activity and cell death. The beneficial effects of TRAAK deletion designate this channel as a promising pharmacological target for the treatment against stroke. PMID:23285272

  17. The mechanism of KV4.3 voltage-gated potassium channel in arrhythmia induced by sleep deprivation in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-jing ZHANG

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effect of sleep deprivation(SD on the changes in electrocardiogram and mRNA and protein expression of KV4.3 voltage-gated potassium channel in rats,and explore the related mechanisms of arrhythmia induced by SD.Methods A total of 48 adult male SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups(8 each: normal control(CC group,tank control(TC group,1-,3-,5-and 7-day SD group.Animal model of SD was established by modified multiple platform method,and electrocardiogram was recorded on 1st,3rd,5th,and 7th of experiment.Protein and mRNA expressions of KV4.3 voltage-gated potassium channel were measured by real-time PCR and Western blotting analysis.Results The main changes on electrocardiogram following SD were arrhythmia.Compared with the CC group,rats in TC group showed sinus tachycardia in electrocardiogram: frequent atrial premature beats were observed one day after SD;ventricular arrhythmias,such as frequent polymorphic ventricular premature beats and paroxysmal ventricular tachycardia were observed three days after SD;incomplete right bundle branch block wave occurred five days after SD;the electrocardiogram showed third-degree atrioventricular(AV block wave seven days after SD,which indicated atrial arrhythmia and ventricular arrhythmia respectively.Ventricular escape beat,sinus arrest as well as the fusion of obviously elevated ST segment and T-wave were also observed.The expression levels of KV4.3 voltage-gated potassium channel decreased with prolongation of SD time.The expression of mRNA and protein of KV4.3 potassium channel in 7-day SD rats were only the one ninth and one fourth of levels in CC group.Conclusion Sleep deprivation can cause arrhythmia,and decreased expression of KV4.3 voltage-gated potassium channel may possibly be one of the reasons of arrhythmia induced by SD.

  18. Mutations in voltage-gated potassium channel KCNC3 cause degenerative and developmental central nervous system phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Michael F; Minassian, Natali A; Stevanin, Giovanni; Figueroa, Karla P; Bannister, John P A; Nolte, Dagmar; Mock, Allan F; Evidente, Virgilio Gerald H; Fee, Dominic B; Müller, Ulrich; Dürr, Alexandra; Brice, Alexis; Papazian, Diane M; Pulst, Stefan M

    2006-04-01

    Potassium channel mutations have been described in episodic neurological diseases. We report that K+ channel mutations cause disease phenotypes with neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative features. In a Filipino adult-onset ataxia pedigree, the causative gene maps to 19q13, overlapping the SCA13 disease locus described in a French pedigree with childhood-onset ataxia and cognitive delay. This region contains KCNC3 (also known as Kv3.3), encoding a voltage-gated Shaw channel with enriched cerebellar expression. Sequencing revealed two missense mutations, both of which alter KCNC3 function in Xenopus laevis expression systems. KCNC3(R420H), located in the voltage-sensing domain, had no channel activity when expressed alone and had a dominant-negative effect when co-expressed with the wild-type channel. KCNC3(F448L) shifted the activation curve in the negative direction and slowed channel closing. Thus, KCNC3(R420H) and KCNC3(F448L) are expected to change the output characteristics of fast-spiking cerebellar neurons, in which KCNC channels confer capacity for high-frequency firing. Our results establish a role for KCNC3 in phenotypes ranging from developmental disorders to adult-onset neurodegeneration and suggest voltage-gated K+ channels as candidates for additional neurodegenerative diseases.

  19. Diverse roles for auxiliary subunits in phosphorylation-dependent regulation of mammalian brain voltage-gated potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacher, Helene; Trimmer, James S

    2011-11-01

    Voltage-gated ion channels are a diverse family of signaling proteins that mediate rapid electrical signaling events. Among these, voltage-gated potassium or Kv channels are the most diverse partly due to the large number of principal (or α) subunits and auxiliary subunits that can assemble in different combinations to generate Kv channel complexes with distinct structures and functions. The diversity of Kv channels underlies much of the variability in the active properties between different mammalian central neurons and the dynamic changes that lead to experience-dependent plasticity in intrinsic excitability. Recent studies have revealed that Kv channel α subunits and auxiliary subunits are extensively phosphorylated, contributing to additional structural and functional diversity. Here, we highlight recent studies that show that auxiliary subunits exert some of their profound effects on dendritic Kv4 and axonal Kv1 channels through phosphorylation-dependent mechanisms, either due to phosphorylation on the auxiliary subunit itself or by influencing the extent and/or impact of α subunit phosphorylation. The complex effects of auxiliary subunits and phosphorylation provide a potent mechanism to generate additional diversity in the structure and function of Kv4 and Kv1 channels, as well as allowing for dynamic reversible regulation of these important ion channels.

  20. SNC-80-induced preconditioning: selective activation of the mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate-gated potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischbach, Peter S; Barrett, Terrance D; Reed, Nathan J; Lucchesi, Benedict R

    2003-05-01

    Pharmacologic preconditioning by delta-opioid agonists occurs via activation of an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-gated potassium channel (I(KATP)). Opening of mitochondrial I(KATP) confers pharmacologic preconditioning whereas opening the sarcolemmal I(KATP) shortens action potential duration and is proarrhythmic. This study investigated whether SNC-80, a selective delta-opioid agonist, is associated with development of ventricular arrhythmia due to activation of I(KATP). Rabbit isolated hearts were subjected to 12 min of hypoxia and 40 min of reoxygenation after pretreatment with SNC-80 (1 microM, n = 6), pinacidil (1.25 microM, n = 12), or BMS-191095 (6.0 microM, n = 4). Nine additional hearts served as controls. The cytoprotective effects of SNC-80 at a concentration of 1 microM were confirmed using 30 min of regional ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) developed in 11 of 12 pinacidil-treated hearts whereas none of the SNC-80-treated (zero of six) hearts developed VF (P SNC-80 reduced infarct size expressed as a percentage of the area at risk from 33 +/- 4% to 14 +/- 3% (P = 0.004) compared with control. SNC-80, which selectively activates the delta-opioid receptor, provided cytoprotection but did not induce VF after hypoxia reoxygenation. The results indicate that pinacidil-induced nonselective activation of I(KATP) results in proarrhythmia that is dependent on activation of the sarcolemmal I(KATP). Selectivity for the mitochondrial I(KATP) is necessary to prevent induction of a proarrhythmic state.

  1. S-acylation dependent post-translational cross-talk regulates large conductance calcium- and voltage- activated potassium (BK channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Shipston

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms that control surface expression and/or activity of large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK channels are important determinants of their (pathophysiological function. Indeed, BK channel dysfunction is associated with major human disorders ranging from epilepsy to hypertension and obesity. S-acylation (S-palmitoylation represents a major reversible, post-translational modification controlling the properties and function of many proteins including ion channels. Recent evidence reveals that both pore-forming and regulatory subunits of BK channels are S-acylated and control channel trafficking and regulation by AGC-family protein kinases. The pore-forming α-subunit is S-acylated at two distinct sites within the N- and C-terminus, each site being regulated by different palmitoyl acyl transferases (zDHHCs and acyl thioesterases. (APTs. S-acylation of the N-terminus controls channel trafficking and surface expression whereas S-acylation of the C-terminal domain determines regulation of channel activity by AGC-family protein kinases. S-acylation of the regulatory β4-subunit controls ER exit and surface expression of BK channels but does not affect ion channel kinetics at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, a significant number of previously identified BK-channel interacting proteins have been shown, or are predicted to be, S-acylated. Thus, the BK channel multi-molecular signalling complex may be dynamically regulated by this fundamental post-translational modification and thus S-acylation likely represents an important determinant of BK channel physiology in health and disease.

  2. Biophysical characterization of KV3.1 potassium channel activating compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taskin, Bahar; von Schoubye, Nadia Lybøl; Sheykhzade, Majid;

    2015-01-01

    The effect of two positive modulators, RE1 and EX15, on the voltage-gated K+ channel Kv3.1 was investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique on HEK293 cells expressing Kv3.1a. RE1 and EX15 increased the Kv3.1 currents in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 value of 4.5 and 1.3µ......M, respectively. However, high compound concentrations caused an inhibition of the Kv3.1 current. The compound-induced activation of Kv3.1 channels showed a profound hyperpolarized shift in activation kinetics. 30µM RE1 shifted V½ from 5.63±0.31mV to -9.71±1.00mV and 10µM EX15 induced a shift from 10.77±0.32m...... the first detailed biophysical characterization of two new Kv3.1 channel modifying compounds with different modulating properties....

  3. Localization of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and their effect on calcitonin gene-related peptide release in the rat trigemino-neuronal pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wulf-Johansson, H; Amrutkar, D V; Hay-Schmidt, A; Poulsen, A N; Klaerke, D A; Olesen, J; Jansen-Olesen, I

    2010-06-02

    Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels are membrane proteins contributing to electrical propagation through neurons. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide found in the trigeminovascular system (TGVS). Both BK(Ca) channels and CGRP are involved in migraine pathophysiology. Here we study the expression and localization of BK(Ca) channels and CGRP in the rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) and the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) as these structures are involved in migraine pain. Also the effect of the BK(Ca) channel blocker iberiotoxin and the BK(Ca) channel opener NS11021 on CGRP release from isolated TG and TNC was investigated. By RT-PCR, BK(Ca) channel mRNA was detected in the TG and the TNC. A significant difference in BK(Ca) channel mRNA transcript levels were found using qPCR between the TNC as compared to the TG. The BK(Ca) channel protein was more expressed in the TNC as compared to the TG shown by western blotting. Immunohistochemistry identified BK(Ca) channels in the nerve cell bodies of the TG and the TNC. The beta2- and beta4-subunit proteins were found in the TG and the TNC. They were both more expressed in the TNC as compared to TG shown by western blotting. In isolated TNC, the BK(Ca) channel blocker iberiotoxin induced a concentration-dependent release of CGRP that was attenuated by the BK(Ca) channel opener NS11021. No effect on basal CGRP release was found by NS11021 in isolated TG or TNC or by iberiotoxin in TG. In conclusion, we found both BK(Ca) channel mRNA and protein expression in the TG and the TNC. The BK(Ca) channel protein and the modulatory beta2- and beta4-subunt proteins were more expressed in the TNC than in the TG. Iberiotoxin induced an increase in CGRP release from the TNC that was attenuated by NS11021. Thus, BK(Ca) channels might have a role in trigeminovascular pain transmission.

  4. Membrane cholesterol modulates Kv1.5 potassium channel distribution and function in rat cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abi-Char, Joëlle; Maguy, Ange; Coulombe, Alain; Balse, Elise; Ratajczak, Philippe; Samuel, Jane-Lise; Nattel, Stanley; Hatem, Stéphane N

    2007-08-01

    Membrane lipid composition is a major determinant of cell excitability. In this study, we assessed the role of membrane cholesterol composition in the distribution and function of Kv1.5-based channels in rat cardiac membranes. In isolated rat atrial myocytes, the application of methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (MCD), an agent that depletes membrane cholesterol, caused a delayed increase in the Kv1.5-based sustained component, I(kur), which reached steady state in approximately 7 min. This effect was prevented by preloading the MCD with cholesterol. MCD-increased current was inhibited by low 4-aminopyridine concentration. Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes transfected with Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP)-tagged Kv1.5 channels showed a large ultrarapid delayed-rectifier current (I(Kur)), which was also stimulated by MCD. In atrial cryosections, Kv1.5 channels were mainly located at the intercalated disc, whereas caveolin-3 predominated at the cell periphery. A small portion of Kv1.5 floated in the low-density fractions of step sucrose-gradient preparations. In live neonatal cardiomyocytes, GFP-tagged Kv1.5 channels were predominantly organized in clusters at the basal plasma membrane. MCD caused reorganization of Kv1.5 subunits into larger clusters that redistributed throughout the plasma membrane. The MCD effect on clusters was sizable 7 min after its application. We conclude that Kv1.5 subunits are concentrated in cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains distinct from caveolae, and that redistribution of Kv1.5 subunits by depletion of membrane cholesterol increases their current-carrying capacity.

  5. Polarized axonal surface expression of neuronal KCNQ potassium channels is regulated by calmodulin interaction with KCNQ2 subunit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P Cavaretta

    Full Text Available KCNQ potassium channels composed of KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 subunits give rise to the M-current, a slow-activating and non-inactivating voltage-dependent potassium current that limits repetitive firing of action potentials. KCNQ channels are enriched at the surface of axons and axonal initial segments, the sites for action potential generation and modulation. Their enrichment at the axonal surface is impaired by mutations in KCNQ2 carboxy-terminal tail that cause benign familial neonatal convulsion and myokymia, suggesting that their correct surface distribution and density at the axon is crucial for control of neuronal excitability. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for regulating enrichment of KCNQ channels at the neuronal axon remain elusive. Here, we show that enrichment of KCNQ channels at the axonal surface of dissociated rat hippocampal cultured neurons is regulated by ubiquitous calcium sensor calmodulin. Using immunocytochemistry and the cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4 membrane protein as a trafficking reporter, we demonstrate that fusion of KCNQ2 carboxy-terminal tail is sufficient to target CD4 protein to the axonal surface whereas inhibition of calmodulin binding to KCNQ2 abolishes axonal surface expression of CD4 fusion proteins by retaining them in the endoplasmic reticulum. Disruption of calmodulin binding to KCNQ2 also impairs enrichment of heteromeric KCNQ2/KCNQ3 channels at the axonal surface by blocking their trafficking from the endoplasmic reticulum to the axon. Consistently, hippocampal neuronal excitability is dampened by transient expression of wild-type KCNQ2 but not mutant KCNQ2 deficient in calmodulin binding. Furthermore, coexpression of mutant calmodulin, which can interact with KCNQ2/KCNQ3 channels but not calcium, reduces but does not abolish their enrichment at the axonal surface, suggesting that apo calmodulin but not calcium-bound calmodulin is necessary for their preferential targeting to the axonal

  6. Mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel activity and hypoxic preconditioning are independent of an inwardly rectifying potassium channel subunit in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtovich, Andrew P; DiStefano, Peter; Sherman, Teresa; Brookes, Paul S; Nehrke, Keith

    2012-02-17

    Hypoxic preconditioning (HP) is an evolutionarily-conserved mechanism that protects an organism against stress. The mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K(+) channel (mK(ATP)) plays an essential role in the protective signaling, but remains molecularly undefined. Several lines of evidence suggest that mK(ATP) may arise from an inward rectifying K(+) channel (Kir). The genetic model organism Caenorhabditis elegans exhibits HP and displays mK(ATP) activity. Here, we investigate the tissue expression profile of the three C. elegans Kir genes and demonstrate that mutant strains where the irk genes have been deleted either individually or in combination can be protected by HP and exhibit robust mK(ATP) channel activity in purified mitochondria. These data suggest that the mK(ATP) in C. elegans does not arise from a Kir derived channel.

  7. Mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel activity and hypoxic preconditioning are independent of an inwardly rectifying potassium channel subunit in C. elegans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtovich, Andrew P.; DiStefano, Peter; Sherman, Teresa; Brookes, Paul S.; Nehrke, Keith

    2012-01-01

    Hypoxic preconditioning (HP) is an evolutionarily-conserved mechanism that protects an organism against stress. The mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ channel (mKATP) plays an essential role in the protective signaling, but remains molecularly undefined. Several lines of evidence suggest that mKATP may arise from an inward rectifying K+ channel (Kir). The genetic model organism C. elegans exhibits HP and displays mKATP activity. Here, we investigate the tissue expression profile of the three C. elegans Kir genes and demonstrate that mutant strains where the irk genes have been deleted either individually or in combination can be protected by HP and exhibit robust mKATP channel activity in purified mitochondria. These data suggest that the mKATP in C. elegans does not arise from a Kir derived channel. PMID:22281198

  8. Tuning the allosteric regulation of artificial muscarinic and dopaminergic ligand-gated potassium channels by protein engineering of G protein-coupled receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreau, Christophe J.; Revilloud, Jean; Caro, Lydia N.; Dupuis, Julien P.; Trouchet, Amandine; Estrada-Mondragón, Argel; Nieścierowicz, Katarzyna; Sapay, Nicolas; Crouzy, Serge; Vivaudou, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels enable intercellular transmission of action potential through synapses by transducing biochemical messengers into electrical signal. We designed artificial ligand-gated ion channels by coupling G protein-coupled receptors to the Kir6.2 potassium channel. These artificial channels called ion channel-coupled receptors offer complementary properties to natural channels by extending the repertoire of ligands to those recognized by the fused receptors, by generating more sustained signals and by conferring potassium selectivity. The first artificial channels based on the muscarinic M2 and the dopaminergic D2L receptors were opened and closed by acetylcholine and dopamine, respectively. We find here that this opposite regulation of the gating is linked to the length of the receptor C-termini, and that C-terminus engineering can precisely control the extent and direction of ligand gating. These findings establish the design rules to produce customized ligand-gated channels for synthetic biology applications. PMID:28145461

  9. KV1 and KV3 Potassium Channels Identified at Presynaptic Terminals of the Corticostriatal Synapses in Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Meneses

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the last years it has been increasingly clear that KV-channel activity modulates neurotransmitter release. The subcellular localization and composition of potassium channels are crucial to understanding its influence on neurotransmitter release. To investigate the role of KV in corticostriatal synapses modulation, we combined extracellular recording of population-spike and pharmacological blockage with specific and nonspecific blockers to identify several families of KV channels. We induced paired-pulse facilitation (PPF and studied the changes in paired-pulse ratio (PPR before and after the addition of specific KV blockers to determine whether particular KV subtypes were located pre- or postsynaptically. Initially, the presence of KV channels was tested by exposing brain slices to tetraethylammonium or 4-aminopyridine; in both cases we observed a decrease in PPR that was dose dependent. Further experiments with tityustoxin, margatoxin, hongotoxin, agitoxin, dendrotoxin, and BDS-I toxins all rendered a reduction in PPR. In contrast heteropodatoxin and phrixotoxin had no effect. Our results reveal that corticostriatal presynaptic KV channels have a complex stoichiometry, including heterologous combinations KV1.1, KV1.2, KV1.3, and KV1.6 isoforms, as well as KV3.4, but not KV4 channels. The variety of KV channels offers a wide spectrum of possibilities to regulate neurotransmitter release, providing fine-tuning mechanisms to modulate synaptic strength.

  10. KV1 and KV3 Potassium Channels Identified at Presynaptic Terminals of the Corticostriatal Synapses in Rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, David; Vega, Ana V; Torres-Cruz, Francisco Miguel; Barral, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    In the last years it has been increasingly clear that KV-channel activity modulates neurotransmitter release. The subcellular localization and composition of potassium channels are crucial to understanding its influence on neurotransmitter release. To investigate the role of KV in corticostriatal synapses modulation, we combined extracellular recording of population-spike and pharmacological blockage with specific and nonspecific blockers to identify several families of KV channels. We induced paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) and studied the changes in paired-pulse ratio (PPR) before and after the addition of specific KV blockers to determine whether particular KV subtypes were located pre- or postsynaptically. Initially, the presence of KV channels was tested by exposing brain slices to tetraethylammonium or 4-aminopyridine; in both cases we observed a decrease in PPR that was dose dependent. Further experiments with tityustoxin, margatoxin, hongotoxin, agitoxin, dendrotoxin, and BDS-I toxins all rendered a reduction in PPR. In contrast heteropodatoxin and phrixotoxin had no effect. Our results reveal that corticostriatal presynaptic KV channels have a complex stoichiometry, including heterologous combinations KV1.1, KV1.2, KV1.3, and KV1.6 isoforms, as well as KV3.4, but not KV4 channels. The variety of KV channels offers a wide spectrum of possibilities to regulate neurotransmitter release, providing fine-tuning mechanisms to modulate synaptic strength.

  11. Developmental mapping of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel expression in the rat nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gymnopoulos, Marco; Cingolani, Lorenzo A; Pedarzani, Paola; Stocker, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Early electrical activity and calcium influx regulate crucial aspects of neuronal development. Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels regulate action potential firing and shape calcium influx through feedback regulation in mature neurons. These functions, observed in the adult nervous system, make them ideal candidates to regulate activity- and calcium-dependent processes in neurodevelopment. However, to date little is known about the onset of expression and regions expressing SK channel subunits in the embryonic and postnatal development of the central nervous system (CNS). To allow studies on the contribution of SK channels to different phases of development of single neurons and networks, we have performed a detailed in situ hybridization mapping study, providing comprehensive distribution profiles of all three SK subunits (SK1, SK2, and SK3) in the rat CNS during embryonic and postnatal development. SK channel transcripts are expressed at early stages of prenatal CNS development. The three SK channel subunits display different developmental expression gradients in distinct CNS regions, with time points of expression and up- or downregulation that can be associated with a range of diverse developmental events. Their early expression in embryonic development suggests an involvement of SK channels in the regulation of developmental processes. Additionally, this study shows how the postnatal ontogenetic patterns lead to the adult expression map for each SK channel subunit and how their coexpression in the same regions or neurons varies throughout development.

  12. KV1 and KV3 Potassium Channels Identified at Presynaptic Terminals of the Corticostriatal Synapses in Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses, David; Vega, Ana V.; Torres-Cruz, Francisco Miguel; Barral, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    In the last years it has been increasingly clear that KV-channel activity modulates neurotransmitter release. The subcellular localization and composition of potassium channels are crucial to understanding its influence on neurotransmitter release. To investigate the role of KV in corticostriatal synapses modulation, we combined extracellular recording of population-spike and pharmacological blockage with specific and nonspecific blockers to identify several families of KV channels. We induced paired-pulse facilitation (PPF) and studied the changes in paired-pulse ratio (PPR) before and after the addition of specific KV blockers to determine whether particular KV subtypes were located pre- or postsynaptically. Initially, the presence of KV channels was tested by exposing brain slices to tetraethylammonium or 4-aminopyridine; in both cases we observed a decrease in PPR that was dose dependent. Further experiments with tityustoxin, margatoxin, hongotoxin, agitoxin, dendrotoxin, and BDS-I toxins all rendered a reduction in PPR. In contrast heteropodatoxin and phrixotoxin had no effect. Our results reveal that corticostriatal presynaptic KV channels have a complex stoichiometry, including heterologous combinations KV1.1, KV1.2, KV1.3, and KV1.6 isoforms, as well as KV3.4, but not KV4 channels. The variety of KV channels offers a wide spectrum of possibilities to regulate neurotransmitter release, providing fine-tuning mechanisms to modulate synaptic strength. PMID:27379187

  13. Antibodies against potassium channel interacting protein 2 induce necrosis in isolated rat cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Sangita; Schnell, Michael; Bühler, Thomas; Reinke, Yvonne; Lüdemann, Jan; Nießner, Felix; Brinkmeier, Heinrich; Herda, Lars R; Staudt, Alexander; Kroemer, Heyo K; Völker, Uwe; Felix, Stephan B; Landsberger, Martin

    2014-04-01

    Auto-antibodies against cardiac proteins have been described in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Antibodies against the C-terminal part of KChIP2 (anti-KChIP2 [C-12]) enhance cell death of rat cardiomyocytes. The underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Therefore, we wanted to explore the mechanisms responsible for anti-KChIP2-mediated cell death. Rat cardiomyocytes were treated with anti-KChIP2 (C-12). KChIP2 RNA and protein expressions, nuclear NF-κB, mitochondrial membrane potential Δψm, caspase-3 and -9 activities, necrotic and apoptotic cells, total Ca(2+) and K(+) concentrations, and the effects on L-type Ca(2+) channels were quantified. Anti-KChIP2 (C-12) induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Anti-KChIP2 (C-12)-treatment for 2 h significantly reduced KChIP2 mRNA and protein expression. Anti-KChIP2 (C-12) induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB after 1 h. After 6 h, Δψm and caspase-3 and -9 activities were not significantly changed. After 24 h, anti-KChIP2 (C-12)-treated cells were 75 ± 3% necrotic, 2 ± 1% apoptotic, and 13 ± 2% viable. Eighty-six ± 1% of experimental buffer-treated cells were viable. Anti-KChIP2 (C-12) induced significant increases in total Ca(2+) (plus 11 ± 2%) and K(+) (plus 18 ± 2%) concentrations after 5 min. Anti-KChIP2 (C-12) resulted in an increased Ca(2+) influx through L-type Ca(2+) channels. In conclusion, our results suggest that anti-KChIP2 (C-12) enhances cell death of rat cardiomyocytes probably due to necrosis.

  14. Modification of sodium and potassium channel kinetics by diethyl ether and studies on sodium channel inactivation in the crayfish giant axon membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bean, Bruce Palmer

    1979-01-01

    The effects of ether and halothane on membrane currents in the voltage clamped crayfish giant axon membrane were investigated. Concentrations of ether up to 300 mM and of halothane up to 32 mM had no effect on resting potential or leakage conductance. Ether and halothane reduced the size of sodium currents without changing the voltage dependence of the peak currents or their reversal potential. Ether and halothane also produced a reversible, dose-dependent speeding of sodium current decay at all membrane potentials. Ether reduced the time constants for inactivation, and also shifted the midpoint of the steady-state inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction. Potassium currents were smaller with ether present, with no change in the voltage dependence of steady-state currents. The activation of potassium channels was faster with ether present. There was no apparent change in the capacitance of the crayfish giant axon membrane with ether concentrations of up to 100 mM. Experiments on sodium channel inactivation kinetics were performed using 4-aminopyridine to block potassium currents. Sodium currents decayed with a time course generally fit well by a single exponential. The time constant of decay was a steep function of voltage, especially in the negative resistance region of the peak current vs voltage relation.The time course of inactivation was very similar to that of the decay of the current at the same potential. The measurement of steady-state inactivation curves with different test pulses showed no shifts along the voltage asix. The voltage-dependence of the integral of sodium conductance was measured to test models of sodium channel inactivation in which channels must open before inactivating; the results appear inconsistent with some of the simplest cases of such models.

  15. A novel mechanism for fine-tuning open-state stability in a voltage-gated potassium channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Niciforovic, Ana P; Galpin, Jason D

    2013-01-01

    fluorinated derivatives of aromatic residues previously implicated in the gating of Shaker potassium channels. Here we show that stepwise dispersion of the negative electrostatic surface potential of only one site, Phe481, stabilizes the channel open state. Furthermore, these data suggest that this apparent...... stabilization is the consequence of the amelioration of an inherently repulsive open-state interaction between the partial negative charge on the face of Phe481 and a highly co-evolved acidic side chain, Glu395, and this interaction is potentially modulated through the Tyr485 hydroxyl. We propose...... that the intrinsic open-state destabilization via aromatic repulsion represents a new mechanism by which ion channels, and likely other proteins, fine-tune conformational equilibria....

  16. [Isolation and purification of human blood plasma proteins able to form potassium channels in artificial bilayer lipid membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venediktova, N I; Kuznetsov, K V; Gritsenko, E N; Gulidova, G P; Mironova, G D

    2012-01-01

    Protein fraction able to induce K(+)-selective transport across bilayer lipid membrane was isolated from human blood plasma with the use of the detergent and proteolytic enzyme-free method developed at our laboratory. After addition of the studied sample to the artificial membrane in the presence of 100 mM KCl, a discrete current change was observed. No channel activity was recorded in the presence of calcium and sodium ions. Channel forming activity of fraction was observed only in the presence of K+. Using a threefold gradient of KCl in the presence of studied proteins the potassium-selective potential balanced by voltage of -29 mV was registered. This value is very close to the theoretical Nernst potential in this case. This means that the examined ion channel is cation-selective. According to data obtained with MS-MALDI-TOF/TOF and database NCBI three protein components were identified in isolated researched sample.

  17. Immunohistochemical investigation of voltage-gated potassium channel-interacting protein 1 in normal rat brain and Pentylenettrazole-induced seizures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao SU; Ai-Hua LUO; Wen-Dong CONG; Wei-Wen SUN; Wei-Yi DENG; Qi-Hua ZHAO; Zhuo-Hua ZHANG; Wei-Ping LIAO

    2006-01-01

    Objective To explore the possible role of voltage-gated potassium channel-interacting protein 1 (KChIP1) in the pathogenesis of epilepsy. Methods Sprague Dawley female adult rats were treated with pentylenettrazole (PTZ) to develop acute and chronic epilepsy models. The approximate coronal sections of normal and epilepsy rat brain were processed for immunohistochemistry. Double-labeling confocal microscopy was used to determine the coexistence of KChIP1 and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Results KChIP1 was expressed abundantly throughout adult rat brain.KChIP1 is highly co-localize with GABA transmitter in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. In the acute PTZ-induced convulsive rats, the number of KChIP1-postive cells was significantly increased especially in the regions of CA 1 and CA3 (P < 0.05); whereas the chronic PTZ-induced convulsive rats were found no changes. The number of GABA-labeled and co-labeled neurons in the hippocampus appeared to have no significant alteration responding to the epilepsy-genesis treatments. Conclusion KChIP1 might be involved in the PTZ-induced epileptogenesis process as a regulator to neuronal excitability through influencing the properties of potassium channels. KChIP1 is preferentially expressed in GABAergic neurons, but its changes did not couple with GABA in the epileptic models.

  18. Deletion of TRAAK potassium channel affects brain metabolism and protects against ischemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Laigle

    Full Text Available Cerebral stroke is a worldwide leading cause of disability. The two-pore domain K⁺ channels identified as background channels are involved in many functions in brain under physiological and pathological conditions. We addressed the hypothesis that TRAAK, a mechano-gated and lipid-sensitive two-pore domain K⁺ channel, is involved in the pathophysiology of brain ischemia. We studied the effects of TRAAK deletion on brain morphology and metabolism under physiological conditions, and during temporary focal cerebral ischemia in Traak⁻/⁻ mice using a combination of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI techniques and multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS methods. We provide the first in vivo evidence establishing a link between TRAAK and neurometabolism. Under physiological conditions, Traak⁻/⁻ mice showed a particular metabolic phenotype characterized by higher levels of taurine and myo-inositol than Traak⁺/⁺ mice. Upon ischemia, Traak⁻/⁻ mice had a smaller infarcted volume, with lower contribution of cellular edema than Traak⁺/⁺ mice. Moreover, brain microcirculation was less damaged, and brain metabolism and pH were preserved. Our results show that expression of TRAAK strongly influences tissue levels of organic osmolytes. Traak⁻/⁻ mice resilience to cellular edema under ischemia appears related to their physiologically high levels of myo-inositol and of taurine, an aminoacid involved in the modulation of mitochondrial activity and cell death. The beneficial effects of TRAAK deletion designate this channel as a promising pharmacological target for the treatment against stroke.

  19. Potassium physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thier, S O

    1986-04-25

    Potassium is the most abundant exchangeable cation in the body. It exists predominantly in the intracellular fluid at concentrations of 140 to 150 meq/liter and in the extracellular fluid at concentrations of 3.5 to 5 meq/liter. The maintenance of the serum potassium concentration is a complex bodily function and results from the balance between intake, excretion, and distribution between intracellular and extracellular space. Ingested potassium is virtually completely absorbed from and minimally excreted through the intestine under nonpathologic circumstances. Renal excretion of potassium, which is the major chronic protective mechanism against abnormalities in potassium balance, depends on filtration, reabsorption, and a highly regulated distal nephron secretory process. Factors regulating potassium secretion include prior potassium intake, intracellular potassium, delivery of sodium chloride and poorly reabsorbable anions to the distal nephron, the urine flow rate, hormones such as aldosterone and beta-catecholamines, and the integrity of the renal tubular cell. The maintenance of distribution between the inside and outside of cells depends on the integrity of the cell membrane and its pumps, osmolality, pH, and the hormones insulin, aldosterone, beta 2-catecholamines, alpha-catecholamines, and prostaglandins. Both distribution across cell membranes and/or renal excretion of potassium may be altered by pharmacologic agents such as diuretics, alpha- and beta-catechol antagonists and agonists, depolarizing agents, and digitalis. Problems with hypokalemia and hyperkalemia can be analyzed on the basis of potassium physiology and pharmacology; proper treatment depends on an accurate analysis.

  20. Specific and rapid effects of acoustic stimulation on the tonotopic distribution of Kv3.1b potassium channels in the adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strumbos, J G; Polley, D B; Kaczmarek, L K

    2010-05-19

    Recent studies have demonstrated that total cellular levels of voltage-gated potassium channel subunits can change on a time scale of minutes in acute slices and cultured neurons, raising the possibility that rapid changes in the abundance of channel proteins contribute to experience-dependent plasticity in vivo. In order to investigate this possibility, we took advantage of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) sound localization circuit, which contains neurons that precisely phase-lock their action potentials to rapid temporal fluctuations in the acoustic waveform. Previous work has demonstrated that the ability of these neurons to follow high-frequency stimuli depends critically upon whether they express adequate amounts of the potassium channel subunit Kv3.1. To test the hypothesis that net amounts of Kv3.1 protein would be rapidly upregulated when animals are exposed to sounds that require high frequency firing for accurate encoding, we briefly exposed adult rats to acoustic environments that varied according to carrier frequency and amplitude modulation (AM) rate. Using an antibody directed at the cytoplasmic C-terminus of Kv3.1b (the adult splice isoform of Kv3.1), we found that total cellular levels of Kv3.1b protein-as well as the tonotopic distribution of Kv3.1b-labeled cells-was significantly altered following 30 min of exposure to rapidly modulated (400 Hz) sounds relative to slowly modulated (0-40 Hz, 60 Hz) sounds. These results provide direct evidence that net amounts of Kv3.1b protein can change on a time scale of minutes in response to stimulus-driven synaptic activity, permitting auditory neurons to actively adapt their complement of ion channels to changes in the acoustic environment.

  1. Biophysical characterization of KV3.1 potassium channel activating compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taskin, Bahar; von Schoubye, Nadia Lybøl; Sheykhzade, Majid; Bastlund, Jesper Frank; Grunnet, Morten; Jespersen, Thomas

    2015-07-05

    The effect of two positive modulators, RE1 and EX15, on the voltage-gated K(+) channel Kv3.1 was investigated using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique on HEK293 cells expressing Kv3.1a. RE1 and EX15 increased the Kv3.1 currents in a concentration-dependent manner with an EC50 value of 4.5 and 1.3µM, respectively. However, high compound concentrations caused an inhibition of the Kv3.1 current. The compound-induced activation of Kv3.1 channels showed a profound hyperpolarized shift in activation kinetics. 30µM RE1 shifted V1/2 from 5.63±0.31mV to -9.71±1.00mV and 10µM EX15 induced a shift from 10.77±0.32mV to -15.11±1.57mV. The activation time constant (Tauact) was reduced for both RE1 and EX15, with RE1 being the fastest activator. The deactivation time constant (Taudeact) was also markedly reduced for both RE1 and EX15, with EX15 inducing the most prominent effect. Furthermore, subjected to depolarizing pulses at 30Hz, both compounds were showing a use-dependent effect resulting in a reduction of the compound-mediated effect. However, during these conditions, RE1- and EX15-modified current amplitudes still exceeded the control condition amplitudes by up to 200%. In summary, the present study introduces the first detailed biophysical characterization of two new Kv3.1 channel modifying compounds with different modulating properties.

  2. Control of voltage-gated potassium channel Kv2.2 expression by pyruvate-isocitrate cycling regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Mette V; Haldeman, Jonathan M; Zhang, Hengtao; Lu, Danhong; Huising, Mark O; Vale, Wylie W; Hohmeier, Hans E; Rosenberg, Paul; Newgard, Christopher B

    2013-08-09

    Recent studies have shown that the pyruvate-isocitrate cycling pathway, involving the mitochondrial citrate/isocitrate carrier and the cytosolic NADP-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDc), is involved in control of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Here we demonstrate that pyruvate-isocitrate cycling regulates expression of the voltage-gated potassium channel family member Kv2.2 in islet β-cells. siRNA-mediated suppression of ICDc, citrate/isocitrate carrier, or Kv2.2 expression impaired GSIS, and the effect of ICDc knockdown was rescued by re-expression of Kv2.2. Moreover, chronic exposure of β-cells to elevated fatty acids, which impairs GSIS, resulted in decreased expression of Kv2.2. Surprisingly, knockdown of ICDc or Kv2.2 increased rather than decreased outward K(+) current in the 832/13 β-cell line. Immunoprecipitation studies demonstrated interaction of Kv2.1 and Kv2.2, and co-overexpression of the two channels reduced outward K(+) current compared with overexpression of Kv2.1 alone. Also, siRNA-mediated knockdown of ICDc enhanced the suppressive effect of the Kv2.1-selective inhibitor stromatoxin1 on K(+) currents. Our data support a model in which a key function of the pyruvate-isocitrate cycle is to maintain levels of Kv2.2 expression sufficient to allow it to serve as a negative regulator of Kv channel activity.

  3. Anion-Channel Blockers Inhibit S-Type Anion Channels and Abscisic Acid Responses in Guard Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, A.; Ilan, N.; Schwarz, M.; Scheaffer, J.; Assmann, S. M.; Schroeder, J. I.

    1995-10-01

    The effects of anion-channel blockers on light-mediated stomatal opening, on the potassium dependence of stomatal opening, on stomatal responses to abscisic acid (ABA), and on current through slow anion channels in the plasma membrane of guard cells were investigated. The anion-channel blockers anthracene-9-carboxylic acid (9-AC) and niflumic acid blocked current through slow anion channels of Vicia faba L. guard cells. Both 9-AC and niflumic acid reversed ABA inhibition of stomatal opening in V. faba L. and Commelina communis L. The anion-channel blocker probenecid also abolished ABA inhibition of stomatal opening in both species. Additional tests of 9-AC effects on stomatal aperture in Commelina revealed that application of this anion-channel blocker allowed wide stomatal opening under low (1 mM) KCI conditions and increased the rate of stomatal opening under both low and high (100 mM) KCI conditions. These results indicate that anion channels can function as a negative regulator of stomatal opening, presumably by allowing anion efflux and depolarization, which prohibits ion up-take in guard cells. Furthermore, 9-AC prevented ABA induction of stomatal closure. A model in which ABA activation of anion channels contributes a rate-limiting mechanism during ABA-induced stomatal closure and inhibition of stomatal opening is discussed.

  4. The receptor-like pseudokinase MRH1 interacts with the voltage-gated potassium channel AKT2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklodowski, Kamil; Riedelsberger, Janin; Raddatz, Natalia; Riadi, Gonzalo; Caballero, Julio; Chérel, Isabelle; Schulze, Waltraud; Graf, Alexander; Dreyer, Ingo

    2017-03-01

    The potassium channel AKT2 plays important roles in phloem loading and unloading. It can operate as inward-rectifying channel that allows H+-ATPase-energized K+ uptake. Moreover, through reversible post-translational modifications it can also function as an open, K+-selective channel, which taps a ‘potassium battery’, providing additional energy for transmembrane transport processes. Knowledge about proteins involved in the regulation of the operational mode of AKT2 is very limited. Here, we employed a large-scale yeast two-hybrid screen in combination with fluorescence tagging and null-allele mutant phenotype analysis and identified the plasma membrane localized receptor-like kinase MRH1/MDIS2 (AT4G18640) as interaction partner of AKT2. The phenotype of the mrh1-1 knockout plant mirrors that of akt2 knockout plants in energy limiting conditions. Electrophysiological analyses showed that MRH1/MDIS2 failed to exert any functional regulation on AKT2. Using structural protein modeling approaches, we instead gathered evidence that the putative kinase domain of MRH1/MDIS2 lacks essential sites that are indispensable for a functional kinase suggesting that MRH1/MDIS2 is a pseudokinase. We propose that MRH1/MDIS2 and AKT2 are likely parts of a bigger protein complex. MRH1 might help to recruit other, so far unknown partners, which post-translationally regulate AKT2. Additionally, MRH1 might be involved in the recognition of chemical signals.

  5. Sevoflurane Preconditioning Reduces Intestinal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury: Role of Protein Kinase C and Mitochondrial ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuiliang Liu

    Full Text Available Ischemic preconditioning (IPC has been considered to be a potential therapy to reduce ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI since the 1980s. Our previous study indicated that sevoflurane preconditioning (SPC also reduced intestinal IRI in rats. However, whether the protective effect of SPC is similar to IPC and the mechanisms of SPC are unclear. Thus, we compared the efficacy of SPC and IPC against intestinal IRI and the role of protein kinase C (PKC and mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channel (mKATP in SPC. A rat model of intestinal IRI was used in this study. The superior mesenteric artery (SMA was clamped for 60 min followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Rats with IPC underwent three cycles of SMA occlusion for 5 min and reperfusion for 5 min before intestinal ischemia. Rats with SPC inhaled sevoflurane at 0.5 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC for 30 min before the intestinal ischemic insult. Additionally, the PKC inhibitor Chelerythrine (CHE or mKATP inhibitor 5-Hydroxydecanoic (5-HD was injected intraperitoneally before sevoflurane inhalation. Both SPC and IPC ameliorated intestinal IRI-induced histopathological changes, decreased Chiu's scores, reduced terminal deoxyribonucleotide transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL positive cells in the epithelium, and inhibited the expression of malondialdehyde (MDA and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α. These protective effects of SPC were similar to those of IPC. Pretreatment with PKC or mKATP inhibitor abolished SPC-induced protective effects by increasing Chiu's scores, down-regulated the expression of Bcl-2 and activated caspase-3. Our results suggest that pretreatment with 0.5 MAC sevoflurane is as effective as IPC against intestinal IRI. The activation of PKC and mKATP may be involved in the protective mechanisms of SPC.

  6. Extract from leaf of Psidium guajava L depresses the guinea pig atrial contractility by interfering with potassium and calcium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Nei Santana Gondim

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The negative inotropic effect of aqueous fraction (AqF obtained from the acetic extract of Psidium guajava L leaf was investigated on the guinea pig left atrium. Myocardial force was measured isometrically (27 ± 0.1 ºC, 2 Hz. AqF (100 μg/ml reduced contractility of about 85 ± 9.4 % (n = 4, p 0.05 sugesting that the oxide nitric pathway did not participate of the action mechanism of AqF. We can conclude that AqF depresses the atrial contractile by reducing the calcium entry in myocardial cells and also by openenig potassium channels of cardiac tissue.O efeito inotrópico da fração aquosa (AqF do extrato acético das folhas de Psidium guajava L. foi investigado em átrio esquerdo de cobaia. A força miocárdica foi medida isometricamente (27 ± 0,1 ºC; 2 Hz. A AqF (100 μg/mL reduziu a contratilidade em até 85 ± 9,4 % (n = 4; p 0,05, sugerindo que a via do óxido nítrico não participa do mecanismo de ação da AqF. Conclui-se que a AqF deprime a contratilidade atrial por reduzir a entrada de cálcio nas células miocárdicas e por abrir canais de potássio deste tecido.

  7. Fine-tuning of voltage sensitivity of the Kv1.2 potassium channel by interhelix loop dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sand, Rheanna; Sharmin, Nazlee; Morgan, Carla; Gallin, Warren J

    2013-04-01

    Many proteins function by changing conformation in response to ligand binding or changes in other factors in their environment. Any change in the sequence of a protein, for example during evolution, which alters the relative free energies of the different functional conformations changes the conditions under which the protein will function. Voltage-gated ion channels are membrane proteins that open and close an ion-selective pore in response to changes in transmembrane voltage. The charged S4 transmembrane helix transduces changes in transmembrane voltage into a change in protein internal energy by interacting with the rest of the channel protein through a combination of non-covalent interactions between adjacent helices and covalent interactions along the peptide backbone. However, the structural basis for the wide variation in the V50 value between different voltage-gated potassium channels is not well defined. To test the role of the loop linking the S3 helix and the S4 helix in voltage sensitivity, we have constructed a set of mutants of the rat Kv1.2 channel that vary solely in the length and composition of the extracellular loop that connects S4 to S3. We evaluated the effect of these different loop substitutions on the voltage sensitivity of the channel and compared these experimental results with molecular dynamics simulations of the loop structures. Here, we show that this loop has a significant role in setting the precise V50 of activation in Kv1 family channels.

  8. Dopamine midbrain neurons in health and Parkinson's disease: emerging roles of voltage-gated calcium channels and ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragicevic, E; Schiemann, J; Liss, B

    2015-01-22

    Dopamine (DA) releasing midbrain neurons are essential for multiple brain functions, such as voluntary movement, working memory, emotion and cognition. DA midbrain neurons within the substantia nigra (SN) and the ventral tegmental area (VTA) exhibit a variety of distinct axonal projections and cellular properties, and are differentially affected in diseases like schizophrenia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and Parkinson's disease (PD). Apart from having diverse functions in health and disease states, DA midbrain neurons display distinct electrical activity patterns, crucial for DA release. These activity patterns are generated and modulated by specific sets of ion channels. Recently, two ion channels have been identified, not only contributing to these activity patterns and to functional properties of DA midbrain neurons, but also seem to render SN DA neurons particularly vulnerable to degeneration in PD and its animal models: L-type calcium channels (LTCCs) and ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K-ATPs). In this review, we focus on the emerging physiological and pathophysiological roles of these two ion channels (and their complex interplay with other ion channels), particularly in highly vulnerable SN DA neurons, as selective degeneration of these neurons causes the major motor symptoms of PD.

  9. Ion channels regulating mast cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashmole, I; Bradding, P

    2013-05-01

    Mast cells play a central role in the pathophysiology of asthma and related allergic conditions. Mast cell activation leads to the degranulation of preformed mediators such as histamine and the secretion of newly synthesised proinflammatory mediators such as leukotrienes and cytokines. Excess release of these mediators contributes to allergic disease states. An influx of extracellular Ca2+ is essential for mast cell mediator release. From the Ca2+ channels that mediate this influx, to the K+ , Cl- and transient receptor potential channels that set the cell membrane potential and regulate Ca2+ influx, ion channels play a critical role in mast cell biology. In this review we provide an overview of our current knowledge of ion channel expression and function in mast cells with an emphasis on how channels interact to regulate Ca2+ signalling.

  10. Pharmacologic inhibition of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels by NS8593 reveals atrial antiarrhythmic potential in horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugaard, Maria Mathilde; Hesselkilde, Eva Zander; Pehrson, Steen Michael

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels have been found to play an important role in atrial repolarization and atrial fibrillation (AF). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the existence and functional role of SK channels in the equine heart...

  11. Reversible dementia: two nursing home patients with voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated limbic encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintjes, Wesley; Romijn, Marloes D M; Hollander, Daan; Ter Bruggen, Jan P; van Marum, Rob J

    2015-09-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channel antibody-associated limbic encephalitis (VGKC-LE) is a rare disease that is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge for medical practitioners. Two patients with VGKC-LE, both developing dementia are presented. Following treatment, both patients showed remarkable cognitive and functional improvement enabling them to leave the psychogeriatric nursing homes they both were admitted to. Patients with VGKC-LE can have a major cognitive and functional improvement even after a diagnostic delay of more than 1 year. Medical practitioners who treat patients with unexplained cognitive decline, epileptic seizures, or psychiatric symptoms should be aware of LE as an underlying rare cause.

  12. Spinocerebellar ataxia type 13 mutant potassium channel alters neuronal excitability and causes locomotor deficits in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Fadi A; Mazzochi, Christopher; Mock, Allan F; Papazian, Diane M

    2011-05-04

    Whether changes in neuronal excitability can cause neurodegenerative disease in the absence of other factors such as protein aggregation is unknown. Mutations in the Kv3.3 voltage-gated K(+) channel cause spinocerebellar ataxia type 13 (SCA13), a human autosomal-dominant disease characterized by locomotor impairment and the death of cerebellar neurons. Kv3.3 channels facilitate repetitive, high-frequency firing of action potentials, suggesting that pathogenesis in SCA13 is triggered by changes in electrical activity in neurons. To investigate whether SCA13 mutations alter excitability in vivo, we expressed the human dominant-negative R420H mutant subunit in zebrafish. The disease-causing mutation specifically suppressed the excitability of Kv3.3-expressing, fast-spiking motor neurons during evoked firing and fictive swimming and, in parallel, decreased the precision and amplitude of the startle response. The dominant-negative effect of the mutant subunit on K(+) current amplitude was directly responsible for the reduced excitability and locomotor phenotype. Our data provide strong evidence that changes in excitability initiate pathogenesis in SCA13 and establish zebrafish as an excellent model system for investigating how changes in neuronal activity impair locomotor control and cause cell death.

  13. Ion Channels in Leukocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-07-01

    muscle k142), heart muscle (80), bo- are released. In recent years much has been learned vine pulmonar arter endothelial cells (251), and rat about the...channel analysbib of Lt. Potassium permeability in HeLa cancer BioL Chem. 265: 142416-141263, 1990. cells. evidence for a calcium-a’tivated potassium

  14. Cell volume-regulated cation channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehner, Frank

    2006-01-01

    Considering the enormous turnover rates of ion channels when compared to carriers it is quite obvious that channel-mediated ion transport may serve as a rapid and efficient mechanism of cell volume regulation. Whenever studied in a quantitative fashion the hypertonic activation of non-selective cation channels is found to be the main mechanism of regulatory volume increase (RVI). Some channels are inhibited by amiloride (and may be related to the ENaC), others are blocked by Gd(3) and flufenamate (and possibly linked to the group of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels). Nevertheless, the actual architecture of hypertonicity-induced cation channels remains to be defined. In some preparations, hypertonic stress decreases K(+) channel activity so reducing the continuous K(+) leak out of the cell; this is equivalent to a net gain of cell osmolytes facilitating RVI. The hypotonic activation of K(+) selective channels appears to be one of the most common principles of regulatory volume decrease (RVD) and, in most instances, the actual channels involved could be identified on the molecular level. These are BKCa (or maxi K(+)) channels, IK(Ca) and SK(Ca) channels (of intermediate and small conductance, respectively), the group of voltage-gated (Kv) channels including their Beta (or Kv ancilliary) subunits, two-pore K(2P) channels, as well as inwardly rectifying K(+) (Kir) channels (also contributing to K(ATP) channels). In some cells, hypotonicity activates non-selective cation channels. This is surprising, at first sight, because of the inside negative membrane voltage and the sum of driving forces for Na(+) and K(+) diffusion across the cell membrane rather favouring net cation uptake. Some of these channels, however, exhibit a P(K)/P(Na) significantly higher than 1, whereas others are Ca(++) permeable linking hypotonic stress to the activation of Ca(++) dependent ion channels. In particular, the latter holds for the group of TRPs which are specialised in the

  15. Dental enamel cells express functional SOCE channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurbaeva, Meerim K; Eckstein, Miriam; Concepcion, Axel R; Smith, Charles E; Srikanth, Sonal; Paine, Michael L; Gwack, Yousang; Hubbard, Michael J; Feske, Stefan; Lacruz, Rodrigo S

    2015-10-30

    Dental enamel formation requires large quantities of Ca(2+) yet the mechanisms mediating Ca(2+) dynamics in enamel cells are unclear. Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) channels are important Ca(2+) influx mechanisms in many cells. SOCE involves release of Ca(2+) from intracellular pools followed by Ca(2+) entry. The best-characterized SOCE channels are the Ca(2+) release-activated Ca(2+) (CRAC) channels. As patients with mutations in the CRAC channel genes STIM1 and ORAI1 show abnormal enamel mineralization, we hypothesized that CRAC channels might be an important Ca(2+) uptake mechanism in enamel cells. Investigating primary murine enamel cells, we found that key components of CRAC channels (ORAI1, ORAI2, ORAI3, STIM1, STIM2) were expressed and most abundant during the maturation stage of enamel development. Furthermore, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) but not ryanodine receptor (RyR) expression was high in enamel cells suggesting that IP3Rs are the main ER Ca(2+) release mechanism. Passive depletion of ER Ca(2+) stores with thapsigargin resulted in a significant raise in [Ca(2+)]i consistent with SOCE. In cells pre-treated with the CRAC channel blocker Synta-66 Ca(2+) entry was significantly inhibited. These data demonstrate that enamel cells have SOCE mediated by CRAC channels and implicate them as a mechanism for Ca(2+) uptake in enamel formation.

  16. Exercise-induced expression of cardiac ATP-sensitive potassium channels promotes action potential shortening and energy conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingman, Leonid V.; Zhu, Zhiyong; Sierra, Ana; Stepniak, Elizabeth; Burnett, Colin M-L.; Maksymov, Gennadiy; Anderson, Mark E.; Coetzee, William A.; Hodgson-Zingman, Denice M.

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity is one of the most important determinants of cardiac function. The ability of the heart to increase delivery of oxygen and metabolic fuels relies on an array of adaptive responses necessary to match bodily demand while avoiding exhaustion of cardiac resources. The ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel has the unique ability to adjust cardiac membrane excitability in accordance with ATP and ADP levels, and up-regulation of its expression that occurs in response to exercise could represent a critical element of this adaption. However, the mechanism by which KATP channel expression changes result in a beneficial effect on cardiac excitability and function remains to be established. Here, we demonstrate that an exercise-induced rise in KATP channel expression enhanced the rate and magnitude of action potential shortening in response to heart rate acceleration. This adaptation in membrane excitability promoted significant reduction in cardiac energy consumption under escalating workloads. Genetic disruption of normal KATP channel pore function abolished the exercise-related changes in action potential duration adjustment and caused increased cardiac energy consumption. Thus, an expression-driven enhancement in the KATP channel-dependent membrane response to alterations in cardiac workload represents a previously unrecognized mechanism for adaptation to physical activity and a potential target for cardioprotection. PMID:21439969

  17. Hypoxia-induced 15-HETE enhances the constriction of internal carotid arteries by down-regulating potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanmei; Chen, Li; Liu, Wenjuan; Wang, Weizhi; Zhu, Daling; Zhu, Yulan

    2010-08-15

    Severe hypoxia induces the constriction of internal carotid arteries (ICA), which worsens ischemic stroke in the brain. A few metabolites are presumably involved in hypoxic vasoconstriction, however, less is known about how such molecules provoke this vasoconstriction. We have investigated the influence of 15-hydroxyeicosatetrienoic acid (15-HETE) produced by 15-lipoxygenase (15-LOX) on vasoconstriction during hypoxia. As showed in our results, 15-LOX level increases in ICA endothelia and smooth muscles. 15-HETE enhances the tension of ICA ring in a dose-dependent manner, as well as attenuates the activities and expression of voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv 1.5 and Kv 2.1). Therefore, the down-regulation of Kv channels by 15-HETE during hypoxia may weaken the repolarization of action potentials and causes a dominant influx of calcium ions to enhance smooth muscle tension and ICA constriction.

  18. Nicotine inhibits potassium currents in Aplysia bag cell neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sean H; Sturgeon, Raymond M; Magoski, Neil S

    2016-06-01

    Acetylcholine and the archetypal cholinergic agonist, nicotine, are typically associated with the opening of ionotropic receptors. In the bag cell neurons, which govern the reproductive behavior of the marine snail, Aplysia californica, there are two cholinergic responses: a relatively large acetylcholine-induced current and a relatively small nicotine-induced current. Both currents are readily apparent at resting membrane potential and result from the opening of distinct ionotropic receptors. We now report a separate current response elicited by applying nicotine to cultured bag cell neurons under whole cell voltage-clamp. This current was ostensibly inward, best resolved at depolarized voltages, presented a noncooperative dose-response with a half-maximal concentration near 1.5 mM, and associated with a decrease in membrane conductance. The unique nicotine-evoked response was not altered by intracellular perfusion with the G protein blocker GDPβS or exposure to classical nicotinic antagonists but was occluded by replacing intracellular K(+) with Cs(+) Consistent with an underlying mechanism of direct inhibition of one or more K(+) channels, nicotine was found to rapidly reduce the fast-inactivating A-type K(+) current as well as both components of the delayed-rectifier K(+) current. Finally, nicotine increased bag cell neuron excitability, which manifested as reduction in spike threshold, greater action potential height and width, and markedly more spiking to continuous depolarizing current injection. In contrast to conventional transient activation of nicotinic ionotropic receptors, block of K(+) channels could represent a nonstandard means for nicotine to profoundly alter the electrical properties of neurons over prolonged periods of time.

  19. Reduced KCNQ4-encoded voltage-dependent potassium channel activity underlies impaired β-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation of renal arteries in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadha, Preet S; Zunke, Friederike; Zhu, Hai-Lei; Davis, Alison J; Jepps, Thomas A; Olesen, Søren P; Cole, William C; Moffatt, James D; Greenwood, Iain A

    2012-04-01

    KCNQ4-encoded voltage-dependent potassium (Kv7.4) channels are important regulators of vascular tone that are severely compromised in models of hypertension. However, there is no information as to the role of these channels in responses to endogenous vasodilators. We used a molecular knockdown strategy, as well as pharmacological tools, to examine the hypothesis that Kv7.4 channels contribute to β-adrenoceptor-mediated vasodilation in the renal vasculature and underlie the vascular deficit in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry confirmed gene and protein expression of KCNQ1, KCNQ3, KCNQ4, KCNQ5, and Kv7.1, Kv7.4, and Kv7.5 in rat renal artery. Isoproterenol produced concentration-dependent relaxation of precontracted renal arteries and increased Kv7 channel currents in isolated smooth muscle cells. Application of the Kv7 blocker linopirdine attenuated isoproterenol-induced relaxation and current. Isoproterenol-induced relaxations were also reduced in arteries incubated with small interference RNAs targeted to KCNQ4 that produced a ≈60% decrease in Kv7.4 protein level. Relaxation to isoproterenol and the Kv7 activator S-1 were abolished in arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats, which was associated with ≈60% decrease in Kv7.4 abundance. This study provides the first evidence that Kv7 channels contribute to β-adrenoceptor-mediated vasodilation in the renal vasculature and that abrogation of Kv7.4 channels is strongly implicated in the impaired β-adrenoceptor pathway in spontaneously hypertensive rats. These findings may provide a novel pathogenic link between arterial dysfunction and hypertension.

  20. Whole-cell recordings of voltage-gated Calcium, Potassium and Sodium currents in acutely isolated hippocampal pyramidal neurons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuyun Huang; Qing Cai; Weitian Liu; Xiaoling Wang; Tao Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To record Calcium, Potassium and Sodium currents in acutely isolated hippocampal pyramidal neurons. Methods:Hip-pocampal CA3 neurons were freshly isolated by 1 mg protease/3 ml SES and mechanical trituration with polished pipettes of progressively smaller tip diameters. Patch clamp technique in whole-cell mode was employed to record voltage-gated channel currents. Results:The procedure dissociated hippocampal neurons, preserving apical dendrites and several basal dendrites, without impairing the electrical characteristics of the neurons. Whole-cell patch clamp configuration was successfully used to record voltage-gated Ca2+ currents, delayed rectifier K+ current and voltage-gated Na+ currents. Conclusion:Protease combined with mechanical trituration may be used for the dissociation of neurons from rat hippocampus. Voltage-gated channels currents could be recorded using a patch clamp technique.

  1. Quantitative analysis of neurons with Kv3 potassium channel subunits, Kv3.1b and Kv3.2, in macaque primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinople, Christine M; Disney, Anita A; Maffie, Jonathan; Rudy, Bernardo; Hawken, Michael J

    2009-10-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels that are composed of Kv3 subunits exhibit distinct electrophysiological properties: activation at more depolarized potentials than other voltage-gated K+ channels and fast kinetics. These channels have been shown to contribute to the high-frequency firing of fast-spiking (FS) GABAergic interneurons in the rat and mouse brain. In the rodent neocortex there are distinct patterns of expression for the Kv3.1b and Kv3.2 channel subunits and of coexpression of these subunits with neurochemical markers, such as the calcium-binding proteins parvalbumin (PV) and calbindin D-28K (CB). The distribution of Kv3 channels and interrelationship with calcium-binding protein expression has not been investigated in primate cortex. We used immunoperoxidase and immunofluorescent labeling and stereological counting techniques to characterize the laminar and cell-type distributions of Kv3-immunoreactive (ir) neurons in macaque V1. We found that across the cortical layers approximately 25% of both Kv3.1b- and Kv3.2-ir neurons are non-GABAergic. In contrast, all Kv3-ir neurons in rodent cortex are GABAergic (Chow et al. [1999] J Neurosci. 19:9332-9345). The putatively excitatory Kv3-ir neurons were mostly located in layers 2, 3, and 4b. Further, the proportion of Kv3-ir neurons that express PV or CB also differs between macaque V1 and rodent cortex. These data indicate that, within the population of cortical neurons, a broader population of neurons, encompassing cells of a wider range of morphological classes may be capable of sustaining high-frequency firing in macaque V1.

  2. Excessive blinking and ataxia in a child with occult neuroblastoma and voltage-gated potassium channel antibodies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Allen, Nicholas M

    2012-05-01

    A previously healthy 9-year-old girl presented with a 10-day history of slowly progressive unsteadiness, slurred speech, and behavior change. On examination there was cerebellar ataxia and dysarthria, excessive blinking, subtle perioral myoclonus, and labile mood. The finding of oligoclonal bands in the cerebrospinal fluid prompted paraneoplastic serological evaluation and search for an occult neural crest tumor. Antineuronal nuclear autoantibody type 1 (anti-Hu) and voltage-gated potassium channel complex antibodies were detected in serum. Metaiodobenzylguanidine scan and computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a localized abdominal mass in the region of the porta hepatis. A diagnosis of occult neuroblastoma was made. Resection of the stage 1 neuroblastoma and treatment with pulsed corticosteroids resulted in resolution of all symptoms and signs. Excessive blinking has rarely been described with neuroblastoma, and, when it is not an isolated finding, it may be a useful clue to this paraneoplastic syndrome. Although voltage-gated potassium channel complex autoimmunity has not been described previously in the setting of neuroblastoma, it is associated with a spectrum of paraneoplastic neurologic manifestations in adults, including peripheral nerve hyperexcitability disorders.

  3. Activation of calcium-dependent potassium channels in rat brain neurons by neurotrophin-3 and nerve growth factor

    OpenAIRE

    Holm, Ninna R.; Christophersen, Palle; Olesen, Søren P.; Gammeltoft, Steen

    1997-01-01

    The neurotrophins are signaling factors that are essential for survival and differentiation of distinct neuronal populations during the development and regeneration of the nervous system. The long-term effects of neurotrophins have been studied in detail, but little is known about their acute effects on neuronal activity. Here we use permeabilized whole-cell patch clamp to demonstrate that neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) and nerve growth factor activate calcium-dependent, paxilline-sensitive potassium ...

  4. Evidence for intersubunit interactions between S4 and S5 transmembrane segments of the Shaker potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Edward J; Elliott, David J S; Hunter, Malcolm; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu

    2003-08-01

    Voltage-gated potassium channels are transmembrane proteins made up of four subunits, each comprising six transmembrane (S1-S6) segments. S1-S4 form the voltage-sensing domain and S5-S6 the pore domain with its central pore. The sensor domain detects membrane depolarization and transmits the signal to the activation gates situated in the pore domain, thereby leading to channel opening. An understanding of the mechanism by which the sensor communicates the signal to the pore requires knowledge of the structure of the interface between the voltage-sensing and pore domains. Toward this end, we have introduced single cysteine mutations into the extracellular end of S4 (positions 356 and 357) in conjunction with a cysteine in S5 (position 418) of the Shaker channel and expressed the mutants in Xenopus oocytes. We then examined the propensity of each pair of engineered cysteines to form a metal bridge or a disulfide bridge, respectively, by examining the effect of Cd2+ ions and copper phenanthroline on the K+ conductance of a whole oocyte. Both reagents reduced currents through the S357C,E418C double mutant channel, presumably by restricting the movements necessary for coupling the voltage-sensing function to pore opening. This inhibitory effect was seen in the closed state of the channel and with heteromers composed of S357C and E418C single mutant subunits; no effect was seen with homomers of any of the single mutant channels. These data indicate that the extracellular end of S4 lies in close proximity to the extracellular end of the S5 of the neighboring subunit in closed channels.

  5. The selectivity of different external binding sites for quaternary ammonium ions in cloned potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarolimek, W; Soman, K V; Brown, A M; Alam, M

    1995-09-01

    Tetraethylammonium (TEA) is thought to be the most effective quaternary ammonium (QA) ion blocker at the external site of K+ channels, and small changes to the TEA ion reduce its potency. To examine the properties of the external QA receptor, we applied a variety of QA ions to excised patches from human embryonic kidney cells or Xenopus oocytes transfected with the delayed rectifying K+ channels Kv 2.1 and Kv 3.1. In outside-out patches of Kv 3.1, the relative potencies were TEA > tetrapropylammonium (TPA) > tetrabutylammonium (TBA). In contrast to Kv 3.1, the relative potencies in Kv 2.1 were TBA > TEA > TPA. In Kv 3.1 and Kv 2.1, external tetrapentylammonium (TPeA) blocked K+ currents in a fast, reversible and, in contrast to TEA, time-dependent manner. The external binding of TPeA appeared to be voltage independent, unlike the effects of TPeA applied to inside-out patches. External n-alkyl-triethylammonium compounds (C8, C10 chain length) had a lower affinity than TEA in Kv 3.1, but a higher affinity than TEA in Kv 2.1. In Kv 3.1, the decrease in QA affinity was large when one or two methyl groups were substituted for ethyl groups in TEA, but minor when propyl groups replaced ethyl groups. Changes in the free energy of binding could be correlated to changes in the free energy of hydration of TEA derivatives calculated by continuum methodology. These results reveal a substantial hydrophobic component of external QA ion binding to Kv 2.1, and to a lesser degree to Kv 3.1, in addition to the generally accepted electrostatic interactions. The chain length of hydrophobic TEA derivatives affects the affinity for the hydrophobic binding site, whereas the hydropathy of QA ions determines the electrostatic interaction energy.

  6. Localization of large conductance calcium-activated potassium channels and their effect on calcitonin gene-related peptide release in the rat trigemino-neuronal pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulf-Johansson, H.; Amrutkar, D.V.; Hay-Schmidt, Anders;

    2010-01-01

    pathophysiology. Here we study the expression and localization of BK(Ca) channels and CGRP in the rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) and the trigeminal nucleus caudalis (TNC) as these structures are involved in migraine pain. Also the effect of the BK(Ca) channel blocker iberiotoxin and the BK(Ca) channel opener NS......Large conductance calcium-activated potassium (BK(Ca)) channels are membrane proteins contributing to electrical propagation through neurons. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a neuropeptide found in the trigeminovascular system (TGVS). Both BK(Ca) channels and CGRP are involved in migraine...

  7. Update on the implication of potassium channels in autism: K+ channelautism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca eGuglielmi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs are characterized by impaired ability to properly implement environmental stimuli that are essential to achieve a state of social and cultural exchange. Indeed, the main features of ASD are impairments of interpersonal relationships, verbal and non-verbal communication and restricted and repetitive behaviors. These aspects are often accompanied by several comorbidities such as motor delay, praxis impairment, gait abnormalities, insomnia and above all epilepsy. Genetic analyses of autistic individuals uncovered deleterious mutations in several K+ channel types strengthening the notion that their intrinsic dysfunction may play a central etiologic role in ASD. However, indirect implication of K+ channels in ASD has been also reported. For instance, loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP results in K+ channels deregulation, network dysfunction and ASD-like cognitive and behavioral symptoms. Therefore, this review provides an update on direct and indirect implications of K+ channels in ASDs. Owing to a mounting body of evidence associating a channelopathy pathogenesis to autism and that nearly 500 ion channel proteins are encoded by the human genome, we also propose to classify ASDs − whose susceptibility is significantly enhanced by ion channels defects, either in a monogenic or multigenic condition − in a new category named channelAutism Spectrum Disorder (channelASD; cASD and introduce a new taxonomy (e.g.: Kvx.y-channelASD and likewise Navx.y-channelASD, Cavx.y-channelASD; etc.. This review also highlights some degree of clinical and genetic overlap between K+ channelASDs and K+ channelepsies, whereby such correlation suggests that a subcategory characterized by a channelASD-channelepsy phenotype may be distinguished. Ultimately, this overview aims to further understand the different clinical subgroups and help parse out the distinct biological basis of autism that are essential to establish patient

  8. Dynamic expression of genes encoding subunits of inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhongxia; Statler, Bethanie-Michelle; Calkins, Travis L; Alfaro, Edna; Esquivel, Carlos J; Rouhier, Matthew F; Denton, Jerod S; Piermarini, Peter M

    2017-02-01

    Inward rectifier potassium (Kir) channels play fundamental roles in neuromuscular, epithelial, and endocrine function in mammals. Recent research in insects suggests that Kir channels play critical roles in the development, immune function, and excretory physiology of fruit flies and/or mosquitoes. Moreover, our group has demonstrated that mosquito Kir channels may serve as valuable targets for the development of novel insecticides. Here we characterize the molecular expression of 5 mRNAs encoding Kir channel subunits in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti: Kir1, Kir2A-c, Kir2B, Kir2B', and Kir3. We demonstrate that 1) Kir mRNA expression is dynamic in whole mosquitoes, Malpighian tubules, and the midgut during development from 4th instar larvae to adult females, 2) Kir2B and Kir3 mRNA levels are reduced in 4th instar larvae when reared in water containing an elevated concentration (50mM) of KCl, but not NaCl, and 3) Kir mRNAs are differentially expressed in the Malpighian tubules, midgut, and ovaries within 24h after blood feeding. Furthermore, we provide the first characterization of Kir mRNA expression in the anal papillae of 4th instar larval mosquitoes, which indicates that Kir2A-c is the most abundant. Altogether, the data provide the first comprehensive characterization of Kir mRNA expression in Ae. aegypti and offer insights into the putative physiological roles of Kir subunits in this important disease vector.

  9. Effect of Gαq/11 Protein and ATP-sensitive Potassium Channels on Ischemic Preconditioning in Rat Hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effect of Gαq/11 signaling pathway and ATP-sensitive potassium channel ( KATP channel ) on ischemic preconditioning (IPC) protection in rat hearts.Methods Two series of experiments were performed in Wistar rat hearts. In the first series of experiment,ischemic preconditioning was induced by left anterior descending occlusion (three, 5 min episodes separated by 5 min of reperfusion), ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced by 30 min coronary artery occlusion followed by 90 min reperfusion. Hemodynamics,infarct size and scores of ventricular arrhythmias were measured. The expression of Gαq/11 protein in the heart was measured by Western blot analysis in the second series. Results Ischemic preconditioning rats showed decreased infarct size and scores of ventricular arrhythmia vs non-IP control rats. The effect of IPC was significantly attenuated by glibenclamide (1 mg/kg, ip), a nonselective KATP channel inhibitor. IPC caused a significant increase in the expression of Gαq/11 protein. Conclusions Activations of Gαq/11 signal pathway and KATP channel played significant roles in the classical cardioprotection of ischemic preconditioning rat heart and might be an important mechanism of signal transduction pathway during the ischemic preconditioning.

  10. Mouth breathing increases the pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure threshold in mice: a role for ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaki, Seyed Esfandiar Akhavan; Shafaroodi, Hamed; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Shakiba, Bijan; Fakhimi, Ali; Dehpour, Ahamd Reza

    2008-08-01

    Nasal obstruction and consequent mouth breathing have been shown to change the acid-base balance, producing respiratory acidosis. Additionally, there exists a large body of evidence maintaining that acidosis affects the activity of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels, which play a crucial role in the function of the central nervous system (CNS), for example, in modulating seizure threshold. Thus, in the study described here, we examined whether mouth breathing, induced by surgical ligation of nostrils, could affect the seizure threshold induced by pentylenetetrazole in male NMRI mice. Using the selective K(ATP) channel opener (diazoxide) and blocker (glibenclamide), we also evaluated the possible role of K(ATP) channels in this process. Our data revealed that seizure threshold was increased 6 to 72 hours after nasal obstruction, reaching a peak 48 hours afterward, compared with either control or sham-operated mice (Pmouth breathing, which could result in respiratory acidosis, increases seizure threshold in mice and K(ATP) channels may play a role in this effect.

  11. Amyloid-β induces synaptic dysfunction through G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium channels in the fimbria-CA3 hippocampal synapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio O. Nava-Mesa

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Last evidences suggest that, in Alzheimer's disease (AD early stage, Amyloid-β (Aβ peptide induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission systems resulting in the functional impairment of neural networks. Such alterations are particularly important in the septohippocampal system where learning and memory processes take place depending on accurate oscillatory activity tuned at fimbria-CA3 synapse. Here, the acute effects of Aβ on CA3 pyramidal neurons and their synaptic activation from septal part of the fimbria were studied in rats. A triphasic postsynaptic response defined by an excitatory potential (EPSP followed by both early and late inhibitory potentials (IPSP was evoked. The EPSP was glutamatergic acting on ionotropic receptors. The early IPSP was blocked by GABAA antagonists whereas the late IPSP was removed by GABAB antagonists. Aβ perfusion induced recorded cells to depolarize, increase their input resistance and decrease the late IPSP. Aβ action mechanism was localized at postsynaptic level and most likely linked to GABAB-related ion channels conductance decrease. In addition, it was found that the specific pharmacological modulation of the GABAB receptor effector, G-protein-coupled inward rectifier potassium (GirK channels, mimicked all Aβ effects previously described. Thus, our findings suggest that Aβ altering GirK channels conductance in CA3 pyramidal neurons might have a key role in the septohippocampal activity dysfunction observed in AD.

  12. Phycodnavirus potassium ion channel proteins question the virus molecular piracy hypothesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Hamacher

    Full Text Available Phycodnaviruses are large dsDNA, algal-infecting viruses that encode many genes with homologs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Among the viral gene products are the smallest proteins known to form functional K(+ channels. To determine if these viral K(+ channels are the product of molecular piracy from their hosts, we compared the sequences of the K(+ channel pore modules from seven phycodnaviruses to the K(+ channels from Chlorella variabilis and Ectocarpus siliculosus, whose genomes have recently been sequenced. C. variabilis is the host for two of the viruses PBCV-1 and NY-2A and E. siliculosus is the host for the virus EsV-1. Systematic phylogenetic analyses consistently indicate that the viral K(+ channels are not related to any lineage of the host channel homologs and that they are more closely related to each other than to their host homologs. A consensus sequence of the viral channels resembles a protein of unknown function from a proteobacterium. However, the bacterial protein lacks the consensus motif of all K(+ channels and it does not form a functional channel in yeast, suggesting that the viral channels did not come from a proteobacterium. Collectively, our results indicate that the viruses did not acquire their K(+ channel-encoding genes from their current algal hosts by gene transfer; thus alternative explanations are required. One possibility is that the viral genes arose from ancient organisms, which served as their hosts before the viruses developed their current host specificity. Alternatively the viral proteins could be the origin of K(+ channels in algae and perhaps even all cellular organisms.

  13. Phycodnavirus potassium ion channel proteins question the virus molecular piracy hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamacher, Kay; Greiner, Timo; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Van Etten, James L; Gebhardt, Manuela; Villarreal, Luis P; Cosentino, Cristian; Moroni, Anna; Thiel, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Phycodnaviruses are large dsDNA, algal-infecting viruses that encode many genes with homologs in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Among the viral gene products are the smallest proteins known to form functional K(+) channels. To determine if these viral K(+) channels are the product of molecular piracy from their hosts, we compared the sequences of the K(+) channel pore modules from seven phycodnaviruses to the K(+) channels from Chlorella variabilis and Ectocarpus siliculosus, whose genomes have recently been sequenced. C. variabilis is the host for two of the viruses PBCV-1 and NY-2A and E. siliculosus is the host for the virus EsV-1. Systematic phylogenetic analyses consistently indicate that the viral K(+) channels are not related to any lineage of the host channel homologs and that they are more closely related to each other than to their host homologs. A consensus sequence of the viral channels resembles a protein of unknown function from a proteobacterium. However, the bacterial protein lacks the consensus motif of all K(+) channels and it does not form a functional channel in yeast, suggesting that the viral channels did not come from a proteobacterium. Collectively, our results indicate that the viruses did not acquire their K(+) channel-encoding genes from their current algal hosts by gene transfer; thus alternative explanations are required. One possibility is that the viral genes arose from ancient organisms, which served as their hosts before the viruses developed their current host specificity. Alternatively the viral proteins could be the origin of K(+) channels in algae and perhaps even all cellular organisms.

  14. Surface-enhanced IR absorption spectroscopy of the KcsA potassium channel upon application of an electric field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamakata, Akira; Shimizu, Hirofumi; Oiki, Shigetoshi

    2015-09-01

    Surface-enhanced IR absorption spectroscopy (SEIRAS) is a powerful tool for studying the structure of molecules adsorbed on an electrode surface (ATR-SEIRA). Coupled with an electrochemical system, structural changes induced by changes in the electric field can be detected. All the membrane proteins are subjected to the effect of membrane electric field, but conformational changes at different membrane potentials and their functional relevance have not been studied extensively except for channel proteins. In this contribution, background information of potential-dependent functional and structural changes of a prototypical channel, the KcsA channel, is summarized, and SEIRAS applied to the KcsA channel under the application of the potential is shown. The potassium channels allow K(+) to permeate selectively through the structural part called the selectivity filter, in which dehydrated K(+) ions interact with backbone carbonyls. In the absence of K(+), the selectivity filter undergoes conformational changes to the non-conductive collapsed conformation. To apply the electric field, the KcsA channels were fixed on the gold surface in either upside or reverse orientation. The SEIRA spectrum in K(+) or Na(+) solution revealed both backbone structural changes and local changes in the OCO-carboxylate groups. Upon application of the negative electric field, the spectrum of OCO was enhanced only in the K(+) solution. These results indicate that the negative electric field accumulates local K(+) concentration, which turned the collapsed filter to the conductive conformation. ATR-SEIRA serves as an unprecedented experimental system for examining membrane proteins under an electric field.

  15. Activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels delays ischemia-induced cellular uncoupling in rat heart

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-liangSHEN; Ying-yingCHEN; Xun-dongWU; IainCBRUCE; QiangXIA

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To test the hypothesis that cellular uncoupling induced by myocardial ischemia is mediated by activation of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels (mitoKATP). METHODS: Rat hearts were perfused on a Langendorff apparatus and subjected to 40-min ischemia followed by 30-min reperfusion (I/R). Changes in cellular coupling were monitored by measuring whole-tissue resistance. RESULTS: (1) In hearts subjected to I/R, the onset of uncoupling started at (13.3± 1.0) min of ischemia; (2) Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) delayed the onset of uncoupling until (22.7±1.3) min. Blocking mitoKATP channels with 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD) before the IPC abolishedthe uncoupling delay [(12.6±1.6)min]; (3) Calcium preconditioning (CPC) had the same effect as IPC. And this effect was reversed by blocking the mitoKATP channel again. In the CPC group the onset of uncoupling occurred after (20.6±1.3) min, and this was canceled by 5-HD [(13.6±0.8) min]; (4) In hearts pretreated with the specific mitoKATP channel opener diazoxide before sustained ischemia, the onset was delayed to (18.4±1.4) min; (5) 5-HD canceled the protective effects of diazoxide (12.6±1.0) min; and both the L-type Ca2+ channel inhibitor verapamiland the free radical scavenger N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)glycine, reduced the extended onset time induced by diazoxide[to (13.3±1.8) min and (13.4±2.1) min, respectively]. CONCLUSION: IPC and CPC delay the onset of cellular uncoupling induced by acute ischemia in rat heart, and the underlying mechanism involves activation of the mitoKATP channels.

  16. Role of hydrophobic and ionic forces in the movement of S4 of the Shaker potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David J S; Neale, Edward J; Munsey, Tim S; Bannister, John P; Sivaprasadarao, Asipu

    2012-12-01

    Voltage-gated ion (K(+), Na(+), Ca(2+)) channels contain a pore domain (PD) surrounded by four voltage sensing domains (VSD). Each VSD is made up of four transmembrane helices, S1-S4. S4 contains 6-7 positively charged residues (arginine/lysine) separated two hydrophobic residues, whereas S1-S3 contribute to two negatively charged clusters. These structures are conserved among all members of the voltage-gated ion channel family and play essential roles in voltage gating. The role of S4 charged residues in voltage gating is well established: During depolarization, they move out of the membrane electric field, exerting a mechanical force on channel gates, causing them to open. However, the role of the intervening hydrophobic residues in voltage sensing is unclear. Here we studied the role of these residues in the prototypical Shaker potassium channel. We have altered the physicochemical properties of both charged and hydrophobic positions of S4 and examined the effect of these modifications on the gating properties of the channel. For this, we have introduced cysteines at each of these positions, expressed the mutants in Xenopus oocytes, and examined the effect of in situ addition of charge, via Cd(2+), on channel gating by two-electrode voltage clamp. Our results reveal a face of the S4 helix (comprising residues L358, L361, R365 and R368) where introduction of charge at hydrophobic positions destabilises the closed state and removal of charges from charged positions has an opposite effect. We propose that hydrophobic residues play a crucial role in limiting gating to a physiological voltage range.

  17. A Novel Modulator of Kv3 Potassium Channels Regulates the Firing of Parvalbumin-Positive Cortical Interneurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosato-Siri, Marcelo D; Zambello, Erika; Mutinelli, Chiara; Garbati, Nicoletta; Benedetti, Roberto; Aldegheri, Laura; Graziani, Francesca; Virginio, Caterina; Alvaro, Giuseppe; Large, Charles H

    2015-09-01

    Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 high voltage-activated potassium channels, which display fast activation and deactivation kinetics, are known to make a crucial contribution to the fast-spiking phenotype of certain neurons. Pharmacological experiments show that the blockade of native Kv3 currents with low concentrations of tetraethylammonium or 4-aminopyridine impairs the expression of this firing phenotype. In particular, Kv3 channels are highly expressed by fast-spiking, parvalbumin-positive interneurons in corticolimbic brain circuits, which modulate the synchronization of cortical circuits and the generation of brain rhythms. Here, we describe a novel small molecule, (5R)-5-ethyl-3-(6-{[4-methyl-3-(methyloxy)phenyl]oxy}-3-pyridinyl)-2,4-imidazolidinedione (AUT1), which modulates Kv3.1 and Kv3.2 channels in human recombinant and rodent native neurons. AUT1 increased whole currents mediated by human Kv3.1b and Kv3.2a channels, with a concomitant leftward shift in the voltage dependence of activation. A less potent effect was observed on hKv3.3 currents. In mouse somatosensory cortex slices in vitro, AUT1 rescued the fast-spiking phenotype of parvalbumin-positive-fast-spiking interneurons following an impairment of their firing capacity by blocking a proportion of Kv3 channels with a low concentration of tetraethylammonium. Notably, AUT1 had no effect on interneuron firing when applied alone. Together, these data confirm the role played by Kv3 channels in the regulation of the firing phenotype of somatosensory interneurons and suggest that AUT1 and other Kv3 modulators could represent a new and promising therapeutic approach to the treatment of disorders associated with dysfunction of inhibitory feedback in corticolimbic circuits, such as schizophrenia.

  18. Tubocurarine blocks a calcium-dependent potassium current in rat tumoral pituitary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacher, P; Vacher, A M; Mollard, P

    1998-04-30

    We investigated the effects of potassium channel inhibitors on electrical activity, membrane ionic currents, intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) and hormone release in GH3/B6 cells (a line of pituitary origin). Patch-clamp recordings show a two-component after hyperpolarization (AHP) following each action potential (current clamp) or a two-component tail current (voltage-clamp). Both components can be blocked by inhibiting Ca2+ influx. Application of D-tubocurarine (dTc) (20-500 microM) reversibly suppressed the slowly decaying Ca2+-activated K+ tail current (I AHPs) in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, low doses of tetraethylammonium ions (TEA+) only blocked the rapidly decaying voltage- and Ca2+-activated K+ tail current (I AHPf). Therefore, GH3/B6 cells exhibit at least two quite distinct Ca2+-dependent K+ currents, which differ in size, voltage- and Ca2+-sensitivity, kinetics and pharmacology. These two currents also play quite separate roles in shaping the action potential. d-tubocurarine increased spontaneous Ca2+ action potential firing, whereas TEA increased action potential duration. Thus, both agents stimulated Ca2+ entry. I AHPs is activated by a transient increase in [Ca2+]i such as a thyrotrophin releasing hormone-induced Ca2+ mobilization. All the K+ channel inhibitors we tested: TEA, apamin, dTC and charybdotoxin, stimulated prolactin and growth hormone release in GH3/B6 cells. Our results show that I AHPs is a good sensor for subplasmalemmal Ca2+ and that dTc is a good pharmacological tool for studying this current.

  19. Potassium currents in human myogenic cells from donors of different ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurowska, Ewa; Dworakowska, Beata; Kloch, Monika; Sobol, Maria; Dołowy, Krzysztof; Wernig, Anton; Ruzzier, Fabio

    2006-06-01

    Ageing in humans is accompanied by a reduction in the capacity of satellite cells to proliferate and the forming myoblasts to fuse. The processes of myoblast differentiation and fusion are associated with specific changes in the cells electrical properties. We wanted to elucidate the possible effects of ageing on these parameters and performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings on human myoblasts obtained from biopsies of skeletal muscles from 2-, 48- and 76-year-old donors. First, we found that resting membrane potential on the 4th day of differentiation in vitro is less negative in the older than in the younger cells. Moreover, the oldest cells showed a smaller density of outward and inward potassium currents. More cells from the old and middle-age donors have a low (less than -40 mV) potential of activation for the outward potassium current. We conclude that in human myoblasts biophysical properties of potassium currents change with donor age.

  20. KCNQ Potassium Channels Modulate Sensitivity of Skin Down-hair (D-hair) Mechanoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütze, Sebastian; Orozco, Ian J; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2016-03-11

    M-current-mediating KCNQ (Kv7) channels play an important role in regulating the excitability of neuronal cells, as highlighted by mutations in Kcnq2 and Kcnq3 that underlie certain forms of epilepsy. In addition to their expression in brain, KCNQ2 and -3 are also found in the somatosensory system. We have now detected both KCNQ2 and KCNQ3 in a subset of dorsal root ganglia neurons that correspond to D-hair Aδ-fibers and demonstrate KCNQ3 expression in peripheral nerve endings of cutaneous D-hair follicles. Electrophysiological recordings from single D-hair afferents from Kcnq3(-/-) mice showed increased firing frequencies in response to mechanical ramp-and-hold stimuli. This effect was particularly pronounced at slow indentation velocities. Additional reduction of KCNQ2 expression further increased D-hair sensitivity. Together with previous work on the specific role of KCNQ4 in rapidly adapting skin mechanoreceptors, our results show that different KCNQ isoforms are specifically expressed in particular subsets of mechanosensory neurons and modulate their sensitivity directly in sensory nerve endings.

  1. Oriented reconstitution of a membrane protein in a giant unilamellar vesicle: experimental verification with the potassium channel KcsA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Miho; Iwamoto, Masayuki; Kato, Ayako; Yoshikawa, Kenichi; Oiki, Shigetoshi

    2011-08-03

    We report a method for the successful reconstitution of the KcsA potassium channel with either an outside-out or inside-out orientation in giant unilamellar vesicles, using the droplet-transfer technique. The procedure is rather simple. First, we prepared water-in-oil droplets lined with a lipid monolayer. When solubilized KcsA was encapsulated in the droplet, it accumulated at monolayers of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphoethanolamine (PE) but not at a monolayer of phosphatidylcholine (PC). The droplet was then transferred through an oil/water interface having a preformed monolayer. The interface monolayer covered the droplet so as to generate a bilayer vesicle. By creating chemically different lipid monolayers at the droplet and oil/water interface, we obtained vesicles with asymmetric lipid compositions in the outer and inner leaflets. KcsA was spontaneously inserted into vesicles from the inside or outside, and this was accelerated in vesicles that contained PE or PG. Integrated insertion into the vesicle membrane and the KcsA orientation were examined by functional assay, exploiting the pH sensitivity of the opening of the KcsA when the pH-sensitive cytoplasmic domain (CPD) faces toward acidic media. KcsA loaded from the inside of the PG-containing vesicles becomes permeable only when the intravesicular pH is acidic, and the KcsA loaded from the outside becomes permeable when the extravesicular pH is acidic. Therefore, the internal or external insertion of KcsA leads to an outside-out or inside-out configuration so as to retain its hydrophilic CPD in the added aqueous side. The CPD-truncated KcsA exhibited a random orientation, supporting the idea that the CPD determines the orientation. Further application of the droplet-transfer method is promising for the reconstitution of other types of membrane proteins with a desired orientation into cell-sized vesicles with a targeted lipid composition of the outer and inner leaflets.

  2. Frequency-dependent modulation of KCNQ1 and HERG1 potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diness, Thomas Goldin; Hansen, Rie Schultz; Olesen, Søren-Peter;

    2006-01-01

    To obtain information about a possible frequency-dependent modulation of HERG1 and hKCNQ1 channels, we performed heterologous expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Channel activation was obtained by voltage protocols roughly imitating cardiac action potentials at frequencies of 1, 3, 5.8, and 8.3...

  3. Kv4 Potassium Channels Modulate Hippocampal EPSP-Spike Potentiation and Spatial Memory in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchet, Bruno; Manrique, Christine; Sreng, Leam; Chaillan, Franck A.; Roman, Francois S.; Mourre, Christiane

    2012-01-01

    Kv4 channels regulate the backpropagation of action potentials (b-AP) and have been implicated in the modulation of long-term potentiation (LTP). Here we showed that blockade of Kv4 channels by the scorpion toxin AmmTX3 impaired reference memory in a radial maze task. In vivo, AmmTX3 intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion increased and…

  4. Role of vascular potassium channels in the regulation of renal hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Charlotte Mehlin; Braunstein, Thomas Hartig; von Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2012-01-01

    of one or more classes of K+ channels will lead to a change in hemodynamic resistance and therefore of renal blood flow and glomerular filtration pressure. Through these effects, the activity of renal vascular K+ channels influences renal salt and water excretion, fluid homeostasis, and ultimately blood...

  5. Localization and function of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Jung; Kristensen, Michael; Hellsten, Ylva

    2003-01-01

    The present study investigated the localization of ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels in human skeletal muscle and the functional importance of these channels for human muscle K+ distribution at rest and during muscle activity. Membrane fractionation based on the giant vesicle technique...

  6. Hysteresis of KcsA potassium channel's activation- deactivation gating is caused by structural changes at the channel's selectivity filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilegenova, Cholpon; Cortes, D Marien; Cuello, Luis G

    2017-03-21

    Mode-shift or hysteresis has been reported in ion channels. Voltage-shift for gating currents is well documented for voltage-gated cation channels (VGCC), and it is considered a voltage-sensing domain's (VSD) intrinsic property. However, uncoupling the Shaker K(+) channel's pore domain (PD) from the VSD prevented the mode-shift of the gating currents. Consequently, it was proposed that an open-state stabilization of the PD imposes a mechanical load on the VSD, which causes its mode-shift. Furthermore, the mode-shift displayed by hyperpolarization-gated cation channels is likely caused by structural changes at the channel's PD similar to those underlying C-type inactivation. To demonstrate that the PD of VGCC undergoes hysteresis, it is imperative to study its gating process in the absence of the VSD. A back-door strategy is to use KcsA (a K(+) channel from the bacteria Streptomyces lividans) as a surrogate because it lacks a VSD and exhibits an activation coupled to C-type inactivation. By directly measuring KcsA's activation gate opening and closing in conditions that promote or halt C-type inactivation, we have found (i) that KcsA undergoes mode-shift of gating when having K(+) as the permeant ion; (ii) that Cs(+) or Rb(+), known to halt C-inactivation, prevented mode-shift of gating; and (iii) that, in the total absence of C-type inactivation, KcsA's mode-shift was prevented. Finally, our results demonstrate that an allosteric communication causes KcsA's activation gate to "remember" the conformation of the selectivity filter, and hence KcsA requires a different amount of energy for opening than for closing.

  7. The sigma receptor as a ligand-regulated auxiliary potassium channel subunit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydar, Ebru; Palmer, Christopher P; Klyachko, Vitaly A; Jackson, Meyer B

    2002-04-25

    The sigma receptor is a novel protein that mediates the modulation of ion channels by psychotropic drugs through a unique transduction mechanism depending neither on G proteins nor protein phosphorylation. The present study investigated sigma receptor signal transduction by reconstituting responses in Xenopus oocytes. Sigma receptors modulated voltage-gated K+ channels (Kv1.4 or Kv1.5) in different ways in the presence and absence of ligands. Association between Kv1.4 channels and sigma receptors was demonstrated by coimmunoprecipitation. These results indicate a novel mechanism of signal transduction dependent on protein-protein interactions. Domain accessibility experiments suggested a structure for the sigma receptor with two cytoplasmic termini and two membrane-spanning segments. The ligand-independent effects on channels suggest that sigma receptors serve as auxiliary subunits to voltage-gated K+ channels with distinct functional interactions, depending on the presence or absence of ligand.

  8. Small-conductance Ca2+-activated potassium type 2 channels regulate the formation of contextual fear memory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravana R K Murthy

    Full Text Available Small-conductance, Ca2+ activated K+ channels (SK channels are expressed at high levels in brain regions responsible for learning and memory. In the current study we characterized the contribution of SK2 channels to synaptic plasticity and to different phases of hippocampal memory formation. Selective SK2 antisense-treatment facilitated basal synaptic transmission and theta-burst induced LTP in hippocampal brain slices. Using the selective SK2 antagonist Lei-Dab7 or SK2 antisense probes, we found that hippocampal SK2 channels are critical during two different time windows: 1 blockade of SK2 channels before the training impaired fear memory, whereas, 2 blockade of SK2 channels immediately after the training enhanced contextual fear memory. We provided the evidence that the post-training cleavage of the SK2 channels was responsible for the observed bidirectional effect of SK2 channel blockade on memory consolidation. Thus, Lei-Dab7-injection before training impaired the C-terminal cleavage of SK2 channels, while Lei-Dab7 given immediately after training facilitated the C-terminal cleavage. Application of the synthetic peptide comprising a leucine-zipper domain of the C-terminal fragment to Jurkat cells impaired SK2 channel-mediated currents, indicating that the endogenously cleaved fragment might exert its effects on memory formation by blocking SK2 channel-mediated currents. Our present findings suggest that SK2 channel proteins contribute to synaptic plasticity and memory not only as ion channels but also by additionally generating a SK2 C-terminal fragment, involved in both processes. The modulation of fear memory by down-regulating SK2 C-terminal cleavage might have applicability in the treatment of anxiety disorders in which fear conditioning is enhanced.

  9. BmP02 Atypically Delays Kv4.2 Inactivation: Implication for a Unique Interaction between Scorpion Toxin and Potassium Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available BmP02, a short-chain peptide with 28 residues from the venom of Chinese scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch, has been reported to inhibit the transient outward potassium currents (Ito in rat ventricular muscle cells. However, it remains unclear whether BmP02 modulates the Kv4.2 channel, one of the main contributors to Ito. The present study investigated the effects of BmP02 on Kv4.2 kinetics and its underlying molecular mechanism. The electrophysiological recordings showed that the inactivation of Kv4.2 expressed in HEK293T cells was significantly delayed by BmP02 in a dose-response manner with EC50 of ~850 nM while the peak current, activation and voltage-dependent inactivation of Kv4.2 were not affected. Meanwhile, the recovery from inactivation of Kv4.2 was accelerated and the deactivation was slowed after the application of BmP02. The site-directed mutagenesis combined with computational modelling identified that K347 and K353, located in the turret motif of the Kv4.2, and E4/E5, D20/D21 in BmP02 are key residues to interact with BmP02 through electrostatic force. These findings not only reveal a novel interaction between Kv4.2 channel and its peptidyl modulator, but also provide valuable information for design of highly-selective Kv4.2 modulators.

  10. BmP02 Atypically Delays Kv4.2 Inactivation: Implication for a Unique Interaction between Scorpion Toxin and Potassium Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bin; Zhu, Yan; Shi, Jian; Tao, Jie; Ji, Yonghua

    2016-01-01

    BmP02, a short-chain peptide with 28 residues from the venom of Chinese scorpion Buthus martensi Karsch, has been reported to inhibit the transient outward potassium currents (Ito) in rat ventricular muscle cells. However, it remains unclear whether BmP02 modulates the Kv4.2 channel, one of the main contributors to Ito. The present study investigated the effects of BmP02 on Kv4.2 kinetics and its underlying molecular mechanism. The electrophysiological recordings showed that the inactivation of Kv4.2 expressed in HEK293T cells was significantly delayed by BmP02 in a dose-response manner with EC50 of ~850 nM while the peak current, activation and voltage-dependent inactivation of Kv4.2 were not affected. Meanwhile, the recovery from inactivation of Kv4.2 was accelerated and the deactivation was slowed after the application of BmP02. The site-directed mutagenesis combined with computational modelling identified that K347 and K353, located in the turret motif of the Kv4.2, and E4/E5, D20/D21 in BmP02 are key residues to interact with BmP02 through electrostatic force. These findings not only reveal a novel interaction between Kv4.2 channel and its peptidyl modulator, but also provide valuable information for design of highly-selective Kv4.2 modulators. PMID:27690098

  11. The S4-S5 loop contributes to the ion-selective pore of potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slesinger, P A; Jan, Y N; Jan, L Y

    1993-10-01

    Mutagenesis experiments on voltage-gated K+ channels have suggested that the ion-selective pore is comprised mostly of H5 segments. To see whether regions outside of the H5 segment might also contribute to the pore structure, we have studied the effect of single amino acid substitutions in the segment that connects the S4 and S5 putative transmembrane segments (S4-S5 loop) on various permeation properties of Shaker K+ channels. Mutations in the S4-S5 loop alter the Rb+ selectivity, the single-channel K+ and Rb+ conductances, and the sensitivity to open channel block produced by intracellular tetraethylammonium ion, Ba2+, and Mg2+. The block of Shaker K+ channels by intracellular Mg2+ is surprising, but is reminiscent of the internal Mg2+ blockade of inward rectifier K+ channels. The results suggest that the S4-S5 loop constitutes part of the ion-selective pore. Thus, the S4-S5 loop and the H5 segment are likely to contribute to the long pore characteristic of voltage-gated K+ channels.

  12. S3-S4 linker length modulates the relaxed state of a voltage-gated potassium channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priest, Michael F; Lacroix, Jérôme J; Villalba-Galea, Carlos A; Bezanilla, Francisco

    2013-11-19

    Voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) are membrane protein modules found in ion channels and enzymes that are responsible for a large number of fundamental biological tasks, such as neuronal electrical activity. The VSDs switch from a resting to an active conformation upon membrane depolarization, altering the activity of the protein in response to voltage changes. Interestingly, numerous studies describe the existence of a third distinct state, called the relaxed state, also populated at positive potentials. Although some physiological roles for the relaxed state have been suggested, little is known about the molecular determinants responsible for the development and modulation of VSD relaxation. Several lines of evidence have suggested that the linker (S3-S4 linker) between the third (S3) and fourth (S4) transmembrane segments of the VSD alters the equilibrium between resting and active conformations. By measuring gating currents from the Shaker potassium channel, we demonstrate here that shortening the S3-S4 linker stabilizes the relaxed state, whereas lengthening the linker or splitting it and coinjecting two fragments of the channel have little effect. We propose that natural variations of the length of the S3-S4 linker in various VSD-containing proteins may produce differential VSD relaxation in vivo.

  13. Hydrogen bonds as molecular timers for slow inactivation in voltage-gated potassium channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Galpin, Jason D; Niciforovic, Ana P;

    2013-01-01

    the kinetics of this process remain obscure. Using a combination of synthetic amino acid analogs and concatenated channel subunits we establish two H-bonds near the extracellular surface of the channel that endow Kv channels with a mechanism to time the entry into slow inactivation: an intra-subunit H......-bond between Asp447 and Trp434 and an inter-subunit H-bond connecting Tyr445 to Thr439. Breaking of either interaction triggers slow inactivation by means of a local disruption in the selectivity filter, while severing the Tyr445-Thr439 H-bond is likely to communicate this conformational change to the adjacent...

  14. Effect of potassium channel blocker Tetraethylammonium pretreatment on prevention of the 6-OHDA-induced chronic Parkinson's disease in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Haghdoost-Yazdi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nuclease and caspase activities that promote death signals and cause apoptosis are dependent to potassium ion. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium (TEA on prevention of Parkinson's disease in rats. Methods: This experimental study was conducted on 33 male rats in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, 2014. 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA was injected into the striatum of the brain. The rats received different doses of TEA twice daily the day before the 6-OHDA injection till 15 days after the injection. The severity of Parkinsonism was assessed by the apomorphine-induced rotational behavior, the elevated body swing test (EBST, and the rotarod test. Data were analyzed using Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. Findings: Pretreatment with 5 mg/kg TEA significantly reduced the severity of rotations compared to the saline group. TEA did not reduce the swings in the EBST. In the rotarod test, TEA caused significant improvement in the motor performance of the rats. Conclusion: With regards to the results, it seems that pretreatment with TEA can partly reduce the severity of behavioral symptoms in the 6-OHDA-induced chronic Parkinson's disease. The higher the TEA dose, the more significant the reduction in the severity of symptoms.

  15. Kv1.3钾离子通道及其与相关疾病的研究进展%Progresses of kv1.3 potassium channel and its related diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周倩兰

    2015-01-01

    Kvl.3 potassium channel plays a key role in T lymphocyte activation.In many diseases mediated by T lymphocytes, such as multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, anti-glomerular basement membrane glomerulonephritis, asthma, Kv1.3 potassium channel expression is up-regulated,closely related to the mechanism of those disease.In the cardiovascular system diseases, Kv1.3 potassium channel protein is related to the differentiation of monocyte derived macrophage into foam cells, and vascular remodeling.In addition Kv1.3 potassium channel plays a role in apoptosis.This paper provide new ideas for the diagnosis and treatment of T lymphocytes mediated disease, cardiovascular disease and neoplasms.%Kv1.3钾离子通道在T细胞活化中有着关键性作用,在T细胞介导的许多疾病中,如多发性硬化、风湿性关节炎、系统性红斑狼疮、抗肾小球基膜型肾小球肾炎、哮喘,发病时Kv1.3钾离子通道表达均上调,与其发病机制密切相关.在心血管系统疾病中,Kv1.3钾离子通道蛋白与单核细胞源性巨噬细胞向泡沫细胞分化过程以及血管重塑过程有关.此外Kv1.3钾离子通道参与细胞凋亡过程.为T细胞介导的系列疾病、心血管系统疾病以及肿瘤的诊治提供新思路.

  16. Conducting and voltage-dependent behaviors of potassium ion channels reconstituted from diaphragm sarcoplasmic reticulum: comparison with the cardiac isoform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picher, M; Decrouy, A; Rousseau, E

    1996-02-21

    Sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) K+ channels from canine diaphragm were studied upon fusion of longitudinal and junctional membrane vesicles into planar lipid bilayers (PLB). The large-conductance cation selective channel (gamma(max) = 250 pS; Km = 33 mM) displays long-lasting open events which are much more frequent at positive than at negative voltages. A major subconducting state about 45% of the fully-open state current amplitude was occasionally observed at all voltages. The voltage-dependence of the open probability displays a sigmoid relationship that was fitted by the Boltzmann equation and expressed in terms of thermodynamic parameters, namely the free energy (delta Gi) and the effective gating charge (Zs): delta Gi = 0.27 kcal/mol and Zs = -1.19 in 250 mM potassium gluconate (K-gluconate). Kinetic analyses also confirmed the voltage-dependent gating behavior of this channel, and indicate the implication of at least two open and three closed states. The diaphragm SR K+ channel shares several biophysical properties with the cardiac isoform: g = 180 pS, delta Gi = 0.75 kcal/mol, Zs = -1.45 in 150 mM K-gluconate, and a similar sigmoid P(o)/voltage relationship. Little is known about the regulation of the diaphragm and cardiac SR K+ channels. The conductance and gating of these channels were not influenced by physiological concentrations of Ca2+ (0.1 microM-1 mM) or Mg2+ (0.25-1 mM), as well as by cGMP (25-100 microM), lemakalim (1-100 microM), glyburide (up to 10 microM) or charybdotoxin (45-200 nM), added either to the cis or to the trans chamber. The apparent lack of biochemical or pharmacological modulation of these channels implies that they are not related to any of the well characterized surface membrane K+ channels. On the other hand, their voltage sensitivity strongly suggests that their activity could be modulated by putative changes in SR membrane potential that might occur during calcium fluxes.

  17. Genetic variation in the two-pore domain potassium channel, TASK-1, may contribute to an atrial substrate for arrhythmogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liang, Bo; Soka, Magdalena; Christensen, Alex Horby;

    2013-01-01

    The two-pore domain potassium channel, K2P3.1 (TASK-1) modulates background conductance in isolated human atrial cardiomyocytes and has been proposed as a potential drug target for atrial fibrillation (AF). TASK-1 knockout mice have a predominantly ventricular phenotype however, and effects of TASK......-1 inactivation on atrial structure and function have yet to be demonstrated in vivo. The extent to which genetic variation in KCNK3, that encodes TASK-1, might be a determinant of susceptibility to AF is also unknown. To address these questions, we first evaluated the effects of transient knockdown...... diameter (p=0.01) when compared with control-injected embryos. We next performed genetic screening of KCNK3 in two independent AF cohorts (373 subjects) and identified three novel KCNK3 variants. Two of these variants, present in one proband with familial AF, were located at adjacent nucleotides...

  18. Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 13 Mutant Potassium Channel Alters Neuronal Excitability and Causes Locomotor Deficits in Zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Issa, Fadi A; Mazzochi, Christopher; Mock, Allan F; Papazian, Diane M.

    2011-01-01

    Whether changes in neuronal excitability can cause neurodegenerative disease in the absence of other factors such as protein aggregation is unknown. Mutations in the Kv3.3 voltage-gated K+ channel cause spinocerebellar ataxia type-13 (SCA13), a human autosomal dominant disease characterized by locomotor impairment and the death of cerebellar neurons. Kv3.3 channels facilitate repetitive, high-frequency firing of action potentials, suggesting that pathogenesis in SCA13 is triggered by changes ...

  19. Mutations in the potassium channel subunit KCNE1 are associated with early-onset familial atrial fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olesen Morten S

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atrial fibrillation (AF is the most common arrhythmia. The potassium current IKs is essential for cardiac repolarization. Gain-of-function mutations in KV7.1, the pore-forming α-subunit of the IKs channel, have been associated with AF. We hypothesized that early-onset lone AF is associated with mutations in the IKs channel regulatory subunit KCNE1. Methods In 209 unrelated early-onset lone AF patients (KCNE1 was bidirectionally sequenced. We analyzed the identified KCNE1 mutants electrophysiologically in heterologous expression systems. Results Two non-synonymous mutations G25V and G60D were found in KCNE1 that were not present in the control group (n = 432 alleles and that have not previously been reported in any publicly available databases or in the exom variant server holding exom data from more than 10.000 alleles. Proband 1 (female, age 45, G25V had onset of paroxysmal AF at the age of 39 years. Proband 2 (G60D was diagnosed with lone AF at the age of 33 years. The patient has inherited the mutation from his mother, who also has AF. Both probands had no mutations in genes previously associated with AF. In heterologous expression systems, both mutants showed significant gain-of-function for IKs both with respect to steady-state current levels, kinetic parameters, and heart rate-dependent modulation. Conclusions Mutations in KV7.1 leading to gain-of-function of IKs current have previously been described in lone AF, yet this is the first time a mutation in the beta-subunit KCNE1 is associated with the disease. This finding further supports the hypothesis that increased potassium current enhances AF susceptibility.

  20. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael S.; Martyn, Lisa; Weaver, Connie M.

    2016-01-01

    Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+) ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq) is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN) is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion) to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics) may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health. PMID:27455317

  1. Potassium Intake, Bioavailability, Hypertension, and Glucose Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S. Stone

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Potassium is an essential nutrient. It is the most abundant cation in intracellular fluid where it plays a key role in maintaining cell function. The gradient of potassium across the cell membrane determines cellular membrane potential, which is maintained in large part by the ubiquitous ion channel the sodium-potassium (Na+-K+ ATPase pump. Approximately 90% of potassium consumed (60–100 mEq is lost in the urine, with the other 10% excreted in the stool, and a very small amount lost in sweat. Little is known about the bioavailability of potassium, especially from dietary sources. Less is understood on how bioavailability may affect health outcomes. Hypertension (HTN is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease (CVD and a major financial burden ($50.6 billion to the US public health system, and has a significant impact on all-cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. The relationship between increased potassium supplementation and a decrease in HTN is relatively well understood, but the effect of increased potassium intake from dietary sources on blood pressure overall is less clear. In addition, treatment options for hypertensive individuals (e.g., thiazide diuretics may further compound chronic disease risk via impairments in potassium utilization and glucose control. Understanding potassium bioavailability from various sources may help to reveal how specific compounds and tissues influence potassium movement, and further the understanding of its role in health.

  2. The growth cones of Aplysia sensory neurons: Modulation by serotonin of action potential duration and single potassium channel currents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardetti, F; Schacher, S; Kandel, E R; Siegelbaum, S A

    1986-09-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) closes a specific K channel ("S") in the cell body of Aplysia sensory neurons, resulting in a slow excitatory postsynaptic potential and spike broadening. To determine whether the S channel is present and can be modulated in processes of the neuron other than the cell body, we studied the effects of 5-HT on growth cones of sensory neurons in culture by using the patch-clamp technique. Simultaneous application of 5-HT to the cell body and to the growth cones of sensory neurons produced, in both, a slow depolarization of approximately 5 mV. Also, 5-HT produced a lengthening of the duration of action potential in the growth cone and cell body by 20-30%. Similar effects were observed in isolated growth cones that had been severed from the rest of the neuron, implying that the growth cones contain all the molecular components (i.e., receptors, channels, cAMP cascade) necessary for 5-HT action. Cell-attached patch-clamp recordings demonstrated the presence of S channels in sensory neuron growth cones. Application of serotonin to the bath produced long-lasting all-or-none closures of these channels in a manner identical to the previously characterized action of 5-HT in the cell body. Thus, channel modulation is not restricted to the cell body and probably occurs throughout the sensory neuron. This strengthens the view that S-channel modulation may also occur at the sensory neuron presynaptic terminal, where it could play a role in the presynaptic facilitation produced by 5-HT.

  3. The coupling of acetylcholine-induced BK channel and calcium channel in guinea pig saccular type II vestibular hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Wei-Jia; Guo, Chang-Kai; Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Chen, Xiong; Zhang, Song; Li, Guan-Qiao; Li, Zhi-Wang; Van Cauwenberge, Paul

    2007-01-19

    Molecular biological studies and electrophysiological data have demonstrated that acetylcholine (ACh) is the principal cochlear and vestibular efferent neurotransmitter among mammalians. However, the functional roles of ACh in type II vestibular hair cells (VHCs II) among mammalians are still unclear, with the exception of the well-known alpha9-containing nicotinic ACh receptor (alpha9-containing nAChR)-activated small conductance, calcium-dependent potassium current (SK) in cochlear hair cells and frog saccular hair cells. The activation of SK current was necessary for the calcium influx through the alpha9-containing nAChR. Recently, we have demonstrated that ACh-induced big conductance, calcium-dependent potassium current (BK) was present in VHCs II of the vestibular end-organ of guinea pig. In this study, the nature of calcium influx for the activation of ACh-induced BK current in saccular VHCs II of guinea pig was investigated. Following extracellular perfusion of ACh, saccular VHCs II displayed a sustained outward current, which was sensitive to iberiotoxin (IBTX). High concentration of apamin failed to inhibit the current amplitude of ACh-induced outward current. Intracellular application of Cs(+) completely abolished the current evoked by ACh. ACh-induced current was potently inhibited by nifedipine, nimodipine, Cd(2+) and Ni(2+), respectively. The inhibition potency of these four calcium channel antagonists was nimodipine>nifedipine>cadmium>nickel. The L-type Ca(2+) channels agonist, (-)-Bay-K 8644 mimicked the effect of ACh and activated an IBTX-sensitive current. In addition, partial VHCs II displayed a biphasic waveform. In conclusion, the present data showed that in the guinea pig saccular VHCs II, ACh-induced BK channel was coupled with the calcium channel, but not the receptor. The perfusion of ACh will drive the opening of calcium channels; the influx of calcium ions will then activate the BK current.

  4. Estradiol inhibits Ca2+ and K+ channels in smooth muscle cells from pregnant rat myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabe, K; Inoue, Y; Soeda, H

    1999-07-02

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the actions of 17beta-estradiol on the electrical activity of pregnant rat myometrium. The longitudinal layer of the myometrium was dissected from pregnant rats (17 to 19 days of gestation), and single cells were isolated by enzymatic digestion. Calcium currents and potassium currents were recorded by the whole-cell voltage-clamp method, and the single calcium-dependent potassium current was recorded by the outside-out patch-clamp method. The effects of 17beta-estradiol on these currents were investigated. When a myometrial cell was held at -50 mV, depolarization to a potential more positive than -30 mV produced an inward current followed by a slowly developing outward current. Application of tetraethylammonium inhibited the outward current while the inward current was completely abolished in a calcium-free solution. Estradiol at high concentrations (> 3 microM) inhibited both inward and outward currents in a voltage-dependent manner. Removal of estradiol restored the amplitude of the outward but not of the inward current. Estradiol (30 microM) also inhibited the activity of single calcium-dependent potassium channels without changing single channel conductance. In conclusion, estradiol at high concentrations inhibited: (1) voltage-dependent calcium, (2) calcium-dependent potassium and (3) voltage-dependent potassium currents. These actions of estradiol would prevent action potential generation and after-hyperpolarizations. Suppression of the after-hyperpolarization might further prevent spike generation due to slowing of the calcium channel's recovery from the inactivated state.

  5. Allosteric gating mechanism underlies the flexible gating of KCNQ1 potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteen, Jeremiah D; Barro-Soria, Rene; Robey, Seth; Sampson, Kevin J; Kass, Robert S; Larsson, H Peter

    2012-05-01

    KCNQ1 (Kv7.1) is a unique member of the superfamily of voltage-gated K(+) channels in that it displays a remarkable range of gating behaviors tuned by coassembly with different β subunits of the KCNE family of proteins. To better understand the basis for the biophysical diversity of KCNQ1 channels, we here investigate the basis of KCNQ1 gating in the absence of β subunits using voltage-clamp fluorometry (VCF). In our previous study, we found the kinetics and voltage dependence of voltage-sensor movements are very similar to those of the channel gate, as if multiple voltage-sensor movements are not required to precede gate opening. Here, we have tested two different hypotheses to explain KCNQ1 gating: (i) KCNQ1 voltage sensors undergo a single concerted movement that leads to channel opening, or (ii) individual voltage-sensor movements lead to channel opening before all voltage sensors have moved. Here, we find that KCNQ1 voltage sensors move relatively independently, but that the channel can conduct before all voltage sensors have activated. We explore a KCNQ1 point mutation that causes some channels to transition to the open state even in the absence of voltage-sensor movement. To interpret these results, we adopt an allosteric gating scheme wherein KCNQ1 is able to transition to the open state after zero to four voltage-sensor movements. This model allows for widely varying gating behavior, depending on the relative strength of the opening transition, and suggests how KCNQ1 could be controlled by coassembly with different KCNE family members.

  6. Voltage-dependent metabolic regulation of Kv2.1 channels in pancreatic beta-cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masashi; Nakata, Masanori; Yamato, Shiho; Dezaki, Katsuya; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Ishikawa, San-e; Kawakami, Masanobu; Yada, Toshihiko; Kakei, Masafumi

    2010-05-28

    Voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv channels) play a crucial role in formation of action potentials in response to glucose stimulation in pancreatic beta-ells. We previously reported that the Kv channel is regulated by glucose metabolism, particularly by MgATP. We examined whether the regulation of Kv channels is voltage-dependent and mechanistically related with phosphorylation of the channels. In rat pancreatic beta-cells, suppression of glucose metabolism with low glucose concentrations of 2.8mM or less or by metabolic inhibitors decreased the Kv2.1-channel activity at positive membrane potentials, while increased it at potentials negative to -10 mV, suggesting that modulation of Kv channels by glucose metabolism is voltage-dependent. Similarly, in HEK293 cells expressing the recombinant Kv2.1 channels, 0mM but not 10mM MgATP modulated the channel activity in a manner similar to that in beta-cells. Both steady-state activation and inactivation kinetics of the channel were shifted toward the negative potential in association with the voltage-dependent modulation of the channels by cytosolic dialysis of alkaline phosphatase in beta-cells. The modulation of Kv-channel current-voltage relations were also observed during and after glucose-stimulated electrical excitation. These results suggest that the cellular metabolism including MgATP production and/or channel phosphorylation/dephosphorylation underlie the physiological modulation of Kv2.1 channels during glucose-induced insulin secretion.

  7. The Mutation P.T613a in the Pore Helix of the Kv 11.1 Potassium Channel is Associated with Long Qt Syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Kristian L; Hotait, Mostafa; Calloe, Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Loss-of-function mutations in the voltage gated potassium channel Kv 11.1 have been associated with the Long QT Syndrome (LQTS) type 2. We identified the p.T613A mutation in Kv 11.1 in a family with LQTS. T613A is located in the outer part of the pore helix, a structure that is involv...

  8. Students' Understanding of External Representations of the Potassium Ion Channel Protein, Part I: Affordances and Limitations of Ribbon Diagrams, Vines, and Hydrophobic/Polar Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harle, Marissa; Towns, Marcy H.

    2012-01-01

    Research on external representations in biochemistry has uncovered student difficulties in comprehending and interpreting external representations. This project focuses on students' understanding of three external representations of the potassium ion channel protein. This is part I of a two-part study, which focuses on the affordances and…

  9. Chronic fluoxetine treatment increases NO bioavailability and calcium-sensitive potassium channels activation in rat mesenteric resistance arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Camila A; Ferreira, Nathanne S; Mestriner, Fabiola L; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Evora, Paulo R B; Resstel, Leonardo B M; Carneiro, Fernando S; Tostes, Rita C

    2015-10-15

    Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), has effects beyond its antidepressant properties, altering, e.g., mechanisms involved in blood pressure and vasomotor tone control. Although many studies have addressed the acute impact of fluoxetine on the cardiovascular system, there is a paucity of information on the chronic vascular effects of this SSRI. We tested the hypothesis that chronic fluoxetine treatment enhances the vascular reactivity to vasodilator stimuli by increasing nitric oxide (NO) signaling and activation of potassium (K+) channels. Wistar rats were divided into two groups: (I) vehicle (water for 21 days) or (II) chronic fluoxetine (10 mg/kg/day in the drinking water for 21 days). Fluoxetine treatment increased endothelium-dependent and independent vasorelaxation (analyzed by mesenteric resistance arteries reactivity) as well as constitutive NO synthase (NOS) activity, phosphorylation of eNOS at Serine1177 and NO production, determined by western blot and fluorescence. On the other hand, fluoxetine treatment did not alter vascular expression of neuronal and inducible NOS or guanylyl cyclase (GC). Arteries from fluoxetine-treated rats exhibited increased relaxation to pinacidil. Increased acetylcholine vasorelaxation was abolished by a calcium-activated K+ channel (KCa) blocker, but not by an inhibitor of KATP channels. On the other hand, vascular responses to Bay 41-2272 and 8-bromo-cGMP were similar between the groups. In conclusion, chronic fluoxetine treatment increases endothelium-dependent and independent relaxation of mesenteric resistance arteries by mechanisms that involve increased eNOS activity, NO generation, and KCa channels activation. These effects may contribute to the cardiovascular effects associated with chronic fluoxetine treatment.

  10. Association analysis of a highly polymorphic CAG Repeat in the human potassium channel gene KCNN3 and migraine susceptibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovcaric Mick

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Migraine is a polygenic multifactorial disease, possessing environmental and genetic causative factors with multiple involved genes. Mutations in various ion channel genes are responsible for a number of neurological disorders. KCNN3 is a neuronal small conductance calcium-activated potassium channel gene that contains two polyglutamine tracts, encoded by polymorphic CAG repeats in the gene. This gene plays a critical role in determining the firing pattern of neurons and acts to regulate intracellular calcium channels. Methods The present association study tested whether length variations in the second (more 3' polymorphic CAG repeat in exon 1 of the KCNN3 gene, are involved in susceptibility to migraine with and without aura (MA and MO. In total 423 DNA samples from unrelated individuals, of which 202 consisted of migraine patients and 221 non-migraine controls, were genotyped and analysed using a fluorescence labelled primer set on an ABI310 Genetic Analyzer. Allele frequencies were calculated from observed genotype counts for the KCNN3 polymorphism. Analysis was performed using standard contingency table analysis, incorporating the chi-squared test of independence and CLUMP analysis. Results Overall, there was no convincing evidence that KCNN3 CAG lengths differ between Caucasian migraineurs and controls, with no significant difference in the allelic length distribution of CAG repeats between the population groups (P = 0.090. Also the MA and MO subtypes did not differ significantly between control allelic distributions (P > 0.05. The prevalence of the long CAG repeat (>19 repeats did not reach statistical significance in migraineurs (P = 0.15, nor was there a significant difference between the MA and MO subgroups observed compared to controls (P = 0.46 and P = 0.09, respectively, or between MA vs MO (P = 0.40. Conclusion This association study provides no evidence that length variations of the second polyglutamine array in

  11. Variability of Potassium Channel Blockers in Mesobuthus eupeus Scorpion Venom with Focus on Kv1.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuzmenkov, Alexey I.; Vassilevski, Alexander A.; Kudryashova, Kseniya S.; Nekrasova, Oksana V.; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Feofanov, Alexey V.; Kirpichnikov, Mikhail P.; Grishin, Eugene V.

    2015-01-01

    The lesser Asian scorpion Mesobuthus eupeus (Buthidae) is one of the most widely spread and dispersed species of the Mesobuthus genus, and its venom is actively studied. Nevertheless, a considerable amount of active compounds is still under-investigated due to the high complexity of this venom. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of putative potassium channel toxins (KTxs) from the cDNA library of M. eupeus venom glands, and we compare the deduced KTx structures with peptides purified from the venom. For the transcriptome analysis, we used conventional tools as well as a search for structural motifs characteristic of scorpion venom components in the form of regular expressions. We found 59 candidate KTxs distributed in 30 subfamilies and presenting the cysteine-stabilized α/β and inhibitor cystine knot types of fold. M. eupeus venom was then separated to individual components by multistage chromatography. A facile fluorescent system based on the expression of the KcsA-Kv1.1 hybrid channels in Escherichia coli and utilization of a labeled scorpion toxin was elaborated and applied to follow Kv1.1 pore binding activity during venom separation. As a result, eight high affinity Kv1.1 channel blockers were identified, including five novel peptides, which extend the panel of potential pharmacologically important Kv1 ligands. Activity of the new peptides against rat Kv1.1 channel was confirmed (IC50 in the range of 1–780 nm) by the two-electrode voltage clamp technique using a standard Xenopus oocyte system. Our integrated approach is of general utility and efficiency to mine natural venoms for KTxs. PMID:25792741

  12. Study of cell migration in microfabricated channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, Pablo; Terriac, Emmanuel; Lennon-Duménil, Ana-Maria; Piel, Matthieu

    2014-02-21

    The method described here allows the study of cell migration under confinement in one dimension. It is based on the use of microfabricated channels, which impose a polarized phenotype to cells by physical constraints. Once inside channels, cells have only two possibilities: move forward or backward. This simplified migration in which directionality is restricted facilitates the automatic tracking of cells and the extraction of quantitative parameters to describe cell movement. These parameters include cell velocity, changes in direction, and pauses during motion. Microchannels are also compatible with the use of fluorescent markers and are therefore suitable to study localization of intracellular organelles and structures during cell migration at high resolution. Finally, the surface of the channels can be functionalized with different substrates, allowing the control of the adhesive properties of the channels or the study of haptotaxis. In summary, the system here described is intended to analyze the migration of large cell numbers in conditions in which both the geometry and the biochemical nature of the environment are controlled, facilitating the normalization and reproducibility of independent experiments.

  13. Filter gate closure inhibits ion but not water transport through potassium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoomann, Torben; Jahnke, Nadin; Horner, Andreas; Keller, Sandro; Pohl, Peter

    2013-06-25

    The selectivity filter of K(+) channels is conserved throughout all kingdoms of life. Carbonyl groups of highly conserved amino acids point toward the lumen to act as surrogates for the water molecules of K(+) hydration. Ion conductivity is abrogated if some of these carbonyl groups flip out of the lumen, which happens (i) in the process of C-type inactivation or (ii) during filter collapse in the absence of K(+). Here, we show that K(+) channels remain permeable to water, even after entering such an electrically silent conformation. We reconstituted fluorescently labeled and constitutively open mutants of the bacterial K(+) channel KcsA into lipid vesicles that were either C-type inactivating or noninactivating. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy allowed us to count both the number of proteoliposomes and the number of protein-containing micelles after solubilization, providing the number of reconstituted channels per proteoliposome. Quantification of the per-channel increment in proteoliposome water permeability with the aid of stopped-flow experiments yielded a unitary water permeability pf of (6.9 ± 0.6) × 10(-13) cm(3)⋅s(-1) for both mutants. "Collapse" of the selectivity filter upon K(+) removal did not alter pf and was fully reversible, as demonstrated by current measurements through planar bilayers in a K(+)-containing medium to which K(+)-free proteoliposomes were fused. Water flow through KcsA is halved by 200 mM K(+) in the aqueous solution, which indicates an effective K(+) dissociation constant in that range for a singly occupied channel. This questions the widely accepted hypothesis that multiple K(+) ions in the selectivity filter act to mutually destabilize binding.

  14. Modulation of Kv3.1b potassium channel phosphorylation in auditory neurons by conventional and novel protein kinase C isozymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ping; Kaczmarek, Leonard K

    2006-06-02

    In fast-spiking neurons such as those in the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) in the auditory brainstem, Kv3.1 potassium channels are required for high frequency firing. The Kv3.1b splice variant of this channel predominates in the mature nervous system and is a substrate for phosphorylation by protein kinase C (PKC) at Ser-503. In resting neurons, basal phosphorylation at this site decreases Kv3.1 current, reducing neuronal ability to follow high frequency stimulation. We used a phospho-specific antibody to determine which PKC isozymes control serine 503 phosphorylation in Kv3.1b-tranfected cells and in auditory neurons in brainstem slices. By using isozyme-specific inhibitors, we found that the novel PKC-delta isozyme, together with the novel PKC-epsilon and conventional PKCs, contributed to the basal phosphorylation of Kv3.1b in MNTB neurons. In contrast, only PKC-epsilon and conventional PKCs mediate increases in phosphorylation produced by pharmacological activation of PKC in MNTB neurons or by metabotropic glutamate receptor activation in Kv3.1/mGluR1-cotransfected cells. We also measured the time course of dephosphorylation and recovery of basal phosphorylation of Kv3.1b following brief high frequency electrical stimulation of the trapezoid body, and we determined that the recovery process is mediated by both novel PKC-delta and PKC-epsilon isozymes and by conventional PKCs. The association between Kv3.1b and PKC isozymes was confirmed by reciprocal coimmunoprecipitation of Kv3.1b with multiple PKC isozymes. Our results suggest that the Kv3.1b channel is regulated by both conventional and novel PKC isozymes and that novel PKC-delta contributes specifically to the maintenance of basal phosphorylation in auditory neurons.

  15. Trafficking and intracellular regulation of Kv7.1 potassium channels in the heart

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nathalie Hélix

    abnormalities induced by “loss of function” Kv7.1 mutations increase the risk of polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias. These cardiac arrhythmias, typically in the form of torsades de pointes, may underlie ventricular fibrillation, recurrent syncope, and sudden death. To date, nearly 300 Kv7.1 mutations have been...... to the regulation of the Kv7.1 channel, which displays a consensus site in the N-terminus for this kinase. Our study, with the support of others, tends to demonstrate that the Kv7.1 channel forms a macromolecular signaling complex with its interactions partners in order to allow a fast response to external signals....

  16. Differential expression of K4-AP currents and Kv3.1 potassium channel transcripts in cortical neurons that develop distinct firing phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massengill, J L; Smith, M A; Son, D I; O'Dowd, D K

    1997-05-01

    Maturation of electrical excitability during early postnatal development is critical to formation of functional neural circuitry in the mammalian neocortex. Little is known, however, about the changes in gene expression underlying the development of firing properties that characterize different classes of cortical neurons. Here we describe the development of cortical neurons with two distinct firing phenotypes, regular-spiking (RS) and fast-spiking (FS), that appear to emerge from a population of immature multiple-spiking (IMS) neurons during the first two postnatal weeks, both in vivo (within layer IV) and in vitro. We report the expression of a slowly inactivating, 4-AP-sensitive potassium current (K4-AP) at significantly higher density in FS compared with RS neurons. The same current is expressed at intermediate levels in IMS neurons. The kinetic, voltage-dependent, and pharmacological properties of the K4-AP current are similar to those observed by heterologous expression of Kv3.1 potassium channel mRNA. Single-cell RT-PCR analysis demonstrates that PCR products representing Kv3.1 transcripts are amplified more frequently from FS than RS neurons, with an intermediate frequency of Kv3.1 detection in neurons with immature firing properties. Taken together, these data suggest that the Kv3.1 gene encodes the K4-AP current and that expression of this gene is regulated in a cell-specific manner during development. Analysis of the effects of 4-AP on firing properties suggests that the K4-AP current is important for rapid action potential repolarization, fast after-hyperpolarization, brief refractory period, and high firing frequency characteristic of FS GABAergic interneurons.

  17. Potassium currents in auditory hair cells of the frog basilar papilla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smotherman, M S; Narins, P M

    1999-06-01

    The whole-cell patch-clamp technique was used to identify and characterize ionic currents in isolated hair cells of the leopard frog basilar papilla (BP). This end organ is responsible for encoding the upper limits of a frog's spectral sensitivity (1.25-2.0 kHz in the leopard frog). Isolated BP hair cells are the smallest hair cells in the frog auditory system, with spherical cell bodies typically less than 20 microm in diameter and exhibiting whole-cell capacitances of 4-7 pF. Hair cell zero-current resting potentials (Vz) varied around a mean of -65 mV. All hair cells possessed a non-inactivating, voltage-dependent calcium current (I(Ca)) that activates above a threshold of -55 mV. Similarly all hair cells possessed a rapidly activating, outward, calcium-dependent potassium current (I(K)(Ca)). Most hair cells also possessed a slowly activating, outward, voltage-dependent potassium current (I(K)), which is approximately 80% inactive at the hair cell Vz, and a fast-activating, inward-rectifying potassium current (I(K1)) which actively contributes to setting Vz. In a small subset of cells I(K) was replaced by a fast-inactivating, voltage-dependent potassium current (I(A)), which strongly resembled the A-current observed in hair cells of the frog sacculus and amphibian papilla. Most cells have very similar ionic currents, suggesting that the BP consists largely of one homogeneous population of hair cells. The kinetic properties of the ionic currents present (in particular the very slow I(K)) argue against electrical tuning, a specialized spectral filtering mechanism reported in the hair cells of birds, reptiles, and amphibians, as a contributor to frequency selectivity of this organ. Instead BP hair cells reflect a generalized strategy for the encoding of high-frequency auditory information in a primitive, mechanically tuned, terrestrial vertebrate auditory organ.

  18. The effect of potassium channel opener pinacidil on the non-pregnant rat uterus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakovic, Radmila; Milovanovic, Slobodan; Protic, Dragana; Djokic, Jelena; Heinle, Helmut; Gojkovic-Bukarica, Ljiljana

    2007-09-01

    The effects of the K(+) channel opener, pinacidil on the spontaneous rhythmic contractions and contractions provoked by electrical field stimulation (50 Hz) or by oxytocin were investigated in the isolated uterus of the non-pregnant rat in oestrus. Pinacidil produced more potent inhibition of oxytocin-elicited contractions than of spontaneous rhythmic contractions or electrical field stimulation-induced contractions. Glibenclamide, a selective blocker of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels, antagonized the pinacidil-induced inhibition of contractions elicited by oxytocin in a competitive manner. However, the pinacidil-induced inhibition of electrical field stimulation-elicited contractions and spontaneous rhythmic contractions was antagonized non-competitively by glibenclamide. In the uterine strips pre-contracted with 80 mM K(+), the pinacidil-induced maximal relaxation was not affected. The present data show that pinacidil exhibits potent relaxant properties in the rat non-pregnant uterus in oestrus and therefore should be taken into account as a possible agent for treatment of dysmenorrhoea. Based on glibenclamide affinity, it appears that the inhibitory response to pinacidil involves K(ATP )channels. We need further investigations to explain why the interaction between glibenclamide and pinacidil in this experimental model depends on the nature of contractions. The ability of pinacidil to completely relax the rat non-pregnant uterus pre-contracted with K(+)-rich solution suggests that K(+) channel-independent mechanism(s) also play a part in its relaxant effect.

  19. Antibodies to voltage-gated potassium and calcium channels in epilepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majoie, H.J.; Baets, M.H.V. de; Renier, W.O.; Lang, B.; Vincent, A.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of antibodies to ion channels in patients with long standing epilepsy. BACKGROUND: Although the CNS is thought to be protected from circulating antibodies by the blood brain barrier, glutamate receptor antibodies have been reported in Rasmussen's encephalitis,

  20. Contributions of counter-charge in a potassium channel voltage-sensor domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Stephan Alexander; Galpin, Jason D; Niciforovic, Ana P

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-sensor domains couple membrane potential to conformational changes in voltage-gated ion channels and phosphatases. Highly coevolved acidic and aromatic side chains assist the transfer of cationic side chains across the transmembrane electric field during voltage sensing. We investigated...

  1. Mutation analysis of potassium channel genes KCNQ1 and KCNH2 in patients with long QT syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文玲; 胡大一; 李翠兰; 李萍; 李运田; 李志明; 李蕾; 秦绪光; 董玮; 戚豫; 陈胜寒; 王擎

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine mutations of two common potassium channel subunit genes KCNQ1, KCNH2 causing long QT syndrome (LQTS) in the Chinese.Methods Thirty-one Chinese LQTS pedigrees were characterized for mutations in the two LQTS genes, KCNQ1 and KCNH2, by sequencing.Results Two novel KCNQ1 mutations, S277L in the S5 domain and G306V in the channel pore, and two novel KCNH2 mutations, L413P in the transmembrane domain S1 and L559H in the transmembrane domain S5 were identified. The triggering factors for cardiac events developed in these mutation carriers included physical exercise and excitation. Mutation L413P in KCNH2 was associated with the notched T wave on ECGs. Mutation L559H in KCNH2 was associated with the typical bifid T wave on ECGs. Mutation S277L in KCNQ1 was associated with a high-amplitude T wave and G306V was associated with a low-amplitude T wave. Two likely polymorphisms, IVS11+18C>T in KCNQ1 and L520V in KCNH2 were also identified in two LQTS patients.Conclusions The mutation rates for both KCNQ1 (6.4%) and KCNH2 (6.4%) are lower in the Chinese population than those from North America or Europe.

  2. Photobiomodulation on KATP Channels of Kir6.2-Transfected HEK-293 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-qing Zhong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective. ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP channel couples cell metabolism to excitability. To explore role of KATP channels in cellular photobiomodulation, we designed experiment to study effect of low intensity 808 nm laser irradiation on the activity of membrane KATP channel. Study Design/Materials and Methods. Plasmids encoding Kir6.2 was constructed and heterologously expressed in cultured mammalian HEK-293 cells. The patch-clamp and data acquisition systems were used to record KATP channel current before and after irradiation. A laser beam of Ga-As 808 nm at 5 mW/cm2 was used in experiments. A one-way ANOVA test followed by a post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test was used to assess the statistical differences between data groups. Results. Obvious openings of KATP channels of Kir6.2-transfected HEK-293 cells and excised patches were recorded during and after low intensity 808 nm laser irradiation. Compared with the channels that did not undergo irradiation, open probability, current amplitude, and dwell time of KATP channels after irradiation improved. Conclusions. Low intensity 808 nm laser irradiation may activate membrane KATP channels of Kir6.2-transfected HEK-293 cells and in excised patches.

  3. Phospholipase D2 specifically regulates TREK potassium channels via direct interaction and local production of phosphatidic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comoglio, Yannick; Levitz, Joshua; Kienzler, Michael A; Lesage, Florian; Isacoff, Ehud Y; Sandoz, Guillaume

    2014-09-16

    Membrane lipids serve as second messengers and docking sites for proteins and play central roles in cell signaling. A major question about lipid signaling is whether diffusible lipids can selectively target specific proteins. One family of lipid-regulated membrane proteins is the TWIK-related K channel (TREK) subfamily of K2P channels: TREK1, TREK2, and TWIK-related arachdonic acid stimulated K(+) channel (TRAAK). We investigated the regulation of TREK channels by phosphatidic acid (PA), which is generated by phospholipase D (PLD) via hydrolysis of phosphatidylcholine. Even though all three of the channels are sensitive to PA, we found that only TREK1 and TREK2 are potentiated by PLD2 and that none of these channels is modulated by PLD1, indicating surprising selectivity. We found that PLD2, but not PLD1, directly binds to the C terminus of TREK1 and TREK2, but not to TRAAK. The results have led to a model for selective lipid regulation by localization of phospholipid enzymes to specific effector proteins. Finally, we show that regulation of TREK channels by PLD2 occurs natively in hippocampal neurons.

  4. K+ channels and cell cycle progression in tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALIMA eOUADID-AHIDOUCH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available K+ ions play a major role in many cellular processes. The deregulation of K+ signaling is associated with a variety of diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, or diabetes. K+ ions are important for setting the membrane potential, the driving force for Ca2+ influx, and regulate volume of growing cells. Moreover, it is increasingly recognized that K+ channels control cell proliferation through a novel signaling mechanisms triggered and modulated independently of ion fluxes. In cancer, aberrant expression, regulation and/or sublocalization of K+ channels can alter the downstream signals that converge on the cell cycle machinery. Various K+ channels are involved in cell cycle progression and are needed only at particular stages of the cell cycle. Consistent with this idea, the expression of Eag1 and HERG channels fluctuate along the cell cycle. Despite of acquired knowledge, our understanding of K+ channels functioning in cancer cells requires further studies. These include identifying the molecular mechanisms controling the cell cycle machinery. By understanding how K+ channels regulate cell cycle progression in cancer cells, we will gain insights into how cancer cells subvert the need for K+ signal and its downstream targets to proliferate.

  5. Coronatin-1 isolated from entomopathogenic fungus Conidiobolus coronatus kills Galleria mellonella hemocytes in vitro and forms potassium channels in planar lipid membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieloch, Wioletta; Boguś, Mieczysława I; Ligęza, Marta; Koszela-Piotrowska, Izabela; Szewczyk, Adam

    2011-09-15

    Entomopathogenic fungi are important natural regulatory factors of insect populations and have potential as biological control agents of insect pests. The cosmopolitan soil fungus Conidiobolus coronatus (Entomopthorales) easily attacks Galleria mellonella (Lepidoptera) larvae. Prompt death of invaded insects is attributed to the action of toxic metabolites released by the invader. Effect of fungal metabolites on hemocytes, insect blood cells involved in innate defense response, remains underexplored to date. C. coronatus isolate 3491 inducing 100% mortality of G. mellonella last instar larvae exposed to sporulating colonies, was cultivated at 20 °C in minimal medium. Post-incubation filtrates were used as a source of fungal metabolites. A two-step HPLC (1 step: Shodex KW-803 column eluted with 50 mM KH(2)PO(4) supplemented with 0.1 M KCl, pH 6.5; 2 step: ProteinPak™ CM 8HR column equilibrated with 5 mM KH(2)PO(4), pH 6.5, proteins eluted with a linear gradient of 0.5 M KCl) allowed the isolation of coronatin-1, an insecticidal 36 kDa protein showing both elastolytic and chitinolytic activities. Addition of coronatin-1 into primary in vitro cultures of G. mellonella hemocytes resulted in rapid disintegration of spherulocytes freely floating in culture medium and shrinkage of plasmatocytes adhering to the bottom of culture well. Coronatin-1 stimulated pseudopodia atrophy and, in consequence, disintegration of nets formed by cultured hemocytes. After incorporation of coronatin-1 into planar lipid membrane (PLM) ion channels selective for K(+) ions in 50/450 mM KCl solutions were observed. Potassium current flows were recorded in nearly 70% of experiments with conductance from 300 pS up to 1 nS. All observed channels were active at both positive and negative membrane potentials. Under experimental conditions incorporated coronatin-1 exhibited a zero current potential (E(rev)) of 47.7 mV, which indicates K(+)-selectivity of this protein. The success of the

  6. Properties of sodium and potassium channels of the squid giant axon far below 0 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukita, F

    1982-01-01

    Squid giant axon could be excited in concentrated glycerol solutions containing normal concentrations of electrolytes, when osmolalities of solutions inside and outside the axon were matched. These glycerol solutions did not freeze at the temperature as low as -19 degrees C. The nerve excitation in these solutions were observed at this low temperature. The excitation process at this low temperature was slowed down and time constants of the excitation kinetics were several hundredfold larger than those in normal seawater at 10 degrees C, under which temperature the squid habituated. The temperature coefficients for the electrophysiological membrane parameters under this condition were larger than those in normal seawater above 0 degrees C. The Q10 value for the conduction velocity was 2.0 and that of the duration of the action potential was around 8.5. The time course of the membrane currents was also slowed with the Q10 value of around 5 and the magnitude decreased with the Q10 value of around 2 as the temperature was lowered. The Q10 values for the kinetics of the on process of the Na-channel were around 4.5 and were almost the same as those of the off process of the Na-channel in the wide range of the temperature below 0 degrees C. The Q10 value of the on process of K-channel was around 6.5 and was larger than those for Na-channel. The Q10 values increased gradually as the temperature was lowered.

  7. Butylidenephthalide Blocks Potassium Channels and Enhances Basal Tension in Isolated Guinea-Pig Trachea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Te Hsu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Butylidenephthalide (Bdph, 30~300 μM, a constituent of Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., significantly enhanced\ttension in isolated guinea-pig trachea. In this study, we investigate the mechanism(s of Bdph-induced contraction in the tissue. Isolated trachea was bathed in 5 mL of Krebs solution containing indomethacin (3 μM, and its tension changes were isometrically recorded. Cromakalim (3 μM, an ATP-dependent K+ channel opener, significantly antagonized the Bdph-induced enhancement of baseline tension. Bdph (300 μM also significantly antagonized cromakalim-induced relaxation. Bdph (300 μM did not significantly influence the antagonistic effects of glibenclamide (GBC, 1 μM and tetraethylammonium (TEA, 8 mM against the cromakalim-induced relaxation. However, Bdph (300 μM and 4-aminopiridine (4-AP, 5 mM, a blocker of Kv1 family of K+ channels, in combination significantly rightward shifted the log concentration-relaxation curve of cromakalim. The antagonistic effect of the combination almost equals the sum of the individual effects of Bdph and 4-AP, suggesting that the antagonistic mechanism of Bdph may be similar to that of 4-AP. All calcium channel blockers influenced neither the baseline tension nor antagonistic effect of Bdph against cromakalim. In conclusion, Bdph may be similar to 4-AP, a blocker of Kv1 family of K+ channels, to enhance the baseline tension of guinea-pig trachea.

  8. Fluoxetine protection in decompression sickness in mice is enhanced by blocking TREK-1 potassium channel with the spadin antidepressant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas eVallée

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In mice, disseminated coagulation, inflammation and ischemia induce neurological damages that can lead to the death. These symptoms result from circulating bubbles generated by a pathogenic decompression. An acute fluoxetine treatment or the presence of the TREK-1 potassium channel increased the survival rate when mice are subjected to an experimental dive/decompression protocol. This is a paradox because fluoxetine is a blocker of TREK-1 channels. First, we studied the effects of an acute dose of fluoxetine (50mg/kg in wild-type (WT and TREK-1 deficient mice (Knockout homozygous KO and heterozygous HET. Then, we combined the same fluoxetine treatment with a five-day treatment by spadin, in order to specifically block TREK-1 activity (KO-like mice. KO and KO-like mice could be regarded as antidepressed models.167 mice (45 WTcont 46 WTflux 30 HETflux and 46 KOflux constituting the flux-pool and 113 supplementary mice (27 KO-like 24 WTflux2 24 KO-likeflux 21 WTcont2 17 WTno dive constituting the spad-pool were included in this study. Only 7% of KO-TREK-1 treated with fluoxetine (KOflux and 4% of mice treated with both spadin and fluoxetine (KO-likeflux died from decompression sickness (DCS symptoms. These values are much lower than those of WT control (62% or KO-like mice (41%. After the decompression protocol, mice showed a significant consumption of their circulating platelets and leukocytes.Spadin antidepressed mice were more likely to declare DCS. Nevertheless, which had both blocked TREK-1 channel and were treated with fluoxetine were better protected against DCS. We conclude that the protective effect of such an acute dose of fluoxetine is enhanced when TREK-1 is inhibited. We confirmed that antidepressed models may have worse DCS outcomes, but a concomitant fluoxetine treatment not only decreases DCS severity but increases the survival rate.

  9. Developing a Comparative Docking Protocol for the Prediction of Peptide Selectivity Profiles: Investigation of Potassium Channel Toxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdar Kuyucak

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available During the development of selective peptides against highly homologous targets, a reliable tool is sought that can predict information on both mechanisms of binding and relative affinities. These tools must first be tested on known profiles before application on novel therapeutic candidates. We therefore present a comparative docking protocol in HADDOCK using critical motifs, and use it to “predict” the various selectivity profiles of several major αKTX scorpion toxin families versus Kv1.1, Kv1.2 and Kv1.3. By correlating results across toxins of similar profiles, a comprehensive set of functional residues can be identified. Reasonable models of channel-toxin interactions can be then drawn that are consistent with known affinity and mutagenesis. Without biological information on the interaction, HADDOCK reproduces mechanisms underlying the universal binding of αKTX-2 toxins, and Kv1.3 selectivity of αKTX-3 toxins. The addition of constraints encouraging the critical lysine insertion confirms these findings, and gives analogous explanations for other families, including models of partial pore-block in αKTX-6. While qualitatively informative, the HADDOCK scoring function is not yet sufficient for accurate affinity-ranking. False minima in low-affinity complexes often resemble true binding in high-affinity complexes, despite steric/conformational penalties apparent from visual inspection. This contamination significantly complicates energetic analysis, although it is usually possible to obtain correct ranking via careful interpretation of binding-well characteristics and elimination of false positives. Aside from adaptations to the broader potassium channel family, we suggest that this strategy of comparative docking can be extended to other channels of interest with known structure, especially in cases where a critical motif exists to improve docking effectiveness.

  10. Effect of potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine pretreatment on the 6-OHDA-induced Parkinson's disease in rats

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    M. Sofiabadi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nuclease and caspase enzymes activities which promote death signals and lead to apoptosis are dependent to potassium ions. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP potassium channel blocker on the animal model of Parkinson's disease. Methods: This experimental study was performed in Qazvin University of Medical Sciences, 2013. Male Rats were received different doses of 4-AP twice daily from half an hour before injection of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA to 7 or 15 days after that. 6-OHDA was injected into medial forebrain bundle (MFB in acute model groups and into striatum in chronic model groups. The severity of Parkinsonism was assessed by standard behavioral methods. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann Whitney U tests. Findings: In acute model groups, administration of 0.5 mg/kg 4-AP (n=9 had no remarkable effect on behavioral symptoms, but 1 mg/kg 4-AP (n=8 significantly reduced the severity of apomorphine-induced rotations and improved motor learning in rotarod test. In chronic model groups, although 1 mg/kg 4-AP (n=7 significantly reduced the severity of rotations and improved motor learning, but 0.5 mg/kg 4-AP (n=8 was more effective. Conclusion: Pretreatment with 4-AP can reduce 6-OHDA-induced dopaminergic neuron death. Since the chronic model of 6-OHDA is more similar to Parkinson's disease in human, the low dose of 4-AP is recommended for treatment of this disease.

  11. Metamizol acts as an ATP sensitive potassium channel opener to inhibit the contracting response induced by angiotensin II but not to norepinephrine in rat thoracic aorta smooth muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela, Fermín; García-Saisó, Sebastián; Lemini, Cristina; Ramírez-Solares, Rafael; Vidrio, Horacio; Mendoza-Fernández, Víctor

    2005-08-01

    Clinically metamizol (MZ) has been related to alteration on haemodynamic parameters and modifications on blood pressure in humans when administered intravenously. These effects have been observed at MZ therapeutic doses. Experimentally, MZ is able to induce relaxation on several types of vascular smooth muscles and modulates the contraction induced by phenylephrine. However, the mechanism underlying the MZ effects on vascular reactivity is not clear. Potassium channels (K) present on vascular smooth muscle cells closely regulate the vascular reactivity and membrane potential. There are four described types of K in vascular tissue: K voltage sensitive (K(V)), K calcium sensitive (K(Ca)2+), K ATP sensitive (K(ATP) and K inward rectification (K(IR), voltage sensitive). The aim of this work was to investigate MZ effects on angiotensin II (AT II) and noradrenaline (NA) induced contraction and to evaluate the K participation on MZ modulating effect on vascular smooth muscle contraction, using isometric and patch clamp techniques. MZ induces relaxation in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, MZ strongly inhibits in a concentration dependent fashion the contraction induced by AT II. However, MZ inhibition on NA induced contraction was moderated compared with that observed on AT II. MZ effects on AT II induced contraction was blocked by glybenclamide (a specific K(ATP) blocker, 3 microM, *p < 0.01). In patch clamp experiments, MZ (3 mM) induces an increase on potassium current (K+) mediated by K(ATP) in similar way as diazoxide (a specific K(ATP) opener, 3 microM). Our results suggest that MZ induces relaxation and inhibits contraction induced by AT II acting as a K(ATP) opener.

  12. Inhibition of Ca2+-activated large-conductance K+ channel activity alters synaptic AMPA receptor phenotype in mouse cerebellar stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu; Savtchouk, Iaroslav; Acharjee, Shoana; Liu, Siqiong June

    2011-07-01

    Many fast-spiking inhibitory interneurons, including cerebellar stellate cells, fire brief action potentials and express α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors (AMPAR) that are permeable to Ca(2+) and do not contain the GluR2 subunit. In a recent study, we found that increasing action potential duration promotes GluR2 gene transcription in stellate cells. We have now tested the prediction that activation of potassium channels that control the duration of action potentials can suppress the expression of GluR2-containing AMPARs at stellate cell synapses. We find that large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (BK) channels mediate a large proportion of the depolarization-evoked noninactivating potassium current in stellate cells. Pharmacological blockade of BK channels prolonged the action potential duration in postsynaptic stellate cells and altered synaptic AMPAR subtype from GluR2-lacking to GluR2-containing Ca(2+)-impermeable AMPARs. An L-type channel blocker abolished an increase in Ca(2+) entry that was associated with spike broadening and also prevented the BK channel blocker-induced switch in AMPAR phenotype. Thus blocking BK potassium channels prolongs the action potential duration and increases the expression of GluR2-containing receptors at the synapse by enhancing Ca(2+) entry in cerebellar stellate cells.

  13. Relevance of lysine snorkeling in the outer transmembrane domain of small viral potassium ion channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, Manuela; Henkes, Leonhard M; Tayefeh, Sascha; Hertel, Brigitte; Greiner, Timo; Van Etten, James L; Baumeister, Dirk; Cosentino, Cristian; Moroni, Anna; Kast, Stefan M; Thiel, Gerhard

    2012-07-17

    Transmembrane domains (TMDs) are often flanked by Lys or Arg because they keep their aliphatic parts in the bilayer and their charged groups in the polar interface. Here we examine the relevance of this so-called "snorkeling" of a cationic amino acid, which is conserved in the outer TMD of small viral K(+) channels. Experimentally, snorkeling activity is not mandatory for Kcv(PBCV-1) because K29 can be replaced by most of the natural amino acids without any corruption of function. Two similar channels, Kcv(ATCV-1) and Kcv(MT325), lack a cytosolic N-terminus, and neutralization of their equivalent cationic amino acids inhibits their function. To understand the variable importance of the cationic amino acids, we reanalyzed molecular dynamics simulations of Kcv(PBCV-1) and N-terminally truncated mutants; the truncated mutants mimic Kcv(ATCV-1) and Kcv(MT325). Structures were analyzed with respect to membrane positioning in relation to the orientation of K29. The results indicate that the architecture of the protein (including the selectivity filter) is only weakly dependent on TMD length and protonation of K29. The penetration depth of Lys in a given protonation state is independent of the TMD architecture, which leads to a distortion of shorter proteins. The data imply that snorkeling can be important for K(+) channels; however, its significance depends on the architecture of the entire TMD. The observation that the most severe N-terminal truncation causes the outer TMD to move toward the cytosolic side suggests that snorkeling becomes more relevant if TMDs are not stabilized in the membrane by other domains.

  14. Interaction of Kv3 potassium channels and resurgent sodium current influences the rate of spontaneous firing of Purkinje neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akemann, Walther; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2006-04-26

    Purkinje neurons spontaneously generate action potentials in the absence of synaptic drive and thereby exert a tonic, yet plastic, input to their target cells in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Purkinje neurons express two ionic currents with biophysical properties that are specialized for high-frequency firing: resurgent sodium currents and potassium currents mediated by Kv3.3. How these ionic currents determine the intrinsic activity of Purkinje neurons has only partially been understood. Purkinje neurons from mutant mice lacking Kv3.3 have a reduced rate of spontaneous firing. Dynamic-clamp recordings demonstrated that normal firing rates are rescued by inserting artificial Kv3 currents into Kv3.3 knock-out Purkinje neurons. Numerical simulations indicated that Kv3.3 increases the spontaneous firing rate via cooperation with resurgent sodium currents. We conclude that the rate of spontaneous action potential firing of Purkinje neurons is controlled by the interaction of Kv3.3 potassium currents and resurgent sodium currents.

  15. MUTATIONS IN THE VHL GENE FRIOM POTASSIUM BROMATE-INDUCED RAT CLEAR CELL RENAL TUMORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potassium bromate (KBrO3) is a rat renal carcinogen and a major drinking water disinfection by-product in water disinfected with ozone. Clear cell renal tumors, the most common form of human renal epithelial neoplasm, are rare in animals but are inducible by KBrO3 in F344 rats. ...

  16. 衰老大鼠动脉超微结构及平滑肌钾通道反应性变化%Changes of arterial ultrastructure and reaction of potassium channels in smooth muscle in aged rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙华灵; 石丽君; 李丽; 刘晓东

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Potassium channel is the main ion channel to regulate vascular smooth muscle contraction and relaxation, and closely related with vascular tone. However, the reports about the mechanism of potassium channels in the body’s aging process are rare. OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effects of aging on the arterial ultrastructure and smooth muscle potassium channel reaction, and then to explore the possible mechanisms. METHODS:Sixteen healthy male Wistar rats were col ected, 19-month-old rats were assigned to the old group (n=8), 2-month-old rats were used as young group (n=8). The thoracic arteries were isolated and cut into rings to conduct contractility measurement in six rats of each group. The thoracic arteries were stimulated with specific calcium-activated potassium channel blocker tetraethylammonium, specific voltage-dependent potassium channel blocker 4-aminopyridine, specific ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker glibenclamide, and specific inward rectifier potassium channel blocker BaCl 2 ultrastructure changes under electron microscope. , and then the arterial contractile response to the blockers were observed. The thoracic arteries of the remaining two rats in each group were taken to observe the arterial RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:Compared with the young group, the ultrastructures of the thoracic aortic endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells were changed in the old group;KCI induced the maximum thoracic aortic contractile tension, and then recovered to the baseline tension, and the recovery time in the old group was significantly longer than that in the young group;al the four kinds of blockers could increase vascular tone, and the tetraethylammonium and 4-aminopyridine induced thoracic aortic contractile response in the old group was significantly lower than that in the young group;there was no significant difference in vasoconstriction induced by glibenclamide and BaCl 2 . Aging can induce arterial ultrastructure changes and declination of

  17. The development of a potassium-sulfide glass fiber cell and studies on impurities in alkali metal-sulfur cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, F. Y.

    1977-01-01

    Potassium sulfur rechargeable cells, having as the electrolyte the thin walls of hollow glass fibers made from permeable glass, were developed. The cells had short lives, probably due to the construction materials and impurities in the potassium. The effect of the impurities in the analogous NA-S system was studied. Calcium, potassium, and NaOH/oxide impurities caused increased resistance or corrosion of the glass fibers. For long lived cell operation, the Na must contain less than 1 ppm Ca and less than a few ppm of hydroxide/oxide. Up to 150 ppm K can be tolerated. After purification of the Na anolyte, cell lifetimes in excess of 1000 deep charge-discharge cycles or over 8 months on continuous cycling at 10-30 percent depth of discharge were obtained.

  18. 电压门控性钾通道与认知功能障碍的研究进展%Voltage-gated potassium channels in cognitive dysfunction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    颜文慧; 王萌(综述); 陈莉娜(审校)

    2015-01-01

    The growing number of cognitive dysfunction patients is bringing heavy mental and financial burdens to the society and families.Voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv), which consist of delayed rectifier potassium channels and transient outward po -tassium channels , are involved in the incidence of cognitive dysfunction .This review summarized the role of Kv channels in cognitive dysfunction and their relationship with N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptors ( NMDARs) that play an important role in the process of learning and memory .%认知功能障碍患者的增多给社会、家庭带来了沉重的精神和经济负担。电压门控性钾通道( voltage-gated potas-sium channels, Kv)主要分为延迟整流钾通道和瞬时外向钾通道,参与认知功能障碍的发生。文中对Kv通道与认知功能障碍,以及Kv通道与在学习和记忆过程中起重要作用的N-甲基-D-天冬氨酸(N-methyl-D-aspartic acid, NMDA)受体之间的关系作一综述。

  19. Interaction of C-70 fullerene with the Kv1.2 potassium channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Monticelli, L.; Barnoud, J.; Orlowskid, A.;

    2012-01-01

    Fullerene C-70 is known to partition into lipid membranes and change their physical properties. Together with gallic acid (GA), C-70 induces cell contraction and cell death. How C-70 and GA-induced perturbations of lipid membranes affect cellular function and membrane protein activity is not unde......Fullerene C-70 is known to partition into lipid membranes and change their physical properties. Together with gallic acid (GA), C-70 induces cell contraction and cell death. How C-70 and GA-induced perturbations of lipid membranes affect cellular function and membrane protein activity...

  20. 大电导钙激活钾通道对平滑肌的调控作用研究进展%Progress in regulation of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels on smooth muscle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汉高; 李芳萍; 张雪梅

    2011-01-01

    Potassium channels are important to distribute in almost each tissue and implicated with many functions of cells, such as the formation of action potential and signal transduction. Large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel ( BKca/Maxi K) is one of the potassium channels and expressed in many types of cells. The activation of BKca/Maxi K is able to induce the hyperpolarization of plasma membrane and the inhibition of voltagedependent calcium channel activity. So BKca/Maxi K plays an important role in the relaxation of smooth muscle.The pathogenesis of many diseases is also involved in activation and inactivation, expression, or mutation of this potassium channel. BKca/Maxi K participates in the regulation of cardiovascular smooth muscle, myometrial smooth muscle, smooth muscle in the airway and penile erection. Especially, the gene therapy of BKca/Maxi K to erectile dysfunction enjoys some advantages over medication.%钾通道是组织器官中的一种重要通道,几乎所有的组织中都有该通道的分布,并且它在调节细胞功能方面起着极其重要的作用,例如动作电位的形成和信号传导等.大电导钙激活钾通道(BKca/Maxi K)以其广泛的分布,以及参与调节多种细胞功能吸引了更多研究者的关注.BKca/Maxi K的激活可导致细胞膜的超极化,从而抑制电压依赖性钙通道的激活,抑制钙离子内流,引起平滑肌舒张.近年来研究发现,BKca/Maxi K的激活、失活和变异与多种疾病的发病有关,BKca/Maxi K对心血管平滑肌、子宫平滑肌、呼吸道平滑肌和阴茎勃起等具有调控作用,尤其是其基因疗法对阴茎勃起障碍的治疗逐渐显现出较大的优势.

  1. Reduced KCNQ4-encoded voltage-dependent potassium channel activity underlies impaired ß-adrenoceptor-mediated relaxation of renal arteries in hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chadha, Preet S; Zunke, Friederike; Zhu, Hai-Lei;

    2012-01-01

    KCNQ4-encoded voltage-dependent potassium (Kv7.4) channels are important regulators of vascular tone that are severely compromised in models of hypertension. However, there is no information as to the role of these channels in responses to endogenous vasodilators. We used a molecular knockdown...... strategy, as well as pharmacological tools, to examine the hypothesis that Kv7.4 channels contribute to ß-adrenoceptor-mediated vasodilation in the renal vasculature and underlie the vascular deficit in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry confirmed gene and protein...... spontaneously hypertensive rats, which was associated with ˜60% decrease in Kv7.4 abundance. This study provides the first evidence that Kv7 channels contribute to ß-adrenoceptor-mediated vasodilation in the renal vasculature and that abrogation of Kv7.4 channels is strongly implicated in the impaired ß...

  2. Effects of Acute Mechanical Stretch on the Expression of Mechanosensitive Potassium Channel TREK-1 in Rat Left Ventricle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Fang; DONG Lijuan; CHENG Longxian; ZENG Qiutang; SU Fangcheng

    2007-01-01

    To explore the role of mechanosensitive potassium channel TREK-1, Western blot analysis was used to investigate the expression changes of TREK-1 in left ventricle in acute mechanically stretched heart. Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=5 in each group),subject to single Langendorff perfusion for 0, 30, 60, 120 min and acute mechanical stretch for 0, 30,60, 120 min respectively. With Langendorff apparatus, an acute mechanically stretched heart model was established. There was no significant difference in the expression of TREK-1 among single Langendorff perfusion groups (P>0.05). As compared to non-stretched Langendorff-perfused heart, only the expression of TREK-1 in acute mechanically stretched heart (120 min) was greatly increased (P<0.05). This result suggested that some course of mechanical stretch could up-regulate the expression of TREK-1 in left ventricle. TREK-1 might play an important role in mechanoelectric feedback,so it could reduce the occurrence of arrhythmia that was induced by extra mechanical stretch.

  3. Family-based genome-wide association study of frontal θ oscillations identifies potassium channel gene KCNJ6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, S J; Rangaswamy, M; Manz, N; Wang, J-C; Wetherill, L; Hinrichs, T; Almasy, L; Brooks, A; Chorlian, D B; Dick, D; Hesselbrock, V; Kramer, J; Kuperman, S; Nurnberger, J; Rice, J; Schuckit, M; Tischfield, J; Bierut, L J; Edenberg, H J; Goate, A; Foroud, T; Porjesz, B

    2012-08-01

    Event-related oscillations (EROs) represent highly heritable neuroelectric correlates of cognitive processes that manifest deficits in alcoholics and in offspring at high risk to develop alcoholism. Theta ERO to targets in the visual oddball task has been shown to be an endophenotype for alcoholism. A family-based genome-wide association study was performed for the frontal theta ERO phenotype using 634 583 autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 1560 family members from 117 families densely affected by alcohol use disorders, recruited in the Collaborative Study on the Genetics of Alcoholism. Genome-wide significant association was found with several SNPs on chromosome 21 in KCNJ6 (a potassium inward rectifier channel; KIR3.2/GIRK2), with the most significant SNP at P = 4.7 × 10(-10)). The same SNPs were also associated with EROs from central and parietal electrodes, but with less significance, suggesting that the association is frontally focused. One imputed synonymous SNP in exon four, highly correlated with our top three SNPs, was significantly associated with the frontal theta ERO phenotype. These results suggest KCNJ6 or its product GIRK2 account for some of the variations in frontal theta band oscillations. GIRK2 receptor activation contributes to slow inhibitory postsynaptic potentials that modulate neuronal excitability, and therefore influence neuronal networks.

  4. MicroRNA-Mediated Downregulation of the Potassium Channel Kv4.2 Contributes to Seizure Onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Gross

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Seizures are bursts of excessive synchronized neuronal activity, suggesting that mechanisms controlling brain excitability are compromised. The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv4.2, a major mediator of hyperpolarizing A-type currents in the brain, is a crucial regulator of neuronal excitability. Kv4.2 expression levels are reduced following seizures and in epilepsy, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we report that Kv4.2 mRNA is recruited to the RNA-induced silencing complex shortly after status epilepticus in mice and after kainic acid treatment of hippocam