WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell phones validation

  1. Cell phones and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of ...

  2. A validity study of self-reported daily texting frequency, cell phone characteristics, and texting styles among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, Judith E; Rauscher, Kimberly J; Zhu, Motao

    2015-04-02

    Texting is associated with adverse health effects including musculoskeletal disorders, sleep disturbances, and traffic crashes. Many studies have relied on self-reported texting frequency, yet the validity of self-reports is unknown. Our objective was to provide some of the first data on the validity of self-reported texting frequency, cell phone characteristics including input device (e.g. touchscreen), key configuration (e.g., QWERTY), and texting styles including phone orientation (e.g., horizontal) and hands holding the phone while texting. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire and observation of a texting task among college students ages 18 to 24. To gauge agreement between self-reported and phone bill-derived categorical number of daily text messages sent, we calculated percent of agreement, Spearman correlation coefficient, and a linear weighted kappa statistic. For agreement between self-reported and observed cell phone characteristics and texting styles we calculated percentages of agreement. We used chi-square tests to detect significant differences (α = 0.05) by gender and study protocol. There were 106 participants; 87 of which had complete data for texting frequency analyses. Among these 87, there was 26% (95% CI: 21-31) agreement between self-reported and phone bill-derived number of daily text messages sent with a Spearman's rho of 0.48 and a weighted kappa of 0.17 (95% CI: 0.06-0.27). Among those who did not accurately report the number of daily texts sent, 81% overestimated this number. Among the full sample (n = 106), there was high agreement between self-reported and observed texting input device (96%, 95% CI: 91-99), key configuration (89%, 95% CI: 81-94), and phone orientation while texting (93%, 95% CI: 86-97). No differences were found by gender or study protocol among any items. While young adults correctly reported their cell phone's characteristics and phone orientation while texting, most incorrectly

  3. Cell phone explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj

    2016-03-01

    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. The cell phone dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertens, J.; Wiedemann, P.

    2008-01-01

    It is explored if and how the Media generate social technophobias and in particular provoke antagonism against Cell Phones. The role of science and politics in this context is discussed. The authors caution against a progressive creation of hysteria in risk debates. (orig.)

  5. Cell Phone RF Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, Wathiq

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in "Physics Today," Meredith and Redish emphasized the need to make introductory physics courses beneficial for life sciences majors. In this study, a lab activity is proposed to measure the intensity of electromagnetic waves emitted by cell phones and connect these measurements to various standards, biological…

  6. Cell Phone Detection Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Richard M.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Puzycki, David J.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Good, Morris S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2007-10-01

    A team composed of Rick Pratt, Dave Puczyki, Kyle Bunch, Ryan Slaugh, Morris Good, and Doug McMakin teamed together to attempt to exploit cellular telephone features and detect if a person was carrying a cellular telephone into a Limited Area. The cell phone’s electromagnetic properties were measured, analyzed, and tested in over 10 different ways to determine if an exploitable signature exists. The method that appears to have the most potential for success without adding an external tag is to measure the RF spectrum, not in the cell phone band, but between 240 and 400MHz. Figures 1- 7 show the detected signal levels from cell phones from three different manufacturers.

  7. Cell phones: modern man's nemesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Kartikeya; Varghese, Alex; Desai, Nisarg R; Mouradi, Rand; Agarwal, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, the use of mobile phones has increased significantly. However, with every technological development comes some element of health concern, and cell phones are no exception. Recently, various studies have highlighted the negative effects of cell phone exposure on human health, and concerns about possible hazards related to cell phone exposure have been growing. This is a comprehensive, up-to-the-minute overview of the effects of cell phone exposure on human health. The types of cell phones and cell phone technologies currently used in the world are discussed in an attempt to improve the understanding of the technical aspects, including the effect of cell phone exposure on the cardiovascular system, sleep and cognitive function, as well as localized and general adverse effects, genotoxicity potential, neurohormonal secretion and tumour induction. The proposed mechanisms by which cell phones adversely affect various aspects of human health, and male fertility in particular, are explained, and the emerging molecular techniques and approaches for elucidating the effects of mobile phone radiation on cellular physiology using high-throughput screening techniques, such as metabolomics and microarrays, are discussed. A novel study is described, which is looking at changes in semen parameters, oxidative stress markers and sperm DNA damage in semen samples exposed in vitro to cell phone radiation.

  8. CELL PHONE ADDICTION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSE DE SOLA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyse the concept of cell phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain lack of conceptual delimitation that has resulted in a broad spread of prevalent data. There is a consensus about the existence of cell phone addiction, but the delimitation and criteria used by various researchers vary. Cell phone addiction shows a distinct user profile that differentiates it from Internet addiction. Without evidence pointing to the influence of cultural level and socioeconomic status, the pattern of abuse is greatest among young people, primarily females. Intercultural and geographical differences have not been sufficiently studied. The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell phone use. In addition, the present review reveals the coexistence relationship between problematic cell phone use and substance use such as tobacco and alcohol.

  9. Biometric Security for Cell Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones are already prime targets for theft. The increasing functionality of cell phones is making them even more attractive. With the increase of cell phone functionality including personal digital assistance, banking, e-commerce, remote work, internet access and entertainment, more and more confidential data is stored on these devices. What is protecting this confidential data stored on cell phones? Studies have shown that even though most of the cell phone users are aware of the PIN security feature more than 50% of them are not using it either because of the lack of confidence in it or because of the inconvenience. A large majority of those users believes that an alternative approach to security would be a good idea.

  10. Cell Phones: The Psychosocial Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user’s risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the u...

  11. No Phone Zone: Controlling Cell Phone Use in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Shelley; Master, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of cell phone policies in university libraries conducted over a three-month period in 2005. The authors sought information about the libraries' problems regarding cell phone use and attendant noise by students and other library users. The authors began with an 18-question survey of one hundred…

  12. Cell phones: the psychosocial risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansone, Randy A; Sansone, Lori A

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user's risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the unwanted exposure of photographs and/or videos of the victim; and overuse, particularly among adolescents. With regard to the latter phenomenon, the boundaries among overuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction are not scientifically clear. Therefore, while cell phones are a convenient and expedient technology, they are not without their potential psychosocial hazards.

  13. Youth Culture and Cell Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohammad saeed zokaei

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Iranian youth’s leisure culture has been immediately affected by the digital media culture. As a communicative media, cell phone has crossed borders of youth norms and identity; and in addition to facilitating their communication, has changed its patterns. Applying Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus and field, and relied on the qualitative and quantitative data gathered from the mobile youth users, the present study argues that mobile has produced a new field in which youth’s opportunities for leisure, entertainment, communication, and independence have extended. In addition, cell phone has facilitated and compensated for some defects in public sphere, and therefore empowered youth agency, individuality, and power. Despite this strengthening, cell phone does not cross borders of gender and class differences, or the levels of social capital.

  14. Evaluation of a cell phone-based physical activity diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternfeld, Barbara; Jiang, Sheng-Fang; Picchi, Teresa; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Ainsworth, Barbara; Quesenberry, Charles P

    2012-03-01

    Physical activity (PA) diaries reduce the recall error inherent in self-reported PA but are burdensome. The purpose of this study was to compare a cell phone-based diary with a paper diary and examine the reliability and validity of the cell phone diary. In a pilot study, 25 women and 23 men, age 45-65 yr, completed cell phone and paper PA diaries 4 d·wk(-1) for three consecutive weeks and a user satisfaction survey. In the subsequent validation study, 623 middle-age participants (52.5% women) were asked to complete the cell phone diary and wear an accelerometer for two 7-d periods, approximately 6 months apart. They also completed two PA questionnaires. Fitness, body mass index, and percent body fat were obtained as indirect validation criteria. Estimates of PA from the cell phone and paper diaries were similar (mean within person difference = -43.8 MET·min·d(-1) of total PA, SD = 360, P = 0.49, 7.4 min·d(-1) of moderate-vigorous PA, SD = 66, P = 0.53). Users preferred the cell phone diary over the paper diary (59.6% vs 35.4%). In the subsequent study, intraclass correlations for the cell phone diary ranged from 0.55 for light PA to 0.63 for vigorous PA. Although PA estimates from the cell phone diary were generally significantly higher than those from the accelerometer and the questionnaires, correlations for moderate and vigorous PA were moderate (ρ = 0.25-0.59 with the questionnaires and 0.27-0.35 with the accelerometer). The correlations between the cell phone diary and the indirect validation criteria were generally in the expected direction and of moderate magnitude. A cell phone-based PA diary is equivalent to a paper diary, acceptable to users, and a relatively reliable and valid approach to self-reported PA.

  15. Cell Phones in the Classroom? Yes!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaer, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The author has been using mobile phones actively in her adult education classes for the last two years. She has found that, with a bit of cell phone etiquette, students are responsible and will use phones as learning tools instead of just as toys. In this article, the author describes how she uses them and suggests effective techniques for…

  16. Teen driver cell phone blocker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This study was a randomized control intervention to measure the effectiveness of a cellular phone control device : that communicates with the vehicles of teen drivers to deny them access to their phone while driving for the : purpose of reducing dist...

  17. Is the Phone Mightier than the Sword? Cell Phones and Insurgent Violence in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-03

    Is the Phone Mightier than the Sword ? Cell Phones and Insurgent Violence in Iraq 1 Jacob N. Shapiro† Nils B. Weidmann‡ This version...SEP 2012 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Is the Phone Mightier than the Sword ? Cell Phones and...53(4): 526 -543. Online Appendix for “Is the Phone Mightier than the Sword ? Cell Phones and Insurgent Violence in Iraq” September 3, 2012

  18. Cell Phones Transform a Science Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    A science methods instructor intentionally encouraged cell phone use for class work to discover how cell phones can be used as research tools to enhance the content and engage the students. The anecdotal evidence suggested that students who used their smartphones as research tools experienced the science content and pedagogical information…

  19. Cell Phone Roulette and "Consumer Interactive" Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Under current policies, cell phone consumers face a lower probability of finding the best carrier for their usage patterns than winning at roulette. Corroborating survey data consistently show significant dissatisfaction among cell phone users, network performance is a major issue, and customer "churn" is high. This problem may be traced to a new…

  20. Cell-Phone Addiction: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Sola Gutiérrez, José; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Rubio, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyze the concept of cell-phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features, and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain lack of conceptual delimitation that has resulted in a broad spread of prevalent data. There is a consensus about the existence of cell-phone addiction, but the delimitation and criteria used by various researchers vary. Cell-phone addiction shows a distinct user profile that differentiates it from Internet addiction. Without evidence pointing to the influence of cultural level and socioeconomic status, the pattern of abuse is greatest among young people, primarily females. Intercultural and geographical differences have not been sufficiently studied. The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables, such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity, and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell-phone use. In addition, the present review reveals the coexistence relationship between problematic cell-phone use and substance use such as tobacco and alcohol. PMID:27822187

  1. Cell-Phone Addiction: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Sola Gutiérrez, José; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Rubio, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyze the concept of cell-phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features, and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain lack of conceptual delimitation that has resulted in a broad spread of prevalent data. There is a consensus about the existence of cell-phone addiction, but the delimitation and criteria used by various researchers vary. Cell-phone addiction shows a distinct user profile that differentiates it from Internet addiction. Without evidence pointing to the influence of cultural level and socioeconomic status, the pattern of abuse is greatest among young people, primarily females. Intercultural and geographical differences have not been sufficiently studied. The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables, such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity, and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell-phone use. In addition, the present review reveals the coexistence relationship between problematic cell-phone use and substance use such as tobacco and alcohol.

  2. Health Issues: Do Cell Phones Pose a Health Hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Health Issues Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... it Email Print Do cell phones pose a health hazard? Many people are concerned that cell phone ...

  3. Cell Phones: Current Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Biological or Adverse Health Effects of Wireless Communication Devices World Health Organization: Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones International Agency for Research on Cancer Press Release ...

  4. The Impact of Driver Cell Phone Use on Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    James E. Prieger; Robert W. Hahn

    2005-01-01

    Cell phone use is increasing worldwide, leading to a concern that cell phone use while driving increases accidents. We develop a new approach for estimating the relationship between cell phone use while driving and accidents, based on new survey data. We test for selection effects, such as whether drivers who use cell phones are inherently less safe drivers, even when not on the phone. The paper has two key findings. First, the impact of cell phone use on accidents varies across the populatio...

  5. Hemispheric dominance and cell phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidman, Michael D; Siegel, Bianca; Shah, Priyanka; Bowyer, Susan M

    2013-05-01

    A thorough understanding of why we hold a cell phone to a particular ear may be of importance when studying the impact of cell phone safety. To determine if there is an obvious association between sidedness of cell phone use and auditory hemispheric dominance (AHD) or language hemispheric dominance (LHD). It is known that 70% to 95% of the population are right-handed, and of these, 96% have left-brain LHD. We have observed that most people use their cell phones in their right ear. An Internet survey was e-mailed to individuals through surveymonkey.com. The survey used a modified Edinburgh Handedness Inventory protocol. Sample questions surveyed which hand was used to write with, whether the right or left ear was used for phone conversations, as well as whether a brain tumor was present. General community. An Internet survey was randomly e-mailed to 5000 individuals selected from an otology online group, patients undergoing Wada testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging, as well as persons on the university listserv, of which 717 surveys were completed. Determination of hemispheric dominance based on preferred ear for cell phone use. A total of 717 surveys were returned. Ninety percent of the respondents were right handed, and 9% were left handed. Sixty-eight percent of the right-handed people used the cell phone in their right ear, 25% in the left ear, and 7% had no preference. Seventy-two of the left-handed respondents used their left ear, 23% used their right ear, and 5% had no preference. Cell phone use averaged 540 minutes per month over the past 9 years. An association exists between hand dominance laterality of cell phone use (73%) and our ability to predict hemispheric dominance. Most right-handed people have left-brain LHD and use their cell phone in their right ear. Similarly, most left-handed people use their cell phone in their left ear. Our study suggests that AHD may differ from LHD owing to the difference in handedness and cell phone ear use

  6. Work productivity in rhinitis using cell phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J.; Bewick, Bridgette M; Arnavielhe, S

    2017-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis often impairs social life and performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to use cell phone data to assess the impact on work productivity of uncontrolled rhinitis assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS). A mobile phone app (Allergy Diary, Google Play Store and Apple...

  7. Video Field Studies with your Cell Phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buur, Jacob; Fraser, Euan

    2010-01-01

    is monumental, that equipment is difficult to handle etc. This tutorial presents a lightweight entry into video field studies, using cheap devices like cell phones and portable webcams for informal shooting and simple computer handling for editing. E.g. how far can you get with an iPhone or a video capable i...

  8. Cell phone based balance trainer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background In their current laboratory-based form, existing vibrotactile sensory augmentation technologies that provide cues of body motion are impractical for home-based rehabilitation use due to their size, weight, complexity, calibration procedures, cost, and fragility. Methods We have designed and developed a cell phone based vibrotactile feedback system for potential use in balance rehabilitation training in clinical and home environments. It comprises an iPhone with an embedded tri-axial linear accelerometer, custom software to estimate body tilt, a "tactor bud" accessory that plugs into the headphone jack to provide vibrotactile cues of body tilt, and a battery. Five young healthy subjects (24 ± 2.8 yrs, 3 females and 2 males) and four subjects with vestibular deficits (42.25 ± 13.5 yrs, 2 females and 2 males) participated in a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Healthy subjects used the system with eyes closed during Romberg, semi-tandem Romberg, and tandem Romberg stances. Subjects with vestibular deficits used the system with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions during semi-tandem Romberg stance. Vibrotactile feedback was provided when the subject exceeded either an anterior-posterior (A/P) or a medial-lateral (M/L) body tilt threshold. Subjects were instructed to move away from the vibration. Results The system was capable of providing real-time vibrotactile cues that informed corrective postural responses. When feedback was available, both healthy subjects and those with vestibular deficits significantly reduced their A/P or M/L RMS sway (depending on the direction of feedback), had significantly smaller elliptical area fits to their sway trajectory, spent a significantly greater mean percentage time within the no feedback zone, and showed a significantly greater A/P or M/L mean power frequency. Conclusion The results suggest that the real-time feedback provided by this system can be used to reduce body sway. Its

  9. Cell phone based balance trainer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Beom-Chan; Kim, Jeonghee; Chen, Shu; Sienko, Kathleen H

    2012-02-08

    In their current laboratory-based form, existing vibrotactile sensory augmentation technologies that provide cues of body motion are impractical for home-based rehabilitation use due to their size, weight, complexity, calibration procedures, cost, and fragility. We have designed and developed a cell phone based vibrotactile feedback system for potential use in balance rehabilitation training in clinical and home environments. It comprises an iPhone with an embedded tri-axial linear accelerometer, custom software to estimate body tilt, a "tactor bud" accessory that plugs into the headphone jack to provide vibrotactile cues of body tilt, and a battery. Five young healthy subjects (24 ± 2.8 yrs, 3 females and 2 males) and four subjects with vestibular deficits (42.25 ± 13.5 yrs, 2 females and 2 males) participated in a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Healthy subjects used the system with eyes closed during Romberg, semi-tandem Romberg, and tandem Romberg stances. Subjects with vestibular deficits used the system with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions during semi-tandem Romberg stance. Vibrotactile feedback was provided when the subject exceeded either an anterior-posterior (A/P) or a medial-lateral (M/L) body tilt threshold. Subjects were instructed to move away from the vibration. The system was capable of providing real-time vibrotactile cues that informed corrective postural responses. When feedback was available, both healthy subjects and those with vestibular deficits significantly reduced their A/P or M/L RMS sway (depending on the direction of feedback), had significantly smaller elliptical area fits to their sway trajectory, spent a significantly greater mean percentage time within the no feedback zone, and showed a significantly greater A/P or M/L mean power frequency. The results suggest that the real-time feedback provided by this system can be used to reduce body sway. Its advantages over more complex

  10. Cell phone based balance trainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Beom-Chan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In their current laboratory-based form, existing vibrotactile sensory augmentation technologies that provide cues of body motion are impractical for home-based rehabilitation use due to their size, weight, complexity, calibration procedures, cost, and fragility. Methods We have designed and developed a cell phone based vibrotactile feedback system for potential use in balance rehabilitation training in clinical and home environments. It comprises an iPhone with an embedded tri-axial linear accelerometer, custom software to estimate body tilt, a "tactor bud" accessory that plugs into the headphone jack to provide vibrotactile cues of body tilt, and a battery. Five young healthy subjects (24 ± 2.8 yrs, 3 females and 2 males and four subjects with vestibular deficits (42.25 ± 13.5 yrs, 2 females and 2 males participated in a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Healthy subjects used the system with eyes closed during Romberg, semi-tandem Romberg, and tandem Romberg stances. Subjects with vestibular deficits used the system with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions during semi-tandem Romberg stance. Vibrotactile feedback was provided when the subject exceeded either an anterior-posterior (A/P or a medial-lateral (M/L body tilt threshold. Subjects were instructed to move away from the vibration. Results The system was capable of providing real-time vibrotactile cues that informed corrective postural responses. When feedback was available, both healthy subjects and those with vestibular deficits significantly reduced their A/P or M/L RMS sway (depending on the direction of feedback, had significantly smaller elliptical area fits to their sway trajectory, spent a significantly greater mean percentage time within the no feedback zone, and showed a significantly greater A/P or M/L mean power frequency. Conclusion The results suggest that the real-time feedback provided by this system can be used

  11. The myth of cell phone radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Vasant

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the purported link between cell-phone radiation and cancer. We show that it is inconsistent with the photoelectric effect, and that epidemiological studies of any link have no scientific basis.

  12. Cell Phone Use by Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryen, Diane Nelson; Carey, Allison; Friedman, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Although cell phone use has grown dramatically, there is a gap in cell phone access between people with disabilities and the general public. The importance of cell phone use among people with intellectual disabilities and studies about use of cell phones by adults with intellectual disabilities was described. Our goal was to determine the extent…

  13. Cell phones and electromagnetic interference revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Some media reports have inaccurately and incompletely interpreted recent studies, creating the impression that newer cell phone technology doesn't create enough electromagnetic interference (EMI) to affect medical equipment. As a result, hospitals are questioning whether existing restrictions on cell phone use can be eliminated. This article takes a closer look at the available evidence and explains that the evidence does, in fact, demonstrate an ongoing risk that EMI will affect medical devices. In addition, the article provides guidance on the impact that some newer communications technologies--namely, in-building cordless telephones, microcell systems, and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) phones--may have on cell phone use and policies. Note that while this article focuses on cell phones--since they are the most common concern among hospitals--other types of wireless devices can also interfere with medical equipment. These include handheld messaging devices (e.g., BlackBerry products); multicommunication devices that combine the use of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and cellular communications; and cellular-capable computers. Healthcare facilities should apply the same policies to these devices as to cell phones. Two-way radios likewise present an interference risk, but require different policies, as we describe in a supplementary article within this Guidance Article.

  14. Validation of a Spanish Questionnaire on Mobile Phone Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María A. Olivencia-Carrión

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone addiction has attracted much attention recently and is showing similarity to other substance use disorders. Because no studies on mobile phone addiction had yet been conducted in Spain, we developed and validated a questionnaire (Cuestionario de Abuso del Teléfono Móvil, ATeMo to measure mobile phone abuse among young adults in Spanish. The ATeMo questionnaire was designed based on relevant DSM-5 diagnostic criteria and included craving as a diagnostic symptom. Using stratified sampling, the ATeMo questionnaire was administered to 856 students (mean age 21, 62% women. The MULTICAGE questionnaire was administered to assess history of drug abuse and addiction. Using confirmatory factor analysis, we found evidence for the construct validity of the following factors: Craving, Loss of Control, Negative Life Consequences, and Withdrawal Syndrome, and their association with a second order factor related to mobile phone abuse. The four ATeMO factors were also associated with alcoholism, internet use, and compulsive buying. Important gender differences were found that should be considered when studying mobile phone addictions. The ATeMo is a valid and reliable instrument that can be used in further research on mobile phone abuse.

  15. Costly Cell Phones: The Impact of Cell Phone Rings on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    End, Christian M.; Worthman, Shaye; Mathews, Mary Bridget; Wetterau, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    College students participated in a study on the "psychology of note taking" during which they took notes on video content and later completed a multiple-choice test on the material. Researchers assigned 71 participants to either the ringing condition (the video was disrupted by a ringing cell phone) or the control condition (no cell phone rings…

  16. Compulsive cell phone use and history of motor vehicle crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Stephen S; Whitehill, Jennifer M; King, Kevin M; Kernic, Mary A; Boyle, Linda Ng; Bresnahan, Brian W; Mack, Christopher D; Ebel, Beth E

    2013-10-01

    Few studies have examined the psychological factors underlying the association between cell phone use and motor vehicle crash. We sought to examine the factor structure and convergent validity of a measure of problematic cell phone use, and to explore whether compulsive cell phone use is associated with a history of motor vehicle crash. We recruited a sample of 383 undergraduate college students to complete an online assessment that included cell phone use and driving history. We explored the dimensionality of the Cell Phone Overuse Scale (CPOS) using factor analytic methods. Ordinary least-squares regression models were used to examine associations between identified subscales and measures of impulsivity, alcohol use, and anxious relationship style, to establish convergent validity. We used negative binomial regression models to investigate associations between the CPOS and motor vehicle crash incidence. We found the CPOS to be composed of four subscales: anticipation, activity interfering, emotional reaction, and problem recognition. Each displayed significant associations with aspects of impulsivity, problematic alcohol use, and anxious relationship style characteristics. Only the anticipation subscale demonstrated statistically significant associations with reported motor vehicle crash incidence, controlling for clinical and demographic characteristics (relative ratio, 1.13; confidence interval, 1.01-1.26). For each 1-point increase on the 6-point anticipation subscale, risk for previous motor vehicle crash increased by 13%. Crash risk is strongly associated with heightened anticipation about incoming phone calls or messages. The mean score on the CPOS is associated with increased risk of motor vehicle crash but does not reach statistical significance. Copyright © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Compulsive Cell Phone Use and History of Motor Vehicle Crash

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connor, Stephen S.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.; King, Kevin M.; Kernic, Mary A.; Boyle, Linda Ng; Bresnahan, Brian; Mack, Christopher D.; Ebel, Beth E.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Few studies have examined the psychological factors underlying the association between cell phone use and motor vehicle crash. We sought to examine the factor structure and convergent validity of a measure of problematic cell phone use and explore whether compulsive cell phone use is associated with a history of motor vehicle crash. Methods We recruited a sample of 383 undergraduate college students to complete an on-line assessment that included cell phone use and driving history. We explored the dimensionality of the Cell Phone Overuse Scale (CPOS) using factor analytic methods. Ordinary least squares regression models were used to examine associations between identified subscales and measures of impulsivity, alcohol use, and anxious relationship style to establish convergent validity. We used negative binomial regression models to investigate associations between the CPOS and motor vehicle crash incidence. Results We found the CPOS to be comprised of four subscales: anticipation, activity interfering, emotional reaction, and problem recognition. Each displayed significant associations with aspects of impulsivity, problematic alcohol use, and anxious relationship style characteristics. Only the anticipation subscale demonstrated statistically significant associations with reported motor vehicle crash incidence, controlling for clinical and demographic characteristics (RR 1.13, CI 1.01 to 1.26). For each one-point increase on the 6-point anticipation subscale, risk for previous motor vehicle crash increased by 13%. Conclusions Crash risk is strongly associated with heightened anticipation about incoming phone calls or messages. The mean score on the CPOS is associated with increased risk of motor vehicle crash but does not reach statistical significance. PMID:23910571

  18. Improving public health surveillance using a dual-frame survey of landline and cell phone numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, S Sean; Balluz, Lina; Battaglia, Michael P; Frankel, Martin R

    2011-03-15

    To meet challenges arising from increasing rates of noncoverage in US landline-based telephone samples due to cell-phone-only households, the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) expanded a traditional landline-based random digit dialing survey to a dual-frame survey of landline and cell phone numbers. In 2008, a survey of adults with cell phones only was conducted in parallel with an ongoing landline-based health survey in 18 states. The authors used the optimal approach to allocate samples into landline and cell-phone-only strata and used a new approach to weighting state-level landline and cell phone samples. They developed logistic models for each of 16 health indicators to examine whether exclusion of adults with cell phones only affected estimates after adjustment for demographic characteristics. The extents of the potential biases in landline telephone surveys that exclude cell phones were estimated. Biases resulting from exclusion of adults with cell phones only from the landline-based survey were found for 9 out of the 16 health indicators. Because landline noncoverage rates for adults with cell phones only continue to increase, these biases are likely to increase. Use of a dual-frame survey of landline and cell phone numbers assisted the BRFSS efforts in obtaining valid, reliable, and representative data. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health 2011.

  19. Cell Phoning and Texting While Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Honoria Rosaire Telemaque

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted on the consequences of cell phone use while operating a vehicle. We discussed why talking and texting on cell phones are so popular through the analysis of our interviews with police officers, driving instructors, and parents of teens and young adults. The participants came from central, northeastern, northwestern, and southeastern Connecticut. All had exposure with respect to the effects of cell phone usage problem. The study reached a point of theoretical saturation or redundancy by which the analysis no longer resulted in new themes. We concluded that the discoveries revealed the necessity for education, expansion of technology, and additional driver education preparation, which may provide a path for leadership to help solve the problem.

  20. Validation of self-reported cellular phone use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Samkange-Zeeb, Florence; Berg, Gabriele; Blettner, Maria

    2004-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In recent years, concern has been raised over possible adverse health effects of cellular telephone use. In epidemiological studies of cancer risk associated with the use of cellular telephones, the validity of self-reported cellular phone use has been problematic. Up to now there is ...

  1. Phantom phone signals: An investigation into the prevalence and predictors of imagined cell phone signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanis, M.A.; Beukeboom, C.J.; Hartmann, T.; Vermeulen, I.E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to elucidate the peculiar phenomenon of imagined cell phone signals, or Phantom Phone Signals (PPS), which is defined as an individual's perception of a phone signal, indicating an incoming call, message, or social media notification, when in fact no such signal was transmitted. A

  2. Cell phone use while driving in North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-11-01

    This study explored several dimensions of the growing trend of talking on a cell phone while driving. It did so by (1) reviewing the recent research epidemiological studies; case analyses of cell phone-related crashes; and driver performance studies;...

  3. From Cell Phone Skeptic to Evangelist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascopella, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Liz Kolb started her education career as a teacher of middle and high school social studies in Wyoming City Schools in Cincinnati. She was also a teacher and technology coordinator at Grandview Heights City Schools in Columbus, where she adamantly opposed cell phones in school until she had an "ah-ha" moment. She then founded the Web site Cell…

  4. The American College Student Cell Phone Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study of cell phone use among college students. This group is considered particularly important because college students tend to be among the first to try new technology, are the group most likely to innovate new ways of using existing technology, and are most vocal about what they need and/or want to see changed…

  5. Wi-Fi Versus Cell Phone Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Gary

    2006-01-01

    Regardless of whether cell phones remain the dominant platform or Wi-Fi becomes the prevalent platform, there are some things that libraries can do to improve patron service in light of evolving expectations, behaviors, and tools. People today are more nomadic, which leads to the very real possibility of having to deliver content not just to the…

  6. The Myth of Cell Phone Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    We discuss the purported link between cell phone radiation and cancer. We show that it is inconsis- tent with the photoelectric effect, and that epi- demiological studies of any link have no scientific basis. Albert Einstein, arguably the greatest scientist in the history of mankind, won the Nobel Prize not for his work on Relativity ...

  7. The cell phone dilemma; Das Mobilfunkdilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, J.; Wiedemann, P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Programmgruppe Mensch, Umwelt, Technik

    2008-07-01

    It is explored if and how the Media generate social technophobias and in particular provoke antagonism against Cell Phones. The role of science and politics in this context is discussed. The authors caution against a progressive creation of hysteria in risk debates. (orig.)

  8. The Myth of Cell Phone Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 17; Issue 11. The Myth of Cell Phone Radiation. Vasant Natarajan. General Article Volume 17 Issue 11 November 2012 pp 1048-1053. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/017/11/1048-1053 ...

  9. Drivers’ Addiction Toward Cell Phone Use While Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Batoul Sedaghati Shokri

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: The fundamental TPB components were directly associated with the addiction to use a cell phone when driving. The present study has identified that older drivers were considerably less probable to use a cell phone while driving. Also this study showed that males use a cell phone significantly more frequent. More practical road safety measures are required to rebuff and mitigate the effects of using cell phones while driving.

  10. Cell Phones in the Classroom: Preservice Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin; O'Bannon, Blanche

    2013-01-01

    This study employed a survey to examine the perceptions of 92 preservice teachers enrolled at a small Midwestern liberal arts university regarding their support of the use of cell phones in the classroom, the benefits of specific cell phone features for school-related work, and the instructional benefits of and barriers to using cell phones in the…

  11. Cell Phones in the Classroom: Are We Dialing up Disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, George; Green, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been a rapid diffusion of cellular technology. Though cell phone use began as a business tool, it has now become part of popular culture. Because of the near ubiquitous presence of cell phone technology among teens in the United States, schools are beginning to explore the use of cell phones as a learning tool. This…

  12. Student Impressions of Academic Cell Phone Use in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones have become ubiquitous in society, but they are typically seen as a problem in the classroom. This study was designed to assess the perspective of students regarding the use of cell phones as academic tools in the classroom. The author encouraged students to use their cell phones in an environmental issues course to find data and other…

  13. Commonalities in Pedagogy Situating Cell Phone Use in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Laurie Lafer

    2013-01-01

    Technology has become embedded in all aspects of students' lives as they increasingly rely on mobile technology devices such as cell phones to access and share information. Cell phones function as portable, affordable, and ubiquitous mini-computers, yet few teachers have leveraged the benefits of cell phone technology for teaching and learning…

  14. Route Choice Estimation Using Cell Phone Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taghipour Homa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays development of cell phone network provides huge and ubiquitous data, with wide application in transportation science. One of the most important advantages of these kinds of data is enabling the process of collecting information without any active users’ interference. A big data set consisting of 300,000 cell phone users’ information in Shiraz are studied. This data set includes spatiotemporal information of travelers for every 5 minutes in a time span of 40 hours in two consecutive days. The spatial part of each user’s information contains the position of the BTS (Base Transceiver Station to which his cell phone is currently connected. Due to the existence of outliers, it is necessary to smooth the data initially. One of the main reasons of errors in the data set is ping pong handover, which leads to false transitions and must be eliminated. After the data preparation, stay locations are determined for each user and a trajectory for each pair of origin and destination is estimated. At this step based on network information of the city, a method to match trajectories with the network map is applied. Finally the obtained results indicate whether travelers choose the shortest path or other possible alternatives.

  15. Review of studies validating the protective efficacy of a new technology designed to compensate adverse biological effects caused by vdu and GSM cell phone radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youbicier-Simo, B.J.; Messagier, R.; Fillion-Robin, M

    2001-01-01

    A total of 13 studies were initiated and coordinated by Technolab Research Center in 6 laboratories from 3 countries (France, UK, Japan). These studies were aimed at: 1) investigating potential adverse biological effects associated with exposure to non ionizing radiation emitted by two types of communication devices, video display units and cell phones; 2) assessing the efficacy of a compensation magnetic oscillating technology designed to protect from non ionizing radiation. Five types of biological systems including chicken embryos, young chickens, healthy mice, mice suffering from cancer and humans were used. A set of 10 biological parameters were assessed, including embryonic mortality, hormones, antibodies, haematological parameters, stress, mood, ocular damage, neurogenesis, micronuclei formation and intracellular calcium. Overall endpoints were affected by irradiation, in terms of increased embryonic mortality, immune depression, depletion of hormones crucial for the regulation of the immune system, changes in haematological parameters, increased stress, mood alteration, induction of ophthalmologic disorders, inhibition of the neurogenesis in brain areas associated with memory processes, induction of symptoms of cell dysfunction, apoptosis or cancer, and disruption of trans-membrane fluxes of calcium. On the other hand, the compensation magnetic oscillation technology tested allowed significant correction of altered physiological parameters, as well as improvement or disappearance of observed pathological symptoms (author)

  16. Long-term effects of handheld cell phone laws on driver handheld cell phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCartt, Anne T; Hellinga, Laurie A; Strouse, Laura M; Farmer, Charles M

    2010-04-01

    As of October 2009, seven U.S. states and the District of Columbia (D.C.) ban driving while talking on a handheld cell phone. Long-term effects on driver handheld phone use in D.C., New York State, and Connecticut were examined. The percentage of drivers talking on handheld cell phones was measured over time with daytime observation surveys in the jurisdictions with bans and comparison jurisdictions without bans. Trends were modeled using Poisson regression to estimate differences between actual rates and rates that would have been expected without a ban. The D.C. ban immediately lowered the percentage of drivers talking on handheld cell phones by 41 percent. Nearly 5 years later, the rate was 43 percent lower than would have been expected without the ban. Use in Connecticut declined 76 percent immediately after the ban; 3.5 years later, use was 65 percent lower than would have been expected without the ban. In New York, use declined 47 percent immediately after the ban; 7 years later, use was 24 percent lower than expected without the ban. Fifteen months after the laws took effect, compliance in New York was lower than in D.C., and the difference appeared due to more intensive enforcement in D.C. However, this linkage is no longer clear because enforcement in New York picked up such that 2008 levels of enforcement appeared comparable in D.C. and New York, whereas enforcement in Connecticut lagged behind. In all three jurisdictions, the chance that a violator would receive a citation was low, and there were no publicized targeted enforcement campaigns. Jurisdictional bans have reduced handheld phone use and appear capable of maintaining reductions for the long term. However, it is unknown whether overall phone use is lower because many drivers may have switched to hands-free devices. Further research is needed to determine whether reduced handheld cell phone use has reduced crashes.

  17. Psychological predictors of college students' cell phone use while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlehofer, Michèle M; Thompson, Suzanne C; Ting, Sarah; Ostermann, Sharon; Nierman, Angela; Skenderian, Jessica

    2010-07-01

    Despite the known risk, many people talk on a phone while driving. This study explored psychological predictors of cell phone use while driving. College students (final N=69) completed a survey and predicted their driving performance both with and without a simultaneous phone conversation. Their actual performance on a driving simulator was then assessed. Cell phone use reduced performance on the simulation task. Further, perceiving oneself as good at compensating for driving distractions, overestimating one's performance on the driving simulator, and high illusory control predicted more frequent cell phone use while driving in everyday life. Finally, those who talked more frequently on a phone while driving had poorer real-world driving records. These findings suggest illusory control and positive illusions partly explain driver's decisions of whether to use cell phones while driving. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Correlation between Cell Phone Use and Sleep Quality in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Bayatiani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The negative health effects of electromagnetic radiation and psychological dependence are among the major consequences of widespread cell phone use in the general population, especially among adolescents. In this study, the relationship between cell phone use and sleep quality parameters was evaluated. Materials and Methods The study sample consisted of 820 students (305 males and 515 females, recruited from Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran. The participants completed Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and Cell-phone Overuse Scale (COS; the validity of these questionnaires had been previously confirmed in the Iranian population. Information on demographic characteristics and variables associated with cell phone exposure, such as the frequency and duration of phone calls and number of messages was collected in a separate questionnaire. Results Data analysis showed that cell phone overuse was significantly correlated with sleep quality and its components. Moreover, the results indicated that the global PSQI score and some sleep components were significantly correlated with several variables related to cell phone use. Based on the findings, the mean PSQI score was significantly different among heavy and light cell phone users (P

  19. Cell phone ringtone, but not landline phone ringtone, affects complex reaction time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajdel, Radosław; Zajdel, Justyna; Śmigielski, Janusz; Nowak, Dariusz

    2013-03-01

    Legislation systems of most countries prohibited using the handheld mobile phone while driving due to the fact that it disturbs concentration and causes hand involvement. Every phone owner is accustomed to the ringtone of his phone and almost involuntarily endeavors to pick it up or check who calls. This engages one's psychomotor skills, which in our opinion contributes to the attenuation of reaction time needed for performing other crucial functions. The aim of the study was: (1) to evaluate the influence of the sound of a ringing mobile phone on the complex reaction time (RT) score in healthy subjects (owners), and (2) to check if there are any differences in RT when a landline phone and mobile phone ring. To assess RT we used our system and protocol of examination, previously validated. The examination conditions were standardized. All tests were performed in the same room with the same light and general acoustic conditions. The test group consisted of 23 women and 24 men, aged 19-24 years. The examination comprised 4 sessions: Training Session (TS) during which the subjects were accustomed with the application and sample stimuli, Control Session (CS) with no telephone ringing, Landline Session (LS) with landline phone ringing, Mobile Session (MS) with mobile phone ringing. The median RT in the study population was significantly elongated (p 0.05). We think that the specific 'bond' between a person and their private phone can significantly disrupt their attention and thus affect the attention-demanding activities.

  20. Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edell AR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimée R Edell, Jesse J Jung, Joel M Solomon, Richard N Palu Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cell phones in the pedestrian population. In this report, an older gentleman suffered extensive facial trauma requiring surgery as a direct effect of cell phone use at the time the trauma occurred. This case highlights the role that portable electronic devices can play as a cause of ocular trauma. Keywords: orbital fracture, ocular trauma, orbital floor fracture, cell phone distraction, pedestrian safety

  1. [Impact of cell phone radiation on male reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ning; Shang, Xue-Jun; Huang, Yu-Feng

    2010-11-01

    With the popularized use cell phones, more and more concern has been aroused over the effects of their radiation on human health, particularly on male reproduction. Cell phone radiation may cause structural and functional injuries of the testis, alteration of semen parameters, reduction of epididymal sperm concentration and decline of male fertility. This article presents an overview on the impact of cell phone radiation on male reproduction.

  2. Recycled Cell Phones - A Treasure Trove of Valuable Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel E.

    2006-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fact Sheet examines the potential value of recycling the metals found in obsolete cell phones. Cell phones seem ubiquitous in the United States and commonplace throughout most of the world. There were approximately 1 billion cell phones in use worldwide in 2002. In the United States, the number of cell phone subscribers increased from 340,000 in 1985 to 180 million in 2004. Worldwide, cell phone sales have increased from slightly more than 100 million units per year in 1997 to an estimated 779 million units per year in 2005. Cell phone sales are projected to exceed 1 billion units per year in 2009, with an estimated 2.6 billion cell phones in use by the end of that year. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimated that, by 2005, as many as 130 million cell phones would be retired annually in the United States. The nonprofit organization INFORM, Inc., anticipated that, by 2005, a total of 500 million obsolete cell phones would have accumulated in consumers' desk drawers, store rooms, or other storage, awaiting disposal. Typically, cell phones are used for only 1 1/2 years before being replaced. Less than 1 percent of the millions of cell phones retired and discarded annually are recycled. When large numbers of cell phones become obsolete, large quantities of valuable metals end up either in storage or in landfills. The amount of metals potentially recoverable would make a significant addition to total metals recovered from recycling in the United States and would supplement virgin metals derived from mining.

  3. Breaking alibis through cell phone mapping

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cape Town, South Africa. The couple was held hostage while the gang traveled around in their car and the couple’s car; the couple was later murdered execution-style. Evidence showed the woman was also raped prior to being shot. Two of the suspects... (whom DNA analysis later proved had raped the woman) were killed in a shootout with police while attempting to evade arrest. The investigating officer learned that the woman’s cell phone was missing and obtained the number from her family. To trace...

  4. Acoustofluidic devices controlled by cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachman, Hunter; Huang, Po-Hsun; Zhao, Shuaiguo; Yang, Shujie; Zhang, Peiran; Fu, Hai; Huang, Tony Jun

    2018-01-30

    Acoustofluidic devices have continuously demonstrated their potential to impact medical diagnostics and lab-on-a-chip applications. To bring these technologies to real-world applications, they must be made more accessible to end users. Herein, we report on the effort to provide an easy-to-use and portable system for controlling sharp-edge-based acoustofluidic devices. With the use of a cell phone and a modified Bluetooth® speaker, on-demand and hands-free pumping and mixing are achieved. Additionally, a novel design for a sharp-edge-based acoustofluidic device is proposed that combines both pumping and mixing functions into a single device, thus removing the need for external equipment typically needed to accomplish these two tasks. These applications serve to demonstrate the potential function that acoustofluidic devices can provide in point-of-care platforms. To further this point-of-care goal, we also design a portable microscope that combines with the cell phone and Bluetooth® power supply, providing a completely transportable acoustofluidic testing station. This work serves to bolster the promising position that acoustofluidic devices have within the rapidly changing research and diagnostics fields.

  5. Possession attachment predicts cell phone use while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, Joshua A; Shackleford, Crystal; Dieckmann, Nathan; Slovic, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Distracted driving has become an important public health concern. However, little is known about the predictors of this health-risking behavior. One overlooked risk factor for distracted driving is the perceived attachment that one feels toward his or her phone. Prior research has suggested that individuals develop bonds toward objects, and qualitative research suggests that the bond between young drivers and their phones can be strong. It follows that individuals who perceive a strong attachment to their phone would be more likely to use it, even when driving. In a nationally representative sample of young drivers (17-28 years), participants (n = 1,006) completed a survey about driving behaviors and phone use. Risk perception surrounding cell phone use while driving and perceived attachment to one's phone were assessed by administering factor-analytically derived scales that were created as part of a larger project. Attachment toward one's phone predicted the proportion of trips in which a participant reported using their cell phone while driving, beyond that accounted for by risk perception and overall phone use. Further, attachment predicted self-reported distracted driving behaviors, such as the use of social media while driving. Attachment to one's phone may be an important but overlooked risk factor for the engagement of potentially health-risking driving behaviors. Understanding that phone attachment may adversely affect driving behaviors has the potential to inform prevention and intervention efforts designed to reduce distracted driving behaviors, especially in young drivers. 2013 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Cell phone use while driving and attributable crash risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Braitman, Keli A; Lund, Adrian K

    2010-10-01

    Prior research has estimated that crash risk is 4 times higher when talking on a cell phone versus not talking. The objectives of this study were to estimate the extent to which drivers talk on cell phones while driving and to compute the implied annual number of crashes that could have been avoided if driver cell phone use were restricted. A national survey of approximately 1200 U.S. drivers was conducted. Respondents were asked to approximate the amount of time spent driving during a given day, number of cell phone calls made or received, and amount of driving time spent talking on a cell phone. Population attributable risk (PAR) was computed for each combination of driver gender, driver age, day of week, and time of day. These were multiplied by the corresponding crash counts to estimate the number of crashes that could have been avoided. On average, drivers were talking on cell phones approximately 7 percent of the time while driving. Rates were higher on weekdays (8%), in the afternoon and evening (8%), and for drivers younger than 30 (16%). Based on these use rates, restricting cell phones while driving could have prevented an estimated 22 percent (i.e., 1.3 million) of the crashes in 2008. Although increased rates of cell phone use while driving should be leading to increased crash rates, crash rates have been declining. Reasons for this paradox are unclear. One possibility is that the increase in cell phone use and crash risk due to cell phone use have been overestimated. Another possibility is that cell phone use has supplanted other driving distractions that were similarly hazardous.

  7. Effect of cell phone distraction on pediatric pedestrian injury risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W; Schwebel, David C

    2009-02-01

    Early adolescents are using cell phones with increasing frequency. Cell phones are known to distract motor vehicle drivers to the point that their safety is jeopardized, but it is unclear if cell phones might also distract child pedestrians. This study was designed to examine the influence of talking on a cell phone for pediatric pedestrian injury risk. Seventy-seven children aged 10 to 11 years old completed simulated road crossings in an immersive, interactive virtual pedestrian environment. In a within-subjects design, children crossed the virtual street 6 times while undistracted and 6 times while distracted by a cell phone conversation with an unfamiliar research assistant. Participants also completed several other experimental tasks hypothesized to predict the impact of distraction while crossing the street and talking on a cell phone. Children's pedestrian safety was compromised when distracted by a cell phone conversation. While distracted, children were less attentive to traffic; left less safe time between their crossing and the next arriving vehicle; experienced more collisions and close calls with oncoming traffic; and waited longer before beginning to cross the street. Analyses testing experience using a cell phone and experience as a pedestrian yielded few significant results, suggesting that distraction on the cell phone might affect children's pedestrian safety no matter what their experience level. There was some indication that younger children and children who are less attentive and more oppositional may be slightly more susceptible to distraction while talking on the cell phone than older, more attentive, and less oppositional children. Our results suggest that cell phones distract preadolescent children while crossing streets.

  8. Thermal plasma treatment of cell-phone waste : preliminary result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruj, B. [Central Mechanical Engineering Research Inst., Durgapur (India). Thermal Engineering Group; Chang, J.S.; Li, O.L. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Pietsch, G. [RWTH Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The cell phone is an indispensable service facilitator, however, the disposal and recycling of cell phones is a major problem. While the potential life span of a mobile phone, excluding batteries, is over 10 years, most of the users upgrade their phones approximately four times during this period. Cell phone waste is significantly more hazardous than many other municipal wastes as it contains thousands of components made of toxic chemicals and metals like lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, polyvinyl chlorides (PVC), brominated flame retardants, beryllium, antimony and phthalates. Cell phones also use many expensive rare metals. Since cell phones are made up of plastics, metals, ceramics, and trace other substances, primitive recycling or disposal of cell phone waste to landfills and incinerators creates irreversible environmental damage by polluting water and soil, and contaminating air. In order to minimize releases into the environment and threat to human health, the disposal of cell phones needs to be managed in an environmentally friendly way. This paper discussed a safer method of reducing the generation of syngas and hydrocarbons and metal recovery through the treatment of cell phone wastes by a thermal plasma. The presentation discussed the experiment, with particular reference to sample preparation; experimental set-up; and results four samples with different experimental conditions. It was concluded that the plasma treatment of cell phone waste in reduced condition generates gaseous components such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons which are combustible. Therefore, this system is an energy recovery system that contributes to resource conservation and reduction of climate change gases. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  9. Impact of cell phone use on men's semen parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutschi, T; Mohamad Al-Ali, B; Shamloul, R; Pummer, K; Trummer, H

    2011-10-01

    The objective of the present retrospective study was to report our experience concerning the effects of cell phone usage on semen parameters. We examined 2110 men attending our infertility clinic from 1993 to October 2007. Semen analysis was performed in all patients. Serum free testosterone (T), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH) and prolactin (PRL) were collected from all patients. The information on cell phone use of the patients was recorded and the subjects were divided into two groups according to their cell phone use: group A: cell phone use (n = 991); group B: no use (n = 1119). Significant difference was observed in sperm morphology between the two groups. In the patients of group A, 68.0% of the spermatozoa featured a pathological morphology compared to only 58.1% in the subjects of group B. Patients with cell phone usage showed significantly higher T and lower LH levels than those who did not use cell phone. No significant difference between the two groups was observed regarding FSH and PRL values. Our results showed that cell phone use negatively affects sperm quality in men. Further studies with a careful design are needed to determine the effect of cell phone use on male fertility. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Review of Estimation Methods for Landline and Cell Phone Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcos, Antonio; del Mar Rueda, María; Trujillo, Manuel; Molina, David

    2015-01-01

    The rapid proliferation of cell phone use and the accompanying decline in landline service in recent years have resulted in substantial potential for coverage bias in landline random-digit-dial telephone surveys, which has led to the implementation of dual-frame designs that incorporate both landline and cell phone samples. Consequently,…

  11. Eliminating the Textbook: Learning Science with Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Jack T.

    2014-01-01

    College faculty have myriad choices of resources for their students when designing courses. The rising prices of textbooks and the availability of cell phones with internet access open the question of using cell phones in the classroom. In this study, I compared student learning in an ecology course between a semester in which a textbook was used…

  12. Prenatal and Postnatal Cell Phone Exposures and Headaches in Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka; Arah, Onyebuchi; Olsen, Jorn; Zeltzer, Lonnie

    2012-01-01

    Children today are exposed to cell phones early in life, and may be at the greatest risk if exposure is harmful to health. We investigated associations between cell phone exposures and headaches in children. The Danish National Birth Cohort enrolled pregnant women between 1996 and 2002. When their

  13. Cell Phones: A Bibliometric Analysis Related to Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Recent reviews of the literature indicate that the scope of research on cell or mobile phones covers a vast typology (Piotrowski & Kass, 2013). The majority of this research is concentrated in the technology, education, and social sciences fields. However, there is a dearth of bibliometric studies on cell phones related to business. To that…

  14. Evaluating the use of cell phone messaging for community Ebola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    community Ebola syndromic surveillance cell phone alert system by the Moyamba District Health Management Team in ... Cite as: Jia K, Mohamed K. Evaluating the use of cell phone messaging for community Ebola syndromic surveillance in high risked settings in ... The first case of Ebola Hemorrhagic Fever (EHF) in Si-.

  15. Cell phone-induced ostracism threatens fundamental needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Andrew H; Dvir, Maayan; Wesselmann, Eric D; Kruger, Daniel J; Finkenauer, Catrin

    2018-02-13

    Cell phones are useful tools with both practical and social benefits. However, using them in the context of face-to-face conversations may be problematic. We consider this behavior a form of ostracism and test its effects on the satisfaction of basic psychological needs for belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence. In Study 1 participants who recalled a time in which a friend was checking a cell phone during a serious conversation reported feeling more ostracized (ignored and excluded), greater pain, and threat to basic needs than participants recalling a conversation without a cell phone interruption or a control event. Study 2 replicated and extended this effect: Cell phone-induced ostracism's effects were partially mediated by decreased feelings of relational evaluation, and threatened basic needs both in serious and casual conversation contexts. Findings from both studies also indicated that cell phone-induced ostracism hurts women more so than men.

  16. Driving performance while using cell phones: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Tova

    2006-01-01

    Through spontaneous driving observations, this study sought to examine the impact of using a hands-free cell phone while driving on speed and safe gap keeping behaviors. The study also examined the association between the measure of disturbance created by using a cell phone and the driver's awareness of the disturbance. Twenty-three male adults were observed while driving for an hour and a half each; drivers were unaware of being observed. During the session, each of the participants received a phone call, initiated by an associate of the observer. The experiment was divided into two periods during which the experimental parameters were monitored: 10 minutes during conversation on a cell phone and 10 minutes of non-conversation on a hands-free cell phone. After the experiment, the driver was questioned concerning the extent to which his/her driving was disturbed by the cell phone conversation. T-test for matched samples revealed that the gaps between the drivers' cars and those in front of them diminished when drivers were engaged in the cell phone conversations. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed that drivers that had short conversations did not change their speed, while drivers who were engaged in long (over 16 minutes) conversations drove faster. No effect of drivers' awareness toward cell phone-related disturbance on actual driving behavior monitored in the present study was found.

  17. Using Cell Phone Keyboards Is (NP) Hard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boothe, Peter

    Sending text messages on cell phones which only contain the keys 0 through 9 and # and * can be a painful experience. We consider the problem of designing an optimal mapping of numbers to sets of letters to act as an alternative to the standard {2→{abc}, 3→{def}...}. Our overall goal is to minimize the expected number of buttons that must be pressed to enter a message in English. Some variations of the problem are efficiently solvable, either by being small instances or by being in P, but the most realistic version of the problem is NP hard. To prove NP-completeness, we describe a new graph coloring problem UniquePathColoring. We also provide numerical results for the English language on a standard corpus which describe several mappings that improve upon the standard one. With luck, one of these new mappings will achieve success similar to that of the Dvorak layout for computer keyboards.

  18. Cell phone ringtone, but not landline phone ringtone, affects complex reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Zajdel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Legislation systems of most countries prohibited using the handheld mobile phone while driving due to the fact that it disturbs concentration and causes hand involvement. Every phone owner is accustomed to the ringtone of his phone and almost involuntarily endeavors to pick it up or check who calls. This engages one’s psychomotor skills, which in our opinion contributes to the attenuation of reaction time needed for performing other crucial functions. Objectives: The aim of the study was: (1 to evaluate the infl uence of the sound of a ringing mobile phone on the complex reaction time (RT score in healthy subjects (owners, and (2 to check if there are any differences in RT when a landline phone and mobile phone ring. Methods: To assess RT we used our system and protocol of examination, previously validated. The examination conditions were standardized. All tests were performed in the same room with the same light and general acoustic conditions. The test group consisted of 23 women and 24 men, aged 19–24 years. The examination comprised 4 sessions: Training Session (TS during which the subjects were accustomed with the application and sample stimuli, Control Session (CS with no telephone ringing, Landline Session (LS with landline phone ringing, Mobile Session (MS with mobile phone ringing. Results: The median RT in the study population was signifi cantly elongated (p 0.05. Conclusions: We think that the specifi c ‘bond’ between a person and their private phone can signifi cantly disrupt their attention and thus affect the attention-demanding activities.

  19. Development of a Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale and Its Validation in a Spanish Adult Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Sola, José; Talledo, Hernán; Rubio, Gabriel; de Fonseca, Fernando Rodríguez

    2017-01-01

    In some people, problematic cell phone use can lead to situations in which they lose control, similar to those observed in other cases of addiction. Although different scales have been developed to assess its severity, we lack an instrument that is able to determine the desire or craving associated with it. Thus, with the objective of evaluating craving for cell phone use, in this study, we develop and present the Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale (MPACS). It consists of eight Likert-style items, with 10 response options, referring to possible situations in which the interviewee is asked to evaluate the degree of restlessness that he or she feels if the cell phone is unavailable at the moment. It can be self-administered or integrated in an interview when abuse or problems are suspected. With the existence of a single dimension, reflected in the exploratory factor analysis (EFA), the scale presents adequate reliability and internal consistency (α = 0.919). Simultaneously, we are able to show significantly increased correlations ( r  = 0.785, p  = 0.000) with the Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS) and state anxiety ( r  = 0.330, p  = 0.000). We are also able to find associations with impulsivity, measured using the urgency, premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking scale, particularly in the dimensions of negative urgency ( r  = 0.303, p  = 0.000) and positive urgency ( r  = 0.290, p  = 0.000), which confirms its construct validity. The analysis of these results conveys important discriminant validity among the MPPUS user categories that are obtained using the criteria by Chow et al. (1). The MPACS demonstrates higher levels of craving in persons up to 35 years of age, reversing with age. In contrast, we do not find significant differences among the sexes. Finally, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis allows us to establish the scores from which we are able to determine the different levels of

  20. Development of a Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale and Its Validation in a Spanish Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José De-Sola

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In some people, problematic cell phone use can lead to situations in which they lose control, similar to those observed in other cases of addiction. Although different scales have been developed to assess its severity, we lack an instrument that is able to determine the desire or craving associated with it. Thus, with the objective of evaluating craving for cell phone use, in this study, we develop and present the Mobile Phone Addiction Craving Scale (MPACS. It consists of eight Likert-style items, with 10 response options, referring to possible situations in which the interviewee is asked to evaluate the degree of restlessness that he or she feels if the cell phone is unavailable at the moment. It can be self-administered or integrated in an interview when abuse or problems are suspected. With the existence of a single dimension, reflected in the exploratory factor analysis (EFA, the scale presents adequate reliability and internal consistency (α = 0.919. Simultaneously, we are able to show significantly increased correlations (r = 0.785, p = 0.000 with the Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS and state anxiety (r = 0.330, p = 0.000. We are also able to find associations with impulsivity, measured using the urgency, premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking scale, particularly in the dimensions of negative urgency (r = 0.303, p = 0.000 and positive urgency (r = 0.290, p = 0.000, which confirms its construct validity. The analysis of these results conveys important discriminant validity among the MPPUS user categories that are obtained using the criteria by Chow et al. (1. The MPACS demonstrates higher levels of craving in persons up to 35 years of age, reversing with age. In contrast, we do not find significant differences among the sexes. Finally, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC analysis allows us to establish the scores from which we are able to determine the different levels of

  1. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, M.; van Eijsden, M.; Vermeulen, R.; Loomans, E.M.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Komhout, H.; van Strien, H.; Huss, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore, we

  2. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Mònica; van Eijsden, Manon; Vermeulen, Roel; Loomans, Eva; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Komhout, Hans; van Strien, Rob T.; Huss, Anke

    2013-01-01

    A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore, we assessed

  3. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, M.; van Eijsden, M.; Vermeulen, R.; Loomans, E.; Vrijkotte, T.G.M.; Komhout, H.; van Strien, R.T.; Huss, A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore,

  4. Using Cell Phone Technology for Self-Monitoring Procedures in Inclusive Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedesem, Pena L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects and social validity of an innovative method of self-monitoring for middle school students with high-incidence disabilities in inclusive settings. An updated self-monitoring procedure, called CellF-Monitoring, utilized a cell phone as an all-inclusive self-monitoring device. The study took…

  5. The Relationship between Cell Phone Use and Identity Theft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Lewis O.

    2014-01-01

    The growth of mobile phone use has paralleled increased reports of identity theft. Identity theft can result in financial loss and threats to a victim's personal safety. Although trends in identity theft are well-known, less is known about individual cell phone users' attitudes toward identity theft and the extent to which they connect it to cell…

  6. Cell phone use and traffic crash risk: a culpability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbridge, Mark; Brubacher, Jeff R; Chan, Herbert

    2013-02-01

    The use of a cell phone or communication device while driving is illegal in many jurisdictions, yet evidence evaluating the crash risk associated with cell phone use in naturalistic settings is limited. This article aims to determine whether cell phone use while driving increases motor vehicle crash culpability. Method Drivers involved in crashes where police reported cell phone use (n = 312) and propensity matched drivers (age, sex, suspect alcohol/drug impairment, crash type, date, time of day, geographical location) without cell phone use (n = 936) were drawn from Insurance Corporation of British Columbia Traffic Accident System data. A standardized scoring tool, modified to account for Canadian driving conditions, was used to determine crash culpability from police reports on all drivers from the crashes. The association between crash culpability and cell phone use was determined, with additional subgroup analyses based on crash severity, driver characteristics and type of licence. A comparison of crashes with vs without cell phones revealed an odds ratio of 1.70 (95% confidence interval 1.22-2.36; P = 0.002). This association was consistent after adjustment for matching variables and other covariates. Subgroup analyses demonstrated an association for male drivers, unimpaired drivers, injured and non-injured drivers, and for drivers aged between 26 and 65 years. Crash culpability was found to be significantly associated with cell phone use by drivers, increasing the odds of a culpable crash by 70% compared with drivers who did not use a cell phone. This increased risk was particularly high for middle-aged drivers.

  7. Distracted walking: cell phones increase injury risk for college pedestrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrinos, Despina; Byington, Katherine W; Schwebel, David C

    2011-04-01

    Distraction on cell phones jeopardizes motor-vehicle driver safety, but few studies examine distracted walking. At particular risk are college students, who walk frequently in and near traffic, have increased pedestrian injury rates compared to other age groups, and frequently use cell phones. Using an interactive and immersive virtual environment, two experiments studied the effect of cell phone conversation on distraction of college student pedestrians. In the first, we examined whether pedestrians would display riskier behavior when distracted by a naturalistic cell phone conversation than when undistracted. We also considered whether individual difference factors would moderate the effect of the distraction. In a second experiment, we examined the impact of three forms of distraction on pedestrian safety: (a) engaging in a cell phone conversation, (b) engaging in a cognitively challenging spatial task by phone, and (c) engaging in a cognitively challenging mental arithmetic task by phone. Results revealed that cell phone conversations distracted college pedestrians considerably across all pedestrian safety variables measured, with just one exception. Attention to traffic was not affected by the naturalistic phone conversation in Experiment 1, but was altered by the cognitively-demanding content of some types of conversation in Experiment 2. The content of the conversation did not play a major role in distraction across other variables; both mundane and cognitively complex conversations distracted participants. Moreover, no significant associations between individual difference factors and susceptibility to distraction emerged. Results may inform researchers, policy makers, and pedestrians themselves. Educational campaigns might discourage telephone conversations in pedestrian environments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Comparing handheld and hands-free cell phone usage behaviors while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccolich, Susan A; Fitch, Gregory M; Perez, Miguel A; Hanowski, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare cell phone usage behaviors while driving across 3 types of cell phones: handheld (HH) cell phones, portable hands-free (PHF) cell phones, and integrated hands-free (IHF) cell phones. Naturalistic driving data were used to observe HH, PHF, and IHF usage behaviors in participants' own vehicles without any instructions or manipulations by researchers. In addition to naturalistic driving data, drivers provided their personal cell phone call records. Calls during driving were sampled and observed in naturalistically collected video. Calls were reviewed to identify cell phone type used for, and duration of, cell phone subtasks, non-cell phone secondary tasks, and other use behaviors. Drivers in the study self-identified as HH, PHF, or IHF users if they reported using that cell phone type at least 50% of the time. However, each sampled call was classified as HH, PHF, or IHF if the talking/listening subtask was conducted using that cell phone type, without considering the driver's self-reported group. Drivers with PHF or IHF systems also used HH cell phones (IHF group used HH cell phone in 53.2% of the interactions, PHF group used HH cell phone for 55.5% of interactions). Talking/listening on a PHF phone or an IHF phone was significantly longer than talking/listening on an HH phone (P phone call task for HH phones was significantly longer in duration than the end phone call task for PHF and IHF phones. Of all the non-cell phone-related secondary tasks, eating or drinking was found to occur significantly more often during IHF subtasks (0.58%) than in HH subtasks (0.15%). Drivers observed to reach for their cell phone mostly kept their cell phone in the cup holder (36.3%) or in their seat or lap (29.0% of interactions); however, some observed locations may have required drivers to move out of position. Hands-free cell phone technologies reduce the duration of cell phone visual-manual tasks compared to handheld cell phones. However

  9. Validating self-reported mobile phone use in adults using a newly developed smartphone application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, Geertje; Kromhout, Hans; Wiart, Joe; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Interpretation of epidemiological studies on health effects from mobile phone use is hindered by uncertainties in the exposure assessment. We used a newly developed smartphone application (app) to validate self-reported mobile phone use and behaviour among adults. METHODS: 107

  10. Recent Court Rulings regarding Student Use of Cell Phones in Today's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantes, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Student use of cell phone is a new area of concern in today's schools. Cell phone providers have attempted to convince parents that each child should be provided with their own cell phone for safety reasons and to stay in contact with their families. This has resulted in many students arriving at school with a cell phone, taking it to class and…

  11. Do cell phones affect establishing electronic working length?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurstel, Justine; Guivarc'h, Maud; Pommel, Ludovic; Camps, Jean; Tassery, Hervé; Cohen, Stephen; Bukiet, Frédéric

    2015-06-01

    Patients often keep their cell phones on and nearby during root canal therapy. Cell phones release electromagnetic interference, which might disturb electronic working length measurements. The purpose of this ex vivo study was to determine the effect of a cell phone (Apple iPhone 5 [Apple, Cupertino, CA] or KP100 [LG, Seoul, Korea]) placed into direct contact with an electronic apex locator (EAL) (Dentaport Root ZX module [J Morita Corp, Tokyo, Japan] or Propex II [Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland]) on working length determination. Twenty-six human premolars without fractures or carious lesions were used; previously cleaned; and observed under magnification (×15) in order to check for the presence of only 1 apical foramen, the absence of apical resorption, an "open" apex, and accessory canals. The working length measurement was performed with a #15 K-file in the presence of 2.6% sodium hypochlorite under 4 conditions: (1) visually, under the microscope until the file tip reached the canal terminus; (2) electronically, without the cell phone in proximity; (3) electronically, with the cell phone in standby mode placed in physical contact with the EAL; and (4) electronically, with the cell phone activated by a call in the same position. The experimental model for electronic working length determination was a screw top plastic container filled with a saline solution. The measurements were repeated 3 times per canal under each condition. Scores of 1 to 3 categorized the stability of the readings as follows: (1) good stability; (2) unstable reading with minor difficulties determining the working length; and (3) major difficulties or impossible to determine the working length. A 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance (way 1: cell phone type and way 2: EAL model) was performed, and a second repeated measures analysis of variance was performed to seek a difference among the 4 working length determination conditions. Neither the cell phone type nor the EAL

  12. Prenatal and Postnatal Cell Phone Exposures and Headaches in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka; Arah, Onyebuchi; Olsen, Jorn; Zeltzer, Lonnie

    2012-12-05

    Children today are exposed to cell phones early in life, and may be at the greatest risk if exposure is harmful to health. We investigated associations between cell phone exposures and headaches in children. The Danish National Birth Cohort enrolled pregnant women between 1996 and 2002. When their children reached age seven years, mothers completed a questionnaire regarding the child's health, behaviors, and exposures. We used multivariable adjusted models to relate prenatal only, postnatal only, or both prenatal and postnatal cell phone exposure to whether the child had migraines and headache-related symptoms. Our analyses included data from 52,680 children. Children with cell phone exposure had higher odds of migraines and headache-related symptoms than children with no exposure. The odds ratio for migraines was 1.30 (95% confidence interval: 1.01-1.68) and for headache-related symptoms was 1.32 (95% confidence interval: 1.23-1.40) for children with both prenatal and postnatal exposure. In this study, cell phone exposures were associated with headaches in children, but the associations may not be causal given the potential for uncontrolled confounding and misclassification in observational studies such as this. However, given the widespread use of cell phones, if a causal effect exists it would have great public health impact.

  13. "Hold the Phone!": Cell Phone Use and Partner Reaction among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Tiffany; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty E.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of survey data from 995 undergraduates at a large southeastern university revealed that 93% reported owning a cell phone and a statistically significant difference between women and men (95% versus 91.2%) and between Whites (95.1%) and Blacks (87.7%). In addition, Blacks were twice as likely as Whites to be bothered by their partner's use…

  14. The invisible addiction: Cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students

    OpenAIRE

    ROBERTS, JAMES A.; PETNJI YAYA, LUC HONORE; MANOLIS, CHRIS

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The primary objective of the present study was to investigate which cell-phone activities are associated with cell-phone addiction. No research to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities, and their relationship to cell-phone addiction, across male and female cell-phone users. Methods: College undergraduates (N = 164) participated in an online survey. Participants completed the questionnaire as part of their class requirements. The questionnaire took 10 an...

  15. Maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and child behavioral problems in five birth cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birks, Laura; Guxens, Mònica; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Alexander, Jan; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Gallastegi, Mara; Ha, Mina; Haugen, Margaretha; Huss, Anke; Kheifets, Leeka; Lim, Hyungryul; Olsen, Jørn; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Sudan, Madhuri; Vermeulen, Roel; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Cardis, Elisabeth; Vrijheid, Martine

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between prenatal cell phone use and child behavioral problems, but findings have been inconsistent and based on retrospective assessment of cell phone use. This study aimed to assess this association in a multi-national analysis, using data from three cohorts with prospective data on prenatal cell phone use, together with previously published data from two cohorts with retrospectively collected cell phone use data. We used individual participant data from 83,884 mother-child pairs in the five cohorts from Denmark (1996-2002), Korea (2006-2011), the Netherlands (2003-2004), Norway (2004-2008), and Spain (2003-2008). We categorized cell phone use into none, low, medium, and high, based on frequency of calls during pregnancy reported by the mothers. Child behavioral problems (reported by mothers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire or Child Behavior Checklist) were classified in the borderline/clinical and clinical ranges using validated cut-offs in children aged 5-7years. Cohort specific risk estimates were meta-analyzed. Overall, 38.8% of mothers, mostly from the Danish cohort, reported no cell phone use during pregnancy and these mothers were less likely to have a child with overall behavioral, hyperactivity/inattention or emotional problems. Evidence for a trend of increasing risk of child behavioral problems through the maternal cell phone use categories was observed for hyperactivity/inattention problems (OR for problems in the clinical range: 1.11, 95%CI 1.01, 1.22; 1.28, 95%CI 1.12, 1.48, among children of medium and high users, respectively). This association was fairly consistent across cohorts and between cohorts with retrospectively and prospectively collected cell phone use data. Maternal cell phone use during pregnancy may be associated with an increased risk for behavioral problems, particularly hyperactivity/inattention problems, in the offspring. The interpretation of these results is unclear

  16. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guxens, Mònica; van Eijsden, Manon; Vermeulen, Roel; Loomans, Eva; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; Komhout, Hans; van Strien, Rob T; Huss, Anke

    2013-05-01

    A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore, we assessed the association between maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and teacher-reported and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 5. The study was embedded in the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development study, a population-based birth cohort study in Amsterdam, the Netherlands (2003-2004). Teachers and mothers reported child behaviour problems using the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire at age 5. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy was asked when children were 7 years old. A total of 2618 children were included. As compared to non-users, those exposed to prenatal cell phone use showed an increased but non-significant association of having teacher-reported overall behaviour problems, although without dose-response relationship with the number of calls (OR=2.12 (95% CI 0.95 to 4.74) for phone use were below 1 or close to unity. Associations of maternal cell phone and cordless phone use with maternal-reported overall behaviour problems remained non-significant. Non-significant associations were found for the specific behaviour problem subscales. Our results do not suggest that maternal cell phone or cordless phone use during pregnancy increases the odds of behaviour problems in their children.

  17. Observing Cell Phone Use and Enhancing Collaborative Learning Using a Wiki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Elizabeth G.

    2013-01-01

    Cell phone use is evident in society. Individuals have cell phone conversations while waiting in line at the grocery store, glance at their cell phones during meetings, check Facebook while having dinner with friends, have a meaningful phone conversation with a parent, and even text while sitting in church service. This assignment provides…

  18. Cell Phone Use and Child and Adolescent Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between cell phone use, including minutes spent talking and number of text messages sent, and two measures of children’s reading proficiency — tests of word decoding and reading comprehension — in the United States. Data were drawn from the Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a nationally representative survey of 1,147 children 10–18 in 2009. Children whose parents were better educated, who had higher family incomes, who had fewer siblings, and who lived in urban areas were more likely to own or share a cell phone. Among those with access to a phone, children who spent more time talking on the phone were less proficient at word decoding, whereas children who spent more time sending text messages had greater reading comprehension. Although girls spent more time texting than did boys, there were no gender differences in the association between time spent talking or number of text messages sent with achievement. In spite of racial/ethnic differences in cell phone use levels, there were no racial/ethnic differences in the association between cell phone use and reading proficiency. PMID:27683624

  19. Walking stability during cell phone use in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Pei-Chun; Higginson, Christopher I; Seymour, Kelly; Kamerdze, Morgan; Higginson, Jill S

    2015-05-01

    The number of falls and/or accidental injuries associated with cellular phone use during walking is growing rapidly. Understanding the effects of concurrent cell phone use on human gait may help develop safety guidelines for pedestrians. It was shown previously that older adults had more pronounced dual-task interferences than younger adults when concurrent cognitive task required visual information processing. Thus, cell phone use might have greater impact on walking stability in older than in younger adults. This study examined gait stability and variability during a cell phone dialing task (phone) and two classic cognitive tasks, the Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT) and Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). Nine older and seven younger healthy adults walked on a treadmill at four different conditions: walking only, PASAT, phone, and SDMT. We computed short-term local divergence exponent (LDE) of the trunk motion (local stability), dynamic margins of stability (MOS), step spatiotemporal measures, and kinematic variability. Older and younger adults had similar values of short-term LDE during all conditions, indicating that local stability was not affected by the dual-task. Compared to walking only, older and younger adults walked with significantly greater average mediolateral MOS during phone and SDMT conditions but significantly less ankle angle variability during all dual-tasks and less knee angle variability during PASAT. The current findings demonstrate that healthy adults may try to control foot placement and joint kinematics during cell phone use or another cognitive task with a visual component to ensure sufficient dynamic margins of stability and maintain local stability. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Today's high-end cell phones have the computing power of a mid-1990s personal computer (PC)--while consuming only one one-hundredth of the energy. Even the simplest, voice-only phones have more complex and powerful chips than the 1969 on-board computer that landed a spaceship on the moon. In the United States, it is almost universally acknowledged…

  1. Cell phone use and behavioural problems in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divan, Hozefa A; Kheifets, Leeka; Obel, Carsten; Olsen, Jørn

    2012-06-01

    Potential health effects of cell phone use in children have not been adequately examined. As children are using cell phones at earlier ages, research among this group has been identified as the highest priority by both national and international organisations. The authors previously reported results from the Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC), which looked at prenatal and postnatal exposure to cell phone use and behavioural problems at age 7 years. Exposure to cell phones prenatally, and to a lesser degree postnatally, was associated with more behavioural difficulties. The original analysis included nearly 13 000 children who reached age 7 years by November 2006. To see if a larger, separate group of DNBC children would produce similar results after considering additional confounders, children of mothers who might better represent current users of cell phones were analysed. This 'new' dataset consisted of 28 745 children with completed Age-7 Questionnaires to December 2008. The highest OR for behavioural problems were for children who had both prenatal and postnatal exposure to cell phones compared with children not exposed during either time period. The adjusted effect estimate was 1.5 (95% CI 1.4 to 1.7). The findings of the previous publication were replicated in this separate group of participants demonstrating that cell phone use was associated with behavioural problems at age 7 years in children, and this association was not limited to early users of the technology. Although weaker in the new dataset, even with further control for an extended set of potential confounders, the associations remained.

  2. Optofluidic fluorescent imaging cytometry on a cell phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Mavandadi, Sam; Coskun, Ahmet F; Yaglidere, Oguzhan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2011-09-01

    Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry are widely used tools in biomedical sciences. Cost-effective translation of these technologies to remote and resource-limited environments could create new opportunities especially for telemedicine applications. Toward this direction, here we demonstrate the integration of imaging cytometry and fluorescent microscopy on a cell phone using a compact, lightweight, and cost-effective optofluidic attachment. In this cell-phone-based optofluidic imaging cytometry platform, fluorescently labeled particles or cells of interest are continuously delivered to our imaging volume through a disposable microfluidic channel that is positioned above the existing camera unit of the cell phone. The same microfluidic device also acts as a multilayered optofluidic waveguide and efficiently guides our excitation light, which is butt-coupled from the side facets of our microfluidic channel using inexpensive light-emitting diodes. Since the excitation of the sample volume occurs through guided waves that propagate perpendicular to the detection path, our cell-phone camera can record fluorescent movies of the specimens as they are flowing through the microchannel. The digital frames of these fluorescent movies are then rapidly processed to quantify the count and the density of the labeled particles/cells within the target solution of interest. We tested the performance of our cell-phone-based imaging cytometer by measuring the density of white blood cells in human blood samples, which provided a decent match to a commercially available hematology analyzer. We further characterized the imaging quality of the same platform to demonstrate a spatial resolution of ~2 μm. This cell-phone-enabled optofluidic imaging flow cytometer could especially be useful for rapid and sensitive imaging of bodily fluids for conducting various cell counts (e.g., toward monitoring of HIV+ patients) or rare cell analysis as well as for screening of water quality in

  3. Optofluidic Fluorescent Imaging Cytometry on a Cell Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Mavandadi, Sam; Coskun, Ahmet F.; Yaglidere, Oguzhan; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    Fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometry are widely used tools in biomedical sciences. Cost-effective translation of these technologies to remote and resource-limited environments could create new opportunities especially for telemedicine applications. Toward this direction, here we demonstrate the integration of imaging cytometry and fluorescent microscopy on a cell phone using a compact, lightweight, and cost-effective optofluidic attachment. In this cell-phone-based optofluidic imaging cytometry platform, fluorescently labeled particles or cells of interest are continuously delivered to our imaging volume through a disposable microfluidic channel that is positioned above the existing camera unit of the cell phone. The same microfluidic device also acts as a multilayered optofluidic waveguide and efficiently guides our excitation light, which is butt-coupled from the side facets of our microfluidic channel using inexpensive light-emitting diodes. Since the excitation of the sample volume occurs through guided waves that propagate perpendicular to the detection path, our cell-phone camera can record fluorescent movies of the specimens as they are flowing through the microchannel. The digital frames of these fluorescent movies are then rapidly processed to quantify the count and the density of the labeled particles/cells within the target solution of interest. We tested the performance of our cell-phone-based imaging cytometer by measuring the density of white blood cells in human blood samples, which provided a decent match to a commercially available hematology analyzer. We further characterized the imaging quality of the same platform to demonstrate a spatial resolution of ~2 μm. This cell-phone-enabled optofluidic imaging flow cytometer could especially be useful for rapid and sensitive imaging of bodily fluids for conducting various cell counts (e.g., toward monitoring of HIV+ patients) or rare cell analysis as well as for screening of water quality in

  4. Cell phones and tumor: still in no man's land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, D R; Sachdev, A; Vats, H S

    2009-01-01

    The use of cell phones is increasing worldwide at a phenomenal pace. While cellular communication has dramatically influenced our lifestyle, its impact on human health has not been completely assessed. Widespread concern continues in the community about the deleterious effects of radiofrequency radiations (with which cell phones operate) on human tissues and the subsequent potential for carcinogenesis. A detailed survey of published studies researching this question was done in preparation of this manuscript. Included in the survey were case reports, in vitro studies, population based retrospective studies and other investigations. The database of indexed journals was searched for key words like 'cell phone', 'radiation', 'cancer' and 'radio waves'. Guidelines issued by the World Health Organization, federal and technical authorities, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers and the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection were reviewed. The evaluation of current evidence provided by various studies to suggest the possible carcinogenic potential of radiofrequency radiation is inconclusive. This risk assumes significance in light of the burgeoning number of people who are continually exposed to the high frequency radiation from cell phones and towers that serve as receiving and transmitting stations. The aim of this review is to identify limitations in past studies, present available data for consideration, and identify gaps in the current knowledge base. This will provide impetus and direction for further research and allow informed decisions pertaining to cell phone use to be made.

  5. Is there a valid app for that? Validity of a free pedometer iPhone application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Randall J; Spellman, Justin W; Hall, Michael E; Bergman, Shawn M

    2012-07-01

    This study examined the validity of a selected free pedometer application (iPedometer; IP) for the iPhone that could be used to assess physical activity. Twenty college students (10 men, 10 women; mean age: 21.85 ± 1.57 yrs) wore an iPhone at 3 locations (pocket, waist, arm) and a StepWatch 3 Step Activity Monitor (SW) on their right ankle while walking on a treadmill at 5 different speeds (54, 67, 80, 94, 107 m·min(-1)). A research assistant counted steps with a tally counter (TC). Statistical significance between the TC, SW, and IP was found during every condition except IP in the pocket at 107 m·min(-1) (F(2,38) = .64, P = .54). Correlations involving the IP revealed only 1 positive correlation (IP on arm at 54 m·min(-1)) for any of the conditions (r = .46, P = .05). The IP application was not accurate in counting steps and recorded significantly lower step counts than the SW and TC. Thus, the free pedometer application used is not a valid instrument for monitoring activity during treadmill walking.

  6. Dial D for Distraction: The Making and Breaking of Cell Phone Policies in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Michael J.; Westfall, Aubrey

    2015-01-01

    Cell phones are nearly ubiquitous in the college classroom. This study asks two primary questions regarding the making and breaking of in-class cell phone policies. In what manner are students using their phones and how can faculty members minimize the potential for phone-related distractions? To answer these questions we analyze original survey…

  7. Cell Phone Information Seeking Explains Blood Pressure in African American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Lenette M; Veinot, Tiffany C; Pressler, Susan J

    2018-05-01

    Although cell phone use and Internet access via cell phone is not marked by racial disparities, little is known about how cell phone use relates to blood pressure and health information seeking behaviors. The purposes of this study were to (a) describe Internet activities, cell phone use, and information seeking; (b) determine differences in blood pressure and information seeking between cell phone information seekers and nonseekers; and (c) examine cell phone information seeking as a predictor of blood pressure in African American women. Participants ( N = 147) completed a survey and had their blood pressure measured. Independent-sample t tests showed a significant difference in systolic blood pressure in cell phone information seekers and nonseekers. Linear regression revealed cell phone information seeking as an independent predictor of systolic blood pressure, despite confounders. It is possible that cell phone information seekers were using health information to make decisions about self-management of blood pressure.

  8. Motorists' use of hand held cell phones in New Zealand: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Michael

    2006-07-01

    Unlike many similar countries, New Zealand has no specific legislation restricting the use of cell phones in vehicles. Several factors suggest that legislation may be introduced in the near future. This study provided a benchmark for current cell phone use among motorists. A total of 8,700 drivers of cars were observed for cell phone use as they passed a fixed location in Auckland. Cell phone use was double that of an Australian city, where cell phones are banned. Use of a cell phone while driving was similarly likely in male and female drivers.

  9. Prevalence of problematic cell phone use in an adult population in Spain as assessed by the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de-Sola

    Full Text Available Problematic cell phone use has alarmingly increased in industrialized countries in the past 10 years. For many perpetrators, it can turn into a behavioural addiction, although this is not a recognized medical condition. Although there are many tools for evaluating this use, one of the most widely used tools is the Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS, which we test on a representative sample of the population in Spain to obtain an estimate of the prevalence of problematic cell phone use in our midst. The age range consists of 16-65 years, with 1,126 surveys conducted. In this population, we verify that the reliability and internal consistency of the MPPUS (α = 0.939 are maintained. Additionally, the construct validity, considering the derived factors (Abuse and Dependence, Craving and Loss of Control, and Dependence on the Social Environment are aligned with other research and with diverse external criteria of addiction. We establish four categories of users (Casual, Regular, At Risk, and Problematic and obtain a prevalence of 15.4% among At Risk Users and 5.1% among Problematic Users. This finding implies a total of 20.5% of Users with Problems. A binary logistic regression analysis shows that age, gender, level of education, and daily cell phone use predict problematic cell phone use. The results, based on multiple criteria, show that such problematic use shares features of recognized addictions, affecting large segments of the population and not only adolescents.

  10. Prevalence of problematic cell phone use in an adult population in Spain as assessed by the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Sola, José; Talledo, Hernán; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Rubio, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Problematic cell phone use has alarmingly increased in industrialized countries in the past 10 years. For many perpetrators, it can turn into a behavioural addiction, although this is not a recognized medical condition. Although there are many tools for evaluating this use, one of the most widely used tools is the Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS), which we test on a representative sample of the population in Spain to obtain an estimate of the prevalence of problematic cell phone use in our midst. The age range consists of 16-65 years, with 1,126 surveys conducted. In this population, we verify that the reliability and internal consistency of the MPPUS (α = 0.939) are maintained. Additionally, the construct validity, considering the derived factors (Abuse and Dependence, Craving and Loss of Control, and Dependence on the Social Environment) are aligned with other research and with diverse external criteria of addiction. We establish four categories of users (Casual, Regular, At Risk, and Problematic) and obtain a prevalence of 15.4% among At Risk Users and 5.1% among Problematic Users. This finding implies a total of 20.5% of Users with Problems. A binary logistic regression analysis shows that age, gender, level of education, and daily cell phone use predict problematic cell phone use. The results, based on multiple criteria, show that such problematic use shares features of recognized addictions, affecting large segments of the population and not only adolescents.

  11. Prevalence of problematic cell phone use in an adult population in Spain as assessed by the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale (MPPUS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Sola, José; Talledo, Hernán; Rubio, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    Problematic cell phone use has alarmingly increased in industrialized countries in the past 10 years. For many perpetrators, it can turn into a behavioural addiction, although this is not a recognized medical condition. Although there are many tools for evaluating this use, one of the most widely used tools is the Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS), which we test on a representative sample of the population in Spain to obtain an estimate of the prevalence of problematic cell phone use in our midst. The age range consists of 16–65 years, with 1,126 surveys conducted. In this population, we verify that the reliability and internal consistency of the MPPUS (α = 0.939) are maintained. Additionally, the construct validity, considering the derived factors (Abuse and Dependence, Craving and Loss of Control, and Dependence on the Social Environment) are aligned with other research and with diverse external criteria of addiction. We establish four categories of users (Casual, Regular, At Risk, and Problematic) and obtain a prevalence of 15.4% among At Risk Users and 5.1% among Problematic Users. This finding implies a total of 20.5% of Users with Problems. A binary logistic regression analysis shows that age, gender, level of education, and daily cell phone use predict problematic cell phone use. The results, based on multiple criteria, show that such problematic use shares features of recognized addictions, affecting large segments of the population and not only adolescents. PMID:28771626

  12. Validation of short term recall of mobile phone use for the Interphone study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrijheid, M; Cardis, E; Armstrong, B K

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To validate short term recall of mobile phone use within Interphone, an international collaborative case control study of tumours of the brain, acoustic nerve, and salivary glands related to mobile telephone use. METHODS: Mobile phone use of 672 volunteers in 11 countries was recorded...... with moderate systematic error and substantial random error. This large random error can be expected to reduce the power of the Interphone study to detect an increase in risk of brain, acoustic nerve, and parotid gland tumours with increasing mobile phone use, if one exists....

  13. Cell phone radiation effects on cytogenetic abnormalities of oral mucosal cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natália Batista DAROIT

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exposure to cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the frequency of micronuclei, broken eggs cells, binucleated cells, and karyorrhexis in epithelial cells of the oral mucosa. The sample was composed of 60 cell phone users, who were non-smokers and non-drinkers, and had no clinically visible oral lesions. Cells were obtained from anatomical sites with the highest incidence of oral cancer: lower lip, border of the tongue, and floor of the mouth. The Feulgen reaction was used for quantification of nuclear anomalies in 1,000 cells/slide. A slightly increase in the number of micronucleated cells in the lower lip and in binucleated cells on the floor of the mouth was observed in individuals who used their phones > 60 minutes/week. The analysis also revealed an increased number of broken eggs in the tongue of individuals owning a cell phone for over eight years. Results suggest that exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted by cell phones can increase nuclear abnormalities in individuals who use a cell phone for more than 60 minutes per week and for over eight years. Based on the present findings, we suggest that exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phones may interfere with the development of metanuclear anomalies. Therefore, it is demonstrated that, despite a significant increase in these anomalies, the radiation emitted by cell phones among frequent users is within acceptable physiological limits.

  14. Cell phone radiation effects on cytogenetic abnormalities of oral mucosal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daroit, Natália Batista; Visioli, Fernanda; Magnusson, Alessandra Selinger; Vieira, Geila Radunz; Rados, Pantelis Varvaki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of exposure to cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the frequency of micronuclei, broken eggs cells, binucleated cells, and karyorrhexis in epithelial cells of the oral mucosa. The sample was composed of 60 cell phone users, who were non-smokers and non-drinkers, and had no clinically visible oral lesions. Cells were obtained from anatomical sites with the highest incidence of oral cancer: lower lip, border of the tongue, and floor of the mouth. The Feulgen reaction was used for quantification of nuclear anomalies in 1,000 cells/slide. A slightly increase in the number of micronucleated cells in the lower lip and in binucleated cells on the floor of the mouth was observed in individuals who used their phones > 60 minutes/week. The analysis also revealed an increased number of broken eggs in the tongue of individuals owning a cell phone for over eight years. Results suggest that exposure to electromagnetic waves emitted by cell phones can increase nuclear abnormalities in individuals who use a cell phone for more than 60 minutes per week and for over eight years. Based on the present findings, we suggest that exposure to electromagnetic radiation emitted by cell phones may interfere with the development of metanuclear anomalies. Therefore, it is demonstrated that, despite a significant increase in these anomalies, the radiation emitted by cell phones among frequent users is within acceptable physiological limits.

  15. Why drivers use cell phones and support legislation to restrict this practice : research brief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    Following previous research, drivers reported using cell phones : for benefits such as getting work done. The hypocrisy of using : cell phones while advocating restrictions appears to stem from : differences in the perceived safety risks of self vs. ...

  16. Evaluating the use of cell phone messaging for community Ebola ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Most underdeveloped countries do not meet core disease outbreak surveillance because of the lack of human resources, laboratory and infrastructural facilities. The use of cell phone technology for disease outbreak syndromic surveillance is a new phenomenon in Sierra Leone despite its successes in other ...

  17. Cell Phones + Self-Access: A Summer Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Mashinter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a summary of a project whereby the author developed a summer vacation contest for the SAC in which students could participate regardless of their physical distance from the facility. This contest was centered on cell phones, photography, and writing and was platformed online.

  18. Short Communication: Cell Phone Use by Students at the University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the results of a study that was carried out to determine patterns of cell phone use among students within the Library and Information Studies (LIS) Department and students from other departments within the Faculty of Humanities at the University of Botswana. Focus was however on LIS students and was ...

  19. Cell Phone Use by Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Whitehouse, Andrew; Jaquet, Emma; Ziatas, Kathy; Walker, Allan J.

    2010-01-01

    While young people have generally been at the forefront of the adoption and use of new communications technologies, little is known of uses by exceptional youth. This study compares cell phone use by a group of adolescents with Asperger Syndrome (n = 35) with that by a group of adolescents with typical development (n = 35). People with Asperger…

  20. The influence of relationship intention on cell phone users' attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results indicate that the majority of respondents who participated in this study had a propensity to complain, and that respondents with high relationship intentions are more likely to voice a billing error to their cell phone network provider than respondents with low relationship intentions. Furthermore, relationship ...

  1. The influence of relationship intention on cell phone users' attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... 4Key words: relationship intention, attitude towards complaining, customer complaint behaviour, cell phone ... with positive attitudes towards complaining will complain to service providers, thereby enabling .... the market, they will give informative and positive feedback to their service provider. (Ruiz, Castro ...

  2. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  3. The influence of relationship intention on cell phone users' attitudes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kirstam

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... This paper was constructed under the affiliation of the Workwell Research Unit for Economic and Management Sciences,. North-West ... and complaint behaviour following a service failure within the cell phone industry. ... service quality and influence customers' intentions to build relationships with service.

  4. Validity of the Digital Inclinometer and iPhone When Measuring Thoracic Spine Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucke, Jonathan; Spencer, Simon; Fawcett, Louise; Sonvico, Lawrence; Rushton, Alison; Heneghan, Nicola R

    2017-09-01

      Spinal axial rotation is required for many functional and sporting activities. Eighty percent of axial rotation occurs in the thoracic spine. Existing measures of thoracic spine rotation commonly involve laboratory equipment, use a seated position, and include lumbar motion. A simple performance-based outcome measure would allow clinicians to evaluate isolated thoracic spine rotation. Currently, no valid measure exists.   To explore the criterion and concurrent validity of a digital inclinometer (DI) and iPhone Clinometer app (iPhone) for measuring thoracic spine rotation using the heel-sit position.   Controlled laboratory study.   University laboratory.   A total of 23 asymptomatic healthy participants (14 men, 9 women; age = 25.82 ± 4.28 years, height = 170.26 ± 8.01 cm, mass = 67.50 ± 9.46 kg, body mass index = 23.26 ± 2.79) were recruited from a student population.   We took DI and iPhone measurements of thoracic spine rotation in the heel-sit position concurrently with dual-motion analysis (laboratory measure) and ultrasound imaging of the underlying bony tissue motion (reference standard). To determine the criterion and concurrent validity, we used the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r, 2 tailed) and Bland-Altman plots.   The DI (r = 0.88, P iPhone (r = 0.88, P iPhone, respectively, and the reference standard and 0.87° (95% CI = 6.79°, -5.05°) between the DI and iPhone.   The DI and iPhone provided valid measures of thoracic spine rotation in the heel-sit position. Both can be used in clinical practice to assess thoracic spine rotation, which may be valuable when evaluating thoracic dysfunction.

  5. The validity and reliability of an iPhone app for measuring vertical jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Glaister, Mark; Lockey, Richard Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyse the concurrent validity and reliability of an iPhone app (called: My Jump) for measuring vertical jump performance. Twenty recreationally active healthy men (age: 22.1 ± 3.6 years) completed five maximal countermovement jumps, which were evaluated using a force platform (time in the air method) and a specially designed iPhone app. My jump was developed to calculate the jump height from flight time using the high-speed video recording facility on the iPhone 5 s. Jump heights of the 100 jumps measured, for both devices, were compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient, Pearson product moment correlation coefficient (r), Cronbach's alpha (α), coefficient of variation and Bland-Altman plots. There was almost perfect agreement between the force platform and My Jump for the countermovement jump height (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.997, P iPhone 5 s app.

  6. Validity and reliability of the Persian version of mobile phone addiction scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Maryam Amidi; Karbasi, Mojtaba

    2014-02-01

    With regard to large number of mobile users especially among college students in Iran, addiction to mobile phone is attracting increasing concern. There is an urgent need for reliable and valid instrument to measure this phenomenon. This study examines validity and reliability of the Persian version of mobile phone addiction scale (MPAIS) in college students. this methodological study was down in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. One thousand one hundred and eighty students were selected by convenience sampling. The English version of the MPAI questionnaire was translated into Persian with the approach of Jones et al. (Challenges in language, culture, and modality: Translating English measures into American Sign Language. Nurs Res 2006; 55: 75-81). Its reliability was tested by Cronbach's alpha and its dimensionality validity was evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients with other measures of mobile phone use and IAT. Construct validity was evaluated using Exploratory subscale analysis. Cronbach's alpha of 0.86 was obtained for total PMPAS, for subscale1 (eight items) was 0.84, for subscale 2 (five items) was 0.81 and for subscale 3 (two items) was 0.77. There were significantly positive correlations between the score of PMPAS and IAT (r = 0.453, P mobile phone use. Principal component subscale analysis yielded a three-subscale structure including: inability to control craving; feeling anxious and lost; mood improvement accounted for 60.57% of total variance. The results of discriminate validity showed that all the item's correlations with related subscale were greater than 0.5 and correlations with unrelated subscale were less than 0.5. Considering lack of a valid and reliable questionnaire for measuring addiction to the mobile phone, PMPAS could be a suitable instrument for measuring mobile phone addiction in future research.

  7. Validity and reliability of the Persian version of mobile phone addiction scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amidi Mazaheri

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With regard to large number of mobile users especially among college students in Iran, addiction to mobile phone is attracting increasing concern. There is an urgent need for reliable and valid instrument to measure this phenomenon. This study examines validity and reliability of the Persian version of mobile phone addiction scale (MPAIS in college students. Materials and Methods: this methodological study was down in Isfahan University of Medical Sciences. One thousand one hundred and eighty students were selected by convenience sampling. The English version of the MPAI questionnaire was translated into Persian with the approach of Jones et al. (Challenges in language, culture, and modality: Translating English measures into American Sign Language. Nurs Res 2006; 55: 75-81. Its reliability was tested by Cronbach′s alpha and its dimensionality validity was evaluated using Pearson correlation coefficients with other measures of mobile phone use and IAT. Construct validity was evaluated using Exploratory subscale analysis. Results: Cronbach′s alpha of 0.86 was obtained for total PMPAS, for subscale1 (eight items was 0.84, for subscale 2 (five items was 0.81 and for subscale 3 (two items was 0.77. There were significantly positive correlations between the score of PMPAS and IAT (r = 0.453, P < 0.001 and other measures of mobile phone use. Principal component subscale analysis yielded a three-subscale structure including: inability to control craving; feeling anxious and lost; mood improvement accounted for 60.57% of total variance. The results of discriminate validity showed that all the item′s correlations with related subscale were greater than 0.5 and correlations with unrelated subscale were less than 0.5. Conclusion: Considering lack of a valid and reliable questionnaire for measuring addiction to the mobile phone, PMPAS could be a suitable instrument for measuring mobile phone addiction in future research.

  8. Using technology to promote mobile learning: engaging students with cell phones in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Meigan; Shellenbarger, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Advancements in cell phone technology have impacted every aspect of society. Individuals have instant access to social networks, Web sites, and applications. Faculty need to consider using these mobile devices to enrich the classroom. The authors discuss how they successfully designed and incorporated cell phone learning activities into their classrooms. Teaching-learning strategies using cell phone technology and recommendations for overcoming challenges associated with cell phone use in the classroom are discussed.

  9. Cell-Phone Use and Self-Reported Hypertension: National Health Interview Survey 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Suresh, Sivaranjani; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Kalidindi, Sita; Shankar, Anoop

    2011-01-01

    Background. Cell-phone usage has increased dramatically over the last decade, along with a rising public concern over the health effects of using this device. The association between cell-phone usage and hypertension has not been examined before. Methods. We analysed data from 21,135 adults aged ≥18 years who participated in the 2008 National Health Interview Survey. Based on reported cell-phone use, participants were categorized as cell-phone nonusers, predominantly landline users, dual user...

  10. Cell Phone Use among Homeless Youth: Potential for New Health Interventions and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Eric; Lee, Alex; Taitt, Sean

    2011-01-01

    Cell phone use has become nearly ubiquitous among adolescents in the United States. Despite the potential for cell phones to facilitate intervention, research, and care for homeless youth, no data exists to date on cell phone use among this population. In 2009, a survey of cell phone use was conducted among a non-probability sample of 169 homeless youth in Los Angeles, CA. Levels of ownership and use, instrumental uses (connecting to case workers, employers) and patterns of connecting to vari...

  11. Mobile cell-phones (M-phones in telemicroscopy: increasing connectivity of isolated laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Missoni Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of modern information telecommunication (ITC technology and its use in telemedicine plays an increasingly important role in facilitating access to some diagnostic services even to people living in the most remote areas. However, physical and economical constraints in the access to broad band data-transmission network, still represent a considerable obstacle to the transmission of images for the purpose of tele-pathology. Methods Indifferently using m-phones of different brands, and a variety of microscopic preparations, images were taken without the use of any adaptor simply approaching the lens of the mobile cell phone camera to the ocular of common optical microscopes, and subsequently sent via Multimedia Messaging Services (MMS to distant reference centres for tele-diagnosis. Access to MMS service was reviewed with specific reference to the African information communication technology (ICT market. Results Images of any pathologic preparation could be captured and sent over the mobile phone with an MMS, without being limited by appropriate access to the internet for transmission (i.e. access to broad-band services. The quality of the image was not influenced by the brand or model of the mobile-phone used, but only by its digital resolution, with any resolution above 0.8 megapixel resulting in images sufficient for diagnosis. Access to MMS services is increasingly reaching remote disadvantaged areas. Current penetration of the service in Africa was mapped appearing already available in almost every country, with penetration index varying from 1.5% to 92.2%. Conclusion The use of otherwise already widely available technologies, without any need for adaptors or otherwise additional technology, could significantly increase opportunities and quality diagnostics while lowering costs and considerably increasing connectivity between most isolated laboratories and distant reference center.

  12. A forecasting method to reduce estimation bias in self-reported cell phone data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmayne, Mary; Smith, Euan; Abramson, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    There is ongoing concern that extended exposure to cell phone electromagnetic radiation could be related to an increased risk of negative health effects. Epidemiological studies seek to assess this risk, usually relying on participants' recalled use, but recall is notoriously poor. Our objectives were primarily to produce a forecast method, for use by such studies, to reduce estimation bias in the recalled extent of cell phone use. The method we developed, using Bayes' rule, is modelled with data we collected in a cross-sectional cluster survey exploring cell phone user-habits among New Zealand adolescents. Participants recalled their recent extent of SMS-texting and retrieved from their provider the current month's actual use-to-date. Actual use was taken as the gold standard in the analyses. Estimation bias arose from a large random error, as observed in all cell phone validation studies. We demonstrate that this seriously exaggerates upper-end forecasts of use when used in regression models. This means that calculations using a regression model will lead to underestimation of heavy-users' relative risk. Our Bayesian method substantially reduces estimation bias. In cases where other studies' data conforms to our method's requirements, application should reduce estimation bias, leading to a more accurate relative risk calculation for mid-to-heavy users.

  13. A bibliometric analysis of the scientific literature on Internet, video games, and cell phone addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Xavier; Guardiola, Elena; Beranuy, Marta; Bellés, Ana

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to locate the scientific literature dealing with addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to characterize the pattern of publications in these areas. One hundred seventy-nine valid articles were retrieved from PubMed and PsycINFO between 1996 and 2005 related to pathological Internet, cell phone, or video game use. The years with the highest numbers of articles published were 2004 (n = 42) and 2005 (n = 40). The most productive countries, in terms of number of articles published, were the United States (n = 52), China (n = 23), the United Kingdom (n = 17), Taiwan (n = 13), and South Korea (n = 9). The most commonly used language was English (65.4%), followed by Chinese (12.8%) and Spanish (4.5%). Articles were published in 96 different journals, of which 22 published 2 or more articles. The journal that published the most articles was Cyberpsychology & Behavior (n = 41). Addiction to the Internet was the most intensely studied (85.3%), followed by addiction to video games (13.6%) and cell phones (2.1%). The number of publications in this area is growing, but it is difficult to conduct precise searches due to a lack of clear terminology. To facilitate retrieval, bibliographic databases should include descriptor terms referring specifically to Internet, video games, and cell phone addiction as well as to more general addictions involving communications and information technologies and other behavioral addictions.

  14. Vestibular schwannoma and cell-phones. Results, limits and perspectives of clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mornet, E; Kania, R; Sauvaget, E; Herman, P; Tran Ba Huy, P

    2013-11-01

    The widespread development of cell-phones entails novel user exposure to electromagnetic fields. Health impact is a public health issue and a source of anxiety in the population. Some clinical studies reported an association between cell and cordless phone use and vestibular schwannoma; others found none. A systematic review was performed of all published clinical studies (cohort, registry, case-control and validation studies), with analysis of results, to determine the nature of the association and the level of evidence. Cohort studies were inconclusive due to short exposure durations and poor representativeness. Registry studies showed no correlation between evolution of cell-phone use and incidence of vestibular schwannoma. Case-control studies reported contradictory results, with methodological flaws. Only a small number of subjects were included in long-term studies (>10 years), and these failed to demonstrate any indisputable causal relationship. Exposure assessment methods were debatable, and long-term assessment was lacking. An on-going prospective study should determine any major effect of electromagnetic fields; schwannoma being a rare pathology, absence of association will be difficult to prove. No clinical association has been demonstrated between cell and cordless phone use and vestibular schwannoma. Existing studies are limited by their retrospective assessment of exposure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Mobile phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    Almost the entire Norwegian population has cell phone. The usefulness of the cell phone is great, but can use a mobile phone to health or discomfort? How can exposure be reduced? NRPA follows research and provides advice on mobile phone use. (AG)

  16. 77 FR 54651 - Study on the Use of Cell Phones On Board Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ...) directed the Administrator of the FAA to conduct a study on the impact of the use of cell phones for voice... Cell Phone Study Comments using any of the following methods: E-Mail: Send comments to CELLPHONEcomment... impact of the use of cell phones for voice communications in scheduled passenger air transportation and...

  17. Uses of the Cell Phone for Education in the Philippines and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librero, Felix; Ramos, Angelo Juan; Ranga, Adelina I.; Trinona, Jerome; Lambert, David

    2007-01-01

    The cell phone, now the most widely used medium in Asia, has major educational implications. Most users, however, do not realize the cell phone's potential for education, nor even for the communication functions for which it was originally designed. Most educators still see the computer and the cell phone as unrelated devices, and the tiny cell…

  18. Cell Phones in the Classroom: Teachers' Perspectives of Inclusion, Benefits, and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin M.; O'Bannon, Blanche W.; Bolton, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Historically viewed as a disruption by teachers, cell phones have been banned from 69% of classrooms (Common Sense Media, 2009). The increased ubiquity and instructional features of cell phones have prompted some teachers to re-evaluate the ban and consider the benefits associated with allowing cell phones in the classroom. This study surveyed 79…

  19. A Happy and Engaged Class without Cell Phones? It's Easier than You Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Louise; Lambert, Warren

    2016-01-01

    Although there have been many suggestions for incorporating cell phone use into classroom activities, there have been few suggestions for removing cell phone use from the classroom. This article presents an easy-to-implement method using positive reinforcement that effectively removes cell phones from the classroom in a way that is highly endorsed…

  20. College Students' Cell Phone Use, Beliefs, and Effects on Their Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Anastasia D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore college students' self-reported cell phone use and beliefs and investigate the effect on student learning. Eighty-eight college students responded to a questionnaire about their use of cell phones during classes, studying, and driving and about their beliefs about how cell phones impact their schoolwork. In…

  1. The usage of cell phones and the feeling to them in modern Japanese college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Mayumi; Sekine, Takiko

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate how and to what extent modern people's life is affected by cell phones, which have been rapidly penetrating into the people's individual life. Surveys were conducted by questionnaires to Japanese college students (288 females and 54 males, ages 18 to 21) about their dependency on cell phones and habits of using them. The result was analyzed by the KJ method extracting the typical feelings about cell phones. Forty typical feelings were rated by 5 levels and analyzed in relation to the using years and the frequency per day. About 20% of the students used cell phones more than 30 times a day and for more than 3 hours in average per day. A decisive point concerning the users' dependency on cell phones seemed to exist between the daily use of 30 times and 40 times. At the same time, female students appeared more dependent on cell phones. Those feelings were classified into 6 groups; being 'dependent' on cell phones, regarding cell phones as 'important', 'necessary', 'convenient', just a 'method' of communication, and 'troublesome'. The percentages of those who felt cell phones as convenient, a method, important and necessary were high both in males and females. The dependence on cell phones seemed to be affirmative in both sexes, but males consistently felt cell phones as methods, whereas females tended to be more dependent on them from psychological reasons. Consequently, there were observed some differences between males and females in their use and feelings to cell phones.

  2. The use of GSM (cell-phone) in the library by surdents of Abubakar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results showed that students used the cell-phone mainly for communication purposes, to check time, send text messages, browsing internet, among other things. Cell-phone use in the library caused distraction and made concentration difficult. Recommendations were offered towards reducing use of cell-phone in the ...

  3. 78 FR 27441 - NIJ Evaluation of Hand-Held Cell Phone Detector Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... of Justice Programs NIJ Evaluation of Hand-Held Cell Phone Detector Devices AGENCY: National...) is soliciting interest in supplying hand-held cell phone detector devices for participation in an... soliciting interest in supplying hand-held cell phone detector devices for participation in an evaluation by...

  4. The outcome of dimethylglyoxime testing in a sample of cell phones in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J.P.; Johansen, J.D.; Zachariae, C.

    2008-01-01

    case of nickel dermatitis from prolonged cell phone use, the frequency of dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-positive cell phones on the Danish market was investigated. Methods: Five major cell phone companies were contacted. Two were visited, and the DMG test was performed on a sample of their products. Results......Background: Nickel dermatitis may be caused by frequent and prolonged use of cell phones. Because little is known about the frequency of nickel release from cell phones, it is difficult to estimate the risk of nickel sensitization and dermatitis among their users. Objective: Inspired by a recent......: 5 of 15 (33.3%) phones from company A and 3 of 26 (11.5%) phones from company B showed at least 1 positive reaction. 3 phones had more than 1 positive DMG spots. Conclusions: This study documents that excessive nickel release (i.e. a positive DMG test) is relatively frequent in a sample of cell...

  5. The outcome of dimethylglyoxime testing in a sample of cell phones in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel dermatitis may be caused by frequent and prolonged use of cell phones. Because little is known about the frequency of nickel release from cell phones, it is difficult to estimate the risk of nickel sensitization and dermatitis among their users. OBJECTIVE: Inspired by a recent...... case of nickel dermatitis from prolonged cell phone use, the frequency of dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-positive cell phones on the Danish market was investigated. METHODS: Five major cell phone companies were contacted. Two were visited, and the DMG test was performed on a sample of their products. RESULTS......: 5 of 15 (33.3%) phones from company A and 3 of 26 (11.5%) phones from company B showed at least 1 positive reaction. 3 phones had more than 1 positive DMG spots. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents that excessive nickel release (i.e. a positive DMG test) is relatively frequent in a sample of cell...

  6. Cell Phone Carriers, TV-Commercials & Branding : A study of cell phone carriers TV- commercials, branding and its affect on young people

    OpenAIRE

    Sköld, Robin; Nilsson, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Problem: As almost everyone has a cell phone today, keeping your customers is very important. An important group for cell phone carriers is young people. This is a group that uses cell phones more and more. However, attracting these people could be hard. One of the most common strategies to attract customers today is promotion through TV-commercials. Another strategy that has gained popularity is branding. We therefore asked ourselves how these strategies could affect each other and eventuall...

  7. [Validation of two brief scales for Internet addiction and mobile phone problem use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beranuy Fargues, Marta; Chamarro Lusar, Andrés; Graner Jordania, Carla; Carbonell Sánchez, Xavier

    2009-08-01

    This study describes the construction and validation process of two questionnaires designed to assess the addictive use of Internet and mobile phones. The scales were applied to a sample of 1,879 students. Results support a two-factor model, presenting an acceptable internal consistency and indices of convergent and discriminant validity. The Questionnaire of Experiences Related to Internet was found to assess intra- and interpersonal conflicts related to Internet use. The Questionnaire of Experiences Related to the Mobile Phone was found to assess conflicts related to mobile phone abuse and to maladaptive emotional and communicational patterns. Our results indicate that the mobile phone does not produce the same degree of addictive behavior as Internet; it could rather be interpreted as problematic use. Men displayed more addictive use of Internet, whilst women seemed to use the mobile phone as a means for emotional communication. It seems that the use of both technologies is more problematic during adolescence and normalizes with age toward a more professional and less playful use, and with fewer negative consequences.

  8. Effects of Classroom Cell Phone Use on Expected and Actual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Arnold D.; Carpenter, Christina N.; Inman, Denyse A.; Schooley, Jessica R.; Barnes, Rebecca B.; Brecht, Paul W.; Chacon, Jasmin D.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of driving indicate that the conversational aspects of using cell phones generate high risks from divided attention. Prior surveys document high rates at which students carry phones to and use them during class. Some experiments have demonstrated that cell phones distract students from learning. The present studies combined survey and…

  9. Challenging cell phone impact on reproduction: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merhi, Zaher O

    2012-04-01

    The radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) produced by cell phones can enhance the excitability of the brain and has recently been classified as carcinogenic. The suggested use of hands-free kits lowers the exposure to the brain, but it might theoretically increase exposure to the reproductive organs. This report summarizes the potential effects of RF-EMR on reproductive potentials in both males and females. A critical review of the literature pertaining to the impact of cell phone RF-EMR on reproduction in male and female animals and humans was performed, with a focus on gonad metabolism, apoptosis of reproductive cells, fertility status, and serum reproductive hormones. While some animal and human studies revealed alterations in reproductive physiology in both males and females, others did not report any association. The in vitro and in vivo studies to date are highly diverse, very inconsistent in conduct and, in many cases, report different primary outcomes. The increasing use of cell phone warrants well-designed studies to ascertain the effect of their RF-EMR on reproduction.

  10. Cell-Phone Use and Self-Reported Hypertension: National Health Interview Survey 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaranjani Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Results. 43.5% of the participants were cell-phone nonusers, while 13.8% were predominantly cell-phone users. We found that cell-phone use was inversely associated with hypertension, independent of age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, body mass index (BMI, and physical activity. Compared to cell-phone nonusers, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval of hypertension was 0.86 (0.75–0.98, P trend  =  .005 among predominantly cell-phone users. This inverse association between cell-phone use and hypertension was stronger in women, those aged <60 years, whites, and those with BMI <25 kg/m2. Conclusion. We found that cell-phone usage was protectively associated with self-reported hypertension in a nationally representative sample of US adults.

  11. Lack of Parental Rules for Cell Phone Use among Low Income Mexican Descendent Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Bracamonte Wiggs

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Youth have access to and utilize various types of technology at a growing rate. Cell phones are a portable way for adolescents to remain in constant contact with friends, parents, and others. While White youth are more likely to have a cell phone compared to Latino youth, the trends for cell phone use are similar among all teens with text messaging serving as the most popular means of communication. Despite their high volume of communication with others via cell phones, adolescents are likely to have little or no adult supervision while using technology. With a lack of parental supervision or awareness regarding youth technology use, adolescents may be especially vulnerable to cyberbullying and other negative health impacts. The current study investigates cell phone and texting use among a community sample of Latino adolescents and examines how parental rules regarding cell phone use influences adolescents’ cell phone and texting behaviors.

  12. NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, David H.; Moeller, Lothar

    2013-01-01

    A method is described for measuring absorbed electromagnetic energy radiated from cell phone antennae into ex vivo brain tissue. NMR images the 3D thermal dynamics inside ex vivo bovine brain tissue and equivalent gel under exposure to power and irradiation time-varying radio frequency (RF) fields. The absorbed RF energy in brain tissue converts into Joule heat and affects the nuclear magnetic shielding and the Larmor precession. The resultant temperature increase is measured by the resonance frequency shift of hydrogen protons in brain tissue. This proposed application of NMR thermometry offers sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to characterize the hot spots from absorbed cell phone radiation in aqueous media and biological tissues. Specific absorption rate measurements averaged over 1 mg and 10 s in the brain tissue cover the total absorption volume. Reference measurements with fiber optic temperature sensors confirm the accuracy of the NMR thermometry. PMID:23248293

  13. Internet and cell phone based smoking cessation programs among adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Purvi Mehta,; Manoj Sharma

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can preventthe adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy,household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessationdeterminants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among adolescents,smoking cessation programs are beginning to adopt these new delivery methods. The purpose ofthe study is to review interventions between 20...

  14. The invisible addiction: Cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    PETNJI YAYA, LUC HONORE; MANOLIS, CHRIS

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The primary objective of the present study was to investigate which cell-phone activities are associated with cell-phone addiction. No research to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities, and their relationship to cell-phone addiction, across male and female cell-phone users. Methods: College undergraduates (N = 164) participated in an online survey. Participants completed the questionnaire as part of their class requirements. The questionnaire took 10 and 15 minutes to complete and contained a measure of cell-phone addiction and questions that asked how much time participants spent daily on 24 cell-phone activities. Results: Findings revealed cell-phone activities that are associated significantly with cell-phone addiction (e.g., Instagram, Pinterest), as well as activities that one might logically assume would be associated with this form of addiction but are not (e.g., Internet use and Gaming). Cell-phone activities that drive cell-phone addiction (CPA) were found to vary considerably across male and female cell-phone users. Although a strong social component drove CPA for both males and females, the specific activities associated with CPA differed markedly. Conclusions: CPA amongst the total sample is largely driven by a desire to connect socially. The activities found to be associated with CPA, however, differed across the sexes. As the functionality of cell-phones continues to expand, addiction to this seemingly indispensable piece of technology becomes an increasingly realistic possibility. Future research must identify the activities that push cell-phone use beyond its “;tipping point” where it crosses the line from a helpful tool to one that undermines our personal well-being and that of others. PMID:25595966

  15. The invisible addiction: cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, James A; Yaya, Luc Honore Petnji; Manolis, Chris

    2014-12-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to investigate which cell-phone activities are associated with cell-phone addiction. No research to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities, and their relationship to cell-phone addiction, across male and female cell-phone users. College undergraduates (N = 164) participated in an online survey. Participants completed the questionnaire as part of their class requirements. The questionnaire took 10 and 15 minutes to complete and contained a measure of cell-phone addiction and questions that asked how much time participants spent daily on 24 cell-phone activities. Findings revealed cell-phone activities that are associated significantly with cell-phone addiction (e.g., Instagram, Pinterest), as well as activities that one might logically assume would be associated with this form of addiction but are not (e.g., Internet use and Gaming). Cell-phone activities that drive cell-phone addiction (CPA) were found to vary considerably across male and female cell-phone users. Although a strong social component drove CPA for both males and females, the specific activities associated with CPA differed markedly. CPA amongst the total sample is largely driven by a desire to connect socially. The activities found to be associated with CPA, however, differed across the sexes. As the functionality of cell-phones continues to expand, addiction to this seemingly indispensable piece of technology becomes an increasingly realistic possibility. Future research must identify the activities that push cell-phone use beyond its “tipping point” where it crosses the line from a helpful tool to one that undermines our personal well-being and that of others.

  16. The outcome of dimethylglyoxime testing in a sample of cell phones in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J.P.; Johansen, J.D.; Zachariae, C.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Nickel dermatitis may be caused by frequent and prolonged use of cell phones. Because little is known about the frequency of nickel release from cell phones, it is difficult to estimate the risk of nickel sensitization and dermatitis among their users. Objective: Inspired by a recent...... case of nickel dermatitis from prolonged cell phone use, the frequency of dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-positive cell phones on the Danish market was investigated. Methods: Five major cell phone companies were contacted. Two were visited, and the DMG test was performed on a sample of their products. Results...... phones from the Danish market. Prolonged use of cell phones may in some cases fulfil the criteria for items included in the European Union Nickel Directive. We believe that this new cause of nickel dermatitis should be carefully followed and that regulatory steps may be necessary Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  17. An international prospective cohort study of mobile phone users and health (COSMOS): Factors affecting validity of self-reported mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledano, Mireille B; Auvinen, Anssi; Tettamanti, Giorgio; Cao, Yang; Feychting, Maria; Ahlbom, Anders; Fremling, Karin; Heinävaara, Sirpa; Kojo, Katja; Knowles, Gemma; Smith, Rachel B; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer; Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Deltour, Isabelle; Vermeulen, Roel; Kromhout, Hans; Elliott, Paul; Hillert, Lena

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates validity of self-reported mobile phone use in a subset of 75 993 adults from the COSMOS cohort study. Agreement between self-reported and operator-derived mobile call frequency and duration for a 3-month period was assessed using Cohen's weighted Kappa (κ). Sensitivity and specificity of both self-reported high (≥10 calls/day or ≥4h/week) and low (≤6 calls/week or mobile phone use were calculated, as compared to operator data. For users of one mobile phone, agreement was fair for call frequency (κ=0.35, 95% CI: 0.35, 0.36) and moderate for call duration (κ=0.50, 95% CI: 0.49, 0.50). Self-reported low call frequency and duration demonstrated high sensitivity (87% and 76% respectively), but for high call frequency and duration sensitivity was lower (38% and 56% respectively), reflecting a tendency for greater underestimation than overestimation. Validity of self-reported mobile phone use was lower in women, younger age groups and those reporting symptoms during/shortly after using a mobile phone. This study highlights the ongoing value of using self-report data to measure mobile phone use. Furthermore, compared to continuous scale estimates used by previous studies, categorical response options used in COSMOS appear to improve validity considerably, most likely by preventing unrealistically high estimates from being reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Cell phone use among homeless youth: potential for new health interventions and research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Lee, Alex; Taitt, Sean

    2011-12-01

    Cell phone use has become nearly ubiquitous among adolescents in the United States. Despite the potential for cell phones to facilitate intervention, research, and care for homeless youth, no data exists to date on cell phone use among this population. In 2009, a survey of cell phone use was conducted among a non-probability sample of 169 homeless youth in Los Angeles, CA. Levels of ownership and use, instrumental uses (connecting to case workers, employers) and patterns of connecting to various network types were assessed (family, home-based peers, street-based peers). Differences in socio-demographic characteristics and cell phone ownership were assessed via t test and chi-square statistics. Sixty-two percent of homeless youth own a cell phone; 40% have a working phone. Seventeen percent used their phone to call a case manager, 36% to call either a potential or current employer. Fifty-one percent of youth connected with home-based peers on the phone and 41% connected to parents. Cell phones present new opportunities for intervention research, connecting homeless youth to family and home-based peers who can be sources of social support in times of need. Moreover, cell phones provide researchers and providers with new avenues to maintain connections with these highly transient youth.

  19. Addiction-Like Mobile Phone Behavior – Validation and Association With Problem Gambling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Fransson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone use and its potential addiction has become a point of interest within the research community. The aim of the study was to translate and validate the Test of Mobile Dependence (TMD, and to investigate if there are any associations between mobile phone use and problem gambling. This was a cross-sectional study on a Swedish general population. A questionnaire consisting of a translated version of the TMD, three problem gambling questions (NODS-CLiP together with two questions concerning previous addiction treatment was published online. Exploratory factor analysis based on polychoric correlations was performed on the TMD. Independent samples T-tests, Mann-Whitney test, logistic regression analyses and ANOVA were performed to examine mean differences between subjects based on TMD test score, gambling and previous addiction treatment. A total of 1,515 people (38.3% men answered the questionnaire. The TMD showed acceptable internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: 0.905, and significant correlation with subjective dependence on one's mobile phone. Women scored higher on the TMD and 15-18 year olds had the highest mean test score. The TMD test score was significantly associated with problem gambling, but only when controlling for age and sex. Various separated items related to mobile phone use were associated with problem gambling. The TMD had acceptable internal consistency and correlates with subjective dependence, while future confirmatory factor analysis is recommended. An association between mobile phone use and problem gambling may be possible, but requires further research.

  20. Validity and reliability of the iPhone to measure rib hump in scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balg, Frederic; Juteau, Mathieu; Theoret, Chantal; Svotelis, Amy; Grenier, Guillaume

    2014-12-01

    This was a prospective blinded validity and reliability analysis. The aim of this study was validation and reliability evaluation of the Scoligauge iPhone app. The scoliometer is used to clinically measure the rib hump in scoliosis as a means to evaluate the axial trunk rotation. The increasing availability of smartphone with built-in accelerometer led to the development of a vast number of applications to measure angles. Of these, the Scoligauge mimics a scoliometer. The aim of this study was to compare the validity of the Scoligauge iPhone application without an associated adapter with the traditional scoliometer and to test the reliability of the application in a clinical setting. Two observers measured the rib hump deformity on 34 consecutive patients with idiopathic scoliosis with an average Cobb angle of 24.2 ± 13.5 degrees (range, 4 to 65 degrees). Measurements were made with an iPhone without the adapter and with a scoliometer. The validity as well as the interobserver and intraobserver reliability were calculated using the intraclass coefficient (ICC) and the Bland-Altman test. The mean difference between the scoliometer and the Scoligauge application was 0.4 degrees [95% confidence interval (CI) of ± 3.1 degrees] with an ICC of 0.947 (P iPhone app, as well as its validity compared with the scoliometer, are excellent. The mean differences between measurements are small and clinically not significant. Thus, the Scoligauge application is valid for clinical evaluation even without special adapter. Level I (Diagnostic Study).

  1. Cell phone use and acoustic neuroma: the need for standardized questionnaires and access to industry data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Kano, Hideyuki; Davis, Devra L; Niranjan, Ajay; Lunsford, L Dade

    2009-09-01

    The capacity of radiofrequency from cell phones to be absorbed into the brain has prompted concerns that regular cell phone use may increase the risk of acoustic neuroma (AN) and other brain tumors. This article critically evaluates current literature on cell phone use and AN risks and proposes additional studies to clarify any possible linkage. Through a PubMed search, we identified and reviewed 10 case-control studies and 1 cohort study of AN risks associated with cell phone use and a meta-analysis of long-term mobile phone use and its association with AN and other brain tumors. Most studies did not find association between the development of AN and cell phone use, but some studies that followed cases for 10 years or more did show an association. Among 10 case-control studies, odds ratios for AN associated with regular cell phone use ranged from 0.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.2-1.0) to 4.2 (95% CI, 1.8-10). Cell phone use was not associated with increased risk for AN in the Danish cohort study, which excluded business users from their study. The meta-analysis, which included 3 case-control studies, found that subjects who used cell phones for at least 10 years had a 2.4-fold greater risk of developing ipsilateral AN. In general, retrospective studies are limited in the ability to assess cell phone exposure because of recall bias and misclassification. The evaluation of AN risk factors is challenging due to its long latency. Some studies of longer term cell phone use have found an increased risk of ipsilateral AN. Adopting a prospective approach to acquire data on cell phone use, obtaining retrospective billing records that provide independent evaluations of exposures, and incorporating information on other key potential risk factors from questionnaires could markedly advance the capacity of studies to evaluate the impact of cell phones on AN.

  2. Tinnitus and cell phones: the role of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medeiros, Luisa Nascimento; Sanchez, Tanit Ganz

    2016-01-01

    Tinnitus is a multifactorial condition and its prevalence has increased on the past decades. The worldwide progressive increase of the use of cell phones has exposed the peripheral auditory pathways to a higher dose of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation (EMRFR). Some tinnitus patients report that the abusive use of mobiles, especially when repeated in the same ear, might worsen ipsilateral tinnitus. The aim of this study was to evaluate the available evidence about the possible causal association between tinnitus and exposure to electromagnetic waves. A literature review was performed searching for the following keywords: tinnitus, electromagnetic field, mobile phones, radio frequency, and electromagnetic hypersensitivity. We selected 165 articles that were considered clinically relevant in at least one of the subjects. EMRFR can penetrate exposed tissues and safety exposure levels have been established. These waves provoke proved thermogenic effects and potential biological and genotoxic effects. Some individuals are more sensitive to electromagnetic exposure (electrosensitivity), and thus, present earlier symptoms. There may be a common pathophysiology between this electrosensitivity and tinnitus. There are already reasonable evidences to suggest caution for using mobile phones to prevent auditory damage and the onset or worsening of tinnitus. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  3. Tinnitus and cell phones: the role of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Nascimento Medeiros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus is a multifactorial condition and its prevalence has increased on the past decades. The worldwide progressive increase of the use of cell phones has exposed the peripheral auditory pathways to a higher dose of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation (EMRFR. Some tinnitus patients report that the abusive use of mobiles, especially when repeated in the same ear, might worsen ipsilateral tinnitus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the available evidence about the possible causal association between tinnitus and exposure to electromagnetic waves. METHODS: A literature review was performed searching for the following keywords: tinnitus, electromagnetic field, mobile phones, radio frequency, and electromagnetic hypersensitivity. We selected 165 articles that were considered clinically relevant in at least one of the subjects. RESULTS: EMRFR can penetrate exposed tissues and safety exposure levels have been established. These waves provoke proved thermogenic effects and potential biological and genotoxic effects. Some individuals are more sensitive to electromagnetic exposure (electrosensitivity, and thus, present earlier symptoms. There may be a common pathophysiology between this electrosensitivity and tinnitus. CONCLUSION: There are already reasonable evidences to suggest caution for using mobile phones to prevent auditory damage and the onset or worsening of tinnitus.

  4. Teaching the Fundamentals of Cell Phones and Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Mark; Forrest, Rick; Pata, Don

    2010-04-01

    Wireless communications are ubiquitous. Students and teachers use iPhones®, BlackBerrys®, and other smart phones at home and at work. More than 275 million Americans had cell phones in June of 2009 and expanded access to broadband is predicted this year.2 Despite the plethora of users, most students and teachers do not understand "how they work." Over the past several years, three high school teachers have collaborated with engineers at Cingular, Motorola, and the University of Michigan to explore the underlying science and design a three-week, student-centered unit with a constructivist pedagogy consistent with the "Modeling in Physics" philosophy.3 This unique pilot program reinforces traditional physics topics including vibrations and waves, sound, light, electricity and magnetism, and also introduces key concepts in communications and information theory. This article will describe the motivation for our work, outline a few key concepts with the corresponding student activities, and provide a summary of the program that has been developed to engage and inspire the next generation of scientists, engineers, and citizens.

  5. Validating self-reported mobile phone use in adults using a newly developed smartphone application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goedhart, Geertje; Kromhout, Hans; Wiart, Joe; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation of epidemiological studies on health effects from mobile phone use is hindered by uncertainties in the exposure assessment. We used a newly developed smartphone application (app) to validate self-reported mobile phone use and behaviour among adults. 107 participants (mean age 41.4 years) in the Netherlands either downloaded the software app on their smartphone or were provided with a study smartphone for 4 weeks. The app recorded the number and duration of calls, text messages, data transfer, laterality and hands-free use. Self-reported mobile phone use was collected before using the app and after 6 months through an interviewer-administered questionnaire. The geometric mean ratios (GMR, 95% CI) and Spearman correlations (r) of self-reported (after 6 months) versus recorded number and duration of calls were: GMR=0.65 (0.53 to 0.80), r=0.53; and GMR=1.11 (0.86 to 1.42), r=0.57 respectively. Participants held the phone on average for 86% of the total call time near the head. Self-reported right side users held the phone for 70.7% of the total call time on the right side of the head, and left side users for 66.2% on the left side of the head. The percentage of total call time that the use of hands-free devices (headset, speaker mode, Bluetooth) was recorded increased with increasing frequency of reported hands-free device usage. The observed recall errors and precision of reported laterality and hands-free use can be used to quantify and improve radiofrequency exposure models based on self-reported mobile phone use. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  6. Using software-modified smartphones to validate self-reported mobile phone use in young people : A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedhart, Geertje; Vrijheid, Martine; Wiart, Joe; Hours, Martine; Kromhout, Hans; Cardis, Elisabeth; Eastman Langer, Chelsea; de Llobet Viladoms, Patricia; Massardier-Pilonchery, Amelie; Vermeulen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    A newly developed smartphone application was piloted to characterize and validate mobile phone use in young people. Twenty-six volunteers (mean age 17.3 years) from France, Spain, and the Netherlands used a software-modified smartphone for 4 weeks; the application installed on the phone recorded

  7. Effect of North Carolina's restriction on teenage driver cell phone use two years after implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Arthur H; O'Brien, Natalie P; Foss, Robert D

    2012-09-01

    A majority of states now restrict teenagers from using a mobile communication device while driving. The effect of these restrictions is largely unknown. In a previous study, we found North Carolina's teenage driver cell phone restriction had little influence on young driver behavior four months after the law took effect (Foss et al., 2009). The goal of the present study was to examine the longer-term effect of North Carolina's cell phone restriction. It was expected that compliance with the restriction would increase, as awareness of the restriction grew over time. Teenagers were observed at high schools in North Carolina approximately two years after the law was implemented. Observations were also conducted in South Carolina, which did not have a cell phone restriction. In both states, there was a broad decrease in cell phone use. A logistic regression analysis showed the decrease in cell phone use did not significantly differ between the two states. Although hand-held cell phone use decreased, there was an increase in the likelihood that drivers in North Carolina were observed physically manipulating a phone. Finally, a mail survey of teenagers in North Carolina showed awareness for the cell phone restriction now stands at 78% among licensed teens. Overall, the findings suggest North Carolina's cell phone restriction has had no long-term effect on the behavior of teenage drivers. Moreover, it appears many teenage drivers may be shifting from talking on a phone to texting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Validity of activity trackers, smartphones, and phone applications to measure steps in various walking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Höchsmann, C; Knaier, R; Eymann, J; Hintermann, J; Infanger, D; Schmidt-Trucksäss, A

    2018-02-20

    To examine the validity of popular smartphone accelerometer applications and a consumer activity wristband compared to a widely used research accelerometer while assessing the impact of the phone's position on the accuracy of step detection. Twenty volunteers from 2 different age groups (Group A: 18-25 years, n = 10; Group B 45-70 years, n = 10) were equipped with 3 iPhone SE smartphones (placed in pants pocket, shoulder bag, and backpack), 1 Samsung Galaxy S6 Edge (pants pocket), 1 Garmin Vivofit 2 wristband, and 2 ActiGraph wGTX+ devices (worn at wrist and hip) while walking on a treadmill (1.6, 3.2, 4.8, and 6.0 km/h) and completing a walking course. All smartphones included 6 accelerometer applications. Video observation was used as gold standard. Validity was evaluated by comparing each device with the gold standard using mean absolute percentage errors (MAPE). The MAPE of the iPhone SE (all positions) and the Garmin Vivofit was small (Samsung Galaxy and hip-worn ActiGraph showed small MAPE only for treadmill walking at 4.8 and 6.0 km/h and for free walking. The wrist-worn ActiGraph showed high MAPE (17-47) for all walking conditions. The iPhone SE and the Garmin Vivofit 2 are accurate tools for step counting in different age groups and during various walking conditions, even during slow walking. The phone's position does not impact the accuracy of step detection, which substantially improves the versatility for physical activity assessment in clinical and research settings. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Cell phone conversing while driving in New Zealand: prevalence, risk perception and legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallett, Charlene; Lambert, Anthony; Regan, Michael A

    2011-05-01

    This study investigated (i) the prevalence of conversing on a cell phone while driving in New Zealand, (ii) respondents' perception of risk regarding this behaviour and (iii) attitudes towards legislation banning cell phone use while driving. In addition, the study examined the association between the prevalence of conversing on a cell phone and risk perception. Anonymous, self-reported, survey data was collected via the internet from 1057 drivers nationwide regarding the frequency of conversing on a cell phone, including hands-free and hand-held conversing, risk perception, views on legislation, and demographic information. A positive relationship was found between the frequency of conversing on a cell phone and risk perception; that is, as the frequency of conversing on a cell phone increased, the perceived risk of this behaviour decreased. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The relationship between cell phone use, physical and sedentary activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of U.S. college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepp, Andrew; Barkley, Jacob E; Sanders, Gabriel J; Rebold, Michael; Gates, Peter

    2013-06-21

    Today's cell phones increase opportunities for activities traditionally defined as sedentary behaviors (e.g., surfing the internet, playing video games). People who participate in large amounts of sedentary behaviors, relative to those who do not, tend to be less physically active, less physically fit, and at greater risk for health problems. However, cell phone use does not have to be a sedentary behavior as these devices are portable. It can occur while standing or during mild-to-moderate intensity physical activity. Thus, the relationship between cell phone use, physical and sedentary activity, and physical fitness is unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate these relationships among a sample of healthy college students. Participants were first interviewed about their physical activity behavior and cell phone use. Then body composition was assessed and the validated self-efficacy survey for exercise behaviors completed. This was followed by a progressive exercise test on a treadmill to exhaustion. Peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) during exercise was used to measure cardiorespiratory fitness. Hierarchical regression was used to assess the relationship between cell phone use and cardiorespiratory fitness after controlling for sex, self-efficacy, and percent body fat. Interview data was transcribed, coded, and Chi-square analysis was used to compare the responses of low and high frequency cell phone users. Cell phone use was significantly (p = 0.047) and negatively (β = -0.25) related to cardio respiratory fitness independent of sex, self-efficacy, and percent fat which were also significant predictors (p cell phone use indicated a broader pattern of sedentary behaviors apart from cell phone use, such as watching television. Cell phone use, like traditional sedentary behaviors, may disrupt physical activity and reduce cardiorespiratory fitness.

  11. Exposure to cell phone radiations produces biochemical changes in worker honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Neelima R.; Sangwan, Sonika; Badotra, Pooja

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find the effect of cell phone radiations on various biomolecules in the adult workers of Apis mellifera L. The results of the treated adults were analyzed and compared with the control. Radiation from the cell phone influences honey bees’ behavior and physiology. There was reduced motor activity of the worker bees on the comb initially, followed by en masse migration and movement toward “talk mode” cell phone. The initial quiet period was characterized by ...

  12. Determination of the Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Student Cell Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ann Blankinship

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sampling of common use items (e.g., student cell phones for bacterial presence, identification, and antibiotic resistance profiling helps students to recognize the need for routine cleaning of personal items and encourages thoughtful use of currently available medications. This multilab period project can be used to teach or reinforce several methods from general microbiology including aseptic technique, isolation streak, serial dilution, spread plating, Kirby Bauer testing, unknown identification, and media production. The data generated can be saved and added to each semester, thus providing a data set that reflects a local trend of antibiotic resistance.      

  13. Measuring a conceptual model of the relationship between compulsive cell phone use, in-vehicle cell phone use, and motor vehicle crash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Stephen S; Shain, Lindsey M; Whitehill, Jennifer M; Ebel, Beth E

    2017-02-01

    Previous research suggests that anticipation of incoming phone calls or messages and impulsivity are significantly associated with motor vehicle crash. We took a more explanative approach to investigate a conceptual model regarding the direct and indirect effect of compulsive cell phone use and impulsive personality traits on crash risk. We recruited a sample of 307 undergraduate college students to complete an online survey that included measures of cell phone use, impulsivity, and history of motor vehicle crash. Using a structural equation model, we examined the direct and indirect relationships between factors of the Cell Phone Overuse Scale-II (CPOS-II), impulsivity, in-vehicle phone use, and severity and frequency of previous motor vehicle crash. Self-reported miles driven per week and year in college were included as covariates in the model. Our findings suggest that anticipation of incoming communication has a direct association with greater in-vehicle phone use, but was not directly or indirectly associated with increasing risk of previous motor vehicle crash. Of the three latent factors comprising the CPOS-II, only anticipation was significantly associated with elevated cell phone use while driving. Greater impulsivity and use of in-vehicle cell phone use while driving were directly and significantly associated with greater risk of motor vehicle crash. Anticipation of incoming cellular contacts (calls or texts) is associated with greater in-vehicle phone use, while greater in-vehicle cell phone use and impulsive traits are associated with elevated risk of motor vehicle crashes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Towards autonomous lab-on-a-chip devices for cell phone biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comina, Germán; Suska, Anke; Filippini, Daniel

    2016-03-15

    Modern cell phones are a ubiquitous resource with a residual capacity to accommodate chemical sensing and biosensing capabilities. From the different approaches explored to capitalize on such resource, the use of autonomous disposable lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices-conceived as only accessories to complement cell phones-underscores the possibility to entirely retain cell phones' ubiquity for distributed biosensing. The technology and principles exploited for autonomous LOC devices are here selected and reviewed focusing on their potential to serve cell phone readout configurations. Together with this requirement, the central aspects of cell phones' resources that determine their potential for analytical detection are examined. The conversion of these LOC concepts into universal architectures that are readable on unaccessorized phones is discussed within this context. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Internet and cell phone based smoking cessation programs among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Purvi Mehta,

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can preventthe adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy,household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessationdeterminants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among adolescents,smoking cessation programs are beginning to adopt these new delivery methods. The purpose ofthe study is to review interventions between 2005 and 2009 that used the Internet or cell phonesfor smoking cessation among 11 to 19 year olds. A systematic search of the CINAHL, ERIC,Google Scholar, and Medline databases was done. A total of 10 articles met the inclusion criteria.Interventions mainly used the Internet as a form of assistance to enhance the effectiveness of theprogram. One intervention used text messaging through cell phones. Self-efficacy, household andsocial support systems and perceived benefits were found to be significant predictors. Programswith multiple approaches, using the Internet as an adjunct were more effective than programs thatsolely relied on the Internet. Future research is needed to verify its success in cessation practices.Recommendations for future research are provided.

  16. Cell Phone Calls in the Operating Theater and Staff Distractions: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avidan, Alexander; Yacobi, Galel; Weissman, Charles; Levin, Phillip D

    2017-01-09

    Cell phones are the primary communication tool in our institution. There are no restrictions on their use in the operating rooms. The goal of this study was to evaluate the extent of cell phone use in the operating rooms during elective surgery and to evaluate whether they cause staff distractions. The following data on cell phone use were recorded anonymously: number of incoming and outgoing cell phone calls, duration of cell phone calls and their content (patient related, work related, private), who was distracted by the cell phone calls, and duration of distractions. We made observations during 52 surgeries. There were 205 cell phone calls, 197 (96.1%; median, 3 per surgery; interquartile range, 2-5) incoming and 8 (3.9%) outgoing. Incoming calls were answered on 110 (55.8%) of 197 (median, 2; interquartile range, 1-3) occasions. The mean duration of incoming calls (64 ± 40 seconds) was shorter than those of the outgoing calls (137 ± 242 seconds, P cell phone calls in the operating rooms during elective surgery was lower than expected and caused short-lived distractions mainly to the operating surgeons. We recommend that operating surgeons turn off their cell phones before surgery.

  17. Cell phones and male infertility: a review of recent innovations in technology and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Agarwal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones have become a vital part of everyday life. However, the health risks associated with their usage are often overlooked. Recently, evidence from several studies supports a growing claim that cell phone usage may have a detrimental effect on sperm parameters leading to decreased male fertility. Nonetheless, other studies showed no conclusive link between male infertility and cell phone usage. The ambiguity of such results is attributed to the lack of a centralized assay for measuring inflicted damage caused by cell phones. Study design, ethics, and reproducibility are all aspects which must be standardized before any conclusions can be made.

  18. Look who's talking! A roadside survey of drivers' cell phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Kristie L; Rudin-Brown, Christina M; Lenné, Michael G

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify Melbourne drivers' rates of handheld and hands-free phone use and the driver, vehicle, site, and time characteristics associated with phone use. Additionally, this study sought to examine any change in the prevalence of handheld cell phone use by Melbourne drivers between 2006 and 2009. Observational survey of vehicle drivers at various times of the day and week at 3 sites across metropolitan Melbourne during May 2009. A total of 195 (3.4%) of the 5813 drivers observed were using handheld phones and 81 (1.4%) were using hands-free phones. This represents a significant increase in handheld phone usage rates compared to those found in an earlier study conducted in Melbourne in 2006. Cell phone use was associated with a range of driver, vehicle, site, and time characteristics. Handheld phone users were predominately young or middle-aged drivers who drove cars or 4-wheel-drive vehicles (4WDs), and this activity was more likely to occur in the late afternoon. Use of hands-free phones did not differ significantly across gender, age group, vehicle type, observation site, or time of day; however, use of hands-free phones was higher on weekdays compared to weekends. Despite legislation being in place, drivers' handheld cell phone use is still a major road safety concern, particularly for young and middle-aged drivers. The effectiveness of other strategies for decreasing handheld usage rates, including increased surveillance and tougher penalties, need to be ascertained.

  19. Cell phone-based health education messaging improves health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Runsen; Xiang, Yueying; Han, Tieguang; Yang, Guo-An; Zhang, Yuan

    2016-03-01

    The ubiquity of cell phones, which allow for short message service (SMS), provides new and innovative opportunities for disease prevention and health education. To explore the use of cell phone-based health education SMS to improve the health literacy of community residents in China. A multi-stage random sampling method was used to select representative study communities and participants ≥ 18 years old. Intervention participants were sent health education SMSs once a week for 1 year and controls were sent conventional, basic health education measures. Health literacy levels of the residents before and after the intervention were evaluated between intervention and control groups. Public health literacy scores increased 1.5 points, from 61.8 to 63.3, after SMS intervention for 1 year (P<0.01); the increase was greater for males than females (2.01 vs. 1.03; P<0.01) and for Shenzhen local residents than non-permanent residents (2.56 vs. 1.14; P<0.01). The frequency of high health literacy scores was greater for the intervention than control group (22.03% to 30.93% vs. 22.07% to 20.82%). With health literacy as a cost-effective index, the cost-effectiveness per intervention was 0.54. SMS may be a useful tool for improving health literacy.

  20. Using cell phones to improve language skills: the Hadeda project

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available  essential   for  economic  development.     It  has  been  shown that  language skills have a direct impact on the employment and earning capabilities of  individuals. This has been shown to be true in English[1] and non­English speaking  countries[2] and... in both first world and third world countries. Unfortunately,   the cell  phone has been blamed for   the degradation of   language  skills[3].  Teachers have lamented the lack of spelling skills with pupils who use cell  phones, SMS (often called 'texting' in some English­speaking...

  1. A preliminary investigation into the prevalence and prediction of problematic cell phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetaniuk, Peter

    2014-03-01

    Likening mobile phone use dependency to the classification of excessive behaviors may be necessarily equivalent in seriousness to previously established addictions such as problematic computing or excessive gambling. The aim of the study explores into the behavior of excessive use of mobile phones as a pathological behavior. Two studies investigated criteria for problematic mobile phone usage by examining student (Study 1, N = 301) and nonstudent (Study 2, N = 362) responses to a set of adapted mobile phone addiction inventories. Study 1 investigated cell phone addiction inventories as constructs designed to measure problematic cell phone use. Additionally, Study 2 sought to predict age, depression, extraversion, emotional stability, impulse control, and self-esteem as independent variables that augment respondents' perceptions of problematic use. The results from Study 1 and Study 2 indicate that 10 to 25% of the participants tested exhibited problematic cell phone usage. Additionally, age, depression, extraversion, and low impulse control are the most suitable predictors for problematic use. The results of the two studies indicate that problematic mobile phone use does occur and ought to be taken seriously by the psychological community. Presently, there is limited data providing conclusive evidence for a comprehensible categorization of cell phone addiction, as well as a unified explanatory model specific to problematic mobile phone use. Studies such as this one may contribute substantial findings, adding scientific significance, and offering a valuable submission for the ongoing progress of creating intervention frameworks relative to "virtual addictions".

  2. A preliminary investigation into the prevalence and prediction of problematic cell phone use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smetaniuk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Likening mobile phone use dependency to the classification of excessive behaviors may be necessarily equivalent in seriousness to previously established addictions such as problematic computing or excessive gambling. The aim of the study explores into the behavior of excessive use of mobile phones as a pathological behavior. Methods: Two studies investigated criteria for problematic mobile phone usage by examining student (Study 1, N = 301) and nonstudent (Study 2, N = 362) responses to a set of adapted mobile phone addiction inventories. Study 1 investigated cell phone addiction inventories as constructs designed to measure problematic cell phone use. Additionally, Study 2 sought to predict age, depression, extraversion, emotional stability, impulse control, and self-esteem as independent variables that augment respondents’ perceptions of problematic use. Results: The results from Study 1 and Study 2 indicate that 10 to 25% of the participants tested exhibited problematic cell phone usage. Additionally, age, depression, extraversion, and low impulse control are the most suitable predictors for problematic use. Conclusions: The results of the two studies indicate that problematic mobile phone use does occur and ought to be taken seriously by the psychological community. Presently, there is limited data providing conclusive evidence for a comprehensible categorization of cell phone addiction, as well as a unified explanatory model specific to problematic mobile phone use. Studies such as this one may contribute substantial findings, adding scientific significance, and offering a valuable submission for the ongoing progress of creating intervention frameworks relative to “virtual addictions”. PMID:25215213

  3. Relationship of Near-Crash/Crash Risk to Time Spent on a Cell Phone While Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Charles M; Klauer, Sheila G; McClafferty, Julie A; Guo, Feng

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine in a naturalistic driving setting the dose-response relationship between cell phone usage while driving and risk of a crash or near crash. How is the increasing use of cell phones by drivers associated with overall near-crash/crash risk (i.e., during driving times both on and off the phone)? Day-to-day driving behavior of 105 volunteer subjects was monitored over a period of 1 year. A random sample was selected comprised of 4 trips from each month that each driver was in the study, and in-vehicle video was used to classify driver behavior. The proportion of driving time spent using a cell phone was estimated for each 3-month period and correlated with overall crash and near-crash rates for each period. Thus, it was possible to test whether changes in an individual driver's cell phone use over time were associated with changes in overall near-crash/crash risk. Drivers in the study spent 11.7% of their driving time interacting with a cell phone, primarily talking on the phone (6.5%) or simply holding the phone in their hand or lap (3.7%). The risk of a near-crash/crash event was approximately 17% higher when the driver was interacting with a cell phone, due primarily to actions of reaching for/answering/dialing, which nearly triples risk (relative risk = 2.84). However, the amount of driving time spent interacting with a cell phone did not affect a driver's overall near-crash/crash risk. Vehicle speeds within 6 s of the beginning of each call on average were 5-6 mph lower than speeds at other times. Results of this naturalistic driving study are consistent with the observation that increasing cell phone use in the general driving population has not led to increased crash rates. Although cell phone use can be distracting and crashes have occurred during this distraction, overall crash rates appear unaffected by changes in the rate of cell phone use, even for individual drivers. Drivers compensate somewhat for the distraction

  4. Cell Phone Usage among Adolescents in Uganda: Acceptability for Relaying Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Bull, Sheana; Kiwanuka, Julius; Ybarra, Michele L.

    2011-01-01

    The increase in cell phone use has manifested a growing interest in using this technology for health promotion. The portability and "always on" features of the cell phone, along with increasing capability for the devices to carry and transfer data suggest that they will reach more people than computers and the Internet in coming years.…

  5. Modern Educational Technology: Educational Usages of Cell Phone as Perceived by Students of Education Faculties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harba, Ali Moneer

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the educational use of cell phones at two Syrian education establishments. The research sample consisted of (n = 184) students from the Department of Teacher Education at Tishreen and Damascus Universities. During the study, students filled in a self-report 17-item questionnaire. Survey results imply that cell phone use…

  6. Teachers' Stances on Cell Phones in the ESL Classroom: Toward a "Theoretical" Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    In the ongoing and constantly expanding discussion surrounding cell phones in the classroom, a theoretical complement to the practical side of the issue is generally lacking. This is perhaps understandable. Many teachers are still trying to deal with the simple presence of cell phones in the class, and managing a classroom in which the presence…

  7. Noncompliance and Dissent with Cell Phone Policies: A Psychological Reactance Theoretical Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, Nicholas T.; Olson, Michele K.; Frey, T. K.

    2018-01-01

    This study employed Brehm's psychological reactance theory (PRT) to understand why students do or do not choose to follow classroom cell phone policies. Results (N = 750) from this study demonstrate that when instructors discourage cell phone use for noninstructional reasons, students feel their autonomy has been threatened. These perceptions of…

  8. Cell Phones in the Classroom: Don't Put Them Away Just Yet!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Carolyn Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    As the number of students with cell phones has steadily increased over the past decade, these technological advances have caused trepidation among educators over behavioral issues, from off-task activities to cheating (Prensky, 2005). On the other hand, mobile learning, as well as some tools to use with cell phones, are easy to set up, easy to…

  9. Maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and child behavioral problems in five birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birks, Laura; Guxens, Mònica; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Alexander, Jan; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Gallastegi, Mara; Ha, Mina; Haugen, Margaretha; Huss, Anke; Kheifets, Leeka; Lim, Hyungryul; Olsen, Jørn; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Sudan, Madhuri; Vermeulen, Roel; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Cardis, Elisabeth; Vrijheid, Martine

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies have reported associations between prenatal cell phone use and child behavioral problems, but findings have been inconsistent and based on retrospective assessment of cell phone use. This study aimed to assess this association in a multi-national analysis, using data from three

  10. Maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and child behavioral problems in five birth cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Birks, Laura; Guxens, Mònica; Papadopoulou, Eleni; Alexander, Jan; Ballester, Ferran; Estarlich, Marisa; Gallastegi, Mara; Ha, Mina; Haugen, Margaretha; Huss, Anke; Kheifets, Leeka; Lim, Hyungryul; Olsen, Jørn; Santa-Marina, Loreto; Sudan, Madhuri; Vermeulen, Roel; Vrijkotte, Tanja; Cardis, Elisabeth; Vrijheid, Martine

    INTRODUCTION: Previous studies have reported associations between prenatal cell phone use and child behavioral problems, but findings have been inconsistent and based on retrospective assessment of cell phone use. This study aimed to assess this association in a multi-national analysis, using data

  11. Cell phone exposures and hearing loss in children in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Olsen, Jorn

    2013-01-01

    Children today are exposed to cell phones early in life, and may be the most vulnerable if exposure is harmful to health. We investigated the association between cell phone use and hearing loss in children. The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) enrolled pregnant women between 1996 and 2002.

  12. Active Prompting to Decrease Cell Phone Use and Increase Seat Belt Use while Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Michael; Helms, Bridgett; Simpson, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death for those aged 3 to 33, with 43,005 (118 per day) Americans killed in 2002 alone. Seat belt use reduces the risk of serious injury in an accident, and refraining from using a cell phone while driving reduces the risk of an accident. Cell phone use while driving increases accident rates, and leads…

  13. Teens and distracted driving : texting, talking and other uses of the cell phone behind the wheel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-16

    This study investigated cell phone use and texting while driving, by teenage drivers, in the United States. It found that one third of 16-17 year old teenagers who text do so while driving. 50% of 16-17 year old teenagers have spoken on cell phones w...

  14. Factors associated with cell phone use in adolescents in the community of Madrid (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Martínez, Mercedes; Otero, Angel

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to measure cell phone use among high school adolescents and the factors associated with intensive cell phone use (depressive symptoms, social isolation, drug and alcohol use, school failure, and cell phone dependence). We conducted a cross-sectional survey study of 1,328 adolescents aged 13 to 20 years in nine secondary schools of the Community of Madrid between January to April 2007. The mean age of sample participants was 15.7 years. Almost all (96.5%) had their own cell phone (80.5% had one, and 15.9% had two or more). Some 54.8% take it to school and 46.1% keep it on during class; 41.7% use it intensively. The estimated prevalence of cell phone dependence was 20% (26.1% in females, 13% in males). Intensive cell phone use was associated with female sex, rural school location, good family economy, smoking tobacco, excessive alcohol consumption, depression, cell phone dependence, and school failure. More health education is needed to promote correct and effective cell phone use among adolescents. Factors associated with intensive use and dependence should be considered for possible intervention activities.

  15. Tools for School: Student Fluency and Perception of Cell Phones Used for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble-Thaden, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Technology is changing the way society interacts, communicates, collaborates, and learns. Improved cell phone capabilities and an ever increasing amount of cell phone applications allow individuals to connect globally and afford almost instantaneous access to information inside and outside the classroom. The majority of students today possesses…

  16. College Students Use Cell Phones while Driving More Frequently than Found in Government Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Sheryl; Mayer, Joni; Ryan, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Cell phone use while driving is hazardous; it quadruples the risk of a collision and multiplies the risk of a fatality nine-fold. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates that 8% of young drivers and 5% of all drivers use cell phones while driving. Participants and Methods: The authors trained graduate student…

  17. EDITORIAL Cell phone use and ill health: Is there a definite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the advent of the global use of cell phones, there have been concerns about their impact on the health of users. Interestingly, cell phone use is now an integral part of modern day communication between persons. In 2014, the World. Health Organisation (WHO) estimated that there were. 6.9 billion subscriptions.

  18. Reliability and validity of a GPS-enabled iPhone "app" to measure physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Amanda Clare; Bruce, Lyndell; Gordon, Brett Ashley

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the validity and reliability of an iPhone "app" and two sport-specific global positioning system (GPS) units to monitor distance, intensity and contextual physical activity. Forty (23 female, 17 male) 18-55-year-olds completed two trials of six laps around a 400-m athletics track wearing GPSports Pro and WiSpi units (5 and 1 Hz) and an iPhone(TM) with a Motion X GPS(TM) "app" that used the inbuilt iPhone location services application programming interface to obtain its sampling rate (which is likely to be ≤1 Hz). Overall, the statistical agreement, assessed using t-tests and Bland-Altman plots, indicated an underestimation of the known track distance (2.400 km) and average speed by the Motion X GPS "app" and GPSports Pro while the GPSports WiSpi(TM) device overestimated these outcomes. There was a ≤3% variation between trials for distance and average speed when measured by any of the GPS devices. Thus, the smartphone "app" trialled could be considered as an accessible alternative to provide high-quality contextualised data to enable ubiquitous monitoring and modification of programmes to ensure appropriate intensity and type of physical activity is prescribed and more importantly adhered to.

  19. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cell phone causes defective testicular function in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewopo, A O; Olaniyi, S K; Oyewopo, C I; Jimoh, A T

    2017-12-01

    Cell phones have become an integral part of everyday life. As cell phone usage has become more widespread, concerns have increased regarding the harmful effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from these devices. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the emitted radiation by cell phones on testicular histomorphometry and biochemical analyses. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were randomly allotted to control, group A (switched off mode exposure), group B (1-hr exposure), group C (2-hr exposure) and group D (3-hr exposure). The animals were exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone for a period of 28 days. Histomorphometry, biochemical and histological investigations were carried out. The histomorphometric parameters showed no significant change (p electromagnetic radiation of cell phone leads to defective testicular function that is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased gonadotropic hormonal profile. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. An analysis of the impact of cell phone use on depressive symptoms among Japanese elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Yuka; Saito, Yasuhiko

    2014-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in the impact of information and communication technologies, such as the computer and Internet, on physical and mental health status, but relatively little is known about the health effects of using cell phones. This study investigates how cell phone usage is associated with levels of depressive symptoms among Japanese men and women aged 65 years and older. We focus on social relationships, particularly intergenerational relationships between older parents and adult children, as a possible mediator in the association of cell phone use with late-life depressive symptoms. We therefore hypothesize that using cell phones contributes to the psychological well-being of older adults primarily through encouraging social relationships. We used 4 waves of data from the Nihon University Japanese Longitudinal Study of Aging (2001-2009) to analyze the impact of cell phone use on depressive symptoms. RESULTS are based on ordinary least squares regression analyses. Although the use of cell phones was related to lower levels of depressive symptoms among elderly Japanese people, controlling for sociodemographic characteristics and physical health conditions wiped out the effects for men. In contrast, the protective effects of using cell phones persisted among women, even net of all controls. Moreover, the impact of using cell phones was not explained by filial relationship measures, suggesting that cell phone use influences the mental health of older women independently of social engagement. Among the many advantages brought about by recent technological developments, cell phones appear to be an important contributor to the psychological well-being of Japanese elders. Researchers and policy makers should prioritize access to new technologies for older adults. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Recovery of indium from LCD screens of discarded cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, A V M; Fuchs, M S; Pinheiro, D K; Tanabe, E H; Bertuol, D A

    2015-11-01

    Advances in technological development have resulted in high consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), amongst which are cell phones, which have LCD (liquid crystal display) screens as one of their main components. These multilayer screens are composed of different materials, some with high added value, as in the case of the indium present in the form of indium tin oxide (ITO, or tin-doped indium oxide). Indium is a precious metal with relatively limited natural reserves (Dodbida et al., 2012), so it can be profitable to recover it from discarded LCD screens. The objective of this study was to develop a complete process for recovering indium from LCD screens. Firstly, the screens were manually removed from cell phones. In the next step, a pretreatment was developed for removal of the polarizing film from the glass of the LCD panels, because the adherence of this film to the glass complicated the comminution process. The choice of mill was based on tests using different equipment (knife mill, hammer mill, and ball mill) to disintegrate the LCD screens, either before or after removal of the polarizing film. In the leaching process, it was possible to extract 96.4 wt.% of the indium under the following conditions: 1.0M H2SO4, 1:50 solid/liquid ratio, 90°C, 1h, and stirring at 500 rpm. The results showed that the best experimental conditions enabled extraction of 613 mg of indium/kg of LCD powder. Finally, precipitation of the indium with NH4OH was tested at different pH values, and 99.8 wt.% precipitation was achieved at pH 7.4. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Examining the impact of cell phone conversations on driving using meta-analytic techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrey, William J; Wickens, Christopher D

    2006-01-01

    The performance costs associated with cell phone use while driving were assessed meta-analytically using standardized measures of effect size along five dimensions. There have been many studies on the impact of cell phone use on driving, showing some mixed findings. Twenty-three studies (contributing 47 analysis entries) met the appropriate conditions for the meta-analysis. The statistical results from each of these studies were converted into effect sizes and combined in the meta-analysis. Overall, there were clear costs to driving performance when drivers were engaged in cell phone conversations. However, subsequent analyses indicated that these costs were borne primarily by reaction time tasks, with far smaller costs associated with tracking (lane-keeping) performance. Hands-free and handheld phones revealed similar patterns of results for both measures of performance. Conversation tasks tended to show greater costs than did information-processing tasks (e.g., word games). There was a similar pattern of results for passenger and remote (cell phone) conversations. Finally, there were some small differences between simulator and field studies, though both exhibited costs in performance for cell phone use. We suggest that (a) there are significant costs to driver reactions to external hazards or events associated with cell phone use, (b) hands-free cell phones do not eliminate or substantially reduce these costs, and (c) different research methodologies or performance measures may underestimate these costs. Potential applications of this research include the assessment of performance costs attributable to different types of cell phones, cell phone conversations, experimental measures, or methodologies.

  3. Use and Needs in Contexts : An Ethnographic Study on Cell Phone Use from a Contextual Usability Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, Hanna

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is usability of an everyday used product; the cell phone seen from a Human – Computer Interaction perspective. The purpose with the thesis is to create an understanding of how cell phones are used by persons in natural /public settings and in everyday activities. Further the purpose is to describe users’ experiences of using cell phones. In this study, ethnography was used as method. The theoretical framework is the contextual usability perspective. The cell phone is ...

  4. Using Cell Phones for Data Collection: Benefits, Outcomes, and Intervention Possibilities with Homeless Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, Kimberly A; Schmitz, Rachel M

    2017-03-01

    While many homeless youth use cell phones to stay socially connected, and maintaining positive social ties can contribute to pathways out of homelessness, little is known about how using cell phones for data collection can improve these young people's lives. We conducted baseline and follow-up interviews with 150 homeless youth as well as provided them with a cell phone for 30 days to gather daily data using short message service (SMS) surveying. This paper examines youths' opinions about study participation and how they used the cell phone. Results revealed that youth liked participating in the study because the SMS texting portion, for example, made them feel that someone still cared about them, prompted them to self-reflect on their life, and allowed them to make a difference (e.g. educating the public about homelessness). Despite numerous benefits of study participation, improvements that youth discussed for future studies included changing the format of our text questions to allow for explanations and the use of higher quality phones. In terms of study phone usage, youth reported using the phone to schedule appointments, contact employers, and to keep in touch with family and friends. Finally, we highlight ways in which cell phones via SMS could be used with homeless youth to provide informational resources along with educational and employment opportunities, all of which are important intervention strategies in improving life situations for this population.

  5. National School Debate: Banning Cell Phones in Public Schools: Analyzing a National School and Community Relations Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Clarence; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    School systems in America face many critical challenges pertaining to regulating cell phone use by students in today's schools. School executives and classroom teachers face challenges daily relative to how to effectively deal with student's using cell phones. There are many drawbacks and benefits for cell phone use by students. The authors…

  6. Work productivity in rhinitis using cell phones: The MASK pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bousquet, J.; Bewick, M.; Arnavielhe, S.; Mathieu-Dupas, E.; Murray, R.; Bedbrook, A.; Caimmi, D. P.; Vandenplas, O.; Hellings, P. W.; Bachert, C.; Anto, J. M.; Bergmann, K. C.; Bindslev-Jensen, C.; Bosnic-Anticevich, S.; Bouchard, J.; Canonica, G. W.; Chavannes, N. H.; Cruz, A. A.; Dahl, R.; Demoly, P.; de Vries, G.; Devillier, P.; Fink-Wagner, A.; Fokkens, W. J.; Fonseca, J.; Guldemond, N. A.; Haahtela, T.; Hellqvist-Dahl, B.; Just, J.; Keil, T.; Klimek, L.; Kowalski, M. L.; Kuna, P.; Kvedariene, V.; Laune, D.; Larenas-Linnemann, D.; Mullol, J.; Pereira, A. M.; Carreiro-Martins, P.; Melén, E.; Morais-Almeida, M.; Nogueira-Silva, L.; O'Hehir, R. E.; Papadopoulos, N. G.; Passalacqua, G.; Portejoie, F.; Price, D.; Ryan, D.; Samolinski, B.; Sheikh, A.; Simons, F. E. R.; Spranger, O.; Todo Bom, A.; Tomazic, P. V.; Triggiani, M.; Valero, A.; Valovirta, E.; Valiulis, A.; van Eerd, M.; Wickman, M.; Young, I.; Zuberbier, T.

    2017-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis often impairs social life and performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to use cell phone data to assess the impact on work productivity of uncontrolled rhinitis assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS). A mobile phone app (Allergy Diary, Google Play Store and Apple App

  7. Effect of cell phone-like electromagnetic radiation on primary human thyroid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Veronica; Hilly, Ohad; Strenov, Yulia; Tzabari, Cochava; Hauptman, Yirmi; Feinmesser, Raphael

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the potential carcinogenic effects of radiofrequency energy (RFE) emitted by cell phones on human thyroid primary cells. Primary thyroid cell culture was prepared from normal thyroid tissue obtained from patients who underwent surgery at our department. Subconfluent thyroid cells were irradiated under different conditions inside a cell incubator using a device that simulates cell phone-RFE. Proliferation of control and irradiated cells was assessed by the immunohistochemical staining of antigen Kiel clone-67 (Ki-67) and tumor suppressor p53 (p53) expression. DNA ploidy and the stress biomarkers heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Our cells highly expressed thyroglobulin (Tg) and sodium-iodide symporter (NIS) confirming the origin of the tissue. None of the irradiation conditions evaluated here had an effect neither on the proliferation marker Ki-67 nor on p53 expression. DNA ploidy was also not affected by RFE, as well as the expression of the biomarkers HSP70 and ROS. Our conditions of RFE exposure seem to have no potential carcinogenic effect on human thyroid cells. Moreover, common biomarkers usually associated to environmental stress also remained unchanged. We failed to find an association between cell phone-RFE and thyroid cancer. Additional studies are recommended.

  8. Effects of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Signal Exposure on Brain Glucose Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkow, Nora D.; Tomasi, Dardo; Wang, Gene-Jack; Vaska, Paul; Fowler, Joanna S.; Telang, Frank; Alexoff, Dave; Logan, Jean; Wong, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Context The dramatic increase in use of cellular telephones has generated concern about possible negative effects of radiofrequency signals delivered to the brain. However, whether acute cell phone exposure affects the human brain is unclear. Objective To evaluate if acute cell phone exposure affects brain glucose metabolism, a marker of brain activity. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized crossover study conducted between January 1 and December 31, 2009, at a single US laboratory among 47 healthy participants recruited from the community. Cell phones were placed on the left and right ears and positron emission tomography with (18F)fluorodeoxyglucose injection was used to measure brain glucose metabolism twice, once with the right cell phone activated (sound muted) for 50 minutes (“on” condition) and once with both cell phones deactivated (“off” condition). Statistical parametric mapping was used to compare metabolism between on and off conditions using paired t tests, and Pearson linear correlations were used to verify the association of metabolism and estimated amplitude of radiofrequency-modulated electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phone. Clusters with at least 1000 voxels (volume >8 cm3) and P cell phone exposure was associated with increased brain glucose metabolism in the region closest to the antenna. This finding is of unknown clinical significance. PMID:21343580

  9. Preliminary research developing a theory of cell phone distraction and social relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVoie, Noelle; Lee, Yi-Ching; Parker, James

    2016-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of death and injury for people aged 5-34, accounting annually for over 3000 deaths, and 100 times as many injuries. It is well established that distracted driving, and cell phone use while driving in particular, pose significant crash risk to drivers. Research has demonstrated that drivers are well aware of this danger but over 90% of drivers report using a cell phone while driving. Given the likely role that social influence plays in how people use cell phones while driving surprisingly little research has been conducted investigating to whom drivers are talking or texting. We report the results of a national survey to determine who drivers are most likely to call or text when behind the wheel and compared these results with general cell phone calling and texting patterns as well as previous findings on the prevalence of calling and texting while driving. The results suggest that social distance is a key factor in cell phone use while driving: Teens are more likely to talk with parents, and adults are more likely to talk with spouses than general calling patterns would suggest. We discuss whether the purpose of calls made while driving, such as coordination, could help explain these patterns. We propose next steps for further examining the role social relationships play in cell phone use while driving to potentially reduce teen driver cell phone use by lowering the number of calls from parents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. National reported patterns of driver cell phone use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braitman, Keli A; McCartt, Anne T

    2010-12-01

    To obtain detailed information on patterns of driver cell phone use, including how often drivers talk and text, the extent to which they use hands-free devices, and knowledge of and reaction to state cell phone laws. Telephone surveys were conducted with 1219 drivers in the 48 contiguous U.S. states and the District of Columbia, using random samples of landline and cell phone numbers. Forty percent of drivers reported talking on phones at least a few times per week. The percentages were highest for males (49%) and drivers ages 25-29 (66%). The percentage of drivers who reported never talking on phones was higher in states with all-driver bans on handheld phone use (44%) than in states without a ban applying to all drivers (30%). The percentage of drivers who talk on phones and always talk hands-free was higher in states with all-driver handheld phone bans (22%) than where such bans are not in effect (13%). Thirteen percent of drivers reported some texting while driving, and this percentage was highest among drivers ages 18-24 (43%). Twelve percent of drivers in states with all-driver texting bans reported texting while driving, compared with 14 percent in states with no texting ban. Among drivers ages 18-24, the percentages were 45 and 48 percent, respectively. Most drivers reported talking on phones while driving, even though earlier surveys have found that most people think this behavior should be banned. Fewer drivers overall reported texting, but the frequency of texting was higher among young drivers. Laws banning handheld phone use seem to discourage some drivers from talking on any type of phone and motivate some drivers to talk hands-free. Laws banning texting while driving have little effect on the reported frequency of texting while driving in any age group.

  11. Construction and validation of a low-cost surgical trainer based on iPhone technology for training laparoscopic skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez Escamirosa, Fernando; Ordorica Flores, Ricardo; Minor Martínez, Arturo

    2015-04-01

    In this article, we describe the construction and validation of a laparoscopic trainer using an iPhone 5 and a plastic document holder case. The abdominal cavity was simulated with a clear plastic document holder case. On 1 side of the case, 2 holes for entry of laparoscopic instruments were drilled. We added a window to place the camera of the iPhone, which works as our camera of the trainer. Twenty residents carried out 4 tasks using the iPhone Trainer and a physical laparoscopic trainer. The time of all tasks were analyzed with a simple paired t test. The construction of the trainer took 1 hour, with a cost of iPhone Trainer is a reusable and fully functional device that allows surgeons to practice their skills anywhere and at their own pace.

  12. A conceptual model of public medical service system based-on cell phone mobile platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hongjiao; Zhao, Yue

    In recent years, cell phones have played an increasingly important role in rapidly-developing global telecommunication services. At present, mobile business develops very fast. However, the development in other mobile service fields, such as public service, mobile medical service, etc, is still in its infant stage. Drawing on the experience of the 'doctor workstation project' which is cooperated by Renmin University of China and Norway Fredskorps Corporation, this paper discusses the research and implementation of the Doctor Workstation System based on cell phone mobile platform. From the practice of the Doctor Workstation System, the paper advances a conceptual model of public medical service system based-on cell phone mobile platform.

  13. Humanistic Antidotes to Social Media/Cell Phone Addiction in the College Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Elliot Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This article describes “humanistic antidotes” to offset the widespread social media/cell phone addiction prevalent in current US college classrooms. The inappropriate use of cell phones to engage in social media in college classrooms is a pervasive problem that many college instructors have complained about.  The dominant focus of this article is in humanistic education, in which the author's efforts at getting psychology college students to put away their cell phones, “talk with each other,”...

  14. Daily emotional dynamics in depressed youth: a cell phone ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S; Forbes, Erika E; Whalen, Diana J; Jakubcak, Jennifer L; Thompson, Wesley K; Ryan, Neal D; Axelson, David A; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E

    2011-10-01

    This study used a new cell phone ecological momentary assessment approach to investigate daily emotional dynamics in 47 youths with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 32 no-psychopathology controls (CON) (ages 7-17 years). Information about emotional experience in the natural environment was obtained using answer-only cell phones, while MDD youths received an 8-week course of cognitive behavioral therapy and/or psychopharmacological treatment. Compared with CON youths, MDD youths reported more intense and labile global negative affect; greater sadness, anger, and nervousness; and a lower ratio of positive to negative affect. These differences increased with pubertal maturation. MDD youths spent more time alone and less time with their families than CON youths. Although differences in emotional experiences were found across social contexts, MDD youths were more negative than CON youths in all contexts examined. As the MDD participants progressed through treatment, diagnostic group differences in the intensity and lability of negative affect decreased, but there were no changes in the ratio of positive to negative affect or in measures of social context. We discuss methodological innovations and advantages of this approach, including improved ecological validity and access to information about variability in emotions, change in emotions over time, the balance of positive and negative emotions, and the social context of emotional experience. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. 75 FR 8921 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Brightpoint North America L.P. (Cell Phone Kitting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Phone Kitting and Distribution) Indianapolis, IN Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones... authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the cell phone kitting and distribution facilities of... kitting and distribution of cell phones at the facilities of Brightpoint North America L.P., located in...

  16. Is mobile phone radiation genotoxic? An analysis of micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, F M; Carmona, A M; Ladeira, C

    2017-10-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are classified as "possibly carcinogenic" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Some publications have reported associations between EMF exposure and DNA damage, but many other studies contradict such findings. Cytomorphological changes, such as micronuclei (MN), indicative of genomic damage, are biomarkers of genotoxicity. To test whether mobile phone-associated EMF exposure affects the MN frequency in exfoliated buccal cells, we obtained cells smears from the left and right inner cheeks of healthy mobile phone users, aged 18-30 (n=86), who also completed a characterization survey. MN frequencies were tested for potential confounding factors and for duration of phone use and preferential side of mobile phone use. No relationship was observed between MN frequency and duration of mobile phone use in daily calls. Cells ipsilateral to mobile phone use did not present a statistically significantly higher MN frequency, compared to cells contralateral to exposure. A highly statistically significant (pmobile phone-associated EMF do not to induce MN formation in buccal cells at the observed exposure levels. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Psychophysiological patterns during cell phone text messaging: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Mei; Peper, Erik

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the psychophysiological patterns associated with cell phone text messaging (texting). Twelve college students who were very familiar with texting were monitored with surface electromyography (SEMG) from the shoulder (upper trapezius) and thumb (abductor pollicis brevis/opponens pollicis); blood volume pulse (BVP) from the middle finger, temperature from the index finger, and skin conductance (SC) from the palm of the non-texting hand; and respiration from the thorax and abdomen. The counter-balanced procedure consisted of a 2 min pre-baseline, 1 min receiving text messages, 2 min middle baseline, 1 min sending text messages and 2 min post-baseline. The results indicated that all subjects showed significant increases in respiration rate, heart rate, SC, and shoulder and thumb SEMG as compared to baseline measures. Eighty-three percentage of the participants reported hand and neck pain during texting, and held their breath and experienced arousal when receiving text messages. Subjectively, most subjects were unaware of their physiological changes. The study suggests that frequent triggering of these physiological patterns (freezing for stability and shallow breathing) may increase muscle discomfort symptoms. Thus, participants should be trained to inhibit these responses to prevent illness and discomfort.

  18. Ambulatory cell phone injuries in the United States: an emerging national concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel C; Schreiber, Kristin M; Saltos, Andreas; Lichenstein, Sarah B; Lichenstein, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Over the past 15 years, the use of cell phones has increased 8-fold in the United States. Cell phone use has been shown to increase crash risks for drivers, but no systematic analyses have described injuries related to ambulatory cell phone use. The purpose of this study is to describe and quantitate injuries and deaths among persons using cell phones while walking. We searched the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) for emergency department (ED) reports of injuries related to phone use. The cases that returned were screened initially using words that would eliminate cases unlikely to be related to cell phone use and walking, possibly linked to distraction. The resulting cases were randomized and evaluated for consistency with predetermined case definitions by two authors blinded to the dates of the incidents. Cases that were disagreed upon were evaluated in a second screening by both authors for final case determination. National ED visit rates were estimated based on NEISS sampling methods. Annual variations were analyzed using linear regression with a restricted maximum likelihood approach. Our screening process identified 5,754 possible cases that occurred between 2000 and 2011, and 310 were agreed on as cases of cell-phone-induced distraction. The majority of the patients were female (68%) and 40 years of age or younger (54%). The primary mechanism of injury was a fall (72%), and most patients were treated and released from the ED (85%). No patients died from their injuries while they were in the ED. Linear modeling by year revealed a statistically significant increase in distraction injury rates over the years of study (pcell phone use has been increasing. More research is needed to determine the risks associated with walking and talking on a cell phone and to develop strategies for intervention. Cell phone use continues to increase both at home and outdoor environments. The use of smart phones, with their more enticing features, increases

  19. Habits of cell phone usage and sperm quality - does it warrant attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberlicht, Ariel; Wiener-Megnazi, Zofnat; Sheinfeld, Yulia; Grach, Bronislava; Lahav-Baratz, Shirly; Dirnfeld, Martha

    2015-09-01

    Male infertility constitutes 30-40% of all infertility cases. Some studies have shown a continuous decline in semen quality since the beginning of the 20th century. One postulated contributing factor is radio frequency electromagnetic radiation emitted from cell phones. This study investigates an association between characteristics of cell phone usage and semen quality. Questionnaires accessing demographic data and characteristics of cell phone usage were completed by 106 men referred for semen analysis. Results were analysed according to WHO 2010 criteria. Talking for ≥1 h/day and during device charging were associated with higher rates of abnormal semen concentration (60.9% versus 35.7%, P cell phone usage may bear adverse effects on sperm concentration. Investigation using large-scale studies is thus needed. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Cell Phone-based Lateral Flow Assay for Blood Biomarker Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to integrate a sensor platform with a cell phone for health monitoring and disease diagnosis for astronauts in space has the potential to be cost...

  1. Cell Phone-based Lateral Flow Assay for Blood Biomarker Detection, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to integrate a sensor platform with a cell phone for health monitoring and disease diagnosis for astronauts in space exploration has the potential to be...

  2. Innovation on a Hospital Perinatal Unit: Cell Phone Use by Nurses

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrilak, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    .... This study evaluates the impact and effect of cell phone communication technology on reducing nurse task frequency and time spent on activities that could more appropriately be accomplished by hospital support staff...

  3. Passenger vehicle driver cell phone use : results from the fall 2000 National Occupant Protection Use Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's National Occupant Protection Use Survey (NOPUS) expanded its data collection protocols during October and November 2000 to obtain national estimates of driver cell phone use. The results of NOPUS f...

  4. Cell phone radiations affect early growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through biochemical alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of wireless technologies, particularly of cell phones, has increased the health risks among living organisms including plants. We investigated the impact of cell phone electromagentic field (EMF) radiations (power density, 8.55 microW cm(-2)) on germination, early growth, proteins and carbohydrate contents, and activities of some enzymes in Vigna radiata. Cell phone EMF radiations significantly reduced the seedling length and dry weight of V radiata after exposure for 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h. Furthermore, the contents of proteins and carbohydrates were reduced in EMF-exposed plants. However, the activities of proteases, alpha-amylases, beta-amylases, polyphenol oxidases, and peroxidases were enhanced in EMF-exposed radicles indicating their role in providing protection against EMF-induced stress. The study concludes that cell phone EMFs impair early growth of V radiata seedlings by inducing biochemical changes.

  5. Cell Phone-based Lateral Flow Assay for Blood Biomarker Detection, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to integrate a sensor platform with a cell phone for health monitoring and disease diagnosis for astronauts in space has the potential to be cost...

  6. Why drivers use cell phones and support legislation to restrict this practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-04-01

    A study was conducted to investigate why people talk on a cell phone while driving and why they also support legislation to restrict this practice. Participants completed a survey about their driving attitudes, abilities, and behaviors, and performed...

  7. Effect of Cell Phone Radiations on Orofacial Structures: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Ramesh; Kumari, Shail; Rao, Srinivasa B

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The widespread use of cell phone in recent years has raised many questions whether their use is safe to operator who is exposed to Electromagnetic Waves (EMV). Aim To find out the effect of cell phone emitted radiations on the orofacial structures. Materials and Methods To identify suitable literature, an electronic search was performed using Medline, Pubmed and EBSCO host database in December 2016. The search was focused on effect of cell phone on orofacial structures. Among the literature available in English, the screening of the related titles and abstracts was done, and only those articles were selected for full text reading that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Results The initial literature search resulted in 360 articles out of which only 24 articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in this systematic review. Conclusion Cell phone emitted radiations had their adverse effect on salivary glands and facial nerves. Studies showed that cell phone emitted radiations had effects on oral mucosal cells and causes changes in salivary flow rate. It was still unclear that cell phone radiations cause tumours of the salivary glands. PMID:28658925

  8. Providing cell phone numbers and email addresses to Patients: the physician's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The provision of cell phone numbers and email addresses enhances the accessibility of medical consultations, but can add to the burden of physicians' routine clinical practice and affect their free time. The objective was to assess the attitudes of physicians to providing their telephone number or email address to patients. Methods Primary care physicians in the southern region of Israel completed a structured questionnaire that related to the study objective. Results The study population included 120 primary care physicians with a mean age of 41.2 ± 8.5, 88 of them women (73.3%). Physicians preferred to provide their cell phone number rather than their email address (P = 0.0007). They preferred to answer their cell phones only during the daytime and at predetermined times, but would answer email most hours of the day, including weekends and holidays (P = 0.001). More physicians (79.7%) would have preferred allotted time for email communication than allotted time for cell phone communication (50%). However, they felt that email communication was more likely to lead to miscommunication than telephone calls (P = 0.0001). There were no differences between male and female physicians on the provision of cell phone numbers or email addresses to patients. Older physicians were more prepared to provide cell phone numbers that younger ones (P = 0.039). Conclusions The attitude of participating physicians was to provide their cell phone number or email address to some of their patients, but most of them preferred to give out their cell phone number. PMID:21426591

  9. Providing cell phone numbers and email addresses to Patients: the physician's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freud Tamar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of cell phone numbers and email addresses enhances the accessibility of medical consultations, but can add to the burden of physicians' routine clinical practice and affect their free time. The objective was to assess the attitudes of physicians to providing their telephone number or email address to patients. Methods Primary care physicians in the southern region of Israel completed a structured questionnaire that related to the study objective. Results The study population included 120 primary care physicians with a mean age of 41.2 ± 8.5, 88 of them women (73.3%. Physicians preferred to provide their cell phone number rather than their email address (P = 0.0007. They preferred to answer their cell phones only during the daytime and at predetermined times, but would answer email most hours of the day, including weekends and holidays (P = 0.001. More physicians (79.7% would have preferred allotted time for email communication than allotted time for cell phone communication (50%. However, they felt that email communication was more likely to lead to miscommunication than telephone calls (P = 0.0001. There were no differences between male and female physicians on the provision of cell phone numbers or email addresses to patients. Older physicians were more prepared to provide cell phone numbers that younger ones (P = 0.039. Conclusions The attitude of participating physicians was to provide their cell phone number or email address to some of their patients, but most of them preferred to give out their cell phone number.

  10. A revised economic analysis of restrictions on the use of cell phones while driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joshua T; Graham, John D

    2003-02-01

    Evidence that cell phone use while driving increases the risk of being involved in a motor vehicle crash has led policymakers to consider prohibitions on this practice. However, while restrictions would reduce property loss, injuries, and fatalities, consumers would lose the convenience of using these devices while driving. Quantifying the risks and benefits associated with cell phone use while driving is complicated by substantial uncertainty in the estimates of several important inputs, including the extent to which cell phone use increases a driver's risk of being involved in a crash, the amount of time drivers spend using cell phones (and hence their aggregate contribution to crashes, injuries, and fatalities), and the incremental value to users of being able to make calls while driving. Two prominent studies that have investigated cell phone use while driving have concluded that the practice should not be banned. One finds that the benefits of calls made while driving substantially exceed their costs while the other finds that other interventions could reduce motor vehicle injuries and fatalities (measured in terms of quality adjusted life years) at a lower cost. Another issue is that cell phone use imposes increased (involuntary) risks on other roadway users. This article revises the assumptions used in the two previous analyses to make them consistent and updates them using recent data. The result is a best estimate of zero for the net benefit of cell phone use while driving, a finding that differs substantially from the previous study. Our revised cost-effectiveness estimate for cell phone use while driving moves in the other direction, finding that the cost per quality adjusted life year increases modestly compared to the previous estimate. Both estimates are very uncertain.

  11. The Validity and Reliability of an iPhone App for Measuring Running Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Agopyan, Hovannes; Morin, Jean-Benoit

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to analyze the validity of an iPhone application (Runmatic) for measuring running mechanics. To do this, 96 steps from 12 different runs at speeds ranging from 2.77-5.55 m·s -1 were recorded simultaneously with Runmatic, as well as with an opto-electronic device installed on a motorized treadmill to measure the contact and aerial time of each step. Additionally, several running mechanics variables were calculated using the contact and aerial times measured, and previously validated equations. Several statistics were computed to test the validity and reliability of Runmatic in comparison with the opto-electronic device for the measurement of contact time, aerial time, vertical oscillation, leg stiffness, maximum relative force, and step frequency. The running mechanics values obtained with both the app and the opto-electronic device showed a high degree of correlation (r = .94-.99, p < .001). Moreover, there was very close agreement between instruments as revealed by the ICC (2,1) (ICC = 0.965-0.991). Finally, both Runmatic and the opto-electronic device showed almost identical reliability levels when measuring each set of 8 steps for every run recorded. In conclusion, Runmatic has been proven to be a highly reliable tool for measuring the running mechanics studied in this work.

  12. Cell phone exposures and hearing loss in children in the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka; Arah, Onyebuchi A; Olsen, Jorn

    2013-05-01

    Children today are exposed to cell phones early in life, and may be the most vulnerable if exposure is harmful to health. We investigated the association between cell phone use and hearing loss in children. The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) enrolled pregnant women between 1996 and 2002. Detailed interviews were conducted during gestation, and when the children were 6 months, 18 months and 7 years of age. We used multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, marginal structural models (MSM) with inverse-probability weighting, and doubly robust estimation (DRE) to relate hearing loss at age 18 months to cell phone use at age 7 years, and to investigate cell phone use reported at age 7 in relation to hearing loss at age 7. Our analyses included data from 52 680 children. We observed weak associations between cell phone use and hearing loss at age 7, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from the traditional logistic regression, MSM and DRE models being 1.21 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.99, 1.46], 1.23 [95% CI 1.01, 1.49] and 1.22 [95% CI 1.00, 1.49], respectively. Our findings could have been affected by various biases and are not sufficient to conclude that cell phone exposures have an effect on hearing. This is the first large-scale epidemiologic study to investigate this potentially important association among children, and replication of these findings is needed. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Self-reported and observed risky driving behaviors among frequent and infrequent cell phone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Nan; Reimer, Bryan; Mehler, Bruce; D'Ambrosio, Lisa A; Coughlin, Joseph F

    2013-12-01

    The apparently higher crash risk among individuals who use cell phones while driving may be due both to the direct interference of cell phone use with the driving task and tendencies to engage in risky driving behaviors independent of cell phone use. Measurements of actual highway driving performance, self-reported aberrant driving behaviors as measured by the Manchester Driver Behavior Questionnaire (DBQ), and attitudes toward speeding, passing behaviors and relative concern about being involved in a crash were assessed. Individuals who reported frequently using cell phones while driving were found to drive faster, change lanes more frequently, spend more time in the left lane, and engage in more instances of hard braking and high acceleration events. They also scored higher in self-reported driving violations on the DBQ and reported more positive attitudes toward speeding and passing than drivers who did not report using a cell phone regularly while driving. These results indicate that a greater reported frequency of cell phone use while driving is associated with a broader pattern of behaviors that are likely to increase the overall risk of crash involvement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Media Discourse on Cell Phone Technology and “Left-Behind Children” in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Hua Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Through critical analysis of selected news stories from sina.com from 2010 to 2015 about cell phones and “left-behind children” in China, this article examines media discourses on the relationship between migrant families and communication technology. The author finds that the roles of cell phones in their lives are portrayed in the following narratives: 1 cell phones are highly valuable for connecting family members living apart; 2 cell phones are used as a problem-solver in charity giving and rural development projects; 3 cell phones can bring unexpected risks to children lacking media literacy; and 4 cell phones could harbour or unleash evil—associated with increasing cases of juvenile delinquency or crime stories. The author discusses how the different institutional goals of social agencies, corporations, educators, and law enforcement contribute to the polarity of the discourses, reflecting the societal anxieties over unsupervised use of mobile devices by adolescents, as well as the cultural and political implications of empowering the “have-nots” of the digital divide by improving access to communication technology.

  15. Why drivers use cell phones and support legislation to restrict this practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu, David M; Strayer, David L; Behrends, Arwen A; Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M

    2016-07-01

    The use of cell phones while driving is ubiquitous, particularly in countries where the practice is legal. However, surveys indicate that most drivers favor legislation to limit the use of mobile devices during the operation of a vehicle. A study was conducted to understand this inconsistency between what drivers do and what they advocate for others. Participants completed a survey about their driving attitudes, abilities, and behaviors. Following previous research, drivers reported using cell phones for benefits such as getting work done. The hypocrisy of using cell phones while advocating restrictions appears to stem from differences in the perceived safety risks of self vs. others' use of cell phones. Many if not most drivers believe they can drive safely while using mobile devices. However, they lack confidence in others' ability to drive safely while distracted and believe that others' use of cell phones is dangerous. The threat to public safety of others' usage of mobile devices was one of the strongest independent predictors of support for legislation to restrict cell phone use. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Cell Phone Exposures and Hearing Loss in Children in the Danish National Birth Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Kheifets, Leeka; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Olsen, Jorn

    2013-01-01

    Background Children today are exposed to cell phones early in life, and may be the most vulnerable if exposure is harmful to health. We investigated the association between cell phone use and hearing loss in children. Methods The Danish National Birth Cohort (DNBC) enrolled pregnant women between 1996 and 2002. Detailed interviews were conducted during gestation, and when the children were 6 months, 18 months, and 7 years of age. We used multivariable-adjusted logistic regression, marginal structural models (MSM) with inverse-probability weighting, and doubly-robust estimation (DRE) to relate hearing loss at age 18 months to cell phone use at age seven years, and to investigate cell phone use reported at age seven in relation to hearing loss at age seven. Results Our analyses included data from 52,680 children. We observed weak associations between cell phone use and hearing loss at age seven, with odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals from the traditional logistic regression, MSM, and DRE models being 1.21 [0.99–1.46], 1.23 [1.01–1.49], and 1.22 [1.00–1.49], respectively. Conclusions Our findings could have been affected by various biases and are not sufficient to conclude that cell phone exposures have an effect on hearing. This is the first large-scale epidemiologic study to investigate this potentially important association among children, and replication of these findings is needed. PMID:23574412

  17. Effects of Recording Food Intake Using Cell Phone Camera Pictures on Energy Intake and Food Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doumit, Rita; Long, JoAnn; Kazandjian, Chant; Gharibeh, Nathalie; Karam, Lina; Song, Huaxin; Boswell, Carol; Zeeni, Nadine

    2016-06-01

    The well-documented increases in obesity and unhealthy dietary practices substantiate the need for evidence-based tools that can help people improve their dietary habits. The current spread of mobile phone-embedded cameras offers new opportunities for recording food intake. Moreover, the act of taking pictures of food consumed may enhance visual consciousness of food choice and quantity. The present study aimed to assess the effect of using cell phone pictures to record food intake on energy intake and food choice in college students. The effectiveness and acceptability of cell phone picture-based diet recording also was assessed. A repeated measures crossover design was used. One group of participants entered their food intake online during 3 days based on their memory, although a second group recorded their food intake using cell phone pictures as their reference. Participants then crossed over to complete 3 more days of diet recording using the alternate method. Focus groups were conducted to obtain feedback on the effectiveness and acceptability of cell phone picture-based diet recording. Intake of meat and vegetable servings were significantly higher in the memory period compared with the cell phone period, regardless of the order. Results from the focus group indicated a positive attitude toward the use of cell phone pictures in recording food intake and an increased awareness of food choice and portion size. Cell phone pictures may be an easy, relevant, and accessible method of diet self-monitoring when aiming at dietary changes. Future trials should combine this technique with healthy eating education. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  18. Cell phones and their religions: technology consumption as an expression of faith among pentecostals and umbandistas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rubia da Silva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the connections between cell phone use and religiosity in a low-income community in South Brazil. Drawing from ethnographic data collected through in-depth interviews and participant observation, it describes the new social and cultural practices that have arisen as a result of the integration of cell phones in the lives of Pentecostals and followers of umbanda, the most popular Afro-Brazilian religion. The article examines the dynamics and meanings involved in the process of social change that negotiates and brings together technology and religion in unique ways, particularly focusing on the role of bluetooth as a phone function that addresses social inequalities. It is suggested that cell phones not only enable new possibilities for the expression and practice of faith, but also, similarly to religion, empower community members, thus becoming an instrument that can help them cope with poverty.

  19. [The cell phones as devices for the ocular fundus documentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Němčanský, J; Kopecký, A; Timkovič, J; Mašek, P

    2014-12-01

    To present our experience with "smart phones" when examining and documenting human eyes. From September to October 2013 fifteen patients (8 men, 7 women) eye fundus was examined, an average age during the examination was 58 year (ranging from 20-65 years). The photo-documentation was performed with dilated pupils (tropicamid hydrochloridum 1% eye drops) with mobile phone Samsung Galaxy Nexus with the operating system Android 4.3 (Google Inc., Mountain View, CA, USA) and iPhone 4 with the operating system 7.0.4 (Apple Inc., Loop Cupertino, CA, USA), and with 20D lens (Volk Optical Inc., Mentor, OH, USA). The images of the retina taken with a mobile phone and the spherical lens are of a very good quality, precise and reproducible. Learning this technique is easy and fast, the learning curve is steep. Photo-documentation of retina with a mobile phone is a safe, time-saving, easy-to-learn technique, which may be used in a routine ophthalmologic practice. The main advantage of this technique is availability, small size and easy portability of the devices.

  20. Cell Phone-Related Near Accidents Among Young Drivers: Associations With Mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Christopher P; Terry, Danielle L

    2015-01-01

    Cell phone use while driving (CPWD) has been shown to significantly reduce driver safety. This is a particular concern among young drivers who possess less driving experience and tend to engage in high rates of cell phone use. The present study identified psychological predictors of near accidents related to CPWD among a sample of 385 college student drivers. Participants answered a series of questions regarding their use of a cell phone while driving and completed measures of mindfulness, polychronicity, and intrusive thinking. Students who reported talking on their phone or texting more frequently while driving reported a higher incidence of near accidents related to each behavior. However, after controlling for CPWD, multiple regression analysis indicated that those who reported experiencing more cell phone-related intrusive thoughts also experienced more near accidents. Furthermore, two facets of mindfulness--acting with awareness and nonjudging of inner experience--were negatively associated with near accidents. These findings suggest that individuals who are more aware of the present moment and accepting of their affective responses may better regulate their attention while using a cell phone behind the wheel.

  1. GSM cell phones can interfere with ionizing radiation dose monitoring equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilligan, P; Somerville, S; Ennis, J T

    2000-09-01

    Cell phone use is growing worldwide. These phones transmit to adjacent base stations using radiofrequency signals in the microwave range (approximately 900-approximately 1800 MHz). Portable electronic dose monitoring equipment is used in hospitals and other institutions to monitor and control levels of exposure to ionizing radiation, and to reassure staff. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of mobile phones on a sample of dose monitoring devices. Two mobile phones (Siemens C25 and Motorola CD930) were used in the study. Field strengths were measured to be in the range 0 V m-1 to over 100 V m-1, depending on the distance from the phone, and were strongest at the beginning of a call. Personal electronic dosemeters (n = 7), portable dose monitors (n = 4) and contamination monitors (n = 2) were assessed. All the units were in service. Three of the personal dosemeters showed abnormal responses when exposed to mobile phone transmission. One dosemeter (Siemens EPD-2) registered doses equivalent to a dose rate of 99 mSv h-1. In addition, two of the portable dosemeters and one of the contamination monitors also gave an abnormal response. Interference was observed across a number of detector types from a number of manufacturers. Modern cell phones can interfere with ionizing radiation dose monitoring equipment. This should be taken into account when distributing these devices and when assessing results generated by them. Electromagnetic compatibility testing should form part of the commissioning and specification protocol for new dose monitoring equipment.

  2. Cell phone radiation exposure on brain and associated biological systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Siddiqui, Mohd Haris; Meena, Ramovatar; Verma, H N; Kumar, Shivendra

    2013-03-01

    Wireless technologies are ubiquitous today and the mobile phones are one of the prodigious output of this technology. Although the familiarization and dependency of mobile phones is growing at an alarming pace, the biological effects due to the exposure of radiations have become a subject of intense debate. The present evidence on mobile phone radiation exposure is based on scientific research and public policy initiative to give an overview of what is known of biological effects that occur at radiofrequency (RF)/ electromagnetic fields (EMFs) exposure. The conflict in conclusions is mainly because of difficulty in controlling the affecting parameters. Biological effects are dependent not only on the distance and size of the object (with respect to the object) but also on the environmental parameters. Health endpoints reported to be associated with RF include childhood leukemia, brain tumors, genotoxic effects, neurological effects and neurodegenerative diseases, immune system deregulation, allergic and inflammatory responses, infertility and some cardiovascular effects. Most of the reports conclude a reasonable suspicion of mobile phone risk that exists based on clear evidence of bio-effects which with prolonged exposures may reasonably be presumed to result in health impacts. The present study summarizes the public issue based on mobile phone radiation exposure and their biological effects. This review concludes that the regular and long term use of microwave devices (mobile phone, microwave oven) at domestic level can have negative impact upon biological system especially on brain. It also suggests that increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role by enhancing the effect of microwave radiations which may cause neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. "The Only 13-Year-Old on Planet Earth without a Cell Phone": Meanings of Cell Phones in Early Adolescents' Everyday Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Bethany L.; Fletcher, Anne C.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular telephones have become an increasingly prevalent feature of contemporary American life, with usage often beginning during early adolescence. With this in mind, twenty 7th graders and their mothers participated in separate qualitative interviews regarding early adolescents' use of cell phones as well as perceived risks and benefits of such…

  4. [Validation of the Adolescent Victimization through Mobile Phone and Internet Scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buelga, Sofía; Cava, María Jesús; Musitu, Gonzalo

    2012-07-01

    To validate the adolescent victimization through mobile phone and internet scale (CYBVIC) through analysis of its psychometric properties. A cross-sectional study was conducted in which two independent samples of adolescents aged 11-19, both male and female, participated. The first sample was comprised of 1 934 Spanish adolescents, and the second sample, 1 483 Mexican adolescents. An exploratory factor analysis of the scale was done with the first sample and a confirmatory factor analysis with the second. Multigroup and reliability analyses, as well as an analysis of the correlation of the scale's dimensions with various external variables related to psychological adjustment (depressive symptomatology, perceived stress, loneliness, satisfaction with life, and traditional victimization), were also conducted. Results. Two factors, called cybmóvil [cyber mobile] and cybinternet [cyber internet], were found, which together explained 52% of the variance. These factors were consistent with the original hypothesis. The confirmatory factor analysis showed the model's adequate fit to two correlated factors. The data indicated the factorial invariance of the questionnaire between the Spanish and Mexican samples. The reliability analysis confirmed that the scale has sufficient internal consistency. Significant correlations were found between the cybmóvil/cybinternet factors and the external variables with which they were related. The CYBVIC scale has adequate psychometric properties and can be used as a valid and reliable measure in new research, which could expand knowledge about the growing international problem of cyberbullying among adolescents.

  5. Cell broadcast trials in The Netherlands: Using mobile phone technology for citizens' alarming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagtman, H.M.

    2010-01-01

    In emergency situations authorities need to warn the public. The conventionally used method for warning citizens in The Netherlands is the use of a siren. Modern telecommunication technologies, especially the use of text-based features of mobile phones, have great potential for warning the public. In the years 2005-2007 cell broadcast was tested during several large-scale field trials with citizens in The Netherlands. One of the questions was to determine the penetration of cell broadcast for citizens' alarming. This article argues that the definition of penetration in the light of warning citizens in case of emergencies should include the citizens' responses to warning messages. In addition, the approach to determining the penetration, the data and validity issues regarding these data is discussed. The trials have shown cell broadcast has potential to become an effective citizens' alarming technology. This however requires the entire technological and organisational chain of the warning system to function correctly. Attention is required to network management, handset improvements and correct communication to the public about the conditions under which a cell broadcast message can be received. The latter includes managing realistic expectations including circumstances in which cell broadcast will not reach a citizen.

  6. The association of sleep and late-night cell phone use among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amra, Babak; Shahsavari, Ali; Shayan-Moghadam, Ramin; Mirheli, Omid; Moradi-Khaniabadi, Bita; Bazukar, Mehdi; Yadollahi-Farsani, Ashkan; Kelishadi, Roya

    This study aims to assess the relationship of late-night cell phone use with sleep duration and quality in a sample of Iranian adolescents. The study population consisted of 2400 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, living in Isfahan, Iran. Age, body mass index, sleep duration, cell phone use after 9p.m., and physical activity were documented. For sleep assessment, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was used. The participation rate was 90.4% (n=2257 adolescents). The mean (SD) age of participants was 15.44 (1.55) years; 1270 participants reported to use cell phone after 9p.m. Overall, 56.1% of girls and 38.9% of boys reported poor quality sleep, respectively. Wake-up time was 8:17 a.m. (2.33), among late-night cell phone users and 8:03a.m. (2.11) among non-users. Most (52%) late-night cell phone users had poor sleep quality. Sedentary participants had higher sleep latency than their peers. Adjusted binary and multinomial logistic regression models showed that late-night cell users were 1.39 times more likely to have a poor sleep quality than non-users (p-value<0.001). Late-night cell phone use by adolescents was associated with poorer sleep quality. Participants who were physically active had better sleep quality and quantity. As part of healthy lifestyle recommendations, avoidance of late-night cell phone use should be encouraged in adolescents. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  7. The association of sleep and late-night cell phone use among adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Amra

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: This study aims to assess the relationship of late-night cell phone use with sleep duration and quality in a sample of Iranian adolescents. Methods: The study population consisted of 2400 adolescents, aged 12-18 years, living in Isfahan, Iran. Age, body mass index, sleep duration, cell phone use after 9 p.m., and physical activity were documented. For sleep assessment, the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index questionnaire was used. Results: The participation rate was 90.4% (n = 2257 adolescents. The mean (SD age of participants was 15.44 (1.55 years; 1270 participants reported to use cell phone after 9 p.m. Overall, 56.1% of girls and 38.9% of boys reported poor quality sleep, respectively. Wake-up time was 8:17 a.m. (2.33, among late-night cell phone users and 8:03 a.m. (2.11 among non-users. Most (52% late-night cell phone users had poor sleep quality. Sedentary participants had higher sleep latency than their peers. Adjusted binary and multinomial logistic regression models showed that late-night cell users were 1.39 times more likely to have a poor sleep quality than non-users (p-value < 0.001. Conclusion: Late-night cell phone use by adolescents was associated with poorer sleep quality. Participants who were physically active had better sleep quality and quantity. As part of healthy lifestyle recommendations, avoidance of late-night cell phone use should be encouraged in adolescents.

  8. Cell phones to collect pregnancy data from remote areas in Liberia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lori, Jody R; Munro, Michelle L; Boyd, Carol J; Andreatta, Pamela

    2012-09-01

    To report findings on knowledge and skill acquisition following a 3-day training session in the use of short message service (SMS) texting with non- and low-literacy traditional midwives. A pre- and post-test study design was used to assess knowledge and skill acquisition with 99 traditional midwives on the use of SMS texting for real-time, remote data collection in rural Liberia, West Africa. Paired sample t-tests were conducted to establish if overall mean scores varied significantly from pre-test to immediate post-test. Analysis of variance was used to compare means across groups. The nonparametric McNemar's test was used to determine significant differences between the pre-test and post-test values of each individual step involved in SMS texting. Pearson's chi-square test of independence was used to examine the association between ownership of cell phones within a family and achievement of the seven tasks. The mean increase in cell phone knowledge scores was 3.67, with a 95% confidence interval ranging from 3.39 to 3.95. Participants with a cell phone in the family did significantly better on three of the seven tasks in the pre-test: "turns cell on without help" (χ(2) (1) = 9.15, p= .003); "identifies cell phone coverage" (χ(2) (1) = 5.37, p= .024); and "identifies cell phone is charged" (χ(2) (1) = 4.40, p= .042). A 3-day cell phone training session with low- and nonliterate traditional midwives in rural Liberia improved their ability to use mobile technology for SMS texting. Mobile technology can improve data collection accessibility and be used for numerous health care and public health issues. Cell phone accessibility holds great promise for collecting health data in low-resource areas of the world. © 2012 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  9. The Survey personal and national identity between individual with cell phone addiction disorder and normal smartphone users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Salman Alavi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Smart phones have rapidly become an integral, and for some, an essential communication device worldwide. The issue of identity has always been a subject of interest among psychologists. The present study was conducted to compare personal and national identity and their subscales between cell phone addicts and non-addicts.Method: In this cross-sectional study, 500 student cell phone users from various universities in Tehran were recruited using stratified sampling. Participants completed cell phone addiction questionnaires including Mobile Phone Problematic Use Scale (MPPUS, Cell Phone Dependency Questionnaire (CPDQ, Personal Identity Development Questionnaire, Extended Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (EOMEIS and National Identity Questionnaire. Then, the subscales of these instruments were analyzed using SPSS Version 20.Results: Results of this study revealed significant differences between cell phone addicts and non-addicts in the scores of national identity, personal identity, and most subscales, except for some subscales (P<0.05. In addition, a negative and significant relationship was found between personal and national identity and cell phone addiction (r=-0.35, -0.33, respectively.On the other hand, after controlling for the confounder variables, we found that national identity had an effect on cell phone addiction(OR=0.05, CI=0.92-0.98.Conclusion: The results of this study indicated that cell phone overuse may be correlated with defects in some aspects of national and personal identity.

  10. In the shadow of the cell-phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2009-01-01

    that is capable of creating a ‘database shadow’ of the mobile phone owner. Elahi created “Tracking Transience” after he was held back by the FBI in 2003 on suspicion of being a possible terrorist; by consulting the website trackingtransience.net everyone now has access to the data generated by Elahi and his...

  11. Cell phone use is associated with an inflammatory cytokine profile of parotid gland saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siqueira, Elisa Carvalho; de Souza, Fabrício Tinôco Alvim; Ferreira, Efigênia; Souza, Renan Pedra; Macedo, Samuel Costa; Friedman, Eitan; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago

    2016-10-01

    There is controversy on the effects of the non-ionizing radiation emitted by cell phones on cellular processes and the impact of such radiation exposure on health. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether cell phone use alters cytokine expression in the saliva produced by the parotid glands. Cytokine expression profile was determined by enzyme linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) in the saliva produced by the parotid glands in healthy volunteers, and correlated with self-reported cell phone use and laterality. The following parameters were determined, in 83 Brazilian individuals in saliva produced by the parotid glands comparing the saliva from the gland exposed to cell phone radiation (ipsilateral) to that from the contralateral parotid: salivary flow, total protein concentration, interleukin 1 β (IL-1 β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 10 (IL-10), interferon γ (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) salivary levels by ELISA. After multiple testing correction, decreased IL-10 and increased IL-1β salivary levels in the ipsilateral side compared with the contralateral side (P cell phones for more than 10 years presented higher differences between IL-10 levels in ipsilateral versus contralateral parotids (P = 0.0012). No difference was observed in any of the tested parameters in correlation with cell phone monthly usage in minutes. The exposure of parotid glands to cell phones can alter salivary IL-10 and IL-1β levels, consistent with a pro-inflammatory microenvironment that may be related to heat production. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Humanistic Antidotes to Social Media/Cell Phone Addiction in the College Classroom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This article describes “humanistic antidotes” to offset the widespread social media/cell phone addiction prevalent in current US college classrooms. The inappropriate use of cell phones to engage in social media in college classrooms is a pervasive problem that many college instructors have complained about.  The dominant focus of this article is in humanistic education, in which the author's efforts at getting psychology college students to put away their cell phones, “talk with each other,” and gain awareness of the detrimental effects of social media addiction and narcissism is illustrated.  The methodology utilized in this article is based upon autoethnographic research, where relevant experiences of the researcher are considered to be an informative and fundamental part of the research. The author describes in narrative form his relevant experiences in formulating humanistic antidotes to the excessive and inappropriate use of cell phones to engage in social media, that he encountered in his college psychology teaching. These humanistic antidotes are described as a three-step process: 1 take necessary actions to eliminate as much as possible the inappropriate use of cell phones in the classroom; 2 engage students in required personal/academic small group discussions every class period; 3 include small discussions about the excessive and inappropriate use of cell phones and social media, and require them to write and present project papers of their own choosing, which will likely include some papers on the topic of cell phone/social media addiction, demonstrating their awareness of the detrimental aspects of this pervasive problem.

  13. Validity of the iPhone M7 motion co-processor as a pedometer for able-bodied ambulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, Matthew J; Alford, Micah

    2016-12-01

    Physical activity benefits for disease prevention are well-established. Smartphones offer a convenient platform for community-based step count estimation to monitor and encourage physical activity. Accuracy is dependent on hardware-software platforms, creating a recurring challenge for validation, but the Apple iPhone® M7 motion co-processor provides a standardised method that helps address this issue. Validity of the M7 to record step count for level-ground, able-bodied walking at three self-selected speeds, and agreement with the StepWatch TM was assessed. Steps were measured concurrently with the iPhone® (custom application to extract step count), StepWatch TM and manual count. Agreement between iPhone® and manual/StepWatch TM count was estimated through Pearson correlation and Bland-Altman analyses. Data from 20 participants suggested that iPhone® step count correlations with manual and StepWatch TM were strong for customary (1.3 ± 0.1 m/s) and fast (1.8 ± 0.2 m/s) speeds, but weak for the slow (1.0 ± 0.1 m/s) speed. Mean absolute error (manual-iPhone®) was 21%, 8% and 4% for the slow, customary and fast speeds, respectively. The M7 accurately records step count during customary and fast walking speeds, but is prone to considerable inaccuracies at slow speeds which has important implications for certain patient groups. The iPhone® may be a suitable alternative to the StepWatch TM for only faster walking speeds.

  14. The Model Human Processor and the Older Adult: Parameter Estimation and Validation Within a Mobile Phone Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastrzembski, Tiffany S.; Charness, Neil

    2009-01-01

    The authors estimate weighted mean values for nine information processing parameters for older adults using the Card, Moran, and Newell (1983) Model Human Processor model. The authors validate a subset of these parameters by modeling two mobile phone tasks using two different phones and comparing model predictions to a sample of younger (N = 20; Mage = 20) and older (N = 20; Mage = 69) adults. Older adult models fit keystroke-level performance at the aggregate grain of analysis extremely well (R = 0.99) and produced equivalent fits to previously validated younger adult models. Critical path analyses highlighted points of poor design as a function of cognitive workload, hardware/software design, and user characteristics. The findings demonstrate that estimated older adult information processing parameters are valid for modeling purposes, can help designers understand age-related performance using existing interfaces, and may support the development of age-sensitive technologies. PMID:18194048

  15. Gas detection with microelectromechanical Fabry-Perot interferometer technology in cell phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, Rami; Hyypiö, Risto; Korkalainen, Marko; Blomberg, Martti; Kattelus, Hannu; Rissanen, Anna

    2015-06-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a miniaturized optical sensor for gas detection in a cell phone. The sensor is based on a microelectromechanical (MEMS) Fabry-Perot interferometer, which is a structure with two highly reflective surfaces separated by a tunable air gap. The MEMS FPI is a monolithic device, i.e. it is made entirely on one substrate in a batch process, without assembling separate pieces together. The gap is adjusted by moving the upper mirror with electrostatic force, so there are no actual moving parts. VTT has designed and manufactured a MEMS FPI based carbon dioxide sensor demonstrator which is integrated to a cell phone shield cover. The demonstrator contains light source, gas cell, MEMS FPI, detector, control electronics and two coin cell batteries as a power source. It is connected to the cell phone by Bluetooth. By adjusting the wavelength range and customizing the MEMS FPI structure, it is possible to selectively sense multiple gases.

  16. Comparison of Cell Phone Usage Frequencies and Brand Preferences of Public and Private University Education Faculty Students

    OpenAIRE

    Aylin TUTGUN ÜNAL; Ahmet ARSLAN

    2013-01-01

    In this research, cell phone usage frequencies and brand preferences of the education faculty students were examined. Research was conducted with 985 students from Marmara University Ataturk Education Faculty and Maltepe University Education Faculty in Istanbul. For the collection of data, “cell phone usage frequency and brand preference determination survey” was used. In the research, various results were obtained and some of which are as follows: a) Students use cell phone intensively for a...

  17. The dimensions of brand romance as predictors of brand loyalty among cell phone users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danie Petzer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In a competitive cell phone industry where consumers have a wide variety of cell phone brands to choose from, it is imperative for marketers to foster brand loyalty in order to establish enduring consumer-brand relationships. Nurturing brand romance has been suggested to marketers to cultivate emotional attachments between consumers and brands so as to increase brand loyalty. This study focussed on determining the extent to which the three underlying dimensions of brand romance, namely pleasure, arousal and dominance predict brand loyalty among cell phone users in the North West province. In total 371 respondents participated in the study. Results indicate that with respect to brand romance, respondents’ current cell phone brands generate brand pleasure and brand arousal, but that these brands are not dominant in their minds. Although respondents participating in the study did not exhibit strong levels of brand loyalty towards their current cell phone brands, the three underlying dimensions of brand romance are statistically significant predictors of brand loyalty.

  18. Cell phone use and parotid salivary gland alterations: no molecular evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Fabrício T A; Correia-Silva, Jeane F; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Siqueira, Elisa C; Duarte, Alessandra P; Gomez, Marcus Vinícius; Gomez, Ricardo S; Gomes, Carolina C

    2014-07-01

    The association between cell phone use and the development of parotid tumors is controversial. Because there is unequivocal evidence that the microenvironment is important for tumor formation, we investigated in the parotid glands whether cell phone use alters the expression of gene products related to cellular stress. We used the saliva produced by the parotid glands of 62 individuals to assess molecular alterations compatible with cellular stress, comparing the saliva from the gland exposed to cell phone radiation (ipsilateral) to the saliva from the opposite, unexposed parotid gland (contralateral) of each individual. We compared salivary flow, total protein concentration, p53, p21, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and salivary levels of glutathione (GSH), heat shock proteins 27 and 70, and IgA between the ipsilateral and contralateral parotids. No difference was found for any of these parameters, even when grouping individuals by period of cell phone use in years or by monthly average calls in minutes. We provide molecular evidence that the exposure of parotid glands to cell phone use does not alter parotid salivary flow, protein concentration, or levels of proteins of genes that are directly or indirectly affected by heat-induced cellular stress. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  19. Telemedicine through the use of digital cell phone technology in pediatric neurosurgery: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirris, Stephen M; Monaco, Edward A; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C

    2010-05-01

    Advances in medicine have largely followed advances in technology. Medical strides have been made when physicians and researchers have adapted growing science to target specific problems. A new medical field, telemedicine, has emerged that links physicians with colleagues and patients. Cell phone technology is affordable for almost everyone, and basic models include digital photography. We present a case series exhibiting the utility of digital pictures taken with patients' cell phones. Our patients had wound infections requiring daily intravenous antibiotics and dressing changes. In years past, these patients would have required prolonged hospitalizations. In the era of managed care, patients with these infections are discharged from the hospital, but close outpatient observation is required to monitor the wound. Our patients lived up to 8 hours away from the hospital. Daily appointments for wound checks in the clinic were not practical. Wounds were thus monitored via cell phone images without the inconvenience of travel and the expense of staying in a local hotel, along with leaving appointments in the clinic available for others with new neurosurgical issues. Wound evaluations were conducted with the cameras on patients' cell phones. These images were transmitted to the surgeon via text messaging and emails. This application of cell phone technology has been documented previously in the literature of other specialties and could attain greater stature as a legitimate method for close outpatient observation by neurosurgeons if medicolegal issues are addressed.

  20. Validation of the iPhone app using the force platform to estimate vertical jump height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlos-Vivas, Jorge; Martin-Martinez, Juan P; Hernandez-Mocholi, Miguel A; Perez-Gomez, Jorge

    2018-03-01

    Vertical jump performance has been evaluated with several devices: force platforms, contact mats, Vertec, accelerometers, infrared cameras and high-velocity cameras; however, the force platform is considered the gold standard for measuring vertical jump height. The purpose of this study was to validate an iPhone app called My Jump, that measures vertical jump height by comparing it with other methods that use the force platform to estimate vertical jump height, namely, vertical velocity at take-off and time in the air. A total of 40 sport sciences students (age 21.4±1.9 years) completed five countermovement jumps (CMJs) over a force platform. Thus, 200 CMJ heights were evaluated from the vertical velocity at take-off and the time in the air using the force platform, and from the time in the air with the My Jump mobile application. The height obtained was compared using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Correlation between APP and force platform using the time in the air was perfect (ICC=1.000, P<0.001). Correlation between APP and force platform using the vertical velocity at take-off was also very high (ICC=0.996, P<0.001), with an error margin of 0.78%. Therefore, these results showed that application, My Jump, is an appropriate method to evaluate the vertical jump performance; however, vertical jump height is slightly overestimated compared with that of the force platform.

  1. The feasibility of cell phone based electronic diaries for STI/HIV research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hensel Devon J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reports of sensitive, socially stigmatized or illegal behavior are common in STI/HIV research, but can raise challenges in terms of data reliability and validity. The use of electronic data collection tools, including ecological momentary assessment (EMA, can increase the accuracy of this information by allowing a participant to self-administer a survey or diary entry, in their own environment, as close to the occurrence of the behavior as possible. In this paper, we evaluate the feasibility of using cell phone-based EMA as a tool for understanding sexual risk and STI among adult men and women. Methods As part of a larger prospective clinical study on sexual risk behavior and incident STI in clinically recruited adult men and women, using study-provided cell phones, participants (N = 243 completed thrice–daily EMA diaries monitoring individual and partner-specific emotional attributes, non-sexual activities, non-coital or coital sexual behaviors, and contraceptive behaviors. Using these data, we assess feasibility in terms of participant compliance, behavior reactivity, general method acceptability and method efficacy for capturing behaviors. Results Participants were highly compliant with diary entry protocol and schedule: over the entire 12 study weeks, participants submitted 89.7% (54,914/61,236 of the expected diary entries, with an average of 18.86 of the 21 expected diaries (85.7% each week. Submission did not differ substantially across gender, race/ethnicity and baseline sexually transmitted infection status. A sufficient volume and range of sexual behaviors were captured, with reporting trends in different legal and illegal behaviors showing small variation over time. Participants found the methodology to be acceptable, enjoyed and felt comfortable participating in the study. Conclusion Achieving the correct medium of data collection can drastically improve, or degrade, the timeliness and quality of an

  2. Effects of non-thermal mobile phone radiation on breast adenocarcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen Fourie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone usage currently exceeds landline communication in Africa. The extent of this usage has raised concerns about the long-term health effects of the ongoing use of mobile phones. To assess the physiological effects of radiation from mobile phones in vitro, MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells were exposed to 2W/kg non-thermal 900-MHz mobile phone radiation. The effects investigated were those on metabolic activity, cell morphology, cell cycle progression, phosphatidylserine (PS externalisation and the generation of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species. Statistically insignificant increases in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity were observed in irradiated cells when compared to controls. Fluorescent detection of F-actin demonstrated an increase in F-actin stress fibre formation in irradiated MCF-7 cells. Cell cycle progression revealed no statistically significant variation. A small increase in early and late apoptotic events in irradiated MCF-7 cells was observed. No statistically significant changes were observed in reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species generation. In addition, quantitative and qualitative analyses of cell cycle activity and nuclear and cytosolic changes, respectively, revealed no significant changes. In conclusion, exposure to 1 h of 900-MHz irradiation induced an increase in PS externalisation and an increase in the formation of F-actin stress fibres in MCF-7 cells. Data obtained from this study, and their correlation with other studies, provides intriguing links between radio frequency radiation and cellular events and warrant further investigation.

  3. Trends in cell phone use among children in the Danish national birth cohort at ages 7 and 11 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudan, Madhuri; Olsen, Jørn; Sigsgaard, Torben; Kheifets, Leeka

    2016-11-01

    We prospectively examined trends in cell phone use among children in the Danish National Birth Cohort. Cell phone use was assessed at ages 7 and 11 years, and we examined use patterns by age, by year of birth, and in relation to specific individual characteristics. There was an increase in cell phone use from age 7 (37%) to 11 years (94%). There was a clear pattern of greater reported cell phone use among children at age 7 years with later birth year, but this trend disappeared at age 11. Girls and those who used phones at age 7 talked more often and for longer durations at age 11 years. Low socio-economic status and later year of birth were associated with voice calls at age 7 but not at age 11 years. At age 11 most used cell phones for texting and gaming more than for voice calls. Further, children who started using cell phones at age 7 years were more likely to be heavy cell phone voice users at age 11 years, making early use a marker for higher cumulative exposure regardless of year of birth. As cell phone technology continues to advance, new use patterns will continue to emerge, and exposure assessment research among children must reflect these trends.

  4. Examination of drivers' cell phone use behavior at intersections by using naturalistic driving data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Huimin; Bao, Shan; Sayer, James; Kato, Kazuma

    2015-09-01

    Many driving simulator studies have shown that cell phone use while driving greatly degraded driving performance. In terms of safety analysis, many factors including drivers, vehicles, and driving situations need to be considered. Controlled or simulated studies cannot always account for the full effects of these factors, especially situational factors such as road condition, traffic density, and weather and lighting conditions. Naturalistic driving by its nature provides a natural and realistic way to examine drivers' behaviors and associated factors for cell phone use while driving. In this study, driving speed while using a cell phone (conversation or visual/manual tasks) was compared to two baselines (baseline 1: normal driving condition, which only excludes driving while using a cell phone, baseline 2: driving-only condition, which excludes all types of secondary tasks) when traversing an intersection. The outcomes showed that drivers drove slower when using a cell for both conversation and visual/manual (VM) tasks compared to baseline conditions. With regard to cell phone conversations, drivers were more likely to drive faster during the day time compared to night time driving and drive slower under moderate traffic compared to under sparse traffic situations. With regard to VM tasks, there was a significant interaction between traffic and cell phone use conditions. The maximum speed with VM tasks was significantly lower than that with baseline conditions under sparse traffic conditions. In contrast, the maximum speed with VM tasks was slightly higher than that with baseline driving under dense traffic situations. This suggests that drivers might self-regulate their behavior based on the driving situations and demand for secondary tasks, which could provide insights on driver distraction guidelines. With the rapid development of in-vehicle technology, the findings in this research could lead the improvement of human-machine interface (HMI) design as well

  5. Adapting to Student Learning Styles: Using Cell Phone Technology in Undergraduate Science Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Pennington

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Students of science traditionally make 3x5 flash cards to assist learning nomenclature, structures, and reactions. Advances in educational technology have enabled flashcards viewed on computers, offering an endless array of drilling and feedback opportunities for students. The current generation of students is less inclined to use computers, but they use their cell phones 24 hours a day. This report outlines these trends and an even more recent educational technology initiative, that of using cell phone flash cards to help students learn biology and chemistry nomenclature, structures, and reactions. Students responded positively to cell phone flash cards in a pilot study and a more detailed study is planned for the coming year.

  6. The effects of cell phone conversations on the attention and memory of bystanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galván, Veronica V; Vessal, Rosa S; Golley, Matthew T

    2013-01-01

    The pervasive use of cell phones impacts many people-both cell phone users and bystanders exposed to conversations. This study examined the effects of overhearing a one-sided (cell phone) conversation versus a two-sided conversation on attention and memory. In our realistic design, participants were led to believe they were participating in a study examining the relationship between anagrams and reading comprehension. While the participant was completing an anagram task, the researcher left the room and participants overheard a scripted conversation, either two confederates talking with each other or one confederate talking on a cell phone. Upon the researcher's return, the participant took a recognition memory task with words from the conversation, and completed a questionnaire measuring the distracting nature of the conversation. Participants who overheard the one-sided conversation rated the conversation as significantly higher in distractibility than those who overheard the two-sided conversation. Also, participants in the one-sided condition scored higher on the recognition task. In particular they were more confident and accurate in their responses to words from the conversation than participants in the two-sided condition. However, participants' scores on the anagram task were not significantly different between conditions. As in real world situations, individual participants could pay varying amounts of attention to the conversation since they were not explicitly instructed to ignore it. Even though the conversation was irrelevant to the anagram task and contained less words and noise, one-sided conversations still impacted participants' self-reported distractibility and memory, thus showing people are more attentive to cell phone conversations than two-sided conversations. Cell phone conversations may be a common source of distraction causing negative consequences in workplace environments and other public places.

  7. The effects of cell phone conversations on the attention and memory of bystanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica V Galván

    Full Text Available The pervasive use of cell phones impacts many people-both cell phone users and bystanders exposed to conversations. This study examined the effects of overhearing a one-sided (cell phone conversation versus a two-sided conversation on attention and memory. In our realistic design, participants were led to believe they were participating in a study examining the relationship between anagrams and reading comprehension. While the participant was completing an anagram task, the researcher left the room and participants overheard a scripted conversation, either two confederates talking with each other or one confederate talking on a cell phone. Upon the researcher's return, the participant took a recognition memory task with words from the conversation, and completed a questionnaire measuring the distracting nature of the conversation. Participants who overheard the one-sided conversation rated the conversation as significantly higher in distractibility than those who overheard the two-sided conversation. Also, participants in the one-sided condition scored higher on the recognition task. In particular they were more confident and accurate in their responses to words from the conversation than participants in the two-sided condition. However, participants' scores on the anagram task were not significantly different between conditions. As in real world situations, individual participants could pay varying amounts of attention to the conversation since they were not explicitly instructed to ignore it. Even though the conversation was irrelevant to the anagram task and contained less words and noise, one-sided conversations still impacted participants' self-reported distractibility and memory, thus showing people are more attentive to cell phone conversations than two-sided conversations. Cell phone conversations may be a common source of distraction causing negative consequences in workplace environments and other public places.

  8. Embedded Adaptive Optics for Ubiquitous Lab-on-a-Chip Readout on Intact Cell Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakorn Preechaburana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of disposable lab-on-a-chip (LOC devices on cell phones is an attractive alternative to migrate the analytical strength of LOC solutions to decentralized sensing applications. Imaging the micrometric detection areas of LOCs in contact with intact phone cameras is central to provide such capability. This work demonstrates a disposable and morphing liquid lens concept that can be integrated in LOC devices and refocuses micrometric features in the range necessary for LOC evaluation using diverse cell phone cameras. During natural evaporation, the lens focus varies adapting to different type of cameras. Standard software in the phone commands a time-lapse acquisition for best focal selection that is sufficient to capture and resolve, under ambient illumination, 50 μm features in regions larger than 500 × 500 μm2. In this way, the present concept introduces a generic solution compatible with the use of diverse and unmodified cell phone cameras to evaluate disposable LOC devices.

  9. [Internet and cell phone addiction: passing fad or disorder?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Carbonell, Xavier; Beranuy, Marta; Castellana, Montserrat; Chamarro, Ander; Oberst, Ursula

    2008-01-01

    The Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) generate new styles of meeting people or connecting with friends or strangers. In this context, the internet and the mobile phone deserve special attention. This article deals with the maladaptive use of these technologies. By reviewing the literature published between 1991 and 2005 and indexed in the databases of PsycINFO, Medline, Psicodoc, IME, and ISOC, we aim to determine whether maladaptive use of these technologies can be considered a mental disorder, and if so, of which type. We describe the psychological phenomena of maladaptive use of the internet and mobile phones, we review research on prevalence and possible risk groups, and finally we discuss some of the criticisms made with regard to the existence and classification of this disorder. It is concluded that excessive use of the internet can lead to a mental disorder of the addictive type, which can particularly affect individuals with special emotional needs, as well as adolescents and young adults. Among specific applications of the internet, a major risk is found for the use of communicative and synchronic applications, such as chats and online role games, since they permit hyperpersonal communication, playing with different identities, and projections and dissociation without consequences in real life. Furthermore, the internet can play an important role in the development and maintenance of other addictions, such as pathological gambling and sex addiction. In contrast to the case of the internet, maladaptive use of mobile phones may be considered abuse, but not addiction, since their use does not lead to the rapid emotional changes or the playing with identities that can take place in chats and online role games.

  10. The Cost of Privacy: Riley v. California's Impact on Cell Phone Searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Riley v. California is the United States Supreme Court’s first attempt to regulate the searches of cell phones by law enforcement.  The 2014 unanimous decision requires a warrant for all cell phone searches incident to arrest absent an emergency.  This work summarizes the legal precedent and analyzes the limitations and practical implications of the ruling.  General guidelines for members of the criminal justice system at all levels consistent with the Supreme Court’s decision are provided.  

  11. Preliminary Research Developing a Theory of Cell Phone Distraction and Social Relationships

    OpenAIRE

    LaVoie, Noelle; Lee, Yi-Ching; Parker, James

    2015-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of death and injury for people aged 5 – 34, accounting annually for over 3000 deaths, and 100 times as many injuries. It is well established that distracted driving, and cell phone use while driving in particular, pose significant crash risk to drivers. Research has demonstrated that drivers are well aware of this danger but over 90% of drivers report using a cell phone while driving. Given the likely role that social influence plays in how peopl...

  12. Validation of heart rate extraction through an iPhone accelerometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sungjun; Lee, Jeongsu; Chung, Gih Sung; Park, Kwang Suk

    2011-01-01

    Ubiquitous medical technology may provide advanced utility for evaluating the status of the patient beyond the clinical environment. The iPhone provides the capacity to measure the heart rate, as the iPhone consists of a 3-axis accelerometer that is sufficiently sensitive to perceive tiny body movements caused by heart pumping. In this preliminary study, an iPhone was tested and evaluated as the reliable heart rate extractor to use for medical purpose by comparing with reference electrocardiogram. By comparing the extracted heart rate from acquired acceleration data with the extracted one from ECG reference signal, iPhone functioning as the reliable heart rate extractor has demonstrated sufficient accuracy and consistency.

  13. Effect of Green Tea Extract in Reducing Genotoxic Injuries of Cell Phone Microwaves on Bone Marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zahedifar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea (Camellia sinensis extract is rich source of natural antioxidants specially catechin that is quickly absorbed into the body and it has cancer protective, anti microbial and anti inflammation effects. In this study has been studied role of green tea extract against genotoxic damage induced by cell phone microwaves on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of adult male Balb/C mouse.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 mouse were divided into five groups, control animals were located under natural condition, sham -exposed animals were prepared by experimental condition without cell phone waves radiation. Experimental 1 group that irradiated at cell phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and experimental 2 groups were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days and experimental 3 group that irradiated at active mobile phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days. After treatment period micronucleus test was evaluated in polychromatic erythrocytes on bone marrow. The quantitative data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test with using of SPSS-13 software at the level of p<0.05.Results: Based on this study, treatment with extracts of green tea decreased micronucleus frequency in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of Balb/C mouse that irradiated at cell phone microwave (0.92±0.129, (p<0.001.Conclusion: Cell phone microwaves (940 MHz increased micronucleus on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of male Balb/C mouse, but green tea had inhibitory effect and it decreased the average number of micronucleus.

  14. Life cycle assessment of cell phones in Brazil based on two reverse logistics scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela da Gama e Silva Volpe Moreira de Moraes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a result of a cell phone collection obtained at the Center for Information Technology Renato Archer (CTI under the AMBIENTRONIC Program, an initiative that supports the Brazilian electronic sector in the development of technologies for sustainability. The objective of this article is to assess two reverse logistic scenarios of cell phones using the technique of life-cycle assessment (LCA. The first scenario reflects the current scenario in Brazil, where batteries are recycled in Brazil and the other parts of the phones are outsourced to Europe. The second scenario is a proposal of full treatment in Brazil. The results indicate that the second scenario has a lower potential impact with important reduction of acidification, photochemical oxidation, eutrophication and the use of non-renewable energy. Furthermore, fully implementing reverse logistics in Brazil will enable socioeconomic benefits from the sale of materials and the generation of employment and income.

  15. Engrossed in conversation: the impact of cell phones on simulated driving performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beede, Kristen E; Kass, Steven J

    2006-03-01

    The current study examined the effects of cognitively distracting tasks on various measures of driving performance. Thirty-six college students with a median of 6 years of driving experience completed a driving history questionnaire and four simulated driving scenarios. The distraction tasks consisted of responding to a signal detection task and engaging in a simulated cell phone conversation. Driving performance was measured in terms of four categories of behavior: traffic violations (e.g., speeding, running stop signs), driving maintenance (e.g., standard deviation of lane position), attention lapses (e.g., stops at green lights, failure to visually scan for intersection traffic), and response time (e.g., time to step on brake in response to a pop-up event). Performance was significantly impacted in all four categories when drivers were concurrently talking on a hands-free phone. Performance on the signal detection task was poor and not significantly impacted by the phone task, suggesting that considerably less attention was paid to detecting these peripheral signals. However, the signal detection task did interact with the phone task on measures of average speed, speed variability, attention lapses, and reaction time. The findings lend further empirical support of the dangers of drivers being distracted by cell phone conversations.

  16. Prospective study of pregnancy outcomes after parental cell phone exposure: the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baste, Valborg; Oftedal, Gunnhild; Møllerløkken, Ole Jacob; Mild, Kjell Hansson; Moen, Bente E

    2015-07-01

    Research about prenatal exposure to electromagnetic fields from cell phones among expectant parents and reproductive outcome is limited. The aim of this article is to investigate the association between pregnancy outcome and parental cell phone exposure in a large prospective study. The study was based on the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study conducted during the decade 1999-2009. In that study, pregnant women were recruited before a routine ultrasound examination during gestational week 15; they answered a questionnaire at that time and again around gestational week 30. The expectant father was invited to answer a questionnaire during gestational week 15 (2001-2009). The forms contained questions regarding cell phone use. The response rate was 38.7% and the cohort comprised 100,730 singleton births. Pregnancy outcomes were obtained by linkage to the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. The risk of preeclampsia was slightly lower among women with medium and high cell phone exposure compared with low exposure after adjusting for potential confounders. Fathers with testis exposure when using cell phones had a borderline increased risk of perinatal mortality among offspring and a slightly decreased risk of partner developing preeclampsia during pregnancy compared with no cell phone exposure of head or testis. None of the other pregnancy outcomes was associated with cell phone exposure. We found no association between maternal prenatal or paternal preconceptional cell phone exposure and any of the studied pregnancy outcomes. The only risk estimate suggesting a potential increased risk was not consistent with other findings.

  17. ICAT: Development of an Internet-Based Data Collection Method for Ecological Momentary Assessment Using Personal Cell Phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Labhart, F.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid advances in mobile data-transfer technologies offer new possibilities in the use of cell phones to conduct assessments of a person’s natural environment in real time. This paper describes features of a new Internet-based, cell phone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT), which consists of a

  18. Language and Social Factors in the Use of Cell Phone Technology by Adolescents with and without Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Simkin, Zoe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare cell phone use (both oral and text-based) by adolescents with and without specific language impairment (SLI) and examine the extent to which language and social factors affect frequency of use. Method: Both interview and diary methods were used to compare oral and text-based communication using cell phones by…

  19. The Impact of In-Vehicle Cell-Phone Use on Accidents or Near-Accidents among College Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Chul; Torabi, Mohammad R.

    2004-01-01

    With in-vehicle use of cell phones rapidly increasing, the safety of young drivers, who represent 14% of licensed drivers but 26% of drivers involved in fatal crashes, may be disproportionately threatened. The authors used a questionnaire to examine the association between in-vehicle cell-phone use and accidents or near-accidents among 1,291…

  20. Exploring the Use of MXit: A Cell-Phone Social Network to Facilitate Learning in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoe, Mpine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the pedagogical suitability of using cell phones to enhance learning through social interaction in distance education. Social interaction was used as a conceptual framework to explore the potential for using "MXit"--a cell-phone instant messaging system--to support and enhance learning for distance…

  1. Opto-fluidics based microscopy and flow cytometry on a cell phone for blood analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hongying; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2015-01-01

    Blood analysis is one of the most important clinical tests for medical diagnosis. Flow cytometry and optical microscopy are widely used techniques to perform blood analysis and therefore cost-effective translation of these technologies to resource limited settings is critical for various global health as well as telemedicine applications. In this chapter, we review our recent progress on the integration of imaging flow cytometry and fluorescent microscopy on a cell phone using compact, light-weight and cost-effective opto-fluidic attachments integrated onto the camera module of a smartphone. In our cell-phone based opto-fluidic imaging cytometry design, fluorescently labeled cells are delivered into the imaging area using a disposable micro-fluidic chip that is positioned above the existing camera unit of the cell phone. Battery powered light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are butt-coupled to the sides of this micro-fluidic chip without any lenses, which effectively acts as a multimode slab waveguide, where the excitation light is guided to excite the fluorescent targets within the micro-fluidic chip. Since the excitation light propagates perpendicular to the detection path, an inexpensive plastic absorption filter is able to reject most of the scattered light and create a decent dark-field background for fluorescent imaging. With this excitation geometry, the cell-phone camera can record fluorescent movies of the particles/cells as they are flowing through the microchannel. The digital frames of these fluorescent movies are then rapidly processed to quantify the count and the density of the labeled particles/cells within the solution under test. With a similar opto-fluidic design, we have recently demonstrated imaging and automated counting of stationary blood cells (e.g., labeled white blood cells or unlabeled red blood cells) loaded within a disposable cell counting chamber. We tested the performance of this cell-phone based imaging cytometry and blood analysis platform

  2. Reducing juvenile recidivism with cognitive training and a cell phone follow-up: an evaluation of the realvictory program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burraston, Bert O; Cherrington, David J; Bahr, Stephen J

    2012-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the effects of a cognitive training and cell phone intervention on the recidivism of 70 juvenile offenders. Median days to rearrest were 106 for the control group, 191 for the class-only group, and 278 for the class plus cell phone group. Using rearrest as the survival criterion, the survival ratios of the class-only and class plus cell phone groups were 2.64 and 2.94 times longer than the control group, respectively. After controlling for gender, prior arrests, and risk score, the Poisson regression indicated that the class-only and class plus cell phone groups were 51% lower in total arrests than the control group. These results suggest that cognitive training supplemented with a cell phone coach is an effective and cost-efficient intervention for reducing recidivism.

  3. Bring-Your-Own-Device: Turning Cell Phones into Forces for Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazeki, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, classroom response systems (or "clickers") have become increasingly common. Although most systems require students to use a standalone handheld device, bring-your-own-device (BYOD) systems allow students to use devices they already own (e.g., a cell phone, tablet or laptop) to submit responses via text message or…

  4. Microchip ELISA coupled with cell phone to detect ovarian cancer HE4 biomarker in urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ShuQi; Akbas, Ragip; Demirci, Utkan

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is a leading cause of death from gynecologic cancers in the USA, and early diagnosis can potentially increase 5-year survival rate. Detection of biomarkers derived from hyperplasia of epithelial tissue by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) proves to be a practical way of early diagnosis of ovarian cancer. However, ELISA is commonly performed in a laboratory setting, and it cannot be used in a clinical setting for on-site consultation. We have shown a microchip ELISA that detects HE4, an ovarian cancer biomarker, from urine using a cell phone integrated with a mobile application for imaging and data analysis. In microchip ELISA, HE4 from urine was first absorbed on the surface; the primary and secondary antibodies were subsequently anchored on the surface via immuno-reaction; and addition of substrate led to color development because of enzymatic labeling. The microchip after color development was imaged using a cell phone, and the color intensity was analyzed by an integrated mobile application. By comparing with an ELISA standard curve, the concentration of HE4 was reported on the cell phone screen. The presented microchip ELISA coupled with a cell phone is portable as opposed to traditional ELISA, and this method can facilitate the detection of ovarian cancer at the point-of-care (POC).

  5. Using a Cell Phone to Investigate the Skin Depth Effect in Salt Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, John

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of the skin depth effect for electromagnetic waves in salt water using a cell phone that is immersed to a critical depth where it no longer responds when called. We show that this critical depth is directly proportional to the theoretical skin depth for a range of salt concentrations.

  6. Cell Phone Video Recording Feature as a Language Learning Tool: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromik, Nicolas A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study conducted at a Japanese national university. Nine participants used the video recording feature on their cell phones to produce weekly video productions. The task required that participants produce one 30-second video on a teacher-selected topic. Observations revealed the process of video creation with a cell…

  7. High Ringxiety: Attachment Anxiety Predicts Experiences of Phantom Cell Phone Ringing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J; Djerf, Jaikob M

    2016-01-01

    Mobile cell phone users have reported experiencing ringing and/or vibrations associated with incoming calls and messages, only to find that no call or message had actually registered. We believe this phenomenon can be understood as a human signal detection issue, with potentially important influences from psychological attributes. We hypothesized that individuals higher in attachment anxiety would report more frequent phantom cell phone experiences, whereas individuals higher in attachment avoidance would report less frequent experiences. If these experiences are primarily psychologically related to attributes of interpersonal relationships, associations with attachment style should be stronger than for general sensation seeking. We also predicted that certain contexts would interact with attachment style to increase or decrease the likelihood of experiencing phantom cell phone calls and messages. Attachment anxiety directly predicted the frequency of phantom ringing and notification experiences, whereas attachment avoidance and sensation seeking did not directly predict frequency. Attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance interacted with contextual factors (expectations for a call or message and concerned about an issue that one may be contacted about) in the expected directions for predicting phantom cell phone experiences.

  8. Cell phone-induced failures of visual attention during simulated driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Synopsis This experiment finds that conversing on a hands-free cell phone with a stream of traffic passing in the left lane leads participants to take longer to respond when the car ahead brakes and to a longer time before they reach their slowes...

  9. Dynamic Pedagogy for Effective Training of Youths in Cell Phone Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuanya, T. C.; Jimoh, Bakare

    2015-01-01

    The study determined dynamic pedagogies for effective training of youths in cell phone maintenance. The study was conducted in Enugu State of Nigeria. Four research questions were developed while four null hypotheses formulated were tested at 0.05 level of significance. A survey research design was adopted for the study. The population for the…

  10. Digital Devices, Distraction, and Student Performance: Does In-Class Cell Phone Use Reduce Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Douglas K.; Hoekstra, Angel R.; Wilcox, Bethany R.

    2012-01-01

    The recent increase in use of digital devices such as laptop computers, iPads, and web-enabled cell phones has generated concern about how technologies affect student performance. Combining observation, survey, and interview data, this research assesses the effects of technology use on student attitudes and learning. Data were gathered in eight…

  11. Cell-Phone Use and Cancer: A Case Study Exploring the Scientific Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon Parrilla, Wilma V.

    2007-01-01

    Designed for an introductory nonmajors biology course, this case study presents students with a series of short news stories describing a scientific study of cell-phone use and its health effects. Students read the news stories and then the scientific paper they are based on, comparing the information presented by the news media to the information…

  12. Brief Report: How Do Adolescents Perceive the Risks Related to Cell-Phone Use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martha, Cecile; Griffet, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Besides the social risks of incivility and impoliteness (I-incivility), cell-phone use is classically associated with two types of physical risk: microwave radiation (LIMRadiation) and decreased attention while driving (CPUWDriving). As the literature has showed that adolescents' risky behavior was consistent with their risk perception, we ran a…

  13. Cell phone electromagnetic field radiations affect rhizogenesis through impairment of biochemical processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harminder Pal; Sharma, Ved Parkash; Batish, Daizy Rani; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar

    2012-04-01

    Indiscriminate adoption and use of cell phone technology has tremendously increased the levels of electromagnetic field radiations (EMFr) in the natural environment. It has raised the concerns among the scientists regarding the possible risks of EMFr to living organisms. However, not much has been done to assess the damage caused to plants that are continuously exposed to EMFr present in the environment. The present study investigated the biochemical mechanism of interference of 900 MHz cell phone EMFr with root formation in mung bean (Vigna radiata syn. Phaseolus aureus) hypocotyls, a model system to study rhizogenesis in plants. Cell phone EMFr enhanced the activities of proteases (by 1.52 to 2.33 times), polyphenol oxidases (by 1.5 to 4.3 times), and peroxidases (by 1.5 to 2.0 times) in mung bean hypocotyls over control. Further, EMFr enhanced malondialdehyde (an indicator of lipid peroxidation), hydrogen peroxide, and proline content, indicating a reactive oxygen species-mediated oxidative damage in hypocotyls. It was confirmed by the upregulation in the activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guaiacol peroxidase, catalase, and glutathione reductase) suggesting their possible role in providing protection against EMFr-induced oxidative damage. The study concluded that cell phone radiations affect the process of rhizogenesis through biochemical alterations that manifest as oxidative damage resulting in root impairment.

  14. Cell Phones: Rule-Setting, Rule-Breaking, and Relationships in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Anita S.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a small qualitative study, this article focuses on understanding the rules for cell phones and other social networking media in schools, an aspect of broader research that led to important understandings of teacher-student negotiations. It considers the rules that schools and teachers make, the rampant breaking of these rules, the…

  15. Text or talk? Social anxiety, loneliness, and divergent preferences for cell phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Donna J; Reid, Fraser J M

    2007-06-01

    This paper investigates whether social anxiety and loneliness lead to contrasting beliefs and preferences among cell phone users towards texting and talking on their cell phones. Three hypotheses are examined: (1) that social anxiety and loneliness are differentially associated with generalized preferences either for texting or for talking on the cell phone, (2) that these preferences are linked to contrasting beliefs concerning the social functionality of the short message service (SMS), and (3) that these divergent beliefs mediate the effects of social anxiety and loneliness on cell phone users' generalized preferences for texting or talking. Results from an Internet questionnaire (N=158) showed that, whilst lonely participants preferred making voice calls and rated texting as a less intimate method of contact, anxious participants preferred to text, and rated it a superior medium for expressive and intimate contact. These divergent beliefs accounted for 36% and 16% of the variance in preference for texting and voice calls, respectively, and significantly attenuated the influence of loneliness and social anxiety when they were added to the regression equations for these measures. Results are discussed in terms of the hyperpersonal possibilities of mobile communications technologies.

  16. Disentangling the influence of cell phone usage in the dilemma zone: An econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluru, Naveen; Yasmin, Shamsunnahar

    2016-11-01

    This paper focuses on developing an analysis framework to study the impact of cell phone treatment (cell phone type and call status) on driver behavior in the presence of a dilemma zone. Specifically, we examine how the treatment influences the driver maneuver decision at the intersection (stop or cross) and the eventual success of the maneuver. For a stop maneuver, success is defined as stopping before the stop line. Similarly, for a cross maneuver, success is defined as clearing the intersection safely before the light turns red. The eventual success or failure of the driver's decision process is dependent on the factors that affected the maneuver decision. Hence it is important to recognize the interconnectedness of the stop or cross decision with its eventual success (or failure). Toward this end, we formulate and estimate a joint framework to analyze the stop/cross decision with its eventual success (or failure) simultaneously. The study is conducted based on driving simulator data provided online for the 2014 Transportation Research Board Data Contest at http://depts.washington.edu/hfsm/upload.php. The model is estimated to analyze drivers' behavior at the onset of yellow by employing exogenous variables from three broad categories: driver characteristics, cell phone attributes and driving attributes. We also generate probability surfaces to identify dilemma zone distribution associated with different cell phone treatment types. The plots clearly illustrate the impact of various cellphone treatments on driver dilemma zone behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Determinants of the Use of Cell phones in Access to Beef Cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cell phone is said to be an innovative communication device which allows consumers, traders and farmers to search market appropriate information for timely decision-making to save time and travelling costs. However, determinants of using this technology in beef cattle market information seeking for smallholders in ...

  18. Miniature Spatial Heterodyne Raman Spectrometer with a Cell Phone Camera Detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Patrick D; Angel, S Michael

    2017-05-01

    A spatial heterodyne Raman spectrometer (SHRS) with millimeter-sized optics has been coupled with a standard cell phone camera as a detector for Raman measurements. The SHRS is a dispersive-based interferometer with no moving parts and the design is amenable to miniaturization while maintaining high resolution and large spectral range. In this paper, a SHRS with 2.5 mm diffraction gratings has been developed with 17.5 cm -1 theoretical spectral resolution. The footprint of the SHRS is orders of magnitude smaller than the footprint of charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors typically employed in Raman spectrometers, thus smaller detectors are being explored to shrink the entire spectrometer package. This paper describes the performance of a SHRS with 2.5 mm wide diffraction gratings and a cell phone camera detector, using only the cell phone's built-in optics to couple the output of the SHRS to the sensor. Raman spectra of a variety of samples measured with the cell phone are compared to measurements made using the same miniature SHRS with high-quality imaging optics and a high-quality, scientific-grade, thermoelectrically cooled CCD.

  19. Survey reveals public open to ban on hand-held cell phone use and texting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A study performed by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics : (BTS) reveals that the public is open to a ban on : hand-held cell phone use while driving. The study is based : on data from 2009s Omnibus Household Survey (OHS), : which is administe...

  20. An Investigation on Changing Behaviours of University Students Switching from Using Classical Cell Phones to Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was tried to comprehend whether there occur any changes in behaviours of university students switching from classical cell phones to smartphones. The investigation was carried out according to quantitative research method. Questionnaire was employed as data collection tool. The datum of the study was limited with the information…

  1. Effects of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Signal Exposure on Brain Glucos Metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Vaska, P.; Fowler, J.S.; Telang, F.; Alexoff, D.; Logan, J.; Wong, C.

    2011-01-01

    The dramatic increase in use of cellular telephones has generated concern about possible negative effects of radiofrequency signals delivered to the brain. However, whether acute cell phone exposure affects the human brain is unclear. To evaluate if acute cell phone exposure affects brain glucose metabolism, a marker of brain activity. Randomized crossover study conducted between January 1 and December 31, 2009, at a single US laboratory among 47 healthy participants recruited from the community. Cell phones were placed on the left and right ears and positron emission tomography with ( 18 F)fluorodeoxyglucose injection was used to measure brain glucose metabolism twice, once with the right cell phone activated (sound muted) for 50 minutes ('on' condition) and once with both cell phones deactivated ('off' condition). Statistical parametric mapping was used to compare metabolism between on and off conditions using paired t tests, and Pearson linear correlations were used to verify the association of metabolism and estimated amplitude of radiofrequency-modulated electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phone. Clusters with at least 1000 voxels (volume >8 cm 3 ) and P < .05 (corrected for multiple comparisons) were considered significant. Brain glucose metabolism computed as absolute metabolism ((micro)mol/100 g per minute) and as normalized metabolism (region/whole brain). Whole-brain metabolism did not differ between on and off conditions. In contrast, metabolism in the region closest to the antenna (orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole) was significantly higher for on than off conditions (35.7 vs 33.3 (micro)mol/100 g per minute; mean difference, 2.4 (95% confidence interval, 0.67-4.2); P = .004). The increases were significantly correlated with the estimated electromagnetic field amplitudes both for absolute metabolism (R = 0.95, P < .001) and normalized metabolism (R = 0.89; P < .001). In healthy participants and compared with no exposure, 50-minute cell phone

  2. Teen Drivers’ Perceptions of Inattention and Cell Phone Use While Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommers, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Inattention to the roadway, including cell phone use while driving (cell phone calls, sending and reading texts, mobile app use and internet use), is a critical problem for teen drivers and increases risk for crashes. Effective behavioral interventions for teens are needed in order to decrease teen driver inattention related to cell phone use while driving. However, teens’ perceptions of mobile device use while driving is a necessary component for theoretically driven behavior change interventions. The purpose of this study was to describe teen drivers’ perceptions of cell phone use while driving in order to inform future interventions to reduce risky driving. Methods We conducted seven focus groups with a total of 30 teen drivers, ages 16–18, licensed for ≤1 year in Pennsylvania. The focus group interview guide and analysis were based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, identifying the attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and norms about inattention to the roadway. Directed descriptive content analysis was used to analyze the focus group interviews. All focus groups were coded by two research team members and discrepancies were reconciled. Themes were developed based on the data. Results Teens had a mean age of 17.39 (sd 0.52), mean length of licensure of 173.7 days (sd 109.2; range 4–364), were 50% male and predominately white (90%) and non-Hispanic (97%). From the focus group data, three major themes emerged; (1) Recognizing the danger but still engaging; (2) Considering context; and (3) Formulating safer behaviors that might reduce risk. In spite of recognizing hand-held cell phone use, texting and social media app use are dangerous and distracting while driving, teens and their peers often engage in these behaviors. Teens described how the context of the situation contributed to whether a teen would place or answer a call, write or respond to a text, or use a social media app. Teens identified ways in which they controlled their

  3. Teen Drivers' Perceptions of Inattention and Cell Phone Use While Driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Catherine C; Sommers, Marilyn S

    2015-01-01

    Inattention to the roadway, including cell phone use while driving (cell phone calls, sending and reading texts, mobile app use, and Internet use), is a critical problem for teen drivers and increases risk for crashes. Effective behavioral interventions for teens are needed in order to decrease teen driver inattention related to cell phone use while driving. However, teens' perceptions of mobile device use while driving is a necessary component for theoretically driven behavior change interventions. The purpose of this study was to describe teen drivers' perceptions of cell phone use while driving in order to inform future interventions to reduce risky driving. We conducted 7 focus groups with a total of 30 teen drivers, ages 16-18, licensed for ≤ 1 year in Pennsylvania. The focus group interview guide and analysis were based on the Theory of Planned Behavior, identifying the attitudes, perceived behavioral control, and norms about inattention to the roadway. Directed descriptive content analysis was used to analyze the focus group interviews. All focus groups were coded by 2 research team members and discrepancies were reconciled. Themes were developed based on the data. Teens had a mean age of 17.39 (SD = 0.52), mean length of licensure of 173.7 days (SD = 109.2; range 4-364), were 50% male and predominately white (90%) and non-Hispanic (97%). From the focus group data, 3 major themes emerged: (1) Recognizing the danger but still engaging; (2) Considering context; and (3) Formulating safer behaviors that might reduce risk. Despite recognizing that handheld cell phone use, texting, and social media app use are dangerous and distracting while driving, teens and their peers often engaged in these behaviors. Teens described how the context of the situation contributed to whether a teen would place or answer a call, write or respond to a text, or use a social media app. Teens identified ways in which they controlled their behaviors, although some still drew

  4. Effects of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Signal Exposure on Brain Glucos Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Vaska, P.; Fowler, J.S.; Telang, F.; Alexoff, D.; Logan, J.; Wong, C.

    2011-03-01

    The dramatic increase in use of cellular telephones has generated concern about possible negative effects of radiofrequency signals delivered to the brain. However, whether acute cell phone exposure affects the human brain is unclear. To evaluate if acute cell phone exposure affects brain glucose metabolism, a marker of brain activity. Randomized crossover study conducted between January 1 and December 31, 2009, at a single US laboratory among 47 healthy participants recruited from the community. Cell phones were placed on the left and right ears and positron emission tomography with ({sup 18}F)fluorodeoxyglucose injection was used to measure brain glucose metabolism twice, once with the right cell phone activated (sound muted) for 50 minutes ('on' condition) and once with both cell phones deactivated ('off' condition). Statistical parametric mapping was used to compare metabolism between on and off conditions using paired t tests, and Pearson linear correlations were used to verify the association of metabolism and estimated amplitude of radiofrequency-modulated electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phone. Clusters with at least 1000 voxels (volume >8 cm{sup 3}) and P < .05 (corrected for multiple comparisons) were considered significant. Brain glucose metabolism computed as absolute metabolism ({micro}mol/100 g per minute) and as normalized metabolism (region/whole brain). Whole-brain metabolism did not differ between on and off conditions. In contrast, metabolism in the region closest to the antenna (orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole) was significantly higher for on than off conditions (35.7 vs 33.3 {micro}mol/100 g per minute; mean difference, 2.4 [95% confidence interval, 0.67-4.2]; P = .004). The increases were significantly correlated with the estimated electromagnetic field amplitudes both for absolute metabolism (R = 0.95, P < .001) and normalized metabolism (R = 0.89; P < .001). In healthy participants and compared with no

  5. Performance Analysis of Cell-Phone Worm Spreading in Cellular Networks through Opportunistic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHUI, W.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Worms spreading directly between cell-phones over short-range radio (Bluetooth, WiFi, etc. are increasing rapidly. Communication by these technologies is opportunistic and has very close relation with the social characteristics of the phone carriers. In this paper, we try to evaluate the impact of different characteristics on the spreading performance of worms. On the other hand, the behaviors of worms may have certain impact, too. For example, worms may make phones be completely dysfunctional and these phones can be seen as killed. We study the impact of the killing speed. Using the Markov model, we propose some theoretical models to evaluate the spreading performance in different cases. Simulation results show the accuracy of our models. Numerical results show that if users do not believe the data coming from others easily, the worms may bring less damage. Surprisingly, if the users are more willing to install the anti-virus software, the worms may bring bigger damage when the software becomes to be outdated with high probability. Though the worms can bring big damage on the network temporarily by killing phones rapidly, numerical results show that this behavior may decrease the total damage in the long time. Therefore, killing nodes more rapidly may be not optimal for worms.

  6. Cell Phone Ownership and Service Plans Among Low-Income Smokers: The Hidden Cost of Quitlines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, Steven L; Rosner, June-Marie; Toll, Benjamin

    2016-08-01

    Quitlines (QLs) are free, effective sources of treatment for tobacco dependence. Although the QL number is toll-free, the use of cell phones as the sole source of telephony may impose an unintended cost, in terms of cell minutes. To quantify the use of cell-only telephony among self-pay or Medicaid smokers, assess their calling plans, and estimate the impact of a typical course of QL counseling. A survey of smokers age at least 18 years visiting an American urban emergency department from April to July, 2013. Seven-hundred seventy-three smokers were surveyed, of whom 563 (72.8%) were low-income, defined as having Medicaid or no insurance. All low-income smokers had at least one phone: 48 (8.5%) reported land-lines only, 159 (28.2%) land-lines and cells, and 356 (63.2%) cells only. Of the cell phone owners, monthly calling plans provided unlimited minutes for 339/515 (65.8%), at most 250 minutes for 124 (24.1%), and more than 250 minutes for 52 (10.0%). Another recent trial found that QL users make a median of 1 call lasting 28 minutes, with the 75th and 90th percentiles of calls and minutes at 3 and 4 calls, and 48 and 73.6 minutes, respectively. Thus, robust use of QL services could consume 11%-29% of a low-income smoker's typical 250 monthly cell minutes. Among low-income smokers, cell phones are often the sole telephone. Robust use of the QL may impose a substantial burden on low-income smokers' calling plans, and therefore deter use of the QL. Exempting calls to QLs from counting against smokers' plans may help promote QL utilization. Low-income individuals have high rates of smoking, and are more likely to own only cell phones, not landlines, for telephone access. Because cell phone calling plans often have limited numbers of monthly minutes, cell-only individuals may have to spend a substantial proportion of their monthly minutes on QL services. This may act as a deterrent to using an otherwise free, effective means of treatment for tobacco dependence

  7. Cell Phone-Based System (Chaak) for Surveillance of Immatures of Dengue Virus Mosquito Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    LOZANO–FUENTES, SAUL; WEDYAN, FADI; HERNANDEZ–GARCIA, EDGAR; SADHU, DEVADATTA; GHOSH, SUDIPTO; BIEMAN, JAMES M.; TEP-CHEL, DIANA; GARCÍA–REJÓN, JULIÁN E.; EISEN, LARS

    2014-01-01

    Capture of surveillance data on mobile devices and rapid transfer of such data from these devices into an electronic database or data management and decision support systems promote timely data analyses and public health response during disease outbreaks. Mobile data capture is used increasingly for malaria surveillance and holds great promise for surveillance of other neglected tropical diseases. We focused on mosquito-borne dengue, with the primary aims of: 1) developing and field-testing a cell phone-based system (called Chaak) for capture of data relating to the surveillance of the mosquito immature stages, and 2) assessing, in the dengue endemic setting of Mérida, México, the cost-effectiveness of this new technology versus paper-based data collection. Chaak includes a desktop component, where a manager selects premises to be surveyed for mosquito immatures, and a cell phone component, where the surveyor receives the assigned tasks and captures the data. Data collected on the cell phone can be transferred to a central database through different modes of transmission, including near-real time where data are transferred immediately (e.g., over the Internet) or by first storing data on the cell phone for future transmission. Spatial data are handled in a novel, semantically driven, geographic information system. Compared with a pen-and-paper-based method, use of Chaak improved the accuracy and increased the speed of data transcription into an electronic database. The cost-effectiveness of using the Chaak system will depend largely on the up-front cost of purchasing cell phones and the recurring cost of data transfer over a cellular network. PMID:23926788

  8. The use of cell phone network data in traffic data collection and long-haul truckshed (geographic extent) tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This study analyzed the potential of cell phone positioning techniques in freight truck data collection and long-haul : truckshed (geographic extent) tracking. Freight truck identification and tracking algorithms were developed by means of : cell pho...

  9. Surveillance study of bacterial contamination of the parent's cell phone in the NICU and the effectiveness of an anti-microbial gel in reducing transmission to the hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckstrom, A C; Cleman, P E; Cassis-Ghavami, F L; Kamitsuka, M D

    2013-12-01

    To determine the bacterial contamination rate of the parent's cell phone and the effectiveness of anti-microbial gel in reducing transmission of bacteria from cell phone to hands. Cross-sectional study of cultures from the cell phone and hands before and after applying anti-microbial gel (n=50). All cell phones demonstrated bacterial contamination. Ninety percent had the same bacteria on the cell phone and their cleaned hands. Twenty two percent had no growth on their hands after applying anti-microbial gel after they had the same bacteria on the cell phone and hands. Ninety-two percent of parents were aware that cell phones carried bacteria, but only 38% cleaned their cell phones at least weekly. Bacterial contamination of cell phones may serve as vectors for nosocomial infection in the neonatal intensive care unit. Bacteria transmitted from cell phone to hands may not be eliminated using anti-microbial gel. Development of hand hygiene and cell phone cleaning guidelines are needed regarding bedside cell phone use.

  10. Outdoor and indoor sources of residential radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, personal cell phone and cordless phone use, and cognitive function in 5-6 years old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Mònica; Vermeulen, Roel; van Eijsden, Manon; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van Strien, Rob T.; Kromhout, Hans; Huss, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the exposure of young children to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and potentially associated health effects. We assessed the relationship between residential RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations, residential presence of indoor sources, personal cell

  11. University Student's Perspectives on Using Cell Phones in Classrooms--Are They Dialing up Disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Mobile phones are one of the fastest growing technologies in this century all over the world and these devices are extremely influencing the adolescents. The present study was sought to establish students' views on cell phones usage in university classrooms in an educational district in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa. The study employed…

  12. Association between number of cell phone contracts and brain tumor incidence in nineteen U.S. States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehrer, Steven; Green, Sheryl; Stock, Richard G

    2011-02-01

    Some concern has arisen about adverse health effects of cell phones, especially the possibility that the low power microwave-frequency signal transmitted by the antennas on handsets might cause brain tumors or accelerate the growth of subclinical tumors. We analyzed data from the Statistical Report: Primary Brain Tumors in the United States, 2000-2004 and 2007 cell phone subscription data from the Governing State and Local Sourcebook. There was a significant correlation between number of cell phone subscriptions and brain tumors in nineteen US states (r = 0.950, P cell phone subscriptions and brain tumors could be due solely to the fact that some states, such as New York, have much larger populations than other states, such as North Dakota, multiple linear regression was performed with number of brain tumors as the dependent variable, cell phone subscriptions, population, mean family income and mean age as independent variables. The effect of cell phone subscriptions was significant (P = 0.017), and independent of the effect of mean family income (P = 0.894), population (P = 0.003) and age (0.499). The very linear relationship between cell phone usage and brain tumor incidence is disturbing and certainly needs further epidemiological evaluation. In the meantime, it would be prudent to limit exposure to all sources of electro-magnetic radiation.

  13. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Trends in Scientific Literature on Addiction to the Internet, Video Games, and Cell Phones from 2006 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Xavier; Guardiola, Elena; Fuster, Héctor; Gil, Frederic; Panova, Tayana

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the present work were to retrieve the scientific articles published on addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to analyze the pattern of publications in this area (who is doing the research, when and where it is taking place, and in which journals it is being published), to determine the research being conducted as well as to document geographical trends in publication over time in three types of technological addictions: Internet, cell phones, and video games. Articles indexed in PubMed and PsycINFO between 2006 and 2010 related to the pathological use of Internet, cell phones, and video games were retrieved. Search results were reviewed to eliminate articles that were not relevant or were duplicates. Three hundred and thirty valid articles were retrieved from PubMed and PsycINFO from 2006 to 2010. Results were compared with those of 1996-2005. The year with the highest number of articles published was 2008 (n = 96). The most productive countries, in terms of number of articles published, were China (n = 67), the United States (n = 56), the United Kingdom (n = 47), and Taiwan (n = 33). The most commonly used language was English (70.3%), followed by Chinese (15.4%). Articles were published in 153 different journals. The journal that published the most articles was Cyberpsychology and Behavior (n = 73), followed by Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology (n = 27) and International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction (n = 16). Internet was the area most frequently studied, with an increasing interest in other areas such as online video games and cell phones. The number of publications on technological addictions reached a peak in 2008. The scientific contributions of China, Taiwan, and Korea are overrepresented compared to other scientific fields such as drug addiction. The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5(th) Edition could change the publication trends in the

  15. Cell phone-supported cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders: a protocol for effectiveness studies in frontline settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fröberg Anders

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT for anxiety disorders have reported large pre- to post-treatment within-group effect sizes on measures of anxiety when supplied in therapist consultations and in technology-supported settings. However, the stringent experimental control of RCTs results in a lack of external validity, which limits the generalizability of findings to real-world frontline clinical practice. We set out to examine the specification of a protocol for study of the effectiveness of cell phone-supported CBT for in situ management of anxiety disorders. Methods and design Nominal group methods were used for requirements analysis and protocol design. Making a distinction between different forms of technology-supported therapy, examination of therapists' role, and implementing trials in existing organizational and community contexts were found to be the central requirements in the protocol. Discussion The resulting protocol (NCT01205191 at clinicaltrials.gov for use in frontline clinical practice in which effectiveness, adherence, and the role of the therapists are analyzed, provides evidence for what are truly valuable cell phone-supported CBT treatments and guidance for the broader introduction of CBT in health services.

  16. Concurrent validity and reliability of the Simple Goniometer iPhone app compared with the Universal Goniometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Anne; Sealey, Rebecca; Crowe, Michael; Gordon, Susan

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the concurrent validity and reliability of the Simple Goniometer (SG) iPhone® app compared to the Universal Goniometer (UG). Within subject comparison design comparing the UG with the SG app. James Cook University, Townsville, Queensland, Australia. Thirty-six volunteer participants, with a mean age of 60.6 years (SD 6.2). Not applicable. Thirty-six participants performed three standing lunges during which the knee joint angle was measured with the SG app and the UG. There were no significant differences in the measures of individual knee joint angles between the UG and the SG app. Pearson correlations of 0.96-0.98 and intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.97-0.99 (95% confidence interval: 0.95-1.00) were recorded for all measures. Using the Bland-Altman method, the standard error of the mean of the differences and the standard deviation of the mean of the differences were low. The measurements from the SG iPhone® app were reliable and possessed concurrent validity for this sample and protocol when compared to the UG.

  17. Women's adult romantic attachment style and communication by cell phone with romantic partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskirch, Robert S

    2012-08-01

    Cell phones have become important communication media for individuals in romantic relationships. The frequency of and methods used for communication may vary by adults' style of romantic attachment. Female university students (N = 31) currently in romantic relationships responded to a questionnaire. They estimated the frequency of calls and text messages received from and made to their romantic partners and completed the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised instrument, a measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance. Also, the participants reviewed their cell phones' memories and provided accurate frequency of communication to and from the romantic partner. Attachment anxiety was associated with more estimated text messages sent to and received from the romantic partners and actual text messages sent to and received from the romantic partners. Attachment avoidance was associated (r = -.38) with fewer estimated calls made to the romantic partners and fewer actual calls made to the romantic partners (r = -.34).

  18. Integrating cell phones and mobile technologies into public health practice: a social marketing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Craig

    2009-10-01

    Mobile communications are being used for many purposes, from instant messaging (IM), mobile or microblogging (Twitter), social networking sites (Facebook, MySpace), e-mail to basic voicemail. A brief background on cell phone and mobile technology use in public health is reviewed. The focus of the article is framing the use of mobile technologies in public health from a social marketer's perspective--using the 4 Ps marketing mix as a guide.

  19. Qualitative Case Study on Cell Phone Appropriation for Language Learning Purposes in a Dominican Context

    OpenAIRE

    Martiz, Gisela

    2015-01-01

    This research study investigated how a Dominican English language teacher and her students appropriated cell phone features for educational purposes inside and outside the classroom. The dissertation used a qualitative approach that focused on the teacher, and four students selected from a class of 23. Data collection took place for 8 weeks in an English language center located at a public university in the Dominican Republic in the summer of 2014. I collected data through interviews, convers...

  20. 77 FR 4334 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Solar Cell: A Mobile UV Manager for Smart Phones (NCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... produce, deploy, and evaluate the effectiveness of a state-of-the-art software application for smart phones (i.e., mobile application), ``Solar Cell.'' This software application supports decision-making...

  1. 77 FR 22331 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Solar Cell: A Mobile UV Manager for Smart Phones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... effectiveness of a state-of-the-art software application for smart phones (i.e., mobile application), ``Solar Cell.'' This software application supports decision-making related to sun protection and exposure by...

  2. Location Dependency and Antenna/Body/Sensor-Lead Interaction Effects in a Cell-Phone Based GSM 1800 Telemedicine Link

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Troulis, S

    2001-01-01

    The error-free requirement of today's cell-phone based telemedicine systems demands investigations into the potential causes of service degradation, Measuring the Received Signal Strength Indication (RSSI...

  3. Influence of Cell Phone Waves on the Performance of HPGe Detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, N.A.; Hassan, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Hand phone mobile waves search systems, constructed with high resolution germanium (HPGe) detectors, are currently being installed at locations worldwide. This reflects a general desire for improved performance and a reduction in the time to make a good decision in interdiction cases. An integrated gamma-ray spectrometer, incorporating a mechanically-cooled HPGe detector, digital signal processing electronics, MCA, and communications has been developed to meet the detection and environmental needs of these systems. The HPGe detectors are designed to have good low- and medium-energy detection efficiency and excellent spectral peak resolution in order to eliminate peak overlaps and thereby remove problems by common industrial and medical radionuclides found in all types of hand phone mobile. Systems using detectors with inferior resolution, regardless of efficiency, are unable to separate the radiation signals from NORM and illicit nuclides. The absolute full-energy peak efficiency of the detector and background count-rate in the peak energy region determine the signal-to-noise ratio. Measurements presented show the impact of shielding and masking on the performance of the hand phone mobile. The results illustrate applicability of the design to a variety of monitoring situations for the detection of illicit material. In the present work we studied the effects of different types of hand phone waves on the performance of 70% HPGe X and Gamma-ray detector. The detected interference has an energy range 30-100 keV. A correction battues was estimated as a function of time verses cell phone type.The measurement quality of the measurer gamma-spectra can be corrected at low X-ray region. The effect of these waves was also studied on the performance of the main detector amplifier. The results were obtained for Etesalat, Vodafone and Mobinile stations. The introduced method can be simulated for other devices having the same interference effect.

  4. Using a cell phone-based glucose monitoring system for adolescent diabetes management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Aaron E; DiMeglio, Linda A; Stein, Stephanie; Marrero, David G

    2011-01-01

    Mobile technology may be useful in addressing several issues in adolescent diabetes management. To assess the feasibility and acceptability of a cell phone glucose monitoring system for adolescents with type 1 diabetes and their parents. The authors recruited patients with type 1 diabetes who had been diagnosed for at least 1 year. Each adolescent used the system for 6 months, filling out surveys every 3 months to measure their usability and satisfaction with the cell phone glucose monitoring system, as well as how use of the system might affect quality of family functioning and diabetes management. Adolescents reported positive feelings about the technology and the service, even though a concerning number of them had significant technical issues that affected continued use of the device. Nearly all thought that the clinic involvement in monitoring testing behavior was quite acceptable. The use of the Glucophone™ did not, however, significantly change the quality of life of the adolescents, their level of conflict with their parents, their reported self-management of diabetes, or their average glycemic control within the short time frame of the study. As a feasibility study of the technology, this work was successful in demonstrating that cell phone glucose monitoring technology can be used in an adolescent population to track and assist in self-monitoring behavior. The authors speculate that explicitly attempting to change behavior, perhaps with the use of behavioral contracts, would enhance the technology's ability to improve outcomes.

  5. Digital Devices, Distraction and Student Performance - Does Cell Phone Use Reduce Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Douglas K.; Hoekstra, A. R.; Wilcox, B. R.

    2012-01-01

    The recent increase in the use of digital devices such as laptop computers, iPads and web-enabled cell phones has generated concern about how technologies affect student performance. Combining observation, survey, and interview data, this research assesses the effects of technology use for student attitudes and learning. Data were gathered in eight introductory science courses at one large public university in 2010-2011. Results show a significant negative correlation between in-class cell phone use and overall course grades, corresponding to a drop of 0.36 ± 0.08 on a 4-point scale where 4.0 = A. These findings are consistent with recent research[1] suggesting students cannot multi-task nearly as effectively as they think they can. While 75% of students reported regular cell phone use, observation data suggests undergraduates typically under-report the frequency of in-class digital device use. [1] Ophir, E., Nass, C. and A.D. Wagner. 2009. "Cognitive Control in Media Multi-Taskers.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106: 15583-15587.

  6. Predictors of Cell Phone Use in Distracted Driving: Extending the Theory of Planned Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yan; Robinson, James D

    2017-09-01

    This study examines the predictors of six distracted driving behaviors, and the survey data partially support Ajzen's (1991) Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The data suggest that the attitude variable predicted intention to engage in all six distracted driving behaviors (reading and sending text messages, making and answering cell phone calls, reading/viewing social media, and posting on social media while driving). Extending the model to include past experience and the variable perceived safety of technology yielded an improvement in the prediction of the distraction variables. Specifically, past experience predicted all six distracted driving behaviors, and the variable perceived safety of technology predicted intentions to read/view social media and intention to post on social media while driving. The study provides evidence for the importance of incorporating expanded variables into the original TPB model to predict cell phone use behaviors while driving, and it suggests that it is essential to tailor campaign materials for each specific cell phone use behavior to reduce distracted driving.

  7. Effects of cell phone use on semen parameters: Results from the MARHCS cohort study in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guowei; Yan, Huan; Chen, Qing; Liu, Kaijun; Ling, Xi; Sun, Lei; Zhou, Niya; Wang, Zhi; Zou, Peng; Wang, Xiaogang; Tan, Lu; Cui, Zhihong; Zhou, Ziyuan; Liu, Jinyi; Ao, Lin; Cao, Jia

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence for detrimental effects of cell phone use on semen quality is still equivocal. And that recruiting participants from infertility clinic not from general population may raise the possibility of a selection bias. To investigate effects of cell phone use on semen parameters in a general population,We screened and documented the cell phone use information of 794 young men from the Male Reproductive Health in Chongqing College students (MARHCS) cohort study in 2013, followed by 666 and 568 in 2014 and 2015, respectively. In the univariate regression analyses, we found that the daily duration of talking on the cell phone was significantly associated with decreased semen parameters, including sperm concentration [β coefficient=-6.32% per unit daily duration of talking on the cell phone (h); 95% confidence interval (CI), -11.94, -0.34] and total sperm count (-8.23; 95% CI, -14.38, -1.63) in 2013; semen volume (-8.37; 95% CI, -15.93, -0.13) and total sperm count (-16.59; 95% CI, -29.91, -0.73) in 2015]. Internet use via cellular networks was also associated with decreased sperm concentration and total sperm counts in 2013 and decreased semen volume in 2015. Multivariate analyses were used to adjust for the effects of potential confounders, and significant negative associations between internet use and semen parameters remained. Consistent but nonsignificant negative associations between talking on the cell phone and semen parameters persisted throughout the three study years, and the negative association was statistically significant in a mixed model that considered all three years of data on talking on the cell phone and semen quality. Our results showed that certain aspects of cell phone use may negatively affect sperm quality in men by decreasing the semen volume, sperm concentration, or sperm count, thus impairing male fertility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sleep Quality in Medical Students; the Impact of Over-Use of Mobile Cell-Phone and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadbeigi, Abolfazl; Absari, Rozita; Valizadeh, Farzaneh; Saadati, Mohammadreza; Sharifimoghadam, Soroush; Ahmadi, Ali; Mokhtari, Mohsen; Ansari, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Poor sleep quality is closely associated with lifestyle habits including use of mobile cell-phones.This study aimed to identify the relationship between sleep quality due to abuse in mobile cell-phones and engagement in social networks. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 380 undergraduate students selected by proportional stratified sampling in Qom, Iran in 2015. Data were collected by two standard questionnaire including Cell-Phone Over-Use Scale (COS) and Pittsburgh sleep quality questionnaire beside the status of usage in cell-phone social networks. T-test, chi-square, Pearson correlation coefficient and multivariate logistic regression were used in data analysis. The mean age of participants was 21.8 ±3.2 yr, 69.1% were female, and 11.7% were married. The mean of COS and sleep quality scores were 48.18 ±17.5 and 5.38 ±2.31, respectively. The prevalence of over-use of cell phone was 10.7% (CI 0.95; 8.8%, 12.6%) and the prevalence of poor sleep quality was 61.7% (CI 0.95; 57.1%, 66.3%). The mean of all aspects and total score of sleep quality showed a direct significant association by cell-phone addiction score except sleep duration score that was inversely. Based on multivariate analysis affected to cell-phone addiction, being male gender and studying in general physician level are the most important predictors of poor sleep quality. Over use of internet and social networks via smart phones is related to poor sleep quality and quantity. Predefined sport programs, educational, cultural, and interesting entertainment are the essential needs for all medical students. These interventions are more important especially for male students who have longer educational.

  9. Parenting by cell phone: parental monitoring of adolescents and family relations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskirch, Robert S

    2009-09-01

    Cellular phones provide a means for parents to monitor and request information about whereabouts, associates, and current activities from adolescents. Simultaneously, adolescents can communicate with parents to inform them of activities and to solicit support or they can also choose to nondisclose. The frequency, duration, and nature of calls may relate to parents' and to adolescents' perceptions of truthfulness and family relationships. 196 dyads (13% father-son, 11% father-daughter, 30% mother-son, and 46% mother-daughter) completed a questionnaire indicating cell phone use, their truthfulness of activities, the nature of their calls to one another, and family relationships. The parents were, on average, 45.38 years old (SD = 6.35) and were 83% Euroamerican, 9% Asian American, 3% Latino, 3% African American, 2% Mixed ethnicity, and 1% American Indian. The adolescents were, on average, 16.25 years old (SD = 1.17) and were 77% Euroamerican, 9% Asian American, 4% Latino, 3% African American, 8% Mixed ethnicity, and .5% American Indian. Correlational analyses revealed that parents who called more frequently reported less truthfulness when speaking to their adolescents via cell phone. Greater frequency in parental calls also was associated with less adolescent-reported truthfulness. From multiple regression analyses, for parents, calls when upset were associated with less parental knowledge and poorer family relations. For adolescents, the same was true; however, adolescents who made calls seeking social support and to ask and confer with parents reported greater perceived parental knowledge and better family relationships.

  10. Cell Phone Use While Driving: Prospective Association with Emerging Adult Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Neha; Haynie, Denise; Bible, Joe; Liu, Danping; Simons-Morton, Bruce

    2017-09-01

    Secondary task engagement such as cell phone use while driving is a common behavior among adolescents and emerging adults. Texting and other distracting cell phone use in this population contributes to the high rate of fatal car crashes. Peer engagement in similar risky driving behaviors, such as texting, could socially influence driver phone use behavior. The present study investigates the prospective association between peer and emerging adult texting while driving the first year after high school. Surveys were conducted with a national sample of emerging adults and their nominated peers. Binomial logistic regression analyses, adjusting for gender, race/ethnicity, parental education, and family affluence, showed that participants (n=212) with peers (n=675) who reported frequently texting while driving, were significantly more likely to text while driving the following year (odds ratio, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.19-7.59; P=0.05). The findings are consistent with the idea that peer texting behavior influences the prevalence of texting while driving among emerging adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Please silence your cell phone: Your ringtone captures other people′s attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P Röer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ringtones are designed to draw attention away from on-going activities. In the present study, it was investigated whether the disruptive effects of a ringing cell phone on short-term memory are inevitable or become smaller as a function of exposure and whether (self- relevance plays a role. Participants performed a serial recall task either in silence or while task-irrelevant ringtones were presented. Performance was worse when a ringing phone had to be ignored, but gradually recovered compared with the quiet control condition with repeated presentation of the distractor sound. Whether the participant′s own ringtone was played or that of a yoked-control partner did not affect performance and habituation rate. The results offer insight into auditory distraction by highly attention-demanding distractors and recovery therefrom. Implications for work environments and other applied settings are discussed.

  12. Managed access technology to combat contraband cell phones in prison: Findings from a process evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grommon, Eric

    2018-02-01

    Cell phones in correctional facilities have emerged as one of the most pervasive forms of modern contraband. This issue has been identified as a top priority for many correctional administrators in the United States. Managed access, a technology that utilizes cellular signals to capture transmissions from contraband phones, has received notable attention as a promising tool to combat this problem. However, this technology has received little evaluative attention. The present study offers a foundational process evaluation and draws upon output measures and stakeholder interviews to identify salient operational challenges and subsequent lessons learned about implementing and maintaining a managed access system. Findings suggest that while managed access captures large volumes of contraband cellular transmissions, the technology requires significant implementation planning, personnel support, and complex partnerships with commercial cellular carriers. Lessons learned provide guidance for practitioners to navigate these challenges and for scholars to improve future evaluations of managed access. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. In-person contact begets calling and texting: interpersonal motives for cell phone use, face-to-face interaction, and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Borae; Park, Namkee

    2010-12-01

    This study examined how cell-phone use is related to interpersonal motives for using cell phones, face-to-face communication, and loneliness. A survey of 232 college students who owned a cell phone revealed that affection and inclusion were relatively strong motivations for using voice calls and text messaging, and that interpersonal motives were positively related to the amount of cell-phone use, including calling and texting. The amount of face-to-face interaction was positively associated with the participants' cell-phone use and their interpersonal motives for using cell phones: the more the participants engaged in face-to-face interaction with other people, the higher their motives were and the more frequent cell-phone use was. Loneliness did not have a direct relation to cell-phone use. Instead, the participants with higher levels of loneliness were less likely to engage in face-to-face social interaction, which led them to use cell phones less and to be less motivated to use cell phones for interpersonal purposes.

  14. “Turn Your Cell Phones on”: Mobile Phone Polling as a Tool for Teaching Information Literacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andy Burkhardt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available While mobile technologies are ubiquitous among students and increasingly used in many aspects of libraries, they have yet to gain traction in information literacy instruction. Librarians at Champlain College piloted mobile phone polling in a first-year classroom as a less expensive and more versatile alternative to clickers. By utilizing a technology that virtually all students have in their pockets librarians found that it increased engagement from previous iterations of the session. In addition, by asking poll questions about students’ experiences, librarians were able to facilitate in-depth inquiry into information literacy topics. Ultimately, from direct experience in over 30 different classes, we found that mobile phone polling is a useful tool for any librarian to have in their pedagogical toolbox.

  15. Microwaves from Mobile Phones Inhibit 53BP1 Focus Formation in Human Stem Cells More Strongly Than in Differentiated Cells: Possible Mechanistic Link to Cancer Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovà, Eva; Malmgren, Lars O G; Belyaev, Igor Y

    2010-03-01

    It is widely accepted that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and their misrepair in stem cells are critical events in the multistage origination of various leukemias and tumors, including gliomas. We studied whether microwaves from mobile telephones of the Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) and the Universal Global Telecommunications System (UMTS) induce DSBs or affect DSB repair in stem cells. We analyzed tumor suppressor TP53 binding protein 1 (53BP1) foci that are typically formed at the sites of DSB location (referred to as DNA repair foci) by laser confocal microscopy. Microwaves from mobile phones inhibited formation of 53BP1 foci in human primary fibroblasts and mesenchymal stem cells. These data parallel our previous findings for human lymphocytes. Importantly, the same GSM carrier frequency (915 MHz) and UMTS frequency band (1947.4 MHz) were effective for all cell types. Exposure at 905 MHz did not inhibit 53BP1 foci in differentiated cells, either fibroblasts or lymphocytes, whereas some effects were seen in stem cells at 905 MHz. Contrary to fibroblasts, stem cells did not adapt to chronic exposure during 2 weeks. The strongest microwave effects were always observed in stem cells. This result may suggest both significant misbalance in DSB repair and severe stress response. Our findings that stem cells are most sensitive to microwave exposure and react to more frequencies than do differentiated cells may be important for cancer risk assessment and indicate that stem cells are the most relevant cellular model for validating safe mobile communication signals.

  16. The Distracting Effects of a Ringing Cell Phone: An Investigation of the Laboratory and the Classroom Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelton, Jill T; Elliott, Emily M; Lynn, Sharon D; Exner, Amanda L

    2009-12-01

    The detrimental effects of a ringing phone on cognitive performance were investigated in four experiments. In Experiments 1 and 2, the effects of different types of sounds (a standard cell phone ring, irrelevant tones and an instrumental song commonly encountered by participants) on performance were examined. In Experiment 1, slower responses were observed in all auditory groups relative to a silence condition, but participants in the ring and song conditions recovered more slowly. In Experiment 2, participants who were warned about the potential for distraction recovered more quickly, suggesting a benefit of this prior knowledge. This investigation continued in a college classroom setting (Experiments 3a and 3b); students were exposed to a ringing cell phone during the lecture. Performance on a surprise quiz revealed low accuracy rates on material presented while the phone was ringing. These findings offer insight into top-down cognitive processes that moderate involuntary orienting responses associated with a common stimulus encountered in the environment.

  17. The HAART cell phone adherence trial (WelTel Kenya1: a randomized controlled trial protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ball T Blake

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objectives are to compare the effectiveness of cell phone-supported SMS messaging to standard care on adherence, quality of life, retention, and mortality in a population receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART in Nairobi, Kenya. Methods and Design A multi-site randomized controlled open-label trial. A central randomization centre provided opaque envelopes to allocate treatments. Patients initiating ART at three comprehensive care clinics in Kenya will be randomized to receive either a structured weekly SMS ('short message system' or text message slogan (the intervention or current standard of care support mechanisms alone (the control. Our hypothesis is that using a structured mobile phone protocol to keep in touch with patients will improve adherence to ART and other patient outcomes. Participants are evaluated at baseline, and then at six and twelve months after initiating ART. The care providers keep a weekly study log of all phone based communications with study participants. Primary outcomes are self-reported adherence to ART and suppression of HIV viral load at twelve months scheduled follow-up. Secondary outcomes are improvements in health, quality of life, social and economic factors, and retention on ART. Primary analysis is by 'intention-to-treat'. Sensitivity analysis will be used to assess per-protocol effects. Analysis of covariates will be undertaken to determine factors that contribute or deter from expected and determined outcomes. Discussion This study protocol tests whether a novel structured mobile phone intervention can positively contribute to ART management in a resource-limited setting. Trial Registration Trial Registration Number: NCT00830622

  18. Long-term recall accuracy for mobile phone calls in young Japanese people: A follow-up validation study using software-modified phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyohara, Kosuke; Wake, Kanako; Watanabe, Soichi; Arima, Takuji; Sato, Yasuto; Kojimahara, Noriko; Taki, Masao; Cardis, Elisabeth; Yamaguchi, Naohito

    2018-03-01

    This study examined changes in recall accuracy for mobile phone calls over a long period. Japanese students' actual call statuses were monitored for 1 month using software-modified phones (SMPs). Three face-to-face interviews were conducted to obtain information regarding self-reported call status during the monitoring period: first interview: immediately after the monitoring period; second interview: after 10-12 months; third interview: after 48-55 months. Using the SMP records as the "gold standard", phone call recall accuracy was assessed for each interview. Data for 94 participants were analyzed. The number of calls made was underestimated considerably and the duration of calls was overestimated slightly in all interviews. Agreement between self-report and SMP records regarding the number of calls, duration of calls and laterality (i.e., use of the dominant ear while making calls) gradually deteriorated with the increase in the interval following the monitoring period (number of calls: first interview: Pearson's r=0.641, third interview: 0.396; duration of calls: first interview: Pearson's r=0.763, third interview: 0.356; laterality: first interview: weighted-κ=0.677, third interview: 0.448). Thus, recall accuracy for mobile phone calls would be consistently imperfect over a long period, and the results of related epidemiological studies should be interpreted carefully.

  19. Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Environmental Protection Agency Federal Communications Commission Occupational Safety and Health Administration National Telecommunications and Information Administration Federal Communications Commission ...

  20. The relationship between cell phone use and management of driver fatigue: It's complicated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxby, Dyani Juanita; Matthews, Gerald; Neubauer, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    Voice communication may enhance performance during monotonous, potentially fatiguing driving conditions (Atchley & Chan, 2011); however, it is unclear whether safety benefits of conversation are outweighed by costs. The present study tested whether personalized conversations intended to simulate hands-free cell phone conversation may counter objective and subjective fatigue effects elicited by vehicle automation. A passive fatigue state (Desmond & Hancock, 2001), characterized by disengagement from the task, was induced using full vehicle automation prior to drivers resuming full control over the driving simulator. A conversation was initiated shortly after reversion to manual control. During the conversation an emergency event occurred. The fatigue manipulation produced greater task disengagement and slower response to the emergency event, relative to a control condition. Conversation did not mitigate passive fatigue effects; rather, it added worry about matters unrelated to the driving task. Conversation moderately improved vehicle control, as measured by SDLP, but it failed to counter fatigue-induced slowing of braking in response to an emergency event. Finally, conversation appeared to have a hidden danger in that it reduced drivers' insights into performance impairments when in a state of passive fatigue. Automation induced passive fatigue, indicated by loss of task engagement; yet, simulated cell phone conversation did not counter the subjective automation-induced fatigue. Conversation also failed to counter objective loss of performance (slower braking speed) resulting from automation. Cell phone conversation in passive fatigue states may impair drivers' awareness of their performance deficits. Practical applications: Results suggest that conversation, even using a hands-free device, may not be a safe way to reduce fatigue and increase alertness during transitions from automated to manual vehicle control. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety

  1. Characterizing Air Pollution Exposure Misclassification Errors Using Detailed Cell Phone Location Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, H.; Russell, A. G.; Mulholland, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    In air pollution epidemiologic studies with spatially resolved air pollution data, exposures are often estimated using the home locations of individual subjects. Due primarily to lack of data or logistic difficulties, the spatiotemporal mobility of subjects are mostly neglected, which are expected to result in exposure misclassification errors. In this study, we applied detailed cell phone location data to characterize potential exposure misclassification errors associated with home-based exposure estimation of air pollution. The cell phone data sample consists of 9,886 unique simcard IDs collected on one mid-week day in October, 2013 from Shenzhen, China. The Community Multi-scale Air Quality model was used to simulate hourly ambient concentrations of six chosen pollutants at 3 km spatial resolution, which were then fused with observational data to correct for potential modeling biases and errors. Air pollution exposure for each simcard ID was estimated by matching hourly pollutant concentrations with detailed location data for corresponding IDs. Finally, the results were compared with exposure estimates obtained using the home location method to assess potential exposure misclassification errors. Our results show that the home-based method is likely to have substantial exposure misclassification errors, over-estimating exposures for subjects with higher exposure levels and under-estimating exposures for those with lower exposure levels. This has the potential to lead to a bias-to-the-null in the health effect estimates. Our findings suggest that the use of cell phone data has the potential for improving the characterization of exposure and exposure misclassification in air pollution epidemiology studies.

  2. Motorcycles, Cell Phones, and Electricity Can Dramatically Change the Epidemiology of Infectious Disease in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Sokhna, Cheikh; Raoult, Didier

    2017-05-01

    AbstractSome observations and recent publications demonstrated, particularly in Africa, the potential influence that low-cost motorcycles, cell phones, and even widespread electrification could have on the evolution of infectious diseases, particularly zoonoses. Our reflections support the conclusion that we should focus on the real-time surveillance systems including alerting systems leading to a rapid and flexible response rather than the strongly limited modeling of infectious diseases because of the continuous evolution of microorganisms, as well as changes in the environment and human habits that are unpredictable.

  3. Connectivity in Later Life: The Declining Age Divide in Mobile Cell Phone Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Gilleard; Ian Jones; Paul Higgs

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades changes in social connectivity have become key features in the changing contexts of later life. Communities of propinquity no longer seem to be as determining of social relationships as they once were. Mobile cell phone technology and the Internet have redefined what it means to ‘keep in touch’. Some authors have argued that these new forms of connectivity have created a ‘digital divide’ between those who have become active adopters of these technologies and those wh...

  4. Evaluating the use of cell phone messaging for community Ebola syndromic surveillance in high risked settings in Southern Sierra Leone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Kangbai; Mohamed, Koroma

    2015-09-01

    Most underdeveloped countries do not meet core disease outbreak surveillance because of the lack of human resources, laboratory and infrastructural facilities. The use of cell phone technology for disease outbreak syndromic surveillance is a new phenomenon in Sierra Leone despite its successes in other developing countries like Sri Lanka. In this study we set to evaluate the effectiveness of using cell phone technology for Ebola hemorrhagic fever syndromic surveillance in a high risked community in Sierra Leone. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using cell phone messaging (text and calls) for community Ebola hemorrhagic fever syndromic surveillance in high risked community in southern Sierra Leone. All cell phone syndromic surveillance data used for this study was reported as cell phone alert messages-texts and voice calls; by the Moyamba District Health Management Team for both Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect and mortalities. We conducted a longitudinal data analysis of the monthly cumulative confirmed Ebola hemorrhagic fever cases and mortalities collected by both the traditional sentinel and community cell phone syndromic surveillance from August 2014 to October 2014. A total of 129 and 49 Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect and confirmed cases respectively were recorded using the community Ebola syndromic surveillance cell phone alert system by the Moyamba District Health Management Team in October 2014. The average number of Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspects and confirmed cases for October 2014 were 4.16 (Std.dev 3.76) and 1.58 (Std.dev 1.43) respectively. Thirty-four percent (n=76) of the community Ebola syndromic surveillance cell phone alerts that were followed-up within 24 hours reported Ebola hemorrhagic fever suspect cases while 65.92% (n=147) reported mortality. Our study suggests some form of underreporting by the traditional sentinel Ebola hemorrhagic fever disease surveillance system in Moyamba District southern Sierra Leone for August

  5. The incidence rate and mortality of malignant brain tumors after 10 years of intensive cell phone use in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Min-Huei; Syed-Abdul, Shabbir; Scholl, Jeremiah; Jian, Wen-Shan; Lee, Peisan; Iqbal, Usman; Li, Yu-Chuan

    2013-11-01

    The issue of whether cell phone usage can contribute toward the development of brain tumors has recently been reignited with the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifying radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as 'possibly' carcinogenic to humans in a WHO report. To our knowledge, this is the largest study reporting on the incidence and mortality of malignant brain tumors after long-term use of the cell phone by more than 23 million users. A population-based study was carried out the numbers of cell phone users were collected from the official statistics provided by the National Communication Commission. According to National Cancer Registry, there were 4 incidences and 4 deaths due to malignant neoplasms in Taiwan during the period 2000-2009. The 10 years of observational data show that the intensive user rate of cell phones has had no significant effect on the incidence rate or on the mortality of malignant brain tumors in Taiwan. In conclusion, we do not detect any correlation between the morbidity/mortality of malignant brain tumors and cell phone use in Taiwan. We thus urge international agencies to publish only confirmatory reports with more applicable conclusions in public. This will help spare the public from unnecessary worries.

  6. Self-reported neck symptoms and use of personal computers, laptops and cell phones among Finns aged 18-65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpinen, Leena; Pääkkönen, Rauno; Gobba, Fabriziomaria

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the possible relation between self-reported neck symptoms (aches, pain or numbness) and use of computers/cell phones. The study was carried out as a cross-sectional study by posting a questionnaire to 15,000 working-age persons, and 15.1% of all respondents (6121) reported that they very often experienced physical symptoms in the neck. The results showed that they also had many other symptoms very often, and 49% used a computer daily at work and 83.9% used cell phones. We compared physical/mental symptoms of persons with symptoms in the neck quite often or more, with others. We found significant differences in the physical/mental symptoms and use of cell phones and computers. The results suggest taking into account in the future that those persons' symptoms in the neck can be associated with use of cell phones or computers. We investigated the possible relation between neck symptoms and use of computers/cell phones. We found that persons, who very often had symptoms in the neck, had also other symptoms very often (e.g. exhaustion at work). Their use of information and communication technology (e.g. computers) can associate with their symptoms.

  7. Chatting in the face of the eyewitness: The impact of extraneous cell-phone conversation on memory for a perpetrator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, John E; Patel, Krupali; Labonté, Katherine; Threadgold, Emma; Skelton, Faye C; Fodarella, Cristina; Thorley, Rachel; Battersby, Kirsty L; Frowd, Charlie D; Ball, Linden J; Vachon, François

    2017-09-01

    Cell-phone conversation is ubiquitous within public spaces. The current study investigates whether ignored cell-phone conversation impairs eyewitness memory for a perpetrator. Participants viewed a video of a staged crime in the presence of 1 side of a comprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningful halfalogue), 2 sides of a comprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningful dialogue), 1 side of an incomprehensible cell-phone conversation (meaningless halfalogue), or quiet. Between 24 and 28 hr later, participants freely described the perpetrator's face, constructed a single composite image of the perpetrator from memory, and attempted to identify the perpetrator from a sequential lineup. Further, participants rated the likeness of the composites to the perpetrator. Face recall and lineup identification were impaired when participants witnessed the staged crime in the presence of a meaningful halfalogue compared to a meaningless halfalogue, meaningful dialogue, or quiet. Moreover, likeness ratings showed that the composites constructed after ignoring the meaningful halfalogue resembled the perpetrator less than did those constructed after experiencing quiet or ignoring a meaningless halfalogue or a meaningful dialogue. The unpredictability of the meaningful content of the halfalogue, rather than its acoustic unexpectedness, produces distraction. The results are novel in that they suggest that an everyday distraction, even when presented in a different modality to target information, can impair the long-term memory of an eyewitness. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  8. The Relationship Between Cell Phone Use and Academic Performance in a Sample of U.S. College Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Lepp

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cell phone is ever-present on college campuses and is frequently used in settings where learning occurs. This study assessed the relationship between cell phone use and actual college grade point average (GPA after controlling for known predictors. As such, 536 undergraduate students from 82 self-reported majors at a large, public university were sampled. A hierarchical regression (R2 = .449 demonstrated that cell phone use was significantly (p < .001 and negatively (β = −.164 related to actual college GPA after controlling for demographic variables, self-efficacy for self-regulated learning, self-efficacy for academic achievement, and actual high school GPA, which were all significant predictors (p < .05. Thus, after controlling for other established predictors, increased cell phone use was associated with decreased academic performance. Although more research is needed to identify the underlying mechanisms, findings suggest a need to sensitize students and educators about the potential academic risks associated with high-frequency cell phone use.

  9. The effect of cell phone use on postural balance and mobility in older compared to young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatar, Rabeb; Kachouri, Hiba; Borji, Rihab; Rebai, Haithem; Sahli, Sonia

    2017-05-01

    Cell phone use is considered as an essential part of everyday life saturating all age groups and demographics. This study aimed to explore the effect of various cell phone functions on postural control and mobility in the elderly. Twenty healthy older (mean age 72.5±2.9) and twenty young (26.3±2.8) adults participated in this study. Postural balance was assessed by measuring the center of pressure (CoP) displacement with (talking on a cell phone (CONVERSE), dialing a number (DIAL) and listening to music (MUSIC)) and without cell phone use. Mobility was assessed by the Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT). Results showed that for both groups, the CoP parameters increased significantly during the CONVERSE (pphone use impairs similarly standing postural balance of elderly and young adults. Interestingly, in the elderly, all cell phone functions used altered mobility with the dialing function causing the largest mobility deterioration. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Reliability and validity of goniometric iPhone applications for the assessment of active shoulder external rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Katy; Gutierrez, Simran Bakshi; Sutton, Stacy; Morton, Stephanie; Morgenthaler, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of two smartphone applications: (1) GetMyROM - inclinometery-based and (2) DrGoniometry - photo-based in the measurement of active shoulder external rotation (ER) as compared to standard goniometry (SG). Ninety-four Texas Woman's University Doctor of Physical Therapy students from the School of Physical Therapy - Houston campus, were recruited to participate in this study. Two iPhone applications were compared to SG using both novice and experienced raters. Active shoulder ER range of motion was measured over two time periods in random order by blinded novice and experienced raters. Intra-rater reliability using novice raters for the two applications ranged from an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.79 to 0.81 with SG at 0.82. Inter-rater reliability (novice/expert) for the two applications ranged from an ICC of 0.92 to 0.94 with SG at 0.91. Concurrent validity (when compared to SG) ranged from 0.93 to 0.94. There were no significant differences between the novice and experienced raters. Both applications were found to be reliable and comparable to SG. A photo-based application potentially offers a superior method of measurement as visualizing the landmarks may be simplified in this format and it provides a record of measurement. Further study using patient populations may find the two studied applications are useful as an adjunct for clinical practice.

  11. Development of a staff recall system for mass casualty incidents using cell phone text messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard H; Ekbatani, Ali; Kaplan, Javier; Shechter, Ronen; Grunwald, Zvi

    2010-03-01

    After a mass casualty incident (MCI), rapid mobilization of hospital personnel is required because of an expected surge of victims. Risk assessment of our department's manual phone tree recall system revealed multiple weaknesses that would limit an effective response. Because cell phone use is widespread within the department, we developed and tested a staff recall system, based in our anesthesia information management system (AIMS), using Short Message Service (SMS) text messaging. We sent test text messages to anesthesia staff members' cell phone numbers, determined the distance from their home to the hospital, and stored this information in our AIMS. Latency testing for the time from transmission of SMS test messages from the server to return of an e-mail reply was determined at 2 different times on 2 different dates, 1 of which was a busy holiday weekend, using volunteers within the department. Two unannounced simulated disaster recall drills were conducted, with text messages sent asking for the anticipated time to return to the hospital. A timeline of available staff on site was determined. Reasons for failure to respond to the disaster notification message were tabulated. Latency data were fit by a log-normal distribution with an average of 82 seconds from message transmission to e-mail reply. Replies to the simulated disaster alert were received from approximately 50% of staff, with 16 projecting that they would have been able to be back at the hospital within 30 minutes on both dates. There would have been 21 and 23 staff in-house at 30 minutes, and 32 and 37 staff in-house at 60 minutes on the first and second test date, respectively, including in-house staff. Of the nonresponders to the alert, 48% indicated that their cell phone was not with them or was turned off, whereas 22% missed the message. Our SMS staff recall system is likely to be able to rapidly mobilize sufficient numbers of anesthesia personnel in response to an MCI, but actual performance

  12. A randomized study of cell phone technology to reinforce alcohol abstinence in the natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alessi, Sheila M.; Petry, Nancy M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims Contingency management (CM) uses tangible incentives to systematically reinforce abstinence and is among the most efficacious psychosocial substance abuse treatments. This study assessed the feasibility and initial efficacy of a portable CM procedure designed to address technical limitations for detecting drinking that have prevented using CM for alcohol problems. Design Participants received a cell phone, breathalyzer, and training on video-recording alcohol breath tests (BrACs) and texting results. For 4 weeks, staff texted participants 1–3 times daily indicating a BrAC was due within the hour. Participants were randomized to (1) modest compensation for submitting dated time-stamped BrAC videos regardless of results or (2) the same plus CM with escalating vouchers for on-time alcohol-negative tests (n-BrAC; .5). Percent of n-BrACs and LDA were greater with CM, and there was an interaction effect on drinking frequency and negative consequences, with decreases over time with CM (p=.00; effect sizes d=.52 to .62). Conclusion Cell phone technology may be useful for extending CM to treatment for alcohol problems. PMID:23279560

  13. Cell phones and health concerns: impact of knowledge and voluntary precautionary recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2011-02-01

    The article explores how voluntary precautionary recommendations for cell phone usage influence people's health concerns and behavior. An experimental study using a sample of Swiss citizens (N=408) was conducted. Three different versions of a newly developed booklet, which focused on common misconceptions in regard to mobile communication, and an existing booklet were tested. The experimental design addressed questions of the potential effects of knowledge, precautionary recommendations, and sender identity on health concerns and transfer of the proposed recommendations. Participants' perceptions were measured three times: immediately before and after reading the booklet, and two weeks later. The reading of the booklets increased participants' knowledge considerably and led to perceptual changes. In regard to cell phones, health concerns increased after the reading and stayed at a higher level even after two weeks. The negative perception of base stations, in contrast, tended to decrease. Neither the identity of the sender nor the omission of precautionary recommendations had significant effects on health concerns. Provision of specific recommendations enhanced readers' behavioral changes. Confrontation with information per se, and not precautionary recommendations, influenced the public's health concerns. These changes should not prevent the provision of precautionary recommendations because, in the face of scientific uncertainty, these are the only means through which to enable users to make informed decisions. © 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. Quantitative Leaching of a Spent Cell Phone Printed Circuit Board by Hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alafara A. Baba

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a kinetic data on the hydrometallurgical recovery of some metal ions from a printed circuit board (PCB of a spent cell phone by hydrochloric acid leaching. The effects of acid concentration, temperature and particle diameter on the dissolution efficiency at various leaching time intervals were examined. The results of the leaching investigations showed that the powdered cell phone dissolution increases with increasing acid concentration, system temperature with decreasing particle diameter at 360 rpm. With 2M HCl solution, about 88.49% of the sample was dissolved within 120 minutes using 0.075-0.112 mm particle diameter at 800 C. The results of the study indicated that the dissolution reaction could be represented by a shrinking core model with surface chemical reaction. A value of 0.61, 60.67 kJ/mol and 12.9s-1 were calculated as reaction order, activation energy and frequency factor, respectively for the dissolution process.

  15. Use of cell phones and computers for health promotion and tobacco cessation by American Indian college students in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotson, Jo Ann W; Nelson, Lonnie A; Young, Sara L; Buchwald, Dedra; Roll, John

    2017-01-01

    Cell phones and personal computers have become popular mechanisms for delivering and monitoring health information and education, including the delivery of tobacco cessation education and support. Tobacco smoking is prevalent among American Indians (AIs) and Alaska Natives (ANs), with 26% AI/AN adult men smoking compared to 19% of Caucasian adult males and 22% of African American adult males. Smoking is even more prevalent in Northern Plains AI populations, with 42% of men and women reporting current smoking. The literature on the availability and use of cell phones and computers, or the acceptability of use in health promotion among AIs and ANs, is scant. The authors report findings from a survey of AI students regarding their cell phone and computer access and use. The survey was conducted to inform the development and implementation of a text messaging smoking cessation intervention modeled on a program developed and used in Australia. A 22-item paper and pencil survey was administered to students at tribal colleges in rural Montana. The survey questions included cell phone ownership and access to service, use of cell phones and computers for health information, demographics, tobacco use habits, and interest in an intervention study. The study was reviewed and determined exempt by the institutional review boards at the tribal colleges and the lead research university. The study was conducted by researchers at the tribal colleges. Survey respondents received $10 when the survey was completed and returned. Data analysis was performed with the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Among 153 AI respondents, the mean age was 29 years, range was 18-64 years. Overall, 40% reported smoking cigarettes with a mean age of 16 years at initiation. A total of 131 participants (86%) had cell phones and, of those, 122 (93%) had unlimited text messaging. A total of 104 (68%) had smart phones (with internet access), although 40% of those with smart phones reported that

  16. Analysis of proteome response to the mobile phone radiation in two types of human primary endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuster Niels

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of mobile phones has widely increased over the past decade. However, in spite of the extensive research, the question of potential health effects of the mobile phone radiation remains unanswered. We have earlier proposed, and applied, proteomics as a tool to study biological effects of the mobile phone radiation, using as a model human endothelial cell line EA.hy926. Exposure of EA.hy926 cells to 900 MHz GSM radiation has caused statistically significant changes in expression of numerous proteins. However, exposure of EA.hy926 cells to 1800 MHz GSM signal had only very small effect on cell proteome, as compared with 900 MHz GSM exposure. In the present study, using as model human primary endothelial cells, we have examined whether exposure to 1800 MHz GSM mobile phone radiation can affect cell proteome. Results Primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells and primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells were exposed for 1 hour to 1800 MHz GSM mobile phone radiation at an average specific absorption rate of 2.0 W/kg. The cells were harvested immediately after the exposure and the protein expression patterns of the sham-exposed and radiation-exposed cells were examined using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis-based proteomics (2DE-DIGE. There were observed numerous differences between the proteomes of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human brain microvascular endothelial cells (both sham-exposed. These differences are most likely representing physiological differences between endothelia in different vascular beds. However, the exposure of both types of primary endothelial cells to mobile phone radiation did not cause any statistically significant changes in protein expression. Conclusions Exposure of primary human endothelial cells to the mobile phone radiation, 1800 MHz GSM signal for 1 hour at an average specific absorption rate of 2.0 W/kg, does not affect protein expression, when the

  17. Developing an interactive mobile phone self-report system for self-management of hypertension. Part 2: content validity and usability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bengtsson, Ulrika; Kjellgren, Karin; Höfer, Stefan; Taft, Charles; Ring, Lena

    2014-10-01

    Self-management support tools using technology may improve adherence to hypertension treatment. There is a need for user-friendly tools facilitating patients' understanding of the interconnections between blood pressure, wellbeing and lifestyle. This study aimed to examine comprehension, comprehensiveness and relevance of items, and further to evaluate the usability and reliability of an interactive hypertension-specific mobile phone self-report system. Areas important in supporting self-management and candidate items were derived from five focus group interviews with patients and healthcare professionals (n = 27), supplemented by a literature review. Items and response formats were drafted to meet specifications for mobile phone administration and were integrated into a mobile phone data-capture system. Content validity and usability were assessed iteratively in four rounds of cognitive interviews with patients (n = 21) and healthcare professionals (n = 4). Reliability was examined using a test-retest. Focus group analyses yielded six areas covered by 16 items. The cognitive interviews showed satisfactory item comprehension, relevance and coverage; however, one item was added. The mobile phone self-report system was reliable and perceived easy to use. The mobile phone self-report system appears efficiently to capture information relevant in patients' self-management of hypertension. Future studies need to evaluate the effectiveness of this tool in improving self-management of hypertension in clinical practice.

  18. Total recall in the SCAMP cohort: Validation of self-reported mobile phone use in the smartphone era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireku, Michael O; Mueller, William; Fleming, Charlotte; Chang, Irene; Dumontheil, Iroise; Thomas, Michael S C; Eeftens, Marloes; Elliott, Paul; Röösli, Martin; Toledano, Mireille B

    2018-02-01

    Mobile phone use, predominantly smartphones, is almost ubiquitous amongst both adults and children. However adults and children have different usage patterns. A major challenge with research on mobile phone use is the reliability of self-reported phone activity for accurate exposure assessment. We investigated the agreement between self-reported mobile phone use data and objective mobile operator traffic data in a subset of adolescents aged 11-12 years participating in the Study of Cognition, Adolescents and Mobile Phones (SCAMP) cohort. We examined self-reported mobile phone use, including call frequency, cumulative call time duration and text messages sent among adolescents from SCAMP and matched these data with records provided by mobile network operators (n = 350). The extent of agreement between self-reported mobile phone use and mobile operator traffic data use was evaluated using Cohen's weighted Kappa (ĸ) statistics. Sensitivity and specificity of self-reported low ( 30min of call/day or ≥ 11 text messages sent /day) use were estimated. Agreement between self-reported mobile phone use and mobile operator traffic data was highest for the duration spent talking on mobile phones per day on weekdays (38.9%) and weekends (29.4%) compared to frequency of calls and number of text messages sent. Adolescents overestimated their mobile phone use during weekends compared to weekdays. Analysis of agreement showed little difference overall between the sexes and socio-economic groups. Weighted kappa between self-reported and mobile operator traffic data for call frequency during weekdays was κ = 0.12, 95% CI 0.06-0.18. Of the three modes of mobile phone use measured in the questionnaire, call frequency was the most sensitive for low mobile phone users on weekdays and weekends (77.1, 95% CI: 69.3-83.7 and 72.0, 95% CI: 65.0-78.4, respectively). Specificity was moderate to high for high users with the highest for call frequency during weekdays (98.4, 95% CI: 96

  19. A new iPhone application for measuring active craniocervical range of motion in patients with non-specific neck pain: a reliability and validity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Bagheri, Rasool; Taghipour, Morteza; Takamjani, Ismail Ebrahimi; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Mohseni-Bandpei, Mohammad Ali

    2018-03-01

    Measurement of cervical spine range of motion (ROM) is often considered to be an essential component of cervical spine physiotherapy assessment. This study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of an iPhone application (app) (Goniometer Pro) for measuring active craniocervical ROM (ACCROM) in patients with non-specific neck pain. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the musculoskeletal biomechanics laboratory located at Iran University of Medical Sciences. Forty non-specific neck pain patients participated in this study. The outcome measure was the ACCROM, including flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation. Following the recruitment process, ACCROM was measured using a universal goniometer (UG) and iPhone 7 app. Two blinded examiners each used the UG and iPhone to measure ACCROM in the following sequences: flexion, extension, lateral flexion, and rotation. The second (2 hours later) and third (48 hours later) sessions were carried out in the same manner as the first session. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) models were used to determine the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability. The Pearson correlation coefficients were used to establish concurrent validity of the iPhone app. Minimum detectable change at the 95% confidence level (MDC 95 ) was also computed. Good intra-rater and inter-rater reliability was demonstrated for the goniometer with ICC values of ≥0.66 and ≥0.70 and the iPhone app with ICC values of ≥0.62 and ≥0.65, respectively. The MDC 95 ranged from 2.21° to 12.50° for the intra-rater analysis and from 3.40° to 12.61° for the inter-rater analysis. The concurrent validity between the two instruments was high, with r valuesof ≥0.63. The magnitude of the differences between the UG and iPhone app values (effect sizes) was small, with Cohen d values of ≤0.17. The iPhone app possesses good reliability and high validity. It seems that this app can be used for measuring ACCROM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier

  20. Nanometer-scale sizing accuracy of particle suspensions on an unmodified cell phone using elastic light scattering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J Smith

    Full Text Available We report on the construction of a Fourier plane imaging system attached to a cell phone. By illuminating particle suspensions with a collimated beam from an inexpensive diode laser, angularly resolved scattering patterns are imaged by the phone's camera. Analyzing these patterns with Mie theory results in predictions of size distributions of the particles in suspension. Despite using consumer grade electronics, we extracted size distributions of sphere suspensions with better than 20 nm accuracy in determining the mean size. We also show results from milk, yeast, and blood cells. Performing these measurements on a portable device presents opportunities for field-testing of food quality, process monitoring, and medical diagnosis.

  1. The effects of electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phones on the testicular tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Ihsan Karaman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Various risks have emerged in parallel to the rapidly increasing use of cell phones. Herein we studied the effects of cell phone emitted electromagnetic waves (EMW on rat testes. Material and Methods: Twenty one adult male Albino rats were grouped into 3 groups each consisting of 7 rats. The first group was exposed to EMW on talk mode for 8 hours per day for 20 days and then their testes were extracted. The testes of the second group were extracted after 20 days of whole day EMW exposure. The third group was the control group. For the statistical analysis Mann- Whitney U analysis was performed. Results: At light microscopic examination of the testicular tissue, the existence of a high number of immature cells in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule in addition to the normal seminiferous tubules, besides irregular tubules with a reduction in the spermatogenic cell lines and tubules without lumen were observed in groups 1 and 2. Histopathological alterations were scored as 0 = none, 1 = low, 2 = medium, 3 = serious. The average scores of the three groups were found to be 4.25 ± 1.5 for the group 1, 4.33 ± 3.9 for the group 2 and 0.37 ± 1.1 for the group 3 respectively. As a result of the statistical evaluation, group 1 and group 2 had significantly higher scores than the control group (p = 0.001. Conclusion: Infertility is one of the current problems of today due to a rapid increase in its incidence and cost. The negative effects of the EMWs on the testis should be taken into account and the necessary measures should be taken for prevention.

  2. Post and during event effect of cell phone talking and texting on driving performance--a driving simulator study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Raju; Codjoe, Julius; Ishak, Sherif; McCarter, Kevin S

    2015-01-01

    A number of studies have been done in the field of driver distraction, specifically on the use of cell phone for either conversation or texting while driving. Researchers have focused on the driving performance of drivers when they were actually engaged in the task; that is, during the texting or phone conversation event. However, it is still unknown whether the impact of cell phone usages ceases immediately after the end of task. The primary objective of this article is to analyze the post-event effect of cell phone usage (texting and conversation) in order to verify whether the distracting effect lingers after the actual event has ceased. This study utilizes a driving simulator study of 36 participants to test whether a significant decrease in driver performance occurs during cell phone usage and after usage. Surrogate measures used to represent lateral and longitudinal control of the vehicle were standard deviation (SD) of lane position and mean velocity, respectively. RESULTS suggest that there was no significant decrease in driver performance (both lateral and longitudinal control) during and after the cell phone conversation. For the texting event, there were significant decreases in driver performance in both the longitudinal and lateral control of the vehicle during the actual texting task. The diminished longitudinal control ceased immediately after the texting event but the diminished lateral control lingered for an average of 3.38 s. The number of text messages exchanged did not affect the magnitude or duration of the diminished lateral control. The result indicates that the distraction and subsequent elevated crash risk of texting while driving linger even after the texting event has ceased. This finding has safety and policy implications in reducing distracted driving.

  3. Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J Smith

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the development of two attachments to a commercial cell phone that transform the phone's integrated lens and image sensor into a 350x microscope and visible-light spectrometer. The microscope is capable of transmission and polarized microscopy modes and is shown to have 1.5 micron resolution and a usable field-of-view of 150 x 50 with no image processing, and approximately 350 x 350 when post-processing is applied. The spectrometer has a 300 nm bandwidth with a limiting spectral resolution of close to 5 nm. We show applications of the devices to medically relevant problems. In the case of the microscope, we image both stained and unstained blood-smears showing the ability to acquire images of similar quality to commercial microscope platforms, thus allowing diagnosis of clinical pathologies. With the spectrometer we demonstrate acquisition of a white-light transmission spectrum through diffuse tissue as well as the acquisition of a fluorescence spectrum. We also envision the devices to have immediate relevance in the educational field.

  4. Efficacy and External Validity of Electronic and Mobile Phone-Based Interventions Promoting Vegetable Intake in Young Adults: A Systematic Review Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Monica Marina; Chen, Juliana; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2015-07-28

    Despite social marketing campaigns and behavior change interventions, young adults remain among the lowest consumers of vegetables. The digital era offers potential new avenues for both social marketing and individually tailored programs, through texting, web, and mobile applications. The effectiveness and generalizability of such programs have not been well documented. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the efficacy and external validity of social marketing, electronic, and mobile phone-based (mHealth) interventions aimed at increasing vegetable intake in young adults. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) protocol will be used to conduct this systematic review. The search strategy will be executed across eleven electronic databases using combinations of the following search terms: "online intervention", "computer-assisted therapy", "internet", "website", "cell phones", "cyber", "telemedicine", "email", "social marketing", "social media", "mass media", "young adult", and "fruit and vegetables". The reference lists of included studies will also be searched for additional citations. Titles and abstracts will be screened against inclusion criteria and full texts of potentially eligible papers will be assessed by two independent reviewers. Data from eligible papers will be extracted. Quality and risk of bias will be assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) Quality Assessment Tool for Quantitative Studies and The Cochrane Collaboration Risk of Bias assessment tool respectively. The external validity of the studies will be determined based on components such as reach, adoption, and representativeness of participants; intervention implementation and adaption; and program maintenance and institutionalization. Results will be reported quantitatively and qualitatively. Our research is in progress. A draft of the systematic review is currently being produced for publication by the end of 2015

  5. The Effects of Cell Phone Waves (900 MHz-GSM Band on Sperm Parameters and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Ghanbari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is tremendous concern regarding the possible adverse effects of cellphone microwaves. Contradictory results, however, have been reported for the effectsof these waves on the body. In the present study, the effect of cell phone microwaves onsperm parameters and total antioxidant capacity was investigated with regard to the durationof exposure and the frequency of these waves.Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on 28 adult male Wistarrats (200-250 g. The animals were randomly assigned to four groups (n=7: i. control; ii.two-week exposure to cell phone-simulated waves; iii. three-week exposure to cell phonesimulatedwaves; and iv. two-week exposure to cell phone antenna waves. In all groups,sperm analysis was performed based on standard methods and we determined the meansperm total antioxidant capacity according to the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAPmethod. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test using SPSSversion 16 software.Results: The results indicated that sperm viability, motility, and total antioxidant capacityin all exposure groups decreased significantly compared to the control group (p<0.05.Increasing the duration of exposure from 2 to 3 weeks caused a statistically significantdecrease in sperm viability and motility (p<0.05.Conclusion: Exposure to cell phone waves can decrease sperm viability and motility inrats. These waves can also decrease sperm total antioxidant capacity in rats and result inoxidative stress.

  6. CHIS – New insurance cards and phone numbers valid from 1 January 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2014-01-01

    New health insurance cards will be posted to CHIS members by mid-December. The new cards are valid from 1 January 2015 and will no longer indicate an end date. You may use the card as long as you are member; if lost, a new card will be delivered on request. From 1 January 2015, please use the telephone numbers printed on your new insurance card: +41 (0)22 718 63 00 for UNIQA’s Head Office, available during office hours +41 (0)22 819 44 77 for UNIQA medical assistance and telemedicine, available 24/7 +1 844 477 0777 in the event of hospitalisation in the USA, available 24/7   Further information on the new services (UNIQA assistance and telemedicine) is available in the CHIS Bulletin 39, which you will receive at your home address during the second half of December. Please note that from 1 January 2015: You should not call the emergency number 24/24 on your old insurance card, as this service will be discontinued. You no longer need to obtain a separate insurance card from Meds...

  7. The Impact of Using Cell Phones After Light-Out on Sleep Quality, Headache, Tiredness, and Distractibility Among Students of a University in North of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarghami, Mehran; Khalilian, Alireza; Setareh, Javad; Salehpour, Golnaz

    2015-12-01

    Cell phone is a mere fascinating, as well as entertainment object and serves to keep young individuals in constant contact with their peers; and gives them a feeling of autonomy, identity and credibility. Considering the increasing trend of using cell phones, the aim of the current study was to assess the extent to which the students of Mazandaran university of medical sciences use their phones after light-out, and to determine its relationship with sleep quality, headache, tiredness, and distractibility, after elimination of the impact of stressful events. Overall, 358 students from different schools of the university participated in a cross-sectional study with self-report questionnaires (demographic questionnaire, cell phone use questionnaire, Pittsburgh sleep quality index, and social readjustment rating scale). Descriptive indices were used to express data, and the chi-square and logistic regression were used to interpret the results. Overall, 60% of the students used their cell phones after lights were out. There was a significant relationship between using cell phones late at night and insomnia, low energy, tiredness and headache. Once the impact of stressful events was eliminated, the relationship remained significant only for insomnia. No significant relationship was observed between using cell phones and distractibility. Students of Mazandaran university of medical sciences used their cell phones extensively after lights were out and the resulting insomnia may have affected their learning, as well as the quality of medical services provided by them.

  8. Validity and reliability of an iPhone App to assess time, velocity and leg power during a sit-to-stand functional performance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Cárdenas, Juan Diego; Rodríguez-Juan, Juan José; Smart, Rowan R; Jakobi, Jennifer M; Jones, Gareth R

    2018-01-01

    The purposes of this study were: (i) Analyze the concurrent validity and reliability of an iPhone App for measuring time, velocity and power during a single sit-to-stand (STS) test compared with measurements recorded from a force plate; and (ii) Evaluate the relationship between the iPhone App measures with age and functional performance. Forty-eight healthy individuals (age range: 26-81 years) were recruited. All participants completed a STS test on a force plate with the movement recorded on an iPhone 6 at 240 frames-per-second. Functional ability was also measured using isometric handgrip strength and self-paced walking time tests. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC), Pearson's correlation coefficient, Cronbach's alpha (α) and Bland-Altman plots with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to test validity and reliability between instruments. The results showed a good agreement between all STS measurement variables; time (ICC=0.864, 95%CI=0.77-0.92; α=0.926), velocity (ICC=0.912, 95%CI=0.85-0.95; α=0.953) and power (ICC=0.846, 95%CI=0.74-0.91; α=0.917) with no systematic bias between instruments for any variable analyzed. STS time, velocity and power derived from the iPhone App show moderate to strong associations with age (|r|=0.63-0.83) and handgrip strength (|r|=0.4-0.64) but not the walking test. The results of this study identify that this iPhone App is reliable for measuring STS and the derived values of time, velocity and power shows strong associations with age and handgrip strength. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Validation of self-reported start year of mobile phone use in a Swedish case-control study on radiofrequency fields and acoustic neuroma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, David; Bottai, Matteo; Mathiesen, Tiit; Prochazka, Michaela; Feychting, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The possible effect of radiofrequency exposure from mobile phones on tumor risk has been studied since the late 1990s. Yet, empirical information about recall of the start of mobile phone use among adult cases and controls has never been reported. Limited knowledge about recall errors hampers interpretations of the epidemiological evidence. We used network operator data to validate the self-reported start year of mobile phone use in a case-control study of mobile phone use and acoustic neuroma risk. The answers of 96 (29%) cases and 111 (22%) controls could be included in the validation. The larger proportion of cases reflects a more complete and detailed reporting of subscription history. Misclassification was substantial, with large random errors, small systematic errors, and no significant differences between cases and controls. The average difference between self-reported and operator start year was -0.62 (95% confidence interval: -1.42, 0.17) years for cases and -0.71 (-1.50, 0.07) years for controls, standard deviations were 3.92 and 4.17 years, respectively. Agreement between self-reported and operator-recorded data categorized into short, intermediate and long-term use was moderate (kappa statistic: 0.42). Should an association exist, dilution of risk estimates and distortion of exposure-response patterns for time since first mobile phone use could result from the large random errors in self-reported start year. Retrospective collection of operator data likely leads to a selection of "good reporters", with a higher proportion of cases. Thus, differential recall cannot be entirely excluded.

  10. Cell Phones ≠ Self and Other Problems with Big Data Detection and Containment during Epidemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Susan L

    2018-03-08

    Evidence from Sierra Leone reveals the significant limitations of big data in disease detection and containment efforts. Early in the 2014-2016 Ebola epidemic in West Africa, media heralded HealthMap's ability to detect the outbreak from newsfeeds. Later, big data-specifically, call detail record data collected from millions of cell phones-was hyped as useful for stopping the disease by tracking contagious people. It did not work. In this article, I trace the causes of big data's containment failures. During epidemics, big data experiments can have opportunity costs: namely, forestalling urgent response. Finally, what counts as data during epidemics must include that coming from anthropological technologies because they are so useful for detection and containment. © 2018 The Authors Medical Anthropology Quarterly published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Anthropological Association.

  11. Cell phone internet access, online sexual solicitation, partner seeking, and sexual risk behavior among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be "out," and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors.

  12. Sexually explicit cell phone messaging associated with sexual risk among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Rhoades, Harmony; Winetrobe, Hailey; Sanchez, Monica; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2012-10-01

    Sexting (sending/receiving sexually explicit texts and images via cell phone) may be associated with sexual health consequences among adolescents. However, to date, no published data from a probability-based sample has examined associations between sexting and sexual activity. A probability sample of 1839 students was collected alongside the 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Los Angeles high schools. Logistic regressions were used to assess the correlates of sexting behavior and associations between sexting and sexual risk-taking. Fifteen percent of adolescents with cell phone access reported sexting, and 54% reported knowing someone who had sent a sext. Adolescents whose peers sexted were more likely to sext themselves (odds ratio [OR] = 16.87, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.62-29.59). Adolescents who themselves sexted were more likely to report being sexually active (OR = 7.17, 95% CI: 5.01-10.25). Nonheterosexual students were more likely to report sexting (OR = 2.74, 95% CI: 1.86-4.04), sexual activity (OR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.07-2.15), and unprotected sex at last sexual encounter (OR = 1.84, 95% CI: 1.17-2.89). Sexting, rather than functioning as an alternative to "real world" sexual risk behavior, appears to be part of a cluster of risky sexual behaviors among adolescents. We recommend that clinicians discuss sexting as an adolescent-friendly way of engaging patients in conversations about sexual activity, prevention of sexually transmitted infections, and unwanted pregnancy. We further recommend that discussion about sexting and its associated risk behavior be included in school-based sexual health curricula.

  13. Let Them Have Their Cell Phone (And Let Them Read to It Too): Technology, Writing Instruction and Textual Obsolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Jed

    2012-01-01

    Cell phone ubiquity enables students to record and share audio file versions of their essays for proofreading purposes. Adopting this practice in community college developmental writing classes leads to an investigation of both writing as a technology and the influence of modern technology on composition and composition pedagogy.

  14. Missouri Educator Perceptions on the Use of Smartphones/Cell Phones in a Secondary School Setting: Their Relationship to Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods study evaluated the differences in the perceptions of educators in the state of Missouri on cell phone use in the classroom setting and its relationship to instruction. Specifically, this study analyzed the difference in perceptions and relationships that exist among educators (teachers and counselors) and administrators in…

  15. Improved Academic Performance and Student Perceptions of Learning through Use of a Cell Phone-Based Personal Response System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sihui; Steger, Daniel G.; Doolittle, Peter E.; Stewart, Amanda C.

    2018-01-01

    Personal response systems, such as clickers, have been widely used to improve the effectiveness of teaching in various classroom settings. Although hand-held clicker response systems have been the subject of multiple prior studies, few studies have focused on the use of cell phone-based personal response system (CPPRS) specifically. This study…

  16. The Use and Abuse of Cell Phones and Text Messaging in the Classroom: A Survey of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindell, Deborah R.; Bohlander, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    As the use of mobile devices, such as cell phones, has proliferated in academic settings in recent years, new challenges are faced by institutions of higher education and their faculties. The authors surveyed 269 college students from 21 academic majors at a small northeastern university to gain a better understanding of the frequency and manner…

  17. A preliminary investigation into the prevalence and prediction of problematic cell phone use

    OpenAIRE

    Smetaniuk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Likening mobile phone use dependency to the classification of excessive behaviors may be necessarily equivalent in seriousness to previously established addictions such as problematic computing or excessive gambling. The aim of the study explores into the behavior of excessive use of mobile phones as a pathological behavior. Methods: Two studies investigated criteria for problematic mobile phone usage by examining student (Study 1, N = 301) and nonstudent (Study 2, N = 36...

  18. The Effect of Cell Phone Conversation on Drivers’ Reaction Time to Audio Stimulus: Investigating the Theory of Multiple Resources and Central Resource of Attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kazem Mousavi-Sadati

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This research was aimed at investigating the theory of multiple resources and central resource of attention on secondary task performance of talking with two types of cell phone during driving. Materials & Methods: Using disposal sampling, 25 male participants were selected and their reaction to auditory stimulus in three different driving conditions (no conversation with phone, conversation with handheld phone and hands-free phone were recorded. Driving conditions have been changed from a participant to another participant in order to control the sequence of tests and participants familiarity with the test conditions. Results: the results of data analysis with descriptive statistics and Mauchly’s Test of Sphericity, One- factor repeated measures ANOVA and Paired-Samples T test showed that different driving conditions can affect the reaction time (P0.001. Phone Conversation with hands-free phone increases drivers’ simple reaction time to auditory stimulus (P<0.001. Using handheld phone does not increase drivers’ reaction time to auditory stimulus over hands-free phone (P<0.001. Conclusion: The results confirmed that the performance quality of dual tasks and multiple tasks can be predicted by Four-dimensional multiple resources model of attention and all traffic laws in connection with the handheld phone also have to be spread to the use of hands-free phone.

  19. The validation study on a three-dimensional burn estimation smart-phone application: accurate, free and fast?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheah, A K W; Kangkorn, T; Tan, E H; Loo, M L; Chong, S J

    2018-01-01

    Accurate total body surface area burned (TBSAB) estimation is a crucial aspect of early burn management. It helps guide resuscitation and is essential in the calculation of fluid requirements. Conventional methods of estimation can often lead to large discrepancies in burn percentage estimation. We aim to compare a new method of TBSAB estimation using a three-dimensional smart-phone application named 3D Burn Resuscitation (3D Burn) against conventional methods of estimation-Rule of Palm, Rule of Nines and the Lund and Browder chart. Three volunteer subjects were moulaged with simulated burn injuries of 25%, 30% and 35% total body surface area (TBSA), respectively. Various healthcare workers were invited to use both the 3D Burn application as well as the conventional methods stated above to estimate the volunteer subjects' burn percentages. Collective relative estimations across the groups showed that when used, the Rule of Palm, Rule of Nines and the Lund and Browder chart all over-estimated burns area by an average of 10.6%, 19.7%, and 8.3% TBSA, respectively, while the 3D Burn application under-estimated burns by an average of 1.9%. There was a statistically significant difference between the 3D Burn application estimations versus all three other modalities ( p  Burn application, although slower, allowed more accurate TBSAB measurements when compared to conventional methods. The validation study has shown that the 3D Burn application is useful in improving the accuracy of TBSAB measurement. Further studies are warranted, and there are plans to repeat the above study in a different centre overseas as part of a multi-centre study, with a view of progressing to a prospective study that compares the accuracy of the 3D Burn application against conventional methods on actual burn patients.

  20. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Human Movements and Applications for Disaster Response Management Utilizing Cell Phone Usage Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumiishi, M.; Renschler, C. S.; Bittner, T. E.

    2015-07-01

    As cell phone usage becomes a norm in our daily lives, analysis and application of the data has become part of various research fields. This study focuses on the application of cell phone usage data to disaster response management. Cell phones work as a communication link between emergency responders and victims during and after a major disaster. This study recognizes that there are two kinds of disasters, one with an advance warning, and one without an advance warning. Different movement distance between a day with a blizzard (advanced warning) and a normal weather day was identified. In the scenario of a day with an extreme event without advanced warning (earthquake), factors that alter the phone users' movements were analyzed. Lastly, combining both cases, a conceptual model of human movement factors is proposed. Human movements consist of four factors that are push factors, movement-altering factors, derived attributes and constraint factors. Considering each category of factors in case of emergency, it should be necessary that we prepare different kinds of emergency response plans depending on the characteristics of a disaster.

  1. Work productivity in rhinitis using cell phones: The MASK pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Bewick, M; Arnavielhe, S; Mathieu-Dupas, E; Murray, R; Bedbrook, A; Caimmi, D P; Vandenplas, O; Hellings, P W; Bachert, C; Anto, J M; Bergmann, K C; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bosnic-Anticevich, S; Bouchard, J; Canonica, G W; Chavannes, N H; Cruz, A A; Dahl, R; Demoly, P; De Vries, G; Devillier, P; Fink-Wagner, A; Fokkens, W J; Fonseca, J; Guldemond, N A; Haahtela, T; Hellqvist-Dahl, B; Just, J; Keil, T; Klimek, L; Kowalski, M L; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Laune, D; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Mullol, J; Pereira, A M; Carreiro-Martins, P; Melén, E; Morais-Almeida, M; Nogueira-Silva, L; O'Hehir, R E; Papadopoulos, N G; Passalacqua, G; Portejoie, F; Price, D; Ryan, D; Samolinski, B; Sheikh, A; Simons, F E R; Spranger, O; Todo Bom, A; Tomazic, P V; Triggiani, M; Valero, A; Valovirta, E; Valiulis, A; van Eerd, M; Wickman, M; Young, I; Zuberbier, T

    2017-10-01

    Allergic rhinitis often impairs social life and performance. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to use cell phone data to assess the impact on work productivity of uncontrolled rhinitis assessed by visual analogue scale (VAS). A mobile phone app (Allergy Diary, Google Play Store and Apple App Store) collects data from daily visual analogue scales (VAS) for overall allergic symptoms (VAS-global measured), nasal (VAS-nasal), ocular (VAS-ocular) and asthma symptoms (VAS-asthma) as well as work (VAS-work). A combined nasal-ocular score is calculated. The Allergy Diary is available in 21 countries. The app includes the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Allergic Specific Questionnaire (WPAI:AS) in six EU countries. All consecutive users who completed the VAS-work from 1 June to 31 October 2016 were included in the study. A total of 1136 users filled in 5818 days of VAS-work. Symptoms of allergic rhinitis were controlled (VAS-global 50). There was a significant correlation between VAS-global calculated and VAS-work (Rho=0.83, P<0.00001, Spearman's rank test). In 144 users, there was a significant correlation between VAS-work and WPAI:AS (Rho=0.53, P<0.0001). This pilot study provides not only proof-of-concept data on the work impairment collected with the app but also data on the app itself, especially the distribution of responses for the VAS. This supports the interpretation that persons with rhinitis report both the presence and the absence of symptoms. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  2. Lifestyle intervention using an internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders for obese Chinese teens: a randomized controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha A Abraham

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasing public health problem affecting young people. The causes of obesity are multi-factorial among Chinese youth including lack of physical activity and poor eating habits. The use of an internet curriculum and cell phone reminders and texting may be an innovative means of increasing follow up and compliance with obese teens. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of using an adapted internet curriculum and existing nutritional program along with cell phone follow up for obese Chinese teens.This was a randomized controlled study involving obese teens receiving care at a paediatric obesity clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Hong Kong. Forty-eight subjects aged 12 to 18 years were randomized into three groups. The control group received usual care visits with a physician in the obesity clinic every three months. The first intervention (IT group received usual care visits every three months plus a 12-week internet-based curriculum with cell phone calls/texts reminders. The second intervention group received usual care visits every three months plus four nutritional counselling sessions.The use of the internet-based curriculum was shown to be feasible as evidenced by the high recruitment rate, internet log-in rate, compliance with completing the curriculum and responses to phone reminders. No significant differences in weight were found between IT, sLMP and control groups.An internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders as a supplement to usual care of obesity is feasible. Further study is required to determine whether an internet plus text intervention can be both an effective and a cost-effective adjunct to changing weight in obese youth.Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12002624.

  3. In Vitro Effect of Cell Phone Radiation on Motility, DNA Fragmentation and Clusterin Gene Expression in Human Sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Zalata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of cellular phones emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF has been increased exponentially and become a part of everyday life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of in vitro RF-EMF exposure emitted from cellular phones on sperm motility index, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal clusterin (CLU gene expression. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, a total of 124 semen samples were grouped into the following main categories: i. normozoospermia (N, n=26, ii. asthenozoospermia (A, n=32, iii. asthenoteratozoospermia (AT, n=31 and iv. oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT, n=35. The same semen samples were then divided into two portions non-exposed and exposed samples to cell phone radiation for 1 hour. Before and immediately after exposure, both aliquots were subjected to different assessments for sperm motility, acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and CLU gene expression. Statistical differences were analyzed using paired t student test for comparisons between two sub-groups where pAT>A>N groups, respectively (p<0.05. Conclusion: Cell phone emissions have a negative impact on exposed sperm motility index, sperm acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal CLU gene expression, especially in OAT cases.

  4. In vitro effect of cell phone radiation on motility, DNA fragmentation and clusterin gene expression in human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalata, Adel; El-Samanoudy, Ayman Z; Shaalan, Dalia; El-Baiomy, Youssef; Mostafa, Taymour

    2015-01-01

    Use of cellular phones emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) has been increased exponentially and become a part of everyday life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of in vitro RF-EMF exposure emitted from cellular phones on sperm motility index, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal clusterin (CLU) gene expression. In this prospective study, a total of 124 semen samples were grouped into the following main categories: i. normozoospermia (N, n=26), ii. asthenozoospermia (A, n=32), iii. asthenoteratozoospermia (AT, n=31) and iv. oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT, n=35). The same semen samples were then divided into two portions non-exposed and exposed samples to cell phone radiation for 1 hour. Before and immediately after exposure, both aliquots were subjected to different assessments for sperm motility, acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and CLU gene expression. Statistical differences were analyzed using paired t student test for comparisons between two sub-groups where pAT>A>N groups, respectively (pCell phone emissions have a negative impact on exposed sperm motility index, sperm acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal CLU gene expression, especially in OAT cases.

  5. The use of cell phone and insight into its potential human health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-04-01

    The rapid evolution of mobile phone technology has raised public concern about its possible association with adverse health effects. Given the huge number of mobile phone users at present days, even simple adverse health effects could have major implications. This article reviews the present knowledge concerning the health effects stemming from the use of cellular phones by emphasizing adverse biological effects, epidemiological issues, and indirect health effects. A line of epidemiological evidence suggests that there is no concrete association between mobile phone radiation and cancer. The evidence regarding the occurrence of cancer due to exposure to the radio frequency energy of mobile phones is nonetheless conflicting. Consequently, long-term research in this field is necessary to account for the vital issue of this scientific research to the public in a meaningful way.

  6. Hand-held cell phone use while driving legislation and observed driver behavior among population sub-groups in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudisill, Toni M; Zhu, Motao

    2017-05-12

    Cell phone use behaviors are known to vary across demographic sub-groups and geographic locations. This study examined whether universal hand-held calling while driving bans were associated with lower road-side observed hand-held cell phone conversations across drivers of different ages (16-24, 25-59, ≥60 years), sexes, races (White, African American, or other), ruralities (suburban, rural, or urban), and regions (Northeast, Midwest, South, and West). Data from the 2008-2013 National Occupant Protection Use Survey were merged with states' cell phone use while driving legislation. The exposure was presence of a universal hand-held cell phone ban at time of observation. Logistic regression was used to assess the odds of drivers having a hand-held cell phone conversation. Sub-groups differences were assessed using models with interaction terms. When universal hand-held cell phone bans were effective, hand-held cell phone conversations were lower across all driver demographic sub-groups and regions. Sub-group differences existed among the sexes (p-value, phone bans, the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of a driver hand-held phone conversation was 0.34 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.28, 0.41] for females versus 0.47 (CI 0.40, 0.55) for males and 0.31 (CI 0.25, 0.38) for drivers in Western states compared to 0.47 (CI 0.30, 0.72) in the Northeast and 0.50 (CI 0.38, 0.66) in the South. The presence of universal hand-held cell phone bans were associated lower hand-held cell phone conversations across all driver sub-groups and regions. Hand-held phone conversations were particularly lower among female drivers and those from Western states when these bans were in effect. Public health interventions concerning hand-held cell phone use while driving could reasonably target all drivers.

  7. The Impact of Cell Phone Use on the Intensity and Liking of a Bout of Treadmill Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebold, Michael J.; Lepp, Andrew; Sanders, Gabriel J.; Barkley, Jacob E.

    2015-01-01

    This study used a within-subjects design to assess the effect of three common cellular telephone (cell phone) functions (texting, talking, listening to music) on planned exercise. Forty-four young adults (n = 33 females, 21.8 ± 1.3 years) each participated in four, separate, 30-minute exercise conditions on a treadmill in a random order. During each condition, the treadmill speed display was covered and grade was fixed at zero. However, participants were able to alter treadmill speed as desired. Throughout the texting and talking conditions, research personnel used a pre-determined script to simulate cell phone conversations. During the music condition, participants used their cell phone to listen to music of their choice. Finally, participants completed a control condition with no cell phone access. For each condition, average treadmill speed, heart rate and liking (via visual analog scale) were assessed. Treadmill speed (3.4 ± 1.3 miles∙hour-1), heart rate (122.3 ± 24.3 beats∙min-1) and liking (7.5 ± 1.5 cm) in the music condition were significantly (p ≤ 0.014) greater than all other conditions. Treadmill speed in the control condition (3.1 ± 1.2 miles∙hour-1) was significantly (p = 0.04) greater than both texting and talking (2.8 ± 1.1 miles∙hour-1 each). Heart rate during the control condition (115.4 ± 22.8 beats∙min-1) was significantly (p = 0.04) greater than texting (109.9 ± 16.4 beats∙min-1) but not talking (112.6 ± 16.1 beats∙min-1). Finally, liking during the talking condition (5.4 ± 2.2 cm) was greater (p = 0.05) than the control (4.3 ± 2.2 cm) but not the texting (5.1 ± 2.2 cm) conditions. In conclusion, using a cell phone for listening to music can increase the intensity (speed and heart rate) and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise. However, other common cell phone uses (texting and talking) can interfere with treadmill exercise and reduce intensity. PMID:25970553

  8. Providing cell phone numbers and e-mail addresses to patients: The patient’s perspective, a cross sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Today patients can consult with their treating physician by cell phone or e-mail. These means of communication enhance the quality of medical care and increase patient satisfaction, but they can also impinge on physicians’ free time and their patient schedule while at work. The objective of this study is to assess the attitudes and practice of patients on obtaining the cell phone number or e-mail address of their physician for the purpose of medical consultation. Methods Personal interviews with patients, 18 years of age or above, selected by random sampling from the roster of adults insured by Clalit Health Services, Southern Division. The total response rate was 41%. The questionnaire included questions on the attitude and practice of patients towards obtaining their physician’s cell phone number or e-mail address. Comparisons were performed using Chi-square tests to analyze statistically significant differences of categorical variables. Two-tailed p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant, with a power of 0.8. Results The study sample included 200 patients with a mean age of 46.6 ± 17.1, of whom 110 were women (55%). Ninety-three (46.5%) responded that they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s cell phone number, and an additional 83 (41.5%) would not object to obtaining it. Of the 171 patients (85.5%) who had e-mail addresses, 25 (14.6%) said they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s e-mail address, 85 (49.7%) said they would not object to getting it, and 61 (35.7%) were not interested. In practice only one patient had requested the physician’s e-mail address and none actually had it. Conclusions Patients favored cell phones over e-mail for consulting with their treating physicians. With new technologies such as cell phones and e-mail in common use, it is important to determine how they can be best used and how they should be integrated into the flow of clinical practice

  9. Providing cell phone numbers and e-mail addresses to patients: The patient’s perspective, a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peleg Roni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today patients can consult with their treating physician by cell phone or e-mail. These means of communication enhance the quality of medical care and increase patient satisfaction, but they can also impinge on physicians’ free time and their patient schedule while at work. The objective of this study is to assess the attitudes and practice of patients on obtaining the cell phone number or e-mail address of their physician for the purpose of medical consultation. Methods Personal interviews with patients, 18 years of age or above, selected by random sampling from the roster of adults insured by Clalit Health Services, Southern Division. The total response rate was 41%. The questionnaire included questions on the attitude and practice of patients towards obtaining their physician’s cell phone number or e-mail address. Comparisons were performed using Chi-square tests to analyze statistically significant differences of categorical variables. Two-tailed p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant, with a power of 0.8. Results The study sample included 200 patients with a mean age of 46.6 ± 17.1, of whom 110 were women (55%. Ninety-three (46.5% responded that they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s cell phone number, and an additional 83 (41.5% would not object to obtaining it. Of the 171 patients (85.5% who had e-mail addresses, 25 (14.6% said they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s e-mail address, 85 (49.7% said they would not object to getting it, and 61 (35.7% were not interested. In practice only one patient had requested the physician’s e-mail address and none actually had it. Conclusions Patients favored cell phones over e-mail for consulting with their treating physicians. With new technologies such as cell phones and e-mail in common use, it is important to determine how they can be best used and how they should be integrated into the flow

  10. The impact of cell phone use on the intensity and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Rebold

    Full Text Available This study used a within-subjects design to assess the effect of three common cellular telephone (cell phone functions (texting, talking, listening to music on planned exercise. Forty-four young adults (n = 33 females, 21.8 ± 1.3 years each participated in four, separate, 30-minute exercise conditions on a treadmill in a random order. During each condition, the treadmill speed display was covered and grade was fixed at zero. However, participants were able to alter treadmill speed as desired. Throughout the texting and talking conditions, research personnel used a pre-determined script to simulate cell phone conversations. During the music condition, participants used their cell phone to listen to music of their choice. Finally, participants completed a control condition with no cell phone access. For each condition, average treadmill speed, heart rate and liking (via visual analog scale were assessed. Treadmill speed (3.4 ± 1.3 miles∙hour(-1, heart rate (122.3 ± 24.3 beats∙min(-1 and liking (7.5 ± 1.5 cm in the music condition were significantly (p ≤ 0.014 greater than all other conditions. Treadmill speed in the control condition (3.1 ± 1.2 miles∙hour(-1 was significantly (p = 0.04 greater than both texting and talking (2.8 ± 1.1 miles∙hour(-1 each. Heart rate during the control condition (115.4 ± 22.8 beats∙min(-1 was significantly (p = 0.04 greater than texting (109.9 ± 16.4 beats∙min(-1 but not talking (112.6 ± 16.1 beats∙min(-1. Finally, liking during the talking condition (5.4 ± 2.2 cm was greater (p = 0.05 than the control (4.3 ± 2.2 cm but not the texting (5.1 ± 2.2 cm conditions. In conclusion, using a cell phone for listening to music can increase the intensity (speed and heart rate and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise. However, other common cell phone uses (texting and talking can interfere with treadmill exercise and reduce intensity.

  11. Reaching rural women: breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors and interest in Internet, cell phone, and text use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan; Vilchis, Hugo

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women, the prevalence of Internet, cell, and text use, and interest to receive breast cancer prevention information cell and text messages. While growing literature for breast cancer information sources supports the use of the Internet, little is known about breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women and mobile technology. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected using a survey. McGuire's Input-Ouput Model was used as the framework. Self-reported data were obtained from a convenience sample of 157 women with a mean age of 60 (SD = 12.12) at a rural New Mexico imaging center. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, nurses, and friends and common channel information sources were television, magazines, and Internet. Overall, 87% used cell phones, 20% had an interest to receive cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 47% used text messaging, 36% had an interest to receive text breast cancer prevention messages, and 37% had an interest to receive mammogram reminder text messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between age, income, and race/ethnicity and use of cell phones or text messaging. There were no differences between age and receiving text messages or text mammogram reminders. Assessment of health information seeking behaviors is important for community health educators to target populations for program development. Future research may identify additional socio-cultural differences.

  12. Estimation of physical activity levels using cell phone questionnaires: a comparison with accelerometry for evaluation of between-subject and within-subject variations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexelius, Christin; Sandin, Sven; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Litton, Jan-Eric; Löf, Marie

    2011-09-25

    Physical activity promotes health and longevity. Further elaboration of the role of physical activity for human health in epidemiological studies on large samples requires accurate methods that are easy to use, cheap, and possible to repeat. The use of telecommunication technologies such as cell phones is highly interesting in this respect. In an earlier report, we showed that physical activity level (PAL) assessed using a cell phone procedure agreed well with corresponding estimates obtained using the doubly labeled water method. However, our earlier study indicated high within-subject variation in relation to between-subject variations in PAL using cell phones, but we could not assess if this was a true variation of PAL or an artifact of the cell phone technique. Our objective was to compare within- and between-subject variations in PAL by means of cell phones with corresponding estimates using an accelerometer. In addition, we compared the agreement of daily PAL values obtained using the cell phone questionnaire with corresponding data obtained using an accelerometer. PAL was measured both with the cell phone questionnaire and with a triaxial accelerometer daily during a 2-week study period in 21 healthy Swedish women (20 to 45 years of age and BMI from 17.7 kg/m² to 33.6 kg/m²). The results were evaluated by fitting linear mixed effect models and descriptive statistics and graphs. With the accelerometer, 57% (95% confidence interval [CI] 40%-66%) of the variation was within subjects, while with the cell phone, within-subject variation was 76% (95% CI 59%-83%). The day-to-day variations in PAL observed using the cell phone questions agreed well with the corresponding accelerometer results. Both the cell phone questionnaire and the accelerometer showed high within-subject variations. Furthermore, day-to-day variations in PAL within subjects assessed using the cell phone agreed well with corresponding accelerometer values. Consequently, our cell phone

  13. Reliability, Concurrent Validity, and Minimal Detectable Change for iPhone Goniometer App in Assessing Knee Range of Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Saurabh P; Barker, Katherine; Bowman, Brett; Galloway, Heather; Oliashirazi, Nicole; Oliashirazi, Ali

    2017-07-01

    Much of the published works assessing the reliability of smartphone goniometer apps (SG) have poor generalizability since the reliability was assessed in healthy subjects. No research has established the values for standard error of measurement (SEM) or minimal detectable change (MDC) which have greater clinical utility to contextualize the range of motion (ROM) assessed using the SG. This research examined the test-retest reproducibility, concurrent validity, SEM, and MDC values for the iPhone goniometer app (i-Goni; June Software Inc., v.1.1, San Francisco, CA) in assessing knee ROM in patients with knee osteoarthritis or those after total knee replacement. A total of 60 participants underwent data collection which included the assessment of active knee ROM using the i-Goni and the universal goniometer (UG; EZ Read Jamar Goniometer, Patterson Medical, Warrenville, IL), knee muscle strength, and assessment of pain and lower extremity disability using quadruple numeric pain rating scale (Q-NPRS) and lower extremity functional scale (LEFS), respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were calculated to assess the reproducibility of the knee ROM assessed using the i-Goni and UG. Bland and Altman technique examined the agreement between these knee ROM. The SEM and MDC values were calculated for i-Goni assessed knee ROM to characterize the error in a single score and the index of true change, respectively. Pearson correlation coefficient examined concurrent relationships between the i-Goni and other measures. The ICC values for the knee flexion/extension ROM were superior for i-Goni (0.97/0.94) compared with the UG (0.95/0.87). The SEM values were smaller for i-Goni assessed knee flexion/extension (2.72/1.18 degrees) compared with UG assessed knee flexion/extension (3.41/1.62 degrees). Similarly, the MDC values were smaller for both these ROM for the i-Goni (6.3 and 2.72 degrees) suggesting smaller change required to infer true change in knee ROM. The i

  14. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei and hematological disorders among workers of wireless communication instruments and cell phone (Mobile) users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eldawy, H.A.; Khattab, F.I.; Hassan, N.H.A.; Amin, Y.M.; Mahmoud, M.M.A.

    2003-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the hazardous effect of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) such as chromosomal aberration, disturbed micronucleus formation and hematological disorders that may detected among workers of wireless communication instruments and mobile phone users. Seven individuals ( 3 males and 4 females) of a central workers in the microwave unit of the wireless station and 7 users of Mobil phone (4 males and 3 females ) were volunteered to give blood samples. Chromosomes and micronucleus were prepared for cytogenetic analysis as well as blood film for differential count. The results obtained in the microwave group indicated that, the total summation of all types of aberrations (chromosomes and chromatid aberrations) had a frequency of 6. 14% for the exposed group, whereas, the frequency in the control group amounted to 1.57%. In Mobil phone users, the total summation of all types of aberrations(chromosome and chromatid aberrations) had a frequency of 4.43% for the exposed group and 1.71% for the control group. The incidence of the total number of micronuclei in the exposed microwave group was increased 4.3 folds as compared with those of the control group The incidence of the total number of micronuclei in the exposed mobile phone group was increased 2 fold as compared with those in the control group. On the other hand, normal ranges of total white blood cells counts were determined for mobile phone users but abnormalities in the differential counts of the different types of the white blood cells such as neutropenia, eosinophilia and lymphocytosis were observed in the individuals number 1,2,3,7 in microwave group

  15. Adaptive intervention design in mobile health: Intervention design and development in the Cell Phone Intervention for You trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Intille, Stephen; Bennett, Gary; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor; Voils, Corrine; Grambow, Steven; Lazenka, Tony; Batch, Bryan C; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P

    2015-12-01

    The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, and obesity is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The prominence and increasing functionality of mobile phones may provide an opportunity to deliver longitudinal and scalable weight management interventions in young adults. The aim of this article is to describe the design and development of the intervention tested in the Cell Phone Intervention for You study and to highlight the importance of adaptive intervention design that made it possible. The Cell Phone Intervention for You study was a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored, controlled, 24-month randomized clinical trial comparing two active interventions to a usual-care control group. Participants were 365 overweight or obese (body mass index≥25 kg/m2) young adults. Both active interventions were designed based on social cognitive theory and incorporated techniques for behavioral self-management and motivational enhancement. Initial intervention development occurred during a 1-year formative phase utilizing focus groups and iterative, participatory design. During the intervention testing, adaptive intervention design, where an intervention is updated or extended throughout a trial while assuring the delivery of exactly the same intervention to each cohort, was employed. The adaptive intervention design strategy distributed technical work and allowed introduction of novel components in phases intended to help promote and sustain participant engagement. Adaptive intervention design was made possible by exploiting the mobile phone's remote data capabilities so that adoption of particular application components could be continuously monitored and components subsequently added or updated remotely. The cell phone intervention was delivered almost entirely via cell phone and was always-present, proactive, and interactive-providing passive and active reminders, frequent opportunities for knowledge dissemination, and multiple tools

  16. EXTRACTION OF COPPER FROM LEACH LIQUOR OF METALLIC COMPONENT IN DISCARDED CELL PHONE BY CYANEX® 272

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAFARA A. BABA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Discarded cell phones contribute significantly to the amount of electronic waste generation whilst some of its components are toxic and recoverable. Also, due to the increasing demand for Cu(II in building/construction, electrical and as chemical tool in freshwater, it is imperative to develop low cost and ecofriendly technique as a substitute for the conventional treatments such as reduction-roasting route at elevated temperatures. In the present study, the hydrometallurgical operations involving leaching, solvent extraction and precipitation for the recovery of Cu(II by Cyanex® 272 in kerosene was examined. Various parameters affecting the extraction of Cu(II such as pH, extractant concentration and phase ratio were optimized. At optimal conditions, about 96.3 % Cu(II was extracted into the organic phase by 0.2 mol/L Cyanex® 272 at equilibrium pH 5.0 and aqueous to organic phase ratio 1:1. The stripping of the loaded organic was carried out by 0.1 mol/L HCl solution and stripping efficiency of 98 % was obtained. By McCabe Thiele diagram, four stages are required for complete extraction of Cu(II.

  17. Optimization of injection molding process parameters for a plastic cell phone housing component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalingam, Sokkalingam; Vasant, Pandian; Khe, Cheng Seong; Merican, Zulkifli; Oo, Zeya

    2016-11-01

    To produce thin-walled plastic items, injection molding process is one of the most widely used application tools. However, to set optimal process parameters is difficult as it may cause to produce faulty items on injected mold like shrinkage. This study aims at to determine such an optimum injection molding process parameters which can reduce the fault of shrinkage on a plastic cell phone cover items. Currently used setting of machines process produced shrinkage and mis-specified length and with dimensions below the limit. Thus, for identification of optimum process parameters, maintaining closer targeted length and width setting magnitudes with minimal variations, more experiments are needed. The mold temperature, injection pressure and screw rotation speed are used as process parameters in this research. For optimal molding process parameters the Response Surface Methods (RSM) is applied. The major contributing factors influencing the responses were identified from analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. Through verification runs it was found that the shrinkage defect can be minimized with the optimal setting found by RSM.

  18. How connected are people with schizophrenia? Cell phone, computer, email, and social media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian J; Stewart, Adriana; Schrimsher, John; Peeples, Dale; Buckley, Peter F

    2015-02-28

    Technologies such as Internet based social media network (SMN) websites are becoming an important part of many adult lives; however, less is known about their use in patients with schizophrenia. We need to determine (1) how "connected" are patients with schizophrenia?, (2) do these technologies interfere with the patient׳s illness?, and (3) do patients envision these technologies being involved in their treatment? We recruited 80 inpatients and outpatients age 18-70 with schizophrenia to complete a brief survey on the prevalence and frequency of cell phone, text messaging, computer, email, and SMN use, and associated attitudes. 56% of subjects use text messaging, 48% have an email account, and 27% of subjects use SMN sites daily, with Facebook being the most popular. Many current users agreed that these technologies help them interact/socialize more, expressed interest in receiving text messages from their doctors, and disagreed that these technologies make symptoms worse. These preliminary findings should be investigated in larger samples, but suggest that these technologies afford a unique opportunity to engage and improve treatment for some patients with schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cell Phone-Based and Adherence Device Technologies for HIV Care and Treatment in Resource-Limited Settings: Recent Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeffrey I; Haberer, Jessica E

    2015-12-01

    Numerous cell phone-based and adherence monitoring technologies have been developed to address barriers to effective HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. Because most people living with HIV and AIDS reside in resource-limited settings (RLS), it is important to understand the development and use of these technologies in RLS. Recent research on cell phone-based technologies has focused on HIV education, linkage to and retention in care, disease tracking, and antiretroviral therapy adherence reminders. Advances in adherence devices have focused on real-time adherence monitors, which have been used for both antiretroviral therapy and pre-exposure prophylaxis. Real-time monitoring has recently been combined with cell phone-based technologies to create real-time adherence interventions using short message service (SMS). New developments in adherence technologies are exploring ingestion monitoring and metabolite detection to confirm adherence. This article provides an overview of recent advances in these two families of technologies and includes research on their acceptability and cost-effectiveness when available. It additionally outlines key challenges and needed research as use of these technologies continues to expand and evolve.

  20. Rapid detection of Clostridium difficile via magnetic bead aggregation in cost-effective polyester microdevices with cell phone image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVall, Jacquelyn A; Cabaniss, Scott T; Angotti, Morgan L; Moore, John H; Abhyankar, Mayuresh; Shukla, Nishant; Mills, Daniel L; Kessel, Bryan G; Garner, Gavin T; Swami, Nathan S; Landers, James P

    2016-10-07

    Pathogen detection has traditionally been accomplished by utilizing methods such as cell culture, immunoassays, and nucleic acid amplification tests; however, these methods are not easily implemented in resource-limited settings because special equipment for detection and thermal cycling is often required. In this study, we present a magnetic bead aggregation assay coupled to an inexpensive microfluidic fabrication technique that allows for cell phone detection and analysis of a notable pathogen in less than one hour. Detection is achieved through the use of a custom-built system that allows for fluid flow control via centrifugal force, as well as manipulation of magnetic beads with an adjustable rotating magnetic field. Cell phone image capture and analysis is housed in a 3D-printed case with LED backlighting and a lid-mounted Android phone. A custom-written application (app.) is employed to interrogate images for the extent of aggregation present following loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) coupled to product-inhibited bead aggregation (PiBA) for detection of target sequences. Clostridium difficile is a pathogen of increasing interest due to its causative role in intestinal infections following antibiotic treatment, and was therefore chosen as the pathogen of interest in the present study to demonstrate the rapid, cost-effective, and sequence-specific detection capabilities of the microfluidic platform described herein.

  1. Effect of using habits of cell phone on the study of the students: A case study on parents and teachers of Sargodha city

    OpenAIRE

    Salman Amin; Adnan Rashed; Atif Umair

    2014-01-01

    This study is an effort to investigate the ?Impacts of Cell Phone Using Habits on the Studies of Students of University of Sargodha and Punjab University Lahore. The study used the survey method for data collection. A sample of 100 respondents consisting of 50 Teachers and 50 Parents was selected by using purposive and convenience sampling technique. The findings show that respondents frequently use cell phone and overwhelming majority spent lots of money in their daily lives. Respondents fre...

  2. Image and Diagnosis Quality of X-Ray Image Transmission via Cell Phone Camera: A Project Study Evaluating Quality and Reliability

    OpenAIRE

    Goost, Hans; Witten, Johannes; Heck, Andreas; Hadizadeh, Dariusch R.; Weber, Oliver; Gräff, Ingo; Burger, Christof; Montag, Mareen; Koerfer, Felix; Kabir, Koroush

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Developments in telemedicine have not produced any relevant benefits for orthopedics and trauma surgery to date. For the present project study, several parameters were examined during assessment of x-ray images, which had been photographed and transmitted via cell phone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 x-ray images of various body regions were photographed with a Nokia cell phone and transmitted via email or MMS. Next, the transmitted photographs were reviewed on a laptop ...

  3. Effect of an Educational Program Based on the Health Belief Model to Reduce Cell Phone Usage During Driving in Taxi drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Babak Moeini; Forouzan Rezapur-Shahkolai; Javad Faradmal; Mokhtar Soheylizad

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Cell phone usage during driving has become a threat to traffic safety. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational program based on the health belief model to reduce cell phone usage during driving in taxi drivers of Tuyserkan. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 110 taxi drivers younger than 35 years were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups in Tuyserkan, Iran. Data was collected using a questionnaire including...

  4. Reliability and validity of an iPhone® application for the measurement of lumbar spine flexion and extension range of motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Jannati, Elham; Mohseni-Bandpei, Mohammad Ali; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Rajabzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Background Measurement of lumbar spine range of motion (ROM) is often considered to be an essential component of lumbar spine physiotherapy and orthopedic assessment. The measurement can be carried out through various instruments such as inclinometers, goniometers, and etc. Recent smartphones have been equipped with accelerometers and magnetometers, which, through specific software applications (apps) can be used for inclinometric functions. Purpose The main purpose was to investigate the reliability and validity of an iPhone® app (TiltMeter© -advanced level and inclinometer) for measuring standing lumbar spine flexion–extension ROM in asymptomatic subjects. Design A cross-sectional study was carried out. Setting This study was conducted in a physiotherapy clinic located at School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science and Health Services, Tehran, Iran. Subjects A convenience sample of 30 asymptomatic adults (15 males; 15 females; age range = 18–55 years) was recruited between August 2015 and December 2015. Methods Following a 2–minute warm-up, the subjects were asked to stand in a relaxed position and their skin was marked at the T12–L1 and S1–S2 spinal levels. From this position, they were asked to perform maximum lumbar flexion followed by maximum lumbar extension with their knees straight. Two blinded raters each used an inclinometer and the iPhone ® app to measure lumbar spine flexion–extension ROM. A third rater read the measured angles. To calculate total lumbar spine flexion–extension ROM, the measurement from S1–S2 was subtracted from T12–L1. The second (2 hours later) and third (48 hours later) sessions were carried out in the same manner as the first session. All of the measurements were conducted 3 times and the mean value of 3 repetitions for each measurement was used for analysis. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) models (3, k) and (2, k) were used to determine the intra-rater and inter

  5. Reliability and validity of an iPhone(®) application for the measurement of lumbar spine flexion and extension range of motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Taghipour, Morteza; Jannati, Elham; Mohseni-Bandpei, Mohammad Ali; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Rajabzadeh, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Measurement of lumbar spine range of motion (ROM) is often considered to be an essential component of lumbar spine physiotherapy and orthopedic assessment. The measurement can be carried out through various instruments such as inclinometers, goniometers, and etc. Recent smartphones have been equipped with accelerometers and magnetometers, which, through specific software applications (apps) can be used for inclinometric functions. The main purpose was to investigate the reliability and validity of an iPhone(®) app (TiltMeter(©) -advanced level and inclinometer) for measuring standing lumbar spine flexion-extension ROM in asymptomatic subjects. A cross-sectional study was carried out. This study was conducted in a physiotherapy clinic located at School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science and Health Services, Tehran, Iran. A convenience sample of 30 asymptomatic adults (15 males; 15 females; age range = 18-55 years) was recruited between August 2015 and December 2015. Following a 2-minute warm-up, the subjects were asked to stand in a relaxed position and their skin was marked at the T12-L1 and S1-S2 spinal levels. From this position, they were asked to perform maximum lumbar flexion followed by maximum lumbar extension with their knees straight. Two blinded raters each used an inclinometer and the iPhone (®) app to measure lumbar spine flexion-extension ROM. A third rater read the measured angles. To calculate total lumbar spine flexion-extension ROM, the measurement from S1-S2 was subtracted from T12-L1. The second (2 hours later) and third (48 hours later) sessions were carried out in the same manner as the first session. All of the measurements were conducted 3 times and the mean value of 3 repetitions for each measurement was used for analysis. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) models (3, k) and (2, k) were used to determine the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients were

  6. The use of cell phones and radio communication systems to reduce delays in getting help for pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyeyemi, Sunday O; Wynn, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Delays in getting medical help are important factors in the deaths of many pregnant women and unborn children in the low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). Studies have suggested that the use of cell phones and radio communication systems might reduce such delays. We review the literature regarding the impact of cell phones and radio communication systems on delays in getting medical help by pregnant women in the LMIC. Cochrane Library, PubMed, Maternity and Infant care (Ovid), Web of Science (ISI), and Google Scholar were searched for studies relating to the use of cell phones for maternal and child health services, supplemented with hand searches. We included studies in LMIC and in English involving the simple use of cell phones (or radio communication) to either make calls or send text messages. Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. All the studies, while of various designs, demonstrated positive contributory effects of cell phones or radio communication systems in reducing delays experienced by pregnant women in getting medical help. While the results suggested that cell phones could contribute in reducing delays, more studies of a longer duration are needed to strengthen the finding.

  7. Effect of an Educational Program Based on the Health Belief Model to Reduce Cell Phone Usage During Driving in Taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Moeini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cell phone usage during driving has become a threat to traffic safety. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational program based on the health belief model to reduce cell phone usage during driving in taxi drivers of Tuyserkan. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 110 taxi drivers younger than 35 years were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups in Tuyserkan, Iran. Data was collected using a questionnaire including the health belief model constructs, knowledge, behaviors of using cell phone and demographic variables. The questionnaires were self-reported. Intervention was three sessions applied in the experimental group. Both groups were followed for two months after the intervention. Finally, data analysis was performed using SPSS- 19 by Chi-square, Independent T-test, Paired T-test and McNemar. Results: The mean scores for the constructs of health belief model (perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers, perceived benefits, self-efficacy and cues to action, knowledge and desired behaviors about the use of cell phone during driving showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention. After the educational intervention, significant differences were observed in experimental group compared to control group. After educational intervention, cell phone usage reduced by 35.14% in the experimental group. Conclusion: An educational intervention based on the health belief model could reduce cell phone usage during driving in taxi drivers.

  8. The use of cell phones and radio communication systems to reduce delays in getting help for pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday O. Oyeyemi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delays in getting medical help are important factors in the deaths of many pregnant women and unborn children in the low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. Studies have suggested that the use of cell phones and radio communication systems might reduce such delays. Objectives: We review the literature regarding the impact of cell phones and radio communication systems on delays in getting medical help by pregnant women in the LMIC. Design: Cochrane Library, PubMed, Maternity and Infant care (Ovid, Web of Science (ISI, and Google Scholar were searched for studies relating to the use of cell phones for maternal and child health services, supplemented with hand searches. We included studies in LMIC and in English involving the simple use of cell phones (or radio communication to either make calls or send text messages. Results: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. All the studies, while of various designs, demonstrated positive contributory effects of cell phones or radio communication systems in reducing delays experienced by pregnant women in getting medical help. Conclusions: While the results suggested that cell phones could contribute in reducing delays, more studies of a longer duration are needed to strengthen the finding.

  9. 3D printed disposable optics and lab-on-a-chip devices for chemical sensing with cell phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comina, G.; Suska, A.; Filippini, D.

    2017-02-01

    Digital manufacturing (DM) offers fast prototyping capabilities and great versatility to configure countless architectures at affordable development costs. Autonomous lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices, conceived as only disposable accessory to interface chemical sensing to cell phones, require specific features that can be achieved using DM techniques. Here we describe stereo-lithography 3D printing (SLA) of optical components and unibody-LOC (ULOC) devices using consumer grade printers. ULOC devices integrate actuation in the form of check-valves and finger pumps, as well as the calibration range required for quantitative detection. Coupling to phone camera readout depends on the detection approach, and includes different types of optical components. Optical surfaces can be locally configured with a simple polishing-free post-processing step, and the representative costs are 0.5 US$/device, same as ULOC devices, both involving fabrication times of about 20 min.

  10. Initial analysis of SAR from a cell phone inside a vehicle by numerical computation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzaldi, Gabriel; Silva, Ferran; Fernández, Mireya; Quílez, Marcos; Riu, Pere J

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the influence of the metallic structures of a realistic car body frame on the specific absorption rate (SAR) produced by a cell phone when a complete human body model is placed at different locations inside the vehicle, and to identify the relevant parameters responsible for these changes. The modeling and analysis of the whole system was conducted by means of computer simulations based on the full wave finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numerical method. The excitation considered was an 835 MHz lambda/2 dipole located as a hands-free communication device or as a hand-held portable system. We compared the SAR at different planes on the human model, placed inside the vehicle with respect to the free space situation. The presence of the car body frame significantly changes the SAR distributions, especially when the dipole is far from the body. Although the results are not conclusive on this point, this change in SAR distribution is not likely to produce an increase above the limits in current guidelines for partial body exposure, but may be significant for whole-body exposure. The most relevant change found was the change in the impedance of the dipole, affecting the radiated power. A complementary result from the electromagnetic computations performed is the change in the electromagnetic field distribution inside a vehicle when human bodies are present. The whole vehicle model has been optimized to provide accurate results for sources placed inside the vehicle, while keeping low requirements for computer storage and simulation time.

  11. Headset Bluetooth and cell phone based continuous central body temperature measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, J Miguel; Pereira, Bruno; Paiva, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The accurate measure of the central temperature is a very important physiologic indicator in several clinical applications, namely, in the characterization and diagnosis of sleep disorders. In this paper a simple system is described to continuously measure the body temperature at the ear. An electronic temperature sensor is coupled to the microphone of a common commercial auricular Bluetooth device that sends the temperature measurements to a mobile phone to which is paired. The measurements are stored at the mobile phone and periodically sent to a medical facility by email or SMS (short messaging service).

  12. Reliability and concurrent validity of a new iPhone® goniometric application for measuring active wrist range of motion: a cross-sectional study in asymptomatic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourahmadi, Mohammad Reza; Ebrahimi Takamjani, Ismail; Sarrafzadeh, Javad; Bahramian, Mehrdad; Mohseni-Bandpei, Mohammad Ali; Rajabzadeh, Fatemeh; Taghipour, Morteza

    2017-03-01

    Measurement of wrist range of motion (ROM) is often considered to be an essential component of wrist physical examination. The measurement can be carried out through various instruments such as goniometers and inclinometers. Recent smartphones have been equipped with accelerometers and magnetometers, which, through specific software applications (apps) can be used for goniometric functions. This study, for the first time, aimed to evaluate the reliability and concurrent validity of a new smartphone goniometric app (Goniometer Pro©) for measuring active wrist ROM. In all, 120 wrists of 70 asymptomatic adults (38 men and 32 women; aged 18-40 years) were assessed in a physiotherapy clinic located at the School of Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran University of Medical Science and Health Services, Tehran, Iran. Following the recruitment process, active wrist ROM was measured using a universal goniometer and iPhone ® 5 app. Two blinded examiners each utilized the universal goniometer and iPhone ® to measure active wrist ROM using a volar/dorsal alignment technique in the following sequences: flexion, extension, radial deviation, and ulnar deviation. The second (2 h later) and third (48 h later) sessions were carried out in the same manner as the first session. All the measurements were conducted three times and the mean value of three repetitions for each measurement was used for analysis. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) models (3, k) and (2, k) were used to determine the intra-rater and inter-rater reliability, respectively. The Pearson correlation coefficients were used to establish concurrent validity of the iPhone ® app. Good to excellent intra-rater and inter-rater reliability was demonstrated for the goniometer with ICC values of ≥ 0.82 and ≥ 0.73 and the iPhone ® app with ICC values of ≥ 0.83 and ≥ 0.79, respectively. Minimum detectable change at the 95% confidence level (MDC 95 ) was computed as 1.96 × standard error of measurement

  13. [Interference of vitamin E on the brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xian; Luo, Rui; Ma, Bin; Wang, Hui; Liu, Tian; Zhang, Jing; Lian, Zhishun; Cui, Xi

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the interlerence ot vitamin E on brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats. 40 pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups (positive control, negative control, low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups). The low, middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups were supplemented with 5, 15 and 30 mg/ml vitamin E respectively since the first day of pregnancy. And the negative control group and the positive control group were given peanut oil without vitamin E. All groups except for the negative control group were exposed to 900MHz intensity of cell phone radiation for one hour each time, three times per day for 21 days. After accouchement, the right hippocampus tissue of fetal rats in each group was taken and observed under electron microscope. The vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissue were tested. Compared with the negative control group, the chondriosomes in neuron and neuroglia of brain tissues was swelling, mild edema was found around the capillary, chromatin was concentrated and collected, and bubbles were formed in vascular endothelial cells (VEC) in the positive fetal rat control group, whereas the above phenomenon was un-conspicuous in the middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups. We can see uniform chromatin, abundant mitochondrion, rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes in the high dosage group. The apoptosis has not fond in all groups'sections. In the antioxidase activity analysis, compared with the negative control group, the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly decreased and the content of MDA significantly increased both in the pregnant and fetal rats positive control group (P electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant rats and fetal rats.

  14. An empirical study of the recreationalexpressive and referential roles of the cell phone among young students and their potential applications to advertising

    OpenAIRE

    García Guardia, M. Luisa; Llorente Barroso, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    The cell phone has become a means of finding persuasive content, making friends and accessing information. For this reason it is of great interest in analyzing is use by young people during their formative years. Regarding this point, the objectives of the research are: to obtain percentage data on the distraction call phones cause among students; to define their habits re fun activities and their study responsibility in their personal and academic lives; and to identify leisure-expressive an...

  15. High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey study

    OpenAIRE

    Siedner, Mark J; Haberer, Jessica E; Bwana, Mwebesa Bosco; Ware, Norma C; Bangsberg, David R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Though mobile phone usership increased 20-fold in Africa over the past decade, little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health information in the region. Methods We performed structured interviews of fifty patients at the Immune Suppression Syndrome clinic in Mbarara, Ug...

  16. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Andreas; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Kuehn, Sven; Kuster, Niels [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zuerich (Switzerland); Christopoulou, Maria [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., 15780 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: christ@itis.ethz.ch

    2010-04-07

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  17. A Cell Phone in the Classroom: A Friend or a Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irina, Averianova

    2012-01-01

    Communication is getting increasingly mobile, with more than a third of the world's population using cellular phones. Recent statistics indicate that this proportion is much bigger among young people. Research has also registered significant predominance of short message exchange over other modes of interaction in youth culture, where e-mail is…

  18. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, Andreas; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Kuehn, Sven; Kuster, Niels; Christopoulou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  19. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, Andreas; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Christopoulou, Maria; Kühn, Sven; Kuster, Niels

    2010-04-01

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  20. Dynamic travel information personalized and delivered to your cell phone : addendum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Real-time travel information must reach a significant amount of travelers to create a large amount of travel behavior change. For this project, since the TRAC-IT mobile phone application is used to monitor user context in terms of location, the mobil...

  1. The Effect of 217 Hz Magnetic Field of Cell Phone with Different Intensities on Apoptosis of Normal and Cancerous Cells Treated with Chemotherapy Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Mansourian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the increasing development of home and business electronic equipment in today's world, the biological effects of ELF magnetic fields have been studied at two molecular-cellular and animal- human levels. Considering the therapeutic viewpoint of this study regarding the effects of low-frequency fields of mobile phone, the effect of acute exposure to this field on chemotherapy will be studied.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, based on measurement of the intensity of the magnetic fields from mobile phones in another research, flux densities of magnetic field of 159.44, 93.25 and 120µ tesla with frequency of 217Hz was generated in magnetic field generator system, and the apoptosis level in K562 cancer cells and healthy cells of lymphocytes was assessed after exposure to field using flow cytometry method. This evaluation method was also performed for the cells treated with bleomycin after exposure to this field.Results: 217 Hz magnetic field exposure significantly increases the rate of apoptosis percentage (p > 0.05 in K562 cancer cells and in two intensities of 120 and 159.44µ tesla compared to the control group, but such effect is not observed in lymphocyte cells. Bleomycin-induced apoptosis percentage following exposure to the mentioned magnetic field shows no significant difference compared to the group of treatment with drug and without field exposure. This lack of significant difference is observed between the groups of drug after field exposure and field alone as well as between groups exposed to field and groups treated with bleomycin.Conclusion: Study results showed that 217 Hz magnetic field of mobile phone can induce apoptosis on cancer cells, but it has no effect on healthy cells. Thus, in order to use mobile phone as an effective factor in their treatment, some studies should be conducted at animal-human level.

  2. Effects of 3G cell phone exposure on the structure and function of the human cytochrome P450 reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Shazia; Thuróczy, György; Selmaoui, Brahim; Silva Pires Antonietti, Viviane; Sonnet, Pascal; Arnaud-Cormos, Delia; Lévêque, Philippe; Pulvin, Sylviane; de Seze, René

    2016-10-01

    Cell phones increase exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Whether EMFs exert specific effects on biological systems remains debatable. This study investigated the effect of cell phone exposure on the structure and function of human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). CPR plays a key role in the electron transfer to cytochrome P450, which takes part in a wide range of oxidative metabolic reactions in various organisms from microbes to humans. Human CPR was exposed for 60min to 1966-MHz RF inside a transverse electromagnetic cell (TEM-cell) placed in an incubator. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was 5W·kg(-1). Conformation changes have been detected through fluorescent spectroscopy of flavin and tryptophan residues, and investigated through circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering and microelectrophoresis. These showed that CPR was narrowed. By using cytochrome C reductase activity to assess the electron flux through the CPR, the Michaelis Menten constant (Km) and the maximum initial velocity (Vmax) decreased by 22% as compared with controls. This change was due to small changes in the tertiary and secondary structures of the protein at 37°C. The relevance of these findings to an actual RF exposure scenario demands further biochemical and in-vivo confirmation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Exposure to 3G mobile phone signals does not affect the biological features of brain tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yu-xiao; Li, Guo-qing; Fu, Xiang-ping; Xue, Jing-hui; Ji, Shou-ping; Zhang, Zhi-wen; Zhang, Yi; Li, An-ming

    2015-08-08

    The increase in mobile phone use has generated concerns about possible risks to human health, especially the development of brain tumors. Whether tumor patients should continue to use mobile telephones has remained unclear because of a paucity of information. Herein, we investigated whether electromagnetic fields from mobile phones could alter the biological features of human tumor cells and act as a tumor-promoting agent. Human glioblastoma cell lines, U251-MG and U87-MG, were exposed to 1950-MHz time division-synchronous code division multiple access (TD-SCDMA) at a specific absorption rate (maximum SAR = 5.0 W/kg) for 12, 24, and 48 h. Cell morphologies and ultra-structures were observed by microscopy and the rates of apoptosis and cell cycle progression were monitored by flow cytometry. Additionally, cell growth was determined using the CKK-8 assay, and the expression levels of tumor and apoptosis-related genes and proteins were analyzed by real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. Tumor formation and invasiveness were measured using a tumorigenicity assay in vivo and migration assays in vitro. No significant differences in either biological features or tumor formation ability were observed between unexposed and exposed glioblastoma cells. Our data showed that exposure to 1950-MHz TD-SCDMA electromagnetic fields for up to 48 h did not act as a cytotoxic or tumor-promoting agent to affect the proliferation or gene expression profile of glioblastoma cells. Our findings implied that exposing brain tumor cells in vitro for up to 48 h to 1950-MHz continuous TD-SCDMA electromagnetic fields did not elicit a general cell stress response.

  4. Who actually receives cell phone use while driving citations and how much are these laws enforced among states? A descriptive, cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudisill, Toni M; Zhu, Motao

    2016-06-14

    While numerous cell phone use while driving laws have been passed among states, little information exists regarding who gets cited for these traffic infractions and how much these laws are enforced at the state-level within the USA. Cross-sectional, descriptive study. 14 states and the District of Columbia. Those receiving cell phone use while driving citations within included states from 2007 to 2013. Demographic characteristics of cited drivers were assessed. Rates of infractions per 100 000 licensed in-state drivers per year for various cell phone use while driving violations were calculated. Drivers were cited for hand-held use violations (n=2.5 million) more than texting (n=14 682) or young driver all cell phone bans (n=342). Among states that provided data for all traffic violations, cell phone use while driving citations comprised 1% of all written citations. Regardless of ban type, males (68.2%) were cited more frequently than females. Drivers 25-64 years of age (90.8%) were more likely to be cited for hand-held phone use. The average yearly rate of infractions per 100 000 licensed in-state drivers from 2010-2013 was 5.8 for texting bans, 2607 for hand-held bans, and 9954 for any traffic violation. Among cited drivers, age and sex differences existed by the type of ban violated. State-level enforcement appeared sparse. Due to the potential serious consequences of cell phone use while driving in the USA, more enforcement and targeted public safety campaigns are likely needed. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  5. Maternal cell phone use in early pregnancy and child’s language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years: the Norwegian mother and child cohort study (MoBa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleni Papadopoulou

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell phone use during pregnancy is a public health concern. We investigated the association between maternal cell phone use in pregnancy and child’s language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years. Methods This prospective study includes 45,389 mother-child pairs, participants of the MoBa, recruited at mid-pregnancy from 1999 to 2008. Maternal frequency of cell phone use in early pregnancy and child language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years, were assessed by questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. Results No cell phone use in early pregnancy was reported by 9.8% of women, while 39%, 46.9% and 4.3% of the women were categorized as low, medium and high cell phone users. Children of cell phone user mothers had 17% (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.89 lower adjusted risk of having low sentence complexity at 3 years, compared to children of non-users. The risk was 13%, 22% and 29% lower by low, medium and high maternal cell phone use. Additionally, children of cell phone users had lower risk of low motor skills score at 3 years, compared to children of non-users, but this association was not found at 5 years. We found no association between maternal cell phone use and low communication skills. Conclusions We reported a decreased risk of low language and motor skills at three years in relation to prenatal cell phone use, which might be explained by enhanced maternal-child interaction among cell phone users. No evidence of adverse neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal cell phone use was reported.

  6. Maternal cell phone use in early pregnancy and child's language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years: the Norwegian mother and child cohort study (MoBa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulou, Eleni; Haugen, Margaretha; Schjølberg, Synnve; Magnus, Per; Brunborg, Gunnar; Vrijheid, Martine; Alexander, Jan

    2017-09-05

    Cell phone use during pregnancy is a public health concern. We investigated the association between maternal cell phone use in pregnancy and child's language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years. This prospective study includes 45,389 mother-child pairs, participants of the MoBa, recruited at mid-pregnancy from 1999 to 2008. Maternal frequency of cell phone use in early pregnancy and child language, communication and motor skills at 3 and 5 years, were assessed by questionnaires. Logistic regression was used to estimate the associations. No cell phone use in early pregnancy was reported by 9.8% of women, while 39%, 46.9% and 4.3% of the women were categorized as low, medium and high cell phone users. Children of cell phone user mothers had 17% (OR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.77, 0.89) lower adjusted risk of having low sentence complexity at 3 years, compared to children of non-users. The risk was 13%, 22% and 29% lower by low, medium and high maternal cell phone use. Additionally, children of cell phone users had lower risk of low motor skills score at 3 years, compared to children of non-users, but this association was not found at 5 years. We found no association between maternal cell phone use and low communication skills. We reported a decreased risk of low language and motor skills at three years in relation to prenatal cell phone use, which might be explained by enhanced maternal-child interaction among cell phone users. No evidence of adverse neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal cell phone use was reported.

  7. Discarded cell phone lithium ion batteries state of health quick method analysis by galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Catarini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The state of health (SOH is a important evaluation parameter to rechargeable batteries, because determine its cycle life and help on electric devices supplied by batteries maintenance. In this work the lithium ion discards cell phones batteries state of health and apparent diffusion coefficient (Dap were measured and correlated which purpose is diminish the batteries analyze time. The apparent diffusion coefficient is a ionic diffusion coefficient modification from GITT technique. The SOH and Dap correlation is well behaved, disclosing a cubic dependency. The time analyze was reduced by more than 1 h.

  8. Alterations in body weight and blood glucose level of female hamsters exposed to electromagnetic fields of cell phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R Lotfi

    2010-02-01

    Group 2 was exposed to electromagnetic field emitted by cell phones for 10 days (short term and group 3 for 50 day (long term. In the latter groups, the exposure was 1 hour per day. At the end of the experimental period, the animals were weighed and blood glucose concentrations were determined by obtaining blood samples from 8 randomly selected hamsters in each group.  The blood glucose level was significantly higher in long-term exposed group in comparison with the control and short-term exposed groups (175, 11.6 and 107 mg/dl, respectively (p

  9. The Effects of Internet Use, Cell Phones and Computer Games on Mental Health of Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Meral Kelleci

    2008-01-01

    The use of digital technology, including computers, cell phones, computer games, and so on, most recently, on-the-go for recreational purposes, has increased among our youth over the past 15 years. Children and adolescent between the ages of 8 to 18 years spend an average of 5-6 hours per day using information and communication technologies. It is a useful progress because of the increase of internet usage which is unlimited, uncontrolled and uninhibited and easiness which arrival all sorts o...

  10. Mobile therapy: case study evaluations of a cell phone application for emotional self-awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Margaret E; Kathawala, Qusai; Leen, Todd K; Gorenstein, Ethan E; Guilak, Farzin; Labhard, Michael; Deleeuw, William

    2010-04-30

    Emotional awareness and self-regulation are important skills for improving mental health and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Cognitive behavioral therapy can teach these skills but is not widely available. This exploratory study examined the potential of mobile phone technologies to broaden access to cognitive behavioral therapy techniques and to provide in-the-moment support. We developed a mobile phone application with touch screen scales for mood reporting and therapeutic exercises for cognitive reappraisal (ie, examination of maladaptive interpretations) and physical relaxation. The application was deployed in a one-month field study with eight individuals who had reported significant stress during an employee health assessment. Participants were prompted via their mobile phones to report their moods several times a day on a Mood Map-a translation of the circumplex model of emotion-and a series of single-dimension mood scales. Using the prototype, participants could also activate mobile therapies as needed. During weekly open-ended interviews, participants discussed their use of the device and responded to longitudinal views of their data. Analyses included a thematic review of interview narratives, assessment of mood changes over the course of the study and the diurnal cycle, and interrogation of this mobile data based on stressful incidents reported in interviews. Five case studies illustrate participants' use of the mobile phone application to increase self-awareness and to cope with stress. One example is a participant who had been coping with longstanding marital conflict. After reflecting on his mood data, particularly a drop in energy each evening, the participant began practicing relaxation therapies on the phone before entering his house, applying cognitive reappraisal techniques to cope with stressful family interactions, and talking more openly with his wife. His mean anger, anxiety and sadness ratings all were lower in the second half

  11. Cell phone-generated radio frequency electromagnetic field effects on the locomotor behaviors of the fishes Poecilia reticulata and Danio rerio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David; Lee, Joshua; Lee, Imshik

    2015-01-01

    The locomotor behavior of small fish was characterized under a cell phone-generated radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF EMF). The trajectory of movement of 10 pairs of guppy (Poecilia reticulate) and 15 pairs of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) in a fish tank was recorded and tracked under the presence of a cell phone-generated RF EMF. The measures were based on spatial and temporal distributions. A time-series trajectory was utilized to emphasize the dynamic nature of locomotor behavior. Fish movement was recorded in real-time. Their spatial, velocity, turning angle and sinuosity distribution were analyzed in terms of F(v,x), P[n(x,t)], P(v), F (θ) and F(s), respectively. In addition, potential temperature elevation caused by a cellular phone was also examined. We demonstrated that a cellular phone-induced temperature elevation was not relevant, and that our measurements reflected RF EMF-induced effects on the locomotor behavior of Poecilia reticulata and Danio rerio. Fish locomotion was observed under normal conditions, in the visual presence of a cell phone, after feeding, and under starvation. Fish locomotor behavior was random both in normal conditions and in the presence of an off-signaled cell phone. However, there were significant changes in the locomotion of the fish after feeding under the RF EMF. The locomotion of the fed fish was affected in terms of changes in population and velocity distributions under the presence of the RF EMF emitted by the cell phone. There was, however, no significant difference in angular distribution.

  12. Outdoor and indoor sources of residential radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, personal cell phone and cordless phone use, and cognitive function in 5-6 years old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Mònica; Vermeulen, Roel|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/216532620; van Eijsden, Manon; Beekhuizen, Johan|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/34472641X; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; van Strien, Rob T; Kromhout, Hans|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074385224; Huss, Anke|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/331385880

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the exposure of young children to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and potentially associated health effects. We assessed the relationship between residential RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations, residential presence of indoor sources,

  13. Integration of cell phone imaging with microchip ELISA to detect ovarian cancer HE4 biomarker in urine at the point-of-care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuqi; Zhao, Xiaohu; Khimji, Imran; Akbas, Ragip; Qiu, Weiliang; Edwards, Dale; Cramer, Daniel W; Ye, Bin; Demirci, Utkan

    2011-10-21

    Ovarian cancer is asymptomatic in the early stages and most patients present with advanced levels of disease. The lack of cost-effective methods that can achieve frequent, simple and non-invasive testing hinders early detection and causes high mortality in ovarian cancer patients. Here, we report a simple and inexpensive microchip ELISA-based detection module that employs a portable detection system, i.e., a cell phone/charge-coupled device (CCD) to quantify an ovarian cancer biomarker, HE4, in urine. Integration of a mobile application with a cell phone enabled immediate processing of microchip ELISA results, which eliminated the need for a bulky, expensive spectrophotometer. The HE4 level detected by a cell phone or a lensless CCD system was significantly elevated in urine samples from cancer patients (n = 19) than healthy controls (n = 20) (p cell phone running an automated analysis mobile application had a sensitivity of 89.5% at a specificity of 90%. Under the same specificity, the microchip ELISA coupled with a CCD had a sensitivity of 84.2%. In conclusion, integration of microchip ELISA with cell phone/CCD-based colorimetric measurement technology can be used to detect HE4 biomarker at the point-of-care (POC), paving the way to create bedside technologies for diagnostics and treatment monitoring.

  14. HEDONIC ANALYSIS OF CELL PHONES SOLD WITH POST-PAID SERVICE PLANS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio R. Lucinda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the determining factors for the pricing of handsets sold with service plans, using the hedonic price method. This was undertaken by building a database comprising 48 handset models, under nine different service plans, over a period of 53 weeks in 2008, and resulted in 27 different attributes and a total number of nearly 300,000 data registers. The results suggest that the value of monthly subscriptions and calling minutes are important to explain the prices of handsets. Furthermore, both the physical volume and number of megapixels of a camera had an effect on the prices. The bigger the handset, the cheaper it becomes, and the more megapixels a camera phone has, the more expensive it becomes. Additionally, it was found that in 2008 Brazilian phone companies were subsidizing enabled data connection handsets.

  15. Long-Term Impact of a Cell Phone-Enhanced Parenting Intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefever, Jennifer E Burke; Bigelow, Kathryn M; Carta, Judith J; Borkowski, John G; Grandfield, Elizabeth; McCune, Luke; Irvin, Dwight W; Warren, Steven F

    2017-11-01

    Home visiting programs support positive parenting in populations at-risk of child maltreatment, but their impact is often limited by poor retention and engagement. The current study assessed whether a cellular phone-supported version (PCI-C) of the Parent-Child Interactions (PCI) intervention improved long-term parenting practices, maternal depression, and children's aggression. Low-income mothers ( n = 371) of preschool-aged children were assigned to one of the three groups: PCI-C, PCI, and a wait-list control (WLC) group. Parenting improved in both intervention groups between baseline and 12-month follow-up compared to the WLC. Children in the PCI-C group were rated to be more cooperative and less aggressive than children in the WLC. The results offer evidence of the long-term effectiveness of PCI and the additional benefits of cellular phone supports for promoting intervention retention and improving children's behavior.

  16. High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedner, Mark J; Haberer, Jessica E; Bwana, Mwebesa Bosco; Ware, Norma C; Bangsberg, David R

    2012-06-21

    Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Though mobile phone usership increased 20-fold in Africa over the past decade, little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health information in the region. We performed structured interviews of fifty patients at the Immune Suppression Syndrome clinic in Mbarara, Uganda to assess four domains of health-related communication: a) cell phone use practices and literacy, b) preferences for laboratory results communication, c) privacy and confidentiality, and d) acceptability of and preferences for text messaging to notify patients of abnormal test results. Participants had a median of 38 years, were 56% female, and were residents of a large catchment area throughout southwestern Uganda. All participants expressed interest in a service to receive information about laboratory results by cell phone text message, stating benefits of increased awareness of their health and decreased transportation costs. Ninety percent reported that they would not be concerned for unintended disclosure. A minority additionally expressed concerns about difficulty interpreting messages, discouragement upon learning bad news, and technical issues. Though all respondents expressed interest in password protection of messages, there was also a strong desire for direct messages to limit misinterpretation of information. Cell phone text messaging for communication of abnormal laboratory results is highly acceptable in this cohort of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. The feasibility of text messaging, including an optimal balance between privacy and comprehension, should be further studied.

  17. Does Talking on a Cell Phone, With a Passenger, or Dialing Affect Driving Performance? An Updated Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Experimental Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caird, Jeff K; Simmons, Sarah M; Wiley, Katelyn; Johnston, Kate A; Horrey, William J

    2018-02-01

    Objective An up-to-date meta-analysis of experimental research on talking and driving is needed to provide a comprehensive, empirical, and credible basis for policy, legislation, countermeasures, and future research. Background The effects of cell, mobile, and smart phone use on driving safety continues to be a contentious societal issue. Method All available studies that measured the effects of cell phone use on driving were identified through a variety of search methods and databases. A total of 93 studies containing 106 experiments met the inclusion criteria. Coded independent variables included conversation target (handheld, hands-free, and passenger), setting (laboratory, simulation, or on road), and conversation type (natural, cognitive task, and dialing). Coded dependent variables included reaction time, stimulus detection, lane positioning, speed, headway, eye movements, and collisions. Results The overall sample had 4,382 participants, with driver ages ranging from 14 to 84 years ( M = 25.5, SD = 5.2). Conversation on a handheld or hands-free phone resulted in performance costs when compared with baseline driving for reaction time, stimulus detection, and collisions. Passenger conversation had a similar pattern of effect sizes. Dialing while driving had large performance costs for many variables. Conclusion This meta-analysis found that cell phone and passenger conversation produced moderate performance costs. Drivers minimally compensated while conversing on a cell phone by increasing headway or reducing speed. A number of additional meta-analytic questions are discussed. Application The results can be used to guide legislation, policy, countermeasures, and future research.

  18. Long-term outcomes of a cell phone-delivered intervention for smokers living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gritz, Ellen R; Danysh, Heather E; Fletcher, Faith E; Tami-Maury, Irene; Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; King, Rachel Marks; Arduino, Roberto C; Vidrine, Damon J

    2013-08-01

    People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS (PLWHA) have a substantially higher prevalence of cigarette smoking compared to the general population. In addition, PLWHA are particularly susceptible to the adverse health effects of smoking. Our primary objective was to design and test the efficacy over 12 months of a smoking cessation intervention targeting PLWHA. Participants were enrolled from an urban HIV clinic with a multiethnic and economically disadvantaged patient population. Participants received smoking cessation treatment either through usual care (UC) or counseling delivered by a cell phone intervention (CPI). The 7-day point prevalence abstinence was evaluated at 3, 6, and 12 months using logistic regression and generalized linear mixed models. We randomized 474 HIV-positive smokers to either the UC or CPI group. When evaluating the overall treatment effect (7-day abstinence outcomes from 3-, 6-, and 12-month follow-ups), participants in the CPI group were 2.41 times (P = .049) more likely to demonstrate abstinence compared to the UC group. The treatment effect was strongest at the 3-month follow-up (odds ratio = 4.3, P .05). Cell phone-delivered smoking cessation treatment has a positive impact on abstinence rates compared to a usual care approach. Future research should focus on strategies for sustaining the treatment effect in the long term.

  19. Adaptive Intervention Design in Mobile Health: Intervention Design and Development in the Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY) Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pao-Hwa; Intille, Stephen; Bennett, Gary; Bosworth, Hayden B; Corsino, Leonor; Voils, Corrine; Grambow, Steven; Lazenka, Tony; Batch, Bryan C; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, and obesity is a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The prominence and increasing functionality of mobile phones may provide an opportunity to deliver longitudinal and scalable weight management interventions in young adults. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design and development of the intervention tested in the Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY) study and to highlight the importance of adaptive intervention design (AID) that made it possible. The CITY study was an NHLBI-sponsored, controlled 24-month randomized clinical trial (RCT) comparing two active interventions to a usual-care control group. Participants were 365 overweight or obese (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2) young adults. Methods Both active interventions were designed based on social cognitive theory and incorporated techniques for behavioral self-management and motivational enhancement. Initial intervention development occurred during a 1-year formative phase utilizing focus groups and iterative, participatory design. During the intervention testing, AID, where an intervention is updated or extended throughout a trial while assuring the delivery of exactly the same intervention to each cohort, was employed. The AID strategy distributed technical work and allowed introduction of novel components in phases intended to help promote and sustain participant engagement. AID was made possible by exploiting the mobile phone's remote data capabilities so that adoption of particular application components could be continuously monitored and components subsequently added or updated remotely. Results The cellphone intervention was delivered almost entirely via cell phone and was always-present, proactive, and interactive – providing passive and active reminders, frequent opportunities for knowledge dissemination, and multiple tools for self-tracking and receiving tailored feedback. The intervention changed over two years to

  20. Determination of the Predictive role of Self-Regulation and Self-Control on Intemperate Use of Cell Phones by Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Pourrazavi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Regarding increasing the rate of cell phones use and its' subsequent dependency in such instrument among young people and also considering the important role of self-regulation and self-control traits on health related issues and the roles of such issues in problematic and addictive behaviors, this study has been designed to evaluate the predictive role of self-regulation and self-control on the intemperate use of cell phone and its related de-pendencies. Materials & Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study with analytical and descriptive orientation which has been carried out the students of universities which were located in the Tabriz city, Iran in 2013. Data were gathered through a questionnaire that was filled by 476 students (190 male and 286 female. Participants were selected through a multi-stage cluster sampling method from 9 universities in Tabriz. Data analysis was performed by SPSS version 21 and Mplus software version 6.2. Results: Results showed that the predictive effect of self-regulation (P= 0.19 and self-control (P=0.41 on intemperate cell phone use was not significant, hence the increase of one unit in self-regulation and self-control respectively reduced 42.0, 87.0 dependency in cell phone. Conclusion: The present study could not demonstrate the predictive effect of self-regulation and self-control on intemperate cell phones use, however, the results showed that the meas-ures were relatively correlated with dependency in cell phone and therefore further researches seem to be necessary in this field.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 152-160

  1. Use of email, cell phone and text message between patients and primary-care physicians: cross-sectional study in a French-speaking part of Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Jonathan; Haller, Dagmar M; Sommer, Johanna; Junod Perron, Noelle

    2016-10-05

    Physicians' daily work is increasingly affected by the use of emails, text messages and cell phone calls with their patients. The aim of this study was to describe their use between primary-care physicians and patients in a French-speaking part of Switzerland. A cross-sectional mail survey was conducted among all primary-care physicians of Geneva canton (n = 636). The questionnaire focused on the frequency of giving access to, type of use, advantages and disadvantages of email, cell phone calls and text messages communication between physicians and patients. Six hundred thirty-six questionnaires were mailed, 412 (65 %) were returned and 372 (58 %) could be analysed (37 refusals and three blanks). Seventy-two percent physicians gave their email-address and 74 % their cell phone number to their patients. Emails were used to respond to patients' questions (82 %) and change appointments (72 %) while cell phone calls and text messages were used to follow patients' health conditions. Sixty-four percent of those who used email communication never discussed the rules for email exchanges, and 54 % did not address confidentiality issues with their patients. Most commonly identified advantages of emails, cell phone calls and text messages were improved relationship with the patient, saving time (for emails) and improving the follow-up (for cell phone and text messages). The main disadvantages included misuse by the patient, interference with private life and lack of reimbursement. These tools are widely used by primary-care physicians with their patients. More attention should be paid to confidentiality, documentation and reimbursement when using email communication in order to optimize its use.

  2. Usages Pattern of Cell Phone in Classroom: A Case Study of Mathematical and Physical Science Faculty Students of Jahangirnagar University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Md. Shiblu; Hossain, Md. Moyazzem; Rahman, Md. Habibur

    2017-01-01

    Now-a-days mobile phone is very important communicational device. This cableless device reduces the hazards of the land phone. In spite of its various advantages it has some disadvantages also. Misusing of mobile phone increases the disadvantages of this device day by day. Unnecessary talking makes the reasons of wasting the money and time for the…

  3. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (Pelectromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely to induce the death of embryonic cells and decrease the chance of their implantation, thereby posing a high risk to pregnancy.

  4. Reliability and concurrent validity of the iPhone® Compass application to measure thoracic rotation range of motion (ROM in healthy participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Furness

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Several water-based sports (swimming, surfing and stand up paddle boarding require adequate thoracic mobility (specifically rotation in order to perform the appropriate activity requirements. The measurement of thoracic spine rotation is problematic for clinicians due to a lack of convenient and reliable measurement techniques. More recently, smartphones have been used to quantify movement in various joints in the body; however, there appears to be a paucity of research using smartphones to assess thoracic spine movement. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the reliability (intra and inter rater and validity of the iPhone® app (Compass when assessing thoracic spine rotation ROM in healthy individuals. Methods A total of thirty participants were recruited for this study. Thoracic spine rotation ROM was measured using both the current clinical gold standard, a universal goniometer (UG and the Smart Phone Compass app. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability was determined with a Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI. Validation of the Compass app in comparison to the UG was measured using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and levels of agreement were identified with Bland–Altman plots and 95% limits of agreement. Results Both the UG and Compass app measurements both had excellent reproducibility for intra-rater (ICC 0.94–0.98 and inter-rater reliability (ICC 0.72–0.89. However, the Compass app measurements had higher intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.96 − 0.98; 95% CI [0.93–0.99]; vs. ICC = 0.94 − 0.98; 95% CI [0.88–0.99] and inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.87 − 0.89; 95% CI [0.74–0.95] vs. ICC = 0.72 − 0.82; 95% CI [0.21–0.94]. A strong and significant correlation was found between the UG and the Compass app, demonstrating good concurrent validity (r = 0.835, p < 0.001. Levels of agreement between the two devices were 24.8° (LoA –9

  5. Reliability and concurrent validity of the iPhone® Compass application to measure thoracic rotation range of motion (ROM) in healthy participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, James; Schram, Ben; Cox, Alistair J; Anderson, Sarah L; Keogh, Justin

    2018-01-01

    Several water-based sports (swimming, surfing and stand up paddle boarding) require adequate thoracic mobility (specifically rotation) in order to perform the appropriate activity requirements. The measurement of thoracic spine rotation is problematic for clinicians due to a lack of convenient and reliable measurement techniques. More recently, smartphones have been used to quantify movement in various joints in the body; however, there appears to be a paucity of research using smartphones to assess thoracic spine movement. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the reliability (intra and inter rater) and validity of the iPhone ® app (Compass) when assessing thoracic spine rotation ROM in healthy individuals. A total of thirty participants were recruited for this study. Thoracic spine rotation ROM was measured using both the current clinical gold standard, a universal goniometer (UG) and the Smart Phone Compass app. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability was determined with a Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). Validation of the Compass app in comparison to the UG was measured using Pearson's correlation coefficient and levels of agreement were identified with Bland-Altman plots and 95% limits of agreement. Both the UG and Compass app measurements both had excellent reproducibility for intra-rater (ICC 0.94-0.98) and inter-rater reliability (ICC 0.72-0.89). However, the Compass app measurements had higher intra-rater reliability ( ICC  = 0.96 - 0.98; 95% CI [0.93-0.99]; vs. ICC  = 0.94 - 0.98; 95% CI [0.88-0.99]) and inter-rater reliability ( ICC  = 0.87 - 0.89; 95% CI [0.74-0.95] vs. ICC  = 0.72 - 0.82; 95% CI [0.21-0.94]). A strong and significant correlation was found between the UG and the Compass app, demonstrating good concurrent validity ( r  = 0.835, p  < 0.001). Levels of agreement between the two devices were 24.8° (LoA -9.5°, +15.3°). The UG was found to consistently

  6. Reliability and concurrent validity of the iPhone® Compass application to measure thoracic rotation range of motion (ROM) in healthy participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Ben; Cox, Alistair J.; Anderson, Sarah L.; Keogh, Justin

    2018-01-01

    Background Several water-based sports (swimming, surfing and stand up paddle boarding) require adequate thoracic mobility (specifically rotation) in order to perform the appropriate activity requirements. The measurement of thoracic spine rotation is problematic for clinicians due to a lack of convenient and reliable measurement techniques. More recently, smartphones have been used to quantify movement in various joints in the body; however, there appears to be a paucity of research using smartphones to assess thoracic spine movement. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the reliability (intra and inter rater) and validity of the iPhone® app (Compass) when assessing thoracic spine rotation ROM in healthy individuals. Methods A total of thirty participants were recruited for this study. Thoracic spine rotation ROM was measured using both the current clinical gold standard, a universal goniometer (UG) and the Smart Phone Compass app. Intra-rater and inter-rater reliability was determined with a Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and associated 95% confidence intervals (CI). Validation of the Compass app in comparison to the UG was measured using Pearson’s correlation coefficient and levels of agreement were identified with Bland–Altman plots and 95% limits of agreement. Results Both the UG and Compass app measurements both had excellent reproducibility for intra-rater (ICC 0.94–0.98) and inter-rater reliability (ICC 0.72–0.89). However, the Compass app measurements had higher intra-rater reliability (ICC = 0.96 − 0.98; 95% CI [0.93–0.99]; vs. ICC = 0.94 − 0.98; 95% CI [0.88–0.99]) and inter-rater reliability (ICC = 0.87 − 0.89; 95% CI [0.74–0.95] vs. ICC = 0.72 − 0.82; 95% CI [0.21–0.94]). A strong and significant correlation was found between the UG and the Compass app, demonstrating good concurrent validity (r = 0.835, p < 0.001). Levels of agreement between the two devices were 24.8° (LoA –9.5

  7. Neglect in human communication: quantifying the cost of cell-phone interruptions in face to face dialogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Lopez-Rosenfeld

    Full Text Available There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone. The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . . and about the virtues of the people around them.

  8. [When nursing teacher’s authority and education relationship have to deal with cell-phones in class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trophardy, Céline

    2017-09-01

    In nursing institut teachers accompany students with whom they establish a pedagogical relationship, while guaranteeing compliance with internal rules, particularly concerning the banning of mobile phones during teaching. This complex double mission includes, among others, the forbidding of cell phones in classroom. this study aims at understanding the involved relational mechanism through the following question: how teachers articulate pedagogical relationship with their required authority at the same time? qualitative study performed between 2015 and 2016 using semi structured interviews interviews of teachers and students of the nursing school. teachers give importance to the quality of relationship, but arrange differently to link authority and training missions. Students accept and recognize this authority as it is part of the internal rules. This legitimacy allows setting up a cooperative pedagogical relation. The internal rules contribute to build up the authority of teachers' team. This study opens perspectives for reflection on the notions of relationship, rules, legitimacy and collaboration. Authority is a complex phenomenon which fits, just like pedagogical relation, in a frame providing stability and legitimacy. The internal rules would not standardize the behaviors, but would allow expressing individual liberty.

  9. What is harmful for male fertility: cell phone or the wireless Internet?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Mehmet Erol; Kaynar, Mehmet; Badem, Huseyin; Cavis, Mucahıt; Karatas, Omer Faruk; Cimentepe, Ersın

    2015-09-01

    In this study, we aimed to assess the potential harmful effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation on sperm parameters. We requested semen for analyses from the male patients coming to our infertility division and also asked them to fill out an anonymous questionnaire. We queried their mobile phone and wireless Internet usage frequencies in order to determine their radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation exposure. A total of 1082 patients filled the questionnaire but 51 of them were excluded from the study because of azoospermia. There was no significant difference between sperm counts and sperm morphology excluding sperm motility, due to mobile phone usage period, (p = 0.074, p = 0.909, and p = 0.05, respectively). The total motile sperm count and the progressive motile sperm count decreased due to the increase of internet usage (p = 0.032 and p = 0.033, respectively). In line with the total motile sperm count, progressive motile sperm count also decreased with wireless Internet usage compared with the wired Internet connection usage (p = 0.009 and p = 0.018, respectively). There was a negative correlation between wireless Internet usage duration and the total sperm count (r = -0.089, p = 0.039). We have also explored the negative effect of wireless Internet use on sperm motility according to our preliminary results. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  10. What is harmful for male fertility: Cell phone or the wireless internet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Erol Yildirim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to assess the potential harmful effects of radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation on sperm parameters. We requested semen for analyses from the male patients coming to our infertility division and also asked them to fill out an anonymous questionnaire. We queried their mobile phone and wireless internet usage frequencies in order to determine their radiofrequency-electromagnetic radiation exposure. A total of 1082 patients filled the questionnaire but 51 of them were excluded from the study because of azoospermia. There was no significant difference between sperm counts and sperm morphology excluding sperm motility, due to mobile phone usage period, (p = 0.074, p = 0.909, and p = 0.05, respectively. The total motile sperm count and the progressive motile sperm count decreased due to the increase of internet usage (p = 0.032 and p = 0.033, respectively. In line with the total motile sperm count, progressive motile sperm count also decreased with wireless internet usage compared with the wired internet connection usage (p = 0.009 and p = 0.018, respectively. There was a negative correlation between wireless internet usage duration and the total sperm count (r = −0.089, p = 0.039. We have also explored the negative effect of wireless internet use on sperm motility according to our preliminary results.

  11. Efficacy of a randomized cell phone-based counseling intervention in postponing subsequent pregnancy among teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Kathy S; Rodan, Margaret; Milligan, Renee; Tan, Sylvia; Courtney, Lauren; Gantz, Marie; Blake, Susan M; McClain, Lenora; Davis, Maurice; Kiely, Michele; Subramanian, Siva

    2011-12-01

    Adolescent mothers in Washington, DC have a high rate of subsequent teen pregnancies, often within 24 months. Children of teen mothers are at risk for adverse psychosocial outcomes. When adolescents are strongly attached to parents, schools, and positive peers, they may be less likely to repeat a pregnancy. This study tested the efficacy of a counseling intervention delivered by cell phone and focused on postponing subsequent teen pregnancies by strengthening healthy relationships, reproductive practices, and positive youth assets. The objective of this study was to compare time to a repeat pregnancy between the intervention and usual care groups, and, secondarily, to determine whether treatment intensity influenced time to subsequent conception. Primiparous pregnant teens ages 15-19, were recruited in Washington, DC. Of 849 teens screened, 29.3% (n = 249) met inclusion criteria, consented to participate, and completed baseline measures. They were then randomized to the intervention (N = 124) or to usual care (N = 125). Intervention group teens received cell phones for 18 months of counseling sessions, and quarterly group sessions. Follow-up measures assessed subsequent pregnancy through 24 months post-delivery. A survival analysis compared time to subsequent conception in the two treatment groups. Additional models examined the effect of treatment intensity. By 24 months, 31% of the intervention and 36% of usual care group teens had a subsequent pregnancy. Group differences were not statistically significant in intent-to-treat analysis. Because there was variability in the degree of exposure of teens to the curriculum, a survival analysis accounting for treatment intensity was performed and a significant interaction with age was detected. Participants who were aged 15-17 years at delivery showed a significant reduction in subsequent pregnancy with increased levels of intervention exposure (P teen pregnancy. Cell phone-based approaches to counseling may not be the

  12. Thermal skin damage and mobile phone use

    OpenAIRE

    Elabbassi, Elmountacer-Billah; De Seze, René

    2005-01-01

    International audience; Mobile phone "cell phone" use has dramatically increased over th last decade, but doubts remain over its safety. Epidemiological investigation of mobile phone (MP) users reported symptoms of discomfort feeling, warmth behind/around or on the ear and heat sensation of the cheek. These symptoms may be due to thermal insulation, conduction of the heat produced in the phone by the battery currents and running of the radiofrequency (RF) electronic circuits, and electromagne...

  13. Are mobile phones harmful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blettner, M; Berg, Gabriele

    2000-01-01

    There is increasing public interest in health risks of mobile phone use. Although there is a vast body of material on the biological effects of radiofrequency fields, current risk assessment is still limited. The article describes several hypotheses and results of biological effects such as thermal...... effect, genetic and carcinogenic effects and cancer related investigations. Mobile phones transmit and receive waves of frequencies mainly at 800-1800 MHz. Findings on the thermal effect of acute exposure to radiofrequency fields were consistent, resulting in an increase of cellular, tissue or body...... in cells. Implications of these experimental results on public health concerns are yet unclear. Few epidemiological studies are available on the use of mobile phones or on the radiofrequency exposure and the development of cancer. Most of these studies have no or little quantitative exposure data...

  14. Feasibility and Perceptions of Cell Phone-Based, Health-Related Communication With Adolescents in an Economically Depressed Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawni, Anju; Cederna-Meko, Crystal; LaChance, Jenny L; Buttigieg, Angie; Le, Quoc; Nunuk, Irene; Ang, Joyce; Burrell, Katherine M

    2017-02-01

    We examined the feasibility and perception of cell-based (texting, voicemail [VM], and email/social media), health-related communication with adolescents in Genesee County, MI, where 22% reside below the poverty level. Results of an anonymous survey found that 86% of respondents owned a cell phone, 87% had data, 96% texted, 90.5% emailed/used social media, and 68% had VM. Most adolescents were interested in cell-based communication via texting (52%), VM (37%), and email/social media (31%). Interest in types of health communication included appointment reminders (99% texting; 94% VM; 95% email/social media), shot reminders (84.5% texting; 74.5% VM; 81% email/social media), call for test results (71.5% texting; 75% VM; 65% email/social media), medication reminders (63% texting; 54% VM; 58% e-mail/social media), and health tips (36% texting; 18.5% VM; 73% email/social media). Cell-based health-related communication with adolescents is feasible even within low socioeconomic status populations, primarily via texting. Health providers should embrace cell-based patient communication.

  15. The SMS, Phone, and medical Examination sports injury surveillance system is a feasible and valid approach to measuring handball exposure, injury occurrence, and consequences in elite youth sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Møller, M; Wedderkopp, N; Myklebust, G; Lind, M; Sørensen, H; Hebert, J J; Attermann, J

    2018-04-01

    Current methods of sports injury surveillance are limited by lack of medical validation of self-reported injuries and/or incomplete information about injury consequences beyond time loss from sport. The aims of this study were to (a) evaluate the feasibility of the SMS, Phone, and medical Examination injury surveillance (SPEx) system (b) to evaluate the proportion of injuries and injury consequences reported by SPEx when compared to outcomes from a modified version of the Oslo Sports Trauma Research Centre (OSTRC) Overuse Injury Questionnaire. We followed 679 elite adolescent handball players over 31 weeks using the SPEx system. During the last 7 weeks, we also implemented a modified OSTRC questionnaire in a subgroup of 271 players via telephone interviews. The weekly response proportions to the primary SPEx questions ranged from 85% to 96% (mean 92%). SMS responses were received from 79% of the participants within 1 day. 95% of reported injuries were classified through the telephone interview within a week, and 67% were diagnosed by medical personnel. Comparisons between reported injuries from SPEx and OSTRC demonstrated fair (κ = 39.5% [25.1%-54.0%]) to substantial prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK = 66.8% [95% CI 58.0%-75.6%]) agreement. The average injury severity score difference between SPEx and the OSTRC approach was -0.2 (95% CI -3.69-3.29) of possible 100 with 95% limits of agreement from(-14.81-14.41). These results support the feasibility and validity of the SPEx injury surveillance system in elite youth sport. Future studies should evaluate the external validity of SPEx system in different cohorts of athletes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The Effects of Internet Use, Cell Phones and Computer Games on Mental Health of Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Kelleci

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of digital technology, including computers, cell phones, computer games, and so on, most recently, on-the-go for recreational purposes, has increased among our youth over the past 15 years. Children and adolescent between the ages of 8 to 18 years spend an average of 5-6 hours per day using information and communication technologies. It is a useful progress because of the increase of internet usage which is unlimited, uncontrolled and uninhibited and easiness which arrival all sorts of to informations or persons but this state can cause to some important negative results too. The computer games, the internet explores is gradually estrange from social life the children and adolescent. In this paper, has been mentioned to negative effect of internet usage, computer games on mental health of children and adolescents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000: 253-256

  17. Impact of a cell phone intervention on mediating mechanisms of smoking cessation in individuals living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidrine, Damon J; Arduino, Roberto C; Gritz, Ellen R

    2006-12-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that smokers living with HIV/AIDS have a significantly increased risk of numerous adverse health outcomes (both AIDS- and non-AIDS-related) compared with HIV-positive nonsmokers. Therefore, efforts to design and implement effective cessation programs for this ever-growing special population are warranted. The present study assessed the effects of a cell phone intervention (CPI) on hypothesized mediators (i.e., changes in depression, anxiety, social support, and self-efficacy) demonstrated to influence cessation outcomes in other populations. Ninety-five participants from an inner-city AIDS clinic were randomized to receive either the CPI or recommended standard of care (RSOC) smoking cessation treatment. Participants randomized to the RSOC group (n=47) received brief advice to quit, a 10-week supply of nicotine patches, and self-help materials. Participants randomized to the CPI group (n=48) received RSOC components plus a series of eight proactive counseling sessions delivered via cell phones. A series of regression analyses (linear and logistic) was used to assess the relationships between treatment group, the hypothesized mediators, and biochemically confirmed smoking cessation outcomes. Results indicated that the CPI group experienced greater reductions in anxiety and depression, and increases in self-efficacy compared with the RSOC group. Further, changes in depression, anxiety, and self-efficacy weakened the association between treatment group and cessation outcome. The mediator hypothesis, however, for social support was rejected, as the difference score was not significantly associated with treatment group. These results suggest that the efficacy of the CPI is at least partially mediated by its ability to decrease symptoms of distress while increasing self-efficacy.

  18. Dr Math gets MUDDY: the "dirt" on how to attract teenagers to Mathematics and Science by using multi-user dungeon games over Mxit on cell phones

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Butgereit, L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The current group of teenagers has been called many things – some of the terms unprintable in respectable publications. However terms such as the “thumb tribe” (because they can type faster on their cell phones with their thumbs than adults can type...

  19. Weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology: design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial - Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch, Bryan C; Tyson, Crystal; Bagwell, Jacqueline; Corsino, Leonor; Intille, Stephen; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Lazenka, Tony; Bennett, Gary; Bosworth, Hayden B; Voils, Corrine; Grambow, Steven; Sutton, Aziza; Bordogna, Rachel; Pangborn, Matthew; Schwager, Jenifer; Pilewski, Kate; Caccia, Carla; Burroughs, Jasmine; Svetkey, Laura P

    2014-03-01

    The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, leading to significant public health implications later in adulthood. Intervention in early adulthood may be an effective public health strategy for reducing the long-term health impact of the epidemic. Few weight loss trials have been conducted in young adults. It is unclear what weight loss strategies are beneficial in this population. To describe the design and rationale of the NHLBI-sponsored Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY) study, which is a single center, randomized three-arm trial that compares the impact on weight loss of 1) a behavioral intervention that is delivered almost entirely via cell phone technology (Cell Phone group); and 2) a behavioral intervention delivered mainly through monthly personal coaching calls enhanced by self-monitoring via cell phone (Personal Coaching group), each compared to 3) a usual care, advice-only control condition. A total of 365 community-dwelling overweight/obese adults aged 18-35 years were randomized to receive one of these three interventions for 24 months in parallel group design. Study personnel assessing outcomes were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome is weight change at 24 [corrected] months. We hypothesize that each active intervention will cause more weight loss than the usual care condition. Study completion is anticipated in 2014. If effective, implementation of the CITY interventions could mitigate the alarming rates of obesity in young adults through promotion of weight loss. ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01092364. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. On the Use of Cell Phones and Other Electronic Devices in the Classroom: Evidence from a Survey of Faculty and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William M.; Lusk, Edward J.; Neuhauser, Karyn L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated faculty and student perceptions regarding the use of cell phones and other electronic devices in the classroom. Students differed markedly from faculty, with students exhibiting much greater acceptance of in-class use of technology. Among students, the authors found that gender affected perceptions. Specifically, male…

  1. Students' Use of Cell Phones in Class for Off-Task Behaviors: The Indirect Impact of Instructors' Teaching Behaviors through Boredom and Students' Attitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolkan, San; Griffin, Darrin J.

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine how various teaching behaviors influence students' emotional and cognitive experiences in class, and how these experiences relate to students' use of cell phones while considering contextual factors that might influence this outcome. Two hundred and seventy-four students responded to questions regarding their…

  2. Weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology: design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial – Cell phone Intervention for You (CITY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch, Bryan C.; Tyson, Crystal; Bagwell, Jacqueline; Corsino, Leonor; Intille, Stephen; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Lazenka, Tony; Bennett, Gary; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Voils, Corrine; Grambow, Steven; Sutton, Aziza; Bordogna, Rachel; Pangborn, Matthew; Schwager, Jenifer; Pilewski, Kate; Caccia, Carla; Burroughs, Jasmine; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, leading to significant public health implications later in adulthood. Intervention in early adulthood may be an effective public health strategy for reducing the long-term health impact of the epidemic. Few weight loss trials have been conducted in young adults. It is unclear what weight loss strategies are beneficial in this population. Purpose To describe the design and rationale of the NHLBI-sponsored Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY) study, which is a single center, randomized three-arm trial that compares the impact on weight loss of 1) a behavioral intervention that is delivered almost entirely via cell phone technology (Cell Phone group); and 2) a behavioral intervention delivered mainly through monthly personal coaching calls enhanced by self-monitoring via cell phone (Personal Coaching group), each compared to; 3) a usual care, advice-only control condition. Methods A total of 365 community-dwelling overweight/obese adults aged 18–35 years were randomized to receive one of these three interventions for 24 months in parallel group design. Study personnel assessing outcomes were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome is weight change at 12 months. We hypothesize that each active intervention will cause more weight loss than the usual care condition. Study completion is anticipated in 2014. Conclusions If effective, implementation of the CITY interventions could mitigate the alarming rates of obesity in young adults through promotion of weight loss. PMID:24462568

  3. Validity and intra-rater reliability of MyJump app on iPhone 6s in jump performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Robert; Wintour, Sally-Anne; Kean, Crystal O

    2017-05-01

    Smartphone applications are increasingly used by researchers, coaches, athletes and clinicians. The aim of this study was to examine the concurrent validity and intra-rater reliability of the smartphone-based application, MyJump, against laboratory-based force plate measurements. Cross sectional study. Participants completed counter-movement jumps (CMJ) (n=29) and 30cm drop jumps (DJ) (n=27) on a force plate which were simultaneously recorded using MyJump. To assess concurrent validity, jump height, derived from flight time acquired from each device, was compared for each jump type. Intra-rater reliability was determined by replicating data analysis of MyJump recordings on two occasions separated by seven days. CMJ and DJ heights derived from MyJump showed excellent agreement with the force plate (ICC values range from 0.991 for CMJ to 0.993) However mean DJ height from the force plate was significantly higher than MyJump (mean difference: 0.87cm, 95% CI: 0.69-1.04cm). Intra-rater reliability of MyJump for both CMJ and DJ was almost perfect (ICC values range from 0.997 for CMJ to 0.998 for DJ); however, mean CMJ and DJ jump height for Day 1 was significantly higher than Day 2 (CMJ: 0.43cm, 95% CI: 0.23-0.62cm); (DJ: 0.38cm, 95% CI: 0.23-0.53cm). The present study finds MyJump to be a valid and highly reliable tool for researchers, coaches, athletes and clinicians; however, systematic bias should be considered when comparing MyJump outputs to other testing devices. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. CELL PHONES AND PENS-UBIQUITOUS ACCESSORIES OF DOCTORS AND HEALTHCARE WORKERS- ARE THEY A SOURCE OF WORRY IN THE OPERATION THEATRE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Sajan Kurien

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Hospital-associated infections are an important cause of patient morbidity and mortality. Cell phones and pens are ubiquitous accessories of doctors and other Healthcare Workers (HCWs in a hospital as well as outside for various purposes. But, they may serve as reservoirs of infection allowing the transportation of the contaminating bacteria to many different clinical environments. The aim of the study is to find out the prevalence of various bacteria in mobile phones and pens of doctors and other staff working in operation theatres of Government Medical College, Kottayam, Kerala, for a period of one year. MATERIALS AND METHODS 400 samples of microbiological swabs were collected from pens and mobile phones of medical personnel working in the operation theatres of Government Medical College, Kottayam, for one year. If growth was present in cultures, identification of organisms and sensitivity to routine antibiotics was checked by disc diffusion method according to the organism isolated. RESULTS About 2/3rd of mobile phones and pens carried by healthcare workers inside operation theatres contained bacteria, of which, skin commensals prevailed in number. Presence of faecal microflora and multidrug-resistant bacteria detected in some of the samples are alarming. CONCLUSION This study emphasises the need for creating awareness among healthcare workers regarding the role of mobile phones and pens as carriers in transmission of nosocomial infections.

  5. Cell phone-based ecological momentary assessment of substance use context for Latino youth in outpatient treatment: Who, what, when and where.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comulada, W Scott; Swendeman, Dallas; Wu, Nancy

    2016-10-01

    Relationships between alcohol, marijuana and other drug (AOD) use and contextual factors have mostly been established through retrospective self-report. Given the embeddedness of cell phones in adolescents' daily activities, cell phone-based ecological momentary assessment (CEMA) provides an opportunity to better understand AOD use in youth and how cell phones can be used to self-monitor and deliver interventions. We use CEMA to examine AOD use in Latino youth who have been especially understudied. Twenty-eight mostly Latino youth (ages 13-18) in outpatient substance abuse treatment recorded AOD use, contextual factors, cravings, and affect through once-daily CEMA over one month periods. Random-effects logistic regression was used to compare contextual factors between periods of AOD use and non-use. The most frequent contextual factors reported during AOD use were being with close friends and "hanging out" as the primary activity. During AOD use compared to non-use, youth were more likely to be with close friends (OR=4.76; pcell phone-based interventions triggered by contextual data. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Though mobile phone usership increased 20-fold in Africa over the past decade, little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health information in the region. Methods We performed structured interviews of fifty patients at the Immune Suppression Syndrome clinic in Mbarara, Uganda to assess four domains of health-related communication: a) cell phone use practices and literacy, b) preferences for laboratory results communication, c) privacy and confidentiality, and d) acceptability of and preferences for text messaging to notify patients of abnormal test results. Results Participants had a median of 38 years, were 56% female, and were residents of a large catchment area throughout southwestern Uganda. All participants expressed interest in a service to receive information about laboratory results by cell phone text message, stating benefits of increased awareness of their health and decreased transportation costs. Ninety percent reported that they would not be concerned for unintended disclosure. A minority additionally expressed concerns about difficulty interpreting messages, discouragement upon learning bad news, and technical issues. Though all respondents expressed interest in password protection of messages, there was also a strong desire for direct messages to limit misinterpretation of information. Conclusions Cell phone text messaging for communication of abnormal laboratory results is highly acceptable in this cohort of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. The feasibility of text messaging, including an optimal balance between privacy and comprehension, should be further studied. PMID:22720901

  7. High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedner Mark J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Though mobile phone usership increased 20-fold in Africa over the past decade, little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health information in the region. Methods We performed structured interviews of fifty patients at the Immune Suppression Syndrome clinic in Mbarara, Uganda to assess four domains of health-related communication: a cell phone use practices and literacy, b preferences for laboratory results communication, c privacy and confidentiality, and d acceptability of and preferences for text messaging to notify patients of abnormal test results. Results Participants had a median of 38 years, were 56% female, and were residents of a large catchment area throughout southwestern Uganda. All participants expressed interest in a service to receive information about laboratory results by cell phone text message, stating benefits of increased awareness of their health and decreased transportation costs. Ninety percent reported that they would not be concerned for unintended disclosure. A minority additionally expressed concerns about difficulty interpreting messages, discouragement upon learning bad news, and technical issues. Though all respondents expressed interest in password protection of messages, there was also a strong desire for direct messages to limit misinterpretation of information. Conclusions Cell phone text messaging for communication of abnormal laboratory results is highly acceptable in this cohort of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. The feasibility of text messaging, including an optimal balance between privacy and comprehension, should be further studied.

  8. Reliability and concurrent validity of knee angle measurement: smart phone app versus universal goniometer used by experienced and novice clinicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanese, Steven; Gordon, Susan; Buettner, Petra; Flavell, Carol; Ruston, Sally; Coe, Damien; O'Sullivan, William; McCormack, Steven

    2014-12-01

    The use of goniometers to measure joint angles is a key part of musculoskeletal practice. Recently smartphone goniometry applications have become available to clinicians. This study examined the intra- and inter-measurer reliability of novice and experienced clinicians and the concurrent validity of assessing knee range of motion using a smartphone application (the Knee Goniometer App (Ockendon(©))) (KGA) and a standard universal goniometer (UG). Three clinicians, each with over seven years' experience as musculoskeletal physiotherapists and three final year physiotherapy students, measured 18 different knee joint angles three times, using both the universal goniometer and the smartphone goniometric application. The universal goniometer and the smartphone goniometric application were reliable in repeated measures of knee flexion angles (average Concordance Correlation Coefficient (CCC) > 0.98) with both experienced clinicians and final year physiotherapy students (average CCCs > 0.96). There were no significant differences in reliability between the experienced and the novice practitioners for either device. Agreement between the universal goniometer and smartphone goniometric application measurements was also high for all examiners with average CCCs all above 0.96. The Standard Error of Measurement ranged between 1.56° (0.52-2.66) for the UG and 0.62° (0.29-1.27) for the KGA. The universal goniometer and the smartphone goniometric application were reliable in repeated measures of knee flexion angles. Smaller error of measurement values for the smartphone goniometric application might indicate superiority for assessment where clinical situations demand greater precision of knee range of motion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Efficacy and External Validity of Electronic and Mobile Phone-Based Interventions Promoting Vegetable Intake in Young Adults: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nour, Monica; Chen, Juliana; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret

    2016-04-08

    Young adults (18-35 years) remain among the lowest vegetable consumers in many western countries. The digital era offers opportunities to engage this age group in interventions in new and appealing ways. This systematic review evaluated the efficacy and external validity of electronic (eHealth) and mobile phone (mHealth) -based interventions that promote vegetable intake in young adults. We searched several electronic databases for studies published between 1990 and 2015, and 2 independent authors reviewed the quality and risk of bias of the eligible papers and extracted data for analyses. The primary outcome of interest was the change in vegetable intake postintervention. Where possible, we calculated effect sizes (Cohen d and 95% CIs) for comparison. A random effects model was applied to the data for meta-analysis. Reach and representativeness of participants, intervention implementation, and program maintenance were assessed to establish external validity. Published validation studies were consulted to determine the validity of tools used to measure intake. We applied the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system to evaluate the overall quality of the body of evidence. Of the 14 studies that met the selection criteria, we included 12 in the meta-analysis. In the meta-analysis, 7 studies found positive effects postintervention for fruit and vegetable intake, Cohen d 0.14-0.56 (pooled effect size 0.22, 95% CI 0.11-0.33, I(2)=68.5%, P=.002), and 4 recorded positive effects on vegetable intake alone, Cohen d 0.11-0.40 (pooled effect size 0.15, 95% CI 0.04-0.28, I(2)=31.4%, P=.2). These findings should be interpreted with caution due to variability in intervention design and outcome measures. With the majority of outcomes documented as a change in combined fruit and vegetable intake, it was difficult to determine intervention effects on vegetable consumption specifically. Measurement of intake was most commonly by self

  10. Validation of exposure assessment and assessment of recruitment methods for a prospective cohort study of mobile phone users (COSMOS) in Finland: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinävaara, Sirpa; Tokola, Kari; Kurttio, Päivi; Auvinen, Anssi

    2011-03-08

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the agreement between self-reported and operator-derived estimates of call time based on a three-month monitoring period, as well as the consistency of mobile phone use over time. Alternative approaches to improve participation in a cohort study of mobile phone users were also compared. A total of 5,400 subjects were identified from network operators' subscriber databases for recruitment to the pilot study. Operator and questionnaire data were used to quantify mobile phone use. Operator data were available for a subset of the subjects for a three-month period in three consecutive years. We also evaluated the effect of the length of the questionnaire and one- or two-phase recruitment on participation. The average response rate for both questionnaires and recruitment procedures was 12%. The response rate was not affected by the length of the questionnaire or the recruitment method.Operator data were available for 83% of the participants for 2007, the first study year. The agreement between self-reported and operator-derived call times decreased with the level of use among intermediate and heavy mobile phone users. During 2007-2009, mobile phone use increased fairly constantly over time. The agreement between self-reported mobile phone use and operator databases was moderate and overestimation of the call time by participants was common. A prospective cohort study would be feasible in Finland, although the potentially low participation rate would increase the resources required for recruitment.

  11. Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Tomruk, Arın; Canseven, Ayse G; Yücel, Engin; Aktuna, Zuhal; Keskil, Semih; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular phone radiation on oxidative stress parameters and oxide levels in mouse brain during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic seizure. Eight weeks old mice were used in the study. Animals were distributed in the following groups: Group I: Control group treated with PTZ, Group II: 15min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation, Group III: 30min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation. The RF radiation was produced by a 900MHz cellular phone. Lipid peroxidation, which is the indicator of oxidative stress was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by the Ellman method. Tissue total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were obtained using the Griess assay. Lipid peroxidation and NOx levels of brain tissue increased significantly in group II and III compared to group I. On the contrary, GSH levels were significantly lower in group II and III than group I. However, no statistically significant alterations in any of the endpoints were noted between group II and Group III. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. MIDP-based Realization of a Simple Phone Contact Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yan; Xia, Heng; Huan, Lele

    This paper describes the architecture of J2ME and MIDP specification, use the Java language to implement a simple cell phone contact book system, to complete a contact to add, delete, modify, query functions. Different from existing phone contacts, it can run any MIDP-enabled mobile phones, avoid the question of using tool software into and out of phone contact book after user change phone.

  13. No increase in brain cancer rates during period of expanding cell phone use

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a new examination of United States cancer incidence data, investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that incidence trends have remained roughly constant for glioma, the main type of brain cancer hypothesized to be related to cell ph

  14. Validity and reliability of a novel iPhone app for the measurement of barbell velocity and 1RM on the bench-press exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Marchante, David; Muñoz-López, Mario; Jiménez, Sergio L

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the validity and reliability of a novel iPhone app (named: PowerLift) for the measurement of mean velocity on the bench-press exercise. Additionally, the accuracy of the estimation of the 1-Repetition maximum (1RM) using the load-velocity relationship was tested. To do this, 10 powerlifters (Mean (SD): age = 26.5 ± 6.5 years; bench press 1RM · kg -1  = 1.34 ± 0.25) completed an incremental test on the bench-press exercise with 5 different loads (75-100% 1RM), while the mean velocity of the barbell was registered using a linear transducer (LT) and Powerlift. Results showed a very high correlation between the LT and the app (r = 0.94, SEE = 0.028 m · s -1 ) for the measurement of mean velocity. Bland-Altman plots (R 2  = 0.011) and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC = 0.965) revealed a very high agreement between both devices. A systematic bias by which the app registered slightly higher values than the LT (P < 0.05; mean difference (SD) between instruments = 0.008 ± 0.03 m · s -1 ). Finally, actual and estimated 1RM using the app were highly correlated (r = 0.98, mean difference (SD) = 5.5 ± 9.6 kg, P < 0.05). The app was found to be highly valid and reliable in comparison with a LT. These findings could have valuable practical applications for strength and conditioning coaches who wish to measure barbell velocity in the bench-press exercise.

  15. Mobile phone base station radiation does not affect neoplastic transformation in BALB/3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, H; Suhara, T; Kaji, N; Sakuma, N; Sekijima, M; Nojima, T; Miyakoshi, J

    2008-01-01

    A large-scale in vitro study focusing on low-level radiofrequency (RF) fields from mobile radio base stations employing the International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) cellular system was conducted to test the hypothesis that modulated RF fields affect malignant transformation or other cellular stress responses. Our group previously reported that DNA strand breaks were not induced in human cells exposed to 2.1425 GHz Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) radiation up to 800 mW/kg from mobile radio base stations employing the IMT-2000 cellular system. In the current study, BALB/3T3 cells were continuously exposed to 2.1425 GHz W-CDMA RF fields at specific absorption rates (SARs) of 80 and 800 mW/kg for 6 weeks and malignant cell transformation was assessed. In addition, 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA)-treated cells were exposed to RF fields in a similar fashion, to assess for effects on tumor promotion. Finally, the effect of RF fields on tumor co-promotion was assessed in BALB/3T3 cells initiated with MCA and co-exposed to 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). At the end of the incubation period, transformation dishes were fixed, stained with Giemsa, and scored for morphologically transformed foci. No significant differences in transformation frequency were observed between the test groups exposed to RF signals and the sham-exposed negative controls in the non-, MCA-, or MCA plus TPA-treated cells. Our studies found no evidence to support the hypothesis that RF fields may affect malignant transformation. Our results suggest that exposure to low-level RF radiation of up to 800 mW/kg does not induce cell transformation, which causes tumor formation. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Problematic cell phone use for text messaging and substance abuse in early adolescence (11- to 13-year-olds).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallimberti, Luigi; Buja, Alessandra; Chindamo, Sonia; Terraneo, Alberto; Marini, Elena; Rabensteiner, Andrea; Vinelli, Angela; Gomez Perez, Luis Javier; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our study was to examine the association between problematic cell phone use (PCPU) for text messaging and substance abuse in young adolescents. This cross-sectional study was conducted on the basis of an ad hoc questionnaire, during the 2014-2015 school year in a province of the Veneto Region (Italy); it involved a sample of 1156 students in grades 6 to 8 (11 to 13 years old). A self-report scale based on the Short Message Service (SMS) Problem Use Diagnostic Questionnaire (SMS-PUDQ) was administered to assess the sample's PCPU. A multivariate logistic regression model was applied to seek associations between PCPU (as the dependent variable) and independent variables. The proportion of students who reported a PCPU increased with age in girls (13.5% in 6th grade, 16.4% in 7th grade, and 19.5% in 8th grade), but not in boys (14.3% in 6th grade, 18.0% in 7th grade, and 14.8% in 8th grade). Logistic regression showed that drunkenness at least once and energy drink consumption raised the odds of PCPU, whereas reading books, higher average school marks, and longer hours of sleep were associated with lower odds of PCPU in early adolescence. our findings confirm a widespread PCPU for text messaging among early adolescents. The odds of PCPU is greater in young people at risk of other substance abuse behavior.

  17. A Two-Stage Taguchi Design ExampleImage Quality Promotion in Miniature Camera/Cell-Phone Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke K. Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple, practical manufacturing process, integrating manufacturing capability-oriented design (MCOD philosophy and Taguchi’s method, is presented to tackle the high resolution miniature camera/cell phone lens issues at the manufacturing phase. Meanwhile, we also use optical software to create an analytical simulation model to investigate the quality characteristics due to lens’ thickness, eccentricity, surface profile, and air lens’ gap; a single quality characteristics expressed in terms of modulation transfer function (MTF is defined. Optimal combination of process parameters in experimental scenario using Taguchi’s method is performed, and the results are judged and analyzed by the indices of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N and the analysis of variance (ANOVA. The key idea of the two-stage design is to utilize optical software to conduct the sensitivity analysis of MTF first; an analytical model, dependent on actual process parameters at manufacturing stage, is constructed next; and finally by substituting these outputs from the analytical model back to the optical software to verify the design criterion and do the modifications. By minimizing both the theoretical errors at design stage and the complexity in the manufacturing process, we are able to seeking for the most economical solution, simultaneously attain the optimal/suboptimal combination of process parameters or control factors in lens manufacturing issue.

  18. Technology Validation: Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eudy, Leslie [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    This presentation describing the FY 2016 accomplishments for the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Fuel Cell Bus Evaluations project was presented at the U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7, 2016.

  19. Image and diagnosis quality of X-ray image transmission via cell phone camera: a project study evaluating quality and reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Goost

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Developments in telemedicine have not produced any relevant benefits for orthopedics and trauma surgery to date. For the present project study, several parameters were examined during assessment of x-ray images, which had been photographed and transmitted via cell phone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 x-ray images of various body regions were photographed with a Nokia cell phone and transmitted via email or MMS. Next, the transmitted photographs were reviewed on a laptop computer by five medical specialists and assessed regarding quality and diagnosis. RESULTS: Due to their poor quality, the transmitted MMS images could not be evaluated and this path of transmission was therefore excluded. Mean size of transmitted x-ray email images was 394 kB (range: 265-590 kB, SD ± 59, average transmission time was 3.29 min ± 8 (CI 95%: 1.7-4.9. Applying a score from 1-10 (very poor - excellent, mean image quality was 5.8. In 83.2 ± 4% (mean value ± SD of cases (median 82; 80-89%, there was agreement between final diagnosis and assessment by the five medical experts who had received the images. However, there was a markedly low concurrence ratio in the thoracic area and in pediatric injuries. DISCUSSION: While the rate of accurate diagnosis and indication for surgery was high with a concurrence ratio of 83%, considerable differences existed between the assessed regions, with lowest values for thoracic images. Teleradiology is a cost-effective, rapid method which can be applied wherever wireless cell phone reception is available. In our opinion, this method is in principle suitable for clinical use, enabling the physician on duty to agree on appropriate measures with colleagues located elsewhere via x-ray image transmission on a cell phone.

  20. Image and diagnosis quality of X-ray image transmission via cell phone camera: a project study evaluating quality and reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goost, Hans; Witten, Johannes; Heck, Andreas; Hadizadeh, Dariusch R; Weber, Oliver; Gräff, Ingo; Burger, Christof; Montag, Mareen; Koerfer, Felix; Kabir, Koroush

    2012-01-01

    Developments in telemedicine have not produced any relevant benefits for orthopedics and trauma surgery to date. For the present project study, several parameters were examined during assessment of x-ray images, which had been photographed and transmitted via cell phone. A total of 100 x-ray images of various body regions were photographed with a Nokia cell phone and transmitted via email or MMS. Next, the transmitted photographs were reviewed on a laptop computer by five medical specialists and assessed regarding quality and diagnosis. Due to their poor quality, the transmitted MMS images could not be evaluated and this path of transmission was therefore excluded. Mean size of transmitted x-ray email images was 394 kB (range: 265-590 kB, SD ± 59), average transmission time was 3.29 min ± 8 (CI 95%: 1.7-4.9). Applying a score from 1-10 (very poor - excellent), mean image quality was 5.8. In 83.2 ± 4% (mean value ± SD) of cases (median 82; 80-89%), there was agreement between final diagnosis and assessment by the five medical experts who had received the images. However, there was a markedly low concurrence ratio in the thoracic area and in pediatric injuries. While the rate of accurate diagnosis and indication for surgery was high with a concurrence ratio of 83%, considerable differences existed between the assessed regions, with lowest values for thoracic images. Teleradiology is a cost-effective, rapid method which can be applied wherever wireless cell phone reception is available. In our opinion, this method is in principle suitable for clinical use, enabling the physician on duty to agree on appropriate measures with colleagues located elsewhere via x-ray image transmission on a cell phone.

  1. Psychological predictors of problem mobile phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Adriana; Phillips, James G

    2005-02-01

    Mobile phone use is banned or illegal under certain circumstances and in some jurisdictions. Nevertheless, some people still use their mobile phones despite recognized safety concerns, legislation, and informal bans. Drawing potential predictors from the addiction literature, this study sought to predict usage and, specifically, problematic mobile phone use from extraversion, self-esteem, neuroticism, gender, and age. To measure problem use, the Mobile Phone Problem Use Scale was devised and validated as a reliable self-report instrument, against the Addiction Potential Scale and overall mobile phone usage levels. Problem use was a function of age, extraversion, and low self-esteem, but not neuroticism. As extraverts are more likely to take risks, and young drivers feature prominently in automobile accidents, this study supports community concerns about mobile phone use, and identifies groups that should be targeted in any intervention campaigns.

  2. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell tower locations as derived from various sources including the Department of Licenses and Inspections and the Department of Planning and Zoning., Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Howard County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Cellular Phone Towers dataset current as of 2010. Cell tower locations as derived from various sources including the Department of Licenses and Inspections and the...

  3. Breast cancer prevention information seeking behavior and interest on cell phone and text use: a cross-sectional study in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhtari-Zavare, Mehrnoosh; Ghanbari-Baghestan, Abbas; Latiff, Latiffah A; Khaniki, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer and the second principal cause of cancer deaths among women worldwide, including Malaysia. This study focused on media choice and attempted to determine the communication channels mostly used and preferred by women in seeking information and knowledge about breast cancer. A cross sectional study was carried out to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behavior among 450 students at one private university in Malaysia. The mean age of respondents was 25±4.3 years. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, friends, and nurses and common channel information sources were television, brochure, and internet. Overall, 89.9% used cell phones, 46.1% had an interest in receiving cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 73.9% used text messaging, and 36.7% had an interest in receiving text breast cancer prevention messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences among age, eduation, nationality and use of cell phones. Assessment of health information seeking behavior is important for community health educators to target populations for program development.

  4. The impact of short message service text messages sent as appointment reminders to patients' cell phones at outpatient clinics in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Thiago Martini; Salomão, Paulo Lísias; Martha, Amilton Souza; Pisa, Ivan Torres; Sigulem, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Nonattendance for appointments remains a challenge to health care managers and providers. The objective of this article is to present the results of a study on the impact of appointment reminders sent as short message service text messages to patients' cell phones on nonattendance rates at outpatient clinics in São Paulo, Brazil. Data were collected on scheduled appointments in four medical clinics using Clinic Manager or Clinic Web systems that can send automated messages to patients. Data on appointment attendance were collected from these systems. More than 29,000 appointments were scheduled between July 1, 2007, and May 31, 2008, and for 7890 of them a text message reminder was sent to the patient's cell phone. The rates of nonattendance were compared between those who were sent and those who were not sent a text message as an appointment reminder. The nonattendance reduction rates for appointments at the four outpatient clinics studied were 0.82% (p= .590), 3.55% (p= .009), 5.75% (p= .022), and 14.49% (p= cell phones is an effective strategy to reduce nonattendance rates. When patients attend their appointments, the facility providing care and the patients receiving uninterrupted care benefit. Copyright (c) 2009. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  5. Possible Explanation for Cancer in Rats due to Cell Phone Radio Frequency Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Bernard J.

    Very recently, the National Toxicology Program reported a correlation between exposure to whole body 900 MHz radio frequency radiation and cancer in the brains and hearts of Sprague Dawley male rats. Assuming that the National Toxicology Program is statistically significant, I propose the following explanation for these results. The neurons around the brain and heart form closed electrical circuits and, following Faraday's Law, 900 MHz radio frequency radiation induces 900 MHz electrical currents in these neural circuits. In turn, these 900 MHz currents in the neural circuits generate sufficient localized heat in the neural cells to shift the equilibrium concentration of carcinogenic radicals to higher levels and thus, to higher incidences of cancer.

  6. Internet Use for Health-Related Information via Personal Computers and Cell Phones in Japan: A Cross-Sectional Population-Based Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Ohura, Tomoko; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Okamoto, Shigeru; Miki, Kenji; Naito, Mariko; Akamatsu, Rie; Sugimori, Hiroki; Yoshiike, Nobuo; Miyaki, Koichi; Shimbo, Takuro

    2011-01-01

    Background The Internet is known to be used for health purposes by the general public all over the world. However, little is known about the use of, attitudes toward, and activities regarding eHealth among the Japanese population. Objectives This study aimed to measure the prevalence of Internet use for health-related information compared with other sources, and to examine the effects on user knowledge, attitudes, and activities with regard to Internet use for health-related information in Japan. We examined the extent of use via personal computers and cell phones. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a quasi-representative sample (N = 1200) of the Japanese general population aged 15–79 years in September 2007. The main outcome measures were (1) self-reported rates of Internet use in the past year to acquire health-related information and to contact health professionals, family, friends, and peers specifically for health-related purposes, and (2) perceived effects of Internet use on health care. Results The prevalence of Internet use via personal computer for acquiring health-related information was 23.8% (286/1200) among those surveyed, whereas the prevalence via cell phone was 6% (77). Internet use via both personal computer and cell phone for communicating with health professionals, family, friends, or peers was not common. The Internet was used via personal computer for acquiring health-related information primarily by younger people, people with higher education levels, and people with higher household incomes. The majority of those who used the Internet for health care purposes responded that the Internet improved their knowledge or affected their lifestyle attitude, and that they felt confident in the health-related information they obtained from the Internet. However, less than one-quarter thought it improved their ability to manage their health or affected their health-related activities. Conclusions Japanese moderately used the Internet via

  7. Internet use for health-related information via personal computers and cell phones in Japan: a cross-sectional population-based survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Ohura, Tomoko; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Okamoto, Shigeru; Miki, Kenji; Naito, Mariko; Akamatsu, Rie; Sugimori, Hiroki; Yoshiike, Nobuo; Miyaki, Koichi; Shimbo, Takuro; Nakayama, Takeo

    2011-12-14

    The Internet is known to be used for health purposes by the general public all over the world. However, little is known about the use of, attitudes toward, and activities regarding eHealth among the Japanese population. This study aimed to measure the prevalence of Internet use for health-related information compared with other sources, and to examine the effects on user knowledge, attitudes, and activities with regard to Internet use for health-related information in Japan. We examined the extent of use via personal computers and cell phones. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a quasi-representative sample (N = 1200) of the Japanese general population aged 15-79 years in September 2007. The main outcome measures were (1) self-reported rates of Internet use in the past year to acquire health-related information and to contact health professionals, family, friends, and peers specifically for health-related purposes, and (2) perceived effects of Internet use on health care. The prevalence of Internet use via personal computer for acquiring health-related information was 23.8% (286/1200) among those surveyed, whereas the prevalence via cell phone was 6% (77). Internet use via both personal computer and cell phone for communicating with health professionals, family, friends, or peers was not common. The Internet was used via personal computer for acquiring health-related information primarily by younger people, people with higher education levels, and people with higher household incomes. The majority of those who used the Internet for health care purposes responded that the Internet improved their knowledge or affected their lifestyle attitude, and that they felt confident in the health-related information they obtained from the Internet. However, less than one-quarter thought it improved their ability to manage their health or affected their health-related activities. Japanese moderately used the Internet via personal computers for health purposes, and rarely

  8. Effect of Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from 2G and 3G Cell Phone on Developing Liver of Chick Embryo - A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Mary Hydrina; Swer, Rijied Thompson; Anbalagan, J; Rajesh, Bhargavan

    2017-07-01

    The increasing scientific evidence of various health hazards on exposure of Radiofrequency Radiation (RFR) emitted from both the cell phones and base stations have caused significant media attention and public discussion in recent years. The mechanism of interaction of RF fields with developing tissues of children and fetuses may be different from that of adults due to their smaller physical size and variation in tissue electromagnetic properties. The present study may provide an insight into the basic mechanisms by which RF fields interact with developing tissues in an embryo. To evaluate the possible tissue and DNA damage in developing liver of chick embryo following chronic exposure to Ultra-High Frequency/Radiofrequency Radiation (UHF/RFR) emitted from 2G and 3G cell phone. Fertilized chick embryos were incubated in four groups. Group A-experimental group exposed to 2G radiation (60 eggs), Group B- experimental group exposed to 3G radiation (60 eggs), Group C- sham exposed control group (60 eggs) and Group D- control group (48 eggs). On completion of scheduled duration, the embryos were collected and processed for routine histological studies to check structural changes in liver. The nuclear diameter and karyorrhexis changes of hepatocytes were analysed using oculometer and square reticule respectively. The liver procured from one batch of eggs from all the four groups was subjected to alkaline comet assay technique to assess DNA damage. The results were compared using one-way ANOVA test. In our study, the exposure of developing chick embryos to 2G and 3G cell phone radiations caused structural changes in liver in the form of dilated sinusoidal spaces with haemorrhage, increased vacuolations in cytoplasm, increased nuclear diameter and karyorrhexis and significantly increased DNA damage. The chronic exposure of chick embryo liver to RFR emitted from 2G and 3G cell phone resulted in various structural changes and DNA damage. The changes were more pronounced in 3

  9. Investigating the effects of 217 Hz frequency of cell phone on learning and spatial memory in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohzad S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extremely low frequency (0-300 Hz fields from power lines, electronic equipment and medical devices, have been reported to produce various biological effects. Global system for mobile (GSM is most largely used in everybody's life. This system utilizes a low frequency band as well as a high frequency range of electromagnetic field. This study investigated the effects of 217 Hz electromagnetic field (the modulating signal in GSM on spatial learning and memory in rat.Methods: Twenty four male Wistar rat (200- 250 g were randomly divided in to three groups as: test, sham and control. Using a Helmholtz coil system, the test group was exposed to a uniform pulsed EMF of 200 µT (micro Tesla intensity for 4 h/day for 21 days (2 time in a day. This procedure was repeated for the sham group but with no field. All groups were trained prior to the day 21 on the 15th day for five days four trial per day in Morris Water-Maze system. Then the probe test was carried out for 60 seconds with no platform.Results: The ANOVA test revealed that no significant differences were found between control and exposed rats in all day of learning acquisition. Also, in probe test for investigating the memory, no significant differences observed. (P≤0.05 is accepted for significant level.Conclusion: This finding is in consistent with previous studies and indicates low frequency band of electromagnetic fields (EMF (200 µT intensity in cell phone may not have any effect on the learning acquisition and spatial memory in rat.

  10. [Effect of American Ginseng Capsule on the liver oxidative injury and the Nrf2 protein expression in rats exposed by electromagnetic radiation of frequency of cell phone].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Ya-ping; Ma, Hui-Rong; Chen, Jing-Wei; Li, Jing-Jing; Li, Chun-xiang

    2014-05-01

    To observe the effect of American Ginseng Capsule (AGC) on the liver oxidative injury and the Nrf2 protein expression in the liver tissue of rats exposed by 900 MHz cell phone electromagnetic radiation. Totally 40 male SD rats were randomly divided into the normal control group, the model group, the Shuifei Jibin Capsule (SJC) group, and the AGC group,10 in each group. Rats in the normal control group were not irradiated. Rats in the rest three groups were exposed by imitated 900 MHz cellular phone for 4 h in 12 consecutive days. Meanwhile, rats in the SJC group and the AGC group were intragastrically administrated with suspension of SJC and AGC (1 mL/200 g body weight) respectively. Normal saline was administered to rats in the normal control group and the model group. The histolomorphological changes of the liver tissue were observed by HE staining. Contents of malonic dialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX)were detected by colorimetry. The Nrf2 protein expression of hepatocytes was detected by immunohistochemical assay and Western blot. Compared with the normal control group, hepatocyte nucleus was atrophied or partially disappeared, the contents of liver MDA and Nrf2 protein obviously increased (P electromagnetic radiation induced by 900 MHz cell phone could affect the expression of Nrf2 protein, induce oxidative injury, and induce abnormal morphology of liver cells. SJC and AGC could promote the morphological recovery of the liver cells. Its mechanism might be related to affecting the expression of Nrf2 protein and attenuating oxidative damage of liver cells.

  11. The effects of cell phone electromagnetic fields on the behavior of single OmpF nanochannel forming protein: a practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadzadeh M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Widespread of telecommunication systems in recent years, have raised the concerns on the possible danger of cell phone radiations on human body. Thus, the study of the electromagnetic fields on proteins, particularly the membrane nano channel forming proteins is of great importance. These proteins are responsible for keeping certain physic-chemical condition within cells and managing cell communication. Here, the effects of cell phones radiation on the activity of a single nanopore ion channel forming protein, OmpF, have been studied biophysically.Methods: Planar lipid bilayers were made based on Montal and Muller technique, and the activity of single OmpF channel reconstituted by electrical shock was recorded and analyzed by means of voltage-clamp technique at 20 ˚C. The planar lipid bilayers were formed from the monolayers made on a 60 μm diameter aperture in the 20 μm thick Teflon film that separated two (cis and trans compartments of the glass chamber. In this practical approach we were able to analyze characteristics of an individual channel at different chemical and physical experimental conditions. The voltage clamp was used to measure the channel’s conductance, voltage sensitivity, gating patterns in time scales as low as microseconds in real time.  Results: Our results showed that exposure of single voltage dependent channel, OmpF, to EMF of cell phone at high-frequency has a significant influence on the voltage sensitivity, gating properties and substate numbers of the single channel but has no effect on single-channel conductance. Regarding to the relaxation time, the channel also recovers in the millisecond time range when the field is removed. Conclusion: We observed an increase in the voltage sensitivity of the OmpF single channel while it had no effect on the single-channel conductance, which is remained to be further elucidated.

  12. Quantitative imaging with a mobile phone microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunan Skandarajah

    Full Text Available Use of optical imaging for medical and scientific applications requires accurate quantification of features such as object size, color, and brightness. High pixel density cameras available on modern mobile phones have made photography simple and convenient for consumer applications; however, the camera hardware and software that enables this simplicity can present a barrier to accurate quantification of image data. This issue is exacerbated by automated settings, proprietary image processing algorithms, rapid phone evolution, and the diversity of manufacturers. If mobile phone cameras are to live up to their potential to increase access to healthcare in low-resource settings, limitations of mobile phone-based imaging must be fully understood and addressed with procedures that minimize their effects on image quantification. Here we focus on microscopic optical imaging using a custom mobile phone microscope that is compatible with phones from multiple manufacturers. We demonstrate that quantitative microscopy with micron-scale spatial resolution can be carried out with multiple phones and that image linearity, distortion, and color can be corrected as needed. Using all versions of the iPhone and a selection of Android phones released between 2007 and 2012, we show that phones with greater than 5 MP are capable of nearly diffraction-limited resolution over a broad range of magnifications, including those relevant for single cell imaging. We find that automatic focus, exposure, and color gain standard on mobile phones can degrade image resolution and reduce accuracy of color capture if uncorrected, and we devise procedures to avoid these barriers to quantitative imaging. By accommodating the differences between mobile phone cameras and the scientific cameras, mobile phone microscopes can be reliably used to increase access to quantitative imaging for a variety of medical and scientific applications.

  13. The use of cell phone support for non-adherent HIV-infected youth and young adults: an initial randomized and controlled intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belzer, Marvin E; Naar-King, Sylvie; Olson, Johanna; Sarr, Moussa; Thornton, Sarah; Kahana, Shoshana Y; Gaur, Aditya H; Clark, Leslie F

    2014-04-01

    This randomized behavioral trial examined whether youth living with HIV (YLH) receiving cell-phone support with study funded phone plans, demonstrated improved adherence and viral control during the 24 week intervention and 24 weeks post-intervention compared to controls. Monday through Friday phone calls confirmed medications were taken, provided problem-solving support, and referred to services to address adherence barriers. Of 37 participants (ages 15-24), 62 % were male and 70 % were African American. Self-reported adherence was significantly higher in the intervention group compared to the control at 24 and 48 weeks for the past month (P = 0.007) and log 10 HIV VL was significantly lower at both 24 weeks (2.82 versus 4.52 P = 0.002) and 48 weeks (3.23 versus 4.23 P = 0.043). Adherence and viral load showed medium to large effect sizes across the 48 week study. This is the first study to demonstrate sustained clinically significant reductions in HIV VL using youth friendly technology.

  14. Proteomic analysis on the alteration of protein expression in the early-stage placental villous tissue of electromagnetic fields associated with cell phone exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qiong; Jiang, Ying; Jin, Min; Xu, Jian; Huang, He-Feng

    2013-09-01

    To explore the possible adverse effects and search for cell phone electromagnetic field (EMF)-responsive proteins in human early reproduction, a proteomics approach was employed to investigate the changes in protein expression profile induced by cell phone EMF in human chorionic tissues of early pregnancy in vivo. Volunteer women about 50 days pregnant were exposed to EMF at the average absorption rate of 1.6 to 8.8 W/kg for 1 hour with the irradiation device placed 10 cm away from the umbilicus at the midline of the abdomen. The changes in protein profile were examined using 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE). Up to 15 spots have yielded significant change at least 2- to 2.5-folds up or down compared to sham-exposed group. Twelve proteins were identified- procollagen-proline, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 delta, chain D crystal structure of human vitamin D-binding protein, thioredoxin-like 3, capping protein, isocitrate dehydrogenase 3 alpha, calumenin, Catechol-O-methyltransferase protein, proteinase inhibitor 6 (PI-6; SerpinB6) protein, 3,2-trans-enoyl-CoA isomerase protein, chain B human erythrocyte 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate mutase, and nucleoprotein. Cell phone EMF might alter the protein profile of chorionic tissue of early pregnancy, during the most sensitive stage of the embryos. The exposure to EMF may cause adverse effects on cell proliferation and development of nervous system in early embryos. Furthermore, 2-DE coupled with mass spectrometry is a promising approach to elucidate the effects and search for new biomarkers for environmental toxic effects.

  15. Cell Phone and Face-to-Face Interview Responses in Population-Based Surveys: How Do They Compare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfoud, Ziyad; Ghandour, Lilian; Ghandour, Blanche; Mokdad, Ali H.; Sibai, Abla M.

    2015-01-01

    Findings on the reliability and cost-effectiveness of the use of cellular phones vis-à-vis face-to-face interviews in investigating health behaviors and conditions are presented for a national epidemiological sample from Lebanon. Using self-reported responses on identical questions, percentage agreement, ? statistics, and McNemar's test were used…

  16. 77 FR 2734 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Solar Cell: A Mobile UV Manager for Smart Phones (NCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... Manager for Smart Phones (NCI). Type of Information Collection Request: New. Need and Use of Information... sunlight, a primary cause of skin cancer. The purpose of this part of the study is to produce, deploy, and... Table below). There are no Capital Costs, Operating Costs, and/or Maintenance Costs to report. A.12-1...

  17. Effects of RF-EMF Exposure from GSM Mobile Phones on Proliferation Rate of Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells: An In-vitro Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei, D; Hashemi-Beni, B; Ahmadi, Z

    2016-12-01

    As the use of mobile phones is increasing, public concern about the harmful effects of radiation emitted by these devices is also growing. In addition, protection questions and biological effects are among growing concerns which have remained largely unanswered. Stem cells are useful models to assess the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on other cell lines. Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells. Adipose tissue represents an abundant and accessible source of adult stem cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of GSM 900 MHz on growth and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue within the specific distance and intensity. ADSCs were exposed to GSM mobile phones 900 MHz with intensity of 354.6 µW/cm 2 square waves (217 Hz pulse frequency, 50% duty cycle), during different exposure times ranging from 6 to 21 min/day for 5 days at 20 cm distance from the antenna. MTT assay was used to determine the growth and metabolism of cells and trypan blue test was also done for cell viability. Statistical analyses were carried out using analysis of one way ANOVA. P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. The proliferation rates of human ADSCs in all exposure groups were significantly lower than control groups (P<0.05) except in the group of 6 minutes/day which did not show any significant difference with control groups. The results show that 900 MHz RF signal radiation from antenna can reduce cell viability and proliferation rates of human ADSCs regarding the duration of exposure.

  18. Effects of RF-EMF Exposure from GSM Mobile Phones on Proliferation Rate of Human Adipose-derived Stem Cells: An In-vitro Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahbazi-Gahrouei D

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: As the use of mobile phones is increasing, public concern about the harmful effects of radiation emitted by these devices is also growing. In addition, protection questions and biological effects are among growing concerns which have remained largely unanswered. Stem cells are useful models to assess the effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF on other cell lines. Stem cells are undifferentiated biological cells that can differentiate into specialized cells. Adipose tissue represents an abundant and accessible source of adult stem cells. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of GSM 900 MHz on growth and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adipose tissue within the specific distance and intensity. Materials and Methods: ADSCs were exposed to GSM mobile phones 900 MHz with intensity of 354.6 µW/cm2 square waves (217 Hz pulse frequency, 50% duty cycle, during different exposure times ranging from 6 to 21 min/day for 5 days at 20 cm distance from the antenna. MTT assay was used to determine the growth and metabolism of cells and trypan blue test was also done for cell viability. Statistical analyses were carried out using analysis of one way ANOVA. P<0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: The proliferation rates of human ADSCs in all exposure groups were significantly lower than control groups (P<0.05 except in the group of 6 minutes/day which did not show any significant difference with control groups. Conclusion: The results show that 900 MHz RF signal radiation from antenna can reduce cell viability and proliferation rates of human ADSCs regarding the duration of exposure.

  19. Validating a Conceptual Framework for the Core Concept of "Cell-Cell Communication"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Joel; Martinkova, Patricia; McFarland, Jenny; Wright, Ann; Cliff, William; Modell, Harold; Wenderoth, Mary Pat

    2017-01-01

    We have created and validated a conceptual framework for the core physiology concept of "cell-cell communication." The conceptual framework is composed of 51 items arranged in a hierarchy that is, in some instances, four levels deep. We have validated it with input from faculty who teach at a wide variety of institutional types. All…

  20. Quantitative Imaging with a Mobile Phone Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandarajah, Arunan; Reber, Clay D.; Switz, Neil A.; Fletcher, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Use of optical imaging for medical and scientific applications requires accurate quantification of features such as object size, color, and brightness. High pixel density cameras available on modern mobile phones have made photography s