WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell phone radiation

  1. Cell Phone RF Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, Wathiq

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in "Physics Today," Meredith and Redish emphasized the need to make introductory physics courses beneficial for life sciences majors. In this study, a lab activity is proposed to measure the intensity of electromagnetic waves emitted by cell phones and connect these measurements to various standards, biological…

  2. The myth of cell phone radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Vasant

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the purported link between cell phone radiation and cancer. We show that it is inconsistent with the photoelectric effect, and that epidemiological studies of any link have no scientific basis.

  3. Modeling cell dynamics under mobile phone radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minelli, Tullio Antonio; Balduzzo, Maurizio; Milone, Francesco Ferro; Nofrate, Valentina

    2007-04-01

    Perturbations by pulse-modulated microwave radiation from GSM mobile phones on neuron cell membrane gating and calcium oscillations have been suggested as a possible mechanism underlying activation of brain states and electroencephalographic epiphenomena. As the employ of UMTS phones seems to reveal other symptoms, a unified phenomenological framework is needed. In order to explain possible effects of mobile phone radiation on cell oscillations, GSM and UMTS low-frequency envelopes have been detected, recorded and used as input in cell models. Dynamical systems endowed with contiguous regular and chaotic regimes suitable to produce stochastic resonance can both account for the perturbation of the neuro-electrical activity and even for the low intensity of the signal perceived by high sensitive subjects. Neuron models of this kind can be employed as a reductionist hint for the mentioned phenomenology. The Hindmarsh-Rose model exhibits frequency enhancement and regularization phenomena induced by weak GSM and UMTS. More realistic simulations of cell membrane gating and calcium oscillations have been performed with the help of an adaptation of the Chay-Keizer dynamical system. This scheme can explain the suspected subjective sensitivity to mobile phone signals under the thermal threshold, in terms of cell calcium regularity mechanisms. Concerning the two kinds of emission, the stronger occupation of the ELF band of last generation UMTS phones is compensated by lower power emitted.

  4. NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultekin, David H; Moeller, Lothar

    2013-01-02

    A method is described for measuring absorbed electromagnetic energy radiated from cell phone antennae into ex vivo brain tissue. NMR images the 3D thermal dynamics inside ex vivo bovine brain tissue and equivalent gel under exposure to power and irradiation time-varying radio frequency (RF) fields. The absorbed RF energy in brain tissue converts into Joule heat and affects the nuclear magnetic shielding and the Larmor precession. The resultant temperature increase is measured by the resonance frequency shift of hydrogen protons in brain tissue. This proposed application of NMR thermometry offers sufficient spatial and temporal resolution to characterize the hot spots from absorbed cell phone radiation in aqueous media and biological tissues. Specific absorption rate measurements averaged over 1 mg and 10 s in the brain tissue cover the total absorption volume. Reference measurements with fiber optic temperature sensors confirm the accuracy of the NMR thermometry.

  5. NMR imaging of cell phone radiation absorption in brain tissue

    OpenAIRE

    Gultekin, David H.; Moeller, Lothar

    2012-01-01

    A method is described for measuring absorbed electromagnetic energy radiated from cell phone antennae into ex vivo brain tissue. NMR images the 3D thermal dynamics inside ex vivo bovine brain tissue and equivalent gel under exposure to power and irradiation time-varying radio frequency (RF) fields. The absorbed RF energy in brain tissue converts into Joule heat and affects the nuclear magnetic shielding and the Larmor precession. The resultant temperature increase is measured by the resonance...

  6. Tinnitus and cell phones: the role of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi; Seyed Ali Reza Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus is a multifactorial condition and its prevalence has increased on the past decades. The worldwide progressive increase of the use of cell phones has exposed the peripheral auditory pathways to a higher dose of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation (EMRFR). Some tinnitus patients report that the abusive use of mobiles, especially when repeated in the same ear, might worsen ipsilateral tinnitus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the availabl...

  7. Tinnitus and cell phones: the role of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Nascimento Medeiros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus is a multifactorial condition and its prevalence has increased on the past decades. The worldwide progressive increase of the use of cell phones has exposed the peripheral auditory pathways to a higher dose of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation (EMRFR. Some tinnitus patients report that the abusive use of mobiles, especially when repeated in the same ear, might worsen ipsilateral tinnitus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the available evidence about the possible causal association between tinnitus and exposure to electromagnetic waves. METHODS: A literature review was performed searching for the following keywords: tinnitus, electromagnetic field, mobile phones, radio frequency, and electromagnetic hypersensitivity. We selected 165 articles that were considered clinically relevant in at least one of the subjects. RESULTS: EMRFR can penetrate exposed tissues and safety exposure levels have been established. These waves provoke proved thermogenic effects and potential biological and genotoxic effects. Some individuals are more sensitive to electromagnetic exposure (electrosensitivity, and thus, present earlier symptoms. There may be a common pathophysiology between this electrosensitivity and tinnitus. CONCLUSION: There are already reasonable evidences to suggest caution for using mobile phones to prevent auditory damage and the onset or worsening of tinnitus.

  8. Radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from cell phone causes defective testicular function in male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyewopo, A O; Olaniyi, S K; Oyewopo, C I; Jimoh, A T

    2017-03-06

    Cell phones have become an integral part of everyday life. As cell phone usage has become more widespread, concerns have increased regarding the harmful effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation from these devices. The current study was undertaken to investigate the effects of the emitted radiation by cell phones on testicular histomorphometry and biochemical analyses. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 180-200 g were randomly allotted to control, group A (switched off mode exposure), group B (1-hr exposure), group C (2-hr exposure) and group D (3-hr exposure). The animals were exposed to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation of cell phone for a period of 28 days. Histomorphometry, biochemical and histological investigations were carried out. The histomorphometric parameters showed no significant change (p electromagnetic radiation of cell phone leads to defective testicular function that is associated with increased oxidative stress and decreased gonadotropic hormonal profile.

  9. Determination of Invisible Environmental Pollution Due to Cell Phones EMF Radiation and projections for 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Parandham Gowd

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades cell phones usage have altered the land scape of modern human beings in countless ways, in office, at home and on mobility. However, created the environmental electronic pollution due to electromagnetic fields. In spite of the recent studies indicating possible harmful impact of EMF pollution on several species, there is no long term data available on the environmental impacts of EMF pollution and how much power density is radiated in the environment due to cell phones. The aim of this research work is to experimentally measure the EMF radiated electronic pollution levels of cell phones in three different states such as on(sleep/idle mode, receive and transmit modes as an invisible environmental pollution. These measurements are carried out at the centre frequency of 1800 MHz and in the 300 MHz- 50 GHz frequency band. Another main aim is to carry out the projections of cell phones growth due to exponentially expanding mobile technology products, industrialization along with urbanization. Further to estimate the current (2013 EMF radiation pollution levels into environment and projections for 2030 due to cell phones.

  10. Effects of non-thermal mobile phone radiation on breast adenocarcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen Fourie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone usage currently exceeds landline communication in Africa. The extent of this usage has raised concerns about the long-term health effects of the ongoing use of mobile phones. To assess the physiological effects of radiation from mobile phones in vitro, MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells were exposed to 2W/kg non-thermal 900-MHz mobile phone radiation. The effects investigated were those on metabolic activity, cell morphology, cell cycle progression, phosphatidylserine (PS externalisation and the generation of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species. Statistically insignificant increases in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity were observed in irradiated cells when compared to controls. Fluorescent detection of F-actin demonstrated an increase in F-actin stress fibre formation in irradiated MCF-7 cells. Cell cycle progression revealed no statistically significant variation. A small increase in early and late apoptotic events in irradiated MCF-7 cells was observed. No statistically significant changes were observed in reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species generation. In addition, quantitative and qualitative analyses of cell cycle activity and nuclear and cytosolic changes, respectively, revealed no significant changes. In conclusion, exposure to 1 h of 900-MHz irradiation induced an increase in PS externalisation and an increase in the formation of F-actin stress fibres in MCF-7 cells. Data obtained from this study, and their correlation with other studies, provides intriguing links between radio frequency radiation and cellular events and warrant further investigation.

  11. Cell phones: modern man's nemesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makker, Kartikeya; Varghese, Alex; Desai, Nisarg R; Mouradi, Rand; Agarwal, Ashok

    2009-01-01

    Over the past decade, the use of mobile phones has increased significantly. However, with every technological development comes some element of health concern, and cell phones are no exception. Recently, various studies have highlighted the negative effects of cell phone exposure on human health, and concerns about possible hazards related to cell phone exposure have been growing. This is a comprehensive, up-to-the-minute overview of the effects of cell phone exposure on human health. The types of cell phones and cell phone technologies currently used in the world are discussed in an attempt to improve the understanding of the technical aspects, including the effect of cell phone exposure on the cardiovascular system, sleep and cognitive function, as well as localized and general adverse effects, genotoxicity potential, neurohormonal secretion and tumour induction. The proposed mechanisms by which cell phones adversely affect various aspects of human health, and male fertility in particular, are explained, and the emerging molecular techniques and approaches for elucidating the effects of mobile phone radiation on cellular physiology using high-throughput screening techniques, such as metabolomics and microarrays, are discussed. A novel study is described, which is looking at changes in semen parameters, oxidative stress markers and sperm DNA damage in semen samples exposed in vitro to cell phone radiation.

  12. Evaluation of the Interference of the Microwave Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones on the Performance of Cell Counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaedini ,N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Incidents related to electromagneticinterference with medical devices have been reported over the past decades.It has also been indicated that the microwave radiation emitted from mobilephones interferes with the operation of medical devices; therefore, this studyaimed at testing the interference by GSM mobile phones with cell counters.Material and Methods: We did this experimental Study on thirty-twoheparinized blood samples of 32 healthy individuals Selected randomly. TheCell Counting was Carried out in the presence of Electro magnetic fieldproduced by three Cell phones with different levels of SAR (Low,intermediate and High and without being in electromagnetic field.Statistical tests were used to analyze the data (p<0.05.Results: Microwave radiation emitted from cell phones, regardless of theirSAR, interferes with the proper operation of cell Counter. This interferenceleads to false Counting.Conclusion: As mobile phones emit microwave radiation in an isotropicmanner, keeping mobile phones at a safe distance, 15cm, from medicalequipments will be necessary. These observations confirm the need for somerestrictions of mobile phone use in hospitals and medical laboratories.Key words: Interference, Cell Counters, Mobile Phone, MicrowaveRadiation

  13. Exposure to Cell Phone Radiation Up-Regulates Apoptosis Genes in Primary Cultures of Neurons and Astrocytes

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Tian-Yong; Zou, Shi-Ping; Pamela E Knapp

    2006-01-01

    The health effects of cell phone radiation exposure are a growing public concern. This study investigated whether expression of genes related to cell death pathways are dysregulated in primary cultured neurons and astrocytes by exposure to a working GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) cell phone rated at a frequency of 1900 MHz. Primary cultures were exposed to cell phone emissions for 2 hrs. We used array analysis and real-time RT-PCR to show up-regulation of caspase-2, caspase-6 an...

  14. Cell phone explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Alok; Kanchan, Tanuj; Nepal, Samata; Pandey, Bhuwan Raj

    2016-03-01

    Cell phone explosions and resultant burn injuries are rarely reported in the scientific literature. We report a case of cell phone explosion that occurred when a young male was listening to music while the mobile was plugged in for charging.

  15. Exposure limits: the underestimation of absorbed cell phone radiation, especially in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhi, Om P; Morgan, L Lloyd; de Salles, Alvaro Augusto; Han, Yueh-Ying; Herberman, Ronald B; Davis, Devra Lee

    2012-03-01

    The existing cell phone certification process uses a plastic model of the head called the Specific Anthropomorphic Mannequin (SAM), representing the top 10% of U.S. military recruits in 1989 and greatly underestimating the Specific Absorption Rate (SAR) for typical mobile phone users, especially children. A superior computer simulation certification process has been approved by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) but is not employed to certify cell phones. In the United States, the FCC determines maximum allowed exposures. Many countries, especially European Union members, use the "guidelines" of International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), a non governmental agency. Radiofrequency (RF) exposure to a head smaller than SAM will absorb a relatively higher SAR. Also, SAM uses a fluid having the average electrical properties of the head that cannot indicate differential absorption of specific brain tissue, nor absorption in children or smaller adults. The SAR for a 10-year old is up to 153% higher than the SAR for the SAM model. When electrical properties are considered, a child's head's absorption can be over two times greater, and absorption of the skull's bone marrow can be ten times greater than adults. Therefore, a new certification process is needed that incorporates different modes of use, head sizes, and tissue properties. Anatomically based models should be employed in revising safety standards for these ubiquitous modern devices and standards should be set by accountable, independent groups.

  16. Adventures with Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are finding creative ways to turn the basic cell phone from a digital distraction into a versatile learning tool. In this article, the author explains why cell phones are important in learning and suggests rather than banning them that they be integrated into learning. She presents activities that can be done on a basic cell phone with a…

  17. Cell phones and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of ...

  18. Analysis of proteome response to the mobile phone radiation in two types of human primary endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuster Niels

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of mobile phones has widely increased over the past decade. However, in spite of the extensive research, the question of potential health effects of the mobile phone radiation remains unanswered. We have earlier proposed, and applied, proteomics as a tool to study biological effects of the mobile phone radiation, using as a model human endothelial cell line EA.hy926. Exposure of EA.hy926 cells to 900 MHz GSM radiation has caused statistically significant changes in expression of numerous proteins. However, exposure of EA.hy926 cells to 1800 MHz GSM signal had only very small effect on cell proteome, as compared with 900 MHz GSM exposure. In the present study, using as model human primary endothelial cells, we have examined whether exposure to 1800 MHz GSM mobile phone radiation can affect cell proteome. Results Primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells and primary human brain microvascular endothelial cells were exposed for 1 hour to 1800 MHz GSM mobile phone radiation at an average specific absorption rate of 2.0 W/kg. The cells were harvested immediately after the exposure and the protein expression patterns of the sham-exposed and radiation-exposed cells were examined using two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis-based proteomics (2DE-DIGE. There were observed numerous differences between the proteomes of human umbilical vein endothelial cells and human brain microvascular endothelial cells (both sham-exposed. These differences are most likely representing physiological differences between endothelia in different vascular beds. However, the exposure of both types of primary endothelial cells to mobile phone radiation did not cause any statistically significant changes in protein expression. Conclusions Exposure of primary human endothelial cells to the mobile phone radiation, 1800 MHz GSM signal for 1 hour at an average specific absorption rate of 2.0 W/kg, does not affect protein expression, when the

  19. Survival Assessment of Mouse Preimplantation Embryos After Exposure to Cell Phone Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safian, Fereshteh; Khalili, Mohammad Ali; Khoradmehr, Arezoo; Anbari, Fatemeh; Soltani, Saeedeh; Halvaei, Iman

    2016-01-01

    Background: Using cellular phone has rapidly increased all over the world. Also, the concern on the possible health hazards of electromagnetic fields (EMF) induced from cell phones to reproduction has been growing in many countries. The aim of this study was to assess the consequences and effects of exposure to the cell phone radiation on the quality and survival rates of preimplantation embryos in mice. Methods: A total of 40 mice (20 females and 20 males), 6 weeks old and sexually mature BALB/c, were used for control and experimental groups. The ovary burses were removed and the zygotes were dissected in the morning after mating. Next, 2-cell embryos were divided into two groups of control (n=150) and experimental (n=150). EMF (900–1800 MHz) was used for four days in experimental group for 30 min/day in culture at 37°C in a CO 2 incubator. The quality of embryos was recorded daily and the fluorescent staining was used for identification of viable blastocysts. All data were compared by Student’s t-test and Mann-Whitney test (p<0.05). Results: The rate of embryo survival to the blastocysts stage was similar in both groups. However, the percentage of dead embryos at the 2-cell stage was significantly higher in EMF-exposed group compared with controls (p=0.03). Also, the loss of cell viability significantly increased in experimental blastocysts (p=0.002). Conclusion: The normal embryonic development up to the blastocyst stage indicates that EMF-exposure commonly did not have adverse effect on embryo development in mice. But, it caused loss of blastocysts cell viability. PMID:27478766

  20. Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesari Kavindra K

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hazardous health effects stemming from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular target of RF-EMW is still controversial. This review identifies the plasma membrane as a target of RF-EMW. In addition, the effects of RF-EMW on plasma membrane structures (i.e. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed. We explore the disturbance in reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolism caused by RF-EMW and delineate NADH oxidase mediated ROS formation as playing a central role in oxidative stress (OS due to cell phone radiation (with a focus on the male reproductive system. This review also addresses: 1 the controversial effects of RF-EMW on mammalian cells and sperm DNA as well as its effect on apoptosis, 2 epidemiological, in vivo animal and in vitro studies on the effect of RF-EMW on male reproductive system, and 3 finally, exposure assessment and dosimetry by computational biomodeling.

  1. Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Nisarg R; Kesari, Kavindra K; Agarwal, Ashok

    2009-10-22

    Hazardous health effects stemming from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular target of RF-EMW is still controversial. This review identifies the plasma membrane as a target of RF-EMW. In addition, the effects of RF-EMW on plasma membrane structures (i.e. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase) and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed. We explore the disturbance in reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism caused by RF-EMW and delineate NADH oxidase mediated ROS formation as playing a central role in oxidative stress (OS) due to cell phone radiation (with a focus on the male reproductive system). This review also addresses: 1) the controversial effects of RF-EMW on mammalian cells and sperm DNA as well as its effect on apoptosis, 2) epidemiological, in vivo animal and in vitro studies on the effect of RF-EMW on male reproductive system, and 3) finally, exposure assessment and dosimetry by computational biomodeling.

  2. Effect of Ultrahigh Frequency Radiation Emitted from 2G Cell Phone on Developing Lens of Chick Embryo: A Histological Study

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    Mary Hydrina D'Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A Mobile phone in operation emits a pulsed radiofrequency electromagnetic field which is absorbed into the user’s body particularly the head region. Contradictory scientific reports on the health effect of nonionizing radiations on biological tissues have prompted to undertake the present study to evaluate the damage in the developing lens of a chick embryo following exposure to radiation emitted from a 2G cell phone. Fertilized chick embryos were incubated in two groups in a standard egg incubator. The experiment group was exposed to radiation emitted from a 2G cell phone. On completion of scheduled duration, the embryos were collected and processed for routine histological studies. The 9th to 12th day chick embryo eyes were processed for assessment of DNA damage using the alkaline comet assay technique. The lens thickness and the equatorial diameter were measured using oculometer and statistically compared for both groups. In the present study, the exposure of chick embryos to a 2G cell phone caused structural changes in lens epithelial cells, formation of cystic cells and spaces, distortion of lens fibers, and formation of posterior aberrant nuclear layer. The DNA damage in the developing eyes of the experiment group assessed by comet assay was highly significant.

  3. Cell Phones for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, James H.; Hagevik, Rita A.

    2008-01-01

    Cell phones are fast becoming an integral part of students' everyday lives. They are regarded as important companions and tools for personal expression. School-age children are integrating the cell phone as such, and thus placing a high value on them. Educators endeavor to instill in students a high value for education, but often meet with…

  4. Do Cell Phones Cause Cancer?

    CERN Document Server

    Leikind, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Do cell phones, household electrical power wiring or appliance, or high voltage power lines cause cancer? Fuggedaboudit! No way! When pigs fly! When I'm the Pope! Don't text while you're driving, however, or eat your cell phone. All organisms absorb microwave radiation directly as thermal energy. In living organisms, the organisms' thermal control systems, including the blood flow, and various cooling mechanisms, such as sweating in humans, that work to maintain a stable body temperature rapidly transfer the absorbed energy to the environment. Any temperature rise is small or even unobserved. Any proposed mechanism by which cell phone radiation might cause cancer must begin with this fact. But the amount of radiation absorbed from a cell phone is less than that produced by normal metabolic processes, and much less than that produced by, for example, exercise. None of these normal metabolic processes cause cancer. Therefore, the much smaller amounts of energy from cell phones doesn't cause cancer either. All f...

  5. Exposure to cell phone radiation up-regulates apoptosis genes in primary cultures of neurons and astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian-Yong; Zou, Shi-Ping; Knapp, Pamela E

    2007-01-22

    The health effects of cell phone radiation exposure are a growing public concern. This study investigated whether expression of genes related to cell death pathways are dysregulated in primary cultured neurons and astrocytes by exposure to a working Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) cell phone rated at a frequency of 1900MHz. Primary cultures were exposed to cell phone emissions for 2h. We used array analysis and real-time RT-PCR to show up-regulation of caspase-2, caspase-6 and Asc (apoptosis associated speck-like protein containing a card) gene expression in neurons and astrocytes. Up-regulation occurred in both "on" and "stand-by" modes in neurons, but only in "on" mode in astrocytes. Additionally, astrocytes showed up-regulation of the Bax gene. The effects are specific since up-regulation was not seen for other genes associated with apoptosis, such as caspase-9 in either neurons or astrocytes, or Bax in neurons. The results show that even relatively short-term exposure to cell phone radiofrequency emissions can up-regulate elements of apoptotic pathways in cells derived from the brain, and that neurons appear to be more sensitive to this effect than astrocytes.

  6. Mobile Phone Radiation and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotz, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    A possible link between cancer and the usage of mobile phones has been widely discussed in the media in the last 10 years. It is no surprise that students keep asking their physics teacher for advice regarding the handling of mobile phones and mobile phone radiation. This article aims to help teachers include this interesting topic in the classroom. It provides basic information and summarizes the facts made available by 11 recent peer-reviewed studies. First some information about the physical facts and medical information on brain cancer are given. Then the different studies are presented. Last but not least, different possibilities to implement this topic in the high school classroom are given.

  7. In Vitro Effect of Cell Phone Radiation on Motility, DNA Fragmentation and Clusterin Gene Expression in Human Sperm

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    Adel Zalata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of cellular phones emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF has been increased exponentially and become a part of everyday life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of in vitro RF-EMF exposure emitted from cellular phones on sperm motility index, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal clusterin (CLU gene expression. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, a total of 124 semen samples were grouped into the following main categories: i. normozoospermia (N, n=26, ii. asthenozoospermia (A, n=32, iii. asthenoteratozoospermia (AT, n=31 and iv. oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT, n=35. The same semen samples were then divided into two portions non-exposed and exposed samples to cell phone radiation for 1 hour. Before and immediately after exposure, both aliquots were subjected to different assessments for sperm motility, acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and CLU gene expression. Statistical differences were analyzed using paired t student test for comparisons between two sub-groups where pAT>A>N groups, respectively (p<0.05. Conclusion: Cell phone emissions have a negative impact on exposed sperm motility index, sperm acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal CLU gene expression, especially in OAT cases.

  8. Phantoms for Radiation Measurements of Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radiation efficiency for a handheld phone equipped with a patch and a helical antenna operated near the human user have been performed. Both measurements include a simple head plus hand phantom and live persons are considered. The position of the hand on the phone is found...... to be the main reason for the large variation in radiation efficiency among persons. The tilt angle of the phone and the distance between the head and phone only play a minor role...

  9. Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system

    OpenAIRE

    Kesari Kavindra K; Desai Nisarg R; Agarwal Ashok

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Hazardous health effects stemming from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW) emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular target of RF-EMW is still controversial. This review identifies the plasma membrane as a target of RF-EMW. In addition, the effects of RF-EMW on plasma membrane structures (i.e. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase) and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed. We explore the dist...

  10. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (Pelectromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely to induce the death of embryonic cells and decrease the chance of their implantation, thereby posing a high risk to pregnancy.

  11. Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Tomruk, Arın; Canseven, Ayse G; Yücel, Engin; Aktuna, Zuhal; Keskil, Semih; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular phone radiation on oxidative stress parameters and oxide levels in mouse brain during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic seizure. Eight weeks old mice were used in the study. Animals were distributed in the following groups: Group I: Control group treated with PTZ, Group II: 15min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation, Group III: 30min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation. The RF radiation was produced by a 900MHz cellular phone. Lipid peroxidation, which is the indicator of oxidative stress was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by the Ellman method. Tissue total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were obtained using the Griess assay. Lipid peroxidation and NOx levels of brain tissue increased significantly in group II and III compared to group I. On the contrary, GSH levels were significantly lower in group II and III than group I. However, no statistically significant alterations in any of the endpoints were noted between group II and Group III. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain.

  12. Cell Phone Detection Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, Richard M.; Bunch, Kyle J.; Puzycki, David J.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Good, Morris S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2007-10-01

    A team composed of Rick Pratt, Dave Puczyki, Kyle Bunch, Ryan Slaugh, Morris Good, and Doug McMakin teamed together to attempt to exploit cellular telephone features and detect if a person was carrying a cellular telephone into a Limited Area. The cell phone’s electromagnetic properties were measured, analyzed, and tested in over 10 different ways to determine if an exploitable signature exists. The method that appears to have the most potential for success without adding an external tag is to measure the RF spectrum, not in the cell phone band, but between 240 and 400MHz. Figures 1- 7 show the detected signal levels from cell phones from three different manufacturers.

  13. Mobile Phone Radiation: Physiological & Pathophysiologcal Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K Sri, Nageswari

    2015-01-01

    It is documented that electromagnetic emissions from mobile phones can interfere with brain's signal processing activity due to their oscillatory similitude to the inherent rhythms of the brain, akin to "electromagnetic interference" observed while using mobile phones in aeroplanes. At high power density levels, thermal effects occur, some of which can be attributed to heat induced stress mechanisms. The less understood non-thermal effects occur at low radio frequency/microwave power density levels and are not accompanied by any body temperature rise. The safety standards set by international agencies are based on thermal effects. For the mobile phones, ICNIRP 1998 guidelines restrict spatial peak of microwave exposure to 2 W/Kg SAR values averaged over 10 g of tissue for 6 minutes. Some of the reported electromagnetic radiation (EMR) induced adverse effects are brain tumours, male infertility and immune dysfunction with increased susceptibility to infections. Pathophysiological mechanisms of interaction of EMR at plasma membrane are calcium efflux from cell membranes, increased expression of stress proteins, influence on channels/gap junctions in cell membrane, overproduction of reactive oxygen species, ornithine decarboxylase activation, reduction in melatonin levels, decrease in protein kinase C activity, damage to DNA and change in gene expression in brain cells and altered blood-brain barrier. There are equal number of conflicting reports in literature regarding EMR exposure and brain tumours. A comprehensive review concludes "overall the studies published to date do not demonstrate an increased risk within approximately 10 years of use for any tumour of the brain or any other head tumour." Another review summarises that there is "enough data to convince that long-term exposure to low intensity EMR below the ICNIRP guidelines can promote cancer development". However the time limit for exposure has been suggested as more than 10 years. For conducting

  14. CELL PHONE ADDICTION: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JOSE DE SOLA

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyse the concept of cell phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain lack of conceptual delimitation that has resulted in a broad spread of prevalent data. There is a consensus about the existence of cell phone addiction, but the delimitation and criteria used by various researchers vary. Cell phone addiction shows a distinct user profile that differentiates it from Internet addiction. Without evidence pointing to the influence of cultural level and socioeconomic status, the pattern of abuse is greatest among young people, primarily females. Intercultural and geographical differences have not been sufficiently studied. The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell phone use. In addition, the present review reveals the coexistence relationship between problematic cell phone use and substance use such as tobacco and alcohol.

  15. Biometric Security for Cell Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones are already prime targets for theft. The increasing functionality of cell phones is making them even more attractive. With the increase of cell phone functionality including personal digital assistance, banking, e-commerce, remote work, internet access and entertainment, more and more confidential data is stored on these devices. What is protecting this confidential data stored on cell phones? Studies have shown that even though most of the cell phone users are aware of the PIN security feature more than 50% of them are not using it either because of the lack of confidence in it or because of the inconvenience. A large majority of those users believes that an alternative approach to security would be a good idea.

  16. Wireless Phones Electromagnetic Field Radiation Exposure Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    A. D. Usman; W. F.W. Ahmad; M. Z. A. A. Kadir; M. Mokhtar

    2009-01-01

    Problem statement: Inadequate knowledge of electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones and increased usage at close proximity, created a lot of skepticism and speculations among end users on its safety or otherwise. Approach: In this study, near field electromagnetic field radiation measurements were conducted on different brand of mobile phones in active mode using a tri-axis isotropic probe and electric field meter. Results: The highest electromagnetic field exposure was recorded when th...

  17. [Mobile phones radiate--risk to the health?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokela, Kari; Auvinen, Anssi; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2011-01-01

    The mobile phones radiate electromagnetic energy which is partly absorbed into the tissues in the vicinity of the phone. The minor heating, in maximum up to 0.3 degrees C, may cause some alterations in the expression of genes and proteins similar to physiological response to other stimuli. Biophysical studies at the cellular and molecular level have not revealed any well established interaction mechanism, through which mobile phone radiation could induce toxic effects below the thermal effect level. Research results on various biological effects in vitro and in vivo are continuously published but there is no consistent evidence on well established harmful effects. The mobile phone radiation is not carcinogenic for experimental animals or genotoxic for cells. According to epidemiological studies and psychophysiological brain function studies the use of mobile phones does not seem to increase the risk of tumors in the head and brain or disturb the function of central nervous system. However, there is a need for more research on the long-term effects of mobile phone radiation particularly on children.

  18. Cell Phones and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have the potential of accumulating more years of cell phone exposure than adults do. Thus far, the data from studies in children with cancer do not support this theory. The first published analysis came from a large ...

  19. No Phone Zone: Controlling Cell Phone Use in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Shelley; Master, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of cell phone policies in university libraries conducted over a three-month period in 2005. The authors sought information about the libraries' problems regarding cell phone use and attendant noise by students and other library users. The authors began with an 18-question survey of one hundred…

  20. [Cell phones: health risks and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamanca, I Figà; Giliberti, C; Salerno, S

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes first of all the electromagnetic radiation of cellular phones and presents the physical parameters used to measure and evaluate the absorption of emissions of radio stations and cellular phones. It then presents selected research results of the experimental studies in vivo and in vitro which examine the biological effects of the emissions of cellular phones. The review of the epidemiologic evidence focuses in particular the epidemiologic studies on the use of cell phones and brain tumours, identifying some of the reasons of the conflicting results obtained. Studies dealing with the health risks involved in the increasing use of cellular phones by adolescents and children, more sensitive to this exposure, are also presented showing the need for special caution. The problem of hypersensitivity observed in some individuals is also briefly discussed. Finally the paper presents a summary of the main prevention measures necessary in order to reduce the risks in the framework of the "precautionary principle" including prevention policies and exposure limits in various countries.

  1. Completely Enhanced Cell Phone Keypad

    CERN Document Server

    Sharmeen, Rezwana; Ahmad, Shabbir; Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    The enhanced frequency based keypad is designed to speed up the typing process. This paper will show that the proposed layout will increase the typing speed and be flexible for thumb. Traditional cell phone keypad is not a scientific keypad from the frequency point of view. Approaches have been explored to speed up the typing process. We found that no manufacturer has considered the frequency of the alphabet. The current architecture does not provide flexibility although the users are accustomed to the currently available multi-tapping keypad. Since the currently available keypad layouts are not best suited for users, this paper will suggest a keypad for cell phone and other cellular device based on the frequency of the alphabet in English language and also with the view of structure of human finger movements to provide a flexible and fast cell phone keypad. It also takes into consideration the key jamming problem that was available in typewriter. At first we identified those keys of cell phone, which are eas...

  2. Comparison of biological effects between continuous and intermittent exposure to GSM-900-MHz mobile phone radiation: Detection of apoptotic cell-death features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavdoula, Evangelia D; Panagopoulos, Dimitris J; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2010-07-19

    In the present study we used a 6-min daily exposure of dipteran flies, Drosophila melanogaster, to GSM-900MHz (Global System for Mobile Telecommunications) mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (EMR), to compare the effects between the continuous and four different intermittent exposures of 6min total duration, and also to test whether intermittent exposure provides any cumulative effects on the insect's reproductive capacity as well as on the induction of apoptotic cell death. According to our previous experiments, a 6-min continuous exposure per day for 5 days to GSM-900MHz and DCS-1800MHz (Digital Cellular System) mobile phone radiation, brought about a large decrease in the insect's reproductive capacity, as defined by the number of F(1) pupae. This decrease was found to be non-thermal and correlated with an increased percentage of induced fragmented DNA in the egg chambers' cells at early- and mid-oogenesis. In the present experiments we show that intermittent exposure also decreases the reproductive capacity and alters the actin-cytoskeleton network of the egg chambers, another known aspect of cell death that was not investigated in previous experiments, and that the effect is also due to DNA fragmentation. Intermittent exposures with 10-min intervals between exposure sessions proved to be almost equally effective as continuous exposure of the same total duration, whereas longer intervals between the exposures seemed to allow the organism the time required to recover and partly overcome the above-mentioned effects of the GSM exposure.

  3. Influence of electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone on some biophysical blood properties in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bediwi, Abu Bakr; Saad, Mohamed; El-kott, Attall F; Eid, Eman

    2013-04-01

    Effects of electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone on blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, hemolysis, Osmotic fragility, and blood components of rats have been investigated. Experimental results show that there are significant change on blood components and its viscosity which affects on a blood circulation due to many body problems. Red blood cells, White blood cells, and Platelets are broken after exposure to electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone. Also blood viscosity and plasma viscosity values are increased but Osmotic fragility value decreased after exposure to electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone.

  4. Micronucleus frequency in buccal mucosa cells of mobile phone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintzsche, Henning; Stopper, Helga

    2010-03-01

    Mobile phones are being used extensively throughout the world, with more than four billion accounts existing in 2009. This technology applies electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range. Health effects of this radiation have been subject of debate for a long time, both within the scientific community and within the general public. This study investigated the effect of mobile phone use on genomic instability of the human oral cavity's mucosa cells. 131 Individuals donated buccal mucosa cells extracted by slightly scraping the oral cavity with a cotton swab. Every participant filled out a questionnaire about mobile phone use including duration of weekly use, overall period of exposure and headset usage. 13 Individuals did not use mobile phones at all, 85 reported using the mobile phone for three hours per week or less, and 33 reported use of more than three hours per week. Additionally, information on age, gender, body weight, smoking status, medication and nutrition was retrieved. For staining of the cells a procedure using alpha-tubulin-antibody and chromomycin A(3) was applied. Micronuclei and other markers were evaluated in 1000 cells per individual at the microscope. A second scorer counted another 1000 cells, resulting in 2000 analyzed cells per individual. Mobile phone use did not lead to a significantly increased frequency of micronuclei.

  5. Study Regarding Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure Generated By Mobile Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marica, Lucia; Moraru, Luminita

    2011-12-01

    Number of mobile phone users reached to 5 billion subscribers in 2010 [ABI Research, 2010]. A large number of studies illustrated the public concern about adverse effects of mobile phone radiation and possible health hazards. Position of mobile phone use in close proximity to the head leads the main radiation between the hand and the head. Many investigations studying the possible effects of mobile phone exposure, founded no measurable effects of short-term mobile phone radiation, and there was no evidence for the ability to perceive mobile phone EMF in the general population. In this study, field radiation measurements were performed on different brand and different models of mobile phones in active mode, using an EMF RF Radiation Field Strength Power Meter 1 MHz-8 GHz. The study was effectuated on both the 2G and 3G generations phones connected to the providers operating in the frequency range 450 MHz-1800 MHz. There were recorded values in outgoing call and SMS mode, incoming call and SMS mode. Results were compared with ICNIRP guidelines for exposure to general public.

  6. Health Issues: Do Cell Phones Pose a Health Hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Health Issues Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... it Email Print Do cell phones pose a health hazard? Many people are concerned that cell phone ...

  7. Cell-Phone Addiction: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Sola Gutiérrez, José; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Rubio, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyze the concept of cell-phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features, and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain lack of conceptual delimitation that has resulted in a broad spread of prevalent data. There is a consensus about the existence of cell-phone addiction, but the delimitation and criteria used by various researchers vary. Cell-phone addiction shows a distinct user profile that differentiates it from Internet addiction. Without evidence pointing to the influence of cultural level and socioeconomic status, the pattern of abuse is greatest among young people, primarily females. Intercultural and geographical differences have not been sufficiently studied. The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables, such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity, and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell-phone use. In addition, the present review reveals the coexistence relationship between problematic cell-phone use and substance use such as tobacco and alcohol. PMID:27822187

  8. Cell-Phone Addiction: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Sola Gutiérrez, José; Rodríguez de Fonseca, Fernando; Rubio, Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    We present a review of the studies that have been published about addiction to cell phones. We analyze the concept of cell-phone addiction as well as its prevalence, study methodologies, psychological features, and associated psychiatric comorbidities. Research in this field has generally evolved from a global view of the cell phone as a device to its analysis via applications and contents. The diversity of criteria and methodological approaches that have been used is notable, as is a certain lack of conceptual delimitation that has resulted in a broad spread of prevalent data. There is a consensus about the existence of cell-phone addiction, but the delimitation and criteria used by various researchers vary. Cell-phone addiction shows a distinct user profile that differentiates it from Internet addiction. Without evidence pointing to the influence of cultural level and socioeconomic status, the pattern of abuse is greatest among young people, primarily females. Intercultural and geographical differences have not been sufficiently studied. The problematic use of cell phones has been associated with personality variables, such as extraversion, neuroticism, self-esteem, impulsivity, self-identity, and self-image. Similarly, sleep disturbance, anxiety, stress, and, to a lesser extent, depression, which are also associated with Internet abuse, have been associated with problematic cell-phone use. In addition, the present review reveals the coexistence relationship between problematic cell-phone use and substance use such as tobacco and alcohol.

  9. Cell Phones Transform a Science Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    A science methods instructor intentionally encouraged cell phone use for class work to discover how cell phones can be used as research tools to enhance the content and engage the students. The anecdotal evidence suggested that students who used their smartphones as research tools experienced the science content and pedagogical information…

  10. Prevalence of Cell Phone Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Britta; Fuchs, Marek

    2013-01-01

    With the growing mobile-only population landline telephone surveys are increasingly complemented by mobile phone interviews using a dual frame approach. Typically it is assumed that a mobile phone is a personal device solely used by one individual. Even though several articles dealt with the eventuality that several persons may be reached when calling a mobile phone number, respondent selection procedures are currently not implemented. This paper provides further insight into this phenomenon....

  11. Cell Phones: Current Research Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Potential Biological or Adverse Health Effects of Wireless Communication Devices World Health Organization: Electromagnetic Fields and Public Health: Mobile Phones International Agency for Research on Cancer Press ...

  12. Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Hydroalcoholic Extract on Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone Levels in Rats Exposed to Cell Phone Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Hajiuon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the probable effects of radiation and consumption of garlic on estrogen, progesterone and testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 5 male and 5 female groups of rat were used: control, sham (under exposed, experimental 1 (receiving garlic extract, and experimental 2 and 3 (receiving both extract and microwaves. After a one month, rats were weighed and serum levels of hormones were measured. Results: In male the mean body weight in the sham showed a significant decrease, whereas, an increase was seen in the experimental 3 compared with sham. Also, mean plasma testosterone levels in experimental 2 and 3 were reduced. Estrogen showed this decrease in all groups. Also in all groups progesterone showed increase. In female the mean body weights in different groups showed no significant changes, whereas a significant increase was seen in serum level of progesterone in experimental 2 and 3. Conclusion: Although, microwaves can cause weight lost, presence of allicin and vitamins A and B in garlic can compensate some of this weight lost. Microwaves and garlic extract have fewer effects on female reproductive system, reflected only in the serum progesterone concentration. Also they reflected in the number of Leydig cells and serum testosterone and estrogen concentration. The differences observed in the responses of male and female to cell phone radiation might be attributed to the position of gonads in the body and sensitivity of testis to heat.

  13. Histological and histochemical study of the protective role of rosemary extract against harmful effect of cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the parotid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Arafat, Eetmad A

    2016-06-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are a class of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) that is emitted from mobile phone. It may have hazardous effects on parotid glands. So, we aimed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes of the parotid glands of rats exposed to mobile phone and study the possible protective role of rosemary against its harmful effect. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were classified into 4 equal groups. Group I (control), group II (control receiving rosemary), group III (mobile phone exposed group) and group IV (mobile exposed, rosemary treated group). Parotid glands were dissected out for histological and histochemical study. Moreover, measurement of oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was done. The results of this study revealed that rosemary has protective effect through improving the histological and histochemical picture of the parotid gland in addition of its antioxidant effect. It could be concluded from the current study, that exposure of parotid gland of rat models to electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone resulted in structural changes at the level of light and electron microscopic examination which could be explained by oxidative stress effect of mobile phone. Rosemary could play a protective role against this harmful effect through its antioxidant activity.

  14. 手机辐射与人体头颅相互作用的仿真分析%The Simulation Analysis of the Interaction between Human Head and Radiation of Cell Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯建强; 牛中奇; 陈建华; 白冰; 黄华

    2009-01-01

    手机与人体相互作用中涉及两方面问题,一是人体吸收的电磁剂量是否超过限值标准从而对人体造成伤害;二是人体对手机的辐射特性会产生什么影响.采用时域有限差分(FDTD)法经数值仿真进行探讨.结果表明,当手机内置PIFA天线、辐射频率为1 800 MHz、辐射功率为1 W时,人体头颅的总体平均比吸收率未超过ICNIRP颁布的公众基本限值标准,但头颅内任意10 g组织中平均比吸收率的最大值却超过了公众基本限值标准.同时,头颅的影响使手机的辐射特性发生变化,当手机贴于左耳时,手机天线的方向图较之于处在自由空间时的方向图而言发生了向上、向左的偏斜,并且辐射到空间的功率约为辐射总功率的60%,被头颅吸收的功率约为辐射总功率的40%.%The interaction between human and radiation of cell phone involves two problems. One is whether the bioelectromagnetic dose absorbed by human body is beyond the standard limit, the other is what effects the body will have on the radiation of cell phone. Simulation analysis were conducted based on finite difference time domain(FDTD). Because the distance between the head and cell phone is much smaller than the wavelength of electromagnetic waves radiated by cell phone, the interaction could be regarded as a near-field problem in which the head and cell phone were considered as an inseparable whole. At the condition of in-phone PIFA antennas, 1 800 MHz radiation frequency and 1 W radiation power, simulation analysis showed that the average specific absorption rate overall head did not exceed the ICNIRP public promulgation of the basic limit, but the maximum of average specific absorption rate in arbitrary 10 g tissue in the head was more than the basic limit. At the same time, the radiation characteristics of the phone was changed by the influence from the head. When the phone affixed to the left ear, the pattern of the phone antenna was

  15. Effect of Cell Phone Radiation (940 MHz on the Learning and Memory of Balb/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Baharara

    2009-07-01

    After behavioral studies, fetal heads were collected, fixed in 10% paraformaldehyde and paraffine embedded. Results: Microwave-exposed mice were slower than sham-exposed, and cage control in swim speed (WM. Error Analyses rates reveal significant exposure effect in RAM and MWM. However, in this study the exposed group had not significantly lost their hippocampal CA3 neurons comparing to controls or sham exposed group. Conclusion: Increased time to locate a submerged in water maze, reference memory (entries into unbaited arms, working memory (repeated entries into baited arms, show that acute exposure to pulsed microwaves caused a deficit in spatial reference memory in the mouse. Keywords: Mobile phone, learning, memory, hippocampus

  16. Cell phone based balance trainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Beom-Chan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In their current laboratory-based form, existing vibrotactile sensory augmentation technologies that provide cues of body motion are impractical for home-based rehabilitation use due to their size, weight, complexity, calibration procedures, cost, and fragility. Methods We have designed and developed a cell phone based vibrotactile feedback system for potential use in balance rehabilitation training in clinical and home environments. It comprises an iPhone with an embedded tri-axial linear accelerometer, custom software to estimate body tilt, a "tactor bud" accessory that plugs into the headphone jack to provide vibrotactile cues of body tilt, and a battery. Five young healthy subjects (24 ± 2.8 yrs, 3 females and 2 males and four subjects with vestibular deficits (42.25 ± 13.5 yrs, 2 females and 2 males participated in a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Healthy subjects used the system with eyes closed during Romberg, semi-tandem Romberg, and tandem Romberg stances. Subjects with vestibular deficits used the system with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions during semi-tandem Romberg stance. Vibrotactile feedback was provided when the subject exceeded either an anterior-posterior (A/P or a medial-lateral (M/L body tilt threshold. Subjects were instructed to move away from the vibration. Results The system was capable of providing real-time vibrotactile cues that informed corrective postural responses. When feedback was available, both healthy subjects and those with vestibular deficits significantly reduced their A/P or M/L RMS sway (depending on the direction of feedback, had significantly smaller elliptical area fits to their sway trajectory, spent a significantly greater mean percentage time within the no feedback zone, and showed a significantly greater A/P or M/L mean power frequency. Conclusion The results suggest that the real-time feedback provided by this system can be used

  17. Bacterial ‘Cell’ Phones: Do cell phones carry potential pathogens?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Chawla

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones are important companions for professionals especially health care workers (HCWs for better communication in hospital. The present study compared the nature of the growth of potentially pathogenic bacterial flora on cell phones in hospital and community. 75% cell phones from both the categories grew at least one potentially pathogenic organism. Cell phones from HCWs grew significantly more potential pathogens like MRSA (20%, Acinetobacter species (5%, Pseudomonas species (2.5% as compared to the non HCWs. 97.5% HCWs use their cell phone in the hospital, 57.5% never cleaned their cell phone and 20% admitted that they did not wash their hands before or after attending patients, although majority (77.5% knows that cell phones can have harmful colonization and act as vector for nosocomial infections. It is recommended, therefore, that cell phones in the hospital should be regularly decontaminated. Moreover, utmost emphasis needs to be paid to hand washing practices among HCWs.

  18. A study on some psychological health effects of cell-phone usage amongst college going students

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanti P Acharya, Indranil Acharya, Divya Waghrey

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones have come to stay. Their use without any knowledge of their harmful effects like cancers and other health effects is not ‘quite’ safe. Studies on cancers due to electromagnetic radiations from cell phones are available but there is a need to research on the detrimental physical and psychological effects esp. on rampant users like college-goers. This study focused on certain psychological or mental health effects of cell phone usage amongst students pursuing professional courses in...

  19. The Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation on Serum Level of Cortisol and Anxiety in Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Ahmadi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Widespread use of cell phones is the most important risk factor f human health in the age of technology. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mobile phone radiation on serum level of cortisol and changes in anxiety level in male rats. Materials and Method: In this laboratory-experimental study, the male Wistar rats were divided into control and exposed to cell phone radiation for 1h, 3h, and 6h/day, groups . After 8 weeks, Elevated Plus Maze was used for anxiety evaluation. Blood samples also were obtained using cardiac puncture method and after serum preparation, levels of cortisol were measured using ELFA method. The data were statistically analyzed using SPSS software version 19. Results: The results indicated that serum level of cortisol significantly increased in rats exposed to cell phone radiation for 6h/day compare to control animals (P < 0.05. Also the results of the elevated plus maze test showed that the percentage of time spent in open arms significantly decreased in all experimental groups compared with control rats (P< 0.001. There was also significant decrease in the percentage of entries into open arms in all experimental groups compared to control group (P< 0.001. Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that the exposure to cell phone radiation results in enhanced anxiety level accompanied by increased serum level of cortisol.

  20. Radiation safety of handheld mobile phones and base stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P

    1999-01-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is no conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases or adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, is not recommended, if the immunity of the pace-maker has not been assured. The exposure caused by the base stations is in all practical cases well below the power density limits for general public. (author) 118 refs.

  1. Smart Bengali Cell Phone Keypad Layout

    CERN Document Server

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Ahmad, Shabbir; Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays cell phone is the most common communicating used by mass people. SMS based communication is a cheap and popular communication method. It is human tendency to have the opportunity to write SMS in their mother language. Text input in mother language is more flexible when the alphabets of that language are printed on the keypad. Bangla mobile keypad based on phonetics has been proposed earlier. But the keypad is not scientific from frequency and flexibility point of view. Since it is not a feasible solution in this paper we have proposed an efficient Bengali keypad for cell phone and other cellular device. The proposed keypad is based on the frequency of the alphabets in Bengali language and also with the view of structure of human finger movements. We took the two points in count to provide a flexible and fast cell phone keypad.

  2. Cell Phoning and Texting While Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Honoria Rosaire Telemaque

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted on the consequences of cell phone use while operating a vehicle. We discussed why talking and texting on cell phones are so popular through the analysis of our interviews with police officers, driving instructors, and parents of teens and young adults. The participants came from central, northeastern, northwestern, and southeastern Connecticut. All had exposure with respect to the effects of cell phone usage problem. The study reached a point of theoretical saturation or redundancy by which the analysis no longer resulted in new themes. We concluded that the discoveries revealed the necessity for education, expansion of technology, and additional driver education preparation, which may provide a path for leadership to help solve the problem.

  3. Knowledge, attitudes and practice on cell phone radiation among college freshmen and sophomores%某高校低年级大学生手机辐射危害知识态度行为分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎艺然; 曾洁; 石璐; 代子豪; 俞天杰; 卢晓翠

    2013-01-01

    Objective To understand the knowledge-attitude-practice on cell phone radiation among college freshmen and sophomores,and to provide useful information for the development of the college students' health education.Methods By using cluster random sampling method,one class of freshmen and one class of sophomores were selected in one medical university and one non-medical university.A total of 345 participants filled in the self-designed questionnaire.Results About 98.84% of the students were aware of cell phone radiation.More than 70% of them knew that cell phone radiation was strongest when the signal was very weak,the moment connected and calling.The awareness rate among medical students and sophomores was higher than freshmen from non medical students (P<0.01).More than 80% of students cared about cell phone radiation and paid attention to protection information.Female (73.53%) were more likely to make a phone call when walking than male (62.62%).About 60% of students slept with cell phones under their pillows,with students from non-medical university being higher than that from medical university (P<0.01).Conclusion Education should be strengthened to promote awareness of cell phone radiation among college students,and protect them through changing incorrect cell phone using behaviors.%目的 了解大学生有关手机辐射的知识、信念、行为现状,为开展大学生健康教育提供依据.方法 整群随机抽取某高校医学专业和非医学专业的大一、大二各1个班学生共345名,现场填写自行设计的调查问卷.结果 98.84%的学生知晓手机可以产生辐射;对于信号弱时、刚接通时以及通话时手机辐射大的知晓率超过70%;多数医学生和大二学生对手机辐射危害知识的知晓率更高(P<0.05或P<0.01);80%以上的学生介意手机辐射危害并关注手机辐射危害防护知识;女生(73.53%)较男生(62.62%)更喜欢打电话时走动(P<0.05);60

  4. ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone radiofrequency radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone RF radiation at a closed contact (less than 5 cm distance. However, we recommend that medical institutions discuss these issues in the context of their specific use of technologies and frame a policy that is clear and straightforward to guide staff, patients, and visitors.

  5. Cell Phones in the Classroom: Preservice Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin; O'Bannon, Blanche

    2013-01-01

    This study employed a survey to examine the perceptions of 92 preservice teachers enrolled at a small Midwestern liberal arts university regarding their support of the use of cell phones in the classroom, the benefits of specific cell phone features for school-related work, and the instructional benefits of and barriers to using cell phones in the…

  6. Cell Phones in the Classroom: Are We Dialing up Disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, George; Green, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been a rapid diffusion of cellular technology. Though cell phone use began as a business tool, it has now become part of popular culture. Because of the near ubiquitous presence of cell phone technology among teens in the United States, schools are beginning to explore the use of cell phones as a learning tool. This…

  7. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 microW cm(-2); 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at > or =2 h), and radicle and plumule growths (> or =1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  8. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ved Parkash [Department of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Singh, Harminder Pal, E-mail: hpsingh_01@yahoo.com [Department of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani [Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 {mu}W cm{sup -2}; 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at {>=}2 h), and radicle and plumule growths ({>=}1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  9. A Technical Report on the Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation From a Mobile Phone on Mice Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgenaidi A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: Exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR from mobile phones can cause detrimental effects on cell function, chromosomal aberrations, and tissue injuries [1-6]. The rapid expansion of mobile phones has lead to widespread concern for their safety. We examined the histopathological effects of direct exposure to this EMR from mobile phones in adult male Swiss albino mice. The animals were obtained from the biotechnology center, Tripoli, Libya, weighing from 25-30 grams, aged 10-12 weeks. The experiments were approved by state authorities and fol¬lowed guidelines of Egyptian law for animal protection. Mice were fed standard diets and water ad libitum. Plastic cages (diameter 45 cm by 11 cm height were designed for this work. The roof of the cage was designed to receive the mobile phone from a distance of about 10 cm from the cage floor [7]. EMR was emitted from the Nokia 1112 device with a dimension of 104×44×17 in connection with Libyan network (Misurata, Libya. The distance between phone and mice was about 10 cm. The GSM mobile phones operate with microwave carrier frequencies in the GHz range (850–1900 MHz [8-10].

  10. Radiofrequency radiation injures trees around mobile phone base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldmann-Selsam, Cornelia; Balmori-de la Puente, Alfonso; Breunig, Helmut; Balmori, Alfonso

    2016-12-01

    In the last two decades, the deployment of phone masts around the world has taken place and, for many years, there has been a discussion in the scientific community about the possible environmental impact from mobile phone base stations. Trees have several advantages over animals as experimental subjects and the aim of this study was to verify whether there is a connection between unusual (generally unilateral) tree damage and radiofrequency exposure. To achieve this, a detailed long-term (2006-2015) field monitoring study was performed in the cities of Bamberg and Hallstadt (Germany). During monitoring, observations and photographic recordings of unusual or unexplainable tree damage were taken, alongside the measurement of electromagnetic radiation. In 2015 measurements of RF-EMF (Radiofrequency Electromagnetic Fields) were carried out. A polygon spanning both cities was chosen as the study site, where 144 measurements of the radiofrequency of electromagnetic fields were taken at a height of 1.5m in streets and parks at different locations. By interpolation of the 144 measurement points, we were able to compile an electromagnetic map of the power flux density in Bamberg and Hallstadt. We selected 60 damaged trees, in addition to 30 randomly selected trees and 30 trees in low radiation areas (n=120) in this polygon. The measurements of all trees revealed significant differences between the damaged side facing a phone mast and the opposite side, as well as differences between the exposed side of damaged trees and all other groups of trees in both sides. Thus, we found that side differences in measured values of power flux density corresponded to side differences in damage. The 30 selected trees in low radiation areas (no visual contact to any phone mast and power flux density under 50μW/m(2)) showed no damage. Statistical analysis demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone masts is harmful for trees. These results are consistent with the fact

  11. The assessment of electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users

    OpenAIRE

    Buckus Raimondas; Strukcinskiene Birute; Raistenskis Juozas

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aim. During recent years, the widespread use of mobile phones has resulted in increased human exposure to electromagnetic field radiation and to health risks. Increased usage of mobile phones at the close proximity raises questions and doubts in safety of mobile phone users. The aim of the study was to assess an electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users by measuring electromagnetic field strength in different settings at the...

  12. The Correlation between Cell Phone Use and Sleep Quality in Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Reza Bayatiani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The negative health effects of electromagnetic radiation and psychological dependence are among the major consequences of widespread cell phone use in the general population, especially among adolescents. In this study, the relationship between cell phone use and sleep quality parameters was evaluated. Materials and Methods The study sample consisted of 820 students (305 males and 515 females, recruited from Arak University of Medical Sciences, Arak, Iran. The participants completed Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI and Cell-phone Overuse Scale (COS; the validity of these questionnaires had been previously confirmed in the Iranian population. Information on demographic characteristics and variables associated with cell phone exposure, such as the frequency and duration of phone calls and number of messages was collected in a separate questionnaire. Results Data analysis showed that cell phone overuse was significantly correlated with sleep quality and its components. Moreover, the results indicated that the global PSQI score and some sleep components were significantly correlated with several variables related to cell phone use. Based on the findings, the mean PSQI score was significantly different among heavy and light cell phone users (P

  13. Mobile Phone Base Station Radiation Study for Addressing Public Concern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman Ismail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The proliferation of mobile phone base stations had increased concerns from the public on the radio frequency radiation hazards that might come from them. The world wide public concern involved health risk due to radio frequency radiation. In Malaysia also public interest has increased, although it is not as intense as probably in other parts of the world, but had also resulted in tearing down of a few base stations. Due to this growing concern, a study was conducted to evaluate the radio frequency radiation levels near several mobile phone base stations in two major cities in Malaysia. Approach: Measurements in terms of electric field strength, power density and specific absorption rate were made to check the exposure level at public locations. Broadband meter were first used to survey the sites near the base stations. From the survey, spots with relatively higher readings will be further investigated using narrow band measurements. The measured values were then compared with the recommended international maximum permissible exposure limit. Results: The study showed that the measured values were found to be less than 1% of the maximum permissible exposure. Conclusion: The amount of radio frequency radiation from the selected base stations in the two major cities are adhering to the international limits although the physical radio base station infrastructures spawning out everywhere in these areas may give the reverse impression.

  14. Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edell AR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimée R Edell, Jesse J Jung, Joel M Solomon, Richard N Palu Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cell phones in the pedestrian population. In this report, an older gentleman suffered extensive facial trauma requiring surgery as a direct effect of cell phone use at the time the trauma occurred. This case highlights the role that portable electronic devices can play as a cause of ocular trauma. Keywords: orbital fracture, ocular trauma, orbital floor fracture, cell phone distraction, pedestrian safety

  15. The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Bin-Meferij, Mashael Mohammed; El-kott, Attalla Farag

    2015-01-01

    The present study has investigated the effects of mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on fertility in rats. The purpose of this study was to explore the capability of polyphenolic-rich Moringa oleifera leaf extract in protecting rat testis against EMR-induced impairments based on evaluation of sperm count, viability, motility, sperm cell morphology, anti-oxidants (SOD & CAT), oxidative stress marker, testis tissue histopathology and PCNA immunohistochemistry. The sample consisted of ...

  16. Comparison of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of plutonium-239 alpha particles and mobile phone GSM 900 radiation in the Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnya, Dmitry S; Romanovsky, Anton V

    2013-01-20

    The goal of this study was to compare the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of plutonium-239 alpha particles and GSM 900 modulated mobile phone (model Sony Ericsson K550i) radiation in the Allium cepa test. Three groups of bulbs were exposed to mobile phone radiation during 0 (sham), 3 and 9h. A positive control group was treated during 20min with plutonium-239 alpha-radiation. Mitotic abnormalities, chromosome aberrations, micronuclei and mitotic index were analyzed. Exposure to alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 and exposure to modulated radiation from mobile phone during 3 and 9h significantly increased the mitotic index. GSM 900 mobile phone radiation as well as alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 induced both clastogenic and aneugenic effects. However, the aneugenic activity of mobile phone radiation was more pronounced. After 9h of exposure to mobile phone radiation, polyploid cells, three-groups metaphases, amitoses and some unspecified abnormalities were detected, which were not registered in the other experimental groups. Importantly, GSM 900 mobile phone radiation increased the mitotic index, the frequency of mitotic and chromosome abnormalities, and the micronucleus frequency in a time-dependent manner. Due to its sensitivity, the A. cepa test can be recommended as a useful cytogenetic assay to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.

  17. Discovering urban activity patterns in cell phone data

    OpenAIRE

    Widhalm, Peter; Yang, Yingxiang; Ulm, Michael; Athavale, Shounak; Gonzalez, Marta C.

    2015-01-01

    Massive and passive data such as cell phone traces provide samples of the whereabouts and movements of individuals. These are a potential source of information for models of daily activities in a city. The main challenge is that phone traces have low spatial precision and are sparsely sampled in time, which requires a precise set of techniques for mining hidden valuable information they contain. Here we propose a method to reveal activity patterns that emerge from cell phone data by analyzing...

  18. Effect of Mobile Phone Radiations on Morphological and Biochemical Parameters of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata and Wheat (Triticum aestivum Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobin Afzal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades an enormous escalation in wireless equipments has been made our lives easy. The uses of wireless accessories including mobile phone have been enabled instant our communication resources advance and fast, on the other hand along with their advantages there is great increase in radiations, an unprecedented type of pollution, in our environment. Current study was an attempt to observe the morphological and biochemical changes induced by cell phone radiations on Mung bean (Vigna radiata and Wheat (Triticum aestivum seedlings. The effect of cell phone Electromagnetic Radiations (EMR were determined by measuring membrane damage in terms of melondialdehyde [MDA] contents and changes in the levels of antioxidant enzymes like Guaiacol Peroxidase (GPX, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX, and Catalase (CAT. Our results showed that cell phone EMR caused significant reduction in growth, fresh weight, dry weight, and relative water contents. Where as MDA contents and antioxidant enzymes were increased in stressed seedlings as compared to unstressed seedlings. We concluded that radiations emitted by mobile phone can induce oxidative stress which results in reduced growth and increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in mung bean and wheat seedlings.

  19. Thermal plasma treatment of cell-phone waste : preliminary result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruj, B. [Central Mechanical Engineering Research Inst., Durgapur (India). Thermal Engineering Group; Chang, J.S.; Li, O.L. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Pietsch, G. [RWTH Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The cell phone is an indispensable service facilitator, however, the disposal and recycling of cell phones is a major problem. While the potential life span of a mobile phone, excluding batteries, is over 10 years, most of the users upgrade their phones approximately four times during this period. Cell phone waste is significantly more hazardous than many other municipal wastes as it contains thousands of components made of toxic chemicals and metals like lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, polyvinyl chlorides (PVC), brominated flame retardants, beryllium, antimony and phthalates. Cell phones also use many expensive rare metals. Since cell phones are made up of plastics, metals, ceramics, and trace other substances, primitive recycling or disposal of cell phone waste to landfills and incinerators creates irreversible environmental damage by polluting water and soil, and contaminating air. In order to minimize releases into the environment and threat to human health, the disposal of cell phones needs to be managed in an environmentally friendly way. This paper discussed a safer method of reducing the generation of syngas and hydrocarbons and metal recovery through the treatment of cell phone wastes by a thermal plasma. The presentation discussed the experiment, with particular reference to sample preparation; experimental set-up; and results four samples with different experimental conditions. It was concluded that the plasma treatment of cell phone waste in reduced condition generates gaseous components such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons which are combustible. Therefore, this system is an energy recovery system that contributes to resource conservation and reduction of climate change gases. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  20. Cell Phones: A Bibliometric Analysis Related to Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Recent reviews of the literature indicate that the scope of research on cell or mobile phones covers a vast typology (Piotrowski & Kass, 2013). The majority of this research is concentrated in the technology, education, and social sciences fields. However, there is a dearth of bibliometric studies on cell phones related to business. To that…

  1. Cell Phones: Business Students in the Business Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Research on the topic of cell phones has proliferated over the past decade. Based on a review of the literature, it appears that the majority of the extant research on the topic resides in the technology, education, and social sciences fields. Recent reviews indicate that the scope of the research on cell/mobile phones is eclectic in nature…

  2. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Monica; van Eijsden, Manon; Vermeulen, Roel; Loomans, Eva; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Komhout, Hans; van Strien, Rob T.; Huss, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Background A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore, we

  3. Effect of electromagnetic radiation of cell phone on learning and memory of offspring rats with maternal exposure%雌鼠妊娠期手机辐射对仔鼠学习记忆影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 王秋丽; 刁飞燕; 廉志顺; 郭冬梅; 崔晞

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of maternal cell phone electromagnetic radiation exposure on learning and memory ability of offspring rats.Methods Pregnant rats were radiated with cell phone electromagnetic radiation of different intensity.Then the activity of acetyicholine esterase(AChE) in newborn rats' brain tissue was tested and Morris water maze was used to determine the learning and memory ability of the offspring rats.Results Significant increase of AChE activity was detected after the radiation among the rats of high ( 0.55 ± 0.20 U/mg· prot) and moderate intensity group (0.51 ±0.14 U/mg·prot) compared to that of the control group(0.33 ±0.22 U/mg·prot,P <0.05 for all).Significant differences in place navigation were found at the second and third day of the radiation among the high(63.9 ± 12.2,66.6 ±20.4s) and moderate intensity group(55.1 ±20.5,53.3 ± 16.8s) compared to those of the control group( 36.2 ±13.6,32.9 ± 16.5s,P < 0.05 for all ).At the fourth day, significant differences were found in place navigation among the rats of four groups( P <0.05 ).The offspring rats in high intensity group showed less times of crossing over the target area than those in control group with a significant difference ( P < 0.05 ).Conclusion Exposure to electromagnetic radiation from cell phone during pregnancy has harm effects on learning and memory ability of offspring rats.%目的 研究妊娠期接受手机辐射对仔鼠学习记忆的影响.方法 孕鼠经不同强度手机辐射后,测定新生鼠脑组织乙酰胆碱酯酶(AChE)活力,应用Morris水迷宫测试幼鼠学习记忆能力.结果 与对照组比较,AChE活力升高,其中高、中强度辐射组(0.55±0.20)、(0.51±0.14)U/mgprot与对照组(0.33±0.22)U/mgprot比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);定位航行实验,第2、3d,高、中强度辐射组平均潜伏期分别为(63.9±12.2)、(66.6±20.4)和(55.1±20.5)、(53.3±16.8)s,与对照组(36.2±13.6)、(32.9±16.5)s比

  4. The Relationship between Cell Phone Use and Identity Theft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Lewis O.

    2014-01-01

    The growth of mobile phone use has paralleled increased reports of identity theft. Identity theft can result in financial loss and threats to a victim's personal safety. Although trends in identity theft are well-known, less is known about individual cell phone users' attitudes toward identity theft and the extent to which they connect it to cell…

  5. Radiation from mobile phone systems: Is it perceived as a threat to people's health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Ivar S.; Elstein, Arthur S; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte

    2009-01-01

    % thought it was equivalent to tobacco-induced lung cancer (approximately 500 fatalities per million per year). Among women, concerns about mobile phone radiation were positively associated with educational attainment, perceived mobile phone mortality risk and concerns about unknown consequences of new......The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence, nature and determinants of concerns about mobile phone radiation. We used data from a 2006 telephone survey of 1004 people aged 15+ years in Denmark. Twenty-eight percent of the respondents were concerned about exposure to mobile phone radiation...... technologies. More than two thirds of the respondents felt that they had received inadequate public information about the 3G system. The results of the study indicate that the majority of the population has little concern about mobile phone radiation while a small minority is very concerned....

  6. Cell phones and tumor: Still in no man′s land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D R Kohli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of cell phones is increasing worldwide at a phenomenal pace. While cellular communication has dramatically influenced our lifestyle, its impact on human health has not been completely assessed. Widespread concern continues in the community about the deleterious effects of radiofrequency radiations (with which cell phones operate on human tissues and the subsequent potential for carcinogenesis. A detailed survey of published studies researching this question was done in preparation of this manuscript. Included in the survey were case reports, in vitro studies, population based retrospective studies and other investigations. The database of indexed journals was searched for key words like ′cell phone′, ′radiation′, ′cancer′ and ′radio waves′. Guidelines issued by the World Health Organization, federal and technical authorities, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers and the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection were reviewed. The evaluation of current evidence provided by various studies to suggest the possible carcinogenic potential of radiofrequency radiation is inconclusive. This risk assumes significance in light of the burgeoning number of people who are continually exposed to the high frequency radiation from cell phones and towers that serve as receiving and transmitting stations. The aim of this review is to identify limitations in past studies, present available data for consideration, and identify gaps in the current knowledge base. This will provide impetus and direction for further research and allow informed decisions pertaining to cell phone use to be made.

  7. EEG Changes Due to Experimentally Induced 3G Mobile Phone Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roggeveen, Suzanne; van Os, Jim; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Lousberg, Richel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether a 15-minute placement of a 3G dialing mobile phone causes direct changes in EEG activity compared to the placement of a sham phone. Furthermore, it was investigated whether placement of the mobile phone on the ear or the heart would result in different outcomes. Thirty-one healthy females participated. All subjects were measured twice: on one of the two days the mobile phone was attached to the ear, the other day to the chest. In this single-blind, cross-over design, assessments in the sham phone condition were conducted directly preceding and following the mobile phone exposure. During each assessment, EEG activity and radiofrequency radiation were recorded jointly. Delta, theta, alpha, slowbeta, fastbeta, and gamma activity was computed. The association between radiation exposure and the EEG was tested using multilevel random regression analyses with radiation as predictor of main interest. Significant radiation effects were found for the alpha, slowbeta, fastbeta, and gamma bands. When analyzed separately, ear location of the phone was associated with significant results, while chest placement was not. The results support the notion that EEG alterations are associated with mobile phone usage and that the effect is dependent on site of placement. Further studies are required to demonstrate the physiological relevance of these findings.

  8. The assessment of electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckus Raimondas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. During recent years, the widespread use of mobile phones has resulted in increased human exposure to electromagnetic field radiation and to health risks. Increased usage of mobile phones at the close proximity raises questions and doubts in safety of mobile phone users. The aim of the study was to assess an electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users by measuring electromagnetic field strength in different settings at the distance of 1 to 30 cm from the mobile user. Methods. In this paper, the measurements of electric field strength exposure were conducted on different brand of mobile phones by the call-related factors: urban/rural area, indoor/outdoor setting and moving/stationary mode during calls. The different types of mobile phone were placed facing the field probe at 1 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm distance. Results. The highest electric field strength was recorded for calls made in rural area (indoors while the lowest electric field strength was recorded for calls made in urban area (outdoors. Calls made from a phone in a moving car gave a similar result like for indoor calls; however, calls made from a phone in a moving car exposed electric field strength two times more than that of calls in a standing (motionless position. Conclusion. Electromagnetic field radiation depends on mobile phone power class and factors, like urban or rural area, outdoor or indoor, moving or motionless position, and the distance of the mobile phone from the phone user. It is recommended to keep a mobile phone in the safe distance of 10, 20 or 30 cm from the body (especially head during the calls.

  9. Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigielski, Stanislaw

    2013-09-01

    For years, radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations have been applied in the modern world. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones called recent attention to the possible health risks of RF/MW exposures. In 2011, a group of international experts organized by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. Three meta-analyses of case-control studies have concluded that using cell phones for more than ten years was associated with an increase in the overall risk of developing a brain tumor. The Interphone Study, the largest health-related case-control international study of use of cell phones and head and neck tumors, showed no statistically significant increases in brain cancers related to higher amounts of cell phone use, but excess risk in a small subgroup of more heavily exposed users associated with latency and laterality was reported. So far, the published studies do not show that mobile phones could for sure increase the risk of cancer. This conclusion is based on the lack of a solid biological mechanism, and the fact that brain cancer rates are not going up significantly. However, all of the studies so far have weaknesses, which make it impossible to entirely rule out a risk. Mobile phones are still a new technology and there is little evidence about effects of long-term use. For this reason, bioelectromagnetic experts advise application of a precautionary resources. It suggests that if people want to use a cell phone, they can choose to minimize their exposure by keeping calls short and preferably using hand-held sets. It also advises discouraging children from making non essential calls as well as also keeping their calls short.

  10. Radiation safety of mobile phones and base stations; Matkapuhelimien ja tukiasemien saeteilyturvallisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P.

    1997-06-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, the immunity which against the electromagnetic interference from the mobile phone has not be assured, is not recommended. The exposure caused by the base stations is in almost all practical ceases all below the power density limits for general public. (orig.) (115 refs.).

  11. Evidence for mobile phone radiation exposure effects on reproductive pattern of male rats: role of ROS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Behari, Jitendra

    2012-09-01

    The relationship between radiofrequency electromagnetic fields emitted from mobile phone and infertility is a matter of continuing debate. It is postulated that these radiations may affect the reproduction pattern spell by targeting biochemistry of sperm. In an attempt to expedite the issue, 70 days old Wistar rats (n = 6) were exposed to mobile phone radiofrequency (RF) radiation for 2 h per day for 45 days and data compared with sham exposed (n = 6) group. A significant decrease (P rats showed significant decreases in number and weight as compared with that of sham-exposed animals. A reduction in testosterone, an increase in caspase-3, and distortion in spermatozoa could be caused by overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animals under mobile phone radiation exposure. Our findings on these biomarkers are clear indications of possible health implications of repeated exposure to mobile phone radiation.

  12. Detecting particles with cell phones: the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Vandenbroucke, Justin; Karn, Peter; Meehan, Matthew; Plewa, Matthew; Ruggles, Tyler; Schultz, David; Peacock, Jeffrey; Simons, Ariel Levi

    2015-01-01

    In 2014 the number of active cell phones worldwide for the first time surpassed the number of humans. Cell phone camera quality and onboard processing power (both CPU and GPU) continue to improve rapidly. In addition to their primary purpose of detecting photons, camera image sensors on cell phones and other ubiquitous devices such as tablets, laptops and digital cameras can detect ionizing radiation produced by cosmic rays and radioactive decays. While cosmic rays have long been understood and characterized as a nuisance in astronomical cameras, they can also be identified as a signal in idle camera image sensors. We present the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory (DECO), a platform for outreach and education as well as for citizen science. Consisting of an app and associated database and web site, DECO harnesses the power of distributed camera image sensors for cosmic-ray detection.

  13. Observing Cell Phone Use and Enhancing Collaborative Learning Using a Wiki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Elizabeth G.

    2013-01-01

    Cell phone use is evident in society. Individuals have cell phone conversations while waiting in line at the grocery store, glance at their cell phones during meetings, check Facebook while having dinner with friends, have a meaningful phone conversation with a parent, and even text while sitting in church service. This assignment provides…

  14. Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffry N De Iuliis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent times there has been some controversy over the impact of electromagnetic radiation on human health. The significance of mobile phone radiation on male reproduction is a key element of this debate since several studies have suggested a relationship between mobile phone use and semen quality. The potential mechanisms involved have not been established, however, human spermatozoa are known to be particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress by virtue of the abundant availability of substrates for free radical attack and the lack of cytoplasmic space to accommodate antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, the induction of oxidative stress in these cells not only perturbs their capacity for fertilization but also contributes to sperm DNA damage. The latter has, in turn, been linked with poor fertility, an increased incidence of miscarriage and morbidity in the offspring, including childhood cancer. In light of these associations, we have analyzed the influence of RF-EMR on the cell biology of human spermatozoa in vitro. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Purified human spermatozoa were exposed to radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR tuned to 1.8 GHz and covering a range of specific absorption rates (SAR from 0.4 W/kg to 27.5 W/kg. In step with increasing SAR, motility and vitality were significantly reduced after RF-EMR exposure, while the mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species and DNA fragmentation were significantly elevated (P<0.001. Furthermore, we also observed highly significant relationships between SAR, the oxidative DNA damage bio-marker, 8-OH-dG, and DNA fragmentation after RF-EMR exposure. CONCLUSIONS: RF-EMR in both the power density and frequency range of mobile phones enhances mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation by human spermatozoa, decreasing the motility and vitality of these cells while stimulating DNA base adduct formation and, ultimately DNA fragmentation. These findings have clear implications

  15. Effects Of Mobile Phones Radiation On The EEG And EMG Of Human Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy El-Komey

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the effect of mobile phone radiation emissions on the human electroencephalograph (EEG and electromyogram activity (EMG. EEG and EMG recordings from 50 (male and female awake subjects were taken during exposure to radiation emissions from a mobile phone. Our results demonstrated that stimulation effects became apparent on EEG at first, and changes varied strongly at the end of the experiment to depression. EEG and EMG showed interesting changes.The results suggested that cellular phones may reversibly influence the human brain, as their use induced abnormal slow waves in EEG of awake persons.

  16. Cell Phone Use and Child and Adolescent Reading Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2012-04-01

    This study examined the association between cell phone use, including minutes spent talking and number of text messages sent, and two measures of children's reading proficiency - tests of word decoding and reading comprehension - in the United States. Data were drawn from the Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a nationally representative survey of 1,147 children 10-18 in 2009. Children whose parents were better educated, who had higher family incomes, who had fewer siblings, and who lived in urban areas were more likely to own or share a cell phone. Among those with access to a phone, children who spent more time talking on the phone were less proficient at word decoding, whereas children who spent more time sending text messages had greater reading comprehension. Although girls spent more time texting than did boys, there were no gender differences in the association between time spent talking or number of text messages sent with achievement. In spite of racial/ethnic differences in cell phone use levels, there were no racial/ethnic differences in the association between cell phone use and reading proficiency.

  17. Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation (EMFR generated by activated mobile phones on fasting blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Extensive use of mobile phones has been accompanied by a common public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. No study has been published so far to establish any association between the fastest growing innovation of mobile phone and fasting blood glucose. The aim was to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation generated by mobile phones on fasting blood glucose in Wistar Albino rats. Materials and Methods: 40 Male Albino rats (Wistar Strain were divided into 5 equally numerous groups. Group A served as the control one, group B received mobile phone radiation for less than 15 min/day, group C: 15-30 min/day, group D: 31-45 min/day, and group E: 46-60 min/day for a total period of 3 months. Fasting blood glucose was determined by using Spectrophotometer and serum insulin by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The Homeostatic Model (HOMA-B was applied for the assessment of β-cell function and (HOMA-IR for resistance to insulin. Results: Wister Albino rats exposed to mobile phone radiation for longer than 15 min a day for a total period of 3 months had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (p < 0.015 and serum insulin (p < 0.01 compared to the control group. HOMA-IR for insulin resistance was significantly increased (p < 0.003 in the groups that were exposed for 15-30 and 46-60 min/day compared to the control rats. Conclusion: The results of the present study show an association between long-term exposure to activated mobile phones and increase in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin in Albino rats.

  18. Electromagnetic Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones Decreases the Accuracy of Home Blood Glucose Monitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Smj; Gholampour, M; Haghani, M; Mortazavi, G; Mortazavi, Ar

    2014-09-01

    Mobile phones are two-way radios that emit electromagnetic radiation in microwave range. As the number of mobile phone users has reached 6 billion, the bioeffects of exposure to mobile phone radiation and mobile phone electromagnetic interference with electronic equipment have received more attention, globally. As self-monitoring of blood glucose can be a beneficial part of diabetes control, home blood glucose testing kits are very popular. The main goal of this study was to investigate if radiofrequency radiation emitted from a common GSM mobile phone can alter the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. Forty five female nondiabetic students aged 17-20 years old participated in this study. For Control-EMF group (30 students), blood glucose concentration for each individual was measured in presence and absence of radiofrequency radiation emitted by a common GSM mobile phone (HTC touch, Diamond 2) while the phone was ringing. For Control- Repeat group (15 students), two repeated measurements were performed for each participant in the absence of electromagnetic fields. The magnitude of the changes between glucose levels in two repeated measurements (|ΔC|) in Control-Repeat group was 1.07 ± 0.88 mg/dl while this magnitude for Control-EMF group was 7.53 ± 4.76 mg/dl (P < 0.001, two-tailed test). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to assess the electromagnetic interference in home blood glucose monitors. It can be concluded that electromagnetic interference from mobile phones has an adverse effect on the accuracy of home blood glucose monitors. We suggest that mobile phones should be used at least 50 cm away from home blood glucose monitors.

  19. Histopathological examinations of rat brains after long-term exposure to GSM-900 mobile phone radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grafström, Gustav; Nittby, Henrietta; Brun, Arne; Malmgren, Lars; Persson, Bertil R R; Salford, Leif G; Eberhardt, Jacob

    2008-11-25

    In order to mimic the real life situation, with often life-long exposure to the electromagnetic fields emitted by mobile phones, we have investigated in a rat model the effects of repeated exposures under a long period to Global System for Mobile Communication-900 MHz (GSM-900) radiation. Out of a total of 56 rats, 32 were exposed once weekly in a 2-h period, for totally 55 weeks, at different average whole-body specific absorption rates (SAR) (of in average 0.6 and 60 mW/kg at the initiation of the experimental period). The animals were exposed in a transverse electromagnetic transmission line chamber (TEM-cell) to radiation emitted by a GSM-900 test phone. Sixteen animals were sham exposed and eight animals were cage controls, which never left the animal house. After behavioural tests, 5-7 weeks after the last exposure, the brains were evaluated for histopathological alterations such as albumin extravasation, dark neurons, lipofuscin aggregation and signs of cytoskeletal and neuritic neuronal changes of the type seen in human ageing. In this study, no significant alteration of any these histopathological parameters was found, when comparing the GSM exposed animals to the sham exposed controls.

  20. I 5683 you: dialing phone numbers on cell phones activates key-concordant concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha

    2011-03-01

    When people perform actions, effects associated with the actions are activated mentally, even if those effects are not apparent. This study tested whether sequences of simulations of virtual action effects can be integrated into a meaning of their own. Cell phones were used to test this hypothesis because pressing a key on a phone is habitually associated with both digits (dialing numbers) and letters (typing text messages). In Experiment 1, dialing digit sequences induced the meaning of words that share the same key sequence (e.g., 5683, LOVE). This occurred even though the letters were not labeled on the keypad, and participants were not aware of the digit-letter correspondences. In Experiment 2, subjects preferred dialing numbers implying positive words (e.g., 37326, DREAM) over dialing numbers implying negative words (e.g., 75463, SLIME). In Experiment 3, subjects preferred companies with phone numbers implying a company-related word (e.g., LOVE for a dating agency, CORPSE for a mortician) compared with companies with phone numbers implying a company-unrelated word.

  1. Mass SAR Test of Cell Phone%手机批量SAR测试方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何毅; 范伟杰

    2013-01-01

    SAR is internationally adopted to measure the radiation, but the SAR test of cell phone is a complicated process. Based on the fundamental knowledge of cell phone SAR and the French SAGEM Laboratory Testing System, this paper presents the fundamental theories and key points of the Laboratory Testing System. The major factors which influence the cell phone SAR are analyzed from the aspects of the different circumstances of laboratory environment and the SAR test results of different cell phone models; the correlation between the factors and the SAR is studied. The cell phone SAR is simulated indirectly and a feasible scheme is obtained for the mass SAR test of cell phones.%国际上通行的方法是用比吸收率(SAR)来衡量手机辐射大小,但是手机SAR的测试又是一个非常复杂的过程。本文在介绍手机SAR的基本知识和法国SAGEM实验室测试系统的基础上,对实验室SAR测试的基本原理和要点做了归纳,通过对实验室环境下对各种情况、各个型号手机SAR的测试结果分析,分析手机SAR的主要影响因素,通过对这些影响因素与SAR关系的研究;来间接模拟手机SAR,以获得可用于批量手机SAR测试的可行性方案。

  2. Effect of Green Tea Extract in Reducing Genotoxic Injuries of Cell Phone Microwaves on Bone Marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zahedifar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea (Camellia sinensis extract is rich source of natural antioxidants specially catechin that is quickly absorbed into the body and it has cancer protective, anti microbial and anti inflammation effects. In this study has been studied role of green tea extract against genotoxic damage induced by cell phone microwaves on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of adult male Balb/C mouse.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 mouse were divided into five groups, control animals were located under natural condition, sham -exposed animals were prepared by experimental condition without cell phone waves radiation. Experimental 1 group that irradiated at cell phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and experimental 2 groups were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days and experimental 3 group that irradiated at active mobile phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days. After treatment period micronucleus test was evaluated in polychromatic erythrocytes on bone marrow. The quantitative data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test with using of SPSS-13 software at the level of p<0.05.Results: Based on this study, treatment with extracts of green tea decreased micronucleus frequency in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of Balb/C mouse that irradiated at cell phone microwave (0.92±0.129, (p<0.001.Conclusion: Cell phone microwaves (940 MHz increased micronucleus on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of male Balb/C mouse, but green tea had inhibitory effect and it decreased the average number of micronucleus.

  3. The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin-Meferij, Mashael Mohammed; El-Kott, Attalla Farag

    2015-01-01

    The present study has investigated the effects of mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on fertility in rats. The purpose of this study was to explore the capability of polyphenolic-rich Moringa oleifera leaf extract in protecting rat testis against EMR-induced impairments based on evaluation of sperm count, viability, motility, sperm cell morphology, anti-oxidants (SOD & CAT), oxidative stress marker, testis tissue histopathology and PCNA immunohistochemistry. The sample consisted of sixty male Wistar rats which were divided into four equal groups. The first group (the control) received only standard diet while the second group was supplemented daily and for eight weeks with 200 mg/kg aqueous extract of Moringa leaves. The third group was exposed to 900 MHz fields for one hour a day and for (7) days a week. As for the fourth group, it was exposed to mobile phone radiation and received the Moringa extract. The results showed that the EMR treated group exhibited a significantly decrease sperm parameters. Furthermore, concurrent exposure to EMR and treated with MOE significantly enhanced the sperm parameters. However, histological results in EMR group showed irregular seminiferous tubules, few spermatogonia, giant multinucleated cells, degenerated spermatozoa and the number of Leydig cells was significantly reduced. PCNA labeling indices were significant in EMR group versus the control group. Also, EMR affects spermatogenesis and causes to apoptosis due to the heat and other stress-related EMR in testis tissue. This study concludes that chronic exposure to EMR marked testicular injury which can be prevented by Moringa oleifera leaf extract.

  4. The influence of microwave radiation from cellular phone on fetal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Ji; Yuhua, Zhang; Xiao-qian, Yang; Rongping, Jiang; Dong-mei, Guo; Xi, Cui

    2012-03-01

    The increasing use of cellular phones in our society has brought focus on the potential detrimental effects to human health by microwave radiation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the intensity of oxidative stress and the level of neurotransmitters in the brains of fetal rats chronically exposed to cellular phones. The experiment was performed on pregnant rats exposed to different intensities of microwave radiation from cellular phones. Thirty-two pregnant rats were randomly divided into four groups: CG, GL, GM, and GH. CG accepted no microwave radiation, GL group radiated 10 min each time, GM group radiated 30 min, and GH group radiated 60 min. The 3 experimental groups were radiated 3 times a day from the first pregnant day for consecutively 20 days, and on the 21st day, the fetal rats were taken and then the contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA), and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HT) in the brain were assayed. Compared with CG, there were significant differences (Pcellular phones during pregnancy has certain harm on fetal rat brains.

  5. Mobile cell-phones (M-phones in telemicroscopy: increasing connectivity of isolated laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Missoni Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of modern information telecommunication (ITC technology and its use in telemedicine plays an increasingly important role in facilitating access to some diagnostic services even to people living in the most remote areas. However, physical and economical constraints in the access to broad band data-transmission network, still represent a considerable obstacle to the transmission of images for the purpose of tele-pathology. Methods Indifferently using m-phones of different brands, and a variety of microscopic preparations, images were taken without the use of any adaptor simply approaching the lens of the mobile cell phone camera to the ocular of common optical microscopes, and subsequently sent via Multimedia Messaging Services (MMS to distant reference centres for tele-diagnosis. Access to MMS service was reviewed with specific reference to the African information communication technology (ICT market. Results Images of any pathologic preparation could be captured and sent over the mobile phone with an MMS, without being limited by appropriate access to the internet for transmission (i.e. access to broad-band services. The quality of the image was not influenced by the brand or model of the mobile-phone used, but only by its digital resolution, with any resolution above 0.8 megapixel resulting in images sufficient for diagnosis. Access to MMS services is increasingly reaching remote disadvantaged areas. Current penetration of the service in Africa was mapped appearing already available in almost every country, with penetration index varying from 1.5% to 92.2%. Conclusion The use of otherwise already widely available technologies, without any need for adaptors or otherwise additional technology, could significantly increase opportunities and quality diagnostics while lowering costs and considerably increasing connectivity between most isolated laboratories and distant reference center.

  6. Using technology to promote mobile learning: engaging students with cell phones in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Meigan; Shellenbarger, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Advancements in cell phone technology have impacted every aspect of society. Individuals have instant access to social networks, Web sites, and applications. Faculty need to consider using these mobile devices to enrich the classroom. The authors discuss how they successfully designed and incorporated cell phone learning activities into their classrooms. Teaching-learning strategies using cell phone technology and recommendations for overcoming challenges associated with cell phone use in the classroom are discussed.

  7. Cell Phones + Self-Access: A Summer Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Mashinter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a summary of a project whereby the author developed a summer vacation contest for the SAC in which students could participate regardless of their physical distance from the facility. This contest was centered on cell phones, photography, and writing and was platformed online.

  8. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  9. Design Principles for Cell Phone Learning in EFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong

    2010-01-01

    Cell phone learning (C-learning), as an instructional approach, has been gaining more and more attention in the field of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in the last 10 years. While studies have proved C-learning an effective instructional approach in research settings, a review of literature indicates the lack of design principles to…

  10. Cell Phone Use by Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Whitehouse, Andrew; Jaquet, Emma; Ziatas, Kathy; Walker, Allan J.

    2010-01-01

    While young people have generally been at the forefront of the adoption and use of new communications technologies, little is known of uses by exceptional youth. This study compares cell phone use by a group of adolescents with Asperger Syndrome (n = 35) with that by a group of adolescents with typical development (n = 35). People with Asperger…

  11. A Happy and Engaged Class without Cell Phones? It's Easier than You Think

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Louise; Lambert, Warren

    2016-01-01

    Although there have been many suggestions for incorporating cell phone use into classroom activities, there have been few suggestions for removing cell phone use from the classroom. This article presents an easy-to-implement method using positive reinforcement that effectively removes cell phones from the classroom in a way that is highly endorsed…

  12. College Students' Cell Phone Use, Beliefs, and Effects on Their Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Anastasia D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore college students' self-reported cell phone use and beliefs and investigate the effect on student learning. Eighty-eight college students responded to a questionnaire about their use of cell phones during classes, studying, and driving and about their beliefs about how cell phones impact their schoolwork. In…

  13. 78 FR 27441 - NIJ Evaluation of Hand-Held Cell Phone Detector Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... of Justice Programs NIJ Evaluation of Hand-Held Cell Phone Detector Devices AGENCY: National...) is soliciting interest in supplying hand-held cell phone detector devices for participation in an... soliciting interest in supplying hand-held cell phone detector devices for participation in an evaluation...

  14. Cell Phones in the Classroom: Teachers' Perspectives of Inclusion, Benefits, and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin M.; O'Bannon, Blanche W.; Bolton, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Historically viewed as a disruption by teachers, cell phones have been banned from 69% of classrooms (Common Sense Media, 2009). The increased ubiquity and instructional features of cell phones have prompted some teachers to re-evaluate the ban and consider the benefits associated with allowing cell phones in the classroom. This study surveyed 79…

  15. Cell Phones in the Classroom: Teachers' Perspectives of Inclusion, Benefits, and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin M.; O'Bannon, Blanche W.; Bolton, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Historically viewed as a disruption by teachers, cell phones have been banned from 69% of classrooms (Common Sense Media, 2009). The increased ubiquity and instructional features of cell phones have prompted some teachers to re-evaluate the ban and consider the benefits associated with allowing cell phones in the classroom. This study surveyed 79…

  16. The outcome of dimethylglyoxime testing in a sample of cell phones in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J.P.; Johansen, J.D.; Zachariae, C.;

    2008-01-01

    Background: Nickel dermatitis may be caused by frequent and prolonged use of cell phones. Because little is known about the frequency of nickel release from cell phones, it is difficult to estimate the risk of nickel sensitization and dermatitis among their users. Objective: Inspired by a recent...... case of nickel dermatitis from prolonged cell phone use, the frequency of dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-positive cell phones on the Danish market was investigated. Methods: Five major cell phone companies were contacted. Two were visited, and the DMG test was performed on a sample of their products. Results......: 5 of 15 (33.3%) phones from company A and 3 of 26 (11.5%) phones from company B showed at least 1 positive reaction. 3 phones had more than 1 positive DMG spots. Conclusions: This study documents that excessive nickel release (i.e. a positive DMG test) is relatively frequent in a sample of cell...

  17. Effects of Classroom Cell Phone Use on Expected and Actual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Arnold D.; Carpenter, Christina N.; Inman, Denyse A.; Schooley, Jessica R.; Barnes, Rebecca B.; Brecht, Paul W.; Chacon, Jasmin D.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of driving indicate that the conversational aspects of using cell phones generate high risks from divided attention. Prior surveys document high rates at which students carry phones to and use them during class. Some experiments have demonstrated that cell phones distract students from learning. The present studies combined survey and…

  18. Cell-Phone Use and Self-Reported Hypertension: National Health Interview Survey 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaranjani Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Results. 43.5% of the participants were cell-phone nonusers, while 13.8% were predominantly cell-phone users. We found that cell-phone use was inversely associated with hypertension, independent of age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, body mass index (BMI, and physical activity. Compared to cell-phone nonusers, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval of hypertension was 0.86 (0.75–0.98, P trend  =  .005 among predominantly cell-phone users. This inverse association between cell-phone use and hypertension was stronger in women, those aged <60 years, whites, and those with BMI <25 kg/m2. Conclusion. We found that cell-phone usage was protectively associated with self-reported hypertension in a nationally representative sample of US adults.

  19. Cell phones: a digital cartography of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polise Moreira De Marchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental function of maps has always been to understand, interpret, and represent the world. Therefore, maps have a communication role, as a language. As communication tool, maps spatialize the interaction of social, economic and cultural urban realities in a graphic expression that provides the very meaning of urban systems. The aim of this paper is to report an academic study involving digital interface design graduate students. They investigated the role of locative media as potential instruments for registering and mapping experiences, observations and perceptions of urban life. This study considers that students can stimulate interactions across the city, whether, directly, in its physical space or, indirectly, through interfaces such as cell phone applications. The project also sought to discuss the cell phone as a producer of new languages, since instead of being merely a telephone it combines the functions of different media and can produce images, videos, sounds etc.

  20. Online camera-gyroscope autocalibration for cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chao; Evans, Brian L

    2014-12-01

    The gyroscope is playing a key role in helping estimate 3D camera rotation for various vision applications on cell phones, including video stabilization and feature tracking. Successful fusion of gyroscope and camera data requires that the camera, gyroscope, and their relative pose to be calibrated. In addition, the timestamps of gyroscope readings and video frames are usually not well synchronized. Previous paper performed camera-gyroscope calibration and synchronization offline after the entire video sequence has been captured with restrictions on the camera motion, which is unnecessarily restrictive for everyday users to run apps that directly use the gyroscope. In this paper, we propose an online method that estimates all the necessary parameters, whereas a user is capturing video. Our contributions are: 1) simultaneous online camera self-calibration and camera-gyroscope calibration based on an implicit extended Kalman filter and 2) generalization of the multiple-view coplanarity constraint on camera rotation in a rolling shutter camera model for cell phones. The proposed method is able to estimate the needed calibration and synchronization parameters online with all kinds of camera motion and can be embedded in gyro-aided applications, such as video stabilization and feature tracking. Both Monte Carlo simulation and cell phone experiments show that the proposed online calibration and synchronization method converge fast to the ground truth values.

  1. Reduced growth of soybean seedlings after exposure to weak microwave radiation from GSM 900 mobile phone and base station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N; Yak, See Kye; Eberhardt, Jacob L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study possible effects of environmental radiation pollution on plants. The association between cellular telephone (short duration, higher amplitude) and base station (long duration, very low amplitude) radiation exposure and the growth rate of soybean (Glycine max) seedlings was investigated. Soybean seedlings, pre-grown for 4 days, were exposed in a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell for 2 h to global system for mobile communication (GSM) mobile phone pulsed radiation or continuous wave (CW) radiation at 900 MHz with amplitudes of 5.7 and 41 V m(-1) , and outgrowth was studied one week after exposure. The exposure to higher amplitude (41 V m(-1)) GSM radiation resulted in diminished outgrowth of the epicotyl. The exposure to lower amplitude (5.7 V m(-1)) GSM radiation did not influence outgrowth of epicotyl, hypocotyls, or roots. The exposure to higher amplitude CW radiation resulted in reduced outgrowth of the roots whereas lower CW exposure resulted in a reduced outgrowth of the hypocotyl. Soybean seedlings were also exposed for 5 days to an extremely low level of radiation (GSM 900 MHz, 0.56 V m(-1)) and outgrowth was studied 2 days later. Growth of epicotyl and hypocotyl was found to be reduced, whereas the outgrowth of roots was stimulated. Our findings indicate that the observed effects were significantly dependent on field strength as well as amplitude modulation of the applied field.

  2. Teaching the Fundamentals of Cell Phones and Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Mark; Forrest, Rick; Pata, Don

    2010-04-01

    Wireless communications are ubiquitous. Students and teachers use iPhones®, BlackBerrys®, and other smart phones at home and at work. More than 275 million Americans had cell phones in June of 2009 and expanded access to broadband is predicted this year.2 Despite the plethora of users, most students and teachers do not understand "how they work." Over the past several years, three high school teachers have collaborated with engineers at Cingular, Motorola, and the University of Michigan to explore the underlying science and design a three-week, student-centered unit with a constructivist pedagogy consistent with the "Modeling in Physics" philosophy.3 This unique pilot program reinforces traditional physics topics including vibrations and waves, sound, light, electricity and magnetism, and also introduces key concepts in communications and information theory. This article will describe the motivation for our work, outline a few key concepts with the corresponding student activities, and provide a summary of the program that has been developed to engage and inspire the next generation of scientists, engineers, and citizens.

  3. 77 FR 22331 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Solar Cell: A Mobile UV Manager for Smart Phones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... Mobile UV Manager for Smart Phones Phase II (NCI) Summary: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D...: Title: Solar Cell: A Mobile UV Manager for Smart Phones Phase II (NCI). Type of Information Collection... phone application, Solar Cell, which uses smart phone technology to aid users in protecting their...

  4. Towards autonomous lab-on-a-chip devices for cell phone biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comina, Germán; Suska, Anke; Filippini, Daniel

    2016-03-15

    Modern cell phones are a ubiquitous resource with a residual capacity to accommodate chemical sensing and biosensing capabilities. From the different approaches explored to capitalize on such resource, the use of autonomous disposable lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices-conceived as only accessories to complement cell phones-underscores the possibility to entirely retain cell phones' ubiquity for distributed biosensing. The technology and principles exploited for autonomous LOC devices are here selected and reviewed focusing on their potential to serve cell phone readout configurations. Together with this requirement, the central aspects of cell phones' resources that determine their potential for analytical detection are examined. The conversion of these LOC concepts into universal architectures that are readable on unaccessorized phones is discussed within this context.

  5. Cell phone ringtone, but not landline phone ringtone, affects complex reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Zajdel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Legislation systems of most countries prohibited using the handheld mobile phone while driving due to the fact that it disturbs concentration and causes hand involvement. Every phone owner is accustomed to the ringtone of his phone and almost involuntarily endeavors to pick it up or check who calls. This engages one’s psychomotor skills, which in our opinion contributes to the attenuation of reaction time needed for performing other crucial functions. Objectives: The aim of the study was: (1 to evaluate the infl uence of the sound of a ringing mobile phone on the complex reaction time (RT score in healthy subjects (owners, and (2 to check if there are any differences in RT when a landline phone and mobile phone ring. Methods: To assess RT we used our system and protocol of examination, previously validated. The examination conditions were standardized. All tests were performed in the same room with the same light and general acoustic conditions. The test group consisted of 23 women and 24 men, aged 19–24 years. The examination comprised 4 sessions: Training Session (TS during which the subjects were accustomed with the application and sample stimuli, Control Session (CS with no telephone ringing, Landline Session (LS with landline phone ringing, Mobile Session (MS with mobile phone ringing. Results: The median RT in the study population was signifi cantly elongated (p 0.05. Conclusions: We think that the specifi c ‘bond’ between a person and their private phone can signifi cantly disrupt their attention and thus affect the attention-demanding activities.

  6. Cell phones and male infertility: a review of recent innovations in technology and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Agarwal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones have become a vital part of everyday life. However, the health risks associated with their usage are often overlooked. Recently, evidence from several studies supports a growing claim that cell phone usage may have a detrimental effect on sperm parameters leading to decreased male fertility. Nonetheless, other studies showed no conclusive link between male infertility and cell phone usage. The ambiguity of such results is attributed to the lack of a centralized assay for measuring inflicted damage caused by cell phones. Study design, ethics, and reproducibility are all aspects which must be standardized before any conclusions can be made.

  7. Effects of radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones on electromagnetic hypersensitive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Min Kyung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the use of the third generation (3 G mobile phones on the rise, social concerns have arisen concerning the possible health effects of radio frequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs emitted by wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA mobile phones in humans. The number of people with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS, who complain of various subjective symptoms such as headache, dizziness and fatigue, has also increased. However, the origins of EHS remain unclear. Methods In this double-blind study, two volunteer groups of 17 EHS and 20 non-EHS subjects were simultaneously investigated for physiological changes (heart rate, heart rate variability, and respiration rate, eight subjective symptoms, and perception of RF-EMFs during real and sham exposure sessions. Experiments were conducted using a dummy phone containing a WCDMA module (average power, 24 dBm at 1950 MHz; specific absorption rate, 1.57 W/kg within a headset placed on the head for 32 min. Results WCDMA RF-EMFs generated no physiological changes or subjective symptoms in either group. There was no evidence that EHS subjects perceived RF-EMFs better than non-EHS subjects. Conclusions Considering the analyzed physiological data, the subjective symptoms surveyed, and the percentages of those who believed they were being exposed, 32 min of RF radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones demonstrated no effects in either EHS or non-EHS subjects.

  8. Cognitive effects of cellular phones: a possible role of non-radiofrequency radiation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareuveny, Ronen; Eliyahu, Ilan; Luria, Roy; Meiran, Nachshon; Margaliot, Menachem

    2011-10-01

    Some studies found that cognitive functions of human beings may be altered while exposed to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted by cellular phones. In two recent studies, we have found that experiment duration and exposure side (i.e., phone's location--right or left) may have a major influence on the detection of such effects. In this brief follow-up experiment, 29 right-handed male subjects were divided into two groups. Each subject had two standard cellular phones attached to both sides of his head. The subjects performed a spatial working memory task that required either a left-hand or a right-hand response under one of the two exposure conditions: left side of the head or right side. Contrary to our previous studies, in this work external antennas located far away from the subjects were connected to the cellular phones. This setup prevents any emission of RFR from the internal antenna, thus drastically reducing RFR exposure. Despite that, the results remain similar to those obtained in our previous work. These results indicate that some of the effects previously attributed to RFR can be the result of some confounders.

  9. Determination of the Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Student Cell Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ann Blankinship

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sampling of common use items (e.g., student cell phones for bacterial presence, identification, and antibiotic resistance profiling helps students to recognize the need for routine cleaning of personal items and encourages thoughtful use of currently available medications. This multilab period project can be used to teach or reinforce several methods from general microbiology including aseptic technique, isolation streak, serial dilution, spread plating, Kirby Bauer testing, unknown identification, and media production. The data generated can be saved and added to each semester, thus providing a data set that reflects a local trend of antibiotic resistance.      

  10. Cell Radiation Experiment System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    2010-01-01

    The cell radiation experiment system (CRES) is a perfused-cell culture apparatus, within which cells from humans or other animals can (1) be maintained in homeostasis while (2) being exposed to ionizing radiation during controlled intervals and (3) being monitored to determine the effects of radiation and the repair of radiation damage. The CRES can be used, for example, to determine effects of drug, radiation, and combined drug and radiation treatments on both normal and tumor cells. The CRES can also be used to analyze the effects of radiosensitive or radioprotectant drugs on cells subjected to radiation. The knowledge gained by use of the CRES is expected to contribute to the development of better cancer treatments and of better protection for astronauts, medical-equipment operators, and nuclear-power-plant workers, and others exposed frequently to ionizing radiation.

  11. Assessment of oxidant/antioxidant status in saliva of cell phone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ahmad M; Abu Khadra, Khalid M; Aljaberi, Ahmad M; Gagaa, Marwan H; Issa, Hamzah S

    2014-06-01

    Hazardous health effects resulting from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular and molecular targets of RF-EMR are still controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the oxidant/antioxidant status in saliva of cell phone users. Saliva samples collected before using a cell phone as well as at the end of 15 and 30 min calls were tested for two commonly used oxidative stress biomarkers: malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-Oxo-dG). The 8-oxo-dG levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) competitive assay, while the MDA levels were measured using the OxiSelect MDA adduct ELISA Kit. The antioxidant capacity of the saliva was evaluated using the oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) and the hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) assays according to the manufacture instructions. The mean 8-oxo-dG and the Bradford protein concentrations (ng/ml and mg/ml, respectively) peaked at 15 min. The levels of HORAC, ORAC and MDA progressively increased with time and reached maximum at 30 min. However, there was no significant effect of talking time on the levels of 8-OxodG and MDA. Similarly, there was no statistically significant effect of talking time on the oxygen and hydroxyl radicals averting capacities, (ORAC) and (HORAC), respectively. These findings suggest that there is no relationship between exposure to radio frequency radiation (RFR) and changes in the salivary oxidant/antioxidant profile.

  12. Tools for School: Student Fluency and Perception of Cell Phones Used for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble-Thaden, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Technology is changing the way society interacts, communicates, collaborates, and learns. Improved cell phone capabilities and an ever increasing amount of cell phone applications allow individuals to connect globally and afford almost instantaneous access to information inside and outside the classroom. The majority of students today possesses…

  13. Cell Phones in the Classroom: Don't Put Them Away Just Yet!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Carolyn Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    As the number of students with cell phones has steadily increased over the past decade, these technological advances have caused trepidation among educators over behavioral issues, from off-task activities to cheating (Prensky, 2005). On the other hand, mobile learning, as well as some tools to use with cell phones, are easy to set up, easy to…

  14. The Educative Potential of Cell Phones in the Social Studies Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguth, Brad M.

    2013-01-01

    Over 75 percent of teens have a cell phone, and today's youth are increasingly turning to their cell phones to communicate and access information (Pew Internet 2009). As teens gain access and use mobile devices outside of the classroom, there's been a growing movement for teachers to enlist the digital tools students really use and are…

  15. Teachers' Stances on Cell Phones in the ESL Classroom: Toward a "Theoretical" Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    In the ongoing and constantly expanding discussion surrounding cell phones in the classroom, a theoretical complement to the practical side of the issue is generally lacking. This is perhaps understandable. Many teachers are still trying to deal with the simple presence of cell phones in the class, and managing a classroom in which the presence…

  16. Cell-phone based assistance for waterworks/sewage plant maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, T; Nakamichi, K; Hisano, N; Kitamura, M; Miyahara, K

    2006-01-01

    Cell-phones are now incorporating the functions necessary for them to be used as mobile IT devices. In this paper, we present our results of the evaluation of cell-phones as the mobile IT device to assist workers in industrial plants. We use waterworks and sewage plants as examples. By employing techniques to squeeze the SCADA screen on CRT into a small cell-phone LCD, we have made it easier for a plant's field workers to access the information needed for effective maintenance, regardless of location. An idea to link SCADA information and the plant facility information on the cell-phone is also presented. Should an accident or emergency situation arise, these cell-phone-based IT systems can efficiently deliver the latest plant information, thus the worker out in the field can respond to and resolve the emergency.

  17. Appropriation and educational uses of cell phones by students and university teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Organista Sandoval

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents a study on appropriation and educational uses of cell phones. For the research, a random sample of 954 students and 246 teachers was selected, representing respectively 12% and 24% of the total population in two facilities of UABC in Ensenada, Mexico. Our survey showed that 97% of teachers or students have some kind of cell phone or smartphone. However, we observed that one of every four interactions with the mobile device had a concrete educational purpose. We also found that in general the educational use of the cell phone is mainly aimed to establish communication between the students and to access information via Internet. However, in spite of its limitations, our results show that the cell phone is a technological tool with great pedagogical potential. We suggest that institutional policies are necessary in order to tap that the cell phone potential to adequately support the teaching-learning process.

  18. Effect of mobile phone radiation on brain using EEG analysis by Higuichi's fractal dimension method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smitha, C. K.; Narayanan, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    venient window on the mind, revealing synaptic action that is moderately to strongly co-relate with brain state. Fractal dimension, measure of signal complexity can be used to characterize the physiological conditions of the brain. As the EEG signal is non linear, non stationary and noisy, non linear methods will be suitable for the analysis. In this paper Higuichi's fractal method is applied to find the fractal dimension. EEGs of 5 volunteers were recorded at rest and on exposure to radiofrequency (RF) emissions from mobile phones having different SAR values. Mobiles were positioned near the ears and then near the cz position. Fractal dimensions for all conditions are calculated using Higuich's FD estimation algorithm. The result shows that there are some changes in the FD while using mobile phone. The change in FD of the signal varies from person to person. The changes in FD show the variations in EEG signal while using mobile phone, which demonstrate transformation in the activities of brain due to radiation.

  19. Recovery of indium from LCD screens of discarded cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, A V M; Fuchs, M S; Pinheiro, D K; Tanabe, E H; Bertuol, D A

    2015-11-01

    Advances in technological development have resulted in high consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), amongst which are cell phones, which have LCD (liquid crystal display) screens as one of their main components. These multilayer screens are composed of different materials, some with high added value, as in the case of the indium present in the form of indium tin oxide (ITO, or tin-doped indium oxide). Indium is a precious metal with relatively limited natural reserves (Dodbida et al., 2012), so it can be profitable to recover it from discarded LCD screens. The objective of this study was to develop a complete process for recovering indium from LCD screens. Firstly, the screens were manually removed from cell phones. In the next step, a pretreatment was developed for removal of the polarizing film from the glass of the LCD panels, because the adherence of this film to the glass complicated the comminution process. The choice of mill was based on tests using different equipment (knife mill, hammer mill, and ball mill) to disintegrate the LCD screens, either before or after removal of the polarizing film. In the leaching process, it was possible to extract 96.4 wt.% of the indium under the following conditions: 1.0M H2SO4, 1:50 solid/liquid ratio, 90°C, 1h, and stirring at 500 rpm. The results showed that the best experimental conditions enabled extraction of 613 mg of indium/kg of LCD powder. Finally, precipitation of the indium with NH4OH was tested at different pH values, and 99.8 wt.% precipitation was achieved at pH 7.4.

  20. The potential role of cell phones in dissemination of bacteria in a healthcare sett

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateusz P. Kister

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The mobile phone is an indispensible accessory, both from a social and a professional point of view, which is being used in a variety of environments, including those with high bacteria levels. Medical personnel, patients or even people simply passing by the healthcare facilities, having and using their mobile phones are likely to transmit bacteria, thus it might be suspected that mobile phones are to some extent a link in the cross-contamination. The purpose of this work was to collect information concerning the potential role of cell phones in a dissemination of bacteria based on available research data.

  1. The use of cell phone and insight into its potential human health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-04-01

    The rapid evolution of mobile phone technology has raised public concern about its possible association with adverse health effects. Given the huge number of mobile phone users at present days, even simple adverse health effects could have major implications. This article reviews the present knowledge concerning the health effects stemming from the use of cellular phones by emphasizing adverse biological effects, epidemiological issues, and indirect health effects. A line of epidemiological evidence suggests that there is no concrete association between mobile phone radiation and cancer. The evidence regarding the occurrence of cancer due to exposure to the radio frequency energy of mobile phones is nonetheless conflicting. Consequently, long-term research in this field is necessary to account for the vital issue of this scientific research to the public in a meaningful way.

  2. Cognitive impairment in rats after long-term exposure to GSM-900 mobile phone radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nittby, Henrietta; Grafström, Gustav; Tian, Dong Ping; Malmgren, Lars; Brun, Arne; Persson, Bertil R R; Salford, Leif G; Eberhardt, Jacob

    2008-04-01

    Considering the frequent use of mobile phones, we have directed attention to possible implications on cognitive functions. In this study we investigated in a rat model the long-term effects of protracted exposure to Global System for Mobile Communication-900 MHz (GSM-900) radiation. Out of a total of 56 rats, 32 were exposed for 2 h each week for 55 weeks to radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation at different SAR levels (0.6 and 60 mW/kg at the initiation of the experimental period) emitted by a (GSM-900) test phone. Sixteen animals were sham exposed and eight animals were cage controls, which never left the animal house. After this protracted exposure, GSM-900 exposed rats were compared to sham exposed controls. Effects on exploratory behaviour were evaluated in the open-field test, in which no difference was seen. Effects on cognitive functions were evaluated in the episodic-like memory test. In our study, GSM exposed rats had impaired memory for objects and their temporal order of presentation, compared to sham exposed controls (P = 0.02). Detecting the place in which an object was presented was not affected by GSM exposure. Our results suggest significantly reduced memory functions in rats after GSM microwave exposure (P = 0.02).

  3. Effects of electromagnetic radiation of mobile phones on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossmann, K-A; Hermann, D M

    2003-01-01

    With the increasing use of mobile communication, concerns have been expressed about the possible interactions of electromagnetic radiation with the human organism and, in particular, the brain. The effects on neuronal electrical activity, energy metabolism, genomic responses, neurotransmitter balance, blood-brain barrier permeability, cognitive function, sleep, and various brain diseases including brain tumors are reviewed. Most of the reported effects are small as long as the radiation intensity remains in the nonthermal range, and none of the research reviewed gives an indication of the mechanisms involved at this range. However, health risks may evolve from indirect consequences of mobile telephony, such as the sharply increased incidence rate of traffic accidents caused by telephony during driving, and possibly also by stress reactions which annoyed bystanders may experience when cellular phones are used in public places. These indirect health effects presumably outweigh the direct biological perturbations and should be investigated in more detail in the future.

  4. Preliminary research developing a theory of cell phone distraction and social relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVoie, Noelle; Lee, Yi-Ching; Parker, James

    2016-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of death and injury for people aged 5-34, accounting annually for over 3000 deaths, and 100 times as many injuries. It is well established that distracted driving, and cell phone use while driving in particular, pose significant crash risk to drivers. Research has demonstrated that drivers are well aware of this danger but over 90% of drivers report using a cell phone while driving. Given the likely role that social influence plays in how people use cell phones while driving surprisingly little research has been conducted investigating to whom drivers are talking or texting. We report the results of a national survey to determine who drivers are most likely to call or text when behind the wheel and compared these results with general cell phone calling and texting patterns as well as previous findings on the prevalence of calling and texting while driving. The results suggest that social distance is a key factor in cell phone use while driving: Teens are more likely to talk with parents, and adults are more likely to talk with spouses than general calling patterns would suggest. We discuss whether the purpose of calls made while driving, such as coordination, could help explain these patterns. We propose next steps for further examining the role social relationships play in cell phone use while driving to potentially reduce teen driver cell phone use by lowering the number of calls from parents.

  5. 75 FR 8921 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Brightpoint North America L.P. (Cell Phone Kitting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... Phone Kitting and Distribution) Indianapolis, IN Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones... authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the cell phone kitting and distribution facilities of... kitting and distribution of cell phones at the facilities of Brightpoint North America L.P., located...

  6. A feasibility study of cell phone and landline phone interviews for monitoring of risk and protection factors for chronic diseases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erly Catarina Moura

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to evaluate the feasibility of interviews by cell phone as a complement to interviews by landline to estimate risk and protection factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. Adult cell phone users were evaluated by random digit dialing. Questions asked were: age, sex, education, race, marital status, ownership of landline and cell phones, health condition, weight and height, medical diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes, physical activity, diet, binge drinking and smoking. The estimates were calculated using post-stratification weights. The cell phone interview system showed a reduced capacity to reach elderly and low educated populations. The estimates of the risk and protection factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in cell phone interviews were equal to the estimates obtained by landline phone. Eligibility, success and refusal rates using the cell phone system were lower than those of the landline system, but loss and cost were much higher, suggesting it is unsatisfactory as a complementary method in such a context.

  7. The effect of electromagnetic radiation in the mobile phone range on the behaviour of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Willie M U; Pitout, Ianthe L; Afullo, Thomas J O; Mabandla, Musa V

    2009-12-01

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is emitted from electromagnetic fields that surround power lines, household appliances and mobile phones. Research has shown that there are connections between EMR exposure and cancer and also that exposure to EMR may result in structural damage to neurons. In a study by Salford et al. (Environ Health Perspect 111:881-883, 2003) the authors demonstrated the presence of strongly stained areas in the brains of rats that were exposed to mobile phone EMR. These darker neurons were particularly prevalent in the hippocampal area of the brain. The aim of our study was to further investigate the effects of EMR. Since the hippocampus is involved in learning and memory and emotional states, we hypothesised that EMR will have a negative impact on the subject's mood and ability to learn. We subsequently performed behavioural, histological and biochemical tests on exposed and unexposed male and female rats to determine the effects of EMR on learning and memory, emotional states and corticosterone levels. We found no significant differences in the spatial memory test, and morphological assessment of the brain also yielded non-significant differences between the groups. However, in some exposed animals there were decreased locomotor activity, increased grooming and a tendency of increased basal corticosterone levels. These findings suggested that EMR exposure may lead to abnormal brain functioning.

  8. Measurement and analysis of radiofrequency radiations from some mobile phone base stations in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoako, J K; Fletcher, J J; Darko, E O

    2009-08-01

    A survey of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation at public access points in the vicinity of 50 cellular phone base stations has been carried out. The primary objective was to measure and analyse the electromagnetic field strength levels emitted by antennae installed and operated by the Ghana Telecommunications Company. On all the sites measurements were made using a hand-held spectrum analyser to determine the electric field level with the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands. The results indicated that power densities at public access points varied from as low as 0.01 microW m(-2) to as high as 10 microW m(-2) for the frequency of 900 MHz. At a transmission frequency of 1800 MHz, the variation of power densities is from 0.01 to 100 microW m(-2). The results were found to be in compliant with the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiological Protection guidance level but were 20 times higher than the results generally obtained for such a practice elsewhere. There is therefore a need to re-assess the situation to ensure reduction in the present level as an increase in mobile phone usage is envisaged within the next few years.

  9. Swedish review strengthens grounds for concluding that radiation from cellular and cordless phones is a probable human carcinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Devra Lee; Kesari, Santosh; Soskolne, Colin L; Miller, Anthony B; Stein, Yael

    2013-04-01

    With 5.9 billion reported users, mobile phones constitute a new, ubiquitous and rapidly growing exposure worldwide. Mobile phones are two-way microwave radios that also emit low levels of electromagnetic radiation. Inconsistent results have been published on potential risks of brain tumors tied with mobile phone use as a result of important methodological differences in study design and statistical power. Some studies have examined mobile phone users for periods of time that are too short to detect an increased risk of brain cancer, while others have misclassified exposures by placing those with exposures to microwave radiation from cordless phones in the control group, or failing to attribute such exposures in the cases. In 2011, the World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) advised that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone and other wireless devices constitutes a "possible human carcinogen," 2B. Recent analyses not considered in the IARC review that take into account these methodological shortcomings from a number of authors find that brain tumor risk is significantly elevated for those who have used mobile phones for at least a decade. Studies carried out in Sweden indicate that those who begin using either cordless or mobile phones regularly before age 20 have greater than a fourfold increased risk of ipsilateral glioma. Given that treatment for a single case of brain cancer can cost between $100,000 for radiation therapy alone and up to $1 million depending on drug costs, resources to address this illness are already in short supply and not universally available in either developing or developed countries. Significant additional shortages in oncology services are expected at the current growth of cancer. No other environmental carcinogen has produced evidence of an increased risk in just one decade. Empirical data have shown a difference in the dielectric properties of tissues as a function of age, mostly due to the

  10. Cell Phone-based Lateral Flow Assay for Blood Biomarker Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to integrate a sensor platform with a cell phone for health monitoring and disease diagnosis for astronauts in space exploration has the potential to be...

  11. Cell Phone-based Lateral Flow Assay for Blood Biomarker Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to integrate a sensor platform with a cell phone for health monitoring and disease diagnosis for astronauts in space has the potential to be cost...

  12. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers, Published in unknown, Norton County Appraisal Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described as 'Cell Towers'. Data by this publisher are...

  13. Contamination of cell phones by pathogenic microorganisms: Comparison between hospital staff and college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PURNIMA R. CHITLANGE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chitlange PR. 2014. Contamination of cell phones by pathogenic microorganisms: Comparison between hospital staff and college students. Nusantara Bioscience 6: 203-206. Cell phone (CP is a long range portable electronic device. The cell phone is constantly exposed to arrays of micro organisms, making it a harbour and breeding ground for microbes especially those associated with skin. The adult human is covered with approximately 2m2 of skin with area supporting about 106 bacteria. To check whether the cell phone act as a vector for transmission of various pathogens, a potential study was carried out in microbiology department of Shri Radhakisan Laxminarayan Toshniwal College of Science, Akola. Total 20 cell samples were screened. Two parameters were considered: College students and hospital staff. The isolated bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, E. coli, Pseudomonas sp., Bacillus subtilis, Aerobacter aerogenes, Salmonella, Shigella, Streptococci, P. vulgaris were identified on the basis of morphological and cultural characteristics. The main aim of present study was to check the contamination by bacterial pathogens on cell phones and also to check role of cell phone for transmission of pathogens from person to person or not.

  14. Solar cell radiation handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

  15. SAR Simulation with Magneto Chiral Effects for Human Head Radiated from Cellular Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Silva, H.

    2008-09-01

    A numerical method for a microwave signal emitted by a cellular phone, propagating in a magneto-chiral media, characterized by an extended Born-Fedorov formalism, is presented. It is shown that the use of a cell model, combined with a real model of the human head, derived from the magnetic resonance of images allows a good determination of the near fields induced in the head when the brain chirality and the battery magnetic field are considered together. The results on a 2-Dim human head model show the evolution of the specific absorption rate, (SAR coefficient) and the spatial peak specific absorption rate which are sensitives to the magneto-chiral factor, which is important in the brain layer. For GSM/PCN phones, extremely low frequency real pulsed magnetic fields (in the order of 10 to 60 milligauss) are added to the model through the whole of the user's head. The more important conclusion of our work is that the head absorption is bigger than the results for a classical model without the magneto chiral effect. Hot spots are produced due to the combination of microwave and the magnetic field produced by the phone's operation. The FDTD method was used to compute the SARs inside the MRI based head models consisting of various tissues for 1.8 GHz. As a result, we found that in the head model having more than four kinds of tissue, the localized peak SAR reaches maximum inside the head for over five tissues including skin, bone, blood and brain cells.

  16. Providing cell phone numbers and email addresses to Patients: the physician's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freud Tamar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of cell phone numbers and email addresses enhances the accessibility of medical consultations, but can add to the burden of physicians' routine clinical practice and affect their free time. The objective was to assess the attitudes of physicians to providing their telephone number or email address to patients. Methods Primary care physicians in the southern region of Israel completed a structured questionnaire that related to the study objective. Results The study population included 120 primary care physicians with a mean age of 41.2 ± 8.5, 88 of them women (73.3%. Physicians preferred to provide their cell phone number rather than their email address (P = 0.0007. They preferred to answer their cell phones only during the daytime and at predetermined times, but would answer email most hours of the day, including weekends and holidays (P = 0.001. More physicians (79.7% would have preferred allotted time for email communication than allotted time for cell phone communication (50%. However, they felt that email communication was more likely to lead to miscommunication than telephone calls (P = 0.0001. There were no differences between male and female physicians on the provision of cell phone numbers or email addresses to patients. Older physicians were more prepared to provide cell phone numbers that younger ones (P = 0.039. Conclusions The attitude of participating physicians was to provide their cell phone number or email address to some of their patients, but most of them preferred to give out their cell phone number.

  17. Problematic Internet and Cell-Phone Use: Psychological, Behavioral, and Health Correlates

    OpenAIRE

    Jenaro Río, Cristina; Flores Robaina, Noelia; Gómez Vela, María; González Gil, Francisca; Caballo Escribano, Cristina

    2007-01-01

    [EN]This study aimed to assess pathological Internet and cell-phone use in college students, and to identify psychological, health, and behavioral correlates. A cross-sectional design was utilized to gather data from 337 students. We developed two measures, termed the Internet Over-use Scale (IOS), and the Cell-Phone Over-Use Scale (COS). Additional measures utilized were the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the General Health Questionnaire-28. Results provide suppor...

  18. Radiation passport: an iPhone and iPod touch application to track radiation dose and estimate associated cancer risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baerlocher, Mark Otto; Talanow, Roland; Baerlocher, Adrian F

    2010-04-01

    The rapid increase in the use of radiology and related exams and procedures has led to a concomitant increase in associated radiation risk. An application for the iPhone and iPod Touch called 'Radiation Passport' is described, which provides radiation dose estimates and associated cancer risks (non fatal and fatal) and serves as a method by which to track an individual's cumulative exposure.

  19. Media Discourse on Cell Phone Technology and “Left-Behind Children” in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janice Hua Xu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Through critical analysis of selected news stories from sina.com from 2010 to 2015 about cell phones and “left-behind children” in China, this article examines media discourses on the relationship between migrant families and communication technology. The author finds that the roles of cell phones in their lives are portrayed in the following narratives: 1 cell phones are highly valuable for connecting family members living apart; 2 cell phones are used as a problem-solver in charity giving and rural development projects; 3 cell phones can bring unexpected risks to children lacking media literacy; and 4 cell phones could harbour or unleash evil—associated with increasing cases of juvenile delinquency or crime stories. The author discusses how the different institutional goals of social agencies, corporations, educators, and law enforcement contribute to the polarity of the discourses, reflecting the societal anxieties over unsupervised use of mobile devices by adolescents, as well as the cultural and political implications of empowering the “have-nots” of the digital divide by improving access to communication technology.

  20. "The Only 13-Year-Old on Planet Earth without a Cell Phone": Meanings of Cell Phones in Early Adolescents' Everyday Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Bethany L.; Fletcher, Anne C.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular telephones have become an increasingly prevalent feature of contemporary American life, with usage often beginning during early adolescence. With this in mind, twenty 7th graders and their mothers participated in separate qualitative interviews regarding early adolescents' use of cell phones as well as perceived risks and benefits of such…

  1. In the shadow of the cell-phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2009-01-01

    Based on discussions of hybrid space as well as the concepts of the database and archive art, the paper analyzes Hasan Elahi’s project “Tracking Transience” (2003-) and relates it to Sophie Calle’s performance “Detective” (1980) while discussing how we can understand the mobile phone as a device ...... to an enormous amount of data, we are left with a feeling of following a shadow or maybe a mirage. This paper explores how the mobile phone affords this playing hide-and-seek, and the way that it provides shelter from the inspecting eye...

  2. Who needs RDD? Combining directory listings with cell phone exchanges for an alternative telephone sampling frame

    OpenAIRE

    Guterbock, Thomas; Diop, Abdoulaye; Ellis, James; Trung Le, Kien

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The traditional Random Digit Dialing method (list-assisted RDD using a frame of landline phone numbers) is clearly under threat. The difficulty and costs of completing telephone surveys have increased due to rising rates of refusal and non-contact. The completeness of coverage of list-assisted RDD samples has diminished due to the proliferation of cell-phone only households. The ability of list-assisted RDD to capture young, mobile, unmarried, and minority households is thus dimin...

  3. Integrating Cell Phones into the Secondary Montessori Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    A disconnect exists between how students communicate using their mobile phones outside of school and how they use them in the classroom. Many high schools across the United States ban their use, even though numerous mobile learning strategies are available. Although research pertaining to m-learning has been conducted at the collegiate level, a…

  4. A STUDY ON BACTERIAL CONTAMINATION OF CELL PHONES OF HEALTH CARE WORKERS (HCW AT KIMS HOSPITAL, AMALAPURAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmaja

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A random 100 samples of cell phones of HCWs workers and Doctors working in various wards, OPDs and laboratories, Blood Bank, Causality, ICU of KIMS Hospital were subjected to bacterial analysis by conventional methods to know about the Bacterial contamination of the cell phones from July 2011 to December 2011. The commonest organism isolated from the contaminated cell phone is MRSA - 20%, followed by MSSA - 5%, CONS - 10 %, Micrococcus - 15 %. The obvious observation is none of the doctors’ cell phones are contaminated. In the present study, the contamination rate is compared to the controlled group consisting patients, relatives attending in OPD’s and not working in health care setting.

  5. Adapting to Student Learning Styles: Using Cell Phone Technology in Undergraduate Science Instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Pennington

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Students of science traditionally make 3x5 flash cards to assist learning nomenclature, structures, and reactions. Advances in educational technology have enabled flashcards viewed on computers, offering an endless array of drilling and feedback opportunities for students. The current generation of students is less inclined to use computers, but they use their cell phones 24 hours a day. This report outlines these trends and an even more recent educational technology initiative, that of using cell phone flash cards to help students learn biology and chemistry nomenclature, structures, and reactions. Students responded positively to cell phone flash cards in a pilot study and a more detailed study is planned for the coming year.

  6. No effects of short-term GSM mobile phone radiation on cerebral blood flow measured using positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Myoung Soo; Vorobyev, Victor; Kännälä, Sami; Laine, Matti; Rinne, Juha O; Toivonen, Tommi; Johansson, Jarkko; Teräs, Mika; Joutsa, Juho; Tuominen, Lauri; Lindholm, Harri; Alanko, Tommi; Hämäläinen, Heikki

    2012-04-01

    The present study investigated the effects of 902.4 MHz global system for mobile communications (GSM) mobile phone radiation on cerebral blood flow using positron emission tomography (PET) with the (15) O-water tracer. Fifteen young, healthy, right-handed male subjects were exposed to phone radiation from three different locations (left ear, right ear, forehead) and to sham exposure to test for possible exposure effects on brain regions close to the exposure source. Whole-brain [¹⁵O]H₂O-PET images were acquired 12 times, 3 for each condition, in a counterbalanced order. Subjects were exposed for 5 min in each scan while performing a simple visual vigilance task. Temperature was also measured in the head region (forehead, eyes, cheeks, ear canals) during exposure. The exposure induced a slight temperature rise in the ear canals but did not affect brain hemodynamics and task performance. The results provided no evidence for acute effects of short-term mobile phone radiation on cerebral blood flow.

  7. Sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation will increase in lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro model

    OpenAIRE

    Zuo, Wen-Qi; Hu, Yu-Juan; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Xue-Yan; Zhang,Yuan-Yuan; Kong, Wen; Kong, Wei-Jia

    2015-01-01

    Background With the increasing popularity of mobile phones, the potential hazards of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) on the auditory system remain unclear. Apart from RF-EMR, humans are also exposed to various physical and chemical factors. We established a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation in vitro model to investigate whether the possible sensitivity of spiral ganglion neurons to damage caused by mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (at specific absorption ra...

  8. Embedded Adaptive Optics for Ubiquitous Lab-on-a-Chip Readout on Intact Cell Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pakorn Preechaburana

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of disposable lab-on-a-chip (LOC devices on cell phones is an attractive alternative to migrate the analytical strength of LOC solutions to decentralized sensing applications. Imaging the micrometric detection areas of LOCs in contact with intact phone cameras is central to provide such capability. This work demonstrates a disposable and morphing liquid lens concept that can be integrated in LOC devices and refocuses micrometric features in the range necessary for LOC evaluation using diverse cell phone cameras. During natural evaporation, the lens focus varies adapting to different type of cameras. Standard software in the phone commands a time-lapse acquisition for best focal selection that is sufficient to capture and resolve, under ambient illumination, 50 μm features in regions larger than 500 × 500 μm2. In this way, the present concept introduces a generic solution compatible with the use of diverse and unmodified cell phone cameras to evaluate disposable LOC devices.

  9. Coded illumination for motion-blur free imaging of cells on cell-phone based imaging flow cytometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Manish; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2014-10-01

    Cell-phone based imaging flow cytometry can be realized by flowing cells through the microfluidic devices, and capturing their images with an optically enhanced camera of the cell-phone. Throughput in flow cytometers is usually enhanced by increasing the flow rate of cells. However, maximum frame rate of camera system limits the achievable flow rate. Beyond this, the images become highly blurred due to motion-smear. We propose to address this issue with coded illumination, which enables recovery of high-fidelity images of cells far beyond their motion-blur limit. This paper presents simulation results of deblurring the synthetically generated cell/bead images under such coded illumination.

  10. The Cost of Privacy: Riley v. California's Impact on Cell Phone Searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Riley v. California is the United States Supreme Court’s first attempt to regulate the searches of cell phones by law enforcement.  The 2014 unanimous decision requires a warrant for all cell phone searches incident to arrest absent an emergency.  This work summarizes the legal precedent and analyzes the limitations and practical implications of the ruling.  General guidelines for members of the criminal justice system at all levels consistent with the Supreme Court’s decision are provided.  

  11. 75 FR 26733 - Preventing Contraband Cell Phone Use in Prisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... detection. Jamming Radio jamming is the deliberate radiation, re-radiation, or reflection of electromagnetic... (PCS) in the 1.9 GHz bands; the Advanced Wireless Services (AWS) in the 1.7 GHz band;...

  12. Life cycle assessment of cell phones in Brazil based on two reverse logistics scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela da Gama e Silva Volpe Moreira de Moraes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a result of a cell phone collection obtained at the Center for Information Technology Renato Archer (CTI under the AMBIENTRONIC Program, an initiative that supports the Brazilian electronic sector in the development of technologies for sustainability. The objective of this article is to assess two reverse logistic scenarios of cell phones using the technique of life-cycle assessment (LCA. The first scenario reflects the current scenario in Brazil, where batteries are recycled in Brazil and the other parts of the phones are outsourced to Europe. The second scenario is a proposal of full treatment in Brazil. The results indicate that the second scenario has a lower potential impact with important reduction of acidification, photochemical oxidation, eutrophication and the use of non-renewable energy. Furthermore, fully implementing reverse logistics in Brazil will enable socioeconomic benefits from the sale of materials and the generation of employment and income.

  13. The effect of cell phone use on postural balance and mobility in older compared to young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatar, Rabeb; Kachouri, Hiba; Borji, Rihab; Rebai, Haithem; Sahli, Sonia

    2017-02-24

    Cell phone use is considered as an essential part of everyday life saturating all age groups and demographics. This study aimed to explore the effect of various cell phone functions on postural control and mobility in the elderly. Twenty healthy older (mean age 72.5±2.9) and twenty young (26.3±2.8) adults participated in this study. Postural balance was assessed by measuring the center of pressure (CoP) displacement with (talking on a cell phone (CONVERSE), dialing a number (DIAL) and listening to music (MUSIC)) and without cell phone use. Mobility was assessed by the Timed Up and Go Test (TUGT). Results showed that for both groups, the CoP parameters increased significantly during the CONVERSE (pphone use impairs similarly standing postural balance of elderly and young adults. Interestingly, in the elderly, all cell phone functions used altered mobility with the dialing function causing the largest mobility deterioration.

  14. Mobile phone and my health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surducan, Aneta; Dabala, Dana; Neamtu, Camelia; Surducan, Vasile; Surducan, Emanoil

    2013-11-01

    The interaction of the microwave radiation emitted by mobile phones with the user's body is analyzed from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) recommendations perspective as a correlation between the specific absorption ratio (SAR) of the mobile phone and the call duration. The relative position of the cell phone to the user's body, the dielectric properties of the exposed body parts, the SAR value and the call duration are considered in the local body temperature rise due to the microwave heating effect. The recommended local temperature rise limit in the human body is evaluated according to standards. The aim of this study is to disseminate information to young people, especially high school students, about the microwave thermal effects on the human body, to make them aware of the environmental electromagnetic pollution and to offer them a simple method of biological self protection.

  15. Mobile phone and my health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surducan, Aneta [Nicolae Balcescu High School, 6 Constanta St., 400158 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dabala, Dana [National Railways Medical Clinic,, Occupational Medicine Department, 16-20 Republicii St., 400015 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Neamtu, Camelia, E-mail: emanoil.surducan@itim-cj.ro; Surducan, Vasile, E-mail: emanoil.surducan@itim-cj.ro; Surducan, Emanoil, E-mail: emanoil.surducan@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath St., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    The interaction of the microwave radiation emitted by mobile phones with the user's body is analyzed from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) recommendations perspective as a correlation between the specific absorption ratio (SAR) of the mobile phone and the call duration. The relative position of the cell phone to the user's body, the dielectric properties of the exposed body parts, the SAR value and the call duration are considered in the local body temperature rise due to the microwave heating effect. The recommended local temperature rise limit in the human body is evaluated according to standards. The aim of this study is to disseminate information to young people, especially high school students, about the microwave thermal effects on the human body, to make them aware of the environmental electromagnetic pollution and to offer them a simple method of biological self protection.

  16. Performance Analysis of Cell-Phone Worm Spreading in Cellular Networks through Opportunistic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHUI, W.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Worms spreading directly between cell-phones over short-range radio (Bluetooth, WiFi, etc. are increasing rapidly. Communication by these technologies is opportunistic and has very close relation with the social characteristics of the phone carriers. In this paper, we try to evaluate the impact of different characteristics on the spreading performance of worms. On the other hand, the behaviors of worms may have certain impact, too. For example, worms may make phones be completely dysfunctional and these phones can be seen as killed. We study the impact of the killing speed. Using the Markov model, we propose some theoretical models to evaluate the spreading performance in different cases. Simulation results show the accuracy of our models. Numerical results show that if users do not believe the data coming from others easily, the worms may bring less damage. Surprisingly, if the users are more willing to install the anti-virus software, the worms may bring bigger damage when the software becomes to be outdated with high probability. Though the worms can bring big damage on the network temporarily by killing phones rapidly, numerical results show that this behavior may decrease the total damage in the long time. Therefore, killing nodes more rapidly may be not optimal for worms.

  17. Digital Devices, Distraction, and Student Performance: Does In-Class Cell Phone Use Reduce Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Douglas K.; Hoekstra, Angel R.; Wilcox, Bethany R.

    2012-01-01

    The recent increase in use of digital devices such as laptop computers, iPads, and web-enabled cell phones has generated concern about how technologies affect student performance. Combining observation, survey, and interview data, this research assesses the effects of technology use on student attitudes and learning. Data were gathered in eight…

  18. Experiments Using Cell Phones in Physics Classroom Education: The Computer-Aided "g" Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen; Muller, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    This paper continues the collection of experiments that describe the use of cell phones as experimental tools in physics classroom education. We describe a computer-aided determination of the free-fall acceleration "g" using the acoustical Doppler effect. The Doppler shift is a function of the speed of the source. Since a free-falling objects…

  19. Using a Cell Phone to Investigate the Skin Depth Effect in Salt Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, John

    2017-02-01

    This paper describes an experimental investigation of the skin depth effect for electromagnetic waves in salt water using a cell phone that is immersed to a critical depth where it no longer responds when called. We show that this critical depth is directly proportional to the theoretical skin depth for a range of salt concentrations.

  20. Disentangling the influence of cell phone usage in the dilemma zone: An econometric approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluru, Naveen; Yasmin, Shamsunnahar

    2016-11-01

    This paper focuses on developing an analysis framework to study the impact of cell phone treatment (cell phone type and call status) on driver behavior in the presence of a dilemma zone. Specifically, we examine how the treatment influences the driver maneuver decision at the intersection (stop or cross) and the eventual success of the maneuver. For a stop maneuver, success is defined as stopping before the stop line. Similarly, for a cross maneuver, success is defined as clearing the intersection safely before the light turns red. The eventual success or failure of the driver's decision process is dependent on the factors that affected the maneuver decision. Hence it is important to recognize the interconnectedness of the stop or cross decision with its eventual success (or failure). Toward this end, we formulate and estimate a joint framework to analyze the stop/cross decision with its eventual success (or failure) simultaneously. The study is conducted based on driving simulator data provided online for the 2014 Transportation Research Board Data Contest at http://depts.washington.edu/hfsm/upload.php. The model is estimated to analyze drivers' behavior at the onset of yellow by employing exogenous variables from three broad categories: driver characteristics, cell phone attributes and driving attributes. We also generate probability surfaces to identify dilemma zone distribution associated with different cell phone treatment types. The plots clearly illustrate the impact of various cellphone treatments on driver dilemma zone behavior.

  1. An Investigation on Changing Behaviours of University Students Switching from Using Classical Cell Phones to Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was tried to comprehend whether there occur any changes in behaviours of university students switching from classical cell phones to smartphones. The investigation was carried out according to quantitative research method. Questionnaire was employed as data collection tool. The datum of the study was limited with the information…

  2. Cell Phone Methodology for Research and Service with High Risk Mothers and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Lefever, Jennifer Burke; Guest, Kristi Carter; Atwater, Jane; Hughes, Kere

    2007-01-01

    Cell phones afford a set of distinctive advantages for gathering information on daily patterns of behavior, establishing relationships, maintaining contact, and providing professional expertise to participants in a wide array of programs, including intervention, treatment, and service. This paper presents new findings about innovative applications…

  3. Bring-Your-Own-Device: Turning Cell Phones into Forces for Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazeki, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, classroom response systems (or "clickers") have become increasingly common. Although most systems require students to use a standalone handheld device, bring-your-own-device (BYOD) systems allow students to use devices they already own (e.g., a cell phone, tablet or laptop) to submit responses via text message or…

  4. Selenium reduces mobile phone (900 MHz)-induced oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, and apoptosis in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahya, Mehmet Cemal; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Çiğ, Bilal

    2014-08-01

    Exposure to mobile phone-induced electromagnetic radiation (EMR) may affect biological systems by increasing free oxygen radicals, apoptosis, and mitochondrial depolarization levels although selenium may modulate the values in cancer. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of 900 MHz radiation on the antioxidant redox system, apoptosis, and mitochondrial depolarization levels in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. Cultures of the cancer cells were divided into four main groups as controls, selenium, EMR, and EMR + selenium. In EMR groups, the cells were exposed to 900 MHz EMR for 1 h (SAR value of the EMR was 0.36 ± 0.02 W/kg). In selenium groups, the cells were also incubated with sodium selenite for 1 h before EMR exposure. Then, the following values were analyzed: (a) cell viability, (b) intracellular ROS production, (c) mitochondrial membrane depolarization, (d) cell apoptosis, and (e) caspase-3 and caspase-9 values. Selenium suppressed EMR-induced oxidative cell damage and cell viability (MTT) through a reduction of oxidative stress and restoring mitochondrial membrane potential. Additionally, selenium indicated anti-apoptotic effects, as demonstrated by plate reader analyses of apoptosis levels and caspase-3 and caspase-9 values. In conclusion, 900 MHz EMR appears to induce apoptosis effects through oxidative stress and mitochondrial depolarization although incubation of selenium seems to counteract the effects on apoptosis and oxidative stress.

  5. Windows Phone 7智能手机的取证%Cell Forensics on Smart Phone Installed Windows Phone 7 System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚伟; 沙晶

    2014-01-01

    作为新兴的智能手机,Windows Phone手机呈稳步发展趋势,并越来越受到人们的关注.在介绍了WindowsPhone 7手机的系统架构和安全模型后,就取证遇到的问题详细地描述了取证方式,探讨了如何对Windows Phone 7智能手机进行取证.通过使用原生级方法和Windows Phone SDK访问Window Phone 7内核和其他数据来获得手机的有价值信息,同时通过一系列工具来分析手机上的文件.结果表明,能够从Windows Phone 7手机中有效寻找到短信、电子邮件、社交活动等证据资料.

  6. 维生素E对孕鼠及胎鼠脑组织受手机辐射影响的保护作用%Protective effects of vitamin E against electromagnetic radiation from cell phones in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张静; 张裕华; 姜荣平; 廉志顺; 王慧; 罗芮; 郭冬梅; 崔唏

    2011-01-01

    目的 研究妊娠期补充维生素E对母鼠及胎鼠脑组织受手机辐射影响的保护作用.方法 40只受孕大鼠随机分为5组,自妊娠第1天起,维生素E低、中、高剂量组分别按5 mg/kg、15 mg/kg、30 mg/kg的剂量补充,阴性对照组和阳性对照组灌服脱维生素E的花生油,同时给予1h/次、3次/d的手机辐射,连续辐射21 d,分娩后测定母鼠及胎鼠脑组织总抗氧化能力(T-AOC)和ATP酶(Na+ -K+ -ATP酶和Ca+ -Mg+ -ATP酶)的活力变化.结果 阳性对照组T-AOC、Na+ -K+ -ATP酶、Ca+ -Mg+ -ATP酶活性均较阴性对照组下降(P<0.05).与阳性对照组比较,维生素E各剂量组T-AOC含量升高,其中,母鼠维生素E中、高剂量组较阳性对照组升高,胎鼠维生素E低、中、高剂量组均高于阳性对照组(P<0.05).母鼠维生素E各剂量组Na+ -K+ -ATP酶和Ca+ -Mg+ -ATP酶活力均高于阳性对照组,胎鼠维生素E中、高剂量组ATP酶活力较阳性对照组升高(P<0.05).结论 维生素E对受手机辐射影响的母鼠及胎鼠的抗氧化能力和能量代谢有一定的保护作用.%Objective To investigate protective effects of maternal vitamin E supplement against electromagnetic radiation from cell phones in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissues. Methods 40 pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups. Low, middle and high dosages of vitamin E groups were supplemented with 5 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg, and 30 mg/kg of vitamin E, respectively. The negative control group and the positive control group were given peanut oil which had vitamin E removed. All groups were exposed to a certain intensity of cell phone radiation for 1 hour each time, 3 times per day for 21 days from the first day of pregnancy. Total anti-oxidant capacity(T-AOC) and ATP enzyme (Na + -K+-ATP enzyme and Ca+-Mg+-ATP enzyme) activities in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissues were determined after delivery. Results T-AOC, Na+-K+-ATP enzyme activity, and Ca+-Mg+-ATP enzyme activity were

  7. Effects of Cell Phone Radiofrequency Signal Exposure on Brain Glucos Metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volkow, N.D.; Wang, G.; Volkow, N.D.; Tomasi, D.; Wang, G.-J.; Vaska, P.; Fowler, J.S.; Telang, F.; Alexoff, D.; Logan, J.; Wong, C.

    2011-03-01

    The dramatic increase in use of cellular telephones has generated concern about possible negative effects of radiofrequency signals delivered to the brain. However, whether acute cell phone exposure affects the human brain is unclear. To evaluate if acute cell phone exposure affects brain glucose metabolism, a marker of brain activity. Randomized crossover study conducted between January 1 and December 31, 2009, at a single US laboratory among 47 healthy participants recruited from the community. Cell phones were placed on the left and right ears and positron emission tomography with ({sup 18}F)fluorodeoxyglucose injection was used to measure brain glucose metabolism twice, once with the right cell phone activated (sound muted) for 50 minutes ('on' condition) and once with both cell phones deactivated ('off' condition). Statistical parametric mapping was used to compare metabolism between on and off conditions using paired t tests, and Pearson linear correlations were used to verify the association of metabolism and estimated amplitude of radiofrequency-modulated electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phone. Clusters with at least 1000 voxels (volume >8 cm{sup 3}) and P < .05 (corrected for multiple comparisons) were considered significant. Brain glucose metabolism computed as absolute metabolism ({micro}mol/100 g per minute) and as normalized metabolism (region/whole brain). Whole-brain metabolism did not differ between on and off conditions. In contrast, metabolism in the region closest to the antenna (orbitofrontal cortex and temporal pole) was significantly higher for on than off conditions (35.7 vs 33.3 {micro}mol/100 g per minute; mean difference, 2.4 [95% confidence interval, 0.67-4.2]; P = .004). The increases were significantly correlated with the estimated electromagnetic field amplitudes both for absolute metabolism (R = 0.95, P < .001) and normalized metabolism (R = 0.89; P < .001). In healthy participants and compared with no

  8. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell phone sectors, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Hodgeman County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  9. Cellular Phone Towers, cell phone towers, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Hodgeman County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  10. Study of Electromagnetic Radiation and Specific Absorption Rate of Mobile Phones with Fractional Human Head Models via Green's Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nookala S. Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Electromagnetic Radiation from mobile hand set is identified as one of the side effects for increasing rate of brain tumor. Due to this reason, Mobile phone industries are attentive towards safety issues of human health. Specific Absorption Rate is one of the important parameter while modeling the radiation effect on human head. Brain material with homogeneity is treated as an equivalent model of human head. The radiation caused by antennas mounted on mobile set is assumed to be monopolar. Approach: Apart from the Specific Absorption Rate, period of exposure to radiation is an extremely important parameter while assessing the effects on brain tissue. Correlation between the amount of radiation versus spherical model of brain is a complex phenomena, addressed in various simulation models. In the present work the field distribution inside the head are modeled using Dyadic Greens Functions while describing the effect of radiation pattern. Multilayered homogeneous lossy spherical model is proposed as an equivalent to head. Results: In this paper we present the depth of penetration of radiation and its effect on brain tissue. In essence the amount of electromagnetic power absorbed by biological tissues for various exposure conditions and types of emitting sources, utilizing a detailed model of the human head. Conclusion: Bio-heat equation is used to predict heat distribution inside the brain when exposed to radiation. The medium is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic, linear, non dispersive and stationary. A critical evaluation of the method is discussed.

  11. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats.

  12. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation.

  13. The study of biological effects of electromagnetic mobile phone radiation on experimental animals by combining numerical modeling and experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Krstić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study biological effects of electromagneticradiation, it is essential to know the real values of field componentsthat penetrated the tissue. The study of biological effects is usuallyperformed on experimental animals. The biological effects observedon experimental animals should be linked with penetrating field inthe tissue. The penetrating electromagnetic field is almost impossibleto measure; therefore, modeling process must be carried out and thefield components in models of experimental animals could becalculated. This paper presents an approach to modeling of fieldpenetration and gives contribution to understanding the real effects of the fields and the sensitivity of tissues to electromagnetic radiation generated by mobile phone.

  14. Effect of long-term exposure to mobile phone radiation on alpha-Int1 gene sequence of Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahin-Jafari, Ariyo; Bayat, Mansour; Shahhosseiny, Mohammad Hassan; Tajik, Parviz; Roudbar-Mohammadi, Shahla

    2016-05-01

    Over the last decade, communication industries have witnessed a tremendous expansion, while, the biological effects of electromagnetic waves have not been fully elucidated. Current study aimed at evaluating the mutagenic effect of long-term exposure to 900-MHz radiation on alpha-Int1 gene sequences of Candida albicans. A standard 900 MHz radiation generator was used for radiation. 10 ml volumes from a stock suspension of C. albicans were transferred into 10 polystyrene tubes. Five tubes were exposed at 4 °C to a fixed magnitude of radiation with different time periods of 10, 70, 210, 350 and 490 h. The other 5 tubes were kept far enough from radiation. The samples underwent genomic DNA extraction. PCR amplification of alpha-Int1 gene sequence was done using one set of primers. PCR products were resolved using agarose gel electrophoresis and the nucleotide sequences were determined. All samples showed a clear electrophoretic band around 441 bp and further sequencing revealed the amplified DNA segments are related to alpha-Int1 gene of the yeast. No mutations in the gene were seen in radiation exposed samples. Long-term exposure of the yeast to mobile phone radiation under the above mentioned conditions had no mutagenic effect on alpha-Int1 gene sequence.

  15. The Influence of Electromagnetic Radiation Generated by a Mobile Phone on the Skeletal System of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Sieroń-Stołtny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was focused on the influence of electromagnetic field generated by mobile phone on the skeletal system of rats, assessed by measuring the macrometric parameters of bones, mechanical properties of long bones, calcium and phosphorus content in bones, and the concentration of osteogenesis (osteocalcin and bone resorption (NTX, pyridinoline markers in blood serum. The study was carried out on male rats divided into two groups: experimental group subjected to 28-day cycle of exposures in electromagnetic field of 900 MHz frequency generated by mobile phone and a control, sham-exposed one. The mobile phone-generated electromagnetic field did not influence the macrometric parameters of long bones and L4 vertebra, it altered mechanical properties of bones (stress and energy at maximum bending force, stress at fracture, it decreased the content of calcium in long bones and L4 vertebra, and it altered the concentration of osteogenesis and bone resorption markers in rats. On the basis of obtained results, it was concluded that electromagnetic field generated by 900 MHz mobile phone does not have a direct impact on macrometric parameters of bones; however, it alters the processes of bone mineralization and the intensity of bone turnover processes and thus influences the mechanical strength of bones.

  16. The influence of electromagnetic radiation generated by a mobile phone on the skeletal system of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieroń-Stołtny, Karolina; Teister, Łukasz; Cieślar, Grzegorz; Sieroń, Dominik; Śliwinski, Zbigniew; Kucharzewski, Marek; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    The study was focused on the influence of electromagnetic field generated by mobile phone on the skeletal system of rats, assessed by measuring the macrometric parameters of bones, mechanical properties of long bones, calcium and phosphorus content in bones, and the concentration of osteogenesis (osteocalcin) and bone resorption (NTX, pyridinoline) markers in blood serum. The study was carried out on male rats divided into two groups: experimental group subjected to 28-day cycle of exposures in electromagnetic field of 900 MHz frequency generated by mobile phone and a control, sham-exposed one. The mobile phone-generated electromagnetic field did not influence the macrometric parameters of long bones and L4 vertebra, it altered mechanical properties of bones (stress and energy at maximum bending force, stress at fracture), it decreased the content of calcium in long bones and L4 vertebra, and it altered the concentration of osteogenesis and bone resorption markers in rats. On the basis of obtained results, it was concluded that electromagnetic field generated by 900 MHz mobile phone does not have a direct impact on macrometric parameters of bones; however, it alters the processes of bone mineralization and the intensity of bone turnover processes and thus influences the mechanical strength of bones.

  17. Preliminary study on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal properties of mobile phone components for dose estimation in radiation accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byeong Ryong; Ha, Wi Ho; Park, Sun Hoo; Lee, Jin Kyeong; Lee, Seung Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    We have investigated the EPR signal properties in 12 components of two mobile phones (LCD, OLED) using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer in this study.EPR measurements were performed at normal atmospheric conditions using Bruker EXEXSYS-II E500 spectrometer with X-band bridge, and samples were irradiated by {sup 137}C{sub s} gamma-ray source. To identify the presence of radiation-induced signal (RIS), the EPR spectra of each sample were measured unirradiated and irradiated at 50 Gy. Then, dose-response curve and signal intensity variating by time after irradiation were measured. As a result, the signal intensity increased after irradiation in all samples except the USIM plastic and IC chip. Among the samples, cover glass(CG), lens, light guide plate(LGP) and diffusion sheet have shown fine linearity (R{sup 2} > 0.99). Especially, the LGP had ideal characteristics for dosimetry because there were no signal in 0 Gy and high rate of increase in RIS. However, this sample showed weakness in fading. Signal intensity of LGP and Diffusion Sheet decreased by 50% within 72 hours after irradiation, while signals of Cover Glass and Lens were stably preserved during the short period of time. In order to apply rapidly EPR dosimetry using mobile phone components in large-scale radiation accidents, further studies on signal differences for same components of the different mobile phone, fading, pretreatment of samples and processing of background signal are needed. However, it will be possible to do dosimetry by dose-additive method or comparative method using unirradiated same product in small-scale accident.

  18. 维生素E对手机辐射致孕鼠及胎鼠脑组织损伤的干预作用%Interference of vitamin E on the brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高娴; 罗芮; 马斌; 王慧; 刘天; 张静; 廉志顺; 崔晞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the interference of vitamin E on brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats.Methods 40 pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups (positive control,negative control,low,middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups).The low,middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups were supplemented with 5,15 and 30mg/ml vitamin E respectively since the first day of pregnancy.And the negative control group and the positive control group were given peanut oil without vitamin E.All groups except for the negative control group were exposed to 900MHz intensity of cell phone radiation for one hour each time,three times per day for 21 days.After accouchement,the right hippocampus tissue of fetal rats in each group was taken and observed under electron microscope.The vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px),and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissue were tested.Results Compared with the negative control group,the chondriosomes in neuron and neuroglia of brain tissues was swelling,mild edema was found around the capillary,chromatin was concentrated and collected,and bubbles were formed in vascular endothelial cells (VEC) in the positive fetal rat control group,whereas the above phenomenon was un-conspicuous in the middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups.We can see uniform chromatin,abundant mitochondrion,rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes in the high dosage group.The apoptosis has not fond in all groups'sections.In the antioxidase activity analysis,compared with the negative control group,the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly decreased and the content of MDA significantly increased both in the pregnant and fetal rats positive control group (P < 0.05).In fetal rats,the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly increased in the brain tissues of all three different vitamin E dosages groups when compared with the

  19. A Mathematical Model for Energy Consequences of the Cell Phone Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晶; 周键聪

    2009-01-01

    In the modern tim e,cell phone reduces the cost of important inform a-tion,p lays a cruc ial role in both fac ilitate international and dom estic trades,as well as impacts the effic iency ofm ed ical service.Consider a c ity and estim ate from ava ilab le data the numberH of house-holds,w ith m m embers each,that in the past were serviced by land lines.Now,suppose that som e land lines are rep laced by cell phones.W e model theconsequences of th is change for electric ity utilization in the c ity,during the...

  20. Women's adult romantic attachment style and communication by cell phone with romantic partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisskirch, Robert S

    2012-08-01

    Cell phones have become important communication media for individuals in romantic relationships. The frequency of and methods used for communication may vary by adults' style of romantic attachment. Female university students (N = 31) currently in romantic relationships responded to a questionnaire. They estimated the frequency of calls and text messages received from and made to their romantic partners and completed the Experiences in Close Relationships-Revised instrument, a measure of attachment anxiety and avoidance. Also, the participants reviewed their cell phones' memories and provided accurate frequency of communication to and from the romantic partner. Attachment anxiety was associated with more estimated text messages sent to and received from the romantic partners and actual text messages sent to and received from the romantic partners. Attachment avoidance was associated (r = -.38) with fewer estimated calls made to the romantic partners and fewer actual calls made to the romantic partners (r = -.34).

  1. Talking about killing: Cell Phones, Collective Action, and Insurgent Violence in Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    technology, insurgency, collective action Jacob Shapiro, Nils Weidmann Harvard University Office of Sponsored Research 1350 Massachusetts Ave. Holyoke 727...at the district level changes as a result of the introduction of new cell phone towers. Second, using a novel identification strategy, we examine how... identification strategy, we examine how insurgent operation in the tower’s vicinity is affected by the introduction of coverage. Taken together, our

  2. Cell Phone Internet Access, Online Sexual Solicitation, Partner Seeking, and Sexual Risk Behavior among Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W.; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2014-01-01

    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific ...

  3. Integrating cell phones and mobile technologies into public health practice: a social marketing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Craig

    2009-10-01

    Mobile communications are being used for many purposes, from instant messaging (IM), mobile or microblogging (Twitter), social networking sites (Facebook, MySpace), e-mail to basic voicemail. A brief background on cell phone and mobile technology use in public health is reviewed. The focus of the article is framing the use of mobile technologies in public health from a social marketer's perspective--using the 4 Ps marketing mix as a guide.

  4. Adapting to Student Learning Styles: Using Cell Phone Technology in Undergraduate Science Instruction

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Pennington; Julia Paredes; Mai Yin Tsoi; Candace Timpte; Deborah Sauder; David Pursell

    2010-01-01

    Students of science traditionally make 3x5 flash cards to assist learning nomenclature, structures, and reactions. Advances in educational technology have enabled flashcards viewed on computers, offering an endless array of drilling and feedback opportunities for students. The current generation of students is less inclined to use computers, but they use their cell phones 24 hours a day. This report outlines these trends and an even more recent educational technology initiative, that of using...

  5. Digital Devices, Distraction and Student Performance - Does Cell Phone Use Reduce Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Douglas K.; Hoekstra, A. R.; Wilcox, B. R.

    2012-01-01

    The recent increase in the use of digital devices such as laptop computers, iPads and web-enabled cell phones has generated concern about how technologies affect student performance. Combining observation, survey, and interview data, this research assesses the effects of technology use for student attitudes and learning. Data were gathered in eight introductory science courses at one large public university in 2010-2011. Results show a significant negative correlation between in-class cell phone use and overall course grades, corresponding to a drop of 0.36 ± 0.08 on a 4-point scale where 4.0 = A. These findings are consistent with recent research[1] suggesting students cannot multi-task nearly as effectively as they think they can. While 75% of students reported regular cell phone use, observation data suggests undergraduates typically under-report the frequency of in-class digital device use. [1] Ophir, E., Nass, C. and A.D. Wagner. 2009. "Cognitive Control in Media Multi-Taskers.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106: 15583-15587.

  6. Effects of cell phone use on semen parameters: Results from the MARHCS cohort study in Chongqing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guowei; Yan, Huan; Chen, Qing; Liu, Kaijun; Ling, Xi; Sun, Lei; Zhou, Niya; Wang, Zhi; Zou, Peng; Wang, Xiaogang; Tan, Lu; Cui, Zhihong; Zhou, Ziyuan; Liu, Jinyi; Ao, Lin; Cao, Jia

    2016-05-01

    Epidemiological and experimental evidence for detrimental effects of cell phone use on semen quality is still equivocal. And that recruiting participants from infertility clinic not from general population may raise the possibility of a selection bias. To investigate effects of cell phone use on semen parameters in a general population,We screened and documented the cell phone use information of 794 young men from the Male Reproductive Health in Chongqing College students (MARHCS) cohort study in 2013, followed by 666 and 568 in 2014 and 2015, respectively. In the univariate regression analyses, we found that the daily duration of talking on the cell phone was significantly associated with decreased semen parameters, including sperm concentration [β coefficient=-6.32% per unit daily duration of talking on the cell phone (h); 95% confidence interval (CI), -11.94, -0.34] and total sperm count (-8.23; 95% CI, -14.38, -1.63) in 2013; semen volume (-8.37; 95% CI, -15.93, -0.13) and total sperm count (-16.59; 95% CI, -29.91, -0.73) in 2015]. Internet use via cellular networks was also associated with decreased sperm concentration and total sperm counts in 2013 and decreased semen volume in 2015. Multivariate analyses were used to adjust for the effects of potential confounders, and significant negative associations between internet use and semen parameters remained. Consistent but nonsignificant negative associations between talking on the cell phone and semen parameters persisted throughout the three study years, and the negative association was statistically significant in a mixed model that considered all three years of data on talking on the cell phone and semen quality. Our results showed that certain aspects of cell phone use may negatively affect sperm quality in men by decreasing the semen volume, sperm concentration, or sperm count, thus impairing male fertility.

  7. Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR from GSM (0.9/1.8GHz mobile phones induces oxidative stress and reduces sperm motility in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Mailankot

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mobile phones have become indispensable in the daily lives of men and women around the globe. As cell phone use has become more widespread, concerns have mounted regarding the potentially harmful effects of RF-EMR from these devices. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of RF-EMR from mobile phones on free radical metabolism and sperm quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male albino Wistar rats (10-12 weeks old were exposed to RF-EMR from an active GSM (0.9/1.8 GHz mobile phone for 1 hour continuously per day for 28 days. Controls were exposed to a mobile phone without a battery for the same period. The phone was kept in a cage with a wooden bottom in order to address concerns that the effects of exposure to the phone could be due to heat emitted by the phone rather than to RF-EMR alone. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last exposure and tissues of interest were harvested. RESULTS: One hour of exposure to the phone did not significantly change facial temperature in either group of rats. No significant difference was observed in total sperm count between controls and RF-EMR exposed groups. However, rats exposed to RF-EMR exhibited a significantly reduced percentage of motile sperm. Moreover, RF-EMR exposure resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and low GSH content in the testis and epididymis. CONCLUSION: Given the results of the present study, we speculate that RF-EMR from mobile phones negatively affects semen quality and may impair male fertility.

  8. Please silence your cell phone: Your ringtone captures other people′s attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P Röer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ringtones are designed to draw attention away from on-going activities. In the present study, it was investigated whether the disruptive effects of a ringing cell phone on short-term memory are inevitable or become smaller as a function of exposure and whether (self- relevance plays a role. Participants performed a serial recall task either in silence or while task-irrelevant ringtones were presented. Performance was worse when a ringing phone had to be ignored, but gradually recovered compared with the quiet control condition with repeated presentation of the distractor sound. Whether the participant′s own ringtone was played or that of a yoked-control partner did not affect performance and habituation rate. The results offer insight into auditory distraction by highly attention-demanding distractors and recovery therefrom. Implications for work environments and other applied settings are discussed.

  9. Neurobehavioural Changes and Brain Oxidative Stress Induced by Acute Exposure to GSM900 Mobile Phone Radiations in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirwane, Abhijit; Sridhar, Vinay; Majumdar, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    The impact of mobile phone (MP) radiation on the brain is of specific interest to the scientific community and warrants investigations, as MP is held close to the head. Studies on humans and rodents revealed hazards MP radiation associated such as brain tumors, impairment in cognition, hearing etc. Melatonin (MT) is an important modulator of CNS functioning and is a neural antioxidant hormone. Zebrafish has emerged as a popular model organism for CNS studies. Herein, we evaluated the impact of GSM900MP (GSM900MP) radiation exposure daily for 1 hr for 14 days with the SAR of 1.34W/Kg on neurobehavioral and oxidative stress parameters in zebrafish. Our study revealed that, GSM900MP radiation exposure, significantly decreased time spent near social stimulus zone and increased total distance travelled, in social interaction test. In the novel tank dive test, the GSM900MP radiation exposure elicited anxiety as revealed by significantly increased time spent in bottom half; freezing bouts and duration and decreased distance travelled, average velocity, and number of entries to upper half of the tank. Exposed zebrafish spent less time in the novel arm of the Y-Maze, corroborating significant impairment in learning as compared to the control group. Exposure decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities whereas, increased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) was encountered showing compromised antioxidant defense. Treatment with MT significantly reversed the above neurobehavioral and oxidative derangements induced by GSM900MP radiation exposure. This study traced GSM900MP radiation exposure induced neurobehavioral aberrations and alterations in brain oxidative status. Furthermore, MT proved to be a promising therapeutic candidate in ameliorating such outcomes in zebrafish. PMID:27123163

  10. Biological stress responses to radio frequency electromagnetic radiation: are mobile phones really so (heat) shocking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotgreave, Ian A

    2005-03-01

    Cells phenotypically adapt to alterations in their intra- and extracellular environment via organised alterations to gene and protein expression. Many chemical and physical stimuli are known to drive such responses, including the induction of oxidative stress and heat shock. Increasing use of mobile telephones in our society, has brought focus on the potential for radio frequency (microwave) electromagnetic radiation to elicit biological stress responses, in association with potentially detrimental effects of this to human health. Here we review evidence suggesting altered gene and protein expression in response to such emissions, with particular focus on heat shock proteins. Non-thermal induction of heat shock proteins has been claimed by a number of investigations in in vitro cellular systems, and appears pleiotropic for many other regulatory events. However, many of these studies are flawed by inconsistencies in exposure models, cell types used and the independent reproducibility of the findings. Further, the paucity of evidence from in vivo experimentation is largely contradictory. Therefore, the validity of these effects in human health risk assessment remain unsubstantiated. Where possible, suggestions for further experimental clarification have been provided.

  11. Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted from Common Mobile Phone Jammers Alters the Pattern of Muscle Contractions: an Animal Model Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafati A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The rapid growth of wireless communication technologies has caused public concerns regarding the biological effects of electromagnetic radiations on human health. Some early reports indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians such as the alterations of the pattern of muscle extractions. This study is aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF radiation emitted from mobile phone jammers on the pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period of frog’s isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz. Materials and Methods: Frogs were kept in plastic containers in a room. Animals in the jammer group were exposed to radiofrequency (RF radiation emitted from a common Jammer at a distance of 1m from the jammer’s antenna for 2 hours while the control frogs were only sham exposed. Then animals were sacrificed and isolated gastrocnemius muscles were exposed to on/off jammer radiation for 3 subsequent 10 minute intervals. Isolated gastrocnemius muscles were attached to the force transducer with a string. Using a PowerLab device (26-T, the pattern of muscular contractions was monitored after applying single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz as stimuli. Results: The findings of this study showed that the pulse height of muscle contractions could not be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. However, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. Conclusion: These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions.

  12. Computation of high-resolution SAR distributions in a head due to a radiating dipole antenna representing a hand-held mobile phone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kamer, JB; Lagendijk, JJW

    2002-01-01

    SAR distributions in a healthy female adult head as a result of a radiating vertical dipole antenna (frequency 915 MHz) representing a hand-field mobile phone have been computed for three different resolutions: 2 mm, 1 mm and 0.4 mm. The extremely high resolution of 0.4 mm was obtained with our quas

  13. The effects of cell phone electromagnetic fields on the behavior of single OmpF nanochannel forming protein: a practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadzadeh M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Widespread of telecommunication systems in recent years, have raised the concerns on the possible danger of cell phone radiations on human body. Thus, the study of the electromagnetic fields on proteins, particularly the membrane nano channel forming proteins is of great importance. These proteins are responsible for keeping certain physic-chemical condition within cells and managing cell communication. Here, the effects of cell phones radiation on the activity of a single nanopore ion channel forming protein, OmpF, have been studied biophysically.Methods: Planar lipid bilayers were made based on Montal and Muller technique, and the activity of single OmpF channel reconstituted by electrical shock was recorded and analyzed by means of voltage-clamp technique at 20 ˚C. The planar lipid bilayers were formed from the monolayers made on a 60 μm diameter aperture in the 20 μm thick Teflon film that separated two (cis and trans compartments of the glass chamber. In this practical approach we were able to analyze characteristics of an individual channel at different chemical and physical experimental conditions. The voltage clamp was used to measure the channel’s conductance, voltage sensitivity, gating patterns in time scales as low as microseconds in real time.  Results: Our results showed that exposure of single voltage dependent channel, OmpF, to EMF of cell phone at high-frequency has a significant influence on the voltage sensitivity, gating properties and substate numbers of the single channel but has no effect on single-channel conductance. Regarding to the relaxation time, the channel also recovers in the millisecond time range when the field is removed. Conclusion: We observed an increase in the voltage sensitivity of the OmpF single channel while it had no effect on the single-channel conductance, which is remained to be further elucidated.

  14. Mobile Phone on Campus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周成

    2005-01-01

    Communication revolution has brought a great convenience to modem society and people. Especially, the occurrence of mobile phone, in away, has changed the world where we live. Maybe the mobile phone was a luxury for only a decade ago. Now, it is no exaggeration4 to say that the difference between the parts and the present is as vast as that between earth and heaven. With no exception6, campus students also fall into the category called “cell-phone school”.

  15. Effects of mobile phone radiation on learning and memory capacity%手机辐射对学习记忆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟廷; 赵冉冉; 王钰钦; 张文华

    2013-01-01

    手机辐射给人体带来的危害已引起广泛关注,其对学习记忆的影响成为热点研究领域。为了解手机辐射对人体健康及学习记忆的影响,文章对手机辐射损伤机制、手机辐射对身体各系统的影响以及手机电磁场的生物学效应进行综述。%The negative effects of mobile phone radiation on people’s health have aroused extensive attention, especially on the learning and memory capacity. To have a better understanding of the effects of mobile phone radiation on the health, learning and memory capacity of people, the damage mechanism of mobile phone radiation, its effects on various systems of human body, and the biological effects of mobile phone electromagnetic field are reviewed in this paper.

  16. Investigating population dynamics of the Kumbh Mela through the lens of cell phone data

    CERN Document Server

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    The Kumbh is a religious Hindu festival that has been celebrated for centuries. The 2013 Kumbh Mela, a grander form of the annual Kumbh, was purportedly the largest gathering of people in human history. Many of the participants carried cell phones, making it possible for us to use a data-driven approach to document this magnificent festival. We used Call Detail Records (CDRs) from participants attending the event, a total of 390 million records, to investigate its population dynamics. We report here on some of our preliminary findings.

  17. Pilot study of a cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention post-rehabilitation for COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Q Nguyen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Huong Q Nguyen1, Dawn P Gill1, Seth Wolpin1, Bonnie G Steele2, Joshua O Benditt11University of Washington, seattle, WA, USA; 2VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USAObjective: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a six-month, cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD following pulmonary rehabilitation.Methods: Participants who completed a two-week run-in were randomly assigned to either MOBILE-Coached (n = 9 or MOBILE-Self-Monitored (n = 8. All participants met with a nurse to develop an individualized exercise plan, were issued a pedometer and exercise booklet, and instructed to continue to log their daily exercise and symptoms. MOBILE-Coached also received weekly reinforcement text messages on their cell phones; reports of worsening symptoms were automatically flagged for follow-up. Usability and satisfaction were assessed. Participants completed incremental cycle and six minute walk (6MW tests, wore an activity monitor for 14 days, and reported their health-related quality of life (HRQL at baseline, three, and six months.Results: The sample had a mean age of 68 ± 11 and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 of 40 ± 18% predicted. Participants reported that logging their exercise and symptoms was easy and that keeping track of their exercise helped them remain active. There were no differences between groups over time in maximal workload, 6MW distance, or HRQL (p > 0.05; however, MOBILE-Self-Monitored increased total steps/day whereas MOBILE-Coached logged fewer steps over six months (p = 0.04.Conclusions: We showed that it is feasible to deliver a cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention to patients with COPD post-rehabilitation and that the addition of coaching appeared to be no better than self-monitoring. The latter finding needs to be interpreted with caution since this was a purely exploratory study.Trial registration: Clinical

  18. Effects of Long Term Exposure of 900-1800 MHz Radiation Emitted from 2G Mobile Phone on Mice Hippocampus- A Histomorphometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasamy, Kathirvelu; Anbalagan, Jayaram; Rajanarayanan, Swamynathan; Meenachi, Swamynathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The advancement in the telecommunications technology with multi-functional added features in mobile phone, attracts more users of all age group. It is alarming to note that, the mobile phone use has increased amongst children and they are exposed to potentially harmful radiofrequency radiation in their lifetime. Aim To investigate the long term exposure of 900 to 1800 MHz radiations emitted from 2G mobile phone in mice hippocampus at histomorphometric level. Materials and Methods With due approval from institutional animal ethics committee, 36 mice were exposed to 2G mobile phone radiation, 48 minutes per day for a period of 30-180 days. The control group was kept under similar conditions without 2G exposure. Mice were sacrificed and the brain was removed from the first month to six months period. Brain was removed from the cranial cavity and hippocampus region was dissected out carefully and processed for routine histological study. Random serial sections were analysed under microscope for histomorphometric changes. For statistical analysis, independent t-test was used for comparing control and 2G exposed groups. Results The mean density of neurons in the hippocampus regions CA1, CA2 and DGDB from first to sixth month was significantly lower in the 2G exposed groups; however, in CA3 and DGVB, the 2G exposed mice showed significantly higher density of neurons. The mean nuclear diameter of neurons in the hippocampus region of CA1, CA2, CA3, DGDB and DGVB from first to sixth months showed lower nuclear diameter in 2G exposed mice. Conclusion The long term exposure to 900-1800 MHz frequency radiations emitted from 2G mobile phone could cause significantly reduced neuron density and decreased nuclear diameter in the hippocampus neurons of mice. PMID:27656427

  19. Looking at the other side of the coin: the search for possible biopositive cognitive effects of the exposure to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone radiofrequency radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Tavakkoli-Golpayegani, Ali; Haghani, Masoud; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad

    2014-01-01

    Although exposure to electromagnetic radiation in radiofrequency range has caused a great deal of concern globally, radiofrequency radiation has many critical applications in both telecommunication and non-communication fields. The induction of adaptive response phenomena by exposure to radiofrequency radiation as either increased resistance to a subsequent dose of ionizing radiation or resistance to a bacterial infection has been reported recently. Interestingly, the potential beneficial effects of mobile phone radiofrequency radiation are not only limited to the induction of adaptive phenomena. It has previously been indicated that the visual reaction time of university students significantly decreased after a 10 min exposure to radiofrequency radiation emitted by a mobile phone. Furthermore, it has been revealed that occupational exposures to radar radiations decreased the reaction time in radar workers. Based on these findings, it can be hypothesized that in special circumstances, these exposures might lead to a better response of humans to different hazards. Other investigators have also provided evidence that confirms the induction of RF-induced cognitive benefits. Furthermore, some recent reports have indicated that RF radiation may play a role in protecting against cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease. In this light, a challenging issue will arise if there are other RF-induced stimulating effects. It is also challenging to explore the potential applications of these effects. Further research may shed light on dark areas of the health effects of short and long-term human exposure to radiofrequency radiation.

  20. Effect of radiofrequency radiation in cultured mammalian cells: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Debashri; Ghosh, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The use of mobile phone related technologies will continue to increase in the foreseeable future worldwide. This has drawn attention to the probable interaction of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation with different biological targets. Studies have been conducted on various organisms to evaluate the alleged ill-effect on health. We have therefore attempted to review those work limited to in vitro cultured cells where irradiation conditions were well controlled. Different investigators have studied varied endpoints like DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, cellular morphology and viability to weigh the genotoxic effect of such radiation by utilizing different frequencies and dose rates under various irradiation conditions that include continuous or pulsed exposures and also amplitude- or frequency-modulated waves. Cells adapt to change in their intra and extracellular environment from different chemical and physical stimuli through organized alterations in gene or protein expression that result in the induction of stress responses. Many studies have focused on such effects for risk estimations. Though the effects of microwave radiation on cells are often not pronounced, some investigators have therefore combined radiofrequency radiation with other physical or chemical agents to observe whether the effects of such agents were augmented or not. Such reports in cultured cellular systems have also included in this review. The findings from different workers have revealed that, effects were dependent on cell type and the endpoint selection. However, contradictory findings were also observed in same cell types with same assay, in such cases the specific absorption rate (SAR) values were significant.

  1. A Radiation Learning Support System by Tri-sensory Augmented Reality using a Mobile Phone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimoda, Hiroshi; Zhao, Yue; Yan, Weida; Ishii, Hirotake [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan)

    2011-08-15

    A radiation learning support system has been developed to support learning basic knowledge of radiation and its influence on the human body by using tri-sensory Augmented Reality (AR) technology with presenting information to visual, auditory and tactile sensation. The system consists of a knowledge learning mode in which learners can learn basic knowledge of radiation and an experience learning mode in which they can virtually experience its influence on the human body under various conditions. As the result of a simple evaluation, it was suggested that the system improves the learners' intuitive understanding, and information presentation to auditory and tactile sensation is more effective than that to visual sensation.

  2. Quantitative Leaching of a Spent Cell Phone Printed Circuit Board by Hydrochloric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alafara A. Baba

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a kinetic data on the hydrometallurgical recovery of some metal ions from a printed circuit board (PCB of a spent cell phone by hydrochloric acid leaching. The effects of acid concentration, temperature and particle diameter on the dissolution efficiency at various leaching time intervals were examined. The results of the leaching investigations showed that the powdered cell phone dissolution increases with increasing acid concentration, system temperature with decreasing particle diameter at 360 rpm. With 2M HCl solution, about 88.49% of the sample was dissolved within 120 minutes using 0.075-0.112 mm particle diameter at 800 C. The results of the study indicated that the dissolution reaction could be represented by a shrinking core model with surface chemical reaction. A value of 0.61, 60.67 kJ/mol and 12.9s-1 were calculated as reaction order, activation energy and frequency factor, respectively for the dissolution process.

  3. The heat-shock factor is not activated in mammalian cells exposed to cellular phone frequency microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laszlo, Andrei; Moros, Eduardo G; Davidson, Teri; Bradbury, Matt; Straube, William; Roti Roti, Joseph

    2005-08-01

    There has been considerable interest in the biological effects of exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation, given the explosive growth of cellular telephone use, with the possible induction of malignancy being a significant concern. Thus the determination of whether nonthermal effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation contribute to the process leading to malignancy is an important task. One proposed pathway to malignancy involves the induction of the stress response by exposures to cell phone frequency microwaves. The first step in the induction of the stress response is the activation of the DNA-binding activity of the specific transcription factor involved in this response, the heat-shock factor (HSF). The DNA-binding activity of HSF in hamster, mouse and human cells was determined after acute and continuous exposures to frequency domain multiple access (FDMA)- or code domain multiple access (CDMA)-modulated microwaves at low (0.6 W/kg) or high (approximately 5 W/kg) SARs at frequencies used for mobile communication. The DNA-binding activity of HSF was monitored using a gel shift assay; the calibration of this assay indicated that an increase of approximately 10% in the activation of the DNA-binding activity of HSF after a 1 degrees C increase in temperature could be detected. We failed to detect any increase in the DNA-binding ability of HSF in cultured mammalian cells as a consequence of any exposure tested, within the sensitivity of our assay. Our results do not support the notion that the stress response is activated as a consequence of exposure to microwaves of frequencies associated with mobile communication devices.

  4. Nanometer-scale sizing accuracy of particle suspensions on an unmodified cell phone using elastic light scattering.

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    Zachary J Smith

    Full Text Available We report on the construction of a Fourier plane imaging system attached to a cell phone. By illuminating particle suspensions with a collimated beam from an inexpensive diode laser, angularly resolved scattering patterns are imaged by the phone's camera. Analyzing these patterns with Mie theory results in predictions of size distributions of the particles in suspension. Despite using consumer grade electronics, we extracted size distributions of sphere suspensions with better than 20 nm accuracy in determining the mean size. We also show results from milk, yeast, and blood cells. Performing these measurements on a portable device presents opportunities for field-testing of food quality, process monitoring, and medical diagnosis.

  5. Assessment of RF radiation levels in the vicinity of 60 GSM mobile phone base stations in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyeri, Vahid; Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad; Borna, Maryam; Jalilian, Hamid-Reza; Soleimani, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Increasing development of mobile communication infrastructure while enhancing availability of the technology raises concerns among the public, who see more cell towers erected each day, about possible health effects of electromagnetic radiations. Thereon, a survey of radio-frequency radiation from 60 GSM base stations was carried out in Tehran, Iran at several places mostly located in major medical and educational centres. Measurements were performed at 15 locations near each base station site, i.e. 900 locations in total. Since there are other RF radiation sources such as broadcasting services whose carrier frequencies are <3 GHz, the whole band of 27 MHz to 3 GHz has been assessed for hazardous exposures as well. The results were compared with the relevant guideline of International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection and that of Iran, confirming radiation exposure levels being satisfactorily below defined limits and non-detrimental.

  6. The effects of electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phones on the testicular tissue

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    Muhammet Ihsan Karaman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Various risks have emerged in parallel to the rapidly increasing use of cell phones. Herein we studied the effects of cell phone emitted electromagnetic waves (EMW on rat testes. Material and Methods: Twenty one adult male Albino rats were grouped into 3 groups each consisting of 7 rats. The first group was exposed to EMW on talk mode for 8 hours per day for 20 days and then their testes were extracted. The testes of the second group were extracted after 20 days of whole day EMW exposure. The third group was the control group. For the statistical analysis Mann- Whitney U analysis was performed. Results: At light microscopic examination of the testicular tissue, the existence of a high number of immature cells in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule in addition to the normal seminiferous tubules, besides irregular tubules with a reduction in the spermatogenic cell lines and tubules without lumen were observed in groups 1 and 2. Histopathological alterations were scored as 0 = none, 1 = low, 2 = medium, 3 = serious. The average scores of the three groups were found to be 4.25 ± 1.5 for the group 1, 4.33 ± 3.9 for the group 2 and 0.37 ± 1.1 for the group 3 respectively. As a result of the statistical evaluation, group 1 and group 2 had significantly higher scores than the control group (p = 0.001. Conclusion: Infertility is one of the current problems of today due to a rapid increase in its incidence and cost. The negative effects of the EMWs on the testis should be taken into account and the necessary measures should be taken for prevention.

  7. The Effects of Cell Phone Waves (900 MHz-GSM Band on Sperm Parameters and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rats

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    Masoud Ghanbari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is tremendous concern regarding the possible adverse effects of cellphone microwaves. Contradictory results, however, have been reported for the effectsof these waves on the body. In the present study, the effect of cell phone microwaves onsperm parameters and total antioxidant capacity was investigated with regard to the durationof exposure and the frequency of these waves.Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on 28 adult male Wistarrats (200-250 g. The animals were randomly assigned to four groups (n=7: i. control; ii.two-week exposure to cell phone-simulated waves; iii. three-week exposure to cell phonesimulatedwaves; and iv. two-week exposure to cell phone antenna waves. In all groups,sperm analysis was performed based on standard methods and we determined the meansperm total antioxidant capacity according to the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAPmethod. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test using SPSSversion 16 software.Results: The results indicated that sperm viability, motility, and total antioxidant capacityin all exposure groups decreased significantly compared to the control group (p<0.05.Increasing the duration of exposure from 2 to 3 weeks caused a statistically significantdecrease in sperm viability and motility (p<0.05.Conclusion: Exposure to cell phone waves can decrease sperm viability and motility inrats. These waves can also decrease sperm total antioxidant capacity in rats and result inoxidative stress.

  8. Effects of electromagnetic radiation from 3G mobile phone on heart rate, blood pressure and ECG parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Cengiz; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Ermis, Necip; Tagluk, Mehmet Emin; Colak, Cemil; Sarihan, Ediz; Dilek, Omer Faruk; Turan, Bahadir; Bakir, Sevtap; Acet, Ahmet

    2012-08-01

    Effects of electromagnetic energy radiated from mobile phones (MPs) on heart is one of the research interests. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from third-generation (3G) MP on the heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and ECG parameters and also to investigate whether exogenous melatonin can exert any protective effect on these parameters. In this study 36 rats were randomized and evenly categorized into 4 groups: group 1 (3G-EMR exposed); group 2 (3G-EMR exposed + melatonin); group 3 (control) and group 4 (control + melatonin). The rats in groups 1 and 2 were exposed to 3G-specific MP's EMR for 20 days (40 min/day; 20 min active (speech position) and 20 min passive (listening position)). Group 2 was also administered with melatonin for 20 days (5 mg/kg daily during the experimental period). ECG signals were recorded from cannulated carotid artery both before and after the experiment, and BP and HR were calculated on 1st, 3rd and 5th min of recordings. ECG signals were processed and statistically evaluated. In our experience, the obtained results did not show significant differences in the BP, HR and ECG parameters among the groups both before and after the experiment. Melatonin, also, did not exhibit any additional effects, neither beneficial nor hazardous, on the heart hemodynamics of rats. Therefore, the strategy (noncontact) of using a 3G MP could be the reason for ineffectiveness; and use of 3G MP, in this perspective, seems to be safer compared to the ones used in close contact with the head. However, further study is needed for standardization of such an assumption.

  9. The feasibility of cell phone based electronic diaries for STI/HIV research

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    Hensel Devon J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reports of sensitive, socially stigmatized or illegal behavior are common in STI/HIV research, but can raise challenges in terms of data reliability and validity. The use of electronic data collection tools, including ecological momentary assessment (EMA, can increase the accuracy of this information by allowing a participant to self-administer a survey or diary entry, in their own environment, as close to the occurrence of the behavior as possible. In this paper, we evaluate the feasibility of using cell phone-based EMA as a tool for understanding sexual risk and STI among adult men and women. Methods As part of a larger prospective clinical study on sexual risk behavior and incident STI in clinically recruited adult men and women, using study-provided cell phones, participants (N = 243 completed thrice–daily EMA diaries monitoring individual and partner-specific emotional attributes, non-sexual activities, non-coital or coital sexual behaviors, and contraceptive behaviors. Using these data, we assess feasibility in terms of participant compliance, behavior reactivity, general method acceptability and method efficacy for capturing behaviors. Results Participants were highly compliant with diary entry protocol and schedule: over the entire 12 study weeks, participants submitted 89.7% (54,914/61,236 of the expected diary entries, with an average of 18.86 of the 21 expected diaries (85.7% each week. Submission did not differ substantially across gender, race/ethnicity and baseline sexually transmitted infection status. A sufficient volume and range of sexual behaviors were captured, with reporting trends in different legal and illegal behaviors showing small variation over time. Participants found the methodology to be acceptable, enjoyed and felt comfortable participating in the study. Conclusion Achieving the correct medium of data collection can drastically improve, or degrade, the timeliness and quality of an

  10. Let Them Have Their Cell Phone (And Let Them Read to It Too): Technology, Writing Instruction and Textual Obsolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahar, Jed

    2012-01-01

    Cell phone ubiquity enables students to record and share audio file versions of their essays for proofreading purposes. Adopting this practice in community college developmental writing classes leads to an investigation of both writing as a technology and the influence of modern technology on composition and composition pedagogy.

  11. Comparing Cell Phone-Based and Traditional Lecture-Based Teaching Methods' Effects on Agricultural Students' Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Papzan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the increased speed of creating new knowledge and the development of communication technologies, like cell phone, which makes it possible the access to various unlimited resources and data in an unlimited time and place, and regarding many positive aspects of applying it in schools and the necessity of adjusting with changes and the correct use of this new technology, the present research was conducted to examine the effect of teaching via cell phone on students learning in Khooshehaye Zarin agricultural school in Rawansar, Kermanshah province, and comparing it with traditional lecture method. In a semi-experimental research method, 30 male students were selected through random sampling method as the research sample, divided into two paired groups, 15 for experimental group and 15 for control group, based on age, educational status, previous grade point average and family economical status. Data collection tool was a 10 item test based on behavioral objectives. The experimental group was taught in two sessions of two hours through cell phone, and the control group was taught the same topic through traditional lecture method in exactly the same amount of time. Post–test was performed on two groups through the above-mentioned 10 item test and the results were analyzed through t test method. The results showed that teaching via cell phone has more effects on students learning compared with traditional lecture method.

  12. Prospect for Cell Phones as Instructional Tools in the EFL Classroom: A Case Study of Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Roksana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potentiality of cell phone use in the EFL classroom of Bangladesh as an instructional tool. The researcher conducted a case study on Jahangirnagar University of Bangladesh. For the study, some SMS based class tests were conducted in the English Department of the university where one hundred…

  13. Compliance to Cell Phone-Based EMA Among Latino Youth in Outpatient Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comulada, W Scott; Lightfoot, Marguerita; Swendeman, Dallas; Grella, Christine; Wu, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Outpatient treatment practices for adolescent substance users utilize retrospective self-report to monitor drug use. Cell phone-based ecological momentary assessment (CEMA) overcomes retrospective self-report biases and can enhance outpatient treatment, particularly among Latino adolescents, who have been understudied with regard to CEMA. This study explores compliance to text message-based CEMA with youth (n = 28; 93% Latino) in outpatient treatment. Participants were rotated through daily, random, and event-based CEMA strategies for 1-month periods. Overall compliance was high (>80%). Compliance decreased slightly over the study period and was less during random versus daily strategies and on days when alcohol use was retrospectively reported. Findings suggest that CEMA is a viable monitoring tool for Latino youth in outpatient treatment, but further study is needed to determine optimal CEMA strategies, monitoring time periods, and the appropriateness of CEMA for differing levels of substance use.

  14. AWireless Local Area Network Soft Cell Phone (SCP System with Multimedia and Data Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olakanmi O.Oladayo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most organizations concurrently maintain private Automatic Branch Exchange (PABX and Local Area Network (LAN for information interchange within their organization. This is obviously a waste of resources and avoidable duplication of communication systems. The existing LAN can be used as a communication backbone for the in house telephone operations with no extra cost and resources. In view of this, a portable and a platform independent Software-Based Cell Phone (SCP was proposed for the existing LANs infrastructure in the organizations. The SPC is a telephony application with a user friendly interface which is capable of handling voice, video and text messages without compromising the Quality of Service (QoS of the existing LAN.

  15. Cell phone internet access, online sexual solicitation, partner seeking, and sexual risk behavior among adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Eric; Winetrobe, Hailey; Holloway, Ian W; Montoya, Jorge; Plant, Aaron; Kordic, Timothy

    2015-04-01

    Online partner seeking is associated with sexual risk behavior among young adults (specifically men who have sex with men), but this association has yet to be explored among a probability sample of adolescents. Moreover, cell phone internet access and sexual risk taking online and offline have not been explored. A probability sample (N = 1,831) of Los Angeles Unified School District high school students was collected in 2011. Logistic regression models assessed relationships between specific sexual risk behaviors (online sexual solicitation, seeking partners online, sex with internet-met partners, condom use) and frequency of internet use, internet access points, and demographics. Students with cell phone internet access were more likely to report being solicited online for sex, being sexually active, and having sex with an internet-met partner. Bisexual-identifying students reported higher rates of being approached online for sex, being sexually active, and not using condoms at last sex. Gay, lesbian, and questioning (GLQ) students were more likely to report online partner seeking and unprotected sex at last sex with an internet-met partner. Additionally, having sex with an internet-met partner was associated with being male, online sexual solicitation, and online partner seeking. Internet- and school-based sexual health programs should incorporate safety messages regarding online sexual solicitation, seeking sex partners online, and engaging in safer sex practices with all partners. Programs must target adolescents of all sexual identities, as adolescents may not yet be "out," and bisexual and GLQ adolescents are more likely to engage in risky sex behaviors.

  16. Feasibility study of a mini fuel cell to detect interference from a cellular phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M. O.; Gan, Y. K.

    Fuel cells produce electricity without involving combustion processes. They generate no noise, vibration or air pollution and are therefore suitable for use in many vibration-free power-generating applications. In this study, a mini alkaline fuel cell signal detector system has been designed, constructed and tested. The initial results have shown the applicability of such system for used as an indicator of signal disturbance from cellular phones. A small disturbance even at 4 mV cm -1, corresponding to an amplitude of 12-18 mG in terms of electromagnetic field, can be well detected by such a device. Subsequently, a thermodynamics model has been developed to provide a parametric study by simulation to show the likely performance of the fuel cell alone in other environments. As such the model can provide many useful generic design data for alkaline fuel cells. Two general conclusions can be drawn from the present theoretical study: (i) fuel cell performance increases with temperature, pressure and correction factor, C f; (ii) the temperature factor (E/ T) increases with increasing temperature and with increasing pressure factor.

  17. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN MOVEMENTS AND APPLICATIONS FOR DISASTER RESPONSE MANAGEMENT UTILIZING CELL PHONE USAGE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yasumiishi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As cell phone usage becomes a norm in our daily lives, analysis and application of the data has become part of various research fields. This study focuses on the application of cell phone usage data to disaster response management. Cell phones work as a communication link between emergency responders and victims during and after a major disaster. This study recognizes that there are two kinds of disasters, one with an advance warning, and one without an advance warning. Different movement distance between a day with a blizzard (advanced warning and a normal weather day was identified. In the scenario of a day with an extreme event without advanced warning (earthquake, factors that alter the phone users' movements were analyzed. Lastly, combining both cases, a conceptual model of human movement factors is proposed. Human movements consist of four factors that are push factors, movement-altering factors, derived attributes and constraint factors. Considering each category of factors in case of emergency, it should be necessary that we prepare different kinds of emergency response plans depending on the characteristics of a disaster.

  18. Effects of Simulated Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Radiation on Fertilization and Embryo Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong; Qu, Zaiqing; Liu, Wenhui

    2016-12-16

    This study investigated the effects of 935-MHz electromagnetic radiation (ER) on fertilization and subsequent embryonic development in mice. Ovulating mice were irradiated at three ER intensities for 4 h/day (d) or 2 h/d for three consecutive days; the ova were then harvested for in vitro fertilization to observe the 6-h fertilization rate (6-FR), 72-h morula rate (72-MR), and 110-h blastula rate (110-BR). Compared with the control group, the 6-FR, 72-MR, and 110-BR were decreased in the low ER intensity group, but the differences were not significant; in the mid- and high-intensity ER groups, 72-MR and 110-BR in the 4 h/d and 2 h/d subgroups were decreased, showing significant differences compared with the control group. Moreover, the comparison between 4 h/d and 2 h/d subgroups showed significant differences. Mid- and high-intensity ER at 935 MHz can reduce the fertilization rate in mice, and reduce the blastulation rate, thus reducing the possibility of embryo implantation.

  19. Survey of the Effects of Exposure to 900 MHz Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted by a GSM Mobile Phone on the Pattern of Muscle Contractions in an Animal Model

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    Mortazavi S. M. J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapid development of wireless telecommunication technologies over the past decades, has led to significant changes in the exposure of the general public to electromagnetic fields. Nowadays, people are continuously exposed to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones, mobile base stations, cordless phones, Wi-Fi routers, and power lines. Therefore, the last decade witnessed a rapidly growing concern about the possible health effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields emitted by these sources. Materials and Methods: In this study that was aimed at investigating the effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF radiation emitted by a GSM mobile phone on the pattern of contraction in frog’s isolated gastrocnemius muscle after stimulation with single square pulses of 1V (1 Hz, pulse height of contractions, the time interval between two subsequent contractions and the latency period were measured. Results: Our findings showed that the pulse height of contractions muscle could be affected by the exposure to electromagnetic fields. Especially, the latency period was effectively altered in RF-exposed samples. However, none of the experiments could show an alteration in the time interval between two subsequent contractions after exposure to electromagnetic fields. Conclusion: These findings support early reports which indicated a wide variety of non-thermal effects of electromagnetic radiation on amphibians including the effects on the pattern of muscle extractions

  20. Lifestyle intervention using an internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders for obese Chinese teens: a randomized controlled study.

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    Anisha A Abraham

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasing public health problem affecting young people. The causes of obesity are multi-factorial among Chinese youth including lack of physical activity and poor eating habits. The use of an internet curriculum and cell phone reminders and texting may be an innovative means of increasing follow up and compliance with obese teens. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of using an adapted internet curriculum and existing nutritional program along with cell phone follow up for obese Chinese teens.This was a randomized controlled study involving obese teens receiving care at a paediatric obesity clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Hong Kong. Forty-eight subjects aged 12 to 18 years were randomized into three groups. The control group received usual care visits with a physician in the obesity clinic every three months. The first intervention (IT group received usual care visits every three months plus a 12-week internet-based curriculum with cell phone calls/texts reminders. The second intervention group received usual care visits every three months plus four nutritional counselling sessions.The use of the internet-based curriculum was shown to be feasible as evidenced by the high recruitment rate, internet log-in rate, compliance with completing the curriculum and responses to phone reminders. No significant differences in weight were found between IT, sLMP and control groups.An internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders as a supplement to usual care of obesity is feasible. Further study is required to determine whether an internet plus text intervention can be both an effective and a cost-effective adjunct to changing weight in obese youth.Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12002624.

  1. Effect of Mobile Phone-Induced Electromagnetic Field on Brain Hemodynamics and Human Stem Cell Functioning: Possible Mechanistic Link to Cancer Risk and Early Diagnostic Value of Electronphotonic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargav, Hemant; Srinivasan, T M; Varambally, S; Gangadhar, B N; Koka, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    The mobile phones (MP) are low power radio devices which work on electromagnetic fields (EMFs), in the frequency range of 900-1800 MHz. Exposure to MPEMFs may affect brain physiology and lead to various health hazards including brain tumors. Earlier studies with positron emission tomography (PET) have found alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) after acute exposure to MPEMFs. It is widely accepted that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and their misrepair in stem cells are critical events in the multistage origination of various leukemia and tumors, including brain tumors such as gliomas. Both significant misbalance in DSB repair and severe stress response have been triggered by MPEMFs and EMFs from cell towers. It has been shown that stem cells are most sensitive to microwave exposure and react to more frequencies than do differentiated cells. This may be important for cancer risk assessment and indicates that stem cells are the most relevant cellular model for validating safe mobile communication signals. Recently developed technology for recording the human bio-electromagnetic (BEM) field using Electron photonic Imaging (EPI) or Gas Discharge Visualisation (GDV) technique provides useful information about the human BEM. Studies have recorded acute effects of Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Fields (MPEMFs) using EPI and found quantifiable effects on human BEM field. Present manuscript reviews evidences of altered brain physiology and stem cell functioning due to mobile phone/cell tower radiations, its association with increased cancer risk and explores early diagnostic value of EPI imaging in detecting EMF induced changes on human BEM.

  2. The impact of cell phone use on the intensity and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Rebold

    Full Text Available This study used a within-subjects design to assess the effect of three common cellular telephone (cell phone functions (texting, talking, listening to music on planned exercise. Forty-four young adults (n = 33 females, 21.8 ± 1.3 years each participated in four, separate, 30-minute exercise conditions on a treadmill in a random order. During each condition, the treadmill speed display was covered and grade was fixed at zero. However, participants were able to alter treadmill speed as desired. Throughout the texting and talking conditions, research personnel used a pre-determined script to simulate cell phone conversations. During the music condition, participants used their cell phone to listen to music of their choice. Finally, participants completed a control condition with no cell phone access. For each condition, average treadmill speed, heart rate and liking (via visual analog scale were assessed. Treadmill speed (3.4 ± 1.3 miles∙hour(-1, heart rate (122.3 ± 24.3 beats∙min(-1 and liking (7.5 ± 1.5 cm in the music condition were significantly (p ≤ 0.014 greater than all other conditions. Treadmill speed in the control condition (3.1 ± 1.2 miles∙hour(-1 was significantly (p = 0.04 greater than both texting and talking (2.8 ± 1.1 miles∙hour(-1 each. Heart rate during the control condition (115.4 ± 22.8 beats∙min(-1 was significantly (p = 0.04 greater than texting (109.9 ± 16.4 beats∙min(-1 but not talking (112.6 ± 16.1 beats∙min(-1. Finally, liking during the talking condition (5.4 ± 2.2 cm was greater (p = 0.05 than the control (4.3 ± 2.2 cm but not the texting (5.1 ± 2.2 cm conditions. In conclusion, using a cell phone for listening to music can increase the intensity (speed and heart rate and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise. However, other common cell phone uses (texting and talking can interfere with treadmill exercise and reduce intensity.

  3. Providing cell phone numbers and e-mail addresses to patients: The patient’s perspective, a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peleg Roni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today patients can consult with their treating physician by cell phone or e-mail. These means of communication enhance the quality of medical care and increase patient satisfaction, but they can also impinge on physicians’ free time and their patient schedule while at work. The objective of this study is to assess the attitudes and practice of patients on obtaining the cell phone number or e-mail address of their physician for the purpose of medical consultation. Methods Personal interviews with patients, 18 years of age or above, selected by random sampling from the roster of adults insured by Clalit Health Services, Southern Division. The total response rate was 41%. The questionnaire included questions on the attitude and practice of patients towards obtaining their physician’s cell phone number or e-mail address. Comparisons were performed using Chi-square tests to analyze statistically significant differences of categorical variables. Two-tailed p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant, with a power of 0.8. Results The study sample included 200 patients with a mean age of 46.6 ± 17.1, of whom 110 were women (55%. Ninety-three (46.5% responded that they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s cell phone number, and an additional 83 (41.5% would not object to obtaining it. Of the 171 patients (85.5% who had e-mail addresses, 25 (14.6% said they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s e-mail address, 85 (49.7% said they would not object to getting it, and 61 (35.7% were not interested. In practice only one patient had requested the physician’s e-mail address and none actually had it. Conclusions Patients favored cell phones over e-mail for consulting with their treating physicians. With new technologies such as cell phones and e-mail in common use, it is important to determine how they can be best used and how they should be integrated into the flow

  4. Effects of mobile phone radiation on EEG%手机辐射对脑电信号影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁皓; 徐世奎; 靳聪; 贾菲菲; 徐晟; 吴水才; 郝冬梅; 白燕萍

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究手机辐射对脑电信号的影响.方法首先通过调查问卷调查在校大学生手机使用状况及使用感受.根据调查问卷选取使用量较多的3款手机Nokia 6220C、Samsung GT - S3930C和Nokia 7610,用NBM - 520电磁辐射分析仪测量各手机不同状态下的电磁波强度.在参与调查的人群中选取11名被试参加试验,用NT9200数字脑电仪分别记录被试在手机通话前、手机直接通话30min后、带手机耳机通话30min后的静息脑电信号,对比3种状态下各频段脑电信号的功率谱幅值,采用SPSS18.0软件进行统计分析.结果 手机直接通话30min后脑区的α1频段功率谱幅值均大于手机通话前与带耳机通话状态下的幅值.手机通话前各脑区的β2频段幅值均大于手机通话后与带耳机通话状态下的波幅.手机通话前、手机直接通话后与带耳机通话后各状态之间无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论 短时间的手机辐射对脑电信号影响不显著.%Objective To study the effect of mobile phone radiation on electroencephalograph ( EEG ). Methods Firstly, questionnaires were distributed to the college students to investigate the mobile phone types and their feelings. Three most frequently used mobile phones Nokia 6220C, Samsung GT- S3930C and Nokia 7610 were selected and their electromagnetic wave intensities were measured with NBM-520 electromagnetic radiation analyzer. Eleven students involved in the investigation were recruited to participate in the experiments. Their rest EEGs before phone call,30 mins after phone call with and without using earphone were recorded by NT9200 digital EEG. The EEG power spectrum of different frequency bands in three different states were compared and analyzed by statistical software SPSS18.0. Results Thirty minutes after phone call without earphone,the power spectrum amplitude of α1 frequency band in all brain areas was greater than the other two states. The power spectrum amplitude of

  5. Reaching rural women: breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors and interest in Internet, cell phone, and text use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Wilson, Susan; Vilchis, Hugo

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women, the prevalence of Internet, cell, and text use, and interest to receive breast cancer prevention information cell and text messages. While growing literature for breast cancer information sources supports the use of the Internet, little is known about breast cancer prevention information seeking behaviors among rural women and mobile technology. Using a cross-sectional study design, data were collected using a survey. McGuire's Input-Ouput Model was used as the framework. Self-reported data were obtained from a convenience sample of 157 women with a mean age of 60 (SD = 12.12) at a rural New Mexico imaging center. Common interpersonal information sources were doctors, nurses, and friends and common channel information sources were television, magazines, and Internet. Overall, 87% used cell phones, 20% had an interest to receive cell phone breast cancer prevention messages, 47% used text messaging, 36% had an interest to receive text breast cancer prevention messages, and 37% had an interest to receive mammogram reminder text messages. Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences between age, income, and race/ethnicity and use of cell phones or text messaging. There were no differences between age and receiving text messages or text mammogram reminders. Assessment of health information seeking behaviors is important for community health educators to target populations for program development. Future research may identify additional socio-cultural differences.

  6. Cellular Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... phones as set by the FDA and FCC). Texting instead of talking on the phone may be another option to reduce your exposure. But it may not be a good option in some situations, especially if you are driving. For safety reasons, it is especially important to ...

  7. Mobile Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    籍万杰

    2004-01-01

    Your mobile phone rings.and instead of usual electronic signals,it's playing your favorite music.A friend sends your favorite song to cheer you up.One day,a record company might forward new records and music videos to your phone.

  8. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers in Lowndes County, GA, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'Cell...

  9. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers - downloaded from the FCC website, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2010. It is described as 'Cell...

  10. Lifestyle Intervention Using an Internet-Based Curriculum with Cell Phone Reminders for Obese Chinese Teens: A Randomized Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Anisha A.; Wing-Chi Chow; Hung-Kwan So; Benjamin Hon-Kei Yip; Albert M Li; Kumta, Shekhar M; Jean Woo; Suk-Mei Chan; Esther Yuet-Ying Lau; E Anthony S Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Obesity is an increasing public health problem affecting young people. The causes of obesity are multi-factorial among Chinese youth including lack of physical activity and poor eating habits. The use of an internet curriculum and cell phone reminders and texting may be an innovative means of increasing follow up and compliance with obese teens. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of using an adapted internet curriculum and existing nutritional progra...

  11. EXTRACTION OF COPPER FROM LEACH LIQUOR OF METALLIC COMPONENT IN DISCARDED CELL PHONE BY CYANEX® 272

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAFARA A. BABA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Discarded cell phones contribute significantly to the amount of electronic waste generation whilst some of its components are toxic and recoverable. Also, due to the increasing demand for Cu(II in building/construction, electrical and as chemical tool in freshwater, it is imperative to develop low cost and ecofriendly technique as a substitute for the conventional treatments such as reduction-roasting route at elevated temperatures. In the present study, the hydrometallurgical operations involving leaching, solvent extraction and precipitation for the recovery of Cu(II by Cyanex® 272 in kerosene was examined. Various parameters affecting the extraction of Cu(II such as pH, extractant concentration and phase ratio were optimized. At optimal conditions, about 96.3 % Cu(II was extracted into the organic phase by 0.2 mol/L Cyanex® 272 at equilibrium pH 5.0 and aqueous to organic phase ratio 1:1. The stripping of the loaded organic was carried out by 0.1 mol/L HCl solution and stripping efficiency of 98 % was obtained. By McCabe Thiele diagram, four stages are required for complete extraction of Cu(II.

  12. How connected are people with schizophrenia? Cell phone, computer, email, and social media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian J; Stewart, Adriana; Schrimsher, John; Peeples, Dale; Buckley, Peter F

    2015-02-28

    Technologies such as Internet based social media network (SMN) websites are becoming an important part of many adult lives; however, less is known about their use in patients with schizophrenia. We need to determine (1) how "connected" are patients with schizophrenia?, (2) do these technologies interfere with the patient׳s illness?, and (3) do patients envision these technologies being involved in their treatment? We recruited 80 inpatients and outpatients age 18-70 with schizophrenia to complete a brief survey on the prevalence and frequency of cell phone, text messaging, computer, email, and SMN use, and associated attitudes. 56% of subjects use text messaging, 48% have an email account, and 27% of subjects use SMN sites daily, with Facebook being the most popular. Many current users agreed that these technologies help them interact/socialize more, expressed interest in receiving text messages from their doctors, and disagreed that these technologies make symptoms worse. These preliminary findings should be investigated in larger samples, but suggest that these technologies afford a unique opportunity to engage and improve treatment for some patients with schizophrenia.

  13. Optimization of injection molding process parameters for a plastic cell phone housing component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalingam, Sokkalingam; Vasant, Pandian; Khe, Cheng Seong; Merican, Zulkifli; Oo, Zeya

    2016-11-01

    To produce thin-walled plastic items, injection molding process is one of the most widely used application tools. However, to set optimal process parameters is difficult as it may cause to produce faulty items on injected mold like shrinkage. This study aims at to determine such an optimum injection molding process parameters which can reduce the fault of shrinkage on a plastic cell phone cover items. Currently used setting of machines process produced shrinkage and mis-specified length and with dimensions below the limit. Thus, for identification of optimum process parameters, maintaining closer targeted length and width setting magnitudes with minimal variations, more experiments are needed. The mold temperature, injection pressure and screw rotation speed are used as process parameters in this research. For optimal molding process parameters the Response Surface Methods (RSM) is applied. The major contributing factors influencing the responses were identified from analysis of variance (ANOVA) technique. Through verification runs it was found that the shrinkage defect can be minimized with the optimal setting found by RSM.

  14. 蓝牙手机室内定位系统%Indoor positioning system for bluetooth cell phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩; 赵千川

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduced a low-cost platform for locating bluetooth cell phones and releasing position information. The authors improved the scheme of measuring Received Signal Strength Indication ( RSSI) of bluetooth devices lo locate multiple cell phones simultaneously, developed cell phone program to receive position information via Wi-Fi and display it on map. The experimental results show that the system is accurate in positioning and easy to use, and it provides a platform support for applications of Internet of Things (IOT) under current hardware condition.%设计并实现了一种基于蓝牙和Wi-Fi的低成本手机定位和信息发布平台.改进了已有蓝牙设备RSSI检测方案,能对多个手机同时定位;利用Wi-Fi和J2ME技术实现了手机对定位信息的接收和实时显示.实验结果表明系统具有定位准确、使用方便等特点,在目前硬件条件下为物联网应用提供了平台支持.

  15. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Phone Towers in Thomas County, GA, Published in 2010, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Thomas County BOC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2010. It is described as...

  16. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Phone tower point layer, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is...

  17. “With the cell phone, 24 hours on air”: On gender relations and the appropriation of mobile technologies in low-income groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rubia Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from an ethnographic approach, I analyze in this article the appropriation of cell phones in their intersections with gender relations. I discuss the ways by which technology is appropriated to reaffirm love ties, but also becomes the focus of surveillance, tension and conflict. In this sense, I argue that cell phones engender micropolitics of everyday life in which men and women interact in sociocultural dynamics that reflect gender hierarchies, but also subvert them.

  18. Are mobile phones harmful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blettner, M; Berg, Gabriele

    2000-01-01

    in cells. Implications of these experimental results on public health concerns are yet unclear. Few epidemiological studies are available on the use of mobile phones or on the radiofrequency exposure and the development of cancer. Most of these studies have no or little quantitative exposure data......There is increasing public interest in health risks of mobile phone use. Although there is a vast body of material on the biological effects of radiofrequency fields, current risk assessment is still limited. The article describes several hypotheses and results of biological effects such as thermal...... and they are limited by the small number of observations. Large epidemiological studies are necessary in order to investigate the use of mobile phones on the development of cancer. It should be emphasized that even a small elevated risk may have a large implication for public health, as the use of mobile phones...

  19. Effect of Juming mixture on intervention of newborn mice exposure to mobile phone radiation during embryonic phase%菊明合剂对胚胎期暴露手机辐射仔鼠干预效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高辉; 裴银辉; 李锋; 孙君侠

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To research the effect oi Juming mixture on intervention of newborn mice exposure to mobile phone radiation during embryonic phase. Methods; The female and male mice were bred together, then the female mice were separated for further study when vaginal plug in vulva were observed. The pregnant mice were divided into three groups randomly: intervention group, control group, and blank control group. Under each cage of intervention group and control group, one mobile phone of the same type was placed respectively , and the two mobile phones kept on working state for 24 hours. No mobile phone was placed under the cage of blank control group. The mice in intervention group were treated with pouring Juming mixture into stomach until delivery, while the mice in control group and blank control group didnt receive any intervention measures. After delivery, Fl newborn mice were bred for 21 days, the amounts of white blood cells, myeloid karyocytes, and the rates of micro - neucleus in bone marrow cells in intervention group, control group, and blank control group were detected. Results: The amounts of white blood cells in intervention group and blank control group were statistically significantly higher than those in control group (P 0. 05) . Conclusion : Juming mixture has anti - radiation effect for newborn mice exposure to mobile phone radiation during embryonic phase.%目的:研究菊明合剂对胚胎期暴露手机辐射仔鼠的干预效果.方法:雄、雌性小鼠同笼饲养,雌鼠阴门出现阴栓后将孕鼠分笼饲养,将孕鼠随机分为3组,干预组、对照组和空白对照组.干预组和对照组鼠笼下方各置同型号手机一部,保持24 h开机状态.空白对照组不放置手机.干预组每日应用菊明合剂灌胃直至分娩,对照组和空白对照组无干预措施.分娩后,饲养F1仔鼠21天,测定各组小鼠白细胞总数、骨髓有核细胞数和骨髓细胞微核率.结果:干预组和空白对照组小鼠白细胞

  20. Effect of an Educational Program Based on the Health Belief Model to Reduce Cell Phone Usage During Driving in Taxi drivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Moeini

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cell phone usage during driving has become a threat to traffic safety. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of an educational program based on the health belief model to reduce cell phone usage during driving in taxi drivers of Tuyserkan. Materials and Methods: In this quasi-experimental study, 110 taxi drivers younger than 35 years were randomly divided into two experimental and control groups in Tuyserkan, Iran. Data was collected using a questionnaire including the health belief model constructs, knowledge, behaviors of using cell phone and demographic variables. The questionnaires were self-reported. Intervention was three sessions applied in the experimental group. Both groups were followed for two months after the intervention. Finally, data analysis was performed using SPSS- 19 by Chi-square, Independent T-test, Paired T-test and McNemar. Results: The mean scores for the constructs of health belief model (perceived susceptibility, severity, barriers, perceived benefits, self-efficacy and cues to action, knowledge and desired behaviors about the use of cell phone during driving showed no significant differences between the two groups before the intervention. After the educational intervention, significant differences were observed in experimental group compared to control group. After educational intervention, cell phone usage reduced by 35.14% in the experimental group. Conclusion: An educational intervention based on the health belief model could reduce cell phone usage during driving in taxi drivers.

  1. The use of cell phones and radio communication systems to reduce delays in getting help for pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday O. Oyeyemi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delays in getting medical help are important factors in the deaths of many pregnant women and unborn children in the low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. Studies have suggested that the use of cell phones and radio communication systems might reduce such delays. Objectives: We review the literature regarding the impact of cell phones and radio communication systems on delays in getting medical help by pregnant women in the LMIC. Design: Cochrane Library, PubMed, Maternity and Infant care (Ovid, Web of Science (ISI, and Google Scholar were searched for studies relating to the use of cell phones for maternal and child health services, supplemented with hand searches. We included studies in LMIC and in English involving the simple use of cell phones (or radio communication to either make calls or send text messages. Results: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. All the studies, while of various designs, demonstrated positive contributory effects of cell phones or radio communication systems in reducing delays experienced by pregnant women in getting medical help. Conclusions: While the results suggested that cell phones could contribute in reducing delays, more studies of a longer duration are needed to strengthen the finding.

  2. Surveying the relationship of Internet addiction with dependence on cell phone, depression, anxiety, and stress in collegians (Case study: Bam University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asra Nassehi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: A considerable increase in using the Internet and cell phone is evident especially among university students. On the other hand, the attention and concerns expressed about the psychological and social effects of long-term use of communicational technologies and the, probably negative, effects on professional future and social relationships are growing. Therefore, the present study is aimed at determining the relationship of Internet addiction with excessive dependence on cell phone, depression, anxiety, and stress in the students of Bam University of Medical Sciences. Methodology: A comparative-correlative study on 230 students in Bam University of Medical Sciences was carried out in 2014. The data was collected using Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT, dependence of cell phone, and Lovibond & Lovibond’s depression, anxiety and stress scale (DASS-21. (sig. = 0.05 Finding: Total scores of Internet addiction and dependence on cell phone were 49.03±20 and 42.7±11.77 respectively. There was also a significant relationship between Internet addiction and the variables dependence on cell phone, depression, anxiety, and stress. (p<0.05 Conclusion: The results showed that increase in the time spent on the Internet led to increase in depression, anxiety, stress, and dependence on cell phone. Therefore, there is a need for more efficient educational, consultation, and behavioral planning to attenuate the psychological and social damages.

  3. A rear-end collision risk assessment model based on drivers' collision avoidance process under influences of cell phone use and gender-A driving simulator based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng; Yan, Xuedong; Wu, Jiawei; Radwan, Essam; Zhang, Yuting

    2016-12-01

    Driver's collision avoidance performance has a direct link to the collision risk and crash severity. Previous studies demonstrated that the distracted driving, such as using a cell phone while driving, disrupted the driver's performance on road. This study aimed to investigate the manner and extent to which cell phone use and driver's gender affected driving performance and collision risk in a rear-end collision avoidance process. Forty-two licensed drivers completed the driving simulation experiment in three phone use conditions: no phone use, hands-free, and hand-held, in which the drivers drove in a car-following situation with potential rear-end collision risks caused by the leading vehicle's sudden deceleration. Based on the experiment data, a rear-end collision risk assessment model was developed to assess the influence of cell phone use and driver's gender. The cell phone use and driver's gender were found to be significant factors that affected the braking performances in the rear-end collision avoidance process, including the brake reaction time, the deceleration adjusting time and the maximum deceleration rate. The minimum headway distance between the leading vehicle and the simulator during the rear-end collision avoidance process was the final output variable, which could be used to measure the rear-end collision risk and judge whether a collision occurred. The results showed that although cell phone use drivers took some compensatory behaviors in the collision avoidance process to reduce the mental workload, the collision risk in cell phone use conditions was still higher than that without the phone use. More importantly, the results proved that the hands-free condition did not eliminate the safety problem associated with distracted driving because it impaired the driving performance in the same way as much as the use of hand-held phones. In addition, the gender effect indicated that although female drivers had longer reaction time than male drivers in

  4. Are computer and cell phone use associated with body mass index and overweight? A population study among twin adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkkinen Lea

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight in children and adolescents has reached dimensions of a global epidemic during recent years. Simultaneously, information and communication technology use has rapidly increased. Methods A population-based sample of Finnish twins born in 1983–1987 (N = 4098 was assessed by self-report questionnaires at 17 y during 2000–2005. The association of overweight (defined by Cole's BMI-for-age cut-offs with computer and cell phone use and ownership was analyzed by logistic regression and their association with BMI by linear regression models. The effect of twinship was taken into account by correcting for clustered sampling of families. All models were adjusted for gender, physical exercise, and parents' education and occupational class. Results The proportion of adolescents who did not have a computer at home decreased from 18% to 8% from 2000 to 2005. Compared to them, having a home computer (without an Internet connection was associated with a higher risk of overweight (odds ratio 2.3, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.8 and BMI (beta coefficient 0.57, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.98. However, having a computer with an Internet connection was not associated with weight status. Belonging to the highest quintile (OR 1.8 95% CI 1.2 to 2.8 and second-highest quintile (OR 1.6 95% CI 1.1 to 2.4 of weekly computer use was positively associated with overweight. The proportion of adolescents without a personal cell phone decreased from 12% to 1% across 2000 to 2005. There was a positive linear trend of increasing monthly phone bill with BMI (beta 0.18, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.30, but the association of a cell phone bill with overweight was very weak. Conclusion Time spent using a home computer was associated with an increased risk of overweight. Cell phone use correlated weakly with BMI. Increasing use of information and communication technology may be related to the obesity epidemic among adolescents.

  5. Headset Bluetooth and cell phone based continuous central body temperature measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, J Miguel; Pereira, Bruno; Paiva, Teresa

    2010-01-01

    The accurate measure of the central temperature is a very important physiologic indicator in several clinical applications, namely, in the characterization and diagnosis of sleep disorders. In this paper a simple system is described to continuously measure the body temperature at the ear. An electronic temperature sensor is coupled to the microphone of a common commercial auricular Bluetooth device that sends the temperature measurements to a mobile phone to which is paired. The measurements are stored at the mobile phone and periodically sent to a medical facility by email or SMS (short messaging service).

  6. FDTD chiral brain tissue model for specific absorption rate determination under radiation from mobile phones at 900 and 1800 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, M.; Torres-Silva, H.

    2006-04-01

    A new electrodynamics model formed by chiral bioplasma, which represents the human head inner structure and makes it possible to analyse its behaviour when it is irradiated by a microwave electromagnetic field from cellular phones, is presented. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numeric technique is used, which allows simulation of the electromagnetic fields, deduced with Maxwell's equations, and allows us to simulate the specific absorption rate (SAR). The results show the SAR behaviour as a function of the input power and the chirality factor. In considering the chiral brain tissue in the proposed human head model, the two more important conclusions of our work are the following: (a) the absorption of the electromagnetic fields from cellular phones is stronger, so the SAR coefficient is higher than that using the classical model, when values of the chiral factor are of order of 1; (b) 'inverse skin effect' shows up at 1800 MHz, with respect to a 900 MHz source.

  7. Acute effects of mobile phone radiations on subtle energy levels of teenagers using electrophotonic imaging technique: A randomized controlled study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargav, Hemant; Srinivasan, TM; Bista, Suman; Mooventhan, A; Suresh, Vandana; Hankey, Alex; Nagendra, HR

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mobile phones induce radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF) which has been found to affect subtle energy levels of adults through Electrophotonic Imaging (EPI) technique in a previous pilot study. Materials and Methods: We enrolled 61 healthy right-handed healthy teenagers (22 males and 39 females) in the age range of 17.40 ± 0.24 years from educational institutes in Bengaluru. Subjects were randomly divided into two groups: (1) (mobile phone in ON mode [MPON] at right ear) and (2) mobile phone in OFF mode (MPOF). Subtle energy levels of various organs of the subjects were measured using gas discharge visualization Camera Pro device, in double-blind conditions, at two points of time: (1) baseline and (2) after 15 min of MPON/MPOF exposure. As the data were found normally distributed, paired and independent samples t-test were applied to perform within and between group comparisons, respectively. Results: The subtle energy levels were significantly reduced after RF-EMF exposure in MPON group as compared to MPOF group for following areas: (a) Pancreas (P = 0.001), (b) thyroid gland (P = 0.002), (c) cerebral cortex (P exposure exerted quantifiable effects on subtle energy levels of endocrine glands, nervous system, liver, kidney, spleen, and immune system of healthy teenagers. Future studies should try to correlate these findings with respective biochemical markers and standard radio-imaging techniques. PMID:28149063

  8. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Andreas; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Kuehn, Sven; Kuster, Niels [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zuerich (Switzerland); Christopoulou, Maria [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., 15780 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: christ@itis.ethz.ch

    2010-04-07

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  9. Strong enhancement of dispersion forces from microwave radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sernelius, B. E.

    2002-11-01

    We have studied non-thermal effects of microwave radiation on the forces between objects. This is the first step in a study of possible effects of microwave radiation from cellular phones on biological tissue. We have used a simplified model for human blood cells in blood. We find for the normal radiation level of cellular phones an enhancement of the attractive force with ten orders of magnitude as compared to the corresponding effect at thermal radiation.

  10. Radiation Enhances Regulatory T Cell Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachikwu, Evelyn L.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Liao, Yu-Pei; DeMarco, John J.; Agazaryan, Nzhde [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Economou, James S. [Department of Surgical Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McBride, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schaue, Doerthe, E-mail: dschaue@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Immunotherapy could be a useful adjunct to standard cytotoxic therapies such as radiation in patients with micrometastatic disease, although successful integration of immunotherapy into treatment protocols will require further understanding of how standard therapies affect the generation of antitumor immune responses. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of radiation therapy (RT) on immunosuppressive T regulatory (Treg) cells. Methods and Materials: Treg cells were identified as a CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} lymphocyte subset, and their fate was followed in a murine TRAMP C1 model of prostate cancer in mice with and without RT. Results: CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} Treg cells increased in immune organs after local leg or whole-body radiation. A large part, but not all, of this increase after leg-only irradiation could be ascribed to radiation scatter and Treg cells being intrinsically more radiation resistant than other lymphocyte subpopulations, resulting in their selection. Their functional activity on a per-cell basis was not affected by radiation exposure. Similar findings were made with mice receiving local RT to murine prostate tumors growing in the leg. The importance of the Treg cell population in the response to RT was shown by systemic elimination of Treg cells, which greatly enhanced radiation-induced tumor regression. Conclusions: We conclude that Treg cells are more resistant to radiation than other lymphocytes, resulting in their preferential increase. Treg cells may form an important homeostatic mechanism for tissues injured by radiation, and in a tumor context, they may assist in immune evasion during therapy. Targeting this population may allow enhancement of radiotherapeutic benefit through immune modulation.

  11. Investigation of the effects of distance from sources on apoptosis, oxidative stress and cytosolic calcium accumulation via TRPV1 channels induced by mobile phones and Wi-Fi in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiğ, Bilal; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa

    2015-10-01

    TRPV1 is a Ca2+ permeable channel and gated by noxious heat, oxidative stress and capsaicin (CAP). Some reports have indicated that non-ionized electromagnetic radiation (EMR)-induces heat and oxidative stress effects. We aimed to investigate the effects of distance from sources on calcium signaling, cytosolic ROS production, cell viability, apoptosis, plus caspase-3 and -9 values induced by mobile phones and Wi-Fi in breast cancer cells MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines were divided into A, B, C and D groups as control, 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz groups, respectively. Cells in Group A were used as control and were kept in cell culture conditions without EMR exposure. Groups B, C and D were exposed to the EMR frequencies at different distances (0 cm, 1 cm, 5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm and 25 cm) for 1h before CAP stimulation. The cytosolic ROS production, Ca2+ concentrations, apoptosis, caspase-3 and caspase-9 values were higher in groups B, C and D than in A group at 0 cm, 1 cm and 5 cm distances although cell viability (MTT) values were increased by the distances. There was no statistically significant difference in the values between control, 20 and 25 cm. Wi-Fi and mobile phone EMR placed within 10 cm of the cells induced excessive oxidative responses and apoptosis via TRPV1-induced cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in the cancer cells. Using cell phones and Wi-Fi sources which are farther away than 10 cm may provide useful protection against oxidative stress, apoptosis and overload of intracellular Ca2+. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  12. Outdoor and indoor sources of residential radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, personal cell phone and cordless phone use, and cognitive function in 5-6 years old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Mònica; Vermeulen, Roel; van Eijsden, Manon; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; van Strien, Rob T; Kromhout, Hans; Huss, Anke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the exposure of young children to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and potentially associated health effects. We assessed the relationship between residential RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations, residential presence of indoor sources, pers

  13. Effects of 3G cell phone exposure on the structure and function of the human cytochrome P450 reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Shazia; Thuróczy, György; Selmaoui, Brahim; Silva Pires Antonietti, Viviane; Sonnet, Pascal; Arnaud-Cormos, Delia; Lévêque, Philippe; Pulvin, Sylviane; de Seze, René

    2016-10-01

    Cell phones increase exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Whether EMFs exert specific effects on biological systems remains debatable. This study investigated the effect of cell phone exposure on the structure and function of human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). CPR plays a key role in the electron transfer to cytochrome P450, which takes part in a wide range of oxidative metabolic reactions in various organisms from microbes to humans. Human CPR was exposed for 60min to 1966-MHz RF inside a transverse electromagnetic cell (TEM-cell) placed in an incubator. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was 5W·kg(-1). Conformation changes have been detected through fluorescent spectroscopy of flavin and tryptophan residues, and investigated through circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering and microelectrophoresis. These showed that CPR was narrowed. By using cytochrome C reductase activity to assess the electron flux through the CPR, the Michaelis Menten constant (Km) and the maximum initial velocity (Vmax) decreased by 22% as compared with controls. This change was due to small changes in the tertiary and secondary structures of the protein at 37°C. The relevance of these findings to an actual RF exposure scenario demands further biochemical and in-vivo confirmation.

  14. The Effect of 217 Hz Magnetic Field of Cell Phone with Different Intensities on Apoptosis of Normal and Cancerous Cells Treated with Chemotherapy Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Mansourian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the increasing development of home and business electronic equipment in today's world, the biological effects of ELF magnetic fields have been studied at two molecular-cellular and animal- human levels. Considering the therapeutic viewpoint of this study regarding the effects of low-frequency fields of mobile phone, the effect of acute exposure to this field on chemotherapy will be studied.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, based on measurement of the intensity of the magnetic fields from mobile phones in another research, flux densities of magnetic field of 159.44, 93.25 and 120µ tesla with frequency of 217Hz was generated in magnetic field generator system, and the apoptosis level in K562 cancer cells and healthy cells of lymphocytes was assessed after exposure to field using flow cytometry method. This evaluation method was also performed for the cells treated with bleomycin after exposure to this field.Results: 217 Hz magnetic field exposure significantly increases the rate of apoptosis percentage (p > 0.05 in K562 cancer cells and in two intensities of 120 and 159.44µ tesla compared to the control group, but such effect is not observed in lymphocyte cells. Bleomycin-induced apoptosis percentage following exposure to the mentioned magnetic field shows no significant difference compared to the group of treatment with drug and without field exposure. This lack of significant difference is observed between the groups of drug after field exposure and field alone as well as between groups exposed to field and groups treated with bleomycin.Conclusion: Study results showed that 217 Hz magnetic field of mobile phone can induce apoptosis on cancer cells, but it has no effect on healthy cells. Thus, in order to use mobile phone as an effective factor in their treatment, some studies should be conducted at animal-human level.

  15. The Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated from 1800 MHz Cell Phones on Erythrocyte Rheological Parameters and Zinc Level in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Divrikli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the electromagnetic field generated from the 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation (EF on erythrocyte rheological parameters and erythrocyte zinc levels. Material and Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar Albino rats were randomly grouped as follows: 1 two control groups and 2 study groups: i Group A: EF exposed group (2.5 h/day for 30 days, the phone on stand-by, and ii Group B: EF exposed group (2.5 min/day for 30 days, the phone ringing in silent mode. At the end of the experimental period erythrocyte rheological parameters such as erythrocyte deformability and aggregation were determined by an ectacytometer. Erythrocyte zinc level, which affects hemorheological parameters, was also measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Erythrocyte deformability was decreased in both study groups but the decrease in group A was not statistically significant. Exposure to EF did not have any significant effect on erythrocyte aggregation. On the other hand, erythrocyte zinc level was significantly reduced in both study groups. Conclusion: Exposure to EF may have decreased tissue oxygenation due to reduced erythrocyte deformability. Decrease in erythrocyte zinc level may have caused the impairment in erythrocyte deformability.

  16. New Horizons in Enhancing the Proliferation and Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells Using Stimulatory Effects of the Short Time Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghlidospour, M; Mortazavi, S M J; Yousefi, F; Mortazavi, S A R

    2015-09-01

    Mobile phone use and wireless communication technology have grown explosively over the past decades. This rapid growth has caused widespread global concern about the potential detrimental effects of this technology on human health. Stem cells generate specialized cell types of the tissue in which they reside through normal differentiation pathways. Considering the undeniable importance of stem cells in modern medicine, numerous studies have been performed on the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on cellular processes such as: proliferation, differentiation, cell cycle and DNA repair processes. We have conducted extensive studies on beneficial (stimulatory) or detrimental biological effects of exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones, mobile phone base stations, mobile phone jammers, radar systems, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems and dentistry cavitrons over the past years. In this article, recent studies on the biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation in the range of radiofrequency (RF) on some important features of stem cells such as their proliferation and differentiation are reviewed. Studies reviewed in this paper indicate that the stimulatory or inhibitory effects of RF radiation on the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells depend on various factors such as the biological systems, experiment conditions, the frequency and intensity of RF and the duration of exposure.

  17. Trends in Scientific Literature on Addiction to the Internet, Video Games, and Cell Phones from 2006 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Xavier; Guardiola, Elena; Fuster, Héctor; Gil, Frederic; Panova, Tayana

    2016-01-01

    Background: The goals of the present work were to retrieve the scientific articles published on addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to analyze the pattern of publications in this area (who is doing the research, when and where it is taking place, and in which journals it is being published), to determine the research being conducted as well as to document geographical trends in publication over time in three types of technological addictions: Internet, cell phones, and video games. Methods: Articles indexed in PubMed and PsycINFO between 2006 and 2010 related to the pathological use of Internet, cell phones, and video games were retrieved. Search results were reviewed to eliminate articles that were not relevant or were duplicates. Results: Three hundred and thirty valid articles were retrieved from PubMed and PsycINFO from 2006 to 2010. Results were compared with those of 1996–2005. The year with the highest number of articles published was 2008 (n = 96). The most productive countries, in terms of number of articles published, were China (n = 67), the United States (n = 56), the United Kingdom (n = 47), and Taiwan (n = 33). The most commonly used language was English (70.3%), followed by Chinese (15.4%). Articles were published in 153 different journals. The journal that published the most articles was Cyberpsychology and Behavior (n = 73), followed by Chinese Journal of Clinical Psychology (n = 27) and International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction (n = 16). Internet was the area most frequently studied, with an increasing interest in other areas such as online video games and cell phones. Conclusions: The number of publications on technological addictions reached a peak in 2008. The scientific contributions of China, Taiwan, and Korea are overrepresented compared to other scientific fields such as drug addiction. The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition

  18. Discarded cell phone lithium ion batteries state of health quick method analysis by galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Catarini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The state of health (SOH is a important evaluation parameter to rechargeable batteries, because determine its cycle life and help on electric devices supplied by batteries maintenance. In this work the lithium ion discards cell phones batteries state of health and apparent diffusion coefficient (Dap were measured and correlated which purpose is diminish the batteries analyze time. The apparent diffusion coefficient is a ionic diffusion coefficient modification from GITT technique. The SOH and Dap correlation is well behaved, disclosing a cubic dependency. The time analyze was reduced by more than 1 h.

  19. Evaluation of the Effect of Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted From Wi-Fi Router and Mobile Phone Simulator on the Antibacterial Susceptibility of Pathogenic Bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, M.; Mansouri, S.; Hatam, G. R.; Nouri, F.

    2017-01-01

    Mobile phones and Wi-Fi radiofrequency radiation are among the main sources of the exposure of the general population to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Previous studies have shown that exposure of microorganisms to RF-EMFs can be associated with a wide spectrum of changes ranged from the modified bacterial growth to the alterations of the pattern of antibiotic resistance. Our laboratory at the nonionizing department of the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center has performed experiments on the health effects of exposure to animal models and humans to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as cellular phones, mobile base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, radars, dentistry cavitrons, magnetic resonance imaging, and Helmholtz coils. On the other hand, we have previously studied different aspects of the challenging issue of the ionizing or nonionizing radiation-induced alterations in the susceptibility of microorganisms to antibiotics. In this study, we assessed if the exposure to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone radiation and 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from common Wi-Fi routers alters the susceptibility of microorganisms to different antibiotics. The pure cultures of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were exposed to RF-EMFs generated either by a GSM 900 MHz mobile phone simulator and a common 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi router. It is also shown that exposure to RF-EMFs within a narrow level of irradiation (an exposure window) makes microorganisms resistant to antibiotics. This adaptive phenomenon and its potential threats to human health should be further investigated in future experiments. Altogether, the findings of this study showed that exposure to Wi-Fi and RF simulator radiation can significantly alter the inhibition zone diameters and growth rate for L monocytogenes and E coli. These findings may have implications for the management of serious infectious diseases. PMID:28203122

  20. Evaluation of the Effect of Radiofrequency Radiation Emitted From Wi-Fi Router and Mobile Phone Simulator on the Antibacterial Susceptibility of Pathogenic Bacteria Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri, M; Mortazavi, S M J; Moradi, M; Mansouri, S; Hatam, G R; Nouri, F

    2017-01-01

    Mobile phones and Wi-Fi radiofrequency radiation are among the main sources of the exposure of the general population to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF). Previous studies have shown that exposure of microorganisms to RF-EMFs can be associated with a wide spectrum of changes ranged from the modified bacterial growth to the alterations of the pattern of antibiotic resistance. Our laboratory at the nonionizing department of the Ionizing and Non-ionizing Radiation Protection Research Center has performed experiments on the health effects of exposure to animal models and humans to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as cellular phones, mobile base stations, mobile phone jammers, laptop computers, radars, dentistry cavitrons, magnetic resonance imaging, and Helmholtz coils. On the other hand, we have previously studied different aspects of the challenging issue of the ionizing or nonionizing radiation-induced alterations in the susceptibility of microorganisms to antibiotics. In this study, we assessed if the exposure to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone radiation and 2.4 GHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from common Wi-Fi routers alters the susceptibility of microorganisms to different antibiotics. The pure cultures of Listeria monocytogenes and Escherichia coli were exposed to RF-EMFs generated either by a GSM 900 MHz mobile phone simulator and a common 2.4 GHz Wi-Fi router. It is also shown that exposure to RF-EMFs within a narrow level of irradiation (an exposure window) makes microorganisms resistant to antibiotics. This adaptive phenomenon and its potential threats to human health should be further investigated in future experiments. Altogether, the findings of this study showed that exposure to Wi-Fi and RF simulator radiation can significantly alter the inhibition zone diameters and growth rate for L monocytogenes and E coli. These findings may have implications for the management of serious infectious diseases.

  1. Long-term effects of 900 MHz radiofrequency radiation emitted from mobile phone on testicular tissue and epididymal semen quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Muzaffer; Dasdag, Suleyman; Akdag, Mehmet Zulkuf; Cirit, Umut; Yegin, Korkut; Seker, Ugur; Ozmen, Mehmet Ferit; Eren, Leyla Bilge

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to bridge this gap by investigating effects of long term 900 MHz mobile phone exposure on reproductive organs of male rats. The study was carried out on 14 adult Wistar Albino rats by dividing them randomly into two groups (n: 7) as sham group and exposure group. Rats were exposed to 900 MHz radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from a GSM signal generator. Point, 1 g and 10 g specific absorption rate (SAR) levels of testis and prostate were found as 0.0623 W/kg, 0.0445 W/kg and 0.0373 W/kg, respectively. The rats in the exposure group were subject to RF radiation 3 h per day (7 d a week) for one year. For the sham group, the same procedure was applied, except the generator was turned off. At the end of the study, epididymal sperm concentration, progressive sperm motility, abnormal sperm rate, all-genital organs weights and testis histopathology were evaluated. Any differences were not observed in sperm motility and concentration (p > 0.05). However, the morphologically normal spermatozoa rates were found higher in the exposure group (p radiation alter some reproductive parameters. However, more supporting evidence and research is definitely needed on this topic.

  2. High Radiation Resistance IMM Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Noren

    2015-01-01

    Due to high launch costs, weight reduction is a key driver for the development of new solar cell technologies suitable for space applications. This project is developing a unique triple-junction inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) technology that enables the manufacture of very lightweight, low-cost InGaAsP-based multijunction solar cells. This IMM technology consists of indium (In) and phosphorous (P) solar cell active materials, which are designed to improve the radiation-resistant properties of the triple-junction solar cell while maintaining high efficiency. The intrinsic radiation hardness of InP materials makes them of great interest for building solar cells suitable for deployment in harsh radiation environments, such as medium Earth orbit and missions to the outer planets. NASA Glenn's recently developed epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process also will be applied to this new structure, which will enable the fabrication of the IMM structure without the substrate.

  3. Ionizing radiation induces stemness in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ghisolfi

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC model posits the presence of a small number of CSCs in the heterogeneous cancer cell population that are ultimately responsible for tumor initiation, as well as cancer recurrence and metastasis. CSCs have been isolated from a variety of human cancers and are able to generate a hierarchical and heterogeneous cancer cell population. CSCs are also resistant to conventional chemo- and radio-therapies. Here we report that ionizing radiation can induce stem cell-like properties in heterogeneous cancer cells. Exposure of non-stem cancer cells to ionizing radiation enhanced spherogenesis, and this was accompanied by upregulation of the pluripotency genes Sox2 and Oct3/4. Knockdown of Sox2 or Oct3/4 inhibited radiation-induced spherogenesis and increased cellular sensitivity to radiation. These data demonstrate that ionizing radiation can activate stemness pathways in heterogeneous cancer cells, resulting in the enrichment of a CSC subpopulation with higher resistance to radiotherapy.

  4. Cell death induced by GSM 900-MHz and DCS 1800-MHz mobile telephony radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagopoulos, Dimitris J; Chavdoula, Evangelia D; Nezis, Ioannis P; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2007-01-10

    In the present study, the TUNEL (Terminal deoxynucleotide transferase dUTP Nick End Labeling) assay--a well known technique widely used for detecting fragmented DNA in various types of cells--was used to detect cell death (DNA fragmentation) in a biological model, the early and mid stages of oogenesis of the insect Drosophila melanogaster. The flies were exposed in vivo to either GSM 900-MHz (Global System for Mobile telecommunications) or DCS 1800-MHz (Digital Cellular System) radiation from a common digital mobile phone, for few minutes per day during the first 6 days of their adult life. The exposure conditions were similar to those to which a mobile phone user is exposed, and were determined according to previous studies of ours [D.J. Panagopoulos, A. Karabarbounis, L.H. Margaritis, Effect of GSM 900-MHz mobile phone radiation on the reproductive capacity of D. melanogaster, Electromagn. Biol. Med. 23 (1) (2004) 29-43; D.J. Panagopoulos, N. Messini, A. Karabarbounis, A.L. Philippetis, L.H. Margaritis, Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation within "safety levels" alters the physiological function of insects, in: P. Kostarakis, P. Stavroulakis (Eds.), Proceedings of the Millennium International Workshop on Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Heraklion, Crete, Greece, October 17-20, 2000, pp. 169-175, ISBN: 960-86733-0-5; D.J. Panagopoulos, L.H. Margaritis, Effects of electromagnetic fields on the reproductive capacity of D. melanogaster, in: P. Stavroulakis (Ed.), Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields, Springer, 2003, pp. 545-578], which had shown a large decrease in the oviposition of the same insect caused by GSM radiation. Our present results suggest that the decrease in oviposition previously reported, is due to degeneration of large numbers of egg chambers after DNA fragmentation of their constituent cells, induced by both types of mobile telephony radiation. Induced cell death is recorded for the first time, in all types of cells

  5. Cell phone-supported cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety disorders: a protocol for effectiveness studies in frontline settings

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    Fröberg Anders

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reviews of randomized controlled trials (RCTs of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT for anxiety disorders have reported large pre- to post-treatment within-group effect sizes on measures of anxiety when supplied in therapist consultations and in technology-supported settings. However, the stringent experimental control of RCTs results in a lack of external validity, which limits the generalizability of findings to real-world frontline clinical practice. We set out to examine the specification of a protocol for study of the effectiveness of cell phone-supported CBT for in situ management of anxiety disorders. Methods and design Nominal group methods were used for requirements analysis and protocol design. Making a distinction between different forms of technology-supported therapy, examination of therapists' role, and implementing trials in existing organizational and community contexts were found to be the central requirements in the protocol. Discussion The resulting protocol (NCT01205191 at clinicaltrials.gov for use in frontline clinical practice in which effectiveness, adherence, and the role of the therapists are analyzed, provides evidence for what are truly valuable cell phone-supported CBT treatments and guidance for the broader introduction of CBT in health services.

  6. Determination of the Predictive role of Self-Regulation and Self-Control on Intemperate Use of Cell Phones by Students

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    S. Pourrazavi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Regarding increasing the rate of cell phones use and its' subsequent dependency in such instrument among young people and also considering the important role of self-regulation and self-control traits on health related issues and the roles of such issues in problematic and addictive behaviors, this study has been designed to evaluate the predictive role of self-regulation and self-control on the intemperate use of cell phone and its related de-pendencies. Materials & Methods: This study was a cross-sectional study with analytical and descriptive orientation which has been carried out the students of universities which were located in the Tabriz city, Iran in 2013. Data were gathered through a questionnaire that was filled by 476 students (190 male and 286 female. Participants were selected through a multi-stage cluster sampling method from 9 universities in Tabriz. Data analysis was performed by SPSS version 21 and Mplus software version 6.2. Results: Results showed that the predictive effect of self-regulation (P= 0.19 and self-control (P=0.41 on intemperate cell phone use was not significant, hence the increase of one unit in self-regulation and self-control respectively reduced 42.0, 87.0 dependency in cell phone. Conclusion: The present study could not demonstrate the predictive effect of self-regulation and self-control on intemperate cell phones use, however, the results showed that the meas-ures were relatively correlated with dependency in cell phone and therefore further researches seem to be necessary in this field.(Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2015; 22 (2: 152-160

  7. Active Cooling Of A Mobile Phone Handset

    OpenAIRE

    Grimes, Ronan; WALSH, EDMOND; Walsh, Pat

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Power dissipation levels in mobile phones continue to increase due to gaming, higher power applications, and increased functionality associated with the internet. The current cooling methodologies of natural convection and radiation limit the power dissipation within a mobile phone to between 1-2 W depending on size. As power dissipation levels increase, products such as mobile phones will require active cooling to ensure that the devices operate within an acceptable tempe...

  8. Breast cancer stem cells and radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tiffany Marie

    2007-12-01

    The present studies explore the response of breast cancer stem cells (BCSC's) to radiation and the implications for clinical cancer treatment. Current cancer therapy eliminates bulky tumor mass but may fail to eradicate a critical tumor initiating cell population termed "cancer stem cells". These cells are potentially responsible for tumor formation, metastasis, and recurrence. Recently cancer stem cells have been prospectively identified in various malignancies, including breast cancer. The breast cancer stem cell has been identified by the surface markers CD44+/CD24 -(low). In vitro mammosphere cultures allow for the enrichment of the cancer stem cell population and were utilized in order to study differential characteristics of BCSC's. Initial studies found that BCSC's display increased radiation resistance as compared to other non-stem tumor cells. This resistance was accompanied by decreased H2AX phosphorylation, decreased reactive oxygen species formation, and increased phosphorylation of the checkpoint protein Chk1. These studies suggest differential DNA damage and repair within the BCSC population. Studies then examined the consequences of fractionated radiation on the BCSC population and found a two-fold increase in BCSC's following 5 x 3Gy. This observation begins to tie cancer stem cell self-renewal to the clinical stem cell phenomenon of accelerated repopulation. Accelerated repopulation is observed when treatment gaps increase between sequential fractions of radiotherapy and may be due to cancer stem cell symmetric self-renewal. The balance between asymmetric and symmetric stem cell division is vital for proper maintenance; deregulation is likely linked to cancer initiation and progression. The developmental Notch-1 pathway was found to regulate BCSC division. Over-expressing the constitutively active Notch-1-ICD in MCF7 cells produced an increase in the BCSC population. Additionally, radiation was observed to increase the expression of the Notch-1

  9. Neglect in Human Communication: Quantifying the Cost of Cell-Phone Interruptions in Face to Face Dialogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I.; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them. PMID:26039326

  10. Neglect in human communication: quantifying the cost of cell-phone interruptions in face to face dialogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them.

  11. Neglect in human communication: quantifying the cost of cell-phone interruptions in face to face dialogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Lopez-Rosenfeld

    Full Text Available There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone. The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . . and about the virtues of the people around them.

  12. Smart Phones, a Powerful Tool in the Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Antony J.; Pence, Harry E.

    2011-01-01

    Cell phones, especially "smart phones", seem to have become ubiquitous. Actually, it is misleading to call many of these devices phones, as they are actually a portable and powerful computer that can be very valuable in the chemistry classroom. Currently, there are three major ways in which smart phones can be used for education. Smart phones…

  13. 900 MHz radiation does not induce micronucleus formation in different cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hintzsche, Henning; Jastrow, Christian; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas; Schrader, Thorsten; Stopper, Helga

    2012-07-01

    The exposure of the population to non-ionising electromagnetic radiation is still increasing, mainly due to mobile communication. Whether low-intensity electromagnetic fields can cause other effects apart from heating has been a subject of debate. One of the effects, which were proposed to be caused by mobile phone radiation, is the occurrence of mitotic disturbances. The aim of this study was to investigate possible consequences of these mitotic disturbances as manifest genomic damage, i.e. micronucleus induction. Cells were irradiated at a frequency of 900 MHz, which is located in one of the main frequency bands applied for mobile communication. Two cell types were used, HaCaT cells as human cells and A(L) cells (human-hamster hybrid cells), in which mitotic disturbances had been reported to occur. After different post-exposure incubation periods, cells were fixed and micronucleus frequencies were evaluated. Both cell types did not show any genomic damage after exposure. To adapt the protocol for the micronucleus test into the direction of the protocol for mitotic disturbances, the post-exposure incubation period was reduced and exposure time was extended to one cell cycle length. This did not result in any increase of the genomic damage. In conclusion, micronucleus induction was not observed as a consequence of exposure to non-ionising radiation, even though this agent was reported to cause mitotic disturbances under similar experimental conditions.

  14. Efficacy of a randomized cell phone-based counseling intervention in postponing subsequent pregnancy among teen mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Kathy S; Rodan, Margaret; Milligan, Renee; Tan, Sylvia; Courtney, Lauren; Gantz, Marie; Blake, Susan M; McClain, Lenora; Davis, Maurice; Kiely, Michele; Subramanian, Siva

    2011-12-01

    Adolescent mothers in Washington, DC have a high rate of subsequent teen pregnancies, often within 24 months. Children of teen mothers are at risk for adverse psychosocial outcomes. When adolescents are strongly attached to parents, schools, and positive peers, they may be less likely to repeat a pregnancy. This study tested the efficacy of a counseling intervention delivered by cell phone and focused on postponing subsequent teen pregnancies by strengthening healthy relationships, reproductive practices, and positive youth assets. The objective of this study was to compare time to a repeat pregnancy between the intervention and usual care groups, and, secondarily, to determine whether treatment intensity influenced time to subsequent conception. Primiparous pregnant teens ages 15-19, were recruited in Washington, DC. Of 849 teens screened, 29.3% (n = 249) met inclusion criteria, consented to participate, and completed baseline measures. They were then randomized to the intervention (N = 124) or to usual care (N = 125). Intervention group teens received cell phones for 18 months of counseling sessions, and quarterly group sessions. Follow-up measures assessed subsequent pregnancy through 24 months post-delivery. A survival analysis compared time to subsequent conception in the two treatment groups. Additional models examined the effect of treatment intensity. By 24 months, 31% of the intervention and 36% of usual care group teens had a subsequent pregnancy. Group differences were not statistically significant in intent-to-treat analysis. Because there was variability in the degree of exposure of teens to the curriculum, a survival analysis accounting for treatment intensity was performed and a significant interaction with age was detected. Participants who were aged 15-17 years at delivery showed a significant reduction in subsequent pregnancy with increased levels of intervention exposure (P < 0.01), but not those ≥ 18 years. Adolescents ≥ 18 years faced

  15. Risk of brain tumors from wireless phone use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubey, Rash Bihari; Hanmandlu, Madasu; Gupta, Suresh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    The debate regarding the health effects of low-intensity electromagnetic radiation from sources such as power lines, base stations, and cell phones has recently been reignited. Wireless communication has dramatically influenced our lifestyle; its impact on human health has not been completely assessed. Widespread concern continues in the community about the deleterious effects of radiofrequency radiations on human tissues and the subsequent potential threat of carcinogenesis. Exposure to low-frequency electromagnetic field has been linked to a variety of adverse health outcomes. This article surveys the results of early cell phone studies, where exposure duration was too short to expect tumor genesis, and 2 sets of more recent studies with longer exposure duration: the Interphone studies and the Swedish studies led by Hardell.

  16. Comet assay as a procedure for detecting possible genotoxicity induced by non-ionizing radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Zsuzsanna Nemeth

    2015-01-01

    Non-ionizing radiation (NIR) is the term given to radiation in the part of the electromagnetic spectrum that does not have enough energy to ionize atoms or molecules directly. The NIR includes electric and magnetic fields up to 300 GHz, infrared, visible, and ultraviolet radiation (UV). People are exposed to non-ionizing radiation by several man-made sources every day. From highest to lowest energy, this includes for example microwave ovens, cell phones, baby monitors, cordless phones, ga...

  17. Atypical radiation response of SCID cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawapun, Nisa

    Murine SCID (severe combined immune deficiency) cells are well known for their defect in DNA double-strand break repair and in variable(diversity)joining [V(D)J] recombination due to a mutation in a catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). As a consequence, scid cells are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation. The present study showed that asynchronous populations of scid cells were about two-fold more sensitive than Balb/c with respect to cell killing and the defect in scid cells was corrected by complementation with human chromosome 8. Analysis of the survival of synchronized populations as a function of the cell cycle revealed that while scid cells were hypersensitive in all cell cycle phases compared to wild-type cells, this hypersensitivity is even more pronounced in G1 phase. The hypersensitivity reduced as the cells progressed into S phase suggested that homologous recombination repair plays a role. The results imply that there are at least two pathways for the repair of DSB DNA, consistent with a model previously proposed by others. The scid cells were also more sensitive to UVC light (254 nm) killing as compared to wild type cells by clonogenic survival. Using a host cell reactivation (HCR) assay to study the nucleotide excision repair (NER) which is the major repair pathway for UV-photoproducts, the results showed that NER in scid cells was not as efficient as CB- 17. This suggests that DNA-PK is involved in NER as well as non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DSB repair which is responsible for ionizing radiation sensitivity in scid cells. Repair in scid cells was not totally absent as shown by low dose rate sparing of cell killing after exposure to 137Cs γ-rays at dose rate of 0.6 cGy/h, 1.36 cGy/h, 6 cGy/h as compared to high dose rate at 171 cGy/min, although this phenomenon could be explained partly by proliferation. However, for radiation induced transformation, no significant dose rate effect was seen. A plot of transformation

  18. On the Use of Cell Phones and Other Electronic Devices in the Classroom: Evidence from a Survey of Faculty and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William M.; Lusk, Edward J.; Neuhauser, Karyn L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated faculty and student perceptions regarding the use of cell phones and other electronic devices in the classroom. Students differed markedly from faculty, with students exhibiting much greater acceptance of in-class use of technology. Among students, the authors found that gender affected perceptions. Specifically, male…

  19. Weight loss intervention for young adults using mobile technology: design and rationale of a randomized controlled trial – Cell phone Intervention for You (CITY)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batch, Bryan C.; Tyson, Crystal; Bagwell, Jacqueline; Corsino, Leonor; Intille, Stephen; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Lazenka, Tony; Bennett, Gary; Bosworth, Hayden B.; Voils, Corrine; Grambow, Steven; Sutton, Aziza; Bordogna, Rachel; Pangborn, Matthew; Schwager, Jenifer; Pilewski, Kate; Caccia, Carla; Burroughs, Jasmine; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2014-01-01

    Background The obesity epidemic has spread to young adults, leading to significant public health implications later in adulthood. Intervention in early adulthood may be an effective public health strategy for reducing the long-term health impact of the epidemic. Few weight loss trials have been conducted in young adults. It is unclear what weight loss strategies are beneficial in this population. Purpose To describe the design and rationale of the NHLBI-sponsored Cell Phone Intervention for You (CITY) study, which is a single center, randomized three-arm trial that compares the impact on weight loss of 1) a behavioral intervention that is delivered almost entirely via cell phone technology (Cell Phone group); and 2) a behavioral intervention delivered mainly through monthly personal coaching calls enhanced by self-monitoring via cell phone (Personal Coaching group), each compared to; 3) a usual care, advice-only control condition. Methods A total of 365 community-dwelling overweight/obese adults aged 18–35 years were randomized to receive one of these three interventions for 24 months in parallel group design. Study personnel assessing outcomes were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome is weight change at 12 months. We hypothesize that each active intervention will cause more weight loss than the usual care condition. Study completion is anticipated in 2014. Conclusions If effective, implementation of the CITY interventions could mitigate the alarming rates of obesity in young adults through promotion of weight loss. PMID:24462568

  20. The Effects of Internet Use, Cell Phones and Computer Games on Mental Health of Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Kelleci

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of digital technology, including computers, cell phones, computer games, and so on, most recently, on-the-go for recreational purposes, has increased among our youth over the past 15 years. Children and adolescent between the ages of 8 to 18 years spend an average of 5-6 hours per day using information and communication technologies. It is a useful progress because of the increase of internet usage which is unlimited, uncontrolled and uninhibited and easiness which arrival all sorts of to informations or persons but this state can cause to some important negative results too. The computer games, the internet explores is gradually estrange from social life the children and adolescent. In this paper, has been mentioned to negative effect of internet usage, computer games on mental health of children and adolescents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000: 253-256

  1. Semantic-Oriented Sentiment Classification for Chinese Product Reviews: An Experimental Study of Book and Cell Phone Reviews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Sentiment classification is an automatic opinion classification method to classify the product reviews on web into positive or negative opinions to help consumers or sellers to understand the opinions and evaluations from existing customers. Semantic-oriented approach is one of the recent developments in sentiment classification. Up to now, most research of sentiment classification is on English reviews,and little work has been done on Chinese reviews using sentiment classification. The detailed techniques used in English review cannot be applied directly to Chinese reviews due to the different characteristics between these two languages. This study modified and improved the semantic-oriented approach to a 6-step process for Chinese review, focusing on the modification and improvement on the text segmentation and reference words pairs (RWPs) identification. Two experiments were conducted on book reviews and cell phone reviews. The results show that the performances of the proposed approach are comparable to those of the existing English reviews classification studies.

  2. 77 FR 2734 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Solar Cell: A Mobile UV Manager for Smart Phones (NCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Solar Cell: A Mobile... (OMB) for review and approval. Proposed Collection: Title: Solar Cell: A Mobile UV Manager for Smart... technology to aid users in protecting their skin from damaging ultraviolet radiation (UV) in sunlight,...

  3. 77 FR 4334 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Solar Cell: A Mobile UV Manager for Smart Phones (NCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Solar Cell: A Mobile... (OMB) for review and approval. Proposed Collection: Title: Solar Cell: A Mobile UV Manager for Smart... technology to aid users in protecting their skin from damaging ultraviolet radiation (UV) in sunlight,...

  4. High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedner Mark J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Though mobile phone usership increased 20-fold in Africa over the past decade, little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health information in the region. Methods We performed structured interviews of fifty patients at the Immune Suppression Syndrome clinic in Mbarara, Uganda to assess four domains of health-related communication: a cell phone use practices and literacy, b preferences for laboratory results communication, c privacy and confidentiality, and d acceptability of and preferences for text messaging to notify patients of abnormal test results. Results Participants had a median of 38 years, were 56% female, and were residents of a large catchment area throughout southwestern Uganda. All participants expressed interest in a service to receive information about laboratory results by cell phone text message, stating benefits of increased awareness of their health and decreased transportation costs. Ninety percent reported that they would not be concerned for unintended disclosure. A minority additionally expressed concerns about difficulty interpreting messages, discouragement upon learning bad news, and technical issues. Though all respondents expressed interest in password protection of messages, there was also a strong desire for direct messages to limit misinterpretation of information. Conclusions Cell phone text messaging for communication of abnormal laboratory results is highly acceptable in this cohort of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. The feasibility of text messaging, including an optimal balance between privacy and comprehension, should be further studied.

  5. Mobile phone health risk policy in Germany: the role of the federal government and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph; Gross, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    In order to establish a regulatory framework for a given technology important to society, the government must make decisions in the face of existing unknowingness. In the last decade, health risks originating from electromagnetic fields of mobile telecommunication transmitting stations and devices have become a regulation policy issue in Germany. This article investigates the role of the government and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection in regard to policy-making by analysing publications and Federal Parliament reports, hearings and debates. The government and Federal Parliament perceived the research situation in 2001 as insufficient in the absence of hard evidence for health impairment. Against this background, the government struck a compromise with mobile telecommunication network operators, who did not want to integrate stricter limit values for transmission stations as precautionary measures. The network operators' voluntary self-commitment included financing half the budget of the German Mobile Telecommunication Research Programme (2002-2008) under the lead management of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, which concluded that it was not required to change the position taken in 2001. The results of this programme provided the basis to continue the agreement of that year. With regard to health issues and all the other interests involved, this agreement was an acceptable and remarkably stable compromise.

  6. The effects of cellular phone waves on the frequency micronucleus in newborn and adult Balb/C mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Baharara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the widespread use of microwave producing instruments specially cell phones; result in growing concern regarding the possible effects associated with these waves on human health especially pregnant woman and neonates. In present study, we investigated the genotoxic effects of cell phone radiation on the mice (Balb/C and their offspring. Materials and Method: In this experimental research, pregnant mice were irradiated with cell phone for 4 days of gestational age (days 14th-18th, 6h per day, from 9am until 3pm and after litter, 2nd-day offspring studied for morphology, weight and CR length. By following, for assessment of possible genetic damages in erythrocytes after bleeding from heart, smears of spleen tissue prepeard for histological studies. Mice peripheral blood and bone marrow smears prepared and stained with May-Granowald and Gimsa.Results: The finding in experimental group indicated that cell phone radiation decreased offsprings’ weight and CR length (p0.05. An increase in micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood erythrocytes were seen in experimental newborn (p=0.006 and adult mice (p0.05.Conclusion: Above findings indicated that cell phone radiation (940 MHZ are able to increase the frequency of micronucleus in peripheral blood erythrocytes of adult mice and their of fsprings and induce a genotoxic response

  7. Mobile phone use and risk of intracranial tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Lönn, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    Mobile phones are today an integral part of many people's lives in western societies. The phones emit radiofrequency radiation when being used. Concerns have been raised about possible effects that the exposure may have on the health of the mobile phone user. If radiofrequency radiation has a carcinogenic potential the exposure might pose an important public health problem. The overall aim of this thesis was to study the association between radiofrequency exposure from mobil...

  8. Ionizing Radiation in Glioblastoma Initiating Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricruz eRivera

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults with a median survival of 12-15 months with treatment consisting of surgical resection followed by ionizing radiation (IR and chemotherapy. Even aggressive treatment is often palliative due to near universal recurrence. Therapeutic resistance has been linked to a subpopulation of GBM cells with stem-cell like properties termed glioblastoma initiating cells (GICs. Recent efforts have focused on elucidating resistance mechanisms activated in GICs in response to IR. Among these, GICs preferentially activate the DNA damage response (DDR to result in a faster rate of double-strand break (DSB repair induced by IR as compared to the bulk tumor cells. IR also activates NOTCH and the hepatic growth factor (HGF receptor, c-MET, signaling cascades that play critical roles in promoting proliferation, invasion, and resistance to apoptosis. These pathways are preferentially activated in GICs and represent targets for pharmacologic intervention. While IR provides the benefit of improved survival, it paradoxically promotes selection of more malignant cellular phenotypes of glioblastoma. As reviewed here, finding effective combinations of radiation and molecular inhibitors to target GICs and non-GICs is essential for the development of more effective therapies.

  9. Quantitative imaging with a mobile phone microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunan Skandarajah

    Full Text Available Use of optical imaging for medical and scientific applications requires accurate quantification of features such as object size, color, and brightness. High pixel density cameras available on modern mobile phones have made photography simple and convenient for consumer applications; however, the camera hardware and software that enables this simplicity can present a barrier to accurate quantification of image data. This issue is exacerbated by automated settings, proprietary image processing algorithms, rapid phone evolution, and the diversity of manufacturers. If mobile phone cameras are to live up to their potential to increase access to healthcare in low-resource settings, limitations of mobile phone-based imaging must be fully understood and addressed with procedures that minimize their effects on image quantification. Here we focus on microscopic optical imaging using a custom mobile phone microscope that is compatible with phones from multiple manufacturers. We demonstrate that quantitative microscopy with micron-scale spatial resolution can be carried out with multiple phones and that image linearity, distortion, and color can be corrected as needed. Using all versions of the iPhone and a selection of Android phones released between 2007 and 2012, we show that phones with greater than 5 MP are capable of nearly diffraction-limited resolution over a broad range of magnifications, including those relevant for single cell imaging. We find that automatic focus, exposure, and color gain standard on mobile phones can degrade image resolution and reduce accuracy of color capture if uncorrected, and we devise procedures to avoid these barriers to quantitative imaging. By accommodating the differences between mobile phone cameras and the scientific cameras, mobile phone microscopes can be reliably used to increase access to quantitative imaging for a variety of medical and scientific applications.

  10. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Hamilton County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  11. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Sectors, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Hamilton County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  12. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Ness County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as...

  13. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Liberty County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described as...

  14. Cellular Phone Towers, cell sectors, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Stanton County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  15. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2010. It is...

  16. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Harvey County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as...

  17. Increased frequency of micronucleated exfoliated cells among humans exposed in vivo to mobile telephone radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Abhay Singh; Sharma, Manoj Kumar

    2008-02-29

    The health concerns have been raised following the enormous increase in the use of wireless mobile telephones throughout the world. This investigation had been taken, with the motive to find out whether mobile phone radiations cause any in vivo effects on the frequency of micronucleated exfoliated cells in the exposed subjects. A total of 109 subjects including 85 regular mobile phone users (exposed) and 24 non-users (controls) had participated in this study. Exfoliated cells were obtained by swabbing the buccal-mucosa from exposed as well as sex-age-matched controls. One thousand exfoliated cells were screened from each individual for nuclear anomalies including micronuclei (MN), karyolysis (KL), karyorrhexis (KH), broken egg (BE) and binucleated (BN) cells. The average daily duration of exposure to mobile phone radiations is 61.26 min with an overall average duration of exposure in term of years is 2.35 years in exposed subjects along with the 9.84+/-0.745 micronucleated cells (MNCs) and 10.72+/-0.889 total micronuclei (TMN) as compared to zero duration of exposure along with average 3.75+/-0.774 MNC and 4.00+/-0.808 TMN in controls. The means are significantly different in case of MNC and TMN at 0.01% level of significance. The mean of KL in controls is 13.17+/-2.750 and in exposed subjects is 13.06+/-1.793. The value of means of KH in exposed subjects (1.84+/-0.432) is slightly higher than in controls (1.42+/-0.737). Mean frequency of broken egg is found to be more in exposed subjects (0.65+/-0.276) as compared to controls (0.50+/-0.217). Frequency of presence of more than one nucleus in a cell (binucleated) is also higher in exposed (2.72+/-0.374) in comparison to controls (0.67+/-0.231). Although there is a slight increase in mean frequency of KH, BE and BN in exposed subjects but the difference is not found statistically significant. Correlation between 0-1, 1-2, 2-3 and 3-4 years of exposure and the frequency of MNC and TMN has been calculated and found to

  18. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell tower locations in the County of Polk, Wisconsin used for Emergency Management purposes only., Published in 2006, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Polk County, Wisconsin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. It is described as 'Cell...

  19. Image and diagnosis quality of X-ray image transmission via cell phone camera: a project study evaluating quality and reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Goost

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Developments in telemedicine have not produced any relevant benefits for orthopedics and trauma surgery to date. For the present project study, several parameters were examined during assessment of x-ray images, which had been photographed and transmitted via cell phone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 x-ray images of various body regions were photographed with a Nokia cell phone and transmitted via email or MMS. Next, the transmitted photographs were reviewed on a laptop computer by five medical specialists and assessed regarding quality and diagnosis. RESULTS: Due to their poor quality, the transmitted MMS images could not be evaluated and this path of transmission was therefore excluded. Mean size of transmitted x-ray email images was 394 kB (range: 265-590 kB, SD ± 59, average transmission time was 3.29 min ± 8 (CI 95%: 1.7-4.9. Applying a score from 1-10 (very poor - excellent, mean image quality was 5.8. In 83.2 ± 4% (mean value ± SD of cases (median 82; 80-89%, there was agreement between final diagnosis and assessment by the five medical experts who had received the images. However, there was a markedly low concurrence ratio in the thoracic area and in pediatric injuries. DISCUSSION: While the rate of accurate diagnosis and indication for surgery was high with a concurrence ratio of 83%, considerable differences existed between the assessed regions, with lowest values for thoracic images. Teleradiology is a cost-effective, rapid method which can be applied wherever wireless cell phone reception is available. In our opinion, this method is in principle suitable for clinical use, enabling the physician on duty to agree on appropriate measures with colleagues located elsewhere via x-ray image transmission on a cell phone.

  20. 手机健康管理软件在门诊患者中的应用%Application of Cell Phone Health Management Software in Outpatients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵明红; 尚旭丽; 包玉美

    2015-01-01

    目的探讨手机健康管理软件在门诊患者健康管理中的应用效果。方法随机抽取146名门诊患者使用手机下载健康管理软件,随访后观察健康管理效果,与使用前情况进行比较。结果使用手机健康管理软件后,能明显提高患者疾病知识掌握程度、治疗依从性;预约率、患者满意度等,与使用前比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论将手机健康管理软件应用于门诊患者,对患者健康管理有积极作用,值得临床推广应用。%Objective To discuss the application effects of cell phone health management software in outpatients' health management.Methods 146 outpatients were randomly selected to use cell phone health management software. Observed health management effects after follow-up visits and compared it with before.Results After using cell phone health management software, patients' knowledge of disease, treatment compliance, reservation rate, patient satisfaction were significantly improve with statistically difference (P <0.01).Conclusion The application of cell phone health management software in outpatients has a positive effect on patients' health management, which is worthy of clinical promotion.

  1. A Two-Stage Taguchi Design ExampleImage Quality Promotion in Miniature Camera/Cell-Phone Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke K. Wang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A simple, practical manufacturing process, integrating manufacturing capability-oriented design (MCOD philosophy and Taguchi’s method, is presented to tackle the high resolution miniature camera/cell phone lens issues at the manufacturing phase. Meanwhile, we also use optical software to create an analytical simulation model to investigate the quality characteristics due to lens’ thickness, eccentricity, surface profile, and air lens’ gap; a single quality characteristics expressed in terms of modulation transfer function (MTF is defined. Optimal combination of process parameters in experimental scenario using Taguchi’s method is performed, and the results are judged and analyzed by the indices of signal-to-noise ratio (S/N and the analysis of variance (ANOVA. The key idea of the two-stage design is to utilize optical software to conduct the sensitivity analysis of MTF first; an analytical model, dependent on actual process parameters at manufacturing stage, is constructed next; and finally by substituting these outputs from the analytical model back to the optical software to verify the design criterion and do the modifications. By minimizing both the theoretical errors at design stage and the complexity in the manufacturing process, we are able to seeking for the most economical solution, simultaneously attain the optimal/suboptimal combination of process parameters or control factors in lens manufacturing issue.

  2. Effects of light-emitting diode radiations on human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Eva; Bonnin-Arias, Cristina; Pérez-Carrasco, María Jesús; Muñoz de Luna, Javier; Vázquez, Daniel; Sánchez-Ramos, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Human visual system is exposed to high levels of natural and artificial lights of different spectra and intensities along lifetime. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are the basic lighting components in screens of PCs, phones and TV sets; hence it is so important to know the implications of LED radiations on the human visual system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LEDs radiations on human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPEpiC). They were exposed to three light-darkness (12 h/12 h) cycles, using blue-468 nm, green-525 nm, red-616 nm and white light. Cellular viability of HRPEpiC was evaluated by labeling all nuclei with DAPI; Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by H2DCFDA staining; mitochondrial membrane potential was quantified by TMRM staining; DNA damage was determined by H2AX histone activation, and apoptosis was evaluated by caspases-3,-7 activation. It is shown that LED radiations decrease 75-99% cellular viability, and increase 66-89% cellular apoptosis. They also increase ROS production and DNA damage. Fluorescence intensity of apoptosis was 3.7% in nonirradiated cells and 88.8%, 86.1%, 83.9% and 65.5% in cells exposed to white, blue, green or red light, respectively. This study indicates three light-darkness (12 h/12 h) cycles of exposure to LED lighting affect in vitro HRPEpiC.

  3. Cancer stem cells, cancer cell plasticity and radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Since the first prospective identification of cancer stem cells in solid cancers the cancer stem cell hypothesis has reemerged as a research topic of increasing interest. It postulates that solid cancers are organized hierarchically with a small number of cancer stem cells driving tumor growth, repopulation after injury and metastasis. They give rise to differentiated progeny, which lack these features. The model predicts that for any therapy to provide cure, all cancer stem cells have to be eliminated while the survival of differentiated progeny is less critical. In this review we discuss recent reports challenging the idea of a unidirectional differentiation of cancer cells. These reports provide evidence supporting the idea that non-stem cancer cells exhibit a remarkable degree of plasticity that allows them to re-acquire cancer stem cell traits, especially in the context of radiation therapy. We summarize conditions under which differentiation is reversed and discuss the current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms.

  4. No increase in brain cancer rates during period of expanding cell phone use

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a new examination of United States cancer incidence data, investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that incidence trends have remained roughly constant for glioma, the main type of brain cancer hypothesized to be related to cell ph

  5. Cell/Tissue Culture Radiation Exposure Facility Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a Cell/Tissue Culture Radiation Exposure Facility (CTC-REF) to enable radiobiologists to investigate the real-time radiation effects on...

  6. Tumourigenicity and radiation resistance of mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Andrea, Filippo Peder; Horsman, Michael Robert; Kassem, Moustapha

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cancer stem cells are believed to be more radiation resistant than differentiated tumour cells of the same origin. It is not known, however, whether normal nontransformed adult stem cells share the same radioresistance as their cancerous counterpart. Material and methods....... Nontumourigenic (TERT4) and tumourigenic (TRET20) cell lines, from an immortalised mesenchymal stem cell line, were grown in culture prior to irradiation and gene expression analysis. Radiation resistance was measured using a clonogenic assay. Differences in gene expression between the two cell lines, both under...... the intercellular matrix. These results also indicate that cancer stem cells are more radiation resistant than stem cells of the same origin....

  7. Siri of the cell: what biology could learn from the iPhone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra; Ideker, Trey

    2014-04-24

    Modern genomics is very efficient at mapping genes and gene networks, but how to transform these maps into predictive models of the cell remains unclear. Recent progress in computer science, embodied by intelligent agents such as Siri, inspires an approach for moving from networks to multiscale models able to predict a range of cellular phenotypes and answer biological questions.

  8. Acute effects of 3G mobile phone radiations on frontal haemodynamics during a cognitive task in teenagers and possible protective value of Om chanting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargav, Hemant; N K, Manjunath; Varambally, Shivarama; Mooventhan, A; Bista, Suman; Singh, Deepeshwar; Chhabra, Harleen; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; T M, Srinivasan; H R, Nagendra

    2016-06-01

    Mobile phone induced electromagnetic field (MPEMF) as well as chanting of Vedic mantra 'OM' has been shown to affect cognition and brain haemodynamics, but findings are still inconclusive. Twenty right-handed healthy teenagers (eight males and 12 females) in the age range of 18.25 ± 0.44 years were randomly divided into four groups: (1) MPONOM (mobile phone 'ON' followed by 'OM' chanting); (2) MPOFOM (mobile phone 'OFF' followed by 'OM' chanting); (3) MPONSS (mobile phone 'ON' followed by 'SS' chanting); and (4) MPOFSS (mobile phone 'OFF' followed by 'SS' chanting). Brain haemodynamics during Stroop task were recorded using a 64-channel fNIRS device at three points of time: (1) baseline, (2) after 30 min of MPON/OF exposure, and (3) after 5 min of OM/SS chanting. RM-ANOVA was applied to perform within- and between-group comparisons, respectively. Between-group analysis revealed that total scores on incongruent Stroop task were significantly better after OM as compared to SS chanting (MPOFOM vs MPOFSS), pre-frontal activation was significantly lesser after OM as compared to SS chanting in channel 13. There was no significant difference between MPON and MPOF conditions for Stroop performance, as well as brain haemodynamics. These findings need confirmation through a larger trial in future.

  9. Mobile Phones on Campus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴春宝

    2007-01-01

    After entering the 21st century, more and more people have mobile phones in China. At the end of 2002, there were 20 million mobile phone users. By the year 2005 the number has reached up to 30 million.

  10. Investigating the effects of 217 Hz frequency of cell phone on learning and spatial memory in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohzad S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extremely low frequency (0-300 Hz fields from power lines, electronic equipment and medical devices, have been reported to produce various biological effects. Global system for mobile (GSM is most largely used in everybody's life. This system utilizes a low frequency band as well as a high frequency range of electromagnetic field. This study investigated the effects of 217 Hz electromagnetic field (the modulating signal in GSM on spatial learning and memory in rat.Methods: Twenty four male Wistar rat (200- 250 g were randomly divided in to three groups as: test, sham and control. Using a Helmholtz coil system, the test group was exposed to a uniform pulsed EMF of 200 µT (micro Tesla intensity for 4 h/day for 21 days (2 time in a day. This procedure was repeated for the sham group but with no field. All groups were trained prior to the day 21 on the 15th day for five days four trial per day in Morris Water-Maze system. Then the probe test was carried out for 60 seconds with no platform.Results: The ANOVA test revealed that no significant differences were found between control and exposed rats in all day of learning acquisition. Also, in probe test for investigating the memory, no significant differences observed. (P≤0.05 is accepted for significant level.Conclusion: This finding is in consistent with previous studies and indicates low frequency band of electromagnetic fields (EMF (200 µT intensity in cell phone may not have any effect on the learning acquisition and spatial memory in rat.

  11. Cytogenetic studies in human cells exposed in vitro to GSM-900 MHz radiofrequency radiation using R-banded karyotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourthoumieu, S; Joubert, V; Marin, B; Collin, A; Leveque, P; Terro, F; Yardin, C

    2010-12-01

    It is important to determine the possible effects of exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation on the genetic material of cells since damage to the DNA of somatic cells may be linked to cancer development or cell death and damage to germ cells may lead to genetic damage in next and subsequent generations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exposure to radiofrequency radiation similar to that emitted by mobile phones of second-generation standard Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) induces genotoxic effects in cultured human cells. The cytogenetic effects of GSM-900 MHz (GSM-900) RF radiation were investigated using R-banded karyotyping after in vitro exposure of human cells (amniotic cells) for 24 h. The average specific absorption rate (SAR) was 0.25 W/kg. The exposures were carried out in wire-patch cells (WPCs) under strictly controlled conditions of temperature. The genotoxic effect was assessed immediately or 24 h after exposure using four different samples. One hundred metaphase cells were analyzed per assay. Positive controls were provided by using bleomycin. We found no direct cytogenetic effects of GSM-900 either 0 h or 24 h after exposure. To the best of our knowledge, our work is the first to study genotoxicity using complete R-banded karyotyping, which allows visualizing all the chromosomal rearrangements, either numerical or structural.

  12. 网络和手机对在校大学生的影响%The Impact of Network and Cell Phones to College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凡

    2014-01-01

    “网络文化”和“手机文化”已经成为大学校园中的一种新的文化现象。网络信息资源的丰富和交流的便捷,深得大学生们的关注和喜爱。然而由于种种原因,网络和手机对大学生产生了很多消极影响,我们应该消除这些影响,并教育和引导大学生文明使用网络和手机。%"Internet culture"and"cell phone culture"has become a university campus in a new cultural phenomenon. Rich network of information resources and communication convenience, the students won the attention and love. However, due to various reasons, the network and the mobile phone of college students have a lot of negative impact, we should eliminate the-se effects, and to educate and guide students to use the Internet and mobile phones civilization.

  13. Android phones for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A colorful guide to make your Android phone do your bidding The popularity of Android phones is simply exploding, so it's a perfect time for popular For Dummies author Dan Gookin to update his bestselling guide to all things Android phones. From setup and configuration to taking advantage of the latest amazing Android features, this practical resource is designed to make new Android users comfortable and to help veterans get the most out of their Android phone. Covering features that are common to the most popular Android phones, this book walks you through the basics of making calls, using

  14. 胚胎期暴露手机辐射对雄性仔鼠生殖功能影响%Effect of mobile phone radiation during embryonic phase on reproductive function of male newborn mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高辉; 裴银辉; 李锋; 孙君侠

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨胚胎期暴露手机辐射对雄性仔鼠生殖功能影响.方法:建立胚胎期暴露手机辐射动物模型,将雄性仔鼠随机分为3组.饲养2个月后处死各组小鼠,分别测定各组实验动物睾丸体重系数、精子数量、精子存活率和精子活动率.结果:与对照组比较,胚胎期暴露不同制式手机辐射雄鼠体重系数和精子存活率之间差异不具有统计学意义;而精子数量和精子活动率低于对照组,且暴露于两种不同制式手机辐射组间差异不具有统计学意义.结论:胚胎期暴露手机辐射可致仔鼠精子数量减少,精子活动率降低.%Objective: To explore the effect of mobile phone radiation during embryonic phase on reproductive function of male newbom mice. Methods: Animal models exposure to mobile phone radiation during embryonic phase were established, then the male newborn mice were randomly divided into three groups. The male newborn mice were killed after two months, the testis - weight coefficient, sperm count, sperm survival rate, and sperm motility rate in the three groups were detected respectively. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the testis -weight coefficient and sperm survival rate between control group and experimental group; but the sperm count and sperm motility rate in experimental group were lower than those in control group, and there was no statistically significant difference between two kinds of mobile phones. Conclusion; Exposure to mobile phone radiation during embryonic phase can reduce sperm count and sperm motility rate of newborn mice.

  15. Comparative studies of perceived vibration strength for commercial mobile phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heow Pueh; Lim, Siak Piang

    2014-05-01

    A mobile phone, also known as cell phone or hand phone, is among the most popular electrical devices used by people all over the world. The present study examines the vibration perception of mobile phones by co-relating the relevant design parameters such as excitation frequency, and size and mass of mobile phones to the vibration perception survey by volunteers. Five popular commercially available mobile phone models were tested. The main findings for the perception surveys were that higher vibration frequency and amplitude of the peak acceleration would result in stronger vibration perception of the mobile phones. A larger contact surface area with the palms and figures, higher peak acceleration and the associated larger peak inertia force may be the main factors for the relatively higher vibration perception. The future design for the vibration alert of the mobile phones is likely to follow this trend.

  16. Occurrence of BOOP outside radiation field after radiation therapy for small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamanishi, Tohru; Oida, Kazukiyo [Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan); Morimatu, Takafumi (and others)

    2001-09-01

    We report a case of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) that occurred outside the radiation field after radiation therapy for small cell lung cancer. A 74-year-old woman received chemotherapy and a total of 60 Gy of radiation therapy to the right hilum and mediastinum for small cell carcinoma of the suprahilar area of the right lung. Radiation pneumonitis developed within the radiation port 3 months after the completion of radiation therapy. She complained of cough and was admitted 7 months after completion of the radiation therapy. Chest radiography and computed tomography demonstrated peripheral alveolar opacities outside the radiation field on the side contralateral to that receiving the radiation therapy. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed that the total cell count was increased, with a markedly increased percentage of lymphocytes. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed a histologic pattern consistent with BOOP. Treatment with corticosteroids resulted in rapid improvement of the symptoms and complete resolution of the radiographic abnormalities of the left lung. Although some cases of BOOP following radiation therapy for breast cancer have been reported, none of BOOP after radiation therapy for lung cancer have appeared in the literature. (author)

  17. Mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, T.C.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    Studies with cultured mammalian cells demonstrated clearly that radiation can transform cells directly and can enhance the cell transformation by oncogenic DNA viruses. In general, high-LET heavy-ion radiation can be more effective than X and gamma rays in inducing neoplastic cell transformation. Various experimental results indicate that radiation-induced DNA damage, most likely double-strand breaks, is important for both the initiation of cell transformation and for the enhancement of viral transformation. Some of the transformation and enhancement lesions can be repaired properly in the cell, and the amount of irrepairable lesions produced by a given dose depends on the quality of radiation. An inhibition of repair processes with chemical agents can increase the transformation frequency of cells exposed to radiation and/or oncogenic viruses, suggesting that repair mechanisms may play an important role in the radiation transformation. The progression of radiation-transformed cells appears to be a long and complicated process that can be modulated by some nonmutagenic chemical agents, e.g., DMSO. Normal cells can inhibit the expression of transforming properties of tumorigenic cells through an as yet unknown mechanism. The progression and expression of transformation may involve some epigenetic changes in the irradiated cells. 38 references, 15 figures, 1 table.

  18. Space radiation effects on plant and mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, C.; De Micco, V.; Macaeva, E.; Quintens, R.

    2014-11-01

    The study of the effects of ionizing radiation on organisms is related to different research aims. The current review emphasizes the studies on the effects of different doses of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation on living organisms, with the final purpose of highlighting specific and common effects of space radiation in mammals and plants. This topic is extremely relevant in the context of radiation protection from space environment. The response of different organisms to ionizing radiation depends on the radiation quality/dose and/or the intrinsic characteristics of the living system. Macromolecules, in particular DNA, are the critical targets of radiation, even if there is a strong difference between damages encountered by plant and mammalian cells. The differences in structure and metabolism between the two cell types are responsible for the higher resistance of the plant cell compared with its animal counterpart. In this review, we report some recent findings from studies performed in Space or on Earth, simulating space-like levels of radiation with ground-based facilities, to understand the effect of ionizing radiation on mammalian and plant cells. In particular, our attention is focused on genetic alterations and repair mechanisms in mammalian cells and on structures and mechanisms conferring radioresistance to plant cells.

  19. Cellular Phone Towers, towers, various type of towers used for cell phone and communication purposes., Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Glynn County Board of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2010. It is described...

  20. Effect of 900 MHz Electromagnetic Radiation on the Induction of ROS in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortazavi S.M.J.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite numerous studies over a decade, it still remains controversial about the biological effects of RF EMF emitted by mobile phone telephony. Objective: Here we investigated the effect of 900 MHz GSM on the induction of oxidative stress and the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in human mononuclear cells, monocytes and lymphocytes as defence system cells. Method: 6 ml Peripheral Blood samples were obtained from 13 healthy volunteers (21-30 year-old. Each sample was devided into 2 groups: one was exposed RF radiation emitted from a mobile phone simulator for 2 hour and the other used as control group which was not exposed to any fields. After that, mononuclear cells were isolated from peripheral blood by density gradient centrifugation in Ficoll-Paque. The intracellular ROS content in monocytes and lymphocytes was measured by the CM-H2DCFDA fluorescence probe using flowcytometry technique. Results: Our results showed significant increase in ROS production after exposure in population rich in monocytes. This effect was not significant in population rich in lymphocytes in comparison with non exposed cells. Conclusion: The results obtained in this study clearly showed the oxidative stress induction capability of RF electromagnetic field in the portion of PBMCs mostly in monocytes, like the case of exposure to micro organisms, although the advantages or disadvantages of this effect should be evaluated.

  1. Oxidative changes and apoptosis induced by 1800-MHz electromagnetic radiation in NIH/3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingxia; Wang, Minglian; Wu, Shuicai; Ma, Xuemei; An, Guangzhou; Liu, Huan; Xie, Fei

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the potential adverse effects of mobile phone radiation, we studied reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) after intermittent exposure (5 min on/10 min off, for various durations from 0.5 to 8 h) to an 1800-MHz GSM-talk mode electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at an average specific absorption rate of 2 W/kg. A 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate fluorescence probe was used to detect intracellular ROS levels, immunofluorescence was used to detect γH2AX foci as a marker for DNA damage, and flow cytometry was used to measure apoptosis. Our results showed a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels after EMR exposure and it reached the highest level at an exposure time of 1 h (p < 0.05) followed by a slight decrease when the exposure continued for as long as 8 h. No significant effect on the number of γH2AX was detected after EMR exposure. The percentage of late-apoptotic cells in the EMR-exposed group was significantly higher than that in the sham-exposed groups (p < 0.05). These results indicate that an 1800-MHz EMR enhances ROS formation and promotes apoptosis in NIH/3T3 cells.

  2. Study of radiation effects on mammalian cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, W. K.

    1968-01-01

    Radiation effect on single cells and cell populations of Chinese hamster lung tissue is studied in vitro. The rate and position as the cell progresses through the generation cycle shows division delay, changes in some biochemical processes in the cell, chromosomal changes, colony size changes, and loss of reproductive capacity.

  3. Radiation sensitivity of Merkel cell carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, J.H.; Ramsay, J.R.; Birrell, G.W. [Queensland Institute of Medical Research (Australia)] [and others

    1995-07-30

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), being a small cell carcinoma, would be expected to be sensitive to radiation. Clinical analysis of patients at our center, especially those with macroscopic disease, would suggest the response is quite variable. We have recently established a number of MCC cell lines from patients prior to radiotherapy, and for the first time are in a position to determine their sensitivity under controlled conditions. Some of the MCC lines grew as suspension cultures and could not be single cell cloned; therefore, it was not possible to use clonogenic survival for all cell lines. A tetrazolium based (MTT) assay was used for these lines, to estimate cell growth after {gamma} irradiation. Control experiments were conducted on lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) and the adherent MCC line, MCC13, to demonstrate that the two assays were comparable under the conditions used. We have examined cell lines from MCC, small cell lung cancer (SCLC), malignant melanomas, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) transformed lymphocytes (LCL), and skin fibroblasts for their sensitivity to {gamma} irradiation using both clonogenic cell survival and MTT assays. The results show that the tumor cell lines have a range of sensitivities, with melanoma being more resistant (surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) 0.57 and 0.56) than the small cell carcinoma lines, MCC (SF2 range 0.21-0.45, mean SF2 0.30, n = 8) and SCLC (SF2 0.31). Fibroblasts were the most sensitive (SF2 0.13-0.20, mean 0.16, n = 5). The MTT assay, when compared to clonogenic assay for the MCC13 adherent line and the LCL, gave comparable results under the conditions used. Both assays gave a range of SF2 values for the MCC cell lines, suggesting that these cancers would give a heterogeneous response in vivo. The results with the two derivative clones of MCC14 (SF2 for MCC14/1 0.38, MCC14/2 0.45) would further suggest that some of them may develop resistance during clonogenic evolution. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.J.C.; Stackhouse, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Chen, D.S. [Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology

    1993-02-01

    Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population.

  5. DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, D.J.C.; Stackhouse, M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Chen, D.S. (Rochester Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Radiation Oncology)

    1993-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population.

  6. Thermal radiosensitization in radiation-sensitive mutant mouse leukemic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Toshikazu (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1994-06-01

    This study investigated thermal, radiation, and combined thermal radiation sensitization of mouse leukemic cells, L5178Y, and radiation-sensitive mutant cells, LX830. Radiation sensitivity (D[sub 0]) values were 0.41 Gy for LX830 and 1.39 Gy for L5178Y, with the ratio of D[sub 0] values in LX830 to in L5178Y being 3.4. Thus, LX830 was more radiosensitive than L5178Y. LX830 showed no shouldered survival curves. Although sublethal damage (SLD) repair was seen to the almost same degree in both LX830 and L5178Y, potential lethal damage (PLD) repair was scarcely observed in LX830. Both cell lines were similar in thermal sensitivity (T[sub 0]). Eosine staining suggested that cell killing due to hyperthermia had occurred in the interphase in both LX830 and L5178Y. L5178Y showed thermal sensitivity low in the G1 phase and high in the S phase; on the contrary, LX830 showed it high in the G1 phase and low in the S phase. Thermal radiosensitization was similar in both cell lines, although there was a great difference in radiation sensitivity between the cell lines. The difference in radiation sensitivity (D[sub 0]) between L5178Y and LX830 became small when radiation was given at the time of the maximum thermal resistance. This seemed to contribute to a decrease in radiation sensitivity in LX830. It can be concluded that thermal radiosensitization depends on thermal sensitivity and that radiation sensitivity decreases in radiation-sensitive cells when exposed to irradiation at the time of thermal resistance. (N.K.).

  7. Cell-cycle radiation response: Role of intracellular factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blakely, E.; Chang, P.; Lommel, L.; Bjornstad, K.; Dixon, M.; Tobias, C.; Kumar, K.; Blakely, W. F.

    We have been studying variations of radiosensitivity and endogenous cellular factors during the course of progression through the human and hamster cell cycle. After exposure to low-LET radiations, the most radiosensitive cell stages are mitosis and the G1/S interface. The increased activity of a specific antioxidant enzyme such as superoxide dismutase in G1-phase, and the variations of endogenous thiols during cell division are thought to be intracellular factors of importance to the radiation survival response. These factors may contribute to modifying the age-dependent yield of lesions or more likely, to the efficiency of the repair processes. These molecular factors have been implicated in our cellular measurements of the larger values for the radiobiological oxygen effect late in the cycle compared to earlier cell ages. Low-LET radiation also delays progression through S phase which may allow more time for repair and hence contribute to radioresistance in late-S-phase. The cytoplasmic and intranuclear milieu of the cell appears to have less significant effects on lesions produced by high-LET radiation compared to those made by low-LET radiation. High-LET radiation fails to slow progression through S phase, and there is much less repair of lesions evident at all cell ages; however, high-LET particles cause a more profound block in G2 phase than that observed after low-LET radiation. Hazards posed by the interaction of damage from sequential doses of radiations of different qualities have been evaluated and are shown to lead to a cell-cycle-dependent enhancement of radiobiological effects. A summary comparison of various cell-cycle-dependent endpoints measured with low-or high-LET radiations is given and includes a discussion of the possible additional effects introduced by microgravity.

  8. Losartan sensitizes selectively prostate cancer cell to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdannejat, H; Hosseinimehr, S J; Ghasemi, A; Pourfallah, T A; Rafiei, A

    2016-01-11

    Losartan is an angiotensin II receptor (AT-II-R) blocker that is widely used by human for blood pressure regulation. Also, it has antitumor property. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitizing effect of losartan on cellular toxicity induced by ionizing radiation on prostate cancer and non-malignant fibroblast cells. Human prostate cancer (DU-145) and human non-malignant fibroblast cells (HFFF2) were treated with losartan at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 10, 50 and 100 µM) and then these cells were exposed to ionizing radiation. The cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay. Our results showed that losartan exhibited antitumor effect on prostate cancer cells; it was reduced cell survival to 66% at concentration 1 µM. Losartan showed an additive killing effect in combination with ionizing radiation on prostate cancer cell. The cell proliferation was reduced to 54% in the prostate cancer cells treated with losartan at concentration 1 µM in combination with ionizing radiation. Losartan did not exhibit any toxicity on HFFF2 cell. This result shows a promising effect of losartan on enhancement of therapeutic effect of ionizing radiation in patients during therapy.

  9. iPhone Idol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Technophiles around the world are snapping up Apple’s new iPhone. How much longer must the Chinese wait?The iPhone, a faster and more versatile version of Apple Inc.’s original touch-based mobile handset, has been a market hit since it went on

  10. On the phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Bettina Sletten

    In most Danish hospitals clinicians are being equipped with a mobile phone in order to improve their availability. Based on an ethnomethodological approach (Garfinkel, 1967) the present paper explores how mobile phones shape clinicians´ practices. Using Nexus Analysis (Scollon & Scollon, 2004....... The analysis shows how the mobile phone becomes part of the way clinicians choreograph body movement in interactions with patients, how they arrange their bodies and how they gesture and position themselves. It is demonstrated how the use of mobile phones can mediate the clinicians´ accomplishment of an action...... space with the patient, the boundaries of attention created by the clinicians and the trajectories of actions. The analysis further shows how the mobile phone allows for the clinicians to negotiate and co-construct their practices across space and physical materiality. It is demonstrated how the use...

  11. Open Cell Conducting Foams for High Synchrotron Radiation Beam Liners

    CERN Document Server

    Petracca, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    The possible use of open-cell conductive foams in high synchrotron radiation particle accelerator beam liners is considered. Available materials and modeling tools are reviewed, potential pros and cons are discussed, and preliminary conclusions are drawn.

  12. Effects of stratospheric radiations on human glioblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerù, Maria Paola; Amicarelli, Fernanda; Cristiano, Loredana; Colafarina, Sabrina; Aimola, Pierpaolo; Falone, Stefano; Cinque, Benedetta; Ursini, Ornella; Moscardelli, Roberto; Ragni, Pietro

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of stratospheric radiations on neural tumour cells. ADF human glioblastoma cells were hosted on a stratospheric balloon within the 2002 biological experiment campaign of the Italian Space Agency. The flight at an average height of 37 km lasted about 24 hrs. Cell morphology, number and viability, cell cycle and apoptosis, some antioxidant enzymes and proteins involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA repair and gene expression were studied. Stratospheric radiations caused a significant decrease in cell number, as well as a block of proliferation, but not apoptosis or necrosis. Radiations also induced activation and induction of some antioxidant enzymes, increase in DNA repair-related proteins (p53 and Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen) and variations of the transcription factors Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors. Morphologically, test cells exhibited more electron dense cytoplasm and less condensed chromatin than controls and modification of their surfaces. Our results indicate that glioblastoma cells, exposed to continuous stratospheric radiations for 24 hrs, show activation of cell cycle check point, decrease of cell number, variations of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and increase of Reactive Oxygen Species-scavenging enzymes.

  13. Classical Radiation Reaction in Particle-In-Cell Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Vranic, Marija; Fonseca, Ricardo A; Silva, Luis O

    2015-01-01

    Under the presence of ultra high intensity lasers or other intense electromagnetic fields the motion of particles in the ultrarelativistic regime can be severely affected by radiation reaction. The standard particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithms do not include radiation reaction effects. Even though this is a well known mechanism, there is not yet a definite algorithm nor a standard technique to include radiation reaction in PIC codes. We have compared several models for the calculation of the radiation reaction force, with the goal of implementing an algorithm for classical radiation reaction in the Osiris framework, a state-of-the-art PIC code. The results of the different models are compared with standard analytical results, and the relevance/advantages of each model are discussed. Numerical issues relevant to PIC codes such as resolution requirements, application of radiation reaction to macro particles and computational cost are also addressed. The Landau and Lifshitz reduced model is chosen for implementatio...

  14. Radiation-Induced Notch Signaling in Breast Cancer Stem Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagadec, Chann [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California (United States); Vlashi, Erina [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States); Alhiyari, Yazeed; Phillips, Tiffany M.; Bochkur Dratver, Milana [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California (United States); Pajonk, Frank, E-mail: fpajonk@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA), Los Angeles, California (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center at UCLA, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: To explore patterns of Notch receptor and ligand expression in response to radiation that could be crucial in defining optimal dosing schemes for γ-secretase inhibitors if combined with radiation. Methods and Materials: Using MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cell lines, we used real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction to study the Notch pathway in response to radiation. Results: We show that Notch receptor and ligand expression during the first 48 hours after irradiation followed a complex radiation dose–dependent pattern and was most pronounced in mammospheres, enriched for breast cancer stem cells. Additionally, radiation activated the Notch pathway. Treatment with a γ-secretase inhibitor prevented radiation-induced Notch family gene expression and led to a significant reduction in the size of the breast cancer stem cell pool. Conclusions: Our results indicate that, if combined with radiation, γ-secretase inhibitors may prevent up-regulation of Notch receptor and ligand family members and thus reduce the number of surviving breast cancer stem cells.

  15. Celulares: a emergência de um novo tipo de controle materno Cell phones: the emergence of a new king of materal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Nicolaci-da-Costa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Em uma pesquisa exploratória sobre o uso de celulares por jovens das camadas médias cariocas, entre 18 e 25 de idade, foi constatado que eles reclamavam muito que suas mães os controlavam ininterruptamente por meio de seus celulares. Para averiguar mais detalhadamente o que acontece entre mães e filhos dessa faixa etária, foi realizada uma segunda pesquisa. Nesta, foram entrevistadas 20 mães, também pertencentes às camadas médias cariocas, cujos filhos tinham perfil análogo ao dos jovens da primeira pesquisa. Para todas, a principal função dos celulares é abertamente a de controlar os filhos. Elas mostraram, no entanto, saber que há uma diferença entre o controle que vigorava quando eram jovens e aquele ao qual hoje submetem os filhos. Teorias contemporâneas sobre controle e vigilância de fato argumentam que houve uma substituição do controle normativo e coercitivo da modernidade pelo "ter conhecimento" do que se passa, característico da Era da Informação.An exploratory research on the use of cell phones by middle-class youngsters, ages 18 to 25, residing in Rio de Janeiro, revealed that they complained a great deal that their mothers controlled them unrelentingly by means of cell phones. To take a deeper look into what happens between mothers and children in this age group, a second investigation was carried out. Twenty middle-class mothers were interviewed, whose children's profile were analogous to that of the youngsters in the previous research. For all of the mothers, the main benefit of cell phones is to control their children. Nevertheless, they demonstrated to know that there's a difference between the control that they submit their children to from that that prevailed when they themselves were young. Contemporary control and surveillance theories, in fact, argue that the normative and coercive control of modernity has been replaced by "having knowledge" of what goes on, which is characteristic of the Information

  16. Radiation related basic cancer research : research for radiation induced tumor cell killing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Hong, Seok Il; Cho, Kyung Ja; Kim, Byung Gi; Lee, Kee Ho; Nam, Myung Jin

    1999-04-01

    The radioresistant clones was established from human U251 glioblastoma cell line through intermittently exposed to 3 Gy gamma-radiation for six months. Treatment of SNU-16 cells with various doses of radiation, TNF alpha and PMA resulted in a decrease in cell viability. The results prove that cell death of SNU16 is a apoptosis mediated by caspase-3. We have examined the expression of bcl-2 and c-myc in cervical cancer specimens and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) to determine the role of coexpression of bcl-3 and c-myc during progression into cervical cancer. The frequent alterations in FHIT expression in many cervical carcinomas and their cell lines suggest that FHIT gene alterations are pla a role in cervical tumorigenesis. According to these correlation between the viability and apoptosis of RD cells, the proper range of the dosage for the investigation of differentiation potency in RD cells was assessed as 1 to 3Gy.

  17. Radiation tolerance of boron doped dendritic web silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohatgi, A.

    1980-01-01

    The potential of dendritic web silicon for giving radiation hard solar cells is compared with the float zone silicon material. Solar cells with n(+)-p-P(+) structure and approximately 15% (AMl) efficiency were subjected to 1 MeV electron irradiation. Radiation tolerance of web cell efficiency was found to be at least as good as that of the float zone silicon cell. A study of the annealing behavior of radiation-induced defects via deep level transient spectroscopy revealed that E sub v + 0.31 eV defect, attributed to boron-oxygen-vacancy complex, is responsible for the reverse annealing of the irradiated cells in the temperature range of 150 to 350 C.

  18. Radiative efficiency of lead iodide based perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tvingstedt, Kristofer; Malinkiewicz, Olga; Baumann, Andreas; Deibel, Carsten; Snaith, Henry J.; Dyakonov, Vladimir; Bolink, Henk J.

    2014-08-01

    The maximum efficiency of any solar cell can be evaluated in terms of its corresponding ability to emit light. We herein determine the important figure of merit of radiative efficiency for Methylammonium Lead Iodide perovskite solar cells and, to put in context, relate it to an organic photovoltaic (OPV) model device. We evaluate the reciprocity relation between electroluminescence and photovoltaic quantum efficiency and conclude that the emission from the perovskite devices is dominated by a sharp band-to-band transition that has a radiative efficiency much higher than that of an average OPV device. As a consequence, the perovskite have the benefit of retaining an open circuit voltage ~0.14 V closer to its radiative limit than the OPV cell. Additionally, and in contrast to OPVs, we show that the photoluminescence of the perovskite solar cell is substantially quenched under short circuit conditions in accordance with how an ideal photovoltaic cell should operate.

  19. Model of cell response to {\\alpha}-particle radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Longjian

    2012-01-01

    Starting from a general equation for organism (or cell system) growth and attributing additional cell death rate (besides the natural rate) to therapy, we derive an equation for cell response to {\\alpha} radiation. Different from previous models that are based on statistical theory, the present model connects the consequence of radiation with the growth process of a biosystem and each variable or parameter has meaning regarding the cell evolving process. We apply this equation to model the dose response for {\\alpha}-particle radiation. It interprets the results of both high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiations. When LET is high, the additional death rate is a constant, which implies that the localized cells are damaged immediately and the additional death rate is proportional to the number of cells present. While at low LET, the additional death rate includes a constant term and a linear term of radiation dose, implying that the damage to some cell nuclei has a time accumulating effect. This model ...

  20. Genetic damage in mammalian somatic cells exposed to radiofrequency radiation: a meta-analysis of data from 63 publications (1990-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    VIjayalaxmi; Prihoda, Thomas J

    2008-05-01

    During the last several decades, numerous researchers have examined the potential of in vitro and /or in vivo exposure of radiofrequency( RF) radiation to damage the genetic material in mammalian somatic cells. A meta-analysis of reported data was conducted to obtain a quantitative estimate ( with 95% confidence intervals) of genotoxicity in RF-radiation-exposed cells compared with sham-exposed/unexposed control cells. The extent of genotoxicity was assessed for various end points, including single- and double-strand breaks in the DNA, incidence of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges. Among the several variables in the experimental protocols used in individual investigations, the influence of three specific variables related to RF-radiation exposure characteristics was examined in the meta-analysis: frequency, specific absorption rate, and exposure as continuous-wave, pulsed-wave and occupationally exposed/cell phone users. The overall data indicated that (1) the difference between RF-radiation exposure was small with few exceptions; (2) at certain RF radiation exposure conditions, there were statistically significant increases in genotoxicity for some end points; and (3) the mean indices for chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei in RF-radiation -exposed and sham-/unexposed controls were within the spontaneous levels reported in the historical database. Considerable evidence for publication bias was found in the meta-analysis.

  1. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell towers developed for Appraiser's Department in 2003. Location was based upon parcel centroids, and corrected to orthophotography. Probably includes towers other than cell towers (uncertain). Not published., Published in 2003, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County, Kansas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as 'Cell...

  2. Corporate Smart Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavazotte, Flávia; Heloisa Lemos, Ana; Villadsen, Kaspar

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how the adoption of company sponsored smart phones inflicts upon the lives of professionals. Drawing upon qualitative interviews at a law firm in Brazil, the experiences of new smart phone users are reported upon in detail. Increased accessibility, accuracy and speed...... that negatively affected their private spheres, yet many of them paradoxically requested more efficient smart phone connectivity. The article focuses on the justifications, the different narrative strategies, employed by professionals for their conscious engagement in escalating work connectivity. It is suggested...

  3. Roles of ionizing radiation in cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias, C.A.; Albright, N.W.; Yang, T.C.

    1983-07-01

    Earlier the authors described a repair misrepair model (RMR-I) which is applicable for radiations of low LET, e.g., x rays and gamma rays. RMR-II was described later. Here is introduced a mathematical modification of the RMR model, RMR-III, which is intended to describe lethal effects caused by heavily ionizing tracks. 31 references, 4 figures.

  4. Mobile Phones: Potential Sources of Nickel and Cobalt Exposure for Metal Allergic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Marcella; Mucci, Tania; Chong, Melanie; Lorton, Mark Davis; Fonacier, Luz

    2013-12-01

    The use of cellular phones has risen exponentially with over 300 million subscribers. Nickel has been detected in cell phones and reports of contact dermatitis attributable to metals are present in the literature. We determined nickel and cobalt content in popular cell phones in the United States. Adults (>18 years) who owned a flip phone, Blackberry(®), or iPhone(®) were eligible. Seventy-two cell phones were tested using SmartPractice's(®) commercially available nickel and cobalt spot tests. Test areas included buttons, keypad, speakers, camera, and metal panels. Of the 72 cell phones tested, no iPhones or Droids(®) tested positive for nickel or cobalt. About 29.4% of Blackberrys [95% confidence interval (CI), 13%-53%] tested positive for nickel; none were positive for cobalt. About 90.5% of flip phones (95% CI, 70%-99%) tested positive for nickel and 52.4% of flip phones (95% CI, 32%-72%) tested positive for cobalt. Our study indicates that nickel and cobalt are present in popular cell phones. Patients with known nickel or cobalt allergy may consider their cellular phones as a potential source of exposure. Further studies are needed to examine whether there is a direct association with metal content in cell phones and the manifestation of metal allergy.

  5. Solar cell nanotechnology for improved efficiency and radiation hardness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedoseyev, Alexander I.; Turowski, Marek; Shao, Qinghui; Balandin, Alexander A.

    2006-08-01

    Space electronic equipment, and NASA future exploration missions in particular, require improvements in solar cell efficiency and radiation hardness. Novel nano-engineered materials and quantum-dot array based photovoltaic devices promise to deliver more efficient, lightweight solar cells and arrays which will be of high value to long term space missions. In this paper, we describe issues related to the development of the quantum-dot based solar cells and comprehensive software tools for simulation of the nanostructure-based photovoltaic cells. Some experimental results used for the model validation are also reviewed. The novel modeling and simulation tools for the quantum-dot-based nanostructures help to better understand and predict behavior of the nano-devices and novel materials in space environment, assess technologies, devices, and materials for new electronic systems as well as to better evaluate the performance and radiation response of the devices at an early design stage. The overall objective is to investigate and design new photovoltaic structures based on quantum dots (QDs) with improved efficiency and radiation hardness. The inherently radiation tolerant quantum dots of variable sizes maximize absorption of different light wavelengths, i.e., create a "multicolor" cell, which improves photovoltaic efficiency and diminishes the radiation-induced degradation. The QD models described here are being integrated into the advanced photonic-electronic device simulator NanoTCAD, which can be useful for the optimization of QD superlattices as well as for the development and exploring of new solar cell designs.

  6. iPhones and Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin YE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Long utilized in European and Asian countries, fast ―next generation‖ cell phonenetworks and mobile data streams have only recently begun to make deep inroads inthe United States, and companies are scrambling to write content, tools, and newapplets (―apps‖ for these users. The iPhone has become a juggernaut in the UnitedStates, with 13 million units sold in 2008 (a 245% increase over 2007 and a further 45million units expected in 2009 (Elmer-DeWitt, 2009. While iPhone still lags Nokia andRIM internationally, the overall trend toward mobile computing becomes firmer by theday, and it behooves educators to become familiar with the cell phone tools that arerelevant for teaching in tomorrow‘s--and increasingly ―today‘s‖--classroom.Smartphones have for years offered SMS instant messaging, but the first uses of thattechnology have inevitably been social rather than educational in nature (Reid, 2004.The recent rise in popularity of the iPhone has, however, sparked interest in new usesfor SMS with the advent of new and expanded audiences. One promising online tooloffers instant polling via SMS: polleverywhere.com‘s free account allows up to 30responses per 1-question poll, with unlimited polls per account.This opens up the possibility of classroom response systems that require no studentpurchases of the clicker hardware. While accountability back to the student and gradesare not feasible with polleverywhere.com‘s solution, instructors can harvest quick,anonymous feedback and encourage otherwise reluctant students to engage andparticipate.Apart from texting, modern cell phones come equipped with cameras, which cancombine with email capabilities to offer a potent alternative to writing on whiteboards.Working at their seats, singly or in groups, students can photograph their work andemail it to the instructor, who then can choose from the submissions which to highlighton the lecture hall‘s projection of his computer station, and

  7. 手机行车记录仪的开发%Development of Cell-Phone-Type Vehicle Traveling Data Recorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏维嘉; 殷志富

    2011-01-01

    设计了一种新型的手机式汽车行驶记录仪.在数据处理、信息显示以及数据存储方面,利用手机本身的处理器、LCD和SD卡替代了传统行车记录仪的相应功能部件.在数据传输方面,采用手机蓝牙与数据采集装置进行信息交换、命令传递,实现无线通讯.蓝牙具有特殊、普通两组服务,区分了系统用户和普通用户的访问权限.整个系统具有显示、车辆行驶参数记录与分析、数据保存与回放功能,实现了行车系统的便携化和无线化.%A new cell-phone-type vehicle traveling data recorder is designed. In the aspect of data processing,information display and data storage, it uses cell phone's processor, LCD and SD card instead of traditional vehicle traveling data recorder's corresponding components. In the aspect of data transmission, it uses Blueteeth to exchange information and order with the data acquisition equipment. It achieves wireless communication. Bluetooth has a special service and an ordinary service. It distinguishes accessing power between system user and guest user. The system could display, record and analyze parameters of vehicles, save and playback data of acquisition. It realizes. It makes the vehicle traveling data recorder portable and wireless.

  8. Mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation: structural and biochemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabanero, M.; Flores V, L. L. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Biologia, DCNE, Noria Alta s/n, 36250 Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico); Azorin V, J. C.; Vallejo, M. A.; Cordova F, T.; Sosa A, M. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, DCI, Loma del Bosque 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Castruita D, J. P. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Ecologia, CUCBA, Las Agujas, 45100 Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico); Barbosa S, G., E-mail: myrna.sabanero@gmail.com [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Ciencias Medicas, DCS, 20 de Enero No. 929, Col. Obregon, 37000 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Acute or chronic exposure to ionizing radiation is a factor that may be hazardous to health. It has been reported that exposure to low doses of radiation (less than 50 mSv / year) and subsequently exposure to high doses have greater effects in people. However, it is unknown molecular and biochemical level alteration. This study, analyzes the susceptibility of a biological system (HeLa Atcc CCL-2 human cervix cancer cell line) to ionizing radiation (6 and 60 mSv/ 90). Our evaluate multiple variables such as: total protein profile, mitochondrial metabolic activity (XTT assay), cell viability (Trypan blue exclusion assay), cytoskeleton (actin micro filaments), nuclei (D API), genomic DNA. The results indicate, that cells exposed to ionizing radiation structurally show alterations in nuclear phenotype and aneuploidy, further disruption in the tight junctions and consequently on the distribution of actin micro filaments. Similar alterations were observed in cells treated with a genotoxic agent (200μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/1 h). In conclusion, this multi-criteria assessment enables precise comparisons of the effects of radiation between any biological systems. However, it is necessary to determine stress markers for integration of the effects of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  9. Interaction of Ionizing Radiation, Genetically Active Chemicals, and Radiofrequency Radiation in Human and Rodent Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    Martin L. Meltz, Ph.D. Patricia K. Holahan , Ph.D. Steven T. Smith, Ph.D. James J. Kerbacher, Ph.D. Victor Ciaravino, Ph.D. Department of Radiology PO...Chemicals, and Radiofrequency Radiation in Human and Rodent Cells 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Meltz. Martin L.; Holahan Patricia K.; Smith Steven Kerbacher...Potentiation of SCE Induction and Cell Killing by Adriamycin in CHO Cells (Ciaravino and Holahan , in preparation), showed that Adriamycin exposure at 410C

  10. Cone Penetrometer Load Cell Temperature and Radiation Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2013-08-28

    This report summarizes testing activities performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to verify the cone penetrometer load cell can withstand the tank conditions present in 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106. The tests demonstrated the load cell device will operate under the elevated temperature and radiation levels expected to be encountered during tank farm deployment of the device.

  11. The regulatory effects of radiation and histone deacetylase inhibitor on liver cancer cell cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Choi, Hyung Seok; Jang, Dong Gun; Lee, Hong Je; Yang, Seoung Oh [Dept. Nuclear Medicine, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medicine Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Radiation has been an effective tool for treating cancer for a long time. Radiation therapy induces DNA damage within cancer cells and destroys their ability to reproduce. Radiation therapy is often combined with other treatments, like surgery and chemotherapy. Here, we describe the effects of radiation and histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostain A, on cell cycle regulation in hepatoma cells. Results demonstrate that the treatment of radiation TSA induces cell cycle arrest, thereby stimulating cell death in hepatoma cells. In addition, since different cells or tissues have different reactivity to radiation and TSA, these results might be an indicator for the combination therapy with radiation and drugs in diverse cancers.

  12. On the phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Bettina Sletten

    Background In hospitals clinicians are being equipped with a mobile phone, in order to improve their availability. The phone cannot be silenced, thus it rings when clinicians are performing tasks or are engaged in interaction. Life word led care requires that clinicians use a perceiving eye...... of mobile phones in hospitals, mediate clinicians’ practices. Method Based on an ethnomethodological approach, video recordings of interactions between clinicians and patients at a Danish hospital were conducted. Nexus Analysis (Scollon & Scollon, 2004) was used as a general methodological framework......, complemented with Conversation Analysis (Sacks, 1992) and Goodwin’s (Goodwin, 2000) analytical terminology of contextual configuration. Results The analysis shows how the mobile phone becomes part of the way clinicians arrange their bodies, how they gesture and position themselves in interactions with patients...

  13. Mobile-Phone Microscopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程杰

    2008-01-01

    Simple accessories could turn mobile phones into useful medical devices Robi Marrmari stares intently at the screen of his mobile phone.The student is not squinting to tap out yet another daft text message,but looking carefully for the faint blue dots that are the tell-tale diagnostic signature of malaria.Mr.Maamari is a member of a research team led by Dan Fletcher,a professor of bioengineering

  14. Radiation-induced spindle cell sarcoma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mubeen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation has been known to induce malignant transformation in human beings. Radiation-induced sarcomas are a late sequel of radiation therapy. Most sarcomas have been reported to occur after exposure to a radiation dose of 55 Gray (Gy and above, with a dose ranging from 16 to 112 Gys. Spindle cell sarcomas, arising after radiotherapy given to treat the carcinoma of head and neck region is a very uncommon sequel. This is a rare case report of spindle cell sarcoma of left maxilla, in a 24-year-old male, occurring as a late complication of radiotherapy with Cobalt-60 given for the treatment of retinoblastoma of the left eye 21 years back.

  15. Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools (school-1 and school-2 were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male students from school-1, with age range 12–16 years, and 63 male students with age range 12–17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1, RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was 1.909 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily, five days in a week. 5–6 mL blood was collected from all the students and HbA1c was measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens. The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22 than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34 (p = 0.007. Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016 relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  16. Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Alsubaie, Yazeed; Almubarak, Zaid; Almutawa, Hisham; AlQasem, Yazeed; Hasanato, Rana Muhammed

    2015-11-13

    Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR) generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools (school-1 and school-2) were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male students from school-1, with age range 12-16 years, and 63 male students with age range 12-17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1, RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm² at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was 1.909 nW/cm² at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily, five days in a week. 5-6 mL blood was collected from all the students and HbA1c was measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens. The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22) than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34) (p = 0.007). Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016) relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. Sensitization of radiation-induced cell death by genistein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Rim; Kim, In Gyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    A number of epidemiological studies as well as biological experiments, showed that genistein, one of the isoflavone, prevents prostate cancer occurrence. In this study, we showed that genistein inhibited the cell proliferation of human promyeoltic leukemia HL-60 cells and induced G2/M phase arrest. In addition, combination of genistein treatment and {gamma}-irradiation displayed synergistic effect in apoptotic cell death of HL-60 cells. This means that the repair of genistein-induced DNA damage was hindered by {gamma}-irradiation and thus cell death was increased. In conclusion, genistein is one of the important chemicals that sensitize radiation-induced cell death.

  18. Coniferyl Aldehyde Ameliorates Radiation Intestine Injury via Endothelial Cell Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ye Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Lee, Yoonjin; Lee, Haejune [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yunsil [Ewha Woman' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Younggyu [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Cancer treatments related gastrointestinal toxicity has also been recognized as a significant economic burden. Especially, extensive apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cell of the lamina propria is the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage after abdominal radiation therapy. Coniferyl aldehyde (CA) is phenolic compounds isolated from cork stoppers, and one of the major pyrolysis products of lignin. Shi H. was support for the empirical use of CA as a medicinal food for cardiovascular diseases. CA has positive effect in broad way but there is no consequence in radiation induced intestine damage. Here, we investigate effect of CA on small intestine after abdominal IR to mice in this study. In this study, CA increased the survival rate in C3H mice against 13.5 Gy abdominal IR. We found CA protects small intestine via preventing endothelial cell apoptosis and enhancing their angiogenic activity. CA also showed protective effect on crypt cell survival. Endothelial cell survival may affect crypt cell protection against IR. From this data, we concluded that CA is effective for protection against abdominal radiation injury. CA could ameliorate side-effect of radiation therapy.

  19. Proton irradiation of stem cells: Radiation damage and chemical radioprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, R. C.; Montour, J. L.; Gurney, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    Effects of high energy protons on erythropoietic stem cells and radioprotection by chemicals were investigated in NASA Space Radiation Effects Laboratory. The effects of a parallel beam of 600 MeV protons. The fluence, when converted to dose, were referenced to the synchrocyclotron beam monitors which were then used to administer radiation exposures. Mice were given graded doses to 300 rads to determine dose-response curve. Other mice received saline, AET, or 5-hydroxytryptamine 10 to 15 minutes before exposure.

  20. Development of materials for fuel cell application by radiation technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhee, Chang Kyu; Lee, Min Ku; Park, Junju; Lee, Gyoungja; Lee, Byung Cheol; Shin, Junhwa; Nho, Youngchang; Kang, Philhyun; Sohn, Joon Yong; Rang, Uhm Young

    2012-06-15

    The development of the single cell of SOFC with low operation temperature at and below 650 .deg. C(above 400 mW/cm{sup 2}) Ο The development of fabrication method for the single cell of solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) by dip-coating of nanoparticles such as NiO, YSZ, Ag, and Ag/C, etc. Ο The optimization of the preparation and performance of SOFC by using nanoparticles. Ο The preparation of samples for SOFC with large dimension. The development of fluoropolymer-based fuel cell membranes with crosslinked structure by radiation grafting technique Ο The development of fuel cell membranes with low methanol permeability via the introduction of novel monomers (e. g. vinylbenzyl chloride and vinylether chloride) by radiation grafting technique Ο The development of hydrocarbon fuel cell membrane by radiation crosslinking technique Ο The structure analysis and the evaluations of the property, performance, and radiation effect of the prepared membranes Ο The optimization of the preparation and performance of DMFC fuel cell membrane via the structure-property analysis (power: above 130 mW/cm{sup 2}/50 cm{sup 2} at 5M methanol) Ο The preparation of samples for MEA stack assembly.

  1. Influence on cell proliferation of background radiation or exposure to very low, chronic gamma radiation. [Paramecium tetraurelia; Synechococcus lividus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Planel, H.; Soleilhavoup, J.P.; Tixador, R.; Richoilley, G.; Conter, A.; Croute, F.; Caratero, C.; Gaubin, Y.

    1987-05-01

    Investigations carried out on the protozoan Paramecium tetraurelia and the cyanobacteria Synechococcus lividus, which were shielded against background radiation or exposed to very low doses of gamma radiation, demonstrated that radiation can stimulate the proliferation of these two single-cell organisms. Radiation hormesis depends on internal factors (age of starting cells) and external factors (lighting conditions). The stimulatory effect occurred only in a limited range of doses and disappeared for dose rates higher than 50 mGy/y.

  2. Mobile phone mast effects on common frog (Rana temporaria) tadpoles: the city turned into a laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmori, Alfonso

    2010-06-01

    An experiment has been made exposing eggs and tadpoles of the common frog (Rana temporaria) to electromagnetic radiation from several mobile (cell) phone antennae located at a distance of 140 meters. The experiment lasted two months, from the egg phase until an advanced phase of tadpole prior to metamorphosis. Measurements of electric field intensity (radiofrequencies and microwaves) in V/m obtained with three different devices were 1.8 to 3.5 V/m. In the exposed group (n = 70), low coordination of movements, an asynchronous growth, resulting in both big and small tadpoles, and a high mortality (90%) was observed. Regarding the control group (n = 70) under the same conditions but inside a Faraday cage, the coordination of movements was normal, the development was synchronous, and a mortality of 4.2% was obtained. These results indicate that radiation emitted by phone masts in a real situation may affect the development and may cause an increase in mortality of exposed tadpoles. This research may have huge implications for the natural world, which is now exposed to high microwave radiation levels from a multitude of phone masts.

  3. Ionizing radiation and mitogenetic radiation: two links of the same energetic chain in a biological cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goraczko, W

    2000-03-01

    Present research demonstrates that the excitation of living systems by high energy/low doses of ionizing radiation (IR) initiates prolonged secondary ultraviolet (UV) range emission that influences biota. When doses of this energy are too high, the process of energy or radiation absorption by the cells causes negative changes (i.e. negative mutations or death). When these doses are sufficiently low, vital processes inside the cells are stimulated and can create positive changes. This paper proposes a common denomination for mechanisms of UV and ionizing radiation when interacting with living cells, underlying both its mitogenetic effect and radiation hormesis. Data from radon exposure in chronically exposed nuclear workers, acutely exposed Hiroshima and Nagasaki victims and observers of atmospheric nuclear explosions, combined with animal results, present irrefutable evidence that low doses of IR are beneficial. As a conclusion the author postulates the possibility of new methods of therapy regarding the use of IR and mitogenetic radiation. This paper has been written to encourage debate regarding possible future benefits that may be derived from low level doses of IR exposure in the general population.

  4. In vitro cell culture lethal dose submitted to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Carolina S.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: carolina_sm@hotmail.com; Ikeda, Tamiko I.; Cruz, Aurea S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro effect of gamma radiation in cell culture of mouse connective tissue exposed to different doses of gamma radiation and under several conditions. The cell viability was analyzed by neutral red uptake methodology. This assay was developed for establish a methodology to be used in the future in the study of resveratrol radioprotection. Resveratrol (3,4',5- trihydroxystilbene), a phenolic phytoalexin that occurs naturally in some spermatophytes, such as grapevines, in response to injury as fungal infections and exposure to ultraviolet light. In the wines this compound is found at high levels and is considered one of the highest antioxidant constituents. The intense antioxidant potential of resveratrol provides many pharmacological activities including cardioprotection, chemoprevention and anti-tumor effects. Our results demonstrated that {sup 60}Co gamma radiation lethal dose (LD50) on NCTC clone 929 cells was about 340Gy. (author)

  5. Effect of Deep Space Radiation on Human Hematopoietic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalota, Anna; Bennett, Paula; Swider, Cezary R.; Sutherland, Betsy M.; Gewirtz, Alan M.

    Astronaut flight crews on long-term missions in deep space will be exposed to a unique radiation environment as a result of exposure to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). This environment consists predominantly of high energy protons, helium and high charge, high energy (HZE) atomic nuclei from iron predominantly, but all other elements as well. The effect of such particles, alone, or in combination, on human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) has not been well studied but is clearly of interest since blood forming cells are known to be sensitive to radiation, and irreversible damage to these cells could quickly compromise a mission due to loss of marrow function. To better understand the effects of GCR and SPE on human stem/progenitor cell function, we have exposed partially purified CD34+ normal human marrow cells to protons, radioactive Fe, and Ti, alone, and in combination at varying doses up to 70cGy, and down to 1, 2, and 4 particle hits per nucleus. We then examined the effects of these radiations on HSPC function, as assessed by the ability to form CFU-GEMM, and LTCIC colonies in semi-solid culture medium. At the highest doses (50 and 70cGy), all radiation types tested significantly diminished the ability of CD34+ cells to form such colonies. The number of CFU-GEMM in irradiated samples was 70-90

  6. Flow control using audio tones in resonant microfluidic networks: towards cell-phone controlled lab-on-a-chip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Reid H; Jain, Rahil; Browning, Yoni; Shah, Rachana; Kauffman, Peter; Dinh, Doan; Lutz, Barry R

    2016-08-16

    Fluid control remains a challenge in development of portable lab-on-a-chip devices. Here, we show that microfluidic networks driven by single-frequency audio tones create resonant oscillating flow that is predicted by equivalent electrical circuit models. We fabricated microfluidic devices with fluidic resistors (R), inductors (L), and capacitors (C) to create RLC networks with band-pass resonance in the audible frequency range available on portable audio devices. Microfluidic devices were fabricated from laser-cut adhesive plastic, and a "buzzer" was glued to a diaphragm (capacitor) to integrate the actuator on the device. The AC flowrate magnitude was measured by imaging oscillation of bead tracers to allow direct comparison to the RLC circuit model across the frequency range. We present a systematic build-up from single-channel systems to multi-channel (3-channel) networks, and show that RLC circuit models predict complex frequency-dependent interactions within multi-channel networks. Finally, we show that adding flow rectifying valves to the network creates pumps that can be driven by amplified and non-amplified audio tones from common audio devices (iPod and iPhone). This work shows that RLC circuit models predict resonant flow responses in multi-channel fluidic networks as a step towards microfluidic devices controlled by audio tones.

  7. Materials That Enhance Efficiency and Radiation Resistance of Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiadong; Wang, Haorong

    2012-01-01

    A thin layer (approximately 10 microns) of a novel "transparent" fluorescent material is applied to existing solar cells or modules to effectively block and convert UV light, or other lower solar response waveband of solar radiation, to visible or IR light that can be more efficiently used by solar cells for additional photocurrent. Meanwhile, the layer of fluorescent coating material remains fully "transparent" to the visible and IR waveband of solar radiation, resulting in a net gain of solar cell efficiency. This innovation alters the effective solar spectral power distribution to which an existing cell gets exposed, and matches the maximum photovoltaic (PV) response of existing cells. By shifting a low PV response waveband (e.g., UV) of solar radiation to a high PV response waveband (e.g. Vis-Near IR) with novel fluorescent materials that are transparent to other solar-cell sensitive wavebands, electrical output from solar cells will be enhanced. This approach enhances the efficiency of solar cells by converting UV and high-energy particles in space that would otherwise be wasted to visible/IR light. This innovation is a generic technique that can be readily implemented to significantly increase efficiencies of both space and terrestrial solar cells, without incurring much cost, thus bringing a broad base of economical, social, and environmental benefits. The key to this approach is that the "fluorescent" material must be very efficient, and cannot block or attenuate the "desirable" and unconverted" waveband of solar radiation (e.g. Vis-NIR) from reaching the cells. Some nano-phosphors and novel organometallic complex materials have been identified that enhance the energy efficiency on some state-of-the-art commercial silicon and thin-film-based solar cells by over 6%.

  8. [Gamma-radiation action on cells of algae Euglena gracilis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinkova, E; Zhuchkina, N I; Koltovoĭ, N A; Koltovaia, N A

    2012-01-01

    Considering the potentials of algae Euglena to constitute a part of biological systems of human life support, effects of low radiation doses on algal cells and radiosensitivity dependence on their genotype were studied. In experiments with gamma-irradiation (60Co) of Euglena gracilis, the highest radioresistance was demonstrated by strain Z. OFL; the chloroplasts lacking Z-derived strain showed hypersensitivity to radiation. E. bacillaris and derived chlorophyll-lacking strains W3 and W10 had intermediate radiosensitivity. Irradiation with the doses of up to 10 Gy produced a hormetic effect in the stock strains. Cells death was observed only after irradiation by doses above 100 Gy. The stimulating effect was exerted both on radioresistance and growth rate. Dyes made possible rapid evaluation of the proportion of living and dead cells. Comparison of two survival tests showed that the classic medium inoculation overestimates cell deaths as it disregards the living non-proliferating cells.

  9. Neoplastic cell transformation by high-LET radiation - Molecular mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tracy Chui-Hsu; Craise, Laurie M.; Tobias, Cornelius A.; Mei, Man-Tong

    1989-01-01

    Quantitative data were collected on dose-response curves of cultured mouse-embryo cells (C3H10T1/2) irradiated with heavy ions of various charges and energies. Results suggests that two breaks formed on DNA within 80 A may cause cell transformation and that two DNA breaks formed within 20 A may be lethal. From results of experiments with restriction enzymes which produce DNA damages at specific sites, it was found that DNA double strand breaks are important primary lesions for radiogenic cell transformation and that blunt-ended double-strand breaks can form lethal as well as transformational damages due to misrepair or incomplete repair in the cell. The RBE-LET relationship for high-LET radiation is similar to that for HGPRT locus mutation, chromosomal deletion, and cell transformation, indicating that common lesions may be involved in these radiation effects.

  10. Combination Effect of Nimotuzumab with Radiation in Colorectal Cancer Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Hye Kyung; Kim, Mi Sook; Jeong, Jae Hoon [Korea Institute of Radiologicaland Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-11-15

    To investigate the radiosensitizing effect of the selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor nimotuzumab in human colorectal cancer cell lines. Four human colorectal cancer cell lines, HCT-8, LoVo, WiDr, and HCT-116 were treated with nimotuzumab and/or radiation. The effects on cell proliferation, viability, and cell cycle progression were measured by MTT, clonogenic survival assay, flow cytometry, and Western blot. An immunoblot analysis revealed that EGFR phosphorylation was inhibited by nimotuzumab in colorectal cancer cell lines. Under these experimental conditions, pre-treatment with nimotuzumab increased radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer cell lines, except for cell line HCT-116. However, cell proliferation or cell cycle progression was not affected by the addition of nimotuzumab, irrespective of irradiation. Nimotuzumab enhanced the radiosensitivity of colorectal cancer cells in vitro by inhibiting EGFR-mediated cell survival signaling. This study provided a rationale for the clinical application of the selective EGFR inhibitor, nimotuzumab in combination with radiation in colorectal cancer cells.

  11. Investigation of OSL signal of resistors from mobile phones for accidental dosimetry

    CERN Document Server

    Mrozik, Anna; Bilski, Pawel; Gieszczyk, Wojciech

    2014-01-01

    Resistors from mobile phones, usually located near the human body, are considered as individual dosimeters of ionizing radiation in emergency situations. The resistors contain Al2O3, which is optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) material sensitive to ionizing radiation. This work is focused on determination of dose homogeneity within a mobile phones which was carried out by OSL measurements of resistors placed in different parts inside the mobile phone. Separate, commercially available resistors, similar in the shape and size to the resistors from circuit board of the studied mobile phone, were situated in different locations inside it. The irradiations were performed in uniform 60Co and 137Cs radiation fields, with the mobile phones connected and not connected to the cellular network. The dose decrease of 9% was measured for original resistors situated between layer of copper-clad laminate and battery, in comparison to the dose at the front of the phone. The resistors showed the lower signal when the mobi...

  12. The Role of Cell-Phones over Use in Anticipation of Sleep Quality, Anxiety and Depression among University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Majidaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Due to the quick development and widespread use of mobile phones and its various effects on the interaction and communication, it is important to study its negative effects on the health of cellphone users. The overall aim of the present study was to investigate cellphone overuse as a predictor of sleep quality as well as anxiety and depression among college students. Materials and Methods: This descriptive–correlation study was carried out on all the students of Kharazmi and Payam-e-Noor universities of Karaj during 2014-2015 school years and the sample consisted of 240 persons who were selected by multistage cluster sampling. For data gathering, questionnaires such as cellphone over use scale (COS, Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI and hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS were used. Data analysis was performed using Pearson’s correlation and multiple regressions (stepwise methods with SPSS 21 software and 0.01 P value. Results: The results of regression showed that the variable of cellphone over use and the variance of sleep quality, anxiety and depression were respectively 0.31% and 0.14%, which predicted and were positively and significantly (r = 0.56, P< 0.01; r= 0.38, P < 0.01 correlated with sleep quality, anxiety and depression. Conclusions: The variable of cellphone overuse can predict and cause changes in sleep quality, anxiety and depression among students and psychotherapists can control these factors to enhance the quality of life and mental health of them.

  13. Toxicologic study of electromagnetic radiation emitted by television and video display screens and cellular telephones on chickens and mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastide, M.; Youbicier-Simo, B.J.; Lebecq, J.C.; Giaimis, J. [Laboratoire d' Immunologie et Parasitologie, Faculte de Pharmacie, Universite de Montpellier, Montpellier (France); Youbicier-Simo, B.J. [Tecnolab, Chateau de l' Orbize, Dracy-le-Fort (France)

    2001-07-01

    The effects of continuous exposure of chick embryos and young chickens to the electromagnetic fields (EMFs) emitted by video display units (VDUs) and GSM cell phone radiation, either the whole spectrum emitted or attenuated by a copper gauze, were investigated. Permanent exposure to the EMFs radiated by a VDU was associated with significantly increased fetal loss (47-68%) and markedly depressed levels of circulating specific antibodies (lgG), corticosterone and melatonin. We have also shown that under chronic exposure conditions, GSM cell phone radiation was harmful to chick embryos, stressful for healthy mice and, in this species, synergistic with cancer insofar as it depleted stress hormones. The same pathological results were observed after substantial reduction of the microwaves radiated from the cell phone by attenuating them with a copper gauze. (author)

  14. NASA's high efficiency and radiation damage solar cell program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randolph, L. P.

    1980-01-01

    The conversion efficiency and the life expectancy of solar cells and arrays were evaluated for space applications. Efforts were made to improve the understanding of the conversion of electromagnetic radiation to useful forms of energy. A broad range of advanced concepts were evaluated.

  15. Radiation induction of multiaberrant cells in Allium cepa L.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutsokon, N.K.; Rashydov, N.M.; Grodzinsky, D.M.

    2008-07-01

    'Rogue' cells determined by human geneticists as the cells with many chromosome aberrations. The main enigma of this phenomenon is its levels are unexpected higher in many studies. Frequently, these cells emergence in human are linked with radiation or viruses. 'Rogue' cells supposed to be very important in mutagenesis, oncogenesis and even in evolution process. We use plant assay (Allium cepa L.) to analyze the induction of cells with many chromosome aberration of different types. Cytogenetic damage of gamma-irradiation as frequency of multiaberrant cells in the root tip cells of Allium was determined. The empiric numbers of cells with many aberrations were compared with those expected in theoretical distributions (Poisson, geometric and Pascal). The frequency of multiaberrant cells in root tip cells was increased up to 83,33 +- 10,76 % under gamma-irradiation in various doses. Gamma-irradiation induced more multiaberrant cells in A. cepa meristems than expected in theoretical distributions. We supposed dependency of chromosome aberrations origin in the same cell after irradiation. The data obtained elucidate that under gamma-irradiation accumulation of aberrations in aberrant cells are not random, the appearance of one aberration in cell induced the appearance of others in the same cell. (author)

  16. A Fashion for Phones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MINHHOANG

    2004-01-01

    In a bold move intended to reinvigorate growth in the global mobile phone market, Siemens Mobile last year created Xelibri. This new handset range of radically different shapes and wearable designs has been positioned in the market as a fashion accessory rather than as a communications tool. Both the phones and the accompanying advertising campaign are treating Xelibri as a fashion brand, with handsets being sold in department stores and fashion outlets as well as specialist handset retailers. Two months after the launch in Europe, Xelibri made their Asian debut in Hong Kong,Singapore and China in June 2003.

  17. Increased Radioresistance to Lethal Doses of Gamma Rays in Mice and Rats after Exposure to Microwave Radiation Emitted by a GSM Mobile Phone Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi, Smj; Mosleh-Shirazi, Ma; Tavassoli, Ar; Taheri, M; Mehdizadeh, Ar; Namazi, Sas; Jamali, A; Ghalandari, R; Bonyadi, S; Haghani, M; Shafie, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pre-irradiation with microwaves on the induction of radioadaptive response. In the 1(st) phase of the study, 110 male mice were divided into 8 groups. The animals in these groups were exposed/sham-exposed to microwave, low dose rate gamma or both for 5 days. On day six, the animals were exposed to a lethal dose (LD). In the 2(nd) phase, 30 male rats were divided into 2 groups of 15 animals. The 1(st) group received microwave exposure. The 2(nd) group (controls) received the same LD but there was no treatment before the LD. On day 5, all animals were whole-body irradiated with the LD. Statistically significant differences between the survival rate of the mice only exposed to lethal dose of gamma radiation before irradiation with a lethal dose of gamma radiation with those of the animals pre-exposed to either microwave (p=0.02), low dose rate gamma (p=0.001) or both of these physical adapting doses (p=0.003) were observed. Likewise, a statistically significant difference between survival rates of the rats in control and test groups was observed. Altogether, these experiments showed that exposure to microwave radiation may induce a significant survival adaptive response.

  18. Classical radiation reaction in particle-in-cell simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranic, M.; Martins, J. L.; Fonseca, R. A.; Silva, L. O.

    2016-07-01

    Under the presence of ultra high intensity lasers or other intense electromagnetic fields the motion of particles in the ultrarelativistic regime can be severely affected by radiation reaction. The standard particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithms do not include radiation reaction effects. Even though this is a well known mechanism, there is not yet a definite algorithm nor a standard technique to include radiation reaction in PIC codes. We have compared several models for the calculation of the radiation reaction force, with the goal of implementing an algorithm for classical radiation reaction in the Osiris framework, a state-of-the-art PIC code. The results of the different models are compared with standard analytical results, and the relevance/advantages of each model are discussed. Numerical issues relevant to PIC codes such as resolution requirements, application of radiation reaction to macro particles and computational cost are also addressed. For parameters of interest where the classical description of the electron motion is applicable, all the models considered are shown to give comparable results. The Landau and Lifshitz reduced model is chosen for implementation as one of the candidates with the minimal overhead and no additional memory requirements.

  19. Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daila S. Gridley, PhD

    2012-03-30

    FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Supported by the Low Dose Radiation Research Program, Office of Science U.S. Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-07ER64345 Project ID: 0012965 Award Register#: ER64345 Project Manager: Noelle F. Metting, Sc.D. Phone: 301-903-8309 Division SC-23.2 noelle.metting@science.doe.gov Submitted March 2012 To: https://www.osti.gov/elink/241.3.jsp Title: Th Cell Gene Expression and Function in Response to Low Dose and Acute Radiation PI: Daila S. Gridley, Ph.D. Human low dose radiation data have been derived primarily from studies of space and airline flight personnel, nuclear plant workers and others exposed occupationally, as well as victims in the vicinity of atomic bomb explosions. The findings remain inconclusive due to population inconsistencies and complex interactions among total dose, dose rate, radiation quality and age at exposure. Thus, safe limits for low dose occupational irradiation are currently based on data obtained with doses far exceeding the levels expected for the general population and health risks have been largely extrapolated using the linear-nonthreshold dose-response model. The overall working hypothesis of the present study is that priming with low dose, low-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation can ameliorate the response to acute high-dose radiation exposure. We also propose that the efficacy of low-dose induced protection will be dependent upon the form and regimen of the high-dose exposure: photons versus protons versus simulated solar particle event protons (sSPE). The emphasis has been on gene expression and function of CD4+ T helper (Th) lymphocytes harvested from spleens of whole-body irradiated C57BL/6 mice, a strain that provides the genetic background for many genetically engineered strains. Evaluations of the responses of other selected cells, tissues such as skin, and organs such as lung, liver and brain were also initiated (partially funded by other sources). The long-term goal is to provide information

  20. Thalidomide effect in endothelial cell of acute radiation proctitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ki-Tae Kim; Hiun-Suk Chae; Jin-Soo Kim; Hyung-Keun Kim; Young-Seok Cho; Whang Choi; Kyu-Yong Choi; Sang-Young Rho; Suk-Jin Kang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To determine whether thalidomide prevents microvascular injury in acute radiation proctitis in white rats. METHODS: Fourteen female Wistar rats were used:six in the radiation group,six in the thalidomide group,and two in normal controls.The radiation and thalidomide groups were irradiated at the pelvic area using a single 30 Gy exposure.The thalidomide (150 mg/kg) was injected into the peritoneum for 7 d from the day of irradiation.All animals were sacrificed and the rectums were removed on day 8 after irradiation.The microvessels of resected specimens were immunohistochemically stained with thrombomodulin (TM),yon Willebrand Factor (vWF),and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).RESULTS: The microscopic scores did not differ significantly between the radiation and thalidomide groups,but both were higher than in the control group.Expression of TM was significantly lower in the endothelial cells (EC) of the radiation group than in the control and thalidomide groups (P < 0.001).The number of capillaries expressing vWF in the EC was higher in the radiation group (15.3 ± 6.8) than in the control group (3.7 ± 1.7),and the number of capillaries expressing vWF was attenuated by thalidomide (10.8 ± 3.5,P < 0.001).The intensity of VEGF expression in capillaries was greater in the radiation group than in the control group and was also attenuated by thalidomide (P = 0.003).CONCLUSION: The mechanisms of acute radiationinduced proctitis in the rats are related to endothelial cell injury of microvessel,which may be attenuated with thalidomide.

  1. China's Burgeoning Mobile Phone Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIWUZHOU

    2003-01-01

    WHEN the cell phone first appeared on the Chinese market in the late 1980s it cost 10,000-20,000 yuan,and was the size of a brick.Regarded as the ultimate status symbol,it was called the da ge da,meaning very influential person.At that time,sales of mobile phones were under state control,and stocks were limited.Purchasers were required to place an order and make an 80 percent down payment.How things have changed!Mobiles are now available in multiple choices of size,color and function,on request.

  2. [Mobile phone based wireless microscopy imaging technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yucheng; Liu, Jing

    2011-03-01

    This article proposes a new device named "Wireless Cellscope" that combining mobile phone and optical microscope together. The established wireless microscope platform consists of mobile phone, network monitor, miniaturized microscope or high resolution microscope etc. A series of conceptual experiments were performed on microscopic observation of ordinary objects and mice tumor tissue slices. It was demonstrated that, the new method could acquire microscopy images via a wireless way, which is spatially independent. With small size and low cost, the device thus developed has rather wide applicability in non-disturbing investigation of cell/tissue culture and long distance observation of dangerous biological sample etc.

  3. Mobile Phone Antenna Performance 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the antenna performance of a number of mobile phones widely used in the Nordic Countries. The study is supported by the Nordic Council of Ministers. The antenna performance of the phones is vital for the phones ability to ensure radio coverage in low signal situations...

  4. Predicting iPhone Sales from iPhone Tweets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Niels Buus; Madsen, Rene; Vatrapu, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    , we demonstrate how social media data from twitter can be used to predict the sales of iPhones. Based on a conceptual model of social data consisting of social graph (actors, actions, activities, and artefacts) and social text (topics, keywords, pronouns, and sentiments), we develop and evaluate...... a linear regression model that transforms iPhone tweets into a prediction of the quarterly iPhone sales with an average error close to the established prediction models from investment banks. This strong correlation between iPhone tweets and iPhone sales becomes marginally stronger after incorporating...

  5. Photoluminescence in large fluence radiation irradiated space silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hisamatsu, Tadashi; Kawasaki, Osamu; Matsuda, Sumio [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan). Tsukuba Space Center; Tsukamoto, Kazuyoshi

    1997-03-01

    Photoluminescence spectroscopy measurements were carried out for silicon 50{mu}m BSFR space solar cells irradiated with 1MeV electrons with a fluence exceeding 1 x 10{sup 16} e/cm{sup 2} and 10MeV protons with a fluence exceeding 1 x 10{sup 13} p/cm{sup 2}. The results were compared with the previous result performed in a relative low fluence region, and the radiation-induced defects which cause anomalous degradation of the cell performance in such large fluence regions were discussed. As far as we know, this is the first report which presents the PL measurement results at 4.2K of the large fluence radiation irradiated silicon solar cells. (author)

  6. Cellular Phone Towers, Dorchester County Cell Towers, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Dorchester County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described as...

  7. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Tower buffer sectors divided into N, S, E and W, Published in 2008, 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, Graham County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:63360 (1in=1mile) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  8. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell tower location and elevation, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Portage County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2008. It is...

  9. Cellular Phone Towers, Green Co Cell Towers, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, MSA Professional Services.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2007. It is described as...

  10. Enhancement of radiation response in human hepatocarcinoma cells by Metformin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Ho; Kim, Won Woo; Kim, Joon; Jung, Won Gyun [Division of heavy ion clinical research, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Jae Hoon; Jeong, Youn Kyoung; Kim, Mi Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Metformin (1, 1-dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride), the most widely used drug to treat type 2 diabetic patients under benefit good tolerability profile and low cost, has sparked keen interest as potential anticancer agent. Preclinical studies showed that the primary mechanism of action of metformin is through its ability to activate AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Metformin inhibits complex 1 in the mitochondrial electron transport chain, leading to an increase in the AMP-to-ATP ratio, then, phospholylated AMPK increase energy generation or suppress energy consumption and then, inhibits cell growth. However, important caveat in direct action theory of metformin is that millimorlar range, effective dose for inhibition tumor cell growth in vitro, cannot be achieved in patients. This is probably because metformin enter cells through the organic cation transporters OCT1 and OCT2, which is lowly expressed in human cells except liver and adipose cells. dependent pathway rather than through direct effects of the tumor cells. We analyzed combination effect of metformin and radiation focusing to HCC cell lines, which theoretically express high organic cation transporters, producing high centration of metformin in tumor cells. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether metformin had anti-tumor effects when combined with radiation as radiosensitizer in HCC. The results showed that metformin increased radiosensitizing efficacy in HCC cells , as well as in Huh7 xenograft mouse models. Interestingly, metformin effectively sensitizes IR-induced apoptosis in HCC through upregulation of cleaved PARP and caspase3 and increase synergically on DNA damage response with combined treatment.HCC, suggesting potential usefulness of combined therapy of metformin together with radiation for HCC cancer therapy.

  11. Transient and cumulative memory impairments induced by GSM 1.8 GHz cell phone signal in a mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntzouni, Maria P; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini; Kostomitsopoulos, Nikolaos; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2013-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the transient and cumulative impairments in spatial and non-spatial memory of C57Bl/6J mice exposed to GSM 1.8 GHz signal for 90 min daily by a typical cellular (mobile) phone at a specific absorption rate value of 0.11 W/kg. Free-moving male mice 2 months old were irradiated in two experimental protocols, lasting for 66 and for 148 days respectively. Each protocol used three groups of animals (n = 8 each for exposed, sham exposed and controls) in combination with two behavioural paradigms, the object recognition task and the object location task sequentially applied at different time points. One-way analysis of variance revealed statistically significant impairments of both types of memory gradually accumulating, with more pronounced effects on the spatial memory. The impairments persisted even 2 weeks after interruption of the 8 weeks daily exposure, whereas the memory of mice as detected by both tasks showed a full recovery approximately 1 month later. Intermittent every other day exposure for 1 month had no effect on both types of memory. The data suggest that visual information processing mechanisms in hippocampus, perirhinal and entorhinal cortex are gradually malfunctioning upon long-term daily exposure, a phenotype that persists for at least 2 weeks after interruption of radiation, returning to normal memory performance levels 4 weeks later. It is postulated that cellular repair mechanisms are operating to eliminate the memory affecting molecules. The overall contribution of several possible mechanisms to the observed cumulative and transient impairments in spatial and non-spatial memory is discussed.

  12. Measuring Mobile Phone Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boase, Jeff; Ling, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine how well two types of self-report measures adequately operationalize frequency of mobile phone use by comparing them to server log data. Our self-report measures of voice and SMS text messaging activity are drawn from a nationally representative survey of adults living in...

  13. iPhone paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Could you write a scientific manuscript using just your iPhone? Well, when Christoph Bartneck at the University of Canterbury in New Zealand was invited to submit a paper to the International Conference on Atomic and Nuclear Physics, in Atlanta, Georgia, in November, he decided to do just that.

  14. Mechanisms of Ionizing Radiation-Induced Cell Death in Primary Lung Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    journal of radiation biology:epublished ahead of print 35. Coggle JE, Lambert BE, Moores SR. 1986. Radiation effects in the lung. Environmental health...caspases and mitochondria. Cell Death Differ 8:829-40 46. Dimri GP, Lee X, Basile G, Acosta M, Scott G, et al. 1995. A biomarker that identifies senescent

  15. From DNA radiation damage to cell death: theoretical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballarini, Francesca

    2010-10-05

    Some representative models of radiation-induced cell death, which is a crucial endpoint in radiobiology, were reviewed. The basic assumptions were identified, their consequences on predicted cell survival were analyzed, and the advantages and drawbacks of each approach were outlined. In addition to "historical" approaches such as the Target Theory, the Linear-Quadratic model, the Theory of Dual Radiation Action and Katz' model, the more recent Local Effect Model was discussed, focusing on its application in Carbon-ion hadrontherapy. Furthermore, a mechanistic model developed at the University of Pavia and based on the relationship between cell inactivation and chromosome aberrations was presented, together with recent results; the good agreement between model predictions and literature experimental data on different radiation types (photons, protons, alpha particles, and Carbon ions) supported the idea that asymmetric chromosome aberrations like dicentrics and rings play a fundamental role for cell death. Basing on these results, a reinterpretation of the TDRA was also proposed, identifying the TDRA "sublesions" and "lesions" as clustered DNA double-strand breaks and (lethal) chromosome aberrations, respectively.

  16. From DNA Radiation Damage to Cell Death: Theoretical Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ballarini

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Some representative models of radiation-induced cell death, which is a crucial endpoint in radiobiology, were reviewed. The basic assumptions were identified, their consequences on predicted cell survival were analyzed, and the advantages and drawbacks of each approach were outlined. In addition to “historical” approaches such as the Target Theory, the Linear-Quadratic model, the Theory of Dual Radiation Action and Katz' model, the more recent Local Effect Model was discussed, focusing on its application in Carbon-ion hadrontherapy. Furthermore, a mechanistic model developed at the University of Pavia and based on the relationship between cell inactivation and chromosome aberrations was presented, together with recent results; the good agreement between model predictions and literature experimental data on different radiation types (photons, protons, alpha particles, and Carbon ions supported the idea that asymmetric chromosome aberrations like dicentrics and rings play a fundamental role for cell death. Basing on these results, a reinterpretation of the TDRA was also proposed, identifying the TDRA “sublesions” and “lesions” as clustered DNA double-strand breaks and (lethal chromosome aberrations, respectively.

  17. Radiation response of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow and human pluripotent stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Islam, Mohammad S; Stemig, Melissa E.; Takahashi, Yutaka; Hui, Susanta K.

    2014-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from human pluripotent stem cells are comparable with bone marrow-derived MSCs in their function and immunophenotype. The purpose of this exploratory study was comparative evaluation of the radiation responses of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow- (BMMSCs) and from human embryonic stem cells (hESMSCs). BMMSCs and hESMSCs were irradiated at 0 Gy (control) to 16 Gy using a linear accelerator commonly used for cancer treatment. Cells were harv...

  18. Mammalian stem cells reprogramming in response to terahertz radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Bock

    Full Text Available We report that extended exposure to broad-spectrum terahertz radiation results in specific changes in cellular functions that are closely related to DNA-directed gene transcription. Our gene chip survey of gene expression shows that whereas 89% of the protein coding genes in mouse stem cells do not respond to the applied terahertz radiation, certain genes are activated, while other are repressed. RT-PCR experiments with selected gene probes corresponding to transcripts in the three groups of genes detail the gene specific effect. The response was not only gene specific but also irradiation conditions dependent. Our findings suggest that the applied terahertz irradiation accelerates cell differentiation toward adipose phenotype by activating the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARG. Finally, our molecular dynamics computer simulations indicate that the local breathing dynamics of the PPARG promoter DNA coincides with the gene specific response to the THz radiation. We propose that THz radiation is a potential tool for cellular reprogramming.

  19. Cellular phones and their hazards: the current evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munshi, Anusheel; Jalali, Rakesh

    2002-01-01

    The past decade has seen an exponential increase globally in the use of cellular phones (popularly known as mobile or cell phones). These phones are convenient and trendy. Discarding the wire means that the communication is through electromagnetic waves, which could have potential hazards. Alarmist reports in the lay press and high profile lawsuits, particularly in the West, have attracted attention to the possible harmful effects of cellular phones. Adverse effects investigated by various clinical trials include the possible link to increased risk of vehicular accidents, leukaemias, sleep disturbances and the more serious brain tumours. Available level II evidence suggests that the only proven side-effect is an increased risk of vehicular accidents. So far, all studies have consistently negated any association between cellular phones and brain tumours. Yet, the final word remains to be said.

  20. DNA Damage by Radiation in Tradescantia Leaf Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Min; Hyun, Kyung Man; Ryu, Tae Ho; Kim, Jin Kyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Nili, Mohammad [Dawnesh Radiation Research Institute, Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-04-15

    The comet assay is currently used in different areas of biological sciences to detect DNA damage. The comet assay, due to its simplicity, sensitivity and need of a few cells, is ideal as a short-term genotoxicity test. The comet assay can theoretically be applied to every type of eukaryotic cell, including plant cells. Plants are very useful as monitors of genetic effects caused by pollution in the atmosphere, water and soil. Tradescantia tests are very useful tools for screening the mutagenic potential in the environment. Experiments were conducted to study the genotoxic effects of ionizing radiations on the genome integrity, particularly of Tradescantia. The increasingly frequent use of Tradescantia as a sensitive environmental bioindicator of genotoxic effects. This study was designed to assess the genotoxicity of ionizing radiation using Tradescnatia-comet assay. The development of comet assay has enabled investigators to detect DNA damage at the levels of cells. To adapt this assay to plant cells, nuclei were directly obtained from Tradescantia leaf samples. A significant dose-dependent increase in the average tail moment values over the negative control was observed. Recently the adaptation of this technique to plant cells opens new possibilities for studies in variety area. The future applications of the comet assay could impact some other important areas, certainly, one of the limiting factors to its utility is the imagination of the investigator.

  1. Over-The-Air Evaluation and Ranking of Mobile Phone Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karstensen, Anders; Pedersen, Gert F.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of the radio performance of 26 mobile phones common in the Nordic countries. Antenna performance in terms of total isotropic sensitivity (TIS) and total radiated power (TRP) of different phone models was measured. The investigation includes results for talk mode...... using left and right hand phantoms next to head, as well as data mode using only the hand phantom. Large variations in the performance between the various phone models were found, especially in talk mode....

  2. Relationship between Cell Phone Radiation and Health%手机辐射与健康的相关调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑小小; 胡津津; 许健

    2009-01-01

    目的 调查手机辐射对健康的影响以及人们对相关情况的认知.方法 随机抽样调查群众、网民,通过问卷调查和网络投票,分析人们对手机辐射的认知.结果 75.49%调查人员对手机辐射有一定了解,29.37%的人有关机睡眠的习惯,64.90%人的手机放置方式对身体健康非常不利,并且90%以上的人有着不良的使用手机的习惯.多数人在长时间使用手机后有头痛、头昏等身体不适的情况发生,甚至有失眠、多梦和脱发、记忆减退等症状.结论 手机使用中的不良习惯对身体健康非常不利,但只有少部分人了解手机辐射对健康的影响.

  3. Remarks on the radiation chemistry of radiation damage in cells. [X radiation, electrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Powers, E.L.

    1975-01-01

    Several models of the actions of compounds that sensitize cells to x-irradiation are reviewed and commented on. The electron sequestration model is described in detail and typical experimental results upon which it is based are reviewed. The varieties of responses induced by a number of sensitizers and their antagonists are stressed; there is no single, simple chemical explanation that can account for all the results. However, the importance of the e/sup -//sub aq/ -- .OH relation is evident in all the experimental results with the compounds tested to date.

  4. UVB radiation induced effects on cells studied by FTIR spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giambattista, Lucia; Gaudenzi, S; Pozzi, D; Grandi, M; Morrone, S; Silvestri, I; Castellano, A Congiu; 10.1007/s00249-009-0446-9

    2010-01-01

    We have made a preliminary analysis of the results about the eVects on tumoral cell line (lymphoid T cell line Jurkat) induced by UVB radiation (dose of 310 mJ/cm^2) with and without a vegetable mixture. In the present study, we have used two techniques: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and flow cytometry. FTIR spectroscopy has the potential to provide the identiWcation of the vibrational modes of some of the major compounds (lipid, proteins and nucleic acids) without being invasive in the biomaterials. The second technique has allowed us to perform measurements of cytotoxicity and to assess the percentage of apoptosis. We already studied the induction of apoptotic process in the same cell line by UVB radiation; in particular, we looked for correspondences and correlations between FTIR spetroscopy and flow cytometry data finding three highly probable spectroscopic markers of apoptosis (Pozzi et al. in Radiat Res 168:698-705, 2007). In the present work, the results have shown significant changes ...

  5. Mobile phone use and the risk of skin cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Aslak Harbo; Friis, Søren; Johansen, Christoffer

    2013-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified radiofrequency radiation as possibly carcinogenic. Previous studies have focused on intracranial tumors, although the skin receives much radiation. In a nationwide cohort study, 355,701 private mobile phone subscribers in Denmark from......% confidence interval: 0.54, 2.00). A similar risk pattern was seen among women, though it was based on smaller numbers. In this large, population-based cohort study, little evidence of an increased skin cancer risk was observed among mobile phone users....

  6. Mobile Phone Faraday Cage

    CERN Document Server

    French, M M J

    2011-01-01

    A Faraday cage is an interesting physics phenomena where an electromagnetic wave can be excluded from a volume of space by enclosure with an electrically conducting material. The practical application of this in the classroom is to block the signal to a mobile phone by enclosing it in a metal can! The background of the physics behind this is described in some detail followed by a explanation of some demonstrations and experiments which I have used.

  7. Radiation-induced cisplatin resistance in two human cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichholtz-Wirth, H.; Stotzer, O. [GSF-Institute of Radiobiology and Cytometry, Neuherberg (Germany); Marx, K. [Medical Clin. III, University, Munich (Germany)

    1997-03-01

    Cisplatin resistance has been induced in human HT-29 and HeLa cells after low-dose fractionated {gamma}-irradiation. The drug resistance is modest and does not confer cross-resistance to irradiation. Alterations that were recently shown to correlate with radiation-induced cisplatin resistance in murine cells are not involved in the resistant HeLa-C3 cells. Scavengers, such as GSH or metallothioneins are unchanged and there is no alteration of the cGMP transduction pathway. Preliminary results in HeLa-C3 cells indicate that resistance is associated with differences of the apoptotic pathway, with enhancement of the p53 suppressor protein after cisplatin treatment but unchanged bcl-2 protein expression. (authors)

  8. Small Cell家庭网关电磁辐射环保性能分析%Environmental Analysis on Electromagnetic Radiation of Residential Gateway with Small Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊金州

    2014-01-01

    介绍了国内外电磁辐射标准以及Small Cell家庭网关和各种手机的发射功率,并通过理论计算证明Small Cell满足我国电磁辐射指标要求。然后对比安装Small Cell前后室内电磁功率密度,证明安装Small Cell覆盖后,室内电磁辐射的环保性能普遍得到改善。%This paper introduces the electromagnetic radiation standards of domestic and foreign countries, as well as the transmitting power of the residential gateway with Small Cell and various mobile phones. Through theoretical calculations, it is demonstrated that Small Cell confirms to the specifications of China’s electromagnetic radiation. Compared with the indoor electromagnetic power density without Small Cell, it proves that the Small Cell improves the indoor electromagnetic radiation environment in general.

  9. Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation induces oxidative DNA base damage in a mouse spermatocyte-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Duan, Weixia; Xu, Shangcheng; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2013-03-27

    Whether exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted from mobile phones can induce DNA damage in male germ cells remains unclear. In this study, we conducted a 24h intermittent exposure (5 min on and 10 min off) of a mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line to 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) signals in GSM-Talk mode at specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1 W/kg, 2 W/kg or 4 W/kg. Subsequently, through the use of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) in a modified comet assay, we determined that the extent of DNA migration was significantly increased at a SAR of 4 W/kg. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that levels of the DNA adduct 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) were also increased at a SAR of 4 W/kg. These increases were concomitant with similar increases in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); these phenomena were mitigated by co-treatment with the antioxidant α-tocopherol. However, no detectable DNA strand breakage was observed by the alkaline comet assay. Taking together, these findings may imply the novel possibility that RF-EMR with insufficient energy for the direct induction of DNA strand breaks may produce genotoxicity through oxidative DNA base damage in male germ cells.

  10. Neoplastic human embryonic stem cells as a model of radiation resistance of human cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingwall, Steve; Lee, Jung Bok; Guezguez, Borhane; Fiebig, Aline; McNicol, Jamie; Boreham, Douglas; Collins, Tony J; Bhatia, Mick

    2015-09-08

    Studies have implicated that a small sub-population of cells within a tumour, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), have an enhanced capacity for tumour formation in multiple cancers and may be responsible for recurrence of the disease after treatment, including radiation. Although comparisons have been made between CSCs and bulk-tumour, the more important comparison with respect to therapy is between tumour-sustaining CSC versus normal stem cells that maintain the healthy tissue. However, the absence of normal known counterparts for many CSCs has made it difficult to compare the radiation responses of CSCs with the normal stem cells required for post-radiotherapy tissue regeneration and the maintenance of tissue homeostasis. Here we demonstrate that transformed human embryonic stem cells (t-hESCs), showing features of neoplastic progression produce tumours resistant to radiation relative to their normal counterpart upon injection into immune compromised mice. We reveal that t-hESCs have a reduced capacity for radiation induced cell death via apoptosis and exhibit altered cell cycle arrest relative to hESCs in vitro. t-hESCs have an increased expression of BclXL in comparison to their normal counterparts and re-sensitization of t-hESCs to radiation upon addition of BH3-only mimetic ABT737, suggesting that overexpression of BclXL underpins t-hESC radiation insensitivity. Using this novel discovery platform to investigate radiation resistance in human CSCs, our study indicates that chemotherapy targeting Bcl2-family members may prove to be an adjuvant to radiotherapy capable of targeting CSCs.

  11. Apoptotic cell death during Drosophila oogenesis is differentially increased by electromagnetic radiation depending on modulation, intensity and duration of exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagioglou, Niki E; Manta, Areti K; Giannarakis, Ioannis K; Skouroliakou, Aikaterini S; Margaritis, Lukas H

    2016-01-01

    Present generations are being repeatedly exposed to different types and doses of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) from wireless technologies (FM radio, TETRA and TV stations, GSM and UMTS phones/base stations, Wi-Fi networks, DECT phones). Although there is controversy on the published data regarding the non-thermal effects of NIR, studies have convincingly demonstrated bioeffects. Their results indicate that modulation, intensity, exposure duration and model system are important factors determining the biological response to irradiation. Attempting to address the dependence of NIR bioeffectiveness on these factors, apoptosis in the model biological system Drosophila melanogaster was studied under different exposure protocols. A signal generator was used operating alternatively under Continuous Wave (CW) or Frequency Modulation (FM) emission modes, at three power output values (10 dB, 0, -10 dB), under four carrier frequencies (100, 395, 682, 900 MHz). Newly emerged flies were exposed either acutely (6 min or 60 min on the 6th day), or repeatedly (6 min or 60 min daily for the first 6 days of their life). All exposure protocols resulted in an increase of apoptotic cell death (ACD) observed in egg chambers, even at very low electric field strengths. FM waves seem to have a stronger effect in ACD than continuous waves. Regarding intensity and temporal exposure pattern, EMF-biological tissue interaction is not linear in response. Intensity threshold for the induction of biological effects depends on frequency, modulation and temporal exposure pattern with unknown so far mechanisms. Given this complexity, translating such experimental data into possible human exposure guidelines is yet arbitrary.

  12. Integrating group counseling, cell phone messaging, and participant-generated songs and dramas into a microcredit program increases Nigerian women's adherence to international breastfeeding recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flax, Valerie L; Negerie, Mekebeb; Ibrahim, Alawiyatu Usman; Leatherman, Sheila; Daza, Eric J; Bentley, Margaret E

    2014-07-01

    In northern Nigeria, interventions are urgently needed to narrow the large gap between international breastfeeding recommendations and actual breastfeeding practices. Studies of integrated microcredit and community health interventions documented success in modifying health behaviors but typically had uncontrolled designs. We conducted a cluster-randomized controlled trial in Bauchi State, Nigeria, with the aim of increasing early breastfeeding initiation and exclusive breastfeeding among female microcredit clients. The intervention had 3 components. Trained credit officers led monthly breastfeeding learning sessions during regularly scheduled microcredit meetings for 10 mo. Text and voice messages were sent out weekly to a cell phone provided to small groups of microcredit clients (5-7 women). The small groups prepared songs or dramas about the messages and presented them at the monthly microcredit meetings. The control arm continued with the regular microcredit program. Randomization occurred at the level of the monthly meeting groups. Pregnant clients were recruited at baseline and interviewed again when their infants were aged ≥6 mo. Logistic regression models accounting for clustering were used to estimate the odds of performing recommended behaviors. Among the clients who completed the final survey (n = 390), the odds of exclusive breastfeeding to 6 mo (OR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.4, 4.0) and timely breastfeeding initiation (OR: 2.6; 95% CI: 1.6, 4.1) were increased in the intervention vs. control arm. Delayed introduction of water explained most of the increase in exclusive breastfeeding among clients receiving the intervention. In conclusion, a breastfeeding promotion intervention integrated into microcredit increased the likelihood that women adopted recommended breastfeeding practices. This intervention could be scaled up in Nigeria, where local organizations provide microcredit to >500,000 clients. Furthermore, the intervention could be adopted more widely

  13. 手机辐射生物效应的量子理论研究%The Research of Biological Effects of Mobile Phone Radiation Based on Quantum Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旸; 逯贵祯

    2009-01-01

    介绍了手机辐射生物效应的研究近况,并列举了一些相关的研究与实验.回顾了以往生物效应的理论研究成果,指出用经典理论解释微观现象可能不准确,方法有待改进.文章提出在微观领域,即细胞核内用量子理论来分析DNA分子与外加电磁波作用的观点.指出电磁生物效应的原因之一是由于DNA分子受外加电磁波的作用,分子能级结构发生改变.给出了量子理论的公式推导和量子效应解释,最后指出微波辐射和DNA分子作用的结果,可能是一种属于"时间长、见效慢"的生物效应.%. This paper presents recent situations about the biological effect of mobile phone radia-tion, and enumerates some relative investigations and experiments. The former theoretic research has been reviewed, and then it indicates that classical theory may be not suitable to explain micro-cosmic phenomena and the methods should be ameliorated. The viewpoint that the interaction be-tween the DNA molecule and adscititious electromagnetic wave can be analyzed with the quantum theory in the microcosmic domain namely in the nucleus has also been given. It is proposed that one reason of the electromagnetic biological effect is due to that the DNA molecule is affected by adscititious electromagnetic waves and then molecular energy level structure changes. The formu-la derivation of the quantum theory is listed and the explanation of its quantum theory effects is put forward. Finally, the paper points out that the results of action between microwave radiation and DNA molecule is probably belong to a kind of biological effect which is long-time and slow-effect.

  14. Cellular Phone Towers, Maryland Transportation Authoirty leased cell towers, MDTA Cell Tower locations, Leased cell towers, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2010. It is described as...

  15. Reading with Mobile Phone & Large Display

    OpenAIRE

    Gostner, Roswitha; Gellersen, Hans; Kray, Christian; Sas, Corina

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we compare performance and usability between three different device combinations: a) mobile phone b) touch screen c) mobile phone & screen. We show that mobile phone & screen has a better perform-ance than phone only. We also discuss some interaction issues when using a mobile phone with a large screen.

  16. Alterations induced in Escherichia Coli cells by gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kappke, J.; Schelin, H.R.; Paschuk, S.A.; Denyak, V.; Silva, E.R. da [Federal University of Technology of Parana (CPGEI/UTFPR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)]. E-mails: jaquekap@yahoo.com.br; schelin@cpgei.cefetpr.br; sergei@utfpr.edu.br; Jesus, E.F.O. de; Lopes, R.T. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear]. E-mails: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br; edgar@lin.ufrj.br; Carlin, N.; Toledo, E.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]. E-mail: nelson.carlin@dfn.if.usp.br

    2007-07-01

    Modifications occurred in Escherichia coli cells exposed to gamma radiation ({sup 60}Co source) were investigated. The irradiations were done at the LIN-COPPE laboratory of the UFRJ and the analysis at the Biology Department of the UTFPR. The E. coli cells were irradiated with 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 300, 480, 600 e 750 Gy doses. The samples were analyzed with Gram-stain, biochemical tests in EPM, MIO and Lysine Broth, Simmons Cytrate Medium and Rhamnose Broth, antibiogram and isolation of auxotrophic mutants. It was observed that for the received doses the E. coli did not show morphological alterations in the tests. Some E. Coli cells showed to be able to deaminade the L-tryptophan or they changed their sensibility for amoxillin and cephaloonine after the irradiation. The existence of aauxotrophic mutants after irradiation was also verified. (author)

  17. PC 2 Phone Event Announcer

    CERN Document Server

    Parhizkar, Behrang; Ali, Mohammad Nabil Sadegh; Ramachandran, Anand; Navaratnam, Sujata

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays, mobile phones are indispensable devices; it has become a trend now that college and university students are owners of such devices and this particular factor plays a very important role behind the coming up with the proposed system. "PC 2 Phone event Announcer", is the name of the new proposed system suggested to solve the existing communication problem between the College staff and students. As the name suggests, it can be deduced that the system will involve computers and phones, more specifically mobile phones.

  18. Mobile phone use and risk of brain tumours

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahkola, A.

    2010-05-15

    Mobile phone use has increased rapidly worldwide since the 1990's. As mobile telephones are used close to the head, the exposure to the radiofrequency radiation emitted by mobile phones has been suggested as a possible risk factor for brain tumours. The effect of mobile phone use on risk of brain tumours, particularly gliomas and meningiomas as well as acoustic neuromas, was evaluated using both a case-control approach and a meta-analysis. In addition, one of the most important sources of error in a case-control study, selection bias due to differential participation, was assessed in a subset of the case-control data. The risk of glioma and meningioma in relation to mobile phone use was investigated in population-based case-control studies conducted in five North European countries. All these countries used a common protocol and were included in a multinational study on mobile phone use and brain tumours, the INTERPHONE study, coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Cases (1,521 gliomas and 1,209 meningiomas) were identified mostly from hospitals and controls (3,299) from national population registers or general practitioners' patient lists. Detailed history of mobile phone use was obtained in personal interviews. Mobile phone use was assessed using several exposure indicators, such as regular use (phone use at least once a week for at least six months), duration of use as well as cumulative number of hours and calls. To comprehensively evaluate the effect of mobile phone use on risk of brain tumours, the existing evidence from the epidemiological studies published on the issue was combined using meta-analysis. In the analysis, a pooled estimate was calculated for all brain tumours combined, and also separately for the three most common tumour types, glioma, meningioma and acoustic neuroma using inverse variance-weighted method. Pooled estimate was also obtained for different telephone types (NMT and GSM) and by the location

  19. Effect of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation on the rats' brain, liver and kidney cells measured by comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trosić, Ivancica; Pavicić, Ivan; Milković-Kraus, Sanja; Mladinić, Marin; Zeljezić, Davor

    2011-12-01

    The goal of study was to evaluate DNA damage in rat's renal, liver and brain cells after in vivo exposure to radiofrequency/microwave (Rf/Mw) radiation of cellular phone frequencies range. To determine DNA damage, a single cell gel electrophoresis/comet assay was used. Wistar rats (male, 12 week old, approximate body weight 350 g) (N = 9) were exposed to the carrier frequency of 915 MHz with Global System Mobile signal modulation (GSM), power density of 2.4 W/m2, whole body average specific absorption rate SAR of 0.6 W/kg. The animals were irradiated for one hour/day, seven days/week during two weeks period. The exposure set-up was Gigahertz Transversal Electromagnetic Mode Cell (GTEM--cell). Sham irradiated controls (N = 9) were apart of the study. The body temperature was measured before and after exposure. There were no differences in temperature in between control and treated animals. Comet assay parameters such as the tail length and tail intensity were evaluated. In comparison with tail length in controls (13.5 +/- 0.7 microm), the tail was slightly elongated in brain cells of irradiated animals (14.0 +/- 0.3 microm). The tail length obtained for liver (14.5 +/- 0.3 microm) and kidney (13.9 +/- 0.5 microm) homogenates notably differs in comparison with matched sham controls (13.6 +/- 0.3 microm) and (12.9 +/- 0.9 microm). Differences in tail intensity between control and exposed animals were not significant. The results of this study suggest that, under the experimental conditions applied, repeated 915 MHz irradiation could be a cause of DNA breaks in renal and liver cells, but not affect the cell genome at the higher extent compared to the basal damage.

  20. Response of hematopoietic stem cells to ionizing radiation; Reponse des cellules souches hematopoitiques aux radiations ionisantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonnet, A

    2008-12-15

    Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) maintain blood and immune system throughout life and restore them after hematological injuries. Exposure of an organism to ionizing radiation (IR) causes rapid and acute myelosuppression and challenges the replenishment capacity of HSCs. Yet, the precise damages that are generated remain largely unexplored. To better understand these effects, phenotypic and functional changes in the stem/progenitor compartments of sublethally irradiated mice were monitored over a ten week period after radiation exposure. We report that shortly after sublethal IR-exposure, HSCs, defined by their repopulating ability, still segregate in the Hoechst dye excluding side population (SP); yet, their Sca-1 (S) and c-Kit (K) expression levels are increased and severely reduced, respectively, with a concurrent increase in the proportion of SP{sup SK} cells positive for established indicators of HSC presence: CD150{sup +} and CD105{sup +}. A great proportion of HSCs quickly but transiently enter the cell cycle to replenish the bone marrow of myelo-ablated mice. Ten weeks after, whereas bone marrow cellularity has recovered and hematopoietic homeostasis is restored, major phenotypic modifications can be observed within the Lin{sup -/low} Sca-1{sup +} c-Kit{sup +} (LSK) stem/progenitor compartment: CD150{sup +}/Flk2{sup -} and CD150{sup -}/Flk2{sup +} LSK cell frequencies are increased and dramatically reduced, respectively. CD150{sup +} LSK cells also show impaired reconstitution capacity, accrued number of {gamma}-H2AX foci and increased tendency to apoptosis. This demonstrates that the LSK compartment is not properly restored 10 weeks after sublethal exposure, and that long-term IR-induced injury to the bone marrow proceeds, at least partially, through direct damage to the stem cell pool. Thrombopoietin (TPO) has been shown to promote the survival of lethally irradiated mice when administrated quickly after exposure. We investigated the mechanisms underlying

  1. 大学生社会支持、孤独感与手机依赖的关系研究%A Study on the Relationship between Social Support, Loneliness and Cell Phone Dependence of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    涂巍

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship between perceived social support, loneliness and cell phone dependence, and to provide theoretical basis for reducing the phenomenon of mobile phone dependency. Methods:733 college students were investigated by using the mobile phone dependence scale (MPAI), perceived social support scale (PSSS) and Loneliness Scale (UCLA). Relied on the college students on the phone in the escape and scores of girls was significantly higher than boys;in the grade control, escape and total 2 was significantly higher than that of a large;on account of, rural students in inefficient was significantly lower than that of urban students;in the professional, in addition to escape the dimension and in other dimensions and total score there are significant differences in professional. Mobile phone dependence in the sub dimensions of out of con-trol, withdrawal, avoidance, inefficiency and total score and loneliness significantly positive correlation, and perceived social significant negative correlation. Loneliness can significantly predict the out of control, withdrawal, avoidance, low efficiency and total score, and perceived social support can significantly predict withdrawal and total score. Conclusion:Mobile phone dependence in college students are different in gender, grade, registered permanent residence and professional level. The per-ceived social support of college students can predict the mobile phone dependence behavior negatively, and the sense of lon-eliness can positively predict the behavior of the mobile phone.%目的:探讨大学生领悟社会支持、孤独感与手机依赖的关系,为降低手机依赖现象提供理论依据。方法:采用手机依赖量表(MPAI)、领悟社会支持量表(PSSS)、孤独量表(UCLA),对733名在校大学生进行调查。结果:大学生手机依赖在逃避性和总分上女生显著高于男生;在年级上失控性、逃避性和总分上大二显著高于大一;在户

  2. Radiation dose assessment of ACP hot cell in accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kook, D. H.; Jeong, W. M.; Koo, J. H.; Jeo, I. J.; Lee, E. P.; Ryu, K. S. [KAERI, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    The Advanced spent fuel Condition in Process(ACP) is under development for the effective management of spent fuel which had been generated in nuclear plants. The ACP needs a hot cell where most operations will be performed. To give priority to the environments safety, radiation doses evaluations for the radioactive nuclides in accident cases were preliminarily performed with the meteorological data around facility site. Fire accident prevails over several accidnets. Internal Dose and External Dose evaluation according to short dispersion data for that case show a safe margin for regulation limits and SAR limit of IMEF where this facility will be constructed.

  3. Ionizing radiation induces heritable disruption of epithelial cell interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Catherine C.; Henshall-Powell, Rhonda L.; Erickson, Anna C.; Talhouk, Rabih; Parvin, Bahram; Bissell, Mina J.; Barcellos-Hoff, Mary Helen; Chatterjee, A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a known human breast carcinogen. Although the mutagenic capacity of IR is widely acknowledged as the basis for its action as a carcinogen, we and others have shown that IR can also induce growth factors and extracellular matrix remodeling. As a consequence, we have proposed that an additional factor contributing to IR carcinogenesis is the potential disruption of critical constraints that are imposed by normal cell interactions. To test this hypothesis, we asked whether IR affected the ability of nonmalignant human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) to undergo tissue-specific morphogenesis in culture by using confocal microscopy and imaging bioinformatics. We found that irradiated single HMEC gave rise to colonies exhibiting decreased localization of E-cadherin, beta-catenin, and connexin-43, proteins necessary for the establishment of polarity and communication. Severely compromised acinar organization was manifested by the majority of irradiated HMEC progeny as quantified by image analysis. Disrupted cell-cell communication, aberrant cell-extracellular matrix interactions, and loss of tissue-specific architecture observed in the daughters of irradiated HMEC are characteristic of neoplastic progression. These data point to a heritable, nonmutational mechanism whereby IR compromises cell polarity and multicellular organization.

  4. Real versus Simulated Mobile Phone Exposures in Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitris J. Panagopoulos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined whether exposures to mobile phone radiation in biological/clinical experiments should be performed with real-life Electromagnetic Fields (EMFs emitted by commercially available mobile phone handsets, instead of simulated EMFs emitted by generators or test phones. Real mobile phone emissions are constantly and unpredictably varying and thus are very different from simulated emissions which employ fixed parameters and no variability. This variability is an important parameter that makes real emissions more bioactive. Living organisms seem to have decreased defense against environmental stressors of high variability. While experimental studies employing simulated EMF-emissions present a strong inconsistency among their results with less than 50% of them reporting effects, studies employing real mobile phone exposures demonstrate an almost 100% consistency in showing adverse effects. This consistency is in agreement with studies showing association with brain tumors, symptoms of unwellness, and declines in animal populations. Average dosimetry in studies with real emissions can be reliable with increased number of field measurements, and variation in experimental outcomes due to exposure variability becomes less significant with increased number of experimental replications. We conclude that, in order for experimental findings to reflect reality, it is crucially important that exposures be performed by commercially available mobile phone handsets.

  5. Neoplastic transformation in C3H 10T(1/2) cells after exposure to 835.62 MHz FDMA and 847.74 MHz CDMA radiations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roti Roti JL; Malyapa, R S; Bisht, K S; Ahern, E W; Moros, E G; Pickard, W F; Straube, W L

    2001-01-01

    The effect of radiofrequency (RF) radiation in the cellular phone communication range (835.62 MHz frequency division multiple access, FDMA; 847.74 MHz code division multiple access, CDMA) on neoplastic transformation frequency was measured using the in vitro C3H 10T(1/2) cell transformation assay system. To determine if 835.62 MHz FDMA or 847.74 MHz CDMA radiations have any genotoxic effects that induce neoplastic transformation, C3H 10T(1/2) cells were exposed at 37 degrees C to either of the above radiations [each at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.6 W/kg] or sham-exposed at the same time for 7 days. After the culture medium was changed, the cultures were transferred to incubators and refed with fresh growth medium every 7 days. After 42 days, the cells were fixed and stained with Giemsa, and transformed foci were scored. To determine if exposure to 835.62 MHz FDMA or 847.74 MHz CDMA radiation has any epigenetic effects that can promote neoplastic transformation, cells were first exposed to 4.5 Gy of X rays to induce the transformation process and then exposed to the above radiations (SAR = 0.6 W/kg) in temperature-controlled irradiators with weekly refeeding for 42 days. After both the 7-day RF exposure and the 42-day RF exposure after X irradiation, no statistically significant differences in the transformation frequencies were observed between incubator controls, the sham-exposed (maintained in irradiators without power to the antenna), and the 835.62 MHz FDMA or 847.74 MHz CDMA-exposed groups.

  6. SU-E-J-274: Responses of Medulloblastoma Cells to Radiation Dosimetric Parameters in Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J [Dept. of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford, CA (United States); Bio-X Program, Stanford, CA (United States); Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, J [Proton Therapy Center, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Rogalla, S; Contag, C [Dept. of Pediatrics, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA (United States); Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford, CA (United States); Bio-X Program, Stanford, CA (United States); Woo, D [Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, D [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Asan Institute for Life Sciences, Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, H [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Suh, T [Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate radiation responses of the medulloblastoma cell line Daoy in intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), quantitative variations to variable radiation dosimetic parameters were tracked by bioluminescent images (BLIs). Methods: The luciferase and green fluorescent protein positive Daoy cells were cultured on dishes. The medulloblastoma cells irradiated to different dose rate, interval of fractionated doses, field margin and misalignment, and dose uniformity in IMRT were monitored using bioluminescent images. The cultured cells were placed into a dedicated acrylic phantom to deliver intensity-modulated fluences and calculate accurate predicted dose distribution. The radiation with dose rate from 0.5 Gy/min to 15 Gy/min was irradiated by adjusting monitor unit per minute and source-to-surface distances. The intervals of fractionated dose delivery were changed considering the repair time of double strand breaks (DSB) revealed by straining of gamma-H2AX.The effect of non-uniform doses on the cells were visualized by registering dose distributions and BLIs. The viability according to dosimetric parameters was correlated with bioluminescent intensities for cross-check of radiation responses. Results: The DSB and cell responses due to the first fractionated dose delivery significantly affected final tumor control rather than other parameters. The missing tumor volumes due to the smaller field margin than the tumor periphery or field misalignment caused relapse of cell responses on BLIs. The dose rate and gradient had effect on initial responses but could not bring out the distinguishable killing effect on cancer cells. Conclusion: Visualized and quantified bioluminescent images were useful to correlate the dose distributions with spatial radiation effects on cells. This would derive the effective combination of dose delivery parameters and fractionation. Radiation responses in particular IMRT configuration could be reflected to image based-dose re-optimization.

  7. The protective effect of autophagy on mouse spermatocyte derived cells exposure to 1800MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kaijun; Zhang, Guowei; Wang, Zhi; Liu, Yong; Dong, Jianyun; Dong, Xiaomei; Liu, Jinyi; Cao, Jia; Ao, Lin; Zhang, Shaoxiang

    2014-08-04

    The increasing exposure to radiofrequency (RF) radiation emitted from mobile phone use has raised public concern regarding the biological effects of RF exposure on the male reproductive system. Autophagy contributes to maintaining intracellular homeostasis under environmental stress. To clarify whether RF exposure could induce autophagy in the spermatocyte, mouse spermatocyte-derived cells (GC-2) were exposed to 1800MHz Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) signals in GSM-Talk mode at specific absorption rate (SAR) values of 1w/kg, 2w/kg or 4w/kg for 24h, respectively. The results indicated that the expression of LC3-II increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner with RF exposure, and showed a significant change at the SAR value of 4w/kg. The autophagosome formation and the occurrence of autophagy were further confirmed by GFP-LC3 transient transfection assay and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Furthermore, the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II was enhanced by co-treatment with Chloroquine (CQ), indicating autophagic flux could be enhanced by RF exposure. Intracellular ROS levels significantly increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner after cells were exposed to RF. Pretreatment with anti-oxidative NAC obviously decreased the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and attenuated the degradation of p62 induced by RF exposure. Meanwhile, phosphorylated extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) significantly increased after RF exposure at the SAR value of 2w/kg and 4w/kg. Moreover, we observed that RF exposure did not increase the percentage of apoptotic cells, but inhibition of autophagy could increase the percentage of apoptotic cells. These findings suggested that autophagy flux could be enhanced by 1800MHz GSM exposure (4w/kg), which is mediated by ROS generation. Autophagy may play an important role in preventing cells from apoptotic cell death under RF exposure stress.

  8. PhoneGap for enterprise

    CERN Document Server

    Shotts, Kerri

    2014-01-01

    This book is intended for developers who wish to use PhoneGap to develop useful, rich, secure mobile applications for their enterprise environment. The book assumes you have working knowledge of PhoneGap, HTML5, CSS3, and JavaScript, and a reasonable understanding of networking and n-tier architectures.

  9. Blood cell labelling. Theory and methods: radiation hazards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trott, N G; Akbari, R B

    1984-02-03

    The chief physical properties of the radionuclide In111 are outlined, and compared with those of three other radionuclides, Tc99m, I131 and Cr51 which have similar applications. It is pointed out that the gamma-rays of In111 are appreciably more penetrating in lead than those of Tc99m and the significance of this, both in the use of shielding on syringes and in the effectiveness of lead glass screens is discussed. Examples are given of the dosimetry for In111 labelled cells in humans and it is noted that the absorbed dose in the spleen per mCi (37 MBq) injected may be some 10 rad (0.1 Gy). The problems that have been noted of damage to cells arising from oxine labelling and now considered to be due to radiation damage are briefly reviewed.

  10. Intravital Computer Morphometry on Protozoa: A Method for Monitoring of the Morphofunctional Disorders in Cells Exposed in the Cell Phone Communication Electromagnetic Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uskalova, D V; Igolkina, Yu V; Sarapultseva, E I

    2016-08-01

    Morphofunctional disorders in unicellular aquatic protozoa - Spirostomum ambiguum infusorians after 30-, 60-, and 360-min exposure in electromagnetic field at a radiation frequency of 1 GHz and energy flow density of 50 μW/cm(2) were analyzed by intravital computer morphometry. Significant disorders in morphometric values correlated with low mobility of the protozoa. The results suggested the use of intravital computer morphometry on the protozoa for early diagnosis of radiation-induced effects of the mobile communication electromagnetic field, for example, low mobility of spermatozoa.

  11. Silicon space solar cells: progression and radiation-resistance analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Atteq ur; Lee, Sang Hee; Lee, Soo Hong

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, an overview of the solar cell technology based on silicon for applications in space is presented. First, the space environment and its effects on the basis of satellite orbits, such as geostationary earth orbit (GEO) and low earth orbit (LEO), are described. The space solar cell technology based on silicon-based materials, including thin-film silicon solar cells, for use in space was appraised. The evolution of the design for silicon solar cell for use in space, such as a backsurface field (BSF), selective doping, and both-side passivation, etc., is illustrated. This paper also describes the nature of radiation-induced defects and the models proposed for understanding the output power degradation in silicon space solar cells. The phenomenon of an anomalous increase in the short-circuit current ( I sc) in the fluence irradiation range from 2 × 1016 cm-2 to 5 × 1016 cm-2 is also described explicitly from the view point of the various presented models.

  12. Invasive oral cancer stem cells display resistance to ionising radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gemenetzidis, Emilios; Gammon, Luke; Biddle, Adrian; Emich, Helena; Mackenzie, Ian C

    2015-12-22

    There is a significant amount of evidence to suggest that human tumors are driven and maintained by a sub-population of cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSC). In the case of head and neck cancer, such cells have been characterised by high expression levels of CD44 cell surface glycoprotein, while we have previously shown the presence of two diverse oral CSC populations in vitro, with different capacities for cell migration and proliferation. Here, we examined the response of oral CSC populations to ionising radiation (IR), a front-line measure for the treatment of head and neck tumors. We show that oral CSC initially display resistance to IR-induced growth arrest as well as relative apoptotic resistance. We propose that this is a result of preferential activation of the DNA damagerepair pathway in oral CSC with increased activation of ATM and BRCA1, elevated levels of DNA repair proteins RAD52, XLF, and a significantly faster rate of DNA double-strand-breaks clearance 24 hours following IR. By visually identifying CSC sub-populations undergoing EMT, we show that EMT-CSC represent the majority of invasive cells, and are more radio-resistant than any other population in re-constructed 3D tissues. We provide evidence that IR is not sufficient to eliminate CSC in vitro, and that sensitization of CD44hi/ESAlow cells to IR, followed by secondary EMT blockade, could be critical in order to reduce primary tumor recurrence, but more importantly to be able to eradicate cells capable of invasion and distant metastasis.

  13. Securing Applications in Windows Phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Venkat Sandeep

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Windows Phone 7 has been planned with speed in mind. Windows phone is the new baby from Microsoft which is impressed by its features. More than 80,000 apps have now been published in the Windows Phone Marketplace and new content is currently being added at the rate of 340 apps per day [1]. Although there are many benefits, these are not without risks. Most of today’s mobile applications are transaction based, the security is even greater. In this paper we will discuss about the security in mobile devices, and how the windows phone has supported in developing secure applications. Also discuss about the isolated storage feature in windows phone. As security is more important for the Mobile devices, this also discusses how the additional security is provided to the apps.

  14. BETTY'S CELL PHONE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    今日任务蓓蒂买新手机时必须做哪些决定? 会话A (赛门站在邮局里。)蓓蒂:赛门,所以我的手机出了什么问题啊?赛门:我不确定耶,蓓蒂。我看过电池,电池没问题,但你也知道这个手机很旧了。

  15. Effects of ionizing radiation on bone cell differentiation in an experimental murine bone cell model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumstark-Khan, Christa; Lau, Patrick; Hellweg, Christine; Reitz, Guenther

    During long-term space travel astronauts are exposed to a complex mixture of different radiation types under conditions of dramatically reduced weight-bearing activity. It has been validated that astronauts loose a considerable amount of bone mass at a rate up to one to two percent each month in space. Therapeutic doses of ionizing radiation cause bone damage and increase fracture risks after treatment for head-and-neck cancer and in pelvic irradiation. For low radiation doses, the possibility of a disturbed healing potential of bone was described. Radiation induced damage has been discussed to inflict mainly on immature and healing bone. Little is known about radiation effects on bone remodelling and even less on the combined action of microgravity and radiation. Bone remodelling is a life-long process performed by balanced action of cells from the osteoblast and osteoclast lineages. While osteoblasts differentiate either into bone-lining cells or into osteocytes and play a crucial role in bone matrix synthesis, osteoclasts are responsible for bone resorption. We hypothesize that the balance between bone matrix assembly by osteocytes and bone degradation by osteoclasts is modulated by microgravity as well as by ionizing radiation. To address this, a cell model consisting of murine cell lines with the potential to differentiate into bone-forming osteoblasts (OCT-1, MC3T3-E1 S24, and MC3T3-E1 S4) was used for studying radiation response after exposure to simulated components of cosmic radiation. Cells were exposed to graded doses of 150 kV X-rays, α particles (0.525 MeV/u, 160 keV/µm; PTB, Braunschweig, Germany) and accelerated heavy ions (75 MeV/u carbon, 29 keV/µm; 95 MeV/u argon, 230 keV/µm; GANIL, Caen, France). Cell survival was measured as colony forming ability; cell cycle progression was analyzed via fluorescence-activated cell scanning (FACS) by measurement of the content of propidium iodide-stained DNA, DNA damage was visualized by γH2AX

  16. Modelling and assessment of the electric field strength caused by mobile phone to the human head

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckus Raimondas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Electromagnetic field exposure is the one of the most important physical agents that actively affects live organisms and environment. Active use of mobile phones influences the increase of electromagnetic field radiation. The aim of the study was to measure and assess the electric field strength caused by mobile phones to the human head. Methods. In this paper the software “COMSOL Multiphysics” was used to establish the electric field strength created by mobile phones around the head. Results. The second generation (2G Global System for Mobile (GSM phones that operate in the frequency band of 900 MHz and reach the power of 2 W have a stronger electric field than (2G GSM mobile phones that operate in the higher frequency band of 1,800 MHz and reach the power up to 1 W during conversation. The third generation of (3G UMTS smart phones that effectively use high (2,100 MHz radio frequency band emit the smallest electric field strength values during conversation. The highest electric field strength created by mobile phones is around the ear, i.e. the mobile phone location. The strength of mobile phone electric field on the phantom head decreases exponentially while moving sidewards from the center of the effect zone (the ear, and constitutes 1-12% of the artificial head’s surface. Conclusion. The highest electric field strength values of mobile phones are associated with their higher power, bigger specific energy absorption rate (SAR and lower frequency of mobile phone. The stronger electric field emitted by the more powerful mobile phones takes a higher percentage of the head surface. The highest electric field strength created by mobile phones is distributed over the user ear.

  17. Effect of ionizing radiation on the physical biology of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Groberg, Sandra M; Bornstein, Sophia; Zilberman-Rudenko, Jevgenia; Schmidt, Mark; Tormoen, Garth W; Kernan, Casey; Thomas, Charles R; Wong, Melissa H; Phillips, Kevin G; McCarty, Owen J T

    2015-09-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth leading cause of cancer worldwide. Although there are numerous treatment options for HNSCC, such as surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy, molecularly targeted systemic therapeutics, and radiotherapy, overall survival has not significantly improved in the last 50 years. This suggests a need for a better understanding of how these cancer cells respond to current treatments in order to improve treatment paradigms. Ionizing radiation (IR) promotes cancer cell death through the creation of cytotoxic DNA lesions, including single strand breaks, base damage, crosslinks, and double strand breaks (DSBs). As unrepaired DSBs are the most cytotoxic DNA lesion, defining the downstream cellular responses to DSBs are critical for understanding the mechanisms of tumor cell responses to IR. The effects of experimental IR on HNSCC cells beyond DNA damage in vitro are ill-defined. Here we combined label-free, quantitative phase and fluorescent microscopy to define the effects of IR on the dry mass and volume of the HNSCC cell line, UM-SCC-22A. We quantified nuclear and cytoplasmic subcellular density alterations resulting from 8 Gy X-ray IR and correlated these signatures with DNA and γ-H2AX expression patterns. This study utilizes a synergistic imaging approach to study both biophysical and biochemical alterations in cells following radiation damage and will aid in future understanding of cellular responses to radiation therapy.

  18. Curcumin Sensitizes Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells to Radiation via Suppression of Radiation-Induced NF-κB Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei-Ting Hsu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects and possible underlying mechanism of curcumin combined with radiation in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC cells in vitro were evaluated. The effects of curcumin, radiation, and combination of both on cell viability, apoptosis, NF-κB activation, and expressions of NF-κB downstream effector proteins were investigated with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT, NF-κB reporter gene, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, electrophoretic mobility shift (EMSA, and Western blot assays in Huh7-NF-κB-luc2, Hep3B, and HepG2 cells. Effect of I kappa B alpha mutant (IκBαM vector, a specific inhibitor of NF-κB activation, on radiation-induced loss of MMP was also evaluated. Results show that curcumin not only significantly enhances radiation-induced cytotoxicity and depletion of MMP but inhibits radiation-induced NF-κB activity and expressions of NF-κB downstream proteins in HCC cells. IκBαM vector also shows similar effects. In conclusion, we suggest that curcumin augments anticancer effects of radiation via the suppression of NF-κB activation.

  19. “Nomophobia”: Impact of Cell Phone Use Interfering with Symptoms and Emotions of Individuals with Panic Disorder Compared with a Control Group

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Panic disorder refers to the frequent and recurring acute attacks of anxiety. Objective : This study describes the routine use of mobiles phones (MPs) and investigates the appearance of possible emotional alterations or symptoms related to their use in patients with panic disorder (PD). Background : We compared patients with PD and agoraphobia being treated at the Panic and Respiration Laboratory of The Institute of Psychiatry, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to a control group ...

  20. Mobile Phone Terminal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    In the photo, an employee of a real estate firm is contacting his office by means of HICOM, an advanced central terminal for mobile telephones. Developed by the Orlando Division of Martin Marietta Aerospace, Orlando, Florida, and manufactured by Harris Corporation's RF Division, Rochester, N.Y., HICOM upgrades service to users, provides better system management to telephone companies, and makes more efficient use of available mobile telephone channels through a computerized central control terminal. The real estate man, for example, was able to dial his office and he could also have direct-dialed a long distance number. Mobile phones in most areas not yet served by HICOM require an operator's assistance for both local and long distance calls. HICOM improves system management by automatically recording information on all calls for accurate billing, running continual performance checks on its own operation, and reporting any malfunctions to a central office.

  1. Effects of Chronic Low-Dose Radiation on Human Neural Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Mari; Cyou-Nakamine, Hiromasa; Zen, Qin; Zen, Yang; Nansai, Hiroko; Amagasa, Shota; Kanki, Yasuharu; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Kaneki, Kiyomi; Taguchi, Akashi; Kobayashi, Mika; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Wada, Youichiro; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Sone, Hideko

    2016-01-01

    The effects of chronic low-dose radiation on human health have not been well established. Recent studies have revealed that neural progenitor cells are present not only in the fetal brain but also in the adult brain. Since immature cells are generally more radiosensitive, here we investigated the effects of chronic low-dose radiation on cultured human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from embryonic stem cells. Radiation at low doses of 31, 124 and 496 mGy per 72 h was administered to hNPCs. The effects were estimated by gene expression profiling with microarray analysis as well as morphological analysis. Gene expression was dose-dependently changed by radiation. By thirty-one mGy of radiation, inflammatory pathways involving interferon signaling and cell junctions were altered. DNA repair and cell adhesion molecules were affected by 124 mGy of radiation while DNA synthesis, apoptosis, metabolism, and neural differentiation were all affected by 496 mGy of radiation. These in vitro results suggest that 496 mGy radiation affects the development of neuronal progenitor cells while altered gene expression was observed at a radiation dose lower than 100 mGy. This study would contribute to the elucidation of the clinical and subclinical phenotypes of impaired neuronal development induced by chronic low-dose radiation.

  2. Effects of Chronic Low-Dose Radiation on Human Neural Progenitor Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Mari; Cyou-Nakamine, Hiromasa; Zen, Qin; Zen, Yang; Nansai, Hiroko; Amagasa, Shota; Kanki, Yasuharu; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Kaneki, Kiyomi; Taguchi, Akashi; Kobayashi, Mika; Kaji, Toshiyuki; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Miyagawa, Kiyoshi; Wada, Youichiro; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Sone, Hideko

    2016-01-01

    The effects of chronic low-dose radiation on human health have not been well established. Recent studies have revealed that neural progenitor cells are present not only in the fetal brain but also in the adult brain. Since immature cells are generally more radiosensitive, here we investigated the effects of chronic low-dose radiation on cultured human neural progenitor cells (hNPCs) derived from embryonic stem cells. Radiation at low doses of 31, 124 and 496 mGy per 72 h was administered to hNPCs. The effects were estimated by gene expression profiling with microarray analysis as well as morphological analysis. Gene expression was dose-dependently changed by radiation. By thirty-one mGy of radiation, inflammatory pathways involving interferon signaling and cell junctions were altered. DNA repair and cell adhesion molecules were affected by 124 mGy of radiation while DNA synthesis, apoptosis, metabolism, and neural differentiation were all affected by 496 mGy of radiation. These in vitro results suggest that 496 mGy radiation affects the development of neuronal progenitor cells while altered gene expression was observed at a radiation dose lower than 100 mGy. This study would contribute to the elucidation of the clinical and subclinical phenotypes of impaired neuronal development induced by chronic low-dose radiation. PMID:26795421

  3. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Progress report, November 1, 1977--October 31, 1978. [Uv and x radiation, bacteriophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fluke, D.J.; Pollard, E.C.

    1978-01-01

    Progress is reported on the following research projects: coordinate induction of mutagenesis, radioresistance, and inhibition of post-radiation DNA degradation; radioinduced filamentation; action spectrum for induction of K12 lambda phage; effects of uv radiation on cells in the frozen state; dependence of mutagenesis on wavelength of uv; and w-reactivation of x-irradiated phage lambda. (HLW)

  4. Stereotactic body radiation therapy versus conventional radiation therapy in patients with early stage non-small cell lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Stefan Starup; Schytte, Tine; Jensen, Henrik R;

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is now an accepted and patient friendly treatment, but still controversy exists about its comparability to conventional radiation therapy (RT). The purpose of this single...... and SBRT predicted improved prognosis. However, staging procedure, confirmation procedure of recurrence and technical improvements of radiation treatment is likely to influence outcomes. However, SBRT seems to be as efficient as conventional RT and is a more convenient treatment for the patients....

  5. Epicatechin stimulates mitochondrial activity and selectively sensitizes cancer cells to radiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosam A Elbaz

    Full Text Available Radiotherapy is the treatment of choice for solid tumors including pancreatic cancer, but the effectiveness of treatment is limited by radiation resistance. Resistance to chemotherapy or radiotherapy is associated with reduced mitochondrial respiration and drugs that stimulate mitochondrial respiration may decrease radiation resistance. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the potential of (--epicatechin to stimulate mitochondrial respiration in cancer cells and to selectively sensitize cancer cells to radiation. We investigated the natural compound (--epicatechin for effects on mitochondrial respiration and radiation resistance of pancreatic and glioblastoma cancer cells using a Clark type oxygen electrode, clonogenic survival assays, and Western blot analyses. (--Epicatechin stimulated mitochondrial respiration and oxygen consumption in Panc-1 cells. Human normal fibroblasts were not affected. (--Epicatechin sensitized Panc-1, U87, and MIA PaCa-2 cells with an average radiation enhancement factor (REF of 1.7, 1.5, and 1.2, respectively. (--Epicatechin did not sensitize normal fibroblast cells to ionizing radiation with a REF of 0.9, suggesting cancer cell selectivity. (--Epicatechin enhanced Chk2 phosphorylation and p21 induction when combined with radiation in cancer, but not normal, cells. Taken together, (--epicatechin radiosensitized cancer cells, but not normal cells, and may be a promising candidate for pancreatic cancer treatment when combined with radiation.

  6. Imaging and radiation effects of gold nanoparticles in tumour cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    McQuaid, Harold N.; Muir, Mark F.; Taggart, Laura E.; McMahon, Stephen J.; Coulter, Jonathan A.; Hyland, Wendy B.; Jain, Suneil; Butterworth, Karl T.; Schettino, Giuseppe; Prise, Kevin M.; Hirst, David G.; Botchway, Stanley W.; Currell, Fred J.

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanoparticle radiosensitization represents a novel technique in enhancement of ionising radiation dose and its effect on biological systems. Variation between theoretical predictions and experimental measurement is significant enough that the mechanism leading to an increase in cell killing and DNA damage is still not clear. We present the first experimental results that take into account both the measured biodistribution of gold nanoparticles at the cellular level and the range of the product electrons responsible for energy deposition. Combining synchrotron-generated monoenergetic X-rays, intracellular gold particle imaging and DNA damage assays, has enabled a DNA damage model to be generated that includes the production of intermediate electrons. We can therefore show for the first time good agreement between the prediction of biological outcomes from both the Local Effect Model and a DNA damage model with experimentally observed cell killing and DNA damage induction via the combination of X-rays and GNPs. However, the requirement of two distinct models as indicated by this mechanistic study, one for short-term DNA damage and another for cell survival, indicates that, at least for nanoparticle enhancement, it is not safe to equate the lethal lesions invoked in the local effect model with DNA damage events.

  7. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple

    CERN Document Server

    Trautschold, Martin

    2011-01-01

    With Windows Phone 7, Microsoft has created a completely new smartphone operating system that focuses on allowing users to be productive with their smartphone in new ways, while offering seamless integration and use of Microsoft Office Mobile as well as other productivity apps available in the Microsoft App Store. Windows Phone 7 Made Simple offers a clear, visual, step-by-step approach to using your Windows Phone 7 smartphone, no matter what the manufacturer. Author Jon Westfall is an expert in mobile devices, recognized by Microsoft as a "Most Valuable Professional" with experience

  8. Beginner's iPhone tutorial

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Kristin

    2012-01-01

    Since the debut of the iPhone, people have flocked to the phone store to buy this great tool. The iPhone does double duty and works great for teenagers who want to keep in contact with their friends or catch up on the latest social media gossip, but it's also great for business men and women who need to keep up to date with their clients and customers. With such a wide demographic of users, it's no surprise why this device is number one in sales across the country and gets such a large crowd at a new model debut.

  9. The iPhone at IVK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nolan, Richard L.; Austin, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    The CIO addresses a decision to replace salesmen netbook PC's with iPhones, including converting the company's sales and customer applications to the iPhone platform......The CIO addresses a decision to replace salesmen netbook PC's with iPhones, including converting the company's sales and customer applications to the iPhone platform...

  10. Study on mobile phone use while driving in a sample of Iranian drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arvin, Ramin; Khademi, Mostafa; Razi-Ardakani, Hesamoddin

    2016-05-16

    The use of cell phone is a significant source of driver distraction. Phone use while driving can impair a number of factors critical for safe driving which can cause serious traffic safety problems. The objective of this paper was to investigate the frequency of using cell phones while driving in Iran's roads through an observational survey with a random sample of drivers, to recognize contributing factors to cell phone usage and to understand the magnitude of the problem. A total of 1794 observations were collected from 12 sites at controlled intersections, entrance and exit points of highways. The cell phone use rate among drivers (talking or texting) was estimated at 10% which is significantly higher than that in other countries such as Australia, USA and Canada. Rate of cell phone use among younger drivers (14.15%) was higher in comparison with other groups. In order to identify factors affecting cell phone use while driving, a binary logit model is estimated. Variables which significantly contribute to the rate of using cell phone were found to be the age of driver, number of passengers, presence of kids under the age of 8, time of observation, vehicle price and type of car.

  11. A Review: Effects of Cell Phone Use on Driving Performance%驾驶中使用手机对驾驶员行为安全绩效影响综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏汀; 刘彦宇; 李文书

    2013-01-01

    Cell phone use while driving had an high correlation with crash involvement and decreased driving performance. In order to reveal the influence of using cell phone on driving behavior safety performance and explore the theoretical mechanism affecting driving safety, take more effective prevention measures,related studies were reviewed for nearly 10 years, distracted driving,a problem related closely with driving safety, was summarized. Topics, such as the definition and classification of driver distraction; the impact on driver performance due to cell phone use while driving, such as reaction time, travel speed, lateral position and following distance; the internal mechanism about the information processing theory and the planned behavior theory of driver distraction, were discussed. Research showed that using cell phone could lead to a increase of 15% -40% in the reaction time, impair lane-keeping, but further researches need to do about slow vehicle speed and long headway based on comparing subjective and objective data of driver; the increasing demand for information processing during a dual task elicited decreased information processing capacity; planned behavior theory could effectively predict this unsafe behavior, however, few research focused on belief measurement of theory; in addition to cell phone use while driving, other tasks that may have distracted effect on driver still need to be further researched.%驾驶中使用手机与交通事故之间存在着高度相关性.为揭示使用手机对驾驶行为安全绩效的影响,探索影响驾驶安全的理论机制,采取更有效的干预措施,结合近10 a来相关研究,综述了与驾驶安全密切相关的驾驶分心问题,主要包括:驾驶员分心的定义及其分类;使用手机对驾驶行为安全绩效的影响,如反应时(RT)、行车速度、路线保持和跟车距离;手机使用对驾驶员分心影响的理论机制,如信息加工理论和计划行为理论(TPB).分析表

  12. iPhone For Dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Baig, Edward C

    2010-01-01

    The full-color guide to getting the most out of your iPhone. Completely updated and revised throughout, this full-color guide covers Apple's new iPhone and iOS 4. Bestselling veteran authors Baig and LeVitus introduce you to the capabilities of the iPhone whether you're making phone calls, browsing the Internet, sending and receiving e-mails, working with the calendar, watching videos, taking great photos, or much more. You'll discover how to set up iTunes, buy music and videos from the iTunes store, protect your information, troubleshoot, multitask, and download the hundreds of thousands of a

  13. Effects of gamma radiation on Sporothrix schenckii yeast cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacerda, Camila M. de Sousa; Martins, Estefania Mara Nascimento; Andrade, Antero S.R. [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: cmsl@cdtn.br, e-mail: estefaniabio@yahoo.com.br, e-mail: antero@cdtn.br; Resende, Maria Aparecida de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia], e-mail: maressend@mono.icb.ufmg.br

    2009-07-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subacute or chronic infection caused by the fungus Sporothrix schenckii. Zoonotic transmission can occur after scratches or bites of animals, mainly cats, rodents, and armadillos. Up to the moment, no approved vaccine was reported for S. schenckii or to any important pathogenic fungi infection in humans, indicating the need to expand the research in this field and to explore new alternatives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation in the viability, metabolic activity and reproductive ability of S. schenckii yeast cells for further studies on the development of a vaccine for immunization of cats and dogs. The culture of S. schenckii, in solid medium, was irradiated at doses ranging from 1.0 to 9.0 kGy. After each dose the reproductive capacity, viability and protein synthesis were estimated. The results showed that a reduction of 6 log{sub 10} cycles in the number of colonies was achieved at 6.0 kGy and after 8.0 kGy no colonies could be recovered. The viability analysis indicated that yeast cells remained viable up to 9.0 kGy. The results of protein synthesis analysis showed that the yeast cells, irradiated up to 9.0 kGy, were able to synthesize proteins. Our preliminary results indicated that for the yeast cells of S. schenckii, it is possible to find an absorbed dose in which the pathogen loses its reproductive ability, while retaining its viability, a necessary condition for the development of a radioattenuated yeast vaccine. (author)

  14. The different radiation response and radiation-induced bystander effects in colorectal carcinoma cells differing in p53 status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widel, Maria, E-mail: maria.widel@polsl.pl [Biosystems Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, 16 Akademicka Street, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Lalik, Anna; Krzywon, Aleksandra [Biosystems Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, 16 Akademicka Street, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland); Poleszczuk, Jan [College of Inter-faculty Individual Studies in Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Warsaw, 93 Zwirki i Wigury Street, 02-089 Warsaw (Poland); Department of Integrated Mathematical Oncology, H. Lee Moffitt Cancer Center & Research Institute, Tampa, Florida (United States); Fujarewicz, Krzysztof; Rzeszowska-Wolny, Joanna [Biosystems Group, Institute of Automatic Control, Silesian University of Technology, 16 Akademicka Street, 44-100 Gliwice (Poland)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • We tested radiation response and bystander effect on HCT116p53+/+ and p53−/− cells. • The p53+/+ cells developed premature senescence in exposed and bystander neighbors. • Directly exposed and bystander p53−/− cells died profoundly through apoptosis. • Interleukins 6 and 8 were differently generated by both cell lines. • NFκB path was activated mainly in p53+/+ hit cells, in p53 −/− in bystanders only. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect, appearing as different biological changes in cells that are not directly exposed to ionizing radiation but are under the influence of molecular signals secreted by irradiated neighbors, have recently attracted considerable interest due to their possible implication for radiotherapy. However, various cells present diverse radiosensitivity and bystander responses that depend, inter alia, on genetic status including TP53, the gene controlling the cell cycle, DNA repair and apoptosis. Here we compared the ionizing radiation and bystander responses of human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cells with wild type or knockout TP53 using a transwell co-culture system. The viability of exposed to X-rays (0–8 Gy) and bystander cells of both lines showed a roughly comparable decline with increasing dose. The frequency of micronuclei was also comparable at lower doses but at higher increased considerably, especially in bystander TP53-/- cells. Moreover, the TP53-/- cells showed a significantly elevated frequency of apoptosis, while TP53+/+ counterparts expressed high level of senescence. The cross-matched experiments where irradiated cells of one line were co-cultured with non-irradiated cells of opposite line show that both cell lines were also able to induce bystander effects in their counterparts, however different endpoints revealed with different strength. Potential mediators of bystander effects, IL-6 and IL-8, were also generated differently in both lines. The knockout cells secreted IL-6 at

  15. Nomophobia: A Cross-sectional Study to Assess Mobile Phone Usage Among Dental Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patthi, Basavaraj; Singla, Ashish; Gupta, Ritu; Saha, Sabyasachi; Kumar, Jishnu Krishna; Malhi, Ravneet; Pandita, Venisha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Mobile phones were originally seen as a gadget for communication but currently, the internet enabled mobile phones have become an integral part of our daily life. Their benefits are incomparable but at the same time, they have some negative effects too. Aim To assess the pattern of usage of mobile phones and its effects on the academic performance of students. Materials and Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted amongst 554 students of D. J. College of Dental Sciences and Research through a self-administered questionnaire to collect the data regarding the usage and associated anxiety with mobile phone. Results About 39.5% students agreed that they score low marks in professional exams if they spend more time on phone. The number of students who frequently checked their cell phone during their classes or while doing clinical work were 24.7% . A total of 24.12% of the students were found to be nomophobic and at risk of being nomophobes were 40.97%. A statistically significant difference was found among preclinical, clinical, interns and postgraduates regarding the usage and effect of mobile phone on them. Conclusion The pattern of usage of mobile phone among dental students showed alarming indication that students have been addicted to mobile phone which in turn affect their academic performance in a negative way. It would be useful to advise the students about the controlled as well as proper usage of mobile phone. PMID:28384977

  16. MOBILE PHONE USE PATTERN AND SELF REPORTED HEALTH PROBLEMS AMONG MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pattern of mobile phone use and self-reported health problems related to over use of the mobile phones are assessed among the medical students of Travancore Medical College, Kollam. MATERIALS AND METHODS Study design: Cross-sectional study. Sample size: 200 students; Sampling technique: Convenient sampling; Data analysis: Data was entered in MS Excel and analysed by SPSS 20. RESULTS A total of 200 students and interns participated in the study and among them 78 were males and 122 were females; 33% of the participants were very frequent users of cell phone (>2 hours in a day; 77% of students are using smart phones and 23% using simple phones; 39.5% of students spending 100-300 Rs per month to recharge and 34.5% spending 300-500 Rs for the same. More than half of the study population (57% check their mobile phones every half an hour. Almost 45% students reported to have earache; headache and blurring of vision are some of the other symptoms reported by them. There is a significant association between the above mentioned health symptoms and frequent use of multimedia in mobile phones. Ringxiety is also significantly associated with frequent use of mobile phones. CONCLUSION There is substantial clue that there is overuse of mobile phones among medical students. Actions must be taken proactively to cut down and limit the mobile phone use

  17. Immobilization of microbial cell and yeast cell and its application to biomass conversion using radiation techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaetsu, Isao; Kumakura, Minoru; Fujimura, Takashi; Kasai, Noboru; Tamada, Masao

    The recent results of immobilization of cellulase-producing cells and ethanol-fermentation yeast by radiation were reported. The enzyme of cellulase produced by immobilized cells was used for saccharification of lignocellulosic wastes and immobilized yeast cells were used for fermentation reaction from glucose to ethanol. The wastes such as chaff and bagasse were treated by γ-ray or electron-beam irradiation in the presence of alkali and subsequent mechanical crushing, to form a fine powder less than 50 μm in diameter. On the other hand, Trichoderma reesei as a cellulase-producing microbial cell was immobilized on a fibrous carrier having a specific porous structure and cultured to produce cellulase. The enzymatic saccharification of the pretreated waste was carried out using the produced cellulase. The enhanced fermentation process to produce ethanol from glucose with the immobilized yeast by radiation was also studied. The ethanol productivity of immobilized growing yeast cells thus obtained was thirteen times that of free yeast cells in a 1:1 volume of liquid medium to immobilized yeast cells.

  18. Effects of freque ncy radiation of 900MHz cellular phone on the liver structure and function of rats at different time points%不同时间900 MHz 手机频率辐射对 SD 雄鼠肝组织形态和功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗亚萍; 李春香; 马惠荣; 栗晶晶; 李媛媛; 马雪莲; 宫志强

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the influence of frequency radiation of 900 MHz cellular phone on the liver structure and function of rats at different time points .Methods Thirty adult male SD rats were randomly divided into three groups,control group,12-day radiation group and 18-day radiation group.The rats in control group did not receive radiation , the rats in radiation groups received frequency radiation from 900 MHz cellular phone for 12 days and 18 days (4h/d),respectively.Finally the serum levels of ALT and AST were detected and the changes of liver structure were observed by HE staining .Results As compared with those in control group,the serum levels of ALT and AST were not obviously changed in 12-day radiation group and 18-day radiation group .HE staining results showed that as compared with that in control group , hepatic lobules was clear , hepatocyte nuclear was partly atrophy or disappeared in 12-day radiation group ,and hepatic lobules structure was basically complete , hepatocyte was swelling and vacuolar degeneration appeared in part of cytoplasm in 18-day radiation group.Con-lc usion The frequency radiation of 900 MHz cellular phone can result in hepatic injury of rats ,with hepatocyte nu-clear atrophy , swelling and vacuolar degeneration , however , serum levels of ALT and AST are not obviously changed .%目的观察900 MHz手机频率辐射12 d、18 d对雄性SD大鼠肝组织形态和功能的影响。方法选育龄期SD雄鼠30只。将雄性大鼠按体重均衡的原则随机分为3组,正常组、12 d、18 d辐射组。正常组不接受辐射,辐射组分别接受900 MHz手机频率辐射连续12 d、18 d4 h/d,于辐射结束次晨处死。观察比较3组大鼠血清丙氨酸转氨酶( ALT)、门冬氨酸氨基转移酶( AST)及二者比值,雄鼠肝脏HE染色。结果与正常组比较,12 d和18 d辐射组血清ALT、AST无显著性改变;肝的HE染色结果显示:与正常组比较,12 d辐射组肝小叶结构基

  19. Tumour microenvironment and radiation response in sarcomas originating from tumourigenic human mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Andrea, Filippo Peder; Safwat, Akmal Ahmed; Burns, Jorge S.;

    2012-01-01

    Background: Resistance to radiation therapy remains a serious impediment to cancer therapy. We previously reported heterogeneity for clonogenic survival when testing in vitro radiation resistance among single cell derived clones from a human mesenchymal cancer stem cell model (hMSC). Here we aimed...

  20. [Mobile phone abuse or addiction. A review of the literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo J; Rodríguez Monje, María Teresa; Ruiz Sánchez De León, José María

    2012-01-01

    The mobile phone is a relatively new technological tool, versatile and accessible, and very attractive, especially for young people, but whose use involves a risk of abuse and addictive behavior. In recent years there has been increasing interest in this problem, especially in view of the fact that it involves an increasingly younger population. The aim of this paper is to review the current state of scientific knowledge about cell phone addiction/abuse. To this end, a search was carried out in international databases, using the descriptors "mobile phone", "cellular telephones", "addiction" and "abuse", and focusing on prevalence studies, diagnostic tests, associations with psychological variables and gender differences. There is a conceptual vagueness about the concepts of abuse and addiction in relation to mobile phones, and wide disparity in the adoption of diagnostic criteria; moreover, there are numerous instruments for the assessment of these concepts. As a result, the estimated prevalence ranges from 0-38%, depending on the scale used and the characteristics of the population studied. Surprisingly, self-attribution of cell phone addiction exceeds the prevalence estimated in the studies themselves. The personality trait most consistently associated with addiction is low self-esteem, though extraversion is associated with more intense use. Women with low self-esteem are the most vulnerable group, and the most commonly associated psychopathological symptom was depression. In short, while the evidence suggests a problem in relation to mobile phone use, the vagueness of the cell phone addiction concept and the poor quality of the studies make it difficult to generalize the results. It is necessary to define and unify criteria with a view to carrying out quality studies that permit appropriate comparisons.

  1. Cellular neoplastic transformation induced by 916 MHz microwave radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lei; Hao, Dongmei; Wang, Minglian; Zeng, Yi; Wu, Shuicai; Zeng, Yanjun

    2012-08-01

    There has been growing concern about the possibility of adverse health effects resulting from exposure to microwave radiations, such as those emitted by mobile phones. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cellular neoplastic transformation effects of electromagnetic fields. 916 MHz continuous microwave was employed in our study to simulate the electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone. NIH/3T3 cells were adopted in our experiment due to their sensitivity to carcinogen or cancer promoter in environment. They were divided randomly into one control group and three microwave groups. The three microwave groups were exposed to 916 MHz EMF for 2 h per day with power density of 10, 50, and 90 w/m(2), respectively, in which 10 w/m(2) was close to intensity near the antenna of mobile phone. The morphology and proliferation of NIH/3T3 cells were examined and furthermore soft agar culture and animal carcinogenesis assay were carried out to determine the neoplastic promotion. Our experiments showed NIH/3T3 cells changed in morphology and proliferation after 5-8 weeks exposure and formed clone in soft agar culture after another 3-4 weeks depending on the exposure intensity. In the animal carcinogenesis study, lumps developed on the back of SCID mice after being inoculated into exposed NIH/3T3 cells for more than 4 weeks. The results indicate that microwave radiation can promote neoplastic transformation of NIH/3T3cells.

  2. Resistance of colorectal cancer cells to radiation and 5-FU is associated with MELK expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seungho [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Ku, Ja-Lok, E-mail: kujalok@snu.ac.kr [Laboratory of Cell Biology, Cancer Research Institute, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} MELK expression significantly increased when the cells are exposed to radiation or 5-FU. {yields} Suppression of MELK caused cell cycle changes and decrease in proliferation. {yields} Radiation or 5-FU treatment after MELK suppression by siRNA induced growth inhibition. -- Abstract: It was reported that the local recurrence would be caused by cancer stem cells acquiring chemo- and radio-resistance. Recently, one of the potential therapeutic targets for colorectal and other cancers has been identified, which is maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK). MELK is known as an embryonic and neural stem cell marker, and associated with the cell survival, cell proliferation, and apoptosis. In this study, SNU-503, which is a rectal cancer cell line, was treated with radiation or 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), and elevation of the MELK expression level was observed. Furthermore, the cell line was pre-treated with small interfering RNA (siRNA) against MELK mRNA before treatment of radiation or 5-FU and its effects on cell cycle and proliferation were observed. We demonstrated that knockdown of MELK reduced the proliferation of cells with radiation or 5-FU treatment. In addition, MELK suppression caused changes in cell cycle. In conclusion, MELK could be associated with increased resistance of colorectal cancer cells against radiation and 5-FU.

  3. Radiation enteritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. The therapy ...

  4. Chronic low-dose radiation protects cells from high-dose radiation via increase of AKT expression by NF-{sub k}B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyung Sun; Seong, Ki Moon; Kim, Ji Young; Kim, Cha Soon; Yang, Kwang Hee; Nam, Seon Young [Radiation Effect Research Team, Radiation Health Research Institute, Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., LTD., Gyeongju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    Exposure to low-dose and low-dose rate of ionizing radiation is an important issue in radiation protection. Low-dose ionizing radiation has been observed to elicit distinctly different responses compared to high-dose radiation, in various biological systems including the reproductive, immune, and hematopoietic systems (Liu et al. 2006). Some data were reported that low-dose radiation could initiate beneficial effects by stimulating cell growth, DNA repair, activation of transcription factors and gene expression (Calabrese et al., 2004). Cells exposed to low-dose radiation can develop adaptive resistance to subsequent high-dose radiation induced DNA damage, gene mutation, and cell death. We previously reported that low-dose of ionizing radiation induced cell survival through the activation of AKT (protein kinase B, PKB) pathway (Park et al., 2009). AKT has been shown to be potently activated in response to a wide variety of growth factors and ionizing radiation. Cell survival against ionizing radiation seems to be associated with the activation of AKT pathway via phosphorylation of its downstream nuclear target molecules. In the present study, we examined the effects of chronic low-dose irradiation in human lung fibroblast cells. The aim was to explore the possibility of a low-dose radiation-induced adaptive cellular response against subsequent challenging high-dose irradiation. In the present study, we examined the regulatory mechanism responsible for cellular response induced by chronic low-dose of ionizing radiation in normal human cells. We found that the level of AKT protein was closely associated with cell survival. In addition, NF-{sub k}B activation by chronic low-dose radiation regulates AKT activation via gene expression and acinus expression. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that chronic low-dose radiation could inhibit the cell death induced by cytotoxic high-dose radiation through the modulation of the level of AKT and acinus proteins via NF-{sub k

  5. Cell proliferation kinetics and radiation response in 9L tumor spheroids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweigert, S.E.

    1984-05-01

    Cell kinetic parameters, including population doubling-time, cell cycle time, and growth fraction, were measured in 9L gliosarcoma spheroids. These parameters were studied as the spheroids grew from 50 ..mu..m to over 900 ..mu..m in diameter. Experiments relating the cell kinetic parameters to the radiation response of 9L spheroids were also carried out. The major findings were that the average cell cycle time (T/sub c/), is considerably longer in large spheroids than in exponentially-growing monolayers, the radiosensitivity of noncycling (but still viable) cells in spheroids is not significantly different from that of cycling spheroid cells, and the radiation-induced division delay is approximately twice as long in spheroid cells as in monolayer cells given equal radiation doses. The cell loss factor for spheroids of various sizes was calculated, by using the measured kinetic parameters in the basic equations for growth of a cell population. 157 references, 6 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Study on production of useful metabolites by development of advanced cell culture techniques using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Byung Yeoup; Kim, Jinhong; Lee, Seung Sik; Bai, Hyounwoo; An, Byung Chull; Lee, Eun Mi; Lee, Jae Taek; Kim, Mi Ja

    2010-12-15

    The purpose of this project is improvement of investigation, materialization and evaluation techniques on effectiveness for functional natural compounds throughout development of tissue/cell culture techniques for mass production of useful metabolites using radiation. Research scope includes Development of a technique for radiation tissue and cell culture, Database construction for radiation response in plants and radiation effects, Construction of general-purpose national based techniques of cell culture technique using radiation. Main results are as follow: Isolation and identification of radiation induced basI gene; Determination of stresses sensitivities by transformating basI gene into arabidopsis; Isolation and identification of radiation induced chaperon proteins (PaAhpC and yPrxII) from Pseudomonas and yeast, and structural and functional analysis of the proteins; Determination of oxidative and heat resistance by transformating PaAhpC; Isolation and identification of maysin and its derivatives from centipedgrass; Investigation of enhancement technique for improving maysin and its derivatives production using radiation; Investigation of removing undesirable color in maysin and its derivatives using radiation; Determination of the effect of radiation on physiological functions of centipedgrass extracts; Identification of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} removing enzyme in radiation irradiated plant (Spinach); Determination of the effects of centipedgrass extracts on anti-obesity and anti-cancer activities.

  7. Experimental treatment of radiation pneumonitis with human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui Wang; Chang-zheng Zhu; Ping Qiao; Jian Liu; Qiang Zhao; Kui-jie Wang; Ting-bao Zhao

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate of the curative effect of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (hUC-MSCs) on rat acute radiation pneumonitis. Methods: Fourty rats were randomly divided into control group, radiation group, stem cell prevention group, stem cell treatment group and prednisone treatment group. All rats except those in the control group were radiated with X ray to establish the acute radiation pneumonitis damage model. The hUC-MSCs cultured in vitro was administrated to the rats of the prevention group via tail vein (1×106 cells/kg BW) 24 h before the radiation, while the same administration was performed in the rats of the treatment group 24 h after the radiation. After 24 h post the radiation, the rats in the radiation group were given 0.4 mL physiological saline, and those in the prednisone group were given 1 mg/kg prednisone. All rats were observed and executed 72 h after the radiation to detect lung histological changes. Results:After the administration of hUC-MSCs, the survival status of the rats in the prevention group and treatment group was obviously better than that in the control group. As shown by the histological staining, the morphology, proliferation activity and bronchial state of lung tissues were better in the prevention group and treatment group than in the control group. Conclusion: The hUC-MSCs have definite therapeutic effects on acute radiation pneumonitis in rats.

  8. Laser flow microphotometry for rapid analysis and sorting of mammalian cells. [X and gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullaney, P.F.; Steinkamp, J.A.; Crissman, H.A.; Cram, L.S.; Crowell, J.M.; Salzman, G.C.; Martin, J.C.; Price, B.

    1976-01-01

    Quantitative precision measurements can be made of the optical properties of individual mammalian cells using flow microphotometry. Suspended cells pass through a special flow chamber where they are lined up for exposure to blue light from an argon-ion laser. As each cell crosses the laser beam, it produces one or more optical pulses of a duration equal to cell transit time across the beam. These pulses are detected, amplified, and analyzed using the techniques of gamma ray spectroscopy. Quantitative DNA distributions made it possible to distinguish tumor cells from normal cells as well as to assay for radiation effects on tumor cells subjected to x and gamma radiation. (HLW)

  9. CLONING AND EXPRESSION OF A GENE MEDIATINGγ-RADIATION-INDUCED APOPTOSIS IN HL-60 CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To identify the member of the caspase family proteases involved in γ-radiation-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells and to study the expression of the caspase gene in normal, apoptotic cells and in immortal tu mor cells. Methods By using degenerate oligonucleotide primers encoding the highly conserved peptides that were pre sent in all known caspases, we performed RT-PCR on poly(A)RNA from γ-radiation-induced apoptotic HL-60 cells. Caspase-3 mRNA in apoptotic HL-60 cells and in human tumor cell lines was analyzed by Northern blot. Results The amplified DNA fragment was identified with caspase-3 cDNA by cloning and sequencing. The Northern blot analysis of caspase-3 mRNA of different human tumor cell lines showed that the caspase-3 gene transcript was more highly ex pressed in leukemia cell lines and the SH-SY5Y cell line than in HeLa and MCF-7 cells. It was more highly expressed in the radiation-induced apoptotic HL-60 cells than in control HL-60 cells. Conclusion These results indicated that caspase-3 was involved in γ-radiation-induced apoptosis in HL-60 cells. The high level of expression of caspase-3 may aid efforts to understand the insensitivity of some tumor cells to radiation, their inherent ability to survive, and apop tosis.

  10. Association Between White Blood Cell Count Following Radiation Therapy With Radiation Pneumonitis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Chad; Gomez, Daniel R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Wang, Hongmei [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Levy, Lawrence B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Zhuang, Yan [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Xu, Ting; Nguyen, Quynh; Komaki, Ritsuko [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao, Zhongxing, E-mail: zliao@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Purpose: Radiation pneumonitis (RP) is an inflammatory response to radiation therapy (RT). We assessed the association between RP and white blood cell (WBC) count, an established metric of systemic inflammation, after RT for non-small cell lung cancer. Methods and Materials: We retrospectively analyzed 366 patients with non-small cell lung cancer who received ≥60 Gy as definitive therapy. The primary endpoint was whether WBC count after RT (defined as 2 weeks through 3 months after RT completion) was associated with grade ≥3 or grade ≥2 RP. Median lung volume receiving ≥20 Gy (V{sub 20}) was 31%, and post-RT WBC counts ranged from 1.7 to 21.2 × 10{sup 3} WBCs/μL. Odds ratios (ORs) associating clinical variables and post-RT WBC counts with RP were calculated via logistic regression. A recursive-partitioning algorithm was used to define optimal post-RT WBC count cut points. Results: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly higher in patients with grade ≥3 RP than without (P<.05). Optimal cut points for post-RT WBC count were found to be 7.4 and 8.0 × 10{sup 3}/μL for grade ≥3 and ≥2 RP, respectively. Univariate analysis revealed significant associations between post-RT WBC count and grade ≥3 (n=46, OR=2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.4‒4.9, P=.003) and grade ≥2 RP (n=164, OR=2.0, 95% CI 1.2‒3.4, P=.01). This association held in a stepwise multivariate regression. Of note, V{sub 20} was found to be significantly associated with grade ≥2 RP (OR=2.2, 95% CI 1.2‒3.4, P=.01) and trended toward significance for grade ≥3 RP (OR=1.9, 95% CI 1.0-3.5, P=.06). Conclusions: Post-RT WBC counts were significantly and independently associated with RP and have potential utility as a diagnostic or predictive marker for this toxicity.

  11. The modulation of radiation-induced cell death by genistein in K562 cells:Activation of thymidine kinase 1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Ho JEONG; Young Hee JIN; Eun Young KANG; Wol Soon JO; Hwan Tae PARK; Jae Dong LEE; Yeo Jin YOO; Soo Jin JEONG

    2004-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is one of the most effective tools in cancer therapy. In a previous study, we reported that protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibitors modulate the radiation responses in the human chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML)cell line K562. The receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, genistein, delayed radiation-induced cell death, while non-recepter tyrosine kinase inhibitor, herbimycin A (HMA) enhances radiation-induced apoptosis. In this study, we focused on the modulation of radiation-induced cell death by genistein and performed PCR-select suppression subtractive hybridization(SSH) to understand its molecular mechanism. We identified human thymidine kinase 1 (TK1), which is cell cycle regulatory gene and confirmed expression of TK1 mRNA by Northern blot analysis. Expression of TK1 mRNA and TK 1enzymatic activity were parallel in their increase and decrease. TK1 is involved in G1-S phase transition of cell cycle progression. In cell cycle analysis, we showed that radiation induced G2 arrest in K562 cells but it was not able to sustain. However, the addition of genistein to irradiated cells sustained a prolonged G2 arrest up to 120 h. In addition,the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, cyclin A and cyclin B 1, provided the evidences of G1/S progression and G2-arrest, and their relationship with TK1 in cells treated with radiation and genistein. These results suggest that the activation of TK1 may be critical to modulate the radiation-induced cell death and cell cycle progression in irradiated K562 cells.

  12. Dependence of Early and Late Chromosomal Aberrations on Radiation Quality and Cell Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tao; Zhang, Ye; Krieger, Stephanie; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Goss, Rosalin; Bowler, Deborah; Kadhim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Rohde, Larry; Wu, Honglu

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to radiation induces different types of DNA damage, increases mutation and chromosome aberration rates, and increases cellular transformation in vitro and in vivo. The susceptibility of cells to radiation depends on genetic background and growth condition of cells, as well as types of radiation. Mammalian cells of different tissue types and with different genetic background are known to have different survival rate and different mutation rate after cytogenetic insults. Genomic instability, induced by various genetic, metabolic, and environmental factors including radiation, is the driving force of tumorigenesis. Accurate measurements of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) is important for estimating radiation-related risks. To further understand genomic instability induced by charged particles and their RBE, we exposed human lymphocytes ex vivo, human fibroblast AG1522, human mammary epithelial cells (CH184B5F5/M10), and bone marrow cells isolated from CBA/CaH(CBA) and C57BL/6 (C57) mice to high energy protons and Fe ions. Normal human fibroblasts AG1522 have apparently normal DNA damage response and repair mechanisms, while mammary epithelial cells (M10) are deficient in the repair of DNA DSBs. Mouse strain CBA is radio-sensitive while C57 is radio-resistant. Metaphase chromosomes at different cell divisions after radiation exposure were collected and chromosome aberrations were analyzed as RBE for different cell lines exposed to different radiations at various time points up to one month post irradiation.

  13. Autophagy promotes radiation-induced senescence but inhibits bystander effects in human breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yao-Huei; Yang, Pei-Ming; Chuah, Qiu-Yu; Lee, Yi-Jang; Hsieh, Yi-Fen; Peng, Chih-Wen; Chiu, Shu-Jun

    2014-07-01

    Ionizing radiation induces cellular senescence to suppress cancer cell proliferation. However, it also induces deleterious bystander effects in the unirradiated neighboring cells through the release of senescence-associated secretory phenotypes (SASPs) that promote tumor progression. Although autophagy has been reported to promote senescence, its role is still unclear. We previously showed that radiation induces senescence in PTTG1-depleted cancer cells. In this study, we found that autophagy was required for the radiation-induced senescence in PTTG1-depleted breast cancer cells. Inhibition of autophagy caused the cells to switch from radiation-induced senescence to apoptosis. Senescent cancer cells exerted bystander effects by promoting the invasion and migration of unirradiated cells through the release of CSF2 and the subsequently activation of the JAK2-STAT3 and AKT pathways. However, the radiation-induced bystander effects were correlated with the inhibition of endogenous autophagy in bystander cells, which also resulted from the activation of the CSF2-JAK2 pathway. The induction of autophagy by rapamycin reduced the radiation-induced bystander effects. This study reveals, for the first time, the dual role of autophagy in radiation-induced senescence and bystander effects.

  14. Effect of PGE2 on radiation response of chinese hamster V79 cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holahan, E.V.; Blakely, W.F.; Walden, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Several recent investigations have reported that 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E2 (DiPGE2) can protect murine intestinal epithelial cells and hematopoietic stem cells (CFU-S) in vivo from ionizing radiation. It has been postulated that PGE2 may also increase radiation resistance in vitro by stimulating free-radical scavenging or repair systems for oxidative damage. This study reports on the effect of PGE2 in modifying radiation sensitivity in an in vitro mammalian cell line. Chinese hamster V79A03 cells were cultured. Exponentially growing cells were incubated before exposure to graded doses of 250-kVp X rays. Cells were assayed for variations in intracellular levels of cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), total protein, and glutathione (GSH), and radiation sensitivity was measured by cell survival before and after PGE2 treatment. An acute (2-hr) exposure induced a 25% increase in cAMP content with no significant change in intracellular GSH or protein and no effect on cell survival after exposure to radiation. Chronic exposure to PGE2 increased intracellular GSH, protein, and cAMP levels by 82%, 3%, and 74%, respectively. However, no increase in radiation resistance was apparent following chronic exposure to PGE2. The increased radiation resistance observed in vitro may be due to modifications such as localized tissue or organ-system hypoxia.

  15. Design of scratch detector for cell phone screen based on linear array CCD%基于线阵CCD的手机屏幕瑕疵检测器的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董恒平; 刘增元; 易阳; 薛斌

    2012-01-01

    以改善手机屏幕质量传统人工检测方法的稳定性和可靠性为目的,制作了1款基于线阵CCD的手机屏幕划痕类瑕疵检测器.采用CCD相机和单稳态触发器为核心器件对信号采集、信号处理和功能模块电路进行了设计,可单独提取出划痕信号并将其整形为矩形脉冲.基于此,可以对手机屏幕表面3cm×3cm区域内,宽度≥0.08mm的划痕进行快速识别并报警,并能实现对0~9以内,最小间距达0.5mm的划痕数目进行准确分辨和实时统计.该检测器可应用于手机生产流水线,实现对手机屏幕质量的在线实时、高效检测.%With the purpose of improving stability and reliability in traditional artificial methods of quality detection, scratch detector for cell phone screen is fabricated based on linear array CCD. By employing CCD camera and monostable flip-flop as core components, signal acquisition, signal processing and functional modular circuits are designed. Signal corresponding to scratches is extracted seperately and transformed into rectangular pulses. An alarm is quickly given when scatch with linewidth greater than 0. 08 mm is identified on the screen surface within the area of 3 cm X 3 cm. Besides, the number of scatches with minumum spacing of 0. 5 mm can be accurately distinguished and instantaneously counted within the range of 0-9. In this case,this detector can be applied in assembly line of cell phone for realizing online real-time and high-efficient quality detection of cell phone screen.

  16. Degradation of Akebono solar cell panels and variation of proton radiation belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, H.; Miyake, W.; Matsuoka, A.

    2011-12-01

    We analyze long-term variation of electric current generated by Akebono solar cell panels (SCPI) and investigate how solar cell panels have been affected by space radiation. SCPI decreased slowly to about 7A in 2009 from 13A in 1989. The long-term decrease is probably due to various space radiations (Total Dose Effect). Therefore, we compare the decrease of solar cell output with solar proton flux measured by GOES satellites on GEO and with flux of trapped radiation from NASA's models (AP8 and AE8). We find a fair correlation between the decrease rate of solar cell output and trapped proton flux (above 10MeV) from the radiation model. However, we also find a few intervals of poor correlation, for an example, after a large geomagnetic storm occurred in March 1991, which suggests that stable proton radiation belt can be changed drastically for some special occasions.

  17. Telomerase antagonist imetelstat increases radiation sensitivity in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xuping; Zhang, Jing; Yang, Sijun; Kuang, Zhihui; Tan, Guolei; Yang, Gang; Wei, Qichun; Guo, Zhigang

    2017-01-13

    The morbidity and mortality of esophageal cancer is one of the highest around the world and the principal therapeutic method is radiation. Thus, searching for sensitizers with lower toxicity and higher efficiency to improve the efficacy of radiation therapy is critical essential. Our research group has previously reported that imetelstat, the thio-phosphoramidate oligonucleotide inhibitor of telomerase, can decrease cell proliferation and colony formation ability as well as increase DNA breaks induced by radiation in esophageal cancer cells. Further study in this project showed that imetelstat significantly sensitized esophageal cancer cells to radiation in vitro. Later study showed that imetelstat leads to increased cell apoptosis. We also measured the expression level of several DNA repair and apoptosis signaling proteins. pS345 CHK1, γ-H2AX, p53 and caspase3 expression were up-regulated in imetelstat treated cells, identifying these factors as molecular markers. Mouse in vivo model using imetelstat at clinically achievable concentrations and fractionated irradiation scheme yielded results demonstrating radiosensitization effect. Finally, TUNEL assay, caspase 3 and Ki67 staining in tumor tissue proved that imetelstat sensitized esophageal cancer to radiation in vivo through promoting cell apoptosis and inhibiting cell proliferation. Our study supported imetelstat increase radiation sensitivity of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma through inducing cell apoptosis and the specific inhibitor of telomerase might serve as a potential novel therapeutic tool for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma therapy.

  18. Detecting and Locating Crosswalks using a Camera Phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanchenko, Volodymyr; Coughlan, James; Shen, Huiying

    2008-01-01

    Urban intersections are the most dangerous parts of a blind or visually impaired person's travel. To address this problem, this paper describes the novel "Crosswatch" system, which uses computer vision to provide information about the location and orientation of crosswalks to a blind or visually impaired pedestrian holding a camera cell phone. A prototype of the system runs on an off-the-shelf Nokia N95 camera phone in real time, which automatically takes a few images per second, analyzes each image in a fraction of a second and sounds an audio tone when it detects a crosswalk. Real-time performance on the cell phone, whose computational resources are limited compared to the type of desktop platform usually used in computer vision, is made possible by coding in Symbian C++. Tests with blind subjects demonstrate the feasibility of the system.

  19. Cellular Phone Use in Class: Implications for Teaching and Learning a Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Shari M.; Lohenry, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    Students equipped with the cell phones enter college classrooms daily. Realizing the impact of technology on fellow learners and faculty represents an area of concern. A pilot study was conducted to determine student and faculty perception regarding cellular phone use in the classroom. A quantitative descriptive study examined the perception of…

  20. Cell/Tissue Culture Radiation Exposure Facility Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose the development of automated systems to improve radiobiology research capabilities at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL) at Brookhaven National...