WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell phone radiation

  1. Cell Phone RF Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, Wathiq

    2015-01-01

    In a recent article in "Physics Today," Meredith and Redish emphasized the need to make introductory physics courses beneficial for life sciences majors. In this study, a lab activity is proposed to measure the intensity of electromagnetic waves emitted by cell phones and connect these measurements to various standards, biological…

  2. The myth of cell phone radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Natarajan, Vasant

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the purported link between cell-phone radiation and cancer. We show that it is inconsistent with the photoelectric effect, and that epidemiological studies of any link have no scientific basis.

  3. The impact of cell phone radiation on health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Constant exposure to radio frequency signals from mobile phones and their base stations could adversely affect on human health. As a consequence, as a result of this impact it is appeared frequent headaches, loss of memory and concentration, tension in the eardrum and sudden bouts of fatigue, childhood leukemia, brain tumors, eye cataracts, cardiovascular diseases, disorders of the nervous system. Some people suffer from hyperelectrosensitivity. It should be noted that the analog phones much more harmful to human health than digital ones. Radio frequency of electromagnetic fields which is used by a modern cellular communications is in the range from 450 MHz to 1.9 GHz. Such fields unlike to ionizing radiation can not cause secondary radioactivity in the body. The cell phone is a device having a potential danger to health, so it is advisable wherever possible to protect yourselves from its use, or at least to minimize its use

  4. Tinnitus and cell phones: the role of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Nascimento Medeiros; Tanit Ganz Sanchez

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus is a multifactorial condition and its prevalence has increased on the past decades. The worldwide progressive increase of the use of cell phones has exposed the peripheral auditory pathways to a higher dose of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation (EMRFR). Some tinnitus patients report that the abusive use of mobiles, especially when repeated in the same ear, might worsen ipsilateral tinnitus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the availabl...

  5. Effects of non-thermal mobile phone radiation on breast adenocarcinoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zen Fourie; Dariusz Leszczynski; Sumari Marais; Carin Huyser; Annie M. Joubert; Barend A. Stander

    2011-01-01

    Mobile phone usage currently exceeds landline communication in Africa. The extent of this usage has raised concerns about the long-term health effects of the ongoing use of mobile phones. To assess the physiological effects of radiation from mobile phones in vitro, MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells were exposed to 2W/kg non-thermal 900-MHz mobile phone radiation. The effects investigated were those on metabolic activity, cell morphology, cell cycle progression, phosphatid...

  6. Tinnitus and cell phones: the role of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa Nascimento Medeiros

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Tinnitus is a multifactorial condition and its prevalence has increased on the past decades. The worldwide progressive increase of the use of cell phones has exposed the peripheral auditory pathways to a higher dose of electromagnetic radiofrequency radiation (EMRFR. Some tinnitus patients report that the abusive use of mobiles, especially when repeated in the same ear, might worsen ipsilateral tinnitus. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the available evidence about the possible causal association between tinnitus and exposure to electromagnetic waves. METHODS: A literature review was performed searching for the following keywords: tinnitus, electromagnetic field, mobile phones, radio frequency, and electromagnetic hypersensitivity. We selected 165 articles that were considered clinically relevant in at least one of the subjects. RESULTS: EMRFR can penetrate exposed tissues and safety exposure levels have been established. These waves provoke proved thermogenic effects and potential biological and genotoxic effects. Some individuals are more sensitive to electromagnetic exposure (electrosensitivity, and thus, present earlier symptoms. There may be a common pathophysiology between this electrosensitivity and tinnitus. CONCLUSION: There are already reasonable evidences to suggest caution for using mobile phones to prevent auditory damage and the onset or worsening of tinnitus.

  7. Exposure to cell phone radiations produces biochemical changes in worker honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Neelima R.; Sangwan, Sonika; Badotra, Pooja

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to find the effect of cell phone radiations on various biomolecules in the adult workers of Apis mellifera L. The results of the treated adults were analyzed and compared with the control. Radiation from the cell phone influences honey bees’ behavior and physiology. There was reduced motor activity of the worker bees on the comb initially, followed by en masse migration and movement toward “talk mode” cell phone. The initial quiet period was characterized by ...

  8. Determination of Invisible Environmental Pollution Due to Cell Phones EMF Radiation and projections for 2030

    OpenAIRE

    K Parandham Gowd; Gupta, R P; Sangeeta Jauhari

    2013-01-01

    In the last decades cell phones usage have altered the land scape of modern human beings in countless ways, in office, at home and on mobility. However, created the environmental electronic pollution due to electromagnetic fields. In spite of the recent studies indicating possible harmful impact of EMF pollution on several species, there is no long term data available on the environmental impacts of EMF pollution and how much power density is radiated in the environment due to cell phones. T...

  9. Proteomics analysis of human endothelial cells after shortterm exposure to mobile phone radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobile phones have been a part of our everyday life in the developed world since the late 1990s. This has raised concerns over the potential health risks of mobile phone use. Biological and health effects potentially caused by mobile phone radiation have been extensively studied and several biological and medical endpoints have been examined. So far, results have not been conclusive on the potential effects of mobile phone radiation. Mobile phones generate a modulated radio frequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF), which is a form of non-ionizing radiation. This means that mobile phone radiation does not have enough energy to ionize atoms and it cannot break chemical bonds directly (e.g., in DNA strands). There could, however, be other mechanisms by which mobile phone radiation may affect cellular and physiological functions. Whether these mechanisms exist is unknown. In this thesis, large-scale screening techniques, such as proteomics, were applied to examine changes on the proteome level after exposure to mobile phone radiation. Proteomics techniques allow the screening of several hundreds, and even thousands, of proteins simultaneously, and are thus more efficient than single endpoint techniques. Four different types of human endothelial cells (two cell lines, two types of primary cells) were exposed to two types of mobile phone radiation (900 and 1800 MHz GSM). The proteome of these cells was examined immediately after short-term exposure using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE). Two protein detection/analysis techniques were used: silver staining for the cell line samples and difference gel electrophoresis (DIGE) for the primary cells. 2DE-DIGE technology is currently a state-of-the-art technique in 2DE studies. Several changes were found in the proteome of the human endothelial cell line EA.hy926 after exposure to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone radiation. In addition, the proteome of a variant of the same cell line, the EA.hy926v1, was affected after 900 MHz

  10. Determination of Invisible Environmental Pollution Due to Cell Phones EMF Radiation and projections for 2030

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Parandham Gowd

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades cell phones usage have altered the land scape of modern human beings in countless ways, in office, at home and on mobility. However, created the environmental electronic pollution due to electromagnetic fields. In spite of the recent studies indicating possible harmful impact of EMF pollution on several species, there is no long term data available on the environmental impacts of EMF pollution and how much power density is radiated in the environment due to cell phones. The aim of this research work is to experimentally measure the EMF radiated electronic pollution levels of cell phones in three different states such as on(sleep/idle mode, receive and transmit modes as an invisible environmental pollution. These measurements are carried out at the centre frequency of 1800 MHz and in the 300 MHz- 50 GHz frequency band. Another main aim is to carry out the projections of cell phones growth due to exponentially expanding mobile technology products, industrialization along with urbanization. Further to estimate the current (2013 EMF radiation pollution levels into environment and projections for 2030 due to cell phones.

  11. Effects of non-thermal mobile phone radiation on breast adenocarcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zen Fourie

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile phone usage currently exceeds landline communication in Africa. The extent of this usage has raised concerns about the long-term health effects of the ongoing use of mobile phones. To assess the physiological effects of radiation from mobile phones in vitro, MCF-7 breast adenocarcinoma cells were exposed to 2W/kg non-thermal 900-MHz mobile phone radiation. The effects investigated were those on metabolic activity, cell morphology, cell cycle progression, phosphatidylserine (PS externalisation and the generation of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species. Statistically insignificant increases in mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity were observed in irradiated cells when compared to controls. Fluorescent detection of F-actin demonstrated an increase in F-actin stress fibre formation in irradiated MCF-7 cells. Cell cycle progression revealed no statistically significant variation. A small increase in early and late apoptotic events in irradiated MCF-7 cells was observed. No statistically significant changes were observed in reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species generation. In addition, quantitative and qualitative analyses of cell cycle activity and nuclear and cytosolic changes, respectively, revealed no significant changes. In conclusion, exposure to 1 h of 900-MHz irradiation induced an increase in PS externalisation and an increase in the formation of F-actin stress fibres in MCF-7 cells. Data obtained from this study, and their correlation with other studies, provides intriguing links between radio frequency radiation and cellular events and warrant further investigation.

  12. Evaluation of the Interference of the Microwave Radiation Emitted from GSM Mobile Phones on the Performance of Cell Counters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahaedini ,N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Incidents related to electromagneticinterference with medical devices have been reported over the past decades.It has also been indicated that the microwave radiation emitted from mobilephones interferes with the operation of medical devices; therefore, this studyaimed at testing the interference by GSM mobile phones with cell counters.Material and Methods: We did this experimental Study on thirty-twoheparinized blood samples of 32 healthy individuals Selected randomly. TheCell Counting was Carried out in the presence of Electro magnetic fieldproduced by three Cell phones with different levels of SAR (Low,intermediate and High and without being in electromagnetic field.Statistical tests were used to analyze the data (p<0.05.Results: Microwave radiation emitted from cell phones, regardless of theirSAR, interferes with the proper operation of cell Counter. This interferenceleads to false Counting.Conclusion: As mobile phones emit microwave radiation in an isotropicmanner, keeping mobile phones at a safe distance, 15cm, from medicalequipments will be necessary. These observations confirm the need for somerestrictions of mobile phone use in hospitals and medical laboratories.Key words: Interference, Cell Counters, Mobile Phone, MicrowaveRadiation

  13. Cell phones and cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer and cell phones; Do cell phones cause cancer? ... Several major studies show no link between cell phones and cancer at this time. However, since the information available is based on short-term studies, the impact of many years of ...

  14. Adventures with Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Liz

    2011-01-01

    Teachers are finding creative ways to turn the basic cell phone from a digital distraction into a versatile learning tool. In this article, the author explains why cell phones are important in learning and suggests rather than banning them that they be integrated into learning. She presents activities that can be done on a basic cell phone with a…

  15. Pathophysiology of cell phone radiation: oxidative stress and carcinogenesis with focus on male reproductive system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kesari Kavindra K

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Hazardous health effects stemming from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic waves (RF-EMW emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular target of RF-EMW is still controversial. This review identifies the plasma membrane as a target of RF-EMW. In addition, the effects of RF-EMW on plasma membrane structures (i.e. NADH oxidase, phosphatidylserine, ornithine decarboxylase and voltage-gated calcium channels are discussed. We explore the disturbance in reactive oxygen species (ROS metabolism caused by RF-EMW and delineate NADH oxidase mediated ROS formation as playing a central role in oxidative stress (OS due to cell phone radiation (with a focus on the male reproductive system. This review also addresses: 1 the controversial effects of RF-EMW on mammalian cells and sperm DNA as well as its effect on apoptosis, 2 epidemiological, in vivo animal and in vitro studies on the effect of RF-EMW on male reproductive system, and 3 finally, exposure assessment and dosimetry by computational biomodeling.

  16. Cell Phones for Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, James H.; Hagevik, Rita A.

    2008-01-01

    Cell phones are fast becoming an integral part of students' everyday lives. They are regarded as important companions and tools for personal expression. School-age children are integrating the cell phone as such, and thus placing a high value on them. Educators endeavor to instill in students a high value for education, but often meet with…

  17. Do Cell Phones Cause Cancer?

    CERN Document Server

    Leikind, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Do cell phones, household electrical power wiring or appliance, or high voltage power lines cause cancer? Fuggedaboudit! No way! When pigs fly! When I'm the Pope! Don't text while you're driving, however, or eat your cell phone. All organisms absorb microwave radiation directly as thermal energy. In living organisms, the organisms' thermal control systems, including the blood flow, and various cooling mechanisms, such as sweating in humans, that work to maintain a stable body temperature rapidly transfer the absorbed energy to the environment. Any temperature rise is small or even unobserved. Any proposed mechanism by which cell phone radiation might cause cancer must begin with this fact. But the amount of radiation absorbed from a cell phone is less than that produced by normal metabolic processes, and much less than that produced by, for example, exercise. None of these normal metabolic processes cause cancer. Therefore, the much smaller amounts of energy from cell phones doesn't cause cancer either. All f...

  18. Study of the Electromagnetic Field Radiated From the Cell Phone Towers within Kathmandu Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Parajuli; Jagat Prasad Panday; Rajendra Prasad Koirala; Buddha Ram Shah

    2015-01-01

    With the increase in the use of the mobile phone, widely used wireless technology, people are highly conscious regarding the deleterious effects of the RF signals. To account this consciousness, this research work deals with the assessment of the radiation level near mobile Base Station Towers (BSTs) of Kathmandu valley with the analysis of the observed values in reference to the National and International guidelines and radiation norms adopted in different countries. “Tenmars, TM-196” and GP...

  19. In Vitro Effect of Cell Phone Radiation on Motility, DNA Fragmentation and Clusterin Gene Expression in Human Sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Zalata

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of cellular phones emitting radiofrequency electromagnetic field (RF-EMF has been increased exponentially and become a part of everyday life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of in vitro RF-EMF exposure emitted from cellular phones on sperm motility index, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal clusterin (CLU gene expression. Materials and Methods: In this prospective study, a total of 124 semen samples were grouped into the following main categories: i. normozoospermia (N, n=26, ii. asthenozoospermia (A, n=32, iii. asthenoteratozoospermia (AT, n=31 and iv. oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT, n=35. The same semen samples were then divided into two portions non-exposed and exposed samples to cell phone radiation for 1 hour. Before and immediately after exposure, both aliquots were subjected to different assessments for sperm motility, acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and CLU gene expression. Statistical differences were analyzed using paired t student test for comparisons between two sub-groups where pAT>A>N groups, respectively (p<0.05. Conclusion: Cell phone emissions have a negative impact on exposed sperm motility index, sperm acrosin activity, sperm DNA fragmentation and seminal CLU gene expression, especially in OAT cases.

  20. Cell Phones for Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucking, Robert A.; Christmann, Edwin P.; Wighting, Mervyn J.

    2010-01-01

    Although in some schools cell phones have to be turned off or perhaps kept in lockers to avoid misuse, the authors hope to demonstrate in this article how they can be used under supervision to assist learning. This ubiquitous device can be a powerful classroom tool. (Contains 2 figures.)

  1. Phantoms for Radiation Measurements of Mobile Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Gert Frølund

    2001-01-01

    Measurements of radiation efficiency for a handheld phone equipped with a patch and a helical antenna operated near the human user have been performed. Both measurements include a simple head plus hand phantom and live persons are considered. The position of the hand on the phone is found...... to be the main reason for the large variation in radiation efficiency among persons. The tilt angle of the phone and the distance between the head and phone only play a minor role...

  2. Effect of 935-MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on endometrial glandular cells during mouse embryo implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhui; Zheng, Xinmin; Qu, Zaiqing; Zhang, Ming; Zhou, Chun; Ma, Ling; Zhang, Yuanzhen

    2012-10-01

    This study examined the impact of 935MHz phone-simulating electromagnetic radiation on embryo implantation of pregnant mice. Each 7-week-old Kunming (KM) female white mouse was set up with a KM male mouse in a single cage for mating overnight after induction of ovulation. In the first three days of pregnancy, the pregnant mice was exposed to electromagnetic radiation at low-intensity (150 μW/cm(2), ranging from 130 to 200 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), mid-intensity (570 μW/cm(2), ranging from 400 to 700 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day) or high-intensity (1400 μW/cm(2), ranging from 1200 to 1500 μW/cm(2), for 2- or 4-h exposure every day), respectively. On the day 4 after gestation (known as the window of murine embryo implantation), the endometrium was collected and the suspension of endometrial glandular cells was made. Laser scanning microscopy was employed to detect the mitochondrial membrane potential and intracellular calcium ion concentration. In high-intensity, 2- and 4-h groups, mitochondrial membrane potential of endometrial glandular cells was significantly lower than that in the normal control group (Pelectromagnetic radiation and longer length of the radiation are required to inflict a remarkable functional and structural damage to mitochondrial membrane. Our data demonstrated that electromagnetic radiation with a 935-MHz phone for 4 h conspicuously decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and lowered the calcium ion concentration of endometrial glandular cells. It is suggested that high-intensity electromagnetic radiation is very likely to induce the death of embryonic cells and decrease the chance of their implantation, thereby posing a high risk to pregnancy.

  3. Study of the Electromagnetic Field Radiated From the Cell Phone Towers within Kathmandu Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prakash Parajuli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in the use of the mobile phone, widely used wireless technology, people are highly conscious regarding the deleterious effects of the RF signals. To account this consciousness, this research work deals with the assessment of the radiation level near mobile Base Station Towers (BSTs of Kathmandu valley with the analysis of the observed values in reference to the National and International guidelines and radiation norms adopted in different countries. “Tenmars, TM-196” and GPS map60Csx were employed for the measurement. It is found that the maximum value of the Power density in Kathmandu valley is 0.003602 W/m2 at Maximum Peak Point (MPP near BST of New Baneshwor area, characterized by high traffic (Vicinity population and all services across the BSTs and the minimum average radiation level far away from the BSTs (Off tower region with access of the cellular network has 0.00000206 W/m2 Power density near Lele area, Lalitpur, which is far less than the Power density near the BSTs. It is found that all observed sites are within the standards of the Nepal Telecommunication Authority (NTA in terms of the amount of EMFs that the base station is radiating. Power density highly depends on vicinity population and moderately depends on services across the BSTs. Also the BSTs are constructed haphazardly near School and Colleges, Hospitals etc.

  4. Effects of cell phone radiation on lipid peroxidation, glutathione and nitric oxide levels in mouse brain during epileptic seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmekaya, Meric Arda; Tuysuz, Mehmet Zahid; Tomruk, Arın; Canseven, Ayse G; Yücel, Engin; Aktuna, Zuhal; Keskil, Semih; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the this study was to evaluate the effects of cellular phone radiation on oxidative stress parameters and oxide levels in mouse brain during pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced epileptic seizure. Eight weeks old mice were used in the study. Animals were distributed in the following groups: Group I: Control group treated with PTZ, Group II: 15min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation, Group III: 30min cellular phone radiation+PTZ treatment+30min cellular phone radiation. The RF radiation was produced by a 900MHz cellular phone. Lipid peroxidation, which is the indicator of oxidative stress was quantified by measuring the formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The glutathione (GSH) levels were determined by the Ellman method. Tissue total nitric oxide (NOx) levels were obtained using the Griess assay. Lipid peroxidation and NOx levels of brain tissue increased significantly in group II and III compared to group I. On the contrary, GSH levels were significantly lower in group II and III than group I. However, no statistically significant alterations in any of the endpoints were noted between group II and Group III. Overall, the experimental findings demonstrated that cellular phone radiation may increase the oxidative damage and NOx level during epileptic activity in mouse brain. PMID:26836107

  5. Wireless Phones Electromagnetic Field Radiation Exposure Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Usman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Inadequate knowledge of electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones and increased usage at close proximity, created a lot of skepticism and speculations among end users on its safety or otherwise. Approach: In this study, near field electromagnetic field radiation measurements were conducted on different brand of mobile phones in active mode using a tri-axis isotropic probe and electric field meter. Results: The highest electromagnetic field exposure was recorded when the mobile phones are at outgoing call mode and backing the probe, which is higher in comparison to ICNIRP guidelines for exposure to general public. Conclusion: According to this finding, some mobile phones electromagnetic field radiation were found to be lower than the ICNIRP guidelines while some were far above the guidelines. Electromagnetic field intensity however, depends on the mode of operation and proximity of the mobile phones to the end user; hence it is safer to use mobile phones at SMS mode.

  6. Biometric Security for Cell Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones are already prime targets for theft. The increasing functionality of cell phones is making them even more attractive. With the increase of cell phone functionality including personal digital assistance, banking, e-commerce, remote work, internet access and entertainment, more and more confidential data is stored on these devices. What is protecting this confidential data stored on cell phones? Studies have shown that even though most of the cell phone users are aware of the PIN security feature more than 50% of them are not using it either because of the lack of confidence in it or because of the inconvenience. A large majority of those users believes that an alternative approach to security would be a good idea.

  7. The effect of cell phones on human health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Isbeih, Ibrahim N.; Saad, Dina

    2011-10-01

    The effect of cell phone radiation on human health is the subject of recent interest and study, as a result of the enormous increase in cell phone usage throughout the world. Cell phones use electromagnetic radiation in the microwave range, which some believe may be harmful to human health. Other digital wireless systems, such as data communication networks, produce similar radiation. The objective of this survey is to review the effects of cell phones on human health: A large body of research exists, both epidemiological and experimental, in non-human animals and in humans, of which the majority shows no definite causative relationship between exposure to cell phones and harmful biological effects in humans. This is often paraphrased simply as the balance of evidence showing no harm to humans from cell phones, although a significant number of individual studies do suggest such a relationship, or are inconclusive.

  8. Cell Phones: The Psychosocial Risks

    OpenAIRE

    Sansone, Randy A.; Sansone, Lori A.

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones are a relatively novel and evolving technology. While the potential benefits of this technology continue to emerge, so do the potential psychosocial risks. For example, one psychosocial risk is user stress, which appears to be related to feeling compelled to promptly respond to cell-phone activity in order to maintain spontaneity and access with others. Other potential psychosocial risks include disruptions in sleep; the user’s risk of exposure to cyberbullying, particularly the u...

  9. No Phone Zone: Controlling Cell Phone Use in Academic Libraries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaton, Shelley; Master, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    This article reports the results of a survey of cell phone policies in university libraries conducted over a three-month period in 2005. The authors sought information about the libraries' problems regarding cell phone use and attendant noise by students and other library users. The authors began with an 18-question survey of one hundred…

  10. Completely Enhanced Cell Phone Keypad

    CERN Document Server

    Sharmeen, Rezwana; Ahmad, Shabbir; Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    The enhanced frequency based keypad is designed to speed up the typing process. This paper will show that the proposed layout will increase the typing speed and be flexible for thumb. Traditional cell phone keypad is not a scientific keypad from the frequency point of view. Approaches have been explored to speed up the typing process. We found that no manufacturer has considered the frequency of the alphabet. The current architecture does not provide flexibility although the users are accustomed to the currently available multi-tapping keypad. Since the currently available keypad layouts are not best suited for users, this paper will suggest a keypad for cell phone and other cellular device based on the frequency of the alphabet in English language and also with the view of structure of human finger movements to provide a flexible and fast cell phone keypad. It also takes into consideration the key jamming problem that was available in typewriter. At first we identified those keys of cell phone, which are eas...

  11. [Cell phones: health risks and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talamanca, I Figà; Giliberti, C; Salerno, S

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes first of all the electromagnetic radiation of cellular phones and presents the physical parameters used to measure and evaluate the absorption of emissions of radio stations and cellular phones. It then presents selected research results of the experimental studies in vivo and in vitro which examine the biological effects of the emissions of cellular phones. The review of the epidemiologic evidence focuses in particular the epidemiologic studies on the use of cell phones and brain tumours, identifying some of the reasons of the conflicting results obtained. Studies dealing with the health risks involved in the increasing use of cellular phones by adolescents and children, more sensitive to this exposure, are also presented showing the need for special caution. The problem of hypersensitivity observed in some individuals is also briefly discussed. Finally the paper presents a summary of the main prevention measures necessary in order to reduce the risks in the framework of the "precautionary principle" including prevention policies and exposure limits in various countries.

  12. Cell Phones in the Classroom? Yes!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaer, Susan

    2011-01-01

    The author has been using mobile phones actively in her adult education classes for the last two years. She has found that, with a bit of cell phone etiquette, students are responsible and will use phones as learning tools instead of just as toys. In this article, the author describes how she uses them and suggests effective techniques for…

  13. Radiation of Base Stations of Mobile Phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In recent years there has been a rapid expansion of new, technological sources of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation from mobile phones, microwave ovens, various antennas, transmitters, new ultrasound devices. The category of non-ionizing radiation includes electromagnetic radiation at frequencies below 3 000 000 GHz or at ultrasound frequencies below 500 MHz which in interaction with substances do not generate ions. In view of this trend concerns have been raised about the impact of these new (radiation) sources on human health. An increasing amount of scientific research points to the fact that NIR causes various adverse effects to human health: eyes injuries, irritability, insomnia, temporary changes in the metabolism, hazardous heat stress and even carcinoma. The manufacturers and users of radio wave equipment pay great attention to the influence of the electromagnetic fields on human health. This issue has been taken into serious consideration, which is confirmed by a number of studies carried out either by mobile phone manufacturers or by many independent organizations. The limits of electromagnetic radiation exposure are defined in numerous standards and international rule books, and if these limits are complied with, then, according to present knowledge, there is no risk. Considering the concerns of the employees of Ericsson Nikola Tesla the levels of radiation from various types of base stations on company premises were examined. It was found out that there is no hazard to the health of employees. Still, further research is required and it is initiated both by the users and manufacturers of the mobile telephony equipment. (author)

  14. Influence of electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone on some biophysical blood properties in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bediwi, Abu Bakr; Saad, Mohamed; El-kott, Attall F; Eid, Eman

    2013-04-01

    Effects of electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone on blood viscosity, plasma viscosity, hemolysis, Osmotic fragility, and blood components of rats have been investigated. Experimental results show that there are significant change on blood components and its viscosity which affects on a blood circulation due to many body problems. Red blood cells, White blood cells, and Platelets are broken after exposure to electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone. Also blood viscosity and plasma viscosity values are increased but Osmotic fragility value decreased after exposure to electromagnetic radiation produced by mobile phone.

  15. Cell Phones Transform a Science Methods Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madden, Lauren

    2012-01-01

    A science methods instructor intentionally encouraged cell phone use for class work to discover how cell phones can be used as research tools to enhance the content and engage the students. The anecdotal evidence suggested that students who used their smartphones as research tools experienced the science content and pedagogical information…

  16. Cell Phones and PDA's Hit K-6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dodds, Richard; Mason, Christine Y.

    2005-01-01

    Although cell phones keep kids in touch with families and personal digital assistants (PDA's) help organize assignments and give Internet access, when they are added to the school climate, educators must reassess policies so technology does not interfere with instruction time. This article discusses the several effects of cell phones to K-6…

  17. Health Issues: Do Cell Phones Pose a Health Hazard?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Procedures Home, Business, and Entertainment Products Cell Phones Health Issues Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... it Email Print Do cell phones pose a health hazard? Many people are concerned that cell phone ...

  18. Prevalence of Cell Phone Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Busse, Britta; Fuchs, Marek

    2013-01-01

    With the growing mobile-only population landline telephone surveys are increasingly complemented by mobile phone interviews using a dual frame approach. Typically it is assumed that a mobile phone is a personal device solely used by one individual. Even though several articles dealt with the eventuality that several persons may be reached when calling a mobile phone number, respondent selection procedures are currently not implemented. This paper provides further insight into this phenomenon....

  19. Cell Phones and Cancer Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... phone will be represented on a single phone company account. Do children have a higher risk of ... of Health FOLLOW US Facebook Twitter Instagram YouTube Google+ LinkedIn GovDelivery RSS CONTACT INFORMATION Contact Us LiveHelp ...

  20. Study Regarding Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure Generated By Mobile Phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Number of mobile phone users reached to 5 billion subscribers in 2010 [ABI Research, 2010]. A large number of studies illustrated the public concern about adverse effects of mobile phone radiation and possible health hazards. Position of mobile phone use in close proximity to the head leads the main radiation between the hand and the head. Many investigations studying the possible effects of mobile phone exposure, founded no measurable effects of short-term mobile phone radiation, and there was no evidence for the ability to perceive mobile phone EMF in the general population. In this study, field radiation measurements were performed on different brand and different models of mobile phones in active mode, using an EMF RF Radiation Field Strength Power Meter 1 MHz-8 GHz. The study was effectuated on both the 2G and 3G generations phones connected to the providers operating in the frequency range 450 MHz-1800 MHz. There were recorded values in outgoing call and SMS mode, incoming call and SMS mode. Results were compared with ICNIRP guidelines for exposure to general public.

  1. Study Regarding Electromagnetic Radiation Exposure Generated By Mobile Phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marica, Lucia; Moraru, Luminita

    2011-12-01

    Number of mobile phone users reached to 5 billion subscribers in 2010 [ABI Research, 2010]. A large number of studies illustrated the public concern about adverse effects of mobile phone radiation and possible health hazards. Position of mobile phone use in close proximity to the head leads the main radiation between the hand and the head. Many investigations studying the possible effects of mobile phone exposure, founded no measurable effects of short-term mobile phone radiation, and there was no evidence for the ability to perceive mobile phone EMF in the general population. In this study, field radiation measurements were performed on different brand and different models of mobile phones in active mode, using an EMF RF Radiation Field Strength Power Meter 1 MHz-8 GHz. The study was effectuated on both the 2G and 3G generations phones connected to the providers operating in the frequency range 450 MHz-1800 MHz. There were recorded values in outgoing call and SMS mode, incoming call and SMS mode. Results were compared with ICNIRP guidelines for exposure to general public.

  2. Cell phone based balance trainer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Beom-Chan

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In their current laboratory-based form, existing vibrotactile sensory augmentation technologies that provide cues of body motion are impractical for home-based rehabilitation use due to their size, weight, complexity, calibration procedures, cost, and fragility. Methods We have designed and developed a cell phone based vibrotactile feedback system for potential use in balance rehabilitation training in clinical and home environments. It comprises an iPhone with an embedded tri-axial linear accelerometer, custom software to estimate body tilt, a "tactor bud" accessory that plugs into the headphone jack to provide vibrotactile cues of body tilt, and a battery. Five young healthy subjects (24 ± 2.8 yrs, 3 females and 2 males and four subjects with vestibular deficits (42.25 ± 13.5 yrs, 2 females and 2 males participated in a proof-of-concept study to evaluate the effectiveness of the system. Healthy subjects used the system with eyes closed during Romberg, semi-tandem Romberg, and tandem Romberg stances. Subjects with vestibular deficits used the system with both eyes-open and eyes-closed conditions during semi-tandem Romberg stance. Vibrotactile feedback was provided when the subject exceeded either an anterior-posterior (A/P or a medial-lateral (M/L body tilt threshold. Subjects were instructed to move away from the vibration. Results The system was capable of providing real-time vibrotactile cues that informed corrective postural responses. When feedback was available, both healthy subjects and those with vestibular deficits significantly reduced their A/P or M/L RMS sway (depending on the direction of feedback, had significantly smaller elliptical area fits to their sway trajectory, spent a significantly greater mean percentage time within the no feedback zone, and showed a significantly greater A/P or M/L mean power frequency. Conclusion The results suggest that the real-time feedback provided by this system can be used

  3. Review of studies validating the protective efficacy of a new technology designed to compensate adverse biological effects caused by vdu and GSM cell phone radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 13 studies were initiated and coordinated by Technolab Research Center in 6 laboratories from 3 countries (France, UK, Japan). These studies were aimed at: 1) investigating potential adverse biological effects associated with exposure to non ionizing radiation emitted by two types of communication devices, video display units and cell phones; 2) assessing the efficacy of a compensation magnetic oscillating technology designed to protect from non ionizing radiation. Five types of biological systems including chicken embryos, young chickens, healthy mice, mice suffering from cancer and humans were used. A set of 10 biological parameters were assessed, including embryonic mortality, hormones, antibodies, haematological parameters, stress, mood, ocular damage, neurogenesis, micronuclei formation and intracellular calcium. Overall endpoints were affected by irradiation, in terms of increased embryonic mortality, immune depression, depletion of hormones crucial for the regulation of the immune system, changes in haematological parameters, increased stress, mood alteration, induction of ophthalmologic disorders, inhibition of the neurogenesis in brain areas associated with memory processes, induction of symptoms of cell dysfunction, apoptosis or cancer, and disruption of trans-membrane fluxes of calcium. On the other hand, the compensation magnetic oscillation technology tested allowed significant correction of altered physiological parameters, as well as improvement or disappearance of observed pathological symptoms (author)

  4. Effects of Garlic (Allium sativum L. Hydroalcoholic Extract on Estrogen, Progesterone and Testosterone Levels in Rats Exposed to Cell Phone Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Hajiuon

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the probable effects of radiation and consumption of garlic on estrogen, progesterone and testosterone levels. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 5 male and 5 female groups of rat were used: control, sham (under exposed, experimental 1 (receiving garlic extract, and experimental 2 and 3 (receiving both extract and microwaves. After a one month, rats were weighed and serum levels of hormones were measured. Results: In male the mean body weight in the sham showed a significant decrease, whereas, an increase was seen in the experimental 3 compared with sham. Also, mean plasma testosterone levels in experimental 2 and 3 were reduced. Estrogen showed this decrease in all groups. Also in all groups progesterone showed increase. In female the mean body weights in different groups showed no significant changes, whereas a significant increase was seen in serum level of progesterone in experimental 2 and 3. Conclusion: Although, microwaves can cause weight lost, presence of allicin and vitamins A and B in garlic can compensate some of this weight lost. Microwaves and garlic extract have fewer effects on female reproductive system, reflected only in the serum progesterone concentration. Also they reflected in the number of Leydig cells and serum testosterone and estrogen concentration. The differences observed in the responses of male and female to cell phone radiation might be attributed to the position of gonads in the body and sensitivity of testis to heat.

  5. Histological and histochemical study of the protective role of rosemary extract against harmful effect of cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the parotid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Arafat, Eetmad A

    2016-06-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are a class of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) that is emitted from mobile phone. It may have hazardous effects on parotid glands. So, we aimed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes of the parotid glands of rats exposed to mobile phone and study the possible protective role of rosemary against its harmful effect. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were classified into 4 equal groups. Group I (control), group II (control receiving rosemary), group III (mobile phone exposed group) and group IV (mobile exposed, rosemary treated group). Parotid glands were dissected out for histological and histochemical study. Moreover, measurement of oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was done. The results of this study revealed that rosemary has protective effect through improving the histological and histochemical picture of the parotid gland in addition of its antioxidant effect. It could be concluded from the current study, that exposure of parotid gland of rat models to electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone resulted in structural changes at the level of light and electron microscopic examination which could be explained by oxidative stress effect of mobile phone. Rosemary could play a protective role against this harmful effect through its antioxidant activity. PMID:27155802

  6. Histological and histochemical study of the protective role of rosemary extract against harmful effect of cell phone electromagnetic radiation on the parotid glands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoneim, Fatma M; Arafat, Eetmad A

    2016-06-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMFs) are a class of non-ionizing radiation (NIR) that is emitted from mobile phone. It may have hazardous effects on parotid glands. So, we aimed to investigate the histological and histochemical changes of the parotid glands of rats exposed to mobile phone and study the possible protective role of rosemary against its harmful effect. Forty adult male albino rats were used in this study. They were classified into 4 equal groups. Group I (control), group II (control receiving rosemary), group III (mobile phone exposed group) and group IV (mobile exposed, rosemary treated group). Parotid glands were dissected out for histological and histochemical study. Moreover, measurement of oxidative stress markers; malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was done. The results of this study revealed that rosemary has protective effect through improving the histological and histochemical picture of the parotid gland in addition of its antioxidant effect. It could be concluded from the current study, that exposure of parotid gland of rat models to electromagnetic radiation of mobile phone resulted in structural changes at the level of light and electron microscopic examination which could be explained by oxidative stress effect of mobile phone. Rosemary could play a protective role against this harmful effect through its antioxidant activity.

  7. Cell Phone Use by Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryen, Diane Nelson; Carey, Allison; Friedman, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Although cell phone use has grown dramatically, there is a gap in cell phone access between people with disabilities and the general public. The importance of cell phone use among people with intellectual disabilities and studies about use of cell phones by adults with intellectual disabilities was described. Our goal was to determine the extent…

  8. Cell phones and electromagnetic interference revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-12-01

    Some media reports have inaccurately and incompletely interpreted recent studies, creating the impression that newer cell phone technology doesn't create enough electromagnetic interference (EMI) to affect medical equipment. As a result, hospitals are questioning whether existing restrictions on cell phone use can be eliminated. This article takes a closer look at the available evidence and explains that the evidence does, in fact, demonstrate an ongoing risk that EMI will affect medical devices. In addition, the article provides guidance on the impact that some newer communications technologies--namely, in-building cordless telephones, microcell systems, and Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) phones--may have on cell phone use and policies. Note that while this article focuses on cell phones--since they are the most common concern among hospitals--other types of wireless devices can also interfere with medical equipment. These include handheld messaging devices (e.g., BlackBerry products); multicommunication devices that combine the use of Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, and cellular communications; and cellular-capable computers. Healthcare facilities should apply the same policies to these devices as to cell phones. Two-way radios likewise present an interference risk, but require different policies, as we describe in a supplementary article within this Guidance Article. PMID:17300104

  9. Effect of Cell Phone Radiation (940 MHz on the Learning and Memory of Balb/c mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Baharara

    2009-07-01

    After behavioral studies, fetal heads were collected, fixed in 10% paraformaldehyde and paraffine embedded. Results: Microwave-exposed mice were slower than sham-exposed, and cage control in swim speed (WM. Error Analyses rates reveal significant exposure effect in RAM and MWM. However, in this study the exposed group had not significantly lost their hippocampal CA3 neurons comparing to controls or sham exposed group. Conclusion: Increased time to locate a submerged in water maze, reference memory (entries into unbaited arms, working memory (repeated entries into baited arms, show that acute exposure to pulsed microwaves caused a deficit in spatial reference memory in the mouse. Keywords: Mobile phone, learning, memory, hippocampus

  10. 手机辐射与人体头颅相互作用的仿真分析%The Simulation Analysis of the Interaction between Human Head and Radiation of Cell Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯建强; 牛中奇; 陈建华; 白冰; 黄华

    2009-01-01

    手机与人体相互作用中涉及两方面问题,一是人体吸收的电磁剂量是否超过限值标准从而对人体造成伤害;二是人体对手机的辐射特性会产生什么影响.采用时域有限差分(FDTD)法经数值仿真进行探讨.结果表明,当手机内置PIFA天线、辐射频率为1 800 MHz、辐射功率为1 W时,人体头颅的总体平均比吸收率未超过ICNIRP颁布的公众基本限值标准,但头颅内任意10 g组织中平均比吸收率的最大值却超过了公众基本限值标准.同时,头颅的影响使手机的辐射特性发生变化,当手机贴于左耳时,手机天线的方向图较之于处在自由空间时的方向图而言发生了向上、向左的偏斜,并且辐射到空间的功率约为辐射总功率的60%,被头颅吸收的功率约为辐射总功率的40%.%The interaction between human and radiation of cell phone involves two problems. One is whether the bioelectromagnetic dose absorbed by human body is beyond the standard limit, the other is what effects the body will have on the radiation of cell phone. Simulation analysis were conducted based on finite difference time domain(FDTD). Because the distance between the head and cell phone is much smaller than the wavelength of electromagnetic waves radiated by cell phone, the interaction could be regarded as a near-field problem in which the head and cell phone were considered as an inseparable whole. At the condition of in-phone PIFA antennas, 1 800 MHz radiation frequency and 1 W radiation power, simulation analysis showed that the average specific absorption rate overall head did not exceed the ICNIRP public promulgation of the basic limit, but the maximum of average specific absorption rate in arbitrary 10 g tissue in the head was more than the basic limit. At the same time, the radiation characteristics of the phone was changed by the influence from the head. When the phone affixed to the left ear, the pattern of the phone antenna was

  11. Cell Phone Use and Psychosocial Development Among Emerging Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Morrill, Torrey B.

    2009-01-01

    The cell phone has rapidly become an integral, and, for some, an essential communication tool that is being used worldwide. With cell phone ownership becoming so widespread, especially among the younger generation, society is starting to see and question the impacts of cell phone use on adolescent development. Relations between cell phone possession, cell phone use, and psychosocial and identity development were investigated using Erikson's Psychosocial Theory and Marcia's Adolescent Identit...

  12. A study on some psychological health effects of cell-phone usage amongst college going students

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanti P Acharya, Indranil Acharya, Divya Waghrey

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones have come to stay. Their use without any knowledge of their harmful effects like cancers and other health effects is not ‘quite’ safe. Studies on cancers due to electromagnetic radiations from cell phones are available but there is a need to research on the detrimental physical and psychological effects esp. on rampant users like college-goers. This study focused on certain psychological or mental health effects of cell phone usage amongst students pursuing professional courses in...

  13. Costly Cell Phones: The Impact of Cell Phone Rings on Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    End, Christian M.; Worthman, Shaye; Mathews, Mary Bridget; Wetterau, Katharina

    2010-01-01

    College students participated in a study on the "psychology of note taking" during which they took notes on video content and later completed a multiple-choice test on the material. Researchers assigned 71 participants to either the ringing condition (the video was disrupted by a ringing cell phone) or the control condition (no cell phone rings…

  14. Smart Bengali Cell Phone Keypad Layout

    CERN Document Server

    Azad, Md Abul Kalam; Ahmad, Shabbir; Kamruzzaman, S M

    2010-01-01

    Nowadays cell phone is the most common communicating used by mass people. SMS based communication is a cheap and popular communication method. It is human tendency to have the opportunity to write SMS in their mother language. Text input in mother language is more flexible when the alphabets of that language are printed on the keypad. Bangla mobile keypad based on phonetics has been proposed earlier. But the keypad is not scientific from frequency and flexibility point of view. Since it is not a feasible solution in this paper we have proposed an efficient Bengali keypad for cell phone and other cellular device. The proposed keypad is based on the frequency of the alphabets in Bengali language and also with the view of structure of human finger movements. We took the two points in count to provide a flexible and fast cell phone keypad.

  15. Cell Phoning and Texting While Driving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Honoria Rosaire Telemaque

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A qualitative phenomenological study was conducted on the consequences of cell phone use while operating a vehicle. We discussed why talking and texting on cell phones are so popular through the analysis of our interviews with police officers, driving instructors, and parents of teens and young adults. The participants came from central, northeastern, northwestern, and southeastern Connecticut. All had exposure with respect to the effects of cell phone usage problem. The study reached a point of theoretical saturation or redundancy by which the analysis no longer resulted in new themes. We concluded that the discoveries revealed the necessity for education, expansion of technology, and additional driver education preparation, which may provide a path for leadership to help solve the problem.

  16. Radiation safety of handheld mobile phones and base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is no conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases or adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, is not recommended, if the immunity of the pace-maker has not been assured. The exposure caused by the base stations is in all practical cases well below the power density limits for general public. (author)

  17. Radiation safety of handheld mobile phones and base stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P

    1999-01-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is no conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases or adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, is not recommended, if the immunity of the pace-maker has not been assured. The exposure caused by the base stations is in all practical cases well below the power density limits for general public. (author) 118 refs.

  18. Mobile phone radiation as an inducer of human disease - a hypothesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several reports which indicate that electromagnetic radiation (such as from mobile phones) at non-thermal levels may elicit a biological effect in target cells or tissues. Whether or not these biological effects lead to adverse health effects, including cancer, is unclear. To date there is limited scientific evidence of health issues, and no mechanism by which mobile phone radiation could influence cancer development. In this paper, we develop a theoretical mechanism by which radiofrequency radiation from mobile phones could induce cancer, via the chronic activation of the heat shock response. Upregulation of heat shock proteins (Hsps) is a normal defence response to a cellular stress. However, chronic expression of Hsps is known to induce or promote oncogenesis, metastasis and/ or resistance to anti-cancer drugs. We propose that repeated exposure to mobile phone radiation acts as a repetitive stress leading to continuous expression of Hsps in exposed cells and tissues, which in turn affects their normal regulation, and cancer results. This hypothesis provides the possibility of a direct association between mobile phone use and cancer as well as other diseases of protein unfolding, and thus provides an important focus for future experimentation. Copyright (2001) Australasian Radiation Protection Society Inc

  19. From Cell Phone Skeptic to Evangelist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascopella, Angela

    2009-01-01

    Liz Kolb started her education career as a teacher of middle and high school social studies in Wyoming City Schools in Cincinnati. She was also a teacher and technology coordinator at Grandview Heights City Schools in Columbus, where she adamantly opposed cell phones in school until she had an "ah-ha" moment. She then founded the Web site Cell…

  20. The American College Student Cell Phone Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emanuel, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a study of cell phone use among college students. This group is considered particularly important because college students tend to be among the first to try new technology, are the group most likely to innovate new ways of using existing technology, and are most vocal about what they need and/or want to see changed…

  1. The cell phone dilemma; Das Mobilfunkdilemma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mertens, J.; Wiedemann, P. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Programmgruppe Mensch, Umwelt, Technik

    2008-07-01

    It is explored if and how the Media generate social technophobias and in particular provoke antagonism against Cell Phones. The role of science and politics in this context is discussed. The authors caution against a progressive creation of hysteria in risk debates. (orig.)

  2. Elemental Compositions of Over 80 Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Beverley; Romanov, Alexandre; Romanova, Irina; Turbini, Laura J.

    2014-11-01

    Over the last few years, 85 cell phones have been disassembled, ground up, dissolved, and analyzed for elemental content, mainly for information about the metals present in the phones, but also for some metalloids and nonmetals. The following list of 38 elements were detected in some or all of the phones: Be, B, Mg, Al, Ti, V, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Y, Nb, Pd, Ag, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Ta, W, Pt, Au, Tl, Pb, Bi, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, and Er. Cadmium was never detected. This paper discusses the methods used for carrying out the analysis, proposes possible sources in the telephones for the elements of interest, the reasons for the interest in most of the elements, and method repeatability.

  3. Investigation of Managing Effective and Efficient Cell Phone Reverse Logistics

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Huiqiong

    2010-01-01

    There are many factors influencing the sustainability of Closed-Loop Supply Chain (CLSC) operations in the cell phone industry. This research aims to identify theses factors which directly have a great impact on unused cell phone returns in order to provide a better understanding of implementing effective and efficient reverse logistics in the cell phone industry. In particular, the current situation of the cell phone reverse logistics in USA, Europe and China would be discussed. Data and inf...

  4. BENCHMARKING THE ACCURACY OF INERTIAL SENSORS IN CELL PHONES

    OpenAIRE

    An, Bin

    2012-01-01

    Many ubiquitous computing applications rely on data from a cell phone's inertial sensors. Unfortunately, the accuracy of this data is often unknown, which impedes predictive analysis of applications that require high sensor accuracy (e.g., dead reckoning). This work focuses on benchmarking the accuracy of the accelerometers and gyroscopes on a cell phone. The cell phones are attached to a robotic arm, which provides ground truth measurements. The misalignment between the cell phone's and the ...

  5. From Toy to Tool: Audioblogging with Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Liz

    2006-01-01

    Educators often reject cell phones in the classroom, considering them destructive and distractive "toys." As a former technology coordinator, the author used to think cell phones were harmful for the classroom environment. Over time, she has come to realize that cell phones are part of the students' everyday existence. Today, students use cell…

  6. Cell Phones in the Classroom: Are We Dialing up Disaster?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, George; Green, Tim

    2011-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been a rapid diffusion of cellular technology. Though cell phone use began as a business tool, it has now become part of popular culture. Because of the near ubiquitous presence of cell phone technology among teens in the United States, schools are beginning to explore the use of cell phones as a learning tool. This…

  7. Cell Phones in the Classroom: Preservice Teachers' Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin; O'Bannon, Blanche

    2013-01-01

    This study employed a survey to examine the perceptions of 92 preservice teachers enrolled at a small Midwestern liberal arts university regarding their support of the use of cell phones in the classroom, the benefits of specific cell phone features for school-related work, and the instructional benefits of and barriers to using cell phones in the…

  8. Commonalities in Pedagogy Situating Cell Phone Use in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abend, Laurie Lafer

    2013-01-01

    Technology has become embedded in all aspects of students' lives as they increasingly rely on mobile technology devices such as cell phones to access and share information. Cell phones function as portable, affordable, and ubiquitous mini-computers, yet few teachers have leveraged the benefits of cell phone technology for teaching and learning…

  9. Student Impressions of Academic Cell Phone Use in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Jack

    2013-01-01

    Cell phones have become ubiquitous in society, but they are typically seen as a problem in the classroom. This study was designed to assess the perspective of students regarding the use of cell phones as academic tools in the classroom. The author encouraged students to use their cell phones in an environmental issues course to find data and other…

  10. ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone radiofrequency radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Mortazavi, Seyyed Mohammad Javad; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Hamid Reza; Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad; Mostafavi, Nayyer Sadat; Mahmoudi, Golshan; Berenjkoub, Nafiseh; Akmali, Zahra; Hossein-Beigi, Fahimeh; Arsang, Vajiheh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The increasing number of mobile phones can physically cause electromagnetic interference (EMI) in medical environments; can also cause errors in immunoassays in laboratories. The ELISA readers are widely used as a useful diagnostic tool for Enzymun colorimetric assay in medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the ELISA reader could be interfered by the exposure to the 900 MHz cell phones in the laboratory. Materials and Methods: Human serum samples were collecte...

  11. ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone radiofrequency radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohammad Javad Mortazavi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that ELISA reader does not interfere by mobile phone RF radiation at a closed contact (less than 5 cm distance. However, we recommend that medical institutions discuss these issues in the context of their specific use of technologies and frame a policy that is clear and straightforward to guide staff, patients, and visitors.

  12. The Impact of Driver Cell Phone Use on Accidents

    OpenAIRE

    Prieger, James E.; Hahn, Robert W.

    2004-01-01

    Cell phone use is increasing worldwide, leading to a concern that cell phone use while driving increases accidents. Several countries, three states and Washington, D.C. have banned the use of hand-held cell phones while driving. In this paper, we develop a new approach for estimating the relationship between cell phone use while driving and accidents. Our approach is the first to allow for the direct estimation of the impact of a cell phone ban while driving. It is based on new survey data fr...

  13. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 μW cm-2; 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at ≥2 h), and radicle and plumule growths (≥1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H2O2 accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  14. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, Ved Parkash [Department of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Department of Zoology, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Singh, Harminder Pal, E-mail: hpsingh_01@yahoo.com [Department of Environment and Vocational Studies, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani [Department of Botany, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India)

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 {mu}W cm{sup -2}; 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at {>=}2 h), and radicle and plumule growths ({>=}1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H{sub 2}O{sub 2} accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  15. Mobile phone radiation inhibits Vigna radiata (mung bean) root growth by inducing oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ved Parkash; Singh, Harminder Pal; Kohli, Ravinder Kumar; Batish, Daizy Rani

    2009-10-15

    During the last couple of decades, there has been a tremendous increase in the use of cell phones. It has significantly added to the rapidly increasing EMF smog, an unprecedented type of pollution consisting of radiation in the environment, thereby prompting the scientists to study the effects on humans. However, not many studies have been conducted to explore the effects of cell phone EMFr on growth and biochemical changes in plants. We investigated whether EMFr from cell phones inhibit growth of Vigna radiata (mung bean) through induction of conventional stress responses. Effects of cell phone EMFr (power density: 8.55 microW cm(-2); 900 MHz band width; for 1/2, 1, 2, and 4 h) were determined by measuring the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in terms of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) content, root oxidizability and changes in levels of antioxidant enzymes. Our results showed that cell phone EMFr significantly inhibited the germination (at > or =2 h), and radicle and plumule growths (> or =1 h) in mung bean in a time-dependent manner. Further, cell phone EMFr enhanced MDA content (indicating lipid peroxidation), and increased H(2)O(2) accumulation and root oxidizability in mung bean roots, thereby inducing oxidative stress and cellular damage. In response to EMFr, there was a significant upregulation in the activities of scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutases, ascorbate peroxidases, guaiacol peroxidases, catalases and glutathione reductases, in mung bean roots. The study concluded that cell phone EMFr inhibit root growth of mung bean by inducing ROS-generated oxidative stress despite increased activities of antioxidant enzymes.

  16. Effect of Mobile Phone Radiations on Morphological and Biochemical Parameters of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata) and Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Mobin Afzal; Simeen Mansoor

    2012-01-01

    Over the last two decades an enormous escalation in wireless equipments has been made our lives easy. The uses of wireless accessories including mobile phone have been enabled instant our communication resources advance and fast, on the other hand along with their advantages there is great increase in radiations, an unprecedented type of pollution, in our environment. Current study was an attempt to observe the morphological and biochemical changes induced by cell phone radiations on Mung bea...

  17. Teaching the Fundamentals of Cell Phones and Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Mark; Forrest, Rick; Pata, Don

    2010-01-01

    Wireless communications are ubiquitous. Students and teachers use iPhones[R], BlackBerrys[R], and other smart phones at home and at work. More than 275 million Americans had cell phones in June of 2009 and expanded access to broadband is predicted this year. Despite the plethora of users, most students and teachers do not understand "how they…

  18. Hotheads and Cell--Phones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锡宝

    1999-01-01

    本刊今年第2期曾经刊登了“使用手机可能引起高血压”的文章。张锡宝先生选注的这篇文章提出了相反的观点。值得一读。 以下是选注者言: 关于移动电话是否有害健康是个热门话题,有不少学术及大众文章对此有过评论或报道。笔者的总体印象是,认为移动电话有害健康的观点似乎占上风。本文则报道了一例科学实验,证明从短期效应上讲,移动电话不光对健康无害,而且还能加快人脑对外界刺激的反应速度。注意在本文中 Mobile telephone、Cell phone、Mobile phone均是移动电话的意思。另外请读者注意 Hothead一词在本文中的双关运用:它的原意是指那些头脑发热的人,并由此引申为易于激动、性急鲁莽的人;而在本文中则用此词戏指那些受移动电话微波辐射而头脑微微发热的受实验者——它告诉我们,即使Hotheads也有优点。

  19. A Technical Report on the Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation From a Mobile Phone on Mice Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elgenaidi A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available To The Editor: Exposure to electromagnetic radiation (EMR from mobile phones can cause detrimental effects on cell function, chromosomal aberrations, and tissue injuries [1-6]. The rapid expansion of mobile phones has lead to widespread concern for their safety. We examined the histopathological effects of direct exposure to this EMR from mobile phones in adult male Swiss albino mice. The animals were obtained from the biotechnology center, Tripoli, Libya, weighing from 25-30 grams, aged 10-12 weeks. The experiments were approved by state authorities and fol¬lowed guidelines of Egyptian law for animal protection. Mice were fed standard diets and water ad libitum. Plastic cages (diameter 45 cm by 11 cm height were designed for this work. The roof of the cage was designed to receive the mobile phone from a distance of about 10 cm from the cage floor [7]. EMR was emitted from the Nokia 1112 device with a dimension of 104×44×17 in connection with Libyan network (Misurata, Libya. The distance between phone and mice was about 10 cm. The GSM mobile phones operate with microwave carrier frequencies in the GHz range (850–1900 MHz [8-10].

  20. Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edell AR

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aimée R Edell, Jesse J Jung, Joel M Solomon, Richard N Palu Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cell phones in the pedestrian population. In this report, an older gentleman suffered extensive facial trauma requiring surgery as a direct effect of cell phone use at the time the trauma occurred. This case highlights the role that portable electronic devices can play as a cause of ocular trauma. Keywords: orbital fracture, ocular trauma, orbital floor fracture, cell phone distraction, pedestrian safety

  1. Distracted pedestrian sustains orbital fracture while on cell phone

    OpenAIRE

    Edell AR; Jung JJ; Solomon JM; Palu RN

    2013-01-01

    Aimée R Edell, Jesse J Jung, Joel M Solomon, Richard N Palu Department of Ophthalmology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Use of cell phones in the general population has become increasingly commonplace. The distracting effects of cell phones among automobile drivers are well established, and legislation prohibits the use of handheld cell phones while driving in several states. Recent research has focused on the similar distracting effects of cel...

  2. Recycled Cell Phones - A Treasure Trove of Valuable Metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Daniel E.

    2006-01-01

    This U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fact Sheet examines the potential value of recycling the metals found in obsolete cell phones. Cell phones seem ubiquitous in the United States and commonplace throughout most of the world. There were approximately 1 billion cell phones in use worldwide in 2002. In the United States, the number of cell phone subscribers increased from 340,000 in 1985 to 180 million in 2004. Worldwide, cell phone sales have increased from slightly more than 100 million units per year in 1997 to an estimated 779 million units per year in 2005. Cell phone sales are projected to exceed 1 billion units per year in 2009, with an estimated 2.6 billion cell phones in use by the end of that year. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency estimated that, by 2005, as many as 130 million cell phones would be retired annually in the United States. The nonprofit organization INFORM, Inc., anticipated that, by 2005, a total of 500 million obsolete cell phones would have accumulated in consumers' desk drawers, store rooms, or other storage, awaiting disposal. Typically, cell phones are used for only 1 1/2 years before being replaced. Less than 1 percent of the millions of cell phones retired and discarded annually are recycled. When large numbers of cell phones become obsolete, large quantities of valuable metals end up either in storage or in landfills. The amount of metals potentially recoverable would make a significant addition to total metals recovered from recycling in the United States and would supplement virgin metals derived from mining.

  3. Radiation accident dosimetry: TL properties of mobile phone screen glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mobile phones are carried by a large part of the population and previous studies have shown that they may be able to function as individual fortuitous dosimeters in case of radiological accident. This study deals with thermoluminescence (TL) properties of mobile phone screen glass. The presence of a significant background signal which partially overlaps with the radiation-induced signal is a serious issue for dose reconstruction. A mechanical method to reduce this signal using a diamond grinding bit is presented. An over-response at low energy (∼50 keV) is observed for two investigated glasses. The results of a dose recovery test using a single-aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) procedure are discussed. - Highlights: • Mobile phone screen glass is a promising material for retrospective dosimetry. • The TL non-radiation induced background signal can be significantly reduced by a mechanical method. • A dose recovery test using an SAR procedure was successfully carried out for the investigated glass

  4. Walking Stability during Cell Phone Use in Healthy Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Kao, Pei-Chun; Higginson, Christopher I.; Seymour, Kelly; Kamerdze, Morgan; Jill S. Higginson

    2015-01-01

    The number of falls and/or accidental injuries associated with cellular phone use during walking is growing rapidly. Understanding the effects of concurrent cell phone use on human gait may help develop safety guidelines for pedestrians. It was shown previously that older adults had more pronounced dual-task interferences than younger adults when concurrent cognitive task required visual information processing. Thus, cell phone use might have greater impact on walking stability in older than ...

  5. Thermal plasma treatment of cell-phone waste : preliminary result

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruj, B. [Central Mechanical Engineering Research Inst., Durgapur (India). Thermal Engineering Group; Chang, J.S.; Li, O.L. [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada). Dept. of Engineering Physics; Pietsch, G. [RWTH Aachen Univ., Aachen (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    The cell phone is an indispensable service facilitator, however, the disposal and recycling of cell phones is a major problem. While the potential life span of a mobile phone, excluding batteries, is over 10 years, most of the users upgrade their phones approximately four times during this period. Cell phone waste is significantly more hazardous than many other municipal wastes as it contains thousands of components made of toxic chemicals and metals like lead, cadmium, chromium, mercury, polyvinyl chlorides (PVC), brominated flame retardants, beryllium, antimony and phthalates. Cell phones also use many expensive rare metals. Since cell phones are made up of plastics, metals, ceramics, and trace other substances, primitive recycling or disposal of cell phone waste to landfills and incinerators creates irreversible environmental damage by polluting water and soil, and contaminating air. In order to minimize releases into the environment and threat to human health, the disposal of cell phones needs to be managed in an environmentally friendly way. This paper discussed a safer method of reducing the generation of syngas and hydrocarbons and metal recovery through the treatment of cell phone wastes by a thermal plasma. The presentation discussed the experiment, with particular reference to sample preparation; experimental set-up; and results four samples with different experimental conditions. It was concluded that the plasma treatment of cell phone waste in reduced condition generates gaseous components such as hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and hydrocarbons which are combustible. Therefore, this system is an energy recovery system that contributes to resource conservation and reduction of climate change gases. 5 refs., 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  6. Effects of the Effect of Ultra High Frequency Mobile Phone Radiation on Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Moradi, Mosa; Naghdi, Nasrollah; Hemmati, Hamidreza; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bahmani, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Public and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields due to the growing trend of electronic devices may cause adverse effects on human health. This paper describes the risk of mutation and sexual trauma and infertility in masculine sexual cell by mobile phone radiations. Methods In this study, we measured the emitted dose from a radiofrequency device, such as switching high voltage at different frequencies using a scintillation detector. The switching high voltage power sup...

  7. Cell Phones: A Bibliometric Analysis Related to Business Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Recent reviews of the literature indicate that the scope of research on cell or mobile phones covers a vast typology (Piotrowski & Kass, 2013). The majority of this research is concentrated in the technology, education, and social sciences fields. However, there is a dearth of bibliometric studies on cell phones related to business. To that…

  8. Passenger and Cell Phone Conversations in Simulated Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drews, Frank A.; Pasupathi, Monisha; Strayer, David L.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how conversing with passengers in a vehicle differs from conversing on a cell phone while driving. We compared how well drivers were able to deal with the demands of driving when conversing on a cell phone, conversing with a passenger, and when driving without any distraction. In the conversation conditions, participants were…

  9. Teaching Generation Text: Using Cell Phones to Enhance Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Lisa; Webb, Willyn

    2011-01-01

    "Teaching Generation Text" shows how teachers can turn cell phones into an educational opportunity instead of an annoying distraction. With a host of innovative ideas, activities, lessons, and strategies, Nielsen and Webb offer a unique way to use students' preferred method of communication in the classroom. Cell phones can remind students to…

  10. Eliminating the Textbook: Learning Science with Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessier, Jack T.

    2014-01-01

    College faculty have myriad choices of resources for their students when designing courses. The rising prices of textbooks and the availability of cell phones with internet access open the question of using cell phones in the classroom. In this study, I compared student learning in an ecology course between a semester in which a textbook was used…

  11. Is It Safe to Allow Cell Phones in School?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trump, Kenneth S.

    2009-01-01

    Cell phones were banned from most schools years ago, but after the Columbine High School and 9/11 tragedies, parents started pressuring some school boards and administrators to reverse the bans. On its surface, allowing students to have cell phones under the guise of improved school safety may seem like a "no-brainer" to many board members and…

  12. Cell Phones: Business Students in the Business Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Research on the topic of cell phones has proliferated over the past decade. Based on a review of the literature, it appears that the majority of the extant research on the topic resides in the technology, education, and social sciences fields. Recent reviews indicate that the scope of the research on cell/mobile phones is eclectic in nature…

  13. Design of cell phone for seniors

    OpenAIRE

    Čapák, Přemysl

    2012-01-01

    Předmětem této bakalářská práce je návrh mobilního telefonu pro seniory. Jejím cílem je analýza problému po stránce vývojové, technické a designové. Především se pak zabývá vlastním návrhem od variantních řešení po finální projekt. The subject of the bachelor's thesis is design of a cell phone for elderly people. It is based on historical and technical analysis and analysis of form. The work is aimed at the development of the design from variant proposals to the final project. D...

  14. A Mathematical Model for Energy Consequences of the Cell Phone Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晶; 周键聪

    2009-01-01

    Cell phone usage is mushrooming, and many people are using cell phones and giving up their landline telephones. We establish a mathematical model to analyze the energy consequences of the cell phone revolution in terms of electricity use.

  15. Maternal cell phone and cordless phone use during pregnancy and behaviour problems in 5-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Monica; van Eijsden, Manon; Vermeulen, Roel; Loomans, Eva; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; Komhout, Hans; van Strien, Rob T.; Huss, Anke

    2013-01-01

    Background A previous study found an association between maternal cell phone use during pregnancy and maternal-reported child behaviour problems at age 7. Together with cell phones, cordless phones represent the main exposure source of radiofrequency-electromagnetic fields to the head. Therefore, we

  16. Radiation dosimetry properties of smart-phone CMOS sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the past years, several smart-phone applications have been developed for radiation detection. These applications measure radiation using the smart-phone camera complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor sensor. They are potentially useful for data collection and personal dose assessment in case of a radiological incident. However, it is important to assess these applications. Six applications were tested by means of irradiations with calibrated X-ray and gamma sources. It was shown that the measurement stabilises only after at least 10-25 min. All applications exhibited a flat dose rate response in the studied ambient dose equivalent range from 2 to 1000 μSv h-1. Most applications significantly over- or underestimate the dose rate or are not calibrated in terms of dose rate. A considerable energy dependence was observed below 100 keV but not for the higher energy range more relevant for incident scenarios. Photon impact angle variation gave a measured signal variation of only about 10 %. (authors)

  17. Effect of Mobile Phone Radiations on Morphological and Biochemical Parameters of Mung Bean (Vigna radiata and Wheat (Triticum aestivum Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mobin Afzal

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades an enormous escalation in wireless equipments has been made our lives easy. The uses of wireless accessories including mobile phone have been enabled instant our communication resources advance and fast, on the other hand along with their advantages there is great increase in radiations, an unprecedented type of pollution, in our environment. Current study was an attempt to observe the morphological and biochemical changes induced by cell phone radiations on Mung bean (Vigna radiata and Wheat (Triticum aestivum seedlings. The effect of cell phone Electromagnetic Radiations (EMR were determined by measuring membrane damage in terms of melondialdehyde [MDA] contents and changes in the levels of antioxidant enzymes like Guaiacol Peroxidase (GPX, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX, and Catalase (CAT. Our results showed that cell phone EMR caused significant reduction in growth, fresh weight, dry weight, and relative water contents. Where as MDA contents and antioxidant enzymes were increased in stressed seedlings as compared to unstressed seedlings. We concluded that radiations emitted by mobile phone can induce oxidative stress which results in reduced growth and increase in the activity of antioxidant enzymes in mung bean and wheat seedlings.

  18. Comparison of cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of plutonium-239 alpha particles and mobile phone GSM 900 radiation in the Allium cepa test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnya, Dmitry S; Romanovsky, Anton V

    2013-01-20

    The goal of this study was to compare the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of plutonium-239 alpha particles and GSM 900 modulated mobile phone (model Sony Ericsson K550i) radiation in the Allium cepa test. Three groups of bulbs were exposed to mobile phone radiation during 0 (sham), 3 and 9h. A positive control group was treated during 20min with plutonium-239 alpha-radiation. Mitotic abnormalities, chromosome aberrations, micronuclei and mitotic index were analyzed. Exposure to alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 and exposure to modulated radiation from mobile phone during 3 and 9h significantly increased the mitotic index. GSM 900 mobile phone radiation as well as alpha-radiation from plutonium-239 induced both clastogenic and aneugenic effects. However, the aneugenic activity of mobile phone radiation was more pronounced. After 9h of exposure to mobile phone radiation, polyploid cells, three-groups metaphases, amitoses and some unspecified abnormalities were detected, which were not registered in the other experimental groups. Importantly, GSM 900 mobile phone radiation increased the mitotic index, the frequency of mitotic and chromosome abnormalities, and the micronucleus frequency in a time-dependent manner. Due to its sensitivity, the A. cepa test can be recommended as a useful cytogenetic assay to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields.

  19. A machine learning approach for detecting cell phone usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Beilei; Loce, Robert P.

    2015-03-01

    Cell phone usage while driving is common, but widely considered dangerous due to distraction to the driver. Because of the high number of accidents related to cell phone usage while driving, several states have enacted regulations that prohibit driver cell phone usage while driving. However, to enforce the regulation, current practice requires dispatching law enforcement officers at road side to visually examine incoming cars or having human operators manually examine image/video records to identify violators. Both of these practices are expensive, difficult, and ultimately ineffective. Therefore, there is a need for a semi-automatic or automatic solution to detect driver cell phone usage. In this paper, we propose a machine-learning-based method for detecting driver cell phone usage using a camera system directed at the vehicle's front windshield. The developed method consists of two stages: first, the frontal windshield region localization using the deformable part model (DPM), next, we utilize Fisher vectors (FV) representation to classify the driver's side of the windshield into cell phone usage violation and non-violation classes. The proposed method achieved about 95% accuracy with a data set of more than 100 images with drivers in a variety of challenging poses with or without cell phones.

  20. Effect of mobile phone electromagnetic radiation on somitogenesis of birds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have assessed the early embryo development of quails after the irradiation of incubation eggs by a standard mobile phone handset. Fresh fertilized quail eggs of exposed groups were irradiated periodically during 2 days before the incubation and in the first day of incubation by commercial mobile phone in the 'receiving a call' position (Motorola W230, GSM 850 MHz, SAR 0.75 W/kg, intensity of RF radiation in the zone of exposure 5-15 μW/cm2, total duration of exposure 20 h). Microscopic analysis of 40-hour embryos revealed that embryos of the exposed groups did not differ significantly from the control in the stage of development according to the quantity of pairs of differentiated somites. But embryos of the exposed groups had more abnormalities of their development as compared with the control. Consolidated data of two experiments revealed a statistically significant (p<0.05) increase of abnormalities in exposed embryos (33.33%) as compared with the control (9.68%). Most malformations in the exposed embryos appeared as the deformations of the first few pairs of differentiated somites. Such a kind of malformations was not found in control embryos.

  1. Cell phones and tumor: Still in no man′s land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D R Kohli

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of cell phones is increasing worldwide at a phenomenal pace. While cellular communication has dramatically influenced our lifestyle, its impact on human health has not been completely assessed. Widespread concern continues in the community about the deleterious effects of radiofrequency radiations (with which cell phones operate on human tissues and the subsequent potential for carcinogenesis. A detailed survey of published studies researching this question was done in preparation of this manuscript. Included in the survey were case reports, in vitro studies, population based retrospective studies and other investigations. The database of indexed journals was searched for key words like ′cell phone′, ′radiation′, ′cancer′ and ′radio waves′. Guidelines issued by the World Health Organization, federal and technical authorities, Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers and the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection were reviewed. The evaluation of current evidence provided by various studies to suggest the possible carcinogenic potential of radiofrequency radiation is inconclusive. This risk assumes significance in light of the burgeoning number of people who are continually exposed to the high frequency radiation from cell phones and towers that serve as receiving and transmitting stations. The aim of this review is to identify limitations in past studies, present available data for consideration, and identify gaps in the current knowledge base. This will provide impetus and direction for further research and allow informed decisions pertaining to cell phone use to be made.

  2. Prevalence and correlates of cell phone use among Texas drivers

    OpenAIRE

    Michelle L. Wilkinson; Brown, Austin L.; Iman Moussa; R. Sue Day

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Cell phone use while driving restricts peripheral awareness and impairs reaction time. This study assessed the 3-year prevalence of cell phone use (CPU) of drivers and characteristics associated with its use in six cities across Texas, 2011–2013. Methods: CPU and driver characteristics were observed among motor vehicles (n = 1280) stopped at major intersections in medical and academic campuses. A multivariable logistic regression model described the association between driver...

  3. A Study to Assess Economic Burden and Practice of Cell Phone Disposal among Medical Students

    OpenAIRE

    Anuj, Mittal; Rajasekar, Vedapriya Dande; Krishnagopal, Lavanya

    2013-01-01

    Context: Our country India is having 919.17 million cell phone users; currently this is the second largest number of cell phone users after China. The youth spend a good amount on talk time and purchasing cell phone handsets. Discarding of cell phone is another issue which needs attention because of generation of e-wastes, which leads to environmental pollution.

  4. Recent Court Rulings regarding Student Use of Cell Phones in Today's Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantes, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Student use of cell phone is a new area of concern in today's schools. Cell phone providers have attempted to convince parents that each child should be provided with their own cell phone for safety reasons and to stay in contact with their families. This has resulted in many students arriving at school with a cell phone, taking it to class and…

  5. "Hold the Phone!": Cell Phone Use and Partner Reaction among University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Tiffany; Knox, David; Zusman, Marty E.

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of survey data from 995 undergraduates at a large southeastern university revealed that 93% reported owning a cell phone and a statistically significant difference between women and men (95% versus 91.2%) and between Whites (95.1%) and Blacks (87.7%). In addition, Blacks were twice as likely as Whites to be bothered by their partner's use…

  6. Effects of the Effect of Ultra High Frequency Mobile Phone Radiation on Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Mosa; Naghdi, Nasrollah; Hemmati, Hamidreza; Asadi-Samani, Majid; Bahmani, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Public and occupational exposure to electromagnetic fields due to the growing trend of electronic devices may cause adverse effects on human health. This paper describes the risk of mutation and sexual trauma and infertility in masculine sexual cell by mobile phone radiations. Methods In this study, we measured the emitted dose from a radiofrequency device, such as switching high voltage at different frequencies using a scintillation detector. The switching high voltage power supply (HVPS) was built for the Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) system. For radiation dosimetry, we used an ALNOR scintillator that can measure gamma radiation. The simulation was performed by MATLAB software, and data from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) were used to verify the simulation. Results We investigated the risks that result from the waves, according to a report by International Commission on Non Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP), to every organ of the body is defined by the beam and electromagnetic radiation from this electronic device on people. The results showed that the maximum personal dose over a 15-min period working at the mentioned HVPS did not exceed 0.31 μSV/h (with an aluminum shield). So, according to other sources of radiation, continuous working time of the system should not be more than 10 hours. Finally, a characteristic curve for secure working with modules at different frequencies was reported. The RF input signal to the body for maximum penetration depth (δ) and electromagnetic energy absorption rate (SAR) of biological tissue were obtained for each tissue. Conclusion The results of this study and International Commission of Non Ionization Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) reports showed the people who spend more than 50 minutes a day using a cell phone could have early dementia or other thermal damage due to the burning of glucose in the brain. PMID:27382458

  7. Cancer risks related to low-level RF/MW exposures, including cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szmigielski, Stanislaw

    2013-09-01

    For years, radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiations have been applied in the modern world. The rapidly increasing use of cellular phones called recent attention to the possible health risks of RF/MW exposures. In 2011, a group of international experts organized by IARC (International Agency for Research on Cancer in Lyon) concluded that RF/MW radiations should be listed as a possible carcinogen (group 2B) for humans. Three meta-analyses of case-control studies have concluded that using cell phones for more than ten years was associated with an increase in the overall risk of developing a brain tumor. The Interphone Study, the largest health-related case-control international study of use of cell phones and head and neck tumors, showed no statistically significant increases in brain cancers related to higher amounts of cell phone use, but excess risk in a small subgroup of more heavily exposed users associated with latency and laterality was reported. So far, the published studies do not show that mobile phones could for sure increase the risk of cancer. This conclusion is based on the lack of a solid biological mechanism, and the fact that brain cancer rates are not going up significantly. However, all of the studies so far have weaknesses, which make it impossible to entirely rule out a risk. Mobile phones are still a new technology and there is little evidence about effects of long-term use. For this reason, bioelectromagnetic experts advise application of a precautionary resources. It suggests that if people want to use a cell phone, they can choose to minimize their exposure by keeping calls short and preferably using hand-held sets. It also advises discouraging children from making non essential calls as well as also keeping their calls short.

  8. The invisible addiction: Cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, James A; PETNJI YAYA, LUC HONORE; MANOLIS, CHRIS

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The primary objective of the present study was to investigate which cell-phone activities are associated with cell-phone addiction. No research to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities, and their relationship to cell-phone addiction, across male and female cell-phone users. Methods: College undergraduates (N = 164) participated in an online survey. Participants completed the questionnaire as part of their class requirements. The questionnaire took 10 an...

  9. Cell Phone Use and Child and Adolescent Reading Proficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofferth, Sandra L.; Moon, Ui Jeong

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the association between cell phone use, including minutes spent talking and number of text messages sent, and two measures of children’s reading proficiency — tests of word decoding and reading comprehension — in the United States. Data were drawn from the Child Development Supplement to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, a nationally representative survey of 1,147 children 10–18 in 2009. Children whose parents were better educated, who had higher family incomes, who had fewer siblings, and who lived in urban areas were more likely to own or share a cell phone. Among those with access to a phone, children who spent more time talking on the phone were less proficient at word decoding, whereas children who spent more time sending text messages had greater reading comprehension. Although girls spent more time texting than did boys, there were no gender differences in the association between time spent talking or number of text messages sent with achievement. In spite of racial/ethnic differences in cell phone use levels, there were no racial/ethnic differences in the association between cell phone use and reading proficiency.

  10. Observing Cell Phone Use and Enhancing Collaborative Learning Using a Wiki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Elizabeth G.

    2013-01-01

    Cell phone use is evident in society. Individuals have cell phone conversations while waiting in line at the grocery store, glance at their cell phones during meetings, check Facebook while having dinner with friends, have a meaningful phone conversation with a parent, and even text while sitting in church service. This assignment provides…

  11. Detecting particles with cell phones: the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory

    CERN Document Server

    Vandenbroucke, Justin; Karn, Peter; Meehan, Matthew; Plewa, Matthew; Ruggles, Tyler; Schultz, David; Peacock, Jeffrey; Simons, Ariel Levi

    2015-01-01

    In 2014 the number of active cell phones worldwide for the first time surpassed the number of humans. Cell phone camera quality and onboard processing power (both CPU and GPU) continue to improve rapidly. In addition to their primary purpose of detecting photons, camera image sensors on cell phones and other ubiquitous devices such as tablets, laptops and digital cameras can detect ionizing radiation produced by cosmic rays and radioactive decays. While cosmic rays have long been understood and characterized as a nuisance in astronomical cameras, they can also be identified as a signal in idle camera image sensors. We present the Distributed Electronic Cosmic-ray Observatory (DECO), a platform for outreach and education as well as for citizen science. Consisting of an app and associated database and web site, DECO harnesses the power of distributed camera image sensors for cosmic-ray detection.

  12. What Can You Learn from a Cell Phone? Almost Anything!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prensky, Marc

    2005-01-01

    Today's high-end cell phones have the computing power of a mid-1990s personal computer (PC)--while consuming only one one-hundredth of the energy. Even the simplest, voice-only phones have more complex and powerful chips than the 1969 on-board computer that landed a spaceship on the moon. In the United States, it is almost universally acknowledged…

  13. Radiation from mobile phone systems: Is it perceived as a threat to people's health?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Ivar S.; Elstein, Arthur S; Gyrd-Hansen, Dorte;

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the prevalence, nature and determinants of concerns about mobile phone radiation. We used data from a 2006 telephone survey of 1004 people aged 15+ years in Denmark. Twenty-eight percent of the respondents were concerned about exposure to mobile phone radiatio...

  14. The assessment of electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buckus Raimondas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. During recent years, the widespread use of mobile phones has resulted in increased human exposure to electromagnetic field radiation and to health risks. Increased usage of mobile phones at the close proximity raises questions and doubts in safety of mobile phone users. The aim of the study was to assess an electromagnetic field radiation exposure for mobile phone users by measuring electromagnetic field strength in different settings at the distance of 1 to 30 cm from the mobile user. Methods. In this paper, the measurements of electric field strength exposure were conducted on different brand of mobile phones by the call-related factors: urban/rural area, indoor/outdoor setting and moving/stationary mode during calls. The different types of mobile phone were placed facing the field probe at 1 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm and 30 cm distance. Results. The highest electric field strength was recorded for calls made in rural area (indoors while the lowest electric field strength was recorded for calls made in urban area (outdoors. Calls made from a phone in a moving car gave a similar result like for indoor calls; however, calls made from a phone in a moving car exposed electric field strength two times more than that of calls in a standing (motionless position. Conclusion. Electromagnetic field radiation depends on mobile phone power class and factors, like urban or rural area, outdoor or indoor, moving or motionless position, and the distance of the mobile phone from the phone user. It is recommended to keep a mobile phone in the safe distance of 10, 20 or 30 cm from the body (especially head during the calls.

  15. I 5683 you: dialing phone numbers on cell phones activates key-concordant concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha

    2011-03-01

    When people perform actions, effects associated with the actions are activated mentally, even if those effects are not apparent. This study tested whether sequences of simulations of virtual action effects can be integrated into a meaning of their own. Cell phones were used to test this hypothesis because pressing a key on a phone is habitually associated with both digits (dialing numbers) and letters (typing text messages). In Experiment 1, dialing digit sequences induced the meaning of words that share the same key sequence (e.g., 5683, LOVE). This occurred even though the letters were not labeled on the keypad, and participants were not aware of the digit-letter correspondences. In Experiment 2, subjects preferred dialing numbers implying positive words (e.g., 37326, DREAM) over dialing numbers implying negative words (e.g., 75463, SLIME). In Experiment 3, subjects preferred companies with phone numbers implying a company-related word (e.g., LOVE for a dating agency, CORPSE for a mortician) compared with companies with phone numbers implying a company-unrelated word.

  16. Dial D for Distraction: The Making and Breaking of Cell Phone Policies in the College Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Michael J.; Westfall, Aubrey

    2015-01-01

    Cell phones are nearly ubiquitous in the college classroom. This study asks two primary questions regarding the making and breaking of in-class cell phone policies. In what manner are students using their phones and how can faculty members minimize the potential for phone-related distractions? To answer these questions we analyze original survey…

  17. Radiation safety of mobile phones and base stations; Matkapuhelimien ja tukiasemien saeteilyturvallisuus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jokela, K.; Leszczynski, D.; Paile, W.; Salomaa, S.; Puranen, L.; Hyysalo, P.

    1997-06-01

    The recent expansion of personal telecommunications has led to a rapid increase in the exposure of people to the radio-frequency (RF) radiation. Although the mobile phones are low power devices, the antenna is so close to the head that the local exposure may slightly exceed 2 W/kg, the current exposure limit for the local specific absorption rate SAR for the general public. The increase in the temperature is, however, too small to have any physiological significance. On the basis of experiments with cell cultures it is possible that other biological effects caused by some unknown non-thermal mechanism exist, but thus far there is conclusive biological or epidemiological evidence to suggest any diseases adverse physiological changes below the thermal threshold. The use of a mobile phone by a person wearing a pace-maker, the immunity which against the electromagnetic interference from the mobile phone has not be assured, is not recommended. The exposure caused by the base stations is in almost all practical ceases all below the power density limits for general public. (orig.) (115 refs.).

  18. Mobile phone radiation induces reactive oxygen species production and DNA damage in human spermatozoa in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffry N De Iuliis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent times there has been some controversy over the impact of electromagnetic radiation on human health. The significance of mobile phone radiation on male reproduction is a key element of this debate since several studies have suggested a relationship between mobile phone use and semen quality. The potential mechanisms involved have not been established, however, human spermatozoa are known to be particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress by virtue of the abundant availability of substrates for free radical attack and the lack of cytoplasmic space to accommodate antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, the induction of oxidative stress in these cells not only perturbs their capacity for fertilization but also contributes to sperm DNA damage. The latter has, in turn, been linked with poor fertility, an increased incidence of miscarriage and morbidity in the offspring, including childhood cancer. In light of these associations, we have analyzed the influence of RF-EMR on the cell biology of human spermatozoa in vitro. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Purified human spermatozoa were exposed to radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR tuned to 1.8 GHz and covering a range of specific absorption rates (SAR from 0.4 W/kg to 27.5 W/kg. In step with increasing SAR, motility and vitality were significantly reduced after RF-EMR exposure, while the mitochondrial generation of reactive oxygen species and DNA fragmentation were significantly elevated (P<0.001. Furthermore, we also observed highly significant relationships between SAR, the oxidative DNA damage bio-marker, 8-OH-dG, and DNA fragmentation after RF-EMR exposure. CONCLUSIONS: RF-EMR in both the power density and frequency range of mobile phones enhances mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation by human spermatozoa, decreasing the motility and vitality of these cells while stimulating DNA base adduct formation and, ultimately DNA fragmentation. These findings have clear implications

  19. Mobile phone radiation health risk controversy: the reliability and sufficiency of science behind the safety standards

    OpenAIRE

    Leszczynski Dariusz; Xu Zhengping

    2010-01-01

    Abstract There is ongoing discussion whether the mobile phone radiation causes any health effects. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety and the World Health Organization are assuring that there is no proven health risk and that the present safety limits protect all mobile phone users. However, based on the available scientific evidence, the situation is not as clear. The majority of the evidence comes from in ...

  20. Effects Of Mobile Phones Radiation On The EEG And EMG Of Human Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fathy El-Komey

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the effect of mobile phone radiation emissions on the human electroencephalograph (EEG and electromyogram activity (EMG. EEG and EMG recordings from 50 (male and female awake subjects were taken during exposure to radiation emissions from a mobile phone. Our results demonstrated that stimulation effects became apparent on EEG at first, and changes varied strongly at the end of the experiment to depression. EEG and EMG showed interesting changes.The results suggested that cellular phones may reversibly influence the human brain, as their use induced abnormal slow waves in EEG of awake persons.

  1. Mass SAR Test of Cell Phone%手机批量SAR测试方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何毅; 范伟杰

    2013-01-01

    SAR is internationally adopted to measure the radiation, but the SAR test of cell phone is a complicated process. Based on the fundamental knowledge of cell phone SAR and the French SAGEM Laboratory Testing System, this paper presents the fundamental theories and key points of the Laboratory Testing System. The major factors which influence the cell phone SAR are analyzed from the aspects of the different circumstances of laboratory environment and the SAR test results of different cell phone models; the correlation between the factors and the SAR is studied. The cell phone SAR is simulated indirectly and a feasible scheme is obtained for the mass SAR test of cell phones.%国际上通行的方法是用比吸收率(SAR)来衡量手机辐射大小,但是手机SAR的测试又是一个非常复杂的过程。本文在介绍手机SAR的基本知识和法国SAGEM实验室测试系统的基础上,对实验室SAR测试的基本原理和要点做了归纳,通过对实验室环境下对各种情况、各个型号手机SAR的测试结果分析,分析手机SAR的主要影响因素,通过对这些影响因素与SAR关系的研究;来间接模拟手机SAR,以获得可用于批量手机SAR测试的可行性方案。

  2. Mobile phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almost the entire Norwegian population has cell phone. The usefulness of the cell phone is great, but can use a mobile phone to health or discomfort? How can exposure be reduced? NRPA follows research and provides advice on mobile phone use. (AG)

  3. Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation (EMFR generated by activated mobile phones on fasting blood glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Extensive use of mobile phones has been accompanied by a common public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. No study has been published so far to establish any association between the fastest growing innovation of mobile phone and fasting blood glucose. The aim was to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation generated by mobile phones on fasting blood glucose in Wistar Albino rats. Materials and Methods: 40 Male Albino rats (Wistar Strain were divided into 5 equally numerous groups. Group A served as the control one, group B received mobile phone radiation for less than 15 min/day, group C: 15-30 min/day, group D: 31-45 min/day, and group E: 46-60 min/day for a total period of 3 months. Fasting blood glucose was determined by using Spectrophotometer and serum insulin by Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA. The Homeostatic Model (HOMA-B was applied for the assessment of β-cell function and (HOMA-IR for resistance to insulin. Results: Wister Albino rats exposed to mobile phone radiation for longer than 15 min a day for a total period of 3 months had significantly higher fasting blood glucose (p < 0.015 and serum insulin (p < 0.01 compared to the control group. HOMA-IR for insulin resistance was significantly increased (p < 0.003 in the groups that were exposed for 15-30 and 46-60 min/day compared to the control rats. Conclusion: The results of the present study show an association between long-term exposure to activated mobile phones and increase in fasting blood glucose and serum insulin in Albino rats.

  4. Effect of Green Tea Extract in Reducing Genotoxic Injuries of Cell Phone Microwaves on Bone Marrow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Zahedifar

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Green tea (Camellia sinensis extract is rich source of natural antioxidants specially catechin that is quickly absorbed into the body and it has cancer protective, anti microbial and anti inflammation effects. In this study has been studied role of green tea extract against genotoxic damage induced by cell phone microwaves on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of adult male Balb/C mouse.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 mouse were divided into five groups, control animals were located under natural condition, sham -exposed animals were prepared by experimental condition without cell phone waves radiation. Experimental 1 group that irradiated at cell phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and experimental 2 groups were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days and experimental 3 group that irradiated at active mobile phones for 4 days (3 hours/day and were injected intraperitoneal 100 mg/kg green tea extract for 5 days. After treatment period micronucleus test was evaluated in polychromatic erythrocytes on bone marrow. The quantitative data was analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test with using of SPSS-13 software at the level of p<0.05.Results: Based on this study, treatment with extracts of green tea decreased micronucleus frequency in bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of Balb/C mouse that irradiated at cell phone microwave (0.92±0.129, (p<0.001.Conclusion: Cell phone microwaves (940 MHz increased micronucleus on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of male Balb/C mouse, but green tea had inhibitory effect and it decreased the average number of micronucleus.

  5. Mobile cell-phones (M-phones in telemicroscopy: increasing connectivity of isolated laboratories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Missoni Eduardo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of modern information telecommunication (ITC technology and its use in telemedicine plays an increasingly important role in facilitating access to some diagnostic services even to people living in the most remote areas. However, physical and economical constraints in the access to broad band data-transmission network, still represent a considerable obstacle to the transmission of images for the purpose of tele-pathology. Methods Indifferently using m-phones of different brands, and a variety of microscopic preparations, images were taken without the use of any adaptor simply approaching the lens of the mobile cell phone camera to the ocular of common optical microscopes, and subsequently sent via Multimedia Messaging Services (MMS to distant reference centres for tele-diagnosis. Access to MMS service was reviewed with specific reference to the African information communication technology (ICT market. Results Images of any pathologic preparation could be captured and sent over the mobile phone with an MMS, without being limited by appropriate access to the internet for transmission (i.e. access to broad-band services. The quality of the image was not influenced by the brand or model of the mobile-phone used, but only by its digital resolution, with any resolution above 0.8 megapixel resulting in images sufficient for diagnosis. Access to MMS services is increasingly reaching remote disadvantaged areas. Current penetration of the service in Africa was mapped appearing already available in almost every country, with penetration index varying from 1.5% to 92.2%. Conclusion The use of otherwise already widely available technologies, without any need for adaptors or otherwise additional technology, could significantly increase opportunities and quality diagnostics while lowering costs and considerably increasing connectivity between most isolated laboratories and distant reference center.

  6. Design Principles for Cell Phone Learning in EFL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feihong

    2010-01-01

    Cell phone learning (C-learning), as an instructional approach, has been gaining more and more attention in the field of teaching English as a foreign language (EFL) in the last 10 years. While studies have proved C-learning an effective instructional approach in research settings, a review of literature indicates the lack of design principles to…

  7. Internet and Cell Phone Based Smoking Cessation Programs among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Purvi; Sharma, Manoj

    2010-01-01

    Smoking cessation among adolescents is a salient public health issue, as it can prevent the adoption of risky health behaviors and reduce negative impacts on health. Self-efficacy, household and social support systems, and perceived benefits are some important cessation determinants. With the popular use of the Internet and cell phone usage among…

  8. Cell Phones in American High Schools: A National Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obringer, S. John; Coffey, Kent

    2007-01-01

    A survey instrument to determine school policy and practice regarding cell phone use by teachers and students was developed using a literature review, a panel of experts, and then a pilot study with typical respondents. The survey was mailed out randomly to 200 high school principals representing all 50 states. The return rate was 56 percent with…

  9. Still Trying to "Make the Call" on Student Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2008-01-01

    In fall 2007, the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU) of Colorado accused Colorado school officials of committing felonies and violating students' privacy rights. The controversy stemmed from allegations that a high school assistant principal read and transcribed text messages from a cell phone that school officials had taken away from a…

  10. Cell Phones + Self-Access: A Summer Campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsten Mashinter

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This is a summary of a project whereby the author developed a summer vacation contest for the SAC in which students could participate regardless of their physical distance from the facility. This contest was centered on cell phones, photography, and writing and was platformed online.

  11. Cell Phone Use by Adolescents with Asperger Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Whitehouse, Andrew; Jaquet, Emma; Ziatas, Kathy; Walker, Allan J.

    2010-01-01

    While young people have generally been at the forefront of the adoption and use of new communications technologies, little is known of uses by exceptional youth. This study compares cell phone use by a group of adolescents with Asperger Syndrome (n = 35) with that by a group of adolescents with typical development (n = 35). People with Asperger…

  12. ELECTRONIC WASTE GENERATED BY HAND HELD WIRELESS DEVICES WITH A FOCUS ON CELL PHONES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Characterization of wireless products; identify cell phone composition (particularly toxic components), document end of life programs for cell phones in the U.S. and Europe, examine provisions in the draft European Union Waste Electronic Equipment document. Project will include ...

  13. No Evidence Linking Cell Phone Use to Risk of Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood & Biologics Articulos en Espanol No Evidence Linking Cell Phone Use to Risk of Brain Tumors Printer-friendly ... Minimizing RF Exposure Do the radio waves that cell phones emit pose a threat to health? Although research ...

  14. Mobile phone radiation health risk controversy: the reliability and sufficiency of science behind the safety standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszczynski Dariusz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract There is ongoing discussion whether the mobile phone radiation causes any health effects. The International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection, the International Committee on Electromagnetic Safety and the World Health Organization are assuring that there is no proven health risk and that the present safety limits protect all mobile phone users. However, based on the available scientific evidence, the situation is not as clear. The majority of the evidence comes from in vitro laboratory studies and is of very limited use for determining health risk. Animal toxicology studies are inadequate because it is not possible to "overdose" microwave radiation, as it is done with chemical agents, due to simultaneous induction of heating side-effects. There is a lack of human volunteer studies that would, in unbiased way, demonstrate whether human body responds at all to mobile phone radiation. Finally, the epidemiological evidence is insufficient due to, among others, selection and misclassification bias and the low sensitivity of this approach in detection of health risk within the population. This indicates that the presently available scientific evidence is insufficient to prove reliability of the current safety standards. Therefore, we recommend to use precaution when dealing with mobile phones and, whenever possible and feasible, to limit body exposure to this radiation. Continuation of the research on mobile phone radiation effects is needed in order to improve the basis and the reliability of the safety standards.

  15. Cell-Phone Use and Self-Reported Hypertension: National Health Interview Survey 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Sivaranjani Suresh; Charumathi Sabanayagam; Sita Kalidindi; Anoop Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Background. Cell-phone usage has increased dramatically over the last decade, along with a rising public concern over the health effects of using this device. The association between cell-phone usage and hypertension has not been examined before. Methods. We analysed data from 21,135 adults aged ≥18 years who participated in the 2008 National Health Interview Survey. Based on reported cell-phone use, participants were categorized as cell-phone nonusers, predominantly landline users, dual user...

  16. Technology and collective action: the effect of cell phone coverage on political violence in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Pierskalla, Jan H.; Hollenbach, Florian M.

    2013-01-01

    The spread of cell phone technology across Africa has transforming effects on the economic and political sphere of the continent. In this paper, we investigate the impact of cell phone technology on violent collective action. We contend that the availability of cell phones as a communication technology allows political groups to overcome collective action problems more easily and improve in-group cooperation, and coordination. Utilizing novel, spatially disaggregated data on cell phone covera...

  17. Cell Phone Use among Homeless Youth: Potential for New Health Interventions and Research

    OpenAIRE

    Rice, Eric; Lee, Alex; Taitt, Sean

    2011-01-01

    Cell phone use has become nearly ubiquitous among adolescents in the United States. Despite the potential for cell phones to facilitate intervention, research, and care for homeless youth, no data exists to date on cell phone use among this population. In 2009, a survey of cell phone use was conducted among a non-probability sample of 169 homeless youth in Los Angeles, CA. Levels of ownership and use, instrumental uses (connecting to case workers, employers) and patterns of connecting to vari...

  18. Using technology to promote mobile learning: engaging students with cell phones in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Meigan; Shellenbarger, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Advancements in cell phone technology have impacted every aspect of society. Individuals have instant access to social networks, Web sites, and applications. Faculty need to consider using these mobile devices to enrich the classroom. The authors discuss how they successfully designed and incorporated cell phone learning activities into their classrooms. Teaching-learning strategies using cell phone technology and recommendations for overcoming challenges associated with cell phone use in the classroom are discussed. PMID:23086071

  19. Using technology to promote mobile learning: engaging students with cell phones in the classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robb, Meigan; Shellenbarger, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Advancements in cell phone technology have impacted every aspect of society. Individuals have instant access to social networks, Web sites, and applications. Faculty need to consider using these mobile devices to enrich the classroom. The authors discuss how they successfully designed and incorporated cell phone learning activities into their classrooms. Teaching-learning strategies using cell phone technology and recommendations for overcoming challenges associated with cell phone use in the classroom are discussed.

  20. Cell Phones in the Classroom: Teachers' Perspectives of Inclusion, Benefits, and Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Kevin M.; O'Bannon, Blanche W.; Bolton, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    Historically viewed as a disruption by teachers, cell phones have been banned from 69% of classrooms (Common Sense Media, 2009). The increased ubiquity and instructional features of cell phones have prompted some teachers to re-evaluate the ban and consider the benefits associated with allowing cell phones in the classroom. This study surveyed 79…

  1. College Students' Cell Phone Use, Beliefs, and Effects on Their Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Anastasia D.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore college students' self-reported cell phone use and beliefs and investigate the effect on student learning. Eighty-eight college students responded to a questionnaire about their use of cell phones during classes, studying, and driving and about their beliefs about how cell phones impact their…

  2. 78 FR 27441 - NIJ Evaluation of Hand-Held Cell Phone Detector Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ... of Justice Programs NIJ Evaluation of Hand-Held Cell Phone Detector Devices AGENCY: National...) is soliciting interest in supplying hand-held cell phone detector devices for participation in an... soliciting interest in supplying hand-held cell phone detector devices for participation in an evaluation...

  3. Uses of the Cell Phone for Education in the Philippines and Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Librero, Felix; Ramos, Angelo Juan; Ranga, Adelina I.; Trinona, Jerome; Lambert, David

    2007-01-01

    The cell phone, now the most widely used medium in Asia, has major educational implications. Most users, however, do not realize the cell phone's potential for education, nor even for the communication functions for which it was originally designed. Most educators still see the computer and the cell phone as unrelated devices, and the tiny cell…

  4. Effect of Mobile Phone Radiation on Nodule Formation in The Leguminous Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sapna Sharma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, there has been a widespread increase in the usage of mobile phones which resulted in an increase in electromagnetic radiations in the environment. These radiations have harmful effect on both plants and human being. A study was conducted to explore the effects of these radiations on the plants. The radiation emitted from mobile phones show effect on the early growth and biochemical changes in the emerging seedlings of Pisum sativum (Pea and Trigonella foenumgraecum (Fenugreek. It was observed that the radiations emitted from mobile phone show considerable increase in the germination percentage, seedling length, proteins, lipid and Guaiacol content in comparison to control seeds. Different exposure time treatments were taken for the study as ½ hour, 1 hour, 2 hour, 4 hour and 8 hour. The biochemical parameter increases with increase in the radiation exposure. The study concluded that radiations emitted from mobile phone interfere with both morphological and the biochemical processes and affect the growth and nodule formation in the plants. The number of nodules developed both in Pisum sativum and Trigonella foenumgraecum increases with increase in the radiation exposure.

  5. The outcome of dimethylglyoxime testing in a sample of cell phones in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Johansen, Jeanne D; Zachariae, Claus;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nickel dermatitis may be caused by frequent and prolonged use of cell phones. Because little is known about the frequency of nickel release from cell phones, it is difficult to estimate the risk of nickel sensitization and dermatitis among their users. OBJECTIVE: Inspired by a recent...... case of nickel dermatitis from prolonged cell phone use, the frequency of dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-positive cell phones on the Danish market was investigated. METHODS: Five major cell phone companies were contacted. Two were visited, and the DMG test was performed on a sample of their products. RESULTS......: 5 of 15 (33.3%) phones from company A and 3 of 26 (11.5%) phones from company B showed at least 1 positive reaction. 3 phones had more than 1 positive DMG spots. CONCLUSIONS: This study documents that excessive nickel release (i.e. a positive DMG test) is relatively frequent in a sample of cell...

  6. The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin-Meferij, Mashael Mohammed; El-Kott, Attalla Farag

    2015-01-01

    The present study has investigated the effects of mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on fertility in rats. The purpose of this study was to explore the capability of polyphenolic-rich Moringa oleifera leaf extract in protecting rat testis against EMR-induced impairments based on evaluation of sperm count, viability, motility, sperm cell morphology, anti-oxidants (SOD & CAT), oxidative stress marker, testis tissue histopathology and PCNA immunohistochemistry. The sample consisted of sixty male Wistar rats which were divided into four equal groups. The first group (the control) received only standard diet while the second group was supplemented daily and for eight weeks with 200 mg/kg aqueous extract of Moringa leaves. The third group was exposed to 900 MHz fields for one hour a day and for (7) days a week. As for the fourth group, it was exposed to mobile phone radiation and received the Moringa extract. The results showed that the EMR treated group exhibited a significantly decrease sperm parameters. Furthermore, concurrent exposure to EMR and treated with MOE significantly enhanced the sperm parameters. However, histological results in EMR group showed irregular seminiferous tubules, few spermatogonia, giant multinucleated cells, degenerated spermatozoa and the number of Leydig cells was significantly reduced. PCNA labeling indices were significant in EMR group versus the control group. Also, EMR affects spermatogenesis and causes to apoptosis due to the heat and other stress-related EMR in testis tissue. This study concludes that chronic exposure to EMR marked testicular injury which can be prevented by Moringa oleifera leaf extract.

  7. Cell Phone Carriers, TV-Commercials & Branding : A study of cell phone carriers TV- commercials, branding and its affect on young people

    OpenAIRE

    Sköld, Robin; Nilsson, Magnus

    2009-01-01

    Problem: As almost everyone has a cell phone today, keeping your customers is very important. An important group for cell phone carriers is young people. This is a group that uses cell phones more and more. However, attracting these people could be hard. One of the most common strategies to attract customers today is promotion through TV-commercials. Another strategy that has gained popularity is branding. We therefore asked ourselves how these strategies could affect each other and eventuall...

  8. Effect of Electromagnetic Radiation Emitted from A Mobile Phone Station on Biochemical and Histological Structure of Some Rat Organs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to investigate the effects of electromagnetic radiations (EMR), especially radio frequency (RF), which arises from mobile phone station on some parameter in serum and histological structure of some organs in male albino rats exposed to short (15 days) and long (30 days) periods. The long time exposure of the electromagnetic radiations can induce significant increase in the levels of testosterone, creatinine, urea and uric acid in the two exposure groups (15 and 30 days), while the serum total protein, albumin and globulin were decreased significantly after the long time of exposure as compared with control. The microscopic examination of liver, kidney and testes tissues revealed destruction and atrophy of cells in rats exposed to RF for 15 and 30 days. In conclusion, long term exposure of mobile phones station (EMR) induced harmful effects on blood parameter and histological structure of liver, kidney and testes tissues of rats.

  9. The influence of microwave radiation from cellular phone on fetal rat brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Ji; Yuhua, Zhang; Xiao-qian, Yang; Rongping, Jiang; Dong-mei, Guo; Xi, Cui

    2012-03-01

    The increasing use of cellular phones in our society has brought focus on the potential detrimental effects to human health by microwave radiation. The aim of our study was to evaluate the intensity of oxidative stress and the level of neurotransmitters in the brains of fetal rats chronically exposed to cellular phones. The experiment was performed on pregnant rats exposed to different intensities of microwave radiation from cellular phones. Thirty-two pregnant rats were randomly divided into four groups: CG, GL, GM, and GH. CG accepted no microwave radiation, GL group radiated 10 min each time, GM group radiated 30 min, and GH group radiated 60 min. The 3 experimental groups were radiated 3 times a day from the first pregnant day for consecutively 20 days, and on the 21st day, the fetal rats were taken and then the contents of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), malondialdehyde (MDA), noradrenaline (NE), dopamine (DA), and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HT) in the brain were assayed. Compared with CG, there were significant differences (Pcellular phones during pregnancy has certain harm on fetal rat brains.

  10. Updating Policy on Latest Risks for Students with Cell Phones in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Gerard, Vanessa

    2006-01-01

    It is hard to imagine how the majority of people made it through the day without cell phones just 5 to 10 years ago. These days, cell phones are everywhere, and everyone seems to own one--including many middle school students and even some students who are in elementary school. Both parents and students feel these phones are essential in order to…

  11. Effects of Classroom Cell Phone Use on Expected and Actual Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froese, Arnold D.; Carpenter, Christina N.; Inman, Denyse A.; Schooley, Jessica R.; Barnes, Rebecca B.; Brecht, Paul W.; Chacon, Jasmin D.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of driving indicate that the conversational aspects of using cell phones generate high risks from divided attention. Prior surveys document high rates at which students carry phones to and use them during class. Some experiments have demonstrated that cell phones distract students from learning. The present studies combined survey and…

  12. College smoking-cessation using cell phone text messaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obermayer, Jami L; Riley, William T; Asif, Ofer; Jean-Mary, Jersino

    2004-01-01

    Although rates of smoking among college-aged students continue to rise, few interventions that focus on college smokers' unique motivations and episodic smoking patterns exist. The authors developed and evaluated a prototype program targeting college students that integrates Web and cell phone technologies to deliver a smoking-cessation intervention. To guide the user through the creation and initialization of an individualized quitting program delivered by means of cell phone text messaging, the program uses assessment tools delivered with the program Web site. Forty-six regular smokers were recruited from local colleges and provided access to the program. At 6-week follow-up, 43% had made at least one 24-hour attempt to quit, and 22% were quit--based on a 7-day prevalence criterion. The findings provide support for using wireless text messages to deliver potentially effective smoking-cessation behavioral interventions to college students. PMID:15495883

  13. Cell phones: a digital cartography of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polise Moreira De Marchi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental function of maps has always been to understand, interpret, and represent the world. Therefore, maps have a communication role, as a language. As communication tool, maps spatialize the interaction of social, economic and cultural urban realities in a graphic expression that provides the very meaning of urban systems. The aim of this paper is to report an academic study involving digital interface design graduate students. They investigated the role of locative media as potential instruments for registering and mapping experiences, observations and perceptions of urban life. This study considers that students can stimulate interactions across the city, whether, directly, in its physical space or, indirectly, through interfaces such as cell phone applications. The project also sought to discuss the cell phone as a producer of new languages, since instead of being merely a telephone it combines the functions of different media and can produce images, videos, sounds etc.

  14. Cell-Phone Use and Self-Reported Hypertension: National Health Interview Survey 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivaranjani Suresh

    2011-01-01

    Results. 43.5% of the participants were cell-phone nonusers, while 13.8% were predominantly cell-phone users. We found that cell-phone use was inversely associated with hypertension, independent of age, sex, race/ethnicity, smoking, alcohol consumption, education, body mass index (BMI, and physical activity. Compared to cell-phone nonusers, the multivariable odds ratio (95% confidence interval of hypertension was 0.86 (0.75–0.98, P trend  =  .005 among predominantly cell-phone users. This inverse association between cell-phone use and hypertension was stronger in women, those aged <60 years, whites, and those with BMI <25 kg/m2. Conclusion. We found that cell-phone usage was protectively associated with self-reported hypertension in a nationally representative sample of US adults.

  15. Supreme Court Term Review: Cell Phones, Protests, and Prayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Mark

    2014-01-01

    If there is one thing that teenagers like to talk about when it comes to the law, it's who does and does not have the right to search their "stuff." And in the world of "stuff," there is nothing more important to average American teenagers than their cell phones. So when, in the waning days of its 2013-2014 term, the U.S.…

  16. The outcome of dimethylglyoxime testing in a sample of cell phones in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, J.P.; Johansen, J.D.; Zachariae, C.;

    2008-01-01

    case of nickel dermatitis from prolonged cell phone use, the frequency of dimethylglyoxime (DMG)-positive cell phones on the Danish market was investigated. Methods: Five major cell phone companies were contacted. Two were visited, and the DMG test was performed on a sample of their products. Results...... phones from the Danish market. Prolonged use of cell phones may in some cases fulfil the criteria for items included in the European Union Nickel Directive. We believe that this new cause of nickel dermatitis should be carefully followed and that regulatory steps may be necessary Udgivelsesdato: 2008...

  17. Online camera-gyroscope autocalibration for cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Chao; Evans, Brian L

    2014-12-01

    The gyroscope is playing a key role in helping estimate 3D camera rotation for various vision applications on cell phones, including video stabilization and feature tracking. Successful fusion of gyroscope and camera data requires that the camera, gyroscope, and their relative pose to be calibrated. In addition, the timestamps of gyroscope readings and video frames are usually not well synchronized. Previous paper performed camera-gyroscope calibration and synchronization offline after the entire video sequence has been captured with restrictions on the camera motion, which is unnecessarily restrictive for everyday users to run apps that directly use the gyroscope. In this paper, we propose an online method that estimates all the necessary parameters, whereas a user is capturing video. Our contributions are: 1) simultaneous online camera self-calibration and camera-gyroscope calibration based on an implicit extended Kalman filter and 2) generalization of the multiple-view coplanarity constraint on camera rotation in a rolling shutter camera model for cell phones. The proposed method is able to estimate the needed calibration and synchronization parameters online with all kinds of camera motion and can be embedded in gyro-aided applications, such as video stabilization and feature tracking. Both Monte Carlo simulation and cell phone experiments show that the proposed online calibration and synchronization method converge fast to the ground truth values.

  18. The invisible addiction: Cell-phone activities and addiction among male and female college students

    Science.gov (United States)

    PETNJI YAYA, LUC HONORE; MANOLIS, CHRIS

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: The primary objective of the present study was to investigate which cell-phone activities are associated with cell-phone addiction. No research to date has studied the full-range of cell-phone activities, and their relationship to cell-phone addiction, across male and female cell-phone users. Methods: College undergraduates (N = 164) participated in an online survey. Participants completed the questionnaire as part of their class requirements. The questionnaire took 10 and 15 minutes to complete and contained a measure of cell-phone addiction and questions that asked how much time participants spent daily on 24 cell-phone activities. Results: Findings revealed cell-phone activities that are associated significantly with cell-phone addiction (e.g., Instagram, Pinterest), as well as activities that one might logically assume would be associated with this form of addiction but are not (e.g., Internet use and Gaming). Cell-phone activities that drive cell-phone addiction (CPA) were found to vary considerably across male and female cell-phone users. Although a strong social component drove CPA for both males and females, the specific activities associated with CPA differed markedly. Conclusions: CPA amongst the total sample is largely driven by a desire to connect socially. The activities found to be associated with CPA, however, differed across the sexes. As the functionality of cell-phones continues to expand, addiction to this seemingly indispensable piece of technology becomes an increasingly realistic possibility. Future research must identify the activities that push cell-phone use beyond its “;tipping point” where it crosses the line from a helpful tool to one that undermines our personal well-being and that of others. PMID:25595966

  19. Cell phone ringtone, but not landline phone ringtone, affects complex reaction time

    OpenAIRE

    Radosław Zajdel; Justyna Zajdel; Janusz Śmigielski; Dariusz Nowak

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Legislation systems of most countries prohibited using the handheld mobile phone while driving due to the fact that it disturbs concentration and causes hand involvement. Every phone owner is accustomed to the ringtone of his phone and almost involuntarily endeavors to pick it up or check who calls. This engages one’s psychomotor skills, which in our opinion contributes to the attenuation of reaction time needed for performing other crucial functions. Objectives: The aim of the ...

  20. Pre-teen cell phone adoption: consequences for later patterns of phone usage and involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Geser, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Contents: 1. Introduction; 2. The particular proneness of adolescents to use mobile phones; 3. The consequences of earlier adoption as a focus of research; 4. Data and Methodology; 5. Empirical results; 5. 1.The rapid trend toward ever earlier initial adoption; 5.2 Intensity of phone usage; 5.3 Extensity and intensity of phone partner networks; 5.4 Temporal accessibility; 5.5 Affective mobile phone involvement; 5.6 The changes of early adoption effects with increasing age; 5.7 Early adoption ...

  1. Teaching the Fundamentals of Cell Phones and Wireless Communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davids, Mark; Forrest, Rick; Pata, Don

    2010-04-01

    Wireless communications are ubiquitous. Students and teachers use iPhones®, BlackBerrys®, and other smart phones at home and at work. More than 275 million Americans had cell phones in June of 2009 and expanded access to broadband is predicted this year.2 Despite the plethora of users, most students and teachers do not understand "how they work." Over the past several years, three high school teachers have collaborated with engineers at Cingular, Motorola, and the University of Michigan to explore the underlying science and design a three-week, student-centered unit with a constructivist pedagogy consistent with the "Modeling in Physics" philosophy.3 This unique pilot program reinforces traditional physics topics including vibrations and waves, sound, light, electricity and magnetism, and also introduces key concepts in communications and information theory. This article will describe the motivation for our work, outline a few key concepts with the corresponding student activities, and provide a summary of the program that has been developed to engage and inspire the next generation of scientists, engineers, and citizens.

  2. Cost-effective and Rapid Blood Analysis on a Cell-phone

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Hongying; Sencan, Ikbal; Wong, Justin; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Tseng, Derek; Nagashima, Keita; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact and cost-effective imaging cytometry platform installed on a cell-phone for the measurement of the density of red and white blood cells as well as hemoglobin concentration in human blood samples. Fluorescent and bright-field images of blood samples are captured using separate optical attachments to the cell-phone and are rapidly processed through a custom-developed smart application running on the phone for counting of blood cells and determining hemoglobin density. W...

  3. On the exposure to mobile phone radiation in trains

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrer, J.; Fernandez-Seivane, L.; Hernando, J. M.; Castan, M. B.; Garcia, L; Vazquez, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents theoretical estimates of the Power Density levels which may be reached inside trains. Two possible sources of high levels of radiation are discussed. The first one arises since the walls of the wagons are metallic and therefore bounce back almost all radiation impinging on them. The second is due to the simultaneous emission of a seemingly large number of nearby telephones. The theoretical study presented here shows that Power Densities stay at values below reference leve...

  4. Cell phone ringtone, but not landline phone ringtone, affects complex reaction time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Zajdel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Legislation systems of most countries prohibited using the handheld mobile phone while driving due to the fact that it disturbs concentration and causes hand involvement. Every phone owner is accustomed to the ringtone of his phone and almost involuntarily endeavors to pick it up or check who calls. This engages one’s psychomotor skills, which in our opinion contributes to the attenuation of reaction time needed for performing other crucial functions. Objectives: The aim of the study was: (1 to evaluate the infl uence of the sound of a ringing mobile phone on the complex reaction time (RT score in healthy subjects (owners, and (2 to check if there are any differences in RT when a landline phone and mobile phone ring. Methods: To assess RT we used our system and protocol of examination, previously validated. The examination conditions were standardized. All tests were performed in the same room with the same light and general acoustic conditions. The test group consisted of 23 women and 24 men, aged 19–24 years. The examination comprised 4 sessions: Training Session (TS during which the subjects were accustomed with the application and sample stimuli, Control Session (CS with no telephone ringing, Landline Session (LS with landline phone ringing, Mobile Session (MS with mobile phone ringing. Results: The median RT in the study population was signifi cantly elongated (p 0.05. Conclusions: We think that the specifi c ‘bond’ between a person and their private phone can signifi cantly disrupt their attention and thus affect the attention-demanding activities.

  5. Determination of the Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Student Cell Phones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Ann Blankinship

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Sampling of common use items (e.g., student cell phones for bacterial presence, identification, and antibiotic resistance profiling helps students to recognize the need for routine cleaning of personal items and encourages thoughtful use of currently available medications. This multilab period project can be used to teach or reinforce several methods from general microbiology including aseptic technique, isolation streak, serial dilution, spread plating, Kirby Bauer testing, unknown identification, and media production. The data generated can be saved and added to each semester, thus providing a data set that reflects a local trend of antibiotic resistance.      

  6. Charge Pump for LCD Driver Used in Cell Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郁海蓉; 陈志良

    2002-01-01

    A charge pump design is presented to operate at 10 kHz with 100 μA in a liquid crystal display (LCD) driver for cell phone. Optimal channel widths are designed by estimating the power consumption of the Fibonacci-like charge pump. An optimal frequency is a compromise between the rise time and the dynamic power dissipation. The optimization of the two-phase nonoverlapping clock generator circuit improves the efficiency. Simulation results based on 1.2 μm complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology parameters verify the efficiency of the design.

  7. Analysis of the contended health risks due to digitally modulated mobile phone radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the public discussion regarding the health risks of mobile phone system radiation, it is emphasized that the pulse slope of digital modulation, as defined in the GSM-Standard, will cause biological effects. In contrast, the high field strength of broadcasting and television radiation is not considered to be relevant. This paper compares quantitatively the slope of the digital GSM pulses with that of the synchronizing pulse of the television signal. The result shows clearly that the pulse spectrum of the television signal contains that of the GSM signal; in addition, the synchronizing impulse of television exhibits a much steeper slope. Considering the countrywide normal radiation intensities of television and mobile phone systems, it can be stated that the worldwide exposure to the common television signals over more than 50 years can disprove the contention of adverse biological health effects of the pulse slope of digitally modulated radiofrequency. (orig.)

  8. Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation (EMFR) generated by activated mobile phones on fasting blood glucose

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan Ayoub Meo; Khalid Al Rubeaan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Extensive use of mobile phones has been accompanied by a common public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. No study has been published so far to establish any association between the fastest growing innovation of mobile phone and fasting blood glucose. The aim was to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic field radiation generated by mobile phones on fasting blood glucose in Wistar Albino rats. Materials and Methods: 40 Male Albino rats (Wistar Stra...

  9. Cell phone conversing while driving in New Zealand: Prevalence, risk perception and legislation

    OpenAIRE

    HALLETT, Charlene; LAMBERT, Anthony; Regan, Michael. A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated (i) the prevalence of conversing on a cell phone while driving in New Zealand, (ii) respondents' perception of risk regarding this behaviour and (iii) attitudes towards legislation banning cell phone use while driving. In addition, the study examined the association between the prevalence of conversing on a cell phone and risk perception. Anonymous, self-reported, survey data was collected via the internet from 1057 drivers nationwide regarding the frequency of convers...

  10. Towards autonomous lab-on-a-chip devices for cell phone biosensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comina, Germán; Suska, Anke; Filippini, Daniel

    2016-03-15

    Modern cell phones are a ubiquitous resource with a residual capacity to accommodate chemical sensing and biosensing capabilities. From the different approaches explored to capitalize on such resource, the use of autonomous disposable lab-on-a-chip (LOC) devices-conceived as only accessories to complement cell phones-underscores the possibility to entirely retain cell phones' ubiquity for distributed biosensing. The technology and principles exploited for autonomous LOC devices are here selected and reviewed focusing on their potential to serve cell phone readout configurations. Together with this requirement, the central aspects of cell phones' resources that determine their potential for analytical detection are examined. The conversion of these LOC concepts into universal architectures that are readable on unaccessorized phones is discussed within this context. PMID:26569446

  11. Cell phones and male infertility: a review of recent innovations in technology and consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Agarwal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Cell phones have become a vital part of everyday life. However, the health risks associated with their usage are often overlooked. Recently, evidence from several studies supports a growing claim that cell phone usage may have a detrimental effect on sperm parameters leading to decreased male fertility. Nonetheless, other studies showed no conclusive link between male infertility and cell phone usage. The ambiguity of such results is attributed to the lack of a centralized assay for measuring inflicted damage caused by cell phones. Study design, ethics, and reproducibility are all aspects which must be standardized before any conclusions can be made.

  12. A feasibility study of cell phone and landline phone interviews for monitoring of risk and protection factors for chronic diseases in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Erly Catarina de Moura; Rafael Moreira Claro; Regina Bernal; Juliano Ribeiro; Deborah Carvalho Malta; Otaliba Morais Neto

    2011-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the feasibility of interviews by cell phone as a complement to interviews by landline to estimate risk and protection factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. Adult cell phone users were evaluated by random digit dialing. Questions asked were: age, sex, education, race, marital status, ownership of landline and cell phones, health condition, weight and height, medical diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes, physical activity, diet, binge drinking and ...

  13. Mobile Phone Radiation Induced Plasma Protein Alterations And Eye Pathology In Newly Born Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Eid*, M. Abou Zeid **, N Hanafi *** and A. El-Dahshan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The hazardous health effect of the exposure to 900-1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF which emitted from mobile phones was investigated on the plasma protein and eye of newly born mice. Twenty one newly born mice were divided into 3 groups, the 1st group served as control, the 2nd group exposed to mobile phone radiation daily for one month (45 min/day and the 3rd group remained one month following the end of exposure. The results showed deleterious changes in the plasma protein pattern by electrophoretic analysis. Also, the microscopic examination demonstrated numerous histopathological and histochemical changes in the eye mainly represented by degenerated, hemorrhagic areas and detachment in some layers of the eye with alteration in collagen, polysaccharides, total protein and marked increase in amyloid beta (β protein contents of newly born mice exposed to RF-EMF from mobile phone (45 min/day for one month as well as after one month following the end of exposure. It was concluded that the exposure to mobile phone radiation causes plasma proteins alterations and eye pathology in newly born mice.

  14. Reduced growth of soybean seedlings after exposure to weak microwave radiation from GSM 900 mobile phone and base station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N; Yak, See Kye; Eberhardt, Jacob L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study possible effects of environmental radiation pollution on plants. The association between cellular telephone (short duration, higher amplitude) and base station (long duration, very low amplitude) radiation exposure and the growth rate of soybean (Glycine max) seedlings was investigated. Soybean seedlings, pre-grown for 4 days, were exposed in a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell for 2 h to global system for mobile communication (GSM) mobile phone pulsed radiation or continuous wave (CW) radiation at 900 MHz with amplitudes of 5.7 and 41 V m(-1) , and outgrowth was studied one week after exposure. The exposure to higher amplitude (41 V m(-1)) GSM radiation resulted in diminished outgrowth of the epicotyl. The exposure to lower amplitude (5.7 V m(-1)) GSM radiation did not influence outgrowth of epicotyl, hypocotyls, or roots. The exposure to higher amplitude CW radiation resulted in reduced outgrowth of the roots whereas lower CW exposure resulted in a reduced outgrowth of the hypocotyl. Soybean seedlings were also exposed for 5 days to an extremely low level of radiation (GSM 900 MHz, 0.56 V m(-1)) and outgrowth was studied 2 days later. Growth of epicotyl and hypocotyl was found to be reduced, whereas the outgrowth of roots was stimulated. Our findings indicate that the observed effects were significantly dependent on field strength as well as amplitude modulation of the applied field. PMID:25644316

  15. Reduced growth of soybean seedlings after exposure to weak microwave radiation from GSM 900 mobile phone and base station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halgamuge, Malka N; Yak, See Kye; Eberhardt, Jacob L

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this work was to study possible effects of environmental radiation pollution on plants. The association between cellular telephone (short duration, higher amplitude) and base station (long duration, very low amplitude) radiation exposure and the growth rate of soybean (Glycine max) seedlings was investigated. Soybean seedlings, pre-grown for 4 days, were exposed in a gigahertz transverse electromagnetic cell for 2 h to global system for mobile communication (GSM) mobile phone pulsed radiation or continuous wave (CW) radiation at 900 MHz with amplitudes of 5.7 and 41 V m(-1) , and outgrowth was studied one week after exposure. The exposure to higher amplitude (41 V m(-1)) GSM radiation resulted in diminished outgrowth of the epicotyl. The exposure to lower amplitude (5.7 V m(-1)) GSM radiation did not influence outgrowth of epicotyl, hypocotyls, or roots. The exposure to higher amplitude CW radiation resulted in reduced outgrowth of the roots whereas lower CW exposure resulted in a reduced outgrowth of the hypocotyl. Soybean seedlings were also exposed for 5 days to an extremely low level of radiation (GSM 900 MHz, 0.56 V m(-1)) and outgrowth was studied 2 days later. Growth of epicotyl and hypocotyl was found to be reduced, whereas the outgrowth of roots was stimulated. Our findings indicate that the observed effects were significantly dependent on field strength as well as amplitude modulation of the applied field.

  16. Feasibility Study and Conception of an Intelligent GSM Cell Phone Silencer

    OpenAIRE

    Gorce, Jean-Marie; Kléber, Anja; Valois, Fabrice

    2002-01-01

    The European regulatory authorities are about to change the laws that deal with the proscription of cell phone silencers, towards the acceptance of intelligent systems. This technical report describes a cell phone silencer concept based on the idea of changing the access control parameters on the channel BCCH and develops other intelligent methods, also based on changing parameters on the common downlink channels. Intelligent in the way that they hamper people from using their cellular phones...

  17. What drives individuals to access the internet mostly using a cell phone?

    OpenAIRE

    Yook, Seungyun; Jung, Yumi

    2012-01-01

    Mobile Internet users can access content, applications, and services using their cell phones. Recent PEW Internet research shows that more than half of U.S. cell phone owners have smartphones. Among them, some people have adopted a mobile phone and use it as a major Internet access medium; they may use other devices such as a desktop computer, notebook, netbook, or tablet PC, but those are not included in their Internet access medium repertoire. This paper examines who accesses the Internet m...

  18. Assessment of oxidant/antioxidant status in saliva of cell phone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Ahmad M; Abu Khadra, Khalid M; Aljaberi, Ahmad M; Gagaa, Marwan H; Issa, Hamzah S

    2014-06-01

    Hazardous health effects resulting from exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted from cell phones have been reported in the literature. However, the cellular and molecular targets of RF-EMR are still controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the oxidant/antioxidant status in saliva of cell phone users. Saliva samples collected before using a cell phone as well as at the end of 15 and 30 min calls were tested for two commonly used oxidative stress biomarkers: malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-Oxo-dG). The 8-oxo-dG levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) competitive assay, while the MDA levels were measured using the OxiSelect MDA adduct ELISA Kit. The antioxidant capacity of the saliva was evaluated using the oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) and the hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) assays according to the manufacture instructions. The mean 8-oxo-dG and the Bradford protein concentrations (ng/ml and mg/ml, respectively) peaked at 15 min. The levels of HORAC, ORAC and MDA progressively increased with time and reached maximum at 30 min. However, there was no significant effect of talking time on the levels of 8-OxodG and MDA. Similarly, there was no statistically significant effect of talking time on the oxygen and hydroxyl radicals averting capacities, (ORAC) and (HORAC), respectively. These findings suggest that there is no relationship between exposure to radio frequency radiation (RFR) and changes in the salivary oxidant/antioxidant profile.

  19. Seasonal dependence of pigments number in alhagi pseudalhagi leaves forming in conditions of high radiation phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The activity circle of man includes also change of the radio ecological situation of environment, global increase of natural radiation phone, appearance of the local territories polluted with radio nuclides in result of technological processes, chemical pollution of air, water, land etc. The research works show that under external influence biological parameters don't change identically. In the present work territory of iodine in Rome polluted with radio nuclides has been regarded as the experimental one. Within the plant area there was registered radiation phone totaling 800-1000mkR /h. In comparison with control in autumn season total number of green pigments is approximately two times lower than number of carotenoids, while in spring season there aren't observed appreciable changes

  20. Examination of cell phone usage habits and purposes of education faculty students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Arslan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the cell phone usage habits and purposes of education faculty students were examined. Research was conducted with 952 students (532 fist year students, 218 second year students, 157 third year students and 45 forth year students from Marmara University Education Faculty and Maltepe University Education Faculty in İstanbul. For the collection of data, “cell phone usage determination survey” which was developed by the researchers, was used. In the research, various results were obtained about the cell phone owning ratios, cell phone usage habits and purposes of education faculty students some of which are as follows: a 99.9% of the education faculty students have a cell phone. b Education faculty students use cell phone intensively for 1-3 hours/day and ratio for usage more than 5 hours is 12.5%. c A portion of education faculty students close to average renew their cell phones every 1-3 years. d It was understood that education faculty students use cell phones for message sending / receiving. (75.2% e Sending / receiving message for the use of cell phones are examined, similar results are obtained for use for speech (75.2%; f The use of mobile phones for games intensively "never "and" rarely " are preferred options (75.9%; g When examined the use of mobile phones for photo / camera purpose “sometimes” and “rarely” options are selected by the students (65.5%; h On the other hand , faculty of education students vary the frequency of mobile phone use for listening MP3/Music Results show 28.6% of students are “often” use cell phones for this purpose. “Sometimes” option is close to “often” option (24.8%; i Using cell phones purpose of connecting internet is also analyzed. “Sometimes”, “frequently” and “always” options were reached 51.3% of the total rate in using cell phones for internet purpose.

  1. Active Prompting to Decrease Cell Phone Use and Increase Seat Belt Use while Driving

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Michael; Helms, Bridgett; Simpson, Cathy

    2006-01-01

    Automobile crashes are the leading cause of death for those aged 3 to 33, with 43,005 (118 per day) Americans killed in 2002 alone. Seat belt use reduces the risk of serious injury in an accident, and refraining from using a cell phone while driving reduces the risk of an accident. Cell phone use while driving increases accident rates, and leads…

  2. The Educative Potential of Cell Phones in the Social Studies Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguth, Brad M.

    2013-01-01

    Over 75 percent of teens have a cell phone, and today's youth are increasingly turning to their cell phones to communicate and access information (Pew Internet 2009). As teens gain access and use mobile devices outside of the classroom, there's been a growing movement for teachers to enlist the digital tools students really use and are…

  3. Cell Phones in the Classroom: Don't Put Them Away Just Yet!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Carolyn Lorraine

    2013-01-01

    As the number of students with cell phones has steadily increased over the past decade, these technological advances have caused trepidation among educators over behavioral issues, from off-task activities to cheating (Prensky, 2005). On the other hand, mobile learning, as well as some tools to use with cell phones, are easy to set up, easy to…

  4. Tools for School: Student Fluency and Perception of Cell Phones Used for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humble-Thaden, Mary Beth

    2012-01-01

    Technology is changing the way society interacts, communicates, collaborates, and learns. Improved cell phone capabilities and an ever increasing amount of cell phone applications allow individuals to connect globally and afford almost instantaneous access to information inside and outside the classroom. The majority of students today possesses…

  5. College Students Use Cell Phones while Driving More Frequently than Found in Government Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Sheryl; Mayer, Joni; Ryan, Sherry

    2007-01-01

    Objective: Cell phone use while driving is hazardous; it quadruples the risk of a collision and multiplies the risk of a fatality nine-fold. The National Highway Traffic Safety Administration estimates that 8% of young drivers and 5% of all drivers use cell phones while driving. Participants and Methods: The authors trained graduate student…

  6. A Study in Kuwait of Health Risks Associated with Using Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khamees, Nedaa

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested a link between cell phone use and various symptoms. Analysis of 3,274 completed questionnaires from throughout Kuwait show a significant effect of exposure to cell phones for burning sensation on the ear, temporal pain, pain in the back of the head, auricular pain, noises in the ear, ear numbness, heartbeat…

  7. Cell Phone Usage among Adolescents in Uganda: Acceptability for Relaying Health Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Kimberly J.; Bull, Sheana; Kiwanuka, Julius; Ybarra, Michele L.

    2011-01-01

    The increase in cell phone use has manifested a growing interest in using this technology for health promotion. The portability and "always on" features of the cell phone, along with increasing capability for the devices to carry and transfer data suggest that they will reach more people than computers and the Internet in coming years.…

  8. Daily Emotional Dynamics in Depressed Youth: A Cell Phone Ecological Momentary Assessment Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silk, Jennifer S.; Forbes, Erika E.; Whalen, Diana J.; Jakubcak, Jennifer L.; Thompson, Wesley K.; Ryan, Neal D.; Axelson, David A.; Birmaher, Boris; Dahl, Ronald E.

    2011-01-01

    This study used a new cell phone ecological momentary assessment approach to investigate daily emotional dynamics in 47 youths with major depressive disorder (MDD) and 32 no-psychopathology controls (CON) (ages 7-17 years). Information about emotional experience in the natural environment was obtained using answer-only cell phones, while MDD…

  9. Teachers' Stances on Cell Phones in the ESL Classroom: Toward a "Theoretical" Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    In the ongoing and constantly expanding discussion surrounding cell phones in the classroom, a theoretical complement to the practical side of the issue is generally lacking. This is perhaps understandable. Many teachers are still trying to deal with the simple presence of cell phones in the class, and managing a classroom in which the presence…

  10. Effects of radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones on electromagnetic hypersensitive subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Min Kyung

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the use of the third generation (3 G mobile phones on the rise, social concerns have arisen concerning the possible health effects of radio frequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs emitted by wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA mobile phones in humans. The number of people with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS, who complain of various subjective symptoms such as headache, dizziness and fatigue, has also increased. However, the origins of EHS remain unclear. Methods In this double-blind study, two volunteer groups of 17 EHS and 20 non-EHS subjects were simultaneously investigated for physiological changes (heart rate, heart rate variability, and respiration rate, eight subjective symptoms, and perception of RF-EMFs during real and sham exposure sessions. Experiments were conducted using a dummy phone containing a WCDMA module (average power, 24 dBm at 1950 MHz; specific absorption rate, 1.57 W/kg within a headset placed on the head for 32 min. Results WCDMA RF-EMFs generated no physiological changes or subjective symptoms in either group. There was no evidence that EHS subjects perceived RF-EMFs better than non-EHS subjects. Conclusions Considering the analyzed physiological data, the subjective symptoms surveyed, and the percentages of those who believed they were being exposed, 32 min of RF radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones demonstrated no effects in either EHS or non-EHS subjects.

  11. Cognitive effects of cellular phones: a possible role of non-radiofrequency radiation factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hareuveny, Ronen; Eliyahu, Ilan; Luria, Roy; Meiran, Nachshon; Margaliot, Menachem

    2011-10-01

    Some studies found that cognitive functions of human beings may be altered while exposed to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) emitted by cellular phones. In two recent studies, we have found that experiment duration and exposure side (i.e., phone's location--right or left) may have a major influence on the detection of such effects. In this brief follow-up experiment, 29 right-handed male subjects were divided into two groups. Each subject had two standard cellular phones attached to both sides of his head. The subjects performed a spatial working memory task that required either a left-hand or a right-hand response under one of the two exposure conditions: left side of the head or right side. Contrary to our previous studies, in this work external antennas located far away from the subjects were connected to the cellular phones. This setup prevents any emission of RFR from the internal antenna, thus drastically reducing RFR exposure. Despite that, the results remain similar to those obtained in our previous work. These results indicate that some of the effects previously attributed to RFR can be the result of some confounders.

  12. Appropriation and educational uses of cell phones by students and university teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Organista Sandoval

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This article presents a study on appropriation and educational uses of cell phones. For the research, a random sample of 954 students and 246 teachers was selected, representing respectively 12% and 24% of the total population in two facilities of UABC in Ensenada, Mexico. Our survey showed that 97% of teachers or students have some kind of cell phone or smartphone. However, we observed that one of every four interactions with the mobile device had a concrete educational purpose. We also found that in general the educational use of the cell phone is mainly aimed to establish communication between the students and to access information via Internet. However, in spite of its limitations, our results show that the cell phone is a technological tool with great pedagogical potential. We suggest that institutional policies are necessary in order to tap that the cell phone potential to adequately support the teaching-learning process.

  13. Colors Identification for Blind People using Cell Phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assistive Technology (AT) is an interdisciplinary research area that allows finding solutions to the individual with disability by easing or improving the functions or the skills for accomplishing daily activities. A technology can be considered 'assistive' if it is fit for the needs, skills and capabilities of the person, taking into account mainly the intended activity and the limitations of the context and environs where the person performs such activity. The current work intends to solve the problems of vision impaired persons to recognize colors. To this aim, a Java application for cell phones has been made which lets complement the mobiles' technology with that of image processing. The means to obtain the colors from a view are based on analysing the different color models join to a mechanism to reduce the collected data. This paper describes preliminary experiences, methodology and results considering the user perception.

  14. Recovery of indium from LCD screens of discarded cell phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, A V M; Fuchs, M S; Pinheiro, D K; Tanabe, E H; Bertuol, D A

    2015-11-01

    Advances in technological development have resulted in high consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE), amongst which are cell phones, which have LCD (liquid crystal display) screens as one of their main components. These multilayer screens are composed of different materials, some with high added value, as in the case of the indium present in the form of indium tin oxide (ITO, or tin-doped indium oxide). Indium is a precious metal with relatively limited natural reserves (Dodbida et al., 2012), so it can be profitable to recover it from discarded LCD screens. The objective of this study was to develop a complete process for recovering indium from LCD screens. Firstly, the screens were manually removed from cell phones. In the next step, a pretreatment was developed for removal of the polarizing film from the glass of the LCD panels, because the adherence of this film to the glass complicated the comminution process. The choice of mill was based on tests using different equipment (knife mill, hammer mill, and ball mill) to disintegrate the LCD screens, either before or after removal of the polarizing film. In the leaching process, it was possible to extract 96.4 wt.% of the indium under the following conditions: 1.0M H2SO4, 1:50 solid/liquid ratio, 90°C, 1h, and stirring at 500 rpm. The results showed that the best experimental conditions enabled extraction of 613 mg of indium/kg of LCD powder. Finally, precipitation of the indium with NH4OH was tested at different pH values, and 99.8 wt.% precipitation was achieved at pH 7.4.

  15. Cell-phone use diminishes self-awareness of impaired driving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu, David M; Strayer, David L; Biondi, Francesco; Behrends, Arwen A; Moore, Shannon M

    2016-04-01

    Multitasking diminishes the self-awareness of performance that is often essential for self-regulation and self-knowledge. Participants drove in a simulator while either talking or not talking on a hands-free cell phone. Following previous research, participants who talked on a cell phone made more serious driving errors than control participants who did not use a phone while driving. Control participants' assessments of the safeness of their driving and general ability to drive safely while distracted were negatively correlated with the actual number of errors made when they were driving. By contrast, cell-phone participants' assessments of the safeness of their driving and confidence in their driving abilities were uncorrelated with their actual errors. Thus, talking on a cell phone not only diminished the safeness of participants' driving, it diminished their awareness of the safeness of their driving. PMID:26282831

  16. Use and Needs in Contexts : An Ethnographic Study on Cell Phone Use from a Contextual Usability Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Friberg, Hanna

    2003-01-01

    The focus of this thesis is usability of an everyday used product; the cell phone seen from a Human – Computer Interaction perspective. The purpose with the thesis is to create an understanding of how cell phones are used by persons in natural /public settings and in everyday activities. Further the purpose is to describe users’ experiences of using cell phones. In this study, ethnography was used as method. The theoretical framework is the contextual usability perspective. The cell phone is ...

  17. Mobile cell-phones (M-phones) in telemicroscopy: increasing connectivity of isolated laboratories

    OpenAIRE

    Missoni Eduardo; Bellina Livia

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The development of modern information telecommunication (ITC) technology and its use in telemedicine plays an increasingly important role in facilitating access to some diagnostic services even to people living in the most remote areas. However, physical and economical constraints in the access to broad band data-transmission network, still represent a considerable obstacle to the transmission of images for the purpose of tele-pathology. Methods Indifferently using m-phone...

  18. National School Debate: Banning Cell Phones in Public Schools: Analyzing a National School and Community Relations Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Clarence; Kritsonis, William Allan

    2007-01-01

    School systems in America face many critical challenges pertaining to regulating cell phone use by students in today's schools. School executives and classroom teachers face challenges daily relative to how to effectively deal with student's using cell phones. There are many drawbacks and benefits for cell phone use by students. The authors…

  19. Detection and quantification of subtle changes in red blood cell density using a cell phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felton, Edward J; Velasquez, Anthony; Lu, Shulin; Murphy, Ryann O; ElKhal, Abdala; Mazor, Ofer; Gorelik, Pavel; Sharda, Anish; Ghiran, Ionita C

    2016-08-16

    Magnetic levitation has emerged as a technique that offers the ability to differentiate between cells with different densities. We have developed a magnetic levitation system for this purpose that distinguishes not only different cell types but also density differences in cells of the same type. This small-scale system suspends cells in a paramagnetic medium in a capillary placed between two rare earth magnets, and cells levitate to an equilibrium position determined solely by their density. Uniform reference beads of known density are used in conjunction with the cells as a means to quantify their levitation positions. In one implementation images of the levitating cells are acquired with a microscope, but here we also introduce a cell phone-based device that integrates the magnets, capillary, and a lens into a compact and portable unit that acquires images with the phone's camera. To demonstrate the effectiveness of magnetic levitation in cell density analysis we carried out levitation experiments using red blood cells with artificially altered densities, and also levitated those from donors. We observed that we can distinguish red blood cells of an anemic donor from those that are healthy. Since a plethora of disease states are characterized by changes in cell density magnetic cell levitation promises to be an effective tool in identifying and analyzing pathologic states. Furthermore, the low cost, portability, and ease of use of the cell phone-based system may potentially lead to its deployment in low-resource environments. PMID:27431921

  20. The use of cell phone and insight into its potential human health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-04-01

    The rapid evolution of mobile phone technology has raised public concern about its possible association with adverse health effects. Given the huge number of mobile phone users at present days, even simple adverse health effects could have major implications. This article reviews the present knowledge concerning the health effects stemming from the use of cellular phones by emphasizing adverse biological effects, epidemiological issues, and indirect health effects. A line of epidemiological evidence suggests that there is no concrete association between mobile phone radiation and cancer. The evidence regarding the occurrence of cancer due to exposure to the radio frequency energy of mobile phones is nonetheless conflicting. Consequently, long-term research in this field is necessary to account for the vital issue of this scientific research to the public in a meaningful way. PMID:26965900

  1. The use of cell phone and insight into its potential human health impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kabir, Ehsanul; Jahan, Shamin Ara

    2016-04-01

    The rapid evolution of mobile phone technology has raised public concern about its possible association with adverse health effects. Given the huge number of mobile phone users at present days, even simple adverse health effects could have major implications. This article reviews the present knowledge concerning the health effects stemming from the use of cellular phones by emphasizing adverse biological effects, epidemiological issues, and indirect health effects. A line of epidemiological evidence suggests that there is no concrete association between mobile phone radiation and cancer. The evidence regarding the occurrence of cancer due to exposure to the radio frequency energy of mobile phones is nonetheless conflicting. Consequently, long-term research in this field is necessary to account for the vital issue of this scientific research to the public in a meaningful way.

  2. Are girls (even) more addicted? Some gender patterns of cell phone usage

    OpenAIRE

    Geser, Hans

    2006-01-01

    Contents: 1. Mobile phones and gender roles; 2. The scope of the present study; 3. Data and Methodology; 4. Empirical results; 4.1 Age patterns of cell phone adoption; 4.2 Intensity of usage; 4.3 Subjective motivations and emotional commitments; 5. Conclusions; References.

  3. Preliminary research developing a theory of cell phone distraction and social relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaVoie, Noelle; Lee, Yi-Ching; Parker, James

    2016-01-01

    Motor vehicle crashes remain the leading cause of death and injury for people aged 5-34, accounting annually for over 3000 deaths, and 100 times as many injuries. It is well established that distracted driving, and cell phone use while driving in particular, pose significant crash risk to drivers. Research has demonstrated that drivers are well aware of this danger but over 90% of drivers report using a cell phone while driving. Given the likely role that social influence plays in how people use cell phones while driving surprisingly little research has been conducted investigating to whom drivers are talking or texting. We report the results of a national survey to determine who drivers are most likely to call or text when behind the wheel and compared these results with general cell phone calling and texting patterns as well as previous findings on the prevalence of calling and texting while driving. The results suggest that social distance is a key factor in cell phone use while driving: Teens are more likely to talk with parents, and adults are more likely to talk with spouses than general calling patterns would suggest. We discuss whether the purpose of calls made while driving, such as coordination, could help explain these patterns. We propose next steps for further examining the role social relationships play in cell phone use while driving to potentially reduce teen driver cell phone use by lowering the number of calls from parents. PMID:26562672

  4. A Comparison of the Cell Phone Driver and the Drunk Driver

    OpenAIRE

    Crouch, Dennis J; Drews, Frank A.; Strayer, David L.

    2004-01-01

    We used a high-fidelity driving simulator to compare the performance of cell-phone drivers with drivers who were legally intoxicated from ethanol. When drivers were conversing on either a hand-held or hands-free cell-phone, their braking reactions were delayed and they were involved in more traffic accidents than when they were not conversing on the cell phone. By contrast, when drivers were legally intoxicated they exhibited a more aggressive driving style, following closer to the vehicle im...

  5. A conceptual model of public medical service system based-on cell phone mobile platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Hongjiao; Zhao, Yue

    In recent years, cell phones have played an increasingly important role in rapidly-developing global telecommunication services. At present, mobile business develops very fast. However, the development in other mobile service fields, such as public service, mobile medical service, etc, is still in its infant stage. Drawing on the experience of the 'doctor workstation project' which is cooperated by Renmin University of China and Norway Fredskorps Corporation, this paper discusses the research and implementation of the Doctor Workstation System based on cell phone mobile platform. From the practice of the Doctor Workstation System, the paper advances a conceptual model of public medical service system based-on cell phone mobile platform.

  6. A feasibility study of cell phone and landline phone interviews for monitoring of risk and protection factors for chronic diseases in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erly Catarina Moura

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The study objective was to evaluate the feasibility of interviews by cell phone as a complement to interviews by landline to estimate risk and protection factors for chronic non-communicable diseases. Adult cell phone users were evaluated by random digit dialing. Questions asked were: age, sex, education, race, marital status, ownership of landline and cell phones, health condition, weight and height, medical diagnosis of hypertension and diabetes, physical activity, diet, binge drinking and smoking. The estimates were calculated using post-stratification weights. The cell phone interview system showed a reduced capacity to reach elderly and low educated populations. The estimates of the risk and protection factors for chronic non-communicable diseases in cell phone interviews were equal to the estimates obtained by landline phone. Eligibility, success and refusal rates using the cell phone system were lower than those of the landline system, but loss and cost were much higher, suggesting it is unsatisfactory as a complementary method in such a context.

  7. Psychophysiological patterns during cell phone text messaging: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Mei; Peper, Erik

    2009-03-01

    This study investigated the psychophysiological patterns associated with cell phone text messaging (texting). Twelve college students who were very familiar with texting were monitored with surface electromyography (SEMG) from the shoulder (upper trapezius) and thumb (abductor pollicis brevis/opponens pollicis); blood volume pulse (BVP) from the middle finger, temperature from the index finger, and skin conductance (SC) from the palm of the non-texting hand; and respiration from the thorax and abdomen. The counter-balanced procedure consisted of a 2 min pre-baseline, 1 min receiving text messages, 2 min middle baseline, 1 min sending text messages and 2 min post-baseline. The results indicated that all subjects showed significant increases in respiration rate, heart rate, SC, and shoulder and thumb SEMG as compared to baseline measures. Eighty-three percentage of the participants reported hand and neck pain during texting, and held their breath and experienced arousal when receiving text messages. Subjectively, most subjects were unaware of their physiological changes. The study suggests that frequent triggering of these physiological patterns (freezing for stability and shallow breathing) may increase muscle discomfort symptoms. Thus, participants should be trained to inhibit these responses to prevent illness and discomfort. PMID:19199025

  8. 手机机械结构与SAR优化%Mechanical Design of Cell Phones for Minimum SAR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何毅; 范伟杰

    2013-01-01

    国际上通行的方法是用比吸收率(SAR)来衡量手机辐射大小。通过对不同结构的手机、不同形式的PCB板设计、不同位置、类型的天线等因素的分析比对,找出可以最小化SAR的方法,为未来手机设计提供参考。%SAR is internationally adopted to measure the radiation. The minimum SAR solution can be found by comparing and analyzing different cell phones, PCB designs, positions and antennas. The study provides more reliable design solutions for future cell phone designs.

  9. Cell Phone Culture: Opportunities and Constraints for Entrepreneurship in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Press, M.; Arnould, E.; Askegaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    This presentation examines the potential for cell phone communication to be used to catalyze entrepreneurial action in Kenya and Uganda. LTRA-10 (CAPS for smallholder farms in eastern Uganda and western Kenya)

  10. Cell Phone-based Lateral Flow Assay for Blood Biomarker Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to integrate a sensor platform with a cell phone for health monitoring and disease diagnosis for astronauts in space exploration has the potential to be...

  11. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers, Published in unknown, Norton County Appraisal Office.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of unknown. It is described as 'Cell Towers'. Data by this publisher are...

  12. Cell Phone-based Lateral Flow Assay for Blood Biomarker Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The ability to integrate a sensor platform with a cell phone for health monitoring and disease diagnosis for astronauts in space has the potential to be cost...

  13. Effects of electromagnetic radiation of mobile phones on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossmann, K-A; Hermann, D M

    2003-01-01

    With the increasing use of mobile communication, concerns have been expressed about the possible interactions of electromagnetic radiation with the human organism and, in particular, the brain. The effects on neuronal electrical activity, energy metabolism, genomic responses, neurotransmitter balance, blood-brain barrier permeability, cognitive function, sleep, and various brain diseases including brain tumors are reviewed. Most of the reported effects are small as long as the radiation intensity remains in the nonthermal range, and none of the research reviewed gives an indication of the mechanisms involved at this range. However, health risks may evolve from indirect consequences of mobile telephony, such as the sharply increased incidence rate of traffic accidents caused by telephony during driving, and possibly also by stress reactions which annoyed bystanders may experience when cellular phones are used in public places. These indirect health effects presumably outweigh the direct biological perturbations and should be investigated in more detail in the future.

  14. Providing cell phone numbers and email addresses to Patients: the physician's perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freud Tamar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The provision of cell phone numbers and email addresses enhances the accessibility of medical consultations, but can add to the burden of physicians' routine clinical practice and affect their free time. The objective was to assess the attitudes of physicians to providing their telephone number or email address to patients. Methods Primary care physicians in the southern region of Israel completed a structured questionnaire that related to the study objective. Results The study population included 120 primary care physicians with a mean age of 41.2 ± 8.5, 88 of them women (73.3%. Physicians preferred to provide their cell phone number rather than their email address (P = 0.0007. They preferred to answer their cell phones only during the daytime and at predetermined times, but would answer email most hours of the day, including weekends and holidays (P = 0.001. More physicians (79.7% would have preferred allotted time for email communication than allotted time for cell phone communication (50%. However, they felt that email communication was more likely to lead to miscommunication than telephone calls (P = 0.0001. There were no differences between male and female physicians on the provision of cell phone numbers or email addresses to patients. Older physicians were more prepared to provide cell phone numbers that younger ones (P = 0.039. Conclusions The attitude of participating physicians was to provide their cell phone number or email address to some of their patients, but most of them preferred to give out their cell phone number.

  15. The Role of Depression and Attachment Styles in Predicting Students’ Addiction to Cell Phones

    OpenAIRE

    Ghasempour, Abdollah; Mahmoodi-Aghdam, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Background The present study aimed at investigating the role of depression and attachment styles in predicting cell phone addiction. Methods In this descriptive correlational study, a sample including 100 students of Payame Noor University (PNU), Reyneh Center, Iran, in the academic year of 2013-2014 was selected using volunteer sampling. Participants were asked to complete the adult attachment inventory (AAI), Beck depression inventory-13 (BDI-13) and the cell phone overuse scale (COS). Find...

  16. Why drivers use cell phones and support legislation to restrict this practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanbonmatsu, David M; Strayer, David L; Behrends, Arwen A; Ward, Nathan; Watson, Jason M

    2016-07-01

    The use of cell phones while driving is ubiquitous, particularly in countries where the practice is legal. However, surveys indicate that most drivers favor legislation to limit the use of mobile devices during the operation of a vehicle. A study was conducted to understand this inconsistency between what drivers do and what they advocate for others. Participants completed a survey about their driving attitudes, abilities, and behaviors. Following previous research, drivers reported using cell phones for benefits such as getting work done. The hypocrisy of using cell phones while advocating restrictions appears to stem from differences in the perceived safety risks of self vs. others' use of cell phones. Many if not most drivers believe they can drive safely while using mobile devices. However, they lack confidence in others' ability to drive safely while distracted and believe that others' use of cell phones is dangerous. The threat to public safety of others' usage of mobile devices was one of the strongest independent predictors of support for legislation to restrict cell phone use. PMID:27035396

  17. Cell Phone-Related Near Accidents Among Young Drivers: Associations With Mindfulness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Christopher P; Terry, Danielle L

    2015-01-01

    Cell phone use while driving (CPWD) has been shown to significantly reduce driver safety. This is a particular concern among young drivers who possess less driving experience and tend to engage in high rates of cell phone use. The present study identified psychological predictors of near accidents related to CPWD among a sample of 385 college student drivers. Participants answered a series of questions regarding their use of a cell phone while driving and completed measures of mindfulness, polychronicity, and intrusive thinking. Students who reported talking on their phone or texting more frequently while driving reported a higher incidence of near accidents related to each behavior. However, after controlling for CPWD, multiple regression analysis indicated that those who reported experiencing more cell phone-related intrusive thoughts also experienced more near accidents. Furthermore, two facets of mindfulness--acting with awareness and nonjudging of inner experience--were negatively associated with near accidents. These findings suggest that individuals who are more aware of the present moment and accepting of their affective responses may better regulate their attention while using a cell phone behind the wheel. PMID:25365542

  18. Analysis of chromosomal aberrations, micronuclei and hematological disorders among workers of wireless communication instruments and cell phone (Mobile) users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out to investigate the hazardous effect of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) such as chromosomal aberration, disturbed micronucleus formation and hematological disorders that may detected among workers of wireless communication instruments and mobile phone users. Seven individuals ( 3 males and 4 females) of a central workers in the microwave unit of the wireless station and 7 users of Mobil phone (4 males and 3 females ) were volunteered to give blood samples. Chromosomes and micronucleus were prepared for cytogenetic analysis as well as blood film for differential count. The results obtained in the microwave group indicated that, the total summation of all types of aberrations (chromosomes and chromatid aberrations) had a frequency of 6. 14% for the exposed group, whereas, the frequency in the control group amounted to 1.57%. In Mobil phone users, the total summation of all types of aberrations(chromosome and chromatid aberrations) had a frequency of 4.43% for the exposed group and 1.71% for the control group. The incidence of the total number of micronuclei in the exposed microwave group was increased 4.3 folds as compared with those of the control group The incidence of the total number of micronuclei in the exposed mobile phone group was increased 2 fold as compared with those in the control group. On the other hand, normal ranges of total white blood cells counts were determined for mobile phone users but abnormalities in the differential counts of the different types of the white blood cells such as neutropenia, eosinophilia and lymphocytosis were observed in the individuals number 1,2,3,7 in microwave group

  19. "The Only 13-Year-Old on Planet Earth without a Cell Phone": Meanings of Cell Phones in Early Adolescents' Everyday Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Bethany L.; Fletcher, Anne C.

    2011-01-01

    Cellular telephones have become an increasingly prevalent feature of contemporary American life, with usage often beginning during early adolescence. With this in mind, twenty 7th graders and their mothers participated in separate qualitative interviews regarding early adolescents' use of cell phones as well as perceived risks and benefits of such…

  20. Measurement and analysis of radiofrequency radiations from some mobile phone base stations in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey of the radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation at public access points in the vicinity of 50 cellular phone base stations has been carried out. The primary objective was to measure and analyse the electromagnetic field strength levels emitted by antennae installed and operated by the Ghana Telecommunications Company. On all the sites measurements were made using a hand-held spectrum analyser to determine the electric field level with the 900 and 1800 MHz frequency bands. The results indicated that power densities at public access points varied from as low as 0.01 μW m-2 to as high as 10 μW m-2 for the frequency of 900 MHz. At a transmission frequency of 1800 MHz, the variation of power densities is from 0.01 to 100 μW m-2. The results were found to be in compliant with the International Commission on Non-ionizing Radiological Protection guidance level but were 20 times higher than the results generally obtained for such a practice elsewhere. There is therefore a need to re-assess the situation to ensure reduction in the present level as an increase in mobile phone usage is envisaged within the next few years. (authors)

  1. The effect of electromagnetic radiation in the mobile phone range on the behaviour of the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Willie M U; Pitout, Ianthe L; Afullo, Thomas J O; Mabandla, Musa V

    2009-12-01

    Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) is emitted from electromagnetic fields that surround power lines, household appliances and mobile phones. Research has shown that there are connections between EMR exposure and cancer and also that exposure to EMR may result in structural damage to neurons. In a study by Salford et al. (Environ Health Perspect 111:881-883, 2003) the authors demonstrated the presence of strongly stained areas in the brains of rats that were exposed to mobile phone EMR. These darker neurons were particularly prevalent in the hippocampal area of the brain. The aim of our study was to further investigate the effects of EMR. Since the hippocampus is involved in learning and memory and emotional states, we hypothesised that EMR will have a negative impact on the subject's mood and ability to learn. We subsequently performed behavioural, histological and biochemical tests on exposed and unexposed male and female rats to determine the effects of EMR on learning and memory, emotional states and corticosterone levels. We found no significant differences in the spatial memory test, and morphological assessment of the brain also yielded non-significant differences between the groups. However, in some exposed animals there were decreased locomotor activity, increased grooming and a tendency of increased basal corticosterone levels. These findings suggested that EMR exposure may lead to abnormal brain functioning.

  2. Integrating Cell Phones into the Secondary Montessori Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Cynthia M.

    2010-01-01

    A disconnect exists between how students communicate using their mobile phones outside of school and how they use them in the classroom. Many high schools across the United States ban their use, even though numerous mobile learning strategies are available. Although research pertaining to m-learning has been conducted at the collegiate level, a…

  3. In the shadow of the cell-phone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lone Koefoed

    2009-01-01

    Based on discussions of hybrid space as well as the concepts of the database and archive art, the paper analyzes Hasan Elahi’s project “Tracking Transience” (2003-) and relates it to Sophie Calle’s performance “Detective” (1980) while discussing how we can understand the mobile phone as a device ...

  4. IARC Classification of Cell Phones as “Possible Carcinogen”

    Science.gov (United States)

    The World Health Organization’s International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) today classified mobile phone use and other radiofrequency electromagnetic fields as a possible carcinogen (group 2B). This is neither new research nor at odds with previous findings.

  5. SAR Simulation with Magneto Chiral Effects for Human Head Radiated from Cellular Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Silva, H.

    2008-09-01

    A numerical method for a microwave signal emitted by a cellular phone, propagating in a magneto-chiral media, characterized by an extended Born-Fedorov formalism, is presented. It is shown that the use of a cell model, combined with a real model of the human head, derived from the magnetic resonance of images allows a good determination of the near fields induced in the head when the brain chirality and the battery magnetic field are considered together. The results on a 2-Dim human head model show the evolution of the specific absorption rate, (SAR coefficient) and the spatial peak specific absorption rate which are sensitives to the magneto-chiral factor, which is important in the brain layer. For GSM/PCN phones, extremely low frequency real pulsed magnetic fields (in the order of 10 to 60 milligauss) are added to the model through the whole of the user's head. The more important conclusion of our work is that the head absorption is bigger than the results for a classical model without the magneto chiral effect. Hot spots are produced due to the combination of microwave and the magnetic field produced by the phone's operation. The FDTD method was used to compute the SARs inside the MRI based head models consisting of various tissues for 1.8 GHz. As a result, we found that in the head model having more than four kinds of tissue, the localized peak SAR reaches maximum inside the head for over five tissues including skin, bone, blood and brain cells.

  6. Who needs RDD? Combining directory listings with cell phone exchanges for an alternative telephone sampling frame

    OpenAIRE

    Guterbock, Thomas; Diop, Abdoulaye; Ellis, James; Trung Le, Kien

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The traditional Random Digit Dialing method (list-assisted RDD using a frame of landline phone numbers) is clearly under threat. The difficulty and costs of completing telephone surveys have increased due to rising rates of refusal and non-contact. The completeness of coverage of list-assisted RDD samples has diminished due to the proliferation of cell-phone only households. The ability of list-assisted RDD to capture young, mobile, unmarried, and minority households is thus dimin...

  7. Design and Evaluation of Cell Phone Pointing Interface for Robot Control

    OpenAIRE

    Saso Koceski; Natasa Koceska; Ivica Kocev

    2012-01-01

    In this work a pointing interface based on human gestures using a mobile phone accelerometer for interaction with robots is proposed. Through this interface the user can sketch stroke gestures on a computer screen using the cell phone accelerometer to make a selection and instruct a robot to perform a task. Selection, cancelation and movement, as well as some additional commands such as stop, pause and resume are supported. All the projected gestures are processed using known image analysis a...

  8. Swedish review strengthens grounds for concluding that radiation from cellular and cordless phones is a probable human carcinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Devra Lee; Kesari, Santosh; Soskolne, Colin L; Miller, Anthony B; Stein, Yael

    2013-04-01

    With 5.9 billion reported users, mobile phones constitute a new, ubiquitous and rapidly growing exposure worldwide. Mobile phones are two-way microwave radios that also emit low levels of electromagnetic radiation. Inconsistent results have been published on potential risks of brain tumors tied with mobile phone use as a result of important methodological differences in study design and statistical power. Some studies have examined mobile phone users for periods of time that are too short to detect an increased risk of brain cancer, while others have misclassified exposures by placing those with exposures to microwave radiation from cordless phones in the control group, or failing to attribute such exposures in the cases. In 2011, the World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) advised that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone and other wireless devices constitutes a "possible human carcinogen," 2B. Recent analyses not considered in the IARC review that take into account these methodological shortcomings from a number of authors find that brain tumor risk is significantly elevated for those who have used mobile phones for at least a decade. Studies carried out in Sweden indicate that those who begin using either cordless or mobile phones regularly before age 20 have greater than a fourfold increased risk of ipsilateral glioma. Given that treatment for a single case of brain cancer can cost between $100,000 for radiation therapy alone and up to $1 million depending on drug costs, resources to address this illness are already in short supply and not universally available in either developing or developed countries. Significant additional shortages in oncology services are expected at the current growth of cancer. No other environmental carcinogen has produced evidence of an increased risk in just one decade. Empirical data have shown a difference in the dielectric properties of tissues as a function of age, mostly due to the

  9. Swedish review strengthens grounds for concluding that radiation from cellular and cordless phones is a probable human carcinogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Devra Lee; Kesari, Santosh; Soskolne, Colin L; Miller, Anthony B; Stein, Yael

    2013-04-01

    With 5.9 billion reported users, mobile phones constitute a new, ubiquitous and rapidly growing exposure worldwide. Mobile phones are two-way microwave radios that also emit low levels of electromagnetic radiation. Inconsistent results have been published on potential risks of brain tumors tied with mobile phone use as a result of important methodological differences in study design and statistical power. Some studies have examined mobile phone users for periods of time that are too short to detect an increased risk of brain cancer, while others have misclassified exposures by placing those with exposures to microwave radiation from cordless phones in the control group, or failing to attribute such exposures in the cases. In 2011, the World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) advised that electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone and other wireless devices constitutes a "possible human carcinogen," 2B. Recent analyses not considered in the IARC review that take into account these methodological shortcomings from a number of authors find that brain tumor risk is significantly elevated for those who have used mobile phones for at least a decade. Studies carried out in Sweden indicate that those who begin using either cordless or mobile phones regularly before age 20 have greater than a fourfold increased risk of ipsilateral glioma. Given that treatment for a single case of brain cancer can cost between $100,000 for radiation therapy alone and up to $1 million depending on drug costs, resources to address this illness are already in short supply and not universally available in either developing or developed countries. Significant additional shortages in oncology services are expected at the current growth of cancer. No other environmental carcinogen has produced evidence of an increased risk in just one decade. Empirical data have shown a difference in the dielectric properties of tissues as a function of age, mostly due to the

  10. Solar cell radiation handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tada, H. Y.; Carter, J. R., Jr.; Anspaugh, B. E.; Downing, R. G.

    1982-01-01

    The handbook to predict the degradation of solar cell electrical performance in any given space radiation environment is presented. Solar cell theory, cell manufacturing and how they are modeled mathematically are described. The interaction of energetic charged particles radiation with solar cells is discussed and the concept of 1 MeV equivalent electron fluence is introduced. The space radiation environment is described and methods of calculating equivalent fluences for the space environment are developed. A computer program was written to perform the equivalent fluence calculations and a FORTRAN listing of the program is included. Data detailing the degradation of solar cell electrical parameters as a function of 1 MeV electron fluence are presented.

  11. Gas detection with microelectromechanical Fabry-Perot interferometer technology in cell phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannila, Rami; Hyypiö, Risto; Korkalainen, Marko; Blomberg, Martti; Kattelus, Hannu; Rissanen, Anna

    2015-06-01

    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland has developed a miniaturized optical sensor for gas detection in a cell phone. The sensor is based on a microelectromechanical (MEMS) Fabry-Perot interferometer, which is a structure with two highly reflective surfaces separated by a tunable air gap. The MEMS FPI is a monolithic device, i.e. it is made entirely on one substrate in a batch process, without assembling separate pieces together. The gap is adjusted by moving the upper mirror with electrostatic force, so there are no actual moving parts. VTT has designed and manufactured a MEMS FPI based carbon dioxide sensor demonstrator which is integrated to a cell phone shield cover. The demonstrator contains light source, gas cell, MEMS FPI, detector, control electronics and two coin cell batteries as a power source. It is connected to the cell phone by Bluetooth. By adjusting the wavelength range and customizing the MEMS FPI structure, it is possible to selectively sense multiple gases.

  12. Providing views of the driving scene to drivers' conversation partners mitigates cell-phone-related distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspar, John G; Street, Whitney N; Windsor, Matthew B; Carbonari, Ronald; Kaczmarski, Henry; Kramer, Arthur F; Mathewson, Kyle E

    2014-12-01

    Cell-phone use impairs driving safety and performance. This impairment may stem from the remote partner's lack of awareness about the driving situation. In this study, pairs of participants completed a driving simulator task while conversing naturally in the car and while talking on a hands-free cell phone. In a third condition, the driver drove while the remote conversation partner could see video of both the road ahead and the driver's face. We tested the extent to which this additional visual information diminished the negative effects of cell-phone distraction and increased situational awareness. Collision rates for unexpected merging events were high when participants drove in a cell-phone condition but were reduced when they were in a videophone condition, reaching a level equal to that observed when they drove with an in-car passenger or drove alone. Drivers and their partners made shorter utterances and made longer, more frequent traffic references when they spoke in the videophone rather than the cell-phone condition. Providing a view of the driving scene allows remote partners to help drivers by modulating their conversation and referring to traffic more often. PMID:25304886

  13. Using Cell Phone Technology for Self-Monitoring Procedures in Inclusive Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedesem, Pena L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects and social validity of an innovative method of self-monitoring for middle school students with high-incidence disabilities in inclusive settings. An updated self-monitoring procedure, called CellF-Monitoring, utilized a cell phone as an all-inclusive self-monitoring device. The study took…

  14. The effects of cell phone conversations on the attention and memory of bystanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica V Galván

    Full Text Available The pervasive use of cell phones impacts many people-both cell phone users and bystanders exposed to conversations. This study examined the effects of overhearing a one-sided (cell phone conversation versus a two-sided conversation on attention and memory. In our realistic design, participants were led to believe they were participating in a study examining the relationship between anagrams and reading comprehension. While the participant was completing an anagram task, the researcher left the room and participants overheard a scripted conversation, either two confederates talking with each other or one confederate talking on a cell phone. Upon the researcher's return, the participant took a recognition memory task with words from the conversation, and completed a questionnaire measuring the distracting nature of the conversation. Participants who overheard the one-sided conversation rated the conversation as significantly higher in distractibility than those who overheard the two-sided conversation. Also, participants in the one-sided condition scored higher on the recognition task. In particular they were more confident and accurate in their responses to words from the conversation than participants in the two-sided condition. However, participants' scores on the anagram task were not significantly different between conditions. As in real world situations, individual participants could pay varying amounts of attention to the conversation since they were not explicitly instructed to ignore it. Even though the conversation was irrelevant to the anagram task and contained less words and noise, one-sided conversations still impacted participants' self-reported distractibility and memory, thus showing people are more attentive to cell phone conversations than two-sided conversations. Cell phone conversations may be a common source of distraction causing negative consequences in workplace environments and other public places.

  15. Coded illumination for motion-blur free imaging of cells on cell-phone based imaging flow cytometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, Manish; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2014-10-01

    Cell-phone based imaging flow cytometry can be realized by flowing cells through the microfluidic devices, and capturing their images with an optically enhanced camera of the cell-phone. Throughput in flow cytometers is usually enhanced by increasing the flow rate of cells. However, maximum frame rate of camera system limits the achievable flow rate. Beyond this, the images become highly blurred due to motion-smear. We propose to address this issue with coded illumination, which enables recovery of high-fidelity images of cells far beyond their motion-blur limit. This paper presents simulation results of deblurring the synthetically generated cell/bead images under such coded illumination.

  16. Heidegger’s cell phone – ubiquitous communication and existential distance

    OpenAIRE

    António Fidalgo

    2011-01-01

    Is the cell phone an indispensable identitary element in the contemporary society or a factor of existential alienation and inauthenticity? Starting from the Heidegger’s analysis of human identity in Being and Time (first part) and from a wide-ranging literature review about mobile communication (second part), we try, in the third part of the text, to refuse Manichean positions, both the ones that condemns the cell phone as an alienation instrument, and the ones that greet them as a crucial o...

  17. The Cost of Privacy: Riley v. California's Impact on Cell Phone Searches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Moore

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Riley v. California is the United States Supreme Court’s first attempt to regulate the searches of cell phones by law enforcement.  The 2014 unanimous decision requires a warrant for all cell phone searches incident to arrest absent an emergency.  This work summarizes the legal precedent and analyzes the limitations and practical implications of the ruling.  General guidelines for members of the criminal justice system at all levels consistent with the Supreme Court’s decision are provided.  

  18. Life cycle assessment of cell phones in Brazil based on two reverse logistics scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela da Gama e Silva Volpe Moreira de Moraes

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article is a result of a cell phone collection obtained at the Center for Information Technology Renato Archer (CTI under the AMBIENTRONIC Program, an initiative that supports the Brazilian electronic sector in the development of technologies for sustainability. The objective of this article is to assess two reverse logistic scenarios of cell phones using the technique of life-cycle assessment (LCA. The first scenario reflects the current scenario in Brazil, where batteries are recycled in Brazil and the other parts of the phones are outsourced to Europe. The second scenario is a proposal of full treatment in Brazil. The results indicate that the second scenario has a lower potential impact with important reduction of acidification, photochemical oxidation, eutrophication and the use of non-renewable energy. Furthermore, fully implementing reverse logistics in Brazil will enable socioeconomic benefits from the sale of materials and the generation of employment and income.

  19. ICAT: Development of an Internet-Based Data Collection Method for Ecological Momentary Assessment Using Personal Cell Phones

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuntsche, E.N.; Labhart, F.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid advances in mobile data-transfer technologies offer new possibilities in the use of cell phones to conduct assessments of a person’s natural environment in real time. This paper describes features of a new Internet-based, cell phone-optimized assessment technique (ICAT), which consists of a re

  20. Language and Social Factors in the Use of Cell Phone Technology by Adolescents with and without Specific Language Impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Durkin, Kevin; Simkin, Zoe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to compare cell phone use (both oral and text-based) by adolescents with and without specific language impairment (SLI) and examine the extent to which language and social factors affect frequency of use. Method: Both interview and diary methods were used to compare oral and text-based communication using cell phones by…

  1. 75 FR 8921 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Brightpoint North America L.P. (Cell Phone Kitting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... kitting and distribution of cell phones at the facilities of Brightpoint North America L.P., located in... authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the cell phone kitting and distribution facilities of...); Whereas, notice inviting public comment has been given in the Federal Register (74 FR 37689-37690, July...

  2. Exploring the Use of MXit: A Cell-Phone Social Network to Facilitate Learning in Distance Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makoe, Mpine

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the pedagogical suitability of using cell phones to enhance learning through social interaction in distance education. Social interaction was used as a conceptual framework to explore the potential for using "MXit"--a cell-phone instant messaging system--to support and enhance learning for distance education…

  3. Association of mobile phone radiation with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in Saudi population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widespread use of mobile phones has been increased over the past decade; they are now an essential part of business, commerce and society. The use of mobile phones can cause health problems. Therefore, the aim of the present study is to investigate the association of using mobile phones with fatigue, headache, dizziness, tension and sleep disturbance in the Saudi population and provide health and social awareness in using these devices. This study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saudi University, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the year 2002 to 2003. In the present study, a total of 437 subjects (55.1% male and 39.9% female) were invited, they have and had been using mobile phones. A questionnaire was distributed regarding detailed history and association of mobile phones with health hazards. The results of the present study showed an association between the use of mobile phones and health hazards. The overall mean percentage for these clinical findings in all groups were headache (21.6%), sleep disturbance (4.%), tension (3.9%), fatigue (3%) and dizziness (2.4%). Based on the results of the present study, we conclude that the use of mobile phones is a risk factor for health hazards and suggest that long term or excessive use of mobile phones should be avoided by health promotion activities such as group discussions, public presentations and through electronic and print media sources. (author)

  4. Windows Phone 7智能手机的取证%Cell Forensics on Smart Phone Installed Windows Phone 7 System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚伟; 沙晶

    2014-01-01

    作为新兴的智能手机,Windows Phone手机呈稳步发展趋势,并越来越受到人们的关注.在介绍了WindowsPhone 7手机的系统架构和安全模型后,就取证遇到的问题详细地描述了取证方式,探讨了如何对Windows Phone 7智能手机进行取证.通过使用原生级方法和Windows Phone SDK访问Window Phone 7内核和其他数据来获得手机的有价值信息,同时通过一系列工具来分析手机上的文件.结果表明,能够从Windows Phone 7手机中有效寻找到短信、电子邮件、社交活动等证据资料.

  5. Dynamic Pedagogy for Effective Training of Youths in Cell Phone Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuanya, T. C.; Jimoh, Bakare

    2015-01-01

    The study determined dynamic pedagogies for effective training of youths in cell phone maintenance. The study was conducted in Enugu State of Nigeria. Four research questions were developed while four null hypotheses formulated were tested at 0.05 level of significance. A survey research design was adopted for the study. The population for the…

  6. New data from Virginia Tech Transportation Institute provides insight into cell phone use and driving distraction

    OpenAIRE

    Box, Sherri

    2009-01-01

    Several large-scale, naturalistic driving studies -- using sophisticated cameras and instrumentation in participants' personal vehicles -- conducted by the Virginia Tech Transportation Institute (VTTI), provide a clear picture of driver distraction and cell phone use under real-world driving conditions, according to the institute.

  7. An Investigation on Changing Behaviours of University Students Switching from Using Classical Cell Phones to Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Yusuf

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was tried to comprehend whether there occur any changes in behaviours of university students switching from classical cell phones to smartphones. The investigation was carried out according to quantitative research method. Questionnaire was employed as data collection tool. The datum of the study was limited with the information…

  8. "Where Are You?" Cell Phones and Environmental Self-Understanding amongst Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decuypere, Mathias; Masschelein, Jan; Simons, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays, the cell phone is omnipresent in our society, certainly amongst youngsters. Its presence, and the possibility to be in constant touch, have some profound consequences on our experience (of our selves, of others and the world) and self-understanding. It is important for educators and scholars in the field of education to understand such…

  9. 77 FR 54651 - Study on the Use of Cell Phones On Board Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ...The FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012 (Pub. L. 112-95) directed the Administrator of the FAA to conduct a study on the impact of the use of cell phones for voice communications in an aircraft during a flight in scheduled air transportation. A draft report on this study is currently available for review and public comment at http://...

  10. Cell Phones: Rule-Setting, Rule-Breaking, and Relationships in Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Anita S.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a small qualitative study, this article focuses on understanding the rules for cell phones and other social networking media in schools, an aspect of broader research that led to important understandings of teacher-student negotiations. It considers the rules that schools and teachers make, the rampant breaking of these rules, the…

  11. Cell Phone Video Recording Feature as a Language Learning Tool: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromik, Nicolas A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a case study conducted at a Japanese national university. Nine participants used the video recording feature on their cell phones to produce weekly video productions. The task required that participants produce one 30-second video on a teacher-selected topic. Observations revealed the process of video creation with a cell…

  12. Cell Phone Methodology for Research and Service with High Risk Mothers and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzi, Robin Gaines; Ramey, Sharon Landesman; Lefever, Jennifer Burke; Guest, Kristi Carter; Atwater, Jane; Hughes, Kere

    2007-01-01

    Cell phones afford a set of distinctive advantages for gathering information on daily patterns of behavior, establishing relationships, maintaining contact, and providing professional expertise to participants in a wide array of programs, including intervention, treatment, and service. This paper presents new findings about innovative applications…

  13. Bring-Your-Own-Device: Turning Cell Phones into Forces for Good

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imazeki, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Over the last few years, classroom response systems (or "clickers") have become increasingly common. Although most systems require students to use a standalone handheld device, bring-your-own-device (BYOD) systems allow students to use devices they already own (e.g., a cell phone, tablet or laptop) to submit responses via text message or…

  14. Digital Devices, Distraction, and Student Performance: Does In-Class Cell Phone Use Reduce Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Douglas K.; Hoekstra, Angel R.; Wilcox, Bethany R.

    2012-01-01

    The recent increase in use of digital devices such as laptop computers, iPads, and web-enabled cell phones has generated concern about how technologies affect student performance. Combining observation, survey, and interview data, this research assesses the effects of technology use on student attitudes and learning. Data were gathered in eight…

  15. Experiments Using Cell Phones in Physics Classroom Education: The Computer-Aided "g" Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Patrik; Kuhn, Jochen; Muller, Sebastian

    2011-01-01

    This paper continues the collection of experiments that describe the use of cell phones as experimental tools in physics classroom education. We describe a computer-aided determination of the free-fall acceleration "g" using the acoustical Doppler effect. The Doppler shift is a function of the speed of the source. Since a free-falling objects…

  16. Performance Analysis of Cell-Phone Worm Spreading in Cellular Networks through Opportunistic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHUI, W.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Worms spreading directly between cell-phones over short-range radio (Bluetooth, WiFi, etc. are increasing rapidly. Communication by these technologies is opportunistic and has very close relation with the social characteristics of the phone carriers. In this paper, we try to evaluate the impact of different characteristics on the spreading performance of worms. On the other hand, the behaviors of worms may have certain impact, too. For example, worms may make phones be completely dysfunctional and these phones can be seen as killed. We study the impact of the killing speed. Using the Markov model, we propose some theoretical models to evaluate the spreading performance in different cases. Simulation results show the accuracy of our models. Numerical results show that if users do not believe the data coming from others easily, the worms may bring less damage. Surprisingly, if the users are more willing to install the anti-virus software, the worms may bring bigger damage when the software becomes to be outdated with high probability. Though the worms can bring big damage on the network temporarily by killing phones rapidly, numerical results show that this behavior may decrease the total damage in the long time. Therefore, killing nodes more rapidly may be not optimal for worms.

  17. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell phone sectors, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Hodgeman County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  18. Cellular Phone Towers, cell phone towers, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Hodgeman County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  19. Measurement of DNA damage after exposure to electromagnetic radiation in the cellular phone communication frequency band (835.62 and 847.74 MHz).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malyapa, R S; Ahern, E W; Straube, W L; Moros, E G; Pickard, W F; Roti Roti, J L

    1997-12-01

    Mouse C3H 10T1/2 fibroblasts and human glioblastoma U87MG cells were exposed to cellular phone communication frequency radiations to investigate whether such exposure produces DNA damage in in vitro cultures. Two types of frequency modulations were studied: frequency-modulated continuous-wave (FMCW), with a carrier frequency of 835.62 MHz, and code-division multiple-access (CDMA) centered on 847.74 MHz. Exponentially growing (U87MG and C3H 10T1/2 cells) and plateau-phase (C3H 10T1/2 cells) cultures were exposed to either FMCW or CDMA radiation for varying periods up to 24 h in specially designed radial transmission lines (RTLs) that provided relatively uniform exposure with a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 0.6 W/kg. Temperatures in the RTLs were monitored continuously and maintained at 37 +/- 0.3 degrees C. Sham exposure of cultures in an RTL (negative control) and 137Cs gamma-irradiated samples (positive control) were included with every experiment. The alkaline comet assay as described by Olive et al. (Exp. Cell Res. 198, 259-269, 1992) was used to measure DNA damage. No significant differences were observed between the test group exposed to FMCW or CDMA radiation and the sham-treated negative controls. Our results indicate that exposure of cultured mammalian cells to cellular phone communication frequencies under these conditions at an SAR of 0.6 W/kg does not cause DNA damage as measured by the alkaline comet assay. PMID:9399708

  20. Mobile phone and my health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of the microwave radiation emitted by mobile phones with the user's body is analyzed from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) recommendations perspective as a correlation between the specific absorption ratio (SAR) of the mobile phone and the call duration. The relative position of the cell phone to the user's body, the dielectric properties of the exposed body parts, the SAR value and the call duration are considered in the local body temperature rise due to the microwave heating effect. The recommended local temperature rise limit in the human body is evaluated according to standards. The aim of this study is to disseminate information to young people, especially high school students, about the microwave thermal effects on the human body, to make them aware of the environmental electromagnetic pollution and to offer them a simple method of biological self protection

  1. Mobile phone and my health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surducan, Aneta [Nicolae Balcescu High School, 6 Constanta St., 400158 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Dabala, Dana [National Railways Medical Clinic,, Occupational Medicine Department, 16-20 Republicii St., 400015 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Neamtu, Camelia, E-mail: emanoil.surducan@itim-cj.ro; Surducan, Vasile, E-mail: emanoil.surducan@itim-cj.ro; Surducan, Emanoil, E-mail: emanoil.surducan@itim-cj.ro [National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 65-103 Donath St., 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2013-11-13

    The interaction of the microwave radiation emitted by mobile phones with the user's body is analyzed from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) recommendations perspective as a correlation between the specific absorption ratio (SAR) of the mobile phone and the call duration. The relative position of the cell phone to the user's body, the dielectric properties of the exposed body parts, the SAR value and the call duration are considered in the local body temperature rise due to the microwave heating effect. The recommended local temperature rise limit in the human body is evaluated according to standards. The aim of this study is to disseminate information to young people, especially high school students, about the microwave thermal effects on the human body, to make them aware of the environmental electromagnetic pollution and to offer them a simple method of biological self protection.

  2. Mobile phone and my health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surducan, Aneta; Dabala, Dana; Neamtu, Camelia; Surducan, Vasile; Surducan, Emanoil

    2013-11-01

    The interaction of the microwave radiation emitted by mobile phones with the user's body is analyzed from the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) recommendations perspective as a correlation between the specific absorption ratio (SAR) of the mobile phone and the call duration. The relative position of the cell phone to the user's body, the dielectric properties of the exposed body parts, the SAR value and the call duration are considered in the local body temperature rise due to the microwave heating effect. The recommended local temperature rise limit in the human body is evaluated according to standards. The aim of this study is to disseminate information to young people, especially high school students, about the microwave thermal effects on the human body, to make them aware of the environmental electromagnetic pollution and to offer them a simple method of biological self protection.

  3. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation.

  4. Cell phone recycling experiences in the United States and potential recycling options in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Geraldo T R; Chang, Shoou-Yuh

    2010-11-01

    This paper presents an overview of cell phone recycling programs currently available in the United States. At the same time, it also provides analyses of the current recycling situation and possible recycling alternatives for Brazil. Although there are several recycling options in the United States, collection rates are still only 10% of all potential devices because customers are not aware of these possibilities. The whole system is financially based on reselling refurbished cell phones and recycled materials to developing countries which represent an effective and strong market. Several recyclers offer funds to collection partners who are either charities or who work with charities while obtaining the materials that they need in order to run their operations. A mobile phone recycling system for Brazil considering the United States experience and the Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) principle is suggested. A deposit/refund/advance-recycling fee is proposed which might be implemented as a voluntary industrial initiative managed by PRO Brazil, a producer responsibility organization. One widespread public-private agreement will integrate all mobile phone stakeholders, and environmental education actions and promotional events will promote citizen's participation. PMID:20554440

  5. Effects of radiation emitted by WCDMA mobile phones on electromagnetic hypersensitive subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Kwon Min Kyung; Choi Joon Yul; Kim Sung Kean; Yoo Tae Keun; Kim Deok Won

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background With the use of the third generation (3 G) mobile phones on the rise, social concerns have arisen concerning the possible health effects of radio frequency-electromagnetic fields (RF-EMFs) emitted by wideband code division multiple access (WCDMA) mobile phones in humans. The number of people with self-reported electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS), who complain of various subjective symptoms such as headache, dizziness and fatigue, has also increased. However, the origins...

  6. Recruiting 9126 Primary Care Patients by Telephone: Characteristics of Participants Reached on Landlines, Basic Cell Phones, and Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdarevic, Mirsada; Fazzino, Tera L; MacLean, Charles D; Rose, Gail L; Helzer, John E

    2016-06-01

    In primary care, collecting information about patient health behaviors between appointments can be advantageous. Physicians and researchers who embrace phone-based technology may find valuable ways to monitor patient-reported outcome measures of health (PROM). However, the level of phone technology sophistication should be tailored to the phone use of the population of interest. Despite the growing use of telephones as a means to gather PROM, little is known about phone use among primary care patients. As part of an ongoing study, the authors recruited primary care patients (N = 9126) for a health behavior screening study by calling them on the primary contact number listed in their medical record. The current study evaluated the frequency with which individuals were reached on landlines, basic cell phones, and smartphones, and examined participant characteristics. The majority of participants (63%) used landlines as their primary contact. Of the 37% using cell phones on the recruitment call, most (71%) were using smartphones. Landline users were significantly older than cell phone users (61.4 vs. 46.2 years; P = .001). Cell phone use did not differ significantly between participants with a college education and those without (37% vs. 38%; P = .82); however, smartphone use did differ (61% vs. 77%; P = .01). The majority of participants sampled used landlines as their primary telephone contact. Researchers designing phone-based PROM studies for primary care may have the broadest intervention reach using interactive voice response telephone technology, as patients could report health outcomes from any type of phone, including landlines. (Population Health Management 2016;19:212-215). PMID:26348723

  7. A Mathematical Model for Energy Consequences of the Cell Phone Revolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晶; 周键聪

    2009-01-01

    In the modern tim e,cell phone reduces the cost of important inform a-tion,p lays a cruc ial role in both fac ilitate international and dom estic trades,as well as impacts the effic iency ofm ed ical service.Consider a c ity and estim ate from ava ilab le data the numberH of house-holds,w ith m m embers each,that in the past were serviced by land lines.Now,suppose that som e land lines are rep laced by cell phones.W e model theconsequences of th is change for electric ity utilization in the c ity,during the...

  8. Study of Electromagnetic Radiation and Specific Absorption Rate of Mobile Phones with Fractional Human Head Models via Green's Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nookala S. Rao

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Electromagnetic Radiation from mobile hand set is identified as one of the side effects for increasing rate of brain tumor. Due to this reason, Mobile phone industries are attentive towards safety issues of human health. Specific Absorption Rate is one of the important parameter while modeling the radiation effect on human head. Brain material with homogeneity is treated as an equivalent model of human head. The radiation caused by antennas mounted on mobile set is assumed to be monopolar. Approach: Apart from the Specific Absorption Rate, period of exposure to radiation is an extremely important parameter while assessing the effects on brain tissue. Correlation between the amount of radiation versus spherical model of brain is a complex phenomena, addressed in various simulation models. In the present work the field distribution inside the head are modeled using Dyadic Greens Functions while describing the effect of radiation pattern. Multilayered homogeneous lossy spherical model is proposed as an equivalent to head. Results: In this paper we present the depth of penetration of radiation and its effect on brain tissue. In essence the amount of electromagnetic power absorbed by biological tissues for various exposure conditions and types of emitting sources, utilizing a detailed model of the human head. Conclusion: Bio-heat equation is used to predict heat distribution inside the brain when exposed to radiation. The medium is assumed to be homogeneous, isotropic, linear, non dispersive and stationary. A critical evaluation of the method is discussed.

  9. Pilot study of a cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention post-rehabilitation for COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Huong Q.; Gill, Dawn P; Wolpin, Seth; Steele, Bonnie G; Benditt, Joshua O.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a six-month, cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) following pulmonary rehabilitation. Methods Participants who completed a two-week run-in were randomly assigned to either MOBILE-Coached (n = 9) or MOBILE-Self-Monitored (n = 8). All participants met with a nurse to develop an individualized exercise plan, were issued a pedometer and exercise booklet, and instruct...

  10. Effect of Green Tea Extract in Reducing Genotoxic Injuries of Cell Phone Microwaves on Bone Marrow

    OpenAIRE

    Zahra Zahedifar; Javad Baharara

    2013-01-01

    Background: Green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract is rich source of natural antioxidants specially catechin that is quickly absorbed into the body and it has cancer protective, anti microbial and anti inflammation effects. In this study has been studied role of green tea extract against genotoxic damage induced by cell phone microwaves on bone marrow polychromatic erythrocytes of adult male Balb/C mouse.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study 40 mouse were divided into five groups, ...

  11. The Scope of Cell Phones in Diabetes Management in Developing Country Health Care Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Ajay, Vamadevan S; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes has emerged as a major public health concern in developing nations. Health systems in most developing countries are yet to integrate effective prevention and control programs for diabetes into routine health care services. Given the inadequate human resources and underfunctioning health systems, we need novel and innovative approaches to combat diabetes in developing-country settings. In this regard, the tremendous advances in telecommunication technology, particularly cell phones, c...

  12. Limitations of Data on Cell Phone Involvement in Collisions: A Case Study of California

    OpenAIRE

    Griswold, Julia B. Corresponding author; Grembek, Offer

    2014-01-01

    With the increasing prevalence of mobile technology and high-profile crashes bringing attention to distracted driving, data on cell phone involvement in collisions is critical for understanding the extent of the problem, examining the effectiveness of policies, and developing interventions to improve safety. Some limitations of existing data have been previously identified, but this paper examines the specific case of California’s collision data. Temporal, geographic, and jurisdictional tre...

  13. Integrating cell phones and mobile technologies into public health practice: a social marketing perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Craig

    2009-10-01

    Mobile communications are being used for many purposes, from instant messaging (IM), mobile or microblogging (Twitter), social networking sites (Facebook, MySpace), e-mail to basic voicemail. A brief background on cell phone and mobile technology use in public health is reviewed. The focus of the article is framing the use of mobile technologies in public health from a social marketer's perspective--using the 4 Ps marketing mix as a guide. PMID:19809002

  14. Examination of drivers' cell phone use behavior at intersections by using naturalistic driving data

    OpenAIRE

    H. Xiong; Bao, S.; Kato, K.; SAYER, J

    2014-01-01

    Many driving simulator studies have shown that cell phone use while driving greatly degraded driving performance. In terms of safety analysis, many factors including drivers, vehicles, and driving situations need to be considered. Controlled or simulated studies cannot always account for the full effects of these factors, especially situational factors such as road condition, traffic density, and weather and lighting conditions. Naturalistic driving by its nature provides a natural and realis...

  15. Digital Devices, Distraction and Student Performance - Does Cell Phone Use Reduce Learning?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Douglas K.; Hoekstra, A. R.; Wilcox, B. R.

    2012-01-01

    The recent increase in the use of digital devices such as laptop computers, iPads and web-enabled cell phones has generated concern about how technologies affect student performance. Combining observation, survey, and interview data, this research assesses the effects of technology use for student attitudes and learning. Data were gathered in eight introductory science courses at one large public university in 2010-2011. Results show a significant negative correlation between in-class cell phone use and overall course grades, corresponding to a drop of 0.36 ± 0.08 on a 4-point scale where 4.0 = A. These findings are consistent with recent research[1] suggesting students cannot multi-task nearly as effectively as they think they can. While 75% of students reported regular cell phone use, observation data suggests undergraduates typically under-report the frequency of in-class digital device use. [1] Ophir, E., Nass, C. and A.D. Wagner. 2009. "Cognitive Control in Media Multi-Taskers.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106: 15583-15587.

  16. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats. PMID:26546224

  17. Exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration affects anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehu, Abubakar; Mohammed, Aliyu; Magaji, Rabiu Abdussalam; Muhammad, Mustapha Shehu

    2016-04-01

    Research on the effects of Mobile phone radio frequency emissions on biological systems has been focused on noise and vibrations as auditory stressors. This study investigated the potential effects of exposure to mobile phone electromagnetic field radiation, ringtone and vibration on anxiety-like behaviour and oxidative stress biomarkers in albino wistar rats. Twenty five male wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups of 5 animals each: group I: exposed to mobile phone in switched off mode (control), group II: exposed to mobile phone in silent mode, group III: exposed to mobile phone in vibration mode, group IV: exposed to mobile phone in ringtone mode, group V: exposed to mobile phone in vibration and ringtone mode. The animals in group II to V were exposed to 10 min call (30 missed calls for 20 s each) per day for 4 weeks. Neurobehavioural studies for assessing anxiety were carried out 24 h after the last exposure and the animals were sacrificed. Brain samples were collected for biochemical evaluation immediately. Results obtained showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in open arm duration in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) was also observed in catalase activity in group IV and V when compared to the control. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicates that 4 weeks exposure to electromagnetic radiation, vibration, ringtone or both produced a significant effect on anxiety-like behavior and oxidative stress in young wistar rats.

  18. The study of biological effects of electromagnetic mobile phone radiation on experimental animals by combining numerical modeling and experimental research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Krstić

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study biological effects of electromagneticradiation, it is essential to know the real values of field componentsthat penetrated the tissue. The study of biological effects is usuallyperformed on experimental animals. The biological effects observedon experimental animals should be linked with penetrating field inthe tissue. The penetrating electromagnetic field is almost impossibleto measure; therefore, modeling process must be carried out and thefield components in models of experimental animals could becalculated. This paper presents an approach to modeling of fieldpenetration and gives contribution to understanding the real effects of the fields and the sensitivity of tissues to electromagnetic radiation generated by mobile phone.

  19. THE IMAGE PERCEPTION OF COMMUNICATION FACULTY STUDENTS TOWARDS CELL PHONE BRANDS:THE CASE OF NOKIA AND SAMSUNG

    OpenAIRE

    Diker, Ersin; Özüpek, Mehmet Nejat

    2013-01-01

    Brand is one of the most important elements which distinguishes products and services from its competitors by differentiating. Brand image is whole of consumer impressions of the brand or perceived reatily. Cell phones are mostly used products of university students. As a result of studies in Turkey, Nokia and Samsung were the most preferred brands of cell phones by university students. Brands must know user preferences and brand image perceptions of the target conmsumers so as to...

  20. Exposure to 3G mobile phone signals does not affect the biological features of brain tumor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yu-xiao; Li, Guo-Qing; Fu, Xiang-ping; Xue, Jing-hui; Ji, Shou-Ping; Zhang, Zhi-Wen; Zhang, Yi; Li, An-ming

    2015-01-01

    Background The increase in mobile phone use has generated concerns about possible risks to human health, especially the development of brain tumors. Whether tumor patients should continue to use mobile telephones has remained unclear because of a paucity of information. Herein, we investigated whether electromagnetic fields from mobile phones could alter the biological features of human tumor cells and act as a tumor-promoting agent. Methods Human glioblastoma cell lines, U251-MG and U87-MG, ...

  1. Trends in scientific literature on addiction to the internet, video games, and cell phones from 2006 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Carbonell; Elena Guardiola; Héctor Fuster; Frederic Gil; Tayana Panova

    2016-01-01

    Background: The goals of the present work were to retrieve the scientific articles published on addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to analyze the pattern of publications in this area (who is doing the research, when and where it is taking place, and in which journals it is being published), to determine the research being conducted as well as to document geographical trends in publication over time in three types of technological addictions: Internet, cell phones, and...

  2. Trends in Scientific Literature on Addiction to the Internet, Video Games, and Cell Phones from 2006 to 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Xavier Carbonell; Elena Guardiola; Héctor Fuster; Frederic Gil; Tayana Panova

    2016-01-01

    Background: The goals of the present work were to retrieve the scientific articles published on addiction to the Internet, video games, and cell phones and to analyze the pattern of publications in this area (who is doing the research, when and where it is taking place, and in which journals it is being published), to determine the research being conducted as well as to document geographical trends in publication over time in three types of technological addictions: Internet, cell phones, and...

  3. 维生素E对手机辐射致孕鼠及胎鼠脑组织损伤的干预作用%Interference of vitamin E on the brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高娴; 罗芮; 马斌; 王慧; 刘天; 张静; 廉志顺; 崔晞

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the interference of vitamin E on brain tissue damage by electromagnetic radiation of cell phone in pregnant and fetal rats.Methods 40 pregnant rats were randomly divided into five groups (positive control,negative control,low,middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups).The low,middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups were supplemented with 5,15 and 30mg/ml vitamin E respectively since the first day of pregnancy.And the negative control group and the positive control group were given peanut oil without vitamin E.All groups except for the negative control group were exposed to 900MHz intensity of cell phone radiation for one hour each time,three times per day for 21 days.After accouchement,the right hippocampus tissue of fetal rats in each group was taken and observed under electron microscope.The vitality of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px),and the content of malondialdehyde (MDA) in pregnant and fetal rats' brain tissue were tested.Results Compared with the negative control group,the chondriosomes in neuron and neuroglia of brain tissues was swelling,mild edema was found around the capillary,chromatin was concentrated and collected,and bubbles were formed in vascular endothelial cells (VEC) in the positive fetal rat control group,whereas the above phenomenon was un-conspicuous in the middle and high dosage of vitamin E groups.We can see uniform chromatin,abundant mitochondrion,rough endoplasmic reticulum and free ribosomes in the high dosage group.The apoptosis has not fond in all groups'sections.In the antioxidase activity analysis,compared with the negative control group,the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly decreased and the content of MDA significantly increased both in the pregnant and fetal rats positive control group (P < 0.05).In fetal rats,the vitality of SOD and GSH-Px significantly increased in the brain tissues of all three different vitamin E dosages groups when compared with the

  4. The Influence of Electromagnetic Radiation Generated by a Mobile Phone on the Skeletal System of Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Sieroń-Stołtny

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was focused on the influence of electromagnetic field generated by mobile phone on the skeletal system of rats, assessed by measuring the macrometric parameters of bones, mechanical properties of long bones, calcium and phosphorus content in bones, and the concentration of osteogenesis (osteocalcin and bone resorption (NTX, pyridinoline markers in blood serum. The study was carried out on male rats divided into two groups: experimental group subjected to 28-day cycle of exposures in electromagnetic field of 900 MHz frequency generated by mobile phone and a control, sham-exposed one. The mobile phone-generated electromagnetic field did not influence the macrometric parameters of long bones and L4 vertebra, it altered mechanical properties of bones (stress and energy at maximum bending force, stress at fracture, it decreased the content of calcium in long bones and L4 vertebra, and it altered the concentration of osteogenesis and bone resorption markers in rats. On the basis of obtained results, it was concluded that electromagnetic field generated by 900 MHz mobile phone does not have a direct impact on macrometric parameters of bones; however, it alters the processes of bone mineralization and the intensity of bone turnover processes and thus influences the mechanical strength of bones.

  5. The influence of electromagnetic radiation generated by a mobile phone on the skeletal system of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieroń-Stołtny, Karolina; Teister, Łukasz; Cieślar, Grzegorz; Sieroń, Dominik; Śliwinski, Zbigniew; Kucharzewski, Marek; Sieroń, Aleksander

    2015-01-01

    The study was focused on the influence of electromagnetic field generated by mobile phone on the skeletal system of rats, assessed by measuring the macrometric parameters of bones, mechanical properties of long bones, calcium and phosphorus content in bones, and the concentration of osteogenesis (osteocalcin) and bone resorption (NTX, pyridinoline) markers in blood serum. The study was carried out on male rats divided into two groups: experimental group subjected to 28-day cycle of exposures in electromagnetic field of 900 MHz frequency generated by mobile phone and a control, sham-exposed one. The mobile phone-generated electromagnetic field did not influence the macrometric parameters of long bones and L4 vertebra, it altered mechanical properties of bones (stress and energy at maximum bending force, stress at fracture), it decreased the content of calcium in long bones and L4 vertebra, and it altered the concentration of osteogenesis and bone resorption markers in rats. On the basis of obtained results, it was concluded that electromagnetic field generated by 900 MHz mobile phone does not have a direct impact on macrometric parameters of bones; however, it alters the processes of bone mineralization and the intensity of bone turnover processes and thus influences the mechanical strength of bones.

  6. Please silence your cell phone: Your ringtone captures other people′s attention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan P Röer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ringtones are designed to draw attention away from on-going activities. In the present study, it was investigated whether the disruptive effects of a ringing cell phone on short-term memory are inevitable or become smaller as a function of exposure and whether (self- relevance plays a role. Participants performed a serial recall task either in silence or while task-irrelevant ringtones were presented. Performance was worse when a ringing phone had to be ignored, but gradually recovered compared with the quiet control condition with repeated presentation of the distractor sound. Whether the participant′s own ringtone was played or that of a yoked-control partner did not affect performance and habituation rate. The results offer insight into auditory distraction by highly attention-demanding distractors and recovery therefrom. Implications for work environments and other applied settings are discussed.

  7. Preliminary study on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal properties of mobile phone components for dose estimation in radiation accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Byeong Ryong; Ha, Wi Ho; Park, Sun Hoo; Lee, Jin Kyeong; Lee, Seung Sook [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    We have investigated the EPR signal properties in 12 components of two mobile phones (LCD, OLED) using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer in this study.EPR measurements were performed at normal atmospheric conditions using Bruker EXEXSYS-II E500 spectrometer with X-band bridge, and samples were irradiated by {sup 137}C{sub s} gamma-ray source. To identify the presence of radiation-induced signal (RIS), the EPR spectra of each sample were measured unirradiated and irradiated at 50 Gy. Then, dose-response curve and signal intensity variating by time after irradiation were measured. As a result, the signal intensity increased after irradiation in all samples except the USIM plastic and IC chip. Among the samples, cover glass(CG), lens, light guide plate(LGP) and diffusion sheet have shown fine linearity (R{sup 2} > 0.99). Especially, the LGP had ideal characteristics for dosimetry because there were no signal in 0 Gy and high rate of increase in RIS. However, this sample showed weakness in fading. Signal intensity of LGP and Diffusion Sheet decreased by 50% within 72 hours after irradiation, while signals of Cover Glass and Lens were stably preserved during the short period of time. In order to apply rapidly EPR dosimetry using mobile phone components in large-scale radiation accidents, further studies on signal differences for same components of the different mobile phone, fading, pretreatment of samples and processing of background signal are needed. However, it will be possible to do dosimetry by dose-additive method or comparative method using unirradiated same product in small-scale accident.

  8. In-person contact begets calling and texting: interpersonal motives for cell phone use, face-to-face interaction, and loneliness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Borae; Park, Namkee

    2010-12-01

    This study examined how cell-phone use is related to interpersonal motives for using cell phones, face-to-face communication, and loneliness. A survey of 232 college students who owned a cell phone revealed that affection and inclusion were relatively strong motivations for using voice calls and text messaging, and that interpersonal motives were positively related to the amount of cell-phone use, including calling and texting. The amount of face-to-face interaction was positively associated with the participants' cell-phone use and their interpersonal motives for using cell phones: the more the participants engaged in face-to-face interaction with other people, the higher their motives were and the more frequent cell-phone use was. Loneliness did not have a direct relation to cell-phone use. Instead, the participants with higher levels of loneliness were less likely to engage in face-to-face social interaction, which led them to use cell phones less and to be less motivated to use cell phones for interpersonal purposes. PMID:21142985

  9. Assessment of radiofrequency/microwave radiation emitted by the antennas of rooftop-mounted mobile phone base stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiofrequency (RF) and microwave (MW) radiation exposures from the antennas of rooftop-mounted mobile telephone base stations have become a serious issue in recent years due to the rapidly evolving technologies in wireless telecommunication systems. In Malaysia, thousands of mobile telephone base stations have been erected all over the country, most of which are mounted on the rooftops. In view of public concerns, measurements of the RF/MW levels emitted by the base stations were carried out in this study. The values were compared with the exposure limits set by several organisations and countries. Measurements were performed at 200 sites around 47 mobile phone base stations. It was found that the RF/MW radiation from these base stations were well below the maximum exposure limits set by various agencies. (authors)

  10. Cellular phones: are they detrimental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Osama E; Abou El Naga, Randa M

    2004-01-01

    The issue of possible health effects of cellular phones is very much alive in the public's mind where the rapid increase in the number of the users of cell phones in the last decade has increased the exposure of people to the electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Health consequences of long term use of mobile phones are not known in detail but available data indicates the development of non specific annoying symptoms on acute exposure to mobile phone radiations. In an attempt to determine the prevalence of such cell phones associated health manifestations and the factors affecting their occurrence, a cross sectional study was conducted in five randomly selected faculties of Alexandria University. Where, 300 individuals including teaching staff, students and literate employee were equally allocated and randomly selected among the five faculties. Data about mobile phone's users and their medical history, their pattern of mobile usage and the possible deleterious health manifestations associated with cellular phone use was collected. The results revealed 68% prevalence of mobile phone usage, nearly three quarters of them (72.5%) were complainers of the health manifestations. They suffered from headache (43%), earache (38.3%), sense of fatigue (31.6%), sleep disturbance (29.5%), concentration difficulty (28.5%) and face burning sensation (19.2%). Both univariate and multivariate analysis were consistent in their findings. Symptomatic users were found to have significantly higher frequency of calls/day, longer call duration and longer total duration of mobile phone usage/day than non symptomatic users. For headache both call duration and frequency of calls/day were the significant predicting factors for its occurrence (chi2 = 18.208, p = 0.0001). For earache, in addition to call duration, the longer period of owning the mobile phone were significant predictors (chi2 = 16.996, p = 0.0002). Sense of fatigue was significantly affected by both call duration and age of the user

  11. A validity study of self-reported daily texting frequency, cell phone characteristics, and texting styles among young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Judith E.; Rauscher, Kimberly J; Zhu, Motao

    2015-01-01

    Background Texting is associated with adverse health effects including musculoskeletal disorders, sleep disturbances, and traffic crashes. Many studies have relied on self-reported texting frequency, yet the validity of self-reports is unknown. Our objective was to provide some of the first data on the validity of self-reported texting frequency, cell phone characteristics including input device (e.g. touchscreen), key configuration (e.g., QWERTY), and texting styles including phone orientati...

  12. Cell Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Occupational Safety and Health Environmental Protection Agency Federal Communications Commission Occupational Safety and Health Administration National Telecommunications and Information Administration ...

  13. Mobile phone base station-emitted radiation does not induce phosphorylation of Hsp27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirose, H; Sakuma, N; Kaji, N; Nakayama, K; Inoue, K; Sekijima, M; Nojima, T; Miyakoshi, J

    2007-02-01

    An in vitro study focusing on the effects of low-level radiofrequency (RF) fields from mobile radio base stations employing the International Mobile Telecommunication 2000 (IMT-2000) cellular system was conducted to test the hypothesis that modulated RF fields act to induce phosphorylation and overexpression of heat shock protein hsp27. First, we evaluated the responses of human cells to microwave exposure at a specific absorption rate (SAR) of 80 mW/kg, which corresponds to the limit of the average whole-body SAR for general public exposure defined as a basic restriction in the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) guidelines. Second, we investigated whether continuous wave (CW) and Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (W-CDMA) modulated signal RF fields at 2.1425 GHz induced activation or gene expression of hsp27 and other heat shock proteins (hsps). Human glioblastoma A172 cells were exposed to W-CDMA radiation at SARs of 80 and 800 mW/kg for 2-48 h, and CW radiation at 80 mW/kg for 24 h. Human IMR-90 fibroblasts from fetal lungs were exposed to W-CDMA at 80 and 800 mW/kg for 2 or 28 h, and CW at 80 mW/kg for 28 h. Under the RF field exposure conditions described above, no significant differences in the expression levels of phosphorylated hsp27 at serine 82 (hsp27[pS82]) were observed between the test groups exposed to W-CDMA or CW signal and the sham-exposed negative controls, as evaluated immediately after the exposure periods by bead-based multiplex assays. Moreover, no noticeable differences in the gene expression of hsps were observed between the test groups and the negative controls by DNA Chip analysis. Our results confirm that exposure to low-level RF field up to 800 mW/kg does not induce phosphorylation of hsp27 or expression of hsp gene family. PMID:17004241

  14. Radio frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR from GSM (0.9/1.8GHz mobile phones induces oxidative stress and reduces sperm motility in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneesh Mailankot

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mobile phones have become indispensable in the daily lives of men and women around the globe. As cell phone use has become more widespread, concerns have mounted regarding the potentially harmful effects of RF-EMR from these devices. OBJECTIVE: The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of RF-EMR from mobile phones on free radical metabolism and sperm quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Male albino Wistar rats (10-12 weeks old were exposed to RF-EMR from an active GSM (0.9/1.8 GHz mobile phone for 1 hour continuously per day for 28 days. Controls were exposed to a mobile phone without a battery for the same period. The phone was kept in a cage with a wooden bottom in order to address concerns that the effects of exposure to the phone could be due to heat emitted by the phone rather than to RF-EMR alone. Animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the last exposure and tissues of interest were harvested. RESULTS: One hour of exposure to the phone did not significantly change facial temperature in either group of rats. No significant difference was observed in total sperm count between controls and RF-EMR exposed groups. However, rats exposed to RF-EMR exhibited a significantly reduced percentage of motile sperm. Moreover, RF-EMR exposure resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and low GSH content in the testis and epididymis. CONCLUSION: Given the results of the present study, we speculate that RF-EMR from mobile phones negatively affects semen quality and may impair male fertility.

  15. Pilot study of a cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention post-rehabilitation for COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huong Q Nguyen

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Huong Q Nguyen1, Dawn P Gill1, Seth Wolpin1, Bonnie G Steele2, Joshua O Benditt11University of Washington, seattle, WA, USA; 2VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USAObjective: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a six-month, cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD following pulmonary rehabilitation.Methods: Participants who completed a two-week run-in were randomly assigned to either MOBILE-Coached (n = 9 or MOBILE-Self-Monitored (n = 8. All participants met with a nurse to develop an individualized exercise plan, were issued a pedometer and exercise booklet, and instructed to continue to log their daily exercise and symptoms. MOBILE-Coached also received weekly reinforcement text messages on their cell phones; reports of worsening symptoms were automatically flagged for follow-up. Usability and satisfaction were assessed. Participants completed incremental cycle and six minute walk (6MW tests, wore an activity monitor for 14 days, and reported their health-related quality of life (HRQL at baseline, three, and six months.Results: The sample had a mean age of 68 ± 11 and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 of 40 ± 18% predicted. Participants reported that logging their exercise and symptoms was easy and that keeping track of their exercise helped them remain active. There were no differences between groups over time in maximal workload, 6MW distance, or HRQL (p > 0.05; however, MOBILE-Self-Monitored increased total steps/day whereas MOBILE-Coached logged fewer steps over six months (p = 0.04.Conclusions: We showed that it is feasible to deliver a cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention to patients with COPD post-rehabilitation and that the addition of coaching appeared to be no better than self-monitoring. The latter finding needs to be interpreted with caution since this was a purely exploratory study.Trial registration: Clinical

  16. Pilot study of a cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention post-rehabilitation for COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Huong Q.; Gill, Dawn P; Seth Wolpin; et al.

    2009-01-01

    Huong Q Nguyen1, Dawn P Gill1, Seth Wolpin1, Bonnie G Steele2, Joshua O Benditt11University of Washington, seattle, WA, USA; 2VA Puget Sound Health Care System, Seattle, WA, USAObjective: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of a six-month, cell phone-based exercise persistence intervention for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) following pulmonary rehabilitation.Methods: Participants who completed a two-week run-in were randomly assigned to either MOBILE...

  17. Connectivity in Later Life: The Declining Age Divide in Mobile Cell Phone Ownership

    OpenAIRE

    Chris Gilleard; Ian Jones; Paul Higgs

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades changes in social connectivity have become key features in the changing contexts of later life. Communities of propinquity no longer seem to be as determining of social relationships as they once were. Mobile cell phone technology and the Internet have redefined what it means to ‘keep in touch’. Some authors have argued that these new forms of connectivity have created a ‘digital divide’ between those who have become active adopters of these technologies and those wh...

  18. Perceived externalities of cell phone base stations: the case of property prices in Hamburg, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, Sebastian; Maennig, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    We examine the impact of cell phone base stations on prices of condominiums in Hamburg, Germany. This is the first hedonic study on this subject for housing prices in Europe and the first ever to examine the price impact of base stations within a whole metropolis. We distinguish between individual masts and groups of masts. On the basis of a dataset of over 1000 base stations set up in Hamburg, we find that only immediate proximity to groups of antenna masts is perceived as harmful by residen...

  19. Investigating population dynamics of the Kumbh Mela through the lens of cell phone data

    CERN Document Server

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka

    2015-01-01

    The Kumbh is a religious Hindu festival that has been celebrated for centuries. The 2013 Kumbh Mela, a grander form of the annual Kumbh, was purportedly the largest gathering of people in human history. Many of the participants carried cell phones, making it possible for us to use a data-driven approach to document this magnificent festival. We used Call Detail Records (CDRs) from participants attending the event, a total of 390 million records, to investigate its population dynamics. We report here on some of our preliminary findings.

  20. Biological stress responses to radio frequency electromagnetic radiation: are mobile phones really so (heat) shocking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotgreave, Ian A

    2005-03-01

    Cells phenotypically adapt to alterations in their intra- and extracellular environment via organised alterations to gene and protein expression. Many chemical and physical stimuli are known to drive such responses, including the induction of oxidative stress and heat shock. Increasing use of mobile telephones in our society, has brought focus on the potential for radio frequency (microwave) electromagnetic radiation to elicit biological stress responses, in association with potentially detrimental effects of this to human health. Here we review evidence suggesting altered gene and protein expression in response to such emissions, with particular focus on heat shock proteins. Non-thermal induction of heat shock proteins has been claimed by a number of investigations in in vitro cellular systems, and appears pleiotropic for many other regulatory events. However, many of these studies are flawed by inconsistencies in exposure models, cell types used and the independent reproducibility of the findings. Further, the paucity of evidence from in vivo experimentation is largely contradictory. Therefore, the validity of these effects in human health risk assessment remain unsubstantiated. Where possible, suggestions for further experimental clarification have been provided.

  1. The effects of cell phone electromagnetic fields on the behavior of single OmpF nanochannel forming protein: a practical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammadzadeh M

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Widespread of telecommunication systems in recent years, have raised the concerns on the possible danger of cell phone radiations on human body. Thus, the study of the electromagnetic fields on proteins, particularly the membrane nano channel forming proteins is of great importance. These proteins are responsible for keeping certain physic-chemical condition within cells and managing cell communication. Here, the effects of cell phones radiation on the activity of a single nanopore ion channel forming protein, OmpF, have been studied biophysically.Methods: Planar lipid bilayers were made based on Montal and Muller technique, and the activity of single OmpF channel reconstituted by electrical shock was recorded and analyzed by means of voltage-clamp technique at 20 ˚C. The planar lipid bilayers were formed from the monolayers made on a 60 μm diameter aperture in the 20 μm thick Teflon film that separated two (cis and trans compartments of the glass chamber. In this practical approach we were able to analyze characteristics of an individual channel at different chemical and physical experimental conditions. The voltage clamp was used to measure the channel’s conductance, voltage sensitivity, gating patterns in time scales as low as microseconds in real time.  Results: Our results showed that exposure of single voltage dependent channel, OmpF, to EMF of cell phone at high-frequency has a significant influence on the voltage sensitivity, gating properties and substate numbers of the single channel but has no effect on single-channel conductance. Regarding to the relaxation time, the channel also recovers in the millisecond time range when the field is removed. Conclusion: We observed an increase in the voltage sensitivity of the OmpF single channel while it had no effect on the single-channel conductance, which is remained to be further elucidated.

  2. Neurobehavioural Changes and Brain Oxidative Stress Induced by Acute Exposure to GSM900 Mobile Phone Radiations in Zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirwane, Abhijit; Sridhar, Vinay; Majumdar, Anuradha

    2016-04-01

    The impact of mobile phone (MP) radiation on the brain is of specific interest to the scientific community and warrants investigations, as MP is held close to the head. Studies on humans and rodents revealed hazards MP radiation associated such as brain tumors, impairment in cognition, hearing etc. Melatonin (MT) is an important modulator of CNS functioning and is a neural antioxidant hormone. Zebrafish has emerged as a popular model organism for CNS studies. Herein, we evaluated the impact of GSM900MP (GSM900MP) radiation exposure daily for 1 hr for 14 days with the SAR of 1.34W/Kg on neurobehavioral and oxidative stress parameters in zebrafish. Our study revealed that, GSM900MP radiation exposure, significantly decreased time spent near social stimulus zone and increased total distance travelled, in social interaction test. In the novel tank dive test, the GSM900MP radiation exposure elicited anxiety as revealed by significantly increased time spent in bottom half; freezing bouts and duration and decreased distance travelled, average velocity, and number of entries to upper half of the tank. Exposed zebrafish spent less time in the novel arm of the Y-Maze, corroborating significant impairment in learning as compared to the control group. Exposure decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities whereas, increased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) was encountered showing compromised antioxidant defense. Treatment with MT significantly reversed the above neurobehavioral and oxidative derangements induced by GSM900MP radiation exposure. This study traced GSM900MP radiation exposure induced neurobehavioral aberrations and alterations in brain oxidative status. Furthermore, MT proved to be a promising therapeutic candidate in ameliorating such outcomes in zebrafish. PMID:27123163

  3. Neurobehavioural Changes and Brain Oxidative Stress Induced by Acute Exposure to GSM900 Mobile Phone Radiations in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirwane, Abhijit; Sridhar, Vinay; Majumdar, Anuradha

    2016-01-01

    The impact of mobile phone (MP) radiation on the brain is of specific interest to the scientific community and warrants investigations, as MP is held close to the head. Studies on humans and rodents revealed hazards MP radiation associated such as brain tumors, impairment in cognition, hearing etc. Melatonin (MT) is an important modulator of CNS functioning and is a neural antioxidant hormone. Zebrafish has emerged as a popular model organism for CNS studies. Herein, we evaluated the impact of GSM900MP (GSM900MP) radiation exposure daily for 1 hr for 14 days with the SAR of 1.34W/Kg on neurobehavioral and oxidative stress parameters in zebrafish. Our study revealed that, GSM900MP radiation exposure, significantly decreased time spent near social stimulus zone and increased total distance travelled, in social interaction test. In the novel tank dive test, the GSM900MP radiation exposure elicited anxiety as revealed by significantly increased time spent in bottom half; freezing bouts and duration and decreased distance travelled, average velocity, and number of entries to upper half of the tank. Exposed zebrafish spent less time in the novel arm of the Y-Maze, corroborating significant impairment in learning as compared to the control group. Exposure decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) activities whereas, increased levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) was encountered showing compromised antioxidant defense. Treatment with MT significantly reversed the above neurobehavioral and oxidative derangements induced by GSM900MP radiation exposure. This study traced GSM900MP radiation exposure induced neurobehavioral aberrations and alterations in brain oxidative status. Furthermore, MT proved to be a promising therapeutic candidate in ameliorating such outcomes in zebrafish. PMID:27123163

  4. Mobile Phone on Campus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周成

    2005-01-01

    Communication revolution has brought a great convenience to modem society and people. Especially, the occurrence of mobile phone, in away, has changed the world where we live. Maybe the mobile phone was a luxury for only a decade ago. Now, it is no exaggeration4 to say that the difference between the parts and the present is as vast as that between earth and heaven. With no exception6, campus students also fall into the category called “cell-phone school”.

  5. Computation of high-resolution SAR distributions in a head due to a radiating dipole antenna representing a hand-held mobile phone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van de Kamer, JB; Lagendijk, JJW

    2002-01-01

    SAR distributions in a healthy female adult head as a result of a radiating vertical dipole antenna (frequency 915 MHz) representing a hand-field mobile phone have been computed for three different resolutions: 2 mm, 1 mm and 0.4 mm. The extremely high resolution of 0.4 mm was obtained with our quas

  6. The effects of cellular phone waves on the frequency micronucleus in newborn and adult Balb/C mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Javad Baharara; Farhang Hadad; Mohammad A. Shariatzade; Maryam Amirahmadi

    2011-01-01

    Background: In recent years, the widespread use of microwave producing instruments specially cell phones; result in growing concern regarding the possible effects associated with these waves on human health especially pregnant woman and neonates. In present study, we investigated the genotoxic effects of cell phone radiation on the mice (Balb/C) and their offspring. Materials and Method: In this experimental research, pregnant mice were irradiated with cell phone for 4 days of gestational age...

  7. The effects of electromagnetic waves emitted by the cell phones on the testicular tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammet Ihsan Karaman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Various risks have emerged in parallel to the rapidly increasing use of cell phones. Herein we studied the effects of cell phone emitted electromagnetic waves (EMW on rat testes. Material and Methods: Twenty one adult male Albino rats were grouped into 3 groups each consisting of 7 rats. The first group was exposed to EMW on talk mode for 8 hours per day for 20 days and then their testes were extracted. The testes of the second group were extracted after 20 days of whole day EMW exposure. The third group was the control group. For the statistical analysis Mann- Whitney U analysis was performed. Results: At light microscopic examination of the testicular tissue, the existence of a high number of immature cells in the lumen of the seminiferous tubule in addition to the normal seminiferous tubules, besides irregular tubules with a reduction in the spermatogenic cell lines and tubules without lumen were observed in groups 1 and 2. Histopathological alterations were scored as 0 = none, 1 = low, 2 = medium, 3 = serious. The average scores of the three groups were found to be 4.25 ± 1.5 for the group 1, 4.33 ± 3.9 for the group 2 and 0.37 ± 1.1 for the group 3 respectively. As a result of the statistical evaluation, group 1 and group 2 had significantly higher scores than the control group (p = 0.001. Conclusion: Infertility is one of the current problems of today due to a rapid increase in its incidence and cost. The negative effects of the EMWs on the testis should be taken into account and the necessary measures should be taken for prevention.

  8. Cell-phone-based platform for biomedical device development and education applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zachary J Smith

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the development of two attachments to a commercial cell phone that transform the phone's integrated lens and image sensor into a 350x microscope and visible-light spectrometer. The microscope is capable of transmission and polarized microscopy modes and is shown to have 1.5 micron resolution and a usable field-of-view of 150 x 50 with no image processing, and approximately 350 x 350 when post-processing is applied. The spectrometer has a 300 nm bandwidth with a limiting spectral resolution of close to 5 nm. We show applications of the devices to medically relevant problems. In the case of the microscope, we image both stained and unstained blood-smears showing the ability to acquire images of similar quality to commercial microscope platforms, thus allowing diagnosis of clinical pathologies. With the spectrometer we demonstrate acquisition of a white-light transmission spectrum through diffuse tissue as well as the acquisition of a fluorescence spectrum. We also envision the devices to have immediate relevance in the educational field.

  9. A Radiation Learning Support System by Tri-sensory Augmented Reality using a Mobile Phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation learning support system has been developed to support learning basic knowledge of radiation and its influence on the human body by using tri-sensory Augmented Reality (AR) technology with presenting information to visual, auditory and tactile sensation. The system consists of a knowledge learning mode in which learners can learn basic knowledge of radiation and an experience learning mode in which they can virtually experience its influence on the human body under various conditions. As the result of a simple evaluation, it was suggested that the system improves the learners' intuitive understanding, and information presentation to auditory and tactile sensation is more effective than that to visual sensation

  10. Effects of mobile phone radiation on learning and memory capacity%手机辐射对学习记忆的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟廷; 赵冉冉; 王钰钦; 张文华

    2013-01-01

    手机辐射给人体带来的危害已引起广泛关注,其对学习记忆的影响成为热点研究领域。为了解手机辐射对人体健康及学习记忆的影响,文章对手机辐射损伤机制、手机辐射对身体各系统的影响以及手机电磁场的生物学效应进行综述。%The negative effects of mobile phone radiation on people’s health have aroused extensive attention, especially on the learning and memory capacity. To have a better understanding of the effects of mobile phone radiation on the health, learning and memory capacity of people, the damage mechanism of mobile phone radiation, its effects on various systems of human body, and the biological effects of mobile phone electromagnetic field are reviewed in this paper.

  11. A radiation learning support system by tri-sensory augmented reality using a mobile phone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A radiation learning support system has been developed to support learning basic knowledge of radiation and its strength of human body impact by using tri-sensory Augmented Reality (AR) technology with presenting information to visual, auditory and haptic sensation. The system consists of a knowledge learning mode in which learners can learn basic knowledge of radiation and an experience learning mode in which they can virtually experience its strength of human body impact under various conditions. As the result of a simple evaluation, it was suggested that the system improves the learners' intuitive understanding, and information presentation of the radiation strength to auditory and haptic sensation is more comprehensive than that to visual sensation. (author)

  12. Effects of Long Term Exposure of 900-1800 MHz Radiation Emitted from 2G Mobile Phone on Mice Hippocampus- A Histomorphometric Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugasamy, Kathirvelu; Anbalagan, Jayaram; Rajanarayanan, Swamynathan; Meenachi, Swamynathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The advancement in the telecommunications technology with multi-functional added features in mobile phone, attracts more users of all age group. It is alarming to note that, the mobile phone use has increased amongst children and they are exposed to potentially harmful radiofrequency radiation in their lifetime. Aim To investigate the long term exposure of 900 to 1800 MHz radiations emitted from 2G mobile phone in mice hippocampus at histomorphometric level. Materials and Methods With due approval from institutional animal ethics committee, 36 mice were exposed to 2G mobile phone radiation, 48 minutes per day for a period of 30-180 days. The control group was kept under similar conditions without 2G exposure. Mice were sacrificed and the brain was removed from the first month to six months period. Brain was removed from the cranial cavity and hippocampus region was dissected out carefully and processed for routine histological study. Random serial sections were analysed under microscope for histomorphometric changes. For statistical analysis, independent t-test was used for comparing control and 2G exposed groups. Results The mean density of neurons in the hippocampus regions CA1, CA2 and DGDB from first to sixth month was significantly lower in the 2G exposed groups; however, in CA3 and DGVB, the 2G exposed mice showed significantly higher density of neurons. The mean nuclear diameter of neurons in the hippocampus region of CA1, CA2, CA3, DGDB and DGVB from first to sixth months showed lower nuclear diameter in 2G exposed mice. Conclusion The long term exposure to 900-1800 MHz frequency radiations emitted from 2G mobile phone could cause significantly reduced neuron density and decreased nuclear diameter in the hippocampus neurons of mice. PMID:27656427

  13. The Effects of Cell Phone Waves (900 MHz-GSM Band on Sperm Parameters and Total Antioxidant Capacity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Ghanbari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is tremendous concern regarding the possible adverse effects of cellphone microwaves. Contradictory results, however, have been reported for the effectsof these waves on the body. In the present study, the effect of cell phone microwaves onsperm parameters and total antioxidant capacity was investigated with regard to the durationof exposure and the frequency of these waves.Materials and Methods: This experimental study was performed on 28 adult male Wistarrats (200-250 g. The animals were randomly assigned to four groups (n=7: i. control; ii.two-week exposure to cell phone-simulated waves; iii. three-week exposure to cell phonesimulatedwaves; and iv. two-week exposure to cell phone antenna waves. In all groups,sperm analysis was performed based on standard methods and we determined the meansperm total antioxidant capacity according to the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAPmethod. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test using SPSSversion 16 software.Results: The results indicated that sperm viability, motility, and total antioxidant capacityin all exposure groups decreased significantly compared to the control group (p<0.05.Increasing the duration of exposure from 2 to 3 weeks caused a statistically significantdecrease in sperm viability and motility (p<0.05.Conclusion: Exposure to cell phone waves can decrease sperm viability and motility inrats. These waves can also decrease sperm total antioxidant capacity in rats and result inoxidative stress.

  14. Effect of radiofrequency radiation in cultured mammalian cells: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manna, Debashri; Ghosh, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The use of mobile phone related technologies will continue to increase in the foreseeable future worldwide. This has drawn attention to the probable interaction of radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation with different biological targets. Studies have been conducted on various organisms to evaluate the alleged ill-effect on health. We have therefore attempted to review those work limited to in vitro cultured cells where irradiation conditions were well controlled. Different investigators have studied varied endpoints like DNA damage, cell cycle arrest, reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, cellular morphology and viability to weigh the genotoxic effect of such radiation by utilizing different frequencies and dose rates under various irradiation conditions that include continuous or pulsed exposures and also amplitude- or frequency-modulated waves. Cells adapt to change in their intra and extracellular environment from different chemical and physical stimuli through organized alterations in gene or protein expression that result in the induction of stress responses. Many studies have focused on such effects for risk estimations. Though the effects of microwave radiation on cells are often not pronounced, some investigators have therefore combined radiofrequency radiation with other physical or chemical agents to observe whether the effects of such agents were augmented or not. Such reports in cultured cellular systems have also included in this review. The findings from different workers have revealed that, effects were dependent on cell type and the endpoint selection. However, contradictory findings were also observed in same cell types with same assay, in such cases the specific absorption rate (SAR) values were significant.

  15. The feasibility of cell phone based electronic diaries for STI/HIV research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hensel Devon J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Self-reports of sensitive, socially stigmatized or illegal behavior are common in STI/HIV research, but can raise challenges in terms of data reliability and validity. The use of electronic data collection tools, including ecological momentary assessment (EMA, can increase the accuracy of this information by allowing a participant to self-administer a survey or diary entry, in their own environment, as close to the occurrence of the behavior as possible. In this paper, we evaluate the feasibility of using cell phone-based EMA as a tool for understanding sexual risk and STI among adult men and women. Methods As part of a larger prospective clinical study on sexual risk behavior and incident STI in clinically recruited adult men and women, using study-provided cell phones, participants (N = 243 completed thrice–daily EMA diaries monitoring individual and partner-specific emotional attributes, non-sexual activities, non-coital or coital sexual behaviors, and contraceptive behaviors. Using these data, we assess feasibility in terms of participant compliance, behavior reactivity, general method acceptability and method efficacy for capturing behaviors. Results Participants were highly compliant with diary entry protocol and schedule: over the entire 12 study weeks, participants submitted 89.7% (54,914/61,236 of the expected diary entries, with an average of 18.86 of the 21 expected diaries (85.7% each week. Submission did not differ substantially across gender, race/ethnicity and baseline sexually transmitted infection status. A sufficient volume and range of sexual behaviors were captured, with reporting trends in different legal and illegal behaviors showing small variation over time. Participants found the methodology to be acceptable, enjoyed and felt comfortable participating in the study. Conclusion Achieving the correct medium of data collection can drastically improve, or degrade, the timeliness and quality of an

  16. AWireless Local Area Network Soft Cell Phone (SCP System with Multimedia and Data Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olakanmi O.Oladayo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Most organizations concurrently maintain private Automatic Branch Exchange (PABX and Local Area Network (LAN for information interchange within their organization. This is obviously a waste of resources and avoidable duplication of communication systems. The existing LAN can be used as a communication backbone for the in house telephone operations with no extra cost and resources. In view of this, a portable and a platform independent Software-Based Cell Phone (SCP was proposed for the existing LANs infrastructure in the organizations. The SPC is a telephony application with a user friendly interface which is capable of handling voice, video and text messages without compromising the Quality of Service (QoS of the existing LAN.

  17. Feasibility study of a mini fuel cell to detect interference from a cellular phone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, M. O.; Gan, Y. K.

    Fuel cells produce electricity without involving combustion processes. They generate no noise, vibration or air pollution and are therefore suitable for use in many vibration-free power-generating applications. In this study, a mini alkaline fuel cell signal detector system has been designed, constructed and tested. The initial results have shown the applicability of such system for used as an indicator of signal disturbance from cellular phones. A small disturbance even at 4 mV cm -1, corresponding to an amplitude of 12-18 mG in terms of electromagnetic field, can be well detected by such a device. Subsequently, a thermodynamics model has been developed to provide a parametric study by simulation to show the likely performance of the fuel cell alone in other environments. As such the model can provide many useful generic design data for alkaline fuel cells. Two general conclusions can be drawn from the present theoretical study: (i) fuel cell performance increases with temperature, pressure and correction factor, C f; (ii) the temperature factor (E/ T) increases with increasing temperature and with increasing pressure factor.

  18. Feasibility study of a mini fuel cell to detect interference from a cellular phone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, M.O.; Gan, Y.K. [Mechanical and Manufacturing System Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak (Malaysia)

    2006-04-21

    Fuel cells produce electricity without involving combustion processes. They generate no noise, vibration or air pollution and are therefore suitable for use in many vibration-free power-generating applications. In this study, a mini alkaline fuel cell signal detector system has been designed, constructed and tested. The initial results have shown the applicability of such system for used as an indicator of signal disturbance from cellular phones. A small disturbance even at 4mVcm{sup -1}, corresponding to an amplitude of 12-18mG in terms of electromagnetic field, can be well detected by such a device. Subsequently, a thermodynamics model has been developed to provide a parametric study by simulation to show the likely performance of the fuel cell alone in other environments. As such the model can provide many useful generic design data for alkaline fuel cells. Two general conclusions can be drawn from the present theoretical study: (i) fuel cell performance increases with temperature, pressure and correction factor, C{sub f}; (ii) the temperature factor (E/T) increases with increasing temperature and with increasing pressure factor. (author)

  19. Prospect for Cell Phones as Instructional Tools in the EFL Classroom: A Case Study of Jahangirnagar University, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Roksana

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potentiality of cell phone use in the EFL classroom of Bangladesh as an instructional tool. The researcher conducted a case study on Jahangirnagar University of Bangladesh. For the study, some SMS based class tests were conducted in the English Department of the university where one hundred…

  20. Comparing Cell Phone-Based and Traditional Lecture-Based Teaching Methods' Effects on Agricultural Students' Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Papzan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the increased speed of creating new knowledge and the development of communication technologies, like cell phone, which makes it possible the access to various unlimited resources and data in an unlimited time and place, and regarding many positive aspects of applying it in schools and the necessity of adjusting with changes and the correct use of this new technology, the present research was conducted to examine the effect of teaching via cell phone on students learning in Khooshehaye Zarin agricultural school in Rawansar, Kermanshah province, and comparing it with traditional lecture method. In a semi-experimental research method, 30 male students were selected through random sampling method as the research sample, divided into two paired groups, 15 for experimental group and 15 for control group, based on age, educational status, previous grade point average and family economical status. Data collection tool was a 10 item test based on behavioral objectives. The experimental group was taught in two sessions of two hours through cell phone, and the control group was taught the same topic through traditional lecture method in exactly the same amount of time. Post–test was performed on two groups through the above-mentioned 10 item test and the results were analyzed through t test method. The results showed that teaching via cell phone has more effects on students learning compared with traditional lecture method.

  1. Missouri Educator Perceptions on the Use of Smartphones/Cell Phones in a Secondary School Setting: Their Relationship to Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This mixed methods study evaluated the differences in the perceptions of educators in the state of Missouri on cell phone use in the classroom setting and its relationship to instruction. Specifically, this study analyzed the difference in perceptions and relationships that exist among educators (teachers and counselors) and administrators in…

  2. The Use and Abuse of Cell Phones and Text Messaging in the Classroom: A Survey of College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindell, Deborah R.; Bohlander, Robert W.

    2012-01-01

    As the use of mobile devices, such as cell phones, has proliferated in academic settings in recent years, new challenges are faced by institutions of higher education and their faculties. The authors surveyed 269 college students from 21 academic majors at a small northeastern university to gain a better understanding of the frequency and manner…

  3. A preliminary investigation into the prevalence and prediction of problematic cell phone use

    OpenAIRE

    Smetaniuk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Likening mobile phone use dependency to the classification of excessive behaviors may be necessarily equivalent in seriousness to previously established addictions such as problematic computing or excessive gambling. The aim of the study explores into the behavior of excessive use of mobile phones as a pathological behavior. Methods: Two studies investigated criteria for problematic mobile phone usage by examining student (Study 1, N = 301) and nonstudent (Study 2, N = 36...

  4. Assessment of RF radiation levels in the vicinity of 60 GSM mobile phone base stations in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing development of mobile communication infrastructure while enhancing availability of the technology raises concerns among the public, who see more cell towers erected each day, about possible health effects of electromagnetic radiations. Thereon, a survey of radio-frequency radiation from 60 GSM base stations was carried out in Tehran, Iran at several places mostly located in major medical and educational centres. Measurements were performed at 15 locations near each base station site, i.e. 900 locations in total. Since there are other RF radiation sources such as broadcasting services whose carrier frequencies are <3 GHz, the whole band of 27 MHz to 3 GHz has been assessed for hazardous exposures as well. The results were compared with the relevant guideline of International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection and that of Iran, confirming radiation exposure levels being satisfactorily below defined limits and non-detrimental. (authors)

  5. Spatial and Temporal Analysis of Human Movements and Applications for Disaster Response Management Utilizing Cell Phone Usage Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumiishi, M.; Renschler, C. S.; Bittner, T. E.

    2015-07-01

    As cell phone usage becomes a norm in our daily lives, analysis and application of the data has become part of various research fields. This study focuses on the application of cell phone usage data to disaster response management. Cell phones work as a communication link between emergency responders and victims during and after a major disaster. This study recognizes that there are two kinds of disasters, one with an advance warning, and one without an advance warning. Different movement distance between a day with a blizzard (advanced warning) and a normal weather day was identified. In the scenario of a day with an extreme event without advanced warning (earthquake), factors that alter the phone users' movements were analyzed. Lastly, combining both cases, a conceptual model of human movement factors is proposed. Human movements consist of four factors that are push factors, movement-altering factors, derived attributes and constraint factors. Considering each category of factors in case of emergency, it should be necessary that we prepare different kinds of emergency response plans depending on the characteristics of a disaster.

  6. SPATIAL AND TEMPORAL ANALYSIS OF HUMAN MOVEMENTS AND APPLICATIONS FOR DISASTER RESPONSE MANAGEMENT UTILIZING CELL PHONE USAGE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yasumiishi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available As cell phone usage becomes a norm in our daily lives, analysis and application of the data has become part of various research fields. This study focuses on the application of cell phone usage data to disaster response management. Cell phones work as a communication link between emergency responders and victims during and after a major disaster. This study recognizes that there are two kinds of disasters, one with an advance warning, and one without an advance warning. Different movement distance between a day with a blizzard (advanced warning and a normal weather day was identified. In the scenario of a day with an extreme event without advanced warning (earthquake, factors that alter the phone users' movements were analyzed. Lastly, combining both cases, a conceptual model of human movement factors is proposed. Human movements consist of four factors that are push factors, movement-altering factors, derived attributes and constraint factors. Considering each category of factors in case of emergency, it should be necessary that we prepare different kinds of emergency response plans depending on the characteristics of a disaster.

  7. Lifestyle intervention using an internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders for obese Chinese teens: a randomized controlled study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisha A Abraham

    Full Text Available Obesity is an increasing public health problem affecting young people. The causes of obesity are multi-factorial among Chinese youth including lack of physical activity and poor eating habits. The use of an internet curriculum and cell phone reminders and texting may be an innovative means of increasing follow up and compliance with obese teens. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of using an adapted internet curriculum and existing nutritional program along with cell phone follow up for obese Chinese teens.This was a randomized controlled study involving obese teens receiving care at a paediatric obesity clinic of a tertiary care hospital in Hong Kong. Forty-eight subjects aged 12 to 18 years were randomized into three groups. The control group received usual care visits with a physician in the obesity clinic every three months. The first intervention (IT group received usual care visits every three months plus a 12-week internet-based curriculum with cell phone calls/texts reminders. The second intervention group received usual care visits every three months plus four nutritional counselling sessions.The use of the internet-based curriculum was shown to be feasible as evidenced by the high recruitment rate, internet log-in rate, compliance with completing the curriculum and responses to phone reminders. No significant differences in weight were found between IT, sLMP and control groups.An internet-based curriculum with cell phone reminders as a supplement to usual care of obesity is feasible. Further study is required to determine whether an internet plus text intervention can be both an effective and a cost-effective adjunct to changing weight in obese youth.Chinese Clinical Trial Registry ChiCTR-TRC-12002624.

  8. Effects of electromagnetic radiation from 3G mobile phone on heart rate, blood pressure and ECG parameters in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Cengiz; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Ermis, Necip; Tagluk, Mehmet Emin; Colak, Cemil; Sarihan, Ediz; Dilek, Omer Faruk; Turan, Bahadir; Bakir, Sevtap; Acet, Ahmet

    2012-08-01

    Effects of electromagnetic energy radiated from mobile phones (MPs) on heart is one of the research interests. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) from third-generation (3G) MP on the heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and ECG parameters and also to investigate whether exogenous melatonin can exert any protective effect on these parameters. In this study 36 rats were randomized and evenly categorized into 4 groups: group 1 (3G-EMR exposed); group 2 (3G-EMR exposed + melatonin); group 3 (control) and group 4 (control + melatonin). The rats in groups 1 and 2 were exposed to 3G-specific MP's EMR for 20 days (40 min/day; 20 min active (speech position) and 20 min passive (listening position)). Group 2 was also administered with melatonin for 20 days (5 mg/kg daily during the experimental period). ECG signals were recorded from cannulated carotid artery both before and after the experiment, and BP and HR were calculated on 1st, 3rd and 5th min of recordings. ECG signals were processed and statistically evaluated. In our experience, the obtained results did not show significant differences in the BP, HR and ECG parameters among the groups both before and after the experiment. Melatonin, also, did not exhibit any additional effects, neither beneficial nor hazardous, on the heart hemodynamics of rats. Therefore, the strategy (noncontact) of using a 3G MP could be the reason for ineffectiveness; and use of 3G MP, in this perspective, seems to be safer compared to the ones used in close contact with the head. However, further study is needed for standardization of such an assumption.

  9. Providing cell phone numbers and e-mail addresses to patients: The patient’s perspective, a cross sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peleg Roni

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Today patients can consult with their treating physician by cell phone or e-mail. These means of communication enhance the quality of medical care and increase patient satisfaction, but they can also impinge on physicians’ free time and their patient schedule while at work. The objective of this study is to assess the attitudes and practice of patients on obtaining the cell phone number or e-mail address of their physician for the purpose of medical consultation. Methods Personal interviews with patients, 18 years of age or above, selected by random sampling from the roster of adults insured by Clalit Health Services, Southern Division. The total response rate was 41%. The questionnaire included questions on the attitude and practice of patients towards obtaining their physician’s cell phone number or e-mail address. Comparisons were performed using Chi-square tests to analyze statistically significant differences of categorical variables. Two-tailed p values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant, with a power of 0.8. Results The study sample included 200 patients with a mean age of 46.6 ± 17.1, of whom 110 were women (55%. Ninety-three (46.5% responded that they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s cell phone number, and an additional 83 (41.5% would not object to obtaining it. Of the 171 patients (85.5% who had e-mail addresses, 25 (14.6% said they would be very interested in obtaining their physician’s e-mail address, 85 (49.7% said they would not object to getting it, and 61 (35.7% were not interested. In practice only one patient had requested the physician’s e-mail address and none actually had it. Conclusions Patients favored cell phones over e-mail for consulting with their treating physicians. With new technologies such as cell phones and e-mail in common use, it is important to determine how they can be best used and how they should be integrated into the flow

  10. The impact of cell phone use on the intensity and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J Rebold

    Full Text Available This study used a within-subjects design to assess the effect of three common cellular telephone (cell phone functions (texting, talking, listening to music on planned exercise. Forty-four young adults (n = 33 females, 21.8 ± 1.3 years each participated in four, separate, 30-minute exercise conditions on a treadmill in a random order. During each condition, the treadmill speed display was covered and grade was fixed at zero. However, participants were able to alter treadmill speed as desired. Throughout the texting and talking conditions, research personnel used a pre-determined script to simulate cell phone conversations. During the music condition, participants used their cell phone to listen to music of their choice. Finally, participants completed a control condition with no cell phone access. For each condition, average treadmill speed, heart rate and liking (via visual analog scale were assessed. Treadmill speed (3.4 ± 1.3 miles∙hour(-1, heart rate (122.3 ± 24.3 beats∙min(-1 and liking (7.5 ± 1.5 cm in the music condition were significantly (p ≤ 0.014 greater than all other conditions. Treadmill speed in the control condition (3.1 ± 1.2 miles∙hour(-1 was significantly (p = 0.04 greater than both texting and talking (2.8 ± 1.1 miles∙hour(-1 each. Heart rate during the control condition (115.4 ± 22.8 beats∙min(-1 was significantly (p = 0.04 greater than texting (109.9 ± 16.4 beats∙min(-1 but not talking (112.6 ± 16.1 beats∙min(-1. Finally, liking during the talking condition (5.4 ± 2.2 cm was greater (p = 0.05 than the control (4.3 ± 2.2 cm but not the texting (5.1 ± 2.2 cm conditions. In conclusion, using a cell phone for listening to music can increase the intensity (speed and heart rate and liking of a bout of treadmill exercise. However, other common cell phone uses (texting and talking can interfere with treadmill exercise and reduce intensity.

  11. Effect of Mobile Phone-Induced Electromagnetic Field on Brain Hemodynamics and Human Stem Cell Functioning: Possible Mechanistic Link to Cancer Risk and Early Diagnostic Value of Electronphotonic Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargav, Hemant; Srinivasan, T M; Varambally, S; Gangadhar, B N; Koka, Prasad

    2015-01-01

    The mobile phones (MP) are low power radio devices which work on electromagnetic fields (EMFs), in the frequency range of 900-1800 MHz. Exposure to MPEMFs may affect brain physiology and lead to various health hazards including brain tumors. Earlier studies with positron emission tomography (PET) have found alterations in cerebral blood flow (CBF) after acute exposure to MPEMFs. It is widely accepted that DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and their misrepair in stem cells are critical events in the multistage origination of various leukemia and tumors, including brain tumors such as gliomas. Both significant misbalance in DSB repair and severe stress response have been triggered by MPEMFs and EMFs from cell towers. It has been shown that stem cells are most sensitive to microwave exposure and react to more frequencies than do differentiated cells. This may be important for cancer risk assessment and indicates that stem cells are the most relevant cellular model for validating safe mobile communication signals. Recently developed technology for recording the human bio-electromagnetic (BEM) field using Electron photonic Imaging (EPI) or Gas Discharge Visualisation (GDV) technique provides useful information about the human BEM. Studies have recorded acute effects of Mobile Phone Electromagnetic Fields (MPEMFs) using EPI and found quantifiable effects on human BEM field. Present manuscript reviews evidences of altered brain physiology and stem cell functioning due to mobile phone/cell tower radiations, its association with increased cancer risk and explores early diagnostic value of EPI imaging in detecting EMF induced changes on human BEM.

  12. How connected are people with schizophrenia? Cell phone, computer, email, and social media use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brian J; Stewart, Adriana; Schrimsher, John; Peeples, Dale; Buckley, Peter F

    2015-02-28

    Technologies such as Internet based social media network (SMN) websites are becoming an important part of many adult lives; however, less is known about their use in patients with schizophrenia. We need to determine (1) how "connected" are patients with schizophrenia?, (2) do these technologies interfere with the patient׳s illness?, and (3) do patients envision these technologies being involved in their treatment? We recruited 80 inpatients and outpatients age 18-70 with schizophrenia to complete a brief survey on the prevalence and frequency of cell phone, text messaging, computer, email, and SMN use, and associated attitudes. 56% of subjects use text messaging, 48% have an email account, and 27% of subjects use SMN sites daily, with Facebook being the most popular. Many current users agreed that these technologies help them interact/socialize more, expressed interest in receiving text messages from their doctors, and disagreed that these technologies make symptoms worse. These preliminary findings should be investigated in larger samples, but suggest that these technologies afford a unique opportunity to engage and improve treatment for some patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25563669

  13. Chemical recycling of cell phone Li-ion batteries: Application in environmental remediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Mariana C Abreu; Garcia, Eric M; Taroco, Hosane A; Gorgulho, Honória F; Melo, Júlio O F; Silva, Rafael R A; Souza, Amauri G

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, the recycling and use of spent Li-ion battery cathode tape as a catalyst in the degradation of an organic dye. In our proposal, two major environmental problems can be solved: the secure disposal of cell phone batteries and the treatment of effluents with potentially toxic organic dyes. The spent Li-ion battery cathode investigated in this paper corresponds to 29% of the mass of Li-ion batteries and is made up of 83% LiCoO2, 14.5% C and less than 2.5% Al, Al2O3 and Co3O4. The use of spent Li-ion battery cathode tape increased the degradation velocity constant of methylene blue in the absence of light by about 200 times in relation to pure H2O2. This increase can be explained by a reduction in the activation energy from 83 kJ mol(-1) to 26 kJ mol(-1). The mechanism of degradation promoted by LiCoO2 is probably related to the generation of superoxide radical (O2(-)). The rupture of the aromatic rings of methylene blue was analyzed by ESI-MS.

  14. Design, fabrication and actuation of a MEMS-based image stabilizer for photographic cell phone applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents a MEMS-based image stabilizer applied for anti-shaking function in photographic cell phones. The proposed stabilizer is designed as a two-axis decoupling XY stage 1.4 × 1.4 × 0.1 mm3 in size, and adequately strong to suspend an image sensor for anti-shaking photographic function. This stabilizer is fabricated by complex fabrication processes, including inductively coupled plasma (ICP) processes and flip-chip bonding technique. Based on the special designs of a hollow handle layer and a corresponding wire-bonding assisted holder, electrical signals of the suspended image sensor can be successfully sent out with 32 signal springs without incurring damage during wire-bonding packaging. The longest calculated traveling distance of the stabilizer is 25 µm which is sufficient to resolve the anti-shaking problem in a three-megapixel image sensor. Accordingly, the applied voltage for the 25 µm moving distance is 38 V. Moreover, the resonant frequency of the actuating device with the image sensor is 1.123 kHz.

  15. EXTRACTION OF COPPER FROM LEACH LIQUOR OF METALLIC COMPONENT IN DISCARDED CELL PHONE BY CYANEX® 272

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALAFARA A. BABA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Discarded cell phones contribute significantly to the amount of electronic waste generation whilst some of its components are toxic and recoverable. Also, due to the increasing demand for Cu(II in building/construction, electrical and as chemical tool in freshwater, it is imperative to develop low cost and ecofriendly technique as a substitute for the conventional treatments such as reduction-roasting route at elevated temperatures. In the present study, the hydrometallurgical operations involving leaching, solvent extraction and precipitation for the recovery of Cu(II by Cyanex® 272 in kerosene was examined. Various parameters affecting the extraction of Cu(II such as pH, extractant concentration and phase ratio were optimized. At optimal conditions, about 96.3 % Cu(II was extracted into the organic phase by 0.2 mol/L Cyanex® 272 at equilibrium pH 5.0 and aqueous to organic phase ratio 1:1. The stripping of the loaded organic was carried out by 0.1 mol/L HCl solution and stripping efficiency of 98 % was obtained. By McCabe Thiele diagram, four stages are required for complete extraction of Cu(II.

  16. Mobile Therapy: Case Study Evaluations of a Cell Phone Application for Emotional Self-Awareness

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Margaret E; Kathawala, Qusai; Leen, Todd K.; Gorenstein, Ethan E.; Guilak, Farzin; Labhard, Michael; DeLeeuw, William

    2010-01-01

    Background Emotional awareness and self-regulation are important skills for improving mental health and reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease. Cognitive behavioral therapy can teach these skills but is not widely available. Objective This exploratory study examined the potential of mobile phone technologies to broaden access to cognitive behavioral therapy techniques and to provide in-the-moment support. Methods We developed a mobile phone application with touch screen scales for mood r...

  17. Mobile Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    籍万杰

    2004-01-01

    Your mobile phone rings.and instead of usual electronic signals,it's playing your favorite music.A friend sends your favorite song to cheer you up.One day,a record company might forward new records and music videos to your phone.

  18. Lifestyle Intervention Using an Internet-Based Curriculum with Cell Phone Reminders for Obese Chinese Teens: A Randomized Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, AA; Chow, WC; So, HK; Yip, BHK; Li, AM; Kumta, SM; Woo, J.; Chan, SM; Lau, EYY; Nelson, AS

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Obesity is an increasing public health problem affecting young people. The causes of obesity are multi-factorial among Chinese youth including lack of physical activity and poor eating habits. The use of an internet curriculum and cell phone reminders and texting may be an innovative means of increasing follow up and compliance with obese teens. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of using an adapted internet curriculum and existing nutritional progra...

  19. Lifestyle Intervention Using an Internet-Based Curriculum with Cell Phone Reminders for Obese Chinese Teens: A Randomized Controlled Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abraham, Anisha A.; Wing-Chi Chow; Hung-Kwan So; Benjamin Hon-Kei Yip; Li, Albert M.; Kumta, Shekhar M.; Jean Woo; Suk-Mei Chan; Esther Yuet-Ying Lau; Nelson, E. Anthony S.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Obesity is an increasing public health problem affecting young people. The causes of obesity are multi-factorial among Chinese youth including lack of physical activity and poor eating habits. The use of an internet curriculum and cell phone reminders and texting may be an innovative means of increasing follow up and compliance with obese teens. The objectives of this study were to determine the feasibility of using an adapted internet curriculum and existing nutritional program al...

  20. Observational Study of Cell Phone and Texting Use Among California Drivers 2012 and Comparison to 2011 Data

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Jill F; Ragland, David R.; Ewald, Katrin; Wasserman, Lisa; Murphy, Christopher J.

    2013-01-01

    This methodological report describes survey research and data collection methods employed for the second Observational Survey of Cell Phone and Texting Use among California Drivers study conducted in 2012. This study was conducted by Ewald & Wasserman Research Consultants (E&W) on behalf of the California Office of Traffic Safety and the Safe Transportation Research and Education Center at University of California at Berkeley. The survey’s goal was to obtain a statewide statistically repres...

  1. Discarded cell phone lithium ion batteries state of health quick method analysis by galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT) concept

    OpenAIRE

    Paulo Rogério Catarini; Jair Scarmínio; Ricardo Floriano; Danilo Toscano; Ziani Schiaber de Souza; Alexandre Urbano

    2009-01-01

    The state of health (SOH) is a important evaluation parameter to rechargeable batteries, because determine its cycle life and help on electric devices supplied by batteries maintenance. In this work the lithium ion discards cell phones batteries state of health and apparent diffusion coefficient (Dap) were measured and correlated which purpose is diminish the batteries analyze time. The apparent diffusion coefficient is a ionic diffusion coefficient modification from GITT technique. The SOH a...

  2. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Phone Towers in Thomas County, GA, Published in 2010, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Thomas County BOC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2010. It is described as...

  3. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Phone tower point layer, Published in 2006, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Town of Cary NC.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2006. It is...

  4. 蓝牙手机室内定位系统%Indoor positioning system for bluetooth cell phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张浩; 赵千川

    2011-01-01

    This paper introduced a low-cost platform for locating bluetooth cell phones and releasing position information. The authors improved the scheme of measuring Received Signal Strength Indication ( RSSI) of bluetooth devices lo locate multiple cell phones simultaneously, developed cell phone program to receive position information via Wi-Fi and display it on map. The experimental results show that the system is accurate in positioning and easy to use, and it provides a platform support for applications of Internet of Things (IOT) under current hardware condition.%设计并实现了一种基于蓝牙和Wi-Fi的低成本手机定位和信息发布平台.改进了已有蓝牙设备RSSI检测方案,能对多个手机同时定位;利用Wi-Fi和J2ME技术实现了手机对定位信息的接收和实时显示.实验结果表明系统具有定位准确、使用方便等特点,在目前硬件条件下为物联网应用提供了平台支持.

  5. Rapid detection of Clostridium difficile via magnetic bead aggregation in cost-effective polyester microdevices with cell phone image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuVall, Jacquelyn A; Cabaniss, Scott T; Angotti, Morgan L; Moore, John H; Abhyankar, Mayuresh; Shukla, Nishant; Mills, Daniel L; Kessel, Bryan G; Garner, Gavin T; Swami, Nathan S; Landers, James P

    2016-10-01

    Pathogen detection has traditionally been accomplished by utilizing methods such as cell culture, immunoassays, and nucleic acid amplification tests; however, these methods are not easily implemented in resource-limited settings because special equipment for detection and thermal cycling is often required. In this study, we present a magnetic bead aggregation assay coupled to an inexpensive microfluidic fabrication technique that allows for cell phone detection and analysis of a notable pathogen in less than one hour. Detection is achieved through the use of a custom-built system that allows for fluid flow control via centrifugal force, as well as manipulation of magnetic beads with an adjustable rotating magnetic field. Cell phone image capture and analysis is housed in a 3D-printed case with LED backlighting and a lid-mounted Android phone. A custom-written application (app.) is employed to interrogate images for the extent of aggregation present following loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) coupled to product-inhibited bead aggregation (PiBA) for detection of target sequences. Clostridium difficile is a pathogen of increasing interest due to its causative role in intestinal infections following antibiotic treatment, and was therefore chosen as the pathogen of interest in the present study to demonstrate the rapid, cost-effective, and sequence-specific detection capabilities of the microfluidic platform described herein.

  6. Cell Phone-Based and Adherence Device Technologies for HIV Care and Treatment in Resource-Limited Settings: Recent Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jeffrey I; Haberer, Jessica E

    2015-12-01

    Numerous cell phone-based and adherence monitoring technologies have been developed to address barriers to effective HIV prevention, testing, and treatment. Because most people living with HIV and AIDS reside in resource-limited settings (RLS), it is important to understand the development and use of these technologies in RLS. Recent research on cell phone-based technologies has focused on HIV education, linkage to and retention in care, disease tracking, and antiretroviral therapy adherence reminders. Advances in adherence devices have focused on real-time adherence monitors, which have been used for both antiretroviral therapy and pre-exposure prophylaxis. Real-time monitoring has recently been combined with cell phone-based technologies to create real-time adherence interventions using short message service (SMS). New developments in adherence technologies are exploring ingestion monitoring and metabolite detection to confirm adherence. This article provides an overview of recent advances in these two families of technologies and includes research on their acceptability and cost-effectiveness when available. It additionally outlines key challenges and needed research as use of these technologies continues to expand and evolve. PMID:26439917

  7. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers in Lowndes County, GA, Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Southern Georgia Regional Commission.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'Cell...

  8. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers - downloaded from the FCC website, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Board Of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2010. It is described as 'Cell...

  9. Who actually receives cell phone use while driving citations and how much are these laws enforced among states? A descriptive, cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Rudisill, Toni M.; Zhu, Motao

    2016-01-01

    Objectives While numerous cell phone use while driving laws have been passed among states, little information exists regarding who gets cited for these traffic infractions and how much these laws are enforced at the state-level within the USA. Design Cross-sectional, descriptive study. Setting 14 states and the District of Columbia. Participants Those receiving cell phone use while driving citations within included states from 2007 to 2013. Primary outcome Demographic characteristics of cited...

  10. Effect of using habits of cell phone on the study of the students: A case study on parents and teachers of Sargodha city

    OpenAIRE

    Salman Amin; Adnan Rashed; Atif Umair

    2014-01-01

    This study is an effort to investigate the ?Impacts of Cell Phone Using Habits on the Studies of Students of University of Sargodha and Punjab University Lahore. The study used the survey method for data collection. A sample of 100 respondents consisting of 50 Teachers and 50 Parents was selected by using purposive and convenience sampling technique. The findings show that respondents frequently use cell phone and overwhelming majority spent lots of money in their daily lives. Respondents fre...

  11. “With the cell phone, 24 hours on air”: On gender relations and the appropriation of mobile technologies in low-income groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Rubia Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from an ethnographic approach, I analyze in this article the appropriation of cell phones in their intersections with gender relations. I discuss the ways by which technology is appropriated to reaffirm love ties, but also becomes the focus of surveillance, tension and conflict. In this sense, I argue that cell phones engender micropolitics of everyday life in which men and women interact in sociocultural dynamics that reflect gender hierarchies, but also subvert them.

  12. The relationship between cell phone use, physical and sedentary activity, and cardiorespiratory fitness in a sample of U.S. college students

    OpenAIRE

    Lepp, Andrew; Jacob E. Barkley; SANDERS, GABRIEL J.; Rebold, Michael; Gates, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background Today’s cell phones increase opportunities for activities traditionally defined as sedentary behaviors (e.g., surfing the internet, playing video games). People who participate in large amounts of sedentary behaviors, relative to those who do not, tend to be less physically active, less physically fit, and at greater risk for health problems. However, cell phone use does not have to be a sedentary behavior as these devices are portable. It can occur while standing or during mild-to...

  13. The use of cell phones and radio communication systems to reduce delays in getting help for pregnant women in low- and middle-income countries: a scoping review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunday O. Oyeyemi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Delays in getting medical help are important factors in the deaths of many pregnant women and unborn children in the low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. Studies have suggested that the use of cell phones and radio communication systems might reduce such delays. Objectives: We review the literature regarding the impact of cell phones and radio communication systems on delays in getting medical help by pregnant women in the LMIC. Design: Cochrane Library, PubMed, Maternity and Infant care (Ovid, Web of Science (ISI, and Google Scholar were searched for studies relating to the use of cell phones for maternal and child health services, supplemented with hand searches. We included studies in LMIC and in English involving the simple use of cell phones (or radio communication to either make calls or send text messages. Results: Fifteen studies met the inclusion criteria. All the studies, while of various designs, demonstrated positive contributory effects of cell phones or radio communication systems in reducing delays experienced by pregnant women in getting medical help. Conclusions: While the results suggested that cell phones could contribute in reducing delays, more studies of a longer duration are needed to strengthen the finding.

  14. 手机媒体大众传播功能的演进%The Evolution of Mass Communication Function of Cell Phone Media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕星

    2012-01-01

    with the application and development of digital technology in cell phone media, cell phone is growing from interpersonal communication tools to farreaching mass media ones, while the two -way communication paradigm it creates expands the dimension and depth of mass communication due to its change towards the traditional media communication path and characteristics of mass communication. To proceed with cell phone 's short message communication, cell phone and traditional media fusion communication and cell phones micro -blog communication, this paper strives to present the evolving process of mass communication function of cell phone media to some extent.%随着数字化技术在手机媒体中的应用和发展,手机从人际传播工具逐渐成长为影响广泛的大众传播工具,同时也对传统大众传播的传播路径和特质进行着变革,创造出的双向传播范式扩大了大众传播的维度和深度。本文从手机短信传播、手机与传统媒体融合传播以及手机微博传播这三个方面入手,力求在一定程度上呈现手机媒体大众传播功能的演进过程。

  15. Effects of mobile phone radiation on EEG%手机辐射对脑电信号影响的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁皓; 徐世奎; 靳聪; 贾菲菲; 徐晟; 吴水才; 郝冬梅; 白燕萍

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究手机辐射对脑电信号的影响.方法首先通过调查问卷调查在校大学生手机使用状况及使用感受.根据调查问卷选取使用量较多的3款手机Nokia 6220C、Samsung GT - S3930C和Nokia 7610,用NBM - 520电磁辐射分析仪测量各手机不同状态下的电磁波强度.在参与调查的人群中选取11名被试参加试验,用NT9200数字脑电仪分别记录被试在手机通话前、手机直接通话30min后、带手机耳机通话30min后的静息脑电信号,对比3种状态下各频段脑电信号的功率谱幅值,采用SPSS18.0软件进行统计分析.结果 手机直接通话30min后脑区的α1频段功率谱幅值均大于手机通话前与带耳机通话状态下的幅值.手机通话前各脑区的β2频段幅值均大于手机通话后与带耳机通话状态下的波幅.手机通话前、手机直接通话后与带耳机通话后各状态之间无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论 短时间的手机辐射对脑电信号影响不显著.%Objective To study the effect of mobile phone radiation on electroencephalograph ( EEG ). Methods Firstly, questionnaires were distributed to the college students to investigate the mobile phone types and their feelings. Three most frequently used mobile phones Nokia 6220C, Samsung GT- S3930C and Nokia 7610 were selected and their electromagnetic wave intensities were measured with NBM-520 electromagnetic radiation analyzer. Eleven students involved in the investigation were recruited to participate in the experiments. Their rest EEGs before phone call,30 mins after phone call with and without using earphone were recorded by NT9200 digital EEG. The EEG power spectrum of different frequency bands in three different states were compared and analyzed by statistical software SPSS18.0. Results Thirty minutes after phone call without earphone,the power spectrum amplitude of α1 frequency band in all brain areas was greater than the other two states. The power spectrum amplitude of

  16. Are computer and cell phone use associated with body mass index and overweight? A population study among twin adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pulkkinen Lea

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overweight in children and adolescents has reached dimensions of a global epidemic during recent years. Simultaneously, information and communication technology use has rapidly increased. Methods A population-based sample of Finnish twins born in 1983–1987 (N = 4098 was assessed by self-report questionnaires at 17 y during 2000–2005. The association of overweight (defined by Cole's BMI-for-age cut-offs with computer and cell phone use and ownership was analyzed by logistic regression and their association with BMI by linear regression models. The effect of twinship was taken into account by correcting for clustered sampling of families. All models were adjusted for gender, physical exercise, and parents' education and occupational class. Results The proportion of adolescents who did not have a computer at home decreased from 18% to 8% from 2000 to 2005. Compared to them, having a home computer (without an Internet connection was associated with a higher risk of overweight (odds ratio 2.3, 95% CI 1.4 to 3.8 and BMI (beta coefficient 0.57, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.98. However, having a computer with an Internet connection was not associated with weight status. Belonging to the highest quintile (OR 1.8 95% CI 1.2 to 2.8 and second-highest quintile (OR 1.6 95% CI 1.1 to 2.4 of weekly computer use was positively associated with overweight. The proportion of adolescents without a personal cell phone decreased from 12% to 1% across 2000 to 2005. There was a positive linear trend of increasing monthly phone bill with BMI (beta 0.18, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.30, but the association of a cell phone bill with overweight was very weak. Conclusion Time spent using a home computer was associated with an increased risk of overweight. Cell phone use correlated weakly with BMI. Increasing use of information and communication technology may be related to the obesity epidemic among adolescents.

  17. A Cell Phone in the Classroom: A Friend or a Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irina, Averianova

    2012-01-01

    Communication is getting increasingly mobile, with more than a third of the world's population using cellular phones. Recent statistics indicate that this proportion is much bigger among young people. Research has also registered significant predominance of short message exchange over other modes of interaction in youth culture, where e-mail is…

  18. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Andreas; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Kuehn, Sven; Kuster, Niels [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zuerich (Switzerland); Christopoulou, Maria [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., 15780 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: christ@itis.ethz.ch

    2010-04-07

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  19. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  20. Effects of 3G cell phone exposure on the structure and function of the human cytochrome P450 reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Shazia; Thuróczy, György; Selmaoui, Brahim; Silva Pires Antonietti, Viviane; Sonnet, Pascal; Arnaud-Cormos, Delia; Lévêque, Philippe; Pulvin, Sylviane; de Seze, René

    2016-10-01

    Cell phones increase exposure to radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Whether EMFs exert specific effects on biological systems remains debatable. This study investigated the effect of cell phone exposure on the structure and function of human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR). CPR plays a key role in the electron transfer to cytochrome P450, which takes part in a wide range of oxidative metabolic reactions in various organisms from microbes to humans. Human CPR was exposed for 60min to 1966-MHz RF inside a transverse electromagnetic cell (TEM-cell) placed in an incubator. The specific absorption rate (SAR) was 5W·kg(-1). Conformation changes have been detected through fluorescent spectroscopy of flavin and tryptophan residues, and investigated through circular dichroism, dynamic light scattering and microelectrophoresis. These showed that CPR was narrowed. By using cytochrome C reductase activity to assess the electron flux through the CPR, the Michaelis Menten constant (Km) and the maximum initial velocity (Vmax) decreased by 22% as compared with controls. This change was due to small changes in the tertiary and secondary structures of the protein at 37°C. The relevance of these findings to an actual RF exposure scenario demands further biochemical and in-vivo confirmation. PMID:27243445

  1. The Effect of 217 Hz Magnetic Field of Cell Phone with Different Intensities on Apoptosis of Normal and Cancerous Cells Treated with Chemotherapy Drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Mansourian

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: According to the increasing development of home and business electronic equipment in today's world, the biological effects of ELF magnetic fields have been studied at two molecular-cellular and animal- human levels. Considering the therapeutic viewpoint of this study regarding the effects of low-frequency fields of mobile phone, the effect of acute exposure to this field on chemotherapy will be studied.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, based on measurement of the intensity of the magnetic fields from mobile phones in another research, flux densities of magnetic field of 159.44, 93.25 and 120µ tesla with frequency of 217Hz was generated in magnetic field generator system, and the apoptosis level in K562 cancer cells and healthy cells of lymphocytes was assessed after exposure to field using flow cytometry method. This evaluation method was also performed for the cells treated with bleomycin after exposure to this field.Results: 217 Hz magnetic field exposure significantly increases the rate of apoptosis percentage (p > 0.05 in K562 cancer cells and in two intensities of 120 and 159.44µ tesla compared to the control group, but such effect is not observed in lymphocyte cells. Bleomycin-induced apoptosis percentage following exposure to the mentioned magnetic field shows no significant difference compared to the group of treatment with drug and without field exposure. This lack of significant difference is observed between the groups of drug after field exposure and field alone as well as between groups exposed to field and groups treated with bleomycin.Conclusion: Study results showed that 217 Hz magnetic field of mobile phone can induce apoptosis on cancer cells, but it has no effect on healthy cells. Thus, in order to use mobile phone as an effective factor in their treatment, some studies should be conducted at animal-human level.

  2. Discarded cell phone lithium ion batteries state of health quick method analysis by galvanostatic intermittent titration technique (GITT concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Rogério Catarini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The state of health (SOH is a important evaluation parameter to rechargeable batteries, because determine its cycle life and help on electric devices supplied by batteries maintenance. In this work the lithium ion discards cell phones batteries state of health and apparent diffusion coefficient (Dap were measured and correlated which purpose is diminish the batteries analyze time. The apparent diffusion coefficient is a ionic diffusion coefficient modification from GITT technique. The SOH and Dap correlation is well behaved, disclosing a cubic dependency. The time analyze was reduced by more than 1 h.

  3. Investigation of the effects of distance from sources on apoptosis, oxidative stress and cytosolic calcium accumulation via TRPV1 channels induced by mobile phones and Wi-Fi in breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiğ, Bilal; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa

    2015-10-01

    TRPV1 is a Ca2+ permeable channel and gated by noxious heat, oxidative stress and capsaicin (CAP). Some reports have indicated that non-ionized electromagnetic radiation (EMR)-induces heat and oxidative stress effects. We aimed to investigate the effects of distance from sources on calcium signaling, cytosolic ROS production, cell viability, apoptosis, plus caspase-3 and -9 values induced by mobile phones and Wi-Fi in breast cancer cells MCF-7 human breast cancer cell lines were divided into A, B, C and D groups as control, 900, 1800 and 2450 MHz groups, respectively. Cells in Group A were used as control and were kept in cell culture conditions without EMR exposure. Groups B, C and D were exposed to the EMR frequencies at different distances (0 cm, 1 cm, 5 cm, 10 cm, 20 cm and 25 cm) for 1h before CAP stimulation. The cytosolic ROS production, Ca2+ concentrations, apoptosis, caspase-3 and caspase-9 values were higher in groups B, C and D than in A group at 0 cm, 1 cm and 5 cm distances although cell viability (MTT) values were increased by the distances. There was no statistically significant difference in the values between control, 20 and 25 cm. Wi-Fi and mobile phone EMR placed within 10 cm of the cells induced excessive oxidative responses and apoptosis via TRPV1-induced cytosolic Ca2+ accumulation in the cancer cells. Using cell phones and Wi-Fi sources which are farther away than 10 cm may provide useful protection against oxidative stress, apoptosis and overload of intracellular Ca2+. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  4. HEDONIC ANALYSIS OF CELL PHONES SOLD WITH POST-PAID SERVICE PLANS IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio R. Lucinda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the determining factors for the pricing of handsets sold with service plans, using the hedonic price method. This was undertaken by building a database comprising 48 handset models, under nine different service plans, over a period of 53 weeks in 2008, and resulted in 27 different attributes and a total number of nearly 300,000 data registers. The results suggest that the value of monthly subscriptions and calling minutes are important to explain the prices of handsets. Furthermore, both the physical volume and number of megapixels of a camera had an effect on the prices. The bigger the handset, the cheaper it becomes, and the more megapixels a camera phone has, the more expensive it becomes. Additionally, it was found that in 2008 Brazilian phone companies were subsidizing enabled data connection handsets.

  5. The Effects of Electromagnetic Fields Generated from 1800 MHz Cell Phones on Erythrocyte Rheological Parameters and Zinc Level in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ümit Divrikli

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the electromagnetic field generated from the 1800 MHz radiofrequency radiation (EF on erythrocyte rheological parameters and erythrocyte zinc levels. Material and Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar Albino rats were randomly grouped as follows: 1 two control groups and 2 study groups: i Group A: EF exposed group (2.5 h/day for 30 days, the phone on stand-by, and ii Group B: EF exposed group (2.5 min/day for 30 days, the phone ringing in silent mode. At the end of the experimental period erythrocyte rheological parameters such as erythrocyte deformability and aggregation were determined by an ectacytometer. Erythrocyte zinc level, which affects hemorheological parameters, was also measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Results: Erythrocyte deformability was decreased in both study groups but the decrease in group A was not statistically significant. Exposure to EF did not have any significant effect on erythrocyte aggregation. On the other hand, erythrocyte zinc level was significantly reduced in both study groups. Conclusion: Exposure to EF may have decreased tissue oxygenation due to reduced erythrocyte deformability. Decrease in erythrocyte zinc level may have caused the impairment in erythrocyte deformability.

  6. FDTD chiral brain tissue model for specific absorption rate determination under radiation from mobile phones at 900 and 1800 MHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, M.; Torres-Silva, H.

    2006-04-01

    A new electrodynamics model formed by chiral bioplasma, which represents the human head inner structure and makes it possible to analyse its behaviour when it is irradiated by a microwave electromagnetic field from cellular phones, is presented. The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) numeric technique is used, which allows simulation of the electromagnetic fields, deduced with Maxwell's equations, and allows us to simulate the specific absorption rate (SAR). The results show the SAR behaviour as a function of the input power and the chirality factor. In considering the chiral brain tissue in the proposed human head model, the two more important conclusions of our work are the following: (a) the absorption of the electromagnetic fields from cellular phones is stronger, so the SAR coefficient is higher than that using the classical model, when values of the chiral factor are of order of 1; (b) 'inverse skin effect' shows up at 1800 MHz, with respect to a 900 MHz source.

  7. Design and Implementation of Cell-Phone Detection based Line follower Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanwaljeet Singh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The Line follower robot is a mobile machine that can detect and follow the line drawn on the floor. Generally, the path is predefined and can be either visible like a black line on a white surface with a high contrasted colour. Light Dependent Resistor (LDR sensors that installed under the robot.This paper presents a real time detection of mobile phone in restricted area. Mobile transmission detector can sense the presence of an activated mobile phone from distance of one and- a-half metres. If anyone is using mobile is this range then it will give the alarm and robot will stop at that location. So it can be used to prevent use of mobile phones for spying and unauthorised video transmission.if a obstacle comes on the way of robot it gives alarm. A non contact proximity sensor is used which can measure the distance and orientation of a surface in a range of four to five centimeters.

  8. Haemopoietic cell renewal in radiation fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliedner, T M; Nothdurft, W; Tibken, B; Hofer, E; Weiss, M; Kindler, H

    1994-10-01

    Space flight activities are inevitably associated with a chronic exposure of astronauts to a complex mixture of ionising radiation. Although no acute radiation consequences are to be expected as a rule, the possibility of Solar Particle Events (SPE) associated with relatively high doses of radiation (1 or more Gray) cannot be excluded. It is the responsibility of physicians in charge of the health of astronauts to evaluate before, during and after space flight activities the functional status of haemopoietic cell renewal. Chronic low level exposure of dogs indicate that daily gamma-exposure doses below about 2 cGy are tolerated for several years as far as blood cell concentrations are concerned. However, the stem cell pool may be severely affected. The maintenance of sufficient blood cell counts is possible only through increased cell production to compensate for the radiation inflicted excess cell loss. This behaviour of haemopoietic cell renewal during chronic low level exposure can be simulated by bioengineering models of granulocytopoiesis. It is possible to define a "turbulence region" for cell loss rates, below which an prolonged adaptation to increased radiation fields can be expected to be tolerated. On the basis of these experimental results, it is recommended to develop new biological indicators to monitor haemopoietic cell renewal at the level of the stem cell pool using blood stem cells in addition to the determination of cytokine concentrations in the serum (and other novel approaches). To prepare for unexpected haemopoietic effects during prolonged space missions, research should be increased to modify the radiation sensitivity of haemopoietic stem cells (for instance by the application of certain regulatory molecules). In addition, a "blood stem cell bank" might be established for the autologous storage of stem cells and for use in space activities keeping them in a radiation protected container. PMID:11539991

  9. Are mobile phones harmful?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blettner, M; Berg, Gabriele

    2000-01-01

    effect, genetic and carcinogenic effects and cancer related investigations. Mobile phones transmit and receive waves of frequencies mainly at 800-1800 MHz. Findings on the thermal effect of acute exposure to radiofrequency fields were consistent, resulting in an increase of cellular, tissue or body......There is increasing public interest in health risks of mobile phone use. Although there is a vast body of material on the biological effects of radiofrequency fields, current risk assessment is still limited. The article describes several hypotheses and results of biological effects such as thermal...... in cells. Implications of these experimental results on public health concerns are yet unclear. Few epidemiological studies are available on the use of mobile phones or on the radiofrequency exposure and the development of cancer. Most of these studies have no or little quantitative exposure data...

  10. Radiation Enhances Regulatory T Cell Representation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachikwu, Evelyn L.; Iwamoto, Keisuke S.; Liao, Yu-Pei; DeMarco, John J.; Agazaryan, Nzhde [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Economou, James S. [Department of Surgical Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); McBride, William H. [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Schaue, Doerthe, E-mail: dschaue@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: Immunotherapy could be a useful adjunct to standard cytotoxic therapies such as radiation in patients with micrometastatic disease, although successful integration of immunotherapy into treatment protocols will require further understanding of how standard therapies affect the generation of antitumor immune responses. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of radiation therapy (RT) on immunosuppressive T regulatory (Treg) cells. Methods and Materials: Treg cells were identified as a CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} lymphocyte subset, and their fate was followed in a murine TRAMP C1 model of prostate cancer in mice with and without RT. Results: CD4{sup +}CD25{sup hi}Foxp3{sup +} Treg cells increased in immune organs after local leg or whole-body radiation. A large part, but not all, of this increase after leg-only irradiation could be ascribed to radiation scatter and Treg cells being intrinsically more radiation resistant than other lymphocyte subpopulations, resulting in their selection. Their functional activity on a per-cell basis was not affected by radiation exposure. Similar findings were made with mice receiving local RT to murine prostate tumors growing in the leg. The importance of the Treg cell population in the response to RT was shown by systemic elimination of Treg cells, which greatly enhanced radiation-induced tumor regression. Conclusions: We conclude that Treg cells are more resistant to radiation than other lymphocytes, resulting in their preferential increase. Treg cells may form an important homeostatic mechanism for tissues injured by radiation, and in a tumor context, they may assist in immune evasion during therapy. Targeting this population may allow enhancement of radiotherapeutic benefit through immune modulation.

  11. Radiation Enhances Regulatory T Cell Representation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Immunotherapy could be a useful adjunct to standard cytotoxic therapies such as radiation in patients with micrometastatic disease, although successful integration of immunotherapy into treatment protocols will require further understanding of how standard therapies affect the generation of antitumor immune responses. This study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of radiation therapy (RT) on immunosuppressive T regulatory (Treg) cells. Methods and Materials: Treg cells were identified as a CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+ lymphocyte subset, and their fate was followed in a murine TRAMP C1 model of prostate cancer in mice with and without RT. Results: CD4+CD25hiFoxp3+ Treg cells increased in immune organs after local leg or whole-body radiation. A large part, but not all, of this increase after leg-only irradiation could be ascribed to radiation scatter and Treg cells being intrinsically more radiation resistant than other lymphocyte subpopulations, resulting in their selection. Their functional activity on a per-cell basis was not affected by radiation exposure. Similar findings were made with mice receiving local RT to murine prostate tumors growing in the leg. The importance of the Treg cell population in the response to RT was shown by systemic elimination of Treg cells, which greatly enhanced radiation-induced tumor regression. Conclusions: We conclude that Treg cells are more resistant to radiation than other lymphocytes, resulting in their preferential increase. Treg cells may form an important homeostatic mechanism for tissues injured by radiation, and in a tumor context, they may assist in immune evasion during therapy. Targeting this population may allow enhancement of radiotherapeutic benefit through immune modulation.

  12. Neglect in Human Communication: Quantifying the Cost of Cell-Phone Interruptions in Face to Face Dialogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Rosenfeld, Matías; Calero, Cecilia I.; Fernandez Slezak, Diego; Garbulsky, Gerry; Bergman, Mariano; Trevisan, Marcos; Sigman, Mariano

    2015-01-01

    There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker) narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone). The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . .) and about the virtues of the people around them. PMID:26039326

  13. Neglect in human communication: quantifying the cost of cell-phone interruptions in face to face dialogs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matías Lopez-Rosenfeld

    Full Text Available There is a prevailing belief that interruptions using cellular phones during face to face interactions may affect severely how people relate and perceive each other. We set out to determine this cost quantitatively through an experiment performed in dyads, in a large audience in a TEDx event. One of the two participants (the speaker narrates a story vividly. The listener is asked to deliberately ignore the speaker during part of the story (for instance, attending to their cell-phone. The speaker is not aware of this treatment. We show that total amount of attention is the major factor driving subjective beliefs about the story and the conversational partner. The effects are mostly independent on how attention is distributed in time. All social parameters of human communication are affected by attention time with a sole exception: the perceived emotion of the story. Interruptions during day-to-day communication between peers are extremely frequent. Our data should provide a note of caution, by indicating that they have a major effect on the perception people have about what they say (whether it is interesting or not . . . and about the virtues of the people around them.

  14. 手机用于词汇学习研究述评%A Review of Mobile Language Vocabulary Learning with Cell Phone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林梅

    2014-01-01

    介绍了近年来国外手机用于词汇学习的实证研究的主要成果,总结出手机词汇学习的有效性及其优缺点,并分析了此领域内有待思考的问题及未来研究的趋势。%Studies investigating using cell phones for learning vocabulary have started to appear in the literature. This paper reviews mobile language vocabulary learning with cell phone abroad and illustrates the effectiveness of vocabulary learning via mobile phone ,the advantages and disadvantages of these researches. However, there are still issues that must be considered and remained further investigation.

  15. New Horizons in Enhancing the Proliferation and Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells Using Stimulatory Effects of the Short Time Exposure to Radiofrequency Radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghlidospour, M; Mortazavi, S M J; Yousefi, F; Mortazavi, S A R

    2015-09-01

    Mobile phone use and wireless communication technology have grown explosively over the past decades. This rapid growth has caused widespread global concern about the potential detrimental effects of this technology on human health. Stem cells generate specialized cell types of the tissue in which they reside through normal differentiation pathways. Considering the undeniable importance of stem cells in modern medicine, numerous studies have been performed on the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on cellular processes such as: proliferation, differentiation, cell cycle and DNA repair processes. We have conducted extensive studies on beneficial (stimulatory) or detrimental biological effects of exposure to different sources of electromagnetic fields such as mobile phones, mobile phone base stations, mobile phone jammers, radar systems, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems and dentistry cavitrons over the past years. In this article, recent studies on the biological effects of non-ionizing electromagnetic radiation in the range of radiofrequency (RF) on some important features of stem cells such as their proliferation and differentiation are reviewed. Studies reviewed in this paper indicate that the stimulatory or inhibitory effects of RF radiation on the proliferation and differentiation of stem cells depend on various factors such as the biological systems, experiment conditions, the frequency and intensity of RF and the duration of exposure.

  16. Strong enhancement of dispersion forces from microwave radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sernelius, B. E.

    2002-11-01

    We have studied non-thermal effects of microwave radiation on the forces between objects. This is the first step in a study of possible effects of microwave radiation from cellular phones on biological tissue. We have used a simplified model for human blood cells in blood. We find for the normal radiation level of cellular phones an enhancement of the attractive force with ten orders of magnitude as compared to the corresponding effect at thermal radiation.

  17. Radiation and health. Benefit and risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book on radiation and health covers the following topics: The world of radiation and waves; a sight into biology; if radiation hits the body; a sight into the internal radiation diagnostics; radiation hazards; the not always beloved sun; mobile phones, microwave ovens and power poles; healing with and due to radiation; radiation and food; radiation in the environment; generation and interactions of radiation in more detail; radiation effects in the cell - closer insight; radiation doses and measurement; epidemiology and its pitfalls; the system of radiation protection radiation accidents.

  18. High Radiation Resistance IMM Solar Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Noren

    2015-01-01

    Due to high launch costs, weight reduction is a key driver for the development of new solar cell technologies suitable for space applications. This project is developing a unique triple-junction inverted metamorphic multijunction (IMM) technology that enables the manufacture of very lightweight, low-cost InGaAsP-based multijunction solar cells. This IMM technology consists of indium (In) and phosphorous (P) solar cell active materials, which are designed to improve the radiation-resistant properties of the triple-junction solar cell while maintaining high efficiency. The intrinsic radiation hardness of InP materials makes them of great interest for building solar cells suitable for deployment in harsh radiation environments, such as medium Earth orbit and missions to the outer planets. NASA Glenn's recently developed epitaxial lift-off (ELO) process also will be applied to this new structure, which will enable the fabrication of the IMM structure without the substrate.

  19. Ionizing radiation induces stemness in cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ghisolfi

    Full Text Available The cancer stem cell (CSC model posits the presence of a small number of CSCs in the heterogeneous cancer cell population that are ultimately responsible for tumor initiation, as well as cancer recurrence and metastasis. CSCs have been isolated from a variety of human cancers and are able to generate a hierarchical and heterogeneous cancer cell population. CSCs are also resistant to conventional chemo- and radio-therapies. Here we report that ionizing radiation can induce stem cell-like properties in heterogeneous cancer cells. Exposure of non-stem cancer cells to ionizing radiation enhanced spherogenesis, and this was accompanied by upregulation of the pluripotency genes Sox2 and Oct3/4. Knockdown of Sox2 or Oct3/4 inhibited radiation-induced spherogenesis and increased cellular sensitivity to radiation. These data demonstrate that ionizing radiation can activate stemness pathways in heterogeneous cancer cells, resulting in the enrichment of a CSC subpopulation with higher resistance to radiotherapy.

  20. Semantic-Oriented Sentiment Classification for Chinese Product Reviews: An Experimental Study of Book and Cell Phone Reviews

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Sentiment classification is an automatic opinion classification method to classify the product reviews on web into positive or negative opinions to help consumers or sellers to understand the opinions and evaluations from existing customers. Semantic-oriented approach is one of the recent developments in sentiment classification. Up to now, most research of sentiment classification is on English reviews,and little work has been done on Chinese reviews using sentiment classification. The detailed techniques used in English review cannot be applied directly to Chinese reviews due to the different characteristics between these two languages. This study modified and improved the semantic-oriented approach to a 6-step process for Chinese review, focusing on the modification and improvement on the text segmentation and reference words pairs (RWPs) identification. Two experiments were conducted on book reviews and cell phone reviews. The results show that the performances of the proposed approach are comparable to those of the existing English reviews classification studies.

  1. The Effects of Internet Use, Cell Phones and Computer Games on Mental Health of Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meral Kelleci

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of digital technology, including computers, cell phones, computer games, and so on, most recently, on-the-go for recreational purposes, has increased among our youth over the past 15 years. Children and adolescent between the ages of 8 to 18 years spend an average of 5-6 hours per day using information and communication technologies. It is a useful progress because of the increase of internet usage which is unlimited, uncontrolled and uninhibited and easiness which arrival all sorts of to informations or persons but this state can cause to some important negative results too. The computer games, the internet explores is gradually estrange from social life the children and adolescent. In this paper, has been mentioned to negative effect of internet usage, computer games on mental health of children and adolescents. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(3.000: 253-256

  2. Simulation of autofocus lens design for a cell phone camera with object distance from infinity to 9.754 mm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Shing; Tien, Chuen-Lin; Pan, Jui-Wen; Huang, Kai-Chang; Chu, Pu-Yi

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents the simulation of an autofocus lens design with large depth of field for a cell phone camera. The object distance of the lens is from infinity to 9.754 mm. When the object distance is from infinity to 550 mm, the value of the modulation transfer function (MTF) is greater than 0.6 for the spatial frequency of 114 lp/mm, the optical distortion is less than 1.5%, and the relative illumination is greater than 67%. When the object distance is from 325 to 9.754 mm, the MTF values is greater than 0.4 for close-up shooting. The optical distortion is less than 1.454%, and the relative illumination is greater than 68.8%. PMID:26479654

  3. On the Use of Cell Phones and Other Electronic Devices in the Classroom: Evidence from a Survey of Faculty and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, William M.; Lusk, Edward J.; Neuhauser, Karyn L.

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated faculty and student perceptions regarding the use of cell phones and other electronic devices in the classroom. Students differed markedly from faculty, with students exhibiting much greater acceptance of in-class use of technology. Among students, the authors found that gender affected perceptions. Specifically, male…

  4. Are You Listening to Me? Space, Context and Perspective in the Regulation of Mp3 Players and Cell Phones in Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domitrek, Julie; Raby, Rebecca

    2008-01-01

    Recently, there has been much media coverage about cell phone and personal music player usage in schools, including in the Toronto and Whitton regions. However, there is little literature on how students and teachers view rules on the use of such electronic devices. Using data gathered from focus groups with students in Toronto and Whitton and…

  5. Increased protein synthesis by cells exposed to a 1,800-MHz radio-frequency mobile phone electromagnetic field, detected by proteome profiling

    OpenAIRE

    Gerner, Christopher; Haudek, Verena; Schandl, Ulla; Bayer, Editha; Gundacker, Nina; Hutter, Hans Peter; Mosgoeller, Wilhelm

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate whether or not low intensity radio frequency electromagnetic field exposure (RF-EME) associated with mobile phone use can affect human cells, we used a sensitive proteome analysis method to study changes in protein synthesis in cultured human cells. Methods Four different cell kinds were exposed to 2 W/kg specific absorption rate in medium containing 35S-methionine/cysteine, and autoradiography of 2D gel spots was used to measure the increased synthesis of individual pr...

  6. Smart Phones, a Powerful Tool in the Chemistry Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Antony J.; Pence, Harry E.

    2011-01-01

    Cell phones, especially "smart phones", seem to have become ubiquitous. Actually, it is misleading to call many of these devices phones, as they are actually a portable and powerful computer that can be very valuable in the chemistry classroom. Currently, there are three major ways in which smart phones can be used for education. Smart phones…

  7. Albendazole sensitizes cancer cells to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brain metastases afflict approximately half of patients with metastatic melanoma (MM) and small cell lung cancer (SCLC) and represent the direct cause of death in 60 to 70% of those affected. Standard of care remains ineffective in both types of cancer with the challenge of overcoming the blood brain barrier (BBB) exacerbating the clinical problem. Our purpose is to determine and characterize the potential of albendazole (ABZ) as a cytotoxic and radiosensitizing agent against MM and SCLC cells. Here, ABZ's mechanism of action as a DNA damaging and microtubule disrupting agent is assessed through analysis of histone H2AX phosphorylation and cell cyle progression. The cytotoxicity of ABZ alone and in combination with radiation therapy is determined though clonogenic cell survival assays in a panel of MM and SCLC cell lines. We further establish ABZ's ability to act synergistically as a radio-sensitizer through combination index calculations and apoptotic measurements of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage. ABZ induces DNA damage as measured by increased H2AX phosphorylation. ABZ inhibits the growth of MM and SCLC at clinically achievable plasma concentrations. At these concentrations, ABZ arrests MM and SCLC cells in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle after 12 hours of treatment. Exploiting the notion that cells in the G2/M phase are the most sensitive to radiation therapy, we show that treatment of MM and SCLC cells treated with ABZ renders them more sensitive to radiation in a synergistic fashion. Additionally, MM and SCLC cells co-treated with ABZ and radiation exhibit increased apoptosis at 72 hours. Our study suggests that the orally available antihelminthic ABZ acts as a potent radiosensitizer in MM and SCLC cell lines. Further evaluation of ABZ in combination with radiation as a potential treatment for MM and SCLC brain metastases is warranted

  8. The radiation effects on the living cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication is a presentation of particular points discussed during the colloquium of the 15-18 june 1999, for which scientific researches are performed at the CEA/CNRS. They deal with the radiobiology, for the radiation effects on living matter; with the DNA, for the knowledge and repair mechanisms on cells submitted to ionizing radiations; with the exposition to UV in correlation with neoplasms; with the P53 gene which is a tumour suppressor. (A.L.B.)

  9. Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Radiation Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiang, Juliann G

    2016-08-01

    Recent understanding of the cellular and molecular signaling activations in adult mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has provided new insights into their potential clinical applications, particularly for tissue repair and regeneration. This review focuses on these advances, specifically in the context of self-renewal for tissue repair and recovery after radiation injury. Thus far, MSCs have been characterized extensively and shown to be useful in mitigation and therapy for acute radiation syndrome and cognitive dysfunction. Use of MSCs for treating radiation injury alone or in combination with additional trauma is foreseeable. PMID:27356065

  10. High acceptability for cell phone text messages to improve communication of laboratory results with HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda: a cross-sectional survey study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedner Mark J

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patient-provider communication is a major challenge in resource-limited settings with large catchment areas. Though mobile phone usership increased 20-fold in Africa over the past decade, little is known about acceptability of, perceptions about disclosure and confidentiality, and preferences for cell phone communication of health information in the region. Methods We performed structured interviews of fifty patients at the Immune Suppression Syndrome clinic in Mbarara, Uganda to assess four domains of health-related communication: a cell phone use practices and literacy, b preferences for laboratory results communication, c privacy and confidentiality, and d acceptability of and preferences for text messaging to notify patients of abnormal test results. Results Participants had a median of 38 years, were 56% female, and were residents of a large catchment area throughout southwestern Uganda. All participants expressed interest in a service to receive information about laboratory results by cell phone text message, stating benefits of increased awareness of their health and decreased transportation costs. Ninety percent reported that they would not be concerned for unintended disclosure. A minority additionally expressed concerns about difficulty interpreting messages, discouragement upon learning bad news, and technical issues. Though all respondents expressed interest in password protection of messages, there was also a strong desire for direct messages to limit misinterpretation of information. Conclusions Cell phone text messaging for communication of abnormal laboratory results is highly acceptable in this cohort of HIV-infected patients in rural Uganda. The feasibility of text messaging, including an optimal balance between privacy and comprehension, should be further studied.

  11. Atypical radiation response of SCID cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chawapun, Nisa

    Murine SCID (severe combined immune deficiency) cells are well known for their defect in DNA double-strand break repair and in variable(diversity)joining [V(D)J] recombination due to a mutation in a catalytic subunit of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PKcs). As a consequence, scid cells are hypersensitive to ionizing radiation. The present study showed that asynchronous populations of scid cells were about two-fold more sensitive than Balb/c with respect to cell killing and the defect in scid cells was corrected by complementation with human chromosome 8. Analysis of the survival of synchronized populations as a function of the cell cycle revealed that while scid cells were hypersensitive in all cell cycle phases compared to wild-type cells, this hypersensitivity is even more pronounced in G1 phase. The hypersensitivity reduced as the cells progressed into S phase suggested that homologous recombination repair plays a role. The results imply that there are at least two pathways for the repair of DSB DNA, consistent with a model previously proposed by others. The scid cells were also more sensitive to UVC light (254 nm) killing as compared to wild type cells by clonogenic survival. Using a host cell reactivation (HCR) assay to study the nucleotide excision repair (NER) which is the major repair pathway for UV-photoproducts, the results showed that NER in scid cells was not as efficient as CB- 17. This suggests that DNA-PK is involved in NER as well as non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) DSB repair which is responsible for ionizing radiation sensitivity in scid cells. Repair in scid cells was not totally absent as shown by low dose rate sparing of cell killing after exposure to 137Cs γ-rays at dose rate of 0.6 cGy/h, 1.36 cGy/h, 6 cGy/h as compared to high dose rate at 171 cGy/min, although this phenomenon could be explained partly by proliferation. However, for radiation induced transformation, no significant dose rate effect was seen. A plot of transformation

  12. Active cooling of a mobile phone handset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power dissipation levels in mobile phones continue to increase due to gaming, higher power applications, and increased functionality associated with the internet. The current cooling methodologies of natural convection and radiation limit the power dissipation within a mobile phone to between 1-2 W depending on size. As power dissipation levels increase, products such as mobile phones will require active cooling to ensure that the devices operate within an acceptable temperature envelop from both user comfort and reliability perspectives. In this paper, we focus on the applied thermal engineering problem of an active cooling solution within a typical mobile phone architecture by implementing a custom centrifugal fan within the mobile phone. Its performance is compared in terms of flow rates and pressure drops, allowable phone heat dissipation and maximum phone surface temperature as this is the user constraint for a variety of simulated PCB architectures in the mobile phone. Perforated plates with varying porosity through different size orifices are used to simulate these architectures. The results show that the power level dissipated by a phone for a constant surface temperature may be increased by ∼50 - 75% depending on pressure drop induced by the internal phone architecture. Hence for successful implementation and efficient utilization of active cooling will require chip layout to be considered at the design stage.

  13. A comparative study of radiofrequency emission from roof top mobile phone base station antennas and tower mobile phone base antennas located at some selected cell sites in Accra, Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RF radiation exposure from antennas mounted on rooftop mobile phone base stations have become a serious issue in recent years due to the rapidly developing technologies in wireless telecommunication. The heightening numbers of base station and their closeness to the general public has led to possible health concerns as a result of exposure to RF radiations. The primary objective of this study was to assess the level of RF radiation emitted from roof top mobile phone base station antennas and compare the measured results with the guidelines set by International Commission on Non-ionization Radiation. The maximum and minimum average power density measured from the rooftop sites inside buildings were 2.46xI0-2 and 1.68x10-3 W/m2 respectively whereas that for outside buildings at the same rooftop site was also 7.44x 10-5 and 3.35x 10-3 W/m2 respectively. Public exposure quotient also ranged between 3.74x10-10 to 1.31x10-07 inside buildings whilst that for outside varied between 7.44x 10-10 to 1.65x 10-06. Occupational exposure quotient inside buildings varied between 1.66x 10-11 to 2.11 x 10-09 whereas that for outside ranged from 3.31x10-09 to 3.30x10-07 all at the rooftop site. The results obtained for a typical tower base station also indicated that the maximum and minimum average power density was 4.57x10-1 W/m2 and 7.13x10-3 W/m2 respectively. The public exposure quotient varied between 1.58x10-09 to 1.01x10-07 whilst that for occupational exposure quotient ranged between 3.17x10-10 to 2.03x10-08. The values of power densities levels inside buildings at rooftop sites are low compared to that of tower sites. This could be due to high attenuation caused by thick concrete walls and ceilings. The results obtained were found to be in compliance with ICNIRP and FCC guidance levels of 4.5 W/m2 and 6 W/m2 respectively. (au)

  14. Radiation response of human hematopoietic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiosensitivity and capacity to accumulate and repair sub-lethal damage has been studied in hematopoietic cell lines of human origin and in stem cells derived from blood and bone narrow of normal human donors. The results were analysed in terms of the linear quadratic and multitarget models. For the cell lines intrinsic radiosensitivity varied widely with D/sub o/'s ranging from 0.53 to 1.39 Gy. Five of the cell lines showed same capacity to accumulate sub-lethal damage and in three of these survival was enhanced by dose fractionation or reduction of dose rate. Among the cell lines of leukemic origin, several did not conform in one or more respects with the highly radiosensitive and repair deficient model associated with hematopoietic cells. There was no apparent correlation between radiation response and the phenotype (myeloid, lymphoid or undifferentiated) of the cell lines studied. Variability of radiation response and in some cases an unpredicted degree of radioresistance and capacity to repair sub-lethal damage has now been demonstrated for both cultured and primary explants of human leukemic cells. These observations have implications for the design of Total Body Irradiation protocols for use prior to bone narrow transplant

  15. No increase in brain cancer rates during period of expanding cell phone use

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a new examination of United States cancer incidence data, investigators at the National Cancer Institute (NCI) reported that incidence trends have remained roughly constant for glioma, the main type of brain cancer hypothesized to be related to cell ph

  16. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Hamilton County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  17. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Sectors, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Hamilton County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  18. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers, Published in 2007, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Ness County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as...

  19. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Liberty County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2010. It is described as...

  20. Cellular Phone Towers, cell sectors, Published in 2008, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Stanton County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Not Provided information as of 2008. It is described as...

  1. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers, Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Douglas County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Published Reports/Deeds information as of 2010. It is...

  2. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell Towers, Published in 2007, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Harvey County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2007. It is described as...

  3. Mobile phone health risk policy in Germany: the role of the federal government and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikardt, Christoph; Gross, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    In order to establish a regulatory framework for a given technology important to society, the government must make decisions in the face of existing unknowingness. In the last decade, health risks originating from electromagnetic fields of mobile telecommunication transmitting stations and devices have become a regulation policy issue in Germany. This article investigates the role of the government and the Federal Office for Radiation Protection in regard to policy-making by analysing publications and Federal Parliament reports, hearings and debates. The government and Federal Parliament perceived the research situation in 2001 as insufficient in the absence of hard evidence for health impairment. Against this background, the government struck a compromise with mobile telecommunication network operators, who did not want to integrate stricter limit values for transmission stations as precautionary measures. The network operators' voluntary self-commitment included financing half the budget of the German Mobile Telecommunication Research Programme (2002-2008) under the lead management of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection, which concluded that it was not required to change the position taken in 2001. The results of this programme provided the basis to continue the agreement of that year. With regard to health issues and all the other interests involved, this agreement was an acceptable and remarkably stable compromise.

  4. Genetic Approach for a Flexible Cell Phone Keypad with Reduced Keystrokes and Key Jamming for Better Human Technology Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabirat Rubya

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Despite the ever-increasing popularity of mobile devices, text entry on such devices is becoming more of a challenge. Problems with traditional keypads primarily lie with placement of the letters alphabetically on the keys. This configuration, though very easy to remember, requires higher number of keystrokes and key jamming along with a limitation in flexibility of finger movement, as many frequent letters are not easily reachable by the thumb. Besides, users have to move their thumb extensively which also increases typing time and provides less comfort. in this paper, we have considered these issues and proposed a novel solution to the problems identified. The proposed solution focuses on both the structure of suitable human finger movements and ordering of the letters on the keys. We also took the basic Human Computer Interaction principles and general issues into consideration. Designs were found that have performance surpassing the traditional keypads, while maintaining better usability. Performance measurement through simulations of our proposed system have shown a rapid lessening of key jamming by up to 51.38 percent, improvements in flexibility of finger movement by up to 7.31 percent, number of keystrokes by up to 29.99 percent, and reduction of total distance while changing keys by up to 2.04 percent. In summary, this work represents an improved keypad layout for text entry on cell phones and other similar devices.

  5. Image and diagnosis quality of X-ray image transmission via cell phone camera: a project study evaluating quality and reliability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Goost

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Developments in telemedicine have not produced any relevant benefits for orthopedics and trauma surgery to date. For the present project study, several parameters were examined during assessment of x-ray images, which had been photographed and transmitted via cell phone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 100 x-ray images of various body regions were photographed with a Nokia cell phone and transmitted via email or MMS. Next, the transmitted photographs were reviewed on a laptop computer by five medical specialists and assessed regarding quality and diagnosis. RESULTS: Due to their poor quality, the transmitted MMS images could not be evaluated and this path of transmission was therefore excluded. Mean size of transmitted x-ray email images was 394 kB (range: 265-590 kB, SD ± 59, average transmission time was 3.29 min ± 8 (CI 95%: 1.7-4.9. Applying a score from 1-10 (very poor - excellent, mean image quality was 5.8. In 83.2 ± 4% (mean value ± SD of cases (median 82; 80-89%, there was agreement between final diagnosis and assessment by the five medical experts who had received the images. However, there was a markedly low concurrence ratio in the thoracic area and in pediatric injuries. DISCUSSION: While the rate of accurate diagnosis and indication for surgery was high with a concurrence ratio of 83%, considerable differences existed between the assessed regions, with lowest values for thoracic images. Teleradiology is a cost-effective, rapid method which can be applied wherever wireless cell phone reception is available. In our opinion, this method is in principle suitable for clinical use, enabling the physician on duty to agree on appropriate measures with colleagues located elsewhere via x-ray image transmission on a cell phone.

  6. Radiation therapy for intracranial germ cell tumors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Shingo; Hayakawa, Kazushige; Tsuchiya, Miwako; Arai, Masahiko; Kazumoto, Tomoko; Niibe, Hideo; Tamura, Masaru

    1988-04-01

    The results of radiation therapy in 31 patients with intracranial germ cell tumors have been analyzed. The five-year survival rates were 70.1 % for germinomas and 38.1 % for teratomas. Three patients with germinoma have since died of spinal seeding. The prophylactic irradiation of the spinal canal has been found effective in protecting spinal seeding, since no relapse of germinoma has been observed in cases that received entire neuraxis iradiation, whereas teratomas and marker (AFP, HCG) positive tumors did not respond favorably to radiation therapy, and the cause of death in these patients has been local failure. Long-term survivors over 3 years after radiation therapy have been determined as having a good quality of life.

  7. Siri of the cell: what biology could learn from the iPhone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvunis, Anne-Ruxandra; Ideker, Trey

    2014-04-24

    Modern genomics is very efficient at mapping genes and gene networks, but how to transform these maps into predictive models of the cell remains unclear. Recent progress in computer science, embodied by intelligent agents such as Siri, inspires an approach for moving from networks to multiscale models able to predict a range of cellular phenotypes and answer biological questions.

  8. 基于嵌入式虚拟化技术的手机安全方案%Cell phone security method on embedded virtualization technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李茜; 崔丽

    2012-01-01

    分析了当前手机领域面临的安全问题和现有手机安全解决方案的不足。提出了一种基于轻量级执行环境的嵌入式系统虚拟化模型;并在该模型的基础上实现了新的手机安全解决方案。通过仿真实验,可以证明该方案以极小的性能代价提高了手机系统的安全性。%This paper analyzes the current cell phone security situation and the shortcomings of existing security solutions,and proposes a light-weight runtime environment virtualization model for embedded system.Based on the model,a new security solution for cell phone is designed.Simulating experiment shows that this solution can improve cell phone security with little performance cost.

  9. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell tower locations in the County of Polk, Wisconsin used for Emergency Management purposes only., Published in 2006, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Polk County, Wisconsin.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2006. It is described as 'Cell...

  10. The effects of cellular phone waves on the frequency micronucleus in newborn and adult Balb/C mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Baharara

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In recent years, the widespread use of microwave producing instruments specially cell phones; result in growing concern regarding the possible effects associated with these waves on human health especially pregnant woman and neonates. In present study, we investigated the genotoxic effects of cell phone radiation on the mice (Balb/C and their offspring. Materials and Method: In this experimental research, pregnant mice were irradiated with cell phone for 4 days of gestational age (days 14th-18th, 6h per day, from 9am until 3pm and after litter, 2nd-day offspring studied for morphology, weight and CR length. By following, for assessment of possible genetic damages in erythrocytes after bleeding from heart, smears of spleen tissue prepeard for histological studies. Mice peripheral blood and bone marrow smears prepared and stained with May-Granowald and Gimsa.Results: The finding in experimental group indicated that cell phone radiation decreased offsprings’ weight and CR length (p0.05. An increase in micronucleus frequency in peripheral blood erythrocytes were seen in experimental newborn (p=0.006 and adult mice (p0.05.Conclusion: Above findings indicated that cell phone radiation (940 MHZ are able to increase the frequency of micronucleus in peripheral blood erythrocytes of adult mice and their of fsprings and induce a genotoxic response

  11. Quantitative imaging with a mobile phone microscope.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunan Skandarajah

    Full Text Available Use of optical imaging for medical and scientific applications requires accurate quantification of features such as object size, color, and brightness. High pixel density cameras available on modern mobile phones have made photography simple and convenient for consumer applications; however, the camera hardware and software that enables this simplicity can present a barrier to accurate quantification of image data. This issue is exacerbated by automated settings, proprietary image processing algorithms, rapid phone evolution, and the diversity of manufacturers. If mobile phone cameras are to live up to their potential to increase access to healthcare in low-resource settings, limitations of mobile phone-based imaging must be fully understood and addressed with procedures that minimize their effects on image quantification. Here we focus on microscopic optical imaging using a custom mobile phone microscope that is compatible with phones from multiple manufacturers. We demonstrate that quantitative microscopy with micron-scale spatial resolution can be carried out with multiple phones and that image linearity, distortion, and color can be corrected as needed. Using all versions of the iPhone and a selection of Android phones released between 2007 and 2012, we show that phones with greater than 5 MP are capable of nearly diffraction-limited resolution over a broad range of magnifications, including those relevant for single cell imaging. We find that automatic focus, exposure, and color gain standard on mobile phones can degrade image resolution and reduce accuracy of color capture if uncorrected, and we devise procedures to avoid these barriers to quantitative imaging. By accommodating the differences between mobile phone cameras and the scientific cameras, mobile phone microscopes can be reliably used to increase access to quantitative imaging for a variety of medical and scientific applications.

  12. Customers’ Cell Phone Replacement Study:Based on Cox Regression Model%基于Cox回归模型的用户终端换机研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘畅

    2016-01-01

    This paper utilizes Cox regression model to study the behavior of customers’ cell phone replacement and factors that contribute to it using big data from telecom operator. The study finds that many factors significantly affect the behavior of the cell phone replacement including gender, age and brand etc. Based on the Cox model, the author further analyses the preference of customers who have changed phones and provide marketing strategies to those with high risk of replacement, which can enhance the profitability of the company.%本文基于电信用户的移动终端大数据,应用Cox回归模型研究其终端换机行为和影响因素。研究发现,性别、年龄、终端品牌等因素都对用户的换机行为产生了显著影响。在此基础上,本文针对有换机行为的用户进行偏好分析,并据此对高风险换机用户提出相应的营销策略,为企业经营决策提供数据依据。

  13. Investigating the effects of 217 Hz frequency of cell phone on learning and spatial memory in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohzad S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extremely low frequency (0-300 Hz fields from power lines, electronic equipment and medical devices, have been reported to produce various biological effects. Global system for mobile (GSM is most largely used in everybody's life. This system utilizes a low frequency band as well as a high frequency range of electromagnetic field. This study investigated the effects of 217 Hz electromagnetic field (the modulating signal in GSM on spatial learning and memory in rat.Methods: Twenty four male Wistar rat (200- 250 g were randomly divided in to three groups as: test, sham and control. Using a Helmholtz coil system, the test group was exposed to a uniform pulsed EMF of 200 µT (micro Tesla intensity for 4 h/day for 21 days (2 time in a day. This procedure was repeated for the sham group but with no field. All groups were trained prior to the day 21 on the 15th day for five days four trial per day in Morris Water-Maze system. Then the probe test was carried out for 60 seconds with no platform.Results: The ANOVA test revealed that no significant differences were found between control and exposed rats in all day of learning acquisition. Also, in probe test for investigating the memory, no significant differences observed. (P≤0.05 is accepted for significant level.Conclusion: This finding is in consistent with previous studies and indicates low frequency band of electromagnetic fields (EMF (200 µT intensity in cell phone may not have any effect on the learning acquisition and spatial memory in rat.

  14. Cancer stem cells, cancer cell plasticity and radiation therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlashi, Erina; Pajonk, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Since the first prospective identification of cancer stem cells in solid cancers the cancer stem cell hypothesis has reemerged as a research topic of increasing interest. It postulates that solid cancers are organized hierarchically with a small number of cancer stem cells driving tumor growth, repopulation after injury and metastasis. They give rise to differentiated progeny, which lack these features. The model predicts that for any therapy to provide cure, all cancer stem cells have to be eliminated while the survival of differentiated progeny is less critical. In this review we discuss recent reports challenging the idea of a unidirectional differentiation of cancer cells. These reports provide evidence supporting the idea that non-stem cancer cells exhibit a remarkable degree of plasticity that allows them to re-acquire cancer stem cell traits, especially in the context of radiation therapy. We summarize conditions under which differentiation is reversed and discuss the current knowledge of the underlying mechanisms.

  15. Mobile Phones on Campus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朴春宝

    2007-01-01

    After entering the 21st century, more and more people have mobile phones in China. At the end of 2002, there were 20 million mobile phone users. By the year 2005 the number has reached up to 30 million.

  16. Chemical modification of neoplastic cell transformation by heavy ion radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantitative data on chemical modification of neoplastic cell transformation by heavy-ion radiation was obtained using in-vitro cell transformation technique. The specific aims were 1) to test the potential effects of various chemicals on the expression of cell transformation, and 2) to systematically collect information on the mechanisms of expression and progression of cell transformation by ionizing radiation. Recent experimental studies with DMSO, 5-azacytidine, and dexamethasone suggest that DMSO can effectively suppress the neoplastic cell transformation by high-LET radiation and that some nonmutagenic changes in DNA may be important in modifying the expression, and progression of radiation-induced cell transformation

  17. iPhones and Smartphones

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin YE; Jace HARGIS

    2009-01-01

    Long utilized in European and Asian countries, fast ―next generation‖ cell phonenetworks and mobile data streams have only recently begun to make deep inroads inthe United States, and companies are scrambling to write content, tools, and newapplets (―apps‖) for these users. The iPhone has become a juggernaut in the UnitedStates, with 13 million units sold in 2008 (a 245% increase over 2007) and a further 45million units expected in 2009 (Elmer-DeWitt, 2009). While iPhone still lags Nokia andR...

  18. 77 FR 22331 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Solar Cell: A Mobile UV Manager for Smart Phones...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... Mobile UV Manager for Smart Phones Phase II (NCI) Summary: Under the provisions of Section 3507(a)(1)(D... of Health (NIH), has submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) a request to review...

  19. 77 FR 2734 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Solar Cell: A Mobile UV Manager for Smart Phones (NCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... UV Manager for Smart Phones (NCI) SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3506(c)(2)(A... publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and...

  20. 77 FR 4334 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Solar Cell: A Mobile UV Manager for Smart Phones (NCI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... UV Manager for Smart Phones (NCI) SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3506(c)(2)(A... publish periodic summaries of proposed projects to be submitted to the Office of Management and...

  1. Acute effects of 3G mobile phone radiations on frontal haemodynamics during a cognitive task in teenagers and possible protective value of Om chanting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhargav, Hemant; N K, Manjunath; Varambally, Shivarama; Mooventhan, A; Bista, Suman; Singh, Deepeshwar; Chhabra, Harleen; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; T M, Srinivasan; H R, Nagendra

    2016-06-01

    Mobile phone induced electromagnetic field (MPEMF) as well as chanting of Vedic mantra 'OM' has been shown to affect cognition and brain haemodynamics, but findings are still inconclusive. Twenty right-handed healthy teenagers (eight males and 12 females) in the age range of 18.25 ± 0.44 years were randomly divided into four groups: (1) MPONOM (mobile phone 'ON' followed by 'OM' chanting); (2) MPOFOM (mobile phone 'OFF' followed by 'OM' chanting); (3) MPONSS (mobile phone 'ON' followed by 'SS' chanting); and (4) MPOFSS (mobile phone 'OFF' followed by 'SS' chanting). Brain haemodynamics during Stroop task were recorded using a 64-channel fNIRS device at three points of time: (1) baseline, (2) after 30 min of MPON/OF exposure, and (3) after 5 min of OM/SS chanting. RM-ANOVA was applied to perform within- and between-group comparisons, respectively. Between-group analysis revealed that total scores on incongruent Stroop task were significantly better after OM as compared to SS chanting (MPOFOM vs MPOFSS), pre-frontal activation was significantly lesser after OM as compared to SS chanting in channel 13. There was no significant difference between MPON and MPOF conditions for Stroop performance, as well as brain haemodynamics. These findings need confirmation through a larger trial in future.

  2. Effects of light-emitting diode radiations on human retinal pigment epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, Eva; Bonnin-Arias, Cristina; Pérez-Carrasco, María Jesús; Muñoz de Luna, Javier; Vázquez, Daniel; Sánchez-Ramos, Celia

    2013-01-01

    Human visual system is exposed to high levels of natural and artificial lights of different spectra and intensities along lifetime. Light-emitting diodes (LEDs) are the basic lighting components in screens of PCs, phones and TV sets; hence it is so important to know the implications of LED radiations on the human visual system. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of LEDs radiations on human retinal pigment epithelial cells (HRPEpiC). They were exposed to three light-darkness (12 h/12 h) cycles, using blue-468 nm, green-525 nm, red-616 nm and white light. Cellular viability of HRPEpiC was evaluated by labeling all nuclei with DAPI; Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was determined by H2DCFDA staining; mitochondrial membrane potential was quantified by TMRM staining; DNA damage was determined by H2AX histone activation, and apoptosis was evaluated by caspases-3,-7 activation. It is shown that LED radiations decrease 75-99% cellular viability, and increase 66-89% cellular apoptosis. They also increase ROS production and DNA damage. Fluorescence intensity of apoptosis was 3.7% in nonirradiated cells and 88.8%, 86.1%, 83.9% and 65.5% in cells exposed to white, blue, green or red light, respectively. This study indicates three light-darkness (12 h/12 h) cycles of exposure to LED lighting affect in vitro HRPEpiC. PMID:22989198

  3. Cell/Tissue Culture Radiation Exposure Facility Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to develop a Cell/Tissue Culture Radiation Exposure Facility (CTC-REF) to enable radiobiologists to investigate the real-time radiation effects on...

  4. Android phones for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2014-01-01

    A colorful guide to make your Android phone do your bidding The popularity of Android phones is simply exploding, so it's a perfect time for popular For Dummies author Dan Gookin to update his bestselling guide to all things Android phones. From setup and configuration to taking advantage of the latest amazing Android features, this practical resource is designed to make new Android users comfortable and to help veterans get the most out of their Android phone. Covering features that are common to the most popular Android phones, this book walks you through the basics of making calls, using

  5. Radiolabeled blood cells: radiation dosimetry and significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past few years blood cells labeled with In-111 have become increasingly useful in clinical diagnosis and biomedical research. Indium-111 by the virtue of its physical characteristics and ability to bind to cell cytoplasmic components, provides an excellent cell tracer and thereby, allows investigators to monitor in vivo cell distribution by external imaging and help determine a course of regimen in treating life threatening diseases. Due to natural phenomena such as margination, blood pool, and reticuloendothelial cell activity, in the normal state, depending upon the cell type and the quality of cell preparations, 30%-50% of the administered radioactivity is immediately distributed in the liver, spleen and bone marrow. Over a period of time the radioactivity in these organs slightly increases and decays with a physical half-life of In-111. The resulting radiation dose to these organs ranges between 1-25 rads/mCi In-111 administered. The authors have developed a new In-111 labeling technique which preserves platelet ultrastructure and shown that human lymphocytes labeled with In-111 in mixed leukocytes preparations a) are only 0.003% of the total -body lymphocytes population and b) are killed. The consequence if any may be considered insignificant, particularly because 5.6% metaphases from normal men and 6.5% metaphases from normal women in the US have at least one chromosome aberration. Calculations have shown that the risk of fatal hematological malignancy, over a 30 year period, in recipients of 100 million lymphocytes labeled with 100 μCi In-111 is 1/million patients studied. This risk is less than 0.025% of the 1981 spontaneous cancer patient rate in the country. 32 references, 10 tables

  6. Cellular Phone Towers, towers, various type of towers used for cell phone and communication purposes., Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Glynn County Board of Commissioners.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Field Survey/GPS information as of 2010. It is described...

  7. Risks of long-term effect of microwave radiation from mobile communication systems on human organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been detected that commercial models of cell phones on the market of Ukraine sometimes emit microwaves in intensity by 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than the national safety limit for non-ionizing radiation. The survey of Ukrainian students has revealed an active usage of cell phones and a high percent of youth with the subjective feeling of physical discomfort and/or pain in head during cell phone talks. A significant time-dependent biological activity of the certain modes of low-intensity microwave radiation on the model of bird somitogenesis has been demonstrated.

  8. 胚胎期暴露手机辐射对雄性仔鼠生殖功能影响%Effect of mobile phone radiation during embryonic phase on reproductive function of male newborn mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高辉; 裴银辉; 李锋; 孙君侠

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨胚胎期暴露手机辐射对雄性仔鼠生殖功能影响.方法:建立胚胎期暴露手机辐射动物模型,将雄性仔鼠随机分为3组.饲养2个月后处死各组小鼠,分别测定各组实验动物睾丸体重系数、精子数量、精子存活率和精子活动率.结果:与对照组比较,胚胎期暴露不同制式手机辐射雄鼠体重系数和精子存活率之间差异不具有统计学意义;而精子数量和精子活动率低于对照组,且暴露于两种不同制式手机辐射组间差异不具有统计学意义.结论:胚胎期暴露手机辐射可致仔鼠精子数量减少,精子活动率降低.%Objective: To explore the effect of mobile phone radiation during embryonic phase on reproductive function of male newbom mice. Methods: Animal models exposure to mobile phone radiation during embryonic phase were established, then the male newborn mice were randomly divided into three groups. The male newborn mice were killed after two months, the testis - weight coefficient, sperm count, sperm survival rate, and sperm motility rate in the three groups were detected respectively. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in the testis -weight coefficient and sperm survival rate between control group and experimental group; but the sperm count and sperm motility rate in experimental group were lower than those in control group, and there was no statistically significant difference between two kinds of mobile phones. Conclusion; Exposure to mobile phone radiation during embryonic phase can reduce sperm count and sperm motility rate of newborn mice.

  9. Mechanisms of radiation-induced neoplastic cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, T.C.H.; Tobias, C.A.

    1984-04-01

    Studies with cultured mammalian cells demonstrated clearly that radiation can transform cells directly and can enhance the cell transformation by oncogenic DNA viruses. In general, high-LET heavy-ion radiation can be more effective than X and gamma rays in inducing neoplastic cell transformation. Various experimental results indicate that radiation-induced DNA damage, most likely double-strand breaks, is important for both the initiation of cell transformation and for the enhancement of viral transformation. Some of the transformation and enhancement lesions can be repaired properly in the cell, and the amount of irrepairable lesions produced by a given dose depends on the quality of radiation. An inhibition of repair processes with chemical agents can increase the transformation frequency of cells exposed to radiation and/or oncogenic viruses, suggesting that repair mechanisms may play an important role in the radiation transformation. The progression of radiation-transformed cells appears to be a long and complicated process that can be modulated by some nonmutagenic chemical agents, e.g., DMSO. Normal cells can inhibit the expression of transforming properties of tumorigenic cells through an as yet unknown mechanism. The progression and expression of transformation may involve some epigenetic changes in the irradiated cells. 38 references, 15 figures, 1 table.

  10. Radiation Therapy for Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandberg, Daniel J; Craciunescu, Oana; Kelsey, Chris R

    2015-10-01

    Radiation therapy is an extraordinarily effective skin-directed therapy for cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Lymphocytes are extremely sensitive to radiation and a complete response is generally achieved even with low doses. Radiation therapy has several important roles in the management of mycosis fungoides. For the rare patient with unilesional disease, radiation therapy alone is potentially curative. For patients with more advanced cutaneous disease, radiation therapy to local lesions or to the entire skin can effectively palliate symptomatic disease and provide local disease control. Compared with other skin-directed therapies, radiation therapy is particularly advantageous because it can effectively penetrate and treat thicker plaques and tumors. PMID:26433843

  11. Radiation damage and repair in cells and cell components. Part 2. Physical radiations and biological significance. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report comprises a teaching text, encompassing all physical radiations likely to be of biological interest, and the relevant biological effects and their significance. Topics include human radiobiology, delayed effects, radiation absorption in organisms, aqueous radiation chemistry, cell radiobiology, mutagenesis, and photobiology

  12. Radiation-induced apoptosis in microvascular endothelial cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Langley, R. E.; Bump, E A; Quartuccio, S. G.; Medeiros, D.; Braunhut, S. J.

    1997-01-01

    The response of the microvasculature to ionizing radiation is thought to be an important factor in the overall response of both normal tissues and tumours. It has recently been reported that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), a potent mitogen for endothelial cells, protects large vessel endothelial cells from radiation-induced apoptosis in vitro. Microvessel cells are phenotypically distinct from large vessel cells. We studied the apoptotic response of confluent monolayers of capillary en...

  13. Space radiation effects on plant and mammalian cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arena, C.; De Micco, V.; Macaeva, E.; Quintens, R.

    2014-11-01

    The study of the effects of ionizing radiation on organisms is related to different research aims. The current review emphasizes the studies on the effects of different doses of sparsely and densely ionizing radiation on living organisms, with the final purpose of highlighting specific and common effects of space radiation in mammals and plants. This topic is extremely relevant in the context of radiation protection from space environment. The response of different organisms to ionizing radiation depends on the radiation quality/dose and/or the intrinsic characteristics of the living system. Macromolecules, in particular DNA, are the critical targets of radiation, even if there is a strong difference between damages encountered by plant and mammalian cells. The differences in structure and metabolism between the two cell types are responsible for the higher resistance of the plant cell compared with its animal counterpart. In this review, we report some recent findings from studies performed in Space or on Earth, simulating space-like levels of radiation with ground-based facilities, to understand the effect of ionizing radiation on mammalian and plant cells. In particular, our attention is focused on genetic alterations and repair mechanisms in mammalian cells and on structures and mechanisms conferring radioresistance to plant cells.

  14. Space solar cells - High efficiency and radiation damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, H. W., Jr.; Bernatowicz, D. T.

    1980-01-01

    The proceedings of the Third Solar Cell High Efficiency and Radiation Damage Meeting are outlined. The topics covered included high efficiency silicon solar cells, silicon solar cell radiation damage, GaAs solar cell performance, and 30 percent conversion devices. The study of radiation damage from a fundamental defect-centered basis is discussed and evaluated as a focus of future work. 18% AM0 efficiency and 0.7 V open-circuit voltages are designated as achievable goals for silicon solar cells, and the potential for 30% AM0 efficiencies from monolithic tandem cell designs without sunlight concentration is noted. In addition to its potential for 20% AM0 efficiencies, the GaAs cell offers the possibility of a radiation-insensitive power supply when operated at temperatures near 200 C.

  15. Occurrence of BOOP outside radiation field after radiation therapy for small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamanishi, Tohru; Oida, Kazukiyo [Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan); Morimatu, Takafumi (and others)

    2001-09-01

    We report a case of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) that occurred outside the radiation field after radiation therapy for small cell lung cancer. A 74-year-old woman received chemotherapy and a total of 60 Gy of radiation therapy to the right hilum and mediastinum for small cell carcinoma of the suprahilar area of the right lung. Radiation pneumonitis developed within the radiation port 3 months after the completion of radiation therapy. She complained of cough and was admitted 7 months after completion of the radiation therapy. Chest radiography and computed tomography demonstrated peripheral alveolar opacities outside the radiation field on the side contralateral to that receiving the radiation therapy. Bronchoalveolar lavage showed that the total cell count was increased, with a markedly increased percentage of lymphocytes. Transbronchial lung biopsy revealed a histologic pattern consistent with BOOP. Treatment with corticosteroids resulted in rapid improvement of the symptoms and complete resolution of the radiographic abnormalities of the left lung. Although some cases of BOOP following radiation therapy for breast cancer have been reported, none of BOOP after radiation therapy for lung cancer have appeared in the literature. (author)

  16. Safety-critical event risk associated with cell phone tasks as measured in naturalistic driving studies: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Sarah M; Hicks, Anne; Caird, Jeff K

    2016-02-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of naturalistic driving studies involving estimates of safety-critical event risk associated with handheld device use while driving is described. Fifty-seven studies identified from targeted databases, journals and websites were reviewed in depth, and six were ultimately included. These six studies, published between 2006 and 2014, encompass seven sets of naturalistic driver data and describe original research that utilized naturalistic methods to assess the effects of distracting behaviors. Four studies involved non-commercial drivers of light vehicles and two studies involved commercial drivers of trucks and buses. Odds ratios quantifying safety-critical event (SCE) risk associated with talking, dialing, locating or answering, and texting or browsing were extracted. Stratified meta-analysis of pooled odds ratios was used to estimate SCE risk by distraction type; meta-regression was used to test for sources of heterogeneity. The results indicate that tasks that require drivers to take their eyes off the road, such as dialing, locating a phone and texting, increase SCE risk to a greater extent than tasks that do not require eyes off the road such as talking. Although talking on a handheld device did not increase SCE risk, further research is required to determine whether it indirectly influences SCE risk (e.g., by encouraging other cell phone activities). In addition, a number of study biases and quality issues of naturalistic driving studies are discussed. PMID:26724505

  17. Effects of radiation and chemical substances on cells and organism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book treats the radiation chemistry part of biophysics and applied biophysics in the sphere of ionizing radiation. Discussed are the concepts of radiation units and radioactivity units and the relative biological efficiency. The effects of ionizing and UV radiations are analyzed at the level of macromolecular changes. Chapters dealing with genetic radiation effects discuss the effects at the cellular level with respect to cell proliferation. All these problems are used to illustrate the effect on the organism as a whole. The chapters on applied biophysics deal with the indications of radiation and chemical damage, sensitivity of cells and the organism, and the study and influencing of growth at the cellular level. The concluding chapter is devoted to the environmental impact of radiation. (J.P.)

  18. Corporate Smart Phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cavazotte, Flávia; Heloisa Lemos, Ana; Villadsen, Kaspar

    2014-01-01

    This article explores how the adoption of company sponsored smart phones inflicts upon the lives of professionals. Drawing upon qualitative interviews at a law firm in Brazil, the experiences of new smart phone users are reported upon in detail. Increased accessibility, accuracy and speed in exch...

  19. iPhone Idol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Technophiles around the world are snapping up Apple’s new iPhone. How much longer must the Chinese wait?The iPhone, a faster and more versatile version of Apple Inc.’s original touch-based mobile handset, has been a market hit since it went on

  20. Stem cell-based therapies for acute radiation syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation in the event of accidental or intentional incident such as nuclear/radiological terrorism can lead to debilitating injuries to multiple organs resulting in death within days depending on the amount of radiation dose and the quality of radiation. Unfortunately, there is not a single FDA-licensed drug approved against acute radiation injury. The RadStem Center for Medical Countermeasures against Radiation (RadStem CMGR) program at Einstein is developing stem cell-based therapies to treat acute radiation syndrome (ARS). We have demonstrated that intravenous transplantation of bone marrow-derived and adipose-derived stromal cells, consisting of a mixture of mesenchymal, endothelial and myeloid progenitors can mitigate mice exposed to whole body irradiation of 12 Gy or whole abdominal irradiation of up to 20 Gy. We identified a variety of growth and differentiation factors that individually is unable to improve survival of animals exposed to lethal irradiation, but when administered sequentially mitigates radiation injury and improves survival. We termed this phenomenon as synthetic survival and describe a new paradigm whereby the 'synthetic survival' of irradiated tissues can be promoted by systemic administration of growth factors to amplify residual stem cell clonogens post-radiation exposure, followed by a differentiation factor that favors tissue stem cell differentiation. Synthetic survival can be applied to mitigate lethal radiation injury in multiple organs following radiation-induced hematopoeitic, gastrointestinal and pulmonary syndromes. (author)

  1. Altruistic cell suicide in relation to radiation hormesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high radiosensitivity to killing of undifferentiated primordial cells (Bergonie and Tribondeau 1906) can be described as a manifestation of the suicide of injured cells for the benefit of an organism as a whole if their suicide stimulates proliferation of healthy cells to replace them, resulting in complete elimination of injury. This process is called cell-replacement repair, to distinguish it from DNA repair which is rarely complete. 'Cell suicide', 'programmed death' and 'apoptosis' are terms used for the same type of active cell death. Cell suicide is not always altruistic. Altruistic suicide in Drosophila, mice, humans, plants, and E. coli is reviewed in this paper to illustrate its widely different facets. The hypothesis that in animals, radiation hormesis results from altruistic cell suicide is proposed. This hypothesis can explain the hormetic effect of low doses of radiation on the immune system in mice. In contrast, in plants, radiation hormesis seems to be mainly due to non-altruistic cell death. (author)

  2. Oxidative changes and apoptosis induced by 1800-MHz electromagnetic radiation in NIH/3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingxia; Wang, Minglian; Wu, Shuicai; Ma, Xuemei; An, Guangzhou; Liu, Huan; Xie, Fei

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the potential adverse effects of mobile phone radiation, we studied reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) after intermittent exposure (5 min on/10 min off, for various durations from 0.5 to 8 h) to an 1800-MHz GSM-talk mode electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at an average specific absorption rate of 2 W/kg. A 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate fluorescence probe was used to detect intracellular ROS levels, immunofluorescence was used to detect γH2AX foci as a marker for DNA damage, and flow cytometry was used to measure apoptosis. Our results showed a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels after EMR exposure and it reached the highest level at an exposure time of 1 h (p < 0.05) followed by a slight decrease when the exposure continued for as long as 8 h. No significant effect on the number of γH2AX was detected after EMR exposure. The percentage of late-apoptotic cells in the EMR-exposed group was significantly higher than that in the sham-exposed groups (p < 0.05). These results indicate that an 1800-MHz EMR enhances ROS formation and promotes apoptosis in NIH/3T3 cells.

  3. Celulares: a emergência de um novo tipo de controle materno Cell phones: the emergence of a new king of materal control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Nicolaci-da-Costa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Em uma pesquisa exploratória sobre o uso de celulares por jovens das camadas médias cariocas, entre 18 e 25 de idade, foi constatado que eles reclamavam muito que suas mães os controlavam ininterruptamente por meio de seus celulares. Para averiguar mais detalhadamente o que acontece entre mães e filhos dessa faixa etária, foi realizada uma segunda pesquisa. Nesta, foram entrevistadas 20 mães, também pertencentes às camadas médias cariocas, cujos filhos tinham perfil análogo ao dos jovens da primeira pesquisa. Para todas, a principal função dos celulares é abertamente a de controlar os filhos. Elas mostraram, no entanto, saber que há uma diferença entre o controle que vigorava quando eram jovens e aquele ao qual hoje submetem os filhos. Teorias contemporâneas sobre controle e vigilância de fato argumentam que houve uma substituição do controle normativo e coercitivo da modernidade pelo "ter conhecimento" do que se passa, característico da Era da Informação.An exploratory research on the use of cell phones by middle-class youngsters, ages 18 to 25, residing in Rio de Janeiro, revealed that they complained a great deal that their mothers controlled them unrelentingly by means of cell phones. To take a deeper look into what happens between mothers and children in this age group, a second investigation was carried out. Twenty middle-class mothers were interviewed, whose children's profile were analogous to that of the youngsters in the previous research. For all of the mothers, the main benefit of cell phones is to control their children. Nevertheless, they demonstrated to know that there's a difference between the control that they submit their children to from that that prevailed when they themselves were young. Contemporary control and surveillance theories, in fact, argue that the normative and coercive control of modernity has been replaced by "having knowledge" of what goes on, which is characteristic of the Information

  4. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy for acute radiation syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukumoto, Risaku

    2016-01-01

    Acute radiation syndrome affects military personnel and civilians following the uncontrolled dispersal of radiation, such as that caused by detonation of nuclear devices and inappropriate medical treatments. Therefore, there is a growing need for medical interventions that facilitate the improved recovery of victims and patients. One promising approach may be cell therapy, which, when appropriately implemented, may facilitate recovery from whole body injuries. This editorial highlights the current knowledge regarding the use of mesenchymal stem cells for the treatment of acute radiation syndrome, the benefits and limitations of which are under investigation. Establishing successful therapies for acute radiation syndrome may require using such a therapeutic approach in addition to conventional approaches. PMID:27182446

  5. GIS DATA COLLECTION FOR OIL PALM (DaCOP) MOBILE APPLICATION FOR SMART PHONE

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, A. F.; Muhadi, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, smart phone has become a necessity as it offers more than just making a phone call. Smart phone combines the features of cell phone with other mobile devices such as personal digital assistant (PDA) and GPS navigation unit that propel the popularity of smart phones. In recent years, the interest in mobile communication has been increased. Previous research using mobile application has been successfully done in varies areas of study. Areas of study that have been done are health care...

  6. 手机成瘾对大学课堂的影响及对策探析--基于商洛学院大学生手机使用状况的调查研究%Analysis on the Effects and Countermeasures of Mobile Phone Addiction in University Class---Based on Investigation of College Students' Cell Phone Use in Shangluo University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金敏; 于晓明

    2015-01-01

    采用问卷调查为主,个案访谈为辅的研究方法,使用分层随机抽样的样本数据分析商洛学院大学生手机的使用,特别着眼于大学课堂中手机的使用时间、习惯、目的、动机等情况。力图通过调查大学生手机使用的状况讨论手机成瘾对大学课堂的影响,并在此基础上讨论如何降低手机使用对大学生的负面影响,培养大学生良好行为习惯。重点探讨手机成瘾对大学课堂的影响程度、形成原因、应对策略等问题,积极建构大学生健康的手机使用模式,引导大学生形成良好学习氛围。%Questionnaires as well as case interviews are mainly used in this paper to analyze college students' mobile phone use in Shangluo University through the way of stratified random sample data, especially from the time, the habit and the purpose they use mobile phone in university class. By investigating the status of the college students' cell-phone use, the authors try to explore the effect of students' mobile phone addiction in class time, and further discuss how to reduce the negative effect of mobile phone use, and how to cultivate college students' good study habits. The problems of cell phone addiction of university students is especially discussed from the aspects of the influence degree, forming reasons, and coping strategies in order to guide them to form a healthy mobile phone use habits, and cultivate a good learning atmosphere.

  7. Epidermal stem cells response to radiative genotoxic stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human skin is the first organ exposed to various environmental stresses, which requires the development by skin stem cells of specific mechanisms to protect themselves and to ensure tissue homeostasis. As stem cells are responsible for the maintenance of epidermis during individual lifetime, the preservation of genomic integrity in these cells is essential. My PhD aimed at exploring the mechanisms set up by epidermal stem cells in order to protect themselves from two genotoxic stresses, ionizing radiation (Gamma Rays) and ultraviolet radiation (UVB). To begin my PhD, I have taken part of the demonstration of protective mechanisms used by keratinocyte stem cells after ionizing radiation. It has been shown that these cells are able to rapidly repair most types of radiation-induced DNA damage. Furthermore, we demonstrated that this repair is activated by the fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2). In order to know if this protective mechanism is also operating in cutaneous carcinoma stem cells, we investigated the response to gamma Rays of carcinoma stem cells isolated from a human carcinoma cell line. As in normal keratinocyte stem cells, we demonstrated that cancer stem cells could rapidly repair radio-induced DNA damage. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor 2 also mediates this repair, notably thanks to its nuclear isoforms. The second project of my PhD was to study human epidermal stem cells and progenitors responses to UVB radiation. Once cytometry and irradiation conditions were set up, the toxicity of UVB radiation has been evaluate in the primary cell model. We then characterized UVB photons effects on cell viability, proliferation and repair of DNA damage. This study allowed us to bring out that responses of stem cells and their progeny to UVB are different, notably at the level of part of their repair activity of DNA damage. Moreover, progenitors and stem cells transcriptomic responses after UVB irradiation have been study in order to analyze the global

  8. DNA repair and radiation sensitivity in mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation induces various types of damage in mammalian cells including DNA single-strand breaks, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), DNA-protein cross links, and altered DNA bases. Although human cells can repair many of these lesions there is little detailed knowledge of the nature of the genes and the encoded enzymes that control these repair processes. We report here on the cellular and genetic analyses of DNA double-strand break repair deficient mammalian cells. It has been well established that the DNA double-strand break is one of the major lesions induced by ionizing radiation. Utilizing rodent repair-deficient mutant, we have shown that the genes responsible for DNA double-strand break repair are also responsible for the cellular expression of radiation sensitivity. The molecular genetic analysis of DSB repair in rodent/human hybrid cells indicate that at least 6 different genes in mammalian cells are responsible for the repair of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks. Mapping and the prospect of cloning of human radiation repair genes are reviewed. Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of radiation sensitivity and DNA repair in man will provide a rational foundation to predict the individual risk associated with radiation exposure and to prevent radiation-induced genetic damage in the human population

  9. Waves and mobile phones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article reports the methodology used to assess the exposure to radio-frequency of the population. The main radio-frequency emitters are transmitting antennas, mobile phones, Wi-Fi systems, cord-less home phones, and micro-wave ovens. We have to know that the level of exposure is very different depending on the device, for instance a 10 minutes long use of a mobile phone with a DAS (specific absorption dose rate) of 0.04 W/kg is equivalent to a 15 day long exposure to a transmitting antenna at a spot where the field is 0.6 V/m. It appears that for transmitting antennas the exposure levels of the population are always very low and far below the protection standards. As for mobile phones, today's results can not exclude a risk for people having used a phone for more than 10 years. Experts recommend for children a restraint use of mobile phones and for adults to keep a safety distance of a few tens of centimeters between the speaker and his phone. The passage to the new UMTS-3G standard will be favourable. (A.C.)

  10. Thermal radiosensitization in radiation-sensitive mutant mouse leukemic cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, Toshikazu (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Dentistry)

    1994-06-01

    This study investigated thermal, radiation, and combined thermal radiation sensitization of mouse leukemic cells, L5178Y, and radiation-sensitive mutant cells, LX830. Radiation sensitivity (D[sub 0]) values were 0.41 Gy for LX830 and 1.39 Gy for L5178Y, with the ratio of D[sub 0] values in LX830 to in L5178Y being 3.4. Thus, LX830 was more radiosensitive than L5178Y. LX830 showed no shouldered survival curves. Although sublethal damage (SLD) repair was seen to the almost same degree in both LX830 and L5178Y, potential lethal damage (PLD) repair was scarcely observed in LX830. Both cell lines were similar in thermal sensitivity (T[sub 0]). Eosine staining suggested that cell killing due to hyperthermia had occurred in the interphase in both LX830 and L5178Y. L5178Y showed thermal sensitivity low in the G1 phase and high in the S phase; on the contrary, LX830 showed it high in the G1 phase and low in the S phase. Thermal radiosensitization was similar in both cell lines, although there was a great difference in radiation sensitivity between the cell lines. The difference in radiation sensitivity (D[sub 0]) between L5178Y and LX830 became small when radiation was given at the time of the maximum thermal resistance. This seemed to contribute to a decrease in radiation sensitivity in LX830. It can be concluded that thermal radiosensitization depends on thermal sensitivity and that radiation sensitivity decreases in radiation-sensitive cells when exposed to irradiation at the time of thermal resistance. (N.K.).

  11. Mobile Phones: Potential Sources of Nickel and Cobalt Exposure for Metal Allergic Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Aquino, Marcella; Mucci, Tania; Chong, Melanie; Lorton, Mark Davis; Fonacier, Luz

    2013-01-01

    The use of cellular phones has risen exponentially with over 300 million subscribers. Nickel has been detected in cell phones and reports of contact dermatitis attributable to metals are present in the literature. We determined nickel and cobalt content in popular cell phones in the United States. Adults (>18 years) who owned a flip phone, Blackberry®, or iPhone® were eligible. Seventy-two cell phones were tested using SmartPractice's® commercially available nickel and cobalt spot tests. Test...

  12. Celulares: um "presente do céu" para mães de jovens Cell phones: a "God-given gift" for mothers of youngsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Nicolaci-da-Costa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas realizadas em diferentes partes do mundo mostram que pais e mães equipam seus filhos jovens com celulares como uma forma de garantir sua segurança enquanto fazem as primeiras incursões por um mundo visto como cada vez mais perigoso. Os resultados de uma pesquisa realizada com mães de jovens cariocas entre 18 e 25 anos de idade revelam, no entanto, que essa pode não ser a única razão para que os filhos recebam celulares de presente de seus pais. Embora a preocupação com a segurança dos filhos fosse constantemente mencionada por todas as mães entrevistadas, foi sobretudo à sua própria segurança - usada com o significado de tranqüilidade, sossego, paz de espírito, etc. - que essas mães fizeram referência. O celular é, para elas, uma importante fonte de alívio da angústia de não saber onde estão os filhos.Investigations conducted in different parts of the world show that parents equip their young children with cell phones in an attempt to enhance their safety while they independently explore a world perceived as progressively dangerous. Results from a study carried out in Rio de Janeiro with mothers of 18 to 25 year old youngsters, however, reveal that this may not be the sole reason for such parental behavior. Even though all interviewees constantly mentioned worries about their children's safety, above all these mothers were mainly referring to their own safety - used with the meaning of tranquility, calmness, peace of mind, etc. For them, the cell phone is an important source of relief from the anguish of not knowing where their children are.

  13. Cellular Phone Towers, Cell towers developed for Appraiser's Department in 2003. Location was based upon parcel centroids, and corrected to orthophotography. Probably includes towers other than cell towers (uncertain). Not published., Published in 2003, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County, Kansas.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Cellular Phone Towers dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2003. It is described as 'Cell...

  14. Effect of troglitazone on radiation sensitivity in cervix cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Zheng Zhe; Liu, Xian Guang; Song, Hye Jin; Choi, Chi Hwan; Kim, Won Dong; Park, Woo Yoon [Chungbuk National University College of Medicine, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Jae Ran [Konkuk University College of Medicine, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Troglitazone (TRO) is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma} ) agonist. TRO has antiproliferative activity on many kinds of cancer cells via G1 arrest. TRO also increases Cu{sup 2+}/Zn{sup 2+} -superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD) and catalase. Cell cycle, and SOD and catalase may affect on radiation sensitivity. We investigated the effect of TRO on radiation sensitivity in cancer cells in vitro. Three human cervix cancer cell lines (HeLa, Me180, and SiHa) were used. The protein expressions of SOD and catalase, and catalase activities were measured at 2-10 {mu}M of TRO for 24 hours. Cell cycle was evaluated with flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) was measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate. Cell survival by radiation was measured with clonogenic assay. By 5 {mu}M TRO for 24 hours, the mRNA, protein expression and activity of catalase were increased in all three cell lines. G0- G1 phase cells were increased in HeLa and Me180 by 5 {mu}M TRO for 24 hours, but those were not increased in SiHa. By pretreatment with 5 {mu}M TRO radiation sensitivity was increased in HeLa and Me180, but it was decreased in SiHa. In Me180, with 2 {mu}M TRO which increased catalase but not increased G0-G1 cells, radiosensitization was not observed. ROS produced by radiation was decreased with TRO. TRO increases radiation sensitivity through G0-G1 arrest or decreases radiation sensitivity through catalasemediated ROS scavenging according to TRO dose or cell types. The change of radiation sensitivity by combined with TRO is not dependent on the PPAR {gamma} expression level.

  15. Losartan sensitizes selectively prostate cancer cell to ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdannejat, H; Hosseinimehr, S J; Ghasemi, A; Pourfallah, T A; Rafiei, A

    2016-01-11

    Losartan is an angiotensin II receptor (AT-II-R) blocker that is widely used by human for blood pressure regulation. Also, it has antitumor property. In this study, we investigated the radiosensitizing effect of losartan on cellular toxicity induced by ionizing radiation on prostate cancer and non-malignant fibroblast cells. Human prostate cancer (DU-145) and human non-malignant fibroblast cells (HFFF2) were treated with losartan at different concentrations (0.5, 1, 10, 50 and 100 µM) and then these cells were exposed to ionizing radiation. The cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay. Our results showed that losartan exhibited antitumor effect on prostate cancer cells; it was reduced cell survival to 66% at concentration 1 µM. Losartan showed an additive killing effect in combination with ionizing radiation on prostate cancer cell. The cell proliferation was reduced to 54% in the prostate cancer cells treated with losartan at concentration 1 µM in combination with ionizing radiation. Losartan did not exhibit any toxicity on HFFF2 cell. This result shows a promising effect of losartan on enhancement of therapeutic effect of ionizing radiation in patients during therapy.

  16. 浅议“手机课堂”现象及微信解决方案%Briefly on the Phenomenon of"Use of Cell Phones in Class"and WeChat-related Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹志军; 邸静; 徐凤秋

    2015-01-01

    手机已成为大学生随身携带的基本工具,而浏览手机也成为大学课堂的特色景象,把手机的“弊”转为“利”是教学研究的重要课题。针对目前大学生手机课堂的现状、原因,以及常见的对策中存在的问题,文章提出手机微信辅助教学方案,以期为课堂手机应用提供参考。%At present, the mobile phone has become an essential carry-on tool for university students, while playing the mobile phone has become a typical phenomenon in university classes.It is therefore an important topic of teaching to transform the"demerits"of cell phone to"merits".To deal with the current situation that the students use their phones in class, the reasons, the common resolutions, a mobile WeChat-aided teaching program is proposed in order that it may pro-vide a reference for"use of phones in class".

  17. iPhones and Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin YE

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Long utilized in European and Asian countries, fast ―next generation‖ cell phonenetworks and mobile data streams have only recently begun to make deep inroads inthe United States, and companies are scrambling to write content, tools, and newapplets (―apps‖ for these users. The iPhone has become a juggernaut in the UnitedStates, with 13 million units sold in 2008 (a 245% increase over 2007 and a further 45million units expected in 2009 (Elmer-DeWitt, 2009. While iPhone still lags Nokia andRIM internationally, the overall trend toward mobile computing becomes firmer by theday, and it behooves educators to become familiar with the cell phone tools that arerelevant for teaching in tomorrow‘s--and increasingly ―today‘s‖--classroom.Smartphones have for years offered SMS instant messaging, but the first uses of thattechnology have inevitably been social rather than educational in nature (Reid, 2004.The recent rise in popularity of the iPhone has, however, sparked interest in new usesfor SMS with the advent of new and expanded audiences. One promising online tooloffers instant polling via SMS: polleverywhere.com‘s free account allows up to 30responses per 1-question poll, with unlimited polls per account.This opens up the possibility of classroom response systems that require no studentpurchases of the clicker hardware. While accountability back to the student and gradesare not feasible with polleverywhere.com‘s solution, instructors can harvest quick,anonymous feedback and encourage otherwise reluctant students to engage andparticipate.Apart from texting, modern cell phones come equipped with cameras, which cancombine with email capabilities to offer a potent alternative to writing on whiteboards.Working at their seats, singly or in groups, students can photograph their work andemail it to the instructor, who then can choose from the submissions which to highlighton the lecture hall‘s projection of his computer station, and

  18. Stem cells in radiation and oral cancer research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are defined as a small sub population of cancer cells that constitute a pool of self sustaining cells with the exclusive ability to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumour. There are three main characteristics of CSCs. Initially the cell must show potent tumour initiation in that it can regenerate the tumour which it was derived from a limited number of cells. In addition, the cells should demonstrate self renewal in vivo, which is practically observed via regrowth of phenotypically indistinguishable and heterogeneous tumours following serial transplantation of re-isolated CSCs in secondary and tertiary recipients. Finally, the cells must show a differentiation capacity, allowing them to give rise to a heterogeneous progeny, which represents a phenocopy of the original tumour. This article highlights the radiation therapy resulting in radiation resistance in cancer stem cells. (author)

  19. Response to Comments on Meo et al. Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2015, 12, 14519–14528

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We highly appreciate the readers’ interest [1] in our article [2] titled “Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus” published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health [2].[...

  20. Response to Comments on Meo et al. Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, 2015, 12, 14519–14528

    OpenAIRE

    Sultan Ayoub Meo; Yazeed Alsubaie; Zaid Almubarak; Hisham Almutawa; Yazeed AlQasem; Rana Muhammed Hasanato

    2016-01-01

    We highly appreciate the readers’ interest [1] in our article [2] titled “Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus” published in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health [2].[...

  1. Mobile-Phone Microscopes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程杰

    2008-01-01

    Simple accessories could turn mobile phones into useful medical devices Robi Marrmari stares intently at the screen of his mobile phone.The student is not squinting to tap out yet another daft text message,but looking carefully for the faint blue dots that are the tell-tale diagnostic signature of malaria.Mr.Maamari is a member of a research team led by Dan Fletcher,a professor of bioengineering

  2. Pattern classification of time plane features of ECG wave from cell-phone photography for machine aided cardiac disease diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Rupendra Nath; Pramanik, Sayak; Mitra, Sucharita; Chaudhuri, Bidyut B

    2014-01-01

    This article reports a robust technique for extracting time plane features of Electrocardiogram (ECG) from digital images of ECG paper strips. We concluded this article reporting performance evaluation of the system developed for machine aided cardiac disease detection. Mostly paper based ECG recordings are used in developing countries and digital photographs of different leads could easily be taken and sent with a mediocre cellular phone set. Apart from extracting the features, the proposed system detects cardiac axis deviation and diagnose if Left or Right Bundle Branch Blockage (LBBB or RBBB) is present while fed with the digital photographs of different leads of ECG strips. Preprocessing of the low-resolution images involves background grid line noise removal, adaptive image binarization by Sauvola's method and Bresenham's line joining algorithm to link the ECG signature, if broken. Pattern extraction mainly delineate the time plane features like P wave, QRS complex and T wave using water reservoir based pattern recognition techniques and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). Cardiac axis deviation detection is done by checking the overall voltage levels of QRS complexes of lead I, II and III. Having the knowledge of cardiac axis completes the requirements to comment on the cardiac blockage like Left or Right Bundle Branch Blockage (LBBB or RBBB). Thus, the proposed algorithm is primarily developed for machine aided diagnosis of LBBB or RBBB from the digital photographs of ECG paper strips. PMID:25571067

  3. Flow control using audio tones in resonant microfluidic networks: towards cell-phone controlled lab-on-a-chip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Reid H; Jain, Rahil; Browning, Yoni; Shah, Rachana; Kauffman, Peter; Dinh, Doan; Lutz, Barry R

    2016-08-16

    Fluid control remains a challenge in development of portable lab-on-a-chip devices. Here, we show that microfluidic networks driven by single-frequency audio tones create resonant oscillating flow that is predicted by equivalent electrical circuit models. We fabricated microfluidic devices with fluidic resistors (R), inductors (L), and capacitors (C) to create RLC networks with band-pass resonance in the audible frequency range available on portable audio devices. Microfluidic devices were fabricated from laser-cut adhesive plastic, and a "buzzer" was glued to a diaphragm (capacitor) to integrate the actuator on the device. The AC flowrate magnitude was measured by imaging oscillation of bead tracers to allow direct comparison to the RLC circuit model across the frequency range. We present a systematic build-up from single-channel systems to multi-channel (3-channel) networks, and show that RLC circuit models predict complex frequency-dependent interactions within multi-channel networks. Finally, we show that adding flow rectifying valves to the network creates pumps that can be driven by amplified and non-amplified audio tones from common audio devices (iPod and iPhone). This work shows that RLC circuit models predict resonant flow responses in multi-channel fluidic networks as a step towards microfluidic devices controlled by audio tones. PMID:27416111

  4. Flow control using audio tones in resonant microfluidic networks: towards cell-phone controlled lab-on-a-chip devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Reid H; Jain, Rahil; Browning, Yoni; Shah, Rachana; Kauffman, Peter; Dinh, Doan; Lutz, Barry R

    2016-08-16

    Fluid control remains a challenge in development of portable lab-on-a-chip devices. Here, we show that microfluidic networks driven by single-frequency audio tones create resonant oscillating flow that is predicted by equivalent electrical circuit models. We fabricated microfluidic devices with fluidic resistors (R), inductors (L), and capacitors (C) to create RLC networks with band-pass resonance in the audible frequency range available on portable audio devices. Microfluidic devices were fabricated from laser-cut adhesive plastic, and a "buzzer" was glued to a diaphragm (capacitor) to integrate the actuator on the device. The AC flowrate magnitude was measured by imaging oscillation of bead tracers to allow direct comparison to the RLC circuit model across the frequency range. We present a systematic build-up from single-channel systems to multi-channel (3-channel) networks, and show that RLC circuit models predict complex frequency-dependent interactions within multi-channel networks. Finally, we show that adding flow rectifying valves to the network creates pumps that can be driven by amplified and non-amplified audio tones from common audio devices (iPod and iPhone). This work shows that RLC circuit models predict resonant flow responses in multi-channel fluidic networks as a step towards microfluidic devices controlled by audio tones.

  5. Paper-based three-dimensional microfluidic device for monitoring of heavy metals with a camera cell phone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hu; Li, Ya-jie; Wei, Jun-feng; Xu, Ji-run; Wang, Yun-hua; Zheng, Guo-xia

    2014-05-01

    A 3D paper-based microfluidic device has been developed for colorimetric determination of selected heavy metals in water samples by stacking layers of wax patterned paper and double-sided adhesive tape. It has the capability of wicking fluids and distributing microliter volumes of samples from single inlet into affrays of detection zones without external pumps, thus a range of metal assays can be simply and inexpensively performed. We demonstrate a prototype of four sample inlets for up to four heavy metal assays each, with detection limits as follows: Cu (II) = 0.29 ppm, Ni(II) = 0.33 ppm, Cd (II) = 0.19 ppm, and Cr (VI) = 0.35 ppm, which provided quantitative data that were in agreement with values gained from atomic absorption. It has the ability to identify these four metals in mixtures and is immune to interferences from either nontoxic metal ions such as Na(I) and K(I) or components found in reservoir or beach water. With the incorporation of a portable detector, a camera mobile phone, this 3D paper-based microfluidic device should be useful as a simple, rapid, and on-site screening approach of heavy metals in aquatic environments. PMID:24618990

  6. Mobile Phones: Potential Sources of Nickel and Cobalt Exposure for Metal Allergic Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquino, Marcella; Mucci, Tania; Chong, Melanie; Lorton, Mark Davis; Fonacier, Luz

    2013-12-01

    The use of cellular phones has risen exponentially with over 300 million subscribers. Nickel has been detected in cell phones and reports of contact dermatitis attributable to metals are present in the literature. We determined nickel and cobalt content in popular cell phones in the United States. Adults (>18 years) who owned a flip phone, Blackberry(®), or iPhone(®) were eligible. Seventy-two cell phones were tested using SmartPractice's(®) commercially available nickel and cobalt spot tests. Test areas included buttons, keypad, speakers, camera, and metal panels. Of the 72 cell phones tested, no iPhones or Droids(®) tested positive for nickel or cobalt. About 29.4% of Blackberrys [95% confidence interval (CI), 13%-53%] tested positive for nickel; none were positive for cobalt. About 90.5% of flip phones (95% CI, 70%-99%) tested positive for nickel and 52.4% of flip phones (95% CI, 32%-72%) tested positive for cobalt. Our study indicates that nickel and cobalt are present in popular cell phones. Patients with known nickel or cobalt allergy may consider their cellular phones as a potential source of exposure. Further studies are needed to examine whether there is a direct association with metal content in cell phones and the manifestation of metal allergy.

  7. Blind identification of cellular phone cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çeliktutan, Oya; Avcibas, Ismail; Sankur, Bülent

    2007-02-01

    In this paper, we focus on blind source cell-phone identification problem. It is known various artifacts in the image processing pipeline, such as pixel defects or unevenness of the responses in the CCD sensor, black current noise, proprietary interpolation algorithms involved in color filter array [CFA] leave telltale footprints. These artifacts, although often imperceptible, are statistically stable and can be considered as a signature of the camera type or even of the individual device. For this purpose, we explore a set of forensic features, such as binary similarity measures, image quality measures and higher order wavelet statistics in conjunction SVM classifier to identify the originating cell-phone type. We provide identification results among 9 different brand cell-phone cameras. In addition to our initial results, we applied a set of geometrical operations to original images in order to investigate how much our proposed method is robust under these manipulations.

  8. Classical Radiation Reaction in Particle-In-Cell Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Vranic, Marija; Fonseca, Ricardo A; Silva, Luis O

    2015-01-01

    Under the presence of ultra high intensity lasers or other intense electromagnetic fields the motion of particles in the ultrarelativistic regime can be severely affected by radiation reaction. The standard particle-in-cell (PIC) algorithms do not include radiation reaction effects. Even though this is a well known mechanism, there is not yet a definite algorithm nor a standard technique to include radiation reaction in PIC codes. We have compared several models for the calculation of the radiation reaction force, with the goal of implementing an algorithm for classical radiation reaction in the Osiris framework, a state-of-the-art PIC code. The results of the different models are compared with standard analytical results, and the relevance/advantages of each model are discussed. Numerical issues relevant to PIC codes such as resolution requirements, application of radiation reaction to macro particles and computational cost are also addressed. The Landau and Lifshitz reduced model is chosen for implementatio...

  9. The concept of radiation-enhanced stem cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mieloch Adam A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Efficient stem cell differentiation is considered to be the holy grail of regenerative medicine. Pursuing the most productive method of directed differentiation has been the subject of numerous studies, resulting in the development of many effective protocols. However, the necessity for further improvement in differentiation efficiency remains. This review contains a description of molecular processes underlying the response of stem cells to ionizing radiation, indicating its potential application in differentiation procedures. In the first part, the radiation-induced damage response in various types of stem cells is described. Second, the role of the p53 protein in embryonic and adult stem cells is highlighted. Last, the hypothesis on the mitochondrial involvement in stem cell development including its response to ionizing radiation is presented.

  10. Exposure Metrics for RF Epidemiology: Cellular Phone Handsets (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The parameters are described that characterise the exposure of the users of cellular phones. The parameters are distinguished in two classes: the human and the cell phone parameters. Among the human parameters the following are discussed: size and shape of head and neck, manner of holding the phone (left vs. right, finger tips vs. palm contact) and phone position on the face of the user. The cell phone parameters causing the largest exposure variations are: antenna geometry (size, shape, extended or retracted) and matching conditions; operating RF power level; proximity of tissue to RF currents on metal parts, channel access method (analogue, pulsed, CDMA). The large variability of the RF exposure is further expanded by the variety (ever increasing) of phone models available to users who may change service frequently or sporadically. After a brief discussion of possible dose definitions and the uncertainty of the 'user' of a cell phone for a specific call, the paper analyses the critical exposure parameters that should be investigated to characterise statistically the RF exposure of the subjects of an epidemiological study. The improved exposure assessment of the users of cellular phones requires the cooperation of network operators and equipment manufacturers. The statistics of the most critical parameters, those with variability greater than 10:1, can be collected by modifying the software and hardware of the cell phone equipment. The paper suggests base station software modifications and the introduction of cell phone 'dosemeter' devices that record some of the critical exposure parameters. A certain number of these 'dosemeters' should be distributed among subscribers to determine the statistical variations of the RF exposure from cell phones. The paper concludes by recommending a pilot dosimetric study independent from any epidemiological study. (author)

  11. Model of cell response to {\\alpha}-particle radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Longjian

    2012-01-01

    Starting from a general equation for organism (or cell system) growth and attributing additional cell death rate (besides the natural rate) to therapy, we derive an equation for cell response to {\\alpha} radiation. Different from previous models that are based on statistical theory, the present model connects the consequence of radiation with the growth process of a biosystem and each variable or parameter has meaning regarding the cell evolving process. We apply this equation to model the dose response for {\\alpha}-particle radiation. It interprets the results of both high and low linear energy transfer (LET) radiations. When LET is high, the additional death rate is a constant, which implies that the localized cells are damaged immediately and the additional death rate is proportional to the number of cells present. While at low LET, the additional death rate includes a constant term and a linear term of radiation dose, implying that the damage to some cell nuclei has a time accumulating effect. This model ...

  12. Radiation related basic cancer research : research for radiation induced tumor cell killing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioresistant clones was established from human U251 glioblastoma cell line through intermittently exposed to 3 Gy gamma-radiation for six months. Treatment of SNU-16 cells with various doses of radiation, TNF alpha and PMA resulted in a decrease in cell viability. The results prove that cell death of SNU16 is a apoptosis mediated by caspase-3. We have examined the expression of bcl-2 and c-myc in cervical cancer specimens and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) to determine the role of coexpression of bcl-3 and c-myc during progression into cervical cancer. The frequent alterations in FHIT expression in many cervical carcinomas and their cell lines suggest that FHIT gene alterations are pla a role in cervical tumorigenesis. According to these correlation between the viability and apoptosis of RD cells, the proper range of the dosage for the investigation of differentiation potency in RD cells was assessed as 1 to 3Gy

  13. Radiation related basic cancer research : research for radiation induced tumor cell killing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Hong, Seok Il; Cho, Kyung Ja; Kim, Byung Gi; Lee, Kee Ho; Nam, Myung Jin

    1999-04-01

    The radioresistant clones was established from human U251 glioblastoma cell line through intermittently exposed to 3 Gy gamma-radiation for six months. Treatment of SNU-16 cells with various doses of radiation, TNF alpha and PMA resulted in a decrease in cell viability. The results prove that cell death of SNU16 is a apoptosis mediated by caspase-3. We have examined the expression of bcl-2 and c-myc in cervical cancer specimens and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) to determine the role of coexpression of bcl-3 and c-myc during progression into cervical cancer. The frequent alterations in FHIT expression in many cervical carcinomas and their cell lines suggest that FHIT gene alterations are pla a role in cervical tumorigenesis. According to these correlation between the viability and apoptosis of RD cells, the proper range of the dosage for the investigation of differentiation potency in RD cells was assessed as 1 to 3Gy.

  14. Roles of ionizing radiation in cell transformation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tobias, C.A.; Albright, N.W.; Yang, T.C.

    1983-07-01

    Earlier the authors described a repair misrepair model (RMR-I) which is applicable for radiations of low LET, e.g., x rays and gamma rays. RMR-II was described later. Here is introduced a mathematical modification of the RMR model, RMR-III, which is intended to describe lethal effects caused by heavily ionizing tracks. 31 references, 4 figures.

  15. Roles of ionizing radiation in cell transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earlier the authors described a repair misrepair model (RMR-I) which is applicable for radiations of low LET, e.g., x rays and gamma rays. RMR-II was described later. Here is introduced a mathematical modification of the RMR model, RMR-III, which is intended to describe lethal effects caused by heavily ionizing tracks. 31 references, 4 figures

  16. Effects of ionizing radiation on differentiation of murine bone marrow cells into mast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mast cells, immune effector cells produced from bone marrow cells, play a major role in immunoglobulin E–mediated allergic responses. Ionizing radiation affects the functions of mast cells, which are involved in radiation-induced tissue damage. However, whether ionizing radiation affects the differential induction of mast cells is unknown. Here we investigated whether bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells. To induce mast cells, bone marrow cells from X-irradiated and unirradiated mice were cultured in the presence of cytokines required for mast cell induction. Although irradiation at 0.5 Gy and 2 Gy decreased the number of bone marrow cells 1 day post-irradiation, the cultured bone marrow cells of X-irradiated and unirradiated mice both expressed mast cell–related cell-surface antigens. However, the percentage of mast cells in the irradiated group was lower than in the unirradiated group. Similar decreases in the percentage of mast cells induced in the presence of X-irradiation were observed 10 days post irradiation, although the number of bone marrow cells in irradiated mice had recovered by this time. Analysis of mast cell function showed that degranulation of mast cells after immunoglobulin E–mediated allergen recognition was significantly higher in the X-irradiated group compared with in the unirradiated group. In conclusion, bone marrow cells of X-irradiated mice differentiated into mast cells, but ionizing radiation affected the differentiation efficiency and function of mast cells. (author)

  17. Cone Penetrometer Load Cell Temperature and Radiation Testing Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follett, Jordan R.

    2013-08-28

    This report summarizes testing activities performed at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to verify the cone penetrometer load cell can withstand the tank conditions present in 241-AN-101 and 241-AN-106. The tests demonstrated the load cell device will operate under the elevated temperature and radiation levels expected to be encountered during tank farm deployment of the device.

  18. Sensitization of radiation-induced cell death by genistein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Rim; Kim, In Gyu [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    A number of epidemiological studies as well as biological experiments, showed that genistein, one of the isoflavone, prevents prostate cancer occurrence. In this study, we showed that genistein inhibited the cell proliferation of human promyeoltic leukemia HL-60 cells and induced G2/M phase arrest. In addition, combination of genistein treatment and {gamma}-irradiation displayed synergistic effect in apoptotic cell death of HL-60 cells. This means that the repair of genistein-induced DNA damage was hindered by {gamma}-irradiation and thus cell death was increased. In conclusion, genistein is one of the important chemicals that sensitize radiation-induced cell death.

  19. Mammalian cells exposed to ionizing radiation: structural and biochemical aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabanero, M.; Flores V, L. L. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Biologia, DCNE, Noria Alta s/n, 36250 Guanajuato, Gto. (Mexico); Azorin V, J. C.; Vallejo, M. A.; Cordova F, T.; Sosa A, M. [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Ingenieria Fisica, DCI, Loma del Bosque 103, Col. Lomas del Campestre, 37150 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico); Castruita D, J. P. [Universidad de Guadalajara, Departamento de Ecologia, CUCBA, Las Agujas, 45100 Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico); Barbosa S, G., E-mail: myrna.sabanero@gmail.com [Universidad de Guanajuato, Departamento de Ciencias Medicas, DCS, 20 de Enero No. 929, Col. Obregon, 37000 Leon, Guanajuato (Mexico)

    2015-10-15

    Acute or chronic exposure to ionizing radiation is a factor that may be hazardous to health. It has been reported that exposure to low doses of radiation (less than 50 mSv / year) and subsequently exposure to high doses have greater effects in people. However, it is unknown molecular and biochemical level alteration. This study, analyzes the susceptibility of a biological system (HeLa Atcc CCL-2 human cervix cancer cell line) to ionizing radiation (6 and 60 mSv/ 90). Our evaluate multiple variables such as: total protein profile, mitochondrial metabolic activity (XTT assay), cell viability (Trypan blue exclusion assay), cytoskeleton (actin micro filaments), nuclei (D API), genomic DNA. The results indicate, that cells exposed to ionizing radiation structurally show alterations in nuclear phenotype and aneuploidy, further disruption in the tight junctions and consequently on the distribution of actin micro filaments. Similar alterations were observed in cells treated with a genotoxic agent (200μM H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/1 h). In conclusion, this multi-criteria assessment enables precise comparisons of the effects of radiation between any biological systems. However, it is necessary to determine stress markers for integration of the effects of ionizing radiation. (Author)

  20. Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Alsubaie, Yazeed; Almubarak, Zaid; Almutawa, Hisham; AlQasem, Yazeed; Hasanato, Rana Muhammed

    2015-11-01

    Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR) generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools (school-1 and school-2) were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male students from school-1, with age range 12-16 years, and 63 male students with age range 12-17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1, RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm² at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was 1.909 nW/cm² at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily, five days in a week. 5-6 mL blood was collected from all the students and HbA1c was measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens. The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22) than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34) (p = 0.007). Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016) relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  1. Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR) Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Alsubaie, Yazeed; Almubarak, Zaid; Almutawa, Hisham; AlQasem, Yazeed; Muhammed Hasanato, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR) generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools (school-1 and school-2) were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male students from school-1, with age range 12–16 years, and 63 male students with age range 12–17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1, RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was 1.909 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily, five days in a week. 5–6 mL blood was collected from all the students and HbA1c was measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens. The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22) than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34) (p = 0.007). Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016) relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26580639

  2. Association of Exposure to Radio-Frequency Electromagnetic Field Radiation (RF-EMFR Generated by Mobile Phone Base Stations with Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sultan Ayoub Meo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Installation of mobile phone base stations in residential areas has initiated public debate about possible adverse effects on human health. This study aimed to determine the association of exposure to radio frequency electromagnetic field radiation (RF-EMFR generated by mobile phone base stations with glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c and occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For this study, two different elementary schools (school-1 and school-2 were selected. We recruited 159 students in total; 96 male students from school-1, with age range 12–16 years, and 63 male students with age range 12–17 years from school-2. Mobile phone base stations with towers existed about 200 m away from the school buildings. RF-EMFR was measured inside both schools. In school-1, RF-EMFR was 9.601 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz, and students had been exposed to RF-EMFR for a duration of 6 h daily, five days in a week. In school-2, RF-EMFR was 1.909 nW/cm2 at frequency of 925 MHz and students had been exposed for 6 h daily, five days in a week. 5–6 mL blood was collected from all the students and HbA1c was measured by using a Dimension Xpand Plus Integrated Chemistry System, Siemens. The mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR was significantly higher (5.44 ± 0.22 than the mean HbA1c for the students who were exposed to low RF-EMFR (5.32 ± 0.34 (p = 0.007. Moreover, students who were exposed to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS had a significantly higher risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (p = 0.016 relative to their counterparts who were exposed to low RF-EMFR. It is concluded that exposure to high RF-EMFR generated by MPBS is associated with elevated levels of HbA1c and risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  3. The regulatory effects of radiation and histone deacetylase inhibitor on liver cancer cell cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sung Ho; Choi, Hyung Seok; Jang, Dong Gun; Lee, Hong Je; Yang, Seoung Oh [Dept. Nuclear Medicine, Dongnam Institute of Radiological and Medicine Sciences Cancer Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Radiation has been an effective tool for treating cancer for a long time. Radiation therapy induces DNA damage within cancer cells and destroys their ability to reproduce. Radiation therapy is often combined with other treatments, like surgery and chemotherapy. Here, we describe the effects of radiation and histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostain A, on cell cycle regulation in hepatoma cells. Results demonstrate that the treatment of radiation TSA induces cell cycle arrest, thereby stimulating cell death in hepatoma cells. In addition, since different cells or tissues have different reactivity to radiation and TSA, these results might be an indicator for the combination therapy with radiation and drugs in diverse cancers.

  4. New Modeling Approaches to Investigate Cell Signaling in Radiation Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Ianik; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Ponomarev, Artem L.

    2011-01-01

    Ionizing radiation damages individual cells and tissues leading to harmful biological effects. Among many radiation-induced lesions, DNA double-strand breaks (DSB) are considered the key precursors of most early and late effects [1] leading to direct mutation or aberrant signal transduction processes. In response to damage, a flow of information is communicated to cells not directly hit by the radiation through signal transduction pathways [2]. Non-targeted effects (NTE), which includes bystander effects and genomic instability in the progeny of irradiated cells and tissues, may be particularly important for space radiation risk assessment [1], because astronauts are exposed to a low fluence of heavy ions and only a small fraction of cells are traversed by an ion. NTE may also have important consequences clinical radiotherapy [3]. In the recent years, new simulation tools and modeling approaches have become available to study the tissue response to radiation. The simulation of signal transduction pathways require many elements such as detailed track structure calculations, a tissue or cell culture model, knowledge of biochemical pathways and Brownian Dynamics (BD) propagators of the signaling molecules in their micro-environment. Recently, the Monte-Carlo simulation code of radiation track structure RITRACKS was used for micro and nano-dosimetry calculations [4]. RITRACKS will be used to calculate the fraction of cells traversed by an ion and delta-rays and the energy deposited in cells in a tissue model. RITRACKS also simulates the formation of chemical species by the radiolysis of water [5], notably the .OH radical. This molecule is implicated in DNA damage and in the activation of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF), a signaling molecule involved in NTE. BD algorithms for a particle near a membrane comprising receptors were also developed and will be used to simulate trajectories of signaling molecules in the micro-environment and characterize autocrine

  5. Tumourigenicity and radiation resistance of mesenchymal stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Andrea, Filippo Peder; Horsman, Michael Robert; Kassem, Moustapha;

    2012-01-01

    Background. Cancer stem cells are believed to be more radiation resistant than differentiated tumour cells of the same origin. It is not known, however, whether normal nontransformed adult stem cells share the same radioresistance as their cancerous counterpart. Material and methods. Nontumourige......Background. Cancer stem cells are believed to be more radiation resistant than differentiated tumour cells of the same origin. It is not known, however, whether normal nontransformed adult stem cells share the same radioresistance as their cancerous counterpart. Material and methods....... Nontumourigenic (TERT4) and tumourigenic (TRET20) cell lines, from an immortalised mesenchymal stem cell line, were grown in culture prior to irradiation and gene expression analysis. Radiation resistance was measured using a clonogenic assay. Differences in gene expression between the two cell lines, both under...... nontreated and irradiated conditions, were assessed with microarrays (Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST array). The cellular functions affected by the altered gene expressions were assessed through gene pathway mapping (Ingenuity Pathway Analysis). Results. Based on the clonogenic assay the nontumourigenic cell...

  6. Radiation Response of Cultured Human Cells Is Unaffected by Johrei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zach Hall

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Johrei has been credited with healing thousands from radiation wounds after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs in 1945. This alternative medical therapy is becoming increasingly popular in the United States, as are other Energy Medicine modalities that purport to influence a universal healing energy. Human brain cells were cultured and exposed to increasing doses of ionizing radiation. Experienced Johrei practitioners directed healing intentionality toward the cells for 30 min from a distance of 20 cm and the fate of the cells was observed by computerized time-lapse microscopy. Cell death and cell divisions were tallied every 30 min before, during and after Johrei treatment for a total of 22.5 h. An equal number of control experiments were conducted in which cells were irradiated but did not receive Johrei treatment. Samples were assigned to treatment conditions randomly and data analysis was conducted in a blinded fashion. Radiation exposure decreased the rate of cell division (cell cycle arrest in a dose-dependent manner. Division rates were estimated for each 30 min and averaged over 8 independent experiments (4 control and 4 with Johrei treatment for each of 4 doses of X-rays (0, 2, 4 and 8 Gy. Because few cell deaths were observed, pooled data from the entire observation period were used to estimate death rates. Analysis of variance did not reveal any significant differences on division rate or death rate between treatment groups. Only radiation dose was statistically significant. We found no indication that the radiation response of cultured cells is affected by Johrei treatment.

  7. Radiation response of cultured human cells is unaffected by Johrei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Zach; Luu, Tri; Moore, Dan; Yount, Garret

    2007-06-01

    Johrei has been credited with healing thousands from radiation wounds after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs in 1945. This alternative medical therapy is becoming increasingly popular in the United States, as are other Energy Medicine modalities that purport to influence a universal healing energy. Human brain cells were cultured and exposed to increasing doses of ionizing radiation. Experienced Johrei practitioners directed healing intentionality toward the cells for 30 min from a distance of 20 cm and the fate of the cells was observed by computerized time-lapse microscopy. Cell death and cell divisions were tallied every 30 min before, during and after Johrei treatment for a total of 22.5 h. An equal number of control experiments were conducted in which cells were irradiated but did not receive Johrei treatment. Samples were assigned to treatment conditions randomly and data analysis was conducted in a blinded fashion. Radiation exposure decreased the rate of cell division (cell cycle arrest) in a dose-dependent manner. Division rates were estimated for each 30 min and averaged over 8 independent experiments (4 control and 4 with Johrei treatment) for each of 4 doses of X-rays (0, 2, 4 and 8 Gy). Because few cell deaths were observed, pooled data from the entire observation period were used to estimate death rates. Analysis of variance did not reveal any significant differences on division rate or death rate between treatment groups. Only radiation dose was statistically significant. We found no indication that the radiation response of cultured cells is affected by Johrei treatment. PMID:17549235

  8. Modified TEM cell design exposure system for in vitro exposure of cultured human astrocytes to 900 MHz GSM mobile phone type signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: A key to the rigour of any experiment seeking to investigate possible effects on living systems of the electromagnetic energy (EME) from mobile phones is to ensure that the exposures used are accurately known and reflect the actual exposures. To achieve well controlled and characterised radiofrequency (RF) exposures is not trivial, and has been a concern in many previous studies. At St Vincent's Hospital Centre for Immunology (CFI), an in vitro study is being performed of possible gene expression changes in cultured human astrocytes exposed to GSM mobile phone type signals. In order to provide rigorous RF dosimetry for the study, Telstra Research Laboratories (TRL) has developed a modified transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cell exposure system. This paper will describe salient aspects of the design and development of the system used at CFI. In the experimental design proposed by CFI, live human astrocyte cells are exposed in standard FalconTM 25 cm3 plastic culture flasks while incubated in a CO2 atmosphere at 37 deg C. The cells typically exist as a very thin monolayer (microns) adhered to the bottom of the flask under a layer of several millimetres of nutrient media. This particular arrangement presents a number of challenges for the design of an appropriate RF exposure system. Many RF exposure systems rely on measurements of average absorption within the target material to determine the specific absorption rate (SAR) in the sample. The actual SAR at any given point in the exposed volume may differ markedly from this average value, and typically varies quadratically with height (h) within the sample, where h is taken to be in the direction of the incident electric (E) field. This variance may be tolerable where the cells are distributed in solution throughout the volume, but this is not the case in this instance. Alternatively, keeping the sample very thin can reduce the variance. However, this limits the efficiency of the system, so that high input

  9. Coniferyl Aldehyde Ameliorates Radiation Intestine Injury via Endothelial Cell Survival

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ye Ji; Jung, Myung Gu; Lee, Yoonjin; Lee, Haejune [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yunsil [Ewha Woman' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Younggyu [Korea Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Cancer treatments related gastrointestinal toxicity has also been recognized as a significant economic burden. Especially, extensive apoptosis of microvascular endothelial cell of the lamina propria is the primary lesion initiating intestinal radiation damage after abdominal radiation therapy. Coniferyl aldehyde (CA) is phenolic compounds isolated from cork stoppers, and one of the major pyrolysis products of lignin. Shi H. was support for the empirical use of CA as a medicinal food for cardiovascular diseases. CA has positive effect in broad way but there is no consequence in radiation induced intestine damage. Here, we investigate effect of CA on small intestine after abdominal IR to mice in this study. In this study, CA increased the survival rate in C3H mice against 13.5 Gy abdominal IR. We found CA protects small intestine via preventing endothelial cell apoptosis and enhancing their angiogenic activity. CA also showed protective effect on crypt cell survival. Endothelial cell survival may affect crypt cell protection against IR. From this data, we concluded that CA is effective for protection against abdominal radiation injury. CA could ameliorate side-effect of radiation therapy.

  10. Radiation-induced spindle cell sarcoma: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Mubeen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ionizing radiation has been known to induce malignant transformation in human beings. Radiation-induced sarcomas are a late sequel of radiation therapy. Most sarcomas have been reported to occur after exposure to a radiation dose of 55 Gray (Gy and above, with a dose ranging from 16 to 112 Gys. Spindle cell sarcomas, arising after radiotherapy given to treat the carcinoma of head and neck region is a very uncommon sequel. This is a rare case report of spindle cell sarcoma of left maxilla, in a 24-year-old male, occurring as a late complication of radiotherapy with Cobalt-60 given for the treatment of retinoblastoma of the left eye 21 years back.

  11. Functional genomics of UV radiation responses in human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch-Paiz, Christine A.; Amundson, Sally A.; Bittner, Michael L.; Meltzer, Paul S.; Fornace, Albert J

    2004-05-18

    The gene expression responses of MCF-7, a p53 wild-type (wt) human cell line, were monitored by cDNA microarray hybridization after exposure to different wavelengths of UV irradiation. Equitoxic doses of UVA, UVB, and UVC radiation were used to reduce survival to 37%. The effects of suramin, a signal pathway inhibitor, on the gene expression responses to the three UV wavelengths were also compared in this model system. UVB radiation triggered the broadest gene expression responses, and 172 genes were found to be consistently responsive in at least two-thirds of independent UVB experiments. These UVB radiation-responsive genes encode proteins with diverse cellular roles including cell cycle control, DNA repair, signaling, transcription, protein synthesis, protein degradation, and RNA metabolism. The set of UVB-responsive genes included most of the genes responding to an equitoxic dose of UVC radiation, plus additional genes that were not strongly triggered by UVC radiation. There was also some overlap with genes responding to an equitoxic dose of UVA radiation, although responses to this lower energy UV radiation were overall weaker. Signaling through growth factor receptors and other cytokine receptors was shown to have a major role in mediating UV radiation stress responses, as suramin, which inhibits such receptors, attenuated responses to UV radiation in nearly all the cases. Inhibition by suramin was greater for UVC than for UVB irradiation. This probably reflects the more prominent role in UVB damage response of signaling by reactive oxygen species, which would not be affected by suramin. Our results with suramin demonstrate the power of cDNA microarray hybridization to illuminate the global effects of a pharmacologic inhibitor on cell signaling.

  12. Radiation-induced motility alterations in medulloblastoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rieken, Stefan; Rieber, Juliane; Brons, Stephan; Habermehl, Daniel; Rief, Harald; Orschiedt, Lena; Lindel, Katja; Klaus J. Weber; Debus, Jürgen; Combs, Stephanie E

    2015-01-01

    Photon irradiation has been repeatedly suspected of increasing tumor cell motility and promoting locoregional recurrence of disease. This study was set up to analyse possible mechanisms underlying the potentially radiation-altered motility in medulloblastoma cells. Medulloblastoma cell lines D425 and Med8A were analyzed in migration and adhesion experiments with and without photon and carbon ion irradiation. Expression of integrins was determined by quantitative FACS analysis. Matrix metallop...

  13. Effect of ionizing radiation on human skeletal muscle precursor cells

    OpenAIRE

    Marš, Tomaž; Čemažar, Maja; Jurdana, Mihaela; Pegan, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    Background. Long term effects of different doses of ionizing radiation on human skeletal muscle myoblast proliferation, cytokine signalling and stress response capacity were studied in primary cell cultures.Materials and methods. Human skeletal muscle myoblasts obtained from muscle biopsies were cultured and irradiated with a Darpac 2000 X-ray unit at doses of 4, 6 and 8 Gy. Acute effects of radiation were studied by interleukin - 6 (IL-6) release and stress response detected by the heat shoc...

  14. Proton irradiation of stem cells: Radiation damage and chemical radioprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, R. C.; Montour, J. L.; Gurney, C. W.

    1972-01-01

    Effects of high energy protons on erythropoietic stem cells and radioprotection by chemicals were investigated in NASA Space Radiation Effects Laboratory. The effects of a parallel beam of 600 MeV protons. The fluence, when converted to dose, were referenced to the synchrocyclotron beam monitors which were then used to administer radiation exposures. Mice were given graded doses to 300 rads to determine dose-response curve. Other mice received saline, AET, or 5-hydroxytryptamine 10 to 15 minutes before exposure.

  15. A Fashion for Phones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MINHHOANG

    2004-01-01

    In a bold move intended to reinvigorate growth in the global mobile phone market, Siemens Mobile last year created Xelibri. This new handset range of radically different shapes and wearable designs has been positioned in the market as a fashion accessory rather than as a communications tool. Both the phones and the accompanying advertising campaign are treating Xelibri as a fashion brand, with handsets being sold in department stores and fashion outlets as well as specialist handset retailers. Two months after the launch in Europe, Xelibri made their Asian debut in Hong Kong,Singapore and China in June 2003.

  16. Materials That Enhance Efficiency and Radiation Resistance of Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiadong; Wang, Haorong

    2012-01-01

    A thin layer (approximately 10 microns) of a novel "transparent" fluorescent material is applied to existing solar cells or modules to effectively block and convert UV light, or other lower solar response waveband of solar radiation, to visible or IR light that can be more efficiently used by solar cells for additional photocurrent. Meanwhile, the layer of fluorescent coating material remains fully "transparent" to the visible and IR waveband of solar radiation, resulting in a net gain of solar cell efficiency. This innovation alters the effective solar spectral power distribution to which an existing cell gets exposed, and matches the maximum photovoltaic (PV) response of existing cells. By shifting a low PV response waveband (e.g., UV) of solar radiation to a high PV response waveband (e.g. Vis-Near IR) with novel fluorescent materials that are transparent to other solar-cell sensitive wavebands, electrical output from solar cells will be enhanced. This approach enhances the efficiency of solar cells by converting UV and high-energy particles in space that would otherwise be wasted to visible/IR light. This innovation is a generic technique that can be readily implemented to significantly increase efficiencies of both space and terrestrial solar cells, without incurring much cost, thus bringing a broad base of economical, social, and environmental benefits. The key to this approach is that the "fluorescent" material must be very efficient, and cannot block or attenuate the "desirable" and unconverted" waveband of solar radiation (e.g. Vis-NIR) from reaching the cells. Some nano-phosphors and novel organometallic complex materials have been identified that enhance the energy efficiency on some state-of-the-art commercial silicon and thin-film-based solar cells by over 6%.

  17. Seven cases of radiation-induced cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report 7 cases of radiation-induced skin cancer. The diagnosis was based on the history of radiotherapy for benign skin diseases (5 cases) and of occupational exposures to medical doctors (2 cases). All cases were squamous cell carcinomas which arose from chronic radiodermatitis. The estimated latent period of these tumors ranged from 6 to 64 years, with an average of 29.9 years. After surgical treatments of the lesions, no local recurrences were observed in all cases. Benign skin diseases had sometimes been treated with low-energy radiation before the 1960s. Considering the estimated latent period, the peak time point of developing risk of radiation-induced skin cancer by such treatment has been already passed, however, the danger of it should not be ignored in future. In association with multiplicity of radiation usage, occupational exposure of radiation may develop the risk of occurrence of skin cancer in future. Therefore, we should recognize that radiation-induced skin cancer is not in the past. In the cases of chronic skin diseases showing warty keratotic growth, erosion and ulcer, we should include chronic radio-dermatitis in the differential diagnosis. It is necessary to recall all patients about the history of radiotherapy or radiation exposure. Rapid histopathological examination is mandatory because of the suspicion of radiation-induced skin cancer. (author)

  18. In vitro cell culture lethal dose submitted to gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno, Carolina S.; Rogero, Sizue O.; Rogero, Jose Roberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: carolina_sm@hotmail.com; Ikeda, Tamiko I.; Cruz, Aurea S. [Instituto Adolfo Lutz, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro effect of gamma radiation in cell culture of mouse connective tissue exposed to different doses of gamma radiation and under several conditions. The cell viability was analyzed by neutral red uptake methodology. This assay was developed for establish a methodology to be used in the future in the study of resveratrol radioprotection. Resveratrol (3,4',5- trihydroxystilbene), a phenolic phytoalexin that occurs naturally in some spermatophytes, such as grapevines, in response to injury as fungal infections and exposure to ultraviolet light. In the wines this compound is found at high levels and is considered one of the highest antioxidant constituents. The intense antioxidant potential of resveratrol provides many pharmacological activities including cardioprotection, chemoprevention and anti-tumor effects. Our results demonstrated that {sup 60}Co gamma radiation lethal dose (LD50) on NCTC clone 929 cells was about 340Gy. (author)

  19. In vitro cell culture lethal dose submitted to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was designed to evaluate the in vitro effect of gamma radiation in cell culture of mouse connective tissue exposed to different doses of gamma radiation and under several conditions. The cell viability was analyzed by neutral red uptake methodology. This assay was developed for establish a methodology to be used in the future in the study of resveratrol radioprotection. Resveratrol (3,4',5- trihydroxystilbene), a phenolic phytoalexin that occurs naturally in some spermatophytes, such as grapevines, in response to injury as fungal infections and exposure to ultraviolet light. In the wines this compound is found at high levels and is considered one of the highest antioxidant constituents. The intense antioxidant potential of resveratrol provides many pharmacological activities including cardioprotection, chemoprevention and anti-tumor effects. Our results demonstrated that 60Co gamma radiation lethal dose (LD50) on NCTC clone 929 cells was about 340Gy. (author)

  20. Effect of Deep Space Radiation on Human Hematopoietic Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalota, Anna; Bennett, Paula; Swider, Cezary R.; Sutherland, Betsy M.; Gewirtz, Alan M.

    Astronaut flight crews on long-term missions in deep space will be exposed to a unique radiation environment as a result of exposure to galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE). This environment consists predominantly of high energy protons, helium and high charge, high energy (HZE) atomic nuclei from iron predominantly, but all other elements as well. The effect of such particles, alone, or in combination, on human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC) has not been well studied but is clearly of interest since blood forming cells are known to be sensitive to radiation, and irreversible damage to these cells could quickly compromise a mission due to loss of marrow function. To better understand the effects of GCR and SPE on human stem/progenitor cell function, we have exposed partially purified CD34+ normal human marrow cells to protons, radioactive Fe, and Ti, alone, and in combination at varying doses up to 70cGy, and down to 1, 2, and 4 particle hits per nucleus. We then examined the effects of these radiations on HSPC function, as assessed by the ability to form CFU-GEMM, and LTCIC colonies in semi-solid culture medium. At the highest doses (50 and 70cGy), all radiation types tested significantly diminished the ability of CD34+ cells to form such colonies. The number of CFU-GEMM in irradiated samples was 70-90