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Sample records for cell part ii

  1. Towards automated diffraction tomography. Part II-Cell parameter determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, U.; Gorelik, T.; Otten, M.T.

    2008-01-01

    Automated diffraction tomography (ADT) allows the collection of three-dimensional (3d) diffraction data sets from crystals down to a size of only few nanometres. Imaging is done in STEM mode, and diffraction data are collected with quasi-parallel beam nanoelectron diffraction (NED). Here, we present a set of developed processing steps necessary for automatic unit-cell parameter determination from the collected 3d diffraction data. Cell parameter determination is done via extraction of peak positions from a recorded data set (called the data reduction path) followed by subsequent cluster analysis of difference vectors. The procedure of lattice parameter determination is presented in detail for a beam-sensitive organic material. Independently, we demonstrate a potential (called the full integration path) based on 3d reconstruction of the reciprocal space visualising special structural features of materials such as partial disorder. Furthermore, we describe new features implemented into the acquisition part

  2. Supratentorial tumours. Part II: tumors of neurolglial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sage, M.R.

    1991-01-01

    Tumors arising from neuroglial cells are the most common primary brain tumours, representing approximately 45% of all tumours. A simplified classification of these tumours is given, based on the degree of anaplasia. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging appearance of such lesions is presented and the relevance of these techniques in the detection and differential diagnosis of neuroglial cells tumours is discussed. 39 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs

  3. Workshop 96. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    Part II of the seminar proceedings contains contributions in various areas of science and technology, among them materials science in mechanical engineering, materials science in electrical, chemical and civil engineering, and electronics, measuring and communication engineering. In those areas, 6 contributions have been selected for INIS. (P.A.).

  4. Workshop 96. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    Part II of the seminar proceedings contains contributions in various areas of science and technology, among them materials science in mechanical engineering, materials science in electrical, chemical and civil engineering, and electronics, measuring and communication engineering. In those areas, 6 contributions have been selected for INIS. (P.A.)

  5. Integration of Solar Cells on Top of CMOS Chips - Part II: CIGS Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Liu, Wei; Kovalgin, Alexeij Y.; Sun, Yun; Schmitz, Jurriaan

    2011-01-01

    We present the monolithic integration of deepsubmicrometer complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor (CMOS) microchips with copper indium gallium (di)selenide (CIGS) solar cells. Solar cells are manufactured directly on unpackaged CMOS chips. The microchips maintain comparable electronic performance,

  6. Short stack modeling of degradation in solid oxide fuel cells. Part II. Sensitivity and interaction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzarri, J. I.; Kesler, O.

    In the first part of this two-paper series, we presented a numerical model of the impedance behaviour of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) aimed at simulating the change in the impedance spectrum induced by contact degradation at the interconnect-electrode, and at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. The purpose of that investigation was to develop a non-invasive diagnostic technique to identify degradation modes in situ. In the present paper, we appraise the predictive capabilities of the proposed method in terms of its robustness to uncertainties in the input parameters, many of which are very difficult to measure independently. We applied this technique to the degradation modes simulated in Part I, in addition to anode sulfur poisoning. Electrode delamination showed the highest robustness to input parameter variations, followed by interconnect oxidation and interconnect detachment. The most sensitive degradation mode was sulfur poisoning, due to strong parameter interactions. In addition, we simulate several simultaneous two-degradation-mode scenarios, assessing the method's capabilities and limitations for the prediction of electrochemical behaviour of SOFC's undergoing multiple simultaneous degradation modes.

  7. Short stack modeling of degradation in solid oxide fuel cells. Part II. Sensitivity and interaction analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzarri, J.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2054-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Kesler, O. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, ON M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2008-01-21

    In the first part of this two-paper series, we presented a numerical model of the impedance behaviour of a solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) aimed at simulating the change in the impedance spectrum induced by contact degradation at the interconnect-electrode, and at the electrode-electrolyte interfaces. The purpose of that investigation was to develop a non-invasive diagnostic technique to identify degradation modes in situ. In the present paper, we appraise the predictive capabilities of the proposed method in terms of its robustness to uncertainties in the input parameters, many of which are very difficult to measure independently. We applied this technique to the degradation modes simulated in Part I, in addition to anode sulfur poisoning. Electrode delamination showed the highest robustness to input parameter variations, followed by interconnect oxidation and interconnect detachment. The most sensitive degradation mode was sulfur poisoning, due to strong parameter interactions. In addition, we simulate several simultaneous two-degradation-mode scenarios, assessing the method's capabilities and limitations for the prediction of electrochemical behaviour of SOFC's undergoing multiple simultaneous degradation modes. (author)

  8. Stiffnites. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Teresa Pareschi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available

    The dynamics of a stiffnite are here inferred. A stiffnite is a sheet-shaped, gravity-driven submarine sediment flow, with a fabric made up of marine ooze. To infer stiffnite dynamics, order of magnitude estimations are used. Field deposits and experiments on materials taken from the literature are also used. Stiffnites can be tens or hundreds of kilometers wide, and a few centimeters/ meters thick. They move on the sea slopes over hundreds of kilometers, reaching submarine velocities as high as 100 m/s. Hard grain friction favors grain fragmentation and formation of triboelectrically electrified particles and triboplasma (i.e., ions + electrons. Marine lipids favor isolation of electrical charges. At first, two basic assumptions are introduced, and checked a posteriori: (a in a flowing stiffnite, magnetic dipole moments develop, with the magnetization proportional to the shear rate. I have named those dipoles as Ambigua. (b Ambigua are ‘vertically frozen’ along stiffnite streamlines. From (a and (b, it follows that: (i Ambigua create a magnetic field (at peak, >1 T. (ii Lorentz forces sort stiffnite particles into two superimposed sheets. The lower sheet, L+, has a sandy granulometry and a net positive electrical charge density. The upper sheet, L–, has a silty muddy granulometry and a net negative electrical charge density; the grains of sheet L– become finer upwards. (iii Faraday forces push ferromagnetic grains towards the base of a stiffnite, so that a peak of magnetic susceptibility characterizes a stiffnite deposit. (iv Stiffnites harden considerably during their motion, due to magnetic confinement. Stiffnite deposits and inferred stiffnite characteristics are compatible with a stable flow behavior against bending, pinch, or other macro instabilities. In the present report, a consistent hypothesis about the nature of Ambigua is provided.

  9. Part II. Population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This monograph deals with assessment of radiological health effects of the Chernobyl accident for emergency workers (part 1) and the population of the contaminated areas in Russia (part 2). The Chernobyl emergency workers and people living in the contaminated areas of Russia received much lower doses than the population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and it was unclear whether risks of radiation-induced cancers derived with the Japanese data could be extrapolated to the low dose range However, it was predicted as early as in 1990 that the thyroid cancer incidence might be increasing due to incorporated 131 irradiation. What conclusions can be drawn from regarding cancer incidence among emergency workers and residents of the contaminated areas in Russia and the role of the radiation factor on the basis of the registry data? Leukemia incidence. Leukemia incidence is known to be one of principal indications of radiation effects. The radiation risk for leukemias is 3-4 times higher that for solid cancers and its latent period is estimated to be 2-3 years after exposure. Results of the radiation epidemiological studies discussed in this book show that in the worst contaminated Bryansk region the leukemia incidence rate is not higher than in the country in general. Even though some evidence exists for the dose response relationship, the radiation risks appear to be not statistically significant. Since risks of leukemia are known to be higher for those who were children at exposure, long-term epidemiological studies need to be continued. The study of leukemias among emergency workers strongly suggest the existence of dose response relationship. In those who received external doses more than 0.15 Gy the leukemia incidence rate is two time higher and these emergency workers should be referred to as a group of increased radiation risk. Solid cancers. The obtained results provide no evidence to a radiation-induced increase in solid cancers among residents of the contaminated areas

  10. Fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid system design part II: Dynamics and control

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLarty, Dustin; Brouwer, Jack; Samuelsen, Scott

    2014-05-01

    Fuel cell gas turbine hybrid systems have achieved ultra-high efficiency and ultra-low emissions at small scales, but have yet to demonstrate effective dynamic responsiveness or base-load cost savings. Fuel cell systems and hybrid prototypes have not utilized controls to address thermal cycling during load following operation, and have thus been relegated to the less valuable base-load and peak shaving power market. Additionally, pressurized hybrid topping cycles have exhibited increased stall/surge characteristics particularly during off-design operation. This paper evaluates additional control actuators with simple control methods capable of mitigating spatial temperature variation and stall/surge risk during load following operation of hybrid fuel cell systems. The novel use of detailed, spatially resolved, physical fuel cell and turbine models in an integrated system simulation enables the development and evaluation of these additional control methods. It is shown that the hybrid system can achieve greater dynamic response over a larger operating envelope than either individual sub-system; the fuel cell or gas turbine. Results indicate that a combined feed-forward, P-I and cascade control strategy is capable of handling moderate perturbations and achieving a 2:1 (MCFC) or 4:1 (SOFC) turndown ratio while retaining >65% fuel-to-electricity efficiency, while maintaining an acceptable stack temperature profile and stall/surge margin.

  11. Therapeutic peptides for cancer therapy. Part II - cell cycle inhibitory peptides and apoptosis-inducing peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raucher, Drazen; Moktan, Shama; Massodi, Iqbal; Bidwell, Gene L

    2009-10-01

    Therapeutic peptides have great potential as anticancer agents owing to their ease of rational design and target specificity. However, their utility in vivo is limited by low stability and poor tumor penetration. The authors review the development of peptide inhibitors with potential for cancer therapy. Peptides that arrest the cell cycle by mimicking CDK inhibitors or induce apoptosis directly are discussed. The authors searched Medline for articles concerning the development of therapeutic peptides and their delivery. Inhibition of cancer cell proliferation directly using peptides that arrest the cell cycle or induce apoptosis is a promising strategy. Peptides can be designed that interact very specifically with cyclins and/or cyclin-dependent kinases and with members of apoptotic cascades. Use of these peptides is not limited by their design, as a rational approach to peptide design is much less challenging than the design of small molecule inhibitors of specific protein-protein interactions. However, the limitations of peptide therapy lie in the poor pharmacokinetic properties of these large, often charged molecules. Therefore, overcoming the drug delivery hurdles could open the door for effective peptide therapy, thus making an entirely new class of molecules useful as anticancer drugs.

  12. Synchronized mammalian cell culture: part II--population ensemble modeling and analysis for development of reproducible processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jandt, Uwe; Barradas, Oscar Platas; Pörtner, Ralf; Zeng, An-Ping

    2015-01-01

    The consideration of inherent population inhomogeneities of mammalian cell cultures becomes increasingly important for systems biology study and for developing more stable and efficient processes. However, variations of cellular properties belonging to different sub-populations and their potential effects on cellular physiology and kinetics of culture productivity under bioproduction conditions have not yet been much in the focus of research. Culture heterogeneity is strongly determined by the advance of the cell cycle. The assignment of cell-cycle specific cellular variations to large-scale process conditions can be optimally determined based on the combination of (partially) synchronized cultivation under otherwise physiological conditions and subsequent population-resolved model adaptation. The first step has been achieved using the physical selection method of countercurrent flow centrifugal elutriation, recently established in our group for different mammalian cell lines which is presented in Part I of this paper series. In this second part, we demonstrate the successful adaptation and application of a cell-cycle dependent population balance ensemble model to describe and understand synchronized bioreactor cultivations performed with two model mammalian cell lines, AGE1.HNAAT and CHO-K1. Numerical adaptation of the model to experimental data allows for detection of phase-specific parameters and for determination of significant variations between different phases and different cell lines. It shows that special care must be taken with regard to the sampling frequency in such oscillation cultures to minimize phase shift (jitter) artifacts. Based on predictions of long-term oscillation behavior of a culture depending on its start conditions, optimal elutriation setup trade-offs between high cell yields and high synchronization efficiency are proposed. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  13. Mechanical behaviour of a fuel cell stack under vibrating conditions linked to aircraft applications part II: Three-dimensional modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouss, Vicky; Charon, Willy [M3M, University of Technology Belfort - Montbeliard (France); FCLAB, Rue Thierry Mieg, F 90010 Belfort, Cedex (France); Candusso, Denis [INRETS, The French National Institute for Transport and Safety Research (France); FCLAB, Rue Thierry Mieg, F 90010 Belfort, Cedex (France)

    2008-11-15

    The implementation of fuel cells (FC) in transportation systems such as airplanes requires better understanding of their mechanical behaviour in vibrating environment. To this end, a FC stack was tested on a vibrating platform for all three orthogonal axes. The experimental procedure is described in the first part of the paper. This second part of the paper demonstrates how the experimental data collected can be used to create a three-dimensional, multi-input and multi-output model based on the Artificial Neural Network (ANN) approach. Indeed FCs are nonlinear mechanical systems, difficult to be physically modelled. The ANN methodology which depends strictly on raw data is a particularly interesting alternative solution to model FCs, for example, for monitoring purpose. The ANN model is described along with the training, pruning and validation stages. The results are exposed and commented. (author)

  14. Exploring Water Pollution. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rillo, Thomas J.

    1975-01-01

    This is part two of a three part article related to the science activity of exploring environmental problems. Part one dealt with background information for the classroom teacher. Presented here is a suggested lesson plan on water pollution. Objectives, important concepts and instructional procedures are suggested. (EB)

  15. Roots/Routes: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Dalene M.

    2009-01-01

    This narrative acts as an articulation of a journey of many routes. Following Part I of the same research journey of rootedness/routedness, it debates the nature of transformation and transcendence beyond personal and political paradoxes informed by neoliberalism and related repressive globalizing discourses. Through a more personal, descriptive,…

  16. Systems Analysis of Technologies for Energy Recovery from Waste. Part I. Gasification followed by Catalytic Combustion, PEM Fuel Cells and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications in Comparison with Incineration. Part - II. Catalytic combustion - Experimental part

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Assefa, Getachew; Frostell, Bjoern [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Industrial Ecology; Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Div. of Chemical Technology

    2005-02-01

    This project is entitled 'Systems Analysis: Energy Recovery from waste, catalytic combustion in comparison with fuel cells and incineration'. Some of the technologies that are currently developed by researchers at the Royal Institute of Technology include catalytic combustion and fuel cells as downstream units in a gasification system. The aim of this project is to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts of biomass/waste-to-energy technologies. In second part of this project economic analyses of the technologies in general and catalytic combustion and fuel cell technologies in particular will be carried out. Four technology scenarios are studied: (1) Gasification followed by Low temperature fuel cells (Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells) (2) Gasification followed by high temperature fuel cells (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) (3) Gasification followed by catalytic combustion and (4) Incineration with energy recovery. The waste used as feedstock is an industrial waste containing parts of household waste, paper waste, wood residues and poly ethene. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios will be supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied are classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment in to the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical Oxidants. Looking at the result of the four technology chains in terms of the four impact categories with impact per GWh electricity produced as a unit of comparison and from the perspective of the rank each scenario has in all the four impact categories, SOFC appears to be the winner technology followed by PEM and CC as second

  17. Systems Analysis of Technologies for Energy Recovery from Waste. Part I. Gasification followed by Catalytic Combustion, PEM Fuel Cells and Solid Oxide Fuel Cells for Stationary Applications in Comparison with Incineration. Part - II. Catalytic combustion - Experimental part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assefa, Getachew; Frostell, Bjoern; Jaeraas, Sven; Kusar, Henrik

    2005-02-01

    This project is entitled 'Systems Analysis: Energy Recovery from waste, catalytic combustion in comparison with fuel cells and incineration'. Some of the technologies that are currently developed by researchers at the Royal Institute of Technology include catalytic combustion and fuel cells as downstream units in a gasification system. The aim of this project is to assess the energy turnover as well as the potential environmental impacts of biomass/waste-to-energy technologies. In second part of this project economic analyses of the technologies in general and catalytic combustion and fuel cell technologies in particular will be carried out. Four technology scenarios are studied: (1) Gasification followed by Low temperature fuel cells (Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells) (2) Gasification followed by high temperature fuel cells (Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) (3) Gasification followed by catalytic combustion and (4) Incineration with energy recovery. The waste used as feedstock is an industrial waste containing parts of household waste, paper waste, wood residues and poly ethene. In the study compensatory district heating is produced by combustion of biofuel. The power used for running the processes in the scenarios will be supplied by the waste-to-energy technologies themselves while compensatory power is assumed to be produced from natural gas. The emissions from the system studied are classified and characterised using methodology from Life Cycle Assessment in to the following environmental impact categories: Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrophication Potential and finally Formation of Photochemical Oxidants. Looking at the result of the four technology chains in terms of the four impact categories with impact per GWh electricity produced as a unit of comparison and from the perspective of the rank each scenario has in all the four impact categories, SOFC appears to be the winner technology followed by PEM and CC as second and third

  18. Atmospheric fluoride pollution. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, T; Yamazaki, Y

    1969-01-01

    In East Osaka, agricultural crops either died or showed poor growth in the neighborhood of a factory producing white cosmetic bottles. Since fluorite was used as a material and there was no damage before the establishment of the factory, it was suspected that fluorine compounds were causing the damage. Quantitative analysis was performed on the agricultural crops and the exhaust gas as well as the dust particles in order to determine the fluorine content. Gas samplers were used to collect the dusts from the surrounding atmosphere. The fluorine content of dust near the factory was about 93 mg per cubic meter per day, and in some parts, as high as 1.54 mq per cubic meter per day. Relatively larger quantities of fluorine were measured at the southwestern and southeastern area of the factory, corresponding to the general wind pattern. Rice and soy beans from the neighborhood of the factory showed concentrations of fluorine and, especially in the leaves of the damaged crops, the concentrations were several hundred times higher than those of the undamaged leaves.

  19. Unlearning Established Organizational Routines--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiol, C. Marlena; O'Connor, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of Part II of this two-part paper is to uncover important differences in the nature of the three unlearning subprocesses, which call for different leadership interventions to motivate people to move through them. Design/methodology/approach: The paper draws on research in behavioral medicine and psychology to demonstrate that…

  20. Nuclear medicine and thyroid disease - part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatterton, B.E.

    2005-01-01

    Part 1 of this article discussed the anatomy, physiology and basic pathology of the thyroid gland. Techniques of thyroid scanning and a few clinical examples are shown part II Copyright (2005) The Australian and New Zealand Society Of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  1. Is there an optimal topographical surface in nano-scale affecting protein adsorption and cell behaviors? Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Huajie, E-mail: wanghuajie972001@163.com; Sun Yuanyuan; Cao Ying, E-mail: caoying1130@sina.com; Wang Kui; Yang Lin [Henan Normal University, College of Chemistry and Environmental Science (China); Zhang Yidong; Zheng Zhi [Xuchang University, Institute of Surface Micro and Nano Materials (China)

    2012-05-15

    Although nano-structured surfaces exhibit superior biological activities to the smooth or micro-structured surfaces, whether there is an optimal topographical surface in nano-scale affecting protein adsorption and cell behaviors is still controversial. In this study, porous aluminum oxide membranes with different pore sizes ranging from 25 to 120 nm were prepared by the anodic oxidation technique. The surface morphology, topography and wettability were analyzed by scanning electron microscope, atomic force microscope and water contact angle measurement, respectively. The results indicated that the synergistic action of the nano-topography structure and hydrophilic/hydrophobic properties resulted in a highest protein adsorption on the aluminum oxide membrane with 80 nm pore size. Additionally, the morphological, metabolic and cell counting methods showed that cells had different sensitivity to porous aluminum oxide membranes with different surface features. Furthermore, this sensitivity was cell type dependent. The optimal pore size of aluminum oxide membranes for cell growth was 80 nm for PC12 cells and 50 nm for NIH 3T3 cells.

  2. Fuel cells (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanari, S.; Macchi, E.

    1999-01-01

    The article, following and completing the issues dealt with in part 1 (CH4 Energia Metano, 1/99, p. 7), describe the operating characteristic and construction features of molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells (MCFC and SOFC). For the latter type, construction cost are evaluated by various authors and research institutes. The article ends by presenting some tables showing the classification and the main characteristics of various fuel cells, and well as the effect of some gases on the behaviour of some of them [it

  3. Scripts for TRUMP data analyses. Part II (HLA-related data): statistical analyses specific for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanda, Junya

    2016-01-01

    The Transplant Registry Unified Management Program (TRUMP) made it possible for members of the Japan Society for Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation (JSHCT) to analyze large sets of national registry data on autologous and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. However, as the processes used to collect transplantation information are complex and differed over time, the background of these processes should be understood when using TRUMP data. Previously, information on the HLA locus of patients and donors had been collected using a questionnaire-based free-description method, resulting in some input errors. To correct minor but significant errors and provide accurate HLA matching data, the use of a Stata or EZR/R script offered by the JSHCT is strongly recommended when analyzing HLA data in the TRUMP dataset. The HLA mismatch direction, mismatch counting method, and different impacts of HLA mismatches by stem cell source are other important factors in the analysis of HLA data. Additionally, researchers should understand the statistical analyses specific for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, such as competing risk, landmark analysis, and time-dependent analysis, to correctly analyze transplant data. The data center of the JSHCT can be contacted if statistical assistance is required.

  4. Simulation of thermal stresses in anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell stacks. Part II: Loss of gas-tightness, electrical contact and thermal buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajo, Arata; Wuillemin, Zacharie; Van herle, Jan; Favrat, Daniel

    Structural stability issues in planar solid oxide fuel cells arise from the mismatch between the coefficients of thermal expansion of the components. The stress state at operating temperature is the superposition of several contributions, which differ depending on the component. First, the cells accumulate residual stresses due to the sintering phase during the manufacturing process. Further, the load applied during assembly of the stack to ensure electric contact and flatten the cells prevents a completely stress-free expansion of each component during the heat-up. Finally, thermal gradients cause additional stresses in operation. The temperature profile generated by a thermo-electrochemical model implemented in an equation-oriented process modelling tool (gPROMS) was imported into finite-element software (ABAQUS) to calculate the distribution of stress and contact pressure on all components of a standard solid oxide fuel cell repeat unit. The different layers of the cell in exception of the cathode, i.e. anode, electrolyte and compensating layer were considered in the analysis to account for the cell curvature. Both steady-state and dynamic simulations were performed, with an emphasis on the cycling of the electrical load. The study includes two different types of cell, operation under both thermal partial oxidation and internal steam-methane reforming and two different initial thicknesses of the air and fuel compressive sealing gaskets. The results generated by the models are presented in two papers: Part I focuses on cell cracking. In the present paper, Part II, the occurrences of loss of gas-tightness in the compressive gaskets and/or electrical contact in the gas diffusion layer were identified. In addition, the dependence on temperature of both coefficients of thermal expansion and Young's modulus of the metallic interconnect (MIC) were implemented in the finite-element model to compute the plastic deformation, while the possibilities of thermal buckling

  5. Typewriting Syllabus: Part II: Modules. 1976 Revision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Occupational and Career Curriculum Development.

    The document is the second of a two-part set on typewriting and focuses on the nine modules of instruction. The nine modules are: (1) keyboard mastery and skill development, (2) basic typewriting competencies, (2a) personal use typewriting, (3) introduction to office typewriting I, (4) introduction to office typewriting II, (5) intermediate office…

  6. Globalization in the pharmaceutical industry, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio Tarabusi, C; Vickery, G

    1998-01-01

    This is the second of a two-part report on the pharmaceutical industry. Part II begins with a discussion of foreign direct investment and inter-firm networks, which covers international mergers, acquisitions, and minority participation; market shares of foreign-controlled firms; international collaboration agreements (with a special note on agreements in biotechnology); and licensing agreements. The final section of the report covers governmental policies on health and safety regulation, price regulation, industry and technology, trade, foreign investment, protection of intellectual property, and competition.

  7. Continuum Thermodynamics - Part II: Applications and Examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Bettina; Wilmanski, Krzysztof

    The intention by writing Part II of the book on continuum thermodynamics was the deepening of some issues covered in Part I as well as a development of certain skills in dealing with practical problems of oscopic processes. However, the main motivation for this part is the presentation of main facets of thermodynamics which appear when interdisciplinary problems are considered. There are many monographs on the subjects of solid mechanics and thermomechanics, on fluid mechanics and on coupled fields but most of them cover only special problems in great details which are characteristic for the chosen field. It is rather seldom that relations between these fields are discussed. This concerns, for instance, large deformations of the skeleton of porous materials with diffusion (e.g. lungs), couplings of deformable particles with the fluid motion in suspensions, couplings of adsorption processes and chemical reactions in immiscible mixtures with diffusion, various multi-component aspects of the motion, e.g. of avalanches, such as segregation processes, etc...

  8. European consensus conference on diagnosis and treatment of germ cell cancer: a report of the second meeting of the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG): part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krege, Susanne; Beyer, Jörg; Souchon, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The first consensus report that had been presented by the European Germ Cell Cancer Consensus Group (EGCCCG) in 2004 has found widespread approval by many colleagues throughout the world. In November 2006, the group met a second time under the auspices of the Department of Urology of ...

  9. The Mid America Heart Institute: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCallister, Ben D; Steinhaus, David M

    2003-01-01

    The Mid America Heart Institute (MAHI) is one of the first and largest hospitals developed and designed specifically for cardiovascular care. The MAHI hybrid model, which is a partnership between the not-for-profit Saint Luke's Health System, an independent academic medical center, and a private practice physician group, has been extremely successful in providing high-quality patient care as well as developing strong educational and research programs. The Heart Institute has been the leader in providing cardiovascular care in the Kansas City region since its inception in 1975. Although challenges in the future are substantial, it is felt that the MAHI is in an excellent position to deal with the serious issues in health care because of the Heart Institute, its facility, organization, administration, dedicated medical and support staff, and its unique business model of physician management. In part I, the authors described the background and infrastructure of the Heart Institute. In part II, cardiovascular research and benefits of physician management are addressed.

  10. Benchmark matrix and guide: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    In the last issue of the Journal of Quality Assurance (September/October 1991, Volume 13, Number 5, pp. 14-19), the benchmark matrix developed by Headquarters Air Force Logistics Command was published. Five horizontal levels on the matrix delineate progress in TQM: business as usual, initiation, implementation, expansion, and integration. The six vertical categories that are critical to the success of TQM are leadership, structure, training, recognition, process improvement, and customer focus. In this issue, "Benchmark Matrix and Guide: Part II" will show specifically how to apply the categories of leadership, structure, and training to the benchmark matrix progress levels. At the intersection of each category and level, specific behavior objectives are listed with supporting behaviors and guidelines. Some categories will have objectives that are relatively easy to accomplish, allowing quick progress from one level to the next. Other categories will take considerable time and effort to complete. In the next issue, Part III of this series will focus on recognition, process improvement, and customer focus.

  11. HERBICIDAS INIBIDORES DO FOTOSSISTEMA IIPARTE II / PHOTOSYSTEM II INHIBITOR HERBICIDES - PART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILCA P. DE F. E SILVA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Os herbicidas inibidores do fotossistema II (PSII ligam-se ao sítio da QB localizado na proteína D1 o qual se localiza na membrana dos tilacóides dos cloroplastos, causando, o bloqueia do transporte de elétrons da QA para QB, tendo como consequência, a peroxidação dos lipídios. Os principais fatores que afetam a evolução da resistência de plantas daninhas aos herbicidas têm sido agrupados em: genéticos, bioecológicos e agronômicos. A resistência de plantas daninhas a herbicidas é definida como a habilidade de uma planta sobreviver e reproduzir, após exposição a uma dose de herbicida normalmente letal para um biótipo normal da planta. A seletividade de um herbicida está relacionada à capacidade de eliminar plantas daninhas sem interferir na qualidade da planta de interesse econômico.

  12. Ethical and technical considerations for the creation of cell lines in the head & neck and tissue harvesting for research and drug development (Part II: Ethical aspects of obtaining tissue specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Upile Tahwinder

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although much has been published for the development of cell lines, these were lab based and developed for scientific technical staff. Objective of review We discuss the ethical implications of tissue retention and present a generic consent form (Part II. We also present a simple and successful protocol for the development of cell lines and tissue harvesting for the clinical scientist (Part I. Conclusion Consent is also more proximate and assurance can be given of appropriate usage. Ethical questions concerning tissue ownership are in many institutions raised during the current consenting procedure. We provide a robust ethical framework, based on the current legislation, which allows clinicians to be directly involved in cell and tissue harvesting.

  13. Reproduce and die! Why aging? Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, GA

    Whilst in part I of this diptych on aging the question why aging exists at all is discussed; this part deals with the question which mechanisms underly aging and, ultimately, dying. It appears that aging is not just an active process as such - although all kinds of internal (e.g., oxigen-free

  14. Coal-fired power materials - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viswanathan, V.; Purgert, R.; Rawls, P. [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2008-09-15

    Part 1 discussed some general consideration in selection of alloys for advanced ultra supercritical (USC) coal-fired power plant boilers. This second part covers results reported by the US project consortium, which has extensively evaluated the steamside oxidation, fireside corrosion, and fabricability of the alloys selected for USC plants. 3 figs.

  15. CHILD WELFARE IN CANADA : PART II

    OpenAIRE

    松本, 眞一; Shinichi, Matsumoto; 桃山学院大学社会学部

    2006-01-01

    This part study aims to research on the whole aspect of child protection in Canada. And so, this paper consists of five chapters as follows: (1)Canadian history of child protection, (2)definition of child abuse, (3)current situation of child protection in Canada, (4)outline of child protection and treatment, (5)triangular comparison of child protection and prevention in Canada, Australia and England. The first efforts at identifying and combating child abuse occurred in the latter part of the...

  16. The Many Meanings of History, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szasz, Ferenc M.

    1974-01-01

    This article contains a collection of quotations about history collected by Professor Szasz. The first part of the collection appeared in the August 1974 issue of "The History Teacher." Readers are invited to send in other definitions they have found. (Author/RM)

  17. Cubby : Multiscreen Desktop VR Part II

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gribnau, M.W.; Djajadiningrat, J.P.

    2000-01-01

    In this second part of our 'Cubby: Multiscreen Desktop VR' trilogy, we will introduce you to the art of creating a driver to read an Origin Instruments Dynasight input device. With the Dynasight, the position of the head of the user is established so that Cubby can display the correct images on its

  18. Computational electrodynamics in material media with constraint-preservation, multidimensional Riemann solvers and sub-cell resolution - Part II, higher order FVTD schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balsara, Dinshaw S.; Garain, Sudip; Taflove, Allen; Montecinos, Gino

    2018-02-01

    The Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) scheme has served the computational electrodynamics community very well and part of its success stems from its ability to satisfy the constraints in Maxwell's equations. Even so, in the previous paper of this series we were able to present a second order accurate Godunov scheme for computational electrodynamics (CED) which satisfied all the same constraints and simultaneously retained all the traditional advantages of Godunov schemes. In this paper we extend the Finite Volume Time Domain (FVTD) schemes for CED in material media to better than second order of accuracy. From the FDTD method, we retain a somewhat modified staggering strategy of primal variables which enables a very beneficial constraint-preservation for the electric displacement and magnetic induction vector fields. This is accomplished with constraint-preserving reconstruction methods which are extended in this paper to third and fourth orders of accuracy. The idea of one-dimensional upwinding from Godunov schemes has to be significantly modified to use the multidimensionally upwinded Riemann solvers developed by the first author. In this paper, we show how they can be used within the context of a higher order scheme for CED. We also report on advances in timestepping. We show how Runge-Kutta IMEX schemes can be adapted to CED even in the presence of stiff source terms brought on by large conductivities as well as strong spatial variations in permittivity and permeability. We also formulate very efficient ADER timestepping strategies to endow our method with sub-cell resolving capabilities. As a result, our method can be stiffly-stable and resolve significant sub-cell variation in the material properties within a zone. Moreover, we present ADER schemes that are applicable to all hyperbolic PDEs with stiff source terms and at all orders of accuracy. Our new ADER formulation offers a treatment of stiff source terms that is much more efficient than previous ADER

  19. Plasma Astrophysics, part II Reconnection and Flares

    CERN Document Server

    Somov, Boris V

    2007-01-01

    This well-illustrated monograph is devoted to classic fundamentals, current practice, and perspectives of modern plasma astrophysics. The first part is unique in covering all the basic principles and practical tools required for understanding and working in plasma astrophysics. The second part presents the physics of magnetic reconnection and flares of electromagnetic origin in space plasmas within the solar system; single and double stars, relativistic objects, accretion disks, and their coronae are also covered. This book is designed mainly for professional researchers in astrophysics. However, it will also be interesting and useful to graduate students in space sciences, geophysics, as well as advanced students in applied physics and mathematics seeking a unified view of plasma physics and fluid mechanics.

  20. 46 CFR Table II to Part 150 - Grouping of Cargoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... solution Potassium oleate Potassium salt of polyolefin acid Propyl acetate Propylene carbonate Propylene... lignosulfonate solution Sodium polyacrylate solution 2 Sodium salt of Ferric hydroxyethylethylenediamine... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Grouping of Cargoes II Table II to Part 150 Shipping...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 504 - Fuel Price Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) ALTERNATE FUELS EXISTING POWERPLANTS Pt. 504, App. II Appendix II to Part... effects of future real price increases for each fuel. The delivered price of an alternate fuel used to calculate delivered fuel expenses must reflect the petitioner's delivered price of the alternate fuel and...

  2. LHC related projects and studies - Part (II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, L.; De Maria, R.

    2012-01-01

    The session was devoted to address some aspects of the HL-LHC (High Luminosity LHC) project and explore ideas on new machines for the long term future. The session had two parts. The former focused on some of the key issues of the HL-LHC projects: beam current limits, evolution of the collimation system, research plans for the interaction region magnets and crab cavities. The latter explored the ideas for the long term future projects (LHeC and HE-LHC) and how the current research-development program for magnets and RF structures could fit in the envisaged scenarios

  3. [Neurohumoral mechanisms for vasovagal syncopes. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota

    2003-04-01

    Vasovagal syncope is defined as a reflex loss of consciousness related to reaction to various stimuli as orthostatic stress, pain or emotions connected with loss of muscle postural tone. In the second part of the paper the authors describe the possible role of the particular neurohumoral factors and autonomic nervous system in the development of vasovagal syncope. The studies on the involvement of neurohumoral factors in vasovagal syncope can play a key role in a more precise evaluation of affected patients, long term prophylaxis against syncopal events and may contribute to development of more reliable diagnostic tests.

  4. Drugs, money and society (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walley, Tom

    2010-09-01

    Pharmacoeconomics started as marketing but has developed into a valuable tool in the fuller assessment of drug therapies. Its principles are now widely accepted, and many countries have government-funded agencies with responsibility for its application, most notably the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence in England. Many clinical pharmacologists are active in this area, and the discipline itself is part of the clinical pharmacology trainees' curriculum. Further developments will include value-based pricing and its use in cost sharing arrangements between health service and manufacturers.

  5. Complement System Part II: Role in Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merle, Nicolas S.; Noe, Remi; Halbwachs-Mecarelli, Lise; Fremeaux-Bacchi, Veronique; Roumenina, Lubka T.

    2015-01-01

    The complement system has been considered for a long time as a simple lytic cascade, aimed to kill bacteria infecting the host organism. Nowadays, this vision has changed and it is well accepted that complement is a complex innate immune surveillance system, playing a key role in host homeostasis, inflammation, and in the defense against pathogens. This review discusses recent advances in the understanding of the role of complement in physiology and pathology. It starts with a description of complement contribution to the normal physiology (homeostasis) of a healthy organism, including the silent clearance of apoptotic cells and maintenance of cell survival. In pathology, complement can be a friend or a foe. It acts as a friend in the defense against pathogens, by inducing opsonization and a direct killing by C5b–9 membrane attack complex and by triggering inflammatory responses with the anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a. Opsonization plays also a major role in the mounting of an adaptive immune response, involving antigen presenting cells, T-, and B-lymphocytes. Nevertheless, it can be also an enemy, when pathogens hijack complement regulators to protect themselves from the immune system. Inadequate complement activation becomes a disease cause, as in atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome, C3 glomerulopathies, and systemic lupus erythematosus. Age-related macular degeneration and cancer will be described as examples showing that complement contributes to a large variety of conditions, far exceeding the classical examples of diseases associated with complement deficiencies. Finally, we discuss complement as a therapeutic target. PMID:26074922

  6. Solar cells. Danish strategy for research, development, demonstration and distribution. Part 2 - Background paper; Solceller. Dansk strategi for forskning, udvikling, demonstration og udbredelse. Del II - Baggrundsnotat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The background paper to the strategy for Danish R and D within the solar cell field describes the background and references for solar cell technology and its development, both nationally and internationally. Especially, the potentials for use of solar cells in Denmark together with the primary Danish actors and strongholds are presented.

  7. The sociogeometry of inequality: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2015-05-01

    The study of socioeconomic inequality is of prime economic and social importance, and the key quantitative gauges of socioeconomic inequality are Lorenz curves and inequality indices - the most notable of the latter being the popular Gini index. In this series of papers we present a sociogeometric framework to the study of socioeconomic inequality. In this part we focus on the gap between the rich and the poor, which is quantified by gauges termed disparity curves. We shift from disparity curves to disparity sets, define inequality indices in terms of disparity sets, and introduce and explore a collection of distance-based and width-based inequality indices stemming from the geometry of disparity sets. We conclude with mean-absolute-deviation (MAD) representations of the inequality indices established in this series of papers, and with a comparison of these indices to the popular Gini index.

  8. Has the tsunami arrived? Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halverson, Dean; Glowac, Wayne

    2009-01-01

    Healthcare is an industry in the midst of significant change. After years of double-digit cost increases, the system has reached a tipping point. Where once only employers were heard crying out for change, the call is now coming from all levels of American society. The voice that is most important to effect change is the newest--that of the consumer. In part two of our overview of the healthcare tsunami, we hope to offer you some insights and practical ideas on how to improve the return on investment of your marketing. We believe those who work to understand the new market forces and react with insight will not just survive during the tsunami, they will thrive.

  9. [Conceptual Development in Cognitive Science. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Marco

    2012-03-01

    Cognitive science has become the most influential paradigm on mental health in the late 20(th) and the early 21(st) centuries. In few years, the concepts, problem approaches and solutions proper to this science have significantly changed. Introduction and discussion of the fundamental concepts of cognitive science divided in four stages: Start, Classic Cognitivism, Connectionism, and Embodying / Enacting. The 2(nd) Part of the paper discusses the above mentioned fourth stage and explores the clinical setting, especially in terms of cognitive psychotherapy. The embodying/enacting stage highlights the role of the body including a set of determined evolutionary movements which provide a way of thinking and exploring the world. The performance of cognitive tasks is considered as a process that uses environmental resources that enhances mental skills and deploys them beyond the domestic sphere of the brain. On the other hand, body and mind are embedded in the world, thus giving rise to cognition when interacting, a process known as enacting. There is a close connection between perception and action, hence the interest in real-time interactions with the world rather than abstract reasoning. Regarding clinics, specifically the cognitive therapy, there is little conceptual discussion maybe due to good results from practice that may led us to consider that theoretical foundations are firm and not problem-raising. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Compressor Part II: Volute Flow Predictions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Tai Lee

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A numerical method that solves the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations is used to study an inefficient component of a shipboard air-conditioning HCFC-124 compressor system. This high-loss component of the centrifugal compressor was identified as the volute through a series of measurements given in Part I of the paper. The predictions were made using three grid topologies. The first grid closes the connection between the cutwater and the discharge diffuser. The other two grids connect the cutwater area with the discharge diffuser. Experiments were performed to simulate both the cutwater conditions used in the predictions. Surface pressures along the outer wall and near the inlet of the volute were surveyed for comparisons with the predictions. Good agreements between the predicted results and the measurements validate the calculations. Total pressure distributions and flow stream traces from the prediction results support the loss distribution through the volute. A modified volute configuration is examined numerically for further loss comparison.

  11. Calculus of Elementary Functions, Part II. Teacher's Commentary. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others

    This course is intended for students who have a thorough knowledge of college preparatory mathematics, including algebra, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. This teacher's guide is for Part II of the course. It is designed to follow Part I of the text. The guide contains background information, suggested instructional…

  12. Calculus of Elementary Functions, Part II. Student Text. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herriot, Sarah T.; And Others

    This course is intended for students who have a thorough knowledge of college preparatory mathematics, including algebra, axiomatic geometry, trigonometry, and analytic geometry. This text, Part II, contains material designed to follow Part I. Chapters included in this text are: (6) Derivatives of Exponential and Related Functions; (7) Area and…

  13. Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun (Part II)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duoos, Bridget A.

    2012-01-01

    Part I of Kick, Glide, Pole! Cross-Country Skiing Fun, which was published in last issue, discussed how to select cross-country ski equipment, dress for the activity and the biomechanics of the diagonal stride. Part II focuses on teaching the diagonal stride technique and begins with a progression of indoor activities. Incorporating this fun,…

  14. Zeolite scaffolds for cultures of human breast cancer cells. Part II: Effect of pure and hybrid zeolite membranes on neoplastic and metastatic activity control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavolaro, Palmira; Martino, Guglielmo; Andò, Sebastiano; Tavolaro, Adalgisa

    2016-11-01

    This work is focused on the response of two invasive phenotypes of human breast cancer cells, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231, grown on synthesized zeolite scaffolds in order to study the influence of those biomaterials in controlled conditions with and without anti-tumoral drug treatments. Our research was directed to the use of doxorubicin (DOX) and bergapten (5-MOP). The former is broadly considered the most active single agent available for the treatment of breast cancer, the second is a natural psoralen with an apoptotic effect. The results indicate that both drugs inhibit the cell viability of all cell lines grown on all zeolite scaffolds and that all Pure Zeolite Membranes are more responsive with respect to all Mixed Matrix Membranes. Moreover, the results after treatment with DOX at a concentration of 7.4μM for 24h, show that the expression of the matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) is greatly reduced in both cell lines, especially in those adherent on Pure Zeolite Scaffolds. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Part II: Functional delivery of a neurotherapeutic gene to neural stem cells using minicircle DNA and nanoparticles: Translational advantages for regenerative neurology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Alinda R; Chari, Divya M

    2016-09-28

    Both neurotrophin-based therapy and neural stem cell (NSC)-based strategies have progressed to clinical trials for treatment of neurological diseases and injuries. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in particular can confer neuroprotective and neuro-regenerative effects in preclinical studies, complementing the cell replacement benefits of NSCs. Therefore, combining both approaches by genetically-engineering NSCs to express BDNF is an attractive approach to achieve combinatorial therapy for complex neural injuries. Current genetic engineering approaches almost exclusively employ viral vectors for gene delivery to NSCs though safety and scalability pose major concerns for clinical translation and applicability. Magnetofection, a non-viral gene transfer approach deploying magnetic nanoparticles and DNA with magnetic fields offers a safe alternative but significant improvements are required to enhance its clinical application for delivery of large sized therapeutic plasmids. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the feasibility of using minicircles with magnetofection technology to safely engineer NSCs to overexpress BDNF. Primary mouse NSCs overexpressing BDNF generated increased daughter neuronal cell numbers post-differentiation, with accelerated maturation over a four-week period. Based on our findings we highlight the clinical potential of minicircle/magnetofection technology for therapeutic delivery of key neurotrophic agents. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Recent Economic Perspectives on Political Economy, Part II*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Torun; Shepsle, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In recent years some of the best theoretical work on the political economy of political institutions and processes has begun surfacing outside the political science mainstream in high quality economics journals. This two-part paper surveys these contributions from a recent five-year period. In Part I, the focus is on elections, voting and information aggregation, followed by treatments of parties, candidates, and coalitions. In Part II, papers on economic performance and redistribution, constitutional design, and incentives, institutions, and the quality of political elites are discussed. Part II concludes with a discussion of the methodological bases common to economics and political science, the way economists have used political science research, and some new themes and arbitrage opportunities. PMID:23606754

  17. Nursing Care of Patients Undergoing Chemotherapy Desensitization: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakel, Patricia; Carsten, Cynthia; Carino, Arvie; Braskett, Melinda

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy desensitization protocols are safe, but labor-intensive, processes that allow patients with cancer to receive medications even if they initially experienced severe hypersensitivity reactions. Part I of this column discussed the pathophysiology of hypersensitivity reactions and described the development of desensitization protocols in oncology settings. Part II incorporates the experiences of an academic medical center and provides a practical guide for the nursing care of patients undergoing chemotherapy desensitization.
.

  18. Methods of humidity determination Part II: Determination of material humidity

    OpenAIRE

    Rübner, Katrin; Balköse, Devrim; Robens, E.

    2008-01-01

    Part II covers the most common methods of measuring the humidity of solid material. State of water near solid surfaces, gravimetric measurement of material humidity, measurement of water sorption isotherms, chemical methods for determination of water content, measurement of material humidity via the gas phase, standardisation, cosmonautical observations are reviewed.

  19. HERBICIDAS INIBIDORES DO FOTOSSISTEMA IIPARTE I /\tPHOTOSYSTEM II INHIBITOR HERBICIDES - PART I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILCA P. DE F. E SILVA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available O controle químico tem sido o mais utilizado em grandes áreas de plantio, principalmente por ser um método rápido e eficiente. Os herbicidas inibidores do fotossistema II (PSII são fundamentais para o manejo integrado de plantas daninhas e práticas conservacionista de solo. A aplicação é realizada em pré-emergência ou pós-emergência inicial das plantas daninhas. A absorção é pelas raízes, tendo como barreira as estrias de Caspari, sendo a translocação realizada pelo xilema. O processo de absorção e translocação também são dependentes das próprias características do produto, como as propriedades lipofílicas e hidrofílicas, as quais podem ser medidas através do coeficiente de partição octanol-água (Kow. A inibição da fotossíntese acontece pela ligação dos herbicidas deste grupo ao sítio de ligação da QB, na proteína D1 do fotossistema II, o qual se localiza na membrana dos tilacóides dos cloroplastos, causando, o bloqueia do transporte de elétrons da QA para QB, interrompendo a fixação do CO2 e a produção de ATP e NAPH2.

  20. First international 26Al interlaboratory comparison - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merchel, Silke; Bremser, Wolfram

    2005-01-01

    After finishing Part I of the first international 26 Al interlaboratory comparison with accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) laboratories [S. Merchel, W. Bremser, Nucl. Instr. and Meth. B 223-224 (2004) 393], the evaluation of Part II with radionuclide counting laboratories took place. The evaluation of the results of the seven participating laboratories on four meteorite samples shows a good overall agreement between laboratories, i.e. it does not reveal any statistically significant differences if results are compared sample-by-sample. However, certain interlaboratory bias is observed with a more detailed statistical analysis including some multivariate approaches

  1. Healing and relaxation in flows of helium II. Part II. First, second, and fourth sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hills, R.N.; Roberts, P.H.

    1978-01-01

    In Part I of this series, a theory of helium II incorporating the effects of quantum healing and relaxation was developed. In this paper, the propagation of first, second, and fourth sound is discussed. Particular attention is paid to sound propagation in the vicinity of the lambda point where the effects of relaxation and quantum healing become important

  2. Polycystic ovary syndrome: a review for dermatologists: Part II. Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buzney, Elizabeth; Sheu, Johanna; Buzney, Catherine; Reynolds, Rachel V

    2014-11-01

    Dermatologists are in a key position to treat the manifestations of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The management of PCOS should be tailored to each woman's specific goals, reproductive interests, and particular constellation of symptoms. Therefore, a multidisciplinary approach is recommended. In part II of this continuing medical education article, we present the available safety and efficacy data regarding treatments for women with acne, hirsutism, and androgenetic alopecia. Therapies discussed include lifestyle modification, topical therapies, combined oral contraceptives, antiandrogen agents, and insulin-sensitizing drugs. Treatment recommendations are made based on the current available evidence. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Impedance-Source Networks for Electric Power Conversion Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siwakoti, Yam P.; Peng, Fang Zheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2015-01-01

    Impedance-source networks cover the entire spectrum of electric power conversion applications (dc-dc, dc-ac, ac-dc, ac-ac) controlled and modulated by different modulation strategies to generate the desired dc or ac voltage and current at the output. A comprehensive review of various impedance......-source-network-based power converters has been covered in a previous paper and main topologies were discussed from an application point of view. Now Part II provides a comprehensive review of the most popular control and modulation strategies for impedance-source network-based power converters/inverters. These methods...

  4. Signs of revision in Don Quixote, Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Pontón

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides new evidences in favour of the hypothesis that Cervantes, after finishing Don Quixote, Part II, partially revised the original, introducing some significant changes and additions, mainly in the last chapters. The analysis of some narrative inconsistencies, that cannot be interpreted as mere mistakes but as significant textual traces, reveals a process of re-elaboration –a process that affects at least four sections of the novel. Most of the evidence gathered here suggests that this revision is closely linked to Avellaneda’s continuation, in the sense that Cervantes tried to challenge the apocriphal Quixote making last-time interventions in his own text.

  5. The "Pseudocommando" mass murderer: part II, the language of revenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knoll, James L

    2010-01-01

    In Part I of this article, research on pseudocommandos was reviewed, and the important role that revenge fantasies play in motivating such persons to commit mass murder-suicide was discussed. Before carrying out their mass shootings, pseudocommandos may communicate some final message to the public or news media. These communications are rich sources of data about their motives and psychopathology. In Part II of this article, forensic psycholinguistic analysis is applied to clarify the primary motivations, detect the presence of mental illness, and discern important individual differences in the final communications of two recent pseudocommandos: Seung-Hui Cho (Virginia Tech) and Jiverly Wong (Binghamton, NY). Although both men committed offenses that qualify them as pseudocommandos, their final communications reveal striking differences in their psychopathology.

  6. Structure Learning and Statistical Estimation in Distribution Networks - Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deka, Deepjyoti [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Backhaus, Scott N. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-13

    Limited placement of real-time monitoring devices in the distribution grid, recent trends notwithstanding, has prevented the easy implementation of demand-response and other smart grid applications. Part I of this paper discusses the problem of learning the operational structure of the grid from nodal voltage measurements. In this work (Part II), the learning of the operational radial structure is coupled with the problem of estimating nodal consumption statistics and inferring the line parameters in the grid. Based on a Linear-Coupled(LC) approximation of AC power flows equations, polynomial time algorithms are designed to identify the structure and estimate nodal load characteristics and/or line parameters in the grid using the available nodal voltage measurements. Then the structure learning algorithm is extended to cases with missing data, where available observations are limited to a fraction of the grid nodes. The efficacy of the presented algorithms are demonstrated through simulations on several distribution test cases.

  7. CE and nanomaterials - Part II: Nanomaterials in CE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Vojtech; Vaculovicova, Marketa

    2017-10-01

    The scope of this two-part review is to summarize publications dealing with CE and nanomaterials together. This topic can be viewed from two broad perspectives, and this article is trying to highlight these two approaches: (i) CE of nanomaterials, and (ii) nanomaterials in CE. The second part aims at summarization of publications dealing with application of nanomaterials for enhancement of CE performance either in terms of increasing the separation resolution or for improvement of the detection. To increase the resolution, nanomaterials are employed as either surface modification of the capillary wall forming open tubular column or as additives to the separation electrolyte resulting in a pseudostationary phase. Moreover, nanomaterials have proven to be very beneficial for increasing also the sensitivity of detection employed in CE or even they enable the detection (e.g., fluorescent tags of nonfluorescent molecules). © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. PREREM: an interactive data preprocessing code for INREM II. Part I: user's manual. Part II: code structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, M.T.; Fields, D.E.

    1981-05-01

    PREREM is an interactive computer code developed as a data preprocessor for the INREM-II (Killough, Dunning, and Pleasant, 1978a) internal dose program. PREREM is intended to provide easy access to current and self-consistent nuclear decay and radionuclide-specific metabolic data sets. Provision is made for revision of metabolic data, and the code is intended for both production and research applications. Documentation for the code is in two parts. Part I is a user's manual which emphasizes interpretation of program prompts and choice of user input. Part II stresses internal structure and flow of program control and is intended to assist the researcher who wishes to revise or modify the code or add to its capabilities. PREREM is written for execution on a Digital Equipment Corporation PDP-10 System and much of the code will require revision before it can be run on other machines. The source program length is 950 lines (116 blocks) and computer core required for execution is 212 K bytes. The user must also have sufficient file space for metabolic and S-factor data sets. Further, 64 100 K byte blocks of computer storage space are required for the nuclear decay data file. Computer storage space must also be available for any output files produced during the PREREM execution. 9 refs., 8 tabs.

  9. Blade System Design Study. Part II, final project report (GEC).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Dayton A. (DNV Global Energy Concepts Inc., Seattle, WA)

    2009-05-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Low Wind Speed Turbine program, Global Energy Concepts LLC (GEC)1 has studied alternative composite materials for wind turbine blades in the multi-megawatt size range. This work in one of the Blade System Design Studies (BSDS) funded through Sandia National Laboratories. The BSDS program was conducted in two phases. In the Part I BSDS, GEC assessed candidate innovations in composite materials, manufacturing processes, and structural configurations. GEC also made recommendations for testing composite coupons, details, assemblies, and blade substructures to be carried out in the Part II study (BSDS-II). The BSDS-II contract period began in May 2003, and testing was initiated in June 2004. The current report summarizes the results from the BSDS-II test program. Composite materials evaluated include carbon fiber in both pre-impregnated and vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) forms. Initial thin-coupon static testing included a wide range of parameters, including variation in manufacturer, fiber tow size, fabric architecture, and resin type. A smaller set of these materials and process types was also evaluated in thin-coupon fatigue testing, and in ply-drop and ply-transition panels. The majority of materials used epoxy resin, with vinyl ester (VE) resin also used for selected cases. Late in the project, testing of unidirectional fiberglass was added to provide an updated baseline against which to evaluate the carbon material performance. Numerous unidirectional carbon fabrics were considered for evaluation with VARTM infusion. All but one fabric style considered suffered either from poor infusibility or waviness of fibers combined with poor compaction. The exception was a triaxial carbon-fiberglass fabric produced by SAERTEX. This fabric became the primary choice for infused articles throughout the test program. The generally positive results obtained in this program for the SAERTEX material have led to its

  10. Intelligent control of HVAC systems. Part II: perceptron performance analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This is the second part of a paper on intelligent type control of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning (HVAC systems. The whole study proposes a unified approach in the design of intelligent control for such systems, to ensure high energy efficiency and air quality improving. In the first part of the study it is considered as benchmark system a single thermal space HVAC system, for which it is assigned a mathematical model of the controlled system and a mathematical model(algorithm of intelligent control synthesis. The conception of the intelligent control is of switching type, between a simple neural network, a perceptron, which aims to decrease (optimize a cost index,and a fuzzy logic component, having supervisory antisaturating role for neuro-control. Based on numerical simulations, this Part II focuses on the analysis of system operation in the presence only ofthe neural control component. Working of the entire neuro-fuzzy system will be reported in a third part of the study.

  11. 29 CFR Appendix II to Part 1918 - Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory) II Appendix II to Part 1918 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND.... 1918, App. II Appendix II to Part 1918—Tables for Selected Miscellaneous Auxiliary Gear (Mandatory...

  12. A Survey of Optometry Graduates to Determine Practice Patterns: Part II: Licensure and Practice Establishment Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleimann, Robert L.; Smith, Lee W.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of Part II of a two-volume study of optometry graduates conducted by the Association of Schools and Colleges of Optometry is presented. Part II includes the analysis of the graduates' licensure and practice establishment experiences. (MLW)

  13. Nursing as concrete philosophy, Part II: Engaging with reality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodoridis, Kyriakos

    2018-04-01

    This is the second paper of an essay in two parts. The first paper (Part I) is a critical discussion of Mark Risjord's conception of nursing knowledge where I argued against the conception of nursing knowledge as a kind of nursing science. The aim of the present paper (Part II) is to explicate and substantiate the thesis of nursing as a kind of concrete philosophy. My strategy is to elaborate upon certain themes from Wittgenstein's Tractatus in order to canvass a general scheme of philosophy based on a distinction between reality and the world. This distinction will be employed in the appropriation of certain significant features of nursing and nursing knowledge. By elaborating on the contrast between the abstract and the concrete, I will suggest that nursing may be seen as a kind of concrete philosophy, being primarily concerned with reality (and secondarily with the world). This thesis, I will argue, implies that philosophy is the kind of theory that is essential to nursing (which is not so much a theory than a certain kind of activity). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Bayesian inference for psychology. Part II: Example applications with JASP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan; Love, Jonathon; Marsman, Maarten; Jamil, Tahira; Ly, Alexander; Verhagen, Josine; Selker, Ravi; Gronau, Quentin F; Dropmann, Damian; Boutin, Bruno; Meerhoff, Frans; Knight, Patrick; Raj, Akash; van Kesteren, Erik-Jan; van Doorn, Johnny; Šmíra, Martin; Epskamp, Sacha; Etz, Alexander; Matzke, Dora; de Jong, Tim; van den Bergh, Don; Sarafoglou, Alexandra; Steingroever, Helen; Derks, Koen; Rouder, Jeffrey N; Morey, Richard D

    2018-02-01

    Bayesian hypothesis testing presents an attractive alternative to p value hypothesis testing. Part I of this series outlined several advantages of Bayesian hypothesis testing, including the ability to quantify evidence and the ability to monitor and update this evidence as data come in, without the need to know the intention with which the data were collected. Despite these and other practical advantages, Bayesian hypothesis tests are still reported relatively rarely. An important impediment to the widespread adoption of Bayesian tests is arguably the lack of user-friendly software for the run-of-the-mill statistical problems that confront psychologists for the analysis of almost every experiment: the t-test, ANOVA, correlation, regression, and contingency tables. In Part II of this series we introduce JASP ( http://www.jasp-stats.org ), an open-source, cross-platform, user-friendly graphical software package that allows users to carry out Bayesian hypothesis tests for standard statistical problems. JASP is based in part on the Bayesian analyses implemented in Morey and Rouder's BayesFactor package for R. Armed with JASP, the practical advantages of Bayesian hypothesis testing are only a mouse click away.

  15. MHC class II molecules regulate growth in human T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, M; Odum, Niels; Bendtzen, K

    1994-01-01

    MHC-class-II-positive T cells are found in tissues involved in autoimmune disorders. Stimulation of class II molecules by monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) or bacterial superantigens induces protein tyrosine phosphorylation through activation of protein tyrosine kinases in T cells, and class II signals...... lines tested. Only one of three CD4+, CD45RAhigh, ROhigh T cells responded to class II costimulation. There was no correlation between T cell responsiveness to class II and the cytokine production profile of the T cell in question. Thus, T cell lines producing interferon (IFN)-gamma but not IL-4 (TH1...... modulate several T cell responses. Here, we studied further the role of class II molecules in the regulation of T cell growth. Costimulation of class II molecules by immobilized HLA-DR mAb significantly enhanced interleukin (IL)-2-supported T cell growth of the majority of CD4+, CD45RAlow, ROhigh T cell...

  16. Part I. Mechanisms of injury associated with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; Part II. Exsolution of volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Danny Dwayne

    Part I - Shock waves are focused in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) machines to strengths sufficient to fracture kidney stones. Substantial side effects-most of them acute-have resulted from this procedure, including injury to soft tissue. The focusing of shock waves through various layers of tissue is a complex process which stimulates many bio-mechano-chemical responses.This thesis presents results of an in vitro study of the initial mechanical stimulus. Planar nitrocellulose membranes of order 10 um thick were used as models of thin tissue structures. Two modes of failure were recorded: Failure due to cavitation collapsing on or near the membranes, and failure induced by altering the structure of shock waves. Tests were done in water at and around F2 to characterize the extent of cavitation damage, and was found to be confined within the focal region, 1.2 cm along the axis of focus.Scattering media were used to simulate the effects of acoustic nonuniformity of tissue and to alter the structure of focusing shock waves. 40 um diameter (average) hollow glass spheres were added to ethylene glycol, glycerine and castor oil to vary the properties of the scattering media. Multiple layer samples of various types of phantom tissue were tested in degassed castor oil to gauge the validity of the scattering media. The scattering media and tissue samples increased the rise time decreased strain rate in a similar fashion. Membranes were damaged by the decreased strain rate and accumulated effects of the altered structure: After about 20 or so shocks immersed in the scattering media and after about 100 shocks behind the tissue samples. The mode of failure was tearing with multiple tears in some cases from about .1 cm to about 3 cm depending of the number of shocks and membrane thickness.Part II - This work examines the exsolution of volatiles-carbon dioxide from water-in a cylindrical test cell under different pressure conditions. Water was supersaturated with

  17. II: Through the Western Part of the City: Charlottenburg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Dieter

    Until 1920 the city we now call Berlin was a collection of independent towns and villages — among them Charlottenburg, which was one of the most important and was the proud sister of Berlin, Prussia’s and Germany’s capital, where the wealthy and innovative bourgeoisie lived. Werner von Siemens, Germany’s pioneer in the modern electrical industry, was a prime example of that elite. His castle-like villa was located not far from today’s Ernst-Reuter-Platz at Otto-Suhr-Allee 10-16, and important parts of his enterprise expanded into the “meadows outside of Charlottenburg” during the second half of the 19th century. It was no accident that the efforts to unite Berlin’s two colleges for trade and construction (both founded around 1800) led to the foundation of a modern Technical College in Charlottenburg in 1879, today’s Technical University of Berlin. Its magnificent main building (figure 1), which was opened in 1882 by the German Emperor, was an expression of the great self-confidence of this new institution of higher learning and of Charlottenburg’s bourgeoisie. Although large parts of the building were destroyed by bombs during World War II, you can still get an impression of its monumentality from what survived at number 135 Strasse des 17. Juni.

  18. Reforming Science Education: Part II. Utilizing Kieran Egan's Educational Metatheory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Roland M.

    2009-04-01

    This paper is the second of two parts and continues the conversation which had called for a shift in the conceptual focus of science education towards philosophy of education, with the requirement to develop a discipline-specific “philosophy” of science education. In Part I, conflicting conceptions of science literacy were identified with disparate “visions” tied to competing research programs as well as school-based curricular paradigms. The impasse in the goals of science education and thereto, the contending views of science literacy, were themselves associated with three underlying fundamental aims of education (knowledge-itself; personal development; socialization) which, it was argued, usually undercut the potential of each other. During periods of “crisis-talk” and throughout science educational history these three aims have repeatedly attempted to assert themselves. The inability of science education research to affect long-term change in classrooms was correlated not only to the failure to reach a consensus on the aims (due to competing programs and to the educational ideologies of their social groups), but especially to the failure of developing true educational theories (largely neglected since Hirst). Such theories, especially metatheories, could serve to reinforce science education’s growing sense of academic autonomy and independence from socio-economic demands. In Part II, I offer as a suggestion Egan’s cultural-linguistic theory as a metatheory to help resolve the impasse. I hope to make reformers familiar with his important ideas in general, and more specifically, to show how they can complement HPS rationales and reinforce the work of those researchers who have emphasized the value of narrative in learning science.

  19. Recovery in soccer : part ii-recovery strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nédélec, Mathieu; McCall, Alan; Carling, Chris; Legall, Franck; Berthoin, Serge; Dupont, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    In the formerly published part I of this two-part review, we examined fatigue after soccer matchplay and recovery kinetics of physical performance, and cognitive, subjective and biological markers. To reduce the magnitude of fatigue and to accelerate the time to fully recover after completion, several recovery strategies are now used in professional soccer teams. During congested fixture schedules, recovery strategies are highly required to alleviate post-match fatigue, and then to regain performance faster and reduce the risk of injury. Fatigue following competition is multifactorial and mainly related to dehydration, glycogen depletion, muscle damage and mental fatigue. Recovery strategies should consequently be targeted against the major causes of fatigue. Strategies reviewed in part II of this article were nutritional intake, cold water immersion, sleeping, active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. Some strategies such as hydration, diet and sleep are effective in their ability to counteract the fatigue mechanisms. Providing milk drinks to players at the end of competition and a meal containing high-glycaemic index carbohydrate and protein within the hour following the match are effective in replenishing substrate stores and optimizing muscle-damage repair. Sleep is an essential part of recovery management. Sleep disturbance after a match is common and can negatively impact on the recovery process. Cold water immersion is effective during acute periods of match congestion in order to regain performance levels faster and repress the acute inflammatory process. Scientific evidence for other strategies reviewed in their ability to accelerate the return to the initial level of performance is still lacking. These include active recovery, stretching, compression garments, massage and electrical stimulation. While this does not mean that these strategies do not aid the recovery process, the protocols implemented up until

  20. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 1050 - DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... is official agency business. Spouses and dependents may accept such travel and expenses only when... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false DOE Form 3735.3-Foreign Travel Statement II Appendix II to.... II Appendix II to Part 1050—DOE Form 3735.3—Foreign Travel Statement EC01OC91.041 Statement...

  1. Thinking in nursing education. Part II. A teacher's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ironside, P M

    1999-01-01

    Across academia, educators are investigating teaching strategies that facilitate students' abilities to think critically. Because may these strategies require low teacher-student ratios or sustained involvement over time, efforts to implement them are often constrained by diminishing resources for education, faculty reductions, and increasing number of part-time teachers and students. In nursing, the challenges of teaching and learning critical thinking are compounded by the demands of providing care to patients with increasingly acute and complex problems in a wide variety of settings. To meet these challenges, nurse teachers have commonly used a variety of strategies to teach critical thinking (1). For instance, they often provide students with case studies or simulated clinical situations in classroom and laboratory settings (2). At other times, students are taught a process of critical thinking and given structured clinical assignments, such as care plans or care maps, where they apply this process in anticipating the care a particular patient will require. Accompanying students onto clinical units, teachers typically evaluate critical thinking ability by reviewing a student's preparation prior to the experience and discussing it with the student during the course of the experience. The rationales students provide for particular nursing interventions are taken as evidence of their critical thinking ability. While this approach is commonly thought to be effective, the evolving health care system has placed increased emphasis on community nursing (3,4), where it is often difficult to prespecify learning experiences or to anticipate patient care needs. In addition, teachers are often not able to accompany each student to the clinical site. Thus, the traditional strategies for teaching and learning critical thinking common to hospital-based clinical courses are being challenged, transformed, and extended (5). Part II of this article describes findings that suggest

  2. All About Dowels - A Review Part II Considerations After Cementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zishan Dangra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The present review summarizes the published literature examining cementation of the dowel and factors related to it. The peer reviewed English language literature was reviewed from the period 1990 to 2015. Articles were searched in Pubmed/ Medline for the relevant terms. Additional manual searches of some dental journals were also carried out. The original key terms resulted in 228 articles. After applying inclusion criteria, 64 articles remained to be included in part II of this review. Article search indicates that most published literature on dowels are in the form of in vitro analysis. Literature on prefabricated dowel systems far exceeds than the custom cast dowel and newer fibre dowels. Clinical evidence is not sufficient and cannot be used to inform practice confidently. However, within the limitations of this review it is suggested that adhesive fixation is preferred in case of short dowel. Dowel width should be as small as possible. A ferrule of 2 mm has to be provided. Composites have proven to be a good core material provided that adequate tooth structure remained for bonding. Dowel should be inserted if endodontically treated tooth is to be used as abutment for removable partial dentures.

  3. 46 CFR Appendix II to Part 150 - Explanation of Figure 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, App. II Appendix II to Part 150—Explanation of Figure 1 Definition of a..., aromatic hydrocarbons or paraffins. Others will form hazardous combinations with many groups: For example...

  4. Interaction between cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II and histone hypoacetylation in renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2008-01-01

    Renal cell carcinoma is a rare but serious malignancy. Since a reduction in the level of retinoic acid receptor beta 2 (RARbeta2) expression in cancer cells due in part to histone hypoacetylation which is controlled by histone deacetylase (HD), the study on the interaction between cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins II (CRABP II), which is proposed to have its potential influence on retinoic acid (RA) response, and HD can be useful. Comparing to CARBP II and HD, the CARBP II-HD poses the ...

  5. Angiotensin II Regulates Th1 T Cell Differentiation Through Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor-PKA-Mediated Activation of Proteasome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Xian-Yun; Zhang, Yun-Long; Chi, Ya-Fei; Yan, Bo; Zeng, Xiang-Jun; Li, Hui-Hua; Liu, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Naive CD4+ T cells differentiate into T helper cells (Th1 and Th2) that play an essential role in the cardiovascular diseases. However, the molecular mechanism by which angiotensin II (Ang II) promotes Th1 differentiation remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether the Ang II-induced Th1 differentiation regulated by ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Jurkat cells were treated with Ang II (100 nM) in the presence or absence of different inhibitors. The gene mRNA levels were detected by real-time quantitative PCR analysis. The protein levels were measured by ELISA assay or Western blot analysis, respectively. Ang II treatment significantly induced a shift from Th0 to Th1 cell differentiation, which was markedly blocked by angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) inhibitor Losartan (LST). Moreover, Ang II significantly increased the activities and the expression of proteasome catalytic subunits (β1, β1i, β2i and β5i) in a dose- and time-dependent manner. However, Ang II-induced proteasome activities were remarkably abrogated by LST and PKA inhibitor H-89. Mechanistically, Ang II-induced Th1 differentiation was at least in part through proteasome-mediated degradation of IκBα and MKP-1 and activation of STAT1 and NF-κB. This study for the first time demonstrates that Ang II activates AT1R-PKA-proteasome pathway, which promotes degradation of IκBα and MKP-1 and activation of STAT1 and NF-κB thereby leading to Th1 differentiation. Thus, inhibition of proteasome activation might be a potential therapeutic target for Th1-mediated diseases. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Recent applications of nuclear medicine in diagnostics: II part

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Treglia

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Positron-emission tomography (PET and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT are effective diagnostic imaging tools in several clinical settings. The aim of this article (the second of a 2-part series is to examine some of the more recent applications of nuclear medicine imaging techniques, particularly in the fields of neurology, cardiology, and infection/inflammation. Discussion: A review of the literature reveals that in the field of neurology nuclear medicine techniques are most widely used to investigate cognitive deficits and dementia (particularly those associated with Alzheimer disease, epilepsy, and movement disorders. In cardiology, SPECT and PET also play important roles in the work-up of patients with coronary artery disease, providing accurate information on the state of the myocardium (perfusion, metabolism, and innervation. White blood cell scintigraphy and FDG-PET are widely used to investigate many infectious/inflammatory processes. In each of these areas, the review discusses the use of recently developed radiopharmaceuticals, the growth of tomographic nuclear medicine techniques, and the ways in which these advances are improving molecular imaging of biologic processes at the cellular level.

  7. Psychiatric emergencies (part II): psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, A; Giannuzzi, R; Sollazzo, F; Petrongolo, L; Bernardini, L; Dain, S

    2013-02-01

    In this Part II psychiatric disorders coexisting with organic diseases are discussed. "Comorbidity phenomenon" defines the not univocal interrelation between medical illnesses and psychiatric disorders, each other negatively influencing morbidity and mortality. Most severe psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and depression, show increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease, related to poverty, use of psychotropic medication, and higher rate of preventable risk factors such as smoking, addiction, poor diet and lack of exercise. Moreover, psychiatric and organic disorders can develop together in different conditions of toxic substance and prescription drug use or abuse, especially in the emergency setting population. Different combinations with mutual interaction of psychiatric disorders and substance use disorders are defined by the so called "dual diagnosis". The hypotheses that attempt to explain the psychiatric disorders and substance abuse relationship are examined: (1) common risk factors; (2) psychiatric disorders precipitated by substance use; (3) psychiatric disorders precipitating substance use (self-medication hypothesis); and (4) synergistic interaction. Diagnostic and therapeutic difficulty concerning the problem of dual diagnosis, and legal implications, are also discussed. Substance induced psychiatric and organic symptoms can occur both in the intoxication and withdrawal state. Since ancient history, humans selected indigene psychotropic plants for recreational, medicinal, doping or spiritual purpose. After the isolation of active principles or their chemical synthesis, higher blood concentrations reached predispose to substance use, abuse and dependence. Abuse substances have specific molecular targets and very different acute mechanisms of action, mainly involving dopaminergic and serotoninergic systems, but finally converging on the brain's reward pathways, increasing dopamine in nucleus accumbens. The most common

  8. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1042 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix..., App. II Appendix II to Part 1042—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply as specified in § 1042.505(b)(1): (1) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: E3 mode No...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1054 - Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing II.... 1054, App. II Appendix II to Part 1054—Duty Cycles for Laboratory Testing (a) Test handheld engines with the following steady-state duty cycle: G3 mode No. Engine speed a Torque(percent) b Weighting...

  10. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 600 - Sample Fuel Economy Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample Fuel Economy Calculations II... FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS OF MOTOR VEHICLES Pt. 600, App. II Appendix II to Part 600—Sample Fuel Economy Calculations (a) This sample fuel economy calculation is applicable to...

  11. Interaction between cellular retinoic acid-binding protein II and histone hypoacetylation in renal cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Renal cell carcinoma is a rare but serious malignancy. Since a reduction in the level of retinoic acid receptor beta 2 (RARbeta2 expression in cancer cells due in part to histone hypoacetylation which is controlled by histone deacetylase (HD, the study on the interaction between cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins II (CRABP II, which is proposed to have its potential influence on retinoic acid (RA response, and HD can be useful. Comparing to CARBP II and HD, the CARBP II-HD poses the same function and biological process as HD. This can confirm that HD has a significant suppressive effect on the expression of CARBP II. Therefore, reduction in the level of RARbeta2 expression in cancer cells can be expected and this can lead to failure in treatment of renal cell carcinoma with RA. The author hereby purpose that additional HD inhibitor should be added into the regiment of RA to increase the effectiveness of treatment.

  12. Stem cells in dentistry--part I: stem cell sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Sonoyama, Wataru; Nishimura, Masahiro; Atsuta, Ikiru; Akiyama, Kentaro

    2012-07-01

    Stem cells can self-renew and produce different cell types, thus providing new strategies to regenerate missing tissues and treat diseases. In the field of dentistry, adult mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) have been identified in several oral and maxillofacial tissues, which suggests that the oral tissues are a rich source of stem cells, and oral stem and mucosal cells are expected to provide an ideal source for genetically reprogrammed cells such as induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Furthermore, oral tissues are expected to be not only a source but also a therapeutic target for stem cells, as stem cell and tissue engineering therapies in dentistry continue to attract increasing clinical interest. Part I of this review outlines various types of intra- and extra-oral tissue-derived stem cells with regard to clinical availability and applications in dentistry. Additionally, appropriate sources of stem cells for regenerative dentistry are discussed with regard to differentiation capacity, accessibility and possible immunomodulatory properties. Copyright © 2012 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A multi-level simulation platform of natural gas internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine hybrid generation system - Part II. Balancing units model library and system simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Cheng; Cai, Ningsheng; Croiset, Eric

    2011-10-01

    Following our integrated hierarchical modeling framework of natural gas internal reforming solid oxide fuel cell (IRSOFC), this paper firstly introduces the model libraries of main balancing units, including some state-of-the-art achievements and our specific work. Based on gPROMS programming code, flexible configuration and modular design are fully realized by specifying graphically all unit models in each level. Via comparison with the steady-state experimental data of Siemens-Westinghouse demonstration system, the in-house multi-level SOFC-gas turbine (GT) simulation platform is validated to be more accurate than the advanced power system analysis tool (APSAT). Moreover, some units of the demonstration system are designed reversely for analysis of a typically part-load transient process. The framework of distributed and dynamic modeling in most of units is significant for the development of control strategies in the future.

  14. Complexometric determination, Part II: Complexometric determination of Cu2+-ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A copper-selective electrode of the coated wire type based on sulphidized copper wire was applied successfully for determining Cu(II ions by complexometric titration with the disodium salt of EDTA (complexon III. By the formation of internal complex compounds with the Cu(II ion, the copper concentration in the solution decreases, and all this is followed by a change of potential of the indicator system Cu-DWISE (or Cu-EDWISE/SCE. At the terminal point of titration, when all the Cu(II ions are already utilized for the formation of the complex with EDTA, there occurs a steep rise of potential, thus enabling us, through the first or second derivative to note the quantity of copper that is present in the solution. Copper-selective electrode showed a responsivity towards titration with EDTA as a complexing agent, with the absence of "fatigue" due to a great number of repeated measurings. Errors occurring during quantitative measurements were more a characteristic of the overall procedure which involve, because of the impossibility of the complete absence of subjectivity, a constant error, and the reproducibility of the results confirmed this fact. The disodium salt of EDTA appeared as a very efficient titrant in all titrations and with various concentrations ot Cu(II ions in the solution, with somewhat weaker response at lower concentrations in the solution.

  15. A Conversation with William A. Fowler Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, John

    2005-06-01

    Physicist William A.Fowler initiated an experimental program in nuclear astrophysics after World War II. He recalls here the Steady State versus Big Bang controversy and his celebrated collaboration with Fred Hoyle and Geoffrey and Margaret Burbidge on nucleosynthesis in stars. He also comments on the shift away from nuclear physics in universities to large accelerators and national laboratories.

  16. Inteligencia Artificial y Neurología: II Parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Camacho Pinto

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Algunos comentarios sobre la primera parte me han inducido a ampliar las bases de este trabajo mediante la presentación de aspectos comunes y conceptos disímiles sobre la hipotética relación entre inteligencia artificial (lA e inteligencia humana(IH. El tema es tan complejo que un intento por resumirlo de por sí ya es atrayente además de necesario.

    Microhistoria de la lA. Ciñéndome a una cruda realidad la lA nació en la Conferencia de Darmouth, año 1956, cuando John McCarthy, profesor de ciencia de computador en Stanford Un. acuñó el término de lA. Sin embargo, especulando un poco podemos decir que cierta inquietud existió desde la antigüedad, mucho antes de los computadores y aún de la electrónica (1 cuando el ser humano irresistiblemente mostraba inquietud por crear I fuera del cerebro humano. Se encuentran algunos ejemplos en la Mitología griega: Hefestos. dios del fuego y de los metales, confeccionaba creaciones semihumanas en su forja. Pigmalión desencantado de las mujeres modeló su propia ninfa en mármol y para poder casarse con ella imploró suplicante hasta conseguir que Afrodita le diera vida.

    En la Europa medioeval al papa Silvestre II (apodado el hechicero por su sabiduría, año 909 D.C. se le atribuye que construía cabezas parlantes. En el siglo XVI Para celso clamó haber inventado un homúnculo. Y el rabino checo Jundo ben Loew esculpió un hombre en arcilla, José Golem, y lo constituyó espía en Praga. En 1854 el matemático británico George Boole propuso un sistema para describir lógica (2 -las leyes del pensamiento en términos matemáticos: “álgebra booliana”, “mathematical logics” que representa procesos lógicos con dos dígitos, 9 y 1.

    En 1937 Alan Turing demostró que una máquina binaria podía ser programada para realizar cualquier tarea algorítmica. Esta máquina de Turing sólo podía ejecutar dos acciones: dibujar y borrar. En el mismo año Claude

  17. Developmental engineering: a new paradigm for the design and manufacturing of cell-based products. Part II: from genes to networks: tissue engineering from the viewpoint of systems biology and network science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenas, Petros; Moos, Malcolm; Luyten, Frank P

    2009-12-01

    The field of tissue engineering is moving toward a new concept of "in vitro biomimetics of in vivo tissue development." In Part I of this series, we proposed a theoretical framework integrating the concepts of developmental biology with those of process design to provide the rules for the design of biomimetic processes. We named this methodology "developmental engineering" to emphasize that it is not the tissue but the process of in vitro tissue development that has to be engineered. To formulate the process design rules in a rigorous way that will allow a computational design, we should refer to mathematical methods to model the biological process taking place in vitro. Tissue functions cannot be attributed to individual molecules but rather to complex interactions between the numerous components of a cell and interactions between cells in a tissue that form a network. For tissue engineering to advance to the level of a technologically driven discipline amenable to well-established principles of process engineering, a scientifically rigorous formulation is needed of the general design rules so that the behavior of networks of genes, proteins, or cells that govern the unfolding of developmental processes could be related to the design parameters. Now that sufficient experimental data exist to construct plausible mathematical models of many biological control circuits, explicit hypotheses can be evaluated using computational approaches to facilitate process design. Recent progress in systems biology has shown that the empirical concepts of developmental biology that we used in Part I to extract the rules of biomimetic process design can be expressed in rigorous mathematical terms. This allows the accurate characterization of manufacturing processes in tissue engineering as well as the properties of the artificial tissues themselves. In addition, network science has recently shown that the behavior of biological networks strongly depends on their topology and has

  18. Alveolar epithelial type II cells induce T cell tolerance to specific antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Bernice; Hansen, Søren; Evans, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    The lungs face the immunologic challenge of rapidly eliminating inhaled pathogens while maintaining tolerance to innocuous Ags. A break in this immune homeostasis may result in pulmonary inflammatory diseases, such as allergies or asthma. The observation that alveolar epithelial type II cells (Type...... II) constitutively express the class II MHC led us to hypothesize that Type II cells play a role in the adaptive immune response. Because Type II cells do not express detectable levels of the costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, we propose that Type II cells suppress activation of naive T cells...

  19. The Search for Another Earth–Part II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/021/10/0899-0910. Keywords. Exoplanets, earth, super-earth, diamond planet, neptune, habitability, extra-terrestrial life. Abstract. In the first part, we discussed the various methods for thedetection of planets outside the solar system known as theexoplanets. In this part ...

  20. Human T-cell leukemia virus types I and II exhibit different DNase I protection patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altman, R.; Harrich, D.; Garcia, J.A.; Gaynor, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    Human T-cell leukemia virus types I (HTLV-I) and II (HTLV-II) are human retroviruses which normally infect T-lymphoid cells. HTLV-I infection is associated with adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma, and HTLV-II is associated with an indolent form of hairy-cell leukemia. To identify potential transcriptional regulatory elements of these two related human retroviruses, the authors performed DNase I footprinting of both the HTLV-I and HTLV-II long terminal repeats (LTRs) by using extracts prepared from uninfected T cells, HTLV-I and HTLV-II transformed T cells, and HeLa cells. Five regions of the HTLV-I LTR and three regions of the HTLV-II LTR showed protection by DNase I footprinting. All three of the 21-base-pair repeats previously shown to be important in HTLV transcriptional regulation were protected in the HTLV-I LTR, whereas only one of these repeats was protected in the HTLV-II LTR. Several regions exhibited altered protection in extracts prepared from lymphoid cells as compared with HeLa cells, but there were minimal differences in the protection patterns between HTLV-infected and uninfected lymphoid extracts. A number of HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTR fragments which contained regions showing protection in DNase I footprinting were able to function as inducible enhancer elements in transient CAT gene expression assays in the presence of the HTLV-II tat protein. The alterations in the pattern of the cellular proteins which bind to the HTLV-I and HTLV-II LTRs may in part be responsible for differences in the transcriptional regulation of these two related viruses

  1. Cardiac nuclear medicine, part II: diagnosis of coronary artery diseas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polak, J.F.; Holman, B.L.

    1981-01-01

    Diagnosing coronary artery disease is difficult and requires careful consideration of the roles and limitations of the tests used. Standard ECG tests are not reliable indicators of the presence of disease in asymptomatic patients. Thallium stress testing to assess ischemia and exercise ventriculography to assess functional status of the heart are limited in sensitivity and specificity. This is the second of a three-part series on cardiac nuclear medicine. Part I (Med. Instrum., May-June, 1981) focused on the commonly used examinations in cardiac physiology and pathophysiology. Part III will focus on myocardial infarction and other cardiac diseases

  2. Delivery systems for biopharmaceuticals. Part II: Liposomes, Micelles, Microemulsions and Dendrimers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Ana C; Lopes, Carla M; Lobo, José M S; Amaral, Maria H

    2015-01-01

    Biopharmaceuticals are a generation of drugs that include peptides, proteins, nucleic acids and cell products. According to their particular molecular characteristics (e.g. high molecular size, susceptibility to enzymatic activity), these products present some limitations for administration and usually parenteral routes are the only option. To avoid these limitations, different colloidal carriers (e.g. liposomes, micelles, microemulsions and dendrimers) have been proposed to improve biopharmaceuticals delivery. Liposomes are promising drug delivery systems, despite some limitations have been reported (e.g. in vivo failure, poor long-term stability and low transfection efficiency), and only a limited number of formulations have reached the market. Micelles and microemulsions require more studies to exclude some of the observed drawbacks and guarantee their potential for use in clinic. According to their peculiar structures, dendrimers have been showing good results for nucleic acids delivery and a great development of these systems during next years is expected. This is the Part II of two review articles, which provides the state of the art of biopharmaceuticals delivery systems. Part II deals with liposomes, micelles, microemulsions and dendrimers.

  3. 30 CFR Appendix II to Subpart D of... - Appendix II to Subpart D of Part 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS ELECTRIC MOTOR-DRIVEN MINE EQUIPMENT AND ACCESSORIES Machines Assembled With Certified or Explosion-Proof Components, Field Modifications of Approved Machines, and Permits To Use Experimental Equipment Pt. 18, Subpt. D, App. II Appendix II to Subpart D of...

  4. Guidelines for acute ischemic stroke treatment: part II: stroke treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Cristina Ouriques Martins

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The second part of these Guidelines covers the topics of antiplatelet, anticoagulant, and statin therapy in acute ischemic stroke, reperfusion therapy, and classification of Stroke Centers. Information on the classes and levels of evidence used in this guideline is provided in Part I. A translated version of the Guidelines is available from the Brazilian Stroke Society website (www.sbdcv.com.br.

  5. EL español andino. II parte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Arboleda Toro

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available En el número 13 de esta revista (nov. del 2000 se publicó una primera parte del estudio sobre el español andino. Presentamos ahora una segunda parte que comprende aspectos histórico-geográficos de Nariño y Putumayo andinos, región de Colombia donde se habla esa variedad, y una descripción general de su realidad lingüística. Esperamos que sean objeto de otra publicación la descripción de los rasgos dialectales del español andino, parte nuclear del trabajo, y la presentación de la metodología y el corpus. En esto nos encontramos trabajando. Incluimos no obstante un inventario de rasgos más amplio que el presentado en la primera parte. Pero por ahora se trata de eso, de un inventario ilustrativo, no del análisis en el que estamos empeñados, en el marco del contacto de lenguas, el cambio lingüístico y la relación entre la norma y las posibilidades del sistema. Para contextualizar esta segunda parte, incluimos, a manera de introducción, un resumen de la primera.

  6. Ultra-violet radiation: hazard in workplaces? (part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Mohd Ali

    2003-01-01

    Not many workers are aware that apart from chemicals, physical agents, noise and machines which are known to be hazardous in workplaces, there exist another source of hazard which is equally important to be recognised and respected, that is hazard due to ultrviolet radiation (UV). This is the continuation of part I, which was discussed in the later issue. In this part, hazard of ultraviolet radiation were briefly discused i.e. effects on the skin and the eyes. Other subjects discussed are exposure limits, how to assess the radiation, protection against ultraviolet radiation

  7. Programming Models for Three-Dimensional Hydrodynamics on the CM-5 (Part II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amala, P.A.K.; Rodrigue, G.H.

    1994-01-01

    This is a two-part presentation of a timing study on the Thinking Machines CORP. CM-5 computer. Part II is given in this study and represents domain-decomposition and message-passing models. Part I described computational problems using a SIMD model and connection machine FORTRAN (CMF)

  8. [Low grade renal trauma (Part II): diagnostic validity of ultrasonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grill, R; Báca, V; Otcenásek, M; Zátura, F

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether ultrasonography can be considered a reliable method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal trauma. The group investigated included patients with grade I or grade II blunt renal trauma, as classified by the AAST grading system, in whom ultrasonography alone or in conjunction with computed tomography was used as a primary diagnostic method. B-mode ultrasound with a transabdominal probe working at frequencies of 2.5 to 5.0 MHz was used. Every finding of post-traumatic changes in the renal tissues, i.e., post-contusion hypotonic infiltration of the renal parenchyma or subcapsular haematoma, was included. The results were statistically evaluated by the Chi-square test with the level of significance set at 5%, using Epi Info Version 6 CZ software. The group comprised 112 patients (43 women, 69 men) aged between 17 and 82 years (average, 38 years). It was possible to diagnose grade I or grade II renal injury by ultrasonography in only 60 (54%) of them. The statistical significance of ultrasonography as the only imaging method for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury was not confirmed (p=0.543) Low-grade renal trauma is a problem from the diagnostic point of view. It usually does not require revision surgery and, if found during repeat surgery for more serious injury of another organ, it usually does not receive attention. Therefore, the macroscopic presentation of grade I and grade II renal injury is poorly understood, nor are their microscopic findings known, because during revision surgery these the traumatised kidneys are not usually removed and their injuries at autopsy on the patients who died of multiple trauma are not recorded either. The results of this study demonstrated that the validity of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of low-grade renal injury is not significant, because this examination can reveal only some of the renal injuries such as perirenal haematoma. An injury to the renal parenchyma is also indicated by

  9. Aesthetic Pursuits: Windows, Frames, Words, Images--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Ken

    2005-01-01

    In Part I of this study (Burke, 2005), the author presented the essentials of Image Presentation Theory--IPT--and its application to the analytical explication of various spatial designs in and psychological responses to images, from the illusions of depth in what is referred to as "windows" in cinema theory to the more patterned abstractions of…

  10. Topics in Finance: Part II--Financial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laux, Judy

    2010-01-01

    The second article in a series designed to supplement the introductory financial management course, this essay addresses financial statement analysis, including its impact on stock valuation, disclosure, and managerial behavior. [For "Topics in Finance Part I--Introduction and Stockholder Wealth Maximization," see EJ1060345.

  11. Small Business Management. Part II. A Suggested Adult Course Outline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    This teacher's guide is a companion to "Small Business Management Part I" published by the New York State Education Department in 1968. The course outlined by the guide is primarily for those who aspire to own and operate their own business, and those in business who wish to improve their operations. The course consists of six lessons covering…

  12. On Railroad Tank Car Puncture Performance: Part II - Estimating Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-12

    This paper is the second in a two-part series on the puncture performance of railroad tank cars carrying hazardous materials in the event of an accident. Various metrics are often mentioned in the open literature to characterize the structural perfor...

  13. The Search for Another Earth – Part II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this part, we will describe various kinds of ... the Earth will also be discussed. 1. .... life. system is oxygen rich because the interstellar cloud from which the Sun and the solar planets were born .... a habitable planet must be rocky in order to sustain liquid ... helped in keeping the atmosphere of the Earth habitable for a long.

  14. Solar Energy Education. Reader, Part II. Sun story. [Includes glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-05-01

    Magazine articles which focus on the subject of solar energy are presented. The booklet prepared is the second of a four part series of the Solar Energy Reader. Excerpts from the magazines include the history of solar energy, mythology and tales, and selected poetry on the sun. A glossary of energy related terms is included. (BCS)

  15. Characterization of cloned cells from an immortalized fetal pulmonary type II cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    A cultured cell line that maintained expression of pulmonary type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous to generate a large number of homogenous cells in which to study the biochemical functions of type II cells. Type II epithelial cells are the source of pulmonary surfactant and a cell of origin for pulmonary adenomas. Last year our laboratory reported the induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant lipid synthesis) in cultured fetal rat lung epithelial (FRLE) cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line of fetal rat lung type II cell origin. Subsequently, the induction of the ability to synthesize surfactant lipid became difficult to repeat. We hypothesized that the cell line was heterogenuous and some cells were more like type II cells than others. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis and to obtain a cultured cell line with type II cell phenotypic markers by cloning several FRLE cells and characterizing them for phenotypic markers of type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and presence of surfactant lipids). Thirty cloned cell lines were analyzed for induced alkaline phosphatase activity (on x-axis) and for percent of phospholipids that were disaturated (i.e., surfactant).

  16. Lagrangian intersection Floer theory anomaly and obstruction, part II

    CERN Document Server

    Fukaya, Kenji; Ohta, Hiroshi; Ono, Kaoru

    2009-01-01

    This is a two-volume series research monograph on the general Lagrangian Floer theory and on the accompanying homological algebra of filtered A_\\infty-algebras. This book provides the most important step towards a rigorous foundation of the Fukaya category in general context. In Volume I, general deformation theory of the Floer cohomology is developed in both algebraic and geometric contexts. An essentially self-contained homotopy theory of filtered A_\\infty algebras and A_\\infty bimodules and applications of their obstruction-deformation theory to the Lagrangian Floer theory are presented. Volume II contains detailed studies of two of the main points of the foundation of the theory: transversality and orientation. The study of transversality is based on the virtual fundamental chain techniques (the theory of Kuranishi structures and their multisections) and chain level intersection theories. A detailed analysis comparing the orientations of the moduli spaces and their fiber products is carried out. A self-co...

  17. The role of adhesive molecules in endometrial cancer: part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Malinowski

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The carcinogenesis is a result of both functional and structural disorders in the tissue. It initiates as a mutationin a gene encoding protein that is essential for cellular function. The subsequent cascade of eventsleads to accumulation of mutations and loss of cellular function. The cell loses its tissue-specific morphology,disconnects from other cells and extracellular matrix and migrates – the invasion begins. It is now clear thatadhesive molecules are a key player in this cascade. These proteins of the cell membrane surface are responsiblefor attachment of the cells to each other and to the extracellular matrix. These interactions are crucial forboth structural and functional tissue organization. Lack of this homeostasis destroys the tissue architectureand impairs its function and results in invasion. Abnormal expression of adhesive molecules was reported in allexamined cancers, including endometrial cancer.Endometrial cancer is the most common gynaecological cancer in developed countries. Although in many casesdiagnosed and treated in early stages, and thus with good results, some patients cannot be cured. Completeknowledge of the pathogenesis of the disease will be helpful in identifying the patients with negative prognosticfactors, increased risk of recurrence and, perhaps, to find other therapeutic options. In the paper we are trying tosum up the up-to-date knowledge of the role of adhesive molecules in pathogenesis of endometrial cancer.

  18. DEPRESSION, ANXIETY AND MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION: EVERYTHING JUST BEGINS. PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. A. Vasyuk

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A review is devoted to a comorbidity of myocardial infarction and anxious and depressive disorders. In the first part (Rational Pharmacother. Cardiol. 2007;3:41-51 data concerning prevalence of depression in myocardial infarction, pathophysiological mechanisms connecting depression and ischemic heart disease (IHD were given. Influence of concomitant depressive disorders on clinical state and forecast of patients after myocardial infarction was discussed. The second part of the review is devoted to the anxious disorders in myocardial infarction as well as to influence of anxious and depressive disorders on life quality of patients with myocardial infarction. Besides, contemporary approaches to the therapy of anxious and depressive disorders in patients with IHD are discussed.

  19. GSTARS computer models and their applications, Part II: Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoes, F.J.M.; Yang, C.T.

    2008-01-01

    In part 1 of this two-paper series, a brief summary of the basic concepts and theories used in developing the Generalized Stream Tube model for Alluvial River Simulation (GSTARS) computer models was presented. Part 2 provides examples that illustrate some of the capabilities of the GSTARS models and how they can be applied to solve a wide range of river and reservoir sedimentation problems. Laboratory and field case studies are used and the examples show representative applications of the earlier and of the more recent versions of GSTARS. Some of the more recent capabilities implemented in GSTARS3, one of the latest versions of the series, are also discussed here with more detail. ?? 2008 International Research and Training Centre on Erosion and Sedimentation and the World Association for Sedimentation and Erosion Research.

  20. Operation of industrial electrical substations. Part II: practical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Jimenez, Juan J; Zerquera Izquierdo, Mariano D; Beltran Leon, Jose S; Garcia Martinez, Juan M; Alvarez Urena, Maria V; Meza Diaz, Guillermo [Universidad de Guadalajara (Mexico)]. E-mails: cheosj@yahoo.com; mdzi@hotmail.com; beltran5601@yahoo.com.mx; jmargarmtz@yahoo.com; victory_alvarez@telmexmail.com; depmec@cucei.udg.mx

    2013-03-15

    The practical application of the methodology explained in Part 1 in a Cuban industry is the principal objective of this paper. The calculus of the economical operation of the principal transformers of the industrial plant is shown of the one very easy form, as well as the determination of the equations of the losses when the transformers operate under a given load diagram. It is calculated the state load which will be passed to the operation in parallel. [Spanish] El objetivo principal de este trabajo es la aplicacion practica de la metodologia, en una industria cubana, que se explico en la Parte 1. El calculo de la operacion economica de los principales transformadores de la planta industrial se muestra de una forma muy facil, asi como la determinacion de las ecuaciones de las perdidas cuando los transformadores operan bajo un diagrama de carga dado. Se calcula la carga de estado que se pasa a la operacion en paralelo.

  1. The equivalence myth of quantum mechanics-part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, F. A.

    The author endeavours to show two things: first, that Schrödingers (and Eckarts) demonstration in March (September) 1926 of the equivalence of matrix mechanics, as created by Heisenberg, Born, Jordan and Dirac in 1925, and wave mechanics, as created by Schrödinger in 1926, is not foolproof; and second, that it could not have been foolproof, because at the time matrix mechanics and wave mechanics were neither mathematically nor empirically equivalent. That they were is the Equivalence Myth. In order to make the theories equivalent and to prove this, one has to leave the historical scene of 1926 and wait until 1932, when von Neumann finished his magisterial edifice. During the period 1926-1932 the original families of mathematical structures of matrix mechanics and of wave mechanics were stretched, parts were chopped off and novel structures were added. To Procrustean places we go, where we can demonstrate the mathematical, empirical and ontological equivalence of 'the final versions of' matrix mechanics and wave mechanics. The present paper claims to be a comprehensive analysis of one of the pivotal papers in the history of quantum mechanics: Schrödingers equivalence paper. Since the analysis is performed from the perspective of Suppes structural view ('semantic view') of physical theories, the present paper can be regarded not only as a morsel of the internal history of quantum mechanics, but also as a morsel of applied philosophy of science. The paper is self-contained and presupposes only basic knowledge of quantum mechanics. For reasons of length, the paper is published in two parts; Part I appeared in the previous issue of this journal. Section 1 contains, besides an introduction, also the papers five claims and a preview of the arguments supporting these claims; so Part I, Section 1 may serve as a summary of the paper for those readers who are not interested in the detailed arguments.

  2. Comparison of microstickies measurement methods. Part II, Results and discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendra R. Doshi; Angeles Blanco; Carlos Negro; Concepcion Monte; Gilles M. Dorris; Carlos C. Castro; Axel Hamann; R. Daniel Haynes; Carl Houtman; Karen Scallon; Hans-Joachim Putz; Hans Johansson; R. A. Venditti; K. Copeland; H.-M. Chang

    2003-01-01

    In part I of the article we discussed sample preparation procedure and described various methods used for the measurement of microstickies. Some of the important features of different methods are highlighted in Table 1. Temperatures used in the measurement methods vary from room temperature in some cases, 45 °C to 65 °C in other cases. Sample size ranges from as low as...

  3. Slag Behavior in Gasifiers. Part II: Constitutive Modeling of Slag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massoudi, Mehrdad [National Energy Technology Laboratory; Wang, Ping

    2013-02-07

    The viscosity of slag and the thermal conductivity of ash deposits are among two of the most important constitutive parameters that need to be studied. The accurate formulation or representations of the (transport) properties of coal present a special challenge of modeling efforts in computational fluid dynamics applications. Studies have indicated that slag viscosity must be within a certain range of temperatures for tapping and the membrane wall to be accessible, for example, between 1,300 °C and 1,500 °C, the viscosity is approximately 25 Pa·s. As the operating temperature decreases, the slag cools and solid crystals begin to form. Since slag behaves as a non-linear fluid, we discuss the constitutive modeling of slag and the important parameters that must be studied. We propose a new constitutive model, where the stress tensor not only has a yield stress part, but it also has a viscous part with a shear rate dependency of the viscosity, along with temperature and concentration dependency, while allowing for the possibility of the normal stress effects. In Part I, we reviewed, identify and discuss the key coal ash properties and the operating conditions impacting slag behavior.

  4. Palladium(II) complexes with R(2)edda derived ligands. Part IV. O,O'-dialkyl esters of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-(4-methyl)-pentanoic acid dihydrochloride and their palladium(II) complexes: synthesis, characterization and in vitro antitumoral activity against chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vujić, Jelena M; Cvijović, Milica; Kaluderović, Goran N; Milovanović, Marija; Zmejkovski, Bojana B; Volarević, Vladislav; Arsenijević, Nebojsa; Sabo, Tibor J; Trifunović, Srećko R

    2010-09-01

    Four novel bidentate N,N'-ligand precursors, including O,O'-dialkyl esters (alkyl = ethyl, n-propyl, n-butyl and n-pentyl), L1 x 2 HCl-L4 x 2 HCl, of (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N'-di-2-(4-methyl)-pentanoic acid dihydrochloride [(S,S)-H(4)eddl]Cl(2) and the corresponding palladium(II) complexes 1-4, were prepared and characterized by IR, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. In vitro cytotoxicity of all compounds was determined against chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells (CLL). The compounds were found to exhibit higher antitumoral activity than cisplatin. The most active compound 2, [PdCl(2){(S,S)-nPr(2)eddl}], was found to be 13.6 times more active than cisplatin on CLL cells. 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. 12 CFR Appendix II to Part 27 - Information for Government Monitoring Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... II Appendix II to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Monitoring Purposes The following language is approved by the Comptroller of the Currency and will satisfy... used separately. This information may also be provided orally by the applicant. The following...

  6. 31 CFR Appendix II to Part 13 - Form of Bill for Reimbursement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Form of Bill for Reimbursement II Appendix II to Part 13 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury PROCEDURES FOR... title) of ______ (Country) to participate in the work of ______ (International Organization) or...

  7. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1045 - Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine... Pt. 1045, App. II Appendix II to Part 1045—Duty Cycles for Propulsion Marine Engines (a) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: E4 Mode No. Enginespeed 1 Torque(percent) 2...

  8. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 1039 - Steady-State Duty Cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Steady-State Duty Cycles II Appendix... Appendix II to Part 1039—Steady-State Duty Cycles (a) The following duty cycles apply for constant-speed engines: (1) The following duty cycle applies for discrete-mode testing: D2 mode number Engine speed...

  9. Marketing in the E-Business World, Parts I & II | Smith | LBS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing in the E-Business World, Parts I & II. ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... of many of Americas largest companies gather at the Waldorf Astoria Hotel in New York City for the Conference Boards Annual Marketing Conference.

  10. The year 2012 in the European Heart Journal-Cardiovascular Imaging. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, Sven; Knuuti, Juhani; Edvardsen, Thor; Saraste, Antti; Piérard, Luc A; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2013-07-01

    The part II of the best of the European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging in 2012 specifically focuses on studies of valvular heart diseases, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart diseases.

  11. Unknown facets of Well-Known Scientists Series - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V S Dixit

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available 1st in the series of articles on “Unknown Facets of well-known Scientists” was about Sir Frederick Grant Banting, co-discoverer of Insulin, who also researched in Aviation and Diving Medicines, results of which brought extraordinary benefits for Flight crew during the World War II. The article was published in the previous issue of the Journal Unknown facets could be celebrated attributes, talents or otherwise, but it is necessary that we get to know fully about the “great mind". THIS ARTICLE IS ABOUT DR WERNER THEODOR OTTO FORSSMANN, A CARDIOLOGIST, WHO BECAME A UROLOGIST! Does the name Dr Forssmann ring a bell? He shared the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with “Andre Cournand and Dickinson Richards". The trio was awarded for their “discoveries concerning heart catheterization and pathological changes in the circulatory system". Dr Forssmann was nominated for performing an experiment in which he introduced a catheter into a vein of his arm, further passing it onward into his heart It was risky. This was in the year 1929. Subject of this article is the self-experimentation he carried out and what happened later.

  12. Historia de la Conservación Preventiva. Parte II

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Isabel M.

    2014-01-01

    La segunda parte de la historia de la conservación preventiva comienza en 1990; esta etapa es mucho más corta que la primera,pero más prolífica en materiales, proyectos y publicaciones. Vamos a ver cómo desde sus inicios, la conservación preventiva ha ido cobrando protagonismo en todos los ámbitos relacionados con la preservación y uso del patrimonio. En este artículo vamos a destacar los hitos fundamentales que han conseguido afianzar esta disciplina en los últimos 25 años y valorar- su desa...

  13. Designing carbon markets, Part II: Carbon markets in space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fankhauser, Samuel; Hepburn, Cameron

    2010-01-01

    This paper analyses the design of carbon markets in space (i.e., geographically). It is part of a twin set of papers that, starting from first principles, ask what an optimal global carbon market would look like by around 2030. Our focus is on firm-level cap-and-trade systems, although much of what we say would also apply to government-level trading and carbon offset schemes. We examine the 'first principles' of spatial design to maximise flexibility and to minimise costs, including key design issues in linking national and regional carbon markets together to create a global carbon market.

  14. Heavy lon Reactions The Elementary Processes, Parts I and II

    CERN Document Server

    Broglia, Ricardo A

    2004-01-01

    Combining elastic and inelastic processes with transfer reactions, this two-part volume explores how these events affect heavy ion collisions. Special attention is given to processes involving the transfer of two nucleons, which are specific for probing pairing correlations in nuclei. This novel treatment provides, together with the description of surface vibration and rotations, a unified picture of heavy ion reactions in terms of the elementary modes of nuclear excitation. Heavy Ion Reactions is essential reading for beginning graduate students as well as experienced researchers.

  15. Processes on Uncontrolled Aerodromes and Safety Indicators - Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Plos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article follows on the Part I, where the basic processes on uncontrolled aerodromes were introduced. The uncontrolled aerodromes face with the growing traffic and from that result the higher workload on AFIS officer. This means a higher potential for dangerous situations.The article describes some models of sub-processes and creates several safety indicators related to the operation at uncontrolled aerodromes. Thanks to monitoring and evaluation of safety indicators can be adopted targeted safety measures and thus increase safety on small uncontrolled aerodromes.

  16. Prevention of Dealloying in Manganese Aluminium Bronze Propeller: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napachat Tareelap

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the failure of manganese aluminium bronze (MAB propeller caused by dealloying corrosion as described in Part I [1], this work aims to study the prevention of dealloying corrosion using aluminium and zinc sacrificial anodes. The results indicated that both of the sacrificial anodes could prevent the propeller from dealloying. Moreover, the dealloying in seawater was less than that found in brackish water. It was possible that hydroxide ions, from cathodic reaction, reacted with calcium in seawater to form calcium carbonate film protecting the propeller from corrosion.

  17. Centric relation: concepts revision and recording techniques. Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco Varo, Ana; Arroyo Cruz, Gema; Martinez De Fuentes, Rafael; Ventura de la Torre, Javier; Cañadas Rodríguez, Diego; Jiménez-Castellanos Ballesteros, Emilio

    2008-01-01

    La relación céntrica ha sido objeto de disparidad de criterios en la odontología durante más de un siglo. A lo largo de este trabajo, vamos a exponer diferentes métodos usados tanto para obtener el registro, como para comprobar su certeza y corroborar la posición condilar. Dado que no existe evidencia científica en el tema, en este trabajo, revisaremos los estudios experimentales que aparecen en la literatura. Los hemos divididos en dos partes, la primera relacionada con la definición de rela...

  18. The year's new drugs & biologics 2014 - Part II: trends & challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graul, A I; Serebrov, M; Cruces, E; Tracy, M; Dulsat, C

    2015-02-01

    2014 was a year of continued high activity in the pharma and biotech industry, as evidenced in part I of this annual two-part review article published last month in this journal (1). As of December 23, 2014, a total of 55 new chemical and biological entities had reached their first markets worldwide, together with another 29 important new line extensions. Another 19 products were approved for the first time during the year but not yet launched by December 23. Furthermore, during the now-traditional year-end sprint, several regulatory agencies issued last-minute approvals for other compounds that missed the deadline for inclusion in that article, bringing the total of new approvals for the year to a somewhat higher number. In addition to the successful development, registration and launch of new drugs and biologics, there are various other trends and tendencies that serve as indicators of the overall health and status of the industry. These include the pursuit of novel programs designed by regulators to stimulate the development of drugs for diseases that are currently under-treated; the regular and pragmatic culling by companies of their R&D pipelines; and the decision to unify pipelines, portfolios and sales forces through mergers and acquisitions. Copyright 2015 Prous Science, S.A.U. or its licensors. All rights reserved.

  19. Histologic features of alopecias: part II: scarring alopecias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernárdez, C; Molina-Ruiz, A M; Requena, L

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of disorders of the hair and scalp can generally be made on clinical grounds, but clinical signs are not always diagnostic and in some cases more invasive techniques, such as a biopsy, may be necessary. This 2-part article is a detailed review of the histologic features of the main types of alopecia based on the traditional classification of these disorders into 2 major groups: scarring and nonscarring alopecias. Scarring alopecias are disorders in which the hair follicle is replaced by fibrous scar tissue, a process that leads to permanent hair loss. In nonscarring alopecias, the follicles are preserved and hair growth can resume when the cause of the problem is eliminated. In the second part of this review, we describe the histologic features of the main forms of scarring alopecia. Since a close clinical-pathological correlation is essential for making a correct histopathologic diagnosis of alopecia, we also include a brief description of the clinical features of the principal forms of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  20. The simulation of transients in thermal plant. Part II: Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morini, G.L.; Piva, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the simulation of the transients of thermal plant with control systems. In the companion paper forming part I of this article [G.L. Morini, S. Piva, The simulation of transients in thermal plant. Part I: Mathematical model, Applied Thermal Engineering 27 (2007) 2138-2144] it has been described how a 'thermal-library' of customised blocks can be built and used, in an intuitive way, to study the transients of any kind of thermal plant. Each component of plant such as valves, boilers, and pumps, is represented by a single block. In this paper, the 'thermal-library' approach is demonstrated by the analysis of the dynamic behaviour of a central heating plant of a typical apartment house during a sinusoidal variation of the external temperature. A comparison of the behaviour of such a plant with three way valve working either in flow rate or in temperature control, is presented and discussed. Finally, the results show the delaying effect of the thermal capacity of the building on the performance of the control system

  1. Myosin II dynamics are regulated by tension in intercalating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Simoes, Sérgio de Matos; Röper, Jens-Christian; Eaton, Suzanne; Zallen, Jennifer A

    2009-11-01

    Axis elongation in Drosophila occurs through polarized cell rearrangements driven by actomyosin contractility. Myosin II promotes neighbor exchange through the contraction of single cell boundaries, while the contraction of myosin II structures spanning multiple pairs of cells leads to rosette formation. Here we show that multicellular actomyosin cables form at a higher frequency than expected by chance, indicating that cable assembly is an active process. Multicellular cables are sites of increased mechanical tension as measured by laser ablation. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments show that myosin II is stabilized at the cortex in regions of increased tension. Myosin II is recruited in response to an ectopic force and relieving tension leads to a rapid loss of myosin, indicating that tension is necessary and sufficient for cortical myosin localization. These results demonstrate that myosin II dynamics are regulated by tension in a positive feedback loop that leads to multicellular actomyosin cable formation and efficient tissue elongation.

  2. Enhanced casein kinase II activity in human tumour cell cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowald, K; Fischer, H; Issinger, O G

    1984-01-01

    Casein kinase II (CKII) activity is enhanced as much as 2-3 fold in established and 4-5-fold in transformed human cell lines when compared to that of fibroblasts and primary human tumour cell cultures where CKII activity never exceeded a basic level. The high activity of CKII in transformed cells...

  3. Neuroimage in neuroecthodermic diseases Part II: Tuberous Sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menor, F.; Marti-Bonmati, L.; Poyatos, C.; Cortina, H.; Esteban, J.M.; Vilar, J.

    1993-01-01

    A prospective clinicoradiological study has been carried out in 36 patients with tuberous sclerosis. The neuroimaging studies detected some type of disorder in 94% of patients, contributing significantly to the positive diagnosis of the disease. CT was better for viewing periventricular nodules, while MR was more reliable in disclosing the number and location of cortical and white matter lesions. The use of gadolinium-DTPA in MR demonstrated frequent uptake by the periventricular nodules which was exceptional in the cortical and subcortical lesions. The use of contrast, both in CT and in MR, enhanced the images of the 7 presumed giant-cell astrocytomas detected in 6 patients. Uptake by the tumors was always much greater than that observed in the nodules, being and important criterion for the differentiation between nodules and small tumors. The appearance and topography of these CNS lesions can be reasonably well explained by considering the disease to be a disorder of the migration of dysgenic cells. We have found no consistent correlation between the neuroradiological findings and the clinical evolution of the patients. MR and CT are similarly useful in the diagnosis of tuberous sclerosis. Given that MR is more effective in the detection of the set of intracranial lesions, it could be used as the initial technique, resorting to CT in those cases in which the clinical evidence is highly suggestive and the MR study is negative. Periodic MR control is not justified unless there is suspicion of tumor implantation or growth

  4. Complex dynamics in diatomic molecules. Part II: Quantum trajectories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.-D.; Weng, H.-J.

    2008-01-01

    The second part of this paper deals with quantum trajectories in diatomic molecules, which has not been considered before in the literature. Morse potential serves as a more accurate function than a simple harmonic oscillator for illustrating a realistic picture about the vibration of diatomic molecules. However, if we determine molecular dynamics by integrating the classical force equations derived from a Morse potential, we will find that the resulting trajectories do not consist with the probabilistic prediction of quantum mechanics. On the other hand, the quantum trajectory determined by Bohmian mechanics [Bohm D. A suggested interpretation of the quantum theory in terms of hidden variable. Phys. Rev. 1952;85:166-179] leads to the conclusion that a diatomic molecule is motionless in all its vibrational eigen-states, which also contradicts probabilistic prediction of quantum mechanics. In this paper, we point out that the quantum trajectory of a diatomic molecule completely consistent with quantum mechanics does exist and can be solved from the quantum Hamilton equations of motion derived in Part I, which is based on a complex-space formulation of fractal spacetime [El Naschie MS. A review of E-Infinity theory and the mass spectrum of high energy particle physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;19:209-36; El Naschie MS. E-Infinity theory - some recent results and new interpretations. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2006;29:845-853; El Naschie MS. The concepts of E-infinity. An elementary introduction to the cantorian-fractal theory of quantum physics. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2004;22:495-511; El Naschie MS. SU(5) grand unification in a transfinite form. Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 2007;32:370-374; Nottale L. Fractal space-time and microphysics: towards a theory of scale relativity. Singapore: World Scientific; 1993; Ord G. Fractal space time and the statistical mechanics of random works. Chaos, Soiltons and Fractals 1996;7:821-843] approach to quantum

  5. [Scientific reductionism and social control of mind. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniegra Velázquez, Leonardo

    In the second part of this essay, the progressive subordination of scientific endeavor and knowledge of business and profit is pointed out. For instance, the way facts are prioritized over concepts and ideas in scientific knowledge can translate into technological innovation, central to enterprise competitiveness and key to social mechanisms of control (military, cybernetic, ideological). Overcoming the scientific reductionism approach indicates recognizing the need to define progress in another way, one that infuses scientific knowledge with real liberating and inquisitive power. Power is essential in the search for a more collaborative, inclusive and pluralistic society where respect for human dignity and care for the ecosystem that we live in are prioritized. Copyright © 2014 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  6. The Mechanism of Graviton Exchange between Bodies, Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Javadi, Hossein; Forouzbakhsh, Farshid

    2016-01-01

    Further to Special Relativity, modern physics includes two great theories which describe universe in a new different way. One of them is Quantum Mechanics which describes elementary particles, atoms and molecules and the other one is General Relativity which has been replaced the Newtonian...... Gravitational Law by space-time curvature. Quantum gravity is a part of quantum mechanics which is expected to combine these two theories, and it describes gravity force according to the principles of quantum mechanics which has not got the desired result, yet. In CPH theory, after reconsidering and analyzing...... the behavior of photon in the gravitational field, a new definition of graviton based on carrying the gravity force is given. By using this definition, graviton exchange mechanism between bodies/objects is described. As the purpose of quantum gravity is describing the force of gravity by using the principles...

  7. Pulmonary Surfactants for Acute and Chronic Lung Diseases (Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Rozenberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Part 2 of the review considers the problem of surfactant therapy for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS in adults and young and old children. It gives information on the results of surfactant therapy and prevention of ARDS in patients with severe concurrent trauma, inhalation injuries, complications due to complex expanded chest surgery, or severe pneumonias, including bilateral pneumonia in the presence of A/H1N1 influenza. There are data on the use of a surfactant in obstetric care and prevention of primary graft dysfunction during lung transplantation. The results of longterm use of surfactant therapy in Russia, suggesting that death rates from ARDS may be substantially reduced (to 20% are discussed. Examples of surfactant therapy for other noncritical lung diseases, such as permanent athelectasis, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, and asthma, as well tuberculosis, are also considered.

  8. On the problem of ethnophyletism: a historical study. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venediktov Vadim Yuriyevich

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Holy and Great Council on Crete, 2016 has risen an important issue of Ethnophyletism. Russian, Georgian, Bulgarian, and Antiochian Orthodox Churches delegations were not present at the Great Council and were criticized for Ethnophyletism at the plenary session. The heresy of ethnophyletism was announced by the Council of Constantinople in 1872. Now we can see that it became essential nowadays. The article tells about the origin of this heresy and whether the Ethnophyletism may be decided to be the heresy. The second part of the paper deals with the events on the eve of the Pan-Orthodox Synod in 1872 (since the manifestation of the famous Abdülaziz Sultan's Firman 1870.

  9. Surface grafted chitosan gels. Part II. Gel formation and characterization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Chao; Thormann, Esben; Claesson, Per M.

    2014-01-01

    Responsive biomaterial hydrogels attract significant attention due to their biocompatibility and degradability. In order to make chitosan based gels, we first graft one layer of chitosan to silica, and then build a chitosan/poly(acrylic acid) multilayer using the layer-by-layer approach. After...... cross-linking the chitosan present in the polyelectrolyte multilayer, poly(acrylic acid) is partly removed by exposing the multilayer structure to a concentrated carbonate buffer solution at a high pH, leaving a surface-grafted cross-linked gel. Chemical cross-linking enhances the gel stability against...... detachment and decomposition. The chemical reaction between gluteraldehyde, the cross-linking agent, and chitosan was followed in situ using total internal reflection Raman (TIRR) spectroscopy, which provided a molecular insight into the complex reaction mechanism, as well as the means to quantify the cross...

  10. One-loop effective actions and higher spins. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonora, L.; Cvitan, M.; Prester, P. Dominis; Giaccari, S.; Štemberga, T.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper we continue and improve the analysis of the effective actions obtained by integrating out a scalar and a fermion field coupled to external symmetric sources, started in the previous paper. The first subject we study is the geometrization of the results obtained there, that is we express them in terms of covariant Jacobi tensors. The second subject concerns the treatment of tadpoles and seagull terms in order to implement off-shell covariance in the initial model. The last and by far largest part of the paper is a repository of results concerning all two point correlators (including mixed ones) of symmetric currents of any spin up to 5 and in any dimensions between 3 and 6. In the massless case we also provide formulas for any spin in any dimension.

  11. PERICARDITIS: ETIOLOGY, CLASSIFICATION, CLINIC, DIAGNOSTICS, TREATMENT. PART II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Sugak

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pericarditis maybe caused by different agents: viruses, bacteria, tuberculosis, and it may be autoimmune. All these types of diseases have similar clinical signs, but differ by prevalence, prognosis and medical tactics. Due to achievements of radial methods of visualization, molecular biology, and immunology, we have an opportunity to provide early specific diagnostics and etiological treatment of inflammatory diseases of pericardium. The second part of lecture presents main principles of differential diagnostics of specific types of pericarditis, gives characteristics of several often accruing types of disease, and describes treatment and tactics of management of patients with pericarditis.Key words: children, pericarditis.(Voprosy sovremennoi pediatrii — Current Pediatrics. 2009;8(3:76-81

  12. InGaN High Temperature Photovoltaic Cells, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objectives of this Phase II project are to develop InGaN photovoltaic cells for high temperature and/or high radiation environments to TRL 4 and to define the...

  13. Process maps for plasma spray. Part II: Deposition and properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    XIANGYANG, JIANG; MATEJICEK, JIRI; KULKARNI, ANAND; HERMAN, HERBERT; SAMPATH, SANJAY; GILMORE, DELWYN L.; NEISER A, RICHARD Jr.

    2000-01-01

    This is the second paper of a two part series based on an integrated study carried out at the State University of New York at Stony Brook and Sandia National Laboratories. The goal of the study is the fundamental understanding of the plasma-particle interaction, droplet/substrate interaction, deposit formation dynamics and microstructure development as well as the deposit property. The outcome is science-based relationships, which can be used to link processing to performance. Molybdenum splats and coatings produced at 3 plasma conditions and three substrate temperatures were characterized. It was found that there is a strong mechanical/thermal interaction between droplet and substrate, which builds up the coatings/substrate adhesion. Hardness, thermal conductivity, and modulus increase, while oxygen content and porosity decrease with increasing particle velocity. Increasing deposition temperature resulted in dramatic improvement in coating thermal conductivity and hardness as well as increase in coating oxygen content. Indentation reveals improved fracture resistance for the coatings prepared at higher deposition temperature. Residual stress was significantly affected by deposition temperature, although not significant by particle energy within the investigated parameter range. Coatings prepared at high deposition temperature with high-energy particles suffered considerably less damage in wear tests. Possible mechanisms behind these changes are discussed within the context of relational maps which are under development

  14. Advanced statistics: linear regression, part II: multiple linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marill, Keith A

    2004-01-01

    The applications of simple linear regression in medical research are limited, because in most situations, there are multiple relevant predictor variables. Univariate statistical techniques such as simple linear regression use a single predictor variable, and they often may be mathematically correct but clinically misleading. Multiple linear regression is a mathematical technique used to model the relationship between multiple independent predictor variables and a single dependent outcome variable. It is used in medical research to model observational data, as well as in diagnostic and therapeutic studies in which the outcome is dependent on more than one factor. Although the technique generally is limited to data that can be expressed with a linear function, it benefits from a well-developed mathematical framework that yields unique solutions and exact confidence intervals for regression coefficients. Building on Part I of this series, this article acquaints the reader with some of the important concepts in multiple regression analysis. These include multicollinearity, interaction effects, and an expansion of the discussion of inference testing, leverage, and variable transformations to multivariate models. Examples from the first article in this series are expanded on using a primarily graphic, rather than mathematical, approach. The importance of the relationships among the predictor variables and the dependence of the multivariate model coefficients on the choice of these variables are stressed. Finally, concepts in regression model building are discussed.

  15. Modeling multibody systems with uncertainties. Part II: Numerical applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandu, Corina; Sandu, Adrian; Ahmadian, Mehdi

    2006-01-01

    This study applies generalized polynomial chaos theory to model complex nonlinear multibody dynamic systems operating in the presence of parametric and external uncertainty. Theoretical and computational aspects of this methodology are discussed in the companion paper 'Modeling Multibody Dynamic Systems With Uncertainties. Part I: Theoretical and Computational Aspects .In this paper we illustrate the methodology on selected test cases. The combined effects of parametric and forcing uncertainties are studied for a quarter car model. The uncertainty distributions in the system response in both time and frequency domains are validated against Monte-Carlo simulations. Results indicate that polynomial chaos is more efficient than Monte Carlo and more accurate than statistical linearization. The results of the direct collocation approach are similar to the ones obtained with the Galerkin approach. A stochastic terrain model is constructed using a truncated Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The application of polynomial chaos to differential-algebraic systems is illustrated using the constrained pendulum problem. Limitations of the polynomial chaos approach are studied on two different test problems, one with multiple attractor points, and the second with a chaotic evolution and a nonlinear attractor set. The overall conclusion is that, despite its limitations, generalized polynomial chaos is a powerful approach for the simulation of multibody dynamic systems with uncertainties

  16. The Role of Regulatory Agencies and Intellectual Property: Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Kevin E.

    2015-01-01

    Patent law and antitrust law have traditionally been areas of the law involving at least some inherent tension. Champions of antitrust argue that the patent “monopoly” must be strictly limited as an exception to the general legal principle that competition should be unfettered. Patent lawyers argue that patents are the result of an exercise of congressional authority, enshrined in the Constitution, reflecting the policy decision by the Founders that granting a limited exclusionary right was justified by the public benefits derived from full disclosure of the patented invention. In the modern era these competing values have played out in the context of so-called ANDA litigation, involving disputes between branded pharmaceutical companies and generic competitors. Settlement of such litigation has been identified by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and private parties encouraged by the FTC’s position, as an antitrust violation, in large part because such settlements are viewed as frustrating the congressional purpose in promoting early generic competition. After almost a decade of fighting these battles in the federal courts, the Supreme Court addressed the issue directly. The result is that such settlements are not per se illegal but are also not protected by the presumption of patent validity for activities within the “scope of the patent.” Rather, the court decided that these agreements should be assessed for antitrust liability under the “rule of reason” used in other antitrust contexts. PMID:25775920

  17. Modeling multibody systems with uncertainties. Part II: Numerical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandu, Corina, E-mail: csandu@vt.edu; Sandu, Adrian; Ahmadian, Mehdi [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Mechanical Engineering Department (United States)

    2006-04-15

    This study applies generalized polynomial chaos theory to model complex nonlinear multibody dynamic systems operating in the presence of parametric and external uncertainty. Theoretical and computational aspects of this methodology are discussed in the companion paper 'Modeling Multibody Dynamic Systems With Uncertainties. Part I: Theoretical and Computational Aspects .In this paper we illustrate the methodology on selected test cases. The combined effects of parametric and forcing uncertainties are studied for a quarter car model. The uncertainty distributions in the system response in both time and frequency domains are validated against Monte-Carlo simulations. Results indicate that polynomial chaos is more efficient than Monte Carlo and more accurate than statistical linearization. The results of the direct collocation approach are similar to the ones obtained with the Galerkin approach. A stochastic terrain model is constructed using a truncated Karhunen-Loeve expansion. The application of polynomial chaos to differential-algebraic systems is illustrated using the constrained pendulum problem. Limitations of the polynomial chaos approach are studied on two different test problems, one with multiple attractor points, and the second with a chaotic evolution and a nonlinear attractor set. The overall conclusion is that, despite its limitations, generalized polynomial chaos is a powerful approach for the simulation of multibody dynamic systems with uncertainties.

  18. Oral health in Brazil - Part II: Dental Specialty Centers (CEOs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Pedrazzi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The concepts of health promotion, self-care and community participation emerged during the 1970s and, since then, their application has grown rapidly in the developed world, showing evidence of effectiveness. In spite of this, a major part of the population in the developing countries still has no access to specialized dental care such as endodontic treatment, dental care for patients with special needs, minor oral surgery, periodontal treatment and oral diagnosis. This review focuses on a program of the Brazilian Federal Government named CEOs (Dental Specialty Centers, which is an attempt to solve the dental care deficit of a population that is suffering from oral diseases and whose oral health care needs have not been addressed by the regular programs offered by the SUS (Unified National Health System. Literature published from 2000 to the present day, using electronic searches by Medline, Scielo, Google and hand-searching was considered. The descriptors used were Brazil, Oral health, Health policy, Health programs, and Dental Specialty Centers. There are currently 640 CEOs in Brazil, distributed in 545 municipal districts, carrying out dental procedures with major complexity. Based on this data, it was possible to conclude that public actions on oral health must involve both preventive and curative procedures aiming to minimize the oral health distortions still prevailing in developing countries like Brazil.

  19. A platform for quality management in research institutes (part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klembalska Agnieszka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years there has been a particularly strong pressure on changing old structures and management models in research institutes. Contemporary research institutes are scientific units which are commercial in character – almost 80% of funds come from companies and contractual research activity and services. They are the basic sector of science aiming at cooperation with the economy, applied and innovative research. In order to maintain the current and start new cooperation it is necessary to pay particular attention to maintaining, improving and exposing high level of quality of conducted activity. Taking into consideration the necessity of carrying out ever more complex research projects, conducting activity requiring fast reaction to change, risk analysis, which is assessed every year by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education – it seems that it is necessary to apply tools supporting the assessment of quality. In the proposed three-aspect perspective the following scopes of activity are emphasized: implemented quality management systems, area of scientific information and the sphere of cooperation with the client. This article constitutes the continuation of the subjects discussed in the first part – an extension of issues associated with the scope of responsibilities of particular Sections of the proposed Quality Management Platform in research institutes.

  20. The Role of Regulatory Agencies and Intellectual Property: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noonan, Kevin E

    2015-03-16

    Patent law and antitrust law have traditionally been areas of the law involving at least some inherent tension. Champions of antitrust argue that the patent "monopoly" must be strictly limited as an exception to the general legal principle that competition should be unfettered. Patent lawyers argue that patents are the result of an exercise of congressional authority, enshrined in the Constitution, reflecting the policy decision by the Founders that granting a limited exclusionary right was justified by the public benefits derived from full disclosure of the patented invention. In the modern era these competing values have played out in the context of so-called ANDA litigation, involving disputes between branded pharmaceutical companies and generic competitors. Settlement of such litigation has been identified by the Federal Trade Commission (FTC), and private parties encouraged by the FTC's position, as an antitrust violation, in large part because such settlements are viewed as frustrating the congressional purpose in promoting early generic competition. After almost a decade of fighting these battles in the federal courts, the Supreme Court addressed the issue directly. The result is that such settlements are not per se illegal but are also not protected by the presumption of patent validity for activities within the "scope of the patent." Rather, the court decided that these agreements should be assessed for antitrust liability under the "rule of reason" used in other antitrust contexts. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  1. Practice improvement, part II: update on patient communication technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roett, Michelle A; Coleman, Mary Thoesen

    2013-11-01

    Patient portals (ie, secure web-based services for patient health record access) and secure messaging to health care professionals are gaining popularity slowly. Advantages of web portals include timely communication and instruction, access to appointments and other services, and high patient satisfaction. Limitations include inappropriate use, security considerations, organizational costs, and exclusion of patients who are uncomfortable with or unable to use computers. Attention to the organization's strategic plan and office policies, patient and staff expectations, workflow and communication integration, training, marketing, and enrollment can facilitate optimal use of this technology. Other communication technologies that can enhance patient care include automated voice or text reminders and brief electronic communications. Social media provide another method of patient outreach, but privacy and access are concerns. Incorporating telehealthcare (health care provided via telephone or Internet), providing health coaching, and using interactive health communication applications can improve patient knowledge and clinical outcomes and provide social support. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  2. Cyclopentane combustion. Part II. Ignition delay measurements and mechanism validation

    KAUST Repository

    Rachidi, Mariam El

    2017-06-12

    This study reports cyclopentane ignition delay measurements over a wide range of conditions. The measurements were obtained using two shock tubes and a rapid compression machine, and were used to test a detailed low- and high-temperature mechanism of cyclopentane oxidation that was presented in part I of this study (Al Rashidi et al., 2017). The ignition delay times of cyclopentane/air mixtures were measured over the temperature range of 650–1350K at pressures of 20 and 40atm and equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. The ignition delay times simulated using the detailed chemical kinetic model of cyclopentane oxidation show very good agreement with the experimental measurements, as well as with the cyclopentane ignition and flame speed data available in the literature. The agreement is significantly improved compared to previous models developed and investigated at higher temperatures. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were performed to provide insights into the ignition-controlling chemistry at low, intermediate and high temperatures. The results obtained in this study confirm that cycloalkanes are less reactive than their non-cyclic counterparts. Moreover, cyclopentane, a high octane number and high octane sensitivity fuel, exhibits minimal low-temperature chemistry and is considerably less reactive than cyclohexane. This study presents the first experimental low-temperature ignition delay data of cyclopentane, a potential fuel-blending component of particular interest due to its desirable antiknock characteristics.

  3. Cyclopentane combustion. Part II. Ignition delay measurements and mechanism validation

    KAUST Repository

    Rachidi, Mariam El; Má rmol, Juan C.; Banyon, Colin; Sajid, Muhammad Bilal; Mehl, Marco; Pitz, William J.; Mohamed, Samah; Alfazazi, Adamu; Lu, Tianfeng; Curran, Henry J.; Farooq, Aamir; Sarathy, Mani

    2017-01-01

    This study reports cyclopentane ignition delay measurements over a wide range of conditions. The measurements were obtained using two shock tubes and a rapid compression machine, and were used to test a detailed low- and high-temperature mechanism of cyclopentane oxidation that was presented in part I of this study (Al Rashidi et al., 2017). The ignition delay times of cyclopentane/air mixtures were measured over the temperature range of 650–1350K at pressures of 20 and 40atm and equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0. The ignition delay times simulated using the detailed chemical kinetic model of cyclopentane oxidation show very good agreement with the experimental measurements, as well as with the cyclopentane ignition and flame speed data available in the literature. The agreement is significantly improved compared to previous models developed and investigated at higher temperatures. Reaction path and sensitivity analyses were performed to provide insights into the ignition-controlling chemistry at low, intermediate and high temperatures. The results obtained in this study confirm that cycloalkanes are less reactive than their non-cyclic counterparts. Moreover, cyclopentane, a high octane number and high octane sensitivity fuel, exhibits minimal low-temperature chemistry and is considerably less reactive than cyclohexane. This study presents the first experimental low-temperature ignition delay data of cyclopentane, a potential fuel-blending component of particular interest due to its desirable antiknock characteristics.

  4. Predicting performance in competitive apnea diving, part II: dynamic apnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schagatay, Erika

    2010-03-01

    Part I of this series of articles identified the main physiological factors defining the limits of static apnea, while this paper reviews the factors involved when physical work is added in the dynamic distance disciplines, performed in shallow water in a swimming pool. Little scientific work has been done concerning the prerequisites and limitations of swimming with or without fins whilst breath holding to extreme limits. Apneic duration influences all competitive apnea disciplines, and can be prolonged by any means that increase gas storage or tolerance to asphyxia, or reduce metabolic rate, as reviewed in the first article. For horizontal underwater distance swimming, the main challenge is to restrict metabolism despite the work, and to direct blood flow only to areas where demand is greatest, to allow sustained function. Here, work economy, local tissue energy and oxygen stores and the anaerobic capacity of the muscles are key components. Improvements in swimming techniques and, especially in swimming with fins, equipment have already contributed to enhanced performance and may do so further. High lactate levels observed after competition swims suggest a high anaerobic component, and muscle hypoxia could ultimately limit muscle work and swimming distance. However, the frequency of syncope, especially in swimming without fins, suggests that cerebral oxygenation may often be compromised before this occurs. In these pool disciplines, safety is high and the dive can be interrupted by the competitor or safety diver within seconds. The safety routines in place during pool competitions are described.

  5. Practice improvement, part II: trends in employment versus private practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Mary Thoesen; Roett, Michelle A

    2013-11-01

    A growing percentage of physicians are selecting employment over solo practice, and fewer family physicians have hospital admission privileges. Results from surveys of recent medical school graduates indicate a high value placed on free time. Factors to consider when choosing a practice opportunity include desire for independence, decision-making authority, work-life balance, administrative responsibilities, financial risk, and access to resources. Compensation models are evolving from the simple fee-for-service model to include metrics that reward panel size, patient access, coordination of care, chronic disease management, achievement of patient-centered medical home status, and supervision of midlevel clinicians. When a practice is sold, tangible personal property and assets in excess of liabilities, patient accounts receivable, office building, and goodwill (ie, expected earnings) determine its value. The sale of a practice includes a broad legal review, addressing billing and coding deficiencies, noncompliant contractual arrangements, and potential litigations as well as ensuring that all employment agreements, leases, service agreements, and contracts are current, have been executed appropriately, and meet regulatory requirements. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  6. Fractional Programming for Communication Systems—Part II: Uplink Scheduling via Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Kaiming; Yu, Wei

    2018-05-01

    This two-part paper develops novel methodologies for using fractional programming (FP) techniques to design and optimize communication systems. Part I of this paper proposes a new quadratic transform for FP and treats its application for continuous optimization problems. In this Part II of the paper, we study discrete problems, such as those involving user scheduling, which are considerably more difficult to solve. Unlike the continuous problems, discrete or mixed discrete-continuous problems normally cannot be recast as convex problems. In contrast to the common heuristic of relaxing the discrete variables, this work reformulates the original problem in an FP form amenable to distributed combinatorial optimization. The paper illustrates this methodology by tackling the important and challenging problem of uplink coordinated multi-cell user scheduling in wireless cellular systems. Uplink scheduling is more challenging than downlink scheduling, because uplink user scheduling decisions significantly affect the interference pattern in nearby cells. Further, the discrete scheduling variable needs to be optimized jointly with continuous variables such as transmit power levels and beamformers. The main idea of the proposed FP approach is to decouple the interaction among the interfering links, thereby permitting a distributed and joint optimization of the discrete and continuous variables with provable convergence. The paper shows that the well-known weighted minimum mean-square-error (WMMSE) algorithm can also be derived from a particular use of FP; but our proposed FP-based method significantly outperforms WMMSE when discrete user scheduling variables are involved, both in term of run-time efficiency and optimizing results.

  7. Spike Neural Models Part II: Abstract Neural Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson, Melissa G.

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Neurons are complex cells that require a lot of time and resources to model completely. In spiking neural networks (SNN though, not all that complexity is required. Therefore simple, abstract models are often used. These models save time, use less computer resources, and are easier to understand. This tutorial presents two such models: Izhikevich's model, which is biologically realistic in the resulting spike trains but not in the parameters, and the Leaky Integrate and Fire (LIF model which is not biologically realistic but does quickly and easily integrate input to produce spikes. Izhikevich's model is based on Hodgkin-Huxley's model but simplified such that it uses only two differentiation equations and four parameters to produce various realistic spike patterns. LIF is based on a standard electrical circuit and contains one equation. Either of these two models, or any of the many other models in literature can be used in a SNN. Choosing a neural model is an important task that depends on the goal of the research and the resources available. Once a model is chosen, network decisions such as connectivity, delay, and sparseness, need to be made. Understanding neural models and how they are incorporated into the network is the first step in creating a SNN.

  8. Operational hydrological forecasting in Bavaria. Part II: Ensemble forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehret, U.; Vogelbacher, A.; Moritz, K.; Laurent, S.; Meyer, I.; Haag, I.

    2009-04-01

    In part I of this study, the operational flood forecasting system in Bavaria and an approach to identify and quantify forecast uncertainty was introduced. The approach is split into the calculation of an empirical 'overall error' from archived forecasts and the calculation of an empirical 'model error' based on hydrometeorological forecast tests, where rainfall observations were used instead of forecasts. The 'model error' can especially in upstream catchments where forecast uncertainty is strongly dependent on the current predictability of the atrmosphere be superimposed on the spread of a hydrometeorological ensemble forecast. In Bavaria, two meteorological ensemble prediction systems are currently tested for operational use: the 16-member COSMO-LEPS forecast and a poor man's ensemble composed of DWD GME, DWD Cosmo-EU, NCEP GFS, Aladin-Austria, MeteoSwiss Cosmo-7. The determination of the overall forecast uncertainty is dependent on the catchment characteristics: 1. Upstream catchment with high influence of weather forecast a) A hydrological ensemble forecast is calculated using each of the meteorological forecast members as forcing. b) Corresponding to the characteristics of the meteorological ensemble forecast, each resulting forecast hydrograph can be regarded as equally likely. c) The 'model error' distribution, with parameters dependent on hydrological case and lead time, is added to each forecast timestep of each ensemble member d) For each forecast timestep, the overall (i.e. over all 'model error' distribution of each ensemble member) error distribution is calculated e) From this distribution, the uncertainty range on a desired level (here: the 10% and 90% percentile) is extracted and drawn as forecast envelope. f) As the mean or median of an ensemble forecast does not necessarily exhibit meteorologically sound temporal evolution, a single hydrological forecast termed 'lead forecast' is chosen and shown in addition to the uncertainty bounds. This can be

  9. Glutathione synthesis and homeostasis in isolated type II alveolar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, K.; Warshaw, J.B.; Prough, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    After isolation of Type II cells from neonatal rat lung, the glutathione (GSH) levels in these cells were greatly depressed. The total glutathione content could be increased 5-fold within 12-24 h by incubating the cells in media containing sulfur amino acids. Similarly, the activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase was low immediately after isolation, but was increased 2-fold during the first 24 h culture. Addition of either GSH or GSSG to the culture media increased the GSH content of Type II cells 2-2.5-fold. Buthionine sulfoximine and NaF prevented this replenishment of GSH during 24 h culture. When the rates of de novo synthesis of GSH and GSSG from 35 S-cysteine were measured, the amounts of newly formed GSH decreased to 80% in the presence of GSH or GSSG. This suggests that exogenous GSH/GSSG can be taken up by the Type II cells to replenish the intracellular pool of GSH. Methionine was not as effective as cysteine in the synthesis of GSH. These results suggest that GSH levels in the isolated Type II cell can be maintained by de novo synthesis or uptake of exogenous GSH. Most of the GSH synthesized from cysteine, however, was excreted into the media of the cultured cells indicative of a potential role for the type II cell in export of the non-protein thiol

  10. Synopsis Of The subfamily Spiranthoideae (Orchidaceae) In Colombia, Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duenas Gomez, Hilda del Carmen; Fernandez Alonso, Jose Luis

    2009-01-01

    As second and last contribution to the synoptic treatment of the Spiranthoideae for Colombia, the synopsis of the tribes Spirantheae (subtribes Cyclopogoninae: 3 genera, 41 species and Stenorrhynchidinae: 9 genera, 15 species) and Cranichideae (5 genera, 53 species), is presented. The most diverse genera in these tribes are: Cranichis (20 species), Cyclopogon (17), Ponthieva (15) and Pelexia (14). As part of the results of this study: a)- The transfer of Cybebus from the subtribe Spiranthinae (where it was commonly placed) to the subtribe Stenorhinchidinae, is proposed, based on the floral morphology (the rostellum and viscidium structure). b)- two genera are reported for Colombia as new records, each one with one species: Lyroglossa (L. grisebachii) and Helonoma; for the latter the new combination Helonoma peruviana (Szlach.) Salazar, Duenas and Fern. Alonso is proposed. c) New records in the previously known list of Colombian orchids are presented: Coccineorchis (C. cristata, C. navarrensis), Cyclopogon (C. maldonadoanus, C. olivaceus, C. rimbachii), Pelexia (P. hirta, P. palmorchidis), Ponthieva (P. venusta), and Sarcoglottis (S. grandiflora, S. maasorum, S. neglecta, S. stergiosii). d)- And additional 19 new records of species belonging to Aspidogyne and Microchilus, not reported in Duenas and Fernandez-Alonso (2007), are also included. e)- Finally an analysis of the distribution and diversity of the genera of this subfamily, according to altitude ranges in Colombia is presented. This group has predominant Andean distribution, being found mainly between 1300 and 3600 m of altitude. Genera broadly distributed as Microchilus, Gomphichis, Cyclopogon, Pelexia, Sarcoglottis, Coccineorchis, Stenorrhynchos, Cranichis and Ponthieva, are found almost from the level up to 3000 m, in all the regions of the country. In contrast, Beloglottis, Brachystele, Cybebus, Eltroplectris, Hapalorchis, Helonoma, Lankesterella, Lyroglossa, Kreodanthus, Pteroglossa and Sauroglossum

  11. FNR demonstration experiments Part II: Subcadmium neutron flux measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehe, D.K.; King, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    The FNR HEU-LEU Demonstration Experiments include a comprehensive set of experiments to identify and quantify significant operational differences between two nuclear fuel enrichments. One aspect of these measurements, the subcadmium flux profiling, is the subject of this paper. The flux profiling effort has been accomplished through foil and wire activations, and by rhodium self-powered neutron detector (SPND) mappings. Within the experimental limitations discussed, the program to measure subcadmium flux profiles, lead to the following conclusions: (1) Replacement of a single fresh HEU element by a fresh LEU element at the center of an equilibrium HEU core produces a local flux depression. The ratio of HEU to LEU local flux is 1.19 ± .036, which is, well within experimental uncertainty, equal to the inverse of the U-235 masses for the two elements. (2) Whole core replacement of a large 38 element equilibrium HEU core by a fresh or nearly unburned LEU core reduces the core flux and raises the flux in both D 2 O and H 2 O reflectors. The reduction in the central core region is 40% to 10.0% for the small fresh 29 element LEU core, and 16% to 18% for a 31 element LEU core 482) with low average burnup 2 O reflector fluxes relative to core fluxes as measured by SPND with a fixed value of sensitivity, are in gross disagreement with the same flux ratios measured by Fe and Rh wire activations. Space dependent refinements of S are calculated to give some improvement in the discrepancy but the major part of the correction remains to be resolved

  12. Stress analysis in oral obturator prostheses, part II: photoelastic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; da Silva, Emily Vivianne Freitas; Haddad, Marcela Filié; Moreno, Amália; Zahoui, Abbas; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2014-06-01

    In part I of the study, two attachment systems [O-ring; bar-clip (BC)] were used, and the system with three individualized O-rings provided the lowest stress on the implants and the support tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the stress distribution, through the photoelastic method, on implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses associated with different attachment systems: BOC-splinted implants with a bar connected to two centrally placed O-rings, and BOD-splinted implants with a BC connected to two distally placed O-rings (cantilever). One photoelastic model of the maxilla with oral-sinus-nasal communication with three parallel implants was fabricated. Afterward, two implant-retained palatal obturator prostheses with the two attachment systems described above were constructed. Each assembly was positioned in a circular polariscope and a 100-N axial load was applied in three different regions with implants by using a universal testing machine. The results were obtained through photograph record analysis of stress. The BOD system exhibited the highest stress concentration, followed by the BOC system. The O-ring, centrally placed on the bar, allows higher mobility of the prostheses and homogeneously distributes the stress to the region of the alveolar ridge and implants. It can be concluded that the use of implants with O-rings, isolated or connected with a bar, to rehabilitate maxillectomized patients allows higher prosthesis mobility and homogeneously distributes the stress to the alveolar ridge region, which may result in greater chewing stress distribution to implants and bone tissue. The clinical implication of the augmented bone support loss after maxillectomy is the increase of stress in the attachment systems and, consequently, a higher tendency for displacement of the prosthesis.

  13. Overactive bladder – 18 years – Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Carlos Truzzi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Traditionally, the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome has been based on the use of oral medications with the purpose of reestablishing the detrusor stability. The recent better understanding of the urothelial physiology fostered conceptual changes, and the oral anticholinergics – pillars of the overactive bladder pharmacotherapy – started to be not only recognized for their properties of inhibiting the detrusor contractile activity, but also their action on the bladder afference, and therefore, on the reduction of the symptoms that constitute the syndrome. Beta-adrenergic agonists, which were recently added to the list of drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder, still wait for a definitive positioning – as either a second-line therapy or an adjuvant to oral anticholinergics. Conservative treatment failure, whether due to unsatisfactory results or the presence of adverse side effects, define it as refractory overactive bladder. In this context, the intravesical injection of botulinum toxin type A emerged as an effective option for the existing gap between the primary measures and more complex procedures such as bladder augmentation. Sacral neuromodulation, described three decades ago, had its indication reinforced in this overactive bladder era. Likewise, the electric stimulation of the tibial nerve is now a minimally invasive alternative to treat those with refractory overactive bladder. The results of the systematic literature review on the oral pharmacological treatment and the treatment of refractory overactive bladder gave rise to this second part of the review article Overactive Bladder – 18 years, prepared during the 1st Latin-American Consultation on Overactive Bladder.

  14. Neuromorphic meets neuromechanics, part II: the role of fusimotor drive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalaleddini, Kian; Minos Niu, Chuanxin; Chakravarthi Raja, Suraj; Sohn, Won Joon; Loeb, Gerald E.; Sanger, Terence D.; Valero-Cuevas, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    Objective. We studied the fundamentals of muscle afferentation by building a Neuro-mechano-morphic system actuating a cadaveric finger. This system is a faithful implementation of the stretch reflex circuitry. It allowed the systematic exploration of the effects of different fusimotor drives to the muscle spindle on the closed-loop stretch reflex response. Approach. As in Part I of this work, sensory neurons conveyed proprioceptive information from muscle spindles (with static and dynamic fusimotor drive) to populations of α-motor neurons (with recruitment and rate coding properties). The motor commands were transformed into tendon forces by a Hill-type muscle model (with activation-contraction dynamics) via brushless DC motors. Two independent afferented muscles emulated the forces of flexor digitorum profundus and the extensor indicis proprius muscles, forming an antagonist pair at the metacarpophalangeal joint of a cadaveric index finger. We measured the physical response to repetitions of bi-directional ramp-and-hold rotational perturbations for 81 combinations of static and dynamic fusimotor drives, across four ramp velocities, and three levels of constant cortical drive to the α-motor neuron pool. Main results. We found that this system produced responses compatible with the physiological literature. Fusimotor and cortical drives had nonlinear effects on the reflex forces. In particular, only cortical drive affected the sensitivity of reflex forces to static fusimotor drive. In contrast, both static fusimotor and cortical drives reduced the sensitivity to dynamic fusimotor drive. Interestingly, realistic signal-dependent motor noise emerged naturally in our system without having been explicitly modeled. Significance. We demonstrate that these fundamental features of spinal afferentation sufficed to produce muscle function. As such, our Neuro-mechano-morphic system is a viable platform to study the spinal mechanisms for healthy muscle function—and its

  15. Radiosensitivity of cultured insect cells: II. Diptera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koval, T.M.

    1983-01-01

    The radiosensitivity of five dipteran cell lines representing three mosquito genera and one fruit fly genus were examined. These lines are: (1) ATC-10, Aedes aegypti; (2) RU-TAE-14, Toxorhynchites amboinensis; (3) RU-ASE-2A, Anopheles stephensi; (4) WR69-DM-1, Drosophila melanogaster; and (5) WR69-DM-2, Drosophila melanogaster. Population doubling times for these lines range from approximately 16 to 48 hr. Diploid chromosome numbers are six for the mosquito cells and eight for the fruit fly cells D 0 values are 5.1 and 6.5 Gy for the Drosophila cell lines and 3.6, 6.2, and 10.2 Gy for the mosquito cell lines. The results of this study demonstrate that dipteran insect cells are a few times more resistant to radiation than mammalian cells, but not nearly as radioresistant as lepidopteran cells

  16. Three Mile Island: a report to the commissioners and to the public. Volume II, Part 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This is the third and final part of the second volume of a study of the Three Mile Island accident. Part 3 of Volume II contains descriptions and assessments of responses to the accident by the utility and by the NRC and other government agencies

  17. PGE Production in Southern Africa, Part II: Environmental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedikt Buchspies

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Platinum group elements (PGEs, 6E PGE = Pt + Pd + Rh + Ru + Ir + Au are used in numerous applications that seek to reduce environmental impacts of mobility and energy generation. Consequently, the future demand for PGEs is predicted to increase. Previous studies indicate that environmental impacts of PGE production change over time emphasizing the need of up-to-date data and assessments. In this context, an analysis of environmental aspects of PGE production is needed to support the environmental assessment of technologies using PGEs, to reveal environmental hotspots within the production chain and to identify optimization potential. Therefore, this paper assesses greenhouse gas (GHG emissions, cumulative fossil energy demand (CEDfossil, sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions and water use of primary PGE production in Southern Africa, where most of today’s supply originates from. The analysis shows that in 2015, emissions amounted to 45 t CO2-eq. and 502 kg SO2 per kg 6E PGE in the case GHG and SO2 emissions, respectively. GHG emissions are dominated by emissions from electricity provision contributing more than 90% to the overall GHG emissions. The CEDfossil amounted to 0.60 TJ per kg 6E PGE. A detailed analysis of the CEDfossil reveals that electricity provision based on coal power consumes the most fossil energy carriers among all energy forms. Results show that the emissions are directly related to the electricity demand. Thus, the reduction in the electricity demand presents the major lever to reduce the consumption of fossil energy resources and the emission of GHGs and SO2. In 2015, the water withdrawal amounted to 0.272 million L per kg 6E PGE. Additionally, 0.402 million L of recycled water were used per kg 6E PGE. All assessed indicators except ore grades and production volumes reveal increasing trends in the period from 2010 to 2015. It can be concluded that difficult market conditions (see part I of this paper series and increasing

  18. PIO I-II tendencies. Part 2. Improving the pilot modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan URSU

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study is conceived in two parts and aims to get some contributions to the problem ofPIO aircraft susceptibility analysis. Part I, previously published in this journal, highlighted the mainsteps of deriving a complex model of human pilot. The current Part II of the paper considers a properprocedure of the human pilot mathematical model synthesis in order to analyze PIO II typesusceptibility of a VTOL-type aircraft, related to the presence of position and rate-limited actuator.The mathematical tools are those of semi global stability theory developed in recent works.

  19. MHC class II+ (HLA-DP-like) cells in the cow reproductive tract: II. Immunolocalization of MHC class II+ cells in oviduct and vagina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eren, U; Kum, S; Sandikçi, M; Eren, V; Ilhan, F

    2009-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and examine the distribution of major frequency MHC II+ cells in the oviduct and vagina of cows during the oestrous and dioestrus phases. Right oviduct (ampulla, isthmus) and vaginal samples taken from a total of twenty seven multiparous cows were used. Tissue samples were processed to obtain both cryostat and paraffin sections. Sections were stained immunocytochemically using StreptABC method using a specific monoclonal antibody to MHC II+ cell population. Intra-epithelial and subepithelial areas along with lamina propria, muscularis mucosae and serosa of both ampulla and isthmus and intra-epithelial/subepithelial areas and mucosae of vagina were examined for the presence of MHC II+ cells. The density of immune positive cells was determined using a subjective scoring system. MHC II+ cells were demonstrated in all areas examined in both oestrus and dioestrus. In oestrus, the density of MHC II+ cells decreased in subepithelial areas (in between the epithelial cells and the basal membrane) of isthmus, whereas the density of immune positive cells was increased in muscularis mucosae of isthmus (P < 0.05), lamina propria and muscularis mucosae of ampulla (P < 0.05) as well as in the mucosae of vagina (P II+ cells observed in the oviduct and vagina increases in the majority of areas examined due to the effect of oestrogen.

  20. Distribution of CD163-positive cell and MHC class II-positive cell in the normal equine uveal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sano, Yuto; Matsuda, Kazuya; Okamoto, Minoru; Takehana, Kazushige; Hirayama, Kazuko; Taniyama, Hiroyuki

    2016-02-01

    Antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the uveal tract participate in ocular immunity including immune homeostasis and the pathogenesis of uveitis. In horses, although uveitis is the most common ocular disorder, little is known about ocular immunity, such as the distribution of APCs. In this study, we investigated the distribution of CD163-positive and MHC II-positive cells in the normal equine uveal tract using an immunofluorescence technique. Eleven eyes from 10 Thoroughbred horses aged 1 to 24 years old were used. Indirect immunofluorescence was performed using the primary antibodies CD163, MHC class II (MHC II) and CD20. To demonstrate the site of their greatest distribution, positive cells were manually counted in 3 different parts of the uveal tract (ciliary body, iris and choroid), and their average number was assessed by statistical analysis. The distribution of pleomorphic CD163- and MHC II-expressed cells was detected throughout the equine uveal tract, but no CD20-expressed cells were detected. The statistical analysis demonstrated the distribution of CD163- and MHC II-positive cells focusing on the ciliary body. These results demonstrated that the ciliary body is the largest site of their distribution in the normal equine uveal tract, and the ciliary body is considered to play important roles in uveal and/or ocular immune homeostasis. The data provided in this study will help further understanding of equine ocular immunity in the normal state and might be beneficial for understanding of mechanisms of ocular disorders, such as equine uveitis.

  1. International Working Group on Fast Reactors Thirteenth Annual Meeting. Summary Report. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-10-01

    The Thirteenth Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors was held at the IAEA Headquarters, Vienna, Austria from 9 to 11 April 1980. The Summary Report (Part I) contains the Minutes of the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part II) contains the papers which review the national programme in the field of LMFBRs and other presentations at the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part III) contains the discussions on the review of the national programmes

  2. On the Efficiency of Connection Charges---Part II: Integration of Distributed Energy Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Munoz-Alvarez, Daniel; Garcia-Franco, Juan F.; Tong, Lang

    2017-01-01

    This two-part paper addresses the design of retail electricity tariffs for distribution systems with distributed energy resources (DERs). Part I presents a framework to optimize an ex-ante two-part tariff for a regulated monopolistic retailer who faces stochastic wholesale prices on the one hand and stochastic demand on the other. In Part II, the integration of DERs is addressed by analyzing their endogenous effect on the optimal two-part tariff and the induced welfare gains. Two DER integrat...

  3. Synchrotron X-ray CT characterization of titanium parts fabricated by additive manufacturing. Part II. Defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarlett, Nicola Vivienne Yorke; Tyson, Peter; Fraser, Darren; Mayo, Sheridan; Maksimenko, Anton

    2016-07-01

    Synchrotron X-ray tomography (SXRT) has been applied to the study of defects within three-dimensional printed titanium parts. These parts were made using the Arcam EBM(®) (electron beam melting) process which uses powdered titanium alloy, Ti64 (Ti alloy with approximately 6%Al and 4%V) as the feed and an electron beam for the sintering/welding. The experiment was conducted on the Imaging and Medical Beamline of the Australian Synchrotron. The samples represent a selection of complex shapes with a variety of internal morphologies. Inspection via SXRT has revealed a number of defects which may not otherwise have been seen. The location and nature of such defects combined with detailed knowledge of the process conditions can contribute to understanding the interplay between design and manufacturing strategy. This fundamental understanding may subsequently be incorporated into process modelling, prediction of properties and the development of robust methodologies for the production of defect-free parts.

  4. Repopulation of denuded tracheal grafts with alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    Repopulation of denuded heterotopic tracheal grafts with populations of specific epithelial cell types is one approach to study the differentiation potential of various cell types. This technique has been adopted to delineate the differentiation pathways of alveolar type II cells isolated from rat lungs. Under the conditions of this experiment, the reestablished epithelial lining was alveolar-like, however, ultrastructural analysis of the cells showed them to be like Clara cells. These preliminary results suggest that the secretary cells of the lung parenchyma and terminal airways may share a common ancestry. (author)

  5. ACh-induced hyperpolarization and decreased resistance in mammalian type II vestibular hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppi, Lauren A; Tabatabaee, Hessam; Drury, Hannah R; Jobling, Phillip; Callister, Robert J; Migliaccio, Americo A; Jordan, Paivi M; Holt, Joseph C; Rabbitt, Richard D; Lim, Rebecca; Brichta, Alan M

    2018-01-01

    In the mammalian vestibular periphery, electrical activation of the efferent vestibular system (EVS) has two effects on afferent activity: 1) it increases background afferent discharge and 2) decreases afferent sensitivity to rotational stimuli. Although the cellular mechanisms underlying these two contrasting afferent responses remain obscure, we postulated that the reduction in afferent sensitivity was attributed, in part, to the activation of α9- containing nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (α9*nAChRs) and small-conductance potassium channels (SK) in vestibular type II hair cells, as demonstrated in the peripheral vestibular system of other vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of the predominant EVS neurotransmitter ACh on vestibular type II hair cells from wild-type (wt) and α9-subunit nAChR knockout (α9 -/- ) mice. Immunostaining for choline acetyltransferase revealed there were no obvious gross morphological differences in the peripheral EVS innervation among any of these strains. ACh application onto wt type II hair cells, at resting potentials, produced a fast inward current followed by a slower outward current, resulting in membrane hyperpolarization and decreased membrane resistance. Hyperpolarization and decreased resistance were due to gating of SK channels. Consistent with activation of α9*nAChRs and SK channels, these ACh-sensitive currents were antagonized by the α9*nAChR blocker strychnine and SK blockers apamin and tamapin. Type II hair cells from α9 -/- mice, however, failed to respond to ACh at all. These results confirm the critical importance of α9nAChRs in efferent modulation of mammalian type II vestibular hair cells. Application of exogenous ACh reduces electrical impedance, thereby decreasing type II hair cell sensitivity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Expression of α9 nicotinic subunit was crucial for fast cholinergic modulation of mammalian vestibular type II hair cells. These findings show a multifaceted

  6. Hydrogen Fuel Cells: Part of the Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busby, Joe R.; Altork, Linh Nguyen

    2010-01-01

    With the decreasing availability of oil and the perpetual dependence on foreign-controlled resources, many people around the world are beginning to insist on alternative fuel sources. Hydrogen fuel cell technology is one answer to this demand. Although modern fuel cell technology has existed for over a century, the technology is only now becoming…

  7. Personalized translational epilepsy research - Novel approaches and future perspectives: Part II: Experimental and translational approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Sebastian; van Alphen, Natascha; Becker, Albert; Chiocchetti, Andreas; Deichmann, Ralf; Deller, Thomas; Freiman, Thomas; Freitag, Christine M; Gehrig, Johannes; Hermsen, Anke M; Jedlicka, Peter; Kell, Christian; Klein, Karl Martin; Knake, Susanne; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Liebner, Stefan; Norwood, Braxton A; Omigie, Diana; Plate, Karlheinz; Reif, Andreas; Reif, Philipp S; Reiss, Yvonne; Roeper, Jochen; Ronellenfitsch, Michael W; Schorge, Stephanie; Schratt, Gerhard; Schwarzacher, Stephan W; Steinbach, Joachim P; Strzelczyk, Adam; Triesch, Jochen; Wagner, Marlies; Walker, Matthew C; von Wegner, Frederic; Rosenow, Felix

    2017-11-01

    Despite the availability of more than 15 new "antiepileptic drugs", the proportion of patients with pharmacoresistant epilepsy has remained constant at about 20-30%. Furthermore, no disease-modifying treatments shown to prevent the development of epilepsy following an initial precipitating brain injury or to reverse established epilepsy have been identified to date. This is likely in part due to the polyetiologic nature of epilepsy, which in turn requires personalized medicine approaches. Recent advances in imaging, pathology, genetics, and epigenetics have led to new pathophysiological concepts and the identification of monogenic causes of epilepsy. In the context of these advances, the First International Symposium on Personalized Translational Epilepsy Research (1st ISymPTER) was held in Frankfurt on September 8, 2016, to discuss novel approaches and future perspectives for personalized translational research. These included new developments and ideas in a range of experimental and clinical areas such as deep phenotyping, quantitative brain imaging, EEG/MEG-based analysis of network dysfunction, tissue-based translational studies, innate immunity mechanisms, microRNA as treatment targets, functional characterization of genetic variants in human cell models and rodent organotypic slice cultures, personalized treatment approaches for monogenic epilepsies, blood-brain barrier dysfunction, therapeutic focal tissue modification, computational modeling for target and biomarker identification, and cost analysis in (monogenic) disease and its treatment. This report on the meeting proceedings is aimed at stimulating much needed investments of time and resources in personalized translational epilepsy research. This Part II includes the experimental and translational approaches and a discussion of the future perspectives, while the diagnostic methods, EEG network analysis, biomarkers, and personalized treatment approaches were addressed in Part I [1]. Copyright © 2017

  8. Angiotensin II facilitates breast cancer cell migration and metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Rodrigues-Ferreira

    Full Text Available Breast cancer metastasis is a leading cause of death by malignancy in women worldwide. Efforts are being made to further characterize the rate-limiting steps of cancer metastasis, i.e. extravasation of circulating tumor cells and colonization of secondary organs. In this study, we investigated whether angiotensin II, a major vasoactive peptide both produced locally and released in the bloodstream, may trigger activating signals that contribute to cancer cell extravasation and metastasis. We used an experimental in vivo model of cancer metastasis in which bioluminescent breast tumor cells (D3H2LN were injected intra-cardiacally into nude mice in order to recapitulate the late and essential steps of metastatic dissemination. Real-time intravital imaging studies revealed that angiotensin II accelerates the formation of metastatic foci at secondary sites. Pre-treatment of cancer cells with the peptide increases the number of mice with metastases, as well as the number and size of metastases per mouse. In vitro, angiotensin II contributes to each sequential step of cancer metastasis by promoting cancer cell adhesion to endothelial cells, trans-endothelial migration and tumor cell migration across extracellular matrix. At the molecular level, a total of 102 genes differentially expressed following angiotensin II pre-treatment were identified by comparative DNA microarray. Angiotensin II regulates two groups of connected genes related to its precursor angiotensinogen. Among those, up-regulated MMP2/MMP9 and ICAM1 stand at the crossroad of a network of genes involved in cell adhesion, migration and invasion. Our data suggest that targeting angiotensin II production or action may represent a valuable therapeutic option to prevent metastatic progression of invasive breast tumors.

  9. Charged NUT field : [Part] I. Motion of test particles and [Part] II. Cosmic censorship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krori, K.D.

    1981-01-01

    Some properties of the charged NUT field are studied. In the first part of the paper, some general aspects of the charged NUT field have been investigated using uncharged and charged particles. The behaviour of the particles near the singularity has also been considered. In the second part of the paper, the charged NUT sources in the context of cosmic censorship hypothesis are studied. Motion of charged particles in the equatorial plane and along the axis is considered. From this investigation the interesting result is discovered that by such a bombardment of charged test particles, the existing event horizons cannot be destroyed but, in contrast to the Reissner-Nordstrom field, naked singularities do not get enveloped by event horizons. (author)

  10. Inhibition of Hsp90 acts synergistically with topoisomerase II poisons to increase the apoptotic killing of cells due to an increase in topoisomerase II mediated DNA damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Catherine R; McNamara, Anne V; Rackstraw, Stephen A; Nelson, David E; White, Mike R; Watson, Alastair J M; Jenkins, John R

    2006-01-01

    Topoisomerase II plays a crucial role during chromosome condensation and segregation in mitosis and meiosis and is a highly attractive target for chemotherapeutic agents. We have identified previously topoisomerase II and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) as part of a complex. In this paper we demonstrate that drug combinations targeting these two enzymes cause a synergistic increase in apoptosis. The objective of our study was to identify the mode of cell killing and the mechanism behind the increase in topoisomerase II mediated DNA damage. Importantly we demonstrate that Hsp90 inhibition results in an increased topoiosmerase II activity but not degradation of topoisomerase II and it is this, in the presence of a topoisomerase II poison that causes the increase in cell death. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of action where the inhibition of Hsp90 disrupts the Hsp90-topoisomerase II interaction leading to an increase in and activation of unbound topoisomerase II, which, in the presence of a topoisomerase II poison leads to the formation of an increased number of cleavable complexes ultimately resulting in rise in DNA damage and a subsequent increase cell death.

  11. Inhibition of Hsp90 acts synergistically with topoisomerase II poisons to increase the apoptotic killing of cells due to an increase in topoisomerase II mediated DNA damage

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Catherine R.; McNamara, Anne V.; Rackstraw, Stephen A.; Nelson, David E.; White, Mike R.; Watson, Alastair J. M.; Jenkins, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Topoisomerase II plays a crucial role during chromosome condensation and segregation in mitosis and meiosis and is a highly attractive target for chemotherapeutic agents. We have identified previously topoisomerase II and heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) as part of a complex. In this paper we demonstrate that drug combinations targeting these two enzymes cause a synergistic increase in apoptosis. The objective of our study was to identify the mode of cell killing and the mechanism behind the inc...

  12. Validating the standard for the National Board Dental Examination Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Tsung-Hsun; Neumann, Laura M; Littlefield, John H

    2012-05-01

    As part of the overall exam validation process, the Joint Commission on National Dental Examinations periodically reviews and validates the pass/fail standard for the National Board Dental Examination (NBDE), Parts I and II. The most recent standard-setting activities for NBDE Part II used the Objective Standard Setting method. This report describes the process used to set the pass/fail standard for the 2009 exam. The failure rate on the NBDE Part II increased from 5.3 percent in 2008 to 13.7 percent in 2009 and then decreased to 10 percent in 2010. This article describes the Objective Standard Setting method and presents the estimated probabilities of classification errors based on the beta binomial mathematical model. The results show that the probability of correct classifications of candidate performance is very high (0.97) and that probabilities of false negative and false positive errors are very small (.03 and <0.001, respectively). The low probability of classification errors supports the conclusion that the pass/fail score on the NBDE Part II is a valid guide for making decisions about candidates for dental licensure.

  13. Understanding Medicines: Conceptual Analysis of Nurses' Needs for Knowledge and Understanding of Pharmacology (Part I). Understanding Medicines: Extending Pharmacology Education for Dependent and Independent Prescribing (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathard, Helen L.

    2001-01-01

    Part I reviews what nurses need to know about the administration and prescription of medicines. Part II addresses drug classifications, actions and effects, and interactions. Also discussed are the challenges pharmacological issues pose for nursing education. (SK)

  14. Eclalbasaponin II induces autophagic and apoptotic cell death in human ovarian cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Jin Cho

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Triterpenoids echinocystic acid and its glycosides, isolated from several Eclipta prostrata, have been reported to possess various biological activities such as anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, and anti-diabetic activity. However, the cytotoxicity of the triterpenoids in human cancer cells and their molecular mechanism of action are poorly understood. In the present study, we found that eclalbasaponin II with one glucose moiety has potent cytotoxicity in three ovarian cancer cells and two endometrial cancer cells compared to an aglycone echinocystic acid and eclalbasaponin I with two glucose moiety. Eclalbasaponin II treatment dose-dependently increased sub G1 population. Annexin V staining revealed that eclalbasaponin II induced apoptosis in SKOV3 and A2780 ovarian cancer cells. In addition, eclalbasaponin II-induced cell death was associated with characteristics of autophagy; an increase in acidic vesicular organelle content and elevation of the levels of LC3-II. Interestingly, autophagy inhibitor BaF1 suppressed the eclalbasaponin II-induced apoptosis. Moreover, eclalbasaponin II activated JNK and p38 signaling and inhibited the mTOR signaling. We further demonstrated that pre-treatment with a JNK and p38 inhibitor and mTOR activator attenuated the eclalbasaponin II-induced autophagy. This suggests that eclalbasaponin II induces apoptotic and autophagic cell death through the regulation of JNK, p38, and mTOR signaling in human ovarian cancer cells.

  15. Type II NKT cells: a distinct CD1d-restricted immune regulatory NKT cell subset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Suryasarathi; Kumar, Vipin

    2016-08-01

    Type II natural killer T cells (NKT) are a subset of the innate-like CD1d-restricted lymphocytes that are reactive to lipid antigens. Unlike the type I NKT cells, which express a semi-invariant TCR, type II NKT cells express a broader TCR repertoire. Additionally, other features, such as their predominance over type I cells in humans versus mice, the nature of their ligands, CD1d/lipid/TCR binding, and modulation of immune responses, distinguish type II NKT cells from type I NKT cells. Interestingly, it is the self-lipid-reactivity of type II NKT cells that has helped define their physiological role in health and in disease. The discovery of sulfatide as one of the major antigens for CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells in mice has been instrumental in the characterization of these cells, including the TCR repertoire, the crystal structure of the CD1d/lipid/TCR complex, and their function. Subsequently, several other glycolipids and phospholipids from both endogenous and microbial sources have been shown to activate type II NKT cells. The activation of a specific subset of type II NKT cells following administration with sulfatide or lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) leads to engagement of a dominant immunoregulatory pathway associated with the inactivation of type I NKT cells, conventional dendritic cells, and inhibition of the proinflammatory Th1/Th17 cells. Thus, type II NKT cells have been shown to be immunosuppressive in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory liver diseases, and in cancer. Knowing their relatively higher prevalence in human than type I NKT cells, understanding their biology is imperative for health and disease.

  16. Ocean Thermal Energy Converstion (OTEC) test facilities study program. Final report. Volume II. Part B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1977-01-17

    Results are presented of an 8-month study to develop alternative non-site-specific OTEC facilities/platform requirements for an integrated OTEC test program which may include land and floating test facilities. Volume II--Appendixes is bound in three parts (A, B, and C) which together comprise a compendium of the most significant detailed data developed during the study. Part B provides an annotated test list and describes component tests and system tests.

  17. Starting a hospital-based home health agency: Part II--Key success factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, P

    1993-09-01

    In Part II of a three-part series, the financial, technological and legislative issues of a hospital-based home health-agency are discussed. Beginning a home healthcare service requires intensive research to answer key environmental and operational questions--need, competition, financial projections, initial start-up costs and the impact of delayed depreciation. Assessments involving technology, staffing, legislative and regulatory issues can help project service volume, productivity and cost-control.

  18. Solar cells for space applications (part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    This lecture focusses on qualification and verification tests and procedures on solar cells designed for space applications. The series of tests should produce orbital performance under determined illumination, temperature and irradiance. Tests are divided in outdoor and laboratory experiments. Environmental tests include durability, qualification (mechanical and electrical), I-V curves, Spectral response

  19. Title II, Part A: Don't Scrap It, Don't Dilute It, Fix It

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggshall, Jane G.

    2015-01-01

    The Issue: Washington is taking a close look at Title II, Part A (Title IIA) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) as Congress debates reauthorization. The program sends roughly $2.5 billion a year to all states and nearly all districts to "(1) increase student academic achievement through strategies such as improving teacher…

  20. Instructional Climates in Preschool Children Who Are At-Risk. Part II: Perceived Physical Competence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E.; Rudisill, Mary E.; Goodway, Jacqueline D.

    2009-01-01

    In Part II of this study, we examined the effect of two 9-week instructional climates (low-autonomy [LA] and mastery motivational climate [MMC]) on perceived physical competence (PPC) in preschoolers (N = 117). Participants were randomly assigned to an LA, MMC, or comparison group. PPC was assessed by a pretest, posttest, and retention test with…

  1. High energy physics studies. Progress report. Part I. Experimental program. Part II. Theoretical program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanowski, T.A.; Tanaka, K.; Wada, W.W.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental Program: assembly of an experiment as Fermilab E-531 to measure decay lifetimes, with tagged emulsion of charmed particles produced by high energy neutrinos was finished, and data taking now is in progress. An experiment to measure prompt neutrino production at Fermilab, E-613, was approved and detailed design of it is continuing. Search for parity violation in scattering of polarized protons, an experiment E-446-ZGS at ANL, was performed with the sensitivity of 10 -6 for detection of that process and yielded null results. Another run with improved sensitivity of 10 -7 is in preparation. Data analysis of the neutrino experiment E-310 at Fermilab will continue. Trimuon events, a new discovery, were identified in those data. Analysis of data on meson production from experiments performed at the ZGS--ANL, E-397, E-420 and E-428, with charged and neutral spectrometer will continue. A new relatively broad resonance (T approx. 70 MeV) with quantum numbers IJ/sup P/ = 00 -1 was discovered in the data from E-397. Analysis of beta decay of polarized Σ - hyperons is in progress. Participation in the design of the experimental areas for the Isabelle colliding proton beam accelerator will continue. Theoretical Program: topics of current interest in particle theory which will be investigated in the coming year are: the instanton-anti-instanton QCD gauge fields, discrete symmetries which may determine quark masses in the SU(2) x U(1) model, calculation of charmed meson production in e + e - collisions and formation of gluon jets, Higgs boson production in pp collisions, calculation of Higgs boson mass in terms of vector boson mass, study of Lagrangians with gauge and Higgs scalar fields, investigation of Faddeev--Popov determinants as related to quantum chromodynamics, a study of quantum flavor dynamics and anomalies in the axial vector Ward identity and a study of super symmetry as a part of a realistic model of leptonic interactions

  2. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1979. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 2 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, D.M.

    1981-04-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume II, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-O; Part 2 contains Appendices P-FF. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  3. Crosstalk between type II NKT cells and T cells leads to spontaneous chronic inflammatory liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiufang; He, Ying; Visvabharathy, Lavanya; Liao, Chia-Min; Tan, Xiaosheng; Balakumar, Arjun; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2017-10-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are CD1d-restricted innate-like T cells that modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Unlike the well-characterized invariant/type I NKT cells, type II NKT cells with a diverse T cell receptor repertoire are poorly understood. This study defines the pathogenic role of type II NKT cells in the etiology of chronic liver inflammation. Transgenic mice with the Lck promoter directing CD1d overexpression on T cells in Jα18 wild-type (Lck-CD1dTgJα18 + ; type I NKT cell sufficient) and Jα18-deficient (Lck-CD1dTgJα18 o , type I NKT cell deficient) mice were analyzed for liver pathology and crosstalk between type II NKT cells and conventional T cells. CD1d expression on T cells in peripheral blood samples and liver sections from autoimmune hepatitis patients and healthy individuals were also examined. Lck-CD1dTgJα18 o and Lck-CD1dTgJα18 + mice developed similar degrees of liver pathology resembling chronic autoimmune hepatitis in humans. Increased CD1d expression on T cells promoted the activation of type II NKT cells and other T cells. This resulted in T h 1-skewing and impaired T h 2 cytokine production in type II NKT cells. Dysfunction of type II NKT cells was accompanied by conventional T cell activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, leading to a hepatic T/B lymphocyte infiltration, elevated autoantibodies and hepatic injury in Lck-CD1dTg mice. A similar mechanism could be extended to humans as CD1d expression is upregulated on activated human T cells and increased presence of CD1d-expressing T cells was observed in autoimmune hepatitis patients. Our data reveals enhanced crosstalk between type II NKT cells and conventional T cells, leading to a T h 1-skewed inflammatory milieu, and consequently, to the development of chronic autoimmune liver disease. Lay summary: CD1d overexpression on T cells enhances crosstalk between type II NKT cells and T cells, resulting in their aberrant activation and leading to the

  4. Towards Optimal Diagnosis of Type II Germ Cell Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Stoop (Hans)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the work described in this thesis is to improve the understanding of the pathobiology of testicular cancer (type II Germ Cell Tumors) to create possibilities for optimalization of diagnosis for this type of malignancy in routine pathology laboratories. The different studies

  5. Bloqueio do nervo supraescapular: procedimento importante na prática clínica. Parte II Suprascapular nerve block: important procedure in clinical practice. Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Rassi Fernandes

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O bloqueio do nervo supraescapular é um método de tratamento reprodutível, confiável e extremamente efetivo no controle da dor no ombro. Esse método tem sido amplamente utilizado por profissionais na prática clínica, como reumatologistas, ortopedistas, neurologistas e especialistas em dor, na terapêutica de enfermidades crônicas, como lesão irreparável do manguito rotador, artrite reumatoide, sequelas de AVC e capsulite adesiva, o que justifica a presente revisão (Parte II. O objetivo deste estudo foi descrever as técnicas do procedimento e suas complicações descritas na literatura, já que a primeira parte reportou as indicações clínicas, drogas e volumes utilizados em aplicação única ou múltipla. Apresentamse, detalhadamente, os acessos para a realização do procedimento tanto direto como indireto, anterior e posterior, lateral e medial, e superior e inferior. Diversas são as opções para se realizar o bloqueio do nervo supraescapular. Apesar de raras, as complicações podem ocorrer. Quando bem indicado, este método deve ser considerado.The suprascapular nerve block is a reproducible, reliable, and extremely effective treatment method in shoulder pain control. This method has been widely used by professionals in clinical practice such as rheumatologists, orthopedists, neurologists, and pain specialists in the treatment of chronic diseases such as irreparable rotator cuff injury, rheumatoid arthritis, stroke sequelae, and adhesive capsulitis, which justifies the present review (Part II. The objective of this study was to describe the techniques and complications of the procedure described in the literature, as the first part reported the clinical indications, drugs, and volumes used in single or multiple procedures. We present in details the accesses used in the procedure: direct and indirect, anterior and posterior, lateral and medial, upper and lower. There are several options to perform suprascapular nerve block

  6. An Easy-to-Assemble Three-Part Galvanic Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Per-Odd; Skaugrud, Brit

    2015-01-01

    The galvanic cell presented in this article is made of only three parts, is easy to assemble, and can light a red light emitting diode (LED). The three cell components consist of a piece of paper with copper sulfate, a piece of paper with sodium sulfate, and a piece of magnesium ribbon. Within less than 1 h, students have time to discuss the…

  7. Societal Planning: Identifying a New Role for the Transport Planner-Part II: Planning Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khisty, C. Jotin; Leleur, Steen

    1997-01-01

    The paper seeks to formulate planning guidelines based on Habermas's theory of communicative action. Specifically, this has led to the formulation of a set of four planning validity claims concerned to four types of planning guidelines concerning adequacy, dependency, suitability and adaptability......-a-vis the planning validity claims. Among other things the contingency of this process is outlined. It is concluded (part I & II) that transport planners can conveniently utilize the guidelines in their professional practice, tailored to their particular settings....

  8. Eleventh annual meeting, Bologna, Italy, 17-20 April 1978. Summary report. Part II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-07-01

    The Summary Report - Part II of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors - includes reports on development of fast reactors in France from 1977 to 1978; review of the activities related to fast reactors in Germany; status of fast breeder reactors development in Belgium and Netherlands; status of activities related to fast reactors in USSR, Japan USA, UK and Italy.

  9. The basic science of dermal fillers: past and present Part II: adverse effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Erin; Hui, Andrea; Meehan, Shane; Waldorf, Heidi A

    2012-09-01

    The ideal dermal filler should offer long-lasting aesthetic improvement with a minimal side-effect profile. It should be biocompatible and stable within the injection site, with the risk of only transient undesirable effects from injection alone. However, all dermal fillers can induce serious and potentially long-lasting adverse effects. In Part II of this paper, we review the most common adverse effects related to dermal filler use.

  10. Eleventh annual meeting, Bologna, Italy, 17-20 April 1978. Summary report. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    The Summary Report - Part II of the Eleventh Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Fast Reactors - includes reports on development of fast reactors in France from 1977 to 1978; review of the activities related to fast reactors in Germany; status of fast breeder reactors development in Belgium and Netherlands; status of activities related to fast reactors in USSR, Japan USA, UK and Italy

  11. A thermoelectric power generating heat exchanger: Part II – Numerical modeling and optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Bjørk, Rasmus; Lindeburg, N.

    2016-01-01

    In Part I of this study, the performance of an experimental integrated thermoelectric generator (TEG)-heat exchanger was presented. In the current study, Part II, the obtained experimental results are compared with those predicted by a finite element (FE) model. In the simulation of the integrated...... TEG-heat exchanger, the thermal contact resistance between the TEG and the heat exchanger is modeled assuming either an ideal thermal contact or using a combined Cooper–Mikic–Yovanovich (CMY) and parallel plate gap formulation, which takes into account the contact pressure, roughness and hardness...

  12. Quantitative impact of aerosols on numerical weather prediction. Part II: Impacts to IR radiance assimilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquis, J. W.; Campbell, J. R.; Oyola, M. I.; Ruston, B. C.; Zhang, J.

    2017-12-01

    This is part II of a two-part series examining the impacts of aerosol particles on weather forecasts. In this study, the aerosol indirect effects on weather forecasts are explored by examining the temperature and moisture analysis associated with assimilating dust contaminated hyperspectral infrared radiances. The dust induced temperature and moisture biases are quantified for different aerosol vertical distribution and loading scenarios. The overall impacts of dust contamination on temperature and moisture forecasts are quantified over the west coast of Africa, with the assistance of aerosol retrievals from AERONET, MPL, and CALIOP. At last, methods for improving hyperspectral infrared data assimilation in dust contaminated regions are proposed.

  13. The year 2013 in the European Heart Journal--Cardiovascular Imaging: Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plein, Sven; Edvardsen, Thor; Pierard, Luc A; Saraste, Antti; Knuuti, Juhani; Maurer, Gerald; Lancellotti, Patrizio

    2014-08-01

    The new multi-modality cardiovascular imaging journal, European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging, was created in 2012. Here we summarize the most important studies from the journal's second year in two articles. Part I of the review has summarized studies in myocardial function, myocardial ischaemia, and emerging techniques in cardiovascular imaging. Part II is focussed on valvular heart diseases, heart failure, cardiomyopathies, and congenital heart diseases. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. 40 CFR Appendix III to Part 266 - Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride III Appendix III to Part 266 Protection of Environment... to Part 266—Tier II Emission Rate Screening Limits for Free Chlorine and Hydrogen Chloride Terrain...

  15. TNX GeoSiphon Cell (TGSC-1) Phase II Single Cell Deployment/Demonstration Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, M.A.

    1999-04-15

    This Phase II final report documents the Phase II testing conducted from June 18, 1998 through November 13, 1998, and it focuses on the application of the siphon technology as a sub-component of the overall GeoSiphon Cell technology. [Q-TPL-T-00004

  16. [Functional properties of taste bud cells. Mechanisms of afferent neurotransmission in Type II taste receptor cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanov, R A

    2013-01-01

    Taste Bud cells are heterogeneous in their morphology and functionality. These cells are responsible for sensing a wide variety of substances and for associating detected compounds with a different taste: bitter, sweet, salty, sour and umami. Today we know that each of the five basic tastes corresponds to distinct cell populations organized into three basic morpho-functional cell types. In addition, some receptor cells of the taste bud demonstrate glia-related functions. In this article we expand on some properties of these three morphological receptor cell types. Main focus is devoted to the Type II cells and unusual mechanism for afferent neurotransmission in these cells. Taste cells of the Type II consist of three populations detecting bitter, sweet and umami tastes, and, thus, evoke a serious scientific interest.

  17. Part I: quantum fluctuations in chains of Josephson junctions. Part II: directed aggregation on the Bethe lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Part I studies the effect of quantum fluctuations of the phase on the low temperature behavior of two models of Josephson junction chains with Coulomb interactions taken into account. The first model, which represents a chain of junctions close to a ground plane, is the Hamiltonian version of the two-dimensional XY model in one space and one time dimension. In the second model, the charging energy for a single junction in the chain is just the parallel-plate capacitor energy. It is shown that quantum fluctuations produce exponential decay of the order parameter correlation junction for any finite value of the junction capacitance. Part II deals with two types of directed aggregation on the Bethe lattice - directed diffusion-limited aggregation DDLA and ballistic aggregation (BA). In the DDLA problem on finite lattices, an exact nonlinear recursion relation is constructed for the probability distribution of the density. The mean density tends to zero as the lattice size is taken into infinity. Using a mapping between the model with perfect adhesion on contact and another model with a particular value of the adhesion probability, it is shown that the adhesion probability is irrelevant over an interval of values

  18. Scope Oriented Thermoeconomic analysis of energy systems. Part II: Formation Structure of Optimality for robust design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piacentino, Antonio; Cardona, Ennio

    2010-01-01

    This paper represents the Part II of a paper in two parts. In Part I the fundamentals of Scope Oriented Thermoeconomics have been introduced, showing a scarce potential for the cost accounting of existing plants; in this Part II the same concepts are applied to the optimization of a small set of design variables for a vapour compression chiller. The method overcomes the limit of most conventional optimization techniques, which are usually based on hermetic algorithms not enabling the energy analyst to recognize all the margins for improvement. The Scope Oriented Thermoeconomic optimization allows us to disassemble the optimization process, thus recognizing the Formation Structure of Optimality, i.e. the specific influence of any thermodynamic and economic parameter in the path toward the optimal design. Finally, the potential applications of such an in-depth understanding of the inner driving forces of the optimization are discussed in the paper, with a particular focus on the sensitivity analysis to the variation of energy and capital costs and on the actual operation-oriented design.

  19. Isolation and partial characterisation of a mammalian cell mutant hypersensitive to topoisomerase II inhibitors and X-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, S.M.; Davies, S.L.; Hickson, I.D.; Hall, A.G.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have isolated, following one-step mutagenesis, a Chinese hamster ovary cell mutant hypersensitive to the intercalating agent, adriamycin. This agent exerts at least part of its cytotoxic action via inhibition of the nuclear enzyme, topoisomerase II. The mutant, designated ADR-3, showed hypersensitivity to all classes of topoisomerase II inhibitors, inlcuding actinomycin D, amsacrine (m-AMSA), etoposide (VP16) and mitoxantrone. ADR-3 cells also showed cross-sensitivity to ionizing radiation, but not no UV light. Topoisomerase II activity was elevated to a small but significant degree in ADR-3 cells, and this was reflected in a 1.5-fold higher level of topoisomerase II protein in ADR-3 than in CHO-K1 cells, as judged by Western blotting. ADR-3 cells were hypersensitive to cumene hydroperoxide but cross-resistant to hydrogen peroxide, suggesting possible abnormality in the detoxification of peroxides by glutathione peroxidase or catalase. Glutathione peroxidase activity against hydroperoxide was elevated to a small but significant extent in mutant cells. Catalase levels were not significantly different in ADR-3 and CHO-K1 cells. ADR-3 cells were recessive in hybrids with parental CHO-K1 cells with respect to sensitivity to topoisomerase II inhibitors and X-rays, and represent a different genetic complementation group from the previously reported adriamycin-sensitive mutant, ADR-1. (author). 34 refs.; 5 figs.; 3 tabs

  20. A legacy of struggle: the OSHA ergonomics standard and beyond, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delp, Linda; Mojtahedi, Zahra; Sheikh, Hina; Lemus, Jackie

    2014-11-01

    The OSHA ergonomics standard issued in 2000 was repealed within four months through a Congressional resolution that limits future ergonomics rulemaking. This section continues the conversation initiated in Part I, documenting a legacy of struggle for an ergonomics standard through the voices of eight labor, academic, and government key informants. Part I summarized important components of the standard; described the convergence of labor activism, research, and government action that laid the foundation for a standard; and highlighted the debates that characterized the rulemaking process. Part II explores the anti-regulatory political landscape of the 1990s, as well as the key opponents, power dynamics, and legal maneuvers that led to repeal of the standard. This section also describes the impact of the ergonomics struggle beyond the standard itself and ends with a discussion of creative state-level policy initiatives and coalition approaches to prevent work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in today's sociopolitical context.

  1. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1979. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1 of 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbert, D.M.

    1981-04-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-O; Part 2 contains Appendices P-FF. Separate abstracts have been prepared of each Appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  2. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinga, K.R. (ed.)

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  3. Subseabed disposal program annual report, January-December 1980. Volume II. Appendices (principal investigator progress reports). Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinga, K.R.

    1981-07-01

    Volume II of the sixth annual report describing the progress and evaluating the status of the Subseabed Disposal Program contains the appendices referred to in Volume I, Summary and Status. Because of the length of Volume II, it has been split into two parts for publication purposes. Part 1 contains Appendices A-Q; Part 2 contains Appendices R-MM. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each appendix for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  4. File list: Pol.ALL.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.ALL.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II All cell...,SRX1013886,SRX1013900 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.ALL.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  5. File list: Pol.ALL.20.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.ALL.20.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase II All cell ...//dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.ALL.20.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  6. File list: Pol.ALL.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. Formulation, computation and improvement of steady state security margins in power systems. Part II: Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echavarren, F.M.; Lobato, E.; Rouco, L.; Gomez, T.

    2011-01-01

    A steady state security margin for a particular operating point can be defined as the distance from this initial point to the secure operating limits of the system. Four of the most used steady state security margins are the power flow feasibility margin, the contingency feasibility margin, the load margin to voltage collapse, and the total transfer capability between system areas. This is the second part of a two part paper. Part I has proposed a novel framework of a general model able to formulate, compute and improve any steady state security margin. In Part II the performance of the general model is validated by solving a variety of practical situations in modern real power systems. Actual examples of the Spanish power system will be used for this purpose. The same computation and improvement algorithms outlined in Part I have been applied for the four security margins considered in the study, outlining the convenience of defining a general framework valid for the four of them. The general model is used here in Part II to compute and improve: (a) the power flow feasibility margin (assessing the influence of the reactive power generation limits in the Spanish power system), (b) the contingency feasibility margin (assessing the influence of transmission and generation capacity in maintaining a correct voltage profile), (c) the load margin to voltage collapse (assessing the location and quantity of loads that must be shed in order to be far away from voltage collapse) and (d) the total transfer capability (assessing the export import pattern of electric power between different areas of the Spanish system). (author)

  15. Formulation, computation and improvement of steady state security margins in power systems. Part II: Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Echavarren, F.M.; Lobato, E.; Rouco, L.; Gomez, T. [School of Engineering of Universidad Pontificia Comillas, C/Alberto Aguilera, 23, 28015 Madrid (Spain)

    2011-02-15

    A steady state security margin for a particular operating point can be defined as the distance from this initial point to the secure operating limits of the system. Four of the most used steady state security margins are the power flow feasibility margin, the contingency feasibility margin, the load margin to voltage collapse, and the total transfer capability between system areas. This is the second part of a two part paper. Part I has proposed a novel framework of a general model able to formulate, compute and improve any steady state security margin. In Part II the performance of the general model is validated by solving a variety of practical situations in modern real power systems. Actual examples of the Spanish power system will be used for this purpose. The same computation and improvement algorithms outlined in Part I have been applied for the four security margins considered in the study, outlining the convenience of defining a general framework valid for the four of them. The general model is used here in Part II to compute and improve: (a) the power flow feasibility margin (assessing the influence of the reactive power generation limits in the Spanish power system), (b) the contingency feasibility margin (assessing the influence of transmission and generation capacity in maintaining a correct voltage profile), (c) the load margin to voltage collapse (assessing the location and quantity of loads that must be shed in order to be far away from voltage collapse) and (d) the total transfer capability (assessing the export import pattern of electric power between different areas of the Spanish system). (author)

  16. Three Mile Island: a report to the commissioners and to the public. Volume II, Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This is part one of three parts of the second volume of the Special Inquiry Group's report to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on the accident at Three Mile Island. The first volume contained a narrative description of the accident and a discussion of the major conclusions and recommendations. This second volume is divided into three parts. Part 1 of Volume II focuses on the pre-accident licensing and regulatory background. This part includes an examination of the overall licensing and regulatory system for nuclear powerplants viewed from different perspectives: the system as it is set forth in statutes and regulations, as described in Congressional testimony, and an overview of the system as it really works. In addition, Part 1 includes the licensing, operating, and inspection history of Three Mile Island Unit 2, discussions of relevant regulatory matters, a discussion of specific precursor events related to the accident, a case study of the pressurizer design issue, and an analysis of incentives to declare commercial operation

  17. PIC Simulations in Low Energy Part of PIP-II Proton Linac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanov, Gennady

    2014-07-01

    The front end of PIP-II linac is composed of a 30 keV ion source, low energy beam transport line (LEBT), 2.1 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ), and medium energy beam transport line (MEBT). This configuration is currently being assembled at Fermilab to support a complete systems test. The front end represents the primary technical risk with PIP-II, and so this step will validate the concept and demonstrate that the hardware can meet the specified requirements. SC accelerating cavities right after MEBT require high quality and well defined beam after RFQ to avoid excessive particle losses. In this paper we will present recent progress of beam dynamic study, using CST PIC simulation code, to investigate partial neutralization effect in LEBT, halo and tail formation in RFQ, total emittance growth and beam losses along low energy part of the linac.

  18. Angiotensin II potentiates prostaglandin stimulation of cyclic AMP levels in intact bovine adrenal medulla cells but not adenylate cyclase in permeabilized cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boarder, M R; Plevin, R; Marriott, D B

    1988-10-25

    The level of cyclic AMP in primary cultures of bovine adrenal medulla cells is elevated by prostaglandin E1. Angiotensin II is commonly reported to act on receptors linked to phosphoinositide metabolism or to inhibition of adenylate cyclase. We have investigated the effect of angiotensin II on prostaglandin E1-stimulated cyclic AMP levels in these primary cultures. Rather than reducing cyclic AMP levels, we have found that angiotensin II powerfully potentiates prostaglandin E1-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation in intact cells, both in the presence and absence of phosphodiesterase inhibitors. The 50% maximal response was similar to that for stimulation of phosphoinositide breakdown by angiotensin II in these cultures. The potentiation of stimulated cyclic AMP levels was seen, although to a smaller maximum, with the protein kinase C (Ca2+/phospholipid-dependent enzyme) activating phorbol ester tetradecanoyl phorbolacetate and with the synthetic diacylglycerol 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol; pretreatment (24 h) with active phorbol ester, which would be expected to diminish protein kinase C levels, attenuated the angiotensin II potentiation of cyclic AMP. Using digitonin-permeabilized cells we showed that adenylate cyclase activity was stimulated by prostaglandin E1 with the same dose-response relationship as was cyclic AMP accumulation in intact cells, but the permeabilized cells showed no response to angiotensin II. The results are discussed with respect to the hypothesis that the angiotensin II influence on cyclic AMP levels is mediated, in part, by diacylglycerol stimulation of protein kinase C.

  19. Numerical simulation of projectile impact on mild steel armour plates using LS-DYNA, Part II: Parametric studies

    OpenAIRE

    Raguraman, M; Deb, A; Gupta, NK; Kharat, DK

    2008-01-01

    In Part I of the current two-part series, a comprehensive simulation-based study of impact of Jacketed projectiles on mild steel armour plates has been presented. Using the modelling procedures developed in Part I, a number of parametric studies have been carried out for the same mild steel plates considered in Part I and reported here in Part II. The current investigation includes determination of ballistic limits of a given target plate for different projectile diameters and impact velociti...

  20. Numerical Simulation of Projectile Impact on Mild Steel Armour Platesusing LS-DYNA, Part II: Parametric Studies

    OpenAIRE

    M. Raguraman; A. Deb; N. K. Gupta; D. K. Kharat

    2008-01-01

    In Part I of the current two-part series, a comprehensive simulation-based study of impact of jacketed projectiles on mild steel armour plates has been presented. Using the modelling procedures developed in Part I, a number of parametric studies have been carried out for the same mild steel plates considered in Part I and reported here in Part II. The current investigation includes determination of ballistic limits of a given target plate for different projectile diameters and impact velociti...

  1. Pediatric cancer gone viral. Part II: potential clinical application of oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory K Friedman

    Full Text Available Oncolytic engineered herpes simplex viruses (HSVs possess many biologic and functional attributes that support their use in clinical trials in children with solid tumors. Tumor cells, in an effort to escape regulatory mechanisms that would impair their growth and progression, have removed many mechanisms that would have protected them from virus infection and eventual virus-mediated destruction. Viruses engineered to exploit this weakness, like mutant HSV, can be safely employed as tumor cell killers, since normal cells retain these antiviral strategies. Many preclinical studies and early phase trials in adults demonstrated that oncolytic HSV can be safely used and are highly effective in killing tumor cells that comprise pediatric malignancies, without generating the toxic side effects of nondiscriminatory chemotherapy or radiation therapy. A variety of engineered viruses have been developed and tested in numerous preclinical models of pediatric cancers and initial trials in patients are underway. In Part II of this review series, we examine the preclinical evidence to support the further advancement of oncolytic HSV in the pediatric population. We discuss clinical advances made to date in this emerging era of oncolytic virotherapy.

  2. Radiation protection instruments based on tissue equivalent proportional counters: Part II of an international intercomparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberts, W.G.; Dietz, E.; Guldbakke, S.; Kluge, H.; Schumacher, H.

    1988-04-01

    This report describes the irradiation conditions and procedures of Part II of an international intercomparison of tissue-equivalent proportional counters used for radiation protection measurements. The irradiations took place in monoenergetic reference neutron fields produced by the research reactor and accelerator facilities of the PTB Braunschweig in the range from thermal neutrons to 14.8 MeV. In addition measurements were performed in 60 Co and D 2 O-moderated 252 Cf radiation fields. Prototype instruments from 7 European groups were investigated. The results of the measurements are summarized and compared with the reference data of the irradiations. (orig.) [de

  3. Optimal recombination in genetic algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems: Part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eremeev Anton V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys results on complexity of the optimal recombination problem (ORP, which consists in finding the best possible offspring as a result of a recombination operator in a genetic algorithm, given two parent solutions. In Part II, we consider the computational complexity of ORPs arising in genetic algorithms for problems on permutations: the Travelling Salesman Problem, the Shortest Hamilton Path Problem and the Makespan Minimization on Single Machine and some other related problems. The analysis indicates that the corresponding ORPs are NP-hard, but solvable by faster algorithms, compared to the problems they are derived from.

  4. Social class, political power, and the state: their implications in medicine--parts I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, V

    1976-01-01

    This three part article presents an anlysis of the distribution of power and of the nature of the state in Western industrialized societies and details their implications in medicine. Part I presents a critique of contemporary theories of the Western system of power; discusses the countervailing pluralist and power elite theories, as well as those of bureaucratic and professional control; and concludes with an examination of the Marxist theories of economic determinism, structural determinism, and corporate statism. Part II presents a Marxist theory of the role, nature, and characteristics of state intervention. Part III (which will appear in the next issue of this journal) focuses on the mode of that intervention and the reasons for its growth, with an added analysis of the attributes of state intervention in the health sector, and of the dialectical relationship between its growth and the current fiscal crisis of the state. In all three parts, the focus is on Western European countries and on North America, with many examples and categories from the area of medicine.

  5. Distinct angiotensin II receptor in primary cultures of glial cells from rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raizada, M.K.; Phillips, M.I.; Crews, F.T.; Sumners, C.

    1987-01-01

    Angiotensin II (Ang-II) has profound effects on the brain. Receptors for Ang-II have been demonstrated on neurons, but no relationship between glial cells and Agn-II has been established. Glial cells (from the hypothalamus and brain stem of 1-day-old rat brains) in primary culture have been used to demonstrate the presence of specific Ang-II receptors. Binding of 125 I-Ang-II to glial cultures was rapid, reversible, saturable, and specific for Ang-II. The rank order of potency of 125 I-Ang-II binding was determined. Scatchard analysis revealed a homogeneous population of high-affinity binding sites with a B/sub max/ of 110 fmol/mg of protein. Light-microscopic autoradiography of 125 I-Ang-II binding supported the kinetic data, documenting specific Ang-II receptors on the glial cells. Ang-II stimulated a dose-dependent hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositols in glial cells, an effect mediated by Ang-II receptors. However, Ang-II failed to influence [ 3 H] norepinephrine uptake, and catecholamines failed to regulate Ang-II receptors, effects that occur in neurons. These observations demonstrate the presence of specific Ang-II receptors on the glial cells in primary cultures derived from normotensive rat brain. The receptors are kinetically similar to, but functionally distinct from, the neuronal Ang-II receptors

  6. Effect of mutagen combined action on Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podstavkova, S.; Vlcek, D.; Dubovsky, J.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of UV radiation and UV radiation combined with alkylnitrosourea derivatives (N-methyl-N-nitrosourea and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea) was observed on survival of cells of the algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. In particular, single parts were evaluated of the overall lethal effect - dying of cells before division and dying of cells after division. It was found that the combined action of low doses of UV radiation and alkylnitrosoureas result in a pronounced protective effect which manifests itself by a higher frequency of surviving cells than was that effected by the action of alkylnitrosoureas alone. As a result of combined action with higher doses of UV radiation this effect is lost, and the resultant values will come close to the theoretically anticipated values. This gradual transition from a protective to an additive effect mainly manifests itself by changes in the proportion of cells dying before division. (author)

  7. Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows Part II: Mechanics and Medical Aspects

    CERN Document Server

    Thiriet, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Biology and Mechanics of Blood Flows presents the basic knowledge and state-of-the-art techniques necessary to carry out investigations of the cardiovascular system using modeling and simulation. Part II of this two-volume sequence, Mechanics and Medical Aspects, refers to the extraction of input data at the macroscopic scale for modeling the cardiovascular system, and complements Part I, which focuses on nanoscopic and microscopic components and processes. This volume contains chapters on anatomy, physiology, continuum mechanics, as well as pathological changes in the vasculature walls including the heart and their treatments. Methods of numerical simulations are given and illustrated in particular by application to wall diseases. This authoritative book will appeal to any biologist, chemist, physicist, or applied mathematician interested in the functioning of the cardiovascular system.

  8. Assessing and addressing moral distress and ethical climate Part II: neonatal and pediatric perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerland, Jeanie; Marotta, Kathleen; Peinemann, Mary Anne; Berndt, Andrea; Robichaux, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Moral distress remains a pervasive and, at times, contested concept in nursing and other health care disciplines. Ethical climate, the conditions and practices in which ethical situations are identified, discussed, and decided, has been shown to exacerbate or ameliorate perceptions of moral distress. The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to explore perceptions of moral distress, moral residue, and ethical climate among registered nurses working in an academic medical center. Two versions of the Moral Distress Scale in addition to the Hospital Ethical Climate Survey were used, and participants were invited to respond to 2 open-ended questions. Part I reported the findings among nurses working in adult acute and critical care units. Part II presents the results from nurses working in pediatric/neonatal units. Significant differences in findings between the 2 groups are discussed. Subsequent interventions developed are also presented.

  9. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part II - size estimations for selected markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert

    2014-04-01

    In a series of two contributions, decisive business-related aspects of the current process status to transfer research results on diffractive optical elements (DOEs) into commercial solutions are discussed. In part I, the focus was on the patent landscape. Here, in part II, market estimations concerning DOEs for selected applications are presented, comprising classical spectroscopic gratings, security features on banknotes, DOEs for high-end applications, e.g., for the semiconductor manufacturing market and diffractive intra-ocular lenses. The derived market sizes are referred to the optical elements, itself, rather than to the enabled instruments. The estimated market volumes are mainly addressed to scientifically and technologically oriented optical engineers to serve as a rough classification of the commercial dimensions of DOEs in the different market segments and do not claim to be exhaustive.

  10. Design of site specific radiopharmaceuticals for tumor imaging. (Parts I and II)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dort, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Part I. Synthetic methods were developed for the preparation of several iodinated benzoic acid hydrazides as labeling moieties for indirect tagging of carbonyl-containing bio-molecules and potential tumor-imaging agents. Biodistribution studies conducted in mice on the derivatives having the I-125 label ortho to a phenolic OH demonstrated a rapid in vivo deiodination. Part II. The reported high melanin binding affinity of quinoline and other heterocyclic antimalarial drugs led to the development of many analogues of such molecules as potential melanoma-imaging agents. Once such analogue iodochloroquine does exhibit high melanin binding, but has found limited clinical use due to appreciable accumulation in non-target tissues such as the adrenal cortex and inner ear. This project developed a new series of candidate melanoma imaging agents which would be easier to radio-label, could yield higher specific activity product, and which might demonstrate more favorable pharmacokinetic and dosimetric characteristics compared to iodochloroquine

  11. Tunable, Flexible and Efficient Optimization of Control Pulses for Superconducting Qubits, part II - Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    AsséMat, Elie; Machnes, Shai; Tannor, David; Wilhelm-Mauch, Frank

    In part I, we presented the theoretic foundations of the GOAT algorithm for the optimal control of quantum systems. Here in part II, we focus on several applications of GOAT to superconducting qubits architecture. First, we consider a control-Z gate on Xmons qubits with an Erf parametrization of the optimal pulse. We show that a fast and accurate gate can be obtained with only 16 parameters, as compared to hundreds of parameters required in other algorithms. We present numerical evidences that such parametrization should allow an efficient in-situ calibration of the pulse. Next, we consider the flux-tunable coupler by IBM. We show optimization can be carried out in a more realistic model of the system than was employed in the original study, which is expected to further simplify the calibration process. Moreover, GOAT reduced the complexity of the optimal pulse to only 6 Fourier components, composed with analytic wrappers.

  12. A study of drying and cleaning methods used in preparation for fluorescent penetrant inspection - Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brasche, L.; Lopez, R.; Larson, B.

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent penetrant inspection is the most widely used method for aerospace components such as critical rotating components of gas turbine engines. Successful use of FPI begins with a clean and dry part, followed by a carefully controlled and applied FPI process, and conscientious inspection by well trained personnel. A variety of cleaning methods are in use for cleaning of titanium and nickel parts with selection based on the soils or contamination to be removed. Cleaning methods may include chemical or mechanical methods with sixteen different types studied as part of this program. Several options also exist for use in drying parts prior to FPI. Samples were generated and exposed to a range of conditions to study the effect of both drying and cleaning methods on the flaw response of FPI. Low cycle fatigue (LCF) cracks were generated in approximately 40 nickel and 40 titanium samples for evaluation of the various cleaning methods. Baseline measurements were made for each of the samples using a photometer to measure sample brightness and a UVA videomicroscope to capture digital images of the FPI indications. Samples were exposed to various contaminants, cleaned and inspected. Brightness measurements and digital images were also taken to compare to the baseline data. A comparison of oven drying to flash dry in preparation for FPI has been completed and will be reported in Part I. Comparison of the effectiveness of various cleaning methods for the contaminants will be presented in Part II. The cleaning and drying studies were completed in cooperation with Delta Airlines using cleaning, drying and FPI processes typical of engine overhaul processes and equipment. The work was completed as part of the Engine Titanium Consortium and included investigators from Honeywell, General Electric, Pratt and Whitney, and Rolls Royce

  13. Induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells in a cultured cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Scott, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    The functions of pulmonary type II cells, such as synthesis of pulmonary surfactant and metabolism of inhaled xenobiotics, can be studied in primary isolates of lung cells. However, isolated type II cells, when cultured, quickly lose the phenotypic expressions characteristics of type II cells, including surfactant lipid and protein synthesis and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. A cultured cell line that maintained expression of type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous for the study of such functions as surfactant synthesis and secretion. Such a cell line would allow generation of a large number of homogeneous cells for study. The purpose of the current study was to induce markers of differentiated type II cells in a cultured cell line to facilitate studies of factors that control surfactant synthesis and secretion

  14. Emerging Forms of the Part II of Jonathan Swift's Novel “Gulliver’s Travels”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana Tikhonenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the study of grotesque forms in Jonathan Swift's novel "Gulliver’s Travels" based on the text of part II of the novel "A Voyage to Brobdingnag". On the basis of the selected actual material, displays of the grotesque elements in the semantic field of the work’s text are traced. The grotesque world of the novel is the author's model of mankind, in which J. Swift presents his view not only on the state of the modern system of England, but also on the nature of man in general, reveals the peculiarities of the psychology of human nature, especially human socialization. In part II, the author continues to develop a complex and contradictory picture of human existence in front of the reader, the world of giants appears as an ambivalent system in which the features of an ideal society and ideal ruler, in author’s opinion, with the ugly face of man and society, are marvelously combined.

  15. Mineral resources of parts of the Departments of Antioquia and Caldas, Zone II, Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, R.B.; Feininger, Tomas; Barrero, L.; Dario, Rico H.; ,; Alvarez, A.

    1970-01-01

    The mineral resources of an area of 40,000 sq km, principally in the Department of Antioquia, but including small parts of the Departments of Caldas, C6rdoba, Risaralda, and Tolima, were investigated during the period 1964-68. The area is designated Zone II by the Colombian Inventario Minero Nacional(lMN). The geology of approximately 45 percent of this area, or 18,000 sq km, has been mapped by IMN. Zone II has been a gold producer for centuries, and still produces 75 percent of Colombia's gold. Silver is recovered as a byproduct. Ferruginous laterites have been investigated as potential sources of iron ore but are not commercially exploitable. Nickeliferous laterite on serpentinite near Ure in the extreme northwest corner of the Zone is potentially exploitable, although less promising than similar laterites at Cerro Matoso, north of the Zone boundary. Known deposits of mercury, chromium, manganese, and copper are small and have limited economic potentia1. Cement raw materials are important among nonmetallic resources, and four companies are engaged in the manufacture of portland cement. The eastern half of Zone II contains large carbonate rock reserves, but poor accessibility is a handicap to greater development at present. Dolomite near Amalfi is quarried for the glass-making and other industries. Clay saprolite is abundant and widely used in making brick and tiles in backyard kilns. Kaolin of good quality near La Union is used by the ceramic industry. Subbituminous coal beds of Tertiary are an important resource in the western part of the zone and have good potential for greater development. Aggregate materials for construction are varied and abundant. Deposits of sodic feldspar, talc, decorative stone, and silica are exploited on a small scale. Chrysotils asbestos deposits north of Campamento are being developed to supply fiber for Colombia's thriving asbestos-cement industry, which is presently dependent upon imported fiber. Wollastonite and andalusite are

  16. Type II NKT-TFH cells against Gaucher lipids regulate B-cell immunity and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Shiny; Boddupalli, Chandra Sekhar; Verma, Rakesh; Liu, Jun; Yang, Ruhua; Pastores, Gregory M; Mistry, Pramod K; Dhodapkar, Madhav V

    2015-02-19

    Chronic inflammation including B-cell activation is commonly observed in both inherited (Gaucher disease [GD]) and acquired disorders of lipid metabolism. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying B-cell activation in these settings remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that β-glucosylceramide 22:0 (βGL1-22) and glucosylsphingosine (LGL1), 2 major sphingolipids accumulated in GD, can be recognized by a distinct subset of CD1d-restricted human and murine type II natural killer T (NKT) cells. Human βGL1-22- and LGL1-reactive CD1d tetramer-positive T cells have a distinct T-cell receptor usage and genomic and cytokine profiles compared with the classical type I NKT cells. In contrast to type I NKT cells, βGL1-22- and LGL1-specific NKT cells constitutively express T-follicular helper (TFH) phenotype. Injection of these lipids leads to an increase in respective lipid-specific type II NKT cells in vivo and downstream induction of germinal center B cells, hypergammaglobulinemia, and production of antilipid antibodies. Human βGL1-22- and LGL1-specific NKT cells can provide efficient cognate help to B cells in vitro. Frequency of LGL1-specific T cells in GD mouse models and patients correlates with disease activity and therapeutic response. Our studies identify a novel type II NKT-mediated pathway for glucosphingolipid-mediated dysregulation of humoral immunity and increased risk of B-cell malignancy observed in metabolic lipid disorders. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Seismic risk analysis for General Electric Plutonium Facility, Pleasanton, California. Final report, part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    This report is the second of a two part study addressing the seismic risk or hazard of the special nuclear materials (SNM) facility of the General Electric Vallecitos Nuclear Center at Pleasanton, California. The Part I companion to this report, dated July 31, 1978, presented the seismic hazard at the site that resulted from exposure to earthquakes on the Calaveras, Hayward, San Andreas and, additionally, from smaller unassociated earthquakes that could not be attributed to these specific faults. However, while this study was in progress, certain additional geologic information became available that could be interpreted in terms of the existance of a nearby fault. Although substantial geologic investigations were subsequently deployed, the existance of this postulated fault, called the Verona Fault, remained very controversial. The purpose of the Part II study was to assume the existance of such a capable fault and, under this assumption, to examine the loads that the fault could impose on the SNM facility. This report first reviews the geologic setting with a focus on specifying sufficient geologic parameters to characterize the postulated fault. The report next presents the methodology used to calculate the vibratory ground motion hazard. Because of the complexity of the fault geometry, a slightly different methodology is used here compared to the Part I report. This section ends with the results of the calculation applied to the SNM facility. Finally, the report presents the methodology and results of the rupture hazard calculation

  18. Two-loop renormalization in the standard model, part II. Renormalization procedures and computational techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Actis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany); Passarino, G. [Torino Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica Teorica; INFN, Sezione di Torino (Italy)

    2006-12-15

    In part I general aspects of the renormalization of a spontaneously broken gauge theory have been introduced. Here, in part II, two-loop renormalization is introduced and discussed within the context of the minimal Standard Model. Therefore, this paper deals with the transition between bare parameters and fields to renormalized ones. The full list of one- and two-loop counterterms is shown and it is proven that, by a suitable extension of the formalism already introduced at the one-loop level, two-point functions suffice in renormalizing the model. The problem of overlapping ultraviolet divergencies is analyzed and it is shown that all counterterms are local and of polynomial nature. The original program of 't Hooft and Veltman is at work. Finite parts are written in a way that allows for a fast and reliable numerical integration with all collinear logarithms extracted analytically. Finite renormalization, the transition between renormalized parameters and physical (pseudo-)observables, are discussed in part III where numerical results, e.g. for the complex poles of the unstable gauge bosons, are shown. An attempt is made to define the running of the electromagnetic coupling constant at the two-loop level. (orig.)

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  18. File list: Pol.Liv.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Pol.Prs.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: Pol.Pan.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Pol.Neu.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: Pol.Lng.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: Pol.Unc.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Pol.Unc.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Pol.Lar.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Pol.Prs.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: Pol.Bon.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  8. File list: Pol.Myo.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Pol.Oth.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Pol.Bld.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: Pol.Myo.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Pol.Myo.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  13. File list: Pol.Emb.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  14. File list: Pol.Liv.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: Pol.Kid.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: Pol.Plc.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: Pol.Pan.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  18. File list: Pol.Bon.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Pol.Bld.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  20. File list: Pol.Epd.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  1. File list: Pol.Emb.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  2. File list: Pol.Myo.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  3. File list: Pol.Unc.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  4. File list: Pol.Unc.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  5. File list: Pol.PSC.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  6. File list: Pol.Kid.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  7. File list: Pol.Unc.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  9. File list: Pol.Prs.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  10. File list: Pol.YSt.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  11. File list: Pol.Lng.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  12. File list: Pol.Oth.05.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  15. File list: Pol.Lng.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  16. File list: Pol.Dig.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  17. File list: Pol.CDV.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CDV.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell hg19 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Cardiova...,SRX346933,SRX346936,SRX367018,SRX367016 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.CDV.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  18. Regulated gene expression in cultured type II cells of adult human lung

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Philip L.; Lee, Jae W.; Fang, Xiaohui; Chapin, Cheryl; Allen, Lennell; Segal, Mark R.; Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Gonzales, Linda W.; Kolla, Venkatadri; Matthay, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Alveolar type II cells have multiple functions, including surfactant production and fluid clearance, which are critical for lung function. Differentiation of type II cells occurs in cultured fetal lung epithelial cells treated with dexamethasone plus cAMP and isobutylmethylxanthine (DCI) and involves increased expression of 388 genes. In this study, type II cells of human adult lung were isolated at ∼95% purity, and gene expression was determined (Affymetrix) before and after culturing 5 days...

  19. A comprehensive review and update on the biologic treatment of adult noninfectious uveitis: part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyungmin; Bajwa, Asima; Freitas-Neto, Clovis A; Metzinger, Jamie Lynne; Wentworth, Bailey A; Foster, C Stephen

    2014-11-01

    Treatment of adult, noninfectious uveitis remains a major challenge for ophthalmologists around the world, especially in regard to recalcitrant cases. It is reported to comprise approximately 10% of preventable blindness in the USA. The cause of uveitis can be idiopathic or associated with infectious and systemic disorders. The era of biologic medical therapies provides new options for patients with otherwise treatment-resistant inflammatory eye disease. This two-part review gives a comprehensive overview of the existing medical treatment options for patients with adult, noninfectious uveitis, as well as important advances for the treatment ocular inflammation. Part I covers classic immunomodulation and latest information on corticosteroid therapy. In part II, emerging therapies are discussed, including biologic response modifiers, experimental treatments and ongoing clinical studies for uveitis. The hazard of chronic corticosteroid use in the treatment of adult, noninfectious uveitis is well documented. Corticosteroid-sparing therapies, which offer a very favorable risk-benefit profile when administered properly, should be substituted. Although nothing is currently approved for on-label use in this indication, many therapies, through either translation or novel basic science research, have the potential to fill the currently exposed gaps.

  20. Impact of monovalent cations on soil structure. Part II. Results of two Swiss soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahani, Elham; Emami, Hojat; Keller, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the impact of adding solutions with different potassium and sodium concentrations on dispersible clay, water retention characteristics, air permeability, and soil shrinkage behaviour using two agricultural soils from Switzerland with different clay content but similar organic carbon to clay ratio. Three different solutions (including only Na, only K, and the combination of both) were added to soil samples at three different cation ratio of soil structural stability levels, and the soil samples were incubated for one month. Our findings showed that the amount of readily dispersible clay increased with increasing Na concentrations and with increasing cation ratio of soil structural stability. The treatment with the maximum Na concentration resulted in the highest water retention and in the lowest shrinkage capacity. This was was associated with high amounts of readily dispersible clay. Air permeability generally increased during incubation due to moderate wetting and drying cycles, but the increase was negatively correlated with readily dispersible clay. Readily dispersible clay decreased with increasing K, while readily dispersible clay increased with increasing K in Iranian soil (Part I of our study). This can be attributed to the different clay mineralogy of the studied soils (muscovite in Part I and illite in Part II).

  1. Music in the exercise domain: a review and synthesis (Part II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, Costas I; Priest, David-Lee

    2012-03-01

    Since a 1997 review by Karageorghis and Terry, which highlighted the state of knowledge and methodological weaknesses, the number of studies investigating musical reactivity in relation to exercise has swelled considerably. In this two-part review paper, the development of conceptual approaches and mechanisms underlying the effects of music are explicated (Part I), followed by a critical review and synthesis of empirical work (spread over Parts I and II). Pre-task music has been shown to optimise arousal, facilitate task-relevant imagery and improve performance in simple motoric tasks. During repetitive, endurance-type activities, self-selected, motivational and stimulative music has been shown to enhance affect, reduce ratings of perceived exertion, improve energy efficiency and lead to increased work output. There is evidence to suggest that carefully selected music can promote ergogenic and psychological benefits during high-intensity exercise, although it appears to be ineffective in reducing perceptions of exertion beyond the anaerobic threshold. The effects of music appear to be at their most potent when it is used to accompany self-paced exercise or in externally valid conditions. When selected according to its motivational qualities, the positive impact of music on both psychological state and performance is magnified. Guidelines are provided for future research and exercise practitioners.

  2. The prediction of creep damage in Type 347 weld metal: part II creep fatigue tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spindler, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    Calculations of creep damage under conditions of strain control are often carried out using either a time fraction approach or a ductility exhaustion approach. In part I of this paper the rupture strength and creep ductility data for a Type 347 weld metal were fitted to provide the material properties that are used to calculate creep damage. Part II of this paper examines whether the time fraction approach or the ductility exhaustion approach gives the better predictions of creep damage in creep-fatigue tests on the same Type 347 weld metal. In addition, a new creep damage model, which was developed by removing some of the simplifying assumptions that are made in the ductility exhaustion approach, was used. This new creep damage model is a function of the strain rate, stress and temperature and was derived from creep and constant strain rate test data using a reverse modelling technique (see part I of this paper). It is shown that the new creep damage model gives better predictions of creep damage in the creep-fatigue tests than the time fraction and the ductility exhaustion approaches

  3. Noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II: spectrum of imaging findings.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Killeen, Ronan P

    2012-02-01

    Cardiac computed tomography (CT) has evolved into an effective imaging technique for the evaluation of coronary artery disease in selected patients. Two distinct advantages over other noninvasive cardiac imaging methods include its ability to directly evaluate the coronary arteries and to provide a unique opportunity to evaluate for alternative diagnoses by assessing the extracardiac structures, such as the lungs and mediastinum, particularly in patients presenting with the chief symptom of acute chest pain. Some centers reconstruct a small field of view (FOV) cropped around the heart but a full FOV (from skin to skin in the area irradiated) is obtainable in the raw data of every scan so that clinically relevant noncardiac findings are identifiable. Debate in the scientific community has centered on the necessity for this large FOV. A review of noncardiac structures provides the opportunity to make alternative diagnoses that may account for the patient\\'s presentation or to detect important but clinically silent problems such as lung cancer. Critics argue that the yield of biopsy-proven cancers is low and that the follow-up of incidental noncardiac findings is expensive, resulting in increased radiation exposure and possibly unnecessary further testing. In this 2-part review we outline the issues surrounding the concept of the noncardiac read, looking for noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part I focused on the pros and cons for and against the practice of identifying noncardiac findings on cardiac CT. Part II illustrates the imaging spectrum of cardiac CT appearances of benign and malignant noncardiac pathology.

  4. Influence of collagen type II and nucleus pulposus cells on aggregation and differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.F.; Zandieh Doulabi, B.; Wuisman, P.I.; Bank, R.A.; Helder, M.N.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue microenvironment plays a critical role in guiding local stem cell differentiation. Within the intervertebral disc, collagen type II and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells are two major components. This study aimed to investigate how collagen type II and NP cells affect adipose tissue-derived stem

  5. Up-regulation of hexokinaseII in myeloma cells: targeting myeloma cells with 3-bromopyruvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Ayako; Miki, Hirokazu; Nakamura, Shingen; Harada, Takeshi; Oda, Asuka; Amou, Hiroe; Fujii, Shiro; Kagawa, Kumiko; Takeuchi, Kyoko; Ozaki, Shuji; Matsumoto, Toshio; Abe, Masahiro

    2012-02-01

    Hexokinase II (HKII), a key enzyme of glycolysis, is widely over-expressed in cancer cells. However, HKII levels and its roles in ATP production and ATP-dependent cellular process have not been well studied in hematopoietic malignant cells including multiple myeloma (MM) cells.We demonstrate herein that HKII is constitutively over-expressed in MM cells. 3-bromopyruvate (3BrPA), an inhibitor of HKII, promptly and substantially suppresses ATP production and induces cell death in MM cells. Interestingly, cocultures with osteoclasts (OCs) but not bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt along with an increase in HKII levels and lactate production in MM cells. The enhancement of HKII levels and lactate production in MM cells by OCs were mostly abrogated by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002, suggesting activation of glycolysis in MM cells by OCs via the PI3K-Akt-HKII pathway. Although BMSCs and OCs stimulate MM cell growth and survival, 3BrPA induces cell death in MM cells even in cocultures with OCs as well as BMSCs. Furthermore, 3BrPA was able to diminish ATP-dependent ABC transporter activity to restore drug retention in MM cells in the presence of OCs. These results may underpin possible clinical application of 3BrPA in patients with MM.

  6. Cadmium (II) removal mechanisms in microbial electrolysis cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colantonio, Natalie; Kim, Younggy, E-mail: younggy@mcmaster.ca

    2016-07-05

    Highlights: • Rapid removal of Cd(II) was achieved in 24 h using microbial electrolysis cells. • Cathodic reduction (electrodeposition) of Cd(II) cannot explain the rapid removal. • H{sub 2} evolution in microbial electrolysis cells increases local pH near the cathode. • High local pH induces Cd(OH){sub 2} and CdCO{sub 3} precipitation only with electric current. • Neutral pH caused by low current and depleted substrate dissolves the precipitated Cd. - Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic heavy metal, causing serious environmental and human health problems. Conventional methods for removing cadmium from wastewater are expensive and inefficient for low concentrations. Microbial electrolysis cells (MECs) can simultaneously treat wastewater, produce hydrogen gas, and remove heavy metals with low energy requirements. Lab-scale MECs were operated to remove cadmium under various electric conditions: applied voltages of 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 V; and a fixed cathode potential of −1.0 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Regardless of the electric condition, rapid removal of cadmium was demonstrated (50–67% in 24 h); however, cadmium concentration in solution increased after the electric current dropped with depleted organic substrate under applied voltage conditions. For the fixed cathode potential, the electric current was maintained even after substrate depletion and thus cadmium concentration did not increase. These results can be explained by three different removal mechanisms: cathodic reduction; Cd(OH){sub 2} precipitation; and CdCO{sub 3} precipitation. When the current decreased with depleted substrates, local pH at the cathode was no longer high due to slowed hydrogen evolution reaction (2H{sup +} + 2e{sup −} → H{sub 2}); thus, the precipitated Cd(OH){sub 2} and CdCO{sub 3} started dissolving. To prevent their dissolution, sufficient organic substrates should be provided when MECs are used for cadmium removal.

  7. Multiobjective Optimization for Fixture Locating Layout of Sheet Metal Part Using SVR and NSGA-II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fixture plays a significant role in determining the sheet metal part (SMP spatial position and restraining its excessive deformation in many manufacturing operations. However, it is still a difficult task to design and optimize SMP fixture locating layout at present because there exist multiple conflicting objectives and excessive computational cost of finite element analysis (FEA during the optimization process. To this end, a new multiobjective optimization method for SMP fixture locating layout is proposed in this paper based on the support vector regression (SVR surrogate model and the elitist nondominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II. By using ABAQUS™ Python script interface, a parametric FEA model is established. And the fixture locating layout is treated as design variables, while the overall deformation and maximum deformation of SMP under external forces are as the multiple objective functions. First, a limited number of training and testing samples are generated by combining Latin hypercube design (LHD with FEA. Second, two SVR prediction models corresponding to the multiple objectives are established by learning from the limited training samples and are integrated as the multiobjective optimization surrogate model. Third, NSGA-II is applied to determine the Pareto optimal solutions of SMP fixture locating layout. Finally, a multiobjective optimization for fixture locating layout of an aircraft fuselage skin case is conducted to illustrate and verify the proposed method.

  8. CERN scientists take part in the Tevatron Run II performance review committee

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Tevatron Run II is under way at Fermilab, exploring the high-energy frontier with upgraded detectors that will address some of the biggest questions in particle physics.Until CERN's LHC switches on, the Tevatron proton-antiproton collider is the world's only source of top quarks. It is the only place where we can search for supersymmetry, for the Higgs boson, and for signatures of additional dimensions of space-time. The US Department of Energy (DOE) recently convened a high-level international review committee to examine Fermilab experts' first-phase plans for the accelerator complex. Pictured here with a dipole magnet in CERN's LHC magnet test facility are the four CERN scientists who took part in the DOE's Tevatron review. Left to right: Francesco Ruggiero, Massimo Placidi, Flemming Pedersen, and Karlheinz Schindl. Further information: CERN Courier 43 (1)

  9. Implementing AORN recommended practices for a safe environment of care, part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Lynne

    2014-09-01

    Construction in and around a working perioperative suite is a challenge beyond merely managing traffic patterns and maintaining the sterile field. The AORN "Recommended practices for a safe environment of care, part II" provides guidance on building design; movement of patients, personnel, supplies, and equipment; environmental controls; safety and security; and control of noise and distractions. Whether the OR suite evolves through construction, reconstruction, or remodeling, a multidisciplinary team of construction experts and health care professionals should create a functional plan and communicate at every stage of the project to maintain a safe environment and achieve a well-designed outcome. Emergency preparedness, a facility-wide security plan, and minimization of noise and distractions in the OR also help enhance the safety of the perioperative environment. Copyright © 2014 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Instructional climates in preschool children who are at-risk. Part II: perceived physical competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Leah E; Rudisill, Mary E; Goodway, Jacqueline D

    2009-09-01

    In Part II of this study, we examined the effect of two 9-week instructional climates (low-autonomy [LA] and mastery motivational climate [MMC]) on perceived physical competence (PPC) in preschoolers (N = 117). Participants were randomly assigned to an LA, MMC, or comparison group. PPC was assessed by a pretest, posttest, and retention test with the Pictorial Scale of Perceived Competence and Social Acceptance. A significant Treatment x Time interaction (p < .001) was present, supporting that MMC participants reported significantly higher PPC scores over time, while no positive changes were present in LA and comparison participants. The results show that an MMC leads to psychological benefits related to achievement motivation. These findings should encourage early childhood educators to consider the effect of instructional climates on children's self-perception.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow. Part II: Abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Sanford, Matthew [University of Wisconsin Hospital, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2005-01-01

    Part II of this comprehensive review on magnetic resonance imaging of the elbow discusses the role of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating patients with abnormalities of the ligaments, tendons, and nerves of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can yield high-quality multiplanar images which are useful in evaluating the soft tissue structures of the elbow. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the ulnar collateral ligament and lateral collateral ligament of the elbow with high sensitivity and specificity. Magnetic resonance imaging can determine the extent of tendon pathology in patients with medial epicondylitis and lateral epicondylitis. Magnetic resonance imaging can detect tears of the biceps tendon and triceps tendon and can distinguishing between partial and complete tendon rupture. Magnetic resonance imaging is also helpful in evaluating patients with nerve disorders at the elbow. (orig.)

  12. Repository Planning, Design, and Engineering: Part II-Equipment and Costing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Phillip M; Gunter, Elaine W

    2016-08-01

    Part II of this article discusses and provides guidance on the equipment and systems necessary to operate a repository. The various types of storage equipment and monitoring and support systems are presented in detail. While the material focuses on the large repository, the requirements for a small-scale startup are also presented. Cost estimates and a cost model for establishing a repository are presented. The cost model presents an expected range of acquisition costs for the large capital items in developing a repository. A range of 5,000-7,000 ft(2) constructed has been assumed, with 50 frozen storage units, to reflect a successful operation with growth potential. No design or engineering costs, permit or regulatory costs, or smaller items such as the computers, software, furniture, phones, and barcode readers required for operations have been included.

  13. Mechanical performance of carbon-epoxy laminates. Part II: quasi-static and fatigue tensile properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Tarpani

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In Part II of this work, quasi-static tensile properties of four aeronautical grade carbon-epoxy composite laminates, in both the as-received and pre-fatigued states, have been determined and compared. Quasi-static mechanical properties assessed were tensile strength and stiffness, tenacity (toughness at the maximum load and for a 50% load drop-off. In general, as-molded unidirectional cross-ply carbon fiber (tape reinforcements impregnated with either standard or rubber-toughened epoxy resin exhibited the maximum performance. The materials also displayed a significant tenacification (toughening after exposed to cyclic loading, resulting from the increased stress (the so-called wear-in phenomenon and/or strain at the maximum load capacity of the specimens. With no exceptions, two-dimensional woven textile (fabric pre-forms fractured catastrophically under identical cyclic loading conditions imposed to the fiber tape architecture, thus preventing their residual properties from being determined.

  14. Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining 21st Pacific Asia Conference, PAKDD 2017 Held in Jeju, South Korea, May 23 26, 2017. Proceedings Part I, Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-27

    Data Mining 21’’ Pacific-Asia Conference, PAKDD 2017Jeju, South Korea, May 23-26, Sb. GRANT NUMBER 2017 Proceedings, Part I, Part II Sc. PROGRAM...Springer; Switzerland. 14. ABSTRACT The Pacific-Asia Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining (PAKDD) is a leading international conference...in the areas of knowledge discovery and data mining (KDD). We had three keynote speeches, delivered by Sang Cha from Seoul National University

  15. Inhibition of B cell proliferation by antisense DNA to both alpha and beta forms of Fc epsilon R II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatti, L; Behle, K; Stevens, R H

    1992-10-01

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) infection activates B lymphocyte proliferation through partially understood mechanisms, resulting in phenotypic changes, including the appearance of new antigens. One such antigen is Fc epsilon R II/CD-23 which may be relevant for B cell proliferation. We have used anti-sense oligonucleotides to study the importance of the two forms of this molecule for proliferation in the EBV-transformed, Fc epsilon R II +ve lymphoblastoid B cell line, RPMI 8866. Anti-sense oligodeoxynucleotides were generated to the two forms of Fc epsilon R II; Fc epsilon R IIa (alpha) and IIb (beta) which differ only in their intracytoplasmic domains. Addition of increasing concentrations of anti-sense oligonucleotides, ranging from 1 to 30 microM, significantly decreased cellular proliferation as measured by the incorporation of [3H]thymidine (inhibition range 8-88%). Optimum inhibition of cellular proliferation was apparent at 15 microM concentration of both anti-sense Fc epsilon R IIa and IIb (Fc epsilon R IIa, mean +/- SE = 75 +/- 7% inhibition, p less than 0.001; Fc epsilon R IIb, mean +/- SE = 71 +/- 7% inhibition, p less than 0.001). Anti-sense oligonucleotides complementary to the common part of Fc epsilon R II resulted in a similar inhibition of proliferation. Sense oligonucleotides did not induce significant inhibition. Preincubation of sense and anti-sense oligonucleotides resulted in an abrogation of proliferation inhibition. Moreover, none of these oligonucleotides had any effect on a Fc epsilon R II -ve cell line. Incubation with both anti-sense IIa and IIb resulted in additive, but not synergistic inhibition of proliferation. Addition of soluble Fc epsilon R II did not reverse inhibition of proliferation, suggesting that membrane-bound or intracellular rather than soluble Fc epsilon R II was important for the induced proliferation. Analysis of cell surface expression for Fc epsilon II indicated that while there was a pronounced effect on cell number

  16. MHC class II polymorphisms, autoreactive T-cells and autoimmunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue eTsai

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Major histocompatibility complex (MHC genes, also known as human leukocyte antigen genes (HLA in humans, are the prevailing contributors of genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases such as Type 1 Diabetes (T1D, Multiple Sclerosis (MS, and Rheumatoid arthritis (RA, among others (Todd and Wicker, 2001;MacKay et al., 2002;Hafler et al., 2007. Although the pathways through which MHC molecules afford autoimmune risk or resistance remain to be fully mapped out, it is generally accepted that they do so by shaping the central and peripheral T cell repertoires of the host towards autoimmune proclivity or resistance, respectively. Disease-predisposing MHC alleles would both spare autoreactive thymocytes from central tolerance and bias their development towards a pathogenic phenotype. Protective MHC alleles, on the other hand, would promote central deletion of autoreactive thymocytes and skew their development towards non-pathogenic phenotypes. This interpretation of the data is at odds with two other observations: that in MHC-heterozygous individuals, resistance is dominant over susceptibility; and that it is difficult to understand how deletion of one or a few clonal autoreactive T cell types would suffice to curb autoimmune responses driven by hundreds if not thousands of autoreactive T cell specificities. This review provides an update on current advances in our understanding of the mechanisms underlying MHC class II-associated autoimmune disease susceptibility and/or resistance and attempts to reconcile these seemingly opposing concepts.

  17. II-IV-V Based Thin Film Tandem Photovoltaic Cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newman, Nathan [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States); van Schilfgaarde, Mark [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2012-10-04

    [Through a combination of theory and experiment that, absent unknown mitigating factors, a tandem cell whose (wide-gap. 1.8 eV) top layer is made of ZnSnP2 and whose (narrow gap, 1.1 eV) bottom layer consisting of ZnGeAs2 are near-ideal materials for a tandem cell. Not only are there gaps optimally adjusted to the solar spectrum, but the two compounds are lattice-matched, and their energy band structure and optical absorption are also near-ideal (they closely resemble that of GaAs). Our first major challenge is to establish that high-quality II-IV-V thin films can be synthesized. We have begun growing and characterizing films of ZnGeAs2 and ZnSnP2, initially grown on Ge substrates (the lattice constant of Ge matches these compounds) by pulsed laser ablation and sputtering. In tandem are theoretical calculations to guide the experiments. The goal is to develop methods that can be used to produce a pair of lattice-matched thin films that will be useful in tandem cells.

  18. International Working Group on Fast Reactors Eight Annual Meeting, Vienna, Austria, 15-18 April 1975. Summary Report. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-07-01

    The Eighth Annual Meeting of the IAEA International Working Group on Past Reactors was held at the IAEA Headquarters in Vienna, Austria, from 15 to 18 April 1975. The Summary Report (Part I) contains the Minutes of the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part II) contains the papers which review the national programmes in the field of LMPBR’s and other presentations at the Meeting. The Summary Report (Part III) contains the discussions on the review of the national programmes

  19. Tobacco control and gender in south-east Asia. Part II: Singapore and Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Martha; Barraclough, Simon

    2003-12-01

    In the World Health Organization's Western Pacific Region, being born male is the single greatest risk marker for tobacco use. While the literature demonstrates that risks associated with tobacco use may vary according to sex, gender refers to the socially determined roles and responsibilities of men and women, who initiate, continue and quit using tobacco for complex and often different reasons. Cigarette advertising frequently appeals to gender roles. Yet tobacco control policy tends to be gender-blind. Using a broad, gender-sensitivity framework, this contradiction is explored in four Western Pacific countries. Part I of the study presented the rationale, methodology and design of the study, discussed issues surrounding gender and tobacco, and analysed developments in Malaysia and the Philippines (see the previous issue of this journal). Part II deals with Singapore and Vietnam. In all four countries gender was salient for the initiation and maintenance of smoking. Yet, with a few exceptions, gender was largely unrecognized in control policy. Suggestions for overcoming this weakness in order to enhance tobacco control are made.

  20. Interview-Based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L.; Meisel, Zachary; Choo, Esther K.; Garro, Aris; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow, Kathleen

    2015-01-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. PMID:26284572

  1. A case study of packaging waste collection systems in Portugal - Part II: Environmental and economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Ana; Sargedas, João; Miguel, Mécia; Pina, Joaquim; Martinho, Graça

    2017-03-01

    An understanding of the environmental impacts and costs related to waste collection is needed to ensure that existing waste collection schemes are the most appropriate with regard to both environment and cost. This paper is Part II of a three-part study of a mixed packaging waste collection system (curbside plus bring collection). Here, the mixed collection system is compared to an exclusive curbside system and an exclusive bring system. The scenarios were assessed using life cycle assessment and an assessment of costs to the waste management company. The analysis focuses on the collection itself so as to be relevant to waste managers and decision-makers who are involved only in this step of the packaging life cycle. The results show that the bring system has lower environmental impacts and lower economic costs, and is capable of reducing the environmental impacts of the mixed system. However, a sensitivity analysis shows that these results could differ if the curbside collection were to be optimized. From economic and environmental perspectives, the mixed system has few advantages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Adaptive Core Simulation Employing Discrete Inverse Theory - Part II: Numerical Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Khalik, Hany S.; Turinsky, Paul J.

    2005-01-01

    Use of adaptive simulation is intended to improve the fidelity and robustness of important core attribute predictions such as core power distribution, thermal margins, and core reactivity. Adaptive simulation utilizes a selected set of past and current reactor measurements of reactor observables, i.e., in-core instrumentation readings, to adapt the simulation in a meaningful way. The companion paper, ''Adaptive Core Simulation Employing Discrete Inverse Theory - Part I: Theory,'' describes in detail the theoretical background of the proposed adaptive techniques. This paper, Part II, demonstrates several computational experiments conducted to assess the fidelity and robustness of the proposed techniques. The intent is to check the ability of the adapted core simulator model to predict future core observables that are not included in the adaption or core observables that are recorded at core conditions that differ from those at which adaption is completed. Also, this paper demonstrates successful utilization of an efficient sensitivity analysis approach to calculate the sensitivity information required to perform the adaption for millions of input core parameters. Finally, this paper illustrates a useful application for adaptive simulation - reducing the inconsistencies between two different core simulator code systems, where the multitudes of input data to one code are adjusted to enhance the agreement between both codes for important core attributes, i.e., core reactivity and power distribution. Also demonstrated is the robustness of such an application

  3. Interview-based Qualitative Research in Emergency Care Part II: Data Collection, Analysis and Results Reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Megan L; Meisel, Zachary F; Choo, Esther K; Garro, Aris C; Sasson, Comilla; Morrow Guthrie, Kate

    2015-09-01

    Qualitative methods are increasingly being used in emergency care research. Rigorous qualitative methods can play a critical role in advancing the emergency care research agenda by allowing investigators to generate hypotheses, gain an in-depth understanding of health problems or specific populations, create expert consensus, and develop new intervention and dissemination strategies. In Part I of this two-article series, we provided an introduction to general principles of applied qualitative health research and examples of its common use in emergency care research, describing study designs and data collection methods most relevant to our field (observation, individual interviews, and focus groups). Here in Part II of this series, we outline the specific steps necessary to conduct a valid and reliable qualitative research project, with a focus on interview-based studies. These elements include building the research team, preparing data collection guides, defining and obtaining an adequate sample, collecting and organizing qualitative data, and coding and analyzing the data. We also discuss potential ethical considerations unique to qualitative research as it relates to emergency care research. © 2015 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine.

  4. [Education in our time: competency or aptitude? The case for medicine. Part II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viniegra-Velázquez, Leonardo

    Part II is focused on participatory education (PE), a distinctive way to understand and practice education in contrast to passive education. The core of PE is to develop everyone's own cognitive potentialities frequently mutilated, neglected or ignored. Epistemological and experiential basis of PE are defined: the concept of incisive and creative criticism, the idea of knowledge as each person's own construct and life experience as the main focus of reflection and cognition. The PE aims towards individuals with unprecedented cognitive and creative faculties, capable of approaching a more inclusive and hospitable world. The last part criticizes the fact that medical education has remained among the passive education paradigm. The key role of cognitive aptitudes, both methodological and practical (clinical aptitude), in the progress of medical education and practice is emphasized. As a conclusion, the knowhow of education is discussed, aiming towards a better world away from human and planetary degradation. Copyright © 2017 Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part II: at the beckon of the sun?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun - either now or in the past - the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  6. Long-term solar activity and terrestrial connections. Part II: at the beckon of the sun?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. D. Diamantides

    Full Text Available The research task described herein aims at the structuring of an analytical tool that traces the time course of geophysical phenomena, regional or global, and compares it to the course of long-term solar conditions, long-term meaning decades or a few centuries. The model is based on the premise that since in a last analysis the preponderance of atmospheric, hydrospheric, and, possibly, some aspects of geospheric phenomena are, or have been, powered by energy issuing from the sun - either now or in the past - the long-term behavior of such phenomena is ultimately "connected" to long-term changes occurring in the sun itself. Accordingly, the proposed research firstly derives and models a stable surrogate pattern for the long-term solar activity, secondly introduces a transfer-function algorithm for modeling the connection between the surrogate and terrestrial phenomena viewed as partners in the connection, and thirdly probes the connection outcome for episodic or unanticipated effects that may arise due to the fact that in the present context, the connection, should it exist, is very likely nonlinear. Part I of the study presents the theory of the concept, while Part II demonstrates the concept's pertinence to a number of terrestrial phenomena.

    Key words. Solar activity · Kolmogorov algorithm

  7. Schwann cells promote post-traumatic nerve inflammation and neuropathic pain through MHC class II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartlehnert, Maike; Derksen, Angelika; Hagenacker, Tim; Kindermann, David; Schäfers, Maria; Pawlak, Mathias; Kieseier, Bernd C; Meyer Zu Horste, Gerd

    2017-10-02

    The activation of T helper cells requires antigens to be exposed on the surface of antigen presenting cells (APCs) via MHC class II (MHC-II) molecules. Expression of MHC-II is generally limited to professional APCs, but other cell types can express MHC-II under inflammatory conditions. However, the importance of these conditional APCs is unknown. We and others have previously shown that Schwann cells are potentially conditional APCs, but the functional relevance of MHC-II expression by Schwann cells has not been studied in vivo. Here, we conditionally deleted the MHC-II β-chain from myelinating Schwann cells in mice and investigated how this influenced post-traumatic intraneural inflammation and neuropathic pain using the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. We demonstrate that deletion of MHC-II in myelinating Schwann cells reduces thermal hyperalgesia and, to a lesser extent, also diminishes mechanical allodynia in CCI in female mice. This was accompanied by a reduction of intraneural CD4+ T cells and greater preservation of preferentially large-caliber axons. Activation of T helper cells by MHC-II on Schwann cells thus promotes post-traumatic axonal loss and neuropathic pain. Hence, we provide experimental evidence that Schwann cells gain antigen-presenting function in vivo and modulate local immune responses and diseases in the peripheral nerves.

  8. On the Processing of Spalling Experiments. Part II: Identification of Concrete Fracture Energy in Dynamic Tension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukić, Bratislav B.; Saletti, Dominique; Forquin, Pascal

    2017-12-01

    This paper presents a second part of the study aimed at investigating the fracture behavior of concrete under high strain rate tensile loading. The experimental method together with the identified stress-strain response of three tests conducted on ordinary concrete have been presented in the paper entitled Part I (Forquin and Lukić in Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials, 2017. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40870-017-0135-1). In the present paper, Part II, the investigation is extended towards directly determining the specific fracture energy of each observed fracture zone by visualizing the dynamic cracking process with a temporal resolution of 1 µs. Having access to temporal displacement fields of the sample surface, it is possible to identify the fracture opening displacement (FOD) and the fracture opening velocity of any principle (open) and secondary (closed) fracture at each measurement instance, that may or may not lead to complete physical failure of the sample. Finally, the local Stress-FOD curves were obtained for each observed fracture zone, opposed to previous works where indirect measurements were used. The obtained results indicated a much lower specific fracture energy compared to the results often found in the literature. Furthermore, numerical simulations were performed with a damage law to evaluate the validity of the proposed experimental data processing and compare it to the most often used one in the previous works. The results showed that the present method can reliably predict the specific fracture energy needed to open one macro-fracture and suggested that indirect measurement techniques can lead to an overestimate of specific fracture energy due to the stringent assumption of linear elasticity up-to the peak and the inability of having access to the real post-peak change of axial stress.

  9. Sludge in the pulp and paper industry in Sweden, part II[Combustion of]; Slam fraan skogsindustrin, fas II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyllenhammar, Marianne; Herstad Svaerd, Solvie; Kjoerk, Anders; Larsson, Sara; Wennberg, Olle [S.E.P. Scandinavian Energy Project AB, Goeteborg (Sweden); Aamand, Lars-Erik [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Eskilsson, David [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    During part II of this research program combustible sludge from the pulp and paper industry has been studied in detail. 560,000 tonnes of sludge per year (calculated as dry sludge) are produced in Sweden. The energy potential in the produced sludge is about 2 TWh/year. Today 1 TWh/year is produced in the pulp and paper mill's own boilers. This means that additional energy can be utilized from this material. An objective of this program has been to decide whether or not there are sludge types which are favourable respectively difficult to combust. By mixing different sludge types, or other waste products, emissions and/or problems during combustion can be minimized. These possibilities have been studied thoroughly in this program. A lot of sludge samples have been studied in laboratory scale at SP and in full-scale at Chalmers 12 MW CFB boiler. As a complement to the practical tests S.E.P. has done research regarding different aspects of sludge as a fuel; for example handling of sludge and regional drying. The results of 40 sintering tests at SP showed that the sintering temperature during combustion of sludge in a fluidised bed, with silica sand as bed material, varied between <850 deg C and >1100 deg C. The evaluation showed that the alkali content in the ash had the largest influence on the sintering temperature. Other factors were less important. During the tests at Chalmers eleven different sludge samples have been combusted together with wood pellets. Initially there were problems with the feeding to the boiler for some of the sludge samples. When the fuel feeding problems were solved the combustion took place without any problems. When sludge is co-combusted together with a 'clean' base fuel such as wood pellets the sulphur-, nitrogen- and chloride contents in the sludge have a large impact on the emissions. The normal way to reduce sulphur dioxide but also hydrogen chloride is to add lime in different positions into and after the boiler. In

  10. Stimulation of DNA synthesis in cultured rat alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, C.C.; McCormick-Shannon, K.; Robinson, P.C.; Mason, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Restoration of the alveolar epithelium after injury is thought to be dependent on the proliferation of alveolar type II cells. To understand the factors that may be involved in promoting type II cell proliferation in vivo, we determined the effect of potential mitogens and culture substrata on DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. Type II cells cultured in basal medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) exhibited essentially no DNA synthesis. Factors that stimulated 3 H-thymidine incorporation included cholera toxin, epidermal growth factor, and rat serum. The greatest degree of stimulation was achieved by plating type II cells on an extracellular matrix prepared from bovine corneal endothelial cells and then by culturing the pneumocytes in medium containing rat serum, cholera toxin, insulin, and epidermal growth factor. Under conditions of stimulation of 3 H-thymidine incorporation there was an increased DNA content per culture dish but no increase in cell number. The ability of various culture conditions to promote DNA synthesis in type II cells was verified by autoradiography. Type II cells were identified by the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions, which were visualized by tannic acid staining before autoradiography. These results demonstrate the importance of soluble factors and culture substratum in stimulating DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture

  11. Short-stack modeling of degradation in solid oxide fuel cells. Part I. Contact degradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gazzarri, J.I. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2054-6250 Applied Science Lane, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Kesler, O. [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Toronto, 5 King' s College Road, Toronto, ON M5S 3G8 (Canada)

    2008-01-21

    As the first part of a two paper series, we present a two-dimensional impedance model of a working solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to study the effect of contact degradation on the impedance spectrum for the purpose of non-invasive diagnosis. The two dimensional modeled geometry includes the ribbed interconnect, and is adequate to represent co- and counter-flow configurations. Simulated degradation modes include: cathode delamination, interconnect oxidation, and interconnect-cathode detachment. The simulations show differences in the way each degradation mode impacts the impedance spectrum shape, suggesting that identification is possible. In Part II, we present a sensitivity analysis of the results to input parameter variability that reveals strengths and limitations of the method, as well as describing possible interactions between input parameters and concurrent degradation modes. (author)

  12. Short-stack modeling of degradation in solid oxide fuel cells. Part I. Contact degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzarri, J. I.; Kesler, O.

    As the first part of a two paper series, we present a two-dimensional impedance model of a working solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to study the effect of contact degradation on the impedance spectrum for the purpose of non-invasive diagnosis. The two dimensional modeled geometry includes the ribbed interconnect, and is adequate to represent co- and counter-flow configurations. Simulated degradation modes include: cathode delamination, interconnect oxidation, and interconnect-cathode detachment. The simulations show differences in the way each degradation mode impacts the impedance spectrum shape, suggesting that identification is possible. In Part II, we present a sensitivity analysis of the results to input parameter variability that reveals strengths and limitations of the method, as well as describing possible interactions between input parameters and concurrent degradation modes.

  13. Oncolytic viruses for cancer therapy II. Cell-internal factors for conditional growth in neoplastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Stephanie A; Gromeier, Matthias

    2005-04-01

    Recent advances in our understanding of virus-host interactions have fueled new studies in the field of oncolytic viruses. The first part of this review explained how cell-external factors, such as cellular receptors, influence tumor tropism and specificity of oncolytic virus candidates. In the second part of this review, we focus on cellinternal factors that mediate tumor-specific virus growth. An oncolytic virus must be able to replicate within cancerous cells and kill them without collateral damage to healthy surrounding cells. This desirable property is inherent to some proposed oncolytic viral agents or has been achieved by genetic manipulation in others.

  14. Cytokine-induced killer cells are type II natural killer T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G.H.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until now, cytokine-induced killer (CIK cells were assumed to be part of the type I natural killer T (NKT cell population, but it was not yet investigated if this is correct. Methods: For analysis, CIK cells were generated by various culture conditions. Human type I NKT cells express a T cell receptor (TCR composed of an invariant Vα24-JαQ chain combined with one of several Vβ chains. The Vα24 is a reliable marker for the presence of these TCRs. Results: While comparing cultures stimulated with different substances, we observed the lack of any Vα24 on the surface of CIK culture cells. Conclusion: We conclude that CIK cells do not belong to the type I NKT cells.

  15. SphK1 inhibitor II (SKI-II) inhibits acute myelogenous leukemia cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Li; Weng, Wei; Sun, Zhi-Xin; Fu, Xian-Jie; Ma, Jun; Zhuang, Wen-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) as a potential drug target for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the current study, we investigated the potential anti-leukemic activity of a novel and specific SphK1 inhibitor, SKI-II. We demonstrated that SKI-II inhibited growth and survival of human AML cell lines (HL-60 and U937 cells). SKI-II was more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors SK1-I and FTY720 in inhibiting AML cells. Meanwhile, it induced dramatic apoptosis in above AML cells, and the cytotoxicity by SKI-II was almost reversed by the general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. SKI-II treatment inhibited SphK1 activation, and concomitantly increased level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) precursor ceramide in AML cells. Conversely, exogenously-added S1P protected against SKI-II-induced cytotoxicity, while cell permeable short-chain ceramide (C6) aggravated SKI-II's lethality against AML cells. Notably, SKI-II induced potent apoptotic death in primary human AML cells, but was generally safe to the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy donors. In vivo, SKI-II administration suppressed growth of U937 leukemic xenograft tumors in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. These results suggest that SKI-II might be further investigated as a promising anti-AML agent. - Highlights: • SKI-II inhibits proliferation and survival of primary and transformed AML cells. • SKI-II induces apoptotic death of AML cells, but is safe to normal PBMCs. • SKI-II is more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors in inhibiting AML cells. • SKI-II inhibits SphK1 activity, while increasing ceramide production in AML cells. • SKI-II dose-dependently inhibits U937 xenograft growth in SCID mice

  16. SphK1 inhibitor II (SKI-II) inhibits acute myelogenous leukemia cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li; Weng, Wei; Sun, Zhi-Xin; Fu, Xian-Jie; Ma, Jun, E-mail: majuntongrensh1@126.com; Zhuang, Wen-Fang, E-mail: wenfangzhuangmd@163.com

    2015-05-15

    Previous studies have identified sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) as a potential drug target for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the current study, we investigated the potential anti-leukemic activity of a novel and specific SphK1 inhibitor, SKI-II. We demonstrated that SKI-II inhibited growth and survival of human AML cell lines (HL-60 and U937 cells). SKI-II was more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors SK1-I and FTY720 in inhibiting AML cells. Meanwhile, it induced dramatic apoptosis in above AML cells, and the cytotoxicity by SKI-II was almost reversed by the general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. SKI-II treatment inhibited SphK1 activation, and concomitantly increased level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) precursor ceramide in AML cells. Conversely, exogenously-added S1P protected against SKI-II-induced cytotoxicity, while cell permeable short-chain ceramide (C6) aggravated SKI-II's lethality against AML cells. Notably, SKI-II induced potent apoptotic death in primary human AML cells, but was generally safe to the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy donors. In vivo, SKI-II administration suppressed growth of U937 leukemic xenograft tumors in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. These results suggest that SKI-II might be further investigated as a promising anti-AML agent. - Highlights: • SKI-II inhibits proliferation and survival of primary and transformed AML cells. • SKI-II induces apoptotic death of AML cells, but is safe to normal PBMCs. • SKI-II is more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors in inhibiting AML cells. • SKI-II inhibits SphK1 activity, while increasing ceramide production in AML cells. • SKI-II dose-dependently inhibits U937 xenograft growth in SCID mice.

  17. Association Between National Board Dental Examination Part II Scores and Comprehensive Examinations at Harvard School of Dental Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Kyeong; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush; Howell, T Howard; Karimbux, Nadeem Y

    2011-01-01

    Harvard School of Dental Medicine (HSDM) uses a hybrid problem-based approach to teaching in the predoctoral program. The objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) is a formative examination designed to assess the performance of students in the problem-based learning (PBL) curriculum. At HSDM three comprehensive examinations with OSCE components are administered during the third and fourth years of clinical training. The National Board Dental Examination (NBDE) Part II is taken in the final year of the predoctoral program. This study examines the association between the NBDE Part II and the comprehensive exams held at HSDM. Predoctoral students from the HSDM classes of 2005 and 2006 were included in this study. The outcome variable of interest was the scores obtained by students in the NBDE Part II, and the main independent variable of interest was the performance of students in the comprehensive exams (honors, pass, make-up exam to pass). The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to examine the association between the grades obtained in the each of the three comprehensive exams and the NBDE Part II scores. Multivariable linear regression analysis was also used to examine the association between the NBDE Part II scores and the comprehensive exam grades. The effect of potential confounding factors including age, sex, and race/ethnicity was adjusted. The results suggest that students who performed well in the comprehensive exams performed better on the NBDE Part II, even after adjusting for confounding factors. Future studies will examine the long-term impact of PBL on postdoctoral plans and career choices.

  18. Neutronics and thermohydraulics of the reactor C.E.N.E. Part II; Analisis neutronico y termohidraulico del reactor C.E.N.E. Parte II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caro, R

    1976-07-01

    In this report the analysis of neutronics thermohydraulics and shielding of the 10 HWt swimming pool reactor C.E.N.E is included. In each of these chapters is given a short description of the theoretical model used, along with the theoretical versus experimental checking carried out, whenever possible, with the reactors JEN-I and JEN-II of Junta de Energia Nuclear. (Author) 11 refs.

  19. Effect of angiotensin II on proliferation and differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells into mesodermal progenitor cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishizuka, Toshiaki, E-mail: tishizu@ndmc.ac.jp [Department of Pharmacology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513 (Japan); Goshima, Hazuki; Ozawa, Ayako; Watanabe, Yasuhiro [Department of Pharmacology, National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-8513 (Japan)

    2012-03-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with angiotensin II enhanced LIF-induced DNA synthesis of mouse iPS cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II may enhance the DNA synthesis via induction of superoxide. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Treatment with angiotensin II significantly increased JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II enhanced differentiation into mesodermal progenitor cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Angiotensin II may enhance the differentiation via activation of p38 MAPK. -- Abstract: Previous studies suggest that angiotensin receptor stimulation may enhance not only proliferation but also differentiation of undifferentiated stem/progenitor cells. Therefore, in the present study, we determined the involvement of the angiotensin receptor in the proliferation and differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Stimulation with angiotensin II (Ang II) significantly increased DNA synthesis in mouse iPS cells cultured in a medium with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Pretreatment of the cells with either candesartan (a selective Ang II type 1 receptor [AT{sub 1}R] antagonist) or Tempol (a cell-permeable superoxide scavenger) significantly inhibited Ang II-induced DNA synthesis. Treatment with Ang II significantly increased JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. Pretreatment with candesartan significantly inhibited Ang II- induced JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. In contrast, induction of mouse iPS cell differentiation into Flk-1-positive mesodermal progenitor cells was performed in type IV collagen (Col IV)- coated dishes in a differentiation medium without LIF. When Col IV-exposed iPS cells were treated with Ang II for 5 days, the expression of Flk-1 was significantly increased compared with that in the cells treated with the vehicle alone. Pretreatment of the cells with both candesartan and SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) significantly inhibited the Ang II- induced increase in Flk-1 expression

  20. Effect of angiotensin II on proliferation and differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cells into mesodermal progenitor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishizuka, Toshiaki; Goshima, Hazuki; Ozawa, Ayako; Watanabe, Yasuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Treatment with angiotensin II enhanced LIF-induced DNA synthesis of mouse iPS cells. ► Angiotensin II may enhance the DNA synthesis via induction of superoxide. ► Treatment with angiotensin II significantly increased JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. ► Angiotensin II enhanced differentiation into mesodermal progenitor cells. ► Angiotensin II may enhance the differentiation via activation of p38 MAPK. -- Abstract: Previous studies suggest that angiotensin receptor stimulation may enhance not only proliferation but also differentiation of undifferentiated stem/progenitor cells. Therefore, in the present study, we determined the involvement of the angiotensin receptor in the proliferation and differentiation of mouse induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. Stimulation with angiotensin II (Ang II) significantly increased DNA synthesis in mouse iPS cells cultured in a medium with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). Pretreatment of the cells with either candesartan (a selective Ang II type 1 receptor [AT 1 R] antagonist) or Tempol (a cell-permeable superoxide scavenger) significantly inhibited Ang II-induced DNA synthesis. Treatment with Ang II significantly increased JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. Pretreatment with candesartan significantly inhibited Ang II- induced JAK/STAT3 phosphorylation. In contrast, induction of mouse iPS cell differentiation into Flk-1-positive mesodermal progenitor cells was performed in type IV collagen (Col IV)- coated dishes in a differentiation medium without LIF. When Col IV-exposed iPS cells were treated with Ang II for 5 days, the expression of Flk-1 was significantly increased compared with that in the cells treated with the vehicle alone. Pretreatment of the cells with both candesartan and SB203580 (a p38 MAPK inhibitor) significantly inhibited the Ang II- induced increase in Flk-1 expression. Treatment with Ang II enhanced the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK in Col IV- exposed iPS cells. These results suggest that the stimulation

  1. Inactivation of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Nørgaard, P; Abrahamsen, N

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) exerts a growth inhibitory effect on many cell types through binding to two types of receptors, the type I and II receptors. Resistance to TGF-beta due to lack of type II receptor (RII) has been described in some cancer types including small cell lung...

  2. Multi-crystalline II-VI based multijunction solar cells and modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Brian E.; Connor, Stephen T.; Groves, James R.; Peters, Craig H.

    2015-06-30

    Multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cells and methods for fabrication of same are disclosed herein. A multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cell includes a first photovoltaic sub-cell comprising silicon, a tunnel junction, and a multi-crystalline second photovoltaic sub-cell. A plurality of the multi-crystalline group II-VI solar cells can be interconnected to form low cost, high throughput flat panel, low light concentration, and/or medium light concentration photovoltaic modules or devices.

  3. IGF-II receptors and IGF-II-stimulated glucose transport in human fat cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, M.K.; Buchanan, C.; Raineri-Maldonado, C.; Khazanie, P.; Atkinson, S.; DiMarchi, R.; Caro, J.F.

    1990-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) receptors have been described in rat but not in human adipocytes. In both species, IGF-II has been reported to stimulate glucose transport by interacting with the insulin receptor. In this study, we have unequivocally demonstrated the presence of IGF-II receptors in human adipocytes. 125I-labeled IGF-II specifically binds to intact adipocytes, membranes, and lectin-purified detergent solubilized extracts. Through the use of 0.5 mM disuccinimidyl suberate, 125I-IGF-II is cross-linked to a 260-kDa protein that is identified as the IGF-II receptor by displacement experiments with unlabeled IGF-II, IGF-I, and insulin and either by immunoprecipitation or by Western blot analysis with mannose 6-phosphate receptor antibodies. The concentrations of IGF-II required for half-maximal and maximal stimulation of glucose transport in human adipocytes are 35 and 100 times more than that of insulin. The possibility of IGF-II stimulating glucose transport by interacting predominantly with the insulin receptor is suggested by the following: (1) the concentration of IGF-II that inhibits half of insulin binding is only 20 times more than that of insulin; (2) the lack of an additive effect of IGF-II and insulin for maximal stimulation of glucose transport; (3) the ability of monoclonal insulin receptor antibodies to decrease glucose transport stimulated by submaximal concentrations of both IGF-II and insulin; and (4) the ability of IGF-II to stimulate insulin receptor autophosphorylation albeit at a reduced potency when compared with insulin

  4. Multiscale modeling, simulations, and experiments of coating growth on nanofibers. Part II. Deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buldum, A.; Clemons, C.B.; Dill, L.H.; Kreider, K.L.; Young, G.W.; Zheng, X.; Evans, E.A.; Zhang, G.; Hariharan, S.I.

    2005-01-01

    This work is Part II of an integrated experimental/modeling investigation of a procedure to coat nanofibers and core-clad nanostructures with thin-film materials using plasma-enhanced physical vapor deposition. In the experimental effort, electrospun polymer nanofibers are coated with aluminum materials under different operating conditions to observe changes in the coating morphology. This procedure begins with the sputtering of the coating material from a target. Part I [J. Appl. Phys. 98, 044303 (2005)] focused on the sputtering aspect and transport of the sputtered material through the reactor. That reactor level model determines the concentration field of the coating material. This field serves as input into the present species transport and deposition model for the region surrounding an individual nanofiber. The interrelationships among processing factors for the transport and deposition are investigated here from a detailed modeling approach that includes the salient physical and chemical phenomena. Solution strategies that couple continuum and atomistic models are used. At the continuum scale, transport dynamics near the nanofiber are described. At the atomic level, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are used to study the deposition and sputtering mechanisms at the coating surface. Ion kinetic energies and fluxes are passed from the continuum sheath model to the MD simulations. These simulations calculate sputtering and sticking probabilities that in turn are used to calculate parameters for the continuum transport model. The continuum transport model leads to the definition of an evolution equation for the coating-free surface. This equation is solved using boundary perturbation and level set methods to determine the coating morphology as a function of operating conditions

  5. A thermoelectric power generating heat exchanger: Part II – Numerical modeling and optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarhadi, Ali; Bjørk, Rasmus; Lindeburg, Niels; Viereck, Peter; Pryds, Nini

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive model was developed to optimize the integrated TEG-heat exchanger. • The developed model was validated with the experimental data. • The effect of using different interface materials on the output power was assessed. • The influence of TEG arrangement on the power production was investigated. • Optimized geometrical parameters and proper interface materials were suggested. - Abstract: In Part I of this study, the performance of an experimental integrated thermoelectric generator (TEG)-heat exchanger was presented. In the current study, Part II, the obtained experimental results are compared with those predicted by a finite element (FE) model. In the simulation of the integrated TEG-heat exchanger, the thermal contact resistance between the TEG and the heat exchanger is modeled assuming either an ideal thermal contact or using a combined Cooper–Mikic–Yovanovich (CMY) and parallel plate gap formulation, which takes into account the contact pressure, roughness and hardness of the interface surfaces as well as the air gap thermal resistance at the interface. The combined CMY and parallel plate gap model is then further developed to simulate the thermal contact resistance for the case of an interface material. The numerical results show good agreement with the experimental data with an average deviation of 17% for the case without interface material and 12% in the case of including additional material at the interfaces. The model is then employed to evaluate the power production of the integrated system using different interface materials, including graphite, aluminum (Al), tin (Sn) and lead (Pb) in a form of thin foils. The numerical results show that lead foil at the interface has the best performance, with an improvement in power production of 34% compared to graphite foil. Finally, the model predicts that for a certain flow rate, increasing the parallel TEG channels for the integrated systems with 4, 8, and 12 TEGs

  6. [The external patello-tibial transfixation (EPTT). Part II: Clinical application and results].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishaque, B; Gotzen, L; Ziring, E; Petermann, J

    1999-07-01

    In part I of the paper the biomechanical and technical background of the EPTT using the MPT fixator and the indications for this procedure have been described. In part II we report about the clinical application of the EPTT in 67 patients with a wide spectrum of repairs and reconstructions of the extensor mechanism. 48 patients had fresh injuries, 18 of them with severe concomitant knee lesions and 19 patients had neglected rsp. unsuccessfully operated injuries. There were 4 deep infections, two of them related to the MPT fixator. In the patients with uneventful healing the fixator remained in place for 7.3 weeks in average. The clinical, isokinetic and radiological results were reviewed in 17 patients with an average follow-up time of 37.3 months. There were 5 patients with partial patellectomy and tendon reattachment because of lower patella pole comminution and 12 patients with tendon reattachment ruptured at the inferior patella pole or suture repair in midsubstance rupture. The clinical results according to the IKDC score were rated in 3 patients as normal, in 10 patients as nearly normal and in 4 patients as abnormal. This rating was highly dependend on the subjective judgement by the patients who considered their operated knees not as normal as the contralateral knees. From our clinical experiences and results we can derive that the EPTT enables the surgical management of extensor mechanism disruptions with a minimum of internal fixation material and provides a safe protection of the repairs and reconstructions during the healing period. The EPTT allows immediate unrestricted functional rehabilitation and early walking without crutches. Thus the EPTT represents an effective alternative to the patello-tibial cerclage with a wire or synthetic ligaments.

  7. CD4+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity is associated with MHC class II expression on malignant CD19+ B cells in diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Zha, Jie; Lin, Zhijuan; Fang, Zhihong; Zeng, Hanyan; Zhao, Jintao; Luo, Yiming; Li, Zhifeng; Xu, Bing

    2018-01-15

    Diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is a common B cell malignancy with approximately 30% of patients present relapsed or refractory disease after first-line therapy. Research of further treatment options is needed. Cytotoxic CD4 + T cells express cytolytic molecules and have potential antitumor function. Here, we showed that the CD19 + cells from DLBCL patients presented significantly reduced expression of MHC II molecules than those from healthy controls. Three years after the first-line treatment, patients that presented relapsed disease had significantly lower MHC II expression on their CD19 + cells than patients who did not show recurrence. Examining cytotoxic CD4 + T cells show that DLBCL patients presented significantly elevated frequencies of granzyme A-, granzyme B-, and/or perforin-expressing cytotoxic CD4 + T cells. Also, frequency of cytotoxic CD4 + T cells in DLBCL patients was positively correlated with the MHC II expression level. Subsequently, the cytotoxic potential of CD4 + T cells against autologous CD19 + cells was investigated. We found that the cytotoxic potential of CD4 + T cells was highest in MHC II-high, intermediate in MHC II-mid, and lowest in MHC II-low patients. The percentage of MHC II-expressing viable CD19 + cells presented a significant reduction after longer incubation with cytotoxic CD4 + T cells, suggesting that cytotoxic CD4 + T cells preferentially eliminated MHC II-expressing CD19 + cells. Blocking MHC II on CD19 + cells significantly reduced the cytolytic capacity of CD4 + T cells. Despite these discoveries, the frequency of cytotoxic CD4 + T cells did not predict the clinical outcome of DLBCL patients. Together, these results demonstrated that cytotoxic CD4 + T cells presented an MHC II-dependent cytotoxic potential against autologous CD19 + cells and could potentially represent a future treatment option for DLBCL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Testing and Analysis of a Composite Non-Cylindrical Aircraft Fuselage Structure . Part II; Severe Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Przekop, Adam; Jegley, Dawn C.; Lovejoy, Andrew E.; Rouse, Marshall; Wu, Hsi-Yung T.

    2016-01-01

    The Environmentally Responsible Aviation Project aimed to develop aircraft technologies enabling significant fuel burn and community noise reductions. Small incremental changes to the conventional metallic alloy-based 'tube and wing' configuration were not sufficient to achieve the desired metrics. One airframe concept identified by the project as having the potential to dramatically improve aircraft performance was a composite-based hybrid wing body configuration. Such a concept, however, presented inherent challenges stemming from, among other factors, the necessity to transfer wing loads through the entire center fuselage section which accommodates a pressurized cabin confined by flat or nearly flat panels. This paper discusses a finite element analysis and the testing of a large-scale hybrid wing body center section structure developed and constructed to demonstrate that the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure concept can meet these challenging demands of the next generation airframes. Part II of the paper considers the final test to failure of the test article in the presence of an intentionally inflicted severe discrete source damage under the wing up-bending loading condition. Finite element analysis results are compared with measurements acquired during the test and demonstrate that the hybrid wing body test article was able to redistribute and support the required design loads in a severely damaged condition.

  9. Stochastic theory of nonequilibrium steady states. Part II: Applications in chemical biophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge Hao; Qian Min; Qian Hong

    2012-01-01

    The mathematical theory of nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) has a natural application in open biochemical systems which have sustained source(s) and sink(s) in terms of a difference in their chemical potentials. After a brief introduction in Section , in Part II of this review, we present the widely studied biochemical enzyme kinetics, the workhorse of biochemical dynamic modeling, in terms of the theory of NESS (Section ). We then show that several phenomena in enzyme kinetics, including a newly discovered activation–inhibition switching (Section ) and the well-known non-Michaelis–Menten-cooperativity (Section ) and kinetic proofreading (Section ), are all consequences of the NESS of driven biochemical systems with associated cycle fluxes. Section is focused on nonlinear and nonequilibrium systems of biochemical reactions. We use the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation cycle (PdPC), one of the most important biochemical signaling networks, as an example (Section ). It starts with a brief introduction of the Delbrück–Gillespie process approach to mesoscopic biochemical kinetics (Sections ). We shall discuss the zeroth-order ultrasensitivity of PdPC in terms of a new concept — the temporal cooperativity (Sections ), as well as PdPC with feedback which leads to biochemical nonlinear bistability (Section ). Also, both are nonequilibrium phenomena. PdPC with a nonlinear feedback is kinetically isomorphic to a self-regulating gene expression network, hence the theory of NESS discussed here could have wide applications to many other biochemical systems.

  10. Reproduction in the space environment: Part II. Concerns for human reproduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, R. T.; Santy, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Long-duration space flight and eventual colonization of our solar system will require successful control of reproductive function and a thorough understanding of factors unique to space flight and their impact on gynecologic and obstetric parameters. Part II of this paper examines the specific environmental factors associated with space flight and the implications for human reproduction. Space environmental hazards discussed include radiation, alteration in atmospheric pressure and breathing gas partial pressures, prolonged toxicological exposure, and microgravity. The effects of countermeasures necessary to reduce cardiovascular deconditioning, calcium loss, muscle wasting, and neurovestibular problems are also considered. In addition, the impact of microgravity on male fertility and gamete quality is explored. Due to current constraints, human pregnancy is now contraindicated for space flight. However, a program to explore effective countermeasures to current constraints and develop the required health care delivery capability for extended-duration space flight is suggested. A program of Earth- and space-based research to provide further answers to reproductive questions is suggested.

  11. CD1d-Restricted Type II NKT Cells Reactive With Endogenous Hydrophobic Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Yusuke; Masuda, Sakiko; Tomaru, Utano; Ishizu, Akihiro

    2018-01-01

    NKT cells belong to a distinct subset of T cells that recognize hydrophobic antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecules, such as CD1d. Because NKT cells stimulated by antigens can activate or suppress other immunocompetent cells through an immediate production of a large amount of cytokines, they are regarded as immunological modulators. CD1d-restricted NKT cells are classified into two subsets, namely, type I and type II. CD1d-restricted type I NKT cells express invariant T cell receptors (TCRs) and react with lipid antigens, including the marine sponge-derived glycolipid α-galactosylceramide. On the contrary, CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells recognize a wide variety of antigens, including glycolipids, phospholipids, and hydrophobic peptides, by their diverse TCRs. In this review, we focus particularly on CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells that recognize endogenous hydrophobic peptides presented by CD1d. Previous studies have demonstrated that CD1d-restricted type I NKT cells usually act as pro-inflammatory cells but sometimes behave as anti-inflammatory cells. It has been also demonstrated that CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells play opposite roles to CD1d-restricted type I NKT cells; thus, they function as anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory cells depending on the situation. In line with this, CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells that recognize type II collagen peptide have been demonstrated to act as anti-inflammatory cells in diverse inflammation-induction models in mice, whereas pro-inflammatory CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells reactive with sterol carrier protein 2 peptide have been demonstrated to be involved in the development of small vessel vasculitis in rats.

  12. Evaluation of the KEMRI Hep-cell II test kit for detection of hepatitis B ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To evaluate the Hep-cell II test, blood samples were collected from blood donors and processed for detection of HBsAg using Hep-cell II based on the test principle and procedure outlined by the manufacturer. ELISA Axsym HBsAg test was used as golden standard. Of the 400 samples tested, 287 (71.8%) were positive by ...

  13. Coordinator(a) de Servicios Clinicos. Parte I (Unidad I-IV). Parte II (Unidad V-VI). Guia. Documento de Trabajo (Clinical Services Coordinator. Part I. Units I-IV. Part II. Units V-VI. Guide. Working Document).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Area for Vocational and Technical Education.

    This guide is intended for instructing secondary students in the occupation of clinical services coordinator in a hospital. The first part contains four units on the following subjects: the occupation of clinical services coordinator; interpersonal relationships; ethical/legal aspects; and communications (telephone, intercom, and others). For each…

  14. Towards multi-resolution global climate modeling with ECHAM6-FESOM. Part II: climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackow, T.; Goessling, H. F.; Jung, T.; Sidorenko, D.; Semmler, T.; Barbi, D.; Handorf, D.

    2018-04-01

    This study forms part II of two papers describing ECHAM6-FESOM, a newly established global climate model with a unique multi-resolution sea ice-ocean component. While part I deals with the model description and the mean climate state, here we examine the internal climate variability of the model under constant present-day (1990) conditions. We (1) assess the internal variations in the model in terms of objective variability performance indices, (2) analyze variations in global mean surface temperature and put them in context to variations in the observed record, with particular emphasis on the recent warming slowdown, (3) analyze and validate the most common atmospheric and oceanic variability patterns, (4) diagnose the potential predictability of various climate indices, and (5) put the multi-resolution approach to the test by comparing two setups that differ only in oceanic resolution in the equatorial belt, where one ocean mesh keeps the coarse 1° resolution applied in the adjacent open-ocean regions and the other mesh is gradually refined to 0.25°. Objective variability performance indices show that, in the considered setups, ECHAM6-FESOM performs overall favourably compared to five well-established climate models. Internal variations of the global mean surface temperature in the model are consistent with observed fluctuations and suggest that the recent warming slowdown can be explained as a once-in-one-hundred-years event caused by internal climate variability; periods of strong cooling in the model (`hiatus' analogs) are mainly associated with ENSO-related variability and to a lesser degree also to PDO shifts, with the AMO playing a minor role. Common atmospheric and oceanic variability patterns are simulated largely consistent with their real counterparts. Typical deficits also found in other models at similar resolutions remain, in particular too weak non-seasonal variability of SSTs over large parts of the ocean and episodic periods of almost absent

  15. Tratamento sistêmico da psoríase - Parte II: Imunomoduladores biológicos Systemic treatment of psoriasis - Part II: Biologic immunomodulator agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Arruda

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Em continuidade ao capítulo da edição anterior dos Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia, nesta segunda parte da EMC-D serão discutidas as novas drogas, os imunomoduladores biológicos, que agem em determinadas fases da imunopatogênese da doença, modificando fenotipicamente sua evolução. Também serão discutidos alguns aspectos imunológicos que, atualmente, são responsáveis pelo desencadeamento da doençaAs part of its continued studies of psoriasis, this second part of the Continuing Medical Education in Dermatology segment of the Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia introduces biological immunomodulators. Also known as "biologics", these drugs act on the immunopathogenetic steps of psoriasis by changing its features and progression. This paper also reviews some of the immunologic aspects of psoriasis.

  16. Developing guidelines for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in EIAs. Part II: Case studies and dose-response literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This Part II of the report contains full versions of the case studies for air, water and land (Chapters 2-4), which were only summarised in Part I. In addition, during the work the research team has collected a large amount of literature and information on dose response relationships for air and water pollution relevant to China. This information is included as Chapters 5 and 6.

  17. Developing guidelines for economic evaluation of environmental impacts in EIAs. Part II: Case studies and dose-response literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This Part II of the report contains full versions of the case studies for air, water and land (Chapters 2-4), which were only summarised in Part I. In addition, during the work the research team has collected a large amount of literature and information on dose response relationships for air and water pollution relevant to China. This information is included as Chapters 5 and 6

  18. Acuity and case management: a healthy dose of outcomes, part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Kathy; Huber, Diane L

    2007-01-01

    This is the second of a 3-part series presenting 2 effective applications-acuity and dosage-that describe how the business case for case management (CM) can be made. In Part I, dosage and acuity concepts were explained as client need-severity, CM intervention-intensity, and CM activity-dose prescribed by amount, frequency, duration, and breadth of activities. Part I also featured a specific exemplar, the CM Acuity Tool, and described how to use acuity to identify and score the complexity of a CM case. Appropriate dosage prescription of CM activity was discussed. Part II further explains dosage and presents two acuity instruments, the Acuity Tool and AccuDiff. Details are provided that show how these applications produce opportunities for better communication about CM cases and for more accurate measurement of the right content that genuinely reflects the essentials of CM practice. The information contained in the 3-part series applies to all CM practice settings and contains ideas and recommendations useful to CM generalists, specialists, and supervisors, plus business and outcomes managers. The Acuity Tools Project was developed from frontline CM practice in one large, national telephonic CM company. Dosage: A literature search failed to find research into dosage of a behavioral intervention. The Huber-Hall model was developed and tested in a longitudinal study of CM models in substance abuse treatment and reported in the literature. Acuity: A structured literature search and needs assessment launched the development of the suite of acuity tools. A gap analysis identified that an instrument to assign and measure case acuity specific to CM activities was needed. Clinical experts, quality specialists, and business analysts (n = 7) monitored the development and testing of the tools, acuity concepts, scores, differentials, and their operating principles and evaluated the validity of the Acuity Tools' content related to CM activities. During the pilot phase of

  19. Angiotensin II upregulates the expression of placental growth factor in human vascular endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Yingqiang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is now recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease. Angiotensin II (Ang II is a critical factor in inflammatory responses, which promotes the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Placental growth factor (PlGF is a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF family cytokines and is associated with inflammatory progress of atherosclerosis. However, the potential link between PlGF and Ang II has not been investigated. In the current study, whether Ang II could regulate PlGF expression, and the effect of PlGF on cell proliferation, was investigated in human vascular endothelial cells (VECs and smooth muscle cells (VSMCs. Results In growth-arrested human VECs and VSMCs, Ang II induced PlGF mRNA expression after 4 hour treatment, and peaked at 24 hours. 10-6 mol/L Ang II increased PlGF protein production after 8 hour treatment, and peaked at 24 hours. Stimulation with Ang II also induced mRNA expression of VEGF receptor-1 and -2(VEGFR-1 and -2 in these cells. The Ang II type I receptor (AT1R antagonist blocked Ang II-induced PlGF gene expression and protein production. Several intracellular signals elicited by Ang II were involved in PlGF synthesis, including activation of protein kinase C, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2 and PI3-kinase. A neutralizing antibody against PlGF partially inhibited the Ang II-induced proliferation of VECs and VSMCs. However, this antibody showed little effect on the basal proliferation in these cells, whereas blocking antibody of VEGF could suppress both basal and Ang II-induced proliferation in VECs and VSMCs. Conclusion Our results showed for the first time that Ang II could induce the gene expression and protein production of PlGF in VECs and VSMCs, which might play an important role in the pathogenesis of vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis.

  20. The Historiography of British Imperial Education Policy, Part II: Africa and the Rest of the Colonial Empire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Clive

    2005-01-01

    Part II of this historiographical study examines British education policy in Africa, and in the many crown colonies, protectorates, and mandated territories around the globe. Up until 1920, the British government took far less interest than in India, in the development of schooling in Africa and the rest of the colonial empire, and education was…

  1. RA reactor safety analysis, Part II - Accident analysis; Analiza sigurnosti rada Reaktora RA I-III, Deo II - Analiza akcidenta

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raisic, N; Radanovic, Lj; Milovanovic, M; Afgan, N; Kulundzic, P [Institute of Nuclear Sciences Boris Kidric, Vinca, Beograd (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1963-02-15

    This part of the RA reactor safety analysis includes analysis of possible accidents caused by failures of the reactor devices and errors during reactor operation. Two types of accidents are analyzed: accidents resulting from uncontrolled reactivity increase, and accidents caused by interruption of cooling.

  2. Industry Wage Surveys: Banking and Life Insurance, December 1976. Part I--Banking. Part II--Life Insurance. Bulletin 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsky, Carl

    This report presents the results of a survey conducted by the Bureau of Labor Statistics to determine wages and related benefits in (1) the banking industry and (2) for employees in home offices and regional head offices of life insurance carriers. Part 1 discusses banking industry characteristics and presents data for tellers and selected…

  3. Study of diffuse H II regions potentially forming part of the gas streams around Sgr A*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijos-Abendaño, J.; López, E.; Martín-Pintado, J.; Báez-Rubio, A.; Aravena, M.; Requena-Torres, M. A.; Martín, S.; Llerena, M.; Aldás, F.; Logan, C.; Rodríguez-Franco, A.

    2018-05-01

    We present a study of diffuse extended ionized gas towards three clouds located in the Galactic Centre (GC). One line of sight (LOS) is towards the 20 km s-1 cloud (LOS-0.11) in the Sgr A region, another LOS is towards the 50 km s-1 cloud (LOS-0.02), also in Sgr A, while the third is towards the Sgr B2 cloud (LOS+0.693). The emission from the ionized gas is detected from Hnα and Hmβ radio recombination lines (RRLs). Henα and Hemβ RRL emission is detected with the same n and m as those from the hydrogen RRLs only towards LOS+0.693. RRLs probe gas with positive and negative velocities towards the two Sgr A sources. The Hmβ to Hnα ratios reveal that the ionized gas is emitted under local thermodynamic equilibrium conditions in these regions. We find a He to H mass fraction of 0.29±0.01 consistent with the typical GC value, supporting the idea that massive stars have increased the He abundance compared to its primordial value. Physical properties are derived for the studied sources. We propose that the negative velocity component of both Sgr A sources is part of gas streams considered previously to model the GC cloud kinematics. Associated massive stars with what are presumably the closest H II regions to LOS-0.11 (positive velocity gas), LOS-0.02, and LOS+0.693 could be the main sources of ultraviolet photons ionizing the gas. The negative velocity components of both Sgr A sources might be ionized by the same massive stars, but only if they are in the same gas stream.

  4. Quality control of outpatient imaging examinations in North Rhine-Westphalia. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krug, B.; Boettge, M.; Zaehringer, M.; Reinecke, T.; Coburger, S.; Harnischmacher, U.; Luengen, M.; Lauterbach, K.W.; Lehmacher, W.; Lackner, K.

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: In the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany, a survey was conducted on radiologic examinations ordered by general practitioners (GPs). Part II of this study aims to determine the quality of the process and outcome. The reference standard is the assessment of both radiologists and physicians without board certification in radiology working at a university hospital and in outpatient facilities. Materials and Methods: All GPs in NRW were asked to cooperate. Participating GPs filled out a questionnaire for each patient. The patients recorded the symptoms prompting the imaging examinations. The radiologists or other physicians performing the examinations were asked to provide the images and written reports and to complete a questionnaire. A file was created for each of the 394 patients with image documentation of at least one examination. Each file, which included medical history, physical findings, imaging documentation and written report, was sequentially forwarded to a board-certified radiologist and to a physician without board certification in radiology working in a university hospital and in an outpatient facility. All physicians were requested to complete a structured questionnaire for each file. Results: The referral diagnoses were rated as medically plausible in 81%, the indications for imaging found correct in 76%, the examination techniques considered appropriate in 69%, the clinical question answered in 63%, the interpretation judged medically correct in 50% and all incidental findings documented in 49%. In retrospect, 32% of the examinations were judged superfluous. The sequence of multiple examinations performed on a particular patient was rated as appropriate in 51%. The interpretation revealed specialty-related differences. The plausibility of the referral diagnoses had a significant impact on the appropriateness of subsequent diagnostic investigations. Marked deficits showed sonography, performance by non-radiologists, self

  5. [Verrucous pastern dermatitis syndrome in heavy draught horses. Part II: Clinical findings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geburek, F; Deegen, E; Hewicker-Trautwein, M; Ohnesorge, B

    2005-07-01

    In the present field study the skin of the feet of 37 heavy draught horses of different breeds showing verrucous pastern dermatitis was examined clinically. Included were the degree of severity of the disease and the prevalence of anatomically normal structures associated with the skin: fetlock tufts of hair ("feathering"), ergots, chestnuts, bulges in the pastern region, cannon circumference. Each horse was examined for Chorioptes sp. skin mites. Information was also collected on the development of the skin alterations and housing conditions and feeding. These individual data were correlated with the clinical degree of severity of verrucous pastern dermatitis, which was evaluated using a numerical code (scoring system). In addition, punch biopsies were taken from the diseased skin of the feet and from healthy skin of the neck for comparative patho-histological examination (see Part III). Verrucous pastern dermatitis is a chronic disease which can be divided into four groups: scaling (group I), hyperkeratotic and hyperplastic plaque-like lesions (group II), tuberous skin masses (group III), and verrucous skin lesions with rugged surfaces (group IV). No correlation was found between the clinical degree of severity of the skin lesions and sex, breed, amount of work, use of stallions for breeding, grooming condition of the hair, white markings in the foot region, or Chorioptes sp. infestation. In regard to feeding it was found that the amount of maize and oats fed had some influence on the clinical degree of severity. Statistical analysis revealed a significant correlation between the clinical degree of severity and the age, the grooming condition of the hooves, and the mean cannon circumference. The prevalence of fetlock tufts of hair, chestnuts, ergots, and anatomically normal bulges in the pastern region also increased significantly with the clinical degree of severity. Furthermore the study revealed that the clinical degree of severity depended on the hygienic

  6. Notes on the Birds of Central Oaxaca, Part II: Columbidae to Vireonidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John M. Forcey

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Notas sobre las aves de Oaxaca central, parte II: Columbidae a Vireonidae Se reportan  nuevos datos que amplían y clarifican nuestro conocimiento del estatus y distribución de 70 especies de aves en la región central del Estado de Oaxaca. Las observaciones se realizaron abarcando partes de los distritos de Etla, Ixtlan, Tlacolula, y Zaachila, dentro de un círculo de radio de 35 km alrededor de la Ciudad de Oaxaca. El reporte se basa en observaciones tomadas durante 738 días, comprendidos entre diciembre 1996 y marzo 2002. Los hábitats principalmente visitados fueron pino-encino (incluyendo zonas pequeñas de pino-encino-oyamel y pino-encino mezclado con pastizales, matorral de encino, matorral subtropical, vegetación riparia, y vegetación secundaria, campos agrícolas y otros (incluyendo áreas urbanas, como jardines y parques. Las siguientes especies se reportan por primera vez en la zona: Heliomaster constantii, Tilmatura dupontii, Empidonax flaviventris, Empidonax virescens, Myiarchus crinitus, Myiodynastes luteiventris, Vireo philadelphicus, Vireo olivaceus y Vireo flavoviridis. Además, las siguientes diez especies se han reportado anteriormente una sola vez o solamente en los Conteos Navideños: Caprimulgus ridgwayi (residente,Panyptila sanctihieronymi (residente local, Amazilia cyanocephala (residente local, Amazilia viridifrons, Lamprolaima rhami, Momotus mexicanus (residente en la Sierra Juárez, Sayornis phoebe, Myiozetetes similis (residente, Pachyramphus major (residente y Vireo griseus. Se reportan datos de la reproducción de 25 especies, 18 de las cuales no se habían registrado como reproduciéndose en la zona antes. De estos, 24 se pueden agrupar como reproduciéndose en los meses de abril a julio, y 17 se reproducen en zonas riparias, seis de ellos casi exclusivamente.

  7. A primer of drug safety surveillance: an industry perspective. Part II: Product labeling and product knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, M C

    1992-01-01

    To place the fundamentals of clinical drug safety surveillance in a conceptual framework that will facilitate understanding and application of adverse drug event data to protect the health of the public and support a market for pharmaceutical manufacturers' products. Part II of this series discusses specific issues regarding product labeling, such as developing the labeling, changing the labeling, and the legal as well as commercial ramifications of the contents of the labeling. An adverse event report scenario is further analyzed and suggestions are offered for maintaining the product labeling as an accurate reflection of the drug safety surveillance data. This article also emphasizes the necessity of product knowledge in adverse event database management. Both scientific and proprietary knowledge are required. Acquiring product knowledge is a part of the day-to-day activities of drug safety surveillance. A knowledge of the history of the product may forestall adverse publicity, as shown in the illustration. This review uses primary sources from the federal laws (regulations), commentaries, and summaries. Very complex topics are briefly summarized in the text. Secondary sources, ranging from newspaper articles to judicial summaries, illustrate the interpretation of adverse drug events and opportunities for drug safety surveillance intervention. The reference materials used were articles theoretically or practically applicable in the day-to-day practice of drug safety surveillance. The role of clinical drug safety surveillance in product monitoring and drug development is described. The process of drug safety surveillance is defined by the Food and Drug Administration regulations, product labeling, product knowledge, and database management. Database management is subdivided into the functions of receipt, retention, retrieval, and review of adverse event reports. Emphasis is placed on the dynamic interaction of the components of the process. Suggestions are offered

  8. The 183-WSL Fast Rain Rate Retrieval Algorithm. Part II: Validation Using Ground Radar Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laviola, Sante; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2014-01-01

    The Water vapour Strong Lines at 183 GHz (183-WSL) algorithm is a method for the retrieval of rain rates and precipitation type classification (convectivestratiform), that makes use of the water vapor absorption lines centered at 183.31 GHz of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit module B (AMSU-B) and of the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) flying on NOAA-15-18 and NOAA-19Metop-A satellite series, respectively. The characteristics of this algorithm were described in Part I of this paper together with comparisons against analogous precipitation products. The focus of Part II is the analysis of the performance of the 183-WSL technique based on surface radar measurements. The ground truth dataset consists of 2.5 years of rainfall intensity fields from the NIMROD European radar network which covers North-Western Europe. The investigation of the 183-WSL retrieval performance is based on a twofold approach: 1) the dichotomous statistic is used to evaluate the capabilities of the method to identify rain and no-rain clouds; 2) the accuracy statistic is applied to quantify the errors in the estimation of rain rates.The results reveal that the 183-WSL technique shows good skills in the detection of rainno-rain areas and in the quantification of rain rate intensities. The categorical analysis shows annual values of the POD, FAR and HK indices varying in the range 0.80-0.82, 0.330.36 and 0.39-0.46, respectively. The RMSE value is 2.8 millimeters per hour for the whole period despite an overestimation in the retrieved rain rates. Of note is the distribution of the 183-WSL monthly mean rain rate with respect to radar: the seasonal fluctuations of the average rainfalls measured by radar are reproduced by the 183-WSL. However, the retrieval method appears to suffer for the winter seasonal conditions especially when the soil is partially frozen and the surface emissivity drastically changes. This fact is verified observing the discrepancy distribution diagrams where2the 183-WSL

  9. Sulforaphane Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Testicular Cell Death via Activation of NRF2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonggang Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although angiotensin II (Ang II was reported to facilitate sperm motility and intratesticular sperm transport, recent findings shed light on the efficacy of Ang II in stimulating inflammatory events in testicular peritubular cells, effect of which may play a role in male infertility. It is still unknown whether Ang II can induce testicular apoptotic cell death, which may be a more direct action of Ang II in male infertility. Therefore, the present study aims to determine whether Ang II can induce testicular apoptotic cell death and whether this action can be prevented by sulforaphane (SFN via activating nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NRF2, the governor of antioxidant-redox signalling. Eight-week-old male C57BL/6J wild type (WT and Nrf2 gene knockout mice were treated with Ang II, in the presence or absence of SFN. In WT mice, SFN activated testicular NRF2 expression and function, along with a marked attenuation in Ang II-induced testicular oxidative stress, inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptotic cell death. Deletion of the Nrf2 gene led to a complete abolishment of these efficacies of SFN. The present study indicated that Ang II may result in testicular apoptotic cell death, which can be prevented by SFN via the activation of NRF2.

  10. Rapid metabolism of exogenous angiotensin II by catecholaminergic neuronal cells in culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Urmi; Seravalli, Javier; Madayiputhiya, Nandakumar; Adamec, Jiri; Case, Adam J; Zimmerman, Matthew C

    2015-02-01

    Angiotensin II (AngII) acts on central neurons to increase neuronal firing and induce sympathoexcitation, which contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases including hypertension and heart failure. Numerous studies have examined the precise AngII-induced intraneuronal signaling mechanism in an attempt to identify new therapeutic targets for these diseases. Considering the technical challenges in studying specific intraneuronal signaling pathways in vivo, especially in the cardiovascular control brain regions, most studies have relied on neuronal cell culture models. However, there are numerous limitations in using cell culture models to study AngII intraneuronal signaling, including the lack of evidence indicating the stability of AngII in culture media. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that exogenous AngII is rapidly metabolized in neuronal cell culture media. Using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we measured levels of AngII and its metabolites, Ang III, Ang IV, and Ang-1-7, in neuronal cell culture media after administration of exogenous AngII (100 nmol/L) to a neuronal cell culture model (CATH.a neurons). AngII levels rapidly declined in the media, returning to near baseline levels within 3 h of administration. Additionally, levels of Ang III and Ang-1-7 acutely increased, while levels of Ang IV remained unchanged. Replenishing the media with exogenous AngII every 3 h for 24 h resulted in a consistent and significant increase in AngII levels for the duration of the treatment period. These data indicate that AngII is rapidly metabolized in neuronal cell culture media, and replenishing the media at least every 3 h is needed to sustain chronically elevated levels. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  11. Control of uncertain systems by feedback linearization with neural networks augmentation. Part II. Controller validation by numerical simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian TOADER

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper was conceived in two parts. Part I, previously published in this journal, highlighted the main steps of adaptive output feedback control for non-affine uncertain systems, having a known relative degree. The main paradigm of this approach was the feedback linearization (dynamic inversion with neural network augmentation. Meanwhile, based on new contributions of the authors, a new paradigm, that of robust servomechanism problem solution, has been added to the controller architecture. The current Part II of the paper presents the validation of the controller hereby obtained by using the longitudinal channel of a hovering VTOL-type aircraft as mathematical model.

  12. Uncertainty estimation with a small number of measurements, part II: a redefinition of uncertainty and an estimator method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hening

    2018-01-01

    This paper is the second (Part II) in a series of two papers (Part I and Part II). Part I has quantitatively discussed the fundamental limitations of the t-interval method for uncertainty estimation with a small number of measurements. This paper (Part II) reveals that the t-interval is an ‘exact’ answer to a wrong question; it is actually misused in uncertainty estimation. This paper proposes a redefinition of uncertainty, based on the classical theory of errors and the theory of point estimation, and a modification of the conventional approach to estimating measurement uncertainty. It also presents an asymptotic procedure for estimating the z-interval. The proposed modification is to replace the t-based uncertainty with an uncertainty estimator (mean- or median-unbiased). The uncertainty estimator method is an approximate answer to the right question to uncertainty estimation. The modified approach provides realistic estimates of uncertainty, regardless of whether the population standard deviation is known or unknown, or if the sample size is small or large. As an application example of the modified approach, this paper presents a resolution to the Du-Yang paradox (i.e. Paradox 2), one of the three paradoxes caused by the misuse of the t-interval in uncertainty estimation.

  13. Carbon black nanoparticles induce type II epithelial cells to release chemotaxins for alveolar macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaldson Ken

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alveolar macrophages are a key cell in dealing with particles deposited in the lungs and in determining the subsequent response to that particle exposure. Nanoparticles are considered a potential threat to the lungs and the mechanism of pulmonary response to nanoparticles is currently under intense scrutiny. The type II alveolar epithelial cell has previously been shown to release chemoattractants which can recruit alveolar macrophages to sites of particle deposition. The aim of this study was to assess the responses of a type II epithelial cell line (L-2 to both fine and nanoparticle exposure in terms of secretion of chemotactic substances capable of inducing macrophage migration. Results Exposure of type II cells to carbon black nanoparticles resulted in significant release of macrophage chemoattractant compared to the negative control and to other dusts tested (fine carbon black and TiO2 and nanoparticle TiO2 as measured by macrophage migration towards type II cell conditioned medium. SDS-PAGE analysis of the conditioned medium from particle treated type II cells revealed that a higher number of protein bands were present in the conditioned medium obtained from type II cells treated with nanoparticle carbon black compared to other dusts tested. Size-fractionation of the chemotaxin-rich supernatant determined that the chemoattractants released from the epithelial cells were between 5 and 30 kDa in size. Conclusion The highly toxic nature and reactive surface chemistry of the carbon black nanoparticles has very likely induced the type II cell line to release pro-inflammatory mediators that can potentially induce migration of macrophages. This could aid in the rapid recruitment of inflammatory cells to sites of particle deposition and the subsequent removal of the particles by phagocytic cells such as macrophages and neutrophils. Future studies in this area could focus on the exact identity of the substance(s released by the

  14. Ubiquitination regulates MHC class II-peptide complex retention and degradation in dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Walseng, Even; Furuta, Kazuyuki; Bosch, Berta; Weih, Karis A.; Matsuki, Yohei; Bakke, Oddmund; Ishido, Satoshi; Roche, Paul A.

    2010-01-01

    The expression and turnover of MHC class II-peptide complexes (pMHC-II) on the surface of dendritic cells (DCs) is essential for their ability to activate CD4 T cells efficiently. The half-life of surface pMHC-II is significantly greater in activated (mature) DCs than in resting (immature) DCs, but the molecular mechanism leading to this difference remains unknown. We now show that ubiquitination of pMHC-II by the E3 ubiquitin ligase membrane-associated RING-CH 1 (March-I) regulates surface e...

  15. DNA alkylating agents alleviate silencing of class II transactivator gene expression in L1210 lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Shawn P; Holtz, Renae; Lewandowski, Nicole; Tomasi, Thomas B; Fuji, Hiroshi

    2002-09-15

    MHC class II (Ia) Ag expression is inversely correlated with tumorigenicity and directly correlated with immunogenicity in clones of the mouse L1210 lymphoma (1 ). Understanding the mechanisms by which class II Ag expression is regulated in L1210 lymphoma may facilitate the development of immunotherapeutic approaches for the treatment of some types of lymphoma and leukemia. This study demonstrates that the variation in MHC class II Ag expression among clones of L1210 lymphoma is due to differences in the expression of the class II transactivator (CIITA). Analysis of stable hybrids suggests that CIITA expression is repressed by a dominant mechanism in class II-negative L1210 clones. DNA-alkylating agents such as ethyl methanesulfonate and the chemotherapeutic drug melphalan activate CIITA and class II expression in class II negative L1210 cells, and this effect appears to be restricted to transformed cell lines derived from the early stages of B cell ontogeny. Transient transfection assays demonstrated that the CIITA type III promoter is active in class II(-) L1210 cells, despite the fact that the endogenous gene is not expressed, which suggests that these cells have all of the transacting factors necessary for CIITA transcription. An inverse correlation between methylation of the CIITA transcriptional regulatory region and CIITA expression was observed among L1210 clones. Furthermore, 5-azacytidine treatment activated CIITA expression in class II-negative L1210 cells. Collectively, our results suggest that 1) CIITA gene expression is repressed in class II(-) L1210 cells by methylation of the CIITA upstream regulatory region, and 2) treatment with DNA-alkylating agents overcomes methylation-based silencing of the CIITA gene in L1210 cells.

  16. Molecular biology - Part II: Beneficial liaisons: Radiobiology meets cellular and molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, Mary Ann; Coleman, C. Norman

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this course is to familiarize radiation oncologists with the concepts and terminology of molecular and cellular biology that are especially relevant to radiation oncology. The ability of radiation oncologists to remain current with the new discoveries of modern biology is essential to the development of improved therapeutic strategies and, importantly, to the proper balance between investment in technology and biology. Objective: This year, this Refresher Course is part of a three-part ''series'' including Drs. McKenna and Dritschilo. The objective is to provide continuing education for the academic and practicing radiation oncologist, physicist and biologist in the modern biologic concepts of cancer and its treatment. An effort will be made to relate these general concepts to the clinic by providing a broad view as to potential new biological treatments which might enhance the efficacy of radiation therapy. The specific focus of this Course will vary from year to year. Some of the classic radiation biology models which form the basis of clinical practice and laboratory research will be examined and 'newer' models will be presented which take into account the emerging knowledge of cellular and molecular biology. A few techniques in molecular and cellular biology will be described to the extent necessary to understand their basic concepts and their applicability. Aspects of radiation biology which will be covered include cell cycle, radiation-induced changes in the cellular phenotype, and considerations of the effect of the tumor microenvironment. It is not the expectation that the attendees will become experts in the particular subjects presented. Rather, it is the intent to increase their curiosity as to the new knowledge that is emerging and to demonstrate that these seemingly complicated areas can be understood and appreciated with a modicum of the effort

  17. Molecular biology - Part II: Beneficial liaisons: Radiobiology meets cellular and molecular biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, Mary Ann; Coleman, C. Norman

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this course is to familiarize radiation oncologists with the concepts and terminology of molecular and cellular biology that are especially relevant to radiation oncology. The ability of radiation oncologists to remain current with the new discoveries of modern biology is essential to the development of improved therapeutic strategies and, importantly, to the proper balance between investment in technology and biology. Objective: This year, this Refresher Course is part of a three-part 'series' including Drs. Martin Brown and Amato Giaccia. The objective is to provide continuing education for the academic and practicing radiation oncologist, physicist and biologist in the modern biologic concepts of cancer and its treatment. An effort will be made to relate these general concepts to the clinic by providing a broad view as to potential new biological treatments which might enhance the efficacy of radiation therapy. The specific focus of this Course will vary from year to year. Some of the classic radiation biology models which form the basis of clinical practice and laboratory research will be examined and 'newer' models will be presented which take into account the emerging knowledge of cellular and molecular biology. A few techniques in molecular and cellular biology will be described to the extent necessary to understand their basic concepts and their applicability. Aspects of radiation biology which will be covered include cell cycle, radiation-induced changes in the cellular phenotype, and considerations of the effect of the tumor microenvironment. It is not the expectation that the attendees will become experts in the particular subjects presented. Rather, it is the intent to increase their curiosity as to the new knowledge that is emerging and to demonstrate that these seemingly complicated areas can be understood and appreciated with a modicum of the effort

  18. A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part II: Artificial heat exchanges for multiphase shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petitpas, Fabien; Franquet, Erwin; Saurel, Richard; Le Metayer, Olivier

    2007-01-01

    The relaxation-projection method developed in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, E. Franquet, E. Daniel, O. Le Metayer, A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part I: The numerical equation of state for the Euler equations, J. Comput. Phys. (2007) 822-845] is extended to the non-conservative hyperbolic multiphase flow model of Kapila et al. [A.K. Kapila, Menikoff, J.B. Bdzil, S.F. Son, D.S. Stewart, Two-phase modeling of deflagration to detonation transition in granular materials: reduced equations, Physics of Fluids 13(10) (2001) 3002-3024]. This model has the ability to treat multi-temperatures mixtures evolving with a single pressure and velocity and is particularly interesting for the computation of interface problems with compressible materials as well as wave propagation in heterogeneous mixtures. The non-conservative character of this model poses however computational challenges in the presence of shocks. The first issue is related to the Riemann problem resolution that necessitates shock jump conditions. Thanks to the Rankine-Hugoniot relations proposed and validated in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, O. Le Metayer, J. Massoni, S. Gavrilyuk, Shock jump conditions for multiphase mixtures with stiff mechanical relaxation, Shock Waves 16 (3) (2007) 209-232] exact and approximate 2-shocks Riemann solvers are derived. However, the Riemann solver is only a part of a numerical scheme and non-conservative variables pose extra difficulties for the projection or cell average of the solution. It is shown that conventional Godunov schemes are unable to converge to the exact solution for strong multiphase shocks. This is due to the incorrect partition of the energies or entropies in the cell averaged mixture. To circumvent this difficulty a specific Lagrangian scheme is developed. The correct partition of the energies is achieved by using an artificial heat exchange in the shock layer. With the help of an asymptotic analysis this heat exchange takes a similar form as

  19. A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part II: Artificial heat exchanges for multiphase shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petitpas, Fabien; Franquet, Erwin; Saurel, Richard; Le Metayer, Olivier

    2007-08-01

    The relaxation-projection method developed in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, E. Franquet, E. Daniel, O. Le Metayer, A relaxation-projection method for compressible flows. Part I: The numerical equation of state for the Euler equations, J. Comput. Phys. (2007) 822-845] is extended to the non-conservative hyperbolic multiphase flow model of Kapila et al. [A.K. Kapila, Menikoff, J.B. Bdzil, S.F. Son, D.S. Stewart, Two-phase modeling of deflagration to detonation transition in granular materials: reduced equations, Physics of Fluids 13(10) (2001) 3002-3024]. This model has the ability to treat multi-temperatures mixtures evolving with a single pressure and velocity and is particularly interesting for the computation of interface problems with compressible materials as well as wave propagation in heterogeneous mixtures. The non-conservative character of this model poses however computational challenges in the presence of shocks. The first issue is related to the Riemann problem resolution that necessitates shock jump conditions. Thanks to the Rankine-Hugoniot relations proposed and validated in Saurel et al. [R. Saurel, O. Le Metayer, J. Massoni, S. Gavrilyuk, Shock jump conditions for multiphase mixtures with stiff mechanical relaxation, Shock Waves 16 (3) (2007) 209-232] exact and approximate 2-shocks Riemann solvers are derived. However, the Riemann solver is only a part of a numerical scheme and non-conservative variables pose extra difficulties for the projection or cell average of the solution. It is shown that conventional Godunov schemes are unable to converge to the exact solution for strong multiphase shocks. This is due to the incorrect partition of the energies or entropies in the cell averaged mixture. To circumvent this difficulty a specific Lagrangian scheme is developed. The correct partition of the energies is achieved by using an artificial heat exchange in the shock layer. With the help of an asymptotic analysis this heat exchange takes a similar form as

  20. Secretory activity and cell cycle alteration of alveolar type II cells in the early and late phase after irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willner, Jochen; Vordermark, Dirk; Schmidt, Michael; Gassel, Andreamaria; Flentje, Michael; Wirtz, Hubert

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: Type II cells and the surfactant system have been proposed to play a central role in pathogenesis of radiation pneumonitis. We analyzed the secretory function and proliferation parameters of alveolar type II cells in the early (until 24 h) and late phase (1-5 weeks) after irradiation (RT) in vitro and in vivo. Methods and Materials: Type II cells were isolated from rats according to the method of Dobbs. Stimulation of secretion was induced with terbutaline, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) for a 2-h period. Determination of secretion was performed using 3 H-labeled phosphatidylcholine. For the early-phase analysis, freshly isolated and adherent type II cells were irradiated in vitro with 9-21 Gy (stepwise increase of 3 Gy). Secretion stimulation was initiated 1, 6, 24, and 48 h after RT. For late-phase analysis, type II cells were isolated 1-5 weeks after 18 Gy whole lung or sham RT. Each experiment was repeated at least fivefold. Flow cytometry was used to determine cell cycle distribution and proliferating cell nuclear antigen index. Results: During the early-phase (in vitro) analysis, we found a normal stimulation of surfactant secretion in irradiated, as well as unirradiated, cells. No change in basal secretion and no dose effect were seen. During the late phase, 1-5 weeks after whole lung RT, we observed enhanced secretory activity for all secretagogues and a small increase in basal secretion in Weeks 3 and 4 (pneumonitis phase) compared with controls. The total number of isolated type II cells, as well as the rate of viable cells, decreased after the second post-RT week. Cell cycle alterations suggesting an irreversible G 2 /M block occurred in the second post-RT week and did not resolve during the observation period. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen index of type II cells from irradiated rats did not differ from that of controls. Conclusion: In contrast to literature data, we observed no direct

  1. Nuclear power plant simulators for operator licensing and training. Part I. The need for plant-reference simulators. Part II. The use of plant-reference simulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rankin, W.L.; Bolton, P.A.; Shikiar, R.; Saari, L.M.

    1984-05-01

    Part I of this report presents technical justification for the use of plant-reference simulators in the licensing and training of nuclear power plant operators and examines alternatives to the use of plant-reference simulators. The technical rationale is based on research on the use of simulators in other industries, psychological learning and testing principles, expert opinion and user opinion. Part II discusses the central considerations in using plant-reference simulators for licensing examination of nuclear power plant operators and for incorporating simulators into nuclear power plant training programs. Recommendations are presented for the administration of simulator examinations in operator licensing that reflect the goal of maximizing both reliability and validity in the examination process. A series of organizational tasks that promote the acceptance, use, and effectiveness of simulator training as part of the onsite training program is delineated

  2. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from normal rats stimulates DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, C.C.; McCormick-Shannon, K.; Mason, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proliferation of alveolar type II cells after lung injury is important for the restoration of the alveolar epithelium. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) may represent an important source of growth factors for alveolar type II cells. To test this possibility, BALF fluid was collected from normal rats, concentrated 10-fold by Amicon filtration, and tested for its ability to stimulate DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. BALF induced a dose-dependent increase in type II cell DNA synthesis resulting in a 6-fold increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation. Similar doses also stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation into rat lung fibroblasts by 6- to 8-fold. Removal of pulmonary surface active material by centrifugation did not significantly reduce the stimulatory activity of BALF for type II cells. The stimulation of type II cell DNA synthesis by BALF was reduced by 100% after heating at 100 degrees C for 10 min, and by approximately 80% after reduction with dithiothreitol, and after trypsin treatment. Dialysis of BALF against 1 N acetic acid resulted in a 27% reduction in stimulatory activity. The effect of BALF in promoting type II cell DNA synthesis was more pronounced when tested in the presence of serum, although serum itself has very little effect on type II cell DNA synthesis. When BALF was tested in combination with other substances that stimulate type II cell DNA synthesis (cholera toxin, insulin, epidermal growth factor, and acidic fibroblast growth factor), additive effects or greater were observed. When BALF was chromatographed over Sephadex G150, the activity eluted with an apparent molecular weight of 100 kDa

  3. Cell proliferation and migration are modulated by Cdk-1-phosphorylated endothelial-monocyte activating polypeptide II.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret A Schwarz

    Full Text Available Endothelial-Monocyte Activating Polypeptide (EMAP II is a secreted protein with well-established anti-angiogenic activities. Intracellular EMAP II expression is increased during fetal development at epithelial/mesenchymal boundaries and in pathophysiologic fibroproliferative cells of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, emphysema, and scar fibroblast tissue following myocardial ischemia. Precise function and regulation of intracellular EMAP II, however, has not been explored to date.Here we show that high intracellular EMAP II suppresses cellular proliferation by slowing progression through the G2M cell cycle transition in epithelium and fibroblast. Furthermore, EMAP II binds to and is phosphorylated by Cdk1, and exhibits nuclear/cytoplasmic partitioning, with only nuclear EMAP II being phosphorylated. We observed that extracellular secreted EMAP II induces endothelial cell apoptosis, where as excess intracellular EMAP II facilitates epithelial and fibroblast cells migration.Our findings suggest that EMAP II has specific intracellular effects, and that this intracellular function appears to antagonize its extracellular anti-angiogenic effects during fetal development and pulmonary disease progression.

  4. Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Andreyev, Andrei

    2013-01-01

    Part I: $\\beta$-delayed fission, laser spectroscopy and shape-coexistence studies with astatine beams; Part II: Delineating the island of deformation in the light gold isotopes by means of laser spectroscopy

  5. Part I: nonlinear analysis of three coupled Josephson junctions. Part II. general bond-to-site mapping in aggregation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strenski, P.N.

    1985-01-01

    The first part of this thesis deals with the analysis of a small array of Josephson junctions, superconducting devices of markedly nonlinear behavior. The components of the array are modeled as resistively-shunted junctions and are driven by direct current. A chapter is provided that reviews the validity and features of such a model for the case of a single junction. This chapter also includes background information on the subjects of bifurcation, chaos, and fractals. In the following chapters, the array of three junctions is studied, first with one driving current and later with an additional bias current. The analysis includes both numerical results from computer simulations and analytic computations using a perturbative approach. The two approaches are shown to be in good agreement. The behavior of the array is dominated by hysteresis effects. The second part of the thesis describes an exact bound-to-site transformation for diffusion-limited aggregation. A review is provided that summarizes the field of aggregation and demonstrates the need for such exact results. The equivalence maps a class of partial adhesion problems on arbitrary lattices to absolute adhesion problems on transformed lattices. Examples are given for diffusion in the presence and absence of an external field

  6. Modulus of elasticity, creep and shrinkage of concrete, phase II : part 1, creep study, final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    A laboratory testing program was performed to evaluate the physical and mechanical properties of typical Class II, IV, V, and VI concrete mixtures made with a Miami Oolite limestone, a Georgia granite, and a lightweight aggregate Stalite, including c...

  7. Report on the Oak Ridge sewage sludge land-farming experience. Part II. Pathways analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oakes, T.W.; Ohnesorge, W.F.; Daniels, K.L.; Braunstein, H.M.; Kitchings, J.T.; Alexander, W.A.

    1984-08-01

    The data presented in Part I was used to analyze the potential hazard to humans from the transport of radioactive material from the sludge disposal area into the surrounding environment. A number of environmental pathways were examined to determine the possible radiation dose that humans might incur if radionuclides from the disposal site were concentrated in an environmental medium other than soil. Subsequent to the data assessment, calculations were made to delineate the potential dose received from exposure to five different environmental pathways: (a) direct radiation from the field; (b) inhalation of dust emissions from the sludge disposal area; (c) ingestion of water resulting from radionuclides being leached from the soil and transported via surface runoff into Melton Hill Lake; (d) ingestion of fish caught in Melton Hill Lake; and (e) ingestion of deer meat from animals which might graze on the contaminated site. Results of analyses from these four pathways showed the total annual exposure to be 4.2 mrem to the endostial cells (critical organ) and 1.1 mrem to the total body. 5 references, 7 tables

  8. Impacts of Realistic Urban Heating. Part II: Air Quality and City Breathability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian, Negin; Martilli, Alberto; Norford, Leslie; Kleissl, Jan

    2018-03-01

    Urban morphology and inter-building shadowing result in a non-uniform distribution of surface heating in urban areas, which can significantly modify the urban flow and thermal field. In Part I, we found that in an idealized three-dimensional urban array, the spatial distribution of the thermal field is correlated with the orientation of surface heating with respect to the wind direction (i.e. leeward or windward heating), while the dispersion field changes more strongly with the vertical temperature gradient in the street canyon. Here, we evaluate these results more closely and translate them into metrics of "city breathability," with large-eddy simulations coupled with an urban energy-balance model employed for this purpose. First, we quantify breathability by, (i) calculating the pollutant concentration at the pedestrian level (horizontal plane at z≈ 1.5 -2 m) and averaged over the canopy, and (ii) examining the air exchange rate at the horizontal and vertical ventilating faces of the canyon, such that the in-canopy pollutant advection is distinguished from the vertical removal of pollution. Next, we quantify the change in breathability metrics as a function of previously defined buoyancy parameters, horizontal and vertical Richardson numbers (Ri_h and Ri_v , respectively), which characterize realistic surface heating. We find that, unlike the analysis of airflow and thermal fields, consideration of the realistic heating distribution is not crucial in the analysis of city breathability, as the pollutant concentration is mainly correlated with the vertical temperature gradient (Ri_v ) as opposed to the horizontal (Ri_h ) or bulk (Ri_b ) thermal forcing. Additionally, we observe that, due to the formation of the primary vortex, the air exchange rate at the roof level (the horizontal ventilating faces of the building canyon) is dominated by the mean flow. Lastly, since Ri_h and Ri_v depend on the meteorological factors (ambient air temperature, wind speed, and

  9. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve

  10. Membrane potential and ion transport in lung epithelial type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallo, R.L.

    1986-01-01

    The alveolar type II pneumocyte is critically important to the function and maintenance of pulmonary epithelium. To investigate the nature of the response of type II cells to membrane injury, and describe a possible mechanism by which these cells regulate surfactant secretion, the membrane potential of isolated rabbit type II cells was characterized. This evaluation was accomplished by measurements of the accumulation of the membrane potential probes: [ 3 H]triphenylmethylphosphonium ([ 3 H]TPMP + ), rubidium 86, and the fluorescent dye DiOC 5 . A compartmental analysis of probe uptake into mitochondrial, cytoplasmic, and non-membrane potential dependent stores was made through the use of selective membrane depolarizations with carbonycyanide M-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), and lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). These techniques and population analysis with flow cytometry, permitted the accurate evaluation of type II cell membrane potential under control conditions and under conditions which stimulated cell activity. Further analysis of ion transport by cells exposed to radiation or adrenergic stimulation revealed a common increase in Na + /K + ATPase activity, and an increase in sodium influx across the plasma membrane. This sodium influx was found to be a critical step in the initiation of surfactant secretion. It is concluded that radiation exposure as well as other pulmonary toxicants can directly affect the membrane potential and ionic regulation of type II cells. Ion transport, particularly of sodium, plays an important role in the regulation of type II cell function

  11. Market Analysis and Consumer Impacts Source Document. Part II. Review of Motor Vehicle Market and Consumer Expenditures on Motor Vehicle Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-12-01

    This source document on motor vehicle market analysis and consumer impacts consists of three parts. Part II consists of studies and review on: motor vehicle sales trends; motor vehicle fleet life and fleet composition; car buying patterns of the busi...

  12. Propriedades termofísicas de soluções-modelo similares a sucos: parte II Thermophysical properties of model solutions similar to juice: part II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sílvia Cristina Sobottka Rolim de Moura

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Propriedades termofísicas, densidade e viscosidade de soluções-modelo similares a sucos foram determinadas experimentalmente. Os resultados foram comparados aos preditos por modelos matemáticos (STATISTICA 6.0 e obtidos da literatura em função da sua composição química. Para definição das soluções-modelo, foi realizado um planejamento estrela, mantendo-se fixa a quanti-dade de ácido (1,5% e variando-se a água (82-98,5%, o carboidrato (0-15% e a gordura (0-1,5%. A densidade foi determinada em picnômetro. A viscosidade foi determinada em viscosímetro Brookfield modelo LVF. A condutividade térmica foi calculada com o conhecimento das propriedades difusividade térmica e calor específico (apresentados na Parte I deste trabalho MOURA [7] e da densidade. Os resultados de cada propriedade foram analisados através de superfícies de respostas. Foram encontrados resultados significativos para as propriedades, mostrando que os modelos encontrados representam as mudanças das propriedades térmicas e físicas dos sucos, com alterações na composição e na temperatura.Thermophysical properties, density and viscosity of model solutions similar to juices were experimentally determined. The results were compared to those predicted by mathematical models (STATISTIC 6.0 and to values mentioned in the literature, according to the chemical composition. A star planning was adopted to define model solutions composition; fixing the acid amount in 1.5% and varying water (82-98.5%, carbohydrate (0-15% and fat (0-1.5%. The density was determined by picnometer. The viscosity was determined by Brookfield LVF model viscosimeter. The thermal conductivity was calculated based on thermal diffusivity and specific heat values (presented at the 1st . Part of this paper - MOURA [7] and density. The results of each property were analyzed by the response surface method. The found results were significant, indicating that the models represent the changes of

  13. File list: Pol.CeL.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CeL.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell dm3 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Cell line...70,SRX749072,SRX749071,SRX749073,SRX017852,SRX529168 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.CeL.50.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  14. File list: Pol.CeL.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.CeL.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell dm3 RNA polymerase RNA polymerase II Cell line...70,SRX749072,SRX749071,SRX749073,SRX017852,SRX529168 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/dm3/assembled/Pol.CeL.20.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  15. Part I. Inviscid, swirling flows and vortex breakdown. Part II. A numerical investigation of the Lundgren turbulence model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buntine, J.D.

    1994-01-01

    Part I. A study of the behaviour of an inviscid, swirling fluid is performed. This flow can be described by the Squire-Long equation if the constraints of time-independence and axisymmetry are invoked. The particular case of flow through a diverging pipe is selected and a study is conducted to determine over what range of parameters does a solution exist. The work is performed with a view to understanding how the phenomenon of vortex breakdown develops. Experiments and previous numerical studies have indicated that the flow is sensitive to boundary conditions particularly at the pipe inlet. A open-quotes quasi-cylindricalclose quotes amplification of the Squire-Long equation is compared with the more complete model and shown to be able to account for most of its behaviour. An advantage of this latter representation is the relatively undetailed description of the flow geometry it requires in order to calculate a solution. open-quotes Criticalityclose quotes or the ability of small disturbances to propagate upstream is related to results of the quasi-cylindrical and axisymmetric flow models. This leads to an examination of claims made by researchers such as Benjamin and Hall concerning the interrelationship between open-quotes failureclose quotes of the quasi-cylindrical model and the occurrence of a open-quotes criticalclose quotes flow state. Lundgren developed an analytical model for homogeneous turbulence based on a collection of contracting spiral vortices each embedded in an axisymmetric strain field. Using asymptotic approximations he was able to deduce the Kolmogorov k -5/3 behaviour for inertial scales in the turbulence energy spectrum. Pullin ampersand Saffman have enlarged upon his work to make a number of predictions about the behaviour of turbulence described by the model. This work investigates the model numerically. The first part considers how the flow description compares with numerical simulations using the Navier-Stokes equations

  16. Nutrição em Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos -Parte II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília Mendonça

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO: Nesta parte II do artigo “Nutrição em Unidade de Cuidados Intensivos” os autores privilegiam a via entérica para administração de nutrientes a doentes com um aparelho gastrointestinal funcionante. Refere-se quando e como iniciar a administração entérica e as contraindicações associadas à sua utilização, as sondas utilizadas e as técnicas de colocação. Quando a administração entérica está indicada por períodos prolongados pode ser importante discutir as vaotagens da efectivação de gastrostomia ou enterostomia.A colocação indevida das sondas na árvore traqueo-brônquica, a aspiração e a diarreia são as principais complicações da administração entérica.A administração entérica pode ser realizada de forma intermitente ou contínua. O resíduo gástrico deve ser avaliado regularmente e, se houver necessidade, pode recorrer-se à utilização de procinéticos.São discutidas fórmulas especiais de administração entérica dirigidas nomeadamente aos doentes com DPOC, Insuficiência Renal e Diabetes. É focada a problemática da realimentação e sobrealimentação.Finalmente são tratadas as indicações e controlo da alimentação parentérica. SUMMARY: In the second part of “Nutrition in Intensive Care Unit” the authors emphasise the importance of enteric route for the administration of nutrients to patients with a normal condition of the gastroinstestinal tract. The rules for when and how initiate the enteric feeding and the associate contra indications, as well as the utilised catheters and techniques of implementation, are expressed in this article. When the enteric feeding is indicated for a long period of time, the advantages of gastrostomy or enterostomy, should be considered.The incorrect positioning of the feeding catheter in tracheobronchial tree

  17. Characterization of sugar cane bagasse: part II: fluid dynamic characteristics; Caracterizacion del bagazo de la cana de azucar: parte II: caracteristicas fluidodinamicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alarcon, Guillermo A. Roca [Universidad de Oriente (CEEFE/UO), Santiago de Cuba (Cuba). Centro de Estudios de Eficiencia Energetica], Emails: roca@ceefe.uo.edu.cu, grocabayamon@hotmail.com; Sanchez, Caio Glauco [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEM/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Mecanica], Email: caio@fem.unicamp.br; Gomez, Edgardo Olivares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Emails: gomez@bioware.com.br, egomez@energiabr.org.br; Cortez, Luis Augusto Barbosa [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (NIPE/FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola. Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico], Email: cortez@reitoria.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    This paper is the second part of a general study about physic-geometrical and fluid-dynamics characteristic of the sugarcane bagasse particles. These properties has relevant importance on the dimensions and operation of the equipment for transport and treatment of solid particles. Was used the transport column method for the determination of the drag velocity and later on the drag coefficient of the sugarcane bagasse particles was calculated. Both, the installation and experimental technique used for materials of these characteristics are simple and innovations tools, but rigorous conceptually, thus the results obtained are reliable. Were used several sugarcane bagasse fractions of particles of known mean diameter. The properties determined were expressed as a function of Reynolds and Archimedes a dimensional criteria. The best considered model from statistical analysis (model from equation 8) was statistically validated for determined ranges of Reynolds and Archimedes. These empirical equations can be used to determine these properties in the range and conditions specified and also for modeling some processes where these fractions are employed. (author)

  18. High Radiation Resistance Inverted Metamorphic Solar Cell, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation in this SBIR Phase II project is the development of a unique triple junction inverted metamorphic technology (IMM), which will enable the...

  19. Technical Information on the Carbonation of the EBR-II Reactor, Summary Report Part 1: Laboratory Experiments and Application to EBR-II Secondary Sodium System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven R. Sherman

    2005-04-01

    Residual sodium is defined as sodium metal that remains behind in pipes, vessels, and tanks after the bulk sodium metal has been melted and drained from such components. The residual sodium has the same chemical properties as bulk sodium, and differs from bulk sodium only in the thickness of the sodium deposit. Typically, sodium is considered residual when the thickness of the deposit is less than 5-6 cm. This residual sodium must be removed or deactivated when a pipe, vessel, system, or entire reactor is permanently taken out of service, in order to make the component or system safer and/or to comply with decommissioning regulations. As an alternative to the established residual sodium deactivation techniques (steam-and-nitrogen, wet vapor nitrogen, etc.), a technique involving the use of moisture and carbon dioxide has been developed. With this technique, sodium metal is converted into sodium bicarbonate by reacting it with humid carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is emitted as a by-product. This technique was first developed in the laboratory by exposing sodium samples to humidified carbon dioxide under controlled conditions, and then demonstrated on a larger scale by treating residual sodium within the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) secondary cooling system, followed by the primary cooling system, respectively. The EBR-II facility is located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) in southeastern Idaho, U.S.A. This report is Part 1 of a two-part report. It is divided into three sections. The first section describes the chemistry of carbon dioxide-water-sodium reactions. The second section covers the laboratory experiments that were conducted in order to develop the residual sodium deactivation process. The third section discusses the application of the deactivation process to the treatment of residual sodium within the EBR-II secondary sodium cooling system. Part 2 of the report, under separate cover, describes the application of the technique to residual sodium

  20. Overlooked Talent Sources and Corporate Strategies for Affirmative Action. Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacobelli, John L.; Muczyk, Jan P.

    1975-01-01

    Part Two of the two-part article describes corporate strategies for affirmative action in order to obtain the most qualified individuals available for professional positions among minority and female candidates. (Author/BP)

  1. Recognition of lysophosphatidylcholine by type II NKT cells and protection from an inflammatory liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricic, Igor; Girardi, Enrico; Zajonc, Dirk M; Kumar, Vipin

    2014-11-01

    Lipids presented by the MHC class I-like molecule, CD1d, are recognized by NK T (NKT) cells, which can be broadly categorized into two subsets. The well-characterized type I NKT cells express a semi-invariant TCR and can recognize both α- and β-linked glycolipids, whereas type II NKT cells are less well studied, express a relatively diverse TCR repertoire, and recognize β-linked lipids. Recent structural studies have shown a distinct mode of recognition of a self-glycolipid sulfatide bound to CD1d by a type II NKT TCR. To further characterize Ag recognition by these cells, we have used the structural data and screened other small molecules able to bind to CD1d and activate type II NKT cells. Using plate-bound CD1d and APC-based Ag presentation assay, we found that phospholipids such as lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) can stimulate the sulfatide-reactive type II NKT hybridoma Hy19.3 in a CD1d-dependent manner. Using plasmon resonance studies, we found that this type II NKT TCR binds with CD1d-bound LPC with micromolar affinities similar to that for sulfatide. Furthermore, LPC-mediated activation of type II NKT cells leads to anergy induction in type I NKT cells and affords protection from Con A-induced hepatitis. These data indicate that, in addition to self-glycolipids, self-lysophospholipids are also recognized by type II NKT cells. Because lysophospholipids are involved during inflammation, our findings have implications for not only understanding activation of type II NKT cells in physiological settings, but also for the development of immune intervention in inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. Establishment and evaluation of a stable cattle type II alveolar epithelial cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Su

    Full Text Available Macrophages and dendritic cells are recognized as key players in the defense against mycobacterial infection. Recent research has confirmed that alveolar epithelial cells (AECs also play important roles against mycobacterium infections. Thus, establishing a stable cattle AEC line for future endogenous immune research on bacterial invasion is necessary. In the present study, we first purified and immortalized type II AECs (AEC II cells by transfecting them with a plasmid containing the human telomerase reverse trancriptase gene. We then tested whether or not the immortalized cells retained the basic physiological properties of primary AECs by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Finally, we tested the secretion capacity of immortalized AEC II cells upon stimulation by bacterial invasion. The cattle type II alveolar epithelial cell line (HTERT-AEC II that we established retained lung epithelial cell characteristics: the cells were positive for surfactants A and B, and they secreted tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in response to bacterial invasion. Thus, the cell line we established is a potential tool for research on the relationship between AECs and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  3. Evaluación neurofuncional del tallo cerebral Parte II: Reflejo mandibular = Neurofunctional evaluation of brain stem. II. Mandibular reflex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Sarmiento, Fidias E.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available El reflejo mandibular o maseterino posee conexiones nerviosas únicas, diferentes de las exhi­bidas por otros reflejos monosinápticos humanos, y permite evaluar, de forma fácil y eficien­te, el tallo cerebral por medio de la estimulación mecánica, eléctrica o magnética. Diversos estudios han demostrado la participación en este reflejo de las interneuronas del tallo cerebral y su modulación por estructuras supraespinales, que hacen parte fundamental de su integra­ción motora. El reflejo mandibular es útil para evaluar la afectación trigémino-trigeminal en polineuropatías como la diabetes, neuromiopatías como la esclerosis múltiple y en pacientes con trastornos del movimiento, con o sin disfunción oromandibular. La evaluación neuro­funcional de este reflejo craneofacial ayuda a identificar la integración sensorimotora del tallo cerebral y las posibles alteraciones de estas vías reflejas, debidas a anormalidades del sistema nervioso central o del periférico. Su apropiada ejecución e interpretación, clínica y neurológica, permite aplicar de manera más personalizada diversos protocolos de neurorre­habilitación, con el fin de ayudar a mejorar la calidad de vida de los individuos con afectación de estas vías neurales.

  4. Investigation of sol-gel transition by rheological methods. Part II. Results and discussion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KUDRYAVTSEV Pavel Gennadievich

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work rheological studies of the gelling process were carried out. We have developed a measuring system for studying the rheology of the gelation process. It consisted of several measuring cells of the Weiler-Rebinder type, system for automatic regulation of the composition of the medium and thermostabilization system. This complex is designed to measure the dependence of the value of the ultimate shear stress as a function of time, from the start of the sol-gel transition to the complete conversion of the sol to the gel. The developed device has a wide range of measured values of critical shear stresses τ0 = (0,05÷50000 Dyne/cm2. Using the developed instrument, it was possible to establish the shape of the initial section of the curve τ0 = f(t and develop a methodology for more accurate determination of gelation time. The developed method proved that the classical method for determining the start time of the sol-gel transition using the point of intersection of the tangent to the linear part of the rheological curve τ0 = f(t, gives significantly distorted results. A new phenomenon has been discovered: the kinetic curves in the coordinates of the Avrami-Erofeev-Bogolyubov equation have an inflection point which separates the kinetic curve into two parts, the initial and the final. It was found that the constant k in the Avrami–Erofeev–Bogolyubov equation does not depend on the temperature and is the same for both the initial and final parts of the kinetic curve. It depends only on the chemical nature of the reacting system. It was found that for the initial section of the kinetic curves, the value of the parameter n in the Avrami-Erofeev-Bogolyubov equation was n = 23,4±2,8 and, unlike the final section of the rheological curve, does not depend on temperature. A large value of this parameter can be interpreted as the average number of directions of growth of a fractal aggregate during its growth. The value of this parameter

  5. Current antiviral drugs and their analysis in biological materials - Part II: Antivirals against hepatitis and HIV viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nováková, Lucie; Pavlík, Jakub; Chrenková, Lucia; Martinec, Ondřej; Červený, Lukáš

    2018-01-05

    This review is a Part II of the series aiming to provide comprehensive overview of currently used antiviral drugs and to show modern approaches to their analysis. While in the Part I antivirals against herpes viruses and antivirals against respiratory viruses were addressed, this part concerns antivirals against hepatitis viruses (B and C) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Many novel antivirals against hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV have been introduced into the clinical practice over the last decade. The recent broadening portfolio of these groups of antivirals is reflected in increasing number of developed analytical methods required to meet the needs of clinical terrain. Part II summarizes the mechanisms of action of antivirals against hepatitis B virus (HBV), HCV, and HIV, their use in clinical practice, and analytical methods for individual classes. It also provides expert opinion on state of art in the field of bioanalysis of these drugs. Analytical methods reflect novelty of these chemical structures and use by far the most current approaches, such as simple and high-throughput sample preparation and fast separation, often by means of UHPLC-MS/MS. Proper method validation based on requirements of bioanalytical guidelines is an inherent part of the developed methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cavity Processing and Preparation of 650 MHz Elliptical Cell Cavities for PIP-II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rowe, Allan [Fermilab; Chandrasekaran, Saravan Kumar [Fermilab; Grassellino, Anna [Fermilab; Melnychuk, Oleksandr [Fermilab; Merio, Margherita [Fermilab; Reid, Thomas [Argonne (main); Sergatskov, Dmitri [Fermilab

    2017-05-01

    The PIP-II project at Fermilab requires fifteen 650 MHz SRF cryomodules as part of the 800 MeV LINAC that will provide a high intensity proton beam to the Fermilab neutrino program. A total of fifty-seven high-performance SRF cavities will populate the cryomodules and will operate in both pulsed and continuous wave modes. These cavities will be processed and prepared for performance testing utilizing adapted cavity processing infrastructure already in place at Fermilab and Argonne. The processing recipes implemented for these structures will incorporate state-of-the art processing and cleaning techniques developed for 1.3 GHz SRF cavities for the ILC, XFEL, and LCLS-II projects. This paper describes the details of the processing recipes and associated chemistry, heat treatment, and cleanroom processes at the Fermilab and Argonne cavity processing facilities. This paper also presents single and multi-cell cavity test results with quality factors above 5·10¹⁰ and accelerating gradients above 30 MV/m.

  7. Obligatory Role for B Cells in the Development of Angiotensin II-Dependent Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Christopher T; Sobey, Christopher G; Lieu, Maggie; Ferens, Dorota; Kett, Michelle M; Diep, Henry; Kim, Hyun Ah; Krishnan, Shalini M; Lewis, Caitlin V; Salimova, Ekaterina; Tipping, Peter; Vinh, Antony; Samuel, Chrishan S; Peter, Karlheinz; Guzik, Tomasz J; Kyaw, Tin S; Toh, Ban-Hock; Bobik, Alexander; Drummond, Grant R

    2015-11-01

    Clinical hypertension is associated with raised serum IgG antibodies. However, whether antibodies are causative agents in hypertension remains unknown. We investigated whether hypertension in mice is associated with B-cell activation and IgG production and moreover whether B-cell/IgG deficiency affords protection against hypertension and vascular remodeling. Angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion (0.7 mg/kg per day; 28 days) was associated with (1) a 25% increase in the proportion of splenic B cells expressing the activation marker CD86, (2) an 80% increase in splenic plasma cell numbers, (3) a 500% increase in circulating IgG, and (4) marked IgG accumulation in the aortic adventitia. In B-cell-activating factor receptor-deficient (BAFF-R(-/-)) mice, which lack mature B cells, there was no evidence of Ang II-induced increases in serum IgG. Furthermore, the hypertensive response to Ang II was attenuated in BAFF-R(-/-) (Δ30±4 mm Hg) relative to wild-type (Δ41±5 mm Hg) mice, and this response was rescued by B-cell transfer. BAFF-R(-/-) mice displayed reduced IgG accumulation in the aorta, which was associated with 80% fewer aortic macrophages and a 70% reduction in transforming growth factor-β expression. BAFF-R(-/-) mice were also protected from Ang II-induced collagen deposition and aortic stiffening (assessed by pulse wave velocity analysis). Finally, like BAFF-R deficiency, pharmacological depletion of B cells with an anti-CD20 antibody attenuated Ang II-induced hypertension by ≈35%. Hence, these studies demonstrate that B cells/IgGs are crucial for the development of Ang II-induced hypertension and vessel remodeling in mice. Thus, B-cell-targeted therapies-currently used for autoimmune diseases-may hold promise as future treatments for hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma - Part II: Management of primary extranodal lymphomas, generalized disease and salvage treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gospodarowicz, Mary K.; Sutcliffe, Simon B.

    1996-01-01

    Objective: To review the approach to the diagnosis, classification, assessment, treatment and continuing management of patients with primary extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, and the management of generalized disease with the emphasis on the current role of salvage treatment with high dose chemotherapy and stem cell/bone marrow support strategies. Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma may involve any part of the body. Many lymphomas, such as MALT, angiocentric T-cell, etc., commonly present in extranodal sites. Lymphomas presenting in the GI tract, and head and neck, are most common with the single most common site being the stomach. Gastric lymphoma is associated with Helicobacter pylorii and is most common in areas endemic for Helicobacter pylorii infection. Recent advances in the understanding of the etiology of gastric MALT, thyroid, and intestinal lymphomas present new opportunities for the application of novel therapeutic approaches e.g. antibiotic therapy for Helicobacter pylori and early stage IPSID. Lymphomas presenting in the orbit, thyroid, breast, bone, extradural and skin are of interest because of the importance of expert RT in securing local control. Primary brain lymphomas present a particular challenge to the radiation oncologist. Although localized, primary brain lymphomas are extremely difficult to control. Rare sites of extranodal lymphoma include testis, female genital tract, and lung. Extranodal lymphomas are often localized and cure with RT or CMT is possible. They represent a assorted group of diseases with diverse presentations, prognosis, sensitivity to RT and expected outcome. They are of particular importance to radiation oncologists as they require special attention to patterns of spread and treatment planning. The principles of management of primary extranodal lymphoma, however, follow those applicable to localized nodal presentations. Although primary extranodal lymphomas are highly curable, a proportion of patients will fail with disseminated

  9. DOE program guide for universities and other research groups. Part I. DOE Research and Development Programs; Part II. DOE Procurement and Assistance Policies/Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-03-01

    This guide addresses the DOE responsibility for fostering advanced research and development of all energy resources, both current and potential. It is intended to provide, in a single publication, all the fundamental information needed by an institution to develop a potential working relationship with DOE. Part I describes DOE research and development programs and facilities, and identifies areas of additional research needs and potential areas for new research opportunities. It also summarizes budget data and identifies the DOE program information contacts for each program. Part II provides researchers and research administrators with an introduction to the DOE administrative policies and procedures for submission and evaluation of proposals and the administration of resulting grants, cooperative agreements, and research contracts. (RWR)

  10. Programming an interim report on the SETL project. Part I: generalities. Part II: the SETL language and examples of its use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwartz, J T

    1975-06-01

    A summary of work during the past several years on SETL, a new programming language drawing its dictions and basic concepts from the mathematical theory of sets, is presented. The work was started with the idea that a programming language modeled after an appropriate version of the formal language of mathematics might allow a programming style with some of the succinctness of mathematics, and that this might ultimately enable one to express and experiment with more complex algorithms than are now within reach. Part I discusses the general approach followed in the work. Part II focuses directly on the details of the SETL language as it is now defined. It describes the facilities of SETL, includes short libraries of miscellaneous and of code optimization algorithms illustrating the use of SETL, and gives a detailed description of the manner in which the set-theoretic primitives provided by SETL are currently implemented. (RWR)

  11. A critical overview of non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis. Part II: separation efficiency and analysis time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenndler, Ernst

    2014-03-28

    A survey of the literature on non-aqueous capillary zone electrophoresis leaves one with the impression of a prevailing notion that non-aqueous conditions are principally more favorable than conventional aqueous media. Specifically, the application of organic solvents in capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) is believed to provide the general advantages of superior separation efficiency, higher applicable electric field strength, and shorter analysis time. These advantages, however, are often claimed without providing any experimental evidence, or based on rather uncritical comparisons of limited sets of arbitrarily selected separation results. Therefore, the performance characteristics of non-aqueous vs. aqueous CZE certainly deserve closer scrutiny. The primary intention of Part II of this review is to give a critical survey of the literature on non-aqueous capillary electrophoresis (NACE) that has emerged over the last five years. Emphasis is mainly placed on those studies that are concerned with the aspects of plate height, plate number, and the crucial mechanisms contributing to zone broadening, both in organic and aqueous conditions. To facilitate a deeper understanding, this treatment covers also the theoretical fundamentals of peak dispersion phenomena arising from wall adsorption; concentration overload (electromigration dispersion); longitudinal diffusion; and thermal gradients. Theoretically achievable plate numbers are discussed, both under limiting (at zero ionic strength) and application-relevant conditions (at finite ionic strength). In addition, the impact of the superimposed electroosmotic flow contributions to overall CZE performance is addressed, both for aqueous and non-aqueous media. It was concluded that for peak dispersion due to wall adsorption and due to concentration overload (electromigration dispersion, leading to peak triangulation) no general conjunction with the solvent can be deduced. This is in contrast to longitudinal diffusion: the

  12. Bathymetry (Part I), sedimentary regimes (Part II), and abyssal waste-disposal potential near the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Frederick A.; Vogt, Peter R.; Jung, Woo-Yeol

    1998-05-01

    Placing waste on the seafloor, with the intention that it remain in place and isolated from mankind, requires a knowledge of the environmental factors that may be applicable to a specific seafloor area. DBDB5 (Digital Bathymetric Database gridded at 5' latitude by 5' longitude cell dimension) is used here for regional assessments of seafloor depth, slope, and relief at five surrogate abyssal waste sites; two each in the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific, and one in the Gulf of Mexico. Only Pacific-1 exhibits a `high' slope (2°) by DBDB5 standards, whereas the remaining sites are located on almost level seafloor. Detailed examination of the sites using multibeam-based contour sheets show the area around Atlantic-1 to be a featureless plain. Atlantic-2 and both Pacific sites are surrounded by abyssal hill topography, with local slopes ranging from greater than 6° at all sites to above 15° at Pacific-2. Neither Pacific site features a seafloor as `flat' as at Atlantic-1 or at the Gulf of Mexico site. Locating waste sites on sedimented slopes could have serious consequences due to catastrophic slope failure and downslope displacement of waste by mass sediment-transport processes. Neither slumping nor sliding are perceived as critical processes affecting the surrogate sites because of their locations on negligibly sloping seafloors. However, debris flows and turbidity currents are capable of transporting large volumes of sediment for long distances over low gradients and, in the case of turbidity currents, at great speed. Dispersal of loose waste material by these processes is virtually assured, but less likely if the waste is bagged. The turbidity current problem is alleviated (but not eliminated) by locating waste sites on distal portions of abyssal plains. Both Pacific sites are surrounded by abyssal hills and, in the case of Pacific-2, far beyond the reach of land-derived turbidity currents. Thin sediment cover and low rates of sedimentation have also resulted

  13. Type II NKT Cells in Inflammation, Autoimmunity, Microbial Immunity, and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Idania; Ware, Randle; Kumar, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer T cells (NKT) recognize self and microbial lipid antigens presented by non-polymorphic CD1d molecules. Two major NKT cell subsets, type I and II, express different types of antigen receptors (TCR) with distinct mode of CD1d/lipid recognition. Though type II NKT cells are less frequent in mice and difficult to study, they are predominant in human. One of the major subsets of type II NKT cells reactive to the self-glycolipid sulfatide is the best characterized and has been shown to induce a dominant immune regulatory mechanism that controls inflammation in autoimmunity and in anti-cancer immunity. Recently, type II NKT cells reactive to other self-glycolipids and phospholipids have been identified suggesting both promiscuous and specific TCR recognition in microbial immunity as well. Since the CD1d pathway is highly conserved, a detailed understanding of the biology and function of type II NKT cells as well as their interplay with type I NKT cells or other innate and adaptive T cells will have major implications for potential novel interventions in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, microbial immunity, and cancer.

  14. Vitamin E alters alveolar type II cell phospholipid synthesis in oxygen and air

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, K.A.; Snyder, J.M.; Stenzel, W.; Saito, K.; Warshaw, J.B.

    1990-01-01

    Newborn rats were injected with vitamin E or placebo daily until 6 days after birth. The effect of vitamin E pretreatment on in vitro surfactant phospholipid synthesis was examined in isolated type II cells exposed to oxygen or air form 24 h in vitro. Type II cells were also isolated from untreated 6-day-old rats and cultured for 24 h in oxygen or air with control medium or vitamin E supplemented medium. These cells were used to examine the effect of vitamin E exposure in vitro on type II cell phospholipid synthesis and ultrastructure. Phosphatidylcholine (PC) synthesis was reduced in cells cultured in oxygen as compared with air. This decrease was not prevented by in vivo pretreatment or in vitro supplementation with vitamin E. Vitamin E pretreatment increased the ratio of disaturated PC to total PC and increased phosphatidylglycerol synthesis. The volume density of lamellar bodies in type II cells was increased in cells maintained in oxygen. Vitamin E did not affect the volume density of lamellar bodies. We conclude that in vitro hyperoxia inhibits alveolar type II cell phosphatidylcholine synthesis without decreasing lamellar body volume density and that supplemental vitamin E does not prevent hyperoxia-induced decrease in phosphatidylcholine synthesis

  15. AUTOMOTIVE DIESEL MAINTENANCE 2. UNIT XV, UNDERSTANDING DC GENERATOR PRINCIPLES (PART II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Human Engineering Inst., Cleveland, OH.

    THIS MODULE OF A 25-MODULE COURSE IS DESIGNED TO DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF MAINTENANCE PROCEDURES FOR DIRECT CURRENT GENERATORS USED ON DIESEL POWERED EQUIPMENT. TOPICS ARE SPECIAL GENERATOR CIRCUITS, GENERATOR TESTING, AND GENERATOR POLARITY. THE MODULE CONSISTS OF A SELF-INSTRUCTIONAL PROGRAMED TRAINING FILM "DC GENERATORS II--GENERATOR…

  16. Studies on the sediments of Vembanad Lake, Kerala state: Part II - Distribution of phosphorus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Murty, P.S.N.; Veerayya, M.

    in the estuarine region has been attributed to several factors. The impoverishment of Mn and Co can be due to (i) desorption of these elements from the river borne detritus on coming into contact with saline waters, (ii) dredging operations which may lead...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix II to Part 805 - Employees Required To Submit Statements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...—Employees Required To Submit Statements Statements of employment and financial interests are required of the... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Employees Required To Submit Statements II...) Office of the managing director: (1) Legislative affairs officer. (2) Program analysis officer. (d...

  18. Insulin-like growth factor-II receptors in cultured rat hepatocytes: regulation by cell density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, C.D.; Baxter, R.C.

    1987-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II) receptors in primary cultures of adult rat hepatocytes were characterized and their regulation by cell density examined. In hepatocytes cultured at 5 X 10(5) cells per 3.8 cm2 plate [ 125 I]IGF-II bound to specific, high affinity receptors (Ka = 4.4 +/- 0.5 X 10(9) l/mol). Less than 1% cross-reactivity by IGF-I and no cross-reactivity by insulin were observed. IGF-II binding increased when cells were permeabilized with 0.01% digitonin, suggesting the presence of an intracellular receptor pool. Determined by Scatchard analysis and by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis after affinity labeling, the higher binding was due solely to an increase in binding sites present on 220 kDa type II IGF receptors. In hepatocytes cultured at low densities, the number of cell surface receptors increased markedly, from 10-20,000 receptors per cell at a culture density of 6 X 10(5) cells/well to 70-80,000 receptors per cell at 0.38 X 10(5) cells/well. The increase was not due simply to the exposure of receptors from the intracellular pool, as a density-related increase in receptors was also seen in cells permeabilized with digitonin. There was no evidence that IGF binding proteins, either secreted by hepatocytes or present in fetal calf serum, had any effect on the measurement of receptor concentration or affinity. We conclude that rat hepatocytes in primary culture contain specific IGF-II receptors and that both cell surface and intracellular receptors are regulated by cell density

  19. Deletion of SMARCA4 impairs alveolar epithelial type II cells proliferation and aggravates pulmonary fibrosis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danyi Peng

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Alveolar epithelial cells (AECs injury and failed reconstitution of the AECs barrier are both integral to alveolar flooding and subsequent pulmonary fibrosis (PF. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms regulating the regeneration of AECs post-injury still remain unclear. SMARCA4 is a part of the large ATP-dependent chromatin remodelling complex SWI/SNF, which is essential for kidney and heart fibrosis. We investigates SMARCA4 function in lung fibrosis by establishing PF mice model with bleomycin firstly and found that the expression of SMARCA4 was mainly enhanced in alveolar type II (ATII cells. Moreover, we established an alveolar epithelium-specific SMARCA4-deleted SP-C-rtTA/(tetO7-Cre/SMARCA4f/f mice (SOSM4Δ/Δ model, as well as a new SMARCA4-deleted alveolar type II (ATII-like mle-12 cell line. We found that the bleomycin-induced PF was more aggressive in SOSM4Δ/Δ mice. Also, the proliferation of ATII cells was decreased with the loss of SMARCA4 in vivo and in vitro. In addition, we observed increased proliferation of ATII cells accompanied by abnormally high expression of SMARCA4 in human PF lung sections. These data uncovered the indispensable role of SMARCA4 in the proliferation of ATII cells, which might affect the progression of PF.

  20. Identification and characterization of glycosyltransferases involved in the synthesis of the side chains of the cell wall pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, Malcolm [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-08-31

    Our goal was to gain insight into the genes and proteins involved in the biosynthesis of rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II), a borate cross-linked and structurally conserved pectic polysaccharide present in the primary cell walls of all vascular plants. The research conducted during the funding period established that (i) Avascular plants have the ability to synthesize UDP-apiose but lack the glycosyltransferase machinery required to synthesize RG-II or other apiose-containing cell wall glycans. (ii) RG-II structure is highly conserved in the Lemnaceae (duckweeds and relatives). However, the structures of other wall pectins and hemicellulose have changed substantial during the diversification of the Lemnaceae. This supports the notion that a precise structure of RG-II must be maintained to allow borate cross-linking to occur in a controlled manner. (iii) Enzymes involved in the conversion of UDP-GlcA to UDP-Api, UDP-Xyl, and UDP-Ara may have an important role in controlling the composition of duckweed cell walls. (iv) RG-II exists as the borate ester cross-linked dimer in the cell walls of soybean root hairs and roots. Thus, RG-II is present in the walls of plants cells that grow by tip or by expansive growth. (v) A reduction in RG-II cross-linking in the maize tls1 mutant, which lacks a borate channel protein, suggests that the growth defects observed in the mutant are, at least in part, due to defects in the cell wall.

  1. An emerging role of pectic rhamnogalacturonanII for cell wall integrity

    OpenAIRE

    Reboul, Rebecca; Tenhaken, Raimund

    2012-01-01

    The plant cell wall is a complex network of different polysaccharides and glycoproteins, showing high diversity in nature. The essential components, tethering cell wall are under debate, as novel mutants challenge established models. The mutant ugd2,3 with a reduced supply of the important wall precursor UDP-glucuronic acid reveals the critical role of the pectic compound rhamnogalacturonanII for cell wall stability. This polymer seems to be more important for cell wall integrity than the pre...

  2. The Columbia University microbeam II endstation for cell imaging and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, A.W.; Ross, G.J.; Randers-Pehrson, G.; Brenner, D.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Columbia University Microbeam II has been built to provide a focused ion beam for irradiating designated mammalian cells with single particles. With the interest in irradiating non-stained cells and cells in three-dimensional tissue samples, the endstation was designed to accommodate a variety of imaging techniques, in addition to fluorescent microscopy. Non-stained cells are imaged either by quantitative phase microscopy (QPm) [IATIA, Box Hill North, Victoria, 3129, Australia [1

  3. (II) complexes as sensitizers for dye sensitized solar cells

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dimethyl-3-propyl-1 H-imidazol-3-ium iodide (DMPII),. 4-tert-butyl-pyridine (TBP) and ... cymene) ruthenium(II) dimer was synthesized according to the reported ... saturated ammonium chloride (200 ml) solution was added to decompose the ...

  4. Molecular biological mechanism II. Molecular mechanisms of cell cycle regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, T.

    2000-01-01

    The cell cycle in eukaryotes is regulated by central cell cycle controlling protein kinase complexes. These protein kinase complexes consist of a catalytic subunit from the cyclin-dependent protein kinase family (CDK), and a regulatory subunit from the cyclin family. Cyclins are characterised by their periodic cell cycle related synthesis and destruction. Each cell cycle phase is characterised by a specific set of CDKs and cyclins. The activity of CDK/cyclin complexes is mainly regulated on four levels. It is controlled by specific phosphorylation steps, the synthesis and destruction of cyclins, the binding of specific inhibitor proteins, and by active control of their intracellular localisation. At several critical points within the cell cycle, named checkpoints, the integrity of the cellular genome is monitored. If damage to the genome or an unfinished prior cell cycle phase is detected, the cell cycle progression is stopped. These cell cycle blocks are of great importance to secure survival of cells. Their primary importance is to prevent the manifestation and heritable passage of a mutated genome to daughter cells. Damage sensing, DNA repair, cell cycle control and apoptosis are closely linked cellular defence mechanisms to secure genome integrity. Disregulation in one of these defence mechanisms are potentially correlated with an increased cancer risk and therefore in at least some cases with an increased radiation sensitivity. (orig.) [de

  5. Rise, fall and resurrection of chromosome territories: a historical perspective Part II. Fall and resurrection of chromosome territories during the 1950s to 1980s. Part III. Chromosome territories and the functional nuclear architecture: experiments and m

    OpenAIRE

    T Cremer; C Cremer

    2009-01-01

    Part II of this historical review on the progress of nuclear architecture studies points out why the original hypothesis of chromosome territories from Carl Rabl and Theodor Boveri (described in part I) was abandoned during the 1950s and finally proven by compelling evidence forwarded by laser-uvmicrobeam studies and in situ hybridization experiments. Part II also includes a section on the development of advanced light microscopic techniques breaking the classical Abbe limit written for reade...

  6. Not-for-profit versus for-profit health care providers--Part II: Comparing and contrasting their records.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotarius, Timothy; Trujillo, Antonio J; Liberman, Aaron; Ramirez, Bernardo

    2006-01-01

    The debate over which health care providers are most capably meeting their responsibilities in serving the public's interest continues unabated, and the comparisons of not-for-profit (NFP) versus for-profit (FP) hospitals remain at the epicenter of the discussion. From the perspective of available factual information, which of the two sides to this debate is correct? This article is part II of a 2-part series on comparing and contrasting the performance records of NFP health care providers with their FP counterparts. Although it is demonstrated that both NFP and FP providers perform virtuous and selfless feats on behalf of America's public, it is also shown that both camps have been accused of being involved in potentially willful clinical and administrative missteps. Part I provided the background information (eg, legal differences, perspectives on social responsibility, and types of questionable and fraudulent behavior) required to adequately understand the scope of the comparison issue. Part II offers actual comparisons of the 2 organizational structures using several disparate factors such as specific organizational behaviors, approach to the health care priorities of cost and quality, and business-focused goals of profits, efficiency, and community benefit.

  7. Instrumentation: Photodiode Array Detectors in UV-VIS Spectroscopy. Part II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Dianna G.

    1985-01-01

    A previous part (Analytical Chemistry; v57 n9 p1057A) discussed the theoretical aspects of diode ultraviolet-visual (UV-VIS) spectroscopy. This part describes the applications of diode arrays in analytical chemistry, also considering spectroelectrochemistry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), HPLC data processing, stopped flow, and…

  8. Empirical Psycho-Aesthetics and Her Sisters: Substantive and Methodological Issues--Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konecni, Vladimir J.

    2013-01-01

    Empirical psycho-aesthetics is approached in this two-part article from two directions. Part I, which appeared in the Winter 2012 issue of "JAE," addressed definitional and organizational issues, including the field's origins, its relation to "sister" disciplines (experimental philosophy, cognitive neuroscience of art, and neuroaesthetics), and…

  9. As sure as tax, rain or death (Part II) : digitalisation dragons?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staal, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Tax evasion, delayed trains & untidy death seem to be parts of our daily lives. But what about the digitalisation dragons? Will they wipe away B2B sales and procurement as we know it, our will we see a more nuanced picture? The first Part on this topic so far has attracted 3700+ readers at our PSF

  10. A study of flame spread in engineered cardboard fuelbeds: Part II: Scaling law approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittany A. Adam; Nelson K. Akafuah; Mark Finney; Jason Forthofer; Kozo Saito

    2013-01-01

    In this second part of a two part exploration of dynamic behavior observed in wildland fires, time scales differentiating convective and radiative heat transfer is further explored. Scaling laws for the two different types of heat transfer considered: Radiation-driven fire spread, and convection-driven fire spread, which can both occur during wildland fires. A new...

  11. Green's function of an infinite slot printed between two homogeneous dielectrics - Part II: Uniform asymptotic solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maci, S.; Neto, A.

    2004-01-01

    This second part of a two-paper sequence deals with the uniform asymptotic description of the Green's function of an infinite slot printed between two different homogeneous dielectric media. Starting from the magnetic current derived in Part I, the dyadic green's function is first formulated in

  12. Military Curricula for Vocational & Technical Education. Club Restaurant Operations, Part II, 9-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    These programmed instructional materials for part 2 of a secondary-postsecondary subcourse in club management operations are one of a number of military-developed curriculum packages selected for adaptation to vocational instruction and curriculum development in civilian settings. This part of the subcourse consists of three lessons and an…

  13. 10 CFR Appendix II to Part 960 - NRC and EPA Requirements for Preclosure Repository Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) that, except for variances permitted for unusual operations under Section 191.04 as an upper limit..., and schedule. 10 CFR part 20 establishes (a) exposure limits for operating personnel and (b... necessary to ensure consistency with 10 CFR part 60. ...

  14. Probabilistic scan mode of a robot manipulator workspace using EEG signals. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auat Cheein, Fernando A; Di Sciascio, Fernando; Freire Bastos, Teodiano; Carelli, Ricardo

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a probabilistic-based workspace scan mode of a robot manipulator is presented. The workspace is divided into cells. Each cell has its own probability value associated with it. Once the robot reaches a cell, its probability value is updated. The updating process is governed by a recursive Bayes algorithm. A performance comparison between a sequential scan mode and the one proposed here is made. Mathematical derivations and experimental results are also shown in this paper

  15. Angiotensin II Regulation of Proliferation, Differentiation, and Engraftment of Hematopoietic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seungbum; Zingler, Michael; Harrison, Jeffrey K; Scott, Edward W; Cogle, Christopher R; Luo, Defang; Raizada, Mohan K

    2016-03-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that differentiation and mobilization of hematopoietic cell are critical in the development and establishment of hypertension and hypertension-linked vascular pathophysiology. This, coupled with the intimate involvement of the hyperactive renin-angiotensin system in hypertension, led us to investigate the hypothesis that chronic angiotensin II (Ang II) infusion affects hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) regulation at the level of the bone marrow. Ang II infusion resulted in increases in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (83%) and long-term HSC (207%) in the bone marrow. Interestingly, increases of HSCs and long-term HSCs were more pronounced in the spleen (228% and 1117%, respectively). Furthermore, we observed higher expression of C-C chemokine receptor type 2 in these HSCs, indicating there was increased myeloid differentiation in Ang II-infused mice. This was associated with accumulation of C-C chemokine receptor type 2(+) proinflammatory monocytes in the spleen. In contrast, decreased engraftment efficiency of GFP(+) HSC was observed after Ang II infusion. Time-lapse in vivo imaging and in vitro Ang II pretreatment demonstrated that Ang II induces untimely proliferation and differentiation of the donor HSC resulting in diminished HSC engraftment and bone marrow reconstitution. We conclude that (1) chronic Ang II infusion regulates HSC proliferation, mediated by angiotensin receptor type 1a, (2) Ang II accelerates HSC to myeloid differentiation resulting in accumulation of C-C chemokine receptor type 2(+) HSCs and inflammatory monocytes in the spleen, and (3) Ang II impairs homing and reconstitution potentials of the donor HSCs. These observations highlight the important regulatory roles of Ang II on HSC proliferation, differentiation, and engraftment. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Neutronics and thermohydraulics of the reactor C.E.N.E. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caro, R.

    1976-01-01

    In this report the analysis of neutronics thermohydraulics and shielding of the 10 HWt swimming pool reactor C.E.N.E is included. In each of these chapters is given a short description of the theoretical model used, along with the theoretical versus experimental checking carried out, whenever possible, with the reactors JEN-I and JEN-II of Junta de Energia Nuclear. (Author) 11 refs

  17. Preface to the SPECIAL ISSUE: Excitonic Solar Cells(II)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianjun Tian; Meicheng Li; Kaibo Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Among all the excitonic solar cells(ESCs)including dyesensitized solar cells(DSSCs),quantum solar cells(QDSCs),perovskites solar cells(PSCs),and organic photovoltaics(OPVs),PSCs attracted enormous research attention in the past 7 years and attained the highest power conversion efficiency(PCE)of over 20%with the biggest progress,from 3.8%to over 22.1%in 7 years.However,one can easily realize the fact that such a rapid progress achieved in PSCs was made possible is largely based on the fundamental knowledge,experimental skills,and characterization facilities obtained and accumulated through the multi-decade long endeavor in the study of other excitonic solar cells.Even though PSCs have attractedmuch research human resource and funding,the study on other excitonic solar cells has never stopped,and such persistent efforts

  18. File list: Pol.NoD.10.RNA_polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

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  19. File list: Pol.EmF.05.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.EmF.05.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell mm9 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase II Embryonic...RX143288 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/mm9/assembled/Pol.EmF.05.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...

  20. File list: Pol.NoD.05.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.NoD.05.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell sacCer3 RNA polymerase RNA Polymerase II No de...scription http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/sacCer3/assembled/Pol.NoD.05.RNA_Polymerase_II.AllCell.bed ...