WorldWideScience

Sample records for cell membrane permeability

  1. Influence of Low-Energy Ion Irradiation on Plasma MembranePermeability of Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dong-Mei; CUI Fu-Zhai; SUN Su-Qin; LIN You-Bo; TIAN Min-Bo; CHEN Guo-Qiang

    2000-01-01

    Effect of low-energy ion irradiation on plasma membrane permeability has been investigated by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy of spin probe technique. The investigated system is plumule cells of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seeds implanted by 30keV N+ ions. ESR spectra indicated that plasmalemma permeability is sensitive to low-energyion irradiation. Ion irradiations with increasing fluences up to semi-lethal dose lead to gradual increase in plasmalemma permeability of the plumule cells. The possible factors relevant to the changes in membrane permeability are discussed in relation to the changes in the physical state and chemical nature of membranes.

  2. Study of the effect of membrane thickness on microcapsule strength, permeability, and cell proliferation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yu;

    2013-01-01

    Cell microencapsulation is one of the promising strategies for in vitro production of proteins or in vivo delivery of therapeutic products. Membrane thickness controls microcapsule strength and permeability, which may in return affect cell growth and metabolism. In this study, the strength......, permeability, and encapsulated Chinese hamster ovary cell proliferation and metabolism of four groups of microcapsules with different membrane thicknesses were investigated. It was found that increasing membrane thickness increases microcapsule strength, whereas decreases membrane permeability. During...... the first 6 days, cells within microcapsules with 10 μm thickness membrane proliferated fast and could reach a cell density of 1.9 × 10(7) cells/mL microcapsule with 92% cell density. A cell density of 5.5 × 10(7) cells/mL microcapsule with >85% cell density was achieved within microcapsules with 15 μm...

  3. Study of the effect of membrane thickness on microcapsule strength, permeability, and cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ying; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Yu; Wang, Qiuyan; Tan, Mingqian; Liu, Yang; Chen, Li; Li, Na; Yu, Weiting; Ma, Xiaojun

    2013-04-01

    Cell microencapsulation is one of the promising strategies for in vitro production of proteins or in vivo delivery of therapeutic products. Membrane thickness controls microcapsule strength and permeability, which may in return affect cell growth and metabolism. In this study, the strength, permeability, and encapsulated Chinese hamster ovary cell proliferation and metabolism of four groups of microcapsules with different membrane thicknesses were investigated. It was found that increasing membrane thickness increases microcapsule strength, whereas decreases membrane permeability. During the first 6 days, cells within microcapsules with 10 μm thickness membrane proliferated fast and could reach a cell density of 1.9 × 10(7) cells/mL microcapsule with 92% cell density. A cell density of 5.5 × 10(7) cells/mL microcapsule with >85% cell density was achieved within microcapsules with 15 μm membrane thickness and these microcapsules kept over 88% integrity ratio after 11 days, which was much higher than that of microcapsules with 10 μm membrane thickness. Membrane with more than 20 μm thickness was not suited for encapsulated cell culture owing to low-protein diffusion rate. These results indicated that cells survived shortly within the thinnest membrane thickness. There was a specific membrane thickness more suitable for cell growth for a long-time culture. These findings will be useful for preparing microcapsules with the desired membrane thickness for microencapsulated cell culture dependent on various purposes.

  4. Permeability testing of biomaterial membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreesmann, L; Hajosch, R; Nuernberger, J Vaz; Schlosshauer, B [NMI Natural and Medical Sciences Institute at University Tuebingen, Markwiesenstr. 55, D-72770 Reutlingen (Germany); Ahlers, M [GELITA AG, Gammelsbacher Str. 2, D-69412 Eberbach (Germany)], E-mail: schlosshauer@nmi.de

    2008-09-01

    The permeability characteristics of biomaterials are critical parameters for a variety of implants. To analyse the permeability of membranes made from crosslinked ultrathin gelatin membranes and the transmigration of cells across the membranes, we combined three technical approaches: (1) a two-chamber-based permeability assay, (2) cell culturing with cytochemical analysis and (3) biochemical enzyme electrophoresis (zymography). Based on the diffusion of a coloured marker molecule in conjunction with photometric quantification, permeability data for a gelatin membrane were determined in the presence or absence of gelatin degrading fibroblasts. Cytochemical evaluation after cryosectioning of the membranes was used to ascertain whether fibroblasts had infiltrated the membrane inside. Zymography was used to investigate the potential release of proteases from fibroblasts, which are known to degrade collagen derivatives such as gelatin. Our data show that the diffusion equilibrium of a low molecular weight dye across the selected gelatin membrane is approached after about 6-8 h. Fibroblasts increase the permeability due to cavity formation in the membrane inside without penetrating the membrane for an extended time period (>21 days in vitro). Zymography indicates that cavity formation is most likely due to the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. In summary, the combination of the depicted methods promises to facilitate a more rational development of biomaterials, because it provides a rapid means of determining permeability characteristics and bridges the gap between descriptive methodology and the mechanistic understanding of permeability alterations due to biological degradation.

  5. Effect of Ce3+ on membrane permeability of Escherichia coli cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Aimei; SHI Qingshan; OUYANG Yousheng; CHEN Yiben

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to delineate the antibacterial mechanism of rare-earth ion Ce3+ to the target organism Escherichia coli cell,and the most important purpose was to identify its biological effect of increasing the E.coli cell membrane permeability.The antibacterial activities of Ce3+ to E.coli cells were tested,and then the permeability of outer membrane (OM) and inner membrane (IM) were studied by N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine (NPN) and o-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactopyranoside (ONPG) methods separately.Through these experiments we concluded that the E.coli cells grown to log phage were more sensitive to Ce3+ than the ones not at this stage; the structure of membrane was destroyed and the permeability of both OM and IM was obviously increased by Ce3+; there should be certain interactions between Ce3+ and some proteins inside the cell,which impeded the physiological activities of bacteria.

  6. The influence of naphthenic acids and their fractions onto cell membrane permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Ksenija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of naphthenic acids (NAs mixture and their narrow fractions (called NA pH 4, pH 8 and pH 10 onto permeability of beetroot cell membrane is examined. The results showed that the effect depends on treatment duration, concentration and NAs structure. Longer treatment of plant cell membranes with sodium naphthenate (Na-naph resulted in the increase of membrane permeability (e.g. 4-hour treatment with Na-naph (C=100 μmol L-1 increased membrane permeability about 3 times, while prolongation of treatment to 24 hour resulted in the 18 times increasing of the effect. NAs in the concentration range from 0.1 to 10 μmol L-1 does not change membrane permeability, while membrane permeability is increasing linearly with concentration increasing from 10-100 μmol L-1. The strongest effect expressed fraction pH 8, where bi- and tricyclic carboxylic acids are the most abundant. These structures are predominant in the total NAs mixture as well. Thereby could be explained their closest, but a little bit weaker effect, comparing to NAs present in fraction pH 8. The effect of NAs onto beetroot cell membrane is between the effects of anionic (SDS and LS and non-ionic surfactants (Triton X-100. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172006. i br. TR31036

  7. Measurement of the permeability and resealing time constant of the electroporated mammalian cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirakashi, Ryo [Tokyo Univ., Inst. of Industrial Science, Tokyo (Japan); Sukhorukov, Vladimir L.; Zimmermann, Ulrich [Wuerzburg Univ. Biozentrum, Lehrstuhl fuer Biotechnologie, Wuerzburg (Germany); Tanasawa, Ichiro [Nihon Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Koriyama (Japan)

    2004-10-01

    In this study a new method is presented for measuring the transient permeability of mammalian cell membranes to sugar and electrolyte molecules based on the volumetric response of cells subjected to electroporation. The time constant of membrane resealing was determined independently by flow cytometry using a fluorescent dye as the reporter molecule. The volumetric and dye uptake data were analyzed with a model relating the cell volume changes to the solute transport across the reversibly permeabilized cell membrane. The experimental approach developed here might be useful for estimating the amount of electroinjected molecules, which are difficult to measure directly. (Author)

  8. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements of FCCP-induced change in membrane permeability of MDCK cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lingzhi; Li, Xianchan; Lin, Yuqing; Yang, Lifen; Yu, Ping; Mao, Lanqun

    2012-05-07

    This study demonstrates a new electrochemical impedance spectroscopic (EIS) method for measurements of the changes in membrane permeability during the process of cell anoxia. Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were employed as the model cells and were cultured onto gelatin-modified glassy carbon (GC) electrodes. EIS measurements were conducted at the MDCK/gelatin-modified GC electrodes with Fe(CN)(6)(3-/4-) as the redox probe. The anoxia of the cells grown onto electrode surface was induced by the addition of carbonycyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP) into the cell culture, in which the MDCK/gelatin-modified GC electrodes were immersed for different times. The EIS results show that the presence of FCCP in the cell culture clearly decreases the charge-transfer resistance of the Fe(CN)(6)(3-/4-) redox probe at the MDCK/gelatin-modified GC electrodes, and the charge-transfer resistance decreases with increasing time employed for immersing the MDCK/gelatin-modified GC electrodes into the cell culture containing FCCP. These results demonstrate that the EIS method could be used to monitor the changes in the cell membrane permeability during the FCCP-induced cell anoxia. To simulate the EIS system, a rational equivalent circuit was proposed and the values of ohmic resistance of the electrolyte, charge-transfer resistance and constant phase elements for both the gelatin and the cell layers are given with the fitting error in an acceptable value. This study actually offers a new and simple approach to measuring the dynamic process of cell death induced by anoxia through monitoring the changes in the cell membrane permeability.

  9. Use of novel permeable membrane and air cathodes in acetate microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pant, Deepak, E-mail: deepak.pant@vito.b [Separation and Conversion Technology, VITO - Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Boeretang 200, Mol 2400 (Belgium); Van Bogaert, Gilbert; De Smet, Mark; Diels, Ludo; Vanbroekhoven, Karolien [Separation and Conversion Technology, VITO - Flemish Institute for Technological Research, Boeretang 200, Mol 2400 (Belgium)

    2010-11-01

    In the existing microbial fuel cells (MFCs), the use of platinized electrodes and Nafion as proton exchange membrane (PEM) leads to high costs leading to a burden for wastewater treatment. In the present study, two different novel electrode materials are reported which can replace conventional platinized electrodes and can be used as very efficient oxygen reducing cathodes. Further, a novel membrane which can be used as an ion permeable membrane (Zirfon) can replace Nafion as the membrane of choice in MFCs. The above mentioned gas porous electrodes were first tested in an electrochemical half cell configuration for their ability to reduce oxygen and later in a full MFC set up. It was observed that these non-platinized air electrodes perform very well in the presence of acetate under MFC conditions (pH 7, room temperature) for oxygen reduction. Current densities of -0.43 mA cm{sup -2} for a non-platinized graphite electrode and -0.6 mA cm{sup -2} for a non-platinized activated charcoal electrode at -200 mV vs. Ag/AgCl of applied potential were obtained. The proposed ion permeable membrane, Zirfonwas tested for its oxygen mass transfer coefficient, K{sub 0} which was compared with Nafion. The K{sub 0} for Zirfon was calculated as 1.9 x 10{sup -3} cm s{sup -1}.

  10. Short-term control of maize cell and root water permeability through plasma membrane aquaporin isoforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachez, Charles; Veselov, Dmitry; Ye, Qing; Reinhardt, Hagen; Knipfer, Thorsten; Fricke, Wieland; Chaumont, François

    2012-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that aquaporins are involved in the regulation of root water uptake, the role of specific isoforms in this process is poorly understood. The mRNA expression and protein level of specific plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) were analysed in Zea mays in relation to cell and root hydraulic conductivity. Plants were analysed during the day/night period, under different growth conditions (aeroponics/hydroponics) and in response to short-term osmotic stress applied through polyethylene glycol (PEG). Higher protein levels of ZmPIP1;2, ZmPIP2;1/2;2, ZmPIP2;5 and ZmPIP2;6 during the day coincided with a higher water permeability of root cortex cells during the day compared with night period. Similarly, plants which were grown under aeroponic conditions and which developed a hypodermis ('exodermis') with Casparian bands, effectively forcing more water along a membranous uptake path across roots, showed increased levels of ZmPIP2;5 and ZmPIP1;2 in the rhizodermis and exodermis. When PEG was added to the root medium (2-8 h), expression of PIPs and cell water permeability in roots increased. These data support a role of specific PIP isoforms, in particular ZmPIP1;2 and ZmPIP2;5, in regulating root water uptake and cortex cell hydraulic conductivity in maize.

  11. Mapping Cd²⁺-induced membrane permeability changes of single live cells by means of scanning electrochemical microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filice, Fraser P; Li, Michelle S M; Henderson, Jeffrey D; Ding, Zhifeng

    2016-02-18

    Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy (SECM) is a powerful, non-invasive, analytical methodology that can be used to investigate live cell membrane permeability. Depth scan SECM imaging allowed for the generation of 2D current maps of live cells relative to electrode position in the x-z or y-z plane. Depending on resolution, one depth scan image can contain hundreds of probe approach curves (PACs). Individual PACs were obtained by simply extracting vertical cross-sections from the 2D image. These experimental PACs were overlaid onto theoretically generated PACs simulated at specific geometry conditions. Simulations were carried out using 3D models in COMSOL Multiphysics to determine the cell membrane permeability coefficients at different locations on the surface of the cells. Common in literature, theoretical PACs are generated using a 2D axially symmetric geometry. This saves on both compute time and memory utilization. However, due to symmetry limitations of the model, only one experimental PAC right above the cell can be matched with simulated PAC data. Full 3D models in this article were developed for the SECM system of live cells, allowing all experimental PACs over the entire cell to become usable. Cd(2+)-induced membrane permeability changes of single human bladder (T24) cells were investigated at several positions above the cell, displaced from the central axis. The experimental T24 cells under study were incubated with Cd(2+) in varying concentrations. It is experimentally observed that 50 and 100 μM Cd(2+) caused a decrease in membrane permeability, which was uniform across all locations over the cell regardless of Cd(2+) concentration. The Cd(2+) was found to have detrimental effects on the cell, with cells shrinking in size and volume, and the membrane permeability decreasing. A mapping technique for the analysis of the cell membrane permeability under the Cd(2+) stress is realized by the methodology presented.

  12. Passive permeability and effective pore size of HeLa cell nuclear membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samudram, Arunkarthick; Mangalassery, Bijeesh M; Kowshik, Meenal; Patincharath, Nandakumar; Varier, Geetha K

    2016-09-01

    Nuclear pore complexes in the nuclear membrane act as the sole gateway of transport of molecules from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and vice versa. Studies on biomolecular transport through nuclear membranes provide vital data on the nuclear pore complexes. In this work, we use fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled dextran molecules as a model system and study the passive nuclear import of biomolecules through nuclear pore complexes in digitonin-permeabilized HeLa cells. Experiments are carried out under transient conditions in the time lapse imaging scheme using an in-house constructed confocal laser scanning microscope. Transport rates of dextran molecules having molecular weights of 4-70 kDa corresponding to Stokes radius of 1.4-6 nm are determined. Analyzing the permeability of the nuclear membrane for different sizes the effective pore radius of HeLa cell nuclear membrane is determined to be 5.3 nm, much larger than the value reported earlier using proteins as probe molecules. The range of values reported for the nuclear pore radius suggest that they may not be rigid structures and it is quite probable that the effective pore size of nuclear pore complexes is critically dependent on the probe molecules and on the environmental factors.

  13. Magnetically controlled permeability membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kosel, Jurgen

    2013-10-31

    A bioactive material delivery system can include a thermoresponsive polymer membrane and nanowires distributed within the thermoresponsive polymer membrane. Magnetic activation of a thermoresponsive polymer membrane can take place via altering the magnetization or dimensions of nanowires dispersed or ordered within the membrane matrix.

  14. Effect of Aβ1-40 on membrane permeability and intracellular free Ca2+ of nerve cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The effects of soluble and fibrillar Aβ1-40 on membrane permeability and intracellular free Ca2+ of nerve cells were investigated by the laser confocal microscopy. Results indicate that: i) Effects of soluble and fibrillar Aβ1-40 on cell membrane permeability are both concentration-de- pendent. Soluble Aβ1-40 increases membrane permeability only at concentration of 3 ?mol/L, while the toxic effect of fibrillar Aβ1-40 is much stronger, its evident effect begins from 1 ?mol/L. When its concentration rose to 3 ?mol/L, not only the membrane permeability increased, but also the nuclear membrane broke seriously. ii) Both soluble and fibrillar Aβ1-40 at high concentrations increased the intracellular free Ca2+, and the increased amplitudes are concentration-dependent. However, the fibrillar one induces the increase of intracellular Ca2+ much quicker and synchronously. These results indicate that some correlation exists between the neurotoxicity of high concentration soluble and fibrillar Aβ1-40 and the change of physico-chemical properties and intracellular Ca ion imbalance.

  15. Actin Dynamics Regulates Voltage-Dependent Calcium-Permeable Channels of the Vicia faba Guard Cell Plasma Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Zhang; Liu-Min Fan

    2009-01-01

    Free cytosolic Ca~(2+) ([Ca~(2+)]_(cyt)) is an ubiquitous second messenger in plant cell signaling, and [Ca~(2+)]_(cyt) elevation is associated with Ca~(2+)-permeable channels in the plasma membrane and endomembranes regulated by a wide range of stimuli. However, knowledge regarding Ca~(2+) channels and their regulation remains limited in planta. A type of voltage-dependent Ca~(2+)-permeable channel was identified and characterized for the Vicia faba L. guard cell plasma membrane by using patch-clamp techniques. These channels are permeable to both Ba~(2+) and Ca~(2+), and their activities can be inhibited by micromolar Gd~(3+). The unitary conductance and the reversal potential of the channels depend on the Ca~(2+) or Ba~(2+) gradients across the plasma membrane. The inward whole-cell Ca~(2+) (Ba~(2+)) current, as well as the unitary current amplitude and NP. of the single Ca~(2+) channel, increase along with the membrane hyperpolarization. Pharmacological experiments suggest that actin dynamics may serve as an upstream regulator of this type of calcium channel of the guard cell plasma membrane. Cytochalasin D, an actin polymerization blocker, activated the NP_o of these channels at the single channel level and increased the current amplitude at the whole-cell level. But these channel activations and current increments could be restrained by pretreatment with an F-actin stabilizer, phalloidin. The potential physiological significance of this regulatory mechanism is also discussed.

  16. Plasmolysis and cell shape depend on solute outer-membrane permeability during hyperosmotic shock in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilizota, Teuta; Shaevitz, Joshua W

    2013-06-18

    The concentration of chemicals inside the bacterial cytoplasm generates an osmotic pressure, termed turgor, which inflates the cell and is necessary for cell growth and survival. In Escherichia coli, a sudden increase in external concentration causes a pressure drop across the cell envelope that drives changes in cell shape, such as plasmolysis, where the inner and outer membranes separate. Here, we use fluorescence imaging of single cells during hyperosmotic shock with a time resolution on the order of seconds to examine the response of cells to a range of different conditions. We show that shock using an outer-membrane impermeable solute results in total cell volume reduction with no plasmolysis, whereas a shock caused by outer-membrane permeable ions causes plasmolysis immediately upon shock. Slowly permeable solutes, such as sucrose, which cross the membrane in minutes, cause plasmolysis to occur gradually as the chemical potential equilibrates. In addition, we quantify the detailed morphological changes to cell shape during osmotic shock. Nonplasmolyzed cells shrink in length with an additional lateral size reduction as the magnitude of the shock increases. Quickly plasmolyzing cells shrink largely at the poles, whereas gradually plasmolyzing cells invaginate along the cell cylinder. Our results give a comprehensive picture of the initial response of E. coli to hyperosmotic shock and offer explanations for seemingly opposing results that have been reported previously.

  17. Avidin-biotin-based approach to forming heterotypic cell clusters and cell sheets on a gas-permeable membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamon, M; Ozawa, T; Montagne, K; Kojima, N; Ishii, R; Sakai, Y [Institute of Industrial Science (IIS), University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153-8505 (Japan); Yamaguchi, S; Nagamune, T [Department of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ushida, T, E-mail: mzh0026@auburn.edu [Center for Disease Biology and Integrative Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2011-09-15

    Implantation of sheet-like liver tissues is a promising method in hepatocyte-based therapies, because angiogenesis is expected to occur upon implantation from the surrounding tissues. In this context, we introduce here a new methodology for the formation of a functional thick hepatic tissue usable for cell sheet technology. First, we report the formation of composite tissue elements in suspension culture. Composite elements were composed of human hepatoma Hep G2 cells and mouse NIH/3T3 fibroblasts which are important modulators for thick-tissue formation. To overcome the very low attachment and organization capability between different cells in suspension, we synthesized a new cell-to-cell binding molecule based on the avidin-biotin binding system that we previously applied to attach hepatocytes on artificial substrata. This newly synthesized biotin-conjugated biocompatible anchoring molecule was inserted in the plasma membrane of both cell types. NIH/3T3 cells were further conjugated with avidin and incubated with biotin-presenting Hep G2 cells to form highly composite tissue elements. Then, we seeded those elements on highly gas-permeable membranes at their closest packing density to induce the formation of a thick, composite, functional hepatic tissue without any perfusion. This methodology could open a new way to engineer implantable thick liver tissue sheets where different cell types are spatially organized and well supplied with oxygen.

  18. Membrane-Permeable Calpain Inhibitors Promote Rat Oral Mucosal Epithelial Cell Proliferation by Inhibiting IL-1α Signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Kondo

    Full Text Available To standardise regenerative medicine using cultured cells, the use of serum-free, chemically defined media will be necessary. We have reported that IL-1α inhibits the growth of epithelial cells in culture and that recombinant IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RA significantly promotes epithelial cell growth in no feeder layer condition. In this study, we examined inhibitors of calpain, a cysteine proteinase that plays crucial roles in various cellular functions, including IL-1α maturation and secretion. The culturing of epithelial cells in serum-free media supplemented with a membrane-permeable calpain inhibitor significantly promoted growth while suppressing IL-1α maturation and secretion. By contrast, non-membrane-permeable calpain inhibitor treatment did not have these effects. Interestingly, immunoblotting analysis revealed that immature, untruncated, IL-1α expression was also downregulated by cell-permeable calpain inhibitor treatment, and the difference in IL-1α gene expression increased from day 2 to day 6. Although IL-1RA has been reported to promote epithelial cell growth, we detected no synergistic promotion of epithelial cell growth using a calpain inhibitor and IL-1RA. These findings indicate that calpain inhibitors promote epithelial cell proliferation by inhibiting IL-1α maturation at an early phase of epithelial cell culture and by suppressing the positive feedback-mediated amplification of IL-1α signalling.

  19. Effect of Light-Activated Hypocrellin B on the Growth and Membrane Permeability of Gram-Negative Escherichia coli Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the effect of light-activated hypocrellin B on the growth and membrane permeability of Gram-negative bacteria. Methods. Escherichia coli (E. coli as a model bacterium of Gram-negative bacteria was incubated with various concentrations of hypocrellin B for 60 min and was subsequently irradiated by blue light with wavelength of 470 nm at the dose of 12 J/cm2. Colony forming units were counted and the growth inhibition rate of E. coli cells was calculated after light-activated hypocrellin B. Membrane permeability was measured using flow cytometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM with propidium iodide (PI staining. Bacterial morphology was observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Reactive oxygen species in bacterial cells were measured using flow cytometry with DCFH-DA staining. Results. Significant growth inhibition rate of E. coli cells was observed after photodynamic action of hypocrellin B. Remarkable damage to the ultrastructure of E. coli was also observed by TEM. Flow cytometry and CLSM observation showed that light-activated hypocrellin B markedly increased membrane permeability of E. coli. Flow cytometry showed the intracellular ROS increase in E. coli treated by photodynamic action of hypocrellin B. Conclusion. Light-activated hypocrellin B caused intracellular ROS increase and structural damages and inhibited the growth of Gram-negative E. coli cells.

  20. Effects of low-intensity ultrasound on the growth, cell membrane permeability and ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Chunhua; Xiong, Feng; He, Ronghai; Zhang, Weiwei; Ma, Haile

    2017-05-01

    Effects of low-intensity ultrasound (at different frequency, treatment time and power) on Saccharomyces cerevisiae in different growth phase were evaluated by the biomass in the paper. In addition, the cell membrane permeability and ethanol tolerance of sonicated Saccharomyces cerevisiae were also researched. The results revealed that the biomass of Saccharomyces cerevisiae increased by 127.03% under the optimum ultrasonic conditions such as frequency 28kHz, power 140W/L and ultrasonic time 1h when Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultured to the latent anaphase. And the membrane permeability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in latent anaphase enhanced by ultrasound, resulting in the augment of extracellular protein, nucleic acid and fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP) contents. In addition, sonication could accelerate the damage of high concentration alcohol to Saccharomyces cerevisiae although the ethanol tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae was not affected significantly by ultrasound.

  1. Electrostatically gated membrane permeability in inorganic protocells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mei; Harbron, Rachel L.; Weaver, Jonathan V. M.; Binks, Bernard P.; Mann, Stephen

    2013-06-01

    Although several strategies are now available to produce functional microcompartments analogous to primitive cell-like structures, little progress has been made in generating protocell constructs with self-controlled membrane permeability. Here we describe the preparation of water-dispersible colloidosomes based on silica nanoparticles and delineated by a continuous semipermeable inorganic membrane capable of self-activated, electrostatically gated permeability. We use crosslinking and covalent grafting of a pH-responsive copolymer to generate an ultrathin elastic membrane that exhibits selective release and uptake of small molecules. This behaviour, which depends on the charge of the copolymer coronal layer, serves to trigger enzymatic dephosphorylation reactions specifically within the protocell aqueous interior. This system represents a step towards the design and construction of alternative types of artificial chemical cells and protocell models based on spontaneous processes of inorganic self-organization.

  2. Effect of moderate electric field frequency and growth stage on the cell membrane permeability of Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loghavi, Laleh; Sastry, Sudhir K; Yousef, Ahmed E

    2009-01-01

    Changes in growth kinetics and metabolic activity of microorganisms under the presence of a moderate electric field (MEF) have been hypothesized as being due to temporary permeabilization of cell membranes. We investigated herein the effects of frequency and growth stage on cell membrane permeabilization of Lactobacillus acidophilus OSU 133 during MEF fermentation. Cells were stained with two fluorescent nucleic acid stains: the green, nonselective, cell membrane permeable SYTO 9, and the red, cell membrane impermeable propidium iodide (PI). Fluorescence exhibition post-treatment was assessed using fluorescence microscopy. Total plate counting was done to determine whether or not the permeabilized population represented live cells. Fermentation treatments investigated were conventional (control) and MEF (2 V/cm, 45, 60, 1,000, 10,000 Hz) at 30 degrees C. Studies were conducted at 45 Hz for lag, exponential, and stationary phases of growth. Low frequency MEF treated cells exhibited significantly greater numbers of red cell counts than conventional treatments; further, no significant differences existed in viable counts between MEF and conventional treatments, suggesting that the red counts represent permeabilized live cells. MEF treatments at the early stage of bacterial growth at 45 Hz exhibited the maximum permeabilization followed by treatments at 60 Hz. MEF treated samples at frequencies higher than 60 Hz did not exhibit red fluorescence. Cells at lag phase showed the greatest susceptibility to permeabilization followed by those at exponential phase. No evidence of electroporation was observed during the stationary phase. To our knowledge, these observations provide the first evidence that cell membrane permeabilization occurs under the presence of electric fields as low as those under MEF.

  3. Impulse noise transiently increased the permeability of nerve and glial cell membranes, an effect accentuated by a recent brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säljö, Annette; Huang, Ying-Lai; Hansson, Hans-Arne

    2003-08-01

    A single exposure to intense impulse noise may cause diffuse brain injury, revealed by increased expression of immediate early gene products, transiently altered distribution of neurofilaments, accumulation of beta-amyloid precursor protein, apoptosis, and gliosis. Neither hemorrage nor any gross structural damage are seen. The present study focused on whether impulse noise exposure increased the permeability of nerve and glial cell membranes to proteins. Also, we investigated whether a preceding, minor focal surgical brain lesion accentuated the leakage of cytosolic proteins. Anaesthetized rats were exposed to a single impulse noise at either 199 or 202 dB for 2 milliseconds. Transiently elevated levels of the cellular protein neuron specific enolase (NSE) and the glial cytoplasmic protein S-100 were recorded in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during the first hours after the exposure to 202 dB. A surgical brain injury, induced the day before the exposure to the impulse noise, was associated with significantly increased concentrations of both markers in the CSF. It is concluded that intense impulse noise damages both nerve and glial cells, an effect aggravated by a preexisting surgical lesion. The impulse of the shock wave, i.e. the pressure integrated over time, is likely to be the injurious mechanism. The abnormal membrane permeability and the associated cytoskeletal changes may initiate events, which eventually result in a progressive diffuse brain injury.

  4. Determination of the temperature-dependent cell membrane permeabilities using microfluidics with integrated flow and temperature control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Cifeng; Ji, Fujun; Shu, Zhiquan; Gao, Dayong

    2017-02-28

    We developed an integrated microfluidic platform for instantaneous flow and localized temperature control. The platform consisted of a flow-focusing region for sample delivery and a cross-junction region embedded with a microheater for cell trapping and localized temperature control by using an active feedback control system. We further used it to measure the membrane transport properties of Jurkat cells, including the osmotically inactive cell volume (Vb) and cell membrane permeabilities to water (Lp) and to cryoprotective agent (CPA) solutions (dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) in this study) (PS) at various temperatures (room temperature, 30 °C, and 37 °C). Such characteristics of cells are of great importance in many applications, especially in optimal cryopreservation. With the results, the corresponding activation energy for water and CPA transport was calculated. The comparison of the results from the current study with reference data indicates that the developed platform is a reliable tool for temperature-dependent cell behavior study, which provides valuable tools for general cell manipulation applications with precise temperature control.

  5. Bax and Bak function as the outer membrane component of the mitochondrial permeability pore in regulating necrotic cell death in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karch, Jason; Kwong, Jennifer Q; Burr, Adam R; Sargent, Michelle A; Elrod, John W; Peixoto, Pablo M; Martinez-Caballero, Sonia; Osinska, Hanna; Cheng, Emily H-Y; Robbins, Jeffrey; Kinnally, Kathleen W; Molkentin, Jeffery D

    2013-08-27

    A critical event in ischemia-based cell death is the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP). However, the molecular identity of the components of the MPTP remains unknown. Here, we determined that the Bcl-2 family members Bax and Bak, which are central regulators of apoptotic cell death, are also required for mitochondrial pore-dependent necrotic cell death by facilitating outer membrane permeability of the MPTP. Loss of Bax/Bak reduced outer mitochondrial membrane permeability and conductance without altering inner membrane MPTP function, resulting in resistance to mitochondrial calcium overload and necrotic cell death. Reconstitution with mutants of Bax that cannot oligomerize and form apoptotic pores, but still enhance outer membrane permeability, permitted MPTP-dependent mitochondrial swelling and restored necrotic cell death. Our data predict that the MPTP is an inner membrane regulated process, although in the absence of Bax/Bak the outer membrane resists swelling and prevents organelle rupture to prevent cell death. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00772.001.

  6. Selective permeability of PVA membranes. I - Radiation-crosslinked membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M. G.; Wydeven, T., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The water and salt transport properties of ionizing radiation crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes were investigated. The studied membranes showed high permeabilities and low selectivities for both water and salt. The results were found to be in accord with a modified solution-diffusion model for transport across the membranes, in which pressure-dependent permeability coefficients are employed.

  7. Selective Permeability of PVA Membranes. I: Radiation-Crosslinked Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Moshe G.; Wydeven, Theodore, Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The water and salt transport properties of ionizing radiation crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) membranes were investigated. The studied membranes showed high permeabilities and low selectivities for both water and salt. The results were found to be in accord with a modified solution-diffusion model for transport across the membranes, in which pressure-dependent permeability coefficients are employed.

  8. Changes in Cell Membrane Permeability in Sunflower Hypocotyls Infected with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hancock, J G

    1972-03-01

    Influx and efflux of water and urea and electrolyte leakage are less for sunflower (Helianthus annuus) hypocotyl sections above lesions caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum than for those from healthy plants. Urea uptake by sections above lesions is reduced (celery, squash, and tomato) or unchanged (bean) in other hosts after Sclerotinia infection. Efflux of urea from sunflower hypocotyls is biphasic, suggesting diffusion in series from two cellular compartments (cytoplasm and vacuole). Efflux during the fast phase was 7 to 20 times greater than that during the slow phase. No difference was noted in urea efflux from healthy and diseased tissues during the slow phase. However, efflux during the fast phase from diseased tissues was slower than from healthy tissues, suggesting that the increased resistance to diffusion of urea in host cells above lesions resides in the plasmalemma. Water movement across cell membranes of healthy and diseased sunflower hypocotyls was reduced when tissues were treated with p-hydroxymercuribenzoate.

  9. Duration of ultrasound-mediated enhanced plasma membrane permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lammertink, Bart; Deckers, Roel; Storm, Gert; Moonen, Chrit; Bos, Clemens

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) induced cavitation can be used to enhance the intracellular delivery of drugs by transiently increasing the cell membrane permeability. The duration of this increased permeability, termed temporal window, has not been fully elucidated. In this study, the temporal window was investiga

  10. Gyroid Nanoporous Membranes with Tunable Permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Li; Schulte, Lars; Clausen, Lydia D.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the relevant permeability properties of ultrafiltration membranes is facilitated by using materials and procedures that allow a high degree of control on morphology and chemical composition. Here we present the first study on diffusion permeability through gyroid nanoporous cross......-sided skin membranes, much faster than expected by a naive resistance-in-series model; the flux through the two-sided skin membranes even increases with the membrane thickness. We propose a model that captures the physics behind the observed phenomena, as confirmed by flow visualization experiments...... the effective diffusion coefficients of a series of antibiotics, proteins, and other biomolecules; solute permeation is discussed in terms of hindered diffusion. The combination of uniform bulk morphology, isotropically percolating porosity, controlled surface chemistry, and tunable permeability is distinctive...

  11. Recombinant Dengue virus protein NS2B alters membrane permeability in different membrane models

    OpenAIRE

    León-Juárez, Moisés; Martínez-Castillo, Macario; Shrivastava, Gaurav; García-Cordero, Julio; Villegas-Sepulveda, Nicolás; Mondragón-Castelán, Mónica; Mondragón-Flores, Ricardo; Cedillo-Barrón, Leticia

    2016-01-01

    Background One of the main phenomena occurring in cellular membranes during virus infection is a change in membrane permeability. It has been observed that numerous viral proteins can oligomerize and form structures known as viroporins that alter the permeability of membranes. Previous findings have identified such proteins in cells infected with Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV), a member of the same family that Dengue virus (DENV) belongs to (Flaviviridae). In the present work, we investiga...

  12. Permeability of Hollow Microspherical Membranes to Helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinoviev, V. N.; Kazanin, I. V.; Pak, A. Yu.; Vereshchagin, A. S.; Lebiga, V. A.; Fomin, V. M.

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the study of the sorption characteristics of various hollow microspherical membranes to reveal particles most suitable for application in the membrane-sorption technologies of helium extraction from a natural gas. The permeability of the investigated sorbents to helium and their impermeability to air and methane are shown experimentally. The sorption-desorption dependences of the studied sorbents have been obtained, from which the parameters of their specific permeability to helium are calculated. It has been established that the physicochemical modification of the original particles exerts a great influence on the coefficient of the permeability of a sorbent to helium. Specially treated cenospheres have displayed high efficiency as membranes for selective extraction of helium.

  13. Can Lucifer Yellow Indicate Correct Permeability of Biological Cell Membrane under An Electric and Magnetic Field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Pourmirjafari Firoozabadi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of external magnetic and electric fields, in the range of electroporation and magnetoporation, on Lucifer Yellow (LY fluorescence in the absence of cells is studied. Electric-field-induced quenching and magnetic field-induced increase are observed for fluorescence intensity of LY. Regard to the fact that the variation of field-induced fluorescence, even in the absence of cells, can be observed, the application of LY, as a marker, is debatable in electroporation and magnetoporation techniques.

  14. Plasmolysis and Cell Shape Depend on Solute Outer-Membrane Permeability during Hyperosmotic Shock in E. coli

    OpenAIRE

    Pilizota, Teuta; Shaevitz, Joshua W.

    2013-01-01

    The concentration of chemicals inside the bacterial cytoplasm generates an osmotic pressure, termed turgor, which inflates the cell and is necessary for cell growth and survival. In Escherichia coli, a sudden increase in external concentration causes a pressure drop across the cell envelope that drives changes in cell shape, such as plasmolysis, where the inner and outer membranes separate. Here, we use fluorescence imaging of single cells during hyperosmotic shock with a time resolution on t...

  15. A novel approach to regulate cell membrane permeability for ATP and NADH formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae induced by air cold plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyu, DONG; Tingting, LIU; Yuqin, XIONG

    2017-02-01

    Air cold plasma has been used as a novel method for enhancing microbial fermentation. The aim of this work was to explore the effect of plasma on membrane permeability and the formation of ATP and NADH in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, so as to provide valuable information for large-scale application of plasma in the fermentation industry. Suspensions of S. cerevisiae cells were exposed to air cold plasma for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 min, and then subjected to various analyses prior to fermentation (0 h) and at the 9 and 21 h stages of fermentation. Compared with non-exposed cells, cells exposed to plasma for 1 min exhibited a marked increase in cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration as a result of the significant increase in membrane potential prior to fermentation. At the same time, the ATP level in the cell suspension decreased by about 40%, resulting in a reduction of about 60% in NADH prior to culturing. However, the levels of ATP and NADH in the culture at the 9 and 21 h fermentation stages were different from the level at 0 h. Taken together, the results indicated that exposure of S. cerevisiae to air cold plasma could increase its cytoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration by improving the cell membrane potential, consequently leading to changes in ATP and NADH levels. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21246012, 21306015 and 21476032).

  16. Modeling the pharmacodynamics of passive membrane permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Robert V.; Amaro, Rommie E.

    2011-11-01

    Small molecule permeability through cellular membranes is critical to a better understanding of pharmacodynamics and the drug discovery endeavor. Such permeability may be estimated as a function of the free energy change of barrier crossing by invoking the barrier domain model, which posits that permeation is limited by passage through a single "barrier domain" and assumes diffusivity differences among compounds of similar structure are negligible. Inspired by the work of Rezai and co-workers (JACS 128:14073-14080, 2006), we estimate this free energy change as the difference in implicit solvation free energies in chloroform and water, but extend their model to include solute conformational affects. Using a set of eleven structurally diverse FDA approved compounds and a set of thirteen congeneric molecules, we show that the solvation free energies are dominated by the global minima, which allows solute conformational distributions to be effectively neglected. For the set of tested compounds, the best correlation with experiment is obtained when the implicit chloroform global minimum is used to evaluate the solvation free energy difference.

  17. Permeability of the peroxisomal membrane: lessons from the glyoxylate cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus eKunze

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Glyoxylate serves as intermediate in various metabolic pathways, although high concentrations of this metabolite are toxic to the cell. In many organisms glyoxylate is fed into the glyoxylate cycle. Enzymes participating in this metabolism are located on both sides of the peroxisomal membrane. The permeability of this membrane for small metabolites paves the way for exchange of intermediates between proteins catalyzing consecutive reactions. A model, in which soluble enzymes accumulate in close proximity to both ends of pore-like structures forming a transmembrane metabolon could explain the rapid and targeted exchange of intermediates. The metabolites passing the membrane differ between the three model organisms Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Arabidopsis thaliana and Candida albicans, which reflects the ease of evolutionary adaptation processes whenever specific transporter proteins are not involved. The atypical permeability properties of the peroxisomal membrane together with a flexible structural arrangement ensuring the swift and selective transport across the membrane might represent the molecular basis for the functional versatility of peroxisomes.

  18. Implementation of a Permeable Membrane Insert-based Infection System to Study the Effects of Secreted Bacterial Toxins on Mammalian Host Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Rebecca A; Lee, Shaun W

    2016-08-19

    Many bacterial pathogens secrete potent toxins to aid in the destruction of host tissue, to initiate signaling changes in host cells or to manipulate immune system responses during the course of infection. Though methods have been developed to successfully purify and produce many of these important virulence factors, there are still many bacterial toxins whose unique structure or extensive post-translational modifications make them difficult to purify and study in in vitro systems. Furthermore, even when pure toxin can be obtained, there are many challenges associated with studying the specific effects of a toxin under relevant physiological conditions. Most in vitro cell culture models designed to assess the effects of secreted bacterial toxins on host cells involve incubating host cells with a one-time dose of toxin. Such methods poorly approximate what host cells actually experience during an infection, where toxin is continually produced by bacterial cells and allowed to accumulate gradually during the course of infection. This protocol describes the design of a permeable membrane insert-based bacterial infection system to study the effects of Streptolysin S, a potent toxin produced by Group A Streptococcus, on human epithelial keratinocytes. This system more closely mimics the natural physiological environment during an infection than methods where pure toxin or bacterial supernatants are directly applied to host cells. Importantly, this method also eliminates the bias of host responses that are due to direct contact between the bacteria and host cells. This system has been utilized to effectively assess the effects of Streptolysin S (SLS) on host membrane integrity, cellular viability, and cellular signaling responses. This technique can be readily applied to the study of other secreted virulence factors on a variety of mammalian host cell types to investigate the specific role of a secreted bacterial factor during the course of infection.

  19. In situ cryopreservation of human embryonic stem cells in gas-permeable membrane culture cassettes for high post-thaw yield and good manufacturing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amps, K J; Jones, M; Baker, D; Moore, H D

    2010-06-01

    The development of efficient and robust methods for the cryopreservation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) is important for the production of master and working cell banks for future clinical applications. Such methods must meet requirements of good manufacturing practice (GMP) and maintain genetic stability of the cell line. We investigated the culture of four Shef hESC lines in gas permeable 'culture cassettes' which met GMP compliance. hESCs adhered rapidly to the membrane and colonies displayed good proliferation and expansion. After 5-7 days of culture, hESCs were cryopreserved in situ using 10% dimethyl sulphoxide in foetal calf serum at approximately 1 degrees C/min. This method was compared with a control of standard flask culture and cryopreservation in vials. Post-thaw cassette culture displayed relative proliferation ratios (fold increase above flask/cryovial culture) of 114 (Shef 4), 8.2 (Shef 5), 195 (shef 6) and 17.5 (Shef 7). The proportion of cells expressing pluripotency markers after cryopreservation was consistently greater in cassette culture than for the control with the markers SSEA3 and SSEA4 exhibiting a significant increase (P> or =0.05). The efficiency of cell line culture in cassette was associated with the overall passage number of the cell line. The procedure enables cryopreservation of relatively large quantities of hESCs in situ, whilst returning high yields of viable, undifferentiated stem cells, thereby increasing capacity to scale up with greater efficacy.

  20. Membrane permeability properties of dental adhesive films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrilho, Marcela R; Tay, Franklin R; Donnelly, Adam M; Agee, Kelli A; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Hosaka, Keiichi; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Pashley, David H

    2009-02-01

    This study evaluated the permeability properties of five experimental resin membranes that ranged from relatively hydrophobic to relatively hydrophilic to seal acid-etched dentin saturated with water or ethanol. The experimental resins (R1, R2, R3, R4, and R5) were evaluated as neat bonding agents or as solutions solvated with ethanol (70% resin/30% ethanol). The quality of dentin sealing by these experimental resins was expressed in terms of reflection coefficients calculated as the ratio of the effective osmotic pressure to the theoretical osmotic pressure of test solutions. The effective osmotic pressure produced across resin-bonded dentin was induced in hypertonic solutions (CaCl(2) or albumin) at zero hydrostatic pressure. The outward fluid flow induced by these solutions was brought to zero by applying an opposing negative hydrostatic pressure. The least hydrophilic resins blends, R1 and R2, exhibited significantly (p < 0.05) higher reflection coefficients than the most hydrophilic resins (R4 and R5) in both conditions of dentin saturation (water and ethanol). The reflection coefficients of neat resins were, in general, significantly higher when compared with their corresponding solvated versions in both conditions of dentin saturation. In dentin saturated with ethanol, bonding with neat or solvated resins, resulted in reflection coefficients that were significantly higher when compared with the results obtained in dentin saturated with water. Reflection coefficients of CaCl(2) (ca. 1 x 10(-4)) were significantly lower (p < 0.05) than for albumin (ca. 3 x 10(-2)). Application of hydrophobic resins may provide better sealing of acid-etched dentin if the substrate is saturated with ethanol, instead of water.

  1. IL-4 and IL-13 induce protection from complement and melittin in endothelial cells despite initial loss of cytoplasmic proteins: membrane resealing impairs quantifying cytotoxicity with the lactate dehydrogenase permeability assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, Barbara A; Vercellotti, Gregory M; Dalmasso, Agustin P

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cell activation and injury by the terminal pathway of complement is important in various pathobiological processes, including xenograft rejection. Protection against injury by human complement can be induced in porcine endothelial cells (ECs) with IL-4 and IL-13 through metabolic activation. However, despite this resistance, the complement-treated ECs were found to lose membrane permeability control assessed with the small molecule calcein. Therefore, to define the apparent discrepancy of permeability changes vis-à-vis the protection from killing, we now investigated whether IL-4 and IL-13 influence the release of the large cytoplasmic protein lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in ECs incubated with complement or the pore-forming protein melittin. Primary cultures of ECs were pre-treated with IL-4 or IL-13 and then incubated with human serum as source of antibody and complement or melittin. Cell death was assessed using neutral red. Membrane permeability was quantitated measuring LDH release. We found that IL-4-/IL-13-induced protection of ECs from killing by complement or melittin despite loss of LDH in amounts similar to control ECs. However, the cytokine-treated ECs that were protected from killing rapidly regained effective control of membrane permeability. Moreover, the viability of the protected ECs was maintained for at least 2 days. We conclude that the protection induced by IL-4/IL-13 in ECs against lethal attack by complement or melittin is effective and durable despite severe initial impairment of membrane permeability. The metabolic changes responsible for protection allow the cells to repair the membrane injury caused by complement or melittin.

  2. Internal filtration in dialyzers with different membrane permeabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Yuichi; Kimura, Kenjiro; Chikaraishi, Tatsuya

    2010-07-01

    Over the last decade, hemodialysis with enhanced internal filtration (IF) has been investigated as an alternative to conventional dialysis. Several factors affect IF, including the geometry and permeability of hollow-fiber dialyzers. Although various studies have been performed, the association between IF and membrane permeability has not been fully examined because of the difficulty in measuring IF. Therefore, in this study, we set up an experimental circuit and attempted to directly measure IF as well as membrane permeability in five dialyzers. In the circuit, we placed two dialyzers of the same type in series, and a special sampling port between them, thereby making it possible to determine IF by measuring the extent to which blood was concentrated between the two dialyzers. We showed that a significant amount of IF occurred in this tandem-dialyzer circuit, ranging from 23.5 to 100 ml/min, which increased linearly with increasing membrane permeability. We also showed that membrane permeability was reduced in the first dialyzer to a greater extent than in the second one after four hours of circulation, suggesting that filtration caused substantial membrane fouling. In this study we practically demonstrated that membrane permeability is highly relevant to the phenomenon of IF.

  3. Biological Fuel Cells and Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Zahra; Slaughter, Gymama

    2017-01-17

    Biofuel cells have been widely used to generate bioelectricity. Early biofuel cells employ a semi-permeable membrane to separate the anodic and cathodic compartments. The impact of different membrane materials and compositions has also been explored. Some membrane materials are employed strictly as membrane separators, while some have gained significant attention in the immobilization of enzymes or microorganisms within or behind the membrane at the electrode surface. The membrane material affects the transfer rate of the chemical species (e.g., fuel, oxygen molecules, and products) involved in the chemical reaction, which in turn has an impact on the performance of the biofuel cell. For enzymatic biofuel cells, Nafion, modified Nafion, and chitosan membranes have been used widely and continue to hold great promise in the long-term stability of enzymes and microorganisms encapsulated within them. This article provides a review of the most widely used membrane materials in the development of enzymatic and microbial biofuel cells.

  4. Influence of decenylsuccinic Acid on water permeability of plant cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, O Y; Stadelmann, E J; Weiser, C J

    1972-11-01

    Decenylsuccinic acid altered permeability to water of epidermal cells of bulb scales of Allium cepa and of the leaf midrib of Rhoeo discolor. Water permeability, as determined by deplasmolysis time measurements, was related to the dose of undissociated decenylsuccinic acid (mm undissociated decenylsuccinic acid x minute). No relationship was found between permeability and total dose of decenylsuccinic acid, or dose of dissociated decenylsuccinic acid, suggesting that the undissociated molecule was the active factor in permeability changes and injury.At doses which did not damage cells (0.0008 to 0.6 [mm of the undissociated molecule x minute]) decenylsuccinic acid decreased water permeability. At higher doses (e.g., 4 to 8 [mm x minute]) injury to cells was common and decenylsuccinic acid increased permeability. Doses above the 10 to 20 (mm x minute) range were generally lethal. The plasmolysis form of uninjured cells was altered and protoplasmic swelling occasionally was observed. The dose-dependent reversal of water permeability changes (decreased to increased permeability) may reflect decenylsuccinic acid-induced changes in membrane structure. Reported effects of decenylsuccinic acid on temperature dependence of permeability and frost resistance were not verified.

  5. Engineered Trehalose Permeable to Mammalian Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Abazari

    Full Text Available Trehalose is a naturally occurring disaccharide which is associated with extraordinary stress-tolerance capacity in certain species of unicellular and multicellular organisms. In mammalian cells, presence of intra- and extracellular trehalose has been shown to confer improved tolerance against freezing and desiccation. Since mammalian cells do not synthesize nor import trehalose, the development of novel methods for efficient intracellular delivery of trehalose has been an ongoing investigation. Herein, we studied the membrane permeability of engineered lipophilic derivatives of trehalose. Trehalose conjugated with 6 acetyl groups (trehalose hexaacetate or 6-O-Ac-Tre demonstrated superior permeability in rat hepatocytes compared with regular trehalose, trehalose diacetate (2-O-Ac-Tre and trehalose tetraacetate (4-O-Ac-Tre. Once in the cell, intracellular esterases hydrolyzed the 6-O-Ac-Tre molecules, releasing free trehalose into the cytoplasm. The total concentration of intracellular trehalose (plus acetylated variants reached as high as 10 fold the extracellular concentration of 6-O-Ac-Tre, attaining concentrations suitable for applications in biopreservation. To describe this accumulation phenomenon, a diffusion-reaction model was proposed and the permeability and reaction kinetics of 6-O-Ac-Tre were determined by fitting to experimental data. Further studies suggested that the impact of the loading and the presence of intracellular trehalose on cellular viability and function were negligible. Engineering of trehalose chemical structure rather than manipulating the cell, is an innocuous, cell-friendly method for trehalose delivery, with demonstrated potential for trehalose loading in different types of cells and cell lines, and can facilitate the wide-spread application of trehalose as an intracellular protective agent in biopreservation studies.

  6. Carbon Nanotube-Based Permeable Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, J K; Park, H G; Bakajin, O; Noy, A; Huser, T; Eaglesham, D

    2004-04-06

    A membrane of multiwalled carbon nanotubes embedded in a silicon nitride matrix was fabricated for use in studying fluid mechanics on the nanometer scale. Characterization by fluorescent tracer diffusion and scanning electron microscopy suggests that the membrane is void-free near the silicon substrate on which it rests, implying that the hollow core of the nanotube is the only conduction path for molecular transport. Assuming Knudsen diffusion through this nanotube membrane, a maximum helium transport rate (for a pressure drop of 1 atm) of 0.25 cc/sec is predicted. Helium flow measurements of a nanoporous silicon nitride membrane, fabricated by sacrificial removal of carbon, give a flow rate greater than 1x10{sup -6} cc/sec. For viscous, laminar flow conditions, water is estimated to flow across the nanotube membrane (under a 1 atm pressure drop) at up to 2.8x10{sup -5} cc/sec (1.7 {micro}L/min).

  7. Carvacrol and 1,8-cineole alone or in combination at sublethal concentrations induce changes in the cell morphology and membrane permeability of Pseudomonas fluorescens in a vegetable-based broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; Torres, Rayanne de Araújo; de Azerêdo, Geíza Alves; Figueiredo, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz; Vasconcelos, Margarida Angélica da Silva; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of sublethal concentrations of carvacrol (CAR) and 1,8-cineole (CIN) alone and in combination on the morphology, cell viability and membrane permeability of Pseudomonas fluorescens ATCC 11253 cultivated in a vegetable-based broth. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy images of bacterial cells exposed to CAR and CIN alone or in combination showed marked ultrastructural changes after 1h of exposure. These changes included shrunken protoplasm, discontinuity of the outer and cytoplasmic membranes and leakage of the intracellular material. Confocal scanning laser microscopy images corroborated the electron microscopy data, showing a decrease in the number of SYTO-9 cells (intact cells) with a concomitant increase in the number of PI-positive cells (dead cells). All of these morphological changes are indicative of increased membrane permeability and the loss of bacterial envelope integrity, which ultimately lead to cell death. The combination of sublethal concentrations of CAR and CIN could be applied to inhibit the growth of P. fluorescens on vegetables.

  8. Preparation and gas permeabilities of zeolite membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jinqu Wang; Yongfeng Wang; Shuanshi Fan [Dalian Univ. of Technology (China)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Zeolites with less than 10 {angstrom} pore are desirable membrane materials, due to their crystallinity, resistance to high temperature, and chemical inertness. A variety of new membranous materials were synthesized composed of a continuous intergrowth of 5-50 micrometer type A, X, Y, or ZSM-5 crystals. The membranes were crystallized under hydrothermal conditions at 90 to 220{degrees}C on the external surface of a porous ceramics. The reagents used were aluminum sulphate, water glass (20.1 wt% SiO{sub 2}, 6.09 wt% Na{sub 2}O, 73.8 wt% water), sodium hydroxide, sulphuric acid, deionized water and templating agents. The molar composition was: 0.1-0.5 Na{sub 2}O:1 SiO{sub 2}:0.04-0.05 Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}:20-60H{sub 2}O.

  9. Effects of 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural on the volume and membrane permeability of red blood cells from patients with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannemann, Anke; Cytlak, Urszula M; Rees, David C; Tewari, Sanjay; Gibson, John S

    2014-09-15

    The heterocyclic aldehyde 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5HMF) interacts allosterically with the abnormal form of haemoglobin (Hb), HbS, in red blood cells (RBCs) from patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), thereby increasing oxygen affinity and decreasing HbS polymerization and RBC sickling during hypoxia. We hypothesized that should 5HMF also inhibit the main cation pathways implicated in the dehydration of RBCs from SCD patients - the deoxygenation-induced cation pathway (Psickle), the Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel (the Gardos channel) and the K(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (KCC) - it would have a synergistic effect in protection against sickling, directly through interacting with HbS, and indirectly through maintaining hydration and reducing [HbS]. This study was therefore designed to investigate the effects of 5HMF on RBC volume and K(+) permeability in vitro. 5HMF markedly reduced the deoxygenation-induced dehydration of RBCs whether in response to maintained deoxygenation or to cyclical deoxygenation/re-oxygenation. 5HMF was found to inhibit Psickle, an effect which correlated with its effects on sickling. Deoxygenation-induced activation of the Gardos channel and exposure of phosphatidylserine were also inhibited, probably indirectly via reduced entry of Ca(2+) through the Psickle pathway. Effects of 5HMF on KCC were more modest with a slight inhibition in N-ethylmaleimide (NEM, 1 mm)-treated RBCs and stimulation in RBCs untreated with NEM. These findings support the hypothesis that 5HMF may also be beneficial through effects on RBC ion and water homeostasis.

  10. Variability in permeability and integrity of cell membrane and depletion of food reserves in neem (Azadirachta indica) seeds from trees of differ-ent age classes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Devendra Kumar; Dhruv Kumar Mishra

    2014-01-01

    We quantified cell membrane permeability (electrical conduc-tivity-EC, water soluble sugar-WSS, and amino acids-AA) and integrity (phospholipids,α-tocopherol and lipid peroxidation) along with food reserve deterioration (total proteins, total sugar, and total starch) of neem seeds collected from various mother tree age classes and stored for 65 days in airtight plastic containers at ambient room temperature (35±5°C). Results show that the activities were higher in fresh seeds (EC 267.56-2950.01 µS/g, WSS 19.96-19.48 mg/g and AA 5.40-5.35 mg/g) and declined with increasing duration of storage period (EC 153.37-195.17 µS/g, WSS 3.13-4.17 mg/g and AA 4.29-4.49 mg/g after 35 days and EC 144.02-161.56 µS/g, WSS 2.06-2.40 mg/g and AA 3.98-4.27 mg/g after 65 days of storage). Phospholipids andα-tocopherol were higher in fresh seed (0.073-0.093 OD at 710 nm and 0.080-0.105 OD, respectively) and declined as storage duration in-creased (0.033-0.042 OD at 710 nm and 00.0010-0.0020 OD, respec-tively). Dead seeds showed reduced amounts of phospholipids and minimum activity ofα- tocopherol (antioxidants). The level of MDA was lower in fresh seeds (0.0066-0.0087 OD at 600-535 nm) and increased as storage duration increased (0.0248-0.0268 OD after 65 days of stor-age). The higher amount of MDA indicated that seeds died due to rancid-ity of the oil inside the seed. Neem seed cake was assessed for deteriora-tion of food reserves (total proteins, total sugar, and total starch), concen-trations of which were higher in fresh seed and declined as storage dura-tion increased. Germination was higher in fresh seeds and after 65 days, no germination was received perhaps due to deterioration of biochemi-cals in seeds. Patterns of seed deterioration were similar across all seed lots.

  11. [Permeability of isolated rat hepatocyte plasma membranes for molecules of dimethyl sulfoxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuleshova, L G; Gordienko, E A; Kovalenko, I F

    2014-01-01

    We have studied permeability of isolated rat hepatocyte membranes for molecules of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at different hypertonicity of a cryoprotective medium. The permeability coefficient of hepatocyte membranes κ1 for DMSO molecules was shown to be the differential function of osmotic pressure between a cell and an extracellular medium. Ten-fold augmentation of DMSO concentration in the cryoprotective medium causes the decrease of permeability coefficients κ1 probably associated with the increased viscosity in membrane-adjacent liquid layers as well as partial limitations appeared as a result of change in cell membrane shape after hepatocyte dehydration. We have found out that in aqueous solutions of NaCl (2246 mOsm/l) and DMSO (2250 mOsm/l) the filtration coefficient L(p) in the presence of a penetrating cryoprotectant (L(pDMSO) = (4.45 ± 0.04) x 10(-14) m3/Ns) is 3 orders lower compared to the case with electrolyte (L(pNaCl) = (2.25 ± 0.25) x 10(-11) m3/Ns). This phenomenon is stipulated by the cross impact of flows of a cryoprotectant and water at the stage of cell dehydration. Pronounced lipophilicity of DMSO, geometric parameters of its molecule as well as the presence of large aqueous pores in rat hepatocyte membranes allow of suggesting the availability of two ways of penetrating this cryoprotectant into the cells by non-specific diffusion through membrane lipid areas and hydrophilic channels.

  12. Influence of Lipid A Acylation Pattern on Membrane Permeability and Innate Immune Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert K. Ernst

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Lipid A, the hydrophobic anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, is an essential component in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. It can stimulate the innate immune system via Toll-like receptor 4/myeloid differentiation factor 2 (TLR4/MD2, leading to the release of inflammatory cytokines. In this study, six Escherichia coli strains which can produce lipid A with different acylation patterns were constructed; the influence of lipid A acylation pattern on the membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation has been systematically investigated. The lipid A species were isolated and identified by matrix assisted laser ionization desorption-time of flight/tandem mass spectrometry. N-Phenyl naphthylamine uptake assay and antibiotic susceptibility test showed that membrane permeability of these strains were different. The lower the number of acyl chains in lipid A, the stronger the membrane permeability. LPS purified from these strains were used to stimulate human or mouse macrophage cells, and different levels of cytokines were induced. Compared with wild type hexa-acylated LPS, penta-acylated, tetra-acylated and tri-acylated LPS induced lower levels of cytokines. These results suggest that the lipid A acylation pattern influences both the bacterial membrane permeability and innate immune stimulation. The results would be useful for redesigning the bacterial membrane structure and for developing lipid A vaccine adjuvant.

  13. Effect of temperature and -irradiation on gas permeability for polymeric membrane

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vaibhav Kulshrestha; K Awasthi; N K Acharya; M Singh; Y K Vijay

    2005-12-01

    In the present study the polyethersulphone (PES) membranes of thickness (35 ± 2) m were prepared by solution cast method. The permeability of these membranes was calculated by varying the temperature and by irradiation of ions. For the variation of temperature, the gas permeation cell was dipped in a constant temperature water bath in the temperature range from 303–373 K, which is well below the glass transition temperature (498 K). The permeability of H2 and CO2 increased with increasing temperature. The PES membrane was exposed by -source (${}_{95}$Am$^{241}$) of strength (1 Ci) in vacuum of the order of 10-6 torr, with fluence 2.7 × 107 ions/cm2. The permeability of H2 and CO2 has been observed for irradiated membrane with increasing etching time. The permeability increases with increasing etching time for both gases. There was a sudden change in permeability for both the gases when observed at 18 min etching. At this stage the tracks are visible with optical instrument, which confirms that the pores are generated. Most of pores seen in the micrograph are circular cross-section ones.

  14. Cell Permeable Ratiometric Fluorescent Sensors for Imaging Phosphoinositides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Samsuzzoha; Rakshit, Ananya; Pal, Suranjana; Datta, Ankona

    2016-07-15

    Phosphoinositides are critical cell-signal mediators present on the plasma membrane. The dynamic change of phosphoinositide concentrations on the membrane including clustering and declustering mediates signal transduction. The importance of phosphoinositides is scored by the fact that they participate in almost all cell-signaling events, and a defect in phosphoinositide metabolism is linked to multiple diseases including cancer, bipolar disorder, and type-2 diabetes. Optical sensors for visualizing phosphoinositide distribution can provide information on phosphoinositide dynamics. This exercise will ultimately afford a handle into understanding and manipulating cell-signaling processes. The major requirement in phosphoinositide sensor development is a selective, cell permeable probe that can quantify phosphoinositides. To address this requirement, we have developed short peptide-based ratiometric fluorescent sensors for imaging phosphoinositides. The sensors afford a selective response toward two crucial signaling phosphoinositides, phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2) and phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P), over other anionic membrane phospholipids and soluble inositol phosphates. Dissociation constant values indicate up to 4 times higher probe affinity toward PI(4,5)P2 when compared to PI4P. Significantly, the sensors are readily cell-permeable and enter cells within 15 min of incubation as indicated by multiphoton excitation confocal microscopy. Furthermore, the sensors light up signaling phosphoinositides present both on the cell membrane and on organelle membranes near the perinuclear space, opening avenues for quantifying and monitoring phosphoinositide signaling.

  15. Elevation of plasma membrane permeability by laser irradiation of selectively bound nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Cuiping; Rahmanzadeh, Ramtin; Endl, Elmar; Zhang, Zhenxi; Gerdes, Johannes; Hüttmann, Gereon

    2005-01-01

    Irradiation of nanoabsorbers with pico- and nanosecond laser pulses could result in thermal effects with a spatial confinement of less than 50 nm. Therefore absorbing nanoparticles could be used to create controlled cellular effects. We describe a combination of laser irradiation with nanoparticles, which changes the plasma membrane permeability. We demonstrate that the system enables molecules to penetrate impermeable cell membranes. Laser light at 532 nm is used to irradiate conjugates of colloidal gold, which are delivered by antibodies to the plasma membrane of the Hodgkin's disease cell line L428 and/or the human large-cell anaplastic lymphoma cell line Karpas 299. After irradiation, membrane permeability is evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI) and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) dextran. The fraction of transiently permeabilized and then resealed cells is affected by the laser parameter, the gold concentration, and the membrane protein of the different cell lines to which the nanoparticles are bound. Furthermore, a dependence on particle size is found for these interactions in the different cell lines. The results suggest that after optimization, this method could be used for gene transfection and gene therapy.

  16. Mitochondrial glutathione transferases involving a new function for membrane permeability transition pore regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aniya, Yoko; Imaizumi, Naoki

    2011-05-01

    The mitochondria in mammalian cells are a predominant resource of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are produced during respiration-coupled oxidative metabolism or various chemical stresses. End-products from membrane-lipid peroxidation caused by ROS are highly toxic, thereby their elimination/scavenging are protective of mitochondria and cells against oxidative damages. In mitochondria, soluble (kappa, alpha, mu, pi, zeta) and membrane-bound glutathione transferases (GSTs) (MGST1) are distributed. Mitochondrial GSTs display both glutathione transferase and peroxidase activities that detoxify such harmful products through glutathione (GSH) conjugation or GSH-mediated peroxide reduction. Some GST isoenzymes are induced by oxidative stress, an adaptation mechanism for the protection of cells from oxidative stress. Membrane-bound MGST1 is activated through the thiol modification in oxidative conditions. Protective action of MGST1 against oxidative stress has been confirmed using MCF7 cells highly expressed of MGST1. In recent years, mitochondria have been recognized as a regulator of cell death via both apoptosis and necrosis, where oxidative stress-induced alteration of the membrane permeability is an important step. Recent studies have shown that MGST1 in the inner mitochondrial membrane could interact with the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) regulator proteins, such as adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT) and/or cyclophilin D, and could contribute to oxidant-induced MPT pores. Interaction of GST alpha with ANT has also been shown. In this review, functions of the mitochondrial GSTs, including a new role for mitochondria-mediated cell death, are described.

  17. Liposome clusters with shear stress-induced membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimoto, Makoto; Tamura, Ryota; Natsume, Tomotaka

    2013-09-01

    Clusters of negatively charged liposomes were prepared by the addition of Ca(2+) and characterized in their structure and membrane permeability under shear stress. The liposomes mainly used were composed of zwitterionic 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC), 20 mol% negatively charged 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoglycerol (POPG) and 30 mol% cholesterol. The liposomes with mean diameter of 193 nm were aggregated into the clusters with a distribution peak at about 1.5 μm in the 50mM Tris buffer solution of pH 8.5 at the lipid and Ca(2+) concentrations of 1.0mM and 40 mM, respectively. More than 90% of liposomes were redispersed at the Ca(2+) concentration of 80 mM. POPG-rich liposomes (POPC/POPG/cholesterol=5:65:30 [lipid]=1.0mM) were irreversibly aggregated at [Ca(2+)]≥ 10 mM, indicating the significant contribution of POPC to the reversible clustering of liposomes. The membranes of liposome clusters were impermeable to 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) in the static liquid system at 25°C due to the decrease in specific surface area of the liposomal system. In the shear flow, in clear contrast, continuous membrane permeation of CF was observed at the shear rate of 1.5 × 10(3)s(-1), exhibiting comparable membrane permeability to the non-clustered liposomes. The theoretical analysis of modified DLVO potential indicated that liposome membranes were not in contact with each other within the clusters. Therefore, the liposome clusters are structurally flexible under the applied shear stress, providing sufficient lipid membrane-water interfacial area for the permeation of CF. The results obtained would be important to control the formation of liposome clusters and their permeabilization for biochemical and biomedical applications.

  18. Effects of radiation on the permeability of human basement membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, B.-T.; Achour, S.; Simmonet, F.; Guerin, D.

    1999-02-01

    The influence of radiation on the permeability properties of human basement membrane was investigated by measuring the diffusion rate of several organic compounds (glycine, proline, glucose, urea and insulin) through human anterior lens capsules. The basement membranes borne an γ-irradiation treatment change significantly their permeability vis-a-vis studied organic substances. This modification in physico-chemical properties is probably due to the radiation, which alters or degrades the complex structure (or architecture) of basement membranes. Moreover the change in permeability is dependent upon the diffusing compounds. An increase in diffusion has been observed for glucose, glycine and urea. However for insulin and proline, a decrease in diffusion rate was observed. L'influence de radiation sur la perméabilité de la membrane basale a été étudiée par la mesure de la vitesse de diffusion de plusieurs composés organiques d'intérêt biologique (glycine, proline, glucose, urée et insuline) à travers la lame basale antérieure du cristallin de l'oil humain. Les membranes basales qui sont traitées avec l'irradiation γ changent significativement leur perméabilité vis-à-vis des substances organiques. Ce changement de propriétés physico-chimiques est probablement dû à l'altération ou la dégradation de la structure (ou de l'architecture) de la membrane basale entraînée par l'irradiation. De plus, la modification de la perméabilité de la membrane basale est dépendante des composés diffusants. Une augmentation de la vitesse de diffusion a été observée pour le glucose, le glycine et l'urée. Par contre, dans les cas de l'insuline et de la proline, on a observé une diminution de la vitesse de diffusion.

  19. Design, synthesis, and biological activities of novel hexahydropyrazino[1,2-a]indole derivatives as potent inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) proteins antagonists with improved membrane permeability across MDR1 expressing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiokawa, Zenyu; Hashimoto, Kentaro; Saito, Bunnai; Oguro, Yuya; Sumi, Hiroyuki; Yabuki, Masato; Yoshimatsu, Mie; Kosugi, Yohei; Debori, Yasuyuki; Morishita, Nao; Dougan, Douglas R; Snell, Gyorgy P; Yoshida, Sei; Ishikawa, Tomoyasu

    2013-12-15

    We previously reported octahydropyrrolo[1,2-a]pyrazine derivative 2 (T-3256336) as a potent antagonist for inhibitors of apoptosis (IAP) proteins. Because compound 2 was susceptible to MDR1 mediated efflux, we developed another scaffold, hexahydropyrazino[1,2-a]indole, using structure-based drug design. The fused benzene ring of this scaffold was aimed at increasing the lipophilicity and decreasing the basicity of the scaffold to improve the membrane permeability across MDR1 expressing cells. We established a chiral pool synthetic route to yield the desired tricyclic chiral isomers. Chemical modification of the core scaffold led to a representative compound 50, which showed strong inhibition of IAP binding (X chromosome-linked IAP [XIAP]: IC50 23 nM and cellular IAP [cIAP]: IC50 1.1 nM) and cell growth inhibition (MDA-MB-231 cells: GI50 2.8 nM) with high permeability and low potential of MDR1 substrate.

  20. Simulations of outer membrane channels and their permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pothula, Karunakar R; Solano, Carlos J F; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich

    2016-07-01

    Channels in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria provide essential pathways for the controlled and unidirectional transport of ions, nutrients and metabolites into the cell. At the same time the outer membrane serves as a physical barrier for the penetration of noxious substances such as antibiotics into the bacteria. Most antibiotics have to pass through these membrane channels to either reach cytoplasmic bound targets or to further cross the hydrophobic inner membrane. Considering the pharmaceutical significance of antibiotics, understanding the functional role and mechanism of these channels is of fundamental importance in developing strategies to design new drugs with enhanced permeation abilities. Due to the biological complexity of membrane channels and experimental limitations, computer simulations have proven to be a powerful tool to investigate the structure, dynamics and interactions of membrane channels. Considerable progress has been made in computer simulations of membrane channels during the last decade. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the computational techniques and their roles in modeling the transport across outer membrane channels. A special emphasis is put on all-atom molecular dynamics simulations employed to better understand the transport of molecules. Moreover, recent molecular simulations of ion, substrate and antibiotics translocation through membrane pores are briefly summarized. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane Proteins edited by J.C. Gumbart and Sergei Noskov.

  1. Parallel artificial membrane permeability assay for blood-brain permeability determination of illicit drugs and synthetic analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemons, Kristina; Kretsch, Amanda; Verbeck, Guido

    2014-09-01

    With the number of designer drugs on the streets rampantly on the rise, it's becoming more and more important to be able to rapidly characterize them in a biologically relevant way. Using a parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) to assess the blood brain barrier permeability has shown to be a high throughput way to compare new drugs with currently controlled substances via their effective permeability values. This combined with direct infusion electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry creates a rapid technique for characterization of new designer drugs. PAMPA has successfully determined the effective permeabilities of cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin, MDMA, and several tryptamine derivatives.

  2. Positively charged and pH self-buffering quantum dots for efficient cellular uptake by charge mediation and monitoring cell membrane permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Suhua; Song, Haipeng; Ong, Wei Yi; Han, Ming Yong; Huang, Dejian

    2009-10-01

    Positively charged and pH self-buffering quantum dots (Tren-QDs) were achieved by surface functionalization with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (Tren) derivatives, which are attached to the inorganic cores of QDs through bidentate chelating of dithiocarbamates. The Tren-QDs exhibit pH buffering capability by absorbing or releasing protons due to the surface polyamine groups as the surrounding pH fluctuates. Such self-buffering capability stabilizes the photoluminescence of the Tren-QDs against acid. The Tren-QDs bear positive charges through protonation of the surface polyamine groups under physiological conditions and the surface positive charges improve their cellular uptake efficiency by charge mediation, which has been demonstrated by BV-2 microglia cells. The photoluminescence of Tren-QDs shows a selective Stern-Volmer response to copper ions and this property has been preliminarily evaluated for investigating the BV-2 cell membrane structure by monitoring the photoluminescence of intracellular Tren-QDs.

  3. Positively charged and pH self-buffering quantum dots for efficient cellular uptake by charge mediation and monitoring cell membrane permeability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Suhua; Song Haipeng; Huang Dejian [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 3, 117543 (Singapore); Ong Weiyi [Department of Anatomy, National University of Singapore, 119260 (Singapore); Han Mingyong, E-mail: chmhdj@nus.edu.s [Institute of Materials Research and Engineering, 3 Research Link, 117602 (Singapore)

    2009-10-21

    Positively charged and pH self-buffering quantum dots (Tren-QDs) were achieved by surface functionalization with tris(2-aminoethyl)amine (Tren) derivatives, which are attached to the inorganic cores of QDs through bidentate chelating of dithiocarbamates. The Tren-QDs exhibit pH buffering capability by absorbing or releasing protons due to the surface polyamine groups as the surrounding pH fluctuates. Such self-buffering capability stabilizes the photoluminescence of the Tren-QDs against acid. The Tren-QDs bear positive charges through protonation of the surface polyamine groups under physiological conditions and the surface positive charges improve their cellular uptake efficiency by charge mediation, which has been demonstrated by BV-2 microglia cells. The photoluminescence of Tren-QDs shows a selective Stern-Volmer response to copper ions and this property has been preliminarily evaluated for investigating the BV-2 cell membrane structure by monitoring the photoluminescence of intracellular Tren-QDs.

  4. Acylation of salmon calcitonin modulates in vitro intestinal peptide flux through membrane permeability enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trier, Sofie; Linderoth, Lars; Bjerregaard, Simon; Strauss, Holger M; Rahbek, Ulrik L; Andresen, Thomas L

    2015-10-01

    Acylation of peptide drugs with fatty acid chains has proven beneficial for prolonging systemic circulation, as well as increasing enzymatic stability and interactions with lipid cell membranes. Thus, acylation offers several potential benefits for oral delivery of therapeutic peptides, and we hypothesize that tailoring the acylation may be used to optimize intestinal translocation. This work aims to characterize acylated analogues of the therapeutic peptide salmon calcitonin (sCT), which lowers blood calcium, by systematically increasing acyl chain length at two positions, in order to elucidate its influence on intestinal cell translocation and membrane interaction. We find that acylation drastically increases in vitro intestinal peptide flux and confers a transient permeability enhancing effect on the cell layer. The analogues permeabilize model lipid membranes, indicating that the effect is due to a solubilization of the cell membrane, similar to transcellular oral permeation enhancers. The effect is dependent on pH, with larger effect at lower pH, and is impacted by acylation chain length and position. Compared to the unacylated peptide backbone, N-terminal acylation with a short chain provides 6- or 9-fold increase in peptide translocation at pH 7.4 and 5.5, respectively. Prolonging the chain length appears to hamper translocation, possibly due to self-association or aggregation, although the long chain acylated analogues remain superior to the unacylated peptide. For K(18)-acylation a short chain provides a moderate improvement, whereas medium and long chain analogues are highly efficient, with a 12-fold increase in permeability compared to the unacylated peptide backbone, on par with currently employed oral permeation enhancers. For K(18)-acylation the medium chain acylation appears to be optimal, as elongating the chain causes greater binding to the cell membrane but similar permeability, and we speculate that increasing the chain length further may

  5. Semi-permeable membrane retention of synovial fluid lubricants hyaluronan and proteoglycan 4 for a biomimetic bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewis, Megan E; Lao, Brian J; Jadin, Kyle D; McCarty, William J; Bugbee, William D; Firestein, Gary S; Sah, Robert L

    2010-05-01

    Synovial fluid (SF) contains lubricant macromolecules, hyaluronan (HA), and proteoglycan 4 (PRG4). The synovium not only contributes lubricants to SF through secretion by synoviocyte lining cells, but also concentrates lubricants in SF due to its semi-permeable nature. A membrane that recapitulates these synovium functions may be useful in a bioreactor system for generating a bioengineered fluid (BF) similar to native SF. The objectives were to analyze expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membranes with pore sizes of 50 nm, 90 nm, 170 nm, and 3 microm in terms of (1) HA and PRG4 secretion rates by adherent synoviocytes, and (2) the extent of HA and PRG4 retention with or without synoviocytes adherent on the membrane. Experiment 1: Synoviocytes were cultured on tissue culture (TC) plastic or membranes +/- IL-1beta + TGF-beta1 + TNF-alpha, a cytokine combination that stimulates lubricant synthesis. HA and PRG4 secretion rates were assessed by analysis of medium. Experiment 2: Bioreactors were fabricated to provide a BF compartment enclosed by membranes +/- adherent synoviocytes, and an external compartment of nutrient fluid (NF). A solution with HA (1 mg/mL, MW ranging from 30 to 4,000 kDa) or PRG4 (50 microg/mL) was added to the BF compartment, and HA and PRG4 loss into the NF compartment after 2, 8, and 24 h was determined. Lubricant loss kinetics were analyzed to estimate membrane permeability. Experiment 1: Cytokine-regulated HA and PRG4 secretion rates on membranes were comparable to those on TC plastic. Experiment 2: Transport of HA and PRG4 across membranes was lowest with 50 nm membranes and highest with 3 microm membranes, and transport of high MW HA was decreased by adherent synoviocytes (for 50 and 90 nm membranes). The permeability to HA mixtures for 50 nm membranes was approximately 20 x 10(-8) cm/s (- cells) and approximately 5 x 10(-8) cm/s (+ cells), for 90 nm membranes was approximately 35 x 10(-8) cm/s (- cells) and approximately 19 x 10(-8) cm

  6. SO{sub 2} permeability and proton conductivity of sPEEK membranes for SO{sub 2}-depolarized electrolyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nayoung; Kim, Dukjoon [Department of Chemical Engineering, Polymer Technology Institute, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangan-gu, Suwon, Kyunggi 440-746 (Korea)

    2009-10-15

    The SO{sub 2} transport properties of Nafion {sup registered} and sPEEK membranes were measured using an electrochemical reaction cell to investigate their application in the electrochemical hybrid sulfur process. The permeability of SO{sub 2} in the membranes was determined from a combined theory based on Faraday's law and Fick's law where the electrochemical reaction rate of SO{sub 2} in the downstream membrane is the same as its diffusion flux through the membrane. Both Nafion {sup registered} and sPEEK membranes show higher SO{sub 2} diffusion coefficients at higher temperatures. For sPEEK membranes, increasing the degree of sulfonation resulted in increasing permeability, as more water was imbibed in the membranes with higher degrees of sulfonation. Activation energy was extracted from the temperature-dependence of the diffusion coefficients for both membranes. The sPEEK membranes exhibited similar diffusion coefficients to those of Nafion {sup registered}, even at high sulfonation degrees of 70%. Besides SO{sub 2} permeability, proton conductivity and mechanical properties were measured for comparison between the 2 polymer membranes. Although the proton conductivity of the sPEEK was slightly lower than the Nafion {sup registered} membrane, it was very competitive considering its higher mechanical strength and much lower cost. (author)

  7. Permeability-Selectivity Analysis of Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes: Effect of Pore Size and Shape Distribution and Membrane Stretching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Usama Siddiqui

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We present a modeling approach to determine the permeability-selectivity tradeoff for microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes with a distribution of pore sizes and pore shapes. Using the formulated permeability-selectivity model, the effect of pore aspect ratio and pore size distribution on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff of the membrane is analyzed. A finite element model is developed to study the effect of membrane stretching on the distribution of pore sizes and shapes in the stretched membrane. The effect of membrane stretching on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff of membranes is also analyzed. The results show that increasing pore aspect ratio improves membrane performance while increasing the width of pore size distribution deteriorates the performance. It was also found that the effect of membrane stretching on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff is greatly affected by the uniformity of pore distribution in the membrane. Stretching showed a positive shift in the permeability-selectivity tradeoff curve of membranes with well-dispersed pores while in the case of pore clustering, a negative shift in the permeability-selectivity tradeoff curve was observed.

  8. Permeability-Selectivity Analysis of Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes: Effect of Pore Size and Shape Distribution and Membrane Stretching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Muhammad Usama; Arif, Abul Fazal Muhammad; Bashmal, Salem

    2016-08-06

    We present a modeling approach to determine the permeability-selectivity tradeoff for microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes with a distribution of pore sizes and pore shapes. Using the formulated permeability-selectivity model, the effect of pore aspect ratio and pore size distribution on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff of the membrane is analyzed. A finite element model is developed to study the effect of membrane stretching on the distribution of pore sizes and shapes in the stretched membrane. The effect of membrane stretching on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff of membranes is also analyzed. The results show that increasing pore aspect ratio improves membrane performance while increasing the width of pore size distribution deteriorates the performance. It was also found that the effect of membrane stretching on the permeability-selectivity tradeoff is greatly affected by the uniformity of pore distribution in the membrane. Stretching showed a positive shift in the permeability-selectivity tradeoff curve of membranes with well-dispersed pores while in the case of pore clustering, a negative shift in the permeability-selectivity tradeoff curve was observed.

  9. [Effect of plasma membrane ion permeability modulators on respiration and heat output of wheat roots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseeva, V A; Gordon, L Kh; Loseva, N L; Rakhimova, G G; Tsentsevitskiĭ, A N

    2006-01-01

    A study was made of changes in the rates of respiration, heat production, and membrane characteristics in cells of excised roots of wheat seedlings under the modulation of plasma membrane ion permeability by two membrane active compounds: valinomycin (20 microM (V50)) and chlorpromazine (50 microM (CP50) and 100 microM (CP100)). Both compounds increased the loss of potassium ions, which correlated with the lowering of membrane potential, rate of respiration, and heat production after a 2 h exposure. The differences in alteration of these parameters were due to specific action of either compound on the membrane and to the extent of ion homeostasis disturbance. V20 had a weak effect on the studied parameters. V50 caused an increase of the rate of respiration and heat production, which enhanced following a prolonged action (5 h) and were associated with ion homeostatis restoration. The extent of alteration of membrane characteristics (an increase of potassium loss by roots, and lowering of cell membrane potential) as well as energy expense under the action of CP50 during the first period were more pronounced than in the presence of V50. During a prolonged action of CP50, the increase of respiration intensity and heat production correlated with partial recovery of ion homeostatis in cells. Essential lowering of membrane potential and substantial loss of potassium by cells, starting from the early stages of their response reaction, were followed by inhibition of respiration rate and heat production. Alterations of the structure and functional characteristics of excised root cells indicate the intensification of the membrane-tropic effect of a prolonged action of CP100, and the lack of cell energy resources.

  10. [Effects of allelochemical isolated from Phragmites communis on algal membrane permeability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Min; Hu, Hong-Ying; Chong, Yun-Xiao; Guo, Mei-Ting; Men, Yu-Jie

    2007-11-01

    Efflux of K+, Mg2+, Ca2+ ions from algal cells as signals of cell membrane permeability, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) as detection method of ions, the present research investigated effects of allelochemical eathyl-2-methyl acetoacetate (EMA) isolated from Phragmites communis on cell membrane permeability of Microcystis aeruginosa, Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Chlorella vulagaris. The results showed that, when the cells were boiled for 10 min and the membrane was destroyed absolutely, the K+ efflux of M. aeruginosa and C. pyrenoidosa were 1.45 and 1.59 microg x (10(9) cell) (-1), respectively. When the concentration of EMA was 2 mg x L(-1), the K+ efflux of M. aeruginosa and C. pyrenoidosa were 1.38 and 1.40 microg x (10(9) cell)(-1), respectively. The K+ efflux of M. aeruginosa and C. pyrenoidosa reached 1.44 and 1.58 microg x (10(9) cell)(-1) while the EMA was 4 mg x L(-1). When the concentrations were 2 mg x L(-1) or 4 mg x L(-1) the K+ efflux reached more than 95% of the total ion amount in M. aeruginosa and C. pyrenoidosa cells. But when EMA concentration was 4 mg x L(-1), K+ efflux of C. vulagaris was 0.64 microg x (10(9) cell)(-1), which was only 31.5% of total K+ amount in C. vulagaris. Effects EMA on efflux of Mg2+ and Ca2+ were similar to those of K+. The results indicated that EMA destroyed the cell membrane of M. aeruginosa and C. pyrenoidosa but not C. vulagaris. This is one of the mechanisms of EMA species-selective antialgal.

  11. Non-metabolic membrane tubulation and permeability induced by bioactive peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonin Lamazière

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Basic cell-penetrating peptides are potential vectors for therapeutic molecules and display antimicrobial activity. The peptide-membrane contact is the first step of the sequential processes leading to peptide internalization and cell activity. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in peptide-membrane interaction are not well understood and are frequently controversial. Herein, we compared the membrane activities of six basic peptides with different size, charge density and amphipaticity: Two cell-penetrating peptides (penetratin and R9, three amphipathic peptides and the neuromodulator substance P. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Experiments of X ray diffraction, video-microscopy of giant vesicles, fluorescence spectroscopy, turbidimetry and calcein leakage from large vesicles are reported. Permeability and toxicity experiments were performed on cultured cells. The peptides showed differences in bilayer thickness perturbations, vesicles aggregation and local bending properties which form lipidic tubular structures. These structures invade the vesicle lumen in the absence of exogenous energy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We showed that the degree of membrane permeabilization with amphipathic peptides is dependent on both peptide size and hydrophobic nature of the residues. We propose a model for peptide-induced membrane perturbations that explains the differences in peptide membrane activities and suggests the existence of a facilitated "physical endocytosis," which represents a new pathway for peptide cellular internalization.

  12. Capsid protein VP4 of human rhinovirus induces membrane permeability by the formation of a size-selective multimeric pore.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Panjwani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Non-enveloped viruses must deliver their viral genome across a cell membrane without the advantage of membrane fusion. The mechanisms used to achieve this remain poorly understood. Human rhinovirus, a frequent cause of the common cold, is a non-enveloped virus of the picornavirus family, which includes other significant pathogens such as poliovirus and foot-and-mouth disease virus. During picornavirus cell entry, the small myristoylated capsid protein VP4 is released from the virus, interacts with the cell membrane and is implicated in the delivery of the viral RNA genome into the cytoplasm to initiate replication. In this study, we have produced recombinant C-terminal histidine-tagged human rhinovirus VP4 and shown it can induce membrane permeability in liposome model membranes. Dextran size-exclusion studies, chemical crosslinking and electron microscopy demonstrated that VP4 forms a multimeric membrane pore, with a channel size consistent with transfer of the single-stranded RNA genome. The membrane permeability induced by recombinant VP4 was influenced by pH and was comparable to permeability induced by infectious virions. These findings present a molecular mechanism for the involvement of VP4 in cell entry and provide a model system which will facilitate exploration of VP4 as a novel antiviral target for the picornavirus family.

  13. Membrane permeability of the human granulocyte to water, dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, propylene glycol and ethylene glycol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vian, Alex M; Higgins, Adam Z

    2014-02-01

    Granulocytes are currently transfused as soon as possible after collection because they rapidly deteriorate after being removed from the body. This short shelf life complicates the logistics of granulocyte collection, banking, and safety testing. Cryopreservation has the potential to significantly increase shelf life; however, cryopreservation of granulocytes has proven to be difficult. In this study, we investigate the membrane permeability properties of human granulocytes, with the ultimate goal of using membrane transport modeling to facilitate development of improved cryopreservation methods. We first measured the equilibrium volume of human granulocytes in a range of hypo- and hypertonic solutions and fit the resulting data using a Boyle-van't Hoff model. This yielded an isotonic cell volume of 378 μm(3) and an osmotically inactive volume of 165 μm(3). To determine the permeability of the granulocyte membrane to water and cryoprotectant (CPA), cells were injected into well-mixed CPA solution while collecting volume measurements using a Coulter Counter. These experiments were performed at temperatures ranging from 4 to 37°C for exposure to dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol. The best-fit water permeability was similar in the presence of all of the CPAs, with an average value at 21°C of 0.18 μmatm(-1)min(-1). The activation energy for water transport ranged from 41 to 61 kJ/mol. The CPA permeability at 21°C was 6.4, 1.0, 8.4, and 4.0 μm/min for dimethyl sulfoxide, glycerol, ethylene glycol, and propylene glycol, respectively, and the activation energy for CPA transport ranged between 59 and 68 kJ/mol.

  14. Polyhydroxybutyrate targets mammalian mitochondria and increases permeability of plasmalemmal and mitochondrial membranes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia A Elustondo

    Full Text Available Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB is a polyester of 3-hydroxybutyric acid (HB that is ubiquitously present in all organisms. In higher eukaryotes PHB is found in the length of 10 to 100 HB units and can be present in free form as well as in association with proteins and inorganic polyphosphate. It has been proposed that PHB can mediate ion transport across lipid bilayer membranes. We investigated the ability of PHB to interact with living cells and isolated mitochondria and the effects of these interactions on membrane ion transport. We performed experiments using a fluorescein derivative of PHB (fluo-PHB. We found that fluo-PHB preferentially accumulated inside the mitochondria of HeLa cells. Accumulation of fluo-PHB induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization. This membrane depolarization was significantly delayed by the inhibitor of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore - Cyclosporin A. Further experiments using intact cells as well as isolated mitochondria confirmed that the effects of PHB directly linked to its ability to facilitate ion transport, including calcium, across the membranes. We conclude that PHB demonstrates ionophoretic properties in biological membranes and this effect is most profound in mitochondria due to the selective accumulation of the polymer in this organelle.

  15. Biomimetic carriers mimicking leukocyte plasma membrane to increase tumor vasculature permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomba, R.; Parodi, A.; Evangelopoulos, M.; Acciardo, S.; Corbo, C.; De Rosa, E.; Yazdi, I. K.; Scaria, S.; Molinaro, R.; Furman, N. E. Toledano; You, J.; Ferrari, M.; Salvatore, F.; Tasciotti, E.

    2016-10-01

    Recent advances in the field of nanomedicine have demonstrated that biomimicry can further improve targeting properties of current nanotechnologies while simultaneously enable carriers with a biological identity to better interact with the biological environment. Immune cells for example employ membrane proteins to target inflamed vasculature, locally increase vascular permeability, and extravasate across inflamed endothelium. Inspired by the physiology of immune cells, we recently developed a procedure to transfer leukocyte membranes onto nanoporous silicon particles (NPS), yielding Leukolike Vectors (LLV). LLV are composed of a surface coating containing multiple receptors that are critical in the cross-talk with the endothelium, mediating cellular accumulation in the tumor microenvironment while decreasing vascular barrier function. We previously demonstrated that lymphocyte function-associated antigen (LFA-1) transferred onto LLV was able to trigger the clustering of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) on endothelial cells. Herein, we provide a more comprehensive analysis of the working mechanism of LLV in vitro in activating this pathway and in vivo in enhancing vascular permeability. Our results suggest the biological activity of the leukocyte membrane can be retained upon transplant onto NPS and is critical in providing the particles with complex biological functions towards tumor vasculature.

  16. [Germ cell membrane lipids in spermatogenesis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Shi, Xiao; Quan, Song

    2016-05-01

    Spermatogenesis is a complex developmental process in which a diploid progenitor germ cell transforms into highly specialized spermatozoa. During spermatogenesis, membrane remodeling takes place, and cell membrane permeability and liquidity undergo phase-specific changes, which are all associated with the alteration of membrane lipids. Lipids are important components of the germ cell membrane, whose volume and ratio fluctuate in different phases of spermatogenesis. Abnormal lipid metabolism can cause spermatogenic dysfunction and consequently male infertility. Germ cell membrane lipids are mainly composed of cholesterol, phospholipids and glycolipids, which play critical roles in cell adhesion and signal transduction during spermatogenesis. An insight into the correlation of membrane lipids with spermatogenesis helps us to better understand the mechanisms of spermatogenesis and provide new approaches to the diagnosis and treatment of male infertility.

  17. Electrochemical Device Comprising an Electrically-Conductive, Selectively-Permeable Membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittelsteadt, Cortney K. (Inventor); Laicer, Castro S. T. (Inventor); Harrison, Katherine E. (Inventor); McPheeters, Bryn M. (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    An electrochemical device, such as a fuel cell or an electrolyzer. In one embodiment, the electrochemical device includes a membrane electrode assembly (MEA), an anodic gas diffusion medium in contact with the anode of the MEA, a cathodic gas diffusion medium in contact with the cathode, a first bipolar plate in contact with the anodic gas diffusion medium, and a second bipolar plate in contact with the cathodic gas diffusion medium. Each of the bipolar plates includes an electrically-conductive, non-porous, liquid-permeable, substantially gas-impermeable membrane in contact with its respective gas diffusion medium, the membrane including a solid polymer electrolyte and a non-particulate, electrically-conductive material, such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and/or metal nanowires. In addition, each bipolar plate also includes an electrically-conductive fluid chamber in contact with the electrically-conductive, selectively-permeable membrane and further includes a non-porous and electrically-conductive plate in contact with the fluid chamber.

  18. Anion-conductive membranes with ultralow vanadium permeability and excellent performance in vanadium flow batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Zhensheng; Zhang, Huamin; Zhang, Hongzhang; Xu, Wanxing; Wei, Wenping; Na, Hui; Li, Xianfeng

    2013-02-01

    Anion exchange membranes prepared from quaternized poly(tetramethyl diphenyl ether sulfone) (QAPES) were first investigated in the context of vanadium flow battery (VFB) applications. The membranes showed an impressive suppression effect on vanadium ions. The recorded vanadium permeability was 0.02×10(-7)-0.09×10(-7) cm(2) min(-1), which was two orders of magnitude lower than that of Nafion 115. The self-discharge duration of a VFB single cell with a QAPES membrane is four times longer than that of Nafion 115. The morphological difference in hydrophilic domains between QAPES and Nafion was confirmed by TEM. After soaking the membranes in VO(2)(+) solution, adsorbed vanadium ions can barely be found in QAPES, whereas the hydrophilic domains of Nafion were stained. In the ex situ chemical stability test, QAPES showed a high tolerance to VO(2)(+) and remained intact after immersion in VO(2)(+) solution for over 250 h. The performance of a VFB single cell assembled with QAPES membranes is equal to or even better than that of Nafion 115 and remains stable in a long-term cycle test. These results indicate that QAPES membranes can be an ideal option in the fabrication of high-performance VFBs with low electric capacity loss.

  19. Calculating the permeability coefficients of mixed matrix membranes of polydimethylsiloxane and silicalite crystals to various ethanol-water solutions using molecular simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The permeability coefficients of mixed matrix membranes of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and silicalite crystal are taken as the sum of the permeability coefficients of membrane components each weighted by their associated mass fraction. The permeability coefficient of a membrane c...

  20. Influence of Decenylsuccinic Acid on Water Permeability of Plant Cells 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, O. Y.; Stadelmann, Ed. J.; Weiser, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    Decenylsuccinic acid altered permeability to water of epidermal cells of bulb scales of Allium cepa and of the leaf midrib of Rhoeo discolor. Water permeability, as determined by deplasmolysis time measurements, was related to the dose of undissociated decenylsuccinic acid (mm undissociated decenylsuccinic acid × minute). No relationship was found between permeability and total dose of decenylsuccinic acid, or dose of dissociated decenylsuccinic acid, suggesting that the undissociated molecule was the active factor in permeability changes and injury. At doses which did not damage cells (0.0008 to 0.6 [mm of the undissociated molecule × minute]) decenylsuccinic acid decreased water permeability. At higher doses (e.g., 4 to 8 [mm × minute]) injury to cells was common and decenylsuccinic acid increased permeability. Doses above the 10 to 20 (mm × minute) range were generally lethal. The plasmolysis form of uninjured cells was altered and protoplasmic swelling occasionally was observed. The dose-dependent reversal of water permeability changes (decreased to increased permeability) may reflect decenylsuccinic acid-induced changes in membrane structure. Reported effects of decenylsuccinic acid on temperature dependence of permeability and frost resistance were not verified. Images PMID:16658227

  1. Elevation of plasma membrane permeability upon laser irradiation of extracellular microbubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Zhou, Xi-Yuan; Wang, Zhi-Gang; Zhu, Ye-Feng; Li, Pan

    2010-07-01

    Laser-mediated gene transfection has received much attention as a new method for targeted gene therapy because of the high controllability of laser energy and direction. In this report, we describe a combination laser-microbubble system that enables membrane-impermeable molecules to penetrate cell membranes. The main theories we apply are optical breakdown and photoacoustic generation, which are induced by laser irradiation. Firstly, different types of laser light (Ar-green, Novus Varia poly-wavelength and Nd:YAG laser) were adopted to blast liposome microbubble contrast medium; subsequently, the Nd:YAG laser (1064 nm, 4 ns), which could successfully blast microbubbles, and ultrasound were used in combination to irradiate a mixture of liposome microbubbles and retinoblastoma (Rb) cells. After irradiation, membrane permeability was evaluated by flow cytometric assay using propidium iodide (PI) and fluorescein diacetate (FDA). The proportion of permeabilized resealed cells was affected by changes in the light energy. All of the Nd:YAG laser, Nd:YAG combination laser-microbubble and combination ultrasound-microbubble systems were able to permeabilize the Rb cells. These results suggest that this combination laser-microbubble system is a new means of delivering exogenous materials into living cells.

  2. Determining membrane permeability of giant phospholipid vesicles from a series of videomicroscopy images

    CERN Document Server

    Peterlin, Primoz; Pisanski, Tomaz

    2008-01-01

    A technique for determining the permeability of a phospholipid membrane from a sequence of videomicrographs is described. A single giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV) is transferred using a micropipette from a solution of an impermeable solute (e.g., glucose or sucrose) into an iso-osmolar solution of a solute with a higher membrane permeability (e.g., glycerol). Upon the transfer, the vesicle swells until it reaches the tensile strength of the membrane, when the membrane breaks and a fraction of the vesicle volume is ejected, sufficient for the membrane to return to its relaxed value. The swelling-burst cycle repeats itself until the composition of the solution in the vesicle interior equilibrates with the external solution. A sequence of ~10.000 image frames is obtained from a CCD camera mounted on the optical microscope, documenting the process. On each frame, the vesicle radius is determined, and from the rate of swelling the membrane permeability can be obtained.

  3. Graphene oxide membranes with high permeability and selectivity for dehumidification of air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yongsoon; Liu, Wei; Schwenzer, Birgit; Manandhar, Sandeep; Chase-Woods, Dylan G.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Devanathan, Ram; Fifield, Leonard S.; Bennett, Wendy D.; Ginovska-Pangovska, Bojana; Gotthold, David W.

    2016-09-01

    Hierarchically stacked 2D graphene oxide (GO) membranes are a fascinating and promising new class of materials with the potential for radically improved water vapor/gas separation with excellent selectivity and high permeability. This paper details dehumidification results from flowing gas mixtures through free-standing GO membrane samples prepared by a casting method. The first demonstrated use of free-standing GO membranes for water vapor separation reveals outstanding water vapor permeability and H2O/N2 selectivity. Free-standing GO membranes exhibit extremely high water vapor permeability of 1.82 x 105 Barrer and a water vapor permeance of 1.01 x 10-5 mol/m2sPa, while the nitrogen permeability was below the system’s detection limit, yielding a selectivity >104 in 80% relative humidity (RH) air at 30.8 °C. The results show great potential for a range of energy conversion and environmental applications

  4. Outer membrane VDAC1 controls permeability transition of the inner mitochondrial membrane in cellulo during stress-induced apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Flora Tomasello; Angela Messina; Lydia Lartigue; Laura Schembri; Chantal Medina; Simona Reina; Didier Thorava; Marc Crouzet; Francois Ichas; Vito De Pinto; Francesca De Giorgi

    2009-01-01

    Voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC)l is the main channel of the mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) and it has been proposed to be part of the permeability transition pore (PTP), a putative multiprotein complex candidate agent of the mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT). Working at the single live cell level, we found that over-expression of VDAC1 triggers MPT at the mitochondrial inner membrane (MIM). Conversely, silencing VDAC1 ex-pression results in the inhibition of MPT caused by selenite-induced oxidative stress. This MOM-M1M crosstalk was modulated by Cyclosporin A and mitochondrial Cyclophilin D, but not by Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, indicative of PTP opera-tion. VDAC1-dependent MPT engages a positive feedback loop involving reactive oxygen species and p38-MAPK, and secondarily triggers a canonical apoptotic response including Bax activation, cytochrome c release and caspase 3 activation. Our data thus support a model of the PTP complex involving VDAC1 at the MOM, and indicate that VDAC1-dependent MPT is an upstream mechanism playing a causal role in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

  5. The lectin BJcuL induces apoptosis through TRAIL expression, caspase cascade activation and mitochondrial membrane permeability in a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damasio, Danusa de Castro; Nolte, Stefanie; Polak, Leonardo Puchetti; Brandt, Anna Paula; Bonan, Natália Borges; Zischler, Luciana; Stuelp-Campelo, Patrícia M; Cadena, Silvia Maria S C; Noronha, Lúcia de; Elífio-Esposito, Selene L; Moreno-Amaral, Andréa Novais

    2014-11-01

    It has been demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect of BJcuL, the lectin isolated from Bothrops jararacussu venom, on human gastric carcinoma is accompanied by the inhibition of extracellular matrix adhesion, cytoskeleton disassembly and apoptosis induction. The present study aimed to evaluate the apoptosis mechanisms triggered by the BJcuL interaction with specific glycans on the surface of HT29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells. The results demonstrated that BJcuL interacts with glycoligands targets on the cell, which were inhibited in the presence of d-galactose. It shows a dose-dependently cytotoxic effect that is inhibited in the presence of d-galactose. A dose-dependent cell aggregation decrease was also observed for the HT29 cells. Analysis of cell proliferation inhibition was assessed by anti-PCNA and demonstrated that lectin diminishes PCNA expression when compared with untreated cells. Differences in apoptotic marker expression estimated by immunohistochemistry revealed that the lectin promotes an increase in TRAIL expression, leading to an increase in the expression of FADD, caspase-8 and Bax. Besides the increased expression of apoptosis-related proteins, our results revealed that the lectin promotes a mitochondrial respiration decrease and a 75% increase in the amount of cytochrome c released. Together these results suggest that the cytotoxicity of BJcuL can sensitize pro-apoptotic proteins in the cytoplasm and mitochondria, leading to the apoptotic cascade.

  6. Regenerated Cellulose Capsules for Controlled Drug Delivery, Part 2: Modulating Membrane Permeability by Incorporation of Depolymerized Cellulose and Altering Membrane Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Bhavik; Kumar, Vijay

    2015-12-01

    For application of regenerated cellulose (RC) membranes in capsule dosage forms, the methods to modify drug release from these membranes are described. Membranes were fabricated by blending native and depolymerized celluloses dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and paraformaldehyde solvent system, prior to casting on molds, precipitation in water, and thermal annealing. The effect of laminating layers of RC to fabricate membranes with increasing thickness was also investigated. Solute diffusion studies using ionic and hydrophobic solutes, as well as large protein molecules, were conducted in side-by-side diffusion cells. Microscopic as well as physiological evaluation of these membranes indicated that pore size, porosity, and water uptake decreased as the fraction of depolymerized cellulose increased in the membranes. Permeability analysis of small ionic and hydrophobic solutes indicated that the solute transport across the hydrated membrane occurs through diffusion in the water-filled pores that are formed in situ. The apparent path for solute diffusion increases as the fraction of depolymerized cellulose increases. Permeability analysis of large protein molecules indicated that the pore sizes and distribution in these membranes is heterogeneous. Increasing the membrane thickness by lamination of RC does not influence porosity but causes formation of dead-end pores because of blocking by subsequent laminate layers.

  7. Development of implantable hemodialysis system using PES membranes with high water-permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, N; Sanada, I; Ito, H; Morita, S; Kanno, Y; Miki, N

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents development of high water-permeable dialysis membranes. We proposed the system that does not use dialysis fluid for the implantable micro dialysis treatment and development of such membranes is crucial. We developed micro dialysis system composed by nanoporous membranes and microfluidic channels in our prior work. The membranes were made of nanoporous polyethersulfone (PES), which was not water-permeable. By not using dialysate, our device can be simplified because the pumps and storage tanks for the dialysis fluid are not necessary. This treatment is termed as hemofiltration. We measured the water permeability of PES membrane with respect to the concentrations of the PES, the additives, and the solvents in the casting solution. We could find the membranes with sufficiently high water permeability through in vitro experiments using a syringe pomp and whole cow blood, and the membrane had enough mechanical strength. We conducted experiments with multi-layered device in in vitro and in vivo using rats, where the system was connected to the vein and artery. We successfully collected the filtrate beyond target line, which was set by a medical doctor, without any leakage of blood from the device. The results verified that the filtration device can be scaled-up by increasing a number of the layer. We connected the device to a rat for 5h. It was verified the device maintained almost constant water permeability beyond our target line.

  8. Membrane Cells for Brine Electrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tingle, M.

    1982-01-01

    Membrane cells were developed as alternatives to mercury and diaphragm cells for the electrolysis of brine. Compares the three types of cells, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of membrane cells. (JN)

  9. Partial oxidation of methane to syngas in a mixed-conducting oxygen permeable membrane reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Mixed-conducting oxygen permeable membranes represent a class of novel ceramic membranes, which exhibit mixed oxygen ionic and electronic conductivities. At high temperatures, oxygen can permeate through the membrane from the high to low oxygen pressure side under an oxygen concentration gradient. Theoretically, the permselectivity of oxygen is 100%. Recently, a novel mixed-conducting membrane--Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-δ has been developed, which shows extremely high oxygen permeability and promising stability. Furthermore, the reactor made with such membranes was successfully applied to the partial oxidation of methane to syngas reaction using air as the oxygen source, which realized the coupling of the separation of oxygen from air and the partial oxidation of membrane reaction in one process. At 850℃, methane conversion >88%, CO selectivity >97% and oxygen permeation rate of about 7.8 mL/(cm2.min) were obtained.

  10. Determination of diffusion coefficients of peptides and prediction of permeability through a porous membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoya, Osamu; Chono, Sumio; Saso, Yuko; Juni, Kazuhiko; Morimoto, Kazuhiro; Seki, Toshinobu

    2004-12-01

    The diffusion coefficient (D) of peptide and protein drugs needs to be determined to examine the permeability through biological barriers and to optimize delivery systems. In this study, the D values of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled dextrans (FDs) and peptides were determined and the permeability through a porous membrane was discussed. The observed D values of FDs and peptides, except in the case of insulin, were similar to those calculated based on a relationship previously reported between the molecular weight and D of lower-molecular-weight compounds, although the molecular weight range was completely different. The observed D value of insulin was between the calculated values for the insulin monomer and hexamer. The permeability of poly-lysine and insulin through the membrane was determined and the observed values were compared with predicted values by using the relationship between molecular weight and D and an equation based on the Renkin function. The observed permeability of insulin through the membrane was between that of the predicted permeability for the insulin monomer and hexamer. For the permeation of insulin, the determination of D was useful for estimating the permeability because of the irregular relationship between molecular weight and D. The methodology used in this study will be useful for a more quantitative evaluation of the absorption of peptide and protein drugs applied to mucous membranes.

  11. Effects of radiation on the permeability of human basement membranes; Effets des radiations sur la permeabilite de membranes basales humaines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, B.T. [Paris-7 Univ., ITODYS, UPRES-A 7086 CNRS, 75 (France); Achour, S. [Paris-7 Univ., 75 (France). Unite de Recheche Chimie et Pharmacologie; Simmonet, F. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). INSTN, Institut National des Sciences et Techniques Nucleaires; Guerin, D. [Clinique d`Aulnay, 93 - Aulnay-sous-Bois (France)

    1999-02-01

    The influence of radiation on the permeability properties of human basement membrane was investigated by measuring the diffusion rate of several organic compounds (glycine, proline, glucose, urea and insulin) through human anterior lens capsules. The basement membranes borne an {gamma}-irradiation treatment change significantly their permeability vis-a-vis studied organic substances. This modification in physico-chemical properties is probably due to the radiation, which alters or degrades the complex structure (or architecture) of basement membranes. Moreover the change in permeability is dependent upon the diffusing compounds. An increase in diffusion has been observed for glucose, glycine and urea. However for insulin and proline, a decrease in diffusion rate was observed. (authors) 21 refs.

  12. Enzymatically active high-flux selectively gas-permeable membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Ying-Bing; Cecchi, Joseph L.; Rempe, Susan; FU, Yaqin; Brinker, C. Jeffrey

    2016-01-26

    An ultra-thin, catalyzed liquid transport medium-based membrane structure fabricated with a porous supporting substrate may be used for separating an object species such as a carbon dioxide object species. Carbon dioxide flux through this membrane structures may be several orders of magnitude higher than traditional polymer membranes with a high selectivity to carbon dioxide. Other gases such as molecular oxygen, molecular hydrogen, and other species including non-gaseous species, for example ionic materials, may be separated using variations to the membrane discussed.

  13. PERMEABILITY OF STERLET SPERM MEMBRANES (ACIPENSER RUTHENUS L., 1758 FOR WATER MOLECULES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Puhovkin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The literature analysis of the results cryopreservation of different fish species highlights a variation of many parameters, in particular the sperm survival rate during the freezing and unfreezing process. The survival capability of spermatozoa may be called the main parameter, which indentifies the efficiency of the entire process of low temperature freezing of reproductive products. Therefore, the goal of this work was to investigate and find the causes of different degrees of fish sperm cryoimmunity, in particular that of starlet, which is a valuable of sturgeon (Acipenser species. We also studies the possibility to find the optimum ways to improve the efficiency of the survival rate of the defrosted spermatozoa of different fish species for their further use to produce viable offspring. Methodology. The determination of sterlet sperm membrane permeability was performed after carrying out all necessary manipulations with brood males which included: prespawning incubation, hormonal stimulation, determination of sperm maturity degree, obtaining the sperm by stripping. The measurement of sperm membrane permeability for water molecules was performed based on the technique, which had been used earlier to measure carp sperm permeability, but taking account the specific peculiarities inherent to sterlet sperm. Findings. Based on the performed measurements, we determined the sterlet sperm membrane permeability for water molecules with the use of photometric method. The received experimental data show the highest degree of sterlet sperm membrane permeability for water molecules as compared to carp sperm membrane permeability. Originality. As a result of this experiment, we determined for the first time the absolute value of sterlet sperm membrane permeability for water molecules with the use of photometric method as well as compared the results with those obtained during our work with the carp sperm. Practical value. The data obtained during

  14. Permeability and selectivity of reverse osmosis membranes: correlation to swelling revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dražević, Emil; Košutić, Krešimir; Freger, Viatcheslav

    2014-02-01

    Membrane swelling governs both rejection of solutes and permeability of polymeric membranes, however very few data have been available on swelling in water of salt-rejecting reverse osmosis (RO) membranes. This study assesses swelling, thickness and their relation to water permeability for four commercial polyamide (PA) RO membranes (SWC4+, ESPA1, XLE and BW30) using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). ATR-FTIR offered a significantly improved estimate of the actual barrier thickness of PA, given AFM is biased by porosity ("fluffy parts") or wiggling of the active layer or presence of a coating layer. Thus obtained intrinsic permeability (permeability times thickness) and selectivity of aromatic polyamides plotted versus swelling falls well on a general trend, along with previously reported data on several common materials showing RO and NF selectivity. The observed general trend may be rationalized by viewing the polymers as a random composite medium containing molecularly small pores. The results suggest that the combination of a rigid low dielectric matrix, limiting the pore size, with multiple hydrophilic H-bonding sites may be a common feature of RO/NF membranes, allowing both high permeability and selectivity.

  15. [Reducing centers on the surface of Escherichia coli bacteria and their role in copper-induced plasma membrane permeability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, V S; Veselovskiĭ, A V; Deĭnega, E Iu; Fedorov, Iu I

    2000-01-01

    The reducing properties of Escherichia coli and their role in the induction of nonselective cationic permeability of plasma membrane by the action of Cu2+ ions were studied. The ability of cells to reduce exogenous dithiopyridine was shown to be maximal in freshly collected culture and to decrease upon starvation or exhaustion of bacteria by dinitrophenol, in the presence of other oxidants of cell thiols in the medium, and after the disturbance of the barrier properties of membrane by tetrachloracetic acid or butanol. The alkylation of cell thiols accessible for N-ethyl maleimide completely disrupted the reducing activity of bacteria. These data are consistent with the conception that the reduction of dithiopyridine and Cu2+ ions by bacteria occurs on the thiol-containing centers of the cell surface, which are continuously reduced by the transfer of cell reducing equivalents from the inner to the outer surface of plasma membrane. The analysis of data on the effect of external oxidizing and reducing agents on the copper-induced plasmolysis of bacteria showed that the induction of membrane permeability by the action of copper can occur upon interaction with critical targets on the surface of Cu+ ions formed in the periplasmic space in the reaction of Cu2+ ions with reducing centers.

  16. Bilayer membrane permeability of ionic liquid-filled block copolymer vesicles in aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhifeng; Zhao, Bin; Lodge, Timothy P

    2012-07-19

    The bilayer membrane permeability of block copolymer vesicles ("polymersomes") with ionic liquid interiors dispersed in water is quantified using fluorescence quenching. Poly((1,2-butadiene)-b-ethylene oxide) (PB-PEO) block copolymer vesicles in water with their interiors filled with a common hydrophobic ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)amide, were prepared containing a hydrophobic dye, Nile Red, by intact migration of dye-encapsulated vesicles from the ionic liquid to water at room temperature. A small quencher molecule, dichloroacetamide, was added to the aqueous solution of the dye-loaded vesicles, and the permeation of the quencher passing through the membrane into the interior was determined from the fluorescence quenching kinetics. Rapid permeation of the quencher across the nanoscale membrane was observed, consistent with the high fluidity of the liquid polybutadiene membrane. Two different PB-PEO copolymers were employed, in order to vary the thickness of the solvophobic membrane. A significant increase in membrane permeability was also observed with decreasing membrane thickness, which is tentatively attributable to differences in quencher solubility in the membranes. Quantitative migration of the vesicles from the aqueous phase back to an ionic liquid phase was achieved upon heating. These microscopically heterogeneous and thermoresponsive vesicles with permeable and robust membranes have potential as recyclable nanoreactors, in which the high viscosity and capital expense of an ionic liquid reaction medium can be mitigated, while retaining the desirable features of ionic liquids as reaction media, and facile catalyst recovery.

  17. Gas permeability of ENR/PVC membrane with the addition of inorganic fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor, Farhan Mohd; Abdullah, Ibrahim; Othaman, Rizafizah

    2013-11-01

    Epoxidized natural rubber (ENR) was blended with polyvinyl chloride to form a flexible and porous membrane. SiO2 and MgO were added into the membrane for pore formation and the effects of the addition was investigated by means of FTIR, TGA, SEM, EDX and gas permeability towards CO2 and N2 gases. FTIR result showed the presence of Si-O-Si asymmetric stretching at the absorption peak of 467 cm-1 for ENR/PVC/SiO2 membrane and MgO signature peak at 3700 cm-1 for ENR/PVC/MgO membrane. Thermal analysis showed that the thermal stability of ENR/PVC membrane increased with the addition of fillers. Morphological studies prove that subsequently, the pores in the membranes increased showing that some of the added fillers were drawn towards the water leaving empty spaces and tracks. The remaining fillers are homogenously distributed on the surface of the membranes. CO2 and N2 gas permeability increased with increasing filler content and the permeability of ENR/PVC/SiO2 membranes towards CO2 and N2 gasses was higher than ENR/PVC/MgO membranes.

  18. Effect of surface oxidation on the surface condition and deuterium permeability of a palladium membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng Wei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China); Chengdu University, Chengdu, 610106 (China); Liu Ying, E-mail: liuying5536@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China); Lian Lixian [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China); Peng Lixia [National Key Laboratory for Surface Physics and Chemistry, Mianyang, 621907 (China); Li Jun [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Sichuan University, Chengdu, 610065 (China)

    2011-09-15

    Oxidation and deoxidation of a Pd membrane was conducted in a quartz tube oven in a temperature range of 23-500 deg. C. The micromorphology and chemical composition of the Pd membrane surface was characterized using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Micropores and PdO began to form on the Pd membrane surface after oxidation at 240 deg. C for 1 h and their quantity increased gradually with increasing temperature. A rough Pd membrane surface was obtained when the temperature rose to 500 deg. C. The PdO on the Pd membrane surface was completely deoxidized once more using H{sub 2} at room temperature, but the rough surface morphology caused by oxidation remained. The deuterium permeability of the Pd membrane was tested using special equipment in the China National Key Laboratory and the results indicated that the rough Pd membrane surface had higher deuterium permeability than the original membrane. The improved deuterium permeability could be attributed to the higher Pd membrane surface area, which provided deuterium atoms with more adsorption sites and dissociation sites.

  19. Activation of TRPA1 by membrane permeable local anesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kronewald Sergej

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low concentrations of local anesthetics (LAs suppress cellular excitability by inhibiting voltage-gated Na+ channels. In contrast, LAs at high concentrations can be excitatory and neurotoxic. We recently demonstrated that LA-evoked activation of sensory neurons is mediated by the capsaicin receptor TRPV1, and, to a lesser extent by the irritant receptor TRPA1. LA-induced activation and sensitization of TRPV1 involves a domain that is similar, but not identical to the vanilloid-binding domain. Additionally, activation of TRPV1 by LAs involves PLC and PI(4,5P2-signalling. In the present study we aimed to characterize essential structural determinants for LA-evoked activation of TRPA1. Results Recombinant rodent and human TRPA1 were expressed in HEK293t cells and investigated by means of whole-cell patch clamp recordings. The LA lidocaine activates TRPA1 in a concentration-dependent manner. The membrane impermeable lidocaine-derivative QX-314 is inactive when applied extracellularly. Lidocaine-activated TRPA1-currents are blocked by the TRPA1-antagonist HC-030031. Lidocaine is also an inhibitor of TRPA1, an effect that is more obvious in rodent than in human TRPA1. This species-specific difference is linked to the pore region (transmembrane domain 5 and 6 as described for activation of TRPA1 by menthol. Unlike menthol-sensitivity however, lidocaine-sensitivity is not similarly determined by serine- and threonine-residues within TM5. Instead, intracellular cysteine residues known to be covalently bound by reactive TRPA1-agonists seem to mediate activation of TRPA1 by LAs. Conclusions The structural determinants involved in activation of TRPA1 by LAs are disparate from those involved in activation by menthol or those involved in activation of TRPV1 by LAs.

  20. Highly permeable and mechanically robust silicon carbide hollow fiber membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de P.; Kappert, Emiel J.; Lohaus, T.; Wessling, M.; Nijmeijer, A.; Benes, N.E.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon carbide (SiC) membranes have shown large potential for applications in water treatment. Being able to make these membranes in a hollow fiber geometry allows for higher surface-to-volume ratios. In this study, we present a thermal treatment procedure that is tuned to produce porous silicon ca

  1. Permeability of collapsed cakes formed by deposition of fractal aggregates upon membrane filtration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Pyung-Kyu; Lee, Chung-Hak; Lee, Sangho

    2006-04-15

    We have investigated, theoretically, the physical properties of cake layers formed from aggregates to obtain a better understanding of membrane systems used in conjunction with coagulation/flocculation pretreatment. We developed a model based on fractal theory and incorporated a cake collapse effect to predict the porosity and permeability of the cake layers. The floc size, fractal dimension, and transmembrane pressure were main parameters that we used in these model calculations. We performed experiments using a batch cell device and a confocal laser-scanning microscope to verify the predicted specific cake resistances and porosities under various conditions. Based on the results of the model, the reduction in inter-aggregate porosity is more important than that in intra-aggregate porosity during the cake collapsing process. The specific cake resistance decreases upon increasing the aggregate size and decreasing the fractal dimensions. The modeled porosities and specific cake resistances of the collapsed cake layer agreed reasonably well with those obtained experimentally.

  2. Hydrogen production from methane using oxygen-permeable ceramic membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraji, Sedigheh

    Non-porous ceramic membranes with mixed ionic and electronic conductivity have received significant interest in membrane reactor systems for the conversion of methane and higher hydrocarbons to higher value products like hydrogen. However, hydrogen generation by this method has not yet been commercialized and suffers from low membrane stability, low membrane oxygen flux, high membrane fabrication costs, and high reaction temperature requirements. In this dissertation, hydrogen production from methane on two different types of ceramic membranes (dense SFC and BSCF) has been investigated. The focus of this research was on the effects of different parameters to improve hydrogen production in a membrane reactor. These parameters included operating temperature, type of catalyst, membrane material, membrane thickness, membrane preparation pH, and feed ratio. The role of the membrane in the conversion of methane and the interaction with a Pt/CeZrO2 catalyst has been studied. Pulse studies of reactants and products over physical mixtures of crushed membrane material and catalyst have clearly demonstrated that a synergy exists between the membrane and the catalyst under reaction conditions. The degree of catalyst/membrane interaction strongly impacts the conversion of methane and the catalyst performance. During thermogravimetric analysis, the onset temperature of oxygen release for BSCF was observed to be lower than that for SFC while the amount of oxygen release was significantly greater. Pulse injections of CO2 over crushed membranes at 800°C have shown more CO2 dissociation on the BSCF membrane than the SFC membrane, resulting in higher CO formation on the BSCF membrane. Similar to the CO2 pulses, when CO was injected on the samples at 800°C, CO2 production was higher on BSCF than SFC. It was found that hydrogen consumption on BSCF particles is 24 times higher than that on SFC particles. Furthermore, Raman spectroscopy and temperature programmed desorption studies of

  3. Aquaporin 1 Facilitated Hepatocellular Carcinoma SMMC7221 Cell Migration Associated with Water Permeability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Ai-li; LI Jiang; WANG Yan-qing; ZAKNROU Zohra; MA Tong-hui; LI Xiao-meng

    2011-01-01

    The authors investigated the regulation of human aquaporin l(hAQPl) and the involvement of aquaporin l(AQPl) in the migration of human hepatocellular carcinoma SMMC-7221 cells using RNA intereference technology.Firstly, two short hairpin RNA(shRNA) constructs in PBSU6 vector were reconstructed and their knockdown effects were identified in SMMC-7221 cells. Next, the involvement of endogenous hAQPl in regulating the migration of SMMC-7221 cells was investigated via siRNA technology. HAQPl-shRNA can specifically inhibit AQPl dependent osmotic water permeability. Meanwhile the migration of SMMC-7221 cells was inhibited remarkably after silencing AQPl by performing transwell cell migration assay and in vitro wound healing assay. Furthermore, in the presence of an inhibitor HgCl2, the water permeability of the cell membrane was remarkably decreased, the expression of AQPl was upregulated after HgCl2 treatment and the cell movement was decreased at the moment. Increased AQPl cannot attenuate cell migration ability when cell membrane loses its water permeability function. This demonstrates that the cell migration was remarkably related to the transporting water function of cell membrane.

  4. Prospects and problems of dense oxygen permeable membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendriksen, P.V.; Larsen, P.H.; Mogensen, Mogens Bjerg;

    2000-01-01

    The prospects of using mixed ionic/electronic conducting ceramics for syngas production in a catalytic membrane reactor are analysed. Problems relating to limited thermodynamic stability and poor dimensional stability of candidate materials are addressed, The consequences for these problems......, of flux improving measures like minimization of membrane thickness and minimization of the losses due to oxygen exchange over the membrane surfaces, are discussed. The analysis is conducted on two candidate materials: La0.6Sr0.4Co0.2Fe0.8O3-delta and SrFeCo0.5Ox. Finally. experimental investigations...

  5. Effect of entomocidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis on ion permeability of apical membranes of Tenebrio molitor larvae gut epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreev, I M; Bulushova, N V; Zalunin, I A; Chestukhina, G G

    2009-10-01

    Effects of entomocidal Cry-type proteins, delta-endotoxins Cry3A and Cry11A produced by Bacillus thuringiensis, on ion permeability of the apical membranes of intestinal epithelium from Tenebrio molitor larvae midgut were studied. Using potential-sensitive dyes safranine O and oxonol VI and DeltapH indicator acridine orange, it was shown that placing brush border membrane vesicles (BBMV) (loaded with Mg2+ during their preparation) into a salt-free buffer medium resulted in spontaneous generation of transmembrane electric potential on the vesicular membrane (negative inside the vesicles) accompanied by acidification of the aqueous phase inside the vesicles. The generation of transmembrane ion gradients on the vesicular membrane was a result of an electrogenic efflux of Mg2+ from the vesicles as shown by abolishing of the membrane potential by such agents as MgSO4 or CaCl2 in centimolar concentrations, a highly lipophilic cation tetraphenylphosphonium, and some blockers of cell membrane Ca2+-channels in submillimolar concentrations. A passive generation of membrane potential on the vesicular membrane (but positive inside the vesicles) was also observed upon addition of centimolar concentrations of K2SO4. Addition of delta-endotoxins Cry3A and Cry11A to the vesicle suspension in a salt-free buffer medium or in the same medium supplemented with centimolar concentrations of K2SO4 exerted a pronounced hyperpolarization of the vesicular membrane. This hyperpolarization was sensitive to the same agents, which abolished the membrane potential generation in the absence of delta-endotoxin. It is concluded that Cry proteins induced in BBMV from T. molitor opening pores or ion channels, which were considerably more permeable for alkaline- and alkaline-earth metal cations than for the accompanying anions.

  6. Investigations of hydrodynamic permeability ceramic membranes for microfiltration

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Tijana; Vukosavljević Predrag; Vladisavljević Goran; Bukvić Branka

    2006-01-01

    This paper introduces the results of experimental investigations on the influence of operating parameters, such as feed flow rate, temperature, pressure difference in the microfiltration through the ceramic Kerasep membrane. The results confirmed earlier work on the same laboratory device for microfiltration. and they are the main condition for determination of kinetics juice clarification. Apart from investigations on the influence of operating parameters, the influence of membrane moisture ...

  7. Investigations of hydrodynamic permeability ceramic membranes for microfiltration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Tijana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the results of experimental investigations on the influence of operating parameters, such as feed flow rate, temperature, pressure difference in the microfiltration through the ceramic Kerasep membrane. The results confirmed earlier work on the same laboratory device for microfiltration. and they are the main condition for determination of kinetics juice clarification. Apart from investigations on the influence of operating parameters, the influence of membrane moisture on microfiltration was observed.

  8. Enhanced CO2 permeability of membranes by incorporating polyzwitterion@CNT composite particles into polyimide matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ye; Peng, Dongdong; He, Guangwei; Wang, Shaofei; Li, Yifan; Wu, Hong; Jiang, Zhongyi

    2014-08-13

    In this study, polyzwitterion is introduced into a CO2 separation membrane. Composite particles of polyzwitterion coated carbon nanotubes (SBMA@CNT) are prepared via a precipitation polymerization method. Hybrid membranes are fabricated by incorporating SBMA@CNT in polyimide matrix and utilized for CO2 separation. The prepared composite particles and hybrid membranes are characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with element mapping, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and an electronic tensile machine. Water uptake and water state of membranes are measured to probe the relationship among water uptake, water state and CO2 transport behavior. Hybrid membranes show significantly enhanced CO2 permeability compared to an unfilled polyimide membrane at a humidified state. A hybrid membrane with 5 wt % SBMA@CNT exhibits the maximum CO2 permeability of 103 Barrer with a CO2/CH4 selectivity of 36. The increase of CO2 permeability is attributed to the incorporation of the SBMA@CNT composite particles. First, SBMA@CNT form interconnected channels for CO2 transport due to the facilitated transport effect of the quaternary ammonium in repeat unit of pSBMA. Second, SBMA@CNT improve water uptake and adjust water state of membrane, which further increases CO2 permeability. Meanwhile, the variation of CO2/CH4 selectivity is dependent on the bound water portion in the membrane. A gas permeation test at a dry state and a pressure test are conducted to further probe the membrane separation performance.

  9. Phytosphingosine, sphingosine and dihydrosphingosine ceramides in model skin lipid membranes: permeability and biophysics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Školová, Barbora; Kováčik, Andrej; Tesař, Ondřej; Opálka, Lukáš; Vávrová, Kateřina

    2017-05-01

    Ceramides based on phytosphingosine, sphingosine and dihydrosphingosine are essential constituents of the skin lipid barrier that protects the body from excessive water loss. The roles of the individual ceramide subclasses in regulating skin permeability and the reasons for C4-hydroxylation of these sphingolipids are not completely understood. We investigated the chain length-dependent effects of dihydroceramides, sphingosine ceramides (with C4-unsaturation) and phytoceramides (with C4-hydroxyl) on the permeability, lipid organization and thermotropic behavior of model stratum corneum lipid membranes composed of ceramide/lignoceric acid/cholesterol/cholesteryl sulfate. Phytoceramides with very long C24 acyl chains increased the permeability of the model lipid membranes compared to dihydroceramides or sphingosine ceramides with the same chain lengths. Either unsaturation or C4-hydroxylation of dihydroceramides induced chain length-dependent increases in membrane permeability. Infrared spectroscopy showed that C4-hydroxylation of the sphingoid base decreased the relative ratio of orthorhombic chain packing in the membrane and lowered the miscibility of C24 phytoceramide with lignoceric acid. The phase separation in phytoceramide membranes was confirmed by X-ray diffraction. In contrast, phytoceramides formed strong hydrogen bonds and highly thermostable domains. Thus, the large heterogeneity in ceramide structures and in their aggregation mechanisms may confer resistance towards the heterogeneous external stressors that are constantly faced by the skin barrier.

  10. Algae Bioreactor Using Submerged Enclosures with Semi-Permeable Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trent, Jonathan D (Inventor); Gormly, Sherwin J (Inventor); Embaye, Tsegereda N (Inventor); Delzeit, Lance D (Inventor); Flynn, Michael T (Inventor); Liggett, Travis A (Inventor); Buckwalter, Patrick W (Inventor); Baertsch, Robert (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for producing hydrocarbons, including oil, by processing algae and/or other micro-organisms in an aquatic environment. Flexible bags (e.g., plastic) with CO.sub.2/O.sub.2 exchange membranes, suspended at a controllable depth in a first liquid (e.g., seawater), receive a second liquid (e.g., liquid effluent from a "dead zone") containing seeds for algae growth. The algae are cultivated and harvested in the bags, after most of the second liquid is removed by forward osmosis through liquid exchange membranes. The algae are removed and processed, and the bags are cleaned and reused.

  11. Gas Permeable Membranes Composed of Carboxylated Poly(vinyl chloride) and Polyurethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Chun Won; Kim, Chai Gyun; Kim, Wan Young; Jeong, Yong Seob; Lee, Youn Sik [Chonbuk National University, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-06-15

    Gas-permeable polymeric membranes containing carboxyl groups which are suitable for enzyme immobilization were investigated in order to use them as gas electrode membranes in biosensors. Carboxylated polyurethane (CPU) was synthesized via a reaction between 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid as a chain extender and prepolymers prepared from polycarprolactone (Mn=2,000) and 4,4'-diphenylmethane diisocynate. It was difficult to prepare membranes from the pure CPU because of its high elasticity and cohesion. However, transparent free-standing membranes were easily prepared from the blend solutions of CPU and carboxylated poly(vinyl chloride) (CPVC) in tetrahydrofuran. Both elasticity and cohesion of the CPU/CPVC membranes were decreased with increasing the content of CPVC. DSC experiment suggests that CPU and CPVC may be well mixed. Permeability coefficients for O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} (P{sub O2} and P{sub CO2}) in the membranes increased as the proportion of CPU increased. The addition of dioctyl phthalate (DOP), a plasticizer, significantly enhanced the P{sub O2} and P{sub CO2} which were 4.4 and 30 Barrer, respectively, in the CPU/CPVC (80/20 wt/wt) membranes containing 20% of DOP at 25 .deg. C and 100 psi. Thus this type of membranes may have a potential for the use as gas electrode membranes in biosensors

  12. Enhancing recovery of ammonia from swine manure anaerobic digester effluent using gas-permeable membrane technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas-permeable membrane technology is useful to recover ammonia from manure. In this study, the technology was enhanced using aeration instead of alkali chemicals to increase pH and the ammonia recovery rate. Digested effluents from covered anaerobic swine lagoons containing 1375 to 2089 milligram am...

  13. Microporous niobia-silica membrane with very low CO2 permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffa, V.; ten Elshof, J.E.; Petukhov, A.V.; Blank, D.H.A.

    2008-01-01

    A sol-gel-derived microporous ceramic membrane with an exceptionally low permeability for CO2 from gaseous streams was developed and characterized. The sols were prepared from a mixture of niobium and silicon alkoxide precursors by acid-catalyzed synthesis. Microporous films were formed by coating a

  14. Microporous Niobia-Silica Membrane with Very Low CO2 Permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Elshof, ten Johan E.; Petukhov, Andrei V.; Blank, Dave H.A.

    2008-01-01

    A sol-gel-derived microporous ceramic membrane with an exceptionally low permeability for CO2 from gaseous streams was developed and characterized. The sols were prepared from a mixture of niobium and silicon alkoxide precursors by acid-catalyzed synthesis. Microporous films were formed by coating a

  15. Recovery of ammonia from swine manure using gas-permeable membranes: Effect of aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gas-permeable membranes can recover ammonia from manure, reducing pollution whilst converting ammonia into ammonium salt fertilizer. The process involves manure pH control to increase ammonium (NH4) recovery rate that is normally carried out using an alkali. In this study a new strategy to avoid the...

  16. Enhanced recovery of ammonia from swine manure anaerobic digester effluent using gas-permeable membranes and aeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atmospheric ammonia pollution from livestock wastes can be reduced using gas-permeable membrane technology by converting ammonia contained in the manure into ammonium salt for use in fertilizers. In this study, gas-permeable membrane technology was enhanced using aeration combined with nitrificatio...

  17. Effect of Adsorbed Protein on the Hydraulic Permeability, Membrane and Streaming Potential Values Measured across a Microporous Membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benavente, Juana; Jonsson, Gunnar Eigil

    1998-01-01

    the electrical properties of the membrane (fixed charge concentration and ionic transport numbers) or the membrane/solute interactions (streaming and zeta potentials) can be obtained. The influence of pH and ionic strength on volume flux and streaming potential values is considered. Results show that hydraulic......The effect of the adsorption of a protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), on the membrane potential, flux reduction and streaming potential measured across a microporous polysulphone membrane with different NaCl solutions and pH values is studied. From electrokinetic phenomena, information about...... permeability decreases strongly when the pH decreases, having its minimum value at the isoelectric point of the protein; the apparent zeta potential values are also dependent on both pH and salt concentration. Differences in the streaming potential coefficient determined for two membranes fouled under...

  18. Essential Role of the ESX-5 Secretion System in Outer Membrane Permeability of Pathogenic Mycobacteria

    KAUST Repository

    Ates, Louis S.

    2015-05-04

    Mycobacteria possess different type VII secretion (T7S) systems to secrete proteins across their unusual cell envelope. One of these systems, ESX-5, is only present in slow-growing mycobacteria and responsible for the secretion of multiple substrates. However, the role of ESX-5 substrates in growth and/or virulence is largely unknown. In this study, we show that esx-5 is essential for growth of both Mycobacterium marinum and Mycobacterium bovis. Remarkably, this essentiality can be rescued by increasing the permeability of the outer membrane, either by altering its lipid composition or by the introduction of the heterologous porin MspA. Mutagenesis of the first nucleotide-binding domain of the membrane ATPase EccC5 prevented both ESX-5-dependent secretion and bacterial growth, but did not affect ESX-5 complex assembly. This suggests that the rescuing effect is not due to pores formed by the ESX-5 membrane complex, but caused by ESX-5 activity. Subsequent proteomic analysis to identify crucial ESX-5 substrates confirmed that all detectable PE and PPE proteins in the cell surface and cell envelope fractions were routed through ESX-5. Additionally, saturated transposon-directed insertion-site sequencing (TraDIS) was applied to both wild-type M. marinum cells and cells expressing mspA to identify genes that are not essential anymore in the presence of MspA. This analysis confirmed the importance of esx-5, but we could not identify essential ESX-5 substrates, indicating that multiple of these substrates are together responsible for the essentiality. Finally, examination of phenotypes on defined carbon sources revealed that an esx-5 mutant is strongly impaired in the uptake and utilization of hydrophobic carbon sources. Based on these data, we propose a model in which the ESX-5 system is responsible for the transport of cell envelope proteins that are required for nutrient uptake. These proteins might in this way compensate for the lack of MspA-like porins in slow

  19. GAS PERMEABILITY OF COPOLY(1-TRIMETHYL-SILYL -1- PROPYNE-PENTAMETHYL-DISILYL-1-PROPYNE ) MEMBRANE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Guodong; T. Nakagawa; A. Higuchi; K. Nagai

    1992-01-01

    The permeability of copoly(1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne-pentamethyldisilyl-1-propyne) membrane for twelve gases (O2, N2, CO2, H2, D2, He, Ar, CH4, C2H4, C2H6, C3H6 and C3H8) was examined.The basic laws of solution and diffusion of the gases in the membrane were expounded preliminarily.It was found that a linear relationship between logarithm of diffusion coefficient (D) and critical molar volume (Vc) of the gases. The permeation characteristics of the gases in the copoly (1-trimethylsilyl-1-propyne-pentamethyldisilyl-l-propyne) membrane was also discussed.

  20. The effect of microgravity on proton permeability of thylakoid membranes and contribution of II and I photosystems in photosynthetic electron transport in pea chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotareva, E K; Onoiko, E B; Sytnik, S K; Podorvanov, V V

    1999-07-01

    According to a number investigations microgravity conditions affect membrane apparatus of photosynthesis in cells of higher plants and alga [for review, see Kordyum et al., 1994; Kordyum, 1997]. (see for review). Chloroplasts of space-grown pea plants showed disintegration of grana, shrinkage of the membrane constituting the grana stacks and other structural perturbance of the photosynthetic membranes. However there have been no studies on the effect of microgravity on proton permeability of thylakoid membranes and closely connected with this parameter their photochemical characteristics. The aim of the study is investigation of microgravity effects on protonic permeability of photosynthetic membrane and contribution of photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) in electron transfer from water to potassium ferrycianide (FeCy) in isolated pea chloroplasts. Pea.

  1. Ultrathin Gas Permeable Oxide Membranes for Chemical Sensing: Nanoporous Ta2O5 Test Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Imbault

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Conductometric gas sensors made of gas permeable metal oxide ultrathin membranes can combine the functions of a selective filter, preconcentrator, and sensing element and thus can be particularly promising for the active sampling of diluted analytes. Here we report a case study of the electron transport and gas sensing properties of such a membrane made of nanoporous Ta2O5. These membranes demonstrated a noticeable chemical sensitivity toward ammonia, ethanol, and acetone at high temperatures above 400 °C. Different from traditional thin films, such gas permeable, ultrathin gas sensing elements can be made suspended enabling advanced architectures of ultrasensitive analytical systems operating at high temperatures and in harsh environments.

  2. Changes in the permeability of blood brain barrier and endothelial cell damage after cerebral ischemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ke Liu; Jiansheng Li

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of endothelial cells on the permeability of blood brain barrier (BBB) after brain injury and its effect mechanism.DATA SOURCES: We searched for the articles of permeability of BBB and endothelial cell injury after brain ischemia, which were published between January 1982 and December 2005, with the key words of "cerebral ischemia damage,blood brain barrier ( BBB),permeability,effect of endothelial cell (EC) and its variation mechanism"in English.STUDY SELECTION: The materials were primarily selected. The articles related to the changes in the permeability of BBB and the effect of endothelial cells as well as the change mechanism after cerebral ischemia damage were chosen. Repetitive studies or review articles were excluded.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 55 related articles were collected, and 35 were excluded due to repetitive or review articles, finally 20 articles were involved.DATA SYNTHESIS: The content or viewpoints of involved literatures were analyzed. Cerebral ischemia had damage for endothelial cells, such as the inflow of a lot of Ca2+, the production of nitrogen monoxide and oxygen free radical, and aggravated destruction of BBB. After acceptors of inflammatory mediators on cerebrovascular endothelial cell membrane, such as histamine, bradykinin , 5-hydroxytryptamine and so on are activated, endothelial cells shrink and the permeability of BBB increases. Its mechanism involves in the inflow of extracellular Ca2+and the release of intracellular Ca2+ in the cells. Glycocalyx molecule on the surface of endothelial cell, having structural polytropy, is the determinative factor of the permeability of BBB. VEGF, intensively increasing the vasopermeability and mainly effecting on postcapillary vein and veinlet, is the strongest known blood vessel permeation reagent. Its chronic overexpression in the brain can lead the destruction of BBB.CONCLUSION: The injury of endothelial cell participants in the pathological mechanism of BBB

  3. Amoxicillin Separation from Pharmaceutical Wastewater by High Permeability Polysulfone Nanofiltration Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Derakhsheshpoor

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, high permeability flat sheet polysulfone nanofiltration membranes were prepared for amoxicillin (AMX recovery from pharmaceutical wastewater. Membrane fabrication includes two steps: raw ultrafiltration membrane synthesis by phase inversion method and nanaofiltration membrane synthesis by surface photopolymerization. Raw ultrafiltration membranes were synthesized using different molecular weights of polyethylene glycol (PEG as pore former and different coagulation bath temperatures (CBTs. The synthesized ultrafiltration membranes were modified using UV-assisted polymerization technique and their performance in the separation of AMX at different pHs, were studied. The results showed that the more irradiation time, the smaller surface pore size. Moreover, the membranes made with higher molecular weight of PEG and coagulation bath temperatures were more susceptible for UV-modification at these conditions; fabricated membranes had higher flux as well as relatively high AMX separation. Moreover, pH enhancement increased AMX rejection by 85%. The effect of irradiation on membrane surface morphology was studied by SEM surface images and the morphological effects of pore former and coagulation bath temperatures on membrane structure were confirmed by SEM cross section images. A fairly comprehensive discussion about the effects of PEG, coagulation bath temperature and irradiation time on membrane structure and AMX recovery performance was represented in this study.

  4. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    CERN Document Server

    Qi, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Preface Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsFuel CellsTypes of Fuel CellsAdvantages of Fuel CellsProton Exchange Membrane Fuel CellsMembraneCatalystCatalyst LayerGas Diffusion MediumMicroporous LayerMembrane Electrode AssemblyPlateSingle CellStackSystemCell Voltage Monitoring Module (CVM)Fuel Supply Module (FSM)Air Supply Module (ASM)Exhaust Management Module (EMM)Heat Management Module (HMM)Water Management Module (WMM)Internal Power Supply Module (IPM)Power Conditioning Module (PCM)Communications Module (COM)Controls Module (CM)SummaryThermodynamics and KineticsTheoretical EfficiencyVoltagePo

  5. Water and vapor permeability at different temperatures of poly (3-Hydroxybutyrate dense membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz H. Poley

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs are polymers produced from renewable resources with biodegradability and biocompatibility, being therefore attractive for medical and pharmaceutical purposes. Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB is the most important polymer of this family by considering the biotechnology process of its synthesis. In the present study, dense films of PHB were prepared by casting from chloroform solutions (1% m/m. Permeability studies with water, methanol, ethanol and n-propanol were performed using the gravimetric method at different temperatures (from 50 ºC to 65 ºC. Results provide new data on permeability coefficients of PHB membranes.

  6. Cell Membrane Softening in Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Sebastian; Händel, Chris; Käs, Josef

    Biomechanical properties are useful characteristics and regulators of the cell's state. Current research connects mechanical properties of the cytoskeleton to many cellular processes but does not investigate the biomechanics of the plasma membrane. We evaluated thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles, directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells and observed a lowered rigidity in the plasma membrane of malignant cells compared to non-malignant cells. To investigate the specific role of membrane rigidity changes, we treated two cell lines with the Acetyl-CoA carboxylase inhibitor Soraphen A. It changed the lipidome of cells and drastically increased membrane stiffness by up regulating short chained membrane lipids. These altered cells had a decreased motility in Boyden chamber assays. Our results indicate that the thermal fluctuations of the membrane, which are much smaller than the fluctuations driven by the cytoskeleton, can be modulated by the cell and have an impact on adhesion and motility.

  7. Cyclohexane Rings Reduce Membrane Permeability to Small Ions in Archaea-Inspired Tetraether Lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Takaoki; Leriche, Geoffray; Onofrei, David; Holland, Gregory P; Mayer, Michael; Yang, Jerry

    2016-01-26

    Extremophile archaeal organisms overcome problems of membrane permeability by producing lipids with structural elements that putatively improve membrane integrity compared to lipids from other life forms. Herein, we describe a series of lipids that mimic some key structural features of archaeal lipids, such as: 1) single tethering of lipid tails to create fully transmembrane tetraether lipids and 2) the incorporation of small rings into these tethered segments. We found that membranes formed from pure tetraether lipids leaked small ions at a rate that was about two orders of magnitude slower than common bilayer-forming lipids. Incorporation of cyclopentane rings into the tetraether lipids did not affect membrane leakage, whereas a cyclohexane ring reduced leakage by an additional 40 %. These results show that mimicking certain structural features of natural archaeal lipids results in improved membrane integrity, which may help overcome limitations of many current lipid-based technologies.

  8. Synergistic permeability enhancing effect of lysophospholipids and fatty acids on lipid membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jesper; Mouritsen, O.G.; Jørgensen, K.

    2002-01-01

    The permeability-enhancing effects of the two surfactants, 1-paltnitoyl-2-lyso-sn-gycero-3-pllosplloclloline (lysoPPC) and palmitic acid (PA), on lipid membranes that at physiological temperatures are in the gel, fluid, and liquid-ordered phases were determined using the concentration-dependent s......The permeability-enhancing effects of the two surfactants, 1-paltnitoyl-2-lyso-sn-gycero-3-pllosplloclloline (lysoPPC) and palmitic acid (PA), on lipid membranes that at physiological temperatures are in the gel, fluid, and liquid-ordered phases were determined using the concentration......-dependent self-quenching properties of the hydrophilic marker, calcein. Adding lysoPPC to lipid membranes in the gel-phase induced a time-dependent calcein release curve that can be described by the sum of two exponentials, whereas RA induces a considerably more complex release curve. However, when lyso......PPC and PA were added simultaneously in equimolar concentrations, a dramatic synergistic permeability-enhancing effect was observed. In contrast, when both lysoPPC and PA are added to liposomal membranes that are in the fluid or liquid-ordered phases, no effect on the transmembrane permeation of calcein...

  9. Sterion membranes in Direct Methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linares, J. J.; Lobato, J.; Canizares, P.; Rodrigo, M. A.; Fernandez, A.

    2005-07-01

    Direct Methanol Fuel Cells (DMFCs) has been postulated as an alternative to traditional hydrogen fed Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells (H2-PEMFCs). Among their advantages, it can be pointed out the low cost of the fuel, simplicity of design, large availability, easy handling and distribution. However, there are still some challenges in this field, such as the development of electrocatalysts which can enhance the electrokinetics of methanol oxidation, the discovery of an electrolyte membrane with high conductivity and low methanol crossover at the same time and the production of methanol-tolerant electrocatalysts with high activity for oxygen reduction. So far, Nafion 117 has been the polymer membrane most widely used in DMFCs. Yet, it is well known that Nafion (Du Pont Inc.) membranes are not good barrier for methanol, so that the coulombic efficiency of Nafion-based DMFCs is significantly reduced by the chemical oxidation of methanol in the cathode. Recently, a new perfluorinated polymer with sulphonic acid groups (PFSA) has been developed, under the commercial name of Sterion (David Fuel Cell Components). As a difference as opposed to Nafion, this membrane is cast by the solution casting method, which provides a different sulphonic cluster configuration as compared to the extrusion cast Nafion membranes, which may give rise to different methanol crossover behaviour. In this work, it has been studied and analysed the suitability of Sterion in the DMFCs field. For that, it has been measured the methanol permeability of this membrane at different solute concentration and temperature, and its performance in an actual fuel cell at different operational conditions, such as methanol concentration, temperature and back pressure. Tests have been made using both oxygen and air in the cathode and half-cell potentials have been evaluated in some measurements in order to discriminate the contribution of both semi-reactions to the overall cell overvoltage. A lifetime

  10. Measurement of relative permeability of fuel cell diffusion media

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, I.S.

    2010-06-01

    Gas diffusion layer (GDL) in PEM fuel cells plays a pivotal role in water management. Modeling of liquid water transport through the GDL relies on knowledge of relative permeability functions in the in-plane and through-plane directions. In the present work, air and water relative permeabilities are experimentally determined as functions of saturation for typical GDL materials such as Toray-060, -090, -120 carbon paper and E-Tek carbon cloth materials in their plain, untreated forms. Saturation is measured using an ex situ gravimetric method. Absolute and relative permeability functions in the two directions of interest are presented and new correlations for in-plane relative permeability of water and air are established. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Membrane dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendix, Pól Martin

    2015-01-01

    Current topics include membrane-protein interactions with regard to membrane deformation or curvature sensing by BAR domains. Also, we study the dynamics of membrane tubes of both cells and simple model membrane tubes. Finally, we study membrane phase behavior which has important implications...... for the lateral organization of membranes as wells as for physical properties like bending, permeability and elasticity...

  12. Diffusion studies on permeable nitroxyl spin probes through bilayer lipid membranes: A low frequency ESR study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meenakumari, V.; Benial, A. Milton Franklin, E-mail: miltonfranklin@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, NMSSVN College, Nagamalai, Madurai-625019, Tamilnadu (India); Utsumi, Hideo; Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Ken-ichi [Department of Bio-functional Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hyodo, Fuminori [Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Jawahar, A. [Department of Chemistry, NMSSVN College, Nagamalai, Madurai-625019, Tamilnadu (India)

    2015-06-24

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were carried out for permeable 2mM {sup 14}N-labeled deutrated 3 Methoxy carbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl (MC-PROXYL) in pure water and 1mM, 2mM, 3mM, 4mM concentration of 14N-labeled deutrated MC-PROXYL in 400mM concentration of liposomal solution by using a 300 MHz ESR spectrometer. The ESR parameters such as linewidth, hyperfine coupling constant, g-factor, partition parameter and permeability were reported for these samples. The line broadening was observed for the nitroxyl spin probe in the liposomal solution. The line broadening indicates that the high viscous nature of the liposomal solution. The partition parameter and permeability values indicate the maximum diffusion of nitroxyl spin probes in the bilayer lipid membranes at 2 mM concentration of nitroxyl radical. This study illustrates that ESR can be used to differentiate between the intra and extra- membrane water by loading the liposome vesicles with a lipid-permeable nitroxyl spin probe. From the ESR results, the spin probe concentration was optimized as 2mM in liposomal solution for ESR phantom studies/imaging, invivo and invitro experiments.

  13. Effects of an elastic membrane on tube waves in permeable formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, H.; Johnson, D.

    1996-10-01

    In this paper, the modified properties were calculated for tube wave propagation in a fluid-filled borehole penetrating a permeable rock due to the presence of a mudcake which forms on the borehole wall. The mudcake was characterized by an impermeable elastic layer. The mudcake partial sealing mechanism was simulated using a finite membrane stiffness. Consequently, it was shown that the mudcake can reduce, but not eliminate, the permeability effects on the tube wave slowness and attenuation. Moreover, this paper discusses a variety of values for the relevant parameters especially the mudcake thickness and membrane stiffness. The important combinations of mudcake parameters were clarified by using an analytic expression for the low-frequency limit.

  14. Rhizobium strains differ considerably in outer membrane permeability and polymyxin B resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaniecka, Iwona; Zamłyńska, Katarzyna; Zan, Radosław; Staszczak, Magdalena; Pawelec, Jarosław; Seta, Irena; Choma, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Six rhizobium (Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. Trifolii TA1, Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021, Mesorhizobium huakuii IFO 15243(T), Ochrobactrum lupini LUP 21(T), Bradyrhizobium japonicum USDA110 and B. elkanii USDA 76) and two Escherichia coli strains (E. coli ATCC 25922 and E. coli HB 101) were compared in respect to polymyxin B and EDTA resistance, as well as bacterial outer membrane (OM) permeability to a fluorescent hydrophobic agent (N-phenyl-1-naphthylamine - NPN). TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy) and a microbial test demonstrated that all the rhizobia were much more resistant to polymyxin B in comparison with E. coli strains. EDTA and polymyxin B enhance permeability of B. japonicum and O. lupini OM. Other rhizobia incorporated NPN independently of the presence of membrane-deteriorating agents; however, the level of fluorescence (measured as NPN absorption) was strain dependent.

  15. In vitro permeability of silver nanoparticles through porcine oromucosal membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro, Marcella; Crosera, Matteo; Bianco, Carlotta; Bellomo, Francesca; Bovenzi, Massimo; Adami, Gianpiero; Filon, Francesca Larese

    2015-08-01

    Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can come in contact with human oral mucosa due to their wide use in food industry and hygiene devices. We evaluate transmucosal absorption of 19 nm AgNPs using excised porcine buccal mucosa applied on Franz diffusion cells. Two donor solutions were used: one containing AgNPs (0.5 g/L) and one derived from the ultrafiltration of the former and containing only Ag in its soluble form. Experiments were carried out separately for 4 h. Silver flux permeation was demonstrated through oral mucosa, showing similar values for AgNPs (6.8±4.5 ng cm(-2) h(-1)) and Ag ions (5.2±4.3 ng cm(-2) h(-1)). Our study demonstrates that silver can permeate the oromucosal barrier and that absorption is substantially due to Ag ions, since no permeation difference was found using the two solutions. Mucosal absorption has to be considered in further risk assessment studies.

  16. Ionic liquids effects on the permeability of photosynthetic membranes probed by the electrochromic shift of endogenous carotenoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malferrari, Marco; Malferrari, Danilo; Francia, Francesco; Galletti, Paola; Tagliavini, Emilio; Venturoli, Giovanni

    2015-11-01

    Ionic liquids (ILs) are promising materials exploited as solvents and media in many innovative applications, some already used at the industrial scale. The chemical structure and physicochemical properties of ILs can differ significantly according to the specific applications for which they have been synthesized. As a consequence, their interaction with biological entities and toxicity can vary substantially. To select highly effective and minimally harmful ILs, these properties need to be investigated. Here we use the so called chromatophores--protein-phospholipid membrane vesicles obtained from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides--to assess the effects of imidazolinium and pyrrolidinium ILs, with chloride or dicyanamide as counter anions, on the ionic permeability of a native biological membrane. The extent and modalities by which these ILs affect the ionic conductivity can be studied in chromatophores by analyzing the electrochromic response of endogenous carotenoids, acting as an intramembrane voltmeter at the molecular level. We show that chromatophores represent an in vitro experimental model suitable to probe permeability changes induced in cell membranes by ILs differing in chemical nature, degree of oxygenation of the cationic moiety and counter anion.

  17. Preparation and permeability of ZSM-35 zeolite membranes on porous stainless steel tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Gang; WANG Jinqu; ZHANG Yan; LU Jinming; XIU Jinghai

    2007-01-01

    ZSM-35 zeolite membranes were prepared on porous stainless steel tubes with silica sol and tetraethoxysilane as silica source,and with 1-butylamine and ethylenediamine as templates,respectively.The characterization of X-ray diffraction(XRD)and scanning electron microscopy (SEM)showed that the membranes prepared with ethylene-diamine as the template displayed growth orientation with their crystal planes(h00)parallel to the support surface.The single-component permeability tests of H2,N2 and C3H8 showed that me membranes synthesized with ethylene-diamine as the template,compared with those witb 1-butylamine as the template,showed relatively higher permeation rates and ideal separation factors,and above their corresponding ideal Knudsen diflusion factors,Which might be attributed to the different growth orientation of zeolite membranes synthesized with different templates.

  18. Modeling of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis in a Slurry Reactor with Water Permeable Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fabiano A. N. Fernandes

    2007-01-01

    Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is an important chemical process for the production of liquid fuels and olefins. In recent years, the abundant availability of natural gas and the increasing demand of olefins, diesel, and waxes have led to a high interest to further develop this process. A mathematical model of a slurry membrane reactor used for syngas polymerization was developed to simulate and compare the maximum yields and operating conditions in the reactor with that in a conventional slurry reactor.The carbon polymerization was studied from a modeling point of view in a slurry reactor with a water permeable membrane and a conventional slurry reactor. Simulation results show that different parameters affect syngas conversion and carbon product distribution, such as the hydrogen to carbon monoxide ratio,and the membrane parameters such as membrane permeance.

  19. Alveolocapillary membrane permeability in experimental model of ventilator induced lung injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталья Александровна Решетняк

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to assess alveocapillary membrane permeability for the whole protein, middle molecular peptides and some lipoperoxidation markers depending on respiratory volume using in reproduction of ventilator induced lung injury model.Material and methods: Experiments were carried out on 15 laboratory rats- males (body mass 180–240 gr. of “Vistar” line. The mechanical pulmonary ventilation in rats was carried out using tracheostomy cannula ALV Hamilton G 5 apparatus during 2 hours under the total anesthesia with sodium thiopental at a rate of 40 mg|kg of animal body mass. The initial parameters of ventilation were equal in all animals: Inspiratory time = 0,5 seconds; respiratory rate = 60 – 76/minute; pressure at the end of expiration (PEE = 0 - 2 sm. of water column; inspiration-expiration ratio (I:E = 1:1 or 1:2. Depending on the size of respiratory volume (RV animal were divided into 3 groups (n=5. Animals with RV=7 ml/kg of body mass formed the first group (the control one. The second group included animals with RV = 20 ml/kg of body mass (the moderate volutrauma and the third one included animals with RV = 40 ml/kg of body mass (the heavy volutrauma. The bronchoalveolar lavage was carried out on isolated lungs with the volume of filling at a rate 5 ml of 0,9 % sodium chloride solution for 1 g of pulmonary tissue and there was received nearly 2,5+0,5 ml of lavage liquid (sodium chloride solution + bronchoalveolar liquid. The alveolocapillary membrane permeability was assessed by detecting in the received liquid of bronchoalveolar lavage the concentration of whole protein on Lowry, the content of middle mass molecules on extinction at wave lengths 238, 254, 260, and 280 nm; the level of diene conjugates on V.B. Gavrilov and catalase activity on M.A. Koroliuk. The received data were processed using methods of nonparametric statistics. The revealed intergroup differences were assessed on Kruskall-Wallis «ANOVA» criterion. The differences at

  20. Biochemical characterization and cellular imaging of a novel, membrane permeable fluorescent cAMP analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaccolo Manuela

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A novel fluorescent cAMP analog (8-[Pharos-575]- adenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate was characterized with respect to its spectral properties, its ability to bind to and activate three main isoenzymes of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA-Iα, PKA-IIα, PKA-IIβ in vitro, its stability towards phosphodiesterase and its ability to permeate into cultured eukaryotic cells using resonance energy transfer based indicators, and conventional fluorescence imaging. Results The Pharos fluorophore is characterized by a Stokes shift of 42 nm with an absorption maximum at 575 nm and the emission peaking at 617 nm. The quantum yield is 30%. Incubation of the compound to RIIα and RIIβ subunits increases the amplitude of excitation and absorption maxima significantly; no major change was observed with RIα. In vitro binding of the compound to RIα subunit and activation of the PKA-Iα holoenzyme was essentially equivalent to cAMP; RII subunits bound the fluorescent analog up to ten times less efficiently, resulting in about two times reduced apparent activation constants of the holoenzymes compared to cAMP. The cellular uptake of the fluorescent analog was investigated by cAMP indicators. It was estimated that about 7 μM of the fluorescent cAMP analog is available to the indicator after one hour of incubation and that about 600 μM of the compound had to be added to intact cells to half-maximally dissociate a PKA type IIα sensor. Conclusion The novel analog combines good membrane permeability- comparable to 8-Br-cAMP – with superior spectral properties of a modern, red-shifted fluorophore. GFP-tagged regulatory subunits of PKA and the analog co-localized. Furthermore, it is a potent, PDE-resistant activator of PKA-I and -II, suitable for in vitro applications and spatial distribution evaluations in living cells.

  1. Permeability of Rubbery and Glassy Membranes of Ionic Liquid Filled Polymersome Nanoreactors in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Soonyong; Yao, Letitia J; Lodge, Timothy P

    2015-12-03

    Nanoemulsion-like polymer vesicles (polymersomes) having ionic liquid interiors dispersed in water are attractive for nanoreactor applications. In a previous study, we demonstrated that small molecules could pass through rubbery polybutadiene membranes on a time scale of seconds, which is practical for chemical transformations. It is of interest to determine how sensitive the rate of transport is to temperature, particularly for membranes in the vicinity of the glass transition (Tg). In this work, the molecular exchange rate of 1-butylimidazole through glassy polystyrene (PS) bilayer membranes is investigated via pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (PFG-NMR) over the temperature range from 25 to 70 °C. The vesicles were prepared by the cosolvent method in the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide ([EMIM][TFSI]), and four different polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) (PS-PEO) diblock polymers with varying PS molecular weights were examined. The vesicles were transferred from the ionic liquid to water at room temperature to form nanoemulsion solutions of polymer vesicles in water. The exchange rate of 1-butylimidazole added to the aqueous solutions was observed under equilibrium conditions at each temperature. The exchange rate decreased as the membrane thickness increased, and the exchange rate through the glassy membranes was three to four times slower than through the rubbery polybutadiene membranes under the same experimental conditions. These results demonstrate that the permeability through nanosized membranes depends on both the dimension and chemistry of membrane-forming blocks. Furthermore, the exchange rate was investigated as a function of temperature in the vicinity of the Tg of PS-PEO membranes. The exchange rate, however, is not a strong function of the temperature in the vicinity of the membrane Tg, due to a combination of the nanoscopic dimension of the membrane, and some degree of solvent

  2. Model cell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Günther-Pomorski, Thomas; Nylander, Tommy; Cardenas Gomez, Marite

    2014-01-01

    The high complexity of biological membranes has motivated the development and application of a wide range of model membrane systems to study biochemical and biophysical aspects of membranes in situ under well defined conditions. The aim is to provide fundamental understanding of processes control...

  3. Gas Permeability and Selectivity of Synthesized Diethanol Amine-Polysulfone/Polyvinylacetate Blend Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asim Mushtaq

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The control of anthropogenic carbon dioxide release is one of the most challenging environmental problem faced by developing countries, as the interfering of atmospheric carbon dioxide level and climate revolutionize. An rising technology is the membrane gas separation, which is more dense, energy efficient and possibly more economical than past technologies, such as solvent absorption. Amine has a greater efficiency for removal of carbon dioxide. The blending technique not only provides improved chemical and thermal stability but is also efficient enough to improve the perm-selective properties with economical viability. In this study, research will be carried out to study the gas permeability behavior of glassy Polysulfone and Polyvinyl acetate rubbery polymeric blend membranes with diethanol amine. Polymeric amine blend membranes with different blending ratios were prepared in dimethyl acetamide solvent, flat sheet membrane were developed with enhance properties. We were studied PSU/PVAc blend with DEA amine using a gas permeability application for CO2 and CH4 at different feed pressures.

  4. Preparation and Visible Light Photocatalytic Activity for Photocatalyst of Permeable Glass Membrane/TiO2 Doped with Co

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Ke-Yan; CUI Ping; CHEN Xiao-Ming; ZHANG Min; LI Yong

    2007-01-01

    @@ The photocatalyst of permeable glass membrane/TiO2 doped with Co (permeable glass membrane/TiO2 doped with Co) is prepared by the sol-gel method. The morphology and phase of the samples are determined by the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and x-ray diffraction experiment, respectively. The photocatalytic results show that the photocatalyst is sensitive to the visible light and exhibits excellent photocatalytic activity of photodegradation methylene blue. The photocatalytic mechanism is also discussed.

  5. A computational assessment of the permeability and salt rejection of carbon nanotube membranes and their application to water desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael; Corry, Ben

    2016-02-13

    Membranes made from nanomaterials such as nanotubes and graphene have been suggested to have a range of applications in water filtration and desalination, but determining their suitability for these purposes requires an accurate assessment of the properties of these novel materials. In this study, we use molecular dynamics simulations to determine the permeability and salt rejection capabilities for membranes incorporating carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at a range of pore sizes, pressures and concentrations. We include the influence of osmotic gradients and concentration build up and simulate at realistic pressures to improve the reliability of estimated membrane transport properties. We find that salt rejection is highly dependent on the applied hydrostatic pressure, meaning high rejection can be achieved with wider tubes than previously thought; while membrane permeability depends on salt concentration. The ideal size of the CNTs for desalination applications yielding high permeability and high salt rejection is found to be around 1.1 nm diameter. While there are limited energy gains to be achieved in using ultra-permeable CNT membranes in desalination by reverse osmosis, such membranes may allow for smaller plants to be built as is required when size or weight must be minimized. There are diminishing returns in further increasing membrane permeability, so efforts should focus on the fabrication of membranes containing narrow or functionalized CNTs that yield the desired rejection or selection properties rather than trying to optimize pore densities.

  6. The unique ion permeability profile of cochlear fibrocytes and its contribution to establishing their positive resting membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Takamasa; Nin, Fumiaki; Murakami, Shingo; Ogata, Genki; Uetsuka, Satoru; Choi, Samuel; Nakagawa, Takashi; Inohara, Hidenori; Komune, Shizuo; Kurachi, Yoshihisa; Hibino, Hiroshi

    2016-09-01

    Eukaryotic cells exhibit negative resting membrane potential (RMP) owing to the high K(+) permeability of the plasma membrane and the asymmetric [K(+)] between the extracellular and intracellular compartments. However, cochlear fibrocytes, which comprise the basolateral surface of a multilayer epithelial-like tissue, exhibit a RMP of +5 to +12 mV in vivo. This positive RMP is critical for the formation of an endocochlear potential (EP) of +80 mV in a K(+)-rich extracellular fluid, endolymph. The epithelial-like tissue bathes fibrocytes in a regular extracellular fluid, perilymph, and apically faces the endolymph. The EP, which is essential for hearing, represents the potential difference across the tissue. Using in vivo electrophysiological approaches, we describe a potential mechanism underlying the unusual RMP of guinea pig fibrocytes. The RMP was +9.0 ± 3.7 mV when fibrocytes were exposed to an artificial control perilymph (n = 28 cochleae). Perilymphatic perfusion of a solution containing low [Na(+)] (1 mM) markedly hyperpolarized the RMP to -31.1 ± 11.2 mV (n = 10; p control, Tukey-Kramer test after one-way ANOVA). Accordingly, the EP decreased. Little change in RMP was observed when the cells were treated with a high [K(+)] of 30 mM (+10.4 ± 2.3 mV; n = 7; p = 0.942 versus the control). During the infusion of a low [Cl(-)] solution (2.4 mM), the RMP moderately hyperpolarized to -0.9 ± 3.4 mV (n = 5; p control), although the membranes, if governed by Cl(-) permeability, should be depolarized. These observations imply that the fibrocyte membranes are more permeable to Na(+) than K(+) and Cl(-), and this unique profile and [Na(+)] gradient across the membranes contribute to the positive RMP.

  7. Influence of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil on enterotoxin production, membrane permeability and surface characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Barros, Jefferson Carneiro; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia

    2010-02-28

    This study evaluated the influence of the essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. on the enterotoxin production, membrane permeability and cell surface characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus. The suppression of enterotoxin production occurred totally in the broth added with the essential oil at subinhibitory concentrations (0.3 and 0.15 microL/mL). Loss of 260-nm-absorbing material and potassium ions occurred immediately after addition of the essential oil at 0.6 and 1.2 microL/mL and followed up to 120 min. Electron microscopy of essential oil-treated cells revealed the formation of roles in the cell surfaces and loss of cytoplasm material. According to these results, O. vulgare essential oil could be rationally applied in food products both to inhibit the growth of S. aureus and to suppress the synthesis of staphylococcal enterotoxins.

  8. Captura de amonio procedente de estiercol mediante membranas permeables de gases (capture of ammonnia from turkey manure using gas-permeable membranes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper, written in Spanish, describes the capture and recovery of gaseous ammonia from turkey manure using gas-permeable membranes technology with formation of stabilized ammonium salts. Bench experiments were carried out in Maryland using a pilot prototype system with turkey litter inside contr...

  9. Diffusion studies on permeable nitroxyl spin probe through lipid bilayer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benial, A. Milton Franklin; Meenakumari, V. [Department of Physics, NMSSVN College, Nagamalai, Madurai-625019 (India); Ichikawa, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Utsumi, Hideo, E-mail: hideo.utsumi.278@m.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Bio-functional Science, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Hyodo, Fuminori [Innovation Center for Medical Redox Navigation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan); Jawahar, A. [Department of Chemistry, NMSSVN College, Nagamalai, Madurai-625 019 (India)

    2014-04-24

    Electron spin resonance (ESR) studies were carried out for 2mM {sup 14}N labeled deutrated permeable 3- methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-pyrrolidine-1-oxyl (MC-PROXYL) in pure water, 1 mM, 2 mM, 3 mM and 4 mM concentration of MC-PROXYL in 300 mM concentration of liposomal solution by using a L-band ESR spectrometer. The ESR parameters such as linewidth, hyperfine coupling constant, g-factor, partition parameter and permeability were reported. The partition parameter and permeability values indicate the maximum spin distribution in the lipid phase at 2 mM concentration. This study illustrates that ESR can be used to differentiate between the intra and extra-membrane water by loading the liposome vesicles with a lipid-permeable nitroxyl spin probe. From the ESR results, the radical concentration was optimized as 2 mM in liposomal solution for ESR phantom studies and experiments.

  10. POLYMER ELECTROLYTE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2001-01-01

    A method for preparing polybenzimidazole or polybenzimidazole blend membranes and fabricating gas diffusion electrodes and membrane-electrode assemblies is provided for a high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell. Blend polymer electrolyte membranes based on PBI and various...... thermoplastic polymers for high temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells have also been developed. Miscible blends are used for solution casting of polymer membranes (solid electrolytes). High conductivity and enhanced mechanical strength were obtained for the blend polymer solid electrolytes...... electrolyte membrane by hot-press. The fuel cell can operate at temperatures up to at least 200 °C with hydrogen-rich fuel containing high ratios of carbon monoxide such as 3 vol% carbon monoxide or more, compared to the carbon monoxide tolerance of 10-20 ppm level for Nafion$m(3)-based polymer electrolyte...

  11. Respiration Rate, Cell Membrane Permeability and Some Quality Traits of the Fruit of Late Longan Cultivars in the Tree%晚熟龙眼挂树期果实呼吸强度、细胞膜透性及若干品质变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许家辉; 许玲; 余东; 魏秀清; 蒋际谋; 郑少泉; 吴少华

    2009-01-01

    以晚熟龙眼品种青壳宝圆、九月乌、立冬本、苗翘为试材.研究挂树期内果实呼吸强度、果皮细胞膜透性和若干品质性状的变化.结果表明:除青壳宝圆外,挂树期果实呼吸强度均呈下降趋势;挂树5 d内,青壳宝圆、苗翘的果皮细胞膜透性下降,立冬本上升,九月乌基本不变,挂树5~15 d果皮细胞膜透性除立冬本外,均上升;挂树期单果重呈上升的趋势;可食率在挂树初期有所提高,随着挂树时间的延长而下降;果肉自溶指数随挂树时间的延长而上升.%The respiration rate,cell membrane permeability and some quality traits in mature fruits of 4 later cultivars of longan(Dimocarpus longana Lour.) in the trees were determined at different stages. These cultivars included Qingkebaoyuan,Lidongben,Jueyuewu and Biaw Khiew. The respiration rate of the fruits in all the cultivars except in Qingkebaoyuan decreased; in the first 5 days the cell membrane permeability decreased in the cultivars Qingkebaoyuan and Biaw Khiew,increased in the cultivar Lidongben but remained almost unchanged in the cultivar Jueyuewu; in the next 5 days to 15 days the cell membrane permeability increased in all the cultivars except in the cultivar Lidongben; the average single weight of the fruit hung in the trees tended to increase. The edible percentage of the fruit in the tree increased in the early days,but decreased with the time,and at the same time the fruit aril breakdown index increased in all cultivars with the time when the fruit remained attached to the tree.

  12. SALT ACCLIMATION OF TRITICUM-AESTIVUM BY CHOLINE CHLORIDE - PLANT-GROWTH, MINERAL-CONTENT, AND CELL-PERMEABILITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MANSOUR, MM; STADELMANN, EJ; LEESTADELMANN, OY

    1993-01-01

    Seedlings of a salt sensitive line of Triticum aestivum were grown in Hoagland solution supplemented with 100 mM NaCl following a pretreatment with choline chloride (ChCl). Changes in growth, mineral content of roots and shoots, and passive permeability of the cell membrane were measured. Relative g

  13. Development of a membrane impregnated with a poly(dimethylsiloxane)/poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer for a high-throughput screening of the permeability of drugs, cosmetics, and other chemicals across the human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Ryotaro; Ichitsuka, Yasuna; Yamada, Takumi; Kimura, Soichiro; Egawa, Yuya; Seki, Toshinobu; Juni, Kazuhiko; Ueda, Hideo; Morimoto, Yasunori

    2015-01-23

    We aimed to develop a high-throughput screening (HTS) system for preliminary predictions of human skin permeability by using an artificial membrane that can mimic the permeation behaviour of lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds across the human skin. In this study, we synthesized a copolymer containing poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 6000 and impregnated it onto a supportive membrane filter to prepare a PDMS/PEG 6000 copolymer-impregnated membrane. In addition, we synthesized another polymer without PEG units and used it to prepare an impregnated membrane for determining the role of PEG 6000 units in the PDMS/PEG 6000 copolymer-impregnated membrane. The permeation characteristics of the impregnated membranes were evaluated on the basis of the permeability coefficients of 12 model compounds with different lipophilicities, by using a 2-chamber diffusion cell, and these permeability coefficients were compared with those across the human skin. We obtained a good correlation between the permeability coefficients across the PDMS/PEG 6000 copolymer-impregnated membrane and human skin. Further, we evaluated the permeation characteristics of a 96-well plate model of the PDMS/PEG 6000 copolymer by using 6 model compounds. We obtained an ideal correlation between the permeability coefficients across the PDMS/PEG 6000 copolymer using a 96-well plate and those across the human skin. Thus, the PDMS/PEG 6000 copolymer would be a good candidate for preliminary evaluation of the permeability of lipophilic and hydrophilic compounds across the human skin.

  14. STUDIES ON PERMEABILITY OF MEMBRANES : VII. CONDUCTIVITY OF ELECTROLYTES WITHIN THE MEMBRANE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A A; Weech, A A; Michaelis, L

    1929-01-20

    Two methods of measuring the electrical conductivity of the dried collodion membrane in contact with an electrolyte solution are described and the results of such measurements with different electrolytes in different ranges of concentration recorded. Some of the difficulties encountered in making these measurements are outlined. Of special interest was the fact that each membrane with each electrolyte showed a maximum level of resistance at a certain point in the dilution scale, a level which was not surpassed by further dilution. It is believed that this level was fixed by the collodion itself rather than by the contiguous electrolyte solution. Its existence limited the results available for reasonable interpretation. In relatively concentrated solutions the conductivity was shown to be approximately proportional to the concentration. With different electrolytes in the same concentration it was shown that the conductivities varied much more than in simple solutions without a membrane and that they fell in the order HCl > KCl > NaCl > LiCl. A method was described whereby the electrolyte content of a membrane in contact with different chloride solutions could be determined. It was shown that a membrane saturated with either 0.5 N HCl or 0.5 N KCl had practically the same total electrolyte content whereas the same membrane in contact with 0.5 N LiCl contained only half the quantity. These results were used in interpreting the conductivity data, the evidence presented strongly suggesting that two factors are operative in causing the widely divergent conductivities recorded with different electrolytes. The first factor depended on the quantity of electrolyte which can enter the membrane pores, a quantity dependent on the size of the pores and the volume of the larger of the two hydrated ions of the electrolyte. This factor was the chief one in determining the difference in conductivity between KCl and LiCl. The second factor was concerned with differences in the

  15. Permeability Changes of Manduca sexta Midgut Brush Border Membranes Induced by Oligomeric Structures of Different Cry Toxins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muñoz-Garay, C.; Sánchez, J.; Darszon, A.; Maagd, de R.A.; Bakker, P.; Soberón, M.; Bravo, A.

    2006-01-01

    The pore-formation activity of monomeric and oligomeric forms of different Cry1 toxins (from Cry1A to Cry1G) was analyzed by monitoring ionic permeability across Manduca sexta brush border membrane vesicles. The membrane vesicles were isolated from microvilli structures, showing a high enrichment of

  16. Towards high water permeability in triazine-framework-based microporous membranes for dehydration of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yu Pan; Wang, Huan; Chung, Tai Shung

    2015-01-01

    The microstructural evolution of a series of triazine framework-based microporous (TFM) membranes under different conditions has been explored in this work. The pristine TFM membrane is in situ fabricated in the course of polymer synthesis via a facile Brønsted-acid-catalyzed cyclotrimerizaiton reaction. The as-synthesized polymer exhibits a microporous network with high thermal stability. The free volume size of the TFM membranes gradually evolved from a unimodal distribution to a bimodal distribution under annealing, as analyzed by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS). The emergence of the bimodal distribution is probably ascribed to the synergetic effect of quenching and thermal cyclization reaction. In addition, the fractional free volume (FFV) of the membranes presents a concave trend with increasing annealing temperature. Vapor sorption tests reveal that the mass transport properties are closely associated with the free volume evolution, which provides an optimal condition for dehydration of biofuels. A promising separation performance with extremely high water permeability has been attained for dehydration of an 85 wt % ethanol aqueous solution at 45 °C. The study on the free volume evolution of the TFM membranes may provide useful insights about the microstructure and mass transport behavior of the microporous polymeric materials.

  17. A process efficiency assessment of serum protein removal from milk using ceramic graded permeability microfiltration membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tremblay-Marchand, D; Doyen, A; Britten, M; Pouliot, Y

    2016-07-01

    Microfiltration (MF) is a well-known process that can be used in the dairy industry to separate caseins from serum proteins (SP) in skim milk using membranes with a pore diameter of 0.1μm. Graded permeability ceramic membranes have been studied widely as means of improving milk fractionation by overcoming problems encountered with other MF membranes. The ideal operating parameters for process efficiency in terms of membrane selectivity, permeate flux, casein loss, SP transmission, energy consumption, and dilution with water remain to be determined for this membrane. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of transmembrane pressure (TMP), volumetric concentration factor (VCF), and diafiltration on overall process efficiency. Skim milk was processed using a pilot-scale MF system equipped with 0.72-m(2) graded permeability membranes with a pore size of 0.1μm. In the first experiment, in full recycle mode, TMP was set at 124, 152, 179, or 207 kPa by adjusting the permeate pressure at the outlet. Whereas TMP had no significant effect on permeate and retentate composition, 152 kPa was found to be optimal for SP removal during concentration and concentration or diafiltration experiments. When VCF was increased to 3×, SP rejection coefficient increased along with energy consumption and total casein loss, whereas SP removal rate decreased. Diafiltering twice allowed an increase in total SP removal but resulted in a substantial increase in energy consumption and casein loss. It also reduced the SP removal rate by diluting permeate. The membrane surface area required for producing cheese milk by blending whole milk, cream, and MF retentate (at different VCF) was estimated for different cheese milk casein concentrations. For a given casein concentration, the same quantity of permeate and SP would be produced, but less membrane surface area would be needed at a lower retentate VCF. Microfiltration has great potential as a process of adding value to conventional

  18. A Minireview: Usefulness of Transporter-Targeted Prodrugs in Enhancing Membrane Permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Teruo

    2016-09-01

    Orally administered drugs are categorized into 4 classes depending on the solubility and permeability in a Biopharmaceutics Classification System. Prodrug derivatization is one of feasible approaches in modifying the physicochemical properties such as low solubility and low permeability without changing the in vivo pharmacological action of the parent drug. In this article, prodrug-targeted solute carrier (SLC) transporters were searched randomly by PubMed. Collected SLC transporters are amino acid transporter 1, bile acid transporter, carnitine transporter 2, glucose transporter 1, peptide transporter 1, vitamin C transporter 1, and multivitamin transporter. The usefulness of transporter-targeted prodrugs was evaluated in terms of membrane permeability, stability under acidic condition, and conversion to the parent drug. Among prodrugs collected, peptide transporter-targeted prodrugs exhibited the highest number, and some prodrugs such as valaciclovir and valganciclovir are clinically available. ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter, P-glycoprotein (P-gp), reduces the intestinal absorption of lipophilic P-gp substrate drugs, and SLC transporter-targeted prodrugs of P-gp substrate drugs circumvented the P-gp-mediated efflux transport. Thus, SLC transporter-targeted prodrug derivatization seems to be feasible approach to increase the oral bioavailability by overcoming various unwanted physicochemical properties of orally administered drugs, although the effect of food on prodrug absorption should be taken into consideration.

  19. The Molecules of the Cell Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretscher, Mark S.

    1985-01-01

    Cell membrane molecules form a simple, two-dimensional liquid controlling what enters and leaves the cell. Discusses cell membrane molecular architecture, plasma membranes, epithelial cells, cycles of endocytosis and exocytosis, and other topics. Indicates that some cells internalize, then recycle, membrane area equivalent to their entire surface…

  20. Cholesterol's decoupling effect on membrane partitioning and permeability revisited: Is there anything beyond Fick's law of diffusion?

    OpenAIRE

    Missner, Andreas; Horner, Andreas; Pohl, Peter

    2008-01-01

    In general, Fick's law of diffusion describes membrane permeation of hydrophobic or amphiphilic molecules. In contrast to this, Thomae et al. recently identified the volume ratio between barrier and aqueous compartments as important additional determinants of membrane permeability (Pm) [A.V. Thomae, T. Koch, C. Panse, H. Wunderli-Allenspach, and S.D. Kramer, Comparing the lipid membrane affinity and permeation of drug-like acids: the intriguing effects of cholesterol and charged lipids, Pharm...

  1. [Investigation of permeability of intranasal formulations using Side-Bi-Side horizontal diffusion cell].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth Tamás; Ambrus, Rita; Szabóné, Révész Piroska

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays the nasal route has received a great attention as a reliable administration for the systemic administration. In the Department of Pharmaceutical Technology, University of Szeged, the main research work is the design and development of innovative nasal formulations, which can open new possibilities for some well-known agents and may also help some drug-candidates delivery problems. The aim of this work was to present some reliable models for investigation of permeability, such as Spectra/Por Dialisys Membran, ZelluTrans/Roth Mini Dialyzer, μFLUX diffusion Cell, Navicyte Vertical and Horizontal Diffusion Chamber System and In-line Cell. In addition, the horizontal membrane diffusion model (Side-Bi-Side) was used to investigate in vitro and ex vivo studies of permeability of meloxicam in comparison with the vertical diffusion cell (Franz). The present study investigated the meloxicam in different dosage forms (powder, spray, gel). It was found that the Side-Bi-Side cell is suitable to test the nasal formulations, but the uniform distribution of the active substance cannot be ensured in donor place by increasing the viscosity of the compositions, therefore the Franz cell is recommended for investigation of nasal gel. Previous measurement cannot be found related to this topic.

  2. Fabrication of monodisperse hollow silica spheres and effect on water vapor permeability of polyacrylate membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Yan; Yang, Yongqiang; Ma, Jianzhong

    2013-10-01

    Polystyrene/silica core-shell spheres were fabricated using polystyrene as templates by hydrolysis and condensation of tetraethyl orthosilicate through a sol-gel process, in which polystyrene was synthesized by emulsion polymerization. Then, hollow silica spheres were obtained after selective removal of the organic polystyrene core from the polystyrene/silica core-shell spheres by tetrahydrofuran etching. The effect of hollow silica spheres on water vapor permeability, mechanical property, and water uptake of polyacrylate membrane were investigated. The microstructure analysis shows that the mean size and wall thickness of hollow silica spheres are 170 nm and 20 nm, respectively. The silica shells consist of amorphous silica seed assembly with a broad size distribution, which roughen the surfaces of hollow silica spheres greatly. The specific surface area of hollow silica spheres is bigger than that of polystyrene/silica core-shell spheres. Hollow silica spheres can significantly improve water vapor permeability of polyacrylate membrane, but lead to the reduction in mechanical property.

  3. A mixed ionic and electronic conducting dual-phase membrane with high oxygen permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Wei; Liang, Fangyi; Cao, Zhengwen; Steinbach, Frank; Feldhoff, Armin

    2015-04-13

    To combine good chemical stability and high oxygen permeability, a mixed ionic-electronic conducting (MIEC) 75 wt% Ce(0.85)Gd(0.1)Cu(0.05)O(2-δ)-25 wt% La(0.6)Ca(0.4)FeO(3-δ)(CGCO-LCF) dual-phase membrane based on a MIEC-MIEC composite has been developed. Copper doping into Ce(0.9)Gd(0.1)O(2-δ) (CGO) oxide enhances both ionic and electronic conductivity, which then leads to a change from ionic conduction to mixed conduction at elevated temperatures. For the first time we demonstrate that an intergranular film with 2-10 nm thickness containing Ce, Ca, Gd, La, and Fe has been formed between the CGCO grains in the CGCO-LCF one-pot dual-phase membrane. A high oxygen permeation flux of 0.70 mL min(-1) cm(-2) is obtained by the CGCO-LCF one-pot dual-phase membrane with 0.5 mm thickness at 950 °C using pure CO2 as the sweep gas, and the membrane shows excellent stability in the presence of CO2 even at lower temperatures (800 °C) during long-term operation.

  4. The Water Permeability Reduction After Successive Hypo-Osmotic Shocks in Kidney Principal Cells is Apically Regulated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubov E. Katkova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Renal principal cells maintain their intracellular water and electrolyte content despite significant fluctuations of the extracellular water and salt concentrations. Their water permeability decreases rapidly (within a few seconds after successive hypo-osmotic shocks. Our aim was to investigate the contribution of the apical and basolateral surface to this effect and the potential influence of fast reduction in AQP-2, -3 or -4 plasma membrane content. Methods: Rat principal cells of kidney collecting duct fragments underwent hypo-osmotic challenge applied apically or basolaterally and the regulatory volume decrease (RVD was measured by the calcein quenching method. The AQP -2, -3 and -4 content of the plasma membrane fraction was quantified by Western blotting. Results: The hypo-osmotic shock applied apically causes rapid swelling with high apparent water permeability and fast RVD. An identical successive shock after 15-20 sec causes significantly lower swelling rate with 3-fold reduction in apparent water permeability. This reaction is accompanied by AQP2 decrease in the plasma membrane while AQP3 and AQP4 are unaffected. The contribution of the basolateral cell surface to RVD is significantly lower than the apical. Conclusion: These results indicate that in principal cells the effective mechanism of RVD is mainly regulated by the apical cell plasma membrane.

  5. Exogenous γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) affects pollen tube growth via modulating putative Ca2+-permeable membrane channels and is coupled to negative regulation on glutamate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Guang-Hui; Zou, Jie; Feng, Jing; Peng, Xiong-Bo; Wu, Ju-You; Wu, Ying-Liang; Palanivelu, Ravishankar; Sun, Meng-Xiang

    2014-07-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is implicated in pollen tube growth, but the molecular and cellular mechanisms that it mediates are largely unknown. Here, it is shown that exogenous GABA modulates putative Ca(2+)-permeable channels on the plasma membranes of tobacco pollen grains and pollen tubes. Whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments and non-invasive micromeasurement technology (NMT) revealed that the influx of Ca(2+) increases in pollen tubes in response to exogenous GABA. It is also demonstrated that glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), the rate-limiting enzyme of GABA biosynthesis, is involved in feedback controls of Ca(2+)-permeable channels to fluctuate intracellular GABA levels and thus modulate pollen tube growth. The findings suggest that GAD activity linked with Ca(2+)-permeable channels relays an extracellular GABA signal and integrates multiple signal pathways to modulate tobacco pollen tube growth. Thus, the data explain how GABA mediates the communication between the style and the growing pollen tubes.

  6. ABOUT CORRELATION BETWEEN THE PERCOLATION RATE OF MOISTURE THROUGH THE SEMI-PERMEABLE MEMBRANES AND THE STANDARD MEASUREMENTS OF THEIR PERMEABILITY OR EVAPORATIVE RESISTANCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.Б. Роганков

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A variety of test methods to estimate the water vapour transmission (WVT-rate of thin membranes do not provide, unfortunately, the reliable basis to compare the permeability of different fabrics. Their results are crucially dependent on the details and construction of experimental methodologies as well as on the accepted by the different authors conditions of measurement. In this work, we propose the universal approach and demonstrate its adequate realization to compare the transport properties of any semi-permeable membranes measured by the conventional test-methods. The purpose is to avoid any confusion in such procedure of comparison. We have analysed below the WVT-rates measured by six alternative test-methods, which have been applied step-by-step to six different fabrics. In opposite to the widespread search for a pair correlation between the above results obtained by any two methods we treat them, in total, for each fabric in terms of the reduced variables. This approach is based on the novel concept of the moisture percolation (MP-rate which combines the diffusion and convective contributions in a transport process. It leads to the well-established general estimates of the normalized WVT-rates measured by the standard test-methods. Another advantage of the developed approach is its thermodynamic consistency, which offers the appropriate fluctuation model to take into account the porosity of any semi-permeable membranes.

  7. Permeability of methane, carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen gases using a composite membrane of polyethersulfone/polyamide 11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahreini Habib

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion of the refining industry, processing and transportation of gas in Iran, it is of high importance to use new technologies of gas separation. Membrane methods, in particular, separation process through polymeric membranes have been growingly used in recent years. The results of multiple studies show that polyether sulfone compounds have a very good performance in manufacturing polymeric membranes in the area of gas separation. However, efforts are ongoing to improve the permeability and selectivity properties of the membranes. This study investigated separation of methane, carbon dioxide, oxygen and nitrogen gases using composite membranes including, polyethersulfone/ polyamide 11 as the polymer. The membrane was made by molding solution with a composition of 9% to 1% polyethersulfone/polyamide -11. Morphology and structure of the membrane made were examined by Fourier infrared transform (FTIR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The level of permeability of the membranes was measured by a fixed volume-variable pressure. Overall results indicated that with 6 time increase of pressure, the amount of permeability of carbon dioxide reduced and then increased. Selectivity for dual gases of carbon dioxide- nitrogen increased by the increase in pressure and maximum amount of pressure is 11/187 at 8 times of increase. The selectivity of carbon dioxide- nitrogen has the greatest value among dual gases.

  8. Transdermal therapeutic system of narcotic analgesics using nonporous membrane (I) : Effect of the ethanol permeability on vinylacetate content of EVA membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, H.; Song, H.Y. [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea); Khang, G.S. [Chonbuk National University, Chonju (Korea); Lee, H.B. [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-05-01

    The fundamental properties of transdermal therapeutic patch as narcotic analgesics agent has been investigated. From the study of drug and ethanol release patterns from the fentanyl base (FB) patches through diffusion cell and hairless mouse skin, it was observed that the FB release patterns were largely affected by the content of vinyl acetate (VA) of ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA) membrane, and volume fraction of ethanolic solution. Additionally, a variety of control membrane as a function of VA content were examined for swelling following equilibration with ethanolic solutions. Generally, ethanol was incorporated into a transdermal therapeutic device to enable the controlled delivery of enhancer and drug to the skin surface. In vitro skin permeation analysis of the control membrane showed that ethanol flux was linearly related to the ethanol volume fraction. This result was shown that drug permeability increased with increasing as the content of VA. But, the FB flux from saturated aqueous ethanol solutions increases until 80% ethanol volume fraction. Over 80% ethanol volume fraction, the FB flux through skin samples is independent of ethanol volume. These results showed that the decrease in skin permeation due to dehydration nis the dominant effect. 26 refs., 8 figs.

  9. Characterization of cake layer structure on the microfiltration membrane permeability by iron pre-coagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Wang; Siru Pan; Dongping Luo

    2013-01-01

    A cake layer is formed by coagulation aggregates under certain transmembrane pressure in the coagulation-microfiltration (MF) process.The characteristics of humic acid aggregates coagulated by different iron-based coagulants,such as charge,size,fractal dimension and compressibility,have an effect on the cake layer structure.At the optimum iron dose of 0.6 to 0.8 mmol/L for ferric chloride (FC) and polymer ferric sulfate (PFS) pre-coagulation,at the point of charge neutralization for near zero zeta potential,the aggregate particles produced possess the greatest size and highest fractal dimension,which contributes to the cake layer being most loose with high porosity and low compressibility.Thus the membrane filterability is better.At a low or high iron dose of FC and PFS,a high negative or positive zeta potential with high charge repulsion results in so many small aggregate particles and low fractal dimension that the cake layer is compact with low porosity and high compressibility.Therefore the membrane fouling is accelerated and MF permeability becomes worse.The variation of cake layer structure as measured by scanning electric microscopy corresponds with the fact that the smaller the coagulation flocs size and fractal dimension are,the lower the porosity and the tighter the cake layer conformation.This also explains the MF membrane flux variation visually and accurately.

  10. Enhancing hydrophilicity and water permeability of PET track-etched membranes by advanced oxidation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ibrahimov Str., 1, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); The L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Satpaev Str., 5, 010008 Astana (Kazakhstan); Güven, Olgun [Department of Chemistry, Hacettepe University, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara (Turkey); Zdorovets, Maxim V. [Institute of Nuclear Physics, Ibrahimov Str., 1, 050032 Almaty (Kazakhstan); The L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Satpaev Str., 5, 010008 Astana (Kazakhstan); Taltenov, Abzal A. [The L.N. Gumilyov Eurasian National University, Satpaev Str., 5, 010008 Astana (Kazakhstan)

    2015-12-15

    In this study we present results on the application of advanced oxidation systems for effective and non-toxic oxidation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track-etched membranes (PET TeMs) to improve their wettability and water transport properties. Two oxidizing systems: H{sub 2}O{sub 2} under UV irradiation (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV) and Fenton system under visible light (Fenton/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Vis) were compared. The surface of functionalized PET TeMs was characterized by using colorimetric assay, contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results clearly showed that water permeability of PET TeMs treated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/UV was improved by 28 ± 5% compared with etched-only membrane, the same parameter was found to increase by 13 ± 4% in the case of Fenton/H{sub 2}O{sub 2}/Vis treatment. The proposed oxidation technique is very simple, environment friendly and not requiring special equipment or expensive chemicals. The surface hydrophilicity of the membranes stored for 360 days in air between paper sheets was analyzed by contact angle test, colorimetric assay to measure concentration of carboxylic groups on the surface with toluidine blue and XPS analysis. The hydrophilic properties of oxidized PET TeMs were found to be stable for a long period of time.

  11. Enhancing hydrophilicity and water permeability of PET track-etched membranes by advanced oxidation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolkov, Ilya V.; Mashentseva, Anastassiya A.; Güven, Olgun; Zdorovets, Maxim V.; Taltenov, Abzal A.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we present results on the application of advanced oxidation systems for effective and non-toxic oxidation of poly(ethylene terephthalate) track-etched membranes (PET TeMs) to improve their wettability and water transport properties. Two oxidizing systems: H2O2 under UV irradiation (H2O2/UV) and Fenton system under visible light (Fenton/H2O2/Vis) were compared. The surface of functionalized PET TeMs was characterized by using colorimetric assay, contact angle measurements and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Results clearly showed that water permeability of PET TeMs treated with H2O2/UV was improved by 28 ± 5% compared with etched-only membrane, the same parameter was found to increase by 13 ± 4% in the case of Fenton/H2O2/Vis treatment. The proposed oxidation technique is very simple, environment friendly and not requiring special equipment or expensive chemicals. The surface hydrophilicity of the membranes stored for 360 days in air between paper sheets was analyzed by contact angle test, colorimetric assay to measure concentration of carboxylic groups on the surface with toluidine blue and XPS analysis. The hydrophilic properties of oxidized PET TeMs were found to be stable for a long period of time.

  12. Characterization of cake layer structure on the microfiltration membrane permeability by iron pre-coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin; Pan, Siru; Luo, Dongping

    2013-02-01

    A cake layer is formed by coagulation aggregates under certain transmembrane pressure in the coagulation-microfiltration (MF) process. The characteristics of humic acid aggregates coagulated by different iron-based coagulants, such as charge, size, fractal dimension and compressibility, have an effect on the cake layer structure. At the optimum iron dose of 0.6 to 0.8 mmol/L for ferric chloride (FC) and polymer ferric sulfate (PFS) pre-coagulation, at the point of charge neutralization for near zero zeta potential, the aggregate particles produced possess the greatest size and highest fractal dimension, which contributes to the cake layer being most loose with high porosity and low compressibility. Thus the membrane filterability is better. At a low or high iron dose of FC and PFS, a high negative or positive zeta potential with high charge repulsion results in so many small aggregate particles and low fractal dimension that the cake layer is compact with low porosity and high compressibility. Therefore the membrane fouling is accelerated and MF permeability becomes worse. The variation of cake layer structure as measured by scanning electric microscopy corresponds with the fact that the smaller the coagulation flocs size and fractal dimension are, the lower the porosity and the tighter the cake layer conformation. This also explains the MF membrane flux variation visually and accurately.

  13. Development of a blood-brain barrier model in a membrane-based microchip for characterization of drug permeability and cytotoxicity for drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Xiaojian; Gao, Dan; Chen, Yongli; Jin, Feng; Hu, Guangnan; Jiang, Yuyang; Liu, Hongxia

    2016-08-31

    Since most of the central nervous system (CNS) drug candidates show poor permeability across the blood-brain barrier (BBB), development of a reliable platform for permeability assay will greatly accelerate drug discovery. Herein, we constructed a microfluidic BBB model to mimic drug delivery into the brain to induce cytotoxicity at target cells. To reconstitute the in vivo BBB properties, human cerebral microvessel endothelial cells (hCMEC/D3) were dynamically cultured in a membrane-based microchannel. Sunitinib, a model drug, was then delivered into the microchannel and forced to permeate through the BBB model. The permeated amount was directly quantified by an electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ESI-Q-TOF MS) after on-chip SPE (μSPE) pretreatment. Moreover, the permeated drug was incubated with glioma cells (U251) cultured inside agarose gel in the downstream to investigate drug-induced cytotoxicity. The resultant permeability of sunitinib was highly correlated with literature reported value, and it only required 30 min and 5 μL of sample solution for each permeation experiment. Moreover, after 48 h of treatment, the survival rate of U251 cells cultured in 3D scaffolds was nearly 6% higher than that in 2D, which was in accordance with the previously reported results. These results demonstrate that this platform provides a valid tool for drug permeability and cytotoxicity assays which have great value for the research and development of CNS drugs.

  14. High Permeability Ternary Palladium Alloy Membranes with Improved Sulfur and Halide Tolerances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Coulter

    2010-12-31

    and ternary membranes on a simulated flue gas stream and experienced significant difficulty in mounting and testing the sputter deposited membranes. IdaTech was able to successfully test PdAu and PdAuPt membranes and saw similar sulfur tolerance to what TDA found. The Program met all the deliverables on schedule and on budget. Over ten presentations at national and international conferences were made, four papers were published (two in progress) in technical journals, and three students (2 at GT and 1 at CSM) completed their doctorates using results generated during the course of the program. The three major findings of program were; (1) the DFT modeling was verified as a predictive tool for the permeability of Pd based ternary alloys, (2) while magnetron sputtering is useful in precisely fabricating binary and ternary alloys, the mechanical durability of membranes fabricated using this technique are inferior compared to cold rolled membranes and this preparation method is currently not ready for industrial environments, (3) based on both modeling and experimental verification in pure gas and mixed gas environments PdAu and PdAuPt alloys were found to have the combination of the highest permeability and tolerance to sulfur.

  15. Modeling and Simulation for Fuel Cell Polymer Electrolyte Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takahiro Hayashi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have established methods to evaluate key properties that are needed to commercialize polyelectrolyte membranes for fuel cell electric vehicles such as water diffusion, gas permeability, and mechanical strength. These methods are based on coarse-graining models. For calculating water diffusion and gas permeability through the membranes, the dissipative particle dynamics–Monte Carlo approach was applied, while mechanical strength of the hydrated membrane was simulated by coarse-grained molecular dynamics. As a result of our systematic search and analysis, we can now grasp the direction necessary to improve water diffusion, gas permeability, and mechanical strength. For water diffusion, a map that reveals the relationship between many kinds of molecular structures and diffusion constants was obtained, in which the direction to enhance the diffusivity by improving membrane structure can be clearly seen. In order to achieve high mechanical strength, the molecular structure should be such that the hydrated membrane contains narrow water channels, but these might decrease the proton conductivity. Therefore, an optimal design of the polymer structure is needed, and the developed models reviewed here make it possible to optimize these molecular structures.

  16. STUDIES ON THE PERMEABILITY OF PVC /EBBA OVERLAPPED ULTRATHIN COMPOSITE MEMBRANES MODIFIED BY PLASMA- POLYMERIZATION WITH FLUOROCARBON MONOMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Xiucheng; JIN Xigao; Tisato KAJIYAMA

    1989-01-01

    The PVC/EBBA ultrathin composite membranes with thickness of about 100 nm were prepared by spreading the solution on water surface. The overlapped composite membrane showed a characteristic aggregation structure in which the polymer matrix exists as a three-dimensional spongy network and the liquid crystal domains were observedThe surface modification for the overlapped membranes was carried out by means of plasma-polymerization with the monomers of fluorocarbon compounds. Both Arrhenius plots of permeability coefficients for oxygen (-Po2) in the membrane samples before and after modification showed significant increase in the vicinity of the TKN of EBBA.

  17. Permeability of phospholipid membrane for small polar molecules determined from osmotic swelling of giant phospholipid vesicles

    CERN Document Server

    Peterlin, Primoz; Diamant, Haim; Haleva, Emir

    2012-01-01

    A method for determining permeability of phospholipid bilayer based on the osmotic swelling of micrometer-sized giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) is presented as an alternative to the two established techniques, dynamic light scattering on liposome suspension, and electrical measurements on planar lipid bilayers. In the described technique, an individual GUV is transferred using a micropipette from a sucrose/glucose solution into an isomolar solution containing the solute under investigation. Throughout the experiment, vesicle cross-section is monitored and recorded using a digital camera mounted on a phase-contrast microscope. Using a least-squares procedure for circle fitting, vesicle radius R is computed from the recorded images of vesicle cross-section. Two methods for determining membrane permeability from the obtained R(t) dependence are described: the first one uses the slope of R(t) for a spherical GUV, and the second one the R(t) dependence around the transition point at which a flaccid vesicle trans...

  18. Membrane permeability, a pivotal function involved in antibiotic resistance and virulence in Enterobacter aerogenes clinical isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, J-P; Sotto, A; Nicolas-Chanoine, M-H; Bouziges, N; Bourg, G; Davin-Regli, A; Pagès, J-M

    2012-06-01

    Imipenem-susceptible E. aerogenes isolates exhibiting extended spectrum β-lactamases, target mutations and a basal efflux expression, were identified in five patients. After imipenem treatment, imipenem-intermediate susceptible (IMI-I) or resistant (IMI-R) isolates emerged in these patients. Alteration in porin synthesis and increase in efflux expression were observed in the IMI-I isolates whereas complete loss of the porins, LPS alteration and efflux overexpression were observed in the IMI-R isolates. Bacterial virulence of the strains was investigated by the Caenorhabditis elegans model. The IMI-R isolates were shown to be significantly less virulent than the IMI-susceptible or IMI-I isolates. The pleiotropic membrane alteration and its associated fitness burden exhibited by E. aerogenes isolates influence their antibiotic resistance and their virulence behaviour. These findings highlight the balance between the low permeability-related resistance and virulence and their relationships with the treatment of resistant pathogens.

  19. Dielectric breakdown of cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, U; Pilwat, G; Riemann, F

    1974-11-01

    With human and bovine red blood cells and Escherichia coli B, dielectric breakdown of cell membranes could be demonstrated using a Coulter Counter (AEG-Telefunken, Ulm, West Germany) with a hydrodynamic focusing orifice. In making measurements of the size distributions of red blood cells and bacteria versus increasing electric field strength and plotting the pulse heights versus the electric field strength, a sharp bend in the otherwise linear curve is observed due to the dielectric breakdown of the membranes. Solution of Laplace's equation for the electric field generated yields a value of about 1.6 V for the membrane potential at which dielectric breakdown occurs with modal volumes of red blood cells and bacteria. The same value is also calculated for red blood cells by applying the capacitor spring model of Crowley (1973. Biophys. J. 13:711). The corresponding electric field strength generated in the membrane at breakdown is of the order of 4 . 10(6) V/cm and, therefore, comparable with the breakdown voltages for bilayers of most oils. The critical detector voltage for breakdown depends on the volume of the cells. The volume-dependence predicted by Laplace theory with the assumption that the potential generated across the membrane is independent of volume, could be verified experimentally. Due to dielectric breakdown the red blood cells lose hemoglobin completely. This phenomenon was used to study dielectric breakdown of red blood cells in a homogeneous electric field between two flat platinum electrodes. The electric field was applied by discharging a high voltage storage capacitor via a spark gap. The calculated value of the membrane potential generated to produce dielectric breakdown in the homogeneous field is of the same order as found by means of the Coulter Counter. This indicates that mechanical rupture of the red blood cells by the hydrodynamic forces in the orifice of the Coulter Counter could also be excluded as a hemolysing mechanism. The detector

  20. Tuning Liposome Membrane Permeability by Competitive Peptide Dimerization and Partitioning-Folding Interactions Regulated by Proteolytic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seng Koon; Sandén, Camilla; Selegård, Robert; Liedberg, Bo; Aili, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Membrane active peptides are of large interest for development of drug delivery vehicles and therapeutics for treatment of multiple drug resistant infections. Lack of specificity can be detrimental and finding routes to tune specificity and activity of membrane active peptides is vital for improving their therapeutic efficacy and minimize harmful side effects. We describe a de novo designed membrane active peptide that partition into lipid membranes only when specifically and covalently anchored to the membrane, resulting in pore-formation. Dimerization with a complementary peptide efficiently inhibits formation of pores. The effect can be regulated by proteolytic digestion of the inhibitory peptide by the matrix metalloproteinase MMP-7, an enzyme upregulated in many malignant tumors. This system thus provides a precise and specific route for tuning the permeability of lipid membranes and a novel strategy for development of recognition based membrane active peptides and indirect enzymatically controlled release of liposomal cargo.

  1. Tuning Liposome Membrane Permeability by Competitive Peptide Dimerization and Partitioning-Folding Interactions Regulated by Proteolytic Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Seng Koon; Sandén, Camilla; Selegård, Robert; Liedberg, Bo; Aili, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    Membrane active peptides are of large interest for development of drug delivery vehicles and therapeutics for treatment of multiple drug resistant infections. Lack of specificity can be detrimental and finding routes to tune specificity and activity of membrane active peptides is vital for improving their therapeutic efficacy and minimize harmful side effects. We describe a de novo designed membrane active peptide that partition into lipid membranes only when specifically and covalently anchored to the membrane, resulting in pore-formation. Dimerization with a complementary peptide efficiently inhibits formation of pores. The effect can be regulated by proteolytic digestion of the inhibitory peptide by the matrix metalloproteinase MMP-7, an enzyme upregulated in many malignant tumors. This system thus provides a precise and specific route for tuning the permeability of lipid membranes and a novel strategy for development of recognition based membrane active peptides and indirect enzymatically controlled release of liposomal cargo.

  2. Kinetic model of osmosis through semipermeable and solute-permeable membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiil, F

    2003-02-01

    The gas analogy of the van't Hoff equation for osmotic pressure deltapi = RT/V, where R is gas constant, T absolute temperature and V mole volume of water, remained unexplained for a century because of a few misconceptions: (1) Use of supported membranes prevented the recognition that osmotic forces exert no effect on the solid membrane. During osmotic flow frictional force of solvent within membrane channels equals osmotic kinetic force pi at the interface against the solution containing impermeant solute. (2) Retrograde diffusion of water is much less than osmotic flow even when dx in the gradient dc/dx approaches zero. (3) The gas analogy was thought to be accidental. Actually, the internal kinetic pressure is P = RT/V, because intermolecular forces cancel out at the liquid interface, just as within a gas. The kinetic osmotic pressure is the difference in solvent pressure across the interface: pi = RT/V-(RT/V)X1 = (RT/V)X2, where X1 and X2 are the mole fractions of water and impermeant solute, respectively. Integration gives pi = -(RT/V)lnX1, identical to the thermodynamic equation. This equation is correct up to 25 atmospheres, and up to 180 atmospheres by assuming that a sucrose molecule binds 4 and a glycerol molecule 2.5 water molecules. For solute-permeable membranes, the reflection coefficient sigma can be calculated by formulas proposed for ultrafiltration. Because the fraction (1-sigma) of solute concentration behaves as solvent, osmosis may well proceed against the chemical potential gradient for water. The analogy to an ideal gas applies because pi = -(RT/V)lnX1 is the small difference between enormous internal solvent pressures.

  3. How Does Carbon Dioxide Permeate Cell Membranes?A discussion of concepts, results and methods.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volker eEndeward

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We review briefly how the thinking about the permeation of gases, especially CO2, across cell and artificial lipid membranes has evolved during the last hundred years. We then describe how the recent finding of a drastic effect of cholesterol on CO2 permeability of both biological and artificial membranes fundamentally alters the long-standing idea that CO2 – as well as other gases – permeates all membranes with great ease. This requires revision of the widely accepted paradigm that membranes never offer a serious diffusion resistance to CO2 or other gases. Earlier observations of CO2-impermeable membranes can now be explained by the high cholesterol content of some membranes. Thus, cholesterol is a membrane component that nature can use to adapt membrane CO2 permeability to the functional needs of the cell. Since cholesterol serves many other cellular functions, it cannot be reduced indefinitely. We show, however, that cells that possess a high metabolic rate and/or a high rate of O2 and CO2 exchange, do require very high CO2 permeabilities that may not be achievable merely by reduction of membrane cholesterol. The article then discusses the alternative possibility of raising the CO2 permeability of a membrane by incorporating protein CO2 channels. The highly controversial issue of gas and CO2 channels is systematically and critically reviewed. It is concluded that a majority of the results considered to be reliable, is in favour of the concept of existence and functional relevance of protein gas channels. The effect of intracellular carbonic anhydrase, which has recently been proposed as an alternative mechanism to a membrane CO2 channel, is analysed quantitatively and the idea considered untenable. After a brief review of the knowledge on permeation of O2 and NO through membranes, we present a summary of the 18O method used to measure the CO2 permeability of membranes and discuss quantitatively critical questions that may be addressed to

  4. Corrugated Membrane Fuel Cell Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grot, Stephen [President, Ion Power Inc.

    2013-09-30

    One of the most challenging aspects of traditional PEM fuel cell stacks is the difficulty achieving the platinum catalyst utilization target of 0.2 gPt/kWe set forth by the DOE. Good catalyst utilization can be achieved with state-of-the-art catalyst coated membranes (CCM) when low catalyst loadings (<0.3 mg/cm2) are used at a low current. However, when low platinum loadings are used, the peak power density is lower than conventional loadings, requiring a larger total active area and a larger bipolar plate. This results in a lower overall stack power density not meeting the DOE target. By corrugating the fuel cell membrane electrode structure, Ion Power?s goal is to realize both the Pt utilization targets as well as the power density targets of the DOE. This will be achieved by demonstrating a fuel cell single cell (50 cm2) with a twofold increase in the membrane active area over the geometric area of the cell by corrugating the MEA structure. The corrugating structure must be able to demonstrate the target properties of < 10 mOhm-cm2 electrical resistance at > 20 psi compressive strength over the active area, in combination with offering at least 80% of power density that can be achieved by using the same MEA in a flat plate structure. Corrugated membrane fuel cell structures also have the potential to meet DOE power density targets by essentially packaging more membrane area into the same fuel cell volume as compared to conventional stack constructions.

  5. In-vitro permeability of the human nail and of a keratin membrane from bovine hooves: influence of the partition coefficient octanol/water and the water solubility of drugs on their permeability and maximum flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertin, D; Lippold, B C

    1997-01-01

    Penetration of homologous nicotinic acid esters through the human nail and a keratin membrane from bovine hooves was investigated by modified Franz diffusion cells in-vitro to study the transport mechanism. The partition coefficient octanol/water PCOct/W of the esters was over the range 7 to > 51,000. The permeability coefficient P of the nail plate as well as the hoof membrane did not increase with increasing partition coefficient or lipophilicity of the penetrating substance. This indicates that both barriers behave like hydrophilic gel membranes rather than lipophilic partition membranes as in the case of the stratum corneum. Penetration studies with the model compounds paracetamol and phenacetin showed that the maximum flux was first a function of the drug solubility in water or in the swollen keratin matrix. Dissociation hindered the diffusion of benzoic acid and pyridine through the hoof membrane. Since keratin, a protein with an isoelectric point of about 5, is also charged, this reduction can be attributed to an exclusion of the dissociating substance due to the Donnan equilibrium. Nevertheless, the simultaneous enhancement of the water solubility makes a distinct increase of the maximum flux possible. In order to screen drugs for potential topical application to the nail plate, attention has to be paid mainly to the water solubility of the compound. The bovine hoof membrane may serve as an appropriate model for the nail.

  6. The effect of lipid composition on the permeability of fluorescent markers from photosensitized membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ytzhak, Shany; Weitman, Hana; Ehrenberg, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence indicating that the cellular locus of PDT action by amphiphilic sensitizers are the cellular membranes. The photosensitization process causes oxidative damage to membrane components that can result in the cell's death. However, it was not yet established whether lipid oxidation can cause free passage of molecules through the membrane and, as a result, be the primary cause of the cell's death. In this work, we studied the effect of liposomes' lipid composition on the kinetics of the leakage of three fluorescent dyes, calcein, carboxyfluorescein and DTAF, which were trapped in the intraliposomal aqueous phase, after photosensitization with the photosensitizer deuteroporphyrin. We found that as the degree of fatty acid unsaturation increased, the photosensitized passage of these molecules through the lipid bilayer increased. We also found that the rate of leakage of these molecules was affected by their size and bulkiness as well as by their net electric charge. In liposomes that are composed of a lipid mixture similar to that of natural membranes, the observed passage of molecules through the membrane is slow. Thus, the photodynamic damage to lipids does not appear to be severe enough to be an immediate, primary cause of cell death in biological photosensitization.

  7. A cell-permeable fluorescent polymeric thermometer for intracellular temperature mapping in mammalian cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruyuki Hayashi

    Full Text Available Changes in intracellular temperatures reflect the activity of the cell. Thus, the tool to measure intracellular temperatures could provide valuable information about cellular status. We previously reported a method to analyze the intracellular temperature distribution using a fluorescent polymeric thermometer (FPT in combination with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM. Intracellular delivery of the FPT used in the previous study required microinjection. We now report a novel FPT that is cell permeable and highly photostable, and we describe the application of this FPT to the imaging of intracellular temperature distributions in various types of mammalian cell lines. This cell-permeable FPT displayed a temperature resolution of 0.05°C to 0.54°C within the range from 28°C to 38°C in HeLa cell extracts. Using our optimized protocol, this cell-permeable FPT spontaneously diffused into HeLa cells within 10 min of incubation and exhibited minimal toxicity over several hours of observation. FLIM analysis confirmed a temperature difference between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and heat production near the mitochondria, which were also detected previously using the microinjected FPT. We also showed that this cell-permeable FPT protocol can be applied to other mammalian cell lines, COS7 and NIH/3T3 cells. Thus, this cell-permeable FPT represents a promising tool to study cellular states and functions with respect to temperature.

  8. A cell-permeable fluorescent polymeric thermometer for intracellular temperature mapping in mammalian cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Teruyuki; Fukuda, Nanaho; Uchiyama, Seiichi; Inada, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    Changes in intracellular temperatures reflect the activity of the cell. Thus, the tool to measure intracellular temperatures could provide valuable information about cellular status. We previously reported a method to analyze the intracellular temperature distribution using a fluorescent polymeric thermometer (FPT) in combination with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Intracellular delivery of the FPT used in the previous study required microinjection. We now report a novel FPT that is cell permeable and highly photostable, and we describe the application of this FPT to the imaging of intracellular temperature distributions in various types of mammalian cell lines. This cell-permeable FPT displayed a temperature resolution of 0.05°C to 0.54°C within the range from 28°C to 38°C in HeLa cell extracts. Using our optimized protocol, this cell-permeable FPT spontaneously diffused into HeLa cells within 10 min of incubation and exhibited minimal toxicity over several hours of observation. FLIM analysis confirmed a temperature difference between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and heat production near the mitochondria, which were also detected previously using the microinjected FPT. We also showed that this cell-permeable FPT protocol can be applied to other mammalian cell lines, COS7 and NIH/3T3 cells. Thus, this cell-permeable FPT represents a promising tool to study cellular states and functions with respect to temperature.

  9. Enhancing recovery of ammonia from swine manure anaerobic digester effluent using gas-permeable membrane technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, P J; Vanotti, M B; Szogi, A A; García-González, M C

    2016-03-01

    Gas-permeable membrane technology is useful to recover ammonia from manure. In this study, the technology was enhanced using aeration instead of alkali chemicals to increase pH and the ammonium (NH4(+)) recovery rate. Digested effluents from covered anaerobic swine lagoons containing 1465-2097 mg NH4(+)-N L(-1) were treated using submerged membranes (0.13 cm(2) cm(-3)), low-rate aeration (120 mL air L-manure(-1) min(-1)) and nitrification inhibitor (22 mg L(-1)) to prevent nitrification. The experiment included a control without aeration. The pH of the manure with aeration rose from 8.6 to 9.2 while the manure without aeration decreased from 8.6 to 8.1. With aeration, 97-99% of the NH4(+) was removed in about 5 days of operation with 96-98% recovery efficiency. In contrast, without aeration it took 25 days to treat the NH4(+). Therefore, the recovery of NH4(+) was five times faster with the low-rate aeration treatment. This enhancement could reduce costs by 70%.

  10. BLEND MEMBRANES FOR DIRECT METHANOL AND PROTON EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Perurnal Bhavani; Dharmalingam Sangeetha

    2012-01-01

    Sulphonated polystyrene ethylene butylene polystyrene (SPSEBS) prepared with 35% sulphonation was found to be highly elastic and enlarged up to 300%-400% of its initial length.It absorbed over 110% of water by weight.A major drawback of this membrane is its poor mechanical properties which are not adequate for use as polymer electrolytes in fuel cells.To overcome this,SPSEBS was blended with poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF),a hydrophobic polymer.The blend membranes showed better mechanical properties than the base polymer.The effect of PVDF content on water uptake,ion exchange capacity and proton conductivity of the blend membranes was investigated.This paper presents the results of recent studies applied to develop an optimized in-house membrane electrode assembly (MEA) preparation technique combining catalyst ink spraying and assembly hot pressing.Easy steps were chosen in this preparation technique in order to simplify the method,aiming at cost reduction.The open circuit voltage for the cell with SPSEBS is 0.980 V which is higher compared to that of the cell with Nafion 117 (0.790 V).From this study,it is concluded that a polymer electrolyte membrane suitable for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) application can be obtained by blending SPSEBS and PVDF in appropriate proportions.The methanol permeability and selectivity showed a strong influence on DMFC performance.

  11. On-line extractive separation in flow injection analysis based on polymer inclusion membranes: a study on membrane stability and approaches for improving membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lujia L; Cattrall, Robert W; Ashokkumar, Muthupandian; Kolev, Spas D

    2012-08-15

    The effect of temperature on the sensitivity and sampling rate is studied for a flow injection analysis (FIA) system that uses a membrane separation cell fitted with a polymer inclusion membrane (PIM) for the determination of Zn(II). A temperature of 50 °C for the flowing donor and acceptor solutions and the membrane separation cell improves the sensitivity and the sampling rate relative to 20 °C up to 10-fold and 2-fold, respectively. Studies on the stability of the PIM are reported that show a limited loss of the membrane liquid phase into the aqueous phases used in the FIA system but this has exhibited a negligible effect on the amount of Zn(II) transported across the membrane. Most importantly, the extent of leaching of the PIM components is shown to depend on the nature of the aqueous phase with the membrane eventually reaching a stable composition. It is also shown that the application of ultrasound to the membrane separation cell leads to a slight increase in sensitivity without affecting the long term membrane stability.

  12. Comparative study between chemostat and batch reactors to quantify membrane permeability changes on bacteria exposed to silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anaya, Nelson M.; Faghihzadeh, Fatemeh [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 1 Lippitt Rd., Bliss Hall 203, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States); Ganji, Nasim; Bothun, Geoff [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 16 Greenhouse Rd., Crawford Hall, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States); Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka, E-mail: craver@uri.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Rhode Island, 1 Lippitt Rd., Bliss Hall 203, Kingston, RI 02881 (United States)

    2016-09-15

    Continuous and batch reactors were used to assess the effect of the exposure of casein-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on Escherichia coli (E. coli). Additionally, E. coli membrane extracts, membrane permeability and Langmuir film balance assays were used to determine integrity and changes in lipid composition in response to AgNPs exposure. Results showed that batch conditions were not appropriate for the tests due to the production of exopolymeric substances (EPS) during the growth phase. After 5 h of contact between AgNPs and the used growth media containing EPS, the nanoparticles increased in size from 86 nm to 282 nm reducing the stability and thus limiting cell-nanoparticle interactions. AgNPs reduced E. coli growth by 20% at 1 mg/L, in terms of Optical Density 670 (OD670), while no effect was detected at 15 mg/L. At 50 mg/L of AgNPs was not possible to perform the test due to aggregation and sedimentation of the nanoparticles. Membrane extract assays showed that at 1 mg/L AgNPs had a greater change in area (− 4.4cm{sup 2}) on bacteria compared to 15 mg/L (− 4.0cm{sup 2}). This area increment suggested that membrane disruption caused by AgNPs had a stabilizing/rigidifying effect where the cells responded by shifting their lipid composition to more unsaturated lipids to counteract membrane rigidification. In chemostats, the constant inflow of fresh media and aeration resulted in less AgNPs aggregation, thus increased the AgNPs-bacteria interactions, in comparison to batch conditions. AgNPs at 1 mg/L, 15 mg/L, and 50 mg/L inhibited the growth (OD670 reduction) by 0%, 11% and 16.3%, respectively. Membrane extracts exposed to 1 mg/L, 15 mg/L, and 50 mg/L of AgNPs required greater changes in area by − 0.5 cm{sup 2}, 2.7 cm{sup 2} and 3.6 cm{sup 2}, respectively, indicating that the bacterial membranes were disrupted and bacteria responded by synthesizing lipids that stabilize or strengthen membranes. This study showed that the chemostat is more

  13. Roles of dynamic metal speciation and membrane permeability in metal flux through lipophilic membranes: General theory and experimental validation with nonlabile complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeshi, Zhang; Buffle, J.; Leeuwen, van H.P.

    2007-01-01

    The study of the role of dynamic metal speciation in lipophilic membrane permeability in aqueous solution requires accurate interpretation of experimental data. To meet this goal, a general theory is derived for describing 1:1 metal complex flux, under steady-state and ligand excess conditions, thro

  14. Laminar oxy-fuel diffusion flame supported by an oxygen-permeable-ion-transport membrane

    KAUST Repository

    Hong, Jongsup

    2013-03-01

    A numerical model with detailed gas-phase chemistry and transport was used to predict homogeneous fuel conversion processes and to capture the important features (e.g., the location, temperature, thickness and structure of a flame) of laminar oxy-fuel diffusion flames stabilized on the sweep side of an oxygen permeable ion transport membrane (ITM). We assume that the membrane surface is not catalytic to hydrocarbon or syngas oxidation. It has been demonstrated that an ITM can be used for hydrocarbon conversion with enhanced reaction selectivity such as oxy-fuel combustion for carbon capture technologies and syngas production. Within an ITM unit, the oxidizer flow rate, i.e., the oxygen permeation flux, is not a pre-determined quantity, since it depends on the oxygen partial pressures on the feed and sweep sides and the membrane temperature. Instead, it is influenced by the oxidation reactions that are also dependent on the oxygen permeation rate, the initial conditions of the sweep gas, i.e., the fuel concentration, flow rate and temperature, and the diluent. In oxy-fuel combustion applications, the sweep side is fuel-diluted with CO2, and the entire unit is preheated to achieve a high oxygen permeation flux. This study focuses on the flame structure under these conditions and specifically on the chemical effect of CO2 dilution. Results show that, when the fuel diluent is CO2, a diffusion flame with a lower temperature and a larger thickness is established in the vicinity of the membrane, in comparison with the case in which N2 is used as a diluent. Enhanced OH-driven reactions and suppressed H radical chemistry result in the formation of products with larger CO and H2O and smaller H2 concentrations. Moreover, radical concentrations are reduced due to the high CO2 fraction in the sweep gas. CO2 dilution reduces CH3 formation and slows down the formation of soot precursors, C2H2 and C2H4. The flame location impacts the species diffusion and heat transfer from the

  15. Microstructured Electrolyte Membranes to Improve Fuel Cell Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xue

    Fuel cells, with the advantages of high efficiency, low greenhouse gas emission, and long lifetime are a promising technology for both portable power and stationary power sources. The development of efficient electrolyte membranes with high ionic conductivity, good mechanical durability and dense structure at low cost remains a challenge to the commercialization of fuel cells. This thesis focuses on exploring novel composite polymer membranes and ceramic electrolytes with the microstructure engineered to improve performance in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) and solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), respectively. Polymer/particle composite membranes hold promise to meet the demands of DMFCs at lower cost. The structure of composite membranes was controlled by aligning proton conducting particles across the membrane thickness under an applied electric field. The field-induced structural changes caused the membranes to display an enhanced water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability in comparison to membranes prepared without an applied field. Although both methanol permeability and proton conductivity are enhanced by the applied field, the permeability increase is relatively lower than the proton conductivity improvement, which results in enhanced proton/methanol selectivity and improved DMFC performance. Apatite ceramics are a new class of fast ion conductors being studied as alternative SOFC electrolytes in the intermediate temperature range. An electrochemical/hydrothermal deposition method was developed to grow fully dense apatite membranes containing well-developed crystals with c-axis alignment to promote ion conductivity. Hydroxyapatite seed crystals were first deposited onto a metal substrate electrochemically. Subsequent ion substitution during the hydrothermal growth process promoted the formation of dense, fully crystalline films with microstructure optimal for ion transport. The deposition parameters were systematically investigated, such as

  16. Effects of sphingomyelin/ceramide ratio on the permeability and microstructure of model stratum corneum lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullmannová, Petra; Staňková, Klára; Pospíšilová, Markéta; Skolová, Barbora; Zbytovská, Jarmila; Vávrová, Kateřina

    2014-08-01

    The conversion of sphingomyelin (SM) to a ceramide (Cer) by acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) is an important event in skin barrier development. A deficiency in aSMase in diseases such as Niemann-Pick disease and atopic dermatitis coincides with impaired skin barrier recovery after disruption. We studied how an increased SM/Cer ratio influences the barrier function and microstructure of model stratum corneum (SC) lipid membranes. In the membranes composed of isolated human SC Cer (hCer)/cholesterol/free fatty acids/cholesteryl sulfate, partial or full replacement of hCer by SM increased water loss. Partial replacement of 25% and 50% of hCer by SM also increased the membrane permeability to theophylline and alternating electric current, while a higher SM content either did not alter or even decreased the membrane permeability. In contrast, in a simple membrane model with only one type of Cer (nonhydroxyacyl sphingosine, CerNS), an increased SM/Cer ratio provided a similar or better barrier against the permeation of various markers. X-ray powder diffraction revealed that the replacement of hCer by SM interferes with the formation of the long periodicity lamellar phase with a repeat distance of d=12.7nm. Our results suggest that SM-to-Cer processing in the human epidermis is essential for preventing excessive water loss, while the permeability barrier to exogenous compounds is less sensitive to the presence of sphingomyelin.

  17. New polymeric electrolyte membranes based on proton donor-proton acceptor properties for direct methanol fuel cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manea, Carmen; Mulder, Marcel

    2002-01-01

    In order to reduce the high methanol permeability of membranes in a direct methanol fuel cell application new and better materials are still required. In this paper membranes made from polybenzimidazole/sulfonated polysulfone are given and compared with homopolymer membranes made from sulfonated pol

  18. Conductivity and methanol permeability of Nafion-zirconium phosphate composite membranes containing high aspect ratio filler particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagnasco, G.; Micoli, L.; Turco, M. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita di Napoli Federico II, P.le V. Tecchio 80, 80125 - Napoli (Italy); Donnadio, A.; Pica, M.; Sganappa, M. [Dipartimento di Chimica, Universita di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto 8, 06123 - Perugia (Italy); Casciola, M.

    2009-08-15

    Gels of exfoliated {alpha}-zirconium phosphate (ZrP{sub exf}) in dimethylformamide (DMF) were used to prepare Nafion/ZrP{sub exf} composite membranes with filler loadings up to 7 wt.-% by casting mixtures of Nafion 1100 solutions in DMF and suitable amounts of 2 wt.-% ZrP gels in DMF. TEM pictures showed that the ZrP{sub exf} particles had aspect ratio of at least 20. All samples were characterised by methanol permeability (P) and through-plane ({sigma}{sub thp}) and in-plane ({sigma}{sub inp}) conductivity measurements at 40 C and 100% RH. The methanol permeability of Nafion membranes containing in situ grown ZrP particles with low aspect ratio (Nafion/ZrP{sub isg}) was also determined. The methanol permeability and the swelling behaviour of the composite membranes turned out to be strongly dependent on the filler morphology. As a general trend, both permeability and swelling decreased according to the sequence: Nafion/ZrP{sub isg} > Nafion > Nafion/ZrP{sub exf}. The maximum selectivity ({sigma}{sub thp}/P = 1.4 x 10{sup 5} S cm{sup -3} s) was found for the membrane filled with 1 wt.-% ZrP{sub exf}: this value is seven times higher than that of Nafion. For the Nafion/ZrP{sub exf} membranes, the ratio {sigma}{sub inp}/{sigma}{sub thp} increases with the filler loading, thus indicating that the preferred orientation of the ZrP sheets is parallel to the membrane surface. (Abstract Copyright [2009], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  19. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Nonthermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris Argyle; John Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Gui-Bing Zhao; Sanil John; Ji-Jun Zhang; Linna Wang

    2007-09-30

    The goal of this experimental project was to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a nonthermal plasma and to recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), but it was not achieved at the moderate pressure conditions used in this study. However, H{sub 2}S was successfully decomposed at energy efficiencies higher than any other reports for the high H{sub 2}S concentration and moderate pressures (corresponding to high reactor throughputs) used in this study.

  20. Graphene-Induced Pore Formation on Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Guangxin; Zhang, Yuanzhao; Luan, Binquan; Weber, Jeffrey K.; Zhou, Royce W.; Yang, Zaixing; Zhao, Lin; Xu, Jiaying; Luo, Judong; Zhou, Ruhong

    2017-01-01

    Examining interactions between nanomaterials and cell membranes can expose underlying mechanisms of nanomaterial cytotoxicity and guide the design of safer nanomedical technologies. Recently, graphene has been shown to exhibit potential toxicity to cells; however, the molecular processes driving its lethal properties have yet to be fully characterized. We here demonstrate that graphene nanosheets (both pristine and oxidized) can produce holes (pores) in the membranes of A549 and Raw264.7 cells, substantially reducing cell viability. Electron micrographs offer clear evidence of pores created on cell membranes. Our molecular dynamics simulations reveal that multiple graphene nanosheets can cooperate to extract large numbers of phospholipids from the membrane bilayer. Strong dispersion interactions between graphene and lipid-tail carbons result in greatly depleted lipid density within confined regions of the membrane, ultimately leading to the formation of water-permeable pores. This cooperative lipid extraction mechanism for membrane perforation represents another distinct process that contributes to the molecular basis of graphene cytotoxicity. PMID:28218295

  1. Investigation of interaction between the drug and cell membrane by capillary electrophoresis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    By introducing cell membrane into electrophoretic buffer as pseudo-stationary phase,a novel capillary electrophoresis method was established to explore the interaction between drugs and cell membrane,where the interaction between citalopram and rabbit red blood cell membrane was used as an example. A series of concentrations of cell membrane were suspended into the running buffer by peak-shift method. The binding constant of citalopram to rabbit red blood cell membrane of 0.977 g-1·L was obtained after treatment of Scatchard plot. This method could provide not only a new way for the investigation on the interactions between drugs and cell membrane,but also a new approach for high throughput screening of the drug membrane permeability,biological activity,and evaluating drugs in vivo.

  2. Formation of palmitic acid/Ca2+ complexes in the mitochondrial membrane: a possible role in the cyclosporin-insensitive permeability transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mironova, Galina D; Gritsenko, Elena; Gateau-Roesch, Odile; Levrat, Christiane; Agafonov, Alexey; Belosludtsev, Konstantin; Prigent, Annie France; Muntean, Danina; Dubois, Madeleine; Ovize, Michel

    2004-04-01

    A possible role of palmitic acid/Ca2+ (PA/Ca2+) complexes in the cyclosporin-insensitive permeability transition in mitochondria has been studied. It has been shown that in the presence of Ca2+, PA induces a swelling of mitochondria, which is not inhibited by cyclosporin A. The swelling is accompanied by a drop in membrane potential, which cannot be explained only by a work of the Ca2+ uniporter. With time, the potential is restored. Evidence has been obtained indicating that the specific content of mitochondrial lipids would favor the PA/Ca2+ -induced permeabilization of the membrane. In experiments with liposomes, the PA/Ca2+ -induced membrane permeabilization was larger for liposomes formed from the mitochondrial lipids, as compared to the azolectin liposomes. Additionally, it has been found that in mitochondria of the TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-sensitive cells (WEHI-164 line), the content of PA is larger than in mitochondria of the TNF-insensitive cells (C6 line), with this difference being mainly provided by PA incorporated in phosphatidylethanolamine and especially, cardiolipin. The PA/Ca2+ -dependent mechanism of permeability transition in mitochondria might be related to some pathologies, e.g. myocardial ischemia. The heaviness of myocardial infarction of ischemic patients has been demonstrated to correlate directly with the content of PA in the human blood serum.

  3. Proton conductive montmorillonite-Nafion composite membranes for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiu-Wen; Wu, Nan; Shi, Chun-Qing; Zheng, Zhi-Yuan; Qi, Hong-Bin; Wang, Ya-Fang

    2016-12-01

    The preparation of Nafion membranes modified with montmorillonites is less studied, and most relative works mainly applied in direct methanol fuel cells, less in direct ethanol fuel cells. Organic/inorganic composite membranes are prepared with different montmorillonites (Ca-montmorillonite, Na-montmorillonite, K-montmorillonite, Mg-montmorillonite, and H-montmorillonite) and Nafion solution via casting method at 293 K in air, and with balance of their proton conductivity and ethanol permeability. The ethanol permeability and proton conductivity of the membranes are comparatively studied. The montmorillonites can well decrease the ethanol permeability of the membranes via inserted them in the membranes, while less decrease the proton conductivities of the membranes depending on the inserted amount and type of montmorillonites. The proton conductivities of the membranes are between 36.0 mS/cm and 38.5 mS/cm. The ethanol permeability of the membranes is between 0.69 × 10-6 cm2/s and 2.67 × 10-6 cm2/s.

  4. Gymnema sylvestre stimulates insulin release in vitro by increased membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, S J; Al-Majed, H; Raman, A; Jones, P M

    1999-11-01

    To determine whether extracts of Gymnema sylvestre may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), we examined the effects of an alcoholic extract of G. sylvestre (GS4) on insulin secretion from rat islets of Langerhans and several pancreatic beta-cell lines. GS4 stimulated insulin release from HIT-T15, MIN6 and RINm5F beta-cells and from islets in the absence of any other stimulus, and GS4-stimulated insulin secretion was inhibited in the presence of 1 mM EGTA. Blockade of voltage-operated Ca(2+) channels with 10 microM isradipine did not significantly affect GS4-induced secretion, and insulin release in response to GS4 was independent of incubation temperature. Examination of islet and beta-cell integrity after exposure to GS4, by trypan blue exclusion, indicated that concentrations of GS4 that stimulated insulin secretion also caused increased uptake of dye. Two gymnemic acid-enriched fractions of GS4, obtained by size exclusion and silica gel chromatography, also caused increases in insulin secretion concomitant with increased trypan blue uptake. These results confirm the stimulatory effects of G. sylvestre on insulin release, but indicate that GS4 acts by increasing cell permeability, rather than by stimulating exocytosis by regulated pathways. Thus the suitability of GS4 as a potential novel treatment for NIDDM can not be assessed by direct measurements of beta-cell function in vitro.

  5. Development of bioassay techniques with extracts from semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metcalfe, T.L.; White, P.; Mackay, D.; Metcalfe, C. [Trent Univ., Peterborough, Ontario (Canada). Environmental and Resource Studies Program

    1995-12-31

    Semi-permeable membrane devices (SPMDs), consisting of polyethylene bags filled with triolein, have been used to monitor for lipophilic organic contaminants in water. Although extracts from SPMDs have most often been analyzed for concentrations of organic contaminants, there is also the potential to monitor the toxicity of these extracts using in vitro and in vivo bioassays. SPMDs were deployed for four weeks at several sites along a corridor extending from Peche Island in the Detroit River to Pelee Island in western Lake Erie to monitor the distribution of toxic organic contaminants in the water. Analysis of the extracts from the SPMDs for concentrations of PCBs and other organochlorine compounds, and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) indicated that the regions in the Detroit River within the Trenton Channel and near Zug Island were the most highly contaminated. Bioassays conducted with extracts from the SPMDs included the in vitro SOS Chromotest for genotoxic activity, an acute lethality test with Daphnia magna, and a fish embryotoxicity test with embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). These bioassay data generally indicated that the toxicity and concentrations of organic contaminants in the SPMD extracts were correlated. This study indicates that there is potential to use short-term bioassays of extracts from SPMDs to monitor for in situ contamination in the aquatic environment.

  6. Numerical analysis of viscous flow through fibrous media: a model for glomerular basement membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palassini, M; Remuzzi, A

    1998-01-01

    Viscous flow through fibrous media is characterized macroscopically by the Darcy permeability (KD). The relationship between KD and the microscopic structure of the medium has been the subject of experimental and theoretical investigations. Calculations of KD based on the solution of the hydrodynamic flow at fiber scale exist in literature only for two-dimensional arrays of parallel fibers. We considered a fiber matrix consisting of a three-dimensional periodic array of cylindrical fibers with uniform radius (r) and length connected in a tetrahedral structure. According to recent ultrastructural studies, this array of fibers can represent a model for the glomerular basement membrane (GBM). The Stokes flow through the periodic array was simulated using a Galerkin finite element method. The dimensionless ratio K* = KD/r2 was determined for values of the fractional solid volume (phi) in the range 0.005 equation only for phi > 0.4. Among the other theoretical analysis considered, only that of Spielman and Goren (Environ. Sci. Technol. 2: 279-287, 1968) gives satisfactory agreement in the whole range of phi considered. These results can be useful to model combined transport of water and macromolecules through the GBM for the estimation of the radius and length of extracellular protein fibrils.

  7. Controlled synthesis of N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan for modulated bioadhesion and nasal membrane permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardeshi, Chandrakantsing V; Belgamwar, Veena S

    2016-01-01

    In an experiment to explore the bioadhesion, biocompatibility, and membrane permeation properties, the controlled synthesis of N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) was carried out by two-step reductive methylation of chitosan (CHT). Methylation was confirmed by (1)H NMR (δ=3.1 ppm) and FTIR analysis (CH stretch at 1,485 cm(-1)). The TMC was further characterized by DSC, TGA, XRD, HR-TEM, SEM, and elemental analysis. Findings revealed improved solubility, enhanced viscosity, increased swelling index and higher molecular weight of TMC over CHT. Comparative evaluation validated increased bioadhesion potential, and improved ex vivo biocompatibility of TMC compared to CHT. Increased bioadhesion of TMC NPs over CHT NPs can be attributed to the strong electrostatic interactions between cationic amino groups with anionic sialic and sulfonic acid moieties contained in the mucin of the nasal mucus. Ex vivo biocompatibility studies suggested that the NP formulations of both biopolymers were biocompatible and could be applied safely on the nasal epithelium. Ex vivo permeation studies executed on excised cattle nasal mucosa illustrated improved permeability of TMC NPs over CHT NPs. In the author's opinion, two-step reductive methylation of CHT could be an attractive strategy to improve its solubility, bioadhesion, and permeation characteristics without affecting biocompatibility across the mucosal surfaces.

  8. Modified SPEEK membranes for direct ethanol fuel cell

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul

    2010-07-01

    Membranes with low ethanol crossover were prepared aiming their application for direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC). They were based on (1) sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) coated with carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and (2) on SPEEK/PI homogeneous blends. The membranes were characterized concerning their water and ethanol solution uptake, water and ethanol permeability in pervaporation experiments and their performance in DEFC tests. The ethanol permeabilities for the CMS-coated (180 nm and 400 nm thick layers) SPEEK were 8.5 and 3.1 x 10(-10) kg m s(-1) m(-2) and for the homogeneous SPEEK/PI blends membranes with 10, 20 and 30 wt.% of PI were 4.4, 1.0 and 0.4 x 10(-10) kg m s(-1) m(-2) respectively, which is 2- to 50-fold lower than that for plain SPEEK (19 x 10(-10) kg m s(-1) m(-2)). Particularly the SPEEK/PI membranes had substantially better performance than Nafion 117 membranes in DEFC tests at 60 degrees C and 90 degrees C. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Modified SPEEK membranes for direct ethanol fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maab, Husnul; Nunes, Suzana Pereira

    Membranes with low ethanol crossover were prepared aiming their application for direct ethanol fuel cell (DEFC). They were based on (1) sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) coated with carbon molecular sieves (CMS) and (2) on SPEEK/PI homogeneous blends. The membranes were characterized concerning their water and ethanol solution uptake, water and ethanol permeability in pervaporation experiments and their performance in DEFC tests. The ethanol permeabilities for the CMS-coated (180 nm and 400 nm thick layers) SPEEK were 8.5 and 3.1 × 10 -10 kg m s -1 m -2 and for the homogeneous SPEEK/PI blends membranes with 10, 20 and 30 wt.% of PI were 4.4, 1.0 and 0.4 × 10 -10 kg m s -1 m -2 respectively, which is 2- to 50-fold lower than that for plain SPEEK (19 × 10 -10 kg m s -1 m -2). Particularly the SPEEK/PI membranes had substantially better performance than Nafion 117 ® membranes in DEFC tests at 60 °C and 90 °C.

  10. Permeabilities of rebamipide via rat intestinal membranes and its colon specific delivery using chitosan capsule as a carrier

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bei-Bei Huang; Guo-Feng Li; Jing-Hui Luo; Lian Duan; Kishimoto Nobuaki; Yamamoto Akira

    2008-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the permeability characteristics of rebamipide across intestinal mucosa,and examine the effects of some absorption enhancers on the permeability across the colonic tissue.Another purpose iS to demonstrate the colon-specific delivery of rebamipide with or without absorption enhancers using chitosan capsule as a carrier.METHODS:The permeability of rebamipide was evaluated using an in vitro diffusion chamber system,and the effects of some absorption enhancers on the permeability vta colon were further investigated.The release of rebamipide from chitosan or gelatin capsule was studied by Japan Pharmacopoeia rotating basket method.The colonic and plasma concentrations were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC)to evaluate colon-targeting action after oral administration of various dosage forms,and rebamipide with absorption enhancers in chitosan dosage forms.RESULTS:The permeability of rebamipide across the jejunal or ileal membranes was higher than the colonic membranes.Both sodium Iaurate(C12)and labrasol significantly increased permeability across the colon membranes.On the other hand,the release of rebamipide from chitosan capsule was Iess than 10% totally within 6 h,The area under concentration-time profile of drug in the colon mucosa using chitosan and 4.4 times greater than using gelatin capsules and CMC suspension,respectively.Neanwhile,the area under concentration-time profile of drug in the AUCLI and AUCPL were increased when C12 was co-administrated,but the increase of AUCLI was much greater;the drug delivery index(DDI)was more than 1 compared with simple chitosan capsule group.CONCLUSION:There was a regional difference in the permeability of Rabamipide across the jejunum,ileum and the colon,and passive diffusion seems to be one of the major transport mechanisms of rebamipide.Absorption enhancers can increase the permeability of rebamipide across the colon tissue significantly.In addition,chitosan capsule may be a useful

  11. The Influence of Gasotransmitters on Membrane Permeability and Activity of Tonoplast H+-ATPase Under Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.V. Spiridonova

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of the influence of gasotransmitters – a new class of signaling molecules – on the root tissues of red beet (Beta vulgaris L. was conducted. It was found, that hydrogen sulfide (H2S had some stabilizing effect on cellular membranes, reducing their permeability detected with the aid of conductometric technique. The reliable influence of carbon monoxide (CO and nitrogen oxide (NO in our experiments was not observed. A significant increase in efflux of electrolytes from beet tissue under oxidative stress was observed. The addition of gasotransmitters failed to reduce it reliably. Under normal conditions, no appreciable effect of gasotransmitters on tonoplast H+-ATPase transport activity was found. Under oxidative stress, NO and H2S increased the H+-ATPase activity, reduced significantly by the impact of hydrogen peroxide, but did not recover it completely. CO enhanced the negative impact of oxidative stress, and reduced H+-ATPase transport activity. The results obtained suggest a possible conclusion that the gaseous signaling molecules take part in the regulation of transport processes in plant cell through the control of H+-ATPase activity under oxidative stress.

  12. 信息动态%Evaluation of Mitochondrial Damage of lsletβCells by Mitochondrial Permeability Transition Pore

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the mitochondrial damage of islet β cells under glucolipotoxicity by investigating the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP). Methods Pancreatic β cell lines INS-1 cells were treated with 0. 4 mmol/L palmitic acid and different concentrations of glucose (5.6 mmol/L or 25 mmol/L). The mitochondrial membrane potential, mPTP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by flow cytometry and fluorescence staining technique to assess the mitochon drial damage. Cell proliferation was measured by 5-bromodeoxyuridine incorporation and cell apoptosis was detected by Annexin V method. Results Compared with the low glucose concentration, the high glucose concentration resulted in decreased mPTP activity (P<0.05), increased mitochondrial membrane potential (P<0.05) and increased cell proliferation rate (P<0.05). There was no significant change in ROS generation. When cells were exposed to high glucose concentration and palmitic acid, both mPTP activity and mitochonhdrial membrane potential reduced (P<0.05), with increased cell apoptosis rate (P <0.05) and increased ROS generation. Conclusion The high glucose concentration decreases mPTP and increases mitochondrial membrane potential, suggesting that cells may remain in an unstable high metabolic state. Evaluation of mPTP may contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of mitochondrial dysfunction under glucotoxictiy.

  13. On the methanol permeability through pristine Nafion {sup registered} and Nafion/PVA membranes measured by different techniques. A comparison of methodologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molla, S.; Compan, V. [Departmento de Termodinamica Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenieria Tecnica Industrial (ETSII), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 46022 Valencia (Spain); Instituto Tecnologico de la Energia (ITE), Av. Juan de la Cierva 24, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Luis Lafuente, S. [Departmento de Quimica Organica, Universidad Jaume I, 12072 Castellon (Spain); Prats, J. [Departmento de Termodinamica Aplicada, Escuela de Ingenieria Tecnica Industrial (ETSII), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2011-12-15

    Methanol crossover through polymer electrolyte membranes is a critical issue and causes an important reduction of performance in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Measuring the evolution of CO{sub 2} gas in the cathode is a common method to determine the methanol crossover under real operating conditions, although an easier and simpler method is preferable for the screening of membranes during their step of development. In this sense, this work has been focused on the ex situ characterization of the methanol permeability in novel nanofiber-reinforced composite Nafion/PVA membranes for DMFC application by means of three different experimental procedures: (a) potentiometric method, (b) gas chromatography technique, and (c) measuring the density. It was found that all these methods resulted in comparable results and it was observed that the incorporation of the PVA nanofiber phase within the Nafion {sup registered} matrix causes a remarkable reduction of the methanol permeability. The optimal choice of the most suitable technique depends on the accuracy expected for the methanol concentration, the availability of the required instrumental, and the complexity of the procedure. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  14. A boron phosphate-phosphoric acid composite membrane for medium temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamlouk, M.; Scott, K.

    2015-07-01

    A composite membrane based on a non-stoichiometric composition of BPO4 with excess of PO4 (BPOx) was synthesised and characterised for medium temperature fuel cell use (120-180 °C). The electrolyte was characterised by FTIR, SS-NMR, TGA and XRD and showed that the B-O is tetrahedral, in agreement with reports in the literature that boron phosphorus oxide compounds at B:P < 1 are exclusively built of borate and phosphate tetrahedra. Platinum micro electrodes were used to study the electrolyte compatibility and stability towards oxygen reduction at 150 °C and to obtain kinetic and mass transport parameters. The conductivities of the pure BPOx membrane electrolyte and a Polybenzimidazole (PBI)-4BPOx composite membrane were 7.9 × 10-2 S cm-1 and 4.5 × 10-2 S cm-1 respectively at 150 °C, 5%RH. Fuel cell tests showed a significant enhancement in performance of BPOx over that of typical 5.6H3PO4-PBI membrane electrolyte. The enhancement is due to the improved ionic conductivity (3×), a higher exchange current density of the oxygen reduction (30×) and a lower membrane gas permeability (10×). Fuel cell current densities at 0.6 V were 706 and 425 mA cm-2 for BPOx and 5.6H3PO4-PBI, respectively, at 150 °C with O2 (atm).

  15. Effects of chronic kidney disease on blood cells membrane properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaderjakova, Z; Lajdova, I; Horvathova, M; Morvova, M; Sikurova, L

    2012-10-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is progressive loss of renal function associated among others with increased intracellular calcium concentration. The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of CKD on cell membrane properties such as human red blood cell Ca(2+) ATPase activity, lymphocyte plasma membrane P2X(7) receptor expression and function. This could help us in elucidating the origin of increased calcium concentration in blood cells. We found out Ca(2+) ATPase activity is decreased in early stage CKD patients resulting in altered calcium removal from cytoplasm. By means of flow cytometry we assessed that P2X(7) receptor expression on lymphocyte membrane is 1.5 fold increased for CKD patients. Moreover, we detected an increased uptake of ethidium bromide through this receptor in CKD at basal conditions. It means CKD lymphocyte membranes contain more receptors which are more permeable thus allowing increased calcium influx from extracellular milieu. Finally, we can state alterations in blood cell membranes are closely linked to CKD and may be responsible for intracellular calcium accumulation.

  16. High temperature proton exchange membranes based on polybenzimidazoles for fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Savinell, Robert F;

    2009-01-01

    in recent years motivated extensive research activities with great progress. This treatise is devoted to updating the development, covering polymer synthesis, membrane casting, physicochemical characterizations and fuel cell technologies. To optimize the membrane properties, high molecular weight polymers...... havebeenmadeincluding spectroscopy,wateruptake and acid doping, thermal and oxidative stability, conductivity, electro-osmoticwater drag, methanol crossover, solubility and permeability of gases, and oxygen reduction kinetics. Related fuel cell technologies such as electrode and MEA fabrication have been developed...

  17. Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choe, Yoong-Kee [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Umezono 1-1-1, Tsukuba (Japan); Henson, Neil J.; Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Chemical degradation mechanisms of membranes for alkaline membrane fuel cells have been investigated using density functional theory (DFT). We have elucidated that the aryl-ether moiety of membranes is one of the weakest site against attack of hydroxide ions. The results of DFT calculations for hydroxide initiated aryl-ether cleavage indicated that the aryl-ether cleavage occurred prior to degradation of cationic functional group. Such a weak nature of the aryl-ether group arises from the electron deficiency of the aryl group as well as the low bond dissociation energy. The DFT results suggests that removal of the aryl-ether group in the membrane should enhance the stability of membranes under alkaline conditions. In fact, an ether fee poly(phenylene) membrane exhibits excellent stability against the attack from hydroxide ions.

  18. Preparation of highly permeable BPPO microfiltration membrane with binary porous structures on a colloidal crystal substrate by the breath figure method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Hua; Yu, Bing; Cong, Hailin; Peng, Qiaohong; Yang, Zhen; Luo, Yongli; Chi, Ming

    2016-01-01

    A highly permeable brominated poly(phenylene oxide) (BPPO) microfiltration membrane with binary porous structures was fabricated by combination of the breath figure and colloidal crystal template methods. The pore size in the bottom layer of the membrane was adjusted by the diameter of SiO2 microspheres in the colloidal crystal template, while the pore size in the top layer of the membrane was adjusted by varying the BPPO concentration in the casting solution. The permeability of the membrane cast on the colloidal crystal substrate was much higher than that of the membrane cast on a bare silicon wafer. The binary porous BPPO membrane with high permeability and antifouling property was used for microfiltration applications.

  19. Inhibitory effects of isoproterenol on PAF-induced endothelial cell permeability and morphological changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁自强; 李少华; 吴中立

    1996-01-01

    Using a model to study vascular permeability under hydrostatically perfused bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cell (EC) monolayers and a software to automatically analyse cell morphological parameters in a computer image workstation, the effects of isoproterenol (IPN) on platelet-activating factor (PAF)-induced changes in EC monolayer permeability and cell morphological parameters were studied. Albumin has the fortifying effect on endothelial barrier function. After treatment of EC monolayer with 10-8mol/L PAF, trans-monolayer permeability increased, cell surface area decreased, and intercellular space enlarged. As pretreatment with 10-4mol/L IPN, PAF-induced EC permeability increment and morphological changes were blocked. The results suggest that EC contraction and intercellular gap expansion are important mechanisms for PAF-induced high vascular permeability. IPN inhibits the effects of PAF via stabilization of EC morphology and prevention of intercellular gap formation.

  20. Highly charged proton-exchange membrane. Sulfonated poly(ether sulfone)-silica polyelectrolyte composite membranes for fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahi, Vinod K. [Electro-Membrane Processes Division, Central Salt and Marine Chemicals Research Institute, Bhavnagar-364002, Gujarat (India)

    2007-01-15

    Sulfonation of poly(ether sulfone) was carried out with chlorosulphonic acid in chloroform and its composite proton-exchange membrane was prepared using aminopropyltriethoxysilane as inorganic precursor by sol-gel in acidic medium. These membranes were further subjected to phosphorylation with phosphorous acid for introducing phosphonic acid functionality at inorganic segment. Extent of sulphonation was estimated by {sup 1}H-NMR spectroscopy while introduction of phosphonic acid groups was confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy and ion-exchange capacity studies. Different membranes, with varied silica content without and with phosphorylation, were characterized for their thermal and mechanical stabilities, physicochemical and electrochemical properties using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), aq. methanol uptake studies, proton conductivity and methanol permeability measurements. The silica content in the membrane matrix and effect of phosphorylation was optimized as a function of membrane properties. Activation energy required for the proton transport across the membrane was also estimated and found to be comparable with Nafion 117 membrane. From the frictional interpretation and estimation of selectivity parameter it was observed that SPS-Si composite phosphorylated membrane with 20% silica content (SPS-Si(P)/20) resulted in the best proton-exchange membrane, which exhibited quite higher selectivity parameter in comparison to Nafion 117 for direct methanol fuel cell applications. Also, current-voltage polarization characteristics of SPS-Si(P)/20 membrane measured in direct methanol fuel cell, were found to be comparable to the Nafion 117 membrane. (author)

  1. In-membrane micro fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omosebi, Ayokunle; Besser, Ronald

    2016-09-06

    An in-membrane micro fuel cell comprises an electrically-insulating membrane that is permissive to the flow of cations, such as protons, and a pair of electrodes deposited on channels formed in the membrane. The channels are arranged as conduits for fluids, and define a membrane ridge between the channels. The electrodes are porous and include catalysts for promoting the liberation of a proton and an electron from a chemical species and/or or the recombination of a proton and an electron with a chemical specie. The fuel cell may be provided a biosensor, an electrochemical sensor, a microfluidic device, or other microscale devices fabricated in the fuel cell membrane.

  2. Synthesis of ceramic hollow fiber supported zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) membranes with high hydrogen permeability

    KAUST Repository

    Pan, Yichang

    2012-12-01

    Purification and recovery of hydrogen from hydrocarbons in refinery streams in the petrochemical industry is an emerging research field in the study of membrane gas separation. Hollow fiber membrane modules can be easily implemented into separation processes at the industrial scale. In this report, hollow yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) fiber-supported zeolitic imidazole framework-8 (ZIF-8) membranes were successfully prepared using a mild and environmentally friendly seeded growth method. Our single-component permeation studies demonstrated that the membrane had a very high hydrogen permeance (~15×10 -7mol/m 2sPa) and an ideal selectivity of H 2/C 3H 8 of more than 1000 at room temperature. This high membrane permeability and selectivity caused serious concentration polarization in the separation of H 2/C 3H 8 mixtures, which led to almost 50% drop in both the H 2 permeance and the separation factor. Enhanced mixing on the feed side could reduce the effect of the concentration polarization. Our experimental data also indicated that the membranes had excellent reproducibility and long-term stability, indicating that the hollow fiber-supported ZIF-8 membranes developed in this study have great potential in industry-scale separation of hydrogen. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  3. Increasing plasmid transformation efficiency of natural spizizen method in Bacillus Subtilis by a cell permeable peptide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Moosazadeh Moghaddam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Some of bacterial species are able to uptake DNA molecule from environment, the yield of this process depends on some conditions such as plasmid size and host type. In the case of Bacillus subtilis, DNA uptake has low efficacy. Using Spizizen minimal medium is common method in plasmid transformation into B. subtilis, but rate of this process is not suitable and noteworthy. The aim of this study was investigation of novel method for improvement of DNA transformation into B. subtilis based on CM11 cationic peptide as a membrane permeable agent.Materials and methods: In this study, for optimization of pWB980 plasmid transformation into B. subtilis, the CM11 cationic peptide was used. For this purpose, B. subtilis competent cell preparation in the present of different concentration of peptide was implemented by two methods. In the first method, after treatment of bacteria with different amount of peptide for 14h, plasmid was added. In the second method, several concentration of peptide with plasmid was exposed to bacteria simultaneously. Bacteria that uptake DNA were screened on LB agar medium containing kanamycin. The total transformed bacteria per microgram of DNA was calculated and compared with the control.Results: Plasmid transformation in best conditions was 6.5 folds higher than the control. This result was statistically significant (P value <0.001.Discussion and conclusion: This study showed that CM11 cationic peptide as a membrane permeable agent was able to increase plasmid transformation rate into B. subtilis. This property was useful for resolution of low transformation efficacy.

  4. Rectification of the water permeability in COS-7 cells at 22, 10 and 0°C.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana B Peckys

    Full Text Available The osmotic and permeability parameters of a cell membrane are essential physico-chemical properties of a cell and particularly important with respect to cell volume changes and the regulation thereof. Here, we report the hydraulic conductivity, L(p, the non-osmotic volume, V(b, and the Arrhenius activation energy, E(a, of mammalian COS-7 cells. The ratio of V(b to the isotonic cell volume, V(c iso, was 0.29. E(a, the activation energy required for the permeation of water through the cell membrane, was 10,700, and 12,000 cal/mol under hyper- and hypotonic conditions, respectively. Average values for L(p were calculated from swell/shrink curves by using an integrated equation for L(p. The curves represented the volume changes of 358 individually measured cells, placed into solutions of nonpermeating solutes of 157 or 602 mOsm/kg (at 0, 10 or 22°C and imaged over time. L(p estimates for all six combinations of osmolality and temperature were calculated, resulting in values of 0.11, 0.21, and 0.10 µm/min/atm for exosmotic flow and 0.79, 1.73 and 1.87 µm/min/atm for endosmotic flow (at 0, 10 and 22°C, respectively. The unexpected finding of several fold higher L(p values for endosmotic flow indicates highly asymmetric membrane permeability for water in COS-7. This phenomenon is known as rectification and has mainly been reported for plant cell, but only rarely for animal cells. Although the mechanism underlying the strong rectification found in COS-7 cells is yet unknown, it is a phenomenon of biological interest and has important practical consequences, for instance, in the development of optimal cryopreservation.

  5. Rectification of the water permeability in COS-7 cells at 22, 10 and 0°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckys, Diana B; Kleinhans, F W; Mazur, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The osmotic and permeability parameters of a cell membrane are essential physico-chemical properties of a cell and particularly important with respect to cell volume changes and the regulation thereof. Here, we report the hydraulic conductivity, L(p), the non-osmotic volume, V(b), and the Arrhenius activation energy, E(a), of mammalian COS-7 cells. The ratio of V(b) to the isotonic cell volume, V(c iso), was 0.29. E(a), the activation energy required for the permeation of water through the cell membrane, was 10,700, and 12,000 cal/mol under hyper- and hypotonic conditions, respectively. Average values for L(p) were calculated from swell/shrink curves by using an integrated equation for L(p). The curves represented the volume changes of 358 individually measured cells, placed into solutions of nonpermeating solutes of 157 or 602 mOsm/kg (at 0, 10 or 22°C) and imaged over time. L(p) estimates for all six combinations of osmolality and temperature were calculated, resulting in values of 0.11, 0.21, and 0.10 µm/min/atm for exosmotic flow and 0.79, 1.73 and 1.87 µm/min/atm for endosmotic flow (at 0, 10 and 22°C, respectively). The unexpected finding of several fold higher L(p) values for endosmotic flow indicates highly asymmetric membrane permeability for water in COS-7. This phenomenon is known as rectification and has mainly been reported for plant cell, but only rarely for animal cells. Although the mechanism underlying the strong rectification found in COS-7 cells is yet unknown, it is a phenomenon of biological interest and has important practical consequences, for instance, in the development of optimal cryopreservation.

  6. Involvement of cytoskeletal proteins in the barrier function of the human erythrocyte membrane. III. Permeability of spectrin-depleted inside-out membrane vesicles to hydrophilic nonelectrolytes. Formation of leaks by chemical or enzymatic modification of membrane proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klonk, S; Deuticke, B

    1992-04-29

    Spectrin-depleted inside-out vesicles (IOV's) prepared from human erythrocyte membranes were characterized in terms of size, ground permeability to hydrophilic nonelectrolytes and their sensitivity to modification by SH reagents, DIDS and trypsin. IOV's proved to have the same permeability of their lipid domain to erythritol as native erythrocytes, in contrast to resealed ghosts (Klonk, S. and Deuticke, B. (1992) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1106, 126-136 (Part I in this series)), which have a residual leak. On the other hand, IOV's have a slightly elevated permeability for mannitol and sucrose, nonelectrolytes which are almost (mannitol) or fully (sucrose) impermeant in the native membrane. These increased fluxes, which have a high activation energy and can be stimulated by phloretin, are, however, also much smaller than the corresponding leak fluxes observed in resealed ghosts. In view of these differences, formation of IOV's can be concluded to go along with partial annealing of barrier defects persisting in the erythrocyte membrane after preparation of resealed ghosts. Oxidation of SH groups of the IOV membrane by diamide produces an enhancement of permeability for hydrophilic nonelectrolytes which is much less pronounced than that induced by a similar treatment of erythrocytes or ghosts (Klonk, S. and Deuticke, B. (1992) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1106, 126-136 (Part I in this series)). Moreover, proteolytic treatment of the vesicle membrane, although leading to a marked digestion of integral membrane proteins, only induces a minor, saturating increase of permeability, much lower than that in trypsinized resealed ghosts (Klonk, S. and Deuticke, B. (1992) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1106, 137-142 (Part II of this series)). Since absence of the cytoskeletal proteins, spectrin and actin, is the major difference between IOV's and resealed ghosts, these results may be taken as further evidence for a dependence of the barrier properties of the erythrocyte membrane bilayer domain

  7. Polymer electrolyte membrane assembly for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Shiao-Ping S. (Inventor); Kindler, Andrew (Inventor); Yavrouian, Andre (Inventor); Halpert, Gerald (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    An electrolyte membrane for use in a fuel cell can contain sulfonated polyphenylether sulfones. The membrane can contain a first sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone and a second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone, wherein the first sulfonated polyphenylether and the second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone have equivalent weights greater than about 560, and the first sulfonated polyphenylether and the second sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone also have different equivalent weights. Also, a membrane for use in a fuel cell can contain a sulfonated polyphenylether sulfone and an unsulfonated polyphenylether sulfone. Methods for manufacturing a membrane electrode assemblies for use in fuel cells can include roughening a membrane surface. Electrodes and methods for fabricating such electrodes for use in a chemical fuel cell can include sintering an electrode. Such membranes and electrodes can be assembled into chemical fuel cells.

  8. Effect of Graft Yield on the Thermo-Responsive Permeability Through Porous Membranes with Plasma-Grafted Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Gates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚良银; 朱家骅; 陈文梅; NIITSUMATakuya; YAMAGUCHITakeo; NAKAOShin-ichi

    2003-01-01

    The effect of graft yield on both the thermo-responsive hydraulic permeability and the thermo-respousive diffusional permeability through porous membranes with plasma-grafted poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM)gates was investigated. Both thermo-respousive flat membranes and core-shell microcapsule membranes with a wide range of graft yield of PNIPAM were prepared using a plasma-graft pore-filling polymerization method. The grafted PNIPAM was formed homogeneously throughout the entire thickness of both the fiat polyethylene membranes andthe microcapsule polyamide membranes. Both the hydraulic permeability and the diffusional permeability were heavily dependent on the PNIPAM graft yield. With increasing the graft yield, the hydraulic permeability (water flux) decreases rapidly at 25℃ because of the decrease of the pore size; however, the water flux at 40℃ increases firstly to a peak because of the increase of hydrophobicity of the pore surface, and then decreases and finally tends to zero because of the pore size becoming smaller and smaller. For the diffusional permeability, the temperature shows different effects on the diffusional permeability coefficients of solutes across the membranes. When the graft yield was low, the diffusional coefficient of solute across the membrane was higher at temperature above the lower critical solution temperature (LCST) than that below the LCST; however, when the graft yield was high, the diffusional coefficient was lower at temperature above the LCST than that below the LCST. It is very important to choose or design a proper graft yield of PNIPAM for obtaining a desired thermo-respousive "on/off" hydraulic or ditfusional permeability.

  9. Glioblastoma cell-secreted interleukin-8 induces brain endothelial cell permeability via CXCR2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie Dwyer

    Full Text Available Glioblastoma constitutes the most aggressive and deadly of brain tumors. As yet, both conventional and molecular-based therapies have met with limited success in treatment of this cancer. Among other explanations, the heterogeneity of glioblastoma and the associated microenvironment contribute to its development, as well as resistance and recurrence in response to treatments. Increased vascularity suggests that tumor angiogenesis plays an important role in glioblastoma progression. However, the molecular crosstalk between endothelial and glioblastoma cells requires further investigation. To examine the effects of glioblastoma-derived signals on endothelial homeostasis, glioblastoma cell secretions were collected and used to treat brain endothelial cells. Here, we present evidence that the glioblastoma secretome provides pro-angiogenic signals sufficient to disrupt VE-cadherin-mediated cell-cell junctions and promote endothelial permeability in brain microvascular endothelial cells. An unbiased angiogenesis-specific antibody array screen identified the chemokine, interleukin-8, which was further demonstrated to function as a key factor involved in glioblastoma-induced permeability, mediated through its receptor CXCR2 on brain endothelia. This underappreciated interface between glioblastoma cells and associated endothelium may inspire the development of novel therapeutic strategies to induce tumor regression by preventing vascular permeability and inhibiting angiogenesis.

  10. Cell Membrane-Cloaked Nanoparticles for Targeted Therapeutics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Brian Tsengchi

    The advent of nanoparticle-based delivery systems has made a significant impact on clinical patient outcomes. In recent decades, myriad nanoparticle-based therapeutic agents have been developed for the treatment and management of ailments such as cancer, diabetes, pain, bacterial infections, and asthma, among many others. Nanotherapeutics offer many distinct advantages over conventional free drug formulations. For example, nanoparticles are able to accumulate at tumor sites by extravasation through leaky vasculature at tumor sites via the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect; nanoparticles can also be tailored to have desirable characteristics, such as prolonged circulation in the blood stream, improved drug encapsulation, and sustained or triggered drug release. Currently, a growing number of nanoformulations with favorable pharmacological profiles and promising efficacy are being used in clinical trials for the treatment of various cancers. Building on the success of these encouraging clinical results, new engineering strategies have emerged that combine synthetic nanoparticles with natural biomaterials to create nature-inspired biomimetic delivery systems. The work presented in this dissertation focuses on the biointerfacing between synthetic and natural materials, namely in the manifestation of cell membrane-coated nanoparticles. By exploiting the natural functionalities of source cell membranes, cell membrane-cloaked nanoparticles have huge potential in the delivery of therapeutic agents for a variety of applications. The first portion of this thesis will focus on understanding the fundamentals underlying cell membrane coating on synthetic nanoparticles. First introduced in 2011, cell membrane-cloaked nanoparticles showed immediate promise in drug delivery applications, but further understanding was necessary to be able to harness the full potential of the membrane coating platform. The first section provides further insight into the interfacial

  11. Advanced composite polymer electrolyte fuel cell membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, T.A.; Gottesfeld, S.; Kolde, J.A.; Bahar, B.

    1995-09-01

    A new type of reinforced composite perfluorinated polymer electrolyte membrane, GORE-SELECT{trademark} (W.L. Gore & Assoc.), is characterized and tested for fuel cell applications. Very thin membranes (5-20 {mu}m thick) are available. The combination of reinforcement and thinness provides high membrane, conductances (80 S/cm{sup 2} for a 12 {mu}m thick membrane at 25{degrees}C) and improved water distribution in the operating fuel cell without sacrificing longevity or durability. In contrast to nonreinforced perfluorinated membranes, the x-y dimensions of the GORE-SELECT membranes are relatively unaffected by the hydration state. This feature may be important from the viewpoints of membrane/electrode interface stability and fuel cell manufacturability.

  12. Measurement of Transient Permeability of Sp2/0 Myeloma Cells: Flow Cytometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novickij Vitalij

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Electroporation is an electric field induced phenomenon occurring when the permeability of the cell membrane is increased due to the excess of critical transmembrane potential. Fluorescent dye assays are frequently used for evaluation of the permeabilization rate, however, the protocols vary, which negatively affects the repeatability of the results. In this work we have designed experiments to investigate the protocols and threshold concentrations of the Propidium Iodide (PI and YO-PRO-1 (YP fluorescent dyes for evaluation of mammalian cell permeabilization induced by electroporation. The Sp2/0 mouse myeloma cells were used and the bursts of 100 μs × 8 electrical pulses of 0.8-2 kV/cm were applied. It has been shown that the dye concentration has an influence on the detectable permeabilization, and the concentrations below 30 μM for PI and 1 μM for YP should be avoided for measurement of electropermeabilization efficacy due to unreliable fluorescence signals. Further, based on the experimental data, the permeabilization curve for the Sp2/0 myeloma cells in the 0.8-2 kV/cm range has been presented.

  13. Seasonal Assessment of Biomass and Fatty Acid Productivity by Tetraselmis sp. in the Ocean Using Semi-Permeable Membrane Photobioreactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Z-Hun; Park, Hanwool; Lee, Choul-Gyun

    2016-06-28

    A green microalga, Tetraselmis sp., was cultivated in the coastal seawater of Young-Heung Island using semi-permeable membrane photobioreactors (SPM-PBRs) in different seasons. The microalgae in the SPM-PBRs were able to grow on nutrients diffused into the PBRs from the surrounding seawater through SPMs. The biomass productivity varied depending on the ion permeabilities of the SPMs and environmental conditions, whereas the quality and quantity of fatty acids were constant. The temperature of seawater had a greater influence than solar radiation did on productivity of Tetraselmis sp. in SPM-PBRs. SPM-PBRs could provide technologies for concurrent algal biomass and fatty acids production, and eutrophication reduction in the ocean.

  14. Hereditary red cell membrane disorders and laboratory diagnostic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, M-J; Zanella, A

    2013-06-01

    This overview describes two groups of nonimmune hereditary hemolytic anemias caused by defects in membrane proteins located in distinct layers of the red cell membrane. Hereditary spherocytosis (HS), hereditary elliptocytosis (HE), and hereditary pyropoikilocytosis (HPP) represent disorders of the red cell cytoskeleton. Hereditary stomatocytoses represents disorders of cation permeability in the red cell membrane. The current laboratory screening tests for HS are the osmotic fragility test, acid glycerol lysis time test (AGLT), cryohemolysis test, and eosin-5'-maleimide (EMA)-binding test. For atypical HS, SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of erythrocyte membrane proteins is carried out to confirm the diagnosis. The diagnosis of HE/HPP is based on abnormal red cell morphology and the detection of protein 4.1R deficiency or spectrin variants using gel electrophoresis. None of screening tests can detect all HS cases. Some testing centers (a survey of 25 laboratories) use a combination of tests (e.g., AGLT and EMA). No specific screening test for hereditary stomatocytoses is available. The preliminary diagnosis is based on presenting a compensated hemolytic anemia, macrocytosis, and a temperature or time dependent pseudohyperkalemia in some patients. Both the EMA-binding test and the osmotic fragility test may help in differential diagnosis of HS and hereditary stomatocytosis.

  15. Fuel cell and membrane therefore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aindow, Tai-Tsui

    2016-08-09

    A fuel cell includes first and second flow field plates, and an anode electrode and a cathode electrode between the flow field plates. A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) is arranged between the electrodes. At least one of the flow field plates influences, at least in part, an in-plane anisotropic physical condition of the PEM that varies in magnitude between a high value direction and a low value direction. The PEM has an in-plane physical property that varies in magnitude between a high value direction and a low value direction. The PEM is oriented with its high value direction substantially aligned with the high value direction of the flow field plate.

  16. Fabrication and Hydrogen Permeability of Palladium Membranes%钯膜制备及渗氢性能研究∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟博扬; 李芳芳; 陈长安; 罗文华

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous development of membrane separation technology,palladium membranes for hy-drogen permeation have been widely used for hydrogen purification and separation due to their excellent permeability, hydrogen selectivity,as well as chemical and thermal stabilities.The types of palladium membranes,permeation mechanism of hydrogen,and their fabrication methods are reviewed.The development and hydrogen permeation per-formance of palladium membranes are summarized from the initial pure palladium membranes to the palladium alloy membranes and palladium composite membranes.As a representative of new Pd/bcc composite membranes,the nio-bium and palladium composite membrane is mainly introduced.%随着膜分离技术的不断发展,渗氢用钯基膜由于具有优异的透氢速率、透氢选择性及良好的化学和热稳定性,已被广泛应用于氢提纯分离领域。介绍了钯透氢膜的种类、透氢机理和制备方法,总结了钯膜从最初的纯钯膜、钯合金膜到钯复合膜的发展历程和氢渗透性能研究,并重点介绍了以铌钯复合膜为代表的新型 Pd/bcc 型复合膜氢渗透性能的研究进展。

  17. The poorly membrane permeable antipsychotic drugs amisulpride and sulpiride are substrates of the organic cation transporters from the SLC22 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos Pereira, Joao N; Tadjerpisheh, Sina; Abu Abed, Manar; Saadatmand, Ali R; Weksler, Babette; Romero, Ignacio A; Couraud, Pierre-Olivier; Brockmöller, Jürgen; Tzvetkov, Mladen V

    2014-11-01

    Variations in influx transport at the blood-brain barrier might affect the concentration of psychotropic drugs at their site of action and as a consequence might alter therapy response. Furthermore, influx transporters in organs such as the gut, liver and kidney may influence absorption, distribution, and elimination. Here, we analyzed 30 commonly used psychotropic drugs using a parallel artificial membrane permeability assay. Amisulpride and sulpiride showed the lowest membrane permeability (P e sulpiride by the organic cation transporters of the SLC22 family OCT1, OCT2, OCT3, OCTN1, and OCTN2 Amisulpride was found to be transported by all five transporters studied. In contrast, sulpiride was only transported by OCT1 and OCT2. OCT1 showed the highest transport ability both for amisulpride (CLint = 1.9 ml/min/mg protein) and sulpiride (CLint = 4.2 ml/min/mg protein) and polymorphisms in OCT1 significantly reduced the uptake of both drugs. Furthermore, we observed carrier-mediated uptake that was inhibitable by known OCT inhibitors in the immortalized human brain microvascular endothelial cell line hCMEC/D3. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that amisulpride and sulpiride are substrates of organic cation transporters of the SLC22 family. SLC22 transporters may play an important role in the distribution of amisulpride and sulpiride, including their ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier.

  18. [Fluorescence polarization used to investigate the cell membrane fluidity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae treated by pulsed electric field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ying; Zeng, Xin-An; Wen, Qi-Biao; Li, Lin

    2008-01-01

    To know the lethal mechanism of microorganisms under pulsed electric field treatment, the relationship between the inactivation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CICC1308) cell and the permeability and fluidity changes of its cell membrane treated by pulsed electric field (0-25 kV x cm(-1), 0-266 ms) was investigated. With 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) used as a probe, the cell membrane fluidity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae treated by pulsed electric field was expressed by fluorescence polarization. Results showed that the cell membrane fluidity decreases when the electric flied strength is up to 5 kV x cm(-1), and decreases with the increase in electric field strength and treatment time. The plate counting method and ultraviolet spectrophotometer were used to determine the cell viability and to investigate the cell membrane permeability, respectively, treated by pulsed electric field. Results showed that the lethal ratio and the content of protein and nucleic acid leaked from intracellular plasma increased with the increase in the electric field strength and the extension of treatment time. Even in a quite lower electric field of 5 kV x cm(-1) with a tiny microorganism lethal level, the increase in UV absorption value and the decrease in fluidity were significant. It was demonstrated that the cell membrane fluidity decreases with the increase in lethal ratio and cell membrane permeability. The viscosity of cell membrane increases with the decrease in fluidity. These phenomena indicated that cell membrane is one of the most key sites during the pulsed electric field treatment, and the increased membrane permeability and the decreased cell membrane fluidity contribute to the cell death.

  19. A modified parallel artificial membrane permeability assay for evaluating the bioconcentration of highly hydrophobic chemicals in fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jung-Hwan; Escher, Beate I

    2008-03-01

    Low cost in vitro tools are needed at the screening stage of assessment of bioaccumulation potential of new and existing chemicals because the number of chemical substances that needs to be tested highly exceeds the capacity of in vivo bioconcentration tests. Thus, the parallel artificial membrane permeability assay (PAMPA) system was modified to predict passive uptake/ elimination rate in fish. To overcome the difficulties associated with low aqueous solubility and high membrane affinity of highly hydrophobic chemicals, we measured the rate of permeation from the donor poly(dimethylsiloxane)(PDMS) disk to the acceptor PDMS disk through aqueous and PDMS membrane boundary layers and term the modified PAMPA system "PDMS-PAMPA". Twenty chemicals were selected for validation of PDMS-PAMPA. The measured permeability is proportional to the passive elimination rate constant in fish and was used to predict the "minimum" in vivo elimination rate constant. The in vivo data were very close to predicted values except for a few polar chemicals and metabolically active chemicals, such as pyrene and benzo[a]pyrene. Thus, PDMS-PAMPA can be an appropriate in vitro system for nonmetabolizable chemicals. Combination with metabolic clearance rates using a battery of metabolic degradation assays would enhance the applicability for metabolizable chemicals.

  20. Effect of Soil Drought Stress on Leaf Water Status, Membrane Permeability and Enzymatic Antioxidant System of Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Li-Ping; SUI Fang-Gong; GE Ti-Da; SUN Zhao-Hui; LU Yin-Yan; ZHOU Guang-Sheng

    2006-01-01

    A simulation experiment on the responses of maize (Zea mays L.) from the third leaf stage to maturity for different soilwater levels (well-watered, moderately stressed, and severely stressed) was conducted by controlling irrigation and using a mobile rain shelter in a neutral loam, meadow soil to determine the effects on leaf water status, membrane permeability and enzymatic antioxidant system for different growth stages. The results indicated that drought stress relied on drought intensity and duration, with more severe drought stress creating more serious effects on maize. Compared with wellwatered conditions, during the silking and blister stages moderate stress did not significantly change the relative water content (RWC) and did change significantly the relative conductivity (RC) (P < 0.05) of the leaves; however, severestress did significantly decrease (P < 0.01) the leaf RWC and increase (P < 0.01) membrane permeability (leaf relative conductivity). Furthermore, under severe drought stress antioxidant enzyme activities declined significantly (P < 0.01) in later stages, namely for superoxide dismutase (SOD) the tasseling and blister stages, for peroxidase (POD) the milk stage, and for catalase (CAT) during the tasseling, blister, and milk stages. Meanwhile, membrane lipid peroxidation (measured as malondialdehyde content) significantly increased (P < 0.01) in all stages.

  1. Self-assembly and function of primitive cell membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Deamer, David

    2009-09-01

    We describe possible pathways for separating amphiphilic molecules from organic material on the early earth to form membrane-bound structures required for the start of cellular life. We review properties of the first membranes and their function as permeability barriers. Finally, we discuss the emergence of protein-mediated ion transport across membranes, which facilitated many other cellular functions.

  2. Interaction of Defensins with Model Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Lori K.; Schmidt, Nathan W.; Yang, Lihua; Mishra, Abhijit; Gordon, Vernita D.; Selsted, Michael E.; Wong, Gerard C. L.

    2009-03-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) comprise a key component of innate immunity for a wide range of multicellular organisms. For many AMPs, activity comes from their ability to selectively disrupt and lyse bacterial cell membranes. There are a number of proposed models for this action, but the detailed molecular mechanism of selective membrane permeation remains unclear. Theta defensins are circularized peptides with a high degree of selectivity. We investigate the interaction of model bacterial and eukaryotic cell membranes with theta defensins RTD-1, BTD-7, and compare them to protegrin PG-1, a prototypical AMP, using synchrotron small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The relationship between membrane composition and peptide induced changes in membrane curvature and topology is examined. By comparing the membrane phase behavior induced by these different peptides we will discuss the importance of amino acid composition and placement on membrane rearrangement.

  3. Radiation-grafted membranes based on polyethylene for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherazi, Tauqir A. [Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6 (Canada); Guiver, Michael D.; Kingston, David; Xue, Xinzhong [Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council Canada, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, ON K1A 0R6 (Canada); Ahmad, Shujaat [PIEAS/PINSTECH, P O Nilore, Islamabad 45650 (Pakistan); Kashmiri, M. Akram [Department of Chemistry, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Board of Intermediate and Secondary Education, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

    2010-01-01

    Styrene was grafted onto ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene powder (UHMWPE) by gamma irradiation using a {sup 60}Co source. Compression moulded films of selected pre-irradiated styrene-grafted ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE-g-PS) were post-sulfonated to the sulfonic acid derivative (UHMWPE-g-PSSA) for use as proton exchange membranes (PEMs). The sulfonation was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The melting and flow properties of UHMWPE and UHMWPE-g-PS are conducive to forming homogeneous pore-free membranes. Both the ion conductivity and methanol permeability coefficient increased with degree of grafting, but the grafted membranes showed comparable or higher ion conductivity and lower methanol permeability than Nafion {sup registered} 117 membrane. One UHMWPE-g-PS membrane was fabricated into a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) and tested as a single cell direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Low membrane cost and acceptable fuel cell performance indicate that UHMWPE-g-PSSA membranes could offer an alternative approach to perfluorosulfonic acid-type membranes for DMFC. (author)

  4. Radiation-grafted membranes based on polyethylene for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherazi, Tauqir A.; Guiver, Michael D.; Kingston, David; Ahmad, Shujaat; Kashmiri, M. Akram; Xue, Xinzhong

    Styrene was grafted onto ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene powder (UHMWPE) by gamma irradiation using a 60Co source. Compression moulded films of selected pre-irradiated styrene-grafted ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE-g-PS) were post-sulfonated to the sulfonic acid derivative (UHMWPE-g-PSSA) for use as proton exchange membranes (PEMs). The sulfonation was confirmed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The melting and flow properties of UHMWPE and UHMWPE-g-PS are conducive to forming homogeneous pore-free membranes. Both the ion conductivity and methanol permeability coefficient increased with degree of grafting, but the grafted membranes showed comparable or higher ion conductivity and lower methanol permeability than Nafion ® 117 membrane. One UHMWPE-g-PS membrane was fabricated into a membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) and tested as a single cell direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). Low membrane cost and acceptable fuel cell performance indicate that UHMWPE-g-PSSA membranes could offer an alternative approach to perfluorosulfonic acid-type membranes for DMFC.

  5. Anion permselective membrane. [For redox fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, S.S.; Hodgdon, R.B.

    1978-01-01

    Experimental anion permeselective membranes were improved and characterized for use as separators in a chemical redox, power storage cell being developed at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The goal of minimal Fe/sup +3/ ion transfer was achieved for each candidate membrane system. Minimal membrane resistivity was demonstrated by reduction of film thickness using synthetic backing materials but usefulness of thin membranes was limited by the scarcity of compatible fabrics. The most durable and useful backing fabrics were modacrylics. One membrane, a copolymer of 4 vinylpyridine and vinyl benzylchloride was outstanding in overall electrochemical and physical properties. Long term (1000 hrs) membrane chemical and thermal durability in redox environment was shown by three candidate polymers and two membranes. The remainder had good durability at ambient temperature. Manufacturing capability was demonstrated for large scale production of membrane sheets 5.5 ft/sup 2/ in area for two candidate systems.

  6. Membrane alterations in irreversibly sickled cells: hemoglobin--membrane interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lessin, L S; Kurantsin-Mills, J; Wallas, C; Weems, H

    1978-01-01

    Irreversibly sickled cells (ISCs) are sickle erythrocytes which retain bipolar elongated shapes despite reoxygenation and owe their biophysical abnormalities to acquired membrane alterations. Freeze-etched membranes both of ISCs produced in vitro and ISCs isolated in vivo reveal microbodies fixed to the internal (PS) surface which obscure spectrin filaments. Intramembranous particles (IMPs) on the intramembrane (PF) surface aggregate over regions of subsurface microbodies. Electron microscopy of diaminobenzidine-treated of ISC ghosts show the microbodies to contain hemoglobin and/or hemoglobin derivatives. Scanning electron microscopy and freeze-etching demonstrate that membrane--hemoglobin S interaction in ISCs enhances the membrane loss by microspherulation. Membrane-bound hemoglobin is five times greater in in vivo ISCs than non-ISCs, and increases during ISC production, parallelling depletion of adenosine triphosphate. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of ISC membranes shows the presence of high-molecular-weight heteropolymers in the pre--band 1 region, a decrease in band 4.1 and an increase in bands 7, 8, and globin. The role of cross-linked membrane protein polymers in the generation of ISCs is discussed and is synthesized in terms of a unified concept for the determinants of the genesis of ISCs.

  7. Water-permeability measurement of high performance concrete using a high-pressure triaxial cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Dieb, A.S. [Ain Shams Univ., Cairo (Egypt). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Hooton, R.D. [Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1995-08-01

    Water permeability of concrete is used to indicate its durability. Accurate and reproducible measurement of water permeability is difficult and becomes more difficult as the quality of concrete increases. When high-performance concrete (HPC) is tested, these concerns become more pronounced. HPC is used widely to improve the durability and performance of structures but there are few test procedures able to evaluate its permeability-related properties. In this study the water permeabilities of concretes including HPC were measured using a high-pressure triaxial cell with a sensitive and automated measurement capability. Special analysis procedures were developed to obtain useful data from the extremely low volume of water being measured. This method was able to measure a wide range of permeability values from 10{sup {minus}12} m/s to 10{sup {minus}16} m/s, with reproducible measurements on replicates.

  8. Membrane crystallinity and fuel crossover in direct ethanol fuel cells with Nafion composite membranes containing phosphotungstic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hongjun; Lee, Sunghwan; Kim, Suran; Oh, Chungik; Ryu, Jeongjae; Kim, Jaegyu; Park, Eugene; Hong, Seungbum; No, Kwangsoo

    2016-11-01

    Interest has been growing in direct ethanol fuel cells (DEFCs) due to their non-toxicity, low cost and potential contribution to energy issues in third world countries. A reduction in fuel cross-over is of key importance to enhance the performance of DEFCs that operate at low temperatures (<100 °C). We report on the effect of the addition of phosphotungstic acid (PWA) in Nafion membrane on the ethanol-crossover for DEFC application. A set of PWANafion composite membranes (PWA 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 wt%) was prepared by solution casting and their microstructures, diffraction patterns and permeability were systematically characterized. The significant reduction in ethanol-crossover was observed with increasing PWA concentration in PWA-Nafion membranes, which was mainly attributed to an improvement in crystallinity of the membrane. PWA provides additional nucleation sites during solidification leading to higher crystallinity, which is supported by the membrane permeability tests. These PWA-Nafion composites were implemented in proto-type DEFC devices as a membrane and the maximum power density achieved was 22% higher than that of commercial Nafion-117 device.

  9. Permeability of iodinated and MR contrast media through two types of hemodialysis membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Jun [Department of Radiology, Sumitomo Hospital, 5-2-2 Nakanoshima, Kita-ku, Osaka 530 (Japan); Furukawa, Tomoaki [Department of Radiology, Sumitomo Hospital, 5-2-2 Nakanoshima, Kita-ku, Osaka 530 (Japan); Higashino, Kouji [Department of Radiology, Sumitomo Hospital, 5-2-2 Nakanoshima, Kita-ku, Osaka 530 (Japan); Yamamoto, Tadatsuka [Department of Radiology, Sumitomo Hospital, 5-2-2 Nakanoshima, Kita-ku, Osaka 530 (Japan); Ujita, Hiroyuki [Department of Radiology, Sumitomo Hospital, 5-2-2 Nakanoshima, Kita-ku, Osaka 530 (Japan); Sakaguchi, Katsuhiko [Department of Internal Medicine, Sumitomo Hospital, 5-2-2, Nakanoshima, Kita-ku, Osaka 530 (Japan); Araki, Yutaka [Department of Radiology, Kinki University School of Medicine, 377-2, Ohno-higashi, Osaka-Sayama City, Osaka 589 (Japan)

    1999-07-01

    The clearance of three iodinated contrast media (CM) and three MR-CM through two kinds of hemodialysis (HD) membranes were investigated in vitro. All three MR-CM are not only injected intravenously and mainly secreted through the kidney, but also now commercially available. Each of the six CM showed significantly higher clearance with one kind of HD membrane, with a larger pore size, than that with the other. There were also large differences in clearance between the three iodinated CM with both kinds of HD membranes, but not between the three MR-CM with either kind of membrane. Thus, in order that iodinated CM be removed from the body as soon as possible in HD patients, it is important to consider the choice not only among the iodinated CM, but also between the type of HD membrane that is used. Concerning MR-CM, only the choice of HD membrane is important.

  10. Effect of ceramide acyl chain length on skin permeability and thermotropic phase behavior of model stratum corneum lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janůšová, Barbora; Zbytovská, Jarmila; Lorenc, Petr; Vavrysová, Helena; Palát, Karel; Hrabálek, Alexandr; Vávrová, Kateřina

    2011-03-01

    Stratum corneum ceramides play an essential role in the barrier properties of skin. However, their structure-activity relationships are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of acyl chain length in the non-hydroxy acyl sphingosine type (NS) ceramides on the skin permeability and their thermotropic phase behavior. Neither the long- to medium-chain ceramides (8-24 C) nor free sphingosine produced any changes of the skin barrier function. In contrast, the short-chain ceramides decreased skin electrical impedance and increased skin permeability for two marker drugs, theophylline and indomethacin, with maxima in the 4-6C acyl ceramides. The thermotropic phase behavior of pure ceramides and model stratum corneum lipid membranes composed of ceramide/lignoceric acid/cholesterol/cholesterol sulfate was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and infrared spectroscopy. Differences in thermotropic phase behavior of these lipids were found: those ceramides that had the greatest impact on the skin barrier properties displayed the lowest phase transitions and formed the least dense model stratum corneum lipid membranes at 32°C. In conclusion, the long hydrophobic chains in the NS-type ceramides are essential for maintaining the skin barrier function. However, this ability is not shared by their short-chain counterparts despite their having the same polar head structure and hydrogen bonding ability.

  11. [Structural modifications of the surface of Escherichia coli bacteria and copper-induced permeability of plasma membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, V S; Volodina, L A; Deĭnega, E Iu; Fedorov, Iu I

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Cu2+ on the structural organization of the cell surface of Escherichia coli bacteria during the induction of conductivity of a plasma membrane was studied. A fluorescent study did not reveal any substantial changes in the microviscosity of lipids by the action of copper ions. At the same time, a substantial reorganization of membrane proteins during plasmolysis was observed. A model of the copper-induced structural reorganization of membrane lipids was constructed, according to which the reorganization leads to the opening in the membrane of channels of nonspecific conductivity for cations. The opening of conductivity channels results from the break of disulfide bonds in critical membrane proteins during the interaction with Cu+, which form either due to the reduction of Cu2+ on specific sites of cell surface or by means of external reducing agents.

  12. On the Mechanism(s of Membrane Permeability Transition in Liver Mitochondria of Lamprey, Lampetra fluviatilis L.: Insights from Cadmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Belyaeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Previously we have shown that opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in its low conductance state is the case in hepatocytes of the Baltic lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis L. during reversible metabolic depression taking place in the period of its prespawning migration when the exogenous feeding is switched off. The depression is observed in the last year of the lamprey life cycle and is conditioned by reversible mitochondrial dysfunction (mitochondrial uncoupling in winter and coupling in spring. To further elucidate the mechanism(s of induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in the lamprey liver, we used Cd2+ and Ca2+ plus Pi as the pore inducers. We found that Ca2+ plus Pi induced the high-amplitude swelling of the isolated “winter” mitochondria both in isotonic sucrose and ammonium nitrate medium while both low and high Cd2+ did not produce the mitochondrial swelling in these media. Low Cd2+ enhanced the inhibition of basal respiration rate of the “winter” mitochondria energized by NAD-dependent substrates whereas the same concentrations of the heavy metal evoked its partial stimulation on FAD-dependent substrates. The above changes produced by Cd2+ or Ca2+ plus Pi in the “winter” mitochondria were only weakly (if so sensitive to cyclosporine A (a potent pharmacological desensitizer of the nonselective pore added alone and they were not sensitive to dithiothreitol (a dithiol reducing agent. Under monitoring of the transmembrane potential of the “spring” lamprey liver mitochondria, we revealed that Cd2+ produced its decrease on both types of the respiratory substrates used that was strongly hampered by cyclosporine A, and the membrane potential was partially restored by dithiothreitol. The effects of different membrane permeability modulators on the lamprey liver mitochondria function and the seasonal changes in their action are discussed.

  13. High Proton Conducting SPEEK/SiO2/PWA Composite Membranes for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Gaowen; JIANG Jiuxin; LIU Jianing

    2011-01-01

    Sulfonated polyether ether ketone (SPEEK) based composite membranes for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) application were prepared by sol-gel reaction of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in the SPEEK matrix and the incorporation of phosphotungstic acid (PWA). The conductivity of the developed membranes was determined by impedance spectroscopy and the methanol permeability through the membranes was obtained from diffuseness experiments. The SEM images show that the addition of SiO2 and the covalent cross-linking structure lead to fine PWA particles and more uniformly dispersion. The swelling of composite membranes remains in the range of 5%-8% at 30-90 ℃ and the effusion of PWA reduces significantly. The composite membranes show a good balance in higher proton conductivity and lower methanol permeation. The cell with composite membrane has higher open circuit voltage(0.728 V) and higher peak power density(45 mW/cm2) than that with Nation 117.

  14. Fabrication of semi-aromatic polyamide/spherical mesoporous silica nanocomposite reverse osmosis membrane with superior permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Yu, Hui; Wu, Feiyang; Song, Jie; Pan, Xianhui; Zhang, Meng

    2016-02-01

    Semi-aromatic polyamide (SAP)/spherical mesoporous silica nanocomposite reverse osmosis (RO) membrane was successfully fabricated using m-phenylene diamine aqueous solution and cyclohexane-1,3,5-tricarbonyl chloride/mesoporous-silica-sphere (MSS) organic solution as main raw materials. The experimental suggests that the microstructures and surface features are significantly different from those of the contrast samples (the full- and semi-aromatic polyamide membranes), including the surface morphology, polymer framework structure, surface charge density, hydrophilicity, and the thickness of barrier layer. It was observed that many MSSs with ca. 1.5 nm of pore size are evenly embedded on the surface of the fabricated SAP/MSS RO membrane. Furthermore, the separation performance testing results indicate that the permeabilities range from 62.53 to 72.73 L/m2 h with the increase of the introduced MSSs from 0.02 to 0.08 w/v % under 1.5 MPa operating pressure and 2000 mg/L NaCl solution, which is obviously better than the contrast samples. Simultaneously, their salt rejections can be still maintained at a comparable level (94.78-91.46%). The excellent separation performance of the nanocomposite RO membrane is closely related to the higher-freedom-degree semi-aromatic framework, the incorporation of MSSs, the improved surface hydrophilicity, the thinner barrier layer, and the enhanced surface negative charge density.

  15. Development of the permeability/performance reference compound approach for in situ calibration of semipermeable membrane devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckins, J.N.; Petty, J.D.; Lebo, J.A.; Almeida, F.V.; Booij, K.; Alvarez, D.A.; Cranor, W.L.; Clark, R.C.; Mogensen, B.B.

    2002-01-01

    Permeability/performance reference compounds (PRCs) are analytically noninterfering organic compounds with moderate to high fugacity from semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) that are added to the lipid prior to membrane enclosure. Assuming that isotropic exchange kinetics (IEK) apply and that SPMD-water partition coefficients are known, measurement of PRC dissipation rate constants during SPMD field exposures and laboratory calibration studies permits the calculation of an exposure adjustment factor (EAF). In theory, PRC-derived EAF ratios reflect changes in SPMD sampling rates (relative to laboratory data) due to differences in exposure temperature, membrane biofouling, and flow velocity-turbulence at the membrane surface. Thus, the PRC approach should allow for more accurate estimates of target solute/vapor concentrations in an exposure medium. Under some exposure conditions, the impact of environmental variables on SPMD sampling rates may approach an order of magnitude. The results of this study suggest that most of the effects of temperature, facial velocity-turbulence, and biofouling on the uptake rates of analytes with a wide range of hydrophobicities can be deduced from PRCs with a much narrower range of hydrophobicities. Finally, our findings indicate that the use of PRCs permits prediction of in situ SPMD sampling rates within 2-fold of directly measured values.

  16. Preparation and Gas Permeability of ZIF-7 Membranes Prepared via Two-step Crystallization Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Fang; Li, Qiming; Bao, Xinxia; Gui, Jianzhou; Yu, Xiaofei [Liaoning Shihua University, Fushun (China)

    2014-06-15

    Continuous and dense ZIF-7 membranes were successfully synthesized on α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} porous substrate via two-step crystallization technique. ZIF-7 seeding layer was first deposited on porous α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate by in-situ low temperature crystallization, and then ZIF-7 membrane layer can be grown through the secondary high-temperature crystallization. Two synthesis solutions with different concentration were used to prepare ZIF-7 seeding layer and membrane layer on porous α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate, respectively. As a result, a continuous and defect-free ZIF-7 membrane layer can be prepared on porous α-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrate, as confirmed by scanning electron microscope. XRD characterization shows that the resulting membrane layer is composed of pure ZIF-7 phase without any impurity. A single gas permeation test of H{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} or CO{sub 2} was conducted based on our prepared ZIF-7 membrane. The ZIF-7 membrane exhibited excellent H{sub 2} molecular sieving properties due to its suitable pore aperture and defect-free membrane layer.

  17. Antifungal Activity of Salvia miltiorrhiza Against Candida albicans Is Associated with the Alteration of Membrane Permeability and (1,3)-β-D-Glucan Synthase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heung-Shick; Kim, Younhee

    2016-03-01

    Candidiasis has posed a serious health risk to immunocompromised patients owing to the increase in resistant yeasts, and Candida albicans is the prominent pathogen of fungal infections. Therefore, there is a critical need for the discovery and characterization of novel antifungals to treat infections caused by C. albicans. In the present study, we report on the antifungal activity of the ethanol extract from Salvia miltiorrhiza against C. albicans and the possible mode of action against C. albicans. The increase in the membrane permeability was evidenced by changes in diphenylhexatriene binding and release of both 260-nm-absorbing intracellular materials and protein. In addition, inhibition of cell wall synthesis was demonstrated by the enhanced minimal inhibitory concentration in the presence of sorbitol and reduced (1,3)-β-D-glucan synthase activity. The above evidence supports the notion that S. miltiorrhiza has antifungal activity against C. albicans by the synergistic activity of targeting the cell membrane and cell wall. These findings indicate that S. miltiorrhiza displays effective activity against C. albicans in vitro and merits further investigation to treat C. albicans-associated infections.

  18. Plasma Membranes Modified by Plasma Treatment or Deposition as Solid Electrolytes for Potential Application in Solid Alkaline Fuel Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Christophe Coutanceau; Marc Reinholdt; Jean Durand; Valérie Flaud; Serguei Martemianov; Alina Ilie; Eric Beche; Stéphanie Roualdès; Mauricio Schieda; Jérémy Frugier

    2012-01-01

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, com...

  19. Lipid-protein interactions in plasma membranes of fiber cells isolated from the human eye lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2014-03-01

    The protein content in human lens membranes is extremely high, increases with age, and is higher in the nucleus as compared with the cortex, which should strongly affect the organization and properties of the lipid bilayer portion of intact membranes. To assess these effects, the intact cortical and nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes isolated from human lenses from 41- to 60-year-old donors were studied using electron paramagnetic resonance spin-labeling methods. Results were compared with those obtained for lens lipid membranes prepared from total lipid extracts from human eyes of the same age group [Mainali, L., Raguz, M., O'Brien, W. J., and Subczynski, W. K. (2013) Biochim. Biophys. Acta]. Differences were considered to be mainly due to the effect of membrane proteins. The lipid-bilayer portions of intact membranes were significantly less fluid than lipid bilayers of lens lipid membranes, prepared without proteins. The intact membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments termed the bulk lipid domain, boundary lipid domain, and trapped lipid domain. However, the cholesterol bilayer domain, which was detected in cortical and nuclear lens lipid membranes, was not detected in intact membranes. The relative amounts of bulk and trapped lipids were evaluated. The amount of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins was greater in nuclear membranes than in cortical membranes. Thus, it is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes is greater than that of cortical membranes. Also the permeability coefficients for oxygen measured in domains of nuclear membranes were significantly lower than appropriate coefficients measured in cortical membranes. Relationships between the organization of lipids into lipid domains in fiber cells plasma membranes and the organization of membrane proteins are discussed.

  20. 混合盐胁迫对油葵保护性酶活性、细胞膜透性及其主要农艺性状的影响%Effects of mixed salt stress on protective enzyme activity, cell membrane permeability and main agronomic traits of oil-sunflower

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴怀弟; 吴科生; 王红梅; 陈炳东; 陈玉梁

    2012-01-01

    Effects of NaCl and NaHCO3 on membrane permeability, SOD activity and POD activity of roots and leaves as well as specific characteristics of the tolerance of oil-sunflower were studied under various levels of salt stress. The results showed as follows: Compared with CK, membrane permeability, SOD activity and POD activity of the root and leaves appeared an increasing trend and significant level with the increase of salt concentration. At the same time the SOD activity of leaves was significantly higher than that of roots. The effects of salt concentration on phenology was signif-icant in oil-sunflower, and the growth period of oil-sunflower was delayed, while the plant height, faceplate diameters, dry weight and fresh weight of shoot and root and 100-grain weight declined significantly.%研究了不同浓度混合盐NaCl和NaHCO3对油葵苗期叶片、根系细胞膜透性,SOD、POD酶活性,油葵物候期、成熟期主要农艺性状的影响,目的在于对其耐盐性进行初步鉴定.结果表明:随着土壤混合盐浓度增大,叶片和根系的细胞膜透性,SOD、POD酶活性均呈现上升的趋势,差异显著,其中叶片SOD酶活性明显高于根系,并与盐浓度呈极显著的正相关.油葵的整个生育期明显受土壤盐浓度的影响,生育期延长,百粒重、单株产量、盘径、株高、干物质、鲜重有较大幅度下降.

  1. Carbon-based building blocks for alcohol dehydration membranes with disorder-enhanced water permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boffa, Vittorio; Etmimi, H.; Mallon, P.E.

    2017-01-01

    separation membranes. In this work, a humic acid-like biopolymer (HAL), extracted from organic compost with a yield of ~ 20%, was used to fabricate composite GO-HAL membranes. The HAL brings a high degree of disorder to the membrane structure, with the benefit of an increased water permeation rate. Upon...... concerns about their stability at basic pH and under cross-flow conditions. The stabilization of graphene oxide can be achieved by thermal or chemical reduction; but stacked layers of reduced GO tend to form ordered and compact graphite-like structures, thus preventing their application as molecular...

  2. Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Fuel Cells Modeling and Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhuqian; Wang, Xia; Shi, Zhongying; Zhang, Xinxin; Yu, Fan

    2006-11-01

    Performance of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells is dependent on operating parameters and designing parameters. Operating parameters mainly include temperature, pressure, humidity and the flow rate of the inlet reactants. Designing parameters include reactants distributor patterns and dimensions, electrodes dimensions, and electrodes properties such as porosity, permeability and so on. This work aims to investigate the effects of various designing parameters on the performance of PEM fuel cells, and the optimum values will be determined under a given operating condition.A three-dimensional steady-state electrochemical mathematical model was established where the mass, fluid and thermal transport processes are considered as well as the electrochemical reaction. A Powell multivariable optimization algorithm will be applied to investigate the optimum values of designing parameters. The objective function is defined as the maximum potential of the electrolyte fluid phase at the membrane/cathode interface at a typical value of the cell voltage. The robustness of the optimum design of the fuel cell under different cell potentials will be investigated using a statistical sensitivity analysis. By comparing with the reference case, the results obtained here provide useful tools for a better design of fuel cells.

  3. Development of structured polymer electrolyte membranes for fuel cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasa, Jeffrey

    The objective of this research was to explore structure-property relationships to develop the understanding needed for introduction of superior PEM materials. Polymer electrolyte membranes based on sulfonated poly(ether ketone ketone) (SPEKK) were fabricated using N-methyl pyrrolidone as casting solvent. The membranes were characterized in terms of properties that were relevant to fuel cell applications, such as proton conductivity, methanol permeability, and swelling properties, among others. It was found in this study that the proton conductivity of neat SPEKK membranes could reach the conductivity of commercial membranes such as NafionRTM. However, when the conductivity of SPEKK was comparable to NafionRTM, the swelling of SPEKK in water was quite excessive. The swelling problem was remedied by modifying the microstructure of SPEKK using different techniques. One of them involved blending of lightly sulfonated PEKK with highly acidic particles (sulfonated crosslinked polystyrene-SXLPS). Low sulfonation level of SPEKK was used to reduce the swelling of the membrane in water and the role of the highly acidic particles was to enhance the proton conductivity of the membrane. Because of the residual crystallinity in SPEKK with low sulfonation levels (IEC sulfone)) to act as mechanical reinforcement. It was found that miscibility behavior of the blends had a significant impact on the transport and swelling properties of these blends, which could be explained by the blend microstructure. The miscibility behavior was found to be strongly dependent on the sulfonation level of SPEKK. The conductivities of the blends were enhanced by as much as two orders of magnitude when the morphology was modified by electric field. The last approach was ionic crosslinking of the sulfonate groups in SPEKK using divalent cations, specifically barium ions. The crosslinking treatment has greatly improved the thermal stability of the membranes in both dry and wet conditions.

  4. Morphology and water permeability of red blood cells from green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benga, Gheorghe; Chapman, Bogdan E; Romeo, Tony; Cox, Guy C; Kuchel, Philip W

    2015-07-01

    The morphology and diffusional water permeability (P d) of red blood cells (RBCs) from green sea turtle (GST) (Chelonia mydas) are presented for the first time. The RBCs had an ellipsoidal shape with full-axis lengths (diameters): D = 14.4 μm; d = 10.2 μm; h = 2.8 μm. The values of P d (cm s(-1)) were 5.1 × 10(-3) at 15 °C, 5.7 × 10(-3) at 20 °C, 6.3 × 10(-3) at 25 °C, 6.8 × 10(-3) at 30 °C, and 7.9 × 10(-3) at 37 °C (i.e., significantly higher than in human RBCs in which it was measured to be 4.2 × 10(-3) at 25 °C, 5.0 × 10(-3) at 30 °C, and 6.2 × 10(-3) at 37 °C). There was a lack of inhibition of P d of GST RBCs by p-chloromercuribenzoate (PCMB), a well-known inhibitor of the RBC water channel proteins (WCPs). The activation energy of water diffusion (E a,d) in GST RBCs was 15.0 ± 1.6 kJ mol(-1) which is lower than the E a,d for human RBCs (~25 kJ mol(-1)). These results indicate that in the membrane of GST RBCs, there were no WCPs that were inhibited by the mercurial reagent, while the lipid bilayer of this membrane is unusually permeable to water. This is likely to be a phylogenetically old trait, like that found in amphibians and even the later birds, all of which have nucleated erythrocytes; and it is also likely to be a result of the animal's adaptation to a herbivorous diet (algae and seagrasses).

  5. Carbon Nanotube-Based Permeable Membranes: A Platform for Studying Nanofluidics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, J K; Park, H G; Noy, A; Huser, T; Eaglesham, D; Bakajin, O

    2004-05-25

    A membrane of multiwalled carbon nanotubes embedded in a silicon nitride matrix was fabricated for use in studying fluid mechanics on the nanometer scale. Characterization by fluorescent tracer diffusion and scanning electron microscopy suggests that the membrane is void-free near the silicon substrate on which it rests, implying that the hollow core of the nanotube is the only conduction path for molecular transport. Nitrogen flow measurements of a nanoporous silicon nitride membrane, fabricated by sacrificial removal of carbon, give a flow rate of 0.086 cc/sec. Calculations of water flow across a nanotube membrane give a rate of 2.1x10{sup -6} cc/sec (0.12 {micro}L/min).

  6. Advanced membrane electrode assemblies for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yu Seung; Pivovar, Bryan S

    2014-02-25

    A method of preparing advanced membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) for use in fuel cells. A base polymer is selected for a base membrane. An electrode composition is selected to optimize properties exhibited by the membrane electrode assembly based on the selection of the base polymer. A property-tuning coating layer composition is selected based on compatibility with the base polymer and the electrode composition. A solvent is selected based on the interaction of the solvent with the base polymer and the property-tuning coating layer composition. The MEA is assembled by preparing the base membrane and then applying the property-tuning coating layer to form a composite membrane. Finally, a catalyst is applied to the composite membrane.

  7. Hyperthermia Differently Affects Connexin43 Expression and Gap Junction Permeability in Skeletal Myoblasts and HeLa Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ieva Antanavičiūtė

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress kinases can be activated by hyperthermia and modify the expression level and properties of membranous and intercellular channels. We examined the role of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK in hyperthermia-induced changes of connexin43 (Cx43 expression and permeability of Cx43 gap junctions (GJs in the rabbit skeletal myoblasts (SkMs and Cx43-EGFP transfected HeLa cells. Hyperthermia (42°C for 6 h enhanced the activity of JNK and its target, the transcription factor c-Jun, in both SkMs and HeLa cells. In SkMs, hyperthermia caused a 3.2-fold increase in the total Cx43 protein level and enhanced the efficacy of GJ intercellular communication (GJIC. In striking contrast, hyperthermia reduced the total amount of Cx43 protein, the number of Cx43 channels in GJ plaques, the density of hemichannels in the cell membranes, and the efficiency of GJIC in HeLa cells. Both in SkMs and HeLa cells, these changes could be prevented by XG-102, a JNK inhibitor. In HeLa cells, the changes in Cx43 expression and GJIC under hyperthermic conditions were accompanied by JNK-dependent disorganization of actin cytoskeleton stress fibers while in SkMs, the actin cytoskeleton remained intact. These findings provide an attractive model to identify the regulatory players within signalosomes, which determine the cell-dependent outcomes of hyperthermia.

  8. Hyperthermia differently affects connexin43 expression and gap junction permeability in skeletal myoblasts and HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antanavičiūtė, Ieva; Mildažienė, Vida; Stankevičius, Edgaras; Herdegen, Thomas; Skeberdis, Vytenis Arvydas

    2014-01-01

    Stress kinases can be activated by hyperthermia and modify the expression level and properties of membranous and intercellular channels. We examined the role of c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) in hyperthermia-induced changes of connexin43 (Cx43) expression and permeability of Cx43 gap junctions (GJs) in the rabbit skeletal myoblasts (SkMs) and Cx43-EGFP transfected HeLa cells. Hyperthermia (42°C for 6 h) enhanced the activity of JNK and its target, the transcription factor c-Jun, in both SkMs and HeLa cells. In SkMs, hyperthermia caused a 3.2-fold increase in the total Cx43 protein level and enhanced the efficacy of GJ intercellular communication (GJIC). In striking contrast, hyperthermia reduced the total amount of Cx43 protein, the number of Cx43 channels in GJ plaques, the density of hemichannels in the cell membranes, and the efficiency of GJIC in HeLa cells. Both in SkMs and HeLa cells, these changes could be prevented by XG-102, a JNK inhibitor. In HeLa cells, the changes in Cx43 expression and GJIC under hyperthermic conditions were accompanied by JNK-dependent disorganization of actin cytoskeleton stress fibers while in SkMs, the actin cytoskeleton remained intact. These findings provide an attractive model to identify the regulatory players within signalosomes, which determine the cell-dependent outcomes of hyperthermia.

  9. Alternative membranes for polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, A.K.; Pitchumani, S.; Sridhar, P.; Shukla, A.K. [Central Electrochemical Research Inst., Karaikudi (India)

    2009-07-01

    Nafion, a perfluoro-sulfonated membrane, is utilized as a membrane electrolyte in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). However, to realize optimum PEFC performance, the Nafion membrane needs to be fully humidified, making the system quite costly. Therefore, in order to solve this problem, alternative membrane electrolytes that could operate under low humidity conditions are needed. This paper reported on composite Nafion membranes with ceramic/inorganic fillers such as silica and mesoporous zirconium phosphate (MZP). Silica was impregnated to the Nafion matrix by a unique water hydrolysis sol-gel route and casted as a composite membrane while MZP, a solid-super-acid-proton-conducting medium as well as water absorbing material was synthesized by a co-assembly technique and impregnated to the Nafion matrix to form a composite membrane. The performance of the PEFCs with Nafion membrane and composite membranes was tested with hydrogen/oxygen gas and hydrogen/air feeds at varying relative humidity (RH) values under ambient conditions. It was concluded that under RH value as low as 18 per cent, the PEFC with Nafion membrane delivers a peak-power density of only 130 mW/square centimeter.

  10. A novel bioactive membrane by cell electrospinning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiping; Liu, Yuanyuan; Hu, Qingxi

    2015-11-01

    Electrospinning permits fabrication of biodegradable matrices that can resemble the both scale and mechanical behavior of the native extracellular matrix. However, achieving high-cellular density and infiltration of cells within matrices with traditional technique remain challenging and time consuming. The cell electrospinning technique presented in this paper can mitigate the problems associated with these limitations. Cells encapsulated by the material in the cell electrospinning technique survived well and distributed homogenously within the nanofibrous membrane, and their vitality was improved to 133% after being cultured for 28 days. The electrospun nanofibrous membrane has a certain degradation property and favorable cell-membrane interaction that supports the active biocompatibility of the membrane. Its properties are helpful for supporting cell attachment and growth, maintaining phenotypic shape, and secreting an ample amount of extracellular matrix (ECM). This novel membrane may be a potential application within the field of tissue engineering. The ability of cell electrospinning to microintegrate cells into a biodegradable fibrous matrix embodies a novel tissue engineering approach that could be applied to fabricate a high cell density elastic tissue mimetic.

  11. Effects of Dimethyl Sulfoxide in Cholesterol-Containing Lipid Membranes: A Comparative Study of Experiments In Silico and with Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ménorval, Marie-Amélie; Mir, Lluis M.; Fernández, M. Laura; Reigada, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) has been known to enhance cell membrane permeability of drugs or DNA. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with single-component lipid bilayers predicted the existence of three regimes of action of DMSO: membrane loosening, pore formation and bilayer collapse. We show here that these modes of action are also reproduced in the presence of cholesterol in the bilayer, and we provide a description at the atomic detail of the DMSO-mediated process of pore formation in cholesterol-containing lipid membranes. We also successfully explore the applicability of DMSO to promote plasma membrane permeability to water, calcium ions (Ca2+) and Yo-Pro-1 iodide (Yo-Pro-1) in living cell membranes. The experimental results on cells in culture can be easily explained according to the three expected regimes: in the presence of low doses of DMSO, the membrane of the cells exhibits undulations but no permeability increase can be detected, while at intermediate DMSO concentrations cells are permeabilized to water and calcium but not to larger molecules as Yo-Pro-1. These two behaviors can be associated to the MD-predicted consequences of the effects of the DMSO at low and intermediate DMSO concentrations. At larger DMSO concentrations, permeabilization is larger, as even Yo-Pro-1 can enter the cells as predicted by the DMSO-induced membrane-destructuring effects described in the MD simulations. PMID:22848583

  12. Artificial cell membranes for diagnostics and therapeutics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charych, D.; Nagy, J.O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Receptors on the membrane can recognize and bind extracellular molecules and convert that event into signals that elicit molecular changes within the cell. These two properties alone--molecular recognition and signal transduction--make the cell membrane an attractive model for designing novel biosensors or therapeutics. Natural cell membranes, however, are highly complex; mimicking the intricate choreography of the cell`s daily activities would be a daunting task. Instead, the authors turn to simpler, synthetic versions of the cell, where they can build in the components that give rise to specific activities and functions, one at a time. The process of forming artificial membranes is identical to that of forming natural membranes and is sometimes referred to as molecular self-assembly. From a practical point of view, the process is simple, because no external intervention is required--the molecules organize themselves into useful structures. The molecules that constitute the membranes are amphiphilic and therefore will spontaneously form lipid aggregates when mixed with water.

  13. Drying increases intracellular partitioning of amphiphilic substances into the lipid phase. Impact On membrane permeability and significance for desiccation tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovina; Hoekstra; Hemminga

    1998-11-01

    Previously we proposed that endogenous amphiphilic substances may partition from the aqueous cytoplasm into the lipid phase during dehydration of desiccation-tolerant organ(ism)s and vice versa during rehydration. Their perturbing presence in membranes could thus explain the transient leakage from imbibing organisms. To study the mechanism of this phenomenon, amphiphilic nitroxide spin probes were introduced into the pollen of a model organism, Typha latifolia, and their partitioning behavior during dehydration and rehydration was analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. In hydrated pollen the spin probes mainly occurred in the aqueous phase; during dehydration, however, the amphiphilic spin probes partitioned into the lipid phase and had disappeared from the aqueous phase below 0.4 g water g-1 dry weight. During rehydration the probes reappeared in the aqueous phase above 0.4 g water g-1 dry weight. The partitioning back into the cytoplasm coincided with the decrease of the initially high plasma membrane permeability. A charged polar spin probe was trapped in the cytoplasm during drying. Liposome experiments showed that partitioning of an amphiphilic spin probe into the bilayer during dehydration caused transient leakage during rehydration. This was also observed with endogenous amphipaths that were extracted from pollen, implying similar partitioning behavior. In view of the fluidizing effect on membranes and the antioxidant properties of many endogenous amphipaths, we suggest that partitioning with drying may be pivotal to desiccation tolerance, despite the risk of imbibitional leakage.

  14. Effect of casting solvent and polymer on permeability of propranolol hydrochloride through membrane controlled transdermal drug delivery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy T.E.G.K

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, cellulose acetate and ethyl cellulose films were prepared and evaluated as rate controlling membrane for transdermal drug delivery systems. In each case films were prepared using solutions of the polymer in various solvents to evaluate the influence of the solvent used on the mechanical and permeability properties of the films. Acetone-methanol (8:2, chloroform-methanol (8:2, dichloromethane-methanol (8:2 and ethyl acetate-methanol (8:2 were used as solvents in the preparation of cellulose acetate and ethyl cellulose films. Dibutyl phthalate or propylene glycol at a concentration of 40% w/w of the polymer was used as a plasticizer in the preparation films. The method of moulding was found to be giving thin uniform films. The dry films were evaluated for physical appearance, thickness uniformity, folding endurance, water vapour transmission, drug diffusion and permeability coefficient. Both water vapour transmission and Drug diffusion rate followed zero order kinetics. The mechanism of drug release was governed by Peppas model. The diffusion exponent of release profiles (slope has a value of 1.0360-1.3147 (n>1, which indicates non anomalous transport diffusion. The results obtained in the present study thus indicated that the polymers and solvents used in the preparation of films have shown significant influence on the water vapour transmission, drug diffusion and permeability of the films. Area of patches ranging from 1.29- 4.53 cm 2 were found to yield the desired release rate of propranolol hydrochloride. Cellulose acetate films employed with ethyl acetate:methanol in 8:2 ratio as casting solvent yielded low area (1.29 cm 2 of patch with desired release rate.

  15. The role of the trans double bond in skin barrier sphingolipids: permeability and infrared spectroscopic study of model ceramide and dihydroceramide membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skolová, Barbora; Jandovská, Kateřina; Pullmannová, Petra; Tesař, Ondřej; Roh, Jaroslav; Hrabálek, Alexandr; Vávrová, Kateřina

    2014-05-20

    Dihydroceramides (dCer) are members of the sphingolipid family that lack the C4 trans double bond in their sphingoid backbone. In addition to being precursors of ceramides (Cer) and phytoceramides, dCer have also been found in the extracellular lipid membranes of the epidermal barrier, the stratum corneum. However, their role in barrier homeostasis is not known. We studied how the lack of the trans double bond in dCer compared to Cer influences the permeability, lipid chain order, and packing of multilamellar membranes composed of the major skin barrier lipids: (d)Cer, fatty acids, cholesterol, and cholesteryl sulfate. The permeability of the membranes with long-chain dCer was measured using various markers and was either comparable to or only slightly greater than (by up to 35%, not significant) that of the Cer membranes. The dCer were less sensitive to acyl chain shortening than Cer (the short dCer membranes were up to 6-fold less permeable that the corresponding short Cer membranes). Infrared spectroscopy showed that long dCer mixed less with fatty acids but formed more thermally stable ordered domains than Cer. The key parameter explaining the differences in permeability in the short dCer and Cer was the proportion of the orthorhombic phase. Our results suggest that the presence of the trans double bond in Cer is not crucial for the permeability of skin lipid membranes and that dCer may be underappreciated members of the stratum corneum lipid barrier that increase its heterogeneity.

  16. Stretching micropatterned cells on a PDMS membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpi, Nicolas; Piel, Matthieu

    2014-01-22

    Mechanical forces exerted on cells and/or tissues play a major role in numerous processes. We have developed a device to stretch cells plated on a PolyDiMethylSiloxane (PDMS) membrane, compatible with imaging. This technique is reproducible and versatile. The PDMS membrane can be micropatterned in order to confine cells or tissues to a specific geometry. The first step is to print micropatterns onto the PDMS membrane with a deep UV technique. The PDMS membrane is then mounted on a mechanical stretcher. A chamber is bound on top of the membrane with biocompatible grease to allow gliding during the stretch. The cells are seeded and allowed to spread for several hours on the micropatterns. The sample can be stretched and unstretched multiple times with the use of a micrometric screw. It takes less than a minute to apply the stretch to its full extent (around 30%). The technique presented here does not include a motorized device, which is necessary for applying repeated stretch cycles quickly and/or computer controlled stretching, but this can be implemented. Stretching of cells or tissue can be of interest for questions related to cell forces, cell response to mechanical stress or tissue morphogenesis. This video presentation will show how to avoid typical problems that might arise when doing this type of seemingly simple experiment.

  17. Geometry and Topology of Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouligand, Y.

    Cells are limited by a membrane which is a fluid bilayer of phospholipids to which are associated numerous components, such as cholesterol, polysaccharides, proteins and, among them, many enzymes. organelles within cells are made for a large part of similar bilayers including phospholipids and various molecules. The cell membrane forms architectures closely related to those observed in liquid crystalline phases given by water-lipid systems (purified amphiphilic molecules in presence of water and oily components). The cell is divided into a series of compartments with definite topological relations, which are rehandled more or less profoundly in diverse circumstances as endocytosis, exocytosis, mitosis etc. There are several geometric arrangements of membrane sets : parallel membranes, hexagonal packing of tubes, cubic systems made of tubes joining either three by three, or four by four, or six by six. There are other arrangements less directly related to liquid crysyalline structures (annulate lamellae, tubes and lamellae with nematic symmetries, randomly joining tubes). Comparisons of structures in cellular membranes and in water-lipid systems reveal important differences. If geometries are often similar, water percentage and scales are distinct and bilayers observed in vitro present a symmetry which is broken in cell membrane bilayers. The curvature effects observed in water-lipid systems mainly come from a density difference between polar heads and corresponding paraffinic chains within a monolayer, whereas, in biological membranes, the asymmetry lies between the two monolayers and their associated molecules. Both systems produce saddle-shaped bilayers arranging into cubic lattices separating two aqueous compartments. In water-lipid systems, the coupling at an interface of two different areas seems to predominate, whereas in biological membranes, mechanisms are different and probably originate from geometric properties of proteins included within bilayers.

  18. Characterization of direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) applications with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} modified chitosan membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osifo, Peter O.; Masala, Aluwani [Department of Chemical Engineering, Vaal University of Technology, Andries Potgieter Bolevald, P/Bag X021, Vanderbijlpark 1900, Gauteng (South Africa)

    2010-08-01

    Chitosan (Chs) flakes were prepared from chitin materials that were extracted from the exoskeleton of Cape rock lobsters in South Africa. The Chs flakes were prepared into membranes and the Chs membranes were modified by cross-linking with H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The cross-linked Chs membranes were characterized for the application in direct methanol fuel cells. The Chs membrane characteristics such as water uptake, thermal stability, proton resistance and methanol permeability were compared to that of high performance conventional Nafion 117 membranes. Under the temperature range studied 20-60 C, the membrane water uptake for Chs was found to be higher than that of Nafion. Thermal analysis revealed that Chs membranes could withstand temperature as high as 230 C whereas Nafion 117 membranes were stable to 320 C under nitrogen. Nafion 117 membranes were found to exhibit high proton resistance of 284 s cm{sup -1} than Chs membranes of 204 s cm{sup -1}. The proton fluxes across the membranes were 2.73 mol cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} for Chs- and 1.12 mol cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} Nafion membranes. Methanol (MeOH) permeability through Chs membrane was less, 1.4 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} for Chs membranes and 3.9 x 10{sup -6} cm{sup 2} s{sup -1} for Nafion 117 membranes at 20 C. Chs and Nafion membranes were fabricated into membrane electrode assemblies (MAE) and their performances measure in a free-breathing commercial single cell DMFC. The Nafion membranes showed a better performance as the power density determined for Nafion membranes of 0.0075 W cm{sup -2} was 2.7 times higher than in the case of Chs MEA. (author)

  19. Characterization and fuel cell performance analysis of polyvinylalcohol-mordenite mixed-matrix membranes for direct methanol fuel cell use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uctug, Fehmi Goerkem, E-mail: gorkem.uctug@bahcesehir.edu.t [University of Manchester, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Holmes, Stuart M. [University of Manchester, School of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Science, M60 1QD (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > We investigated the availability of PVA-mordenite membranes for DMFC use. > We measured the methanol permeability of PVA-mordenite membranes via pervaporation. > We did the fuel cell testing of these membranes, which had not been done before. > We showed that PVA-mordenite membranes have poorer DMFC performance than Nafion. > Membrane performance can be improved by increasing the proton conductivity of PVA. - Abstract: Polyvinylalcohol-mordenite (PVA-MOR) mixed matrix membranes were synthesized for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) use. For the structural and the morphological characterization, Scanning Electron Microscopy and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis methods were used. Zeolite distribution within the polymer matrix was found to be homogeneous. An impedance spectroscope was used to measure the proton conductivity. In order to obtain information about methanol permeation characteristics, swelling tests and a series of pervaporation experiments were carried out. 60-40 wt% PVA-MOR membranes were found to give the optimum transport properties. Proton conductivity of these membranes was found to be slightly lower than that of Nafion117{sup TM} whereas their methanol permeability was at least two orders of magnitude lower than Nafion117{sup TM}. DMFC performance of the PVA-MOR membranes was also measured. The inferior DMFC performance of PVA-MOR membranes was linked to drying in the fuel cell medium and the consequent proton conductivity loss. Their performance was improved by adding a dilute solution of sulfuric acid into the feed methanol solution. Future studies on the improvement of the proton conductivity of PVA-MOR membranes, especially via sulfonation of the polymer matrix, can overcome the low-performance problem associated with insufficient proton conductivity.

  20. Acyl-homoserine lactones suppresses IEC-6 cell proliferation and increase permeability of isolated rat colon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe, Ga-Hyun; Andoh, Midori; Nomura, Mikako; Iwaya, Hitoshi; Lee, Jae-Sung; Shimizu, Hidehisa; Tsuji, Youhei; Maseda, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Hara, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated to determine whether a variety of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) influences epithelial cell proliferation and mucosal permeability. 3-Oxo-C12-homoserine lactone (HSL) and 3-oxo-C14-HSL significantly suppressed IEC-6 cell proliferation. A significant increase in mucosal permeability was observed in isolated rat colon tissue exposed to C12-HSL, 3-oxo-C12-HSL, and 3-oxo-C14-HSL. These data indicate that AHLs suppress epithelial proliferation and disrupt barrier function in intestinal mucosa.

  1. The permeability of SPION over an artificial three-layer membrane is enhanced by external magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Xianxi

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sensorineural hearing loss, a subset of all clinical hearing loss, may be correctable through the use of gene therapy. We are testing a delivery system of therapeutics through a 3 cell-layer round window membrane model (RWM model that may provide an entry of drugs or genes to the inner ear. We designed an in vitro RWM model similar to the RWM (will be referred to throughout the paper as RWM model to determine the feasibility of using superparamagnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4 nanoparticles (SPION for targeted delivery of therapeutics to the inner ear. The RWM model is a 3 cell-layer model with epithelial cells cultured on both sides of a small intestinal submucosal (SIS matrix and fibroblasts seeded in between. Dextran encapsulated nanoparticle clusters 130 nm in diameter were pulled through the RWM model using permanent magnets with flux density 0.410 Tesla at the pole face. The SIS membranes were harvested at day 7 and then fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. Transmission electron microscopy and fluorescence spectrophotometry were used to verify transepithelial transport of the SPION across the cell-culture model. Histological sections were examined for evidence of SPION toxicity, as well to generate a timeline of the position of the SPION at different times. SPION also were added to cells in culture to assess in vitro toxicity. Results Transepithelial electrical resistance measurements confirmed epithelial confluence, as SPION crossed a membrane consisting of three co-cultured layers of cells, under the influence of a magnetic field. Micrographs showed SPION distributed throughout the membrane model, in between cell layers, and sometimes on the surface of cells. TEM verified that the SPION were pulled through the membrane into the culture well below. Fluorescence spectrophotometry quantified the number of SPION that went through the SIS membrane. SPION showed no toxicity to cells in culture. Conclusion A three-cell layer model of the

  2. A PCNA-derived cell permeable peptide selectively inhibits neuroblastoma cell growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Long Gu

    Full Text Available Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA, through its interaction with various proteins involved in DNA synthesis, cell cycle regulation, and DNA repair, plays a central role in maintaining genome stability. We previously reported a novel cancer associated PCNA isoform (dubbed caPCNA, which was significantly expressed in a broad range of cancer cells and tumor tissues, but not in non-malignant cells. We found that the caPCNA-specific antigenic site lies between L126 and Y133, a region within the interconnector domain of PCNA that is known to be a major binding site for many of PCNA's interacting proteins. We hypothesized that therapeutic agents targeting protein-protein interactions mediated through this region may confer differential toxicity to normal and malignant cells. To test this hypothesis, we designed a cell permeable peptide containing the PCNA L126-Y133 sequence. Here, we report that this peptide selectively kills human neuroblastoma cells, especially those with MYCN gene amplification, with much less toxicity to non-malignant human cells. Mechanistically, the peptide is able to block PCNA interactions in cancer cells. It interferes with DNA synthesis and homologous recombination-mediated double-stranded DNA break repair, resulting in S-phase arrest, accumulation of DNA damage, and enhanced sensitivity to cisplatin. These results demonstrate conceptually the utility of this peptide for treating neuroblastomas, particularly, the unfavorable MYCN-amplified tumors.

  3. Cell membrane softening in human breast and cervical cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Händel, Chris; Schmidt, B. U. Sebastian; Schiller, Jürgen; Dietrich, Undine; Möhn, Till; Kießling, Tobias R.; Pawlizak, Steve; Fritsch, Anatol W.; Horn, Lars-Christian; Briest, Susanne; Höckel, Michael; Zink, Mareike; Käs, Josef A.

    2015-08-01

    Biomechanical properties are key to many cellular functions such as cell division and cell motility and thus are crucial in the development and understanding of several diseases, for instance cancer. The mechanics of the cellular cytoskeleton have been extensively characterized in cells and artificial systems. The rigidity of the plasma membrane, with the exception of red blood cells, is unknown and membrane rigidity measurements only exist for vesicles composed of a few synthetic lipids. In this study, thermal fluctuations of giant plasma membrane vesicles (GPMVs) directly derived from the plasma membranes of primary breast and cervical cells, as well as breast cell lines, are analyzed. Cell blebs or GPMVs were studied via thermal membrane fluctuations and mass spectrometry. It will be shown that cancer cell membranes are significantly softer than their non-malignant counterparts. This can be attributed to a loss of fluid raft forming lipids in malignant cells. These results indicate that the reduction of membrane rigidity promotes aggressive blebbing motion in invasive cancer cells.

  4. Metric dynamics for membrane transformation through regulated cell proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Hiroshi C.

    2016-01-01

    This study develops an equation for describing three-dimensional membrane transformation through proliferation of its component cells regulated by morphogen density distributions on the membrane. The equation is developed in a two-dimensional coordinate system mapped on the membrane, referred to as the membrane coordinates. When the membrane expands, the membrane coordinates expand in the same manner so that the membrane is invariant in the coordinates. In the membrane coordinate system, the ...

  5. Shedding of cell membrane-bound proteoglycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Eon Jeong; Park, Pyong Woo

    2012-01-01

    Membrane-bound proteoglycans function primarily as coreceptors for many glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-binding ligands at the cell surface. The majority of membrane-bound proteoglycans can also function as soluble autocrine or paracrine effectors as their extracellular domains, replete with all GAG chains, are enzymatically cleaved and released from the cell surface by ectodomain shedding. In particular, the ectodomain shedding of syndecans, a major family of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, is an important posttranslational mechanism that modulates diverse pathophysiological processes. Syndecan shedding is a tightly controlled process that regulates the onset, progression, and resolution of various infectious and noninfectious inflammatory diseases. This review describes methods to induce and measure the shedding of cell membrane-bound proteoglycans, focusing on syndecan shedding as a prototypic example.

  6. Na+-permeable channels of human sperm membrane re- assembled into giant liposome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Previous data showed that a Na+-transmembrane flux was accompanied with acrosome reaction of sperm. However, the electrophysiological recording and characterization of Na+ current in human sperm membrane have not been yet reported. In the present investigation, membrane proteins extracted from human sperms were reassembled into liposome bilayer, and then the liposomes were fused by dehydration-rehydration into giant liposomes with the diameter of more than 10 mm. By patch clamping the giant liposomes two kinds of single channel currents were recorded in a NaCl solution system. Both of them were Na+-carried, TTX-sensitive and strongly rectifying, but with different unit conductance and open probability. Moreover, bursting activity and channel-substates as well as two open time constants were observed in the larger channel.

  7. Slit2-Robo4 receptor responses inhibit ANDV directed permeability of human lung microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbunova, Elena E; Gavrilovskaya, Irina N; Mackow, Erich R

    2013-08-01

    Hantaviruses nonlytically infect human endothelial cells (ECs) and cause edematous and hemorrhagic diseases. Andes virus (ANDV) causes hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS), and Hantaan virus (HTNV) causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS). Hantaviruses enhance vascular endothelial growth factor directed EC permeability resulting in the disassembly of inter-endothelial cell adherens junctions (AJs). Recent studies demonstrate that Slit2 binding to Robo1/Robo4 receptors on ECs has opposing effects on AJ disassembly and vascular fluid barrier functions. Here we demonstrate that Slit2 inhibits ANDV and HTNV induced permeability and AJ disassembly of pulmonary microvascular ECs (PMECs) by interactions with Robo4. In contrast, Slit2 had no effect on the permeability of ANDV infected human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs). Analysis of Robo1/Robo4 expression determined that PMECs express Robo4, but not Robo1, while HUVECs expressed both Robo4 and Robo1 receptors. SiRNA knockdown of Robo4 in PMECs prevented Slit2 inhibition of ANDV induced permeability demonstrating that Robo4 receptors determine PMEC responsiveness to Slit2. Collectively, this data demonstrates a selective role for Slit2/Robo4 responses within PMECs that inhibits ANDV induced permeability and AJ disassembly. These findings suggest Slit2s utility as a potential HPS therapeutic that stabilizes the pulmonary endothelium and antagonizes ANDV induced pulmonary edema.

  8. Electrically Conductive, Hydrophilic Porous Membrane for Fuel Cell Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This Phase I effort seeks to produce a conductive polyethersulfone (PES) microporous membrane for fuel cell water management applications. This membrane will...

  9. Alternate Fuel Cell Membranes for Energy Independence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Storey, Robson, F.; Mauritz, Kenneth, A.; Patton, Derek, L.; Savin, Daniel, A.

    2012-12-18

    The overall objective of this project was the development and evaluation of novel hydrocarbon fuel cell (FC) membranes that possess high temperature performance and long term chemical/mechanical durability in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FC). The major research theme was synthesis of aromatic hydrocarbon polymers of the poly(arylene ether sulfone) (PAES) type containing sulfonic acid groups tethered to the backbone via perfluorinated alkylene linkages and in some cases also directly attached to the phenylene groups along the backbone. Other research themes were the use of nitrogen-based heterocyclics instead of acid groups for proton conduction, which provides high temperature, low relative humidity membranes with high mechanical/thermal/chemical stability and pendant moieties that exhibit high proton conductivities in the absence of water, and synthesis of block copolymers consisting of a proton conducting block coupled to poly(perfluorinated propylene oxide) (PFPO) blocks. Accomplishments of the project were as follows: 1) establishment of a vertically integrated program of synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of FC membranes, 2) establishment of benchmark membrane performance data based on Nafion for comparison to experimental membrane performance, 3) development of a new perfluoroalkyl sulfonate monomer, N,N-diisopropylethylammonium 2,2-bis(p-hydroxyphenyl) pentafluoropropanesulfonate (HPPS), 4) synthesis of random and block copolymer membranes from HPPS, 5) synthesis of block copolymer membranes containing high-acid-concentration hydrophilic blocks consisting of HPPS and 3,3'-disulfonate-4,4'-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (sDCDPS), 6) development of synthetic routes to aromatic polymer backbones containing pendent 1H-1,2,3-triazole moieties, 7) development of coupling strategies to create phase-separated block copolymers between hydrophilic sulfonated prepolymers and commodity polymers such as PFPO, 8) establishment of basic

  10. Modeling of hydrodynamics in hollow fiber membrane bioreactor for mammalian cells cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Menshutina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical modelling in CFD-packages are powerfull instrument for design and calculation of any engineering tasks. CFD-package contains the set of programs that allow to model the different objects behavior based on the mathematical lows. ANSYS Fluent are widely used for modelling of biotechnological and chemical-technological processes. This package is convenient to describe their hydrodynamics. As cell cultivation is one of the actual scientific direction in modern biotechnology ANSYS Fluent was used to create the model of hollow fiber membrane bioreactor. The fibers are hollow cylindrical membrane to be used for cell cultivation. The criterion of process effectiveness for cell growth is full filling of the membrane surface by cells in the bioreactor. While the cell growth the fiber permeability is decreased which effects to feed flow through membrane pores. The specific feature of this process is to ensure such feed flow to deliver the optimal nutrition for the cells on the external membrane surface. The velocity distribution inside the fiber and in all bioreactor as a whole has been calculated based on mass an impulse conservation equations taking into account the mathematical model assumptions. The hydrodynamics analysis in hollow fiber membrane bioreactor is described by the three-dimensional model created in ANSYS Fluent. The specific features of one membrane model are considered and for whole bioreactor too.

  11. The permeability of red blood cells to chloride, urea and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brahm, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    This study extends permeability (P) data on chloride, urea and water in red blood cells (RBC), and concludes that the urea transporter (UT-B) does not transport water. P of chick, duck, Amphiuma means, dog and human RBC to (36)Cl(-), (14)C-urea and (3)H2O was determined under self...

  12. High temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is a comprehensive review of high-temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). PEMFCs are the preferred fuel cells for a variety of applications such as automobiles, cogeneration of heat and power units, emergency power and portable electronics. The first 5 chapters...... of the book describe rationalization and illustration of approaches to high temperature PEM systems. Chapters 6 - 13 are devoted to fabrication, optimization and characterization of phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole membranes, the very first electrolyte system that has demonstrated the concept...

  13. Hydroquinone based sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone copolymer as proton exchange membrane for fuel cell applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kiran

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of sulfonated poly (arylene ether sulfone copolymer by direct copolymerization of 4,4'-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl valeric acid, benzene 1,4-diol and synthesized sulfonated 4,4'-difluorodiphenylsulfone and its characterization by using FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared and NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopic techniques have been performed. The copolymer was subsequently cross-linked with 4, 4!(hexafluoroisopropylidenediphenol epoxy resin by thermal curing reaction to synthesize crosslinked membranes. The evaluation of properties showed reduction in water and methanol uptake, ion exchange capacity, proton conductivity with simultaneous enhancement in oxidative stability of the crosslinked membranes as compared to pristine membrane. The performance of the membranes has also been evaluated in terms of thermal stability, morphology, mechanical strength and methanol permeability by using Thermo gravimetric analyzer, Differential scanning calorimetery, Atomic force microscopy, XPERT-PRO diffractometer, universal testing machine and diffusion cell, respectively. The results demonstrated that the crosslinked membranes exhibited high thermal stability with phase separation, restrained crystallinity, acceptable mechanical properties and methanol permeability. Therefore, these can serve as promising proton exchange membranes for fuel cell applications.

  14. Triggering of erythrocyte cell membrane scrambling by salinomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bissinger, Rosi; Malik, Abaid; Jilani, Kashif; Lang, Florian

    2014-11-01

    Salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic effective against a variety of pathogens, has been shown to trigger apoptosis of cancer cells and cancer stem cells. The substance is thus considered for the treatment of malignancy. Salinomycin compromises tumour cell survival at least in part by interference with mitochondrial function. Erythrocytes lack mitochondria but may undergo apoptosis-like suicidal cell death or eryptosis, which is characterized by scrambling of the cell membrane with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Signalling involved in the triggering of eryptosis includes activation of oxidant-sensitive Ca(2+) permeable cation channels with subsequent increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) activity ([Ca(2+)]i). This study explored whether salinomycin stimulates eryptosis. Phosphatidylserine-exposing erythrocytes were identified by measurement of annexin-V binding, cell volume was estimated from forward scatter, haemolysis determined from haemoglobin release, [Ca(2+)]i quantified utilizing Fluo3-fluorescence and oxidative stress from 2',7' dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) fluorescence in flow cytometry. A 48-hr exposure to salinomycin (5-100 nM) was followed by a significant increase in Fluo3-fluorescence, DCFDA fluorescence and annexin-V binding, as well as a significant decrease in forward scatter (at 5-10 nM, but not at 50 and 100 nM). The annexin-V binding after salinomycin treatment was significantly blunted but not abrogated in the nominal absence of extracellular Ca(2+) or in the presence of antioxidant n-acetyl cysteine (1 mM). Salinomycin triggers cell membrane scrambling, an effect at least partially due to oxidative stress and entry of extracellular Ca(2+).

  15. Hereditary spherocytosis, elliptocytosis, and other red cell membrane disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Lydie; Galimand, Julie; Fenneteau, Odile; Mohandas, Narla

    2013-07-01

    Hereditary spherocytosis and elliptocytosis are the two most common inherited red cell membrane disorders resulting from mutations in genes encoding various red cell membrane and skeletal proteins. Red cell membrane, a composite structure composed of lipid bilayer linked to spectrin-based membrane skeleton is responsible for the unique features of flexibility and mechanical stability of the cell. Defects in various proteins involved in linking the lipid bilayer to membrane skeleton result in loss in membrane cohesion leading to surface area loss and hereditary spherocytosis while defects in proteins involved in lateral interactions of the spectrin-based skeleton lead to decreased mechanical stability, membrane fragmentation and hereditary elliptocytosis. The disease severity is primarily dependent on the extent of membrane surface area loss. Both these diseases can be readily diagnosed by various laboratory approaches that include red blood cell cytology, flow cytometry, ektacytometry, electrophoresis of the red cell membrane proteins, and mutational analysis of gene encoding red cell membrane proteins.

  16. Experimental Measurement of Relative Permeability Functions for Fuel Cell GDL Materials

    KAUST Repository

    Hussaini, Irfan

    2009-01-01

    Gas diffusion layer in PEM fuel cells plays a pivotal role in water management. Modeling of liquid water transport through the GDL relies on knowledge of relative permeability functions in the in-plane and through-plane directions. In the present work, air and water relative permeabilities are experimentally determined as functions of saturation for typical GDL materials such as Toray-060, -090, -120 carbon paper and E-Tek carbon cloth materials in their plain, untreated forms. Saturation is measured using an ex-situ gravimetric method. Absolute and relative permeability functions in the two directions of interest are presented. Significant departure from the generally assumed cubic function of saturation is observed. ©The Electrochemical Society.

  17. Investigation of membrane electrode assemblies (MEAs) for efficient and optimum performance of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okafor, A.C.; Mogbo, H.M.C. [Missouri Univ. of Science and Technology, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering

    2009-07-01

    The core component of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) which includes an assembled stack of ion exchange membrane reaction catalysts, and the electrodes that converts hydrogen ions into electricity. This study investigated various MEAs in an effort to improve fuel cell performance and durability. First, a literature review of different commercially available and innovative PEM fuel cell MEAs was conducted. The best performing MEAs were then investigated in terms of fuel cell output voltage, operating temperature, thermal and chemical stability, methanol permeability, proton conductivity, and hydrogen crossover. The selected MEAs based on their high output voltage, ability to withstand chemical/radical attacks, overall fuel cell performance, and other excellent physical properties were identified as phosphoric acid-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI/H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}), disulfonated poly(sulfide sulfone)s (SPSSF), and Nafion 212. Finally, in-house designed and manufactured bipolar plates of different materials and flow field configurations are being used to validate these 3 identified MEAs in a single fuel cell and 3 fuel cell stacks.

  18. Membranes for hydrogen and fuel cell technology; Membranas para celula combustivel e separacao de hidrogenio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunes, Suzana Pereira [GKSS-Forschungszentrum, Geesthacht (Germany)]. E-mail: nunes@gkss.de

    2005-07-01

    Membranes for fuel cell were prepared using as polymer matrix sulfonated polyether ketones. New sulfonated copolymers (poly oxazoles, poly imides and poly ketones) were synthesized. Nano composites using zirconium oxide and phosphates, as well as modified silicates were obtained aiming the application on direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The performances of membranes containing fillers with different aspects (spherical, layers, tubular, networks) and surface modification (hydroxy, imidazole, acid oligomers) were compared. The effect of surface modification was much more pronounced than that of the aspect. A good balance of proton conductivity and methanol permeability was obtained with silicates modified with imidazole groups. Good performance in DMFC were obtained with membranes containing zirconium phosphate. Acid oligomers also led to particularly high conductivity values above 100 deg C. Polyimide membranes with H{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} larger than 100 were obtained. (author )

  19. Improved Performance of Sulfonated Polyarylene Ethers for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D. Xing; J. Kerres; F. Sch(o)nberger

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction The proton exchange membrane (PEM) is one of key components in fuel cell system. Its properties are very important in determining PEMFC performance. The membranes presently used in fuel cell are perfluorosulfonic polymers, such as Nafion(R) from Dupont. Although they have high proton conductivity and excellent chemical stability, their too high production cast and methanol permeability lead to failure of fuel cell application. Therefore, various partially fluorinated and non-fluorinated polymer electrolytes are under development for PEMFC application since one decade. In the middle of non-fluorinated polymer electrolytes, sulfonated poly(arylene ether)s display high thermal stability, good mechanical properties and exceptional resistance to oxidation and acid catalyzed hydrolysis. They have been regarded as well-suited proton exchange membrane candidates for fuel cells.

  20. Photocatalytic Degradation of E.coli Membrane Cell in the Presence of ZnO Nanowires

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xuefei; WANG Wei; LIU Peng; WANG ping; ZHANG Lianmeng

    2011-01-01

    The photocatalytic degradation of E. coli membrane cell by ZnO nanowires was studied using field-emission scanning electron microscope(FE-SEM), fluorescence microscopy, and Attenuated total reflection fourier transform infrared(ATR-FTIR). The outer membrane of E.coli was removed completely in the presence of ZnO nanowires under UV irradiation, and the cells became twisted shapes without a mechanically strong network. After ZnO nanowires photocatalysis, the permeability of the treated cells increased to some degree that could be confirmed by quantum dots labeling technique. Structural changes in the cell wall membrane were revealed by the decay of the characteristic groups bands in ATR-FTIR spectra.

  1. Membrane lipidome of an epithelial cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampaio, Julio L; Gerl, Mathias J; Klose, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Tissue differentiation is an important process that involves major cellular membrane remodeling. We used Madin-Darby canine kidney cells as a model for epithelium formation and investigated the remodeling of the total cell membrane lipidome during the transition from a nonpolarized morphology...... to an epithelial morphology and vice versa. To achieve this, we developed a shotgun-based lipidomics workflow that enabled the absolute quantification of mammalian membrane lipidomes with minimal sample processing from low sample amounts. Epithelial morphogenesis was accompanied by a major shift from sphingomyelin...... to glycosphingolipid, together with an increase in plasmalogen, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cholesterol content, whereas the opposite changes took place during an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Moreover, during polarization, the sphingolipids became longer, more saturated, and more hydroxylated as required...

  2. A plate reader-based method for cell water permeability measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenton, Robert A.; Moeller, H B; Nielsen, S

    2010-01-01

    Cell volume and water permeability measurements in cultured mammalian cells are typically conducted under a light microscope. Many of the employed approaches are time consuming and not applicable to a study of confluent epithelial cell monolayers. We present here an adaptation of a calcein-quenching-based......-mannitol concentrations. Similarly, according average cell volumes have been measured in suspension in a Coulter counter (particle-sizing device). Based on these measurements, we have derived an equation that facilitates the modeling of cell volume changes based on fluorescence intensity changes. We have utilized...

  3. Development of cesium phosphotungstate salt and chitosan composite membrane for direct methanol fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Yanxin; Xiang, Yan; Xiu, Ruijie; Lu, Shanfu

    2013-10-15

    A novel composite membrane has been developed by doping cesium phosphotungstate salt (CsxH3-xPW12O40 (0≤x≤3), Csx-PTA) into chitosan (CTS/Csx-PTA) for application in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Uniform distribution of Csx-PTA nanoparticles has been achieved in the chitosan matrix. The proton conductivity of the composite membrane is significantly affected by the Csx-PTA content in the composite membrane as well as the Cs substitution in PTA. The highest proton conductivity for the CTS/Csx-PTA membranes was obtained with x=2 and Cs2-PTA content of 5 wt%. The value is 6×10(-3) S cm(-1) and 1.75×10(-2) S cm(-1) at 298 K and 353 K, respectively. The methanol permeability of CTS/Cs2-PTA membrane is about 5.6×10(-7), 90% lower than that of Nafion-212 membrane. The highest selectivity factor (φ) was obtained on CTS/Cs2-PTA-5 wt% composite membrane, 1.1×10(4)/Scm(-3)s. The present study indicates the promising potential of CTS/Csx-PTA composite membrane as alternative proton exchange membranes in direct methanol fuel cells.

  4. Roles of charged particles and reactive species on cell membrane permeabilization induced by atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shota; Kanzaki, Makoto; Hokari, Yutaro; Tominami, Kanako; Mokudai, Takayuki; Kanetaka, Hiroyasu; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2016-07-01

    As factors that influence cell membrane permeabilization during direct and indirect atmospheric-pressure plasma irradiation, charged particle influx, superoxide anion radicals (O2 -•), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in plasma-irradiated solution were evaluated. These are the three strong candidate factors and might multiply contribute to cell membrane permeabilization. In particular, a shorter plasma diffusion distance leads to the enhancement of the direct effects such as charged particle influx and further increase cell membrane permeability. In addition, O2 -• dissipates over time (a life span of the order of minutes) in plasma-irradiated water, and the deactivation of a plasma-irradiated solution in term of cell membrane permeabilization occurs in a life span of the same order. These results could promote the understanding of the mechanism of plasma-induced cell membrane permeabilization.

  5. Membrane electrode assembly for a fuel cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Surya (Inventor); Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Atti, Anthony (Inventor); Olah, George (Inventor); Smart, Marshall C. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A catalyst ink for a fuel cell including a catalytic material and poly(vinylidene fluoride). The ink may be applied to a substrate to form an electrode, or bonded with other electrode layers to form a membrane electrode assembly (MEA).

  6. Lithium. Effects on excitable cell membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeger, Egbert Johan

    1974-01-01

    LITHIUM: Effects on excitable cell membranes. Lithium salts have been used in the treatment of manic-depressive psychosis for many years but their mechanism of action is not well understood. Many workers assume that the action of lithium on catecholamine metabolism and/or on electrolyte distribution

  7. Research in Water Permeability of Poly(ethylene) Terephthalate Track Membranes Modified by Polymerization of Dimethylaniline under the Action of Direct Current Discharge

    CERN Document Server

    Kravets, L I; Drachev, A I

    2004-01-01

    The properties of poly(ethylene) terephthalate track membranes modified by polymerization of dimethylaniline in a discharge of direct current are investigated. The influence of conditions of plasma treatment on the basic characteristics of the membranes (pore size, wettability, surface charge, water permeability) is studied. It is shown that under the action of discharge, a polymeric layer is formed on the membrane surface that can swell in solutions with low pH values. It has been found that the degree of the swelling stipulated by the conformation transfer of macromolecules of the deposited polymeric layer depends upon the size of relative magnification of the mass of the membrane during its plasma treatment. It is also shown that the obtained membranes can reversibly react to changing the pH of solution and applied pressure.

  8. Human Lysozyme Synergistically Enhances Bactericidal Dynamics and Lowers the Resistant Mutant Prevention Concentration for Metronidazole to Helicobacter pylori by Increasing Cell Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Metronidazole (MNZ is an effective agent that has been employed to eradicate Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori. The emergence of broad MNZ resistance in H. pylori has affected the efficacy of this therapeutic agent. The concentration of MNZ, especially the mutant prevention concentration (MPC, plays an important role in selecting or enriching resistant mutants and regulating therapeutic effects. A strategy to reduce the MPC that can not only effectively treat H. pylori but also prevent resistance mutations is needed. H. pylori is highly resistant to lysozyme. Lysozyme possesses a hydrolytic bacterial cell wall peptidoglycan and a cationic dependent mode. These effects can increase the permeability of bacterial cells and promote antibiotic absorption into bacterial cells. In this study, human lysozyme (hLYS was used to probe its effects on the integrity of the H. pylori outer and inner membranes using as fluorescent probe hydrophobic 1-N-phenyl-naphthylamine (NPN and the release of aspartate aminotransferase. Further studies using a propidium iodide staining method assessed whether hLYS could increase cell permeability and promote cell absorption. Finally, we determined the effects of hLYS on the bactericidal dynamics and MPC of MNZ in H. pylori. Our findings indicate that hLYS could dramatically increase cell permeability, reduce the MPC of MNZ for H. pylori, and enhance its bactericidal dynamic activity, demonstrating that hLYS could reduce the probability of MNZ inducing resistance mutations.

  9. Water permeability in human airway epithelium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peter Steen; Procida, Kristina; Larsen, Per Leganger;

    2005-01-01

    Osmotic water permeability (P(f)) was studied in spheroid-shaped human airway epithelia explants derived from nasal polyps by the use of a new improved tissue collection and isolation procedure. The fluid-filled spheroids were lined with a single cell layer with the ciliated apical cell membrane...

  10. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricò, Antonino S.; Sebastian, David; Schuster, Michael; Bauer, Bernd; D’Urso, Claudia; Lufrano, Francesco; Baglio, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion® were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK), new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA) systems, and composite zirconium phosphate–PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA) was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA) was higher than the benchmark Nafion® 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm−2 vs. 64 mW·cm−2). This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm−2 equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm−2 for Nafion® 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol) and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm2 for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm2 for Nafion® 115). PMID:26610582

  11. Selectivity of Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino S. Aricò

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Sulfonic acid-functionalized polymer electrolyte membranes alternative to Nafion® were developed. These were hydrocarbon systems, such as blend sulfonated polyetheretherketone (s-PEEK, new generation perfluorosulfonic acid (PFSA systems, and composite zirconium phosphate–PFSA polymers. The membranes varied in terms of composition, equivalent weight, thickness, and filler and were investigated with regard to their methanol permeation characteristics and proton conductivity for application in direct methanol fuel cells. The behavior of the membrane electrode assemblies (MEA was investigated in fuel cell with the aim to individuate a correlation between membrane characteristics and their performance in a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC. The power density of the DMFC at 60 °C increased according to a square root-like function of the membrane selectivity. This was defined as the reciprocal of the product between area specific resistance and crossover. The power density achieved at 60 °C for the most promising s-PEEK-based membrane-electrode assembly (MEA was higher than the benchmark Nafion® 115-based MEA (77 mW·cm−2 vs. 64 mW·cm−2. This result was due to a lower methanol crossover (47 mA·cm−2 equivalent current density for s-PEEK vs. 120 mA·cm−2 for Nafion® 115 at 60 °C as recorded at OCV with 2 M methanol and a suitable area specific resistance (0.15 Ohm cm2 for s-PEEK vs. 0.22 Ohm cm2 for Nafion® 115.

  12. CCR7 and IRF4-dependent dendritic cells regulate lymphatic collecting vessel permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, Stoyan; Scallan, Joshua P; Kim, Ki-Wook; Werth, Kathrin; Johnson, Michael W; Saunders, Brian T; Wang, Peter L; Kuan, Emma L; Straub, Adam C; Ouhachi, Melissa; Weinstein, Erica G; Williams, Jesse W; Briseño, Carlos; Colonna, Marco; Isakson, Brant E; Gautier, Emmanuel L; Förster, Reinhold; Davis, Michael J; Zinselmeyer, Bernd H; Randolph, Gwendalyn J

    2016-04-01

    Lymphatic collecting vessels direct lymph into and from lymph nodes (LNs) and can become hyperpermeable as the result of a previous infection. Enhanced permeability has been implicated in compromised immunity due to reduced flow of lymph and immune cells to LNs, which are the primary site of antigen presentation to T cells. Presently, very little is known about the molecular signals that affect lymphatic collecting vessel permeability. Here, we have shown that lymphatic collecting vessel permeability is controlled by CCR7 and that the chronic hyperpermeability of collecting vessels observed in Ccr7-/- mice is followed by vessel fibrosis. Reexpression of CCR7 in DCs, however, was sufficient to reverse the development of such fibrosis. IFN regulatory factor 4-positive (IRF4+) DCs constitutively interacted with collecting lymphatics, and selective ablation of this DC subset in Cd11c-Cre Irf4fl/fl mice also rendered lymphatic collecting vessels hyperpermeable and fibrotic. Together, our data reveal that CCR7 plays multifaceted roles in regulating collecting vessel permeability and fibrosis, with one of the key players being IRF4-dependent DCs.

  13. Local membrane deformations activate Ca2+-dependent K+ and anionic currents in intact human red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyrda, Agnieszka; Cytlak, Urszula; Ciuraszkiewicz, Anna

    2010-01-01

    by such flow, as well as the local membrane deformations generated in certain pathological conditions, such as sickle cell anemia, have been shown to increase membrane permeability, based largely on experimentation with red cell suspensions. We attempted here the first measurements of membrane currents......-activated transient PCa observed here under local membrane deformation is a likely contributor to the Ca(2+)-mediated effects observed during the normal aging process of red blood cells, and to the increased Ca(2+) content of red cells in certain hereditary anemias such as thalassemia and sickle cell anemia.......BACKGROUND: The mechanical, rheological and shape properties of red blood cells are determined by their cortical cytoskeleton, evolutionarily optimized to provide the dynamic deformability required for flow through capillaries much narrower than the cell's diameter. The shear stress induced...

  14. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/clay-SO 3H hybrid proton exchange membranes for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Tiezhu; Cui, Zhiming; Zhong, Shuangling; Shi, Yuhua; Zhao, Chengji; Zhang, Gang; Shao, Ke; Na, Hui; Xing, Wei

    A new type of sulfonated clay (clay-SO 3H) was prepared by the ion exchange method with the sulfanilic acid as the surfactant agent. The grafted amount of sulfanilic acid in clay-SO 3H was 51.8 mequiv. (100 g) -1, which was measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK)/clay-SO 3H hybrid membranes which composed of SPEEK and different weight contents of clay-SO 3H, were prepared by a solution casting and evaporation method. For comparison, the SPEEK/clay hybrid membranes were produced with the same method. The performances of hybrid membranes for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) in terms of mechanical and thermal properties, water uptake, water retention, methanol permeability and proton conductivity were investigated. The mechanical and thermal properties of the SPEEK membranes had been improved by introduction of clay and clay-SO 3H, obviously. The water desorption coefficients of the SPEEK and hybrid membranes were studied at 80 °C. The results showed that the addition of the inorganic part into SPEEK membrane enhanced the water retention of the membrane. Both methanol permeability and proton conductivity of the hybrid membranes decreased in comparison to the pristine SPEEK membrane. However, it was worth noting that higher selectivity defined as ratio of proton conductivity to methanol permeability of the SPEEK/clay-SO 3H-1 hybrid membrane with 1 wt.% clay-SO 3H was obtained than that of the pristine SPEEK membrane. These results showed that the SPEEK/clay-SO 3H hybrid membrane with 1 wt.% clay-SO 3H had potential usage of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) for DMFCs.

  15. Enhancement of beta-sitosterol transformation in Mycobacterium vaccae with increased cell wall permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korycka-Machała, M; Rumijowska-Galewicz, A; Lisowska, K; Ziolkowskit, A; Sedlacze, L

    2001-01-01

    Mycobacterium vaccae exposed to compounds which are known to disorganise the cell wall composition and architecture (protamine, glycine) showed increased specific activity in beta-sitosterol biotransformation to androstene derivatives, intennediates in the production of most medical steroids. GC/MS analysis of free lipid fatty acids revealed higher content of unsaturated compounds, mainly C16:1 and C18:1 in protamine- and glycine-treated cells than that in control cells, which seems to change the permeability features of the cell wall barrier, facilitating hydrophobic beta-sitosterol diffusion.

  16. Microfluidic microbial fuel cells: from membrane to membrane free

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yang; Ye, Dingding; Li, Jun; Zhu, Xun; Liao, Qiang; Zhang, Biao

    2016-08-01

    Microfluidic microbial fuel cells (MMFCs) are small carbon-neutral devices that use self-organized bacteria to degrade organic substrates and harness energy from the waste water. Conventional MMFCs have made great strides in the past decade and have overcome some limitations, such as high capital costs and low energy output. A co-laminar flow MFC has been first proposed in 2011 with the potential to be an attractively power source to niche applications. Co-laminar MFCs typically operate without any physical membranes separating the reactants, and bacterial ecosystems can be easily manipulated by regulating the inlet conditions. This paper highlights recent accomplishments in the development of co-laminar MFCs, emphasizing basic principles, mass transport and fluid dynamics including boundary layer theory, entrance conditions and mixing zone issues. Furthermore, the development of current techniques, major challenges and the potential research directions are discussed.

  17. Permeability studies on taeniid metacestodes: II. Antibody-mediated effects on membrane permeability in larvae of Taenia taeniaeformis and Taenia crassiceps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hustead, S T; Williams, J F

    1977-04-01

    Incubation in immune rat serum (IRS) was shown to increase the rate of absorption of 125I RNase-A but not 125I BSA by larvae of Taenia taeniaeformis and T. crassiceps. This effect required a heat labile factor in serum, and partial activity could be restored in heat-treated IRS by adding normal rat serum (NRS) as a source of complement. In addition, the effectiveness of IRS in altering permeability was shown to be dependent on the concentration of functional complement. Both live and dead larvae incubated in NRS rapidly depleted hemolytic complement levels in the surrounding medium. Immunoglobulin fractions from IRS separated by anion exchange chromatography and and gel filtration were tested in the presence of excess complement for their ability to affect uptake of 125I RNase-A. Enhanced permeability was observed in larvae incubated in each fraction. The results show that antibodies in conjunction with complement are capable of disrupting larval permeability control in vitro. The observation that larvae were able to restore normal control as complement levels declined suggests that the parasites may overcome this immunologic effector mechanism by interfering with complement function.

  18. Antibacterial Activity of Shikimic Acid from Pine Needles of Cedrus deodara against Staphylococcus aureus through Damage to Cell Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jinrong; Wu, Yanping; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhong, Kai; Huang, Yina; Gao, Hong

    2015-11-13

    Shikimic acid (SA) has been reported to possess antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the mode of action of SA is still elusive. In this study, the antibacterial activity and mechanism of SA toward S. aureus by cell membrane damage was investigated. After SA treatment, massive K+ and nucleotide leakage from S. aureus, and a significant change in the membrane potential was observed, suggesting SA may act on the membrane by destroying the cell membrane permeability. Through transmission electron microscopic observations we further confirmed that SA can disrupt the cell membrane and membrane integrity. Meanwhile, SA was found to be capable of reducing the membrane fluidity of the S. aureus cell. Moreover, the fluorescence experiments indicated that SA could quench fluorescence of Phe residues of the membrane proteins, thus demonstrating that SA can bind to S. aureus membrane proteins. Therefore, these results showed the antibacterial activity of SA against S. aureus could be caused by the interactions of SA with S. aureus membrane proteins and lipids, resulting in causing cell membrane dysfunction and bacterial damage or even death. This study reveals the potential use of SA as an antibacterial agent.

  19. Blend Concepts for Fuel Cell Membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    J. Kerres

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are an alternative to lithium ion batteries as energy supply for mobile applications such as laptops, PDA's and cellphones. It would be advantageous if pure or highly concentrated methanol could be used as the fuel in these DMFC, due to the high energy density of meOH. However, most of the ionomer membranes used up to now as proton conductor in DMFC can not withstand pure or highly concentrated methanol due to extreme swelling or even dissolution under these conditions. Therefore it is required to prepare H+ -conducting membranes which remain dimensionally stable in pure or highly concentrated methanol. One way to approach this goal is to cross-link the ionomer membranes so that the swelling under the desired methanol-rich conditions is limited.

  20. Mass transport of direct methanol fuel cell species in sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, V.S.; Boaventura, M.; Mendes, A.M.; Madeira, L.M. [LEPAE, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Ruffmann, B.; Vetter, S.; Nunes, S.P. [GKSS Research Centre, Max-Planck Str., 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2006-05-05

    Homogeneous membranes based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with different sulfonation degrees (SD) were prepared and characterized. In order to perform a critical analysis of the SD effect on the polymer barrier and mass transport properties towards direct methanol fuel cell species, proton conductivity, water/methanol pervaporation and nitrogen/oxygen/carbon dioxide pressure rise method experiments are proposed. This procedure allows the evaluation of the individual permeability coefficients in hydrated sPEEK membranes with different sulfonation degrees. Nafion{sup (R)} 112 was used as reference material. DMFC tests were also performed at 50{sup o}C. It was observed that the proton conductivity and the permeability towards water, methanol, oxygen and carbon dioxide increase with the sPEEK sulfonation degree. In contrast, the SD seems to not affect the nitrogen permeability coefficient. In terms of selectivity, it was observed that the carbon dioxide/oxygen selectivity increases with the sPEEK SD. In contrast, the nitrogen/oxygen selectivity decreases. In terms of barrier properties for preventing the DMFC reactants loss, the polymer electrolyte membrane based on the sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) with SD lower or equal to 71%, although having slightly lower proton conductivity, presented much better characteristics for fuel cell applications compared with the well known Nafion{sup (R)} 112. In terms of the DMFC tests of the studied membranes at low temperature, the sPEEK membrane with SD=71% showed to have similar performance, or even better, as that of Nafion{sup (R)} 112. However, the highest DMFC overall efficiency was achieved using sPEEK membrane with SD=52%. (author)

  1. Protective effects of l-carnitine and piracetam against mitochondrial permeability transition and PC3 cell necrosis induced by simvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Rute A P; Fernandes, Mariana P; de Souza-Pinto, Nadja C; Vercesi, Aníbal E

    2013-02-15

    Mitochondrial oxidative stress followed by membrane permeability transition (MPT) has been considered as a possible mechanism for statins cytotoxicity. Statins use has been associated with reduced risk of cancer incidence, especially prostate cancer. Here we investigated the pathways leading to simvastatin-induced prostate cancer cell death as well as the mechanisms of cell death protection by l-carnitine or piracetam. These compounds are known to prevent and/or protect against cell death mediated by oxidative mitochondrial damage induced by a variety of conditions, either in vivo or in vitro. The results provide evidence that simvastatin induced MPT and cell necrosis were sensitive to either l-carnitine or piracetam in a dose-dependent fashion and mediated by additive mechanisms. When combined, l-carnitine and piracetam acted at concentrations significantly lower than they act individually. These results shed new light into both the cytotoxic mechanisms of statins and the mechanisms underlying the protection against MPT and cell death by the compounds l-carnitine and piracetam.

  2. Highly effective permeability and antifouling performances of polypropylene non-woven fabric membranes modified with graphene oxide by inkjet printing and immersion coating methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chuan-Qi; Xu, Xiao-Chen; Li, Rui-Yun; Chen, Jie; Yang, Feng-Lin

    2013-01-01

    In the current study, graphene oxide (GO)-modified polypropylene non-woven fabric (PP-NWF) membranes were prepared via inkjet printing and immersion coating methods. Scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, contact angle measurements, pure water permeation (JPWP) and protein adsorption were tested to evaluate the impact of the GO nanosheet on the characteristics and performance of modified PP-NWF membranes. The results showed that the exfoliated GO nanosheets uniformly deposited on the membrane surface and firmly embedded into the interlaced fibers, resulting in the improvement of membrane hydrophilicity, permeability and antifouling properties comparing with original PP-NWF membranes. The GO-printed and GO-coated membranes had 113 and 188% higher fluxes, and 70.95 and 75.74% lower protein adsorptions than the original PP-NWF membranes, respectively. After cross-linked treatment, ultrasound processing was conducted to evaluate the stability of the modified PP-NWF membranes. The results demonstrated that there was almost no decrease in permeation after ultrasonic treatment indicating that the cross-linking treatment could enhance the immobilization of the GO nanosheets on and into the modified membranes.

  3. Regulation of endothelial permeability and transendothelial migration of cancer cells by tropomyosin-1 phosphorylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoneau Bryan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Loss of endothelial cell integrity and selective permeability barrier is an early event in the sequence of oxidant-mediated injury and may result in atherosclerosis, hypertension and facilitation of transendothelial migration of cancer cells during metastasis. We already reported that endothelial cell integrity is tightly regulated by the balanced co-activation of p38 and ERK pathways. In particular, we showed that phosphorylation of tropomyosin-1 (tropomyosin alpha-1 chain = Tm1 at Ser283 by DAP kinase, downstream of the ERK pathway might be a key event required to maintain the integrity and normal functions of the endothelium in response to oxidative stress. Methods Endothelial permeability was assayed by monitoring the passage of Dextran-FITC through a tight monolayer of HUVECs grown to confluence in Boyden chambers. Actin and Tm1 dynamics and distribution were evaluated by immunofluorescence. We modulated the expression of Tm1 by siRNA and lentiviral-mediated expression of wild type and mutated forms of Tm1 insensitive to the siRNA. Transendothelial migration of HT-29 colon cancer cells was monitored in Boyden chambers similarly as for permeability. Results We provide evidence indicating that Tm1 phosphorylation at Ser283 is essential to regulate endothelial permeability under oxidative stress by modulating actin dynamics. Moreover, the transendothelial migration of colon cancer cells is also regulated by the phosphorylation of Tm1 at Ser283. Conclusion Our finding strongly support the role for the phosphorylation of endothelial Tm1 at Ser283 to prevent endothelial barrier dysfunction associated with oxidative stress injury.

  4. Proton exchange membrane fuel cells modeling

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, Fengge; Miraoui, Abdellatif

    2013-01-01

    The fuel cell is a potential candidate for energy storage and conversion in our future energy mix. It is able to directly convert the chemical energy stored in fuel (e.g. hydrogen) into electricity, without undergoing different intermediary conversion steps. In the field of mobile and stationary applications, it is considered to be one of the future energy solutions.Among the different fuel cell types, the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell has shown great potential in mobile applications, due to its low operating temperature, solid-state electrolyte and compactness.This book pre

  5. Studies on bleomycin-induced repair DNA synthesis in permeable mouse ascites sarcoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mori,Shigeru

    1989-04-01

    Full Text Available To study the mechanism of DNA excision repair, a DNA repair system employing permeable mouse sarcoma (SR-C3H/He cells was established and characterized. SR-C3H/He cells were permeabilized with a 0.0175% Triton X-100 solution. The permeable cells were treated with 1 mM ATP and 0.11 mM bleomycin, and then washed thoroughly to remove ATP and bleomycin. Repair DNA synthesis occurred in the bleomycin-damaged, permeable SR-C3H/He cells when incubated with ATP and four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates. The repair nature of the DNA synthesis was confirmed by the BrdUMP density shift technique, and by the reduced sensitivity of the newly synthesized DNA to Escherichia coli exonuclease III. The DNA synthesis was optimally enhanced by addition of 0.08 M NaCl. Studies using selective inhibitors of DNA synthesis showed that aphidicolin-sensitive DNA polymerase (DNA polymerase alpha and/or delta and DNA polymerase beta were involved in the repair process. The present DNA repair system is thought to be useful to study nuclear DNA damage by bleomycin, removal of the damaged ends by an exonuclease, repair DNA synthesis by DNA polymerases and repair patch ligation by DNA ligase(s.

  6. Extracellular K+ activates a K(+)- and H(+)-permeable conductance in frog taste receptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, S S; Margolskee, R F

    1998-03-01

    1. The effect of extracellular K+ on membrane currents of bull frog (Rana catesbeiana) taste receptor cells (TRCs) was investigated by the patch clamp and fast perfusion techniques. Extracellular K+ (2.5-90 mM) increased a TRC resting conductance and enhanced both inward and outward whole-cell currents. 2. To isolate the inward current activated by external potassium (PA current), TRCs were dialysed with 110 mM NMGCl while extracellular NaCl was replaced with NMGCl. Under these conditions, the PA current displayed an S-shaped current-voltage (I-V) curve in the -100 to 100 mV range. Extracellular Rb+ and NH4+, but not Li+, Na+ or Cs+, evoked similar currents. 3. The PA current reversal potential (Vr) did not follow the equilibrium K+ potential under experimental conditions. Therefore, K+ ions were not the only current carriers. The influence of other ions on the PA current Vr indicated that the channels involved are permeable to K+ and H+ and much less so to Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+. Relative permeabilities were estimated on the basis of the Goldman-Hodgkin-Katz equation as follows: PH:PK:PNa = 4000:1:0.04. 4. All I-V curves of the PA current were nearly linear at low negative potentials. The slope conductance at these voltages was used to characterize the dependence of the PA current on external K+ and H+. The slope conductance versus K+ concentration was fitted by the Hill equation. The data yielded a half-maximal concentration, K1/2 = 19 +/- 3 mM and a Hill coefficient, nH = 1.53 +/- 0.36 (means +/- S.E.M.). 5. The dependence of the mean PA current and the current variance on the K+ concentration indicated a rise in the open probability of the corresponding channels as extracellular K+ was increased. With 110 mM KCl in the bath, the single channel conductance was estimated at about 6 pS. Taken together, the data suggest that extracellular K+ may serve as a ligand to activate specific small-conductance cation channels (PA channels). The mean number of the PA channels

  7. Ionic Liquids and New Proton Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belieres, Jean-Philippe

    2004-01-01

    There is currently a great surge of activity in fuel cell research as laboratories across the world seek to take advantage of the high energy capacity provided by &el cells relative to those of other portable electrochemical power systems. Much of this activity is aimed at high temperature fie1 cells, and a vital component of such &el cells must be the availability of a high temperature stable proton-permeable membrane. NASA Glenn Research Center is greatly involved in developing this technology. Other approaches to the high temperature fuel cell involve the use of single- component or almost-single-component electrolytes that provide a path for protons through the cell. A heavily researched case is the phosphoric acid fuel cell, in which the electrolyte is almost pure phosphoric acid and the cathode reaction produces water directly. The phosphoric acid fie1 cell delivers an open circuit voltage of 0.9 V falling to about 0.7 V under operating conditions at 170 C. The proton transport mechanism is mainly vehicular in character according to the viscosity/conductance relation. Here we describe some Proton Transfer Ionic Liquids (PTILs) with low vapor pressure and high temperature stability that have conductivities of unprecedented magnitude for non-aqueous systems. The first requirement of an ionic liquid is that, contrary to experience with most liquids consisting of ions, it must have a melting point that is not much above room temperature. The limit commonly suggested is 100 C. PTILs constitute an interesting class of non-corrosive proton-exchange electrolyte, which can serve well in high temperature (T = 100 - 250 C) fuel cell applications. We will present cell performance data showing that the open circuit voltage output, and the performance of a simple H2(g)Pt/PTIL/Pt/O2(g) fuel cell may be superior to those of the equivalent phosphoric acid electrolyte fuel cell both at ambient temperature and temperatures up to and above 200 C. My work at NASA Glenn Research

  8. Lipid domains in intact fiber-cell plasma membranes isolated from cortical and nuclear regions of human eye lenses of donors from different age groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raguz, Marija; Mainali, Laxman; O'Brien, William J; Subczynski, Witold K

    2015-03-01

    The results reported here clearly document changes in the properties and the organization of fiber-cell membrane lipids that occur with age, based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis of lens membranes of clear lenses from donors of age groups from 0 to 20, 21 to 40, and 61 to 80 years. The physical properties, including profiles of the alkyl chain order, fluidity, hydrophobicity, and oxygen transport parameter, were investigated using EPR spin-labeling methods, which also provide an opportunity to discriminate coexisting lipid domains and to evaluate the relative amounts of lipids in these domains. Fiber-cell membranes were found to contain three distinct lipid environments: bulk lipid domain, which appears minimally affected by membrane proteins, and two domains that appear due to the presence of membrane proteins, namely boundary and trapped lipid domains. In nuclear membranes the amount of boundary and trapped phospholipids as well as the amount of cholesterol in trapped lipid domains increased with the donors' age and was greater than that in cortical membranes. The difference between the amounts of lipids in domains uniquely formed due to the presence of membrane proteins in nuclear and cortical membranes increased with the donors' age. It was also shown that cholesterol was to a large degree excluded from trapped lipid domains in cortical membranes. It is evident that the rigidity of nuclear membranes was greater than that of cortical membranes for all age groups. The amount of lipids in domains of low oxygen permeability, mainly in trapped lipid domains, were greater in nuclear than cortical membranes and increased with the age of donors. These results indicate that the nuclear fiber cell plasma membranes were less permeable to oxygen than cortical membranes and become less permeable to oxygen with age. In clear lenses, age-related changes in the lens lipid and protein composition and organization appear to occur in ways that increase fiber

  9. Endothelial Cell Permeability and Adherens Junction Disruption Induced by Junín Virus Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Heather M.; Grant, Ashley M.; Albrecht, Thomas; Hill, Terence; Peters, Clarence J.

    2014-01-01

    Junín virus (JUNV) is endemic to the fertile Pampas of Argentina, maintained in nature by the rodent host Calomys musculinus, and the causative agent of Argentine hemorrhagic fever (AHF), which is characterized by vascular dysfunction and fluid distribution abnormalities. Clinical as well as experimental studies implicate involvement of the endothelium in the pathogenesis of AHF, although little is known of its role. JUNV has been shown to result in productive infection of endothelial cells (ECs) in vitro with no visible cytopathic effects. In this study, we show that direct JUNV infection of primary human ECs results in increased vascular permeability as measured by electric cell substrate impedance sensing and transwell permeability assays. We also show that EC adherens junctions are disrupted during virus infection, which may provide insight into the role of the endothelium in the pathogenesis of AHF and possibly, other viral hemorrhagic fevers. PMID:24710609

  10. The effect of linear velocity and flux on performance of ceramic graded permeability membranes when processing skim milk at 50°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulewska, Justyna; Barbano, David M

    2014-05-01

    Raw milk (about 500 kg) was cold (4°C) separated and then the skim milk was pasteurized at 72°C and a holding time of 16s. The milk was cooled to 4°C and stored at ≤ 4°C until processing. The skim milk was microfiltered using a pilot-scale ceramic graded permeability (GP) microfilter system equipped with 0.1-µm nominal pore diameter ceramic Membralox membranes. First, about 155 kg of pasteurized skim milk was flushed through the system to push the water out of the system. Then, additional pasteurized skim milk (about 320 kg) was microfiltered (stage 1) in a continuous feed-and-bleed 3× process using the same membranes. The retentate from stage 1 was diluted with pasteurized reverse osmosis water in a 1:2 ratio and microfiltered (stage 2) with a GP system. This was repeated 3 times, with total of 3 stages in the process (stage 1 = microfiltration; stages 2 and 3 = diafiltration). The results from first 3 stages of the experiment were compared with previous data when processing skim milk at 50°C using ceramic uniform transmembrane pressure (UTP) membranes. Microfiltration of skim milk using ceramic UTP and GP membranes resulted in similar final retentate in terms of serum proteins (SP) removed. The SP removal rate (expressed by kilogram of SP removed per meter-squared of membrane area) was higher for GP membranes for each stage compared with UTP membranes. A higher passage of SP and SP removal rate for GP than UTP membranes was achieved by using a higher cross-flow velocity when processing skim milk. Increasing flux in subsequent stages did not affect membrane permeability and fouling. We operated under conditions that produced partial membrane fouling, due to using a flux that was less than limiting flux but higher than critical flux. Because the critical flux is a function of the cross-flow velocity, the difference in critical flux between UTP and GP membranes resulted only from operating under different cross-flow velocities (6.6 vs 7.12 for UTP and GP

  11. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibing Zhao; Sanil John

    2006-09-30

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. Several pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactors have been fabricated and used to dissociate H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur. Visual observation shows that the corona is not uniform throughout the reactor. The corona is stronger near the top of the reactor in argon, while nitrogen and mixtures of argon or nitrogen with H{sub 2}S produce stronger coronas near the bottom of the reactor. Both of these effects appear to be explainable base on the different electron collision interactions with monatomic versus polyatomic gases. A series of experiments varying reactor operating parameters, including discharge capacitance, pulse frequency, and discharge voltage were performed while maintaining constant power input to the reactor. At constant reactor power input, low capacitance, high pulse frequency, and high voltage operation appear to provide the highest conversion and the highest energy efficiency for H{sub 2}S decomposition. Reaction rates and energy efficiency per H{sub 2}S molecule increase with increasing flow rate, although overall H{sub 2}S conversion decreases at constant power input. Voltage and current waveform analysis is ongoing to determine the fundamental operating characteristics of the reactors. A metal infiltrated porous ceramic membrane was prepared using vanadium as the metal and an alumina tube. Experiments with this type of membrane are continuing, but the results thus far have been consistent with those obtained in previous project years: plasma driven permeation or superpermeability

  12. Fuel cell membranes and crossover prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masel, Richard I.; York, Cynthia A.; Waszczuk, Piotr; Wieckowski, Andrzej

    2009-08-04

    A membrane electrode assembly for use with a direct organic fuel cell containing a formic acid fuel includes a solid polymer electrolyte having first and second surfaces, an anode on the first surface and a cathode on the second surface and electrically linked to the anode. The solid polymer electrolyte has a thickness t:.gtoreq..times..times..times..times. ##EQU00001## where C.sub.f is the formic acid fuel concentration over the anode, D.sub.f is the effective diffusivity of the fuel in the solid polymer electrolyte, K.sub.f is the equilibrium constant for partition coefficient for the fuel into the solid polymer electrolyte membrane, I is Faraday's constant n.sub.f is the number of electrons released when 1 molecule of the fuel is oxidized, and j.sub.f.sup.c is an empirically determined crossover rate of fuel above which the fuel cell does not operate.

  13. EFFECTS OF CAPTOPRIL, DILTIAZEM AND DOBUTAMINE ON PERMEABILITY OF RAT AORTIC ENDOTHELIAL CELL MONOLAYERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓峰; 由广旭; 皮绍文; 秦永文

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor captopril, calcium channel blocker diltiazem and β-adrenoceptor antagonist dobutamine on the permeability of rat aortic endothelial monolayers.Methods Trauma-free isolation by Chen et al was adopted in the culture of rat aortic endothelial cells. Rat aortic endothelial cells were seeded on the nitrocellulose microporous filters. Eight days after seeding, the monolayers could be used for measuring the permeability. Before being perfused, monolayers were treated with captopril, diltiazem and dobutamine for 4 hours successively. The prepared filters were mounted on the Boydon chambers and perfused with hyperlipemia containing FITC-labeled albumin. The fluid filtering through the monolayers and the filter was collected and the albumin concentration was measured. At the same time, cholesterol, triglyceride, lipoprotein A and lipoprotein B concentrations of the collected fluid were also measured by ELISA.Results The above three drugs decreased the permeability of aortic endothelial cell monolayers to water, cholesterol, triglyceride lipoprotein A and lipoprotein B significantly. Dobutamine had more significant effects than the other two drugs. But diltiazem worked well in the clearance of albumin, while the other two drugs had no obvious effect.Conclusion Captopril, diltiazem and dobutamine may decrease the infiltration of lipids and lipoproteins into the subendothelial space, thus they can be used to prevent and ameliorate atherosclerosis.

  14. Mast cells and histamine alter intestinal permeability during malaria parasite infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potts, Rashaun A; Tiffany, Caitlin M; Pakpour, Nazzy; Lokken, Kristen L; Tiffany, Connor R; Cheung, Kong; Tsolis, Renée M; Luckhart, Shirley

    2016-03-01

    Co-infections with malaria and non-typhoidal Salmonella serotypes (NTS) can present as life-threatening bacteremia, in contrast to self-resolving NTS diarrhea in healthy individuals. In previous work with our mouse model of malaria/NTS co-infection, we showed increased gut mastocytosis and increased ileal and plasma histamine levels that were temporally associated with increased gut permeability and bacterial translocation. Here, we report that gut mastocytosis and elevated plasma histamine are also associated with malaria in an animal model of falciparum malaria, suggesting a broader host distribution of this biology. In support of mast cell function in this phenotype, malaria/NTS co-infection in mast cell-deficient mice was associated with a reduction in gut permeability and bacteremia. Further, antihistamine treatment reduced bacterial translocation and gut permeability in mice with malaria, suggesting a contribution of mast cell-derived histamine to GI pathology and enhanced risk of bacteremia during malaria/NTS co-infection.

  15. Polyarylenethioethersulfone Membranes for Fuel Cells (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    release; distribution unlimited. See additional restrictions described on inside pages STINFO COPY © 2007 The Electrochemical Society AIR...PAO Case Number: 88ABW-2007-1713; Clearance Date: 24 July 2007. © 2007 The Electrochemical Society . The U.S. Government is joint author of the work...it to be a potential candidate for membranes in fuel cells. © 2007 The Electrochemical Society . DOI: 10.1149/1.2755881 All rights reserved

  16. A controlled wet-spinning and dip-coating process for preparation of high-permeable TiO2 hollow fiber membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Wang, Hua; Fan, Xinfei; Chen, Shuo; Yu, Hongtao; Quan, Xie

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the permeate flux of photocatalytic membranes, we present an approach for coupling TiO2 with ceramic hollow fiber membranes. The ceramic hollow fiber membranes with high permeate flux were fabricated by a controlled wet-spinning process using polyethersulfone (PESf) and ceramic powder as precursors and 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone as solvent, and the subsequent TiO2 coating was performed by a dip-coating process using tetra-n-butyl titanate as precursor. It has been found that the PESf/ceramic powder ratio could influence the structure of the membranes. Here the as-prepared TiO2 hollow fiber membranes had a pure water flux of 4,450 L/(m(2)·h). The performance of the TiO2 hollow fiber membrane was evaluated using humic acid (HA) as a test substance. The results demonstrated that this membrane exhibited a higher permeate flux under UV irradiation than in the dark and the HA removal efficiency was enhanced. The approach described here provides an operable route to the development of high-permeable photocatalytic membranes for water treatment.

  17. Members of rice plasma membrane intrinsic proteins subfamily are involved in arsenite permeability and tolerance in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosa, Kareem A; Kumar, Kundan; Chhikara, Sudesh; Mcdermott, Joseph; Liu, Zijuan; Musante, Craig; White, Jason C; Dhankher, Om Parkash

    2012-12-01

    Rice accumulates high level of arsenic (As) in its edible parts and thus plays an important role in the transfer of As into the food chain. However, the mechanisms of As uptake and its detoxification in rice are not well understood. Recently, members of the Nodulin 26-like intrinsic protein (NIP) subfamily of plant aquaporins were shown to transport arsenite in rice and Arabidopsis. Here we report that members of the rice plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily are also involved in As tolerance and transport. Based on the homology search with the mammalian AQP9 and yeast Fps1 arsenite transporters, we identified and cloned five rice PIP gene subfamily members. qRT-PCR analysis of PIPs in rice root and shoot tissues revealed a significant down regulation of transcripts encoding OsPIP1;2, OsPIP1;3, OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in response to arsenite treatment. Heterologous expression of OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in Xenopus laevis oocytes significantly increased the uptake of arsenite. Overexpression of OsPIP2;4, OsPIP2;6, and OsPIP2;7 in Arabidopsis yielded enhanced arsenite tolerance and higher biomass accumulation. Further, these transgenic plants showed no significant accumulation of As in shoot and root tissues in long term uptake assays. Whereas, short duration exposure to arsenite caused both active influx and efflux of As in the roots. The data suggests a bidirectional arsenite permeability of rice PIPs in plants. These rice PIPs genes will be highly useful for engineering important food and biofuel crops for enhanced crop productivity on contaminated soils without increasing the accumulation of toxic As in the biomass or edible tissues.

  18. Bacillus thuringiensis Cyt2Aa2 toxin disrupts cell membranes by forming large protein aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharad, Sudarat; Toca-Herrera, José L.; Promdonkoy, Boonhiang; Krittanai, Chartchai

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Cyt2Aa2 showed toxicity against Dipteran insect larvae and in vitro lysis activity on several cells. It has potential applications in the biological control of insect larvae. Although pore-forming and/or detergent-like mechanisms were proposed, the mechanism underlying cytolytic activity remains unclear. Analysis of the haemolytic activity of Cyt2Aa2 with osmotic stabilizers revealed partial toxin inhibition, suggesting a distinctive mechanism from the putative pore formation model. Membrane permeability was studied using fluorescent dye entrapped in large unilamellar vesicles (LUVs) at various protein/lipid molar ratios. Binding of Cyt2Aa2 monomer to the lipid membrane did not disturb membrane integrity until the critical protein/lipid molar ratio was reached, when Cyt2Aa2 complexes and cytolytic activity were detected. The complexes are large aggregates that appeared as a ladder when separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. Interaction of Cyt2Aa2 with Aedes albopictus cells was investigated by confocal microscopy and total internal reflection fluorescent microscopy (TIRF). The results showed that Cyt2Aa2 binds on the cell membrane at an early stage without cell membrane disruption. Protein aggregation on the cell membrane was detected later which coincided with cell swelling. Cyt2Aa2 aggregations on supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) were visualized by AFM. The AFM topographic images revealed Cyt2Aa2 aggregates on the lipid bilayer at low protein concentration and subsequently disrupts the lipid bilayer by forming a lesion as the protein concentration increased. These results supported the mechanism whereby Cyt2Aa2 binds and aggregates on the lipid membrane leading to the formation of non-specific hole and disruption of the cell membrane. PMID:27612497

  19. Syringotoxin pore formation and inactivation in human red blood cell and model bilayer lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, Zsófia; Gróf, Pál; Schagina, Ludmila V; Gurnev, Philip A; Takemoto, Jon Y; Mátyus, Edit; Blaskó, Katalin

    2002-12-23

    The effect of syringotoxin (ST), a member of the cyclic lipodepsipeptides family (CLPs) produced by Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae on the membrane permeability of human red blood cells (RBCs) and model bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs) was studied and compared to that of two recently investigated CLPs, syringomycin E (SRE) and syringopeptin 22A (SP22A) [Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1466 (2000) 79 and Bioelectrochemistry 52 (2000) 161]. The permeability-increasing effect of ST on RBCs was the least among the three CLPs. A time-dependent ST pore inactivation was observed on RBCs at 20 and 37 degrees C but not at 8 degrees C. From the kinetic model worked out parameters as permeability coefficient of RBC membrane for 86Rb(+) and pores mean lifetime were calculated. A shorter pores mean lifetime was calculated at 37 degrees C then at 20 degrees C, which gave us an explanation for the unusual slower rate of tracer efflux measured at 37 degrees C then that at 20 degrees C. The results obtained on BLM showed that the pore inactivation was due to a decrease in the number of pores but not to a change of their dwell time or conductance.

  20. Structural and permeability characterization of biosynthetic PVA hydrogels designed for cell-based therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafea, Eman H; Poole-Warren, Laura A; Martens, Penny J

    2014-01-01

    Incorporation of extracellular matrix (ECM) components to synthetic hydrogels has been shown to be the key for successful cell encapsulation devices, by providing a biofunctional microenvironment for the encapsulated cells. However, the influence of adding ECM components into synthetic hydrogels on the permeability as well as the physical and mechanical properties of the hydrogel has had little attention. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of incorporated ECM analogues on the permeability performance of permselective synthetic poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) hydrogels in addition to examining the physico-mechanical characteristics. PVA was functionalized with a systematically increased number of methacrylate functional groups per chain (FG/c) to tailor the permselectivity of UV photopolymerized hydrogel network. Heparin and gelatin were successfully incorporated into PVA network at low percentage (1%), and co-hydrogels were characterized for network properties and permeability to bovine serum albumin (BSA) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) proteins. Incorporation of these ECM analogues did not interfere with the base PVA network characteristics, as the controlled hydrogel mesh sizes, swelling and compressive modulii remained unchanged. While the permeation profiles of both BSA and IgG were not affected by the addition of heparin and gelatin as compared with pure PVA, increasing the FG/c from 7 to 20 significantly limited the diffusion of the larger IgG. Consequently, biosynthetic hydrogels composed of PVA with high FG/c and low percent ECM analogues show promise in their ability to be permselective for various biomedical applications.

  1. Study on permeability of asymmetric ceramic membrane tubes with CFD simulation%非对称陶瓷膜管渗透性能的CFD模拟研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨钊; 程景才; 杨超; 梁斌

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic membranes have been widely used in chemical industry on account of their inherently superior physical integrity, chemical resistance and separation performance. Rapid development of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has made numerical simulation an effective mean of researching and optimizing the structure and permeability of ceramic membrane tubes. In this paper the permeability of asymmetric ceramic membrane tubes was simulated with CFD in order to optimize the ceramic membrane tube structure and operating parameters. The thickness of ceramic top-layer and intermediate-layer of an asymmetrically-structured membrane is about tens of micron, so an effective simplified calculation model is put forward in this work. A porous media model was applied to the porous support of the ceramic membrane tube. The ceramic top-layer and intermediate-layer of the ceramic membrane tube were described with porous jump boundary conditions. The permeability of ceramic membrane was effectively evaluated by the classic Konzey-Carmen (KC) equation. The CFD results showed a good agreement with the experimental data. This quick and easy calculation method provides an effective tool to optimize the structure of membrane tubes.%陶瓷膜因其化学稳定性好、机械强度大等优点得到广泛应用。计算流体力学(CFD)的快速发展使得计算模拟成为研究和优化陶瓷膜管结构性能的有效手段。为了优化非对称结构陶瓷膜管的结构和操作参数,对其渗透性能进行了CFD计算模拟。针对非对称结构陶瓷膜管的膜层和过渡层的厚度在10μm级的特点,采用Navier-Stokes方程和Darcy定律来分别描述膜管内和膜多孔介质内的纯水流动,利用多孔介质模型描述膜管的主体支撑层,用多孔跳跃边界简化膜管的膜层和过渡层,利用Konzey-Carmen方程对膜元件各层的渗透率进行估算。计算结果与实验值吻合较好,为优化陶瓷膜管的通道结构提供了便捷的工具。

  2. U.S. DOE Progress Towards Developing Low-Cost, High Performance, Durable Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitrios C. Papageorgopoulos

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Low cost, durable, and selective membranes with high ionic conductivity are a priority need for wide-spread adoption of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs. Electrolyte membranes are a major cost component of PEMFC stacks at low production volumes. PEMFC membranes also impose limitations on fuel cell system operating conditions that add system complexity and cost. Reactant gas and fuel permeation through the membrane leads to decreased fuel cell performance, loss of efficiency, and reduced durability in both PEMFCs and DMFCs. To address these challenges, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Program, in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, supports research and development aimed at improving ion exchange membranes for fuel cells. For PEMFCs, efforts are primarily focused on developing materials for higher temperature operation (up to 120 °C in automotive applications. For DMFCs, efforts are focused on developing membranes with reduced methanol permeability. In this paper, the recently revised DOE membrane targets, strategies, and highlights of DOE-funded projects to develop new, inexpensive membranes that have good performance in hot and dry conditions (PEMFC and that reduce methanol crossover (DMFC will be discussed.

  3. U.S. DOE Progress Towards Developing Low-Cost, High Performance, Durable Polymer Electrolyte Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houchins, Cassidy; Kleen, Greg J; Spendelow, Jacob S; Kopasz, John; Peterson, David; Garland, Nancy L; Ho, Donna Lee; Marcinkoski, Jason; Martin, Kathi Epping; Tyler, Reginald; Papageorgopoulos, Dimitrios C

    2012-12-18

    Low cost, durable, and selective membranes with high ionic conductivity are a priority need for wide-spread adoption of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Electrolyte membranes are a major cost component of PEMFC stacks at low production volumes. PEMFC membranes also impose limitations on fuel cell system operating conditions that add system complexity and cost. Reactant gas and fuel permeation through the membrane leads to decreased fuel cell performance, loss of efficiency, and reduced durability in both PEMFCs and DMFCs. To address these challenges, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Fuel Cell Technologies Program, in the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, supports research and development aimed at improving ion exchange membranes for fuel cells. For PEMFCs, efforts are primarily focused on developing materials for higher temperature operation (up to 120 °C) in automotive applications. For DMFCs, efforts are focused on developing membranes with reduced methanol permeability. In this paper, the recently revised DOE membrane targets, strategies, and highlights of DOE-funded projects to develop new, inexpensive membranes that have good performance in hot and dry conditions (PEMFC) and that reduce methanol crossover (DMFC) will be discussed.

  4. In-vitro permeability of the human nail and of a keratin membrane from bovine hooves: prediction of the penetration rate of antimycotics through the nail plate and their efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertin, D; Lippold, B C

    1997-09-01

    In contrast to the partition coefficient octanol/water the molecular size of penetrating drugs has a noticeable influence on the permeability of the human nail plate and a keratin membrane from bovine hooves. The relationship between permeability and molecular weight is founded on well-established theories. The correlation between the permeability of the nail plate and that of the hoof membrane allows a prediction of the nail permeability after determination of the drug penetration through the hoof membrane. The maximum flux of ten antimycotics (amorolfine, bifonazole, ciclopirox, clotrimazole, econazole, griseofulvin, ketoconazole, naftifine, nystatin and tolnaftate) through the nail plate was predicted on the basis of their penetration rates through the hoof membrane and their water solubilities. An efficacy coefficient against onychomycoses was calculated from the maximum flux and the minimum inhibitory concentration. Accordingly, amorolfine, ciclopirox, econazole and naftifine are expected to be especially effective against dermatophytes, whereas in the case of an infection with yeasts only, amorolfine and ciclopirox are promising.

  5. A Nafion-Ceria Composite Membrane Electrolyte for Reduced Methanol Crossover in Direct Methanol Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parthiban Velayutham

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An alternative Nafion composite membrane was prepared by incorporating various loadings of CeO2 nanoparticles into the Nafion matrix and evaluated its potential application in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs. The effects of CeO2 in the Nafion matrix were systematically studied in terms of surface morphology, thermal and mechanical stability, proton conductivity and methanol permeability. The composite membrane with optimum filler content (1 wt. % CeO2 exhibits a proton conductivity of 176 mS·cm−1 at 70 °C, which is about 30% higher than that of the unmodified membrane. Moreover, all the composite membranes possess a much lower methanol crossover compared to pristine Nafion membrane. In a single cell DMFC test, MEA fabricated with the optimized composite membrane delivered a peak power density of 120 mW·cm−2 at 70 °C, which is about two times higher in comparison with the pristine Nafion membrane under identical operating conditions.

  6. Establishment of HEK293 cell line expressing GFPAQP1 to determine water osmotic permeability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-weiGAO; He-mingYU; Qian-liuSONG; Shu-xinLI; Xue-junLI

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To develop an osmotic water permeability assay.METHODS: We subcloned the rat AQP1 cDNA into pEGFPC3 vector. HEK293 cells were transfected with pEGFP-C3/AQP 1 or pEGFP-C3 and selected by G418. The expression of AQP1was detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Confocal laser fluorescence microscopy was used to record the change of fluorescent density corresponding to the volume change of the cells

  7. Cell membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles for drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Brian T; Zhang, Liangfang

    2015-12-28

    Nanoparticles can preferentially accumulate at sites of action and hold great promise to improve the therapeutic index of many drugs. While conventional methods of nanocarrier-mediated drug delivery have focused on primarily synthetic approaches, engineering strategies that combine synthetic nanoparticles with natural biomaterials have recently gained much attention. In particular, cell membrane-camouflaged nanoparticles are a new class of biomimetic nanoparticles that combine the unique functionalities of cellular membranes and engineering versatility of synthetic nanomaterials for effective delivery of therapeutic agents. Herein, we report on the recent progress on cell membrane-coated nanoparticles for drug delivery. In particular, we highlight three areas: (i) prolonging systemic circulation via cell membrane coating, (ii) cell-specific targeting via cell membrane coating, and (iii) applications of cell membrane coating for drug delivery. The cell membrane-camouflaged nanoparticle platform has emerged as a novel delivery strategy with the potential to improve the therapeutic efficacy for the treatment of a variety of diseases.

  8. High temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K.Scott; M. Mamlouk

    2006-01-01

    One of the major issues limiting the introduction of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) is the low temperature of operation which makes platinum-based anode catalysts susceptible to poisoning by the trace amount of CO, inevitably present in reformed fuel. In order to alleviate the problem of CO poisoning and improve the power density of the cell, operating at temperature above 100 ℃ is preferred. Nafion(R) -type perfluorosulfonated polymers have been typically used for PEMFC. However, the conductivity of Nafion(R) -type polymers is not high enough to be used for fuel cell operations at higher temperature ( > 90 ℃) and atmospheric pressure because they dehydrate under these condition.An additional problem which faces the introduction of PEMFC technology is that of supplying or storing hydrogen for cell operation,especially for vehicular applications. Consequently the use of alternative fuels such as methanol and ethanol is of interest, especially if this can be used directly in the fuel cell, without reformation to hydrogen. A limitation of the direct use of alcohol is the lower activity of oxidation in comparison to hydrogen, which means that power densities are considerably lower. Hence to improve activity and power output higher temperatures of operation are preferable. To achieve this goal, requires a new polymer electrolyte membrane which exhibits stability and high conductivity in the absence of liquid water.Experimental data on a polybenzimidazole based PEMFC were presented. A simple steady-state isothermal model of the fuel cell is also used to aid in fuel cell performance optimisation. The governing equations involve the coupling of kinetic, ohmic and mass transport. This paper also considers the advances made in the performance of direct methanol and solid polymer electrolyte fuel cells and considers their limitations in relation to the source and type of fuels to be used.

  9. Improved Electrodes for High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells using Carbon Nanospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamora, Héctor; Plaza, Jorge; Cañizares, Pablo; Lobato, Justo; Rodrigo, Manuel A

    2016-05-23

    This work evaluates the use of carbon nanospheres (CNS) in microporous layers (MPL) of high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (HT-PEMFC) electrodes and compares the characteristics and performance with those obtained using conventional MPL based on carbon black. XRD, hydrophobicity, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller theory, and gas permeability of MPL prepared with CNS were the parameters evaluated. In addition, a short life test in a fuel cell was carried out to evaluate performance under accelerated stress conditions. The results demonstrate that CNS is a promising alternative to traditional carbonaceous materials because of its high electrochemical stability and good electrical conductivity, suitable to be used in this technology.

  10. Influence of carvacrol and 1,8-cineole on cell viability, membrane integrity, and morphology of Aeromonas hydrophila cultivated in a vegetable-based broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; de Oliveira, Kataryne Árabe Rimá; de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of carvacrol (CAR) and 1,8-cineole (CIN) alone (at the MIC) or in combination at subinhibitory amounts (both at 1/8 MIC) on the cell viability, membrane permeability, and morphology of Aeromonas hydrophila INCQS 7966 (A. hydrophila) cultivated in a vegetable-based broth. CAR and CIN alone or in combination severely affected the viability of the bacteria and caused dramatic changes in the cell membrane permeability, leading to cell death, as observed by confocal laser microscopy. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy images of bacterial cells exposed to CAR or CIN or the mixture of both compounds revealed severe changes in cell wall structure, rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinking of cells, condensation of cytoplasmic content, leakage of intracellular material, and cell collapse. These findings suggest that CAR and CIN alone or in combination at subinhibitory amounts could be applied to inhibit the growth of A. hydrophila in foods, particularly as sanitizing agents in vegetables.

  11. PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF SPAES-TiO_2 HYBRID MEMBRANES FOR DIRECT METHANOL FUEL CELL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni Zhang; Hui-ling Liu; Jun-jing Li; Zhi Xia

    2009-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone) (SPAES) copolymer with degree of sulfonation of 1.0 was synthesized and characterized. A series of SPAES-TiO_2 hybrid membranes with various contents of nano-sized TiO_2 particles were prepared and characterized through sol-gel reactions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images indicated the TiO_2 particles were well dispersed within polymer matrix. These composite membranes were evaluated for proton exchange membranes (PEMs) in direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC). These membranes showed good thermal stability and mechanical properties. It was found that the water uptake of these membranes increased with the increase of the TiO_2 contents in the hybrid membranes. Meanwhile, the introduction of inorganic particles increased the proton conductivity and reduced the methanol permeability. The proton conductivities (0.118-0.162 S/cm) of SPAES-TiO_2 hybrid membranes with 8% TiO_2 particles are much higher than those of Nation 117 membrane (0.095-0.117 S/cm) and pure SPAES membrane (0.100-0.124 S/cm) with degree of sulfonation of 1.0 at all temperatures (25-100℃). Especially, the methanol diffusion coefficient (8.4×10~(-7) cm~2/s) of SPAES-TiO_2 hybrid membranes with 8% TiO_2 is much lower than that of Nation 117 membrane (2.1 ×10~(-6) cm~2/s). SPAES-TiO_2 hybrid membranes were therefore proposed as candidates of material for PEM in DMFC.

  12. System for exposing cultured cells to intermittent hypoxia utilizing gas permeable cultureware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polak, Jan; Studer-Rabeler, Karen; McHugh, Holly; Hussain, Mehboob A; Shimoda, Larissa A

    2015-07-01

    Tissue intermittent hypoxia (IH) occurs in obstructive sleep apnea, sickle cell anemia, physical exercise and other conditions. Poor gas solubility and slow diffusion through culture media hampers mimicking IH-induced transitions of O(2) in vitro. We aimed to develop a system enabling exposure of cultured cells to IH and to validate such exposure by real-time O(2) measurements and cellular responses. Standard 24-well culture plates and plates with bottoms made from a gas permeable film were placed in a heated cabinet. Desired cycling of O(2) levels was induced using programmable solenoids to purge mixtures of 95% N(2) + 5% CO(2) or 95% O(2) + 5% CO(2). Dissolved oxygen, gas pressure, temperature, and water evaporation were measured during cycling. IH-induced cellular effects were evaluated by hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) and NF-κB luciferase reporters in HEK296 cells and by insulin secretion in rat insulinoma cells. Oxygen cycling in the cabinet was translated into identical changes of O(2) at the well bottom in gas permeable, but not in standard cultureware. Twenty-four hours of IH exposure increased HIF (112%), NF-κB (111%) and insulin secretion (44%). Described system enables reproducible and prolonged IH exposure in cultured cells while controlling for important environmental factors.

  13. Curcumin reduces oxidative damage by increasing reduced glutathione and preventing membrane permeability transition in isolated brain mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jat, D; Parihar, P; Kothari, S C; Parihar, M S

    2013-12-31

    Mitochondria are critical regulators of energy metabolism and programmed cell death pathways. Mitochondria are also the major site for the production of reactive oxygen species which make this organelle more susceptible to oxidative damage and impairments of mitochondrial functions. Antioxidants have been of limited therapeutic success to ameliorate the toxic effects of oxidative stress in mitochondria. One reason may be the inability of mitochondria to selectively take up antioxidants. In the present study we synthesized mitochondrially targeted curcumin with an aim of delivering this polyphenolic compound to isolated mitochondria. Our observations show the strong anti-oxidative effects of curcumin and mitochondrially targeted curcumin against the lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation and mitochondrial permeability transition induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. Both curcumin and mitochondrially targeted curcumin significantly enhanced endogenous reduced glutathione level in the mitochondria thus preserving mitochondrial defense system against oxidative stress. We concluded that curcumin and mitochondrially targeted curcumin protected mitochondria against tert-butylhydroperoxide by lowering the oxidative damage, increasing the availability of endogenous reduced glutathione and preserving the mitochondrial integrity. Importantly, mitochondrially targeted curcumin was found most effective in ameliorating oxidative stress and preserving mitochondrial integrity than curcumin.

  14. Enhancement of fuel cell performance with less-water dependent composite membranes having polyoxometalate anchored nanofibrous interlayer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouzari-lotf, Ebrahim; Jacob, Mohan V.; Ghassemi, Hossein; Ahmad, Arshad; Nasef, Mohamed Mahmoud; Zakeri, Masoumeh; Mehdipour-Ataei, Shahram

    2016-09-01

    Polyoxometalate immobilized nanofiber was used to fabricate low gas permeable layer for composite membranes designed for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) operating at low relative humidity (RH). The composite membranes revealed enhanced proton conductivity in dry conditions compared with state-of-the-art pristine membrane (Nafion 112, N112). This was coupled with a low fuel crossover inheriting the composite membranes about 100 mV higher OCV than N112 when tested in PEMFC at 60 °C and 40% RH. A maximum power density of up to 930 mW cm-2 was also achieved which is substantially higher than the N112 under similar conditions (577 mW cm-2). Such remarkable performance enhancement along with undetectable leaching of immobilized polyoxometalate, high dimensional stability and low water uptake of the composite membranes suggest a strong potential for PEMFC under low RH operation.

  15. Reactivation of DNA replication in nuclei from terminally differentiated cells: nuclear membrane permeabilization is required for initiation in Xenopus egg extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leno, G H; Munshi, R

    1997-05-01

    We have used Xenopus egg extract to investigate the requirements for reactivation of DNA replication in nuclei isolated from terminally differentiated chicken erythrocytes. Previous work has shown that reactivation of erythrocyte nuclei in egg extract is accompanied by chromatin decondensation, nuclear envelope reformation, and the accumulation of egg lamin, LIII. However, in those studies, erythrocyte nuclei were prepared by methods that were not designed to maintain the selective permeability of the nuclear membrane, and as such, it is not clear if loss of nuclear membrane integrity played a role in the reactivation process. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if changes in nuclear membrane permeability are required for reactivation of erythrocyte nuclei in egg extract. Nuclei with intact nuclear membranes were prepared from erythrocytes with streptolysin O and permeable nuclei by treatment of intact nuclei with the detergent Nonidet-P40. Like permeable nuclei, most intact nuclei decondensed, imported nuclear protein, and accumulated lamin LIII from the extract. However, unlike permeable nuclei, which replicated extensively in the extract, few intact nuclei initiated replication under the same conditions. These data demonstrate that permeabilization of the nuclear membrane is required for reactivation of DNA replication in terminally differentiated erythrocyte nuclei by egg extract and suggest that loss of nuclear membrane integrity may be a general requirement for replication of quiescent cell nuclei by this system.

  16. Polyurethane Membranes Modified with Isopropyl Myristate as a Potential Candidate for Encapsulating Electronic Implants: A Study of Biocompatibility and Water Permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepen Paul

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Medical polyurethanes have shown good bio-stability and mechanical properties and have been used as coating for implantable medical devices. However, despite their excellent properties, they are relatively permeable to liquid water and water vapour which is a drawback for electronic implant encapsulation. In this study polyether polyurethanes with different soft segment molecular weights were modified by incorporating isopropyl myristate (IPM, as a hydrophobic modifying agent, and the effect of IPM on water resistant and biocompatibility of membranes were investigated. IPM changed the surface properties of the polyurethane film and reduced its surface energy. Polyurethane films were found to be stable with IPM concentrations of 1–5 wt% based upon their chemistry; however it leached out in BSA at higher concentrations. Though, low concentrations of IPM reduced both liquid water and water vapour permeability; at higher IPM content liquid permeability did not improved significantly. In general, the polyurethane materials showed much lower water permeability compared with currently used silicone packaging material for electronic implants. In addition, cytotoxicity assessment of IPM containing polyurethanes showed no evidence of cytotoxcity up to 5 wt% IPM.

  17. Membrane tension feedback on shape and motility of eukaryotic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Benjamin; Aranson, Igor S.; Ziebert, Falko

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of a phase field model of a single cell crawling on a substrate, we investigate how the properties of the cell membrane affect the shape and motility of the cell. Since the membrane influences the cell dynamics on multiple levels and provides a nontrivial feedback, we consider the following fundamental interactions: (i) the reduction of the actin polymerization rate by membrane tension; (ii) area conservation of the cell's two-dimensional cross-section vs. conservation of the circumference (i.e. membrane inextensibility); and (iii) the contribution from the membrane's bending energy to the shape and integrity of the cell. As in experiments, we investigate two pertinent observables - the cell's velocity and its aspect ratio. We find that the most important effect is the feedback of membrane tension on the actin polymerization. Bending rigidity has only minor effects, visible mostly in dynamic reshaping events, as exemplified by collisions of the cell with an obstacle.

  18. Characterization of plasma-induced cell membrane permeabilization: focus on OH radical distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shota; Honda, Ryosuke; Hokari, Yutaro; Takashima, Keisuke; Kanzaki, Makoto; Kaneko, Toshiro

    2016-08-01

    Non-equilibrium atmospheric-pressure plasma (APP) is used medically for plasma-induced cell permeabilization. However, how plasma irradiation specifically triggers permeabilization remains unclear. In an attempt to identify the dominant factor(s), the distribution of plasma-produced reactive species was investigated, primarily focusing on OH radicals. A stronger plasma discharge, which produced more OH radicals in the gas phase, also produced more OH radicals in the liquid phase (OHaq), enhancing the cell membrane permeability. In addition, plasma irradiation-induced enhancement of cell membrane permeability decreased markedly with increased solution thickness (<1 mm), and the plasma-produced OHaq decayed in solution (diffusion length on the order of several hundred micrometers). Furthermore, the horizontally center-localized distribution of OHaq corresponded with the distribution of the permeabilized cells by plasma irradiation, while the overall plasma-produced oxidizing species in solution (detected by iodine-starch reaction) exhibited a doughnut-shaped horizontal distribution. These results suggest that OHaq, among the plasma-produced oxidizing species, represents the dominant factor in plasma-induced cell permeabilization. These results enhance the current understanding of the mechanism of APP as a cell-permeabilization tool.

  19. Membrane Tether Formation on a Cell Surface with Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yu-Qiang; GUO Hong-Lian; LIU Chun-Xiang; LI Zhao-Lin; CHENG Bing-Ying; ZHANG Dao-Zhong; JIA Suo-Tang

    2004-01-01

    @@ We propose a mathematical model to analyse the membrane tether formation process on a cell surface with reservoir. Based on the experimental results, the membrane reservoir density of breast cancer cell was obtained,p = 8.02. The membrane surface viscosity between membrane and environment η is 0.021(pN.s/μm3), and the static force F0 = 5.71 pN.

  20. Dendronized Polymer Architectures for Fuel Cell Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mads Møller; Dimitrov, Ivaylo; Takamuku, S.

    2013-01-01

    Multi‐step synthetic pathways to low‐ion exchange capacity (IEC) polysulfone (PSU) with sulfonic acid functionalized aliphatic dendrons and sulfonated comb‐type PSU structures are developed and investigated in a comparative study as non‐fluorinated proton exchange membrane (PEM) candidates. In each...... evaluated as PEMs for use in fuel cells by proton conductivity measurements, and in the case of dendronized architectures: thermal stability. The proposed synthetic strategy facilitates exploration of a non‐fluorous system with various flexible side chains where IEC is tunable by the degree of substitution....

  1. Nanocomposite Membranes based on Perlfuorosulfonic Acid/Ceramic for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Qiong; WANG Guangjin; YE Hong; YAN Shilin

    2015-01-01

    Perlfuorosulfonic acid/ceramic nanocomposite membranes were investigated as electrolytes for polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell applications under low relative humidity. Different nanosized ceramics (SiO2, ZrO2, TiO2) with diameters in the range of 2-6 nm were synthesized in situ in Nafion solution through a sol-gel process and the formed nanosized ceramics were well-dispersed in the solution. The nanocomposite membranes were formed through a casting process. The nanocomposite membrane showes enhanced water retention ability and improved proton conductivity compared to those of pure Naifon membrane. The mechanical strength of the formed nanocomposite membranes is slightly less than that of pure Naifon membrane. The experimental results demonstrate that the polymer ceramic nanocompsite membranes are potential electrolyte for fuel cells operating at elevated temperature.

  2. Plasma membranes from insect midgut cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter R. Terra

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma membranes from insect midgut cells are separated into apical and basolateral domains. The apical domain is usually modified into microvilli with a molecular structure similar to other animals. Nevertheless, the microvillar structure should differ in some insects to permit the traffic inside them of secretory vesicles that may budd laterally or pinch-off from the tips of microvilli. Other microvillar modifications are associated with proton-pumping or with the interplay with an ensheathing lipid membrane (the perimicrovilllar membrane observed in the midgut cells of hemipterans (aphids and bugs. The perimicrovillar membranes are thought to be involved in amino acid absorption from diluted diets. The microvillar and perimicrovillar membranes have densities (and protein content that depend on the insect taxon. The role played by the microvillar and perimicrovillar proteins in insect midgut physiology is reviewed here trying to provide a coherent picture of data and highlighting further research areas.As membranas plasmáticas das células intestinais dos insetos apresentam um domínio apical e outro basal. O domínio apical é geralmente modificado em microvilosidades com organização molecular similar a de outros animais, embora possam diferir naqueles insetos que apresentam vesículas secretoras em trânsito que brotam lateralmente ou destacam-se das extremidades das microvilosidades. Outras modificações microvilares estão associadas a bombeamento de prótons ou a interrelações com uma membrana lipídica (a membrana perimicrovilar que reveste as microvilosidades de células intestinais de hemípteros (pulgões e percevejos. Admite-se que as membranas perimicrovilares estejam envolvidas na absorção de aminoácidos a partir de dietas diluídas. As membranas microvilares e perimicrovilares tem densidades distintas (e conteúdo protéico que dependem do táxon do inseto. O papel desempenhado pelas proteínas microvilares e

  3. A Quaternary Polybenzimidazole Membrane for Intermediate Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, C.; Scott, K.; Li, Qingfeng

    2013-01-01

    A quaternary ammonium polybenzimidazole (QPBI) membrane was synthesized for applications in intermediate temperature (100–200 °C) hydrogen fuel cells. The QPBI membrane was imbibed with phosphoric acid to provide suitable proton conductivity. The proton conductivity of the membrane was 0.051 S cm–1...... at 150 °C with the PA acid loading level of 3.5 PRU (amount of H3PO4 per repeat unit of polymer QPBI). The QPBI membrane was characterized in terms of composition, structure and morphology by NMR, FTIR, SEM, and EDX. The fuel cell performance with the membrane gave peak power densities of 440 and 240 m...

  4. Electrochemical investigation of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/clay nanocomposite membranes for moderate temperature fuel cell applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasani-Sadrabadi, Mohammad Mahdi [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Dashtimoghadam, Erfan; Sarikhani, Kaveh [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Majedi, Fatemeh S. [Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Khanbabaei, Ghader [Polymer Science and Technology Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran (Iran)

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, polyelectrolyte membranes based on partially sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with various degrees of sulfonation are prepared. The optimum degree of sulfonation is determined according to the transport properties and hydrolytic stability of the membranes. Subsequently, various amounts of the organically modified montmorillonite (MMT) are introduced into the sPEEK matrices via the solution intercalation technique. The proton conductivity and methanol permeability measurements of the fabricated composite membranes reveal a high proton to methanol selectivity, even at elevated temperatures. Membrane based on sPEEK and 1 wt% of MMT, as the optimum nanoclay composition, exhibits a high selectivity and power density at the concentrated methanol feed. Moreover, it is found that the optimum nanocomposite membrane not only provides higher performance compared to the neat sPEEK and Nafion {sup registered} 117 membranes, but also exhibits a high open circuit voltage (OCV) at the elevated methanol concentration. Owing to the high proton conductivity, reduced methanol permeability, high power density, convenient processability and low cost, sPEEK/MMT nanocomposite membranes could be considered as the alternative membranes for moderate temperature direct methanol fuel cell applications. (author)

  5. NOVEL COMPOSITE HYDROGEN-PERMEABLE MEMBRANES FOR NON-THERMAL PLASMA REACTORS FOR THE DECOMPOSITION OF HYDROGEN SULFIDE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Ji-Jun Zhang; Guibing Zhao; Robyn J. Alcanzare; Linna Wang; Ovid A. Plumb

    2004-07-01

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. Experiments involving methane conversion reactions were conducted with a preliminary pulsed corona discharge reactor design in order to test and improve the reactor and membrane designs using a non-toxic reactant. This report details the direct methane conversion experiments to produce hydrogen, acetylene, and higher hydrocarbons utilizing a co-axial cylinder (CAC) corona discharge reactor, pulsed with a thyratron switch. The reactor was designed to accommodate relatively high flow rates (655 x 10{sup -6} m{sup 3}/s) representing a pilot scale easily converted to commercial scale. Parameters expected to influence methane conversion including pulse frequency, charge voltage, capacitance, residence time, and electrode material were investigated. Conversion, selectivity and energy consumption were measured or estimated. C{sub 2} and C{sub 3} hydrocarbon products were analyzed with a residual gas analyzer (RGA). In order to obtain quantitative results, the complex sample spectra were de-convoluted via a linear least squares method. Methane conversion as high as 51% was achieved. The products are typically 50%-60% acetylene, 20% propane, 10% ethane and ethylene, and 5% propylene. First Law thermodynamic energy efficiencies for the system (electrical and reactor) were estimated to range from 38% to 6%, with the highest efficiencies occurring at short residence time and low power input (low specific energy) where conversion is the lowest (less than 5%). The highest methane conversion of 51% occurred at a

  6. Focus on membrane differentiation and membrane domains in the prokaryotic cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boekema, Egbert J; Scheffers, Dirk-Jan; van Bezouwen, Laura S; Bolhuis, Henk; Folea, I Mihaela

    2013-01-01

    A summary is presented of membrane differentiation in the prokaryotic cell, with an emphasis on the organization of proteins in the plasma/cell membrane. Many species belonging to the Eubacteria and Archaea have special membrane domains and/or membrane proliferation, which are vital for different cellular processes. Typical membrane domains are found in bacteria where a specific membrane protein is abundantly expressed. Lipid rafts form another example. Despite the rareness of conventional organelles as found in eukaryotes, some bacteria are known to have an intricate internal cell membrane organization. Membrane proliferation can be divided into curvature and invaginations which can lead to internal compartmentalization. This study discusses some of the clearest examples of bacteria with such domains and internal membranes. The need for membrane specialization is highest among the heterogeneous group of bacteria which harvest light energy, such as photosynthetic bacteria and halophilic archaea. Most of the highly specialized membranes and domains, such as the purple membrane, chromatophore and chlorosome, are found in these autotrophic organisms. Otherwise the need for membrane differentiation is lower and variable, except for those structures involved in cell division. Microscopy techniques have given essential insight into bacterial membrane morphology. As microscopy will further contribute to the unraveling of membrane organization in the years to come, past and present technology in electron microscopy and light microscopy is discussed. Electron microscopy was the first to unravel bacterial morphology because it can directly visualize membranes with inserted proteins, which no other technique can do. Electron microscopy techniques developed in the 1950s and perfected in the following decades involve the thin sectioning and freeze fractioning of cells. Several studies from the golden age of these techniques show amazing examples of cell membrane morphology

  7. Bleomycin-induced DNA synthesis in a cell-free system using a permeable mouse sarcoma cell Extract.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seki,Shuji

    1987-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate factors involved in excision repair DNA synthesis, a soluble extract was prepared from permeable mouse sarcoma (SR-C3H/He cells by homogenization and ultracentrifugation. DNA synthesis measured by using native calf thymus DNA as the template-primer and the extract as the polymerase source showed low activity. The DNA synthesis was enhanced more than ten-fold by the addition of an appropriate concentration of bleomycin, a radiomimetic DNA-damaging drug. Using selective inhibitors of DNA polymerases, it was shown that the DNA polymerase involved in the bleomycin-induced DNA synthesis was DNA polymerase beta. In addition to DNA polymerase beta, an exonuclease which converts bleomycin-damaged DNA into suitable template-primers for repair DNA synthesis appeared to be present in the permeable cell extract.

  8. Fine-Tuned Intrinsically Ultramicroporous Polymers Redefine the Permeability/Selectivity Upper Bounds of Membrane-Based Air and Hydrogen Separations

    KAUST Repository

    Swaidan, Raja

    2015-08-20

    Intrinsically ultramicroporous (<7 Å) polymers represent a new paradigm in materials development for membrane-based gas separation. In particular, they demonstrate that uniting intrachain “rigidity”, the traditional design metric of highly permeable polymers of intrinsic microporosity (PIMs), with gas-sieving ultramicroporosity yields high-performance gas separation membranes. Highly ultramicroporous PIMs have redefined the state-of-the-art in large-scale air (e.g., O2/N2) and hydrogen recovery (e.g., H2/N2, H2/CH4) applications with unprecedented molecular sieving gas transport properties. Accordingly, presented herein are new 2015 permeability/selectivity “upper bounds” for large-scale commercial membrane-based air and hydrogen applications that accommodate the substantial performance enhancements of recent PIMs over preceding polymers. A subtle balance between intrachain rigidity and interchain spacing has been achieved in the amorphous microstructures of PIMs, fine-tuned using unique bridged-bicyclic building blocks (i.e., triptycene, ethanoanthracene and Tröger’s base) in both ladder and semiladder (e.g., polyimide) structures.

  9. Bacterial nanocellulose/Nafion composite membranes for low temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Gao-peng; Zhang, Jing; Qiao, Jin-li; Jiang, Yong-ming; Zarrin, Hadis; Chen, Zhongwei; Hong, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Novel nanocomposite membranes aimed for both proton-exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) are presented in this work. The membranes are based on blending bacterial nanocellulose pulp and Nafion (abbreviated as BxNy, where x and y indicates the mass ratio of bacterial cellulose to Nafion). The structure and properties of BxNy membranes are characterized by FTIR, SEM, TG, DMA and EIS, along with water uptake, swelling behavior and methanol permeability tests. It is found that the BxNy composite membranes with reinforced concrete-like structure show excellent mechanical and thermal stability regardless of annealing. The water uptake plus area and volume swelling ratios are all decreased compared to Nafion membranes. The proton conductivities of pristine and annealed B1N9 are 0.071 and 0.056 S cm-1, respectively, at 30 °C and 100% humidity. Specifically, annealed B1N1 exhibited the lowest methanol permeability of 7.21 × 10-7 cm2 s-1. Through the selectivity analysis, pristine and annealed B1N7 are selected to assemble the MEAs. The performances of annealed B1N7 in PEMFC and DMFC show the maximum power densities of 106 and 3.2 mW cm-2, respectively, which are much higher than those of pristine B1N7 at 25 °C. The performances of the pristine and annealed B1N7 reach a level as high as 21.1 and 20.4 mW cm-2 at 80 °C in DMFC, respectively.

  10. 4-Quinolone-3-carboxylic acids as cell-permeable inhibitors of protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Ying; Gao, Li-Xin; Jin, Yi; Tang, Chun-Lan; Li, Jing-Ya; Li, Jia; Long, Ya-Qiu

    2014-07-15

    Protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B is a negative regulator in the insulin and leptin signaling pathways, and has emerged as an attractive target for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and obesity. However, the essential pharmacophore of charged phosphotyrosine or its mimetic confer low selectivity and poor cell permeability. Starting from our previously reported aryl diketoacid-based PTP1B inhibitors, a drug-like scaffold of 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid was introduced for the first time as a novel surrogate of phosphotyrosine. An optimal combination of hydrophobic groups installed at C-6, N-1 and C-3 positions of the quinolone motif afforded potent PTP1B inhibitors with low micromolar IC50 values. These 4-quinolone-3-carboxylate based PTP1B inhibitors displayed a 2-10 fold selectivity over a panel of PTP's. Furthermore, the bidentate inhibitors of 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acids conjugated with aryl diketoacid or salicylic acid were cell permeable and enhanced insulin signaling in CHO/hIR cells. The kinetic studies and molecular modeling suggest that the 4-quinolone-3-carboxylates act as competitive inhibitors by binding to the PTP1B active site in the WPD loop closed conformation. Taken together, our study shows that the 4-quinolone-3-carboxylic acid derivatives exhibit improved pharmacological properties over previously described PTB1B inhibitors and warrant further preclinical studies.

  11. Nanoporous Aluminium Oxide Membranes as Cell Interfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothea Brüggemann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO has become increasingly important in biomedical applications over the past years due to its biocompatibility, increased surface area, and the possibility to tailor this nanomaterial with a wide range of surface modifications. AAO nanopores are formed in an inexpensive anodisation process of pure aluminium, which results in the self-assembly of highly ordered, vertical nanochannels with well-controllable pore diameters, depths, and interpore distances. Because of these outstanding properties AAO nanopores have become excellent candidates as nanostructured substrates for cell-interface studies. In this comprehensive review previous surveys on cell adhesion and proliferation on different AAO nanopore geometries and surface modifications are highlighted and summarised tabularly. Future applications of nanoporous alumina membranes in biotechnology and medicine are also outlined, for instance, the use of nanoporous AAO as implant modifications, coculture substrates, or immunoisolation devices.

  12. Cytocompatibility of Three Corneal Cell Types with Amniotic Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENJian-su; CHENRui; XUJin-tang; DINGYong; ZHAOSong-bin; LISui-lian

    2004-01-01

    Rabbit limbal corneal epithelial cells, corneal endothelial cells and keratocytes were cultured on amniotic membrane. Phase contrast microscope examination was performed daily. Histological and scan electron microscopic examinations were carried out to observe the growth, arrangement and adhesion of cultivated cells. Results showed that three corneal cell types seeded on amniotic membrane grew well and had normal cell morphology. Cultured cells attached firmly on the surface of amniotic membrane. Corneal epithelial cells showed singular layer or stratification. Cell boundaries were formed and tightly opposed. Corneal endothelial cells showed cobblestone or polygonal morphologic characteristics that appeared uniform in size. The cellular arrangement was compact. Keratocytes elongated and showed triangle or dendritic morphology with many intercellular joints which could form networks. In conclusion, amniotic membrane has good scaffold property, diffusion effect and compatibility with corneal cells. The basement membrane side of amniotic membrane facilitated the growth of corneal epithelial cells and endothelial cells and cell junctions were tightly developed. The spongy layer of amniotic membrane facilitated the growth of keratocytes and intercellular joints were rich. Amniotic membrane is an ideal biomaterial for layering tissue engineered cornea.

  13. A high pressure triaxial cell with improved measurement sensitivity for saturated water permeability of high performance concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Dieb, A.S.; Hooton, R.D. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-01-01

    The measurement of the saturated water permeability of concrete is of great interest, but with the rapid improvements in properties of high performance concretes, the most common problem is the ability and accuracy of measuring the very small flow volumes. A high pressure triaxial cell with improved measurement sensitivity, capable of continuously measuring saturated water permeability of the order of < 10[sup [minus]15] m/s, is presented in this paper.

  14. Exocytosis and endocytosis in neurodocrine cells: inseparable membranes !

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien eHouy

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Although much has been learned concerning the mechanisms of secretory vesicle formation and fusion at donor and acceptor membrane compartments, relatively little attention has been paid towards understanding how cells maintain a homeostatic membrane balance through vesicular trafficking. In neurons and neuroendocrine cells, release of neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones occurs through calcium-regulated exocytosis at the plasma membrane. To allow recycling of secretory vesicle components and to preserve organelles integrity, cells must initiate and regulate compensatory membrane uptake. This review relates the fate of secretory granule membranes after full fusion exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells. In particular, we focus on the potential role of lipids in preserving and sorting secretory granule membranes after exocytosis and we discuss the potential mechanisms of membrane retrieval.

  15. Assembly of MOF Microcapsules with Size-Selective Permeability on Cell Walls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wanbin; Zhang, Yufan; Xu, Zehai; Meng, Qin; Fan, Zheng; Ye, Shuaiju; Zhang, Guoliang

    2016-01-18

    The assembly of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) into microcapsules has attracted great interest because of their unique properties. However, it remains a challenge to obtain MOF microcapsules with size selectivity at the molecular scale. In this report, we used cell walls from natural biomaterials as non-toxic, stable, and inexpensive support materials to assemble MOF/cell wall (CW) microcapsules with size-selective permeability. By making use of the hollow structure, small pores, and high density of heterogeneous nucleation sites of the cell walls, uniform and continuous MOF layers could be easily obtained by inside/outside interfacial crystallization. The prepared MOF/CW microcapsules have excellent stability and enable the steady, slow, and size-selective release of small molecules. Moreover, the size selectivity of the microcapsules can be adjusted by changing the type of deposited MOF.

  16. Cell-permeable intrinsic cellular inhibitors of apoptosis protect and rescue intestinal epithelial cells from radiation-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuzaki-Horibuchi, Shiori; Yasuda, Takeshi; Sakaguchi, Nagako; Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Akashi, Makoto

    2015-01-01

    One of the important mechanisms for gastrointestinal (GI) injury following high-dose radiation exposure is apoptosis of epithelial cells. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP) and cellular IAP2 (cIAP2) are intrinsic cellular inhibitors of apoptosis. In order to study the effects of exogenously added IAPs on apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells, we constructed bacterial expression plasmids containing genes of XIAP (full-length, BIR2 domain and BIR3-RING domain with and without mutations of auto-ubiquitylation sites) and cIAP2 proteins fused to a protein-transduction domain (PTD) derived from HIV-1 Tat protein (TAT) and purified these cell-permeable recombinant proteins. When the TAT-conjugated IAPs were added to rat intestinal epithelial cells IEC6, these proteins were effectively delivered into the cells and inhibited apoptosis, even when added after irradiation. Our results suggest that PTD-mediated delivery of IAPs may have clinical potential, not only for radioprotection but also for rescuing the GI system from radiation injuries.

  17. Gas-liquid interfacial plasmas producing reactive species for cell membrane permeabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Toshiro; Sasaki, Shota; Takashima, Keisuke; Kanzaki, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Gas-liquid interfacial atmospheric-pressure plasma jets (GLI-APPJ) are used medically for plasma-induced cell-membrane permeabilization. In an attempt to identify the dominant factors induced by GLI-APPJ responsible for enhancing cell-membrane permeability, the concentration and distribution of plasma-produced reactive species in the gas and liquid phase regions are measured. These reactive species are classified in terms of their life-span: long-lived (e.g., H2O2), short-lived (e.g., O2•−), and extremely-short-lived (e.g., •OH). The concentration of plasma-produced •OHaq in the liquid phase region decreases with an increase in solution thickness (plasma-induced cell-membrane permeabilization is found to decay markedly as the thickness of the solution increases. Furthermore, the horizontally center-localized distribution of •OHaq, resulting from the center-peaked distribution of •OH in the gas phase region, corresponds with the distribution of the permeabilized cells upon APPJ irradiation, whereas the overall plasma-produced oxidizing species such as H2O2aq in solution exhibit a doughnut-shaped horizontal distribution. These results suggest that •OHaq is likely one of the dominant factors responsible for plasma-induced cell-membrane permeabilization. PMID:28163376

  18. Carbon dioxide (hydrogen sulfide) membrane separations and WGS membrane reactor modeling for fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin

    Acid-gas removal is of great importance in many environmental or energy-related processes. Compared to current commercial technologies, membrane-based CO2 and H2S capture has the advantages of low energy consumption, low weight and space requirement, simplicity of installation/operation, and high process flexibility. However, the large-scale application of the membrane separation technology is limited by the relatively low transport properties. In this study, CO2 (H2S)-selective polymeric membranes with high permeability and high selectivity have been studied based on the facilitated transport mechanism. The membrane showed facilitated effect for both CO2 and H2S. A CO2 permeability of above 2000 Barrers, a CO2/H2 selectivity of greater than 40, and a CO2/N2 selectivity of greater than 200 at 100--150°C were observed. As a result of higher reaction rate and smaller diffusing compound, the H2S permeability and H2S/H2 selectivity were about three times higher than those properties for CO2. The novel CO2-selective membrane has been applied to capture CO 2 from flue gas and natural gas. In the CO2 capture experiments from a gas mixture with N2 and H2, a permeate CO 2 dry concentration of greater than 98% was obtained by using steam as the sweep gas. In CO2/CH4 separation, decent CO 2 transport properties were obtained with a feed pressure up to 500 psia. With the thin-film composite membrane structure, significant increase on the CO2 flux was achieved with the decrease of the selective layer thickness. With the continuous removal of CO2, CO2-selective water-gas-shift (WGS) membrane reactor is a promising approach to enhance CO conversion and increase the purity of H2 at process pressure under relatively low temperature. The simultaneous reaction and transport process in the countercurrent WGS membrane reactor was simulated by using a one-dimensional non-isothermal model. The modeling results show that a CO concentration of less than 10 ppm and a H2 recovery of greater

  19. A model of protocell based on the introduction of a semi-permeable membrane in a stochastic model of catalytic reaction networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Villani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we introduce some preliminary analyses on the role of a semi-permeable membrane in the dynamics of a stochastic model of catalytic reaction sets (CRSs of molecules. The results of the simulations performed on ensembles of randomly generated reaction schemes highlight remarkable differences between this very simple protocell description model and the classical case of the continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR. In particular, in the CSTR case, distinct simulations with the same reaction scheme reach the same dynamical equilibrium, whereas, in the protocell case, simulations with identical reaction schemes can reach very different dynamical states, despite starting from the same initial conditions.

  20. Multiphase transport in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, Eric D.

    Polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) enable efficient conversion of fuels to electricity. They have enormous potential due to the high energy density of the fuels they utilize (hydrogen or alcohols). Power density is a major limitation to wide-scale introduction of PEMFCs. Power density in hydrogen fuel cells is limited by accumulation of water in what is termed fuel cell `flooding.' Flooding may occur in either the gas diffusion layer (GDL) or within the flow channels of the bipolar plate. These components comprise the electrodes of the fuel cell and balance transport of reactants/products with electrical conductivity. This thesis explores the role of electrode materials in the fuel cell and examines the fundamental connection between material properties and multiphase transport processes. Water is generated at the cathode catalyst layer. As liquid water accumulates it will utilize the largest pores in the GDL to go from the catalyst layer to the flow channels. Water collects to large pores via lateral transport at the interface between the GDL and catalyst layer. We have shown that water may be collected in these large pores from several centimeters away, suggesting that we could engineer the GDL to control flooding with careful placement and distribution of large flow-directing pores. Once liquid water is in the flow channels it forms slugs that block gas flow. The slugs are pushed along the channel by a pressure gradient that is dependent on the material wettability. The permeable nature of the GDL also plays a major role in slug growth and allowing bypass of gas between adjacent channels. Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) have analogous multiphase flow issues where carbon dioxide bubbles accumulate, `blinding' regions of the fuel cell. This problem is fundamentally similar to water management in hydrogen fuel cells but with a gas/liquid phase inversion. Gas bubbles move laterally through the porous GDL and emerge to form large bubbles within the

  1. Caco-2 cells permeability evaluation of nifuroxazide derivatives with potential activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    B Fernandes, Mariane; Gonçalves, José E; C Tavares, Leoberto; Storpirtis, Sílvia

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the period of evaluation and selection in drug development, the assessment of the permeability potential of a compound to achieve an efficient refinement of the molecular structure has been widely appraised by the transport of substances across cell monolayers. This study aims to develop in vitro assays through Caco-2 cells in order to analyze the permeability of 5-nitro-heterocyclic compounds analogues to nifuroxazide with antimicrobial activity, especially showing promising activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Caco-2 cell monolayers cultivated for 21 days in Transwell® plates were used for the in vitro permeability assays. The quantification of the nifuroxazide derivatives in the basolateral chambers was performed by a validated high performance liquid chromatography with UV (HPLC-UV) method. Apparent permeability values (Papp) show that these compounds can be considered as new drug candidates with the potential to present high absorption in vivo, according to the classifications of Yee and Biganzoli. The thiophenic derivatives showed permeability values higher than the furanic ones, being AminoTIO the compound with the greatest potential for the development of a new drug against MRSA, since it showed the best cytotoxicity, permeability and solubility ratio among all the derivatives.

  2. Hydrogen permeable high-temperature membranes. Development and application in gas separation processes and in hydrogen-producing reactions for process heat utilization. Wasserstoffpermeable Hochtemperaturmembranen. Entwicklung und Einsatz in Gastrennprozessen und in Wasserstoff erzeugenden Reaktionen zur Nutzung von Prozesswaerme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weirich, W.

    1990-04-03

    The thesis deals with hydrogen-permeable, high-temperature membranes consisting of metal-bare or ceramic-base materials, discussing their fabrication and properties as well as the analyses and experimentes performed for studying the applicability of these membranes in hydrogen production processes or in energy conversion processes for the utilization of process heat from HTGR-type reactors. (orig.)

  3. Impedance study of membrane dehydration and compression in proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Canut, Jean-Marc; Latham, Ruth; Merida, Walter; Harrington, David A. [Institute for Integrated Energy Systems, University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    2009-07-15

    Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) is used to measure drying and rehydration in proton exchange membrane fuel cells running under load. The hysteresis between forward and backward acquisition of polarization curves is shown to be largely due to changes in the membrane resistance. Drying tests are carried out with hydrogen and simulated reformate (hydrogen and carbon dioxide), and quasi-periodic drying and rehydration conditions are studied. The membrane hydration state is clearly linked to the high-frequency arc in the impedance spectrum, which increases in size for dry conditions indicating an increase in membrane resistance. Changes in impedance spectra as external compression is applied to the cell assembly show that EIS can separate membrane and interfacial effects, and that changes in membrane resistance dominate. Reasons for the presence of a capacitance in parallel with the membrane resistance are discussed. (author)

  4. Development of composite membranes of PVA-TEOS doped KOH for alkaline membrane fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haryadi,, E-mail: haryadi@polban.ac.id; Sugianto, D.; Ristopan, E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Politeknik Negeri Bandung Jl. Gegerkalong Hilir, Ds. Ciwaruga, Bandung West Java (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    Anion exchange membranes (AEMs) play an important role in separating fuel and oxygen (or air) in the Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells. Preparation of hybrid organic inorganic materials of Polyvinylalcohol (PVA) - Tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) composite membrane doped KOH for direct alcohol alkaline fuel cell application has been investigated. The sol-gel method has been used to prepare the composite membrane of PVA-TEOS through crosslinking step and catalyzed by concentrated of hydrochloric acid. The gel solution was cast on the membrane plastic plate to obtain membrane sheets. The dry membranes were then doped by immersing in various concentrations of KOH solutions for about 4 hours. Investigations of the cross-linking process and the presence of hydroxyl group were conducted by FTIR as shown for frequency at about 1600 cm{sup −1} and 3300 cm{sup −1} respectively. The degree of swelling in ethanol decreased as the KOH concentration for membrane soaking process increased. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) of the membrane was 0.25meq/g. This composite membranes display significant ionic conductivity of 3.23 x 10{sup −2} S/cm in deionized water at room temperature. In addition, the morphology observation by scanning electron microscope (SEM) of the membrane indicates that soaking process of membrane in KOH increased thermal resistant.

  5. Blood compatibility and permeability of heparin-modified polysulfone as potential membrane for simultaneous hemodialysis and LDL removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiao-Jun; Guduru, Deepak; Xu, Zhi-Kang; Vienken, Jörg; Groth, Thomas

    2011-01-10

    Heparin was covalently immobilized on PSf membranes to obtain a dialysis membrane with high affinity for LDL. WCA and streaming potential measurements were performed to investigate wettability and surface charge of the membranes. The morphology of the membranes was investigated by SEM. An ELISA was used to measure the adsorption and desorption of LDL on plain and modified PSf. Blood compatibility was studied by measurement of thrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, kallikrein activity and platelet adhesion. It was found that the blood compatibility of the membrane was improved by covalent immobilization of heparin at its surface. However, PSf-Hep membrane showed higher flux recovery after BSA solution filtration, which revealed antifouling property of PSf-Hep membranes.

  6. Alternative to antibiotics against Pseudomonas aeruginosa: Effects of Glycyrrhiza glabra on membrane permeability and inhibition of efflux activity and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and its in vitro time-kill activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakotiya, Ankita Singh; Tanwar, Ankit; Narula, Alka; Sharma, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-09-01

    The multi-drug resistance offered by Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antibiotics can be attributed towards its propensity to develop biofilm, modification in cell membrane and to efflux antibacterial drugs. The present study explored the activity of Glycyrrhiza glabra and one of its pure compounds, glycyrrhizic acid against P. aeruginosa and their mechanism of action in terms of the effect on membrane permeability, efflux activity, and biofilm formation were determined. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined by using broth dilution technique. The minimum bactericidal concentrations were assessed on agar plate. The MIC of the extract and glycyrrhizic acid was found to be 200 and 100 μg ml(-1), respectively. The MBC was found to be 800 and 400 μg ml(-1) in the case of extract and glycyrrhizic acid, respectively. Time -dependent killing efficacy was also estimated. Flowcytometric analysis with staining methods was used to determine the effect of extract and glycyrrhizic acid at 2 × MIC on different physiological parameters and compared it with the standard (antibiotic). The growth of P. aeruginosa was significantly inhibited by extract and the pure compound. The herbal extract and the glycyrrhic acid were also found to effective in targeting the physiological parameters of the bacteria that involve cell membrane permeabilization, efflux activity, and biofilm formation. This study reports the antipseudomonal action of Glycyrrhiza glabra and one of its compound and provides insight into their mode of action.

  7. Novel Composite Hydrogen-Permeable Membranes for Non-Thermal Plasma Reactors for the Decomposition of Hydrogen Sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris D. Argyle; John F. Ackerman; Suresh Muknahallipatna; Jerry C. Hamann; Stanislaw Legowski; Guibling Zhao; Ji-Jun Zhang; Sanil John

    2005-10-01

    The goal of this experimental project is to design and fabricate a reactor and membrane test cell to dissociate hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) in a non-thermal plasma and recover hydrogen (H{sub 2}) through a superpermeable multi-layer membrane. Superpermeability of hydrogen atoms (H) has been reported by some researchers using membranes made of Group V transition metals (niobium, tantalum, vanadium, and their alloys), although it has yet to be confirmed in this study. A pulsed corona discharge (PCD) reactor has been fabricated and used to dissociate H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur. A nonthermal plasma cannot be produced in pure H{sub 2}S with our reactor geometry, even at discharge voltages of up to 30 kV, because of the high dielectric strength of pure H{sub 2}S ({approx}2.9 times higher than air). Therefore, H{sub 2}S was diluted in another gas with lower breakdown voltage (or dielectric strength). Breakdown voltages of H{sub 2}S in four balance gases (Ar, He, N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}) have been measured at different H{sub 2}S concentrations and pressures. Breakdown voltages are proportional to the partial pressure of H{sub 2}S and the balance gas. H{sub 2}S conversion and the reaction energy efficiency depend on the balance gas and H{sub 2}S inlet concentrations. With increasing H{sub 2}S concentrations, H{sub 2}S conversion initially increases, reaches a maximum, and then decreases. H{sub 2}S conversion in atomic balance gases, such as Ar and He, is more efficient than that in diatomic balance gases, such as N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}. These observations can be explained by the proposed reaction mechanism of H{sub 2}S dissociation in different balance gases. The results show that nonthermal plasmas are effective for dissociating H{sub 2}S into hydrogen and sulfur.

  8. Study on Production of Hydrogen from Methane for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋正昶; 李传统

    2001-01-01

    The hydrogen production from methane for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was studied experimentally. The conversion rate of methane under different steam-carbon ratios, the effect of the different excess air ratios on the constituents of the gas produced, the permeability of hydrogen under different pressure differences, and the effect of different system pressure on the reaction enthalpy of hydrogen were obtained. The results lay the basis for the production of hydrogen applicable to PEMFC, moreover, provide a new way for the comprehensive utilization of the coal bed methane.

  9. Permeable membranes - a tool for simplified sampling of hydrocarbon gases?; Permeable Membranen - Ein Wekzeug zur vereinfachten Probenahme von Kohlenwasserstoff-Gasen?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faber, E.; Hollerbach, A.; Poggenburg, J.; Stahl, W. [BGR, Hannover (Germany); Kaiser, H. [KaiserGEOconsult GmbH, Erlangen (Germany); Huebner, M. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany); Tobschall, H.J. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Angewandte Geologie

    1998-12-31

    Tissue membranes are commonly used for leak detection in gas pipes. Another interesting application is in the isolation of hydrocarbons in water, sediments and soils. this requires knowledge of the time variations of the parameters of the diffusion gases, e.g. gas and isotope fractionations. Laboratory experiments were carried out in order to describe these parameters. (orig.) [Deutsch] Membranen haben die spezifische Eigenschaft fuer bestimmte Stoffe in der Gasphase durchlaessig, fuer andere mehr oder weniger undurchlaessig zu sein. Grundlage fuer ein derartiges Trennverhalten ist die Gasdiffusion durch Membranen, die mit unterschiedlichen Diffusionskoeffizienten der verschiedenen Komponenten erfolgt. Membranen in Schlauchform sind in industriellem Massstab verfuegbar und werden zur Erkennung von Ortung von Gas-Leckagen eingesetzt (Huebner und Lilie, 1997). Ueber die Leckage-Thematik hinaus besteht Interesse, das Membransystem fuer neue Anwendungsbereiche wie z.B. die Isolierung von Kohlenwasserstoffgasen aus Wasser, Sedimenten oder auch Boeden zu verwenden, um detaillierte Informationen ueber ihre Natur und ihre Herkunft aus der Gaszusammensetzung und den Kohlenstoff-Isotopenwerten (Faber, 1987) abzuleiten. Voraussetzung hierfuer ist die Kenntnis ueber die zeitlichen Aenderungen der Parameter der diffundierenden Gase, d.h. ueber die bei Diffusionsvorgaengen grundsaetzlich auftretenden Gas- und Isotopenfraktionierungen. Verschiedene Laborversuche wurden durchgefuehrt, um diese Parameter zu bestimmen. (orig.)

  10. Polycations increase the permeability of Mycobacterium vaccae cell envelopes to hydrophobic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korycka-Machala, M; Ziółkowski, A; Rumijowska-Galewicz, A; Lisowska, K; Sedlaczek, L

    2001-10-01

    Polycations [protamine, polymyxin B nonapeptide (PMBN) and polyethyleneimine (PEI)] have been shown to increase the cell wall permeability of Mycobacterium vaccae to highly hydrophobic compounds, as manifested in enhanced intracellular bioconversion of beta-sitosterol to 4-androsten-3,17-dione (AD) and 1,4-androstadien-3,17-dione (ADD), and cell sensitization to erythromycin and rifampicin. The quantity of AD(D) formed per biomass unit was twice as high in the presence of PMBN and PEI, and three times higher with protamine. The sensitization factor, i.e. the MIC(50) ratio of the control bacteria to those exposed to polycations, ranged from 4 to 16, depending on the polycation/antibiotic combination. Non-covalently bound free lipids were extracted from the control and polycation-treated cells and fractionated with the use of chloroform, acetone and methanol. Chloroform- and acetone-eluted fractions (mainly neutral lipids and glycolipids, respectively) showed significant polycation-induced alterations in their quantitative and qualitative composition. The fatty acid profile of neutral lipids was reduced in comparison to control, whereas acetone-derived lipids were characterized by a much higher level of octadecenoic acid (C(18:1)) and a considerably lower content of docosanoic acid (C(22:0)), the marker compound of mycolate-containing glycolipids. Methanol-eluted fractions remained unaltered. Cell-wall-linked mycolates obtained from delipidated cells were apparently unaffected by the action of polycations, as judged from the TLC pattern of mycolic acid subclasses, the mean weight of mycolate preparations and the C(22:0) acid content in the mycolates, determined by GC/MS and pyrolysis GC. The results suggest the involvement of the components of non-covalently bound lipids in the outer layer in the M. vaccae permeability barrier.

  11. Nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) enhance cytotoxicity of cisplatin to hepatocellular cells by microdomain disruption on plasma membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Shengyong; Chen, Xinhua; Xie, Haiyang; Zhou, Lin; Guo, Danjing; Xu, Yuning; Wu, Liming; Zheng, Shusen

    2016-08-15

    Previous studies showed nanosecond pulsed electric field (nsPEF) can ablate solid tumors including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) but its effect on cell membrane is not fully understood. We hypothesized nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on outer-cellular membrane with direct mechanical force and as a result the plasma membrane permeability increases to facilitate the small molecule intake. Three HCC cells were pulsed one pulse per minute, an interval longer than nanopore resealing time. The cationized ferritin was used to mark up the electronegative microdomains, propidium iodide (PI) for membrane permeabilization, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) for the negative cell surface charge and cisplatin for inner-cellular cytotoxicity. We demonstrated that the ferritin marked-microdomain and negative cell surface charge were disrupted by nsPEF caused-mechanical force. The cell uptake of propidium and cytotoxicity of DNA-targeted cisplatin increased with a dose effect. Cisplatin gains its maximum inner-cellular cytotoxicity when combining with nsPEF stimulation. We conclude that nsPEF disrupt the microdomains on the outer cellular membrane directly and increase the membrane permeabilization for PI and cisplatin. The microdomain disruption and membrane infiltration changes are caused by the mechanical force from the changes of negative cell surface charge.

  12. Iron oxide nanoparticles induce human microvascular endothelial cell permeability through reactive oxygen species production and microtubule remodeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Xianglin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engineered iron nanoparticles are being explored for the development of biomedical applications and many other industry purposes. However, to date little is known concerning the precise mechanisms of translocation of iron nanoparticles into targeted tissues and organs from blood circulation, as well as the underlying implications of potential harmful health effects in human. Results The confocal microscopy imaging analysis demonstrates that exposure to engineered iron nanoparticles induces an increase in cell permeability in human microvascular endothelial cells. Our studies further reveal iron nanoparticles enhance the permeability through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the stabilization of microtubules. We also showed Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathways are involved in iron nanoparticle-induced cell permeability. The inhibition of ROS demonstrate ROS play a major role in regulating Akt/GSK-3β – mediated cell permeability upon iron nanoparticle exposure. These results provide new insights into the bioreactivity of engineered iron nanoparticles which can inform potential applications in medical imaging or drug delivery. Conclusion Our results indicate that exposure to iron nanoparticles induces an increase in endothelial cell permeability through ROS oxidative stress-modulated microtubule remodeling. The findings from this study provide new understandings on the effects of nanoparticles on vascular transport of macromolecules and drugs.

  13. Membrane Fouling in Microfiltration used for Cell Harvesting

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tahereh Kaghazchi; Farzin Zokaee; Abbas Zare

    2001-01-01

    In the present study the membrane fouling in microfiltration used for cell harvesting in a deadend system has been investigated. Experimental results were analysed in terms of existing membrane filtration models and membrane resistances. The cake filtration model (CFM) and standard blocking model (SBM) have been considered in this study.Various membrane resistances were determined at different processing time, feed concentration and stirring speed. Resistances to permeation in this system include filter medium, pore blocking, adsorption, cake layer and concentration polarization.

  14. Membrane fouling in microfiltration used for cell harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaghazchi, Tahereh; Zokaee, Farzin; Zare, Abbas

    2001-03-01

    In the present study the membrane fouling in microfiltration used for cell harvesting in a deadend system has been investigated. Experimental results were analysed in terms of existing membrane filtration models and membrane resistances. The cake filtration model (CFM) and standard blocking model (SBM) have been considered in this study. Various membrane resistances were determined at different processing time, feed concentration and stirring speed. Resistances to permeation in this system include filter medium, pore blocking, adsorption, cake layer and concentration polarization.

  15. Effects of Perfluorocarbons on surfactant exocytosis and membrane properties in isolated alveolar type II cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravasio Andrea

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Perfluorocarbons (PFC are used to improve gas exchange in diseased lungs. PFC have been shown to affect various cell types. Thus, effects on alveolar type II (ATII cells and surfactant metabolism can be expected, data, however, are controversial. Objective The study was performed to test two hypotheses: (I the effects of PFC on surfactant exocytosis depend on their respective vapor pressures; (II different pathways of surfactant exocytosis are affected differently by PFC. Methods Isolated ATII cells were exposed to two PFC with different vapor pressures and spontaneous surfactant exocytosis was measured. Furthermore, surfactant exocytosis was stimulated by either ATP, PMA or Ionomycin. The effects of PFC on cell morphology, cellular viability, endocytosis, membrane permeability and fluidity were determined. Results The spontaneous exocytosis was reduced by PFC, however, the ATP and PMA stimulated exocytosis was slightly increased by PFC with high vapor pressure. In contrast, Ionomycin-induced exocytosis was decreased by PFC with low vapor pressure. Cellular uptake of FM 1-43 - a marker of membrane integrity - was increased. However, membrane fluidity, endocytosis and viability were not affected by PFC incubation. Conclusions We conclude that PFC effects can be explained by modest, unspecific interactions with the plasma membrane rather than by specific interactions with intracellular targets.

  16. Isoflavones in food supplements: chemical profile, label accordance and permeability study in Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, I M C; Rodrigues, F; Sarmento, B; Alves, R C; Oliveira, M B P P

    2015-03-01

    Consumers nowadays are playing an active role in their health-care. A special case is the increasing number of women, who are reluctant to use exogenous hormone therapy for the treatment of menopausal symptoms and are looking for complementary therapies. However, food supplements are not clearly regulated in Europe. The EFSA has only recently begun to address the issues of botanical safety and purity regulation, leading to a variability of content, standardization, dosage, and purity of available products. In this study, isoflavones (puerarin, daidzin, genistin, daidzein, glycitein, genistein, formononetin, prunetin, and biochanin A) from food supplements (n = 15) for menopausal symptoms relief are evaluated and compared with the labelled information. Only four supplements complied with the recommendations made by the EC on the tolerable thresholds. The intestinal bioavailability of these compounds was investigated using Caco-2 cells. The apparent permeability coefficients of the selected isoflavonoids across the Caco-2 cells were affected by the isoflavone concentration and product matrix.

  17. In-vitro permeability of the human nail and of a keratin membrane from bovine hooves: penetration of chloramphenicol from lipophilic vehicles and a nail lacquer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertin, D; Lippold, B C

    1997-03-01

    Lipophilic vehicles and especially nail lacquers are more appropriate for topical application on the nail than aqueous systems because of their better adhesion. This work has, therefore, studied the penetration through the human nail plate of the model compound chloramphenicol from the lipophilic vehicles medium chain triglycerides and n-octanol and from a lacquer based on quaternary poly(methyl methacrylates) (Eudragit RL). The results were compared with data obtained with a keratin membrane from bovine hooves. If the swelling of the nail plate or the hoof membrane is not altered by use of lipophilic vehicles, the maximum flux of the drug is independent of its solubility in the vehicle and is the same as that from a saturated aqueous solution. These vehicles are not able to enter the hydrophilic keratin membrane because of their non-polar character and so cannot change the solubility of the penetrating substance in the barrier. If the concentration of the drug in the nail lacquer is sufficiently high, the maximum flux through both barriers equals that from aqueous vehicles or even exceeds it because of the formation of a supersaturated system. Penetration through the nail plate follows first order kinetics after a lag-time of 400 h. The course of penetration through the hoof membrane is initially membrane-controlled and later becomes a matrix-controlled process because of the membrane's greater permeability. Chloramphenicol is dissolved in the lacquer up to a concentration of 31%. The relative release rates from these solution matrices are independent of the drug concentration but they decrease on changing to a suspension matrix. These results show that drug flux is independent of the character of the vehicle and that penetration of the drug is initially membrane-controlled and changes to being matrix-controlled as the drug content of the lacquer decreases.

  18. Local membrane deformations activate Ca2+-dependent K+ and anionic currents in intact human red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Dyrda

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The mechanical, rheological and shape properties of red blood cells are determined by their cortical cytoskeleton, evolutionarily optimized to provide the dynamic deformability required for flow through capillaries much narrower than the cell's diameter. The shear stress induced by such flow, as well as the local membrane deformations generated in certain pathological conditions, such as sickle cell anemia, have been shown to increase membrane permeability, based largely on experimentation with red cell suspensions. We attempted here the first measurements of membrane currents activated by a local and controlled membrane deformation in single red blood cells under on-cell patch clamp to define the nature of the stretch-activated currents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The cell-attached configuration of the patch-clamp technique was used to allow recordings of single channel activity in intact red blood cells. Gigaohm seal formation was obtained with and without membrane deformation. Deformation was induced by the application of a negative pressure pulse of 10 mmHg for less than 5 s. Currents were only detected when the membrane was seen domed under negative pressure within the patch-pipette. K(+ and Cl(- currents were strictly dependent on the presence of Ca(2+. The Ca(2+-dependent currents were transient, with typical decay half-times of about 5-10 min, suggesting the spontaneous inactivation of a stretch-activated Ca(2+ permeability (PCa. These results indicate that local membrane deformations can transiently activate a Ca(2+ permeability pathway leading to increased [Ca(2+](i, secondary activation of Ca(2+-sensitive K(+ channels (Gardos channel, IK1, KCa3.1, and hyperpolarization-induced anion currents. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The stretch-activated transient PCa observed here under local membrane deformation is a likely contributor to the Ca(2+-mediated effects observed during the normal aging process of red blood cells, and

  19. Polybenzimidazole and sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane composite membranes for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aili, David; Allward, Todd; Alfaro, Silvia Martinez

    2014-01-01

    Composite membranes based on poly(2,2′(m-phenylene)-5,5́bibenzimidazole) (PBI) and sulfonated polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (S-POSS) with S-POSS contents of 5 and 10wt.% were prepared by solution casting as base materials for high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells. With membranes...... humidified conditions in the 120-180°C temperature range. The conductivity improvements were also confirmed by in situ fuel cell tests at 160°C and further supported by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy data based on the operating membrane electrode assemblies, demonstrating the technical...... feasibility of the novel electrolyte materials....

  20. Conductivity Measurements of Synthesized Heteropoly Acid Membranes for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Record, K.A.; Haley, B.T.; Turner, J.

    2006-01-01

    Fuel cell technology is receiving attention due to its potential to be a pollution free method of electricity production when using renewably produced hydrogen as fuel. In a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell H2 and O2 react at separate electrodes, producing electricity, thermal energy, and water. A key component of the PEM fuel cell is the membrane that separates the electrodes. DuPont’s Nafion® is the most commonly used membrane in PEM fuel cells; however, fuel cell dehydration at temperatures near 100°C, resulting in poor conductivity, is a major hindrance to fuel cell performance. Recent studies incorporating heteropoly acids (HPAs) into membranes have shown an increase in conductivity and thus improvement in performance. HPAs are inorganic materials with known high proton conductivities. The primary objective of this work is to measure the conductivity of Nafion, X-Ionomer membranes, and National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Developed Membranes that are doped with different HPAs at different concentrations. Four-point conductivity measurements using a third generation BekkTech conductivity test cell are used to determine membrane conductivity. The effect of multiple temperature and humidification levels is also examined. While the classic commercial membrane, Nafion, has a conductivity of approximately 0.10 S/cm, measurements for membranes in this study range from 0.0030 – 0.58 S/cm, depending on membrane type, structure of the HPA, and the relative humidity. In general, the X-ionomer with H6P2W21O71 HPA gave the highest conductivity and the Nafion with the 12-phosphotungstic (PW12) HPA gave the lowest. The NREL composite membranes had conductivities on the order of 0.0013 – 0.025 S/cm.

  1. [Hereditary red cell membrane disorders in Japan: comparison with other countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakanishi, Hidekazu; Wada, Hideho; Suemori, Shinichiro; Sugihara, Takashi

    2015-07-01

    Red cell membrane disorders are the most common type of inherited hemolytic disorders in the Japanese population. In hereditary spherocytosis (HS), the primary presentation is a loss of membrane surface area, leading to reduced deformability because of defects in the membrane proteins ankyrin, band 3, β-spectrin, α spectrin, or protein 4.2 (P4.2). Complete P4.2 deficiencies, which are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, comprise a unique HS subgroup and are common in Japanese, but rare in other populations. In contrast, the principle presentation in hereditary elliptocytosis (HE) is mechanical weakness of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton due to defects in α-spectrin, β-spectrin, or protein 4.1. Although α-spectrin mutations are the most frequent cause of HE in Caucasian, African, and Mediterranean populations, these mutations are rare in the Japanese population, in which P4.1 deficiencies are instead most common. Furthermore, hereditary stomatocytoses (HSt) are disorders of monovalent cation permeability in the red cell membrane.

  2. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/zirconium tricarboxybutylphosphonate composite proton-exchange membranes for direct methanol fuel cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qijun GAO; Mianyan HUANG; Yuxin WANG; Yuquan CAI; Li XU

    2008-01-01

    Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) is a very promising alternative membrane material for direct methanol fuel cells. However, with a fairly high degree ofsulfonation (DS), SPEEK membranes can swell excessively and even dissolve at high temperature. This restricts mem-branes from working above a high tolerable temperature to get high proton conductivity. To deal with this contra-dictory situation, insolvable zirconium tricarboxybutyl-phosphonate (Zr(PBTC)) powder was employed to make a composite with SPEEK polymer in an attempt to improve temperature tolerance of the membranes. SPEEK/Zr(PBTC) composite membranes were obtained by casting a homogeneous mixture of Zr(PBTC) and SPEEK in N,N-dimethylacetamide on a glass plate and then evaporating the solvent at 60℃. Many characteristics were investigated, including thermal stability, liquid uptake, methanol permeability and proton conductivity. Results showed significant improvement not only in tem-perature tolerance, but also in methanol resistance of the SPEEK/Zr(PBTC) composite membranes. The mem-branes containing 30 wt-%~40 wt-% of Zr(PBTC) had their methanol permeability around 10-7 cm2·S-1 at room temperature to 80℃, which was one order of magnitudelower than that of Nafion 115. High proton conductivity of the composite membranes, however, could also be achieved from higher temperature applied. At 100% rela-tive humidity, above 90℃ the conductivity of the compo-site membrane containing 40 wt-% of Zr(PBTC) exceeded that of the Nafion 115 membrane and even reached a high value of 0.36 S·cm-1 at 160℃. Improved applicable tem-perature and high conductivity of the composite membrane indicated its promising application in DMFC operations at high temperature.

  3. Intracellular protease activation in apoptosis and cell-mediated cytotoxicity characterized by cell-permeable fluorogenic protease substrates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beverly Z Packard; Akira Komoriya

    2008-01-01

    Over the past decade the importance of signaling from reporter molecules inside live cells and tissues has been clearly established. Biochemical events related to inflammation, tumor metastasis and proliferation, and viral infectivity and replication are examples of processes being further defined as more molecular tools for live cell measurements become available. Moreover, in addition to quantitating parameters related to physiologic processes, real-time imaging of molecular interactions that compose basic cellular activities are providing insights into understanding disease mechanisms as well as extending clinical efficacy of therapeutic regimens. In this review the use of highly cell-permeable fluorogenic substrates that report protease activities inside live cells is described; applications to defining the molecular events of two cellular processes, i.e., apoptosis and cell-mediated cytotoxicity, are then illustrated.

  4. Proteomics-based metabolic modeling reveals that fatty acid oxidation (FAO) controls endothelial cell (EC) permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patella, Francesca; Schug, Zachary T; Persi, Erez; Neilson, Lisa J; Erami, Zahra; Avanzato, Daniele; Maione, Federica; Hernandez-Fernaud, Juan R; Mackay, Gillian; Zheng, Liang; Reid, Steven; Frezza, Christian; Giraudo, Enrico; Fiorio Pla, Alessandra; Anderson, Kurt; Ruppin, Eytan; Gottlieb, Eyal; Zanivan, Sara

    2015-03-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) play a key role to maintain the functionality of blood vessels. Altered EC permeability causes severe impairment in vessel stability and is a hallmark of pathologies such as cancer and thrombosis. Integrating label-free quantitative proteomics data into genome-wide metabolic modeling, we built up a model that predicts the metabolic fluxes in ECs when cultured on a tridimensional matrix and organize into a vascular-like network. We discovered how fatty acid oxidation increases when ECs are assembled into a fully formed network that can be disrupted by inhibiting CPT1A, the fatty acid oxidation rate-limiting enzyme. Acute CPT1A inhibition reduces cellular ATP levels and oxygen consumption, which are restored by replenishing the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Remarkably, global phosphoproteomic changes measured upon acute CPT1A inhibition pinpointed altered calcium signaling. Indeed, CPT1A inhibition increases intracellular calcium oscillations. Finally, inhibiting CPT1A induces hyperpermeability in vitro and leakage of blood vessel in vivo, which were restored blocking calcium influx or replenishing the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Fatty acid oxidation emerges as central regulator of endothelial functions and blood vessel stability and druggable pathway to control pathological vascular permeability.

  5. Proteomics-Based Metabolic Modeling Reveals That Fatty Acid Oxidation (FAO) Controls Endothelial Cell (EC) Permeability*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patella, Francesca; Schug, Zachary T.; Persi, Erez; Neilson, Lisa J.; Erami, Zahra; Avanzato, Daniele; Maione, Federica; Hernandez-Fernaud, Juan R.; Mackay, Gillian; Zheng, Liang; Reid, Steven; Frezza, Christian; Giraudo, Enrico; Fiorio Pla, Alessandra; Anderson, Kurt; Ruppin, Eytan; Gottlieb, Eyal; Zanivan, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cells (ECs) play a key role to maintain the functionality of blood vessels. Altered EC permeability causes severe impairment in vessel stability and is a hallmark of pathologies such as cancer and thrombosis. Integrating label-free quantitative proteomics data into genome-wide metabolic modeling, we built up a model that predicts the metabolic fluxes in ECs when cultured on a tridimensional matrix and organize into a vascular-like network. We discovered how fatty acid oxidation increases when ECs are assembled into a fully formed network that can be disrupted by inhibiting CPT1A, the fatty acid oxidation rate-limiting enzyme. Acute CPT1A inhibition reduces cellular ATP levels and oxygen consumption, which are restored by replenishing the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Remarkably, global phosphoproteomic changes measured upon acute CPT1A inhibition pinpointed altered calcium signaling. Indeed, CPT1A inhibition increases intracellular calcium oscillations. Finally, inhibiting CPT1A induces hyperpermeability in vitro and leakage of blood vessel in vivo, which were restored blocking calcium influx or replenishing the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Fatty acid oxidation emerges as central regulator of endothelial functions and blood vessel stability and druggable pathway to control pathological vascular permeability. PMID:25573745

  6. Vascular Permeability Drives Susceptibility to Influenza Infection in a Murine Model of Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Oguin, Thomas H.; Meliopoulos, Victoria; Iverson, Amy; Broadnax, Alexandria; Yoon, Sun-Woo; Pestina, Tamara; Thomas, Paul; Webby, Richard; Schultz-Cherry, Stacey; Rosch, Jason W.

    2017-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a major global health concern. Patients with SCD experience disproportionately greater morbidity and mortality in response to influenza infection than do others. Viral infection is one contributing factor for the development of Acute Chest Syndrome (ACS), a major cause of morbidity and mortality in SCD patients. We determined whether the heightened sensitivity to influenza infection could be reproduced in the two different SCD murine models to ascertain the underlying mechanisms of increased disease severity. In agreement with clinical observations, we found that both genetic and bone marrow-transplanted SCD mice had greater mortality in response to influenza infection than did wild-type animals. Despite similar initial viral titers and inflammatory responses between wild-type and SCD animals during infection, SCD mice continued to deteriorate and failed to resolve the infection, resulting in increased mortality. Histopathology of the lung tissues revealed extensive pulmonary edema and vascular damage following infection, a finding confirmed by heightened vascular permeability following virus challenge. These findings implicate the development of exacerbated pulmonary permeability following influenza challenge as the primary factor underlying heightened mortality. These studies highlight the need to focus on prevention and control strategies against influenza infection in the SCD population. PMID:28256526

  7. Thin Robust Anion Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    provide inexpensive compact power from a wider variety of fuels than is possible with a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell, has continued to...in aqueous solution. Interestingly though, while the proton transfer events in the anion exchange membrane are more frequent as would be ECS...release; distribution is unlimited. (Invited) Thin Robust Anion Exchange Membranes for Fuel Cell Applications The views, opinions and/or findings

  8. Quantitative Imaging of Cell-Permeable Magnetic Resonance Contrast Agents Using X-Ray Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Endres

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The inability to transduce cellular membranes is a limitation of current magnetic resonance imaging probes used in biologic and clinical settings. This constraint confines contrast agents to extracellular and vascular regions of the body, drastically reducing their viability for investigating processes and cycles in developmental biology. Conversely, a contrast agent with the ability to permeate cell membranes could be used in visualizing cell patterning, cell fate mapping, gene therapy, and, eventually, noninvasive cancer diagnosis. Therefore, we describe the synthesis and quantitative imaging of four contrast agents with the capability to cross cell membranes in sufficient quantity for detection. Each agent is based on the conjugation of a Gd(III chelator with a cellular transduction moiety. Specifically, we coupled Gd(III–diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid DTPA and Gd(III–1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid with an 8–amino acid polyarginine oligomer and an amphipathic stilbene molecule, 4-amino-4'-(N,N-dimethylaminostilbene. The imaging modality that provided the best sensitivity and spatial resolution for direct detection of the contrast agents is synchrotron radiation x-ray fluorescence (SR-XRF. Unlike optical microscopy, SR-XRF provides two-dimensional images with resolution 103 better than 153Gd gamma counting, without altering the agent by organic fluorophore conjugation. The transduction efficiency of the intracellular agents was evaluated by T1 analysis and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to determine the efficacy of each chelate-transporter combination.

  9. The production of sulfonated chitosan-sodium alginate found in brown algae (Sargassum sp.) composite membrane as proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wafiroh, Siti; Pudjiastuti, Pratiwi; Sari, Ilma Indana

    2016-03-01

    The majority of energy was used in this period is from fossil fuel, which getting decreased in the future. The objective of this research is production and characterization of sulfonated chitosan-sodium alginate found in brown algae (Sargassum sp.) composite membrane as Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) for alternative energy. PEMFC was produced with 4 variations (w/w) ratio between chitosan and sodium alginate, 8 : 0, 8 : 1, 8 : 2, 8 : 4 (w/w). The production of membrane was mixed sodium alginate solution into chitosan solution and sulfonated with H2SO4 0.72 N. The characterization of the PEM was uses Modulus Young analysis, water swelling, ion exchange capacity, FTIR, SEM, DTA, methanol permeability and proton conductivity. The result of the research, showed that the optimum membrane was with ratio 8 : 2 (w/w) that the Modulus Young 8564 kN/m2, water swelling 31.86%, ion exchange capacity 1.020 meq/g, proton conductivity 8,8 × 10-6 S/cm, methanol permeability 1.90 × 10-8 g/cm2s and glass transition temperature (Tg) 100.9 °C, crystalline temperature (Tc) 227.6 °C, and the melting temperature (Tm) 267.9 °C.

  10. Preparation and characterization of the PVDF-based composite membrane for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Qian; Song Laizhou; Zhang Zhihui; Liu Xiaowei [Department of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2010-07-01

    The polyvinylidene fluoride-sulfonated polystyrene composite membrane with proton exchange performance, denoted as PVDF-SPS, was prepared using a thermally induced polymerization technique. The thermal stability of the PVDF-SPS composite membrane was investigated using thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The complex formation of the composite membrane was ascertained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The surface compositions of the PVDF-SPS membrane were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The morphology of the composite membrane was characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). The proton conductivity of the PVDF-SPS membrane was measured using impedance spectroscopy in the hydrated condition. The PVDF-SPS membrane has a stronger hydrophilic character than the pristine PVDF membrane and the polyvinylidene fluoride-polystyrene composite membrane (PVDF-PS), which is caused by the incorporation of sulfonic acid groups. The proton conductivity and the methanol permeability of the PVDF-SPS membrane measured at 298 K are 29.3 mS.cm-1 and 8.6x10-8 cm2.s-1, respectively. Although PVDF-SPS composite membrane possesses the lower oxidative stability than Nafion-117 membrane, the composite membrane displays lower methanol permeability than the Nafion-117 membrane, and the selectivity (the ratio of proton conductivity and methanol permeability) of the composite membrane is almost 20 times than that of Nafion-117.

  11. Preparation and characterization of the PVDF-based composite membrane for direct methanol fuel cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Liu, Laizhou Song, Zhihui Zhang, Xiaowei Liu

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The polyvinylidene fluoride-sulfonated polystyrene composite membrane with proton exchange performance, denoted as PVDF-SPS, was prepared using a thermally induced polymerization technique. The thermal stability of the PVDF-SPS composite membrane was investigated using thermogravimetric (TG analysis. The complex formation of the composite membrane was ascertained by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The surface compositions of the PVDF-SPS membrane were analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. The morphology of the composite membrane was characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM. The proton conductivity of the PVDF-SPS membrane was measured using impedance spectroscopy in the hydrated condition. The PVDF-SPS membrane has a stronger hydrophilic character than the pristine PVDF membrane and the polyvinylidene fluoride-polystyrene composite membrane (PVDF-PS, which is caused by the incorporation of sulfonic acid groups. The proton conductivity and the methanol permeability of the PVDF-SPS membrane measured at 298 K are 29.3 mS.cm-1 and 8.6×10-8 cm2.s-1, respectively. Although PVDF-SPS composite membrane possesses the lower oxidative stability than Nafion-117 membrane, the composite membrane displays lower methanol permeability than the Nafion-117 membrane, and the selectivity (the ratio of proton conductivity and methanol permeability of the composite membrane is almost 20 times than that of Nafion-117.

  12. Estimation of membrane hydration status for active proton exchange membrane fuel cell systems by impedance measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Török, Lajos; Sahlin, Simon Lennart; Kær, Søren Knudsen;

    2016-01-01

    , the membrane of which PEMFCs are made of tends to dry out when not in use. This increases the time interval required to start the system up and could lead to the destruction of the fuel cell. In this article a start-up time measurement setup is presented, which is part of a larger project, the membrane...... in this paper a correlation between the start-up time and relative humidity of the membrane can be derived....

  13. Highly permeable double-skinned forward osmosis membranes for anti-fouling in the emulsified oil-water separation process

    KAUST Repository

    Duong, Hoang Hanh Phuoc

    2014-04-15

    Forward osmosis (FO) has attracted wide attention in recent years. However, the FO performance may be restricted due to internal concentration polarization (ICP) and fast fouling propensity that occurs in the membrane sublayer. Particularly, these problems significantly affect the membrane performance when treating highly contaminated oily wastewater. Recently, double-skinned flat sheet cellulose acetate (CA) membranes consisting of two selective skins via the phase inversion method have demonstrated less ICP and fouling propensity over typical single-skinned membranes. However, these membranes exhibit low water fluxes of <12 LMH under 2 M NaCl draw solution. Therefore, a novel double-skinned FO membrane with a high water flux has been aimed for in this study for emulsified oil-water treatment. The double-skinned FO membrane comprises a fully porous sublayer sandwiched between (i) a truly dense skin for salt rejection and (ii) a fairly loose dense skin for emulsified oil particle rejection. The former dense skin is a polyamide synthesized via interfacial polymerization, while the latter one is a self-assembled sulfonated pentablock copolymer (Nexar copolymer) layer. The resultant double-skinned membrane exhibits a high water flux of 17.2 LMH and a low reverse salt transport of 4.85 gMH using 0.5 M NaCl as the draw solution and DI water as the feed. The double-skinned membrane outperforms the single-skinned membrane with much lower fouling propensity for emulsified oil-water separation. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  14. Cell-permeable p38 MAP kinase promotes migration of adult neural stem/progenitor cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamanoue, Makoto; Morioka, Kazuhito; Ohsawa, Ikuroh; Ohsawa, Keiko; Kobayashi, Masaaki; Tsuburaya, Kayo; Akasaka, Yoshikiyo; Mikami, Tetsuo; Ogata, Toru; Takamatsu, Ken

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) can migrate toward sites of injury, but the migration activity of NPCs is insufficient to regenerate damaged brain tissue. In this study, we showed that p38 MAP kinase (p38) is expressed in doublecortin-positive adult NPCs. Experiments using the p38 inhibitor SB203580 revealed that endogenous p38 participates in NPC migration. To enhance NPC migration, we generated a cell-permeable wild-type p38 protein (PTD-p38WT) in which the HIV protein transduction domain (PTD) was fused to the N-terminus of p38. Treatment with PTD-p38WT significantly promoted the random migration of adult NPCs without affecting cell survival or differentiation; this effect depended on the cell permeability and kinase activity of the fusion protein. These findings indicate that PTD-p38WT is a novel and useful tool for unraveling the roles of p38, and that this protein provides a reasonable approach for regenerating the injured brain by enhancing NPC migration. PMID:27067799

  15. Cell volume and membrane stretch independently control K+ channel activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bomholtz, Sofia Hammami; Willumsen, Niels J; Olsen, Hervør L;

    2009-01-01

    A number of potassium channels including members of the KCNQ family and the Ca(2+) activated IK and SK, but not BK, are strongly and reversibly regulated by small changes in cell volume. It has been argued that this general regulation is mediated through sensitivity to changes in membrane stretch....... To test this hypothesis we have studied the regulation of KCNQ1 and BK channels after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Results from cell-attached patch clamp studies (approximately 50 microm(2) macropatches) in oocytes expressing BK channels demonstrate that the macroscopic volume-insensitive BK current...... was not affected by membrane stretch. The results indicate that (1) activation of BK channels by local membrane stretch is not mimicked by membrane stress induced by cell swelling, and (2) activation of KCNQ1 channels by cell volume increase is not mediated by local tension in the cell membrane. We conclude...

  16. Cytotoxicity of bovine and porcine collagen membranes in mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, Camilla Christian Gomes; Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira; Carneiro, Karine Fernandes; Souza, Maria Aparecida de; Magalhães, Denildo

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the cytotoxicity and the release of nitric oxide induced by collagen membranes in human mononuclear cells. Peripheral blood was collected from each patient and the separation of mononuclear cells was performed by Ficoll. Then, 2x10(5) cells were plated in 48-well culture plates under the membranes in triplicate. The polystyrene surface was used as negative control. Cell viability was assessed by measuring mitochondrial activity (MTT) at 4, 12 and 24 h, with dosage levels of nitrite by the Griess method for the same periods. Data had non-normal distribution and were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test (pporcine membrane induced a higher release of nitrite compared with the control and bovine membrane, respectively (pporcine collagen membrane induces an increased production of proinflammatory mediators by mononuclear cells in the first hours of contact, decreasing with time.

  17. Ion channels in human red blood cell membrane: actors or relics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Serge L Y; Bouyer, Guillaume; Cueff, Anne; Egée, Stéphane; Glogowska, Edyta; Ollivaux, Céline

    2011-04-15

    During the past three decades, electrophysiological studies revealed that human red blood cell membrane is endowed with a large variety of ion channels. The physiological role of these channels, if any, remains unclear; they do not participate in red cell homeostasis which is rather based on the almost total absence of cationic permeability and minute anionic conductance. They seem to be inactive in the "resting cell." However, when activated experimentally, ion channels can lead to a very high single cell conductance and potentially induce disorders, with the major risks of fast dehydration and dissipation of gradients. Could there be physiological conditions under which the red cell needs to activate these high conductances, or are ion channels relics of a function lost in anucleated cells? It has been demonstrated that they play a key role in diseases such as sickle cell anemia or malaria. This short overview of ion channels identified to-date in the human red cell membrane is an attempt to propose a dynamic role for these channels in circulating cells in health and disease.

  18. Durability of symmetrically and asymmetrically porous polybenzimidazole membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jheng, Li-Cheng; Chang, Wesley Jen-Yang; Hsu, Steve Lien-Chung; Cheng, Po-Yang

    2016-08-01

    Two types of porous polybenzimidazole (PBI) membranes with symmetric and asymmetric morphologies were fabricated by the template-leaching method and characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Their physicochemical properties were compared in terms of acid-doping level, proton conductivity, mechanical strength, and oxidative stability. The durability of fuel cell operation is one of the most challenging for the PBI based membrane electrode assembly (MEA) used in high-temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells (HT-PEMFCs). In the present work, we carried out a long-term steady-state fuel cell test to compare the effect of membrane structure on the cell voltage degradation. It has also been demonstrated that the asymmetrically porous PBI could bring some notable improvements on the durability of fuel cell operation, the fuel crossover problem, and the phosphoric acid leakage.

  19. Studying the Nucleated Mammalian Cell Membrane by Single Molecule Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Wu, Jiazhen; Gao, Jing; Liu, Shuheng; Jiang, Junguang; Jiang, Shibo; Wang, Hongda

    2014-01-01

    The cell membrane plays a key role in compartmentalization, nutrient transportation and signal transduction, while the pattern of protein distribution at both cytoplasmic and ectoplasmic sides of the cell membrane remains elusive. Using a combination of single-molecule techniques, including atomic force microscopy (AFM), single molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) and stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy (STORM), to study the structure of nucleated cell membranes, we found that (1) proteins at the ectoplasmic side of the cell membrane form a dense protein layer (4 nm) on top of a lipid bilayer; (2) proteins aggregate to form islands evenly dispersed at the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane with a height of about 10–12 nm; (3) cholesterol-enriched domains exist within the cell membrane; (4) carbohydrates stay in microdomains at the ectoplasmic side; and (5) exposed amino groups are asymmetrically distributed on both sides. Based on these observations, we proposed a Protein Layer-Lipid-Protein Island (PLLPI) model, to provide a better understanding of cell membrane structure, membrane trafficking and viral fusion mechanisms. PMID:24806512

  20. Correlation between membrane fluidity cellular development and stem cell differentiation

    KAUST Repository

    Noutsi, Pakiza

    2016-12-01

    Cell membranes are made up of a complex structure of lipids and proteins that diffuse laterally giving rise to what we call membrane fluidity. During cellular development, such as neuronal differentiation, cell membranes undergo dramatic structural changes induced by proteins such as ARC and Cofilin among others in the case of synaptic modification. In this study we used the generalized polarization (GP) property of fluorescent probe Laurdan using two-photon microscopy to determine membrane fluidity as a function of time and for various cell lines. A low GP value corresponds to a higher fluidity and a higher GP value is associated with a more rigid membrane. Four different cell lines were monitored such as hN2, NIH3T3, HEK293 and L6 cells. As expected, NIH3T3 cells have more rigid membrane at earlier stages of their development. On the other hand neurons tend to have the highest membrane fluidity early in their development emphasizing its correlation with plasticity and the need for this malleability during differentiation. This study sheds light on the involvement of membrane fluidity during neuronal differentiation and development of other cell lines.

  1. Nano thermo-hydrodynamics method for investigating cell membrane fluidity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As a barrier to compartmentalize cells,mem-branes form the interface between a cell and its surround-ings.The essential function of a membrane is to maintain a relatively stable environment in the cell,exchange sub-stances selectively and transfer energy and information continually from the outside.It is intriguing that above the phase transition temperature,the membrane lipid molecule will have three modes-lateral diffusion,rotational movement and flip-flop activity.These thermodynamic processes are vital to cell existence,growth,division,differentiation and are also responsible for hundreds of thousands of phenomena in life.Previously,species transport across the membrane was interpreted mainly from a phenomenological view using a lumped system model.Therefore,detailed flow processes occurred in the membrane domain and clues related to life mechanism were not sufficiently tackled.Such important issues can be clarifled by modeling nano scale thermal hydrodynamics over the gap space of a cell membrane.Previously observed complex membrane behaviors will be shown in this paper and explained by the thermally induced fluidic convections inside the membrane.A correlation between nano scale hydrodynamics,non-equilibrium thermodynamics and eell membrane activities is set up.The disclosed mechanisms are expected to provide a new viewpoint on the interaction between intracellular and extracellular processes through the membrane.

  2. Plasma Membranes Modified by Plasma Treatment or Deposition as Solid Electrolytes for Potential Application in Solid Alkaline Fuel Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christophe Coutanceau

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane.

  3. Plasma membranes modified by plasma treatment or deposition as solid electrolytes for potential application in solid alkaline fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinholdt, Marc; Ilie, Alina; Roualdès, Stéphanie; Frugier, Jérémy; Schieda, Mauricio; Coutanceau, Christophe; Martemianov, Serguei; Flaud, Valérie; Beche, Eric; Durand, Jean

    2012-07-30

    In the highly competitive market of fuel cells, solid alkaline fuel cells using liquid fuel (such as cheap, non-toxic and non-valorized glycerol) and not requiring noble metal as catalyst seem quite promising. One of the main hurdles for emergence of such a technology is the development of a hydroxide-conducting membrane characterized by both high conductivity and low fuel permeability. Plasma treatments can enable to positively tune the main fuel cell membrane requirements. In this work, commercial ADP-Morgane® fluorinated polymer membranes and a new brand of cross-linked poly(aryl-ether) polymer membranes, named AMELI-32®, both containing quaternary ammonium functionalities, have been modified by argon plasma treatment or triallylamine-based plasma deposit. Under the concomitant etching/cross-linking/oxidation effects inherent to the plasma modification, transport properties (ionic exchange capacity, water uptake, ionic conductivity and fuel retention) of membranes have been improved. Consequently, using plasma modified ADP-Morgane® membrane as electrolyte in a solid alkaline fuel cell operating with glycerol as fuel has allowed increasing the maximum power density by a factor 3 when compared to the untreated membrane.

  4. Collagen-Coated Polytetrafluoroethane Membrane Inserts Enhances Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Cord Blood Multi-Lineage Progenitor Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munir, Samir; Søballe, Kjeld; Ulrich-Vinther, Michael;

    Background: Articular chondrocytes and bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are the favoured cells for cartilage tissue engineering. Umbilical cord blood has proven an alternative source of MSCs and moreover they may be more potent chondroprogenitor cells than bonemarrow...... MSCs. Purpose / Aim of Study: Multilineage progenitor cells (MLPCs) are clonal cord blood-derived MSCs and may therefore provide a cell source with more reproducible outcomes compared to heterogeneous primary MSC cultures. Materials and Methods: We evaluated the chondrogenic potency of MLPCs...... in standard micromass pellet system, layered on calcium polyphosphate (CPP), and on semi-permeable polytetrafluoroethane membranes with and without collagen type I, II or IV pre-coating. Findings / Results: The MPLC cell line used in this study possessed poor chondrogenic potency overall, but membrane...

  5. Pericyte abundance affects sucrose permeability in cultures of rat brain microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Fiona E; Hacking, Cindy

    2005-07-05

    The blood-brain barrier is a physical and metabolic barrier that restricts diffusion of blood-borne substances into brain. In vitro models of the blood-brain barrier are used to characterize this structure, examine mechanisms of damage and repair and measure permeability of test substances. The core component of in vitro models of the blood-brain barrier is brain microvascular endothelial cells. We cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (RBMEC) from isolated rat cortex microvessels. After 2-14 days in vitro (DIV), immunohistochemistry of these cells showed strong labeling for zona occludens 1 (ZO-1), a tight junction protein expressed in endothelial cells. Pericytes were also present in these cultures, as determined by expression of alpha-actin. The present study was performed to test different cell isolation methods and to compare the resulting cell cultures for abundance of pericytes and for blood-brain barrier function, as assessed by 14C-sucrose flux. Two purification strategies were used. First, microvessels were preabsorbed onto uncoated plastic for 4 h, then unattached microvessels were transferred to coated culture ware. Second, microvessels were incubated with an antibody to platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM-1; CD31) precoupled to magnetic beads, and a magnetic separation procedure was performed. Our results indicate that immunopurification, but not preadsorption, was an effective method to purify microvessels and reduce pericyte abundance in the resulting cultures. This purification significantly reduced 14C-sucrose fluxes across cell monolayers. These data indicate that pericytes can interfere with the development of blood-brain barrier properties in in vitro models that utilize primary cultures of RBMECs.

  6. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/clay-SO{sub 3}H hybrid proton exchange membranes for direct methanol fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Tiezhu; Zhao, Chengji; Zhang, Gang; Shao, Ke; Na, Hui [Alan G. MacDiarmid Institute, College of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Cui, Zhiming; Xing, Wei [Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); Zhong, Shuangling [College of Resources and Environment, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118 (China); Shi, Yuhua [Department of Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2008-10-15

    A new type of sulfonated clay (clay-SO{sub 3}H) was prepared by the ion exchange method with the sulfanilic acid as the surfactant agent. The grafted amount of sulfanilic acid in clay-SO{sub 3}H was 51.8 mequiv. (100 g){sup -1}, which was measured by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK)/clay-SO{sub 3}H hybrid membranes which composed of SPEEK and different weight contents of clay-SO{sub 3}H, were prepared by a solution casting and evaporation method. For comparison, the SPEEK/clay hybrid membranes were produced with the same method. The performances of hybrid membranes for direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs) in terms of mechanical and thermal properties, water uptake, water retention, methanol permeability and proton conductivity were investigated. The mechanical and thermal properties of the SPEEK membranes had been improved by introduction of clay and clay-SO{sub 3}H, obviously. The water desorption coefficients of the SPEEK and hybrid membranes were studied at 80 C. The results showed that the addition of the inorganic part into SPEEK membrane enhanced the water retention of the membrane. Both methanol permeability and proton conductivity of the hybrid membranes decreased in comparison to the pristine SPEEK membrane. However, it was worth noting that higher selectivity defined as ratio of proton conductivity to methanol permeability of the SPEEK/clay-SO{sub 3}H-1 hybrid membrane with 1 wt.% clay-SO{sub 3}H was obtained than that of the pristine SPEEK membrane. These results showed that the SPEEK/clay-SO{sub 3}H hybrid membrane with 1 wt.% clay-SO{sub 3}H had potential usage of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) for DMFCs. (author)

  7. Nicotine permeability across the buccal TR146 cell culture model and porcine buccal mucosa in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Rassing, Margrethe Rømer

    2002-01-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate and compare the effect of pH and drug concentration on nicotine permeability across the TR146 cell culture model and porcine buccal mucosa in vitro. As a further characterization of the TR146 cell culture model, it was explored whether the results were...... comparable for bi-directional and uni-directional transport in the presence of a transmembrane pH gradient. Nicotine concentrations between 10(-5) and 10(-2) M were applied to the apical side of the TR146 cell culture model or the mucosal side of porcine buccal mucosa. Buffers with pH values of 5.5, 7...... concentrations of nicotine, the P(app) values decreased, which can partly be explained by an effect on the paracellular pathway. Similar results were also obtained when using the models for bi-directional as well as for uni-directional studies. The TR146 cell culture model may be used as model for buccal...

  8. Diethylentriaminepenta acetic acid glucose conjugates as a cell permeable iron chelator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Mosayebnia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To find out whether DTPA-DG complex can enhance clearance of intracellular free iron. Materials and Methods: Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid-D-deoxy-glucosamine (DTPA-DG was synthesized and examined for its activity as a cell-permeable iron chelator in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HEPG2 cell line exposed to high concentration of iron sulfate and compared with deferoxamine (DFO, a prototype iron chelator. The effect of DTPA-DG on cell viability was monitored using the 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide MTT assay as well. Results: There was a significant increase of iron level after iron overload induction in HEPG2 cell culture. DTPA-DG presented a remarkable capacity to iron burden reducing with estimated 50% inhibitory concentration value of 65.77 nM. In fact, glycosyl moiety was gained access of DTPA to intracellular iron deposits through glucose transporter systems. Conclusion: DTPA-DG, more potent than DFO to sequester deposits of free iron with no profound toxic effect. The results suggest the potential of DTPA-DG in chelating iron and permitting its excretion from primary organ storage.

  9. Electron Spin Resonance Study of Fuel Cell Polymer Membrane Degradation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander Panchenko; Elena Aleksandrova; Emil Roduner

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction The long term stability of the membrane is an important factor limiting the fuel cell lifetime. During extended use the membrane degrades, probably via reaction with hydroxyl and superoxide radicals which are regular intermediates of the oxygen reduction at the cathode. Only extremely stable membranes can withstand the aggressive chemical and physical environment in an operating fuel cell. Within a given set of operating conditions, intrinsic chemical and mechanical properties of the membrane as well as its water content impact its durability dramatically.

  10. Interstitial fluid flow:simulation of mechanical environment of cells in the interosseous membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Yao; Guang-Hong Ding

    2011-01-01

    In vitro experiments have shown that subtle fluid flow environment plays a significant role in living biological tissues,while there is no in vivo practical dynamical measurement of the interstitial fluid flow velocity. On the basis of a new finding that capillaries and collagen fibrils in the interosseous membrane form a parallel array,we set up a porous media model simulating the flow field with FLUENT software,studied the shear stress on interstitial cells' surface due to the interstitial fluid flow,and analyzed the effect of flow on protein space distribution around the cells. The numerical simulation results show that the parallel nature of capillaries could lead to directional interstitial fluid flow in the direction of capillaries. Interstitial fluid flow would induce shear stress on the membrane of interstitial cells,up to 30 Pa or so,which reaches or exceeds the threshold values of cells' biological response observed in vitro. Interstitial fluid flow would induce nonuniform spacial distribution of secretion protein of mast cells. Shear tress on cells could be affected by capillary parameters such as the distance between the adjacent capillaries,blood pressure and the permeability coefficient of capillary's wall. The interstitial pressure and the interstitial porosity could also affect the shear stress on cells. In conclusion,numerical simulation provides an effective way for in vivo dynamic interstitial velocity research,helps to set up the vivid subtle interstitial flow environment of cells,and is beneficial to understanding the physiological functions of interstitial fluid flow.

  11. Cell membrane fluid-mosaic structure and cancer metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolson, Garth L

    2015-04-01

    Cancer cells are surrounded by a fluid-mosaic membrane that provides a highly dynamic structural barrier with the microenvironment, communication filter and transport, receptor and enzyme platform. This structure forms because of the physical properties of its constituents, which can move laterally and selectively within the membrane plane and associate with similar or different constituents, forming specific, functional domains. Over the years, data have accumulated on the amounts, structures, and mobilities of membrane constituents after transformation and during progression and metastasis. More recent information has shown the importance of specialized membrane domains, such as lipid rafts, protein-lipid complexes, receptor complexes, invadopodia, and other cellular structures in the malignant process. In describing the macrostructure and dynamics of plasma membranes, membrane-associated cytoskeletal structures and extracellular matrix are also important, constraining the motion of membrane components and acting as traction points for cell motility. These associations may be altered in malignant cells, and probably also in surrounding normal cells, promoting invasion and metastatic colonization. In addition, components can be released from cells as secretory molecules, enzymes, receptors, large macromolecular complexes, membrane vesicles, and exosomes that can modify the microenvironment, provide specific cross-talk, and facilitate invasion, survival, and growth of malignant cells.

  12. Detecting Nanodomains in Living Cell Membrane by Fluorescence Correlation Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Hai-Tao; Marguet, Didier

    2011-05-01

    Cell membranes actively participate in numerous cellular functions. Inasmuch as bioactivities of cell membranes are known to depend crucially on their lateral organization, much effort has been focused on deciphering this organization on different length scales. Within this context, the concept of lipid rafts has been intensively discussed over recent years. In line with its ability to measure diffusion parameters with great precision, fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) measurements have been made in association with innovative experimental strategies to monitor modes of molecular lateral diffusion within the plasma membrane of living cells. These investigations have allowed significant progress in the characterization of the cell membrane lateral organization at the suboptical level and have provided compelling evidence for the in vivo existence of raft nanodomains. We review these FCS-based studies and the characteristic structural features of raft nanodomains. We also discuss the findings in regards to the current view of lipid rafts as a general membrane-organizing principle.

  13. Highly and Stably Water Permeable Thin Film Nanocomposite Membranes Doped with MIL-101 (Cr Nanoparticles for Reverse Osmosis Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A hydrophilic, hydrostable porous metal organic framework (MOF material-MIL-101 (Cr was successfully doped into the dense selective polyamide (PA layer on the polysulfone (PS ultrafiltration (UF support to prepare a new thin film nanocomposite (TFN membrane for water desalination. The TFN-MIL-101 (Cr membranes were characterized by SEM, AFM, XPS, wettability measurement and reverse osmosis (RO test. The porous structures of MIL-101 (Cr can establish direct water channels in the dense selective PA layer for water molecules to transport through quickly, leading to the increasing water permeance of membranes. With good compatibility between MIL-101 (Cr nanoparticles and the PA layer, the lab made TFN-MIL-101 (Cr membranes integrated tightly and showed a high NaCl salt rejection. MIL-101 (Cr nanoparticles increased water permeance to 2.2 L/m2·h·bar at 0.05 w/v % concentration, 44% higher than the undoped PA membranes; meanwhile, the NaCl rejection remained higher than 99%. This study experimentally verified the potential use of MIL-101 (Cr in advanced TFN RO membranes, which can be used in the diversified water purification field.

  14. Predicting MDCK cell permeation coefficients of organic molecules using membrane-interaction QSAR analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-li CHEN; Jia YAO; Jian-bo YANG; Jie YANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To use membrane-interaction quantitative structure-activity relationship analysis (MI-QSAR) to develop predictive models of partitioning of organic compounds in gastrointestinal cells. Methods: A training set of 22 structurally diverse compounds, whose apparent permeability accross cellular membranes of MadinDarby canine kidney (MDCK) cells were measured, were used to construct MIQSAR models. Molecular dynamic simulations were used to determine the explicit interaction of each test compound (solute) with a dimyristoyl-phosphatidyl-choline monolayer membrane model. An additional set of intramolecular solute descriptors were computed and considered in the trial pool of descriptors for building MI-QSAR models. The QSAR models were optimized using multidimensional linear regression fitting and the stepwise method. A test set of 8 compounds were evaluated using the MI-QSAR models as part of a validation process. Results:MI-QSAR models of the gastrointestinal absorption process were constructed.The descriptors found in the best MI-QSAR models are as follows: 1) ClogP (the logarithm of the 1-octanol/water partition coefficient); 2) EHOMO (the highest occupied molecular orbital energy); 3) Es (stretch energy); 4) PMY (the principal moment of inertia Y, the inertia along the y axis in the rectangular coordinates; 5) Ct(total connectivity); and 6) Enb (the energy of interactions between all of the nonbonded atoms). The most important descriptor in the models is ClogP. Conclusion:Permeability is not only determined by the properties of drug molecules, but is also very much influenced by the molecule-membrane interaction process.

  15. How the antimicrobial peptides destroy bacteria cell membrane: Translocations vs. membrane buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golubovic, Leonardo; Gao, Lianghui; Chen, Licui; Fang, Weihai

    2012-02-01

    In this study, coarse grained Dissipative Particle Dynamics simulation with implementation of electrostatic interactions is developed in constant pressure and surface tension ensemble to elucidate how the antimicrobial peptide molecules affect bilayer cell membrane structure and kill bacteria. We find that peptides with different chemical-physical properties exhibit different membrane obstructing mechanisms. Peptide molecules can destroy vital functions of the affected bacteria by translocating across their membranes via worm-holes, or by associating with membrane lipids to form hydrophilic cores trapped inside the hydrophobic domain of the membranes. In the latter scenario, the affected membranes are strongly corrugated (buckled) in accord with very recent experimental observations [G. E. Fantner et al., Nat. Nanotech., 5 (2010), pp. 280-285].

  16. Preparation of Nafion-sulfonated clay nanocomposite membrane for direct menthol fuel cells via a film coating process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kyoung; Kang, Myeongsoon; Choi, Yeong Suk; Kim, Hae Kyung; Lee, Wonmok; Chang, Hyuk; Seung, Doyoung

    Nafion sulfonated clay nanocomposite membranes were successfully produced via a film coating process using a pilot coating machine. For producing the composite membranes, we optimized the solvent ratio of N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) to N, N‧-dimethylacetamide (DMAc), the amount of sulfonated montmorillonite (S-MMT) in composite membranes and the overall concentration of composite dispersions. Based on the optimized viscosity and composition, the composite dispersions were coated on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate film. The distance between a metering roll and a PET film and the ratio of metering roll speed versus coating roll speed of the pilot coating machine were varied to control membrane thickness. The film coated composite membrane exhibited enhanced properties in the swelling behavior against MeOH solution, ion conductivity and MeOH permeability, compared to the cast Nafion composite membrane due to the higher dispersion state of S-MMT in Nafion matrix and the uniform distribution of small-size ion clusters. These properties influenced a cell performance test of a direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), showing the film coated composite membrane had a higher power density than that of Nafion 115. The power density was also related with the higher selectivity of the composite membrane than Nafion 115.

  17. Exploring the inhibitory effect of membrane tension on cell polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weikang; Tao, Kuan; Wang, Jing; Yang, Gen; Ouyang, Qi; Wang, Yugang; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Cell polarization toward an attractant is influenced by both physical and chemical factors. Most existing mathematical models are based on reaction-diffusion systems and only focus on the chemical process occurring during cell polarization. However, membrane tension has been shown to act as a long-range inhibitor of cell polarization. Here, we present a cell polarization model incorporating the interplay between Rac GTPase, filamentous actin (F-actin), and cell membrane tension. We further test the predictions of this model by performing single cell measurements of the spontaneous polarization of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and non-stem cancer cells (NSCCs), as the former have lower cell membrane tension. Based on both our model and the experimental results, cell polarization is more sensitive to stimuli under low membrane tension, and high membrane tension improves the robustness and stability of cell polarization such that polarization persists under random perturbations. Furthermore, our simulations are the first to recapitulate the experimental results described by Houk et al., revealing that aspiration (elevation of tension) and release (reduction of tension) result in a decrease in and recovery of the activity of Rac-GTP, respectively, and that the relaxation of tension induces new polarity of the cell body when a cell with the pseudopod-neck-body morphology is severed.

  18. The Flocculating Cationic Polypetide from Moringa oleifera Seeds Damages Bacterial Cell Membranes by Causing Membrane Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebek, Kevin; Schantz, Allen B; Sines, Ian; Lauser, Kathleen; Velegol, Stephanie; Kumar, Manish

    2015-04-21

    A cationic protein isolated from the seeds of the Moringa oleifera tree has been extensively studied for use in water treatment in developing countries and has been proposed for use in antimicrobial and therapeutic applications. However, the molecular basis for the antimicrobial action of this peptide, Moringa oleifera cationic protein (MOCP), has not been previously elucidated. We demonstrate here that a dominant mechanism of MOCP antimicrobial activity is membrane fusion. We used a combination of cryogenic electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and fluorescence assays to observe and study the kinetics of fusion of membranes in liposomes representing model microbial cells. We also conducted cryo-EM experiments on E. coli cells where MOCP was seen to fuse the inner and outer membranes. Coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations of membrane vesicles with MOCP molecules were used to elucidate steps in peptide adsorption, stalk formation, and fusion between membranes.

  19. Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Performance of a Sulfonated Poly(Arylene Ether Benzimidazole Copolymer Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Ferdi Gerçel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Disodium-3,3′-disulfonate-4,4′-dichlorodiphenylsulfone (SDCDPS and 5,5′-bis[2-(4-hydroxyphenylbenzimidazole] (HPBI monomers were synthesized. Binding these monomers via nucleophilic aromatic polycondensation reaction, a sulfonated poly(arylene ether benzimidazole copolymer was synthesized. Structures of monomers and copolymer were confirmed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy analyses. Proton exchange membrane was prepared by dissolving copolymer in dimethylacetamide (DMAc and casting onto a glass plate. Copolymer membrane was doped with sulfuric acid to ensure proton exchange character. Single cell performance of the copolymer membrane was tested in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell test station. The highest power density of the membrane was measured as 23.7 mW cm−2 at 80°C. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA showed that as the degree of disulfonation is increased thermal stability of the copolymer is increased.

  20. Design and synthesis of a cell-permeable, drug-like small molecule inhibitor targeting the polo-box domain of polo-like kinase 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganipisetti Srinivasrao

    Full Text Available Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1 plays a crucial role in cell proliferation and the inhibition of Plk1 has been considered as a potential target for specific inhibitory drugs in anti-cancer therapy. Several research groups have identified peptide-based inhibitors that target the polo-box domain (PBD of Plk1 and bind to the protein with high affinity in in vitro assays. However, inadequate proteolytic resistance and cell permeability of the peptides hinder the development of these peptide-based inhibitors into novel therapeutic compounds.In order to overcome the shortcomings of peptide-based inhibitors, we designed and synthesized small molecule inhibitors. Among these molecules, bg-34 exhibited a high binding affinity for Plk1-PBD and it could cross the cell membrane in its unmodified form. Furthermore, bg-34-dependent inhibition of Plk1-PBD was sufficient for inducing apoptosis in HeLa cells. Moreover, modeling studies performed on Plk1-PBD in complex with bg-34 revealed that bg-34 can interact effectively with Plk1-PBD.We demonstrated that the molecule bg-34 is a potential drug candidate that exhibits anti-Plk1-PBD activity and possesses the favorable characteristics of high cell permeability and stability. We also determined that bg-34 induced apoptotic cell death by inhibiting Plk1-PBD in HeLa cells at the same concentration as PEGylated 4j peptide, which can inhibit Plk1-PBD activity 1000 times more effectively than bg-34 can in in vitro assays. This study may help to design and develop drug-like small molecule as Plk1-PBD inhibitor for better therapeutic activity.

  1. Membrane curvature in cell biology: An integration of molecular mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarsch, Iris K; Daste, Frederic; Gallop, Jennifer L

    2016-08-15

    Curving biological membranes establishes the complex architecture of the cell and mediates membrane traffic to control flux through subcellular compartments. Common molecular mechanisms for bending membranes are evident in different cell biological contexts across eukaryotic phyla. These mechanisms can be intrinsic to the membrane bilayer (either the lipid or protein components) or can be brought about by extrinsic factors, including the cytoskeleton. Here, we review examples of membrane curvature generation in animals, fungi, and plants. We showcase the molecular mechanisms involved and how they collaborate and go on to highlight contexts of curvature that are exciting areas of future research. Lessons from how membranes are bent in yeast and mammals give hints as to the molecular mechanisms we expect to see used by plants and protists.

  2. Eugenol alters the integrity of cell membrane and acts against the nosocomial pathogen Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, K Pandima; Sakthivel, R; Nisha, S Arif; Suganthy, N; Pandian, S Karutha

    2013-03-01

    Eugenol, a member of the phenylpropanoids class of chemical compounds, is a clear to pale yellow oily liquid extracted from certain essential oils especially from clove oil, nutmeg, cinnamon, and bay leaf. The antibacterial activity of eugenol and its mechanism of bactericidal action against Proteus mirabilis were evaluated. Treatment with eugenol at their minimum inhibitory concentration [0.125 % (v/v)] and minimum bactericidal concentration [0.25 % (v/v)] reduced the viability and resulted in complete inhibition of P. mirabilis. A strong bactericidal effect on P. mirabilis was also evident, as eugenol inactivated the bacterial population within 30 min exposure. Chemo-attractant property and the observance of highest antibacterial activity at alkaline pH suggest that eugenol can work more effectively when given in vivo. Eugenol inhibits the virulence factors produced by P. mirabilis as observed by swimming motility, swarming behavior and urease activity. It interacts with cellular membrane of P. mirabilis and makes it highly permeable, forming nonspecific pores on plasma membrane, which in turn directs the release of 260 nm absorbing materials and uptake of more crystal violet from the medium into the cells. SDS-polyacrylamide gel, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared analysis further proves the disruptive action of eugenol on the plasma membrane of P. mirabilis. The findings reveal that eugenol shows an excellent bactericidal activity against P. mirabilis by altering the integrity of cell membrane.

  3. Design of a stable and methanol resistant membrane with cross-linked multilayered polyelectrolyte complexes for direct methanol fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Zhao, Chengji; Lin, Haidan; Zhang, Gang; Zhang, Yang; Ni, Jing; Ma, Wenjia; Na, Hui

    Sulfonated poly (arylene ether ketone) bearing carboxyl groups (SPAEK-C) membranes have been prepared as proton exchange membranes for applications in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Multilayered polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) which applied as methanol barrier agents are prepared by alternate deposition of the oppositely charged amino-containing poly (ether ether ketone) (Am-PEEK) and the highly sulfonated SPAEK-C via a layer-by-layer method. The cross-linked PEC (c-PEC) is derived from a simple heat-induced cross-linking reaction between Am-PEEK and SPAEK-C. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms that Am-PEEK and SPAEK-C are assembled successfully in the multilayers. The morphology of the membranes is studied by scanning electron microscopy, which shows the presence of the thin layers coated on the SPAEK-C membrane. After PEC and c-PEC modification, the methanol permeability decreases obviously when compared to that of the pristine membrane. Notably, improved proton conductivities are obtained for the PEC modified membranes in comparison with the pristine membrane. Moreover, the selectivity of these modified membranes is one order of magnitude higher than that of Nafion 117. The thermal stability, oxidative stability, water uptake and swelling of PEC and c-PEC modified membranes are also investigated.

  4. Glucose and calcium ions may modulate the efficiency of bovine β-casomorphin-7 permeability through a monolayer of Caco-2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmołowska, Beata; Teodorowicz, Małgorzata; Fiedorowicz, Ewa; Sienkiewicz-Szłapka, Edyta; Matysiewicz, Michał; Kostyra, Elżbieta

    2013-11-01

    Milk and dairy products provide a lot of valuable nutritive elements. They are also sources of biologically active peptides, including β-casomorphins that manifest the properties of morphine. An activity of DPPIV seems to be most crucial factor decreasing the efficiency of the β-casomorphin-7 (BCM7) transport. The increase of BCM7 concentration in blood may intensify symptoms of apparent life threatening events (ALTE), autism, schizophrenia, and allergy. This study aimed at identifying the influence of several selected substances on a transport efficiency of bovine BCM7 through an intestinal monolayer in a Caco-2 cell model system. Applying the ELISA method, the permeability coefficient of BCM7 through the Caco-2 monolayer was calculated. TEER values were used to evaluate the integrity of Caco-2 cell monolayers. An increase of glucose and Ca(2+) concentrations in the culture medium was accompanied by an increase of the BCM7 transport efficiency. The lowest permeability coefficients of BCM7 were observed for the membranes with high electrical resistances. The transport was enhanced in the presence of milk infant formulas, whereas no changes were observed when using μ-opioid receptor antagonist (casoxin-6). The results may be useful in understanding the pathogenesis of inflammation and food allergy in infants.

  5. Coating nanoparticles with cell membranes for targeted drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Weiwei; Zhang, Liangfang

    2015-01-01

    Targeted delivery allows drug molecules to preferentially accumulate at the sites of action and thus holds great promise to improve therapeutic index. Among various drug-targeting approaches, nanoparticle-based delivery systems offer some unique strengths and have achieved exciting preclinical and clinical results. Herein, we aim to provide a review on the recent development of cell membrane-coated nanoparticle system, a new class of biomimetic nanoparticles that combine both the functionalities of cellular membranes and the engineering flexibility of synthetic nanomaterials for effective drug delivery and novel therapeutics. This review is particularly focused on novel designs of cell membrane-coated nanoparticles as well as their underlying principles that facilitate the purpose of drug targeting. Three specific areas are highlighted, including: (i) cell membrane coating to prolong nanoparticle circulation, (ii) cell membrane coating to achieve cell-specific targeting and (iii) cell membrane coating for immune system targeting. Overall, cell membrane-coated nanoparticles have emerged as a novel class of targeted nanotherapeutics with strong potentials to improve on drug delivery and therapeutic efficacy for treatment of various diseases.

  6. Peptide translocation through the plasma membrane of human cells: Can oxidative stress be exploited to gain better intracellular access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Yi; Pellois, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) enter cells primarily by escaping from endosomal compartments or by directly translocating across the plasma membrane. Due to their capability of permeating into the cytosolic space of the cell, CPPs are utilized for the delivery of cell-impermeable molecules. However, the fundamental mechanisms and parameters associated with the penetration of CPPs and their cargos through the lipid bilayer have not been fully determined. This in turn has hampered their usage in biotechnological or therapeutic applications. We have recently reported that the cell penetration activity of poly-arginine CPPs (PACPPs) is dependent on the oxidation status of the plasma membrane of cells. Our data support a model where the positively-charged PACPP binds negatively-charged lipids exposed on the cell surface as a result of oxidative damage. The PACPP then crosses the membrane via formation of inverted micelles with these anionic lipids. This model provides a plausible explanation for the high variability in the cell delivery efficiency of a PACPP often observed in different settings. Notably, taking into account the current literature describing the effects of lipid oxidation, our data point to a highly complex and underappreciated interplay between PACPPs and oxidized membrane species. Overall, a better understanding of oxidation-dependent cell penetration might provide a fundamental basis for development of optimal cell permeable peptides (including cyclic peptides, stapled peptides, peptoids, etc…) and of robust delivery protocols.

  7. Improved Membrane Materials for PEM Fuel Cell Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneth A. Mauritz; Robert B. Moore

    2008-06-30

    The overall goal of this project is to collect and integrate critical structure/property information in order to develop methods that lead to significant improvements in the durability and performance of polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) materials. This project is focused on the fundamental improvement of PEMFC membrane materials with respect to chemical, mechanical and morphological durability as well as the development of new inorganically-modified membranes.

  8. Evaluation of the intestinal permeability of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract polyphenols and terpenoids in Caco-2 cell monolayers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arráez-Román, David; González-Álvarez, Isabel; Ibáñez, Elena; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Bermejo, Marival; Micol, Vicente

    2017-01-01

    Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) is grown throughout the world and is widely used as a medicinal herb and to season and preserve food. Rosemary polyphenols and terpenoids have attracted great interest due to their potential health benefits. However, complete information regarding their absorption and bioavailability in Caco-2 cell model is scarce. The permeation properties of the bioactive compounds (flavonoids, diterpenes, triterpenes and phenylpropanoids) of a rosemary extract (RE), obtained by supercritical fluid extraction, was studied in Caco-2 cell monolayer model, both in a free form or liposomed. Compounds were identified and quantitated by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry analysis (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS), and the apparent permeability values (Papp) were determined, for the first time in the extract, for 24 compounds in both directions across cell monolayer. For some compounds, such as triterpenoids and some flavonoids, Papp values found were reported for the first time in Caco-2 cells.Our results indicate that most compounds are scarcely absorbed, and passive diffusion is suggested to be the primary mechanism of absorption. The use of liposomes to vehiculize the extract resulted in reduced permeability for most compounds. Finally, the biopharmaceutical classification (BCS) of all the compounds was achieved according to their permeability and solubility data for bioequivalence purposes. BCS study reveal that most of the RE compounds could be classified as classes III and IV (low permeability); therefore, RE itself should also be classified into this category. PMID:28234919

  9. The Effect of Capsaicin Derivatives on Tight-Junction Integrity and Permeability of Madin-Darby Canine Kidney Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Mathias; Chalapala, Sudharani; Gorzelanny, Christian; Perali, Ramu Sridhar; Goycoolea, Francisco Martin

    2016-02-01

    Capsaicin is known to interfere with tight junctions (TJs) of epithelial cells and therefore to enhance paracellular permeability of poorly absorbable drugs. However, due to its low water solubility, pungency, and cytotoxicity, its pharmacologic use is limited. In this study, we investigated the effect of capsaicin derivatives of synthetic (e.g., 10-hydroxy-N-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl)decanamide, etc.) and natural (olvanil and dihydrocapsaicin) origin on Madin-Darby Canine Kidney-C7 cells. Impedance spectroscopy was used to determine the transepithelial electrical resistance and the capacitance. Permeability assays with fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran were carried out to evaluate the impact on cell permeability. The results show that lipophilicity could play an important role for the interference with TJ and that the mechanism is independent from the ion channel TRPV-1 and hence on the flux of calcium into the cells. In summary, we synthesized 4 derivatives of capsaicin of lower lipophilicity and compared their properties with other well-known vanilloids. We show that these compounds are able to enhance the permeability of a hydrophilic macromolecule, by opening the TJ for a shorter time than capsaicin. This behavior is dependent on the lipophilicity of the molecule. Understanding of these phenomena may lead to better control of administration of therapeutic molecules.

  10. Nanoscale cell membrane organization : a near-field optical view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, Marjolein

    2006-01-01

    The cell plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells is a lipid bi-layer that separates the cell cytosol from the extracellular environment. The composition and organization of proteins and lipids within this bi-layer have a direct impact on many cellular processes, since they form the senses of the cell. T

  11. Effects of serum of the rats ventilated with high tidal volume on endothelial cell permeability and therapeutic effects of ulinastatin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUO Guo-dong; CAI Shao-xi; CHEN Bo; CHEN Ying-hua

    2006-01-01

    Background With the widespread use of ventilators in treating critically ill patients, the morbidity of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) is increasing accordingly. VILI is characterized by a considerable increase in microvascular leakiness and activation of inflammatory processes. In this study we investigated the effects of inflammatory mediators in VILI rat serum on endothelial cytoskeleton and monolayer cellular permeability, as well as the therapeutic effect of ulinastatin, to explore the pathogenesis and the relationship between biotrauma and lung oedema induced by VILI.Methods Thirty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: group A (normal tidal volume ventilation), group B (high tidal volume ventilation) and group C (high tidal volume ventilation plus ulinastatin). The serum of each rat after ventilation was added to endothelial cell line ECV-304 medium for two hours to observe the effects of serum and/or ulinastatin on endothelial fibrous actin and permeability. Results Compared to rats ventilated with normal tidal volume, serum of rats ventilated with high tidal volume caused a striking reorganization of actin cytoskeleton with a weakening of fluorescent intensity at the peripheral filament bands and formation of the long and thick stress fibres in the centre resulting in endothelial contraction and higher permeability. Prior treatment with ulinastatin lessened the above changes significantly. The changes of permeability coefficient of endothelial permeability after group A, B or C rats serum stimulation were (6.95 ±1.66)%, (27.50±7.77)% and (17.71±4.66)% respectively with statistically significant differences (P<0.05)among the three groups.Conclusions The proinflammatory mediators in the serum of the rats given high tidal volume ventilation increases endothelial permeability by reorganizing actin cytoskeleton, and pretreatment with ulinastatin lessens the permeability by inhibiting of proinflammatory mediators.

  12. Homotypic fusion of endoplasmic reticulum membranes in plant cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junjie eHu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum (ER is a membrane-bounded organelle whose membrane comprises a network of tubules and sheets. The formation of these characteristic shapes and maintenance of their continuity through homotypic membrane fusion appears to be critical for the proper functioning of the ER. The atlastins (ATLs, a family of ER-localized dynamin-like GTPases, have been identified as fusogens of the ER membranes in metazoans. Mutations of the ATL proteins in mammalian cells cause morphological defects in the ER, and purified Drosophila ATL mediates membrane fusion in vitro. Plant cells do not possess ATL, but a family of similar GTPases, named root hair defective 3 (RHD3, are likely the functional orthologs of ATLs. In this review, we summarize recent advances in our understanding of how RHD3 proteins play a role in homotypic ER fusion. We also discuss the possible physiological significance of forming a tubular ER network in plant cells.

  13. Adverse Effect of H2O2 Change on Morphology, Mitochondrial Membrane Permeability and Antioxidant Enzyme in Root of Dianthus Chinensis L. under Salt Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-qin He

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Dianthus Chinensis L. is a salt-tolerant ornamental plant. Root is the first and critical part of plant to encounter soli salinity. In order to elucidate H2O2 impact on root morphology and mitochondrial permeability transition as well as activities of antioxidant enzymes in root ofDianthus Chinensis L., we treated seedling with H2O2 and DMTU under NaCl. The results revealed that change of H2O2 level under NaCl would negatively influence the root growth, as well as lower the value of mitochodrial membrane absorbance at 540 nm and the ratio of Cyt c/a. Meanwhile, SOD and POD under NaCl plus H2O2 and NaCl plus DMTU were far lower than those under NaCl alone.

  14. Use of semi-permeable membrane devices and solid-phase extraction for the wide-range screening of microcontaminants in surface water by GC-AED/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Stee, Leo L P; Leonards, Pim E G; van Loon, Willem M G M; Hendriks, A Jan; Maas, Johanna L; Struijs, Jaap; Brinkman, Udo A Th

    2002-11-01

    An automated GC-MS-based screening method was developed for over 400 industrial, agrochemical and household chemicals. Extracted ion chromatograms were used and the method was aimed at creating a minimum number of false positives. The compound polarity range usually associated with solid-phase extraction was extended to include very apolar, bioaccumulative, compounds by using the complementary semi-permeable membrane device technique. Real-life samples were taken at four locations in the main Dutch river systems and one in an agricultural area. Some 150 compounds were detected in the low-ng/l to low-microg/l range. Next to the target compounds, several brominated and chlorinated non-target compounds were detected by means of GC with atomic emission detection and tentatively identified using mass spectral library searching.

  15. Durability Issues of High Temperature Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells Based on Acid Doped Polybenzimidazole Membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    To achieve high temperature operation of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFC), preferably under ambient pressure, phosphoric acid doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) membrane represents an effective approach, which in recent years has motivated extensive research activities with great progress....... As a critical concern, issues of long term durability of PBI based fuel cells are addressed in this talk, including oxidative degradation of the polymer, mechanical failures of the membrane, acid leaching out, corrosion of carbon support and sintering of catalysts particles. Excellent polymer durability has...... observed under continuous operation with hydrogen and air at 150-160oC, with a fuel cell performance degradation rate of 5-10 µV/h. Improvement of the membrane performance such as mechanical strength, swelling and oxidative stability has achieved by exploring the polymer chemistry, i.e. covalently...

  16. Toughness of membranes applied in polymer electrolyte fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiefer, J.; Brack, H.P.; Scherer, G.G. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Since several years we apply the radiation-grafting technique to prepare polymeric membranes for application in polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Our investigations presented here focus on changes in toughness of these materials after the various synthesis steps and the importance of membrane toughness for their application in PEFCs. (author) 2 figs., 4 refs.

  17. Expression of basement membrane antigens in spindle cell melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, V G; Woodruff, J M

    1998-07-01

    Spindle cell melanoma (SCM) is an uncommon form of melanoma that may be confused histologically with other tumors, including malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST). Tumors with neural differentiation and melanocytic nevi may both show basement membrane immunohistochemically and at the ultrastructural level. However, most ultrastructural studies of melanoma have failed to demonstrate well formed basement membrane around tumor cells. The presence of basement membrane has been used by some authors as evidence favoring MPNST, as opposed to SCM. To evaluate this distinction immunohistochemically, 22 primary and metastatic cutaneous melanomas having a spindle cell component (SCM) were studied using monoclonal antibodies against laminin and Type IV collagen. S100 protein and HMB45 antigen expression were also studied. All but one of the SCM were reactive for S100 protein in at least 25% of the cells. Thirteen of 20 tumors (65%) were focally reactive with HMB45. Laminin was expressed in 42% of the tumors (only membranous pattern in 3; cytoplasmic and membranous in 5). Seventeen tumors (77%) expressed type IV collagen (only membranous pattern in 7; cytoplasmic and membranous pattern in 10). Laminin and type IV collagen, known components of basement membrane, are often found in SCM. Therefore, their detection cannot be used to distinguish SCM from MPNST.

  18. Measuring the osmotic water permeability coefficient (Pf) of spherical cells: isolated plant protoplasts as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shatil-Cohen, Arava; Sibony, Hadas; Draye, Xavier; Chaumont, François; Moran, Nava; Moshelion, Menachem

    2014-10-08

    Studying AQP regulation mechanisms is crucial for the understanding of water relations at both the cellular and the whole plant levels. Presented here is a simple and very efficient method for the determination of the osmotic water permeability coefficient (P(f)) in plant protoplasts, applicable in principle also to other spherical cells such as frog oocytes. The first step of the assay is the isolation of protoplasts from the plant tissue of interest by enzymatic digestion into a chamber with an appropriate isotonic solution. The second step consists of an osmotic challenge assay: protoplasts immobilized on the bottom of the chamber are submitted to a constant perfusion starting with an isotonic solution and followed by a hypotonic solution. The cell swelling is video recorded. In the third step, the images are processed offline to yield volume changes, and the time course of the volume changes is correlated with the time course of the change in osmolarity of the chamber perfusion medium, using a curve fitting procedure written in Matlab (the 'PfFit'), to yield P(f).

  19. Cell-free system for synthesizing membrane proteins cell free method for synthesizing membrane proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Philip D; Hanson, Deborah K

    2013-06-04

    The invention provides an in vitro method for producing proteins, membrane proteins, membrane-associated proteins, and soluble proteins that interact with membrane-associated proteins for assembly into an oligomeric complex or that require association with a membrane for proper folding. The method comprises, supplying intracytoplasmic membranes from organisms; modifying protein composition of intracytoplasmic membranes from organism by modifying DNA to delete genes encoding functions of the organism not associated with the formation of the intracytoplasmic membranes; generating appropriate DNA or RNA templates that encode the target protein; and mixing the intracytoplasmic membranes with the template and a transcription/translation-competent cellular extract to cause simultaneous production of the membrane proteins and encapsulation of the membrane proteins within the intracytoplasmic membranes.

  20. Novel Membrane for Highly Efficient Fuel Cells Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cells and electrolyzers are key technologies for NASA space systems utilizing hydrogen, oxygen, or water as reactants. In order...

  1. Novel High Temperature Membrane for PEM Fuel Cells Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation proposed in this STTR program is a high temperature membrane to increase the efficiency and power density of PEM fuel cells. The NASA application is...

  2. Membrane Protein Mobility and Orientation Preserved in Supported Bilayers Created Directly from Cell Plasma Membrane Blebs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Mark J; Hsia, Chih-Yun; Singh, Rohit R; Haider, Huma; Kumpf, Julia; Kawate, Toshimitsu; Daniel, Susan

    2016-03-29

    Membrane protein interactions with lipids are crucial for their native biological behavior, yet traditional characterization methods are often carried out on purified protein in the absence of lipids. We present a simple method to transfer membrane proteins expressed in mammalian cells to an assay-friendly, cushioned, supported lipid bilayer platform using cell blebs as an intermediate. Cell blebs, expressing either GPI-linked yellow fluorescent proteins or neon-green fused transmembrane P2X2 receptors, were induced to rupture on glass surfaces using PEGylated lipid vesicles, which resulted in planar supported membranes with over 50% mobility for multipass transmembrane proteins and over 90% for GPI-linked proteins. Fluorescent proteins were tracked, and their diffusion in supported bilayers characterized, using single molecule tracking and moment scaling spectrum (MSS) analysis. Diffusion was characterized for individual proteins as either free or confined, revealing details of the local lipid membrane heterogeneity surrounding the protein. A particularly useful result of our bilayer formation process is the protein orientation in the supported planar bilayer. For both the GPI-linked and transmembrane proteins used here, an enzymatic assay revealed that protein orientation in the planar bilayer results in the extracellular domains facing toward the bulk, and that the dominant mode of bleb rupture is via the "parachute" mechanism. Mobility, orientation, and preservation of the native lipid environment of the proteins using cell blebs offers advantages over proteoliposome reconstitution or disrupted cell m