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Sample records for cell lymphotropic type

  1. Seroprevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV1) is a lymphotropic virus which can contribute to carcinogenesis in adult T-cell leukemia, myleopathy and other disorders. 20 million people are affected by this virus in the world. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of human T-cell lymph tropic virus type 1 ...

  2. Failure to demonstrate human T cell lymphotropic virus type I in multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fugger, L; Morling, N; Ryder, L P

    1990-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique was employed in searching for human T cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) gag, env and pol sequences in samples of DNA prepared from two HTLV-I seropositive patients with tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP), the Swedish multiple sclerosis (MS......) patients who recently have been reported to be PCR-positive for HTLV-I gag and env sequences, and eight healthy individuals. Precautions were taken in order to reduce the risk of cross-contamination in the PCR. In the two TSP patients strong signals were obtained with gag, env and pol amplification primers...

  3. Can thymic epithelial cells be infected by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1?

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    Klaysa Moreira-Ramos

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1 is the cause of adult T cell leukaemias/lymphoma. Because thymic epithelial cells (TEC express recently defined receptors for the virus, it seemed conceivable that these cells might be a target for HTLV-1 infection. We developed an in vitro co-culture system comprising HTLV-1+-infected T cells and human TECs. Infected T cells did adhere to TECs and, after 24 h, the viral proteins gp46 and p19 were observed in TECs. After incubating TECs with culture supernatants from HTLV-1+-infected T cells, we detected gp46 on TEC membranes and the HTLV-1 tax gene integrated in the TEC genome. In conclusion, the human thymic epithelium can be infected in vitro by HTLV-1, not only via cell-cell contact, but also via exposure to virus-containing medium.

  4. Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma in Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Carriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Brady E.; Quiñones, Pilar; Morales, Domingo; Revilla, Jose C.; Alva, Jose C.; Castillo, Jorge J.

    2012-01-01

    We describe the clinical and pathological characteristics of seven patients who were human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) carriers and had a pathological diagnosis of de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Interestingly, three of our cases showed positive expression of Epstein-Barr-virus, (EBV-) encoded RNA within the tumor cells indicating a possible interaction between these two viruses. Furthermore, our three EBV-positive cases presented with similar clinical characteristics such as early clinical stage and low-risk indices. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case series describing the characteristics of HTLV-1-positive DLBCL patients. The potential relationship between HTLV-1 and EBV should be further explored. PMID:23198156

  5. Inactivation of human T-cell lymphotropic virus, type III by heat, chemicals, and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinnan, G.V. Jr.; Wells, M.A.; Wittek, A.E.; Phelan, M.A.; Mayner, R.E.; Feinstone, S.; Purcell, R.H.; Epstein, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Infectivity of human T-cell lymphotropic virus, Type III (HTLV-III) was inactivated by heat more rapidly if in liquid medium than if lyophilized and more rapidly at 60 than 56 0 C. When HTLV-III was added to factor VIII suspension, then lyophilized and heated at 60 0 C for 2 hours or longer there was elimination of 1 X 10(6) in vitro infectious units (IVIU) of virus. Much of the viral inactivation appeared to result from lyophilization. The application of water-saturated chloroform to the lyophilized material containing virus also resulted in elimination of infectivity. HTLV-III was efficiently inactivated by formalin, beta-propiolactone, ethyl ether, detergent, and ultraviolet light plus psoralen. The results are reassuring regarding the potential safety of various biological products

  6. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1-infected cells secrete exosomes that contain Tax protein.

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    Jaworski, Elizabeth; Narayanan, Aarthi; Van Duyne, Rachel; Shabbeer-Meyering, Shabana; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Das, Ravi; Afonso, Philippe V; Sampey, Gavin C; Chung, Myung; Popratiloff, Anastas; Shrestha, Bindesh; Sehgal, Mohit; Jain, Pooja; Vertes, Akos; Mahieux, Renaud; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2014-08-08

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax controls many critical cellular pathways, including host cell DNA damage response mechanisms, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Extracellular vesicles called exosomes play critical roles during pathogenic viral infections as delivery vehicles for host and viral components, including proteins, mRNA, and microRNA. We hypothesized that exosomes derived from HTLV-1-infected cells contain unique host and viral proteins that may contribute to HTLV-1-induced pathogenesis. We found exosomes derived from infected cells to contain Tax protein and proinflammatory mediators as well as viral mRNA transcripts, including Tax, HBZ, and Env. Furthermore, we observed that exosomes released from HTLV-1-infected Tax-expressing cells contributed to enhanced survival of exosome-recipient cells when treated with Fas antibody. This survival was cFLIP-dependent, with Tax showing induction of NF-κB in exosome-recipient cells. Finally, IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cells that received Tax-containing exosomes were protected from apoptosis through activation of AKT. Similar experiments with primary cultures showed protection and survival of peripheral blood mononuclear cells even in the absence of phytohemagglutinin/IL-2. Surviving cells contained more phosphorylated Rb, consistent with the role of Tax in regulation of the cell cycle. Collectively, these results suggest that exosomes may play an important role in extracellular delivery of functional HTLV-1 proteins and mRNA to recipient cells. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1-infected Cells Secrete Exosomes That Contain Tax Protein*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, Elizabeth; Narayanan, Aarthi; Van Duyne, Rachel; Shabbeer-Meyering, Shabana; Iordanskiy, Sergey; Saifuddin, Mohammed; Das, Ravi; Afonso, Philippe V.; Sampey, Gavin C.; Chung, Myung; Popratiloff, Anastas; Shrestha, Bindesh; Sehgal, Mohit; Jain, Pooja; Vertes, Akos; Mahieux, Renaud; Kashanchi, Fatah

    2014-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. The HTLV-1 transactivator protein Tax controls many critical cellular pathways, including host cell DNA damage response mechanisms, cell cycle progression, and apoptosis. Extracellular vesicles called exosomes play critical roles during pathogenic viral infections as delivery vehicles for host and viral components, including proteins, mRNA, and microRNA. We hypothesized that exosomes derived from HTLV-1-infected cells contain unique host and viral proteins that may contribute to HTLV-1-induced pathogenesis. We found exosomes derived from infected cells to contain Tax protein and proinflammatory mediators as well as viral mRNA transcripts, including Tax, HBZ, and Env. Furthermore, we observed that exosomes released from HTLV-1-infected Tax-expressing cells contributed to enhanced survival of exosome-recipient cells when treated with Fas antibody. This survival was cFLIP-dependent, with Tax showing induction of NF-κB in exosome-recipient cells. Finally, IL-2-dependent CTLL-2 cells that received Tax-containing exosomes were protected from apoptosis through activation of AKT. Similar experiments with primary cultures showed protection and survival of peripheral blood mononuclear cells even in the absence of phytohemagglutinin/IL-2. Surviving cells contained more phosphorylated Rb, consistent with the role of Tax in regulation of the cell cycle. Collectively, these results suggest that exosomes may play an important role in extracellular delivery of functional HTLV-1 proteins and mRNA to recipient cells. PMID:24939845

  8. Sexual transmission of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1

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    Arthur Paiva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is endemic in many parts of the world and is primarily transmitted through sexual intercourse or from mother to child. Sexual transmission occurs more efficiently from men to women than women to men and might be enhanced by sexually transmitted diseases that cause ulcers and result in mucosal ruptures, such as syphilis, herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2, and chancroid. Other sexually transmitted diseases might result in the recruitment of inflammatory cells and could increase the risk of HTLV-1 acquisition and transmission. Additionally, factors that are associated with higher transmission risks include the presence of antibodies against the viral oncoprotein Tax (anti-Tax, a higher proviral load in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and increased cervicovaginal or seminal secretions. Seminal fluid has been reported to increase HTLV replication and transmission, whereas male circumcision and neutralizing antibodies might have a protective effect. Recently, free virions were discovered in plasma, which reveals a possible new mode of HTLV replication. It is unclear how this discovery might affect the routes of HTLV transmission, particularly sexual transmission, because HTLV transmission rates are significantly higher from men to women than women to men.

  9. Sexual transmission of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Arthur; Casseb, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic in many parts of the world and is primarily transmitted through sexual intercourse or from mother to child. Sexual transmission occurs more efficiently from men to women than women to men and might be enhanced by sexually transmitted diseases that cause ulcers and result in mucosal ruptures, such as syphilis, herpes simplex type 2 (HSV-2), and chancroid. Other sexually transmitted diseases might result in the recruitment of inflammatory cells and could increase the risk of HTLV-1 acquisition and transmission. Additionally, factors that are associated with higher transmission risks include the presence of antibodies against the viral oncoprotein Tax (anti-Tax), a higher proviral load in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and increased cervicovaginal or seminal secretions. Seminal fluid has been reported to increase HTLV replication and transmission, whereas male circumcision and neutralizing antibodies might have a protective effect. Recently, free virions were discovered in plasma, which reveals a possible new mode of HTLV replication. It is unclear how this discovery might affect the routes of HTLV transmission, particularly sexual transmission, because HTLV transmission rates are significantly higher from men to women than women to men.

  10. Variations in Western blot banding patterns of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Burke, D S; Redfield, R R; Putman, P; Alexander, S S

    1987-01-01

    Serum samples from 27 patients infected with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (14 with acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS] and 13 with AIDS-related complex) were examined for antibodies to viral proteins by the Western blot method and with four different commercial solid-phase enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Virus-specific bands on blots at molecular masses of 64, 55, 53, 41, 31, 24, and 17 kilodaltons were observed. Rank correlation matrices were calculated to rel...

  11. Genetic characterization and phylogeny of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I from Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, E; Cartier, L; Villota, C; Fernandez, J

    2002-03-20

    Infection with Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus type I (HTLV-I) have been associated with the development of the HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Phylogenetic analyses of HTLV-I isolates have revealed that HTLV-I can be classified into three major groups: the Cosmopolitan, Central African and Melanesian. In the present study, we analyzed the tax, 5' ltr, gag, pol, and env sequences of proviruses of PBMC from ten HAM/TSP patients to investigate the phylogenetic characterization of HTLV-I in Chilean patients. HTLV-I provirus in PBMC from ten Chilean patients with HAM/TSP were amplified by PCR using primers of tax, 5' ltr, gag, pol, and env genes. Amplified products of the five genes were purified and nucleotide sequence was determined by the dideoxy termination procedure. DNA sequences were aligned with the CLUSTAL W program. The results of this study showed that the tax, 5' ltr, gag, pol, and env gene of the Chilean HTLV-I strains had a nucleotide homology ranged from 98.1 to 100%, 95 to 97%, 98.9 to 100%, 94 to 98%, and 94.2 to 98.5% respect to ATK-1 clone, respectively. According to molecular phylogeny with 5' ltr gene, the Chilean HTLV-I strains were grouped with each other suggesting one cluster included in Transcontinental subgroup.

  12. The phylogeny and molecular epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heneine, W

    1996-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of long terminal repeat (LTR) sequences from 29 human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) strains from endemic and nonendemic populations led to the proposition of three HTLV-IIa phylogroups (A-I, A-II, and A-III) and four HTLV-IIb phylogroups (B-I, B-II, B-III, B-IV). B-I and B-II represented sequences from U.S. and European intravenous drug users, and B-IV included Amerindian sequences from the Guaymi and Wayuu. Interestingly, sequences from an African Pygmy and Seminole and Pueblo Indians and other non-India U.S. samples clustered together in B-III. Similarly, sequences from the Kayapo Indians from Brazil, a Brazilian blood donor, a Cameroonian, and a Ghanaian prostitute clustered together in A-II. Sequences from non-Indian U.S./European samples and a Pueblo Indian formed A-III. A restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) assay was developed to identify rapidly the prevalence of the A and B phylogroups in 246 HTLV-II samples. The RFLP results suggest that A-III and B-II may represent cosmopolitan subtypes because of global distribution in urban areas. In contrast, B-IV and A-II infections were restricted primarily to Central and South America. The phylogenetic data suggest a possible Amerindian origin for B-III, A-II, and A-III infections in non-Indians and an evolution into A and B subtypes that preceded population migrations to the Americas.

  13. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection in a cohort of homosexual men in New York City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Zang, E.A.; Morrison, J.M.; Harley, E.J.; de Cordoba, S.R.; Bacino, C.; Ting, R.C.; Bodner, A.J.; Sarngadharan, M.G.; Gallo, R.C.

    1986-04-25

    Using blood samples collected since 1978, the authors investigated the epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, in a group of 378 homosexually active men who have resided in New York City since the acquire immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic began. The anti-HTLV-III prevalence was 6.6% in sera from 1978 or 1979, and the subsequent annual incidence of seroconversion among susceptible men ranged between 5.5% and 10.6%. The highest incidences were in recent years, even though these men reported a decrease in their sexual activity during this time. These data demonstrate the continuing risk of HTLV-III infections in the homosexual population studied and emphasize the need for more effective prevention of transmission. The year during which antibody was first present was the only factor identified that was associated with altered cell-mediated immunity in antibody-positive men.

  14. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III infection in a cohort of homosexual men in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, C.E.; Taylor, P.E.; Zang, E.A.

    1986-01-01

    Using blood samples collected since 1978, the authors investigated the epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), the etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, in a group of 378 homosexually active men who have resided in New York City since the acquire immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic began. The anti-HTLV-III prevalence was 6.6% in sera from 1978 or 1979, and the subsequent annual incidence of seroconversion among susceptible men ranged between 5.5% and 10.6%. The highest incidences were in recent years, even though these men reported a decrease in their sexual activity during this time. These data demonstrate the continuing risk of HTLV-III infections in the homosexual population studied and emphasize the need for more effective prevention of transmission. The year during which antibody was first present was the only factor identified that was associated with altered cell-mediated immunity in antibody-positive men

  15. Prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 in blood donors of the Caruaru Blood Center (Hemope

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    Waleska Mayara Gomes de Lima

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There is difficulty in gathering data on the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus in blood donors as confirmatory testing is not mandatory in Brazil. This suggests there may be an underreporting of the prevalence. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 in donors of a blood bank in Caruaru, Brazil. METHODS: This was an observational, epidemiological, descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study with information about the serology of donors of the Caruaru Blood Center, Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Pernambuco (Hemope from May 2006 to December 2010. The data were analyzed using the Excel 2010 computer program (Microsoft Office(r. RESULTS: Of 61,881 donors, 60 (0.096% individuals were identified as potential carriers of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2. Of these, 28 (0.045% were positive and 32 (0.051% had inconclusive results in the serological screening. Forty-five (0.072% were retested; 17 were positive (0.027% and 3 inconclusive (0.005%. After confirmatory tests, 8 were positive (0.013%. Six (75% of the confirmed cases were women. CONCLUSION: Epidemiological surveys like this are very important in order to create campaigns to attract donors and reduce the costs of laboratory tests.

  16. Prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 in blood donors of the Caruaru Blood Center (Hemope).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Waleska Mayara Gomes; Esteves, Fabrício Andrade Martins; Torres, Maria do Carmo Morais Rodrigues; Pires, Edna Suely Feitosa

    2013-01-01

    There is difficulty in gathering data on the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus in blood donors as confirmatory testing is not mandatory in Brazil. This suggests there may be an underreporting of the prevalence. To estimate the prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 in donors of a blood bank in Caruaru, Brazil. This was an observational, epidemiological, descriptive, longitudinal and retrospective study with information about the serology of donors of the Caruaru Blood Center, Fundação de Hematologia e Hemoterapia de Pernambuco (Hemope) from May 2006 to December 2010. The data were analyzed using the Excel 2010 computer program (Microsoft Office(®)). Of 61,881 donors, 60 (0.096%) individuals were identified as potential carriers of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2. Of these, 28 (0.045%) were positive and 32 (0.051%) had inconclusive results in the serological screening. Forty-five (0.072%) were retested; 17 were positive (0.027%) and 3 inconclusive (0.005%). After confirmatory tests, 8 were positive (0.013%). Six (75%) of the confirmed cases were women. Epidemiological surveys like this are very important in order to create campaigns to attract donors and reduce the costs of laboratory tests.

  17. Seroepidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I in blood donors of Northeastern Iran, Sabzevar

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    Mahtab Maghsudlu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I infection is considered as a public health challenge in endemic areas. The virus is associated with severe diseases, such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, and HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. One of the major routes of the HTLV-I transmission includes blood transfusion. Sabzevar is located in the endemic region of HTLV-I infection. The aim of the present study was to determine the seroprevalence of HTLV-I infection in the blood donors in Sabzevar. Materials and Methods: A total of 35,067 blood donors in Sabzevar from March 2009 to April 2012 who were screened with HTLV-I on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay screening test were included in this survey. Reactive samples that confirmed by western blot were considered to be seropositive cases. The required data were obtained from blood donors′ database of blood transfusion service. Results: The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 based on the positive result of western blot test was 0.14%. The seropositive donors aged 17-59 years with a mean age of 38.10 ± 11.82. The prevalence rates of HTLV-I infection in 3 years of study were 0.19%, 0.14%, and 0.09%, respectively. A significant relation between age, sex, educational level, and history of blood donation was observed with seropositivity of HTLV-I. Conclusion: The improvement of donor selection and laboratory screening caused a decline in the prevalence of infection in blood donors. Given the lower prevalence of infection in regular donors with lower age and higher educational level, more efforts should be done to attract blood donors from these populations.

  18. Barefoot Plantar Pressure Indicates Progressive Neurological Damage in Patients with Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infection.

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    Beatriz Helena B Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available The human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1 is a retrovirus associated with neurological alterations; individuals with HTLV-1 infection may develop HTLV-1 associated myelopathy / tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Frequent neurological complaints include foot numbness and leg weakness. In this study, we compared the distribution of the body weight on different areas of the foot in HTLV-1 patients with HAM/TSP, asymptomatic HTLV-1 patients, and healthy individuals.We studied 36 HTLV-1 infected patients, who were divided in two groups of 18 patients each based on whether or not they had been diagnosed with HAM/TSP, and 17 control subjects. The evaluation included an interview on the patient's clinical history and examinations of the patient's reflexes, foot skin tactile sensitivity, and risk of falling. The pressure distribution on different areas of the foot was measured with baropodometry, using a pressure platform, while the patients had their eyes open or closed.The prevalence of neurological disturbances-altered reflexes and skin tactile sensitivity and increased risk of falling-was higher in HTLV-1 HAM/TSP patients than in HTLV-1 asymptomatic patients. The medium and maximum pressure values were higher in the forefoot than in the midfoot and hindfoot in both HTLV-1 groups. In addition, the pressure on the hindfoot was lower in HAM/TSP patients compared to control subjects.The neurological disturbances associated with HTLV-1 infection gradually worsened from HTLV-1 asymptomatic patients to HAM/TSP patients. Baropodometry is a valuable tool to establish the extent of neurological damage in patients suffering from HTLV-1 infection.

  19. Molecular epidemiology of simian T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 in wild and captive sooty mangabeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traina-Dorge, Vicki L; Lorino, Rebecca; Gormus, Bobby J; Metzger, Michael; Telfer, Paul; Richardson, David; Robertson, David L; Marx, Preston A; Apetrei, Cristian

    2005-02-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence and diversity of simian T-cell lymphotropic virus (STLV) isolates within the long-established Tulane National Primate Research Center (TNPRC) colony of sooty mangabeys (SMs; Cercocebus atys). Serological analysis determined that 22 of 39 animals (56%) were positive for STLV type 1 (STLV-1). A second group of thirteen SM bush meat samples from Sierra Leone in Africa was also included and tested only by PCR. Twenty-two of 39 captive animals (56%) and 3 of 13 bush meat samples (23%) were positive for STLV-1, as shown by testing with PCR. Nucleotide sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of viral strains obtained demonstrated that STLV-1 strains from SMs (STLV-1sm strains) from the TNPRC colony and Sierra Leone formed a single cluster together with the previously reported STLV-1sm strain from the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. These data confirm that Africa is the origin for TNPRC STLV-1sm and suggest that Sierra Leone is the origin for the SM colonies in the United States. The TNPRC STLV-1sm strains further divided into two subclusters, suggesting STLV-1sm infection of two original founder SMs at the time of their importation into the United States. STLV-1sm diversity in the TNPRC colony matches the high diversity of SIVsm in the already reported colony. The lack of correlation between the lineage of the simian immunodeficiency virus from SMs (SIVsm) and the STLV-1sm subcluster distribution of the TNPRC strains suggests that intracolony transmissions of both viruses were independent events.

  20. Pain prevalence, characteristics and associated factors in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 infected patients: a systematic review of the literature

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    Daniel Lordelo San-Martin

    2016-11-01

    Discussion: Pain is a common complaint in human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 infected patients, with lower back pain as the most frequent site. Pain can either be nociceptive, neuropathic, or both, is frequently severe, and negatively affects quality of life. Only studies of two countries were included in this review, limiting the external validity of the conclusions. The heterogeneity of variables prevented us from implementing a meta-analysis. Further research should better characterize the pain and explore its impact on quality of life, especially using longitudinal study design.

  1. Genetic characterization of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 in Mozambique: transcontinental lineages drive the HTLV-1 endemic.

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    Ana Carolina P Vicente

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. It has been estimated that 10-20 million people are infected worldwide, but no successful treatment is available. Recently, the epidemiology of this virus was addressed in blood donors from Maputo, showing rates from 0.9 to 1.2%. However, the origin and impact of HTLV endemic in this population is unknown.To assess the HTLV-1 molecular epidemiology in Mozambique and to investigate their relationship with HTLV-1 lineages circulating worldwide.Blood donors and HIV patients were screened for HTLV antibodies by using enzyme immunoassay, followed by Western Blot. PCR and sequencing of HTLV-1 LTR region were applied and genetic HTLV-1 subtypes were assigned by the neighbor-joining method. The mean genetic distance of Mozambican HTLV-1 lineages among the genetic clusters were determined. Human mitochondrial (mt DNA analysis was performed and individuals classified in mtDNA haplogroups.LTR HTLV-1 analysis demonstrated that all isolates belong to the Transcontinental subgroup of the Cosmopolitan subtype. Mozambican HTLV-1 sequences had a high inter-strain genetic distance, reflecting in three major clusters. One cluster is associated with the South Africa sequences, one is related with Middle East and India strains and the third is a specific Mozambican cluster. Interestingly, 83.3% of HIV/HTLV-1 co-infection was observed in the Mozambican cluster. The human mtDNA haplotypes revealed that all belong to the African macrohaplogroup L with frequencies representatives of the country.The Mozambican HTLV-1 genetic diversity detected in this study reveals that although the strains belong to the most prevalent and worldwide distributed Transcontinental subgroup of the Cosmopolitan subtype, there is a high HTLV diversity that could be correlated with at least 3 different HTLV-1 introductions

  2. NF-κB inhibition facilitates the establishment of cell lines that chronically produce human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 viral particles.

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    Zahoor, Muhammad Atif; Philip, Subha; Zhi, Huijun; Giam, Chou-Zen

    2014-03-01

    Most human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-infected HeLa and SupT1 cells cease proliferation and become senescent immediately after infection by HTLV-1 or transduction of the HTLV-1 tax gene. The cellular senescence response triggered by Tax is caused by hyperactivated NF-κB and mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, p21(CIP1/WAF1) and p27(KIP1). When NF-κB activity is blocked by a degradation-resistant form of IκBα, ΔN-IκBα, Tax-induced senescence is averted. Here, we show that NF-κB inhibition through the expression of ΔN-IκBα allows cells of a human osteosarcoma (HOS) cell line to be chronically infected by HTLV-1. Stable HTLV-1-producing HOS cell clones can be readily established and isolated. These clones continue to proliferate in culture; express Tax, Rex, Gag, and Env proteins persistently; and transmit HTLV-1 to naive HOS, SupT1, and Jurkat T reporter cell lines readily after cocultivation. As HOS cells are adherent to culture plates, infected T cells in suspension can be easily collected and characterized. The ease with which chronic and productive HTLV-1 infection can be established in cell culture through inhibition of NF-κB affords a useful means to examine in depth the molecular events of HTLV-1 replication and the mechanisms of action of viral genes. This paper describes a system for establishing cell lines that can be productively infected by human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and can spread HTLV-1 to susceptible cells. Such a system can facilitate the study of HTLV-1 replication in cell culture.

  3. The epidemiology of human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I and II in Canadian blood donors.

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    O'Brien, S F; Goldman, M; Scalia, V; Yi, Q-L; Fan, W; Xi, G; Dines, I R; Fearon, M A

    2013-10-01

    Blood donors in Canada have been tested for Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus (HTLV) since 1990. We report the epidemiology, risk factors and lookback/traceback of HTLV-positive donors/recipients. The annual HTLV rate was calculated from 1990 to 2010. Residual risk was estimated as the product of incidence and window period. Twenty-nine HTLV-positive donors and 116 matched controls (ratio 1 : 4) were interviewed about risk factors. For HTLV-positive donations, lookback investigations involved identification of all previous donations, and attempting to locate and test recipients. Traceback was initiated when transfusion transmission was queried for HTLV-positive blood recipients. All donors of products that the recipient received were identified, with an attempt to locate and test them. The HTLV rate decreased from 9.35 per 100,000 donations in 1990 to 1.11 in 2010. The residual risk of infection was 1 in 7.6 million donations. In logistic regression birth overseas (OR 18.7), history of sexually transmitted diseases (OR 32.9), sex with unknown background (OR 5.4) and blood transfusion (OR 8.9) were significant predictors. In the lookback study, of 109 HTLV-positive donors, 508 components were transfused, of whom 147 recipients were tested and 18 (12%) were positive. All were transfused prior to the implementation of donor testing. Twenty-three traceback investigations were requested involving 324 transfused untested products,of whom 219 (67.6%) of donors were tested and 13 (6%) were positive for HTLV. With testing of the blood supply, the risk from HTLV is very low and while most HTLV-positive donors have risk factors, deferrable risk is rare. © 2013 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2013 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  4. Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 p30 alters cell cycle G2 regulation of T lymphocytes to enhance cell survival

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    Silverman Lee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and is linked to a number of lymphocyte-mediated disorders. HTLV-1 contains both regulatory and accessory genes in four pX open reading frames. pX ORF-II encodes two proteins, p13 and p30, whose roles are still being defined in the virus life cycle and in HTLV-1 virus-host cell interactions. Proviral clones of HTLV-1 with pX ORF-II mutations diminish the ability of the virus to maintain viral loads in vivo. p30 expressed exogenously differentially modulates CREB and Tax-responsive element-mediated transcription through its interaction with CREB-binding protein/p300 and while acting as a repressor of many genes including Tax, in part by blocking tax/rex RNA nuclear export, selectively enhances key gene pathways involved in T-cell signaling/activation. Results Herein, we analyzed the role of p30 in cell cycle regulation. Jurkat T-cells transduced with a p30 expressing lentivirus vector accumulated in the G2-M phase of cell cycle. We then analyzed key proteins involved in G2-M checkpoint activation. p30 expression in Jurkat T-cells resulted in an increase in phosphorylation at serine 216 of nuclear cell division cycle 25C (Cdc25C, had enhanced checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1 serine 345 phosphorylation, reduced expression of polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1, diminished phosphorylation of PLK1 at tyrosine 210 and reduced phosphorylation of Cdc25C at serine 198. Finally, primary human lymphocyte derived cell lines immortalized by a HTLV-1 proviral clone defective in p30 expression were more susceptible to camptothecin induced apoptosis. Collectively these data are consistent with a cell survival role of p30 against genotoxic insults to HTLV-1 infected lymphocytes. Conclusion Collectively, our data are the first to indicate that HTLV-1 p30 expression results in activation of the G2-M cell cycle checkpoint, events that would promote early viral spread and T-cell

  5. Transactivation of the proenkephalin gene promoter by the Tax sub 1 protein of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I

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    Joshi, J.B. (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)); Dave, H.P.G. (National Inst. of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1992-02-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I), an etiologic agent for adult T-cell leukemia, is strongly associated with certain neurological diseases. The HTLV-I genome encodes a protein, Tax{sub 1}, that transactivates viral gene transcription. CD4-positive T helper lymphocytes express the proenkephalin gene, and enkephalins have been implicated as neuroimmunomodulators. The authors have investigated the effect of Tax{sub 1} on the proenkephalin gene promoter in C6 rat glioma cells and demonstrated its transactivation. Analysis using 5{prime} deletion mutants of the promoter region showed that sequences upstream of base pair - 190 are necessary for maximal transactivation. Forskolin, a cAMP modulator, synergistically increased Tax{sub 1}-mediated transactivation of the proenkephalin promoter. Neither Tax{sub 1} transactivation alone nor Tax{sub 1}/cAMP synergism exclusively involved cAMP-responsive elements. Endogenous proenkephalin gene expression increased in Tax{sub 1}-expressing C6 cells. Since HTLV-I infects lymphocytes, which express proenkephalin mRNA, Tax{sub 1} transregulation of proenkephalin expression may provide bidirectional communication between the nervous and immune systems in HTLV-I-related diseases.

  6. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1 and Regulatory T Cells in HTLV-1-Associated Neuroinflammatory Disease

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    Yoshihisa Yamano

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a retrovirus that is the causative agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL and associated with multiorgan inflammatory disorders, including HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP and uveitis. HTLV-1-infected T cells have been hypothesized to contribute to the development of these disorders, although the precise mechanisms are not well understood. HTLV-1 primarily infects CD4+ T helper (Th cells that play a central role in adaptive immune responses. Based on their functions, patterns of cytokine secretion, and expression of specific transcription factors and chemokine receptors, Th cells that are differentiated from naïve CD4+ T cells are classified into four major lineages: Th1, Th2, Th17, and T regulatory (Treg cells. The CD4+CD25+CCR4+ T cell population, which consists primarily of suppressive T cell subsets, such as the Treg and Th2 subsets in healthy individuals, is the predominant viral reservoir of HTLV-1 in both ATL and HAM/TSP patients. Interestingly, CD4+CD25+CCR4+ T cells become Th1-like cells in HAM/TSP patients, as evidenced by their overproduction of IFN-γ, suggesting that HTLV-1 may intracellularly induce T cell plasticity from Treg to IFN-γ+ T cells. This review examines the recent research into the association between HTLV-1 and Treg cells that has greatly enhanced understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying immune dysregulation in HTLV-1-associated neuroinflammatory disease.

  7. Demonstration of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) from an HTLV-I seronegative south Indian patient with chronic, progressive spastic paraparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, M; Mingioli, E; McFarlin, D E; Jacobson, S

    1993-12-01

    Here we describe a human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) seronegative patient from South India with a chronic, progressive spastic paraparesis from which HTLV-I has been isolated from peripheral blood lymphocytes. HTLV-I pol and tax viral sequences were detected in DNA from fresh peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and liquid hybridization techniques. Southern blot analysis of the PCR products demonstrated a low copy number of HTLV-I at the level of one viral copy per 10,000 fresh PBL. A long-term CD4+ T-cell line was established from PBL of this patient using recombinant interleukin-2, OKT3, and feeder cells. DNA from these cultured lines was amplified and portions of the HTLV-I long terminal repeat (U3), pol, env, and tax regions were sequenced (a total of 1,115 bp). The sequence data showed that the HTLV-I associated with this patient was 98.8% homologous to prototype HTLV-I. Southern blot analysis also confirmed the presence of full-length HTLV-I. These results indicate that HTLV-I can be demonstrated in an HTLV-I seronegative patient from South India with a chronic progressive neurological disorder.

  8. Defective human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) provirus in seronegative tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, E; Fernandez, J; Cartier, L; Villota, C; Rios, M

    2003-02-01

    Infection with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) have been associated with the development of the tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM). We studied the presence of HTLV-I provirus in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from 72 Chilean patients with progressive spastic paraparesis by polymerase chain reaction: 32 seropositive and 40 seronegative cases. We amplified different genomic regions of HTLV-I using primers of 5' ltr, tax, env/tax, pX, pol and env genes. These genes were detected from all seropositive patients. The seronegative patients were negative with 5' ltr, pol, env, and pX primers. However, amplified product of tax and env/tax genes was detected from 16 and four seronegative patients, respectively. Three of them were positive with both genetic regions. The results of this study show that the complete HTLV-I provirus is found in 100% of seropositive cases. In seronegative cases, clinically very similar of seropositive cases, was found only tax gene in 42.5% (17/40) of patients. These results suggest the presence of a defective HTLV-I provirus in some seronegative patients with progressive spastic paraparesis, and suggest a pathogenic role of this truncate provirus for a group of TSP/HAM.

  9. Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma in a Peruvian hospital in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) positive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Zúñiga, Milton José Max; Cortez-Franco, Florencio; Qujiano-Gomero, Eberth

    2017-05-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) is an aggressive neoplasm of T-lymphocytes associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1) infection. As HTLV-1 is endemic in native ethnics in South America, and its infection leads to several chronic diseases as ATLL with poor prognosis, we aimed to present three ATLL cases and to review current literature. Two cases were from the mountains of Peru, while one was from an endemic harbor of the country. An acute ATLL patient presented with multipapular infiltration of the skin and died 2 weeks after admission because of septic shock. The two chronic ATLL patients presented with erythematous plaques and erythroderma. They had swollen lymph nodes, lymphocytosis, and atypical lymphocytes on blood smear, with normal biochemical results. They both passed away a few months after diagnosis. ATLL is developed after years of HTLV-1 carrier status; therefore, physicians should know the principal clinical and laboratory findings in order to make prompt diagnosis. Prognosis is still poor in aggressive and indolent variants, with survival rates from months to a few years. Treatment based on chemotherapy, antiretroviral, and allogeneic stem cell transplantation are improving survival rates but with limited results. © 2017 The International Society of Dermatology.

  10. Development of a cytotoxic T-cell assay in rabbits to evaluate early immune response to human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynes, Rashade A H; Phipps, Andrew J; Yamamoto, Brenda; Green, Patrick; Lairmore, Michael D

    2009-12-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia (ATL) following a prolonged clinical incubation period, despite a robust adaptive immune response against the virus. Early immune responses that allow establishment of the infection are difficult to study without effective animal models. We have developed a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) assay to monitor the early events of HTLV-1 infection in rabbits. Rabbit skin fibroblast cell lines were established by transformation with a plasmid expressing simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen and used as autochthonous targets (derived from same individual animal) to measure CTL activity against HTLV-1 infection in rabbits. Recombinant vaccinia virus (rVV) constructs expressing either HTLV-1 envelope surface unit (SU) glycoprotein 46 or Tax proteins were used to infect fibroblast targets in a (51)Cr-release CTL assay. Rabbits inoculated with Jurkat T cells or ACH.2 cells (expressing ACH HTLV-1 molecule clone) were monitored at 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 13, 21, and 34 wk post-infection. ACH.2-inoculated rabbits were monitored serologically and for viral infected cells following ex vivo culture. Proviral load analysis indicated that rabbits with higher proviral loads had significant CTL activity against HTLV-1 SU as early as 2 wk post-infection, while both low- and high-proviral-load groups had minimal Tax-specific CTL activity throughout the study. This first development of a stringent assay to measure HTLV-1 SU and Tax-specific CTL assay in the rabbit model will enhance immunopathogenesis studies of HTLV-1 infection. Our data suggest that during the early weeks following infection, HTLV-1-specific CTL responses are primarily targeted against Env-SU.

  11. Magnetic resonance imaging for Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV1- associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients: a systematic review

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    Fariba Zemorshidi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis is a chronic progressive neurologic disease which might be associated by brain and spinal cord atrophy and lesions. Here we systematically reviewed the brain and spinal cord abnormalities reported by using magnetic resonance imaging modality on HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients. Methods: PubMed was searched for all the relevant articles which used magnetic resonance imaging for patients with human HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis disease. Included criteria were all the cohort and case series on with at least 10 patients. We had no time limitation for searched articles, but only English language articles were included in our systematic review. Exclusion criteria were none-English articles, case reports, articles with less than 10 patients, spastic paraparesis patients with unknown etiology, and patients with HTLVII. Results: Total of 14 relevant articles were extracted after studying title, abstracts, and full text of the irrelevant articles. Only 2/14 articles, reported brain atrophy incidence. 5/14 articles studied the brain lesions prevalence. Spinal cord atrophy and lesions, each were studied in 6/14 articles.Discussion: According to the extracted data, brain atrophy does not seem to happen frequently in patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis. None-specific brain lesions identified in articles are indicative of low specificity of magnetic resonance imaging technique despite its high sensitivity. Conclusion: Prevalence of spinal cord lesions and atrophy in these patients might be due to the degenerative processes associated with aging phenomenon. Further larger studies in endemic areas can more accurately reveal the specificity of magnetic resonance imaging for these patients.

  12. Low Proviral Load is Associated with Indeterminate Western Blot Patterns in Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Infected Individuals: Could Punctual Mutations be Related?

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    Camila Cánepa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: indeterminate Western blot (WB patterns are a major concern for diagnosis of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 infection, even in non-endemic areas. Objectives: (a to define the prevalence of indeterminate WB among different populations from Argentina; (b to evaluate if low proviral load (PVL is associated with indeterminate WB profiles; and (c to describe mutations in LTR and tax sequence of these cases. Results: Among 2031 samples, 294 were reactive by screening. Of them, 48 (16.3% were WB indeterminate and of those 15 (31.3% were PCR+. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR was performed to 52 HTLV-1+ samples, classified as Group 1 (G1: 25 WB+ samples from individuals with pathologies; Group 2 (G2: 18 WB+ samples from asymptomatic carriers (AC; and Group 3 (G3: 9 seroindeterminate samples from AC. Median PVL was 4.78, 2.38, and 0.15 HTLV-1 copies/100 PBMCs, respectively; a significant difference (p=0.003 was observed. Age and sex were associated with PVL in G1 and G2, respectively. Mutations in the distal and central regions of Tax Responsive Elements (TRE 1 and 2 of G3 were observed, though not associated with PVL.The 8403A>G mutation of the distal region, previously related to high PVL, was absent in G3 but present in 50% of WB+ samples (p = 0.03. Conclusions: indeterminateWBresults confirmed later as HTLV-1 positive may be associated with low PVL levels. Mutations in LTR and tax are described; their functional relevance remains to be determined.

  13. Risk Factors for Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type I among Injecting Drug Users in Northeast Brazil: Possibly Greater Efficiency of Male to Female Transmission

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    Dourado Inês

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available It was observed in the city of Salvador, State of Bahia, the highest seroprevalence of human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I infection in Brazil as demonstrated by national wide blood bank surveys. In this paper, we report results of an investigation of drug use and sexual behavior associated with HTLV-I infection among male and female injecting drug users (IDUs in Salvador. A cross sectional study was conducted in the Historical District of Salvador from 1994-1996 (Projeto Brasil-Salvador and 216 asymptomatic IDUs were selected using the snowball contact technique. Blood samples were collected for serological assays. Sera were screened for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1/2 and HTLV-I/II antibodies by ELISA and confirmed by Western blot. The overall prevalence of HTLV-I/II was 35.2% (76/216. The seroprevalence of HTLV-I, HTLV-II and HIV-1 was for males 22%, 11.3% and 44.1% and for females 46.2%, 10.3% and 74.4% respectively. HTLV-I was identified in 72.4% of HTLV positive IDUs. Variables which were significantly associated with HTLV-I infection among males included needle sharing practices, duration of injecting drug use, HIV-1 seropositivity and syphilis. Among women, duration of injecting drug use and syphilis were strongly associated with HTLV-I infection. Multivariate analysis did not change the direction of these associations. Sexual intercourse might play a more important role in HTLV-I infection among women than in men.

  14. Molecular analysis of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II from Wayuu Indians of Colombia demonstrates two subtypes of HTLV-IIb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, W M; Owen, S M; Pieniazek, D A; Nerurkar, V R; Duenas-Barajas, E; Heneine, W; Lal, R B

    1995-01-01

    Studies of the genetic heterogeneity of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) have revealed the presence of two genetic subtypes, termed HTLV-IIa and HTLV-IIb. The HTLV-IIb subtype encodes an immunodominant epitope present at the C-terminus of the extended Tax protein and, by using an LTR-based, restriction fragment-length polymorphism (RFLP) assay, can be further classified into IIb60-IIb5, with HTLV-IIb1 (Central Amerindian-like) and HTLV-IIb5 (North Amerindian-like) being characteristic subtypes for Native American Indians. To determine the antigenic and genetic heterogeneity among HTLV-II-infected South Amerindians, we used a Tax synthetic peptide immunoassay on serum, and RFLP and phylogenetic analysis on LTR sequences amplified from genomic DNA from four Wayuu Indians of Colombia. The Wayuu specimens displayed seroreactivity to the immunodominant epitope located in the extended Tax region, as predicted, and demonstrated genetic heterogeneity by the presence of both the IIB1 (Wyu1, Zuc31) and IIb5 (Wyu2, Zuc42) subtypes sequences within separate phylogroups represented by the Guaymi Indian (IIb1) and North Amerindian (IIb5) sequences, respectively. Sequence analysis showed that major LTR regulatory motifs and the cis-acting repressive elements in the LTR RNA secondary structure were relatively conserved in both Wayuu subtypes, but the predicted secondary structure of the rex response stem loop in the Wyu2 (IIb5) LTR sequence was 45 nucleotides (nt) and 95 nt longer than that observed in the Wyu1 (IIb1) and G12.1 (IIb1) LTR sequences, respectively. These results extend our knowledge of the genetic heterogeneity of HTLV-II in South Amerindians.

  15. Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma and the Importance of Considering the Oncogenic and Immune-Suppressant Role of the Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1: A Case Report

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    Sergio Lupo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionSoft-tissue sarcomas account for 0.7% of all malignant tumors, with an incidence rate of 3 per 100,000 persons/year. The undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma (UPS with giant cells, a high grade tumor of soft tissue, is very unusual, especially in young adults before the age of 40. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is a human retrovirus, classified as group 1 human carcinogens by The International Agency for Research on Cancer, that causes an aggressive malignancy known as adult T-cell lymphoma/leukemia and a progressive chronic inflammatory neurological disease named HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. HTLV-1 causes accumulation of genetic mutations in the host genome that could contribute to cellular transformation, one of the oncogenic features of HTLV-1.Case reportWe describe a case of a young woman with UPS who suffered from HAM/TSP with 3 years of evolution. In 2013, the patient started with neurological symptoms: weakness in the legs and bladder dysfunction. One year later, the patient developed a mild paraparesis in both extremities, anti-HTLV-1 antibodies were detected in plasma and in cerebrospinal fluid, and HAM/TSP was confirmed. In November 2015, a benign ganglion cyst was first suspected without intervention and by March 2016 a sarcoma was diagnosed. Three weeks after surgical resection, the tumor aroused in deep tissue and behaved aggressively, implicating a curative wide resection of the fibula, joint reconstruction, and soft-tissue graft. Histopathological examination confirmed UPS with giant cells.Concluding remarksThe unapparent subclinical immunodeficiency state due to HTLV-1 infection deserves to be considered in order to carefully monitor the possibility of developing any type of cancer. Besides, reaching an accurate and timely diagnosis of UPS can be challenging due to the difficulty in diagnosis/classification and delayed consultation. In this particular case

  16. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 provirus and phylogenetic analysis in patients with mycosis fungoides and their family relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shohat, M; Shohat, B; Mimouni, D; Pauli, G; Ellerbrok, H; David, M; Hodak, E

    2006-08-01

    Mycosis fungoides (MF) is a cutaneous T-cell lymphoma of unknown aetiology. A pathogenic role of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has been suggested but remains controversial. To determine whether MF is linked to HTLV-1. Blood samples were collected from 60 patients, 15 family relatives of patients with MF (MFRs), 20 healthy controls and 10 patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). The presence of HTLV-1 antibodies in serum was tested by the Western blot rp21e-enhanced test. DNA was extracted from the blood with the Qiagen blood kit. We used 500 ng of DNA either in conventional HTLV-1-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or in real-time PCR using primers sk43 and sk44 together with a tax-specific fluorescent probe. In Western blot, antibodies against three to four HTLV-1 antigens were detected in 52% of patients with MF. All of the patients with HAM/TSP were positive, while only 7% of the MFRs and none of the 20 healthy controls reacted with HTLV-1 antigens in Western blot. One of 60 patients with MF and one of 15 MFRs were positive in HTLV-1 PCR. These two PCR-positive samples which were quantified in real-time PCR showed that fewer than five in 10(6) cells were HTLV-1 infected. We succeeded in amplifying and sequencing the 5' end of the provirus from the blood of the PCR-positive MFR by seminested PCR. A positive result was also obtained in this test. Phylogenetic tree analyses revealed a high homology of this sequence with other HTLV-1 sequences from the Middle East. The above PCR-positive MFR was the brother of a PCR-negative patient with MF. These findings demonstrate that HTLV-1 is probably not the aetiological agent of MF. However, it may play a role in immunosuppression and in the spreading of the disease.

  17. Molecular epidemiology of endemic human t-lymphotropic virus type 1 in a rural community in guinea-bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. van Tienen (Carla); T.I. de Silva (Thushan); L.C.J. Alcantara (Luiz); C. Onyango (Clayton); S. Jarju (Sheikh); N. Gonçalves (Nato); T. Vincent (Tim); P. Aaby; H. Whittle (Hilton); M. Schim van der Loeff (Maarten); M. Cotten (Matthew)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes lethal adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and severely debilitating HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in up to 5% of infected adults. HTLV-1 is endemic in parts of Africa and the highest

  18. Molecular Epidemiology of Endemic Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 in a Rural Community in Guinea-Bissau

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tienen, Carla; de Silva, Thushan I.; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Onyango, Clayton O.; Jarju, Sheikh; Gonçalves, Nato; Vincent, Tim; Aaby, Peter; Whittle, Hilton; Schim van der Loeff, Maarten; Cotten, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Background: Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) infection causes lethal adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and severely debilitating HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in up to 5% of infected adults. HTLV-1 is endemic in parts of Africa and the highest prevalence in

  19. Tax posttranslational modifications and interaction with calreticulin in MT-2 cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells of human T cell lymphotropic virus type-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Fernando; Quintremil, Sebastian; Alberti, Carolina; Barriga, Andres; Cartier, Luis; Puente, Javier; Ramírez, Eugenio; Ferreira, Arturo; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Valenzuela, Maria Antonieta

    2014-04-01

    The human retrovirus human T cell lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Axonal degeneration in HAM/TSP patients occurs without neuron infection, with the secreted viral Tax protein proposed to be involved. We previously found that Tax secreted into the culture medium of MT-2 cells (HTLV-1-infected cell line) produced neurite retraction in neuroblastoma cells differentiated to neuronal type. To assess the relevance of Tax posttranslational modifications on this effect, we addressed the question of whether Tax secreted by MT-2 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of HTLV-1-infected subjects is modified. The interaction of Tax with calreticulin (CRT) that modulates intracellular Tax localization and secretion has been described. We studied Tax localization and modifications in MT-2 cells and its interaction with CRT. Intracellular Tax in MT-2 cells was assessed by flow cytometry, corresponding mainly to a 71-kDa protein followed by western blot. This protein reported as a chimera with gp21 viral protein-confirmed by mass spectrometry-showed no ubiquitination or SUMOylation. The Tax-CRT interaction was determined by confocal microscopy and coimmunoprecipitation. Extracellular Tax from HAM/TSP PBMCs is ubiquitinated according to western blot, and its interaction with CRT was shown by coimmunoprecipitation. A positive correlation between Tax and CRT secretion was observed in HAM/TSP PBMCs and asymptomatic carriers. For both proteins inhibitors and activators of secretion showed secretion through the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi complex. Tax, present in PBMC culture medium, produced neurite retraction in differentiated neuroblastoma cells. These results suggest that Tax, whether ubiquitinated or not, is active for neurite retraction.

  20. Retinoic acid dramatically enhances the arsenic trioxide-induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in retinoic acid receptor alpha-positive human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-I-transformed cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwiche, N; El-Sabban, M; Bazzi, R; Nasr, R; Al-Hashimi, S; Hermine, O; de Thé, H; Bazarbachi, A

    2001-01-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, caused by the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I, is an aggressive neoplasm of mature activated T cells that is generally resistant to conventional therapy. While arsenic trioxide (As) inhibits the growth and induces apoptosis in HTLV-I-infected T cells, synergistically, when combined with interferon-alpha, variable effects on growth with all trans retinoic acid treatment have been reported in ATL-derived cell lines and fresh ATL cells. In this study, we investigate the effects of ATRA alone or in combination with As in HTLV-I-transformed cells. Four HTLV-I-transformed cell lines (HuT-102, MT2, C8166 and C91PL) were treated with different doses of ATRA alone or in combination with As for one to three days. Cell growth was assessed by cell count with 3H-thymidine incorporation. Cell cycle distribution was assessed by propidium iodine-labeled DNA content by flow cytometry. Apoptosis was evaluated by Hoechst nuclear staining and annexin-V binding assays. Expression of retinoid receptors, the viral transactivator Tax, and the proteins bcl-2 and IkappaB-alpha proteins, was analysed by Western blot. Only C8166 cells were sensitive to the ATRA-induced growth inhibitory effect while HuT-102, MT2, and C91PL were resistant to ATRA treatment (up to 10(-5) M). The retinoid X receptor alpha and the retinoic acid receptor gamma (RARgamma) proteins were expressed in all four cell lines, while RARalpha protein was only detected in the HuT-102 and C8166 cells. The combination ATRA/As showed a highly synergistic effect on HuT-102 cells, and, to a lesser extent, on C8166 cells and resulted in a dramatic inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of massive apoptosis in HuT-102 cells, associated with caspase activation. While ATRA alone had no effect on Tax and IkappaB-alpha protein levels, ATRA increased the As-induced Tax degradation and the up-regulation of IkappaB-alpha protein. In contrast, the expression of bcl-2 protein was not

  1. Human retroviruses in Amerindians of Colombia: high prevalence of human T cell lymphotropic virus type II infection among the Tunebo Indians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duenas-Barajas, E; Bernal, J E; Vaught, D R; Nerurkar, V R; Sarmiento, P; Yanagihara, R; Gajdusek, D C

    1993-12-01

    The coexistence of infection with human T lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-I and HTLV-II) has been demonstrated recently among the Wayuu Indians from the Guajira region of Colombia. To ascertain if other Indian groups in Colombia are similarly infected, we tested 1,250 sera, collected between 1990 and 1992 from 18 culturally distinct Amerindian tribes living in widely separated regions, for IgG antibodies against HTLV-I/II using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. Sera were also tested for antibodies against human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2) to investigate the overall burden of retrovirus infection in these semi-isolated indigenous groups. A total of 33 of the 1,250 samples were repeatedly reactive to HTLV-I/II antigens by ELISA, and of these, three sera from Waunana/Noanama Indians from the Choco area and two sera from Tunebo Indians from the Santander region were found to be infected with HTLV-I and HTLV-II, respectively, as verified by Western blot and differential ELISA. Thus, despite the small sample size, the overall seroprevalences for HTLV-I and HTLV-II infection among the Waunana/Noanama and Tunebo Indians were 2.1% and 5.0%, respectively. In contrast, none of the 29 Indians who exhibited reactivity to HIV-1/2 by ELISA were seropositive by Western blot. This study adds the Tunebo to the expanding list of Amerindian groups with high prevalences of HTLV-II infection. Further intensive investigations of such indigenous populations will clarify the natural history and disease potential of HTLV-II infection.

  2. Chromosomal positioning of human T-lymphotropic type 1 proviruses by fluorescence in situ hybridisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, J H; Rose, N J; Mann, S; Ferguson-Smith, M; Lever, A M

    2001-04-01

    Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) was employed to identify the chromosomal integration site of the human T-cell lymphotropic virus, type 1 (HTLV-1) present in T-cell clones derived from HTLV-1-infected individuals and a virally transformed cell line, C8166-45. Proviral sequences were detected in C8166-45 but not uninfected Jurkat cells. Integration sites were reliably detected in T-cell clones determined previously to be infected with HTLV-1. The results indicated that the transformed cell line and some of the T-cell clones possessed more than one proviral integration site. This hybridisation system is useful for determining the number of integration events and for localising proviruses to specific chromosomal regions.

  3. NF-kappa B activity in T cells stably expressing the Tax protein of human T cell lymphotropic virus type I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacoste, J.; Cohen, L.; Hiscott, J.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of constitutive Tax expression on the interaction of NF-κ B with its recognition sequence and on NF-κ B-dependent gene expression was examined in T lymphoid Jurkat cell lines (19D and 9J) stably transformed with a Tax expression vector. Tax expressing T cell lines contained a constitutive level of NF-κ B binding activity, detectable by mobility shift assay and uv cross-linking using a palindromic NF-κ B probe homologous to the interferon beta PRDII site. In Jurkat and NC2.10 induction with phorbol esters resulted in the appearance of new DNA binding proteins of 85, 75, and 54 kDa, whereas in Tax expressing cells the 85-kDa protein and a 92-kDa DNA binding protein were constitutively induced. Expression of Tax protein in 19D and 9J resulted in transcription of the endogenous NF-kappa B-dependent granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor gene and increased basal level expression of transfected NF-kappa B-regulated promoters. Nonetheless transcription of both the endogenous and the transfected gene was inducible by PMA treatment. Tax expression in Jurkat T cells may alter the stoichiometry of NF-kappa B DNA binding proteins and thus change the expression of NF-kappa B-regulated promoters

  4. Tax secretion from peripheral blood mononuclear cells and Tax detection in plasma of patients with human T-lymphotropic virus-type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis and asymptomatic carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Fernando; Quintremil, Sebastián; Alberti, Carolina; Godoy, Fabián; Pando, María E; Bustamante, Andrés; Barriga, Andrés; Cartier, Luis; Puente, Javier; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Valenzuela, María A; Ramírez, Eugenio

    2016-03-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus-type 1 (HTLV-1) is the etiologic agent of the neurologic disease HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Tax viral protein plays a critical role in viral pathogenesis. Previous studies suggested that extracellular Tax might involve cytokine-like extracellular effects. We evaluated Tax secretion in 18 h-ex vivo peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) cultures from 15 HAM/TSP patients and 15 asymptomatic carriers. Futhermore, Tax plasma level was evaluated from other 12 HAM/TSP patients and 10 asymptomatic carriers. Proviral load and mRNA encoding Tax were quantified by PCR and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Intracellular Tax in CD4(+)CD25(+) cells occurred in 100% and 86.7% of HAM/TSP patients and asymptomatic carriers, respectively. Percentage of CD4(+)CD25(+) Tax+, proviral load and mRNA encoding Tax were significantly higher in HAM/TSP patients. Western blot analyses showed higher secretion levels of ubiquitinated Tax in HAM/TSP patients than in asymptomatic carriers. In HTLV-1-infected subjects, Western blot of plasma Tax showed higher levels in HAM/TSP patients than in asymptomatic carriers, whereas no Tax was found in non-infected subjects. Immunoprecipitated plasma Tax resolved on SDS-PAGE gave two major bands of 57 and 48 kDa allowing identification of Tax and Ubiquitin peptides by mass spectrometry. Relative percentage of either CD4(+)CD25(+) Tax+ cells, or Tax protein released from PBMCs, or plasma Tax, correlates neither with tax mRNA nor with proviral load. This fact could be explained by a complex regulation of Tax expression. Tax secreted from PBMCs or present in plasma could potentially become a biomarker to distinguish between HAM/TSP patients and asymptomatic carriers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Human T Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 protein Tax reduces histone levels

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    Laybourn Paul J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type-1 (HTLV-1 is an oncogenic retrovirus that causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL. The virally encoded Tax protein is thought to be necessary and sufficient for T-cell leukemogenesis. Tax promotes inappropriate cellular proliferation, represses multiple DNA repair mechanisms, deregulates cell cycle checkpoints, and induces genomic instability. All of these Tax effects are thought to cooperate in the development of ATLL. Results In this study, we demonstrate that histone protein levels are reduced in HTLV-1 infected T-cell lines (HuT102, SLB-1 and C81 relative to uninfected T-cell lines (CEM, Jurkat and Molt4, while the relative amount of DNA per haploid complement is unaffected. In addition, we show that replication-dependent core and linker histone transcript levels are reduced in HTLV-1 infected T-cell lines. Furthermore, we show that Tax expression in Jurkat cells is sufficient for reduction of replication-dependent histone transcript levels. Conclusion These results demonstrate that Tax disrupts the proper regulation of replication-dependent histone gene expression. Further, our findings suggest that HTLV-1 infection uncouples replication-dependent histone gene expression and DNA replication, allowing the depletion of histone proteins with cell division. Histone proteins are involved in the regulation of all metabolic processes involving DNA including transcription, replication, repair and recombination. This study provides a previously unidentified mechanism by which Tax may directly induce chromosomal instability and deregulate gene expression through reduced histone levels.

  6. Correlation between LTR point mutations and proviral load levels among Human T cell Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers

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    Neto Walter K

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In vitro studies have demonstrated that deletions and point mutations introduced into each 21 bp imperfect repeat of Tax-responsive element (TRE of the genuine human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1 viral promoter abolishes Tax induction. Given these data, we hypothesized that similar mutations may affect the proliferation of HTLV-1i nfected cells and alter the proviral load (PvL. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional genetic analysis to compare the near-complete LTR nucleotide sequences that cover the TRE1 region in a sample of HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers with different PvL burden. Methods A total of 94 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers with both sequence from the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR and a PvL for Tax DNA measured using a sensitive SYBR Green real-time PCR were studied. The 94 subjects were divided into three groups based on PvL measurement: 31 low, 29 intermediate, and 34 high. In addition, each group was compared based on sex, age, and viral genotypes. In another analysis, the median PvLs between individuals infected with mutant and wild-type viruses were compared. Results Using a categorical analysis, a G232A substitution, located in domain A of the TRE-1 motif, was detected in 38.7% (12/31, 27.5% (8/29, and 61.8% (21/34 of subjects with low, intermediate, or high PvLs, respectively. A significant difference in the detection of this mutation was found between subjects with a high or low PvL and between those with a high or intermediate PvL (both p p > 0.05. This result was confirmed by a non-parametric analysis that showed strong evidence for higher PvLs among HTLV-1 positive individuals with the G232A mutation than those without this mutation (p p > 0. 05. Conclusions The data described here show that changes in domain A of the HTLV-1 TRE-1 motif resulting in the G232A mutation may increase HTLV-1 replication in a majority of infected subjects.

  7. Correlation between LTR point mutations and proviral load levels among human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) asymptomatic carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Walter K; Da-Costa, Antonio C; de Oliveira, Ana Carolina S; Martinez, Vanessa P; Nukui, Youko; Sabino, Ester C; Sanabani, Sabri S

    2011-12-13

    In vitro studies have demonstrated that deletions and point mutations introduced into each 21 bp imperfect repeat of Tax-responsive element (TRE) of the genuine human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-1) viral promoter abolishes Tax induction. Given these data, we hypothesized that similar mutations may affect the proliferation of HTLV-1-infected cells and alter the proviral load (PvL). To test this hypothesis, we conducted a cross-sectional genetic analysis to compare the near-complete LTR nucleotide sequences that cover the TRE1 region in a sample of HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers with different PvL burden. A total of 94 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers with both sequence from the 5' long terminal repeat (LTR) and a PvL for Tax DNA measured using a sensitive SYBR Green real-time PCR were studied. The 94 subjects were divided into three groups based on PvL measurement: 31 low, 29 intermediate, and 34 high. In addition, each group was compared based on sex, age, and viral genotypes. In another analysis, the median PvLs between individuals infected with mutant and wild-type viruses were compared. Using a categorical analysis, a G232A substitution, located in domain A of the TRE-1 motif, was detected in 38.7% (12/31), 27.5% (8/29), and 61.8% (21/34) of subjects with low, intermediate, or high PvLs, respectively. A significant difference in the detection of this mutation was found between subjects with a high or low PvL and between those with a high or intermediate PvL (both p 0.05). This result was confirmed by a non-parametric analysis that showed strong evidence for higher PvLs among HTLV-1 positive individuals with the G232A mutation than those without this mutation (p 0. 05). The data described here show that changes in domain A of the HTLV-1 TRE-1 motif resulting in the G232A mutation may increase HTLV-1 replication in a majority of infected subjects.

  8. The Major Histocompatibility Complex Class II Transactivator CIITA Inhibits the Persistent Activation of NF-κB by the Human T Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Tax-1 Oncoprotein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlani, Greta; Abdallah, Rawan; Accolla, Roberto S; Tosi, Giovanna

    2016-01-20

    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax-1, a key protein in HTLV-1-induced T cell transformation, deregulates diverse cell signaling pathways. Among them, the NF-κB pathway is constitutively activated by Tax-1, which binds to NF-κB proteins and activates the IκB kinase (IKK). Upon phosphorylation-dependent IκB degradation, NF-κB migrates into the nucleus, mediating Tax-1-stimulated gene expression. We show that the transcriptional regulator of major histocompatibility complex class II genes CIITA (class II transactivator), endogenously or ectopically expressed in different cells, inhibits the activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway by Tax-1 and map the region that mediates this effect. CIITA affects the subcellular localization of Tax-1, which is mostly retained in the cytoplasm, and this correlates with impaired migration of RelA into the nucleus. Cytoplasmic and nuclear mutant forms of CIITA reveal that CIITA exploits different strategies to suppress Tax-1-mediated NF-κB activation in both subcellular compartments. CIITA interacts with Tax-1 without preventing Tax-1 binding to both IKKγ and RelA. Nevertheless, CIITA affects Tax-1-induced IKK activity, causing retention of the inactive p50/RelA/IκB complex in the cytoplasm. Nuclear CIITA associates with Tax-1/RelA in nuclear bodies, blocking Tax-1-dependent activation of NF-κB-responsive genes. Thus, CIITA inhibits cytoplasmic and nuclear steps of Tax-1-mediated NF-κB activation. These results, together with our previous finding that CIITA acts as a restriction factor inhibiting Tax-1-promoted HTLV-1 gene expression and replication, indicate that CIITA is a versatile molecule that might also counteract Tax-1 transforming activity. Unveiling the molecular basis of CIITA-mediated inhibition of Tax-1 functions may be important in defining new strategies to control HTLV-1 spreading and oncogenic potential. HTLV-1 is the causative agent of human adult T cell leukemia-lymphoma (ATLL). The viral

  9. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 infection and disease in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mendoza, Carmen; Caballero, Estrella; Aguilera, Antonio; Requena, Silvia; de Lejarazu, Raúl Ortiz; Pirón, María; González, Rocío; Jiménez, Ana; Roc, Lourdes; Treviño, Ana; Benito, Rafael; Fernández-Alonso, Miriam; Aguinaga, Aitziber; Rodríguez, Carmen; García-Costa, Juan; Blanco, Lidia; Ramos, José M; Calderón, Enrique; Eirós, José M; Sauleda, Silvia; Barreiro, Pablo; Soriano, Vicente

    2017-07-31

    : Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is a neglected disease despite roughly 15 million people are chronically infected worldwide. Lifelong less than 10% of carriers develop life-threatening diseases, mostly a subacute myelopathy known as tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) and a lymphoproliferative disorder named adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). HTLV-1 is efficiently transmitted perinatally (breastfeeding), sexually (more from men to women) and parenterally (transfusions, injection drug user (IDU), and transplants). To date there is neither prophylactic vaccine nor effective antiviral therapy. A total of 327 cases of HTLV-1 infection had been reported at the HTLV-1 Spanish registry until December 2016, of whom 34 had been diagnosed with TSP and 25 with ATL. Overall 62% were Latin American immigrants and 13% were persons of African origin. The incidence of HTLV-1 in Spain has remained stable for nearly a decade with 20-25 new cases yearly. Of the 21 newly diagnosed HTLV-1 cases during year 2016, one was a native Spaniard pregnant woman, and four presented with symptomatic disease, including three with ATL and one with TSP. Underdiagnosis of HTLV-1 in Spain must be high (iceberg model), which may account for the disproportionate high rate of symptomatic cases (almost 20%) and the late recognition of preventable HTLV-1 transmissions in special populations, such as newborns and transplant recipients. Our current estimate is of 10 000 persons living with HTLV-1 infection in Spain. Given the large flux of immigrants and visitors from HTLV-1 endemic regions to Spain, the expansion of HTLV-1 screening policies is warranted. At this time, it seems worth recommending HTLV testing to all donor/recipient organ transplants and pregnant women regardless place of birth. Although current leukoreduction procedures largely prevent HTLV-1 transmission by blood transfusions, HTLV testing of all first-time donors should be cost-effective contributing to unveil

  10. Inhibition of HIV type 1 replication by human T lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 Tax proteins in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrios, Christy S; Castillo, Laura; Giam, Chou-Zen; Wu, Li; Beilke, Mark A

    2013-07-01

    Patients with HIV-1 and human T-lymphotropic virus type 2 (HTLV-2) coinfections often exhibit a clinical course similar to that seen in HIV-1-infected individuals who are long-term nonprogressors. These findings have been attributed in part to the ability of HTLV-2 to activate production of antiviral chemokines and to downregulate the CCR5 coreceptor on lymphocytes. To further investigate these observations, we tested the ability of recombinant Tax1 and Tax2 proteins to suppress HIV-1 viral replication in vitro. R5-tropic HIV-1 (NLAD8)-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were treated daily with recombinant Tax1 and Tax2 proteins (dosage range 1-100 pM). Culture supernatants were collected at intervals from days 1 to 22 postinfection and assayed for levels of HIV-1 p24 antigen by ELISA. Treatment of PBMCs with Tax2 protein resulted in a significant reduction in HIV-1 p24 antigen levels (pTax1-treated PBMCs. These results support the contention that Tax1 and Tax2 play a role in generating antiviral responses against HIV-1 in vivo and in vitro.

  11. Lymphotropism and host responses during acute wild-type canine distemper virus infections in a highly susceptible natural host

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Line; Søgaard, Mette; Jensen, Trine Hammer

    2009-01-01

    The mechanisms behind the in vivo virulence of immunosuppressive wild-type Morbillivirus infections are still not fully understood. To investigate lymphotropism and host responses we have selected the natural host model of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection in mink. This model displays...

  12. Discovery of a new human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-3 in Central Africa

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    Mahieux Renaud

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human T-cell Leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 and type 2 (HTLV-2 are pathogenic retroviruses that infect humans and cause severe hematological and neurological diseases. Both viruses have simian counterparts (STLV-1 and STLV-2. STLV-3 belongs to a third group of lymphotropic viruses which infect numerous African monkeys species. Among 240 Cameroonian plasma tested for the presence of HTLV-1 and/or HTLV-2 antibodies, 48 scored positive by immunofluorescence. Among those, 27 had indeterminate western-blot pattern. PCR amplification of pol and tax regions, using HTLV-1, -2 and STLV-3 highly conserved primers, demonstrated the presence of a new human retrovirus in one DNA sample. tax (180 bp and pol (318 bp phylogenetic analyses demonstrated the strong relationships between the novel human strain (Pyl43 and STLV-3 isolates from Cameroon. The virus, that we tentatively named HTLV-3, originated from a 62 years old Bakola Pygmy living in a remote settlement in the rain forest of Southern Cameroon. The plasma was reactive on MT2 cells but was negative on C19 cells. The HTLV 2.4 western-blot exhibited a strong reactivity to p19 and a faint one to MTA-1. On the INNO-LIA strip, it reacted faintly with the generic p19 (I/II, but strongly to the generic gp46 (I/II and to the specific HTLV-2 gp46. The molecular relationships between Pyl43 and STLV-3 are thus not paralleled by the serological results, as most of the STLV-3 infected monkeys have an "HTLV-2 like" WB pattern. In the context of the multiple interspecies transmissions which occurred in the past, and led to the present-day distribution of the PTLV-1, it is thus very tempting to speculate that this newly discovered human retrovirus HTLV-3 might be widespread, at least in the African continent.

  13. Simian T Lymphotropic Virus 1 Infection of Papio anubis: tax Sequence Heterogeneity and T Cell Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termini, James M; Magnani, Diogo M; Maxwell, Helen S; Lauer, William; Castro, Iris; Pecotte, Jerilyn; Barber, Glen N; Watkins, David I; Desrosiers, Ronald C

    2017-10-15

    Baboons naturally infected with simian T lymphotropic virus (STLV) are a potentially useful model system for the study of vaccination against human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV). Here we expanded the number of available full-length baboon STLV-1 sequences from one to three and related the T cell responses that recognize the immunodominant Tax protein to the tax sequences present in two individual baboons. Continuously growing T cell lines were established from two baboons, animals 12141 and 12752. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of complete STLV genome sequences from these T cell lines revealed them to be closely related but distinct from each other and from the baboon STLV-1 sequence in the NCBI sequence database. Overlapping peptides corresponding to each unique Tax sequence and to the reference baboon Tax sequence were used to analyze recognition by T cells from each baboon using intracellular cytokine staining (ICS). Individual baboons expressed more gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha in response to Tax peptides corresponding to their own STLV-1 sequence than in response to Tax peptides corresponding to the reference baboon STLV-1 sequence. Thus, our analyses revealed distinct but closely related STLV-1 genome sequences in two baboons, extremely low heterogeneity of STLV sequences within each baboon, no evidence for superinfection within each baboon, and a ready ability of T cells in each baboon to recognize circulating Tax sequences. While amino acid substitutions that result in escape from CD8 + T cell recognition were not observed, premature stop codons were observed in 7% and 56% of tax sequences from peripheral blood mononuclear cells from animals 12141 and 12752, respectively. IMPORTANCE It has been estimated that approximately 100,000 people suffer serious morbidity and 10,000 people die each year from the consequences associated with human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infection. There are no antiviral drugs and no preventive vaccine. A

  14. Leukotrienes are upregulated and associated with human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1-associated neuroinflammatory disease.

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    Bruno Caetano Trindade

    Full Text Available Leukotrienes (LTs are lipid mediators involved in several inflammatory disorders. We investigated the LT pathway in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 infection by evaluating LT levels in HTLV-1-infected patients classified according to the clinical status as asymptomatic carriers (HACs and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP patients. Bioactive LTB(4 and CysLTs were both increased in the plasma and in the supernatant of peripheral blood mononuclear cell cultures of HTLV-1-infected when compared to non-infected. Interestingly, CysLT concentrations were increased in HAM/TSP patients. Also, the concentration of plasma LTB(4 and LTC(4 positively correlated with the HTLV-1 proviral load in HTLV-1-infected individuals. The gene expression levels of LT receptors were differentially modulated in CD4(+ and CD8(+ T cells of HTLV-1-infected patients. Analysis of the overall plasma signature of immune mediators demonstrated that LT and chemokine amounts were elevated during HTLV-1 infection. Importantly, in addition to CysLTs, IP-10 was also identified as a biomarker for HAM/TSP activity. These data suggest that LTs are likely to be associated with HTLV-1 infection and HAM/TSP development, suggesting their putative use for clinical monitoring.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of endemic human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 in a rural community in Guinea-Bissau.

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    Carla van Tienen

    Full Text Available Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1 infection causes lethal adult T-cell leukemia (ATL and severely debilitating HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP in up to 5% of infected adults. HTLV-1 is endemic in parts of Africa and the highest prevalence in West Africa (5% has been reported in Caio, a rural area in the North-West of Guinea-Bissau. It is not known which HTLV-1 variants are present in this community. Sequence data can provide insights in the molecular epidemiology and help to understand the origin and spread of HTLV-1.To gain insight into the molecular diversity of HTLV-1 in West Africa.HTLV-1 infected individuals were identified in community surveys between 1990-2007. The complete Long Terminal Repeat (LTR and p24 coding region of HTLV-1 was sequenced from infected subjects. Socio-demographic data were obtained from community census and from interviews performed by fieldworkers. Phylogenetic analyses were performed to characterize the relationship between the Caio HTLV-1 and HTLV-1 from other parts of the world.LTR and p24 sequences were obtained from 72 individuals (36 LTR, 24 p24 only and 12 both. Consistent with the low evolutionary change of HTLV-1, many of the sequences from unrelated individuals showed 100% nucleotide identity. Most (45 of 46 of the LTR sequences clustered with the Cosmopolitan HTLV-1 subtype 1a, subgroup D (1aD. LTR and p24 sequences from two subjects were divergent and formed a significant cluster with HTLV-1 subtype 1g, and with the most divergent African Simian T-cell Lymphotropic Virus, Tan90.The Cosmopolitan HTLV-1 1aD predominates in this rural West African community. However, HTLV-1 subtype 1g is also present. This subtype has not been described before in West Africa and may be more widespread than previously thought. These data are in line with the hypothesis that multiple monkey-to-man zoonotic events are contributing to HTLV-1 diversity.

  16. Imaging of human T-lymphotropic virus type I-associated chronic progressive myeloneuropathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcindor, F.; Valderrama, R.; Canavaggio, M.; Lee, H.; Katz, A.; Montesinos, C.; Madrid, R.E.; Merino, R.R.; Pipia, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    We studied magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the head and cervical spine and CT of the head in 46 patients (14 men, 32 women) with chronic progressive myeloneuropathy. The findings were correlated with human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) serology, race, country of origin, and age. We found a female predominance of 2:1. Most patients were aged between 30 and 50 years, and most were Caribbean immigrants and black. There were 9 men and 17 women with blood antibody titers to HTLV-I and 7 mem and 15 women with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) titers. All patients with virus or antibodies in blood or CSF were Caribbean immigrants or black. T2-weighted cranial MRI showed scattered areas of high signal intensity in the cerebral white matter, usually in the periventricular and subcortical areas, but not in the posterior cranial fossa. Cranial CT revealed periventricular low density areas, ventricular enlargement, and atrophy MRI of the cervical spine showed atrophy of the cord. Myelography was normal in all 15 patients examined. No imaging differences were observed between the HTLV-I-positive and -negative patients. These findings, although consistent with demyelination, are not specific. (orig.)

  17. A Unique T-Cell Receptor Amino Acid Sequence Selected by Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Tax301-309-Specific Cytotoxic T Cells in HLA-A24:02-Positive Asymptomatic Carriers and Adult T-Cell Leukemia/Lymphoma Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Yuko; Tanaka, Yukie; Kobayashi, Seiichiro; Kawamura, Koji; Nakasone, Hideki; Gomyo, Ayumi; Hayakawa, Jin; Tamaki, Masaharu; Akahoshi, Yu; Harada, Naonori; Kusuda, Machiko; Kameda, Kazuaki; Ugai, Tomotaka; Wada, Hidenori; Sakamoto, Kana; Sato, Miki; Terasako-Saito, Kiriko; Kikuchi, Misato; Kimura, Shun-Ichi; Tanihara, Aki; Kako, Shinichi; Uchimaru, Kaoru; Kanda, Yoshinobu

    2017-10-01

    We previously reported that the T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax 301-309 -specific CD8 + cytotoxic T cells (Tax 301-309 -CTLs) was highly restricted and a particular amino acid sequence motif, the PDR motif, was conserved among HLA-A*24:02-positive (HLA-A*24:02 + ) adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) patients who had undergone allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). Furthermore, we found that donor-derived PDR + CTLs selectively expanded in ATL long-term HSCT survivors with strong CTL activity against HTLV-1. On the other hand, the TCR repertoires in Tax 301-309 -CTLs of asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers (ACs) remain unclear. In this study, we directly identified the DNA sequence of complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) of the TCR-β chain of Tax 301-309 -CTLs at the single-cell level and compared not only the TCR repertoires but also the frequencies and phenotypes of Tax 301-309 -CTLs between ACs and ATL patients. We did not observe any essential difference in the frequencies of Tax 301-309 -CTLs between ACs and ATL patients. In the single-cell TCR repertoire analysis of Tax 301-309 -CTLs, 1,458 Tax 301-309 -CTLs and 140 clones were identified in this cohort. Tax 301-309 -CTLs showed highly restricted TCR repertoires with a strongly biased usage of BV7, and PDR, the unique motif in TCR-β CDR3, was exclusively observed in all ACs and ATL patients. However, there was no correlation between PDR + CTL frequencies and HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL). In conclusion, we have identified, for the first time, a unique amino acid sequence, PDR, as a public TCR-CDR3 motif against Tax in HLA-A*24:02 + HTLV-1-infected individuals. Further investigations are warranted to elucidate the role of the PDR + CTL response in the progression from carrier state to ATL. IMPORTANCE ATL is an aggressive T-cell malignancy caused by HTLV-1 infection. The HTLV-1 regulatory protein Tax aggressively promotes the

  18. Clinical pathophysiology of human T-lymphotropic virus-type1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis

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    Yoshihisa eYamano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1, a human retrovirus, is the causative agent of a progressive neurological disease termed HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. HAM/TSP is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system and is characterized by unremitting myelopathic symptoms such as spastic paraparesis, lower limb sensory disturbance, and bladder/bowel dysfunction. Approximately 0.25%–3.8% of HTLV-1-infected individuals develop HAM/TSP, which is more common in women than in men. Since the discovery of HAM/TSP, significant advances have been made with respect to elucidating the virological, molecular, and immunopathological mechanisms underlying this disease. These findings suggest that spinal cord invasion by HTLV-1-infected T cells triggers a strong virus-specific immune response and increases proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, leading to chronic lymphocytic inflammation and tissue damage in spinal cord lesions. However, little progress has been made in the development of an optimal treatment for HAM/TSP, more specifically in the identification of biomarkers for predicting disease progression and of molecular targets for novel therapeutic strategies targeting the underlying pathological mechanisms. This review summarizes current clinical and pathophysiological knowledge on HAM/TSP and discusses future focus areas for research on this disease.

  19. Rate of positive autoimmune markers in Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 carriers: a case-control study from Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi Ghezeldasht, Sanaz; Hedayati-Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza; Habibi, Meysam; Mollahosseini, Farzad; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Miri, Rahele; Hatef Fard, MohammadReza; Sahebari, Maryam

    2018-01-01

    Human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection with high prevalence in the north-east of Iran, particularly in Mashhad, can lead to adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and a variety of autoimmune diseases. The aim of the study was to examine the presence of autoimmune markers in HTLV carries. Serum samples were obtained from blood donors in Mashhad, northeastern Iran. One hundred and five HTLV-1 positive (cases) and 104 age- and sex-matched HTLV-1 negative donors (controls) were assessed for presence of serum autoimmune markers by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean ages of cases and controls were 40.8 ± 9.4 and 41.5 ± 9.3 years, respectively (P = 0.5). In the case group, 81.9% and in the control group 83.7% were male (P = 0.74). The frequency of positive antinuclear antibodies and anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in the serum of the two groups were not significantly different (P = 0.68 and P = 0.62, respectively). Only one antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-positive case (1%) was observed in the group and no anti-phospholipid immunoglobulin G positivity was observed. The frequency of rheumatoid factor (RF) was greater in case group than in the control group, although the difference was not significant (P = 0.08). The amount of RF in all 12 RF positive sera were higher than normal levels (33-37 IU/mL). Because we failed to detect any significant relation between serum autoimmune markers and HTLV-1 infection, and because of the relatively low prevalence of autoimmune diseases, it could be concluded that healthy HTLV-1 carriers do not produce rheumatologic-related auto-antibodies more than the healthy population. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. Manifestações reumáticas associadas ao vírus linfotrópico humano de células T do tipo I (HTLV-I Rheumatic manifestations associated with the human T-Cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I

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    Boris A. Cruz

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O vírus linfotrópico humano de células T tipo I (HTLV-I é reconhecido como agente etiológico da leucemia de células T do adulto. O HTLV-I é também relacionado a uma mielopatia crônica, que inclui agressão inflamatória (auto imune-mediada em sua patogênese. Outras síndromes auto-imunes, dentre as quais artrite reumatóide e síndrome de Sjögren são descritas em pacientes infectados. Nestes pacientes, estas condições clínicas parecem ser o resultado da interação entre o vírus como fator do ambiente e susceptibilidade do hospedeiro, levando ao funcionamento aberrante de mecanismos imuno-moduladores, proliferação celular e inflamação. O estudo dos aspectos clínicos e imunológicos das manifestações reumáticas associadas ao HTLV-I pode contribuir para o melhor entendimento das doenças auto-imunes.The Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type I is known as the etiologic agent of Adult T-Cell Leukemia. The HTLV-I is also related to a chronic myelopathy, which includes (auto immune-mediated inflammatory injury in its pathogenesis. Other autoimmune syndromes such as Rheumatoid Arthritis and Sjögren's Syndrome are reported in infected patients. In those patients, these clinical conditions seem to be the result of the interaction between the virus as an environmental agent and host susceptibility, leading to an aberrant functioning of immunomodulatory mechanisms, cellular proliferation and inflammation. The study of clinical and immunological aspects of the HTLV-I-associated rheumatic manifestations may contribute to the better understanding of the auto-immune diseases.

  1. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II in Guaraní Indians, Southern Brazil Vírus linfotrópico de células T-humanas do tipo II em Índios Guaraní, Sul do Brasil

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    Marcio Menna-Barreto

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II is found in many New World Indian groups on the American continent. In Brazil, HTLV-II has been found among urban residents and Indians in the Amazon region, in the North. Guaraní Indians in the South of Brazil were studied for HTLV-I/II infection. Among 52 individuals, three (5.76% showed positive anti-HTLV-II antibodies (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot. This preliminary report is the first seroepidemiological study showing HTLV-II infection among Indians in the South of Brazil.O vírus linfotrópico de células T-humanas do tipo II (HTLV-II é identificado em muitos grupos de ameríndios. No Brasil, tem sido encontrado em indivíduos da população urbana, bem como em índios oriundos da região Amazônica. Os Índios Guaraní, do Sul do país, foram investigados para infecção por HTLV-I/II. Três indivíduos, oriundos de uma amostra de 52 índios, demonstraram sororeatividade para HTLV-II (ensaio imunoenzimático e Western blot. Este estudo preliminar foi o primeiro a identificar a presença de infecção por HTLV-II em ameríndios do Sul do Brasil.

  2. Reexamination of human T cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I/II) prevalence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker-Franklin, D; Pancake, B A; Marmor, M; Legler, P M

    1997-06-10

    In the United States, blood donors are being screened for infection with human T cell lymphotropic viruses I and II (HTLV-I/II) by serologic means, which detect antibodies to the structural proteins of these viruses. Because patients with mycosis fungoides (MF) usually do not have such antibodies even though their cells harbor HTLV-I Tax and/or pol proviral sequences, it was questioned whether the prevalence of HTLV infection among healthy blood donors may also be underestimated by current means of testing. To examine this possibility, a study on specimens of relatives of mycosis fungoides patients (MFR) was begun. In addition, to collect data more expeditiously, a cohort of former injection drug users (IDUs) was tested by routine serologic methods, as well as by PCR/Southern blot analysis for Tax, pol, and gag proviral sequences and Western blot analysis for antibodies to the Tax gene product. To date, 6/8 MFRs and 42/81 (51.8%) of HIV-negative IDUs proved to be positive for HTLV, whereas routine serology identified none of the MFR and only 18/81 (22.2%) of the IDUs. Among the latter test subjects, the incidence of HTLV-I also proved to be 10 times higher than expected. Therefore, it is likely that among healthy blood donors infection with HTLV-I/II is more prevalent than is currently assumed. Since Tax is the transforming sequence of HTLV-I/II, testing for Tax sequences and antibodies to its gene product may be desirable in blood transfusion and tissue donor facilities.

  3. Reexamination of human T cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I/II) prevalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucker-Franklin, Dorothea; Pancake, Bette A.; Marmor, Michael; Legler, Patricia M.

    1997-01-01

    In the United States, blood donors are being screened for infection with human T cell lymphotropic viruses I and II (HTLV-I/II) by serologic means, which detect antibodies to the structural proteins of these viruses. Because patients with mycosis fungoides (MF) usually do not have such antibodies even though their cells harbor HTLV-I Tax and/or pol proviral sequences, it was questioned whether the prevalence of HTLV infection among healthy blood donors may also be underestimated by current means of testing. To examine this possibility, a study on specimens of relatives of mycosis fungoides patients (MFR) was begun. In addition, to collect data more expeditiously, a cohort of former injection drug users (IDUs) was tested by routine serologic methods, as well as by PCR/Southern blot analysis for Tax, pol, and gag proviral sequences and Western blot analysis for antibodies to the Tax gene product. To date, 6/8 MFRs and 42/81 (51.8%) of HIV-negative IDUs proved to be positive for HTLV, whereas routine serology identified none of the MFR and only 18/81 (22.2%) of the IDUs. Among the latter test subjects, the incidence of HTLV-I also proved to be 10 times higher than expected. Therefore, it is likely that among healthy blood donors infection with HTLV-I/II is more prevalent than is currently assumed. Since Tax is the transforming sequence of HTLV-I/II, testing for Tax sequences and antibodies to its gene product may be desirable in blood transfusion and tissue donor facilities. PMID:9177230

  4. Retroviral sequences related to human T-lymphotropic virus type II in patients with chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeFreitas, E.; Hilliard, B.; Cheney, P.R.; Bell, D.S.; Kiggundu, E.; Sankey, D.; Wroblewska, Z.; Palladino, M.; Woodward, J.P.; Koprowski, H.

    1991-01-01

    Chronic fatigue immune dysfunction syndrome (CFIDS) is a recently recognized illness characterized by debilitating fatigue as well as immunological and neurological abnormalities. Once thought to be caused by Epstein-Barr virus, it is now thought to have a different but unknown etiology. The authors evaluted 30 adult and pediatric CFIDS patients from six eastern states for the presence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) types I and II by Western immunoblotting, polymerase chain reaction, and in situ hybridization of blood samples. The majority of patients were positive for HTLV antibodies by Western blotting and for HTLV-II gag sequences by polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. Twenty nonexposure healthy controls were negative in all assays. These data support an association between an HTLV-II-like virus and CFIDS

  5. Lesões dermatológicas em pacientes infectados pelo vírus linfotrópico humano de células T do tipo 1 (HTLV-1 Dermatologic lesions in patients infected with the human T-cell lymphotropic vírus type 1 (HTLV-1

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    Vandack Nobre

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available O vírus linfotrópico humano de células T do tipo 1 (HTLV-1 é o primeiro retrovírus isolado do ser humano. Descreveu-se, em pouco tempo, o seu papel etiológico em algumas doenças, com destaque para a leucemia/linfoma de células T do adulto (ATLL, a mielopatia associada ao HTLV-1/paraparesia espástica tropical (HAM/TSP e a uveíte associada ao HTLV-1 (HAU. Na década de 90, o HTLV-1 foi associado a eczema grave da infância, conhecido como dermatite infecciosa (DI. Desde então, diversos outros tipos de lesões cutâneas têm sido observados em pacientes infectados pelo HTLV-1, em especial, nos doentes de HAM/TSP ou de ATLL. Porém, mesmo portadores assintomáticos do vírus apresentam doenças dermatológicas. Excetuando-se a dermatite infecciosa, não há lesão da pele específica da infecção pelo HTLV-1. Aqui, os autores apresentam as principais lesões dermatológicas descritas em pacientes infectados pelo HTLV-1, destacando o valor epidemiológico e clínico desses achados.Human T-cell Lymphotropic vírus type I (HTLV-1 was the first human retrovírus described. Some time after its discovery a group of diseases were related to this vírus, such as, adult T-cell leukemia lymphoma (ATLL, HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP and HTLV-1 associated uveitis (HAU. In the nineties, HTLV-1 was associated to a severe eczema of children, called infective dermatitis (ID. Since then, several other skin manifestations have been observed in HTLV-1-infected individuals, particularly in patients with ATLL or HAM/TSP. However, according to some reports, dermatologic lesions are also common in asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers. Besides ID, all other skin lesions reported are nonspecific. The aim of this review is to outline the dermatologic manifestations reported in HTLV-1 infected patients, emphasizing the clinical and epidemiological value of these findings.

  6. Epidemiología genómica y paraparesia espástica tropical asociada a la infección por el virus linfotrópico humano de células T tipo 1 Genome epidemiology and tropical spastic paraparesis associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1

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    Mercedes Salcedo-Cifuentes

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Caracterizar el ambiente genómico de las secuencias adyacentes al virus linfotrópico humano de células T tipo 1 (HTLV-1 en pacientes con paraparesia espástica tropical y mielopatía asociada a la infección con HTLV-1 (PET/MAH de diferentes regiones de Colombia y del Japón. MÉTODOS: Se enfrentaron 71 clones recombinantes con secuencias del genoma humano adyacentes al 5'-LTR de pacientes con PET/MAH, a las bases de datos del Genome Browser y del Gen-Bank. Se identificaron y analizaron estadísticamente 16 variables genómicas estructurales y composicionales mediante el programa informático R, versión 2.8.1, en una ventana de 0,5 Mb. RESULTADOS: El 43,0% de los provirus se localizaron en los cromosomas del grupo C; 74% de las secuencias se ubicaron en regiones teloméricas y subteloméricas (P OBJECTIVE: Characterize the genomic environment of the sequences adjacent to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 in patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP in different regions of Colombia and Japan. METHODS: A total of 71 recombinant clones with human genome sequences adjacent to 5' LTR in patients with HAM/TSP were compared to the Genome Browser and GenBank databases. Sixteen structural and compositional genome variables were identified, and statistical analysis was conducted in the R computer program, version 2.8.1, in a 0.5 Mb window. RESULTS: A total of 43.0% of the proviruses were located in the group C chromosomes; 74% of the sequences were located in the telomeric and subtelomeric regions (P < 0.05. A cluster analysis was used to establish the hierarchical relations between the genome characteristics included in the study. The analysis of principal components identified the components that defined the preferred genome environments for proviral integration in cases of HAM/TSP. CONCLUSIONS: HTLV-1 was integrated more often in chromatin regions rich in CpG islands with a high density

  7. Quantitative Analysis of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) Infection Using Co-Culture with Jurkat LTR-Luciferase or Jurkat LTR-GFP Reporter Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alais, Sandrine; Dutartre, Hélène; Mahieux, Renaud

    2017-01-01

    Unlike HIV-1, HTLV-1 viral transmission requires cell-to-cell contacts, while cell-free virions are poorly infectious and almost absent from body fluids. Though the virus uses three nonexclusive mechanisms to infect new target cells: (1) MTOC polarization followed by formation of a virological synapse and viral transfer into a synaptic cleft, (2) genesis of a viral biofilm and its transfer of embedded viruses, or (3) HTLV-1 transmission using conduits. The Tax transactivator and the p8 viral proteins are involved in virological synapse and nanotube formation respectively.HTLV-1 transcription from the viral promoter (i.e., LTR) requires the Tax protein that is absent from the viral particle and is expressed after productive infection. The present chapter focuses on a series of protocols used to quantify HTLV-1 de novo infection of target cells. These techniques do not discriminate between the different modes of transmission, but allow an accurate measure of productive infection. We used cell lines that are stably transfected with LTR-GFP or LTR-luciferase plasmids and quantified Green Fluorescent Protein expression or luciferase activity, since both of them reflect Tax expression.

  8. Use of anti-tumor necrosis factor biologics in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis does not change human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 markers: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umekita, Kunihiko; Umeki, Kazumi; Miyauchi, Shunichi; Ueno, Shiro; Kubo, Kazuyoshi; Kusumoto, Norio; Takajo, Ichiro; Nagatomo, Yasuhiro; Okayama, Akihiko

    2015-09-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) biologics are effective in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, it is still not clear whether this treatment promotes the development of malignancies such as lymphoma. Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1), which is a causative agent of adult T-cell lymphoma (ATL), is prevalent in Japan. Many HTLV-1-positive patients with RA are assumed to exist; however, there have thus far been no reports on the effect of anti-TNF biologics on HTLV-1-positive patients. We analyzed the response to treatment with anti-TNF biologics and change of HTLV-1 markers in two cases of RA. The two cases showed no response based on the European League Against of Rheumatism response criteria 60-96 weeks after administration of anti-TNF biologics (infliximab and etanercept). No signs of ATL were observed and HTLV-1 markers, such as proviral load and clonality of HTLV-1-infected cells, showed no significant change in either of two cases. Therefore, treatment with anti-TNF biologics did not induce activation of HTLV-1, although the effect on RA was not as effective as in HTLV-1-negative patients in this limited study. Further long-term study with a greater number of patients is necessary to clarify the safety and efficacy of anti-TNF biologics in HTLV-1-positive patients with RA.

  9. Tax and Semaphorin 4D Released from Lymphocytes Infected with Human Lymphotropic Virus Type 1 and Their Effect on Neurite Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintremil, Sebastián; Alberti, Carolina; Rivera, Matías; Medina, Fernando; Puente, Javier; Cartier, Luis; Ramírez, Eugenio; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Valenzuela, M Antonieta

    2016-01-01

    Human lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a retrovirus causing HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), a neurodegenerative central nervous system (CNS) axonopathy. This virus mainly infects CD4(+) T lymphocytes without evidence of neuronal infection. Viral Tax, secreted from infected lymphocytes infiltrated in the CNS, is proposed to alter intracellular pathways related to axonal cytoskeleton dynamics, producing neurological damage. Previous reports showed a higher proteolytic release of soluble Semaphorin 4D (sSEMA-4D) from CD4(+) T cells infected with HTLV-1. Soluble SEMA-4D binds to its receptor Plexin-B1, activating axonal growth collapse pathways in the CNS. In the current study, an increase was found in both SEMA-4D in CD4(+) T cells and sSEMA-4D released to the culture medium of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from HAM/TSP patients compared to asymptomatic carriers and healthy donors. After a 16-h culture, infected PBMCs showed significantly higher levels of CRMP-2 phosphorylated at Ser(522). The effect was blocked either with anti-Tax or anti-SEMA-4D antibodies. The interaction of Tax and sSEMA-4D was found in secreted medium of PBMCs in patients, which might be associated with a leading role of Tax with the SEMA-4D-Plexin-B1 signaling pathway. In infected PBMCs, the migratory response after transwell assay showed that sSEMA-4D responding cells were CD4(+)Tax(+) T cells with a high CRMP-2 pSer(522) content. In the present study, the participation of Tax-sSEMA-4D in the reduction in neurite growth in PC12 cells produced by MT2 (HTLV-1-infected cell line) culture medium was observed. These results lead to the participation of plexins in the reported effects of infected lymphocytes on neuronal cells.

  10. Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-1: implications for autoimmune diseases Vírus linfotrópico de células T humano tipo 1 (HTLV-1: implicações em doenças autoimunes

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    Dênis Augusto Santana Reis

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Autoimmunity is characterized by tissue destruction that implicates functional damages caused by self-reactive cells that escape self-tolerance mechanisms. Autoimmune diseases can be initiated by viral infections and the study of the association between these viruses and autoimmunity has advanced the understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in autoimmune diseases. The Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-1 is a deltavirus that infects preferentially lymphocytes. Retrovirus particles like has been identified in patients with autoimmune diseases. Therefore this review had by objective approach the main aspects involving HTLV-1 with systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis. Studies show that retroviruses can integrate their genetic material in host DNA, changing the expression gene profile related with apoptosis and immunologic system molecules. It’s known that HTLV-1 can cause different clinical manifestations in their careers and the mechanisms that triggers the HTLV-1 associated autoimmune diseases are not well known. Besides the perpetuation and marked production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, studies have demonstrated that both Th17 cells and T regulatory cells (Tregs are involved in autoimmune diseases pathogenesis. Therefore the HTLV-1 viral particles recognized could be used as a risk marker in the development of autoimmune diseases.A autoimunidade é caracterizada pela destruição tecidual, que acarreta danos funcionais, causados por células autoreativas que escapam dos mecanismos de autotolerância. Doenças autoimunes podem ser iniciadas por infecções virais e o estudo da associação entre essas viroses e a autoimunidade tem possibilitado melhor conhecimento dos mecanismos moleculares envolvidos nas doenças autoimunes. O vírus linfotrópico de células T humano tipo 1 (HTLV-1 é um delta vírus que infecta preferencialmente linfócitos. Partículas semelhantes aos retrovírus foram identificadas em

  11. Human T lymphotropic virus type-1 p30II alters cellular gene expression to selectively enhance signaling pathways that activate T lymphocytes

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    Feuer Gerold

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1 is a deltaretrovirus that causes adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma and is implicated in a variety of lymphocyte-mediated disorders. HTLV-1 contains both regulatory and accessory genes in four pX open reading frames. pX ORF-II encodes two proteins, p13II and p30II, which are incompletely defined in the virus life cycle or HTLV-1 pathogenesis. Proviral clones of the virus with pX ORF-II mutations diminish the ability of the virus to maintain viral loads in vivo. Exogenous expression of p30II differentially modulates CREB and Tax-responsive element-mediated transcription through its interaction with CREB-binding protein/p300 and represses tax/rex RNA nuclear export. Results Herein, we further characterized the role of p30II in regulation of cellular gene expression, using stable p30II expression system employing lentiviral vectors to test cellular gene expression with Affymetrix U133A arrays, representing ~33,000 human genes. Reporter assays in Jurkat T cells and RT-PCR in Jurkat and primary CD4+ T-lymphocytes were used to confirm selected gene expression patterns. Our data reveals alterations of interrelated pathways of cell proliferation, T-cell signaling, apoptosis and cell cycle in p30II expressing Jurkat T cells. In all categories, p30II appeared to be an overall repressor of cellular gene expression, while selectively increasing the expression of certain key regulatory genes. Conclusions We are the first to demonstrate that p30II, while repressing the expression of many genes, selectively activates key gene pathways involved in T-cell signaling/activation. Collectively, our data suggests that this complex retrovirus, associated with lymphoproliferative diseases, relies upon accessory gene products to modify cellular environment to promote clonal expansion of the virus genome and thus maintain proviral loads in vivo.

  12. Prevalence of Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 among blood donors in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil

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    Márcia Poinho EncarnaçÃo de Morais

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2 is endemic in Brazil, but few studies have investigated the seroprevalence of HTLV and its subtypes among blood donors in the capital city Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. Aim: To estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 and to identify circulating subtypes among blood donors in Manaus. Materials and Methods: Blood donors (2001-2003 were screened for HTLV-1/2 antibodies by ELISA. Positive results were confirmed and subtyped by Western blot assays. Prevalence rates were calculated and compared with demographic data. Results: Among the 87,402 individuals screened, 116 (0.13% were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. A second sample (76/116 was collected and retested by HTLV-1/2 ELISA, of which only 41/76 were positive. Western blot confirmed HTLV infection in 24/41 retested blood donors [HTLV-1 (n=16, HTLV-2 (n=5 and HTLV-untypable (n=3]. Discussion: HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are prevalent among blood donors in Manaus. However, additional studies are needed to comprehend the epidemiology of HTLV-1/2 in Amazonas not only to understand the pathophysiology of the disease providing adequate medical assistance, but also to reduce or block virus transmission.

  13. Prevalence of Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 among blood donors in Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Márcia Poinho EncarnaçÃo de; Gato, Cynara Melo; Maciel, Lucinei Alves; Lalwani, Pritesh; Costa, Cristóvão Alves; Lalwani, Jaila Dias Borges

    2017-12-21

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) is endemic in Brazil, but few studies have investigated the seroprevalence of HTLV and its subtypes among blood donors in the capital city Manaus, Amazonas State, Brazil. To estimate the seroprevalence of HTLV-1/2 and to identify circulating subtypes among blood donors in Manaus. Blood donors (2001-2003) were screened for HTLV-1/2 antibodies by ELISA. Positive results were confirmed and subtyped by Western blot assays. Prevalence rates were calculated and compared with demographic data. Among the 87,402 individuals screened, 116 (0.13%) were seropositive for HTLV-1/2. A second sample (76/116) was collected and retested by HTLV-1/2 ELISA, of which only 41/76 were positive. Western blot confirmed HTLV infection in 24/41 retested blood donors [HTLV-1 (n=16), HTLV-2 (n=5) and HTLV-untypable (n=3)]. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are prevalent among blood donors in Manaus. However, additional studies are needed to comprehend the epidemiology of HTLV-1/2 in Amazonas not only to understand the pathophysiology of the disease providing adequate medical assistance, but also to reduce or block virus transmission.

  14. Transmission of lymphadenopathy-associated virus/human T lymphotropic virus type III in sexual partners. Seropositivity does not predict infectivity in all cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burger, H; Weiser, B; Robinson, W S; Lifson, J; Engleman, E; Rouzioux, C; Brun-Vézinet, F; Barré-Sinoussi, F; Montagnier, L; Chermann, J C

    1986-07-01

    To investigate transmission of lymphadenopathy-associated virus (LAV)/human T lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III) in long-term sexual partners, and the relationship between lymphadenopathy-associated virus seropositivity and transmission, nine couples (five heterosexual and four homosexual) at increased risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied. In two heterosexual couples, transmission of lymphadenopathy-associated virus from a seropositive man at increased risk to his monogamous wife occurred. In one couple, the wife of a man with hemophilia had lymphadenopathy-associated virus antibody and decreased T helper cells; in the other couple, the wife of a bisexual intravenous drug-user had AIDS. Neither woman had a recognized AIDS risk except marriage to a seropositive man at increased risk. However, study of the other couples revealed that regular sexual contact with seropositive persons over long periods did not always lead to evidence of lymphadenopathy-associated virus infection. This study suggests that presence of lymphadenopathy-associated virus antibody does not always indicate a high degree of infectivity.

  15. Molecular Determinants of Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Transmission and Spread

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    Patrick L. Green

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotrophic virus type-1 (HTLV-1 infects approximately 15 to 20 million people worldwide, with endemic areas in Japan, the Caribbean, and Africa. The virus is spread through contact with bodily fluids containing infected cells, most often from mother to child through breast milk or via blood transfusion. After prolonged latency periods, approximately 3 to 5% of HTLV-1 infected individuals will develop either adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL, or other lymphocyte-mediated disorders such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. The genome of this complex retrovirus contains typical gag, pol, and env genes, but also unique nonstructural proteins encoded from the pX region. These nonstructural genes encode the Tax and Rex regulatory proteins, as well as novel proteins essential for viral spread in vivo such as, p30, p12, p13 and the antisense encoded HBZ. While progress has been made in the understanding of viral determinants of cell transformation and host immune responses, host and viral determinants of HTLV-1 transmission and spread during the early phases of infection are unclear. Improvements in the molecular tools to test these viral determinants in cellular and animal models have provided new insights into the early events of HTLV-1 infection. This review will focus on studies that test HTLV-1 determinants in context to full length infectious clones of the virus providing insights into the mechanisms of transmission and spread of HTLV-1.

  16. Molecular investigation of the evolutionary history and diversity of primate T-lymphotropic virus types 1 and 3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Dooren, Sonia Jeanne Albertine

    2005-01-01

    The Primate T-lymphotropic viruses (PTLV) comprise a group of complex retroviruses that infect both humans (HTLV) and simians (STLV) and have been associated with leukaemia or lymphoma and with neurological disorders. PTLVs have a peculiar replication strategy: their way of life is mainly determined

  17. Histone acetyltransferase (HAT) activity of p300 modulates human T lymphotropic virus type 1 p30II-mediated repression of LTR transcriptional activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael, Bindhu; Nair, Amrithraj M.; Datta, Antara; Hiraragi, Hajime; Ratner, Lee; Lairmore, Michael D.

    2006-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) is a deltaretrovirus that causes adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma, and is implicated in a variety of lymphocyte-mediated inflammatory disorders. HTLV-1 provirus has regulatory and accessory genes in four pX open reading frames. HTLV-1 pX ORF-II encodes two proteins, p13 II and p30 II , which are incompletely defined in virus replication or pathogenesis. We have demonstrated that pX ORF-II mutations block virus replication in vivo and that ORF-II encoded p30 II , a nuclear-localizing protein that binds with CREB-binding protein (CBP)/p300, represses CREB and Tax responsive element (TRE)-mediated transcription. Herein, we have identified p30 II motifs important for p300 binding and in regulating TRE-mediated transcription in the absence and presence of HTLV-1 provirus. Within amino acids 100-179 of p30 II , a region important for repression of LTR-mediated transcription, we identified a single lysine residue at amino acid 106 (K3) that significantly modulates the ability of p30 II to repress TRE-mediated transcription. Exogenous p300, in a dose-responsive manner, reverses p30 II -dependent repression of TRE-mediated transcription, in the absence or presence of the provirus, In contrast to wild type p300, p300 HAT mutants (defective in histone acetyltransferase activity) only partially rescued p30 II -mediated LTR repression. Deacetylation by histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC-1) enhanced p30 II -mediated LTR repression, while inhibition of deacetylation by trichostatin A decreases p30 II -mediated LTR repression. Collectively, our data indicate that HTLV-1 p30 II modulates viral gene expression in a cooperative manner with p300-mediated acetylation

  18. Human T-Lymphotropic virus (HTLV type I in vivo integration in oral keratinocytes

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    Martha C Domínguez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the infection of HTLV-1 to cell components of the mouth have been previously reported, there was not until this report, a detailed study to show the characteristics of such infection. From 14 Tropical Spastic Paraparesis/ HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy (HAM/TSP patients and 11 asymptomatic carrier individuals (AC coming from HTLV-1 endemic areas of southwest Pacific of Colombia, infected oral mucosa cells were primary cultured during five days. These cell cultures were immunophenotyped by dual color fluorescence cell assortment using different lymphocyte CD markers and also were immunohistochemically processed using a polyclonal anti-keratin antibody. Five days old primary cultures were characterized as oral keratinocytes, whose phenotype was CD3- /CD4-/CD8-/CD19-/CD14-/CD45-/A575-keratin+. From DNA extracted of primary cultures LTR, pol, env and tax HTLV-1 proviral DNA regions were differentially amplified by PCR showing proviral integration. Using poly A+ RNA obtained of these primary cultures, we amplify by RT-PCR cDNA of tax and pol in 57.14% (8/14 HAM/TSP patients and 27.28% (3/11 AC. Tax and pol poly A+ RNA were expressed only in those sIgA positive subjects. Our results showed that proviral integration and viral gene expression in oral keratinocytes are associated with a HTLV-1 specific local mucosal immune response only in those HTLV-1 infected individuals with detectable levels of sIgA in their oral fluids. Altogether the results gave strong evidence that oral mucosa infection would be parte of the systemic spreading of HTLV-1 infection.

  19. ORIGIN AND PREVALENCE OF HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS TYPE 1 (HTLV-1 AND TYPE 2 (HTLV-2 AMONG INDIGENOUS POPULATIONS IN THE AMERICAS

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    Arthur Paiva

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is found in indigenous peoples of the Pacific Islands and the Americas, whereas type 2 (HTLV-2 is widely distributed among the indigenous peoples of the Americas, where it appears to be more prevalent than HTLV-1, and in some tribes of Central Africa. HTLV-2 is considered ancestral in the Americas and is transmitted to the general population and injection drug users from the indigenous population. In the Americas, HTLV-1 has more than one origin, being brought by immigrants in the Paleolithic period through the Bering Strait, through slave trade during the colonial period, and through Japanese immigration from the early 20th century, whereas HTLV-2 was only brought by immigrants through the Bering Strait. The endemicity of HTLV-2 among the indigenous people of Brazil makes the Brazilian Amazon the largest endemic area in the world for its occurrence. A review of HTLV-1 in all Brazilian tribes supports the African origin of HTLV-1 in Brazil. The risk of hyperendemicity in these epidemiologically closed populations and transmission to other populations reinforces the importance of public health interventions for HTLV control, including the recognition of the infection among reportable diseases and events.

  20. Prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type I and type II antibody among blood donors in Eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Hassan, Zahoor; Al-Bahrani, Ahmad T; Panhotra, Bodh R

    2004-10-01

    Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I and type II (HTLV-I/II) infections can be transfusion associated, leading to tropical paraparesis, myelopathy and other neurological disorders. The aim of this study is to circumvent the risk of transmission through blood transfusion and to describe the prevalence of HTLV-I/II antibody among blood donors of Al-Hasa region and the cost effectiveness of screening blood donors. The study was conducted at the Department of Laboratory and Blood Bank, King Fahad Hospital, Al-Hofuf, Al-Hasa, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia during the period of 1997 to 2003. A total of 47426 blood donors were screened for HTLV-I/II antibody by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test, during the 7 years of study period. The positive samples were confirmed by western blot analysis. Overall, HTLV-I antibody positivity (confirmed by western blot) was 3/47426 (0.006%). Out of 3 donors positive for HTLV-I antibody during 1997 to 1998, 2 were expatriates (Indian) and one was native Saudi donor. Human T-cell leukemia/lymphoma virus type I antibody positivity among the native Saudi donors was 1/47426 (0.002%) (2/100000 blood donors). None of the donor were positive for HTLV-II antibody. During the last 5 consecutive years of the study period (1999-2003), none of the donor was positive for HTLV-I/II antibody. Al-Hasa region is non-endemic for HTLV-I/II virus infections. Screening of native Saudi blood donors for these viruses does not appear to be cost effective.

  1. A Novel Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1c Molecular Variant in an Indigenous Individual from New Caledonia, Melanesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassar, Olivier; Charavay, Françoise; Touzain, Frédéric; Jeannin, Patricia; Grangeon, Jean-Paul; Laumond, Sylvie; Chungue, Eliane; Martin, Paul M V; Gessain, Antoine

    2017-01-01

    Human T-Lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is endemic among people of Melanesian descent in Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu, and in Indigenous populations from Central Australia. Molecular studies revealed that these Australo-Melanesian strains constitute the highly divergent HTLV-1c subtype. New Caledonia is a French overseas territory located in the Southwest Pacific Ocean. HTLV-1 situation is poorly documented in New Caledonia and the molecular epidemiology of HTLV-1 infection remains unknown. Studying 500 older adults Melanesian natives from New Caledonia, we aim to evaluate the HTLV-1 seroprevalence and to molecularly characterize HTLV-1 proviral strains. Plasma from 262 men and 238 females (age range: 60-96 years old, mean age: 70.5) were screened for anti-HTLV-1 antibodies by particle agglutination (PA) and indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Serological confirmation was obtained using Western blot assay. DNAs were extracted from peripheral blood buffy coat of HTLV-1 seropositive individuals, and subjected to four series of PCR (LTR-gag; pro-pol; pol-env and tax-LTR). Primers were designed from highly common conserved regions of the major HTLV-1 subtypes to characterize the entire HTLV-1 proviral genome. Among 500 samples, 3 were PA and IFA positive. The overall seroprevalence was 0.6%. The DNA sample from 1 New Caledonian woman (NCP201) was found positive by PCR and the complete HTLV-1 proviral genome (9,033-bp) was obtained. The full-length HTLV-1 genomic sequence from a native woman from Vanuatu (EM5), obtained in the frame of our previous studies, was also characterized. Both sequences belonged to the HTLV-1c Australo-Melanesian subtype. The NCP201 strain exhibited 0.3% nucleotide divergence with the EM5 strain from Vanuatu. Furthermore, divergence reached 1.1% to 2.9% with the Solomon and Australian sequences respectively. Phylogenetic analyses on a 522-bp-long fragment of the gp21-env gene showed the existence of two major clades

  2. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus types I and II infections in a cohort of patients with neurological disorders in Belém, Pará, Brazil Infecção pelos vírus linfotrópicos humanos de células T tipos I e II entre pacientes com doença neurológica em Belém, Pará, Brasil

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    Olinda Macêdo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Serum- and/or- cerebrospinal fluid (CSF samples obtained from 190 patients suffering from chronic, progressive neurological disease were screened for the presence of human T-cell lymphotropic viruses type I (HTLV-I and type II (HTLV-II antibodies over a six-year period (1996 to 2001 in Belém, Pará, Brazil. Patients were of both sexes (male subjects, 52% with ages ranging from 2 to 79 years (mean, 35.9. Overall, 15 (7.9% subjects - of whom 12 (80% were female adults - reacted HTLV-I/II-seropositive when screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Serum samples from 14 of these patients were also analyzed using a recombinant Western blot (WB assay that yielded HTLV-I-, HTLV-II-, and HTLV-I/II- reactivities for 10 (71.4%, 3 (21.4% and 1 (7.2% of them, respectively. The yearly rates of HTLV-I/II antibodies ranged from 2.6% (2001 to 21.7% (2000, with progressively increasing seropositivities from 1998 to 2000. Altogether, walking difficulty (n = 5 subjects, spasticity (n = 4 and leg weakness (n = 3 accounted for 80% of symptoms recorded among the 15 patients whose sera had antibodies to HTLV-I/II as detected by ELISA. These findings provide evidence that both HTLV-I and HTLV-II play a role in the development of chronic myelopathy in Belém, Pará, Northern Brazil.Amostras de soro e/ou líquido céfalo-raquidiano (LCR foram obtidas de 190 pacientes com quadro de doença neurológica crônica e progressiva, com vistas à detecção de anticorpos para os vírus linfotrópicos humanos de células T dos tipos I (HTLV-I e II (HTLV-II, durante um período de seis anos (1996 a 2001 em Belém, Pará, Brasil. O grupo compreendia ambos os sexos (homens, 52%, com idades variando de 2 a 79 anos (média, 35,9 anos. Tomando-se os resultados como um todo, 15 (7,9% indivíduos, incluindo 12 (80% mulheres adultas, apresentaram anticorpos para HTLV-I/II a partir da triagem pelo procedimento imunoenzimático (ELISA. Soros de 14 desses pacientes também foram

  3. Comparison of seropositivity of human T lymphotropic virus type 1 in mycosis fungoides patients and normal volunteers: A case-control study and review of literature

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    Seirafi Hassan

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There have been controversial reports about the possible association between mycosis fungoides (MF, its leukemic variant Sιzary syndrome (SS and human T lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 in different geographical regions. Aims: The purpose of this study was to explore any association between MF and presence of HTLV-1 infection in Iran. Methods: In a case-control setting, 150 clinically and histopathologically proven MF patients had been admitted to the tertiary referral skin center during a 10-year period and another 150 normal volunteers had been compared with each other for the presence of HTLV-1 infection. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used to detect antibodies against HTLV-1, and positive results were confirmed with western blotting. Results: Only three MF patients had HTLV-1 infection, whereas two cases of normal subjects had the infection ( P > 0.05. The only three seropositive MF patients were male and from North-Eastern Iran . Conclusion: This study showed that MF does not correlate with HTLV-1 infection in Iran.

  4. Two Cases of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type I-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis Caused by Living-Donor Renal Transplantation

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    Yasutaka Tajima

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In rare instances, recipients of organ transplants from human T-lymphotropic virus type I- (HTLV-I- positive donors reportedly developed neurologic symptoms due to HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (HAM. We present herein two cases of HAM associated with renal transplantation from HTLV-I seropositive living-donors. The first patient was a 42-year-old woman with chronic renal failure for twelve years and seronegative for HTLV-I. She underwent renal transplantation with her HTLV-I seropositive mother as the donor, and she developed HAM three years after the transplantation. The second patient was a 65-year-old man who had been suffering from diabetic nephropathy. He was seronegative for HTLV-I and underwent renal transplantation one year previously, with his HTLV-I seropositive wife as the donor. He developed HAM eight months after renal transplantation. Both cases showed neurological improvements after the immunomodulating therapies. We tried to shed some light on the understanding of immunological mechanisms of transplantation-associated HAM, focusing on therapeutic strategies based on the immunopathogenesis of the condition.

  5. Coexistence of human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II among the Wayuu Indians from the Guajira Region of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueńas-Barajas, E; Bernal, J E; Vaught, D R; Briceño, I; Durán, C; Yanagihara, R; Gajdusek, D C

    1992-11-01

    High prevalences of human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) infection have been found recently among certain Amerindian groups in North, Central, and South America. To determine if the Amerindians of Colombia are similarly affected, 523 sera, collected between 1987 and 1990 from nine culturally distinct Indian groups from widely separated regions, were tested for IgG antibodies against HTLV-I/II using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and Western blot. In addition, 243 sera from five non-Indian (black) and mixed-Indian (mestizo) populations were studied. Of the 766 individuals tested, 44 were ELISA positive, but of these, only four were Western blot positive. Three of the individuals confirmed positive by Western blot were infected with HTLV-II and one was infected with HTLV-I, as determined by differential ELISA. All four seropositive individuals belonged to a group of 62 Wayuu Indians, giving overall HTLV-I and HTLV-II seroprevalences of 1.6% and 4.8%, respectively. The coexistence of HTLV-I and HTLV-II in this Amerindian group provides an opportunity to study the factors governing transmission of these retroviruses.

  6. Lymphotropic Virions Affect Chemokine Receptor-Mediated Neural Signaling and Apoptosis: Implications for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Associated Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jialin; Ghorpade, Anuja; Niemann, Douglas; Cotter, Robin L.; Thylin, Michael R.; Epstein, Leon; Swartz, Jennifer M.; Shepard, Robin B.; Liu, Xiaojuan; Nukuna, Adeline; Gendelman, Howard E.

    1999-01-01

    Chemokine receptors pivotal for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection in lymphocytes and macrophages (CCR3, CCR5, and CXCR4) are expressed on neural cells (microglia, astrocytes, and/or neurons). It is these cells which are damaged during progressive HIV-1 infection of the central nervous system. We theorize that viral coreceptors could effect neural cell damage during HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) without simultaneously affecting viral replication. To these ends, we studied the ability of diverse viral strains to affect intracellular signaling and apoptosis of neurons, astrocytes, and monocyte-derived macrophages. Inhibition of cyclic AMP, activation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and apoptosis were induced by diverse HIV-1 strains, principally in neurons. Virions from T-cell-tropic (T-tropic) strains (MN, IIIB, and Lai) produced the most significant alterations in signaling of neurons and astrocytes. The HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein, gp120, induced markedly less neural damage than purified virions. Macrophage-tropic (M-tropic) strains (ADA, JR-FL, Bal, MS-CSF, and DJV) produced the least neural damage, while 89.6, a dual-tropic HIV-1 strain, elicited intermediate neural cell damage. All T-tropic strain-mediated neuronal impairments were blocked by the CXCR4 antibody, 12G5. In contrast, the M-tropic strains were only partially blocked by 12G5. CXCR4-mediated neuronal apoptosis was confirmed in pure populations of rat cerebellar granule neurons and was blocked by HA1004, an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, protein kinase A, and protein kinase C. Taken together, these results suggest that progeny HIV-1 virions can influence neuronal signal transduction and apoptosis. This process occurs, in part, through CXCR4 and is independent of CD4 binding. T-tropic viruses that traffic in and out of the brain during progressive HIV-1 disease may play an important role in HAD neuropathogenesis. PMID:10482576

  7. Mother-to-Child Transmission of Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Viruses-1/2: What We Know, and What Are the Gaps in Understanding and Preventing This Route of Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro-Proietti, A. B. F.; Amaranto-Damasio, M. S.; Leal-Horiguchi, C. F.; Bastos, R. H. C.; Seabra-Freitas, G.; Borowiak, D. R.; Ribeiro, M. A.; Proietti, F. A.; Ferreira, A. S. D.; Martins, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    Although human T-cell lymphotropic viruses (HTLV-1/2) were described over 30 years ago, they are relatively unknown to the public and even to healthcare personnel. Although HTLV-1 is associated with severe illnesses, these occur in only approximately 10% of infected individuals, which may explain the lack of public knowledge about them. However, cohort studies are showing that a myriad of other disease manifestations may trouble infected individuals and cause higher expenditures with healthcare. Testing donated blood for HTLV-1/2 started soon after reliable tests were developed, but unfortunately testing is not available for women during prenatal care. Vertical transmission can occur before or after birth of the child. Before birth, it occurs transplacentally or by transfer of virus during cesarean delivery, but these routes of infection are rare. After childbirth, viral transmission occurs during breastfeeding and increases with longer breastfeeding and high maternal proviral load. Unlike the human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2, HTLV is transmitted primarily through breastfeeding and not transplacentally or during delivery. In this study, we review what is currently known about HTLV maternal transmission, its prevention, and the gaps still present in the understanding of this process. PMID:25232474

  8. Seroprevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus-1/2 in blood donors in northern pakistan: implication for blood donor screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niazi, S.K.

    2015-01-01

    To determine the seroprevalence of Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus-1/2 (HTLV-1/2) in blood donors in Northern Pakistan. Study Design: Descriptive study. Place and Duration of Study: Armed Forces Institute of Transfusion, Rawalpindi, from July to August 2013. Methodology:A total of 2100 blood donors were screened for anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies during the study period, in a pool of six, on a highly sensitive, Chemiluminiscent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA) based system. The screening test reactive donors were recalled, counseled and interviewed, and a fresh sample was obtained for confirmatory testing. Confirmation was performed using additional immunoassays including Line Immunoassay (LIA); with additional testing for HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. Frequency and percentages were determined. Results: Four donors (0.19%) were repeatedly screening test-reactive and were subsequently confirmed to be HTLV-1 infected by line immunoassay and HTLV-1 pvDNAPCR. All four donors were male with mean age of 27 ± 6.27 years. Two (50%) of the positive donors gave history of Multiple Sexual Partners (MSP). Conclusion: HTLV-1 seroprevalence in Northern Pakistan blood donors was determined to be 0.19%. Large scale studies, including the cost effectiveness of screening blood donations for anti-HTLV-1/2 in Pakistan, are recommended. (author)

  9. Use of Anti-Idiotypes and Synthetic Peptides for Control of Human T- Lymphotropic Virus Type 3 Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-28

    ABSTRACT SECURITY CLASIFICATION ( C3-IuNcLASSIFIED/UNLIMITED 0] SAME AS RPT 07 DTIC USERS Unclassified 2a NAME OF RESPONSIBLE INDIVIDUAL ’ 22b...following HIV infectious challenge and post-inoculation reactivity to viral 4 proteins was observed for all three primates. Antibodies to gp120, p55, and...had no suppressive effects. These results suggest that, in addition to the selective cytopathic effects of HIV on CD4 bearing T-cells, viral peptide

  10. Zoonotic Transmission of Two New Strains of Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 4 in Hunters Bitten by a Gorilla in Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Léa; Mouinga-Ondémé, Augustin; Betsem, Edouard; Filippone, Claudia; Nerrienet, Eric; Kazanji, Mirdad; Gessain, Antoine

    2016-09-15

    Molecular screening of 300 at-risk people from Central Africa identified 2 human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-4-infected individuals. A zoonotic origin of infection was suggested, as both individuals reported being severely bitten by a gorilla during hunting activities. One strain was highly divergent and was designated as the HTLV-4 subtype-b prototype. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. A comparative study of human T-cell lymphotropic virus-associated myelopathy in HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients in KwaZulu-Natal

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    Hoosain F. Paruk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: KwaZulu-Natal is an endemic area for HIV and human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV infection. The main neurological manifestation of HTLV is HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. The effect of HIV co-infection in patients with HAM/TSP is not well documented. Aims: To determine the prevalence of HIV seropositivity in patients with HAM/TSP and compare the clinical, laboratory and radiological features of patients mono-infected with HTLV and those dually infected with HTLV and HIV. Methods: Adult patients referred to the Neurology Department at Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, for the period 01 January 2004 to 31 December 2015 with a positive HTLV serology were identified from the National Health Laboratory Service database. A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify all patients who had a diagnosis of HAM/TSP and to record their HIV status. Clinical, laboratory and radiological data were compared for HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients. Results: A total of 52 patients with HAM/TSP were identified. HIV results were available in 44 patients of whom 23 (52% patients were HIV co-infected. Patients who were HIV-positive had a younger age of presentation compared to HIV-negative patients (median: 31 vs 50 years, p = 0.002. HIV-positive patients had a median duration of symptoms at presentation of 12 months compared to 16 months for HIV-negative patients, but the difference did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.082. The CD4 cell counts of HIV-positive patients were well preserved with a median count of 781 cells/µL. Conclusions: HIV co-infection is commonly seen in the setting of HAM/TSP in KwaZulu-Natal. An interaction between the viruses may accelerate the development of HAM/TSP, leading to a younger age of presentation. Co-infection may have treatment implications because of CD4 counts being preserved in these patients.

  12. Evidence of Brain Inflammation in Patients with Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type 1-Associated Myelopathy (HAM): A Pilot, Multimodal Imaging Study Using 11C-PBR28 PET, MR T1-Weighted, and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimber, Rahul; Guo, Qi; Bishop, Courtney; Adonis, Adine; Buckley, Aisling; Kocsis, Agnes; Owen, David; Kalk, Nicola; Newbould, Rexford; Gunn, Roger N; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Taylor, Graham P

    2016-12-01

    HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM; HTLV-1 is human T-lymphotropic virus type 1) is a chronic debilitating neuroinflammatory disease with a predilection for the thoracic cord. Tissue damage is attributed to the cellular immune response to HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes. The brains of HTLV-1-infected patients, with and without HAM but no clinical evidence of brain involvement, were examined using a specific 18-kDa translocator protein ligand, 11 C-PBR28, and T1-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI. Five subjects with HAM and 2 HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers were studied. All underwent clinical neurologic assessment including cognitive function and objective measures of gait, quantification of HTLV-1 proviral load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and human leukocyte antigen-antigen D related expression on circulating CD8+ lymphocytes. 11 C-PBR28 PET and MRI were performed on the same day. 11 C-PBR28 PET total volume of distribution and distribution volume ratio (DVR) were estimated using 2-tissue-compartment modeling. MRI data were processed using tools from the FMRIB Software Library to estimate mean diffusivity (MD) and gray matter (GM) fraction changes. The results were compared with data from age-matched healthy volunteers. Across the whole brain, the total volume of distribution for the subjects with HAM (5.44 ± 0.84) was significantly greater than that of asymptomatic carriers (3.44 ± 0.80). The DVR of the thalamus in patients with severe and moderate HAM was higher than that in the healthy volunteers, suggesting increased translocator protein binding (z > 4.72). Subjects with more severe myelopathy and with high DR expression on CD8+ lymphocytes had increased DVR and MD (near-significant correlation found for the right thalamus MD: P = 0.06). On the T1-weighted MRI scans, the GM fraction of the brain stem was reduced in all HTLV-1-infected patients compared with controls (P HAM and correlated with the disease severity. There was no correlation between

  13. Identification of Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-I Subtypes Using Restrited Fragment Length Polymorphism in a Cohort of Asymptomatic Carriers and Patients with HTLV-I-associated Myelopathy/tropical Spastic Paraparesis from São Paulo, Brazil

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    Aluisio AC Segurado

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Although human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I exhibits high genetic stability, as compared to other RNA viruses and particularly to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, genotypic subtypes of this human retrovirus have been characterized in isolates from diverse geographical areas. These are currently believed not to be associated with different pathogenetic outcomes of infection. The present study aimed at characterizing genotypic subtypes of viral isolates from 70 HTLV-I-infected individuals from São Paulo, Brazil, including 42 asymptomatic carriers and 28 patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP, using restricted fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis of long terminal repeat (LTR HTLV-I proviral DNA sequences. Peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysates were amplified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR and amplicons submitted to enzymatic digestion using a panel of endonucleases. Among HTLV-I asymptomatic carriers, viral cosmopolitan subtypes A, B, C and E were identified in 73.8%, 7.1%, 7.1% and 12% of tested samples, respectively, whereas among HAM/TSP patients, cosmopolitan A (89.3%, cosmopolitan C (7.1% and cosmopolitan E (3.6% subtypes were detected. HTLV-I subtypes were not statistically significant associated with patients' clinical status. We also conclude that RFLP analysis is a suitable tool for descriptive studies on the molecular epidemiology of HTLV-I infections in our environment.

  14. Effects of nutrients on matrix metalloproteinases in human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 positive and negative malignant T-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harakeh, Steve; Abou-Khouzam, Raefa; Damanhouri, Ghazi A; Al-Hejin, Ahmed; Kumosani, Taha; Niedzwiecki, Aleksandra; Rath, Mathias; Barbour, Elie; Diab-Assaf, Mona; Azar, Rania

    2014-11-01

    Experimental and clinical studies have revealed the effectiveness of a specific nutrient synergy (SNS) mixture composed of ascorbic acid (AA), lysine, proline, arginine, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and other micronutrients in targeting crucial physiological mechanisms involved in cancer progression and metastasis. HTLV-1 causes adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). The spread and metastases of ATL as well as other tumors has been associated with matrix metalloproteinases, especially the gelatinases MMP-2 and MMP-9. The objective of this study was to investigate whether SNS, AA and EGCG affects the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and its transcriptional and translational levels in HTLV-1-positive and -negative malignant T-cells. The results indicated that SNS and EGCG caused a dose-dependent decline in the activity, transcription and translation of MMP-2 after treatment with SNS and EGCG, while AA was only able to inhibit the activity at maximum doses tested and to some extent, the protein expression levels of MMP-2, without affecting their transcriptional levels. The highest activity was noted in the case of SNS which is likely to be due to a synergistic effect of the different constituents in the formulation. These results point towards the potential integration of SNS in the anti-invasive treatment of ATL and related diseases.

  15. Enteroendocrine cell types revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelstoft, Maja S; Egerod, Kristoffer Lihme; Lund, Mari L

    2013-01-01

    The GI-tract is profoundly involved in the control of metabolism through peptide hormones secreted from enteroendocrine cells scattered throughout the gut mucosa. A large number of recently generated transgenic reporter mice have allowed for direct characterization of biochemical and cell...... biological properties of these previously highly elusive enteroendocrine cells. In particular the surprisingly broad co-expression of six functionally related hormones in the intestinal enteroendocrine cells indicates that it should be possible to control not only the hormone secretion but also the type...... and number of enteroendocrine cells. However, this will require a more deep understanding of the factors controlling differentiation, gene expression and specification of the enteroendocrine cells during their weekly renewal from progenitor cells in the crypts of the mucosa....

  16. Factors associated with pain in individuals infected by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1

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    Dislene N. dos Santos

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The use of self-medication, physiotherapy and the presence of depression are independently associated with neurological symptoms in HTLV-1 infected patients. Religious practice and physical activity are both protective for the development of pain.

  17. Seroprevalence of human T lymphotropic virus antibodies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seroprevalence of human T lymphotropic virus antibodies among healthy blood donors at a tertiary centre in Lagos, Nigeria. ... Introduction: Transmission of human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) occurs from mother to child, by sexual contact and blood transfusion. Presently, in ... The serum separated and stored at -200C.

  18. Types of Stem Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PDF) Download an introduction to stem cells and stem cell research. Stem Cell Glossary Stem cell terms to know. ... stem cells blog from the International Society for Stem Cell Research. Learn About Stem Cells From Lab to You ...

  19. Autoimmunity and molecular mimicry in tropical spastic paraparesis/human T-lymphotropic virus-associated myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. García-Vallejo

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Viruses share antigenic sites with normal host cell components, a phenomenon known as molecular mimicry. It has long been suggested that viral infections might trigger an autoimmune response by several mechanisms including molecular mimicry. More than 600 antiviral monoclonal antibodies generated against 11 different viruses have been reported to react with 3.5% of cells specific for uninfected mouse organs. The main pathological feature of tropical spastic paraparesis/human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM is a chronic inflammation of the spinal cord characterized by perivascular cuffing of mononuclear cells accompanied by parenchymal lymphocytic infiltration. We detected the presence of autoantibodies against a 98- to 100-kDa protein of in vitro cultured human astrocytes and a 33- to 35-kDa protein from normal human brain in the serum of HTLV-I-seropositive individuals. The two cell proteins exhibited molecular mimicry with HTLV-I gag and tax proteins in TSP/HAM patients, respectively. Furthermore, the location of 33- to 35-kDa protein cross-reaction correlated with the anatomical spinal cord areas (in the rat model in which axonal damage has been reported in several cases of TSP/HAM patients. Our experimental evidence strongly suggests that the demyelinating process occurring in TSP/HAM may be mediated by molecular mimicry between domains of some viral proteins and normal cellular targets of the spinal cord sections involved in the neurodegeneration.

  20. Long Terminal Repeat Circular DNA as Markers of Active Viral Replication of Human T Lymphotropic Virus-1 in Vivo

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    James M Fox

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Clonal expansion of human T-lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1 infected cells in vivo is well documented. Unlike human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1, HTLV-1 plasma RNA is sparse. The contribution of the “mitotic” spread of HTLV-1 compared with infectious spread of the virus to HTLV-1 viral burden in established infection is uncertain. Since extrachromosomal long terminal repeat (LTR DNA circles are indicators of viral replication in HIV-1 carriers with undetectable plasma HIV RNA, we hypothesised that HTLV-1 LTR circles could indicate reverse transcriptase (RT usage and infectious activity. 1LTR and 2LTR DNA circles were measured in HTLV-1 cell lines and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of asymptomatic carriers (ACs and patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP or adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma (ATLL. 1LTR DNA circles were detected in 14/20 patients at a mean of 1.38/100 PBMC but did not differentiate disease status nor correlate with HTLV-1 DNA copies. 2LTR DNA circles were detected in 30/31 patients and at higher concentrations in patients with HTLV-1-associated diseases, independent of HTLV-1 DNA load. In an incident case the 2LTR DNA circle concentration increased 2.1 fold at the onset of HAM/TSP compared to baseline. Detectable and fluctuating levels of HTLV-1 DNA circles in patients indicate viral RT usage and virus replication. Our results indicate HTLV-1 viral replication capacity is maintained in chronic infection and may be associated with disease onset.

  1. Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus types I and II (HTLV-I/II in French Guiana: clinical and molecular epidemiology

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    Kazanji Mirdad

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We review here the epidemiological studies performed by our group on human retrovirus HTLV-I and HTLV-II infections and the associated diseases in French Guiana since 1984. French Guiana is an overseas French administrative district located between Brazil and Surinam. Its population is characterized by a large variety of ethnic groups, including several populations of African origin and various populations of Amerindian origin. Several epidemiological studies of large samples of pregnant women and in remote villages showed that HTLV-I is highly endemic in this area but is restricted to groups of African origin, especially the Noir-Marrons. In this endemic population, the results of segregation analysis in a genetic epidemiological study were consistent with the presence of a dominant major gene predisposing to HTLV-I infection, especially in children. In contrast, HTLV-II infection appears to be rare in French Guiana, having been found in only a few individuals of Brazilian origin. From a molecular point of view, the HTLV-I strains present in the Noir-Marrons, Creoles and Amerindians appear to originate from Africa, as they belong to the large cosmopolitan molecular subtype A.

  2. Expression of the small T antigen of Lymphotropic Papovavirus is sufficient to transform primary mouse embryo fibroblasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Tushar; Robles, Maria Teresa Sáenz [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States); Schowalter, Rachel M.; Buck, Christopher B. [Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD 20892-4263 (United States); Pipas, James M., E-mail: pipas@pitt.edu [Department of Biological Sciences, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    Polyomaviruses induce cell proliferation and transformation through different oncoproteins encoded within the early region (ER): large T antigen (LT), small T antigen (sT) and, in some cases, additional components. Each virus utilizes different mechanisms to achieve transformation. For instance, the LTs of Simian virus 40 (SV40), BK and/or JC virus can induce transformation; but Merkel Cell Polyomavirus (MCPyV) requires expression of sT. Lymphotropic Papovavirus (LPV) is closely related to Human Polyomavirus 9 (HuPyV9) and, under similar conditions, mice expressing LPV.ER exhibit higher rates of tumor formation than mice expressing SV40.ER. We have investigated the contributions of individual LPV.ER components to cell transformation. In contrast to SV40, LPV.ER transforms mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs), but expression of LPV LT is insufficient to transform MEFs. Furthermore, LPV sT induces immortalization and transformation of MEFs. Thus, in the case of LPV, sT is the main mediator of oncogenesis. - Highlights: • Characterization of early region products from the Lymphotropic Polyomavirus (LPV). • On its own, sT immortalizes and transforms mouse primary cells, and is able to block p53 activation. • Combined LT and sT expression induces a greater rate of proliferation than either LT or sT alone.

  3. Dendritic cell maturation, but not type I interferon exposure, restricts infection by HTLV-1, and viral transmission to T-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gergès Rizkallah

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Human T lymphotropic Virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is the etiological agent of Adult T cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATLL and HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Both CD4+ T-cells and dendritic cells (DCs infected with HTLV-1 are found in peripheral blood from HTLV-1 carriers. We previously demonstrated that monocyte-derived IL-4 DCs are more susceptible to HTLV-1 infection than autologous primary T-cells, suggesting that DC infection precedes T-cell infection. However, during blood transmission, breast-feeding or sexual transmission, HTLV-1 may encounter different DC subsets present in the blood, the intestinal or genital mucosa respectively. These different contacts may impact HTLV-1 ability to infect DCs and its subsequent transfer to T-cells. Using in vitro monocyte-derived IL-4 DCs, TGF-β DCs and IFN-α DCs that mimic DCs contacting HTLV-1 in vivo, we show here that despite their increased ability to capture HTLV-1 virions, IFN-α DCs restrict HTLV-1 productive infection. Surprisingly, we then demonstrate that it is not due to the antiviral activity of type-I interferon produced by IFN-α DCs, but that it is likely to be linked to a distinct trafficking route of HTLV-1 in IL-4 DCs vs. IFN-α DCs. Finally, we demonstrate that, in contrast to IL-4 DCs, IFN-α DCs are impaired in their capacity to transfer HTLV-1 to CD4 T-cells, both after viral capture and trans-infection and after their productive infection. In conclusion, the nature of the DCs encountered by HTLV-1 upon primo-infection and the viral trafficking route through the vesicular pathway of these cells determine the efficiency of viral transmission to T-cells, which may condition the fate of infection.

  4. Counseling blood donors seropositive for human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II in a developing country Aconselhando o doador de sangue soropositivo para o Vírus Linfotrópico Humano tipo I/II em um país em desenvolvimento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria M. A. Passos

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotropic virus types I and II (HTLV-I/II are blood-transmitted retroviruses associated with leukemia, myelopathy, and uveitis. From 51,135 eligible blood donors at the Fundação Hemominas tested in 1993, 689 (1.35% were repeatedly reactive to HTLV-I/II antibodies by enzyme immunoassay and were notified accordingly. Routes of transmission and preventive measures were emphasized in the orientation. Supplementary laboratory tests should be available and free of cost. Health services should recommend the use of latex condoms and make them available. Avoiding shared use of needles or syringes is important for both the seropositive donor and public health in general. In a country with such widespread malnutrition, the benefits of breast-feeding usually outweigh the risks of virus transmission. Based on our experience, we recommend that: 1 identical orientation be given to donors by all health professionals involved in counseling; 2 level of schooling be considered and information provided accordingly; 3 donors be assisted in understanding and assessing available information; 4 psychological assistance be provided to anxious or depressed donors; and 5 joint counseling be offered to donors with stable partners.Os vírus linfotrópico humano tipos I e II (HTLV-I/II são retrovírus transmitidos por componentes celulares sanguíneos e associados à ocorrência de leucemia, mielopatia e uveíte. De 51.135 doadores de sangue da Fundação Hemominas testados em 1993, 689 (1,35% foram repetidamente reativos a anticorpos contra HTLV-I/II no ensaio imunoenzimático e foram devidamente notificados. As vias de transmissão e medidas de controle foram enfatizadas na orientação. Testes laboratoriais suplementares devem ser disponíveis e gratuitos. O uso de preservativos deve ser recomendado e os mesmos serem disponíveis nos serviços de saúde. O doador soropositivo e os serviços de saúde não devem reutilizar agulhas e seringas. Sendo a desnutri

  5. HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 (HTLV-1 AND HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2 (HTLV-2: GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH TRENDS AND COLLABORATION NETWORKS (1989-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio GONZÁLEZ-ALCAIDE

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Publications are often used as a measure of research work success. Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV type 1 and 2 are human retroviruses, which were discovered in the early 1980s, and it is estimated that 15-20 million people are infected worldwide. This article describes a bibliometric review and a coauthorship network analysis of literature on HTLV indexed in PubMed in a 24-year period. A total of 7,564 documents were retrieved, showing a decrease in the number of documents from 1996 to 2007. HTLV manuscripts were published in 1,074 journals. Japan and USA were the countries with the highest contribution in this field (61% followed by France (8%. Production ranking changed when the number of publications was normalized by population (Dominican Republic and Japan, by gross domestic product (Guinea-Bissau and Gambia, and by gross national income per capita (Brazil and Japan. The present study has shed light on some of the defining features of scientific collaboration performed by HTLV research community, such as the existence of core researchers responsible for articulating the development of research in the area, facilitating wider collaborative relationships and the integration of new authors in the research groups.

  6. HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 1 (HTLV-1) AND HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS 2 (HTLV-2): GEOGRAPHICAL RESEARCH TRENDS AND COLLABORATION NETWORKS (1989-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alcaide, Gregorio; Ramos, José Manuel; Huamaní, Charles; Mendoza, Carmen de; Soriano, Vicent

    2016-01-01

    Publications are often used as a measure of research work success. Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) type 1 and 2 are human retroviruses, which were discovered in the early 1980s, and it is estimated that 15-20 million people are infected worldwide. This article describes a bibliometric review and a coauthorship network analysis of literature on HTLV indexed in PubMed in a 24-year period. A total of 7,564 documents were retrieved, showing a decrease in the number of documents from 1996 to 2007. HTLV manuscripts were published in 1,074 journals. Japan and USA were the countries with the highest contribution in this field (61%) followed by France (8%). Production ranking changed when the number of publications was normalized by population (Dominican Republic and Japan), by gross domestic product (Guinea-Bissau and Gambia), and by gross national income per capita (Brazil and Japan). The present study has shed light on some of the defining features of scientific collaboration performed by HTLV research community, such as the existence of core researchers responsible for articulating the development of research in the area, facilitating wider collaborative relationships and the integration of new authors in the research groups.

  7. Human T-lymphotropic virus-1/2 detected in drug abused men who have sex with men in Surakarta Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, Afiono Agung; Sari, Yulia

    2017-02-01

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2) are retroviruses that probably among the most neglected blood-borne pathogens. The molecular epidemiology data of HTLV-1/2 in Indonesia is very rare. This study evaluated the prevalence of HTLV-1 and 2 in men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta Indonesia, to track the presentation of HTLV-1/2 in Indonesia. All blood samples collected from men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta in 2009-2013 were tested using enzyme linked immunosorbent assays and confirmed by RT-PCR nested addressed the part of HTLV-1 LTR and HTLV-2 LTR region, respectively. The specificity of the molecular assays was confirmed by sequencing the amplicons. The anti HTLV-1/2 positive rate was 4.8% (6/126). All positive serological samples were confirmed by nested RT-PCR. Of these, two was HTLV-1 positive and four was HTLV-2 positive. Molecular analysis of positive PCR products revealed that all HTLV-1 isolate had close relationship with HTLV-1 isolated in Japan while all HTLV-2 isolate with that of isolated in USA. HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were detected in men who have sex with men with drug abused history in Surakarta indicated that these viruses were circulated in Indonesia, especially in the high risk communities

  8. Genomic and molecular control of cell type and cell type conversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Fu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Organisms are made of a limited number of cell types that combine to form higher order tissues and organs. Cell types have traditionally been defined by their morphologies or biological activity, yet the underlying molecular controls of cell type remain unclear. The onset of single cell technologies, and more recently genomics (particularly single cell genomics, has substantially increased the understanding of the concept of cell type, but has also increased the complexity of this understanding. These new technologies have added a new genome wide molecular dimension to the description of cell type, with genome-wide expression and epigenetic data acting as a cell type ‘fingerprint’ to describe the cell state. Using these genomic fingerprints cell types are being increasingly defined based on specific genomic and molecular criteria, without necessarily a distinct biological function. In this review, we will discuss the molecular definitions of cell types and cell type control, and particularly how endogenous and exogenous transcription factors can control cell types and cell type conversions. Keywords: Cell type, Transcription factor, Epigenome, Transdifferentiation

  9. Cell-Type-Specific Optogenetics in Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namboodiri, Vijay Mohan K; Stuber, Garret D

    2016-09-08

    The recent advent of technologies enabling cell-type-specific recording and manipulation of neuronal activity spurred tremendous progress in neuroscience. However, they have been largely limited to mice, which lack the richness in behavior of primates. Stauffer et al. now present a generalizable method for achieving cell-type specificity in monkeys. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. [Methuosis: a novel type of cell death].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Hongbing; Liu, Jinkun; Fan, Qin; Li, Xin

    2013-12-01

    Cell death is a major physiological or pathological phenomenon in life activities. The classic forms of cell death include apoptosis, necrosis, and autophagy. Recently, a novel type of cell death has been observed and termed as methuosis, in which excessive stimuli can induce cytoplasmic uptake and accumulation of small bubbles that gradually merge into giant vacuoles, eventually leading to decreased cellular metabolic activity, cell membrane rupture and cell death. In this article, we describe the nomenclature, morphological characteristics and underlying mechanisms of methuosis, compare methuosis with autophagy, oncosis and paraptosis, and review the related researches.

  11. Fuel cells: principles, types, fuels, and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrette, L; Friedrich, K A; Stimming, U

    2000-12-15

    During the last decade, fuel cells have received enormous attention from research institutions and companies as novel electrical energy conversion systems. In the near future, they will see application in automotive propulsion, distributed power generation, and in low power portable devices (battery replacement). This review gives an introduction into the fundamentals and applications of fuel cells: Firstly, the environmental and social factors promoting fuel cell development are discussed, with an emphasis on the advantages of fuel cells compared to the conventional techniques. Then, the main reactions, which are responsible for the conversion of chemical into electrical energy in fuel cells, are given and the thermodynamic and kinetic fundamentals are stated. The theoretical and real efficiencies of fuel cells are also compared to that of internal combustion engines. Next, the different types of fuel cells and their main components are explained and the related material issues are presented. A section is devoted to fuel generation and storage, which is of paramount importance for the practical aspects of fuel cell use. Finally, attention is given to the integration of the fuel cells into complete systems. © 2000 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Fed. Rep. of Germany.

  12. Soroprevalência e perfil imunofenotípico de células linfóides T em indivíduos soropositivos para o vírus linfotrópico de células T humanas Seroprevalence and immunophenotypic profile of T lymphocyte cells in human T lymphotropic virus seropositive individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geane F. de Sóuza

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available O vírus linfotrópico de células T humana (HTLV é transmitido por transfusões, uso compartilhado de agulhas contaminadas, aleitamento e contato sexual. A prevalência varia de acordo com a região geográfica, grupo racial e população estudada. Cerca de 1% a 4% dos indivíduos infectados desenvolvem algum tipo de doença em decorrência da infecção. É reconhecida a associação entre o HTLV-I e leucemia de células T do adulto e paraparesia espástica tropical (PET. Embora a maioria dos portadores permaneça assintomática, existem evidências de comprometimento funcional da resposta imune celular. Os objetivos desse trabalho foram avaliar a prevalência de soropositividade para HTLV-I/II na população de doadores de sangue do HEMOCE e analisar o perfil imunofenotípico de células linfóides circulantes em 26 doadores soronegativos, 11 soropositivos para HTLV-I sintomáticos e 24 assintomáticos, comparando-os entre si. A prevalência da soropositividade para HTLV-I/II foi de 0,66%. No grupo de indivíduos contaminados pelo HTLV-I houve predomínio do sexo feminino e a maior média de idade. O grupo soropositivo apresentou menor valor de hemoglobina e o grupo sintomático evidenciou contagem de neutrófilos significativamente mais elevada. A contagem média de linfócitos não diferiu entre os grupos. A análise imunofenotípica mostrou que os valores médios de células CD3+, CD4+, CD8+ e relação CD4/CD8 não diferiram significativamente entre os grupos. Uma elevação de células CD8+ no grupo soropositivo foi observada embora não alcançasse significância estatística. A ativação de linfócitos CD8+ está envolvida na patogênese das doenças associadas ao HTLV-I. A definição do valor preditivo desse achado requer confirmação posterior.Human T lymphotropic virus (HTLV can be transmitted by transfusions of cellular blood products, shared use of contaminated syringes, breast feeding and sexual intercourse. The prevalence of

  13. [Parotid basal cell adenoma of membranous type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah-Klibi, Faten; Ferchiou, Malek; Kourda, Jihène; El Amine, Olfa; Ferjaoui, Mohamed; Ben Jilani, Sarrah; Zermani, Rachida

    2009-02-01

    Basal cell adenoma (BCA) is a rare benign neoplasm characterized by the basaloid appearance of the tumour cells and the lack of myxo-chondroid stromal component present in pleomorphic adenoma. We report a case of basal cell adenoma of membranous type, highly suspected of malignancy because of the presence of mediastinal lymph nodes and pulmonary nodules which finally were related to an associated sarcoidosis. Our patient was an 80-year-old woman who presented a swelling of the right parotid two years ago. The clinical examination revealed a solid, indolent and mobile mass. A chest radiography noted mediastinal lymph nodes. The CT-scan confirmed the presence of mediastinal and tracheal lymph nodes with pulmonary nodules. So the diagnosis of metastatic malignant salivary gland tumor was suspected. Finally, the histological examination concluded to a basal cell adenoma of membranous type with sarcoidosis granulomas in the parotid and in the lymph nodes. The BCA is a benign tumor located generally in the parotid gland. When the malignancy is suspected, like in our case, this tumor must be differentiated from the basal cell adenocarcinoma using histological criteria.

  14. Dental pulp stem cell-derived chondrogenic cells demonstrate differential cell motility in type I and type II collagen hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Li; Flynn, Nikol

    2018-02-13

    Advances in the development of biomaterials and stem cell therapy provide a promising approach to regenerating degenerated discs. The normal nucleus pulposus (NP) cells exhibit the similar phenotype as chondrocytes. Because dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) can be differentiated into chondrogenic cells, the DPSCs and DPSCs-derived chondrogenic cells encapsulated in type I and type II collagen hydrogels can potentially be transplanted into degenerated nucleus pulposus (NP) to repair damaged tissue. The motility of transplanted cells is critical because the cells need to migrate away from the hydrogels containing the cells of high density and disperse into the NP tissue after implantation. The purpose of this study was to determine the motility of DPSC and DPSC-derived chondrogenic cells in type I and type II collagen hydrogels. The time lapse imaging that recorded cell migration was analyzed to quantify the cell migration velocity and distance. The cell viability of DPSCs in native or 4S-StarPEG - crosslinked type I and type II collagen hydrogels was determined using LIVE/DEAD ® cell viability assay and AlamarBlue® assay. DPSCs were differentiated into chondrogenic cells. The migration of DPSCs and DPSC-derived chondrogenic cells in these hydrogels was recorded using a time lapse imaging system. This study was funded by Regional Institute on Aging and Wichita Medical Research and Education Foundation and the authors declare no competing interest. DPSCs showed high cell viability in non-crosslinked and crosslinked collagen hydrogels. DPSCs migrated in collagen hydrogels, and the cell migration speed was not significantly different in either type I collagen or type II collagen hydrogels. The migration speed of DPSC-derived chondrogenic cells was higher in type I collagen hydrogel than in type II collagen hydrogel. Crosslinking of type I collagen with 4S-StarPEG significantly reduced the cell migration speed of DPSC-derived chondrogenic cells. After implantation of

  15. Single cell transcriptional analysis reveals novel innate immune cell types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda E. Kippner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Single-cell analysis has the potential to provide us with a host of new knowledge about biological systems, but it comes with the challenge of correctly interpreting the biological information. While emerging techniques have made it possible to measure inter-cellular variability at the transcriptome level, no consensus yet exists on the most appropriate method of data analysis of such single cell data. Methods for analysis of transcriptional data at the population level are well established but are not well suited to single cell analysis due to their dependence on population averages. In order to address this question, we have systematically tested combinations of methods for primary data analysis on single cell transcription data generated from two types of primary immune cells, neutrophils and T lymphocytes. Cells were obtained from healthy individuals, and single cell transcript expression data was obtained by a combination of single cell sorting and nanoscale quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR for markers of cell type, intracellular signaling, and immune functionality. Gene expression analysis was focused on hierarchical clustering to determine the existence of cellular subgroups within the populations. Nine combinations of criteria for data exclusion and normalization were tested and evaluated. Bimodality in gene expression indicated the presence of cellular subgroups which were also revealed by data clustering. We observed evidence for two clearly defined cellular subtypes in the neutrophil populations and at least two in the T lymphocyte populations. When normalizing the data by different methods, we observed varying outcomes with corresponding interpretations of the biological characteristics of the cell populations. Normalization of the data by linear standardization taking into account technical effects such as plate effects, resulted in interpretations that most closely matched biological expectations. Single cell transcription

  16. N-type solar cells: advantages, issues, and current scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Bandana; Solanki, Chetan S.

    2017-07-01

    Crystalline silicon, including p-type czochralski (CZ) mono-crystalline and multi-crystalline (mc) silicon, has been the workhorse for solar cell production for decades. In recent years, there has been many developments in n-type c-Si solar cells basically due to the advantages of n-type c-Si wafers over p-type wafers. However, there are some limitations in making n-type solar cells considering the technologies involved to fabricate p-type cells. In this paper, different advantages of n-types wafers, their limitations in solar cell production, and an analysis of total market coverage are discussed.

  17. Types and distribution of mucous cells of the abalone Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The types and distribution of mucous cells of Haliotis diversicolorwere observed and analyzed using the alcian blue and periodic acid schiffs (AB-PAS) reaction and histological procedures. According to the color of the mucous cells, they were divided into four types: Type I, pure red; type II, pure blue; type III, purple reddish; ...

  18. Plant single-cell and single-cell-type metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Biswapriya B; Assmann, Sarah M; Chen, Sixue

    2014-10-01

    In conjunction with genomics, transcriptomics, and proteomics, plant metabolomics is providing large data sets that are paving the way towards a comprehensive and holistic understanding of plant growth, development, defense, and productivity. However, dilution effects from organ- and tissue-based sampling of metabolomes have limited our understanding of the intricate regulation of metabolic pathways and networks at the cellular level. Recent advances in metabolomics methodologies, along with the post-genomic expansion of bioinformatics knowledge and functional genomics tools, have allowed the gathering of enriched information on individual cells and single cell types. Here we review progress, current status, opportunities, and challenges presented by single cell-based metabolomics research in plants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. High prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus infection in indigenous women from the peruvian Amazon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly M Blas

    Full Text Available In an earlier study, we detected an association between human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV infection and cervical human papillomavirus (HPV in indigenous Amazonian Peruvian women of the Shipibo-Konibo ethnic group. As both HTLV and HPV can be transmitted sexually, we now report a population-based study examining the prevalence and risk factors for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection in this population.Between July and December 2010, we conducted a comprehensive screening for HTLV among Shipibo-Konibo women 15 to 39 years of age living in two communities located in Lima and in 17 communities located within four hours by car or boat from the Amazonian city of Pucallpa in Peru.We screened 1,253 Shipibo-Konibo women for HTLV infection 74 (5.9% tested positive for HTLV-1, 47 (3.8% for HTLV-2 infection, and 4 (0.3% had indeterminate results. In the multivariate analysis, factors associated with HTLV-1 infection included: older age (Prevalence Ratio (PR: 1.04, 95% CI 1.00-1.08, primary education or less (PR: 2.01, 95% CI: 1.25-3.24, younger or same age most recent sex partner (PR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.00-2.74, and having a most recent sex partner who worked at a logging camp (PR: 1.73, 95% CI: 1.09-2.75. The only factor associated with HTLV-2 infection was older age (PR: 1.08, 95% CI: 1.03-1.12.HTLV infection is endemic among Shipibo-Konibo women. Two characteristics of the sexual partner (younger age and labor history were associated with infection in women. These results suggest the need for implementation of both HTLV screening during the antenatal healthcare visits of Shipibo-Konibo women, and counseling about the risk of HTLV transmission through prolonged breastfeeding in infected women. We also recommend the implementation of prevention programs to reduce sexual transmission of these viruses.

  20. The preventive role of type 2 NKT cells in the development of type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Jakob Ørskov; Buschard, Karsten; Brogren, Carl-Henrik

    2014-03-01

    In the last two decades, natural killer T (NKT) cells have emerged as an important factor in preventing type 1 diabetes (T1D) when investigated in the experimental non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. So far, investigations have largely focused on type 1 NKT cells with invariant T-cell receptors, whereas the role of type 2 NKT cells with diverse T-cell receptors is less well understood. However, there have been several findings which indicate that in fact type 2 NKT cells may regulate the progression of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice, including a fraction of these cells which recognize β-cell-enriched sulfatide. Therefore, the focus for this review is to present the current evidence of the effect of type 2 NKT cells on the development of T1D. In general, there is still uncertainty surrounding the mechanism of activation and function of NKT cells. Here, we present two models of the effector mechanisms, respectively, Th1/Th2 polarization and the induction of tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC). In conclusion, this review points to the importance of immunoregulation by type 2 NKT cells in preventing the development of T1D and highlights the induction of tolerogenic DC as a likely mechanism. The possible therapeutic role of type 1 and type 2 NKT cells are evaluated and future experiments concerning type 2 NKT cells and T1D are proposed. © 2013 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Viral Causes of Lymphoma: The History of Epstein-Barr Virus and Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    In 1964, Epstein, Barr, and Achong published a report outlining their discovery of viral particles in lymphoblasts isolated from a patient with Burkitt lymphoma. The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was the first human cancer virus to be described, and its discovery paved the way for further investigations into the oncogenic potential of viruses. In the decades following the discovery of EBV, multinational research efforts led to the discovery of further viral causes of various human cancers. Lymphomas are perhaps the cancer type that is most closely associated with oncogenic viruses: infection with EBV, human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus/human herpesvirus 8, and hepatitis C virus have all been associated with lymphomagenesis. Lymphomas have also played an important role in the history of oncoviruses, as both the first human oncovirus (EBV) and the first human retrovirus (HTLV-1) were discovered through isolates taken from patients with unique lymphoma syndromes. The history of the discovery of these 2 key oncoviruses is presented here, and their impact on further medical research, using the specific example of HIV research, is briefly discussed.

  2. A Web-Server of Cell Type Discrimination System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anyou Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Discriminating cell types is a daily request for stem cell biologists. However, there is not a user-friendly system available to date for public users to discriminate the common cell types, embryonic stem cells (ESCs, induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs, and somatic cells (SCs. Here, we develop WCTDS, a web-server of cell type discrimination system, to discriminate the three cell types and their subtypes like fetal versus adult SCs. WCTDS is developed as a top layer application of our recent publication regarding cell type discriminations, which employs DNA-methylation as biomarkers and machine learning models to discriminate cell types. Implemented by Django, Python, R, and Linux shell programming, run under Linux-Apache web server, and communicated through MySQL, WCTDS provides a friendly framework to efficiently receive the user input and to run mathematical models for analyzing data and then to present results to users. This framework is flexible and easy to be expended for other applications. Therefore, WCTDS works as a user-friendly framework to discriminate cell types and subtypes and it can also be expended to detect other cell types like cancer cells.

  3. A web-server of cell type discrimination system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anyou; Zhong, Yan; Wang, Yanhua; He, Qianchuan

    2014-01-01

    Discriminating cell types is a daily request for stem cell biologists. However, there is not a user-friendly system available to date for public users to discriminate the common cell types, embryonic stem cells (ESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), and somatic cells (SCs). Here, we develop WCTDS, a web-server of cell type discrimination system, to discriminate the three cell types and their subtypes like fetal versus adult SCs. WCTDS is developed as a top layer application of our recent publication regarding cell type discriminations, which employs DNA-methylation as biomarkers and machine learning models to discriminate cell types. Implemented by Django, Python, R, and Linux shell programming, run under Linux-Apache web server, and communicated through MySQL, WCTDS provides a friendly framework to efficiently receive the user input and to run mathematical models for analyzing data and then to present results to users. This framework is flexible and easy to be expended for other applications. Therefore, WCTDS works as a user-friendly framework to discriminate cell types and subtypes and it can also be expended to detect other cell types like cancer cells.

  4. Evaluation of MR lymphography with positive lymphotropic contrast agent in diagnosing lymph node lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhengyang; Yu Haiping; Chen Junkun; Zhu Bin

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the interstital MR lymphography using positive lymphotropic contrast agent for differentiation of metastatic lymph nodes from inflammatory lymph nodes hyperplasm. Methods: Eighteen New Zealand white rabbits weighted at 2. 0-2. 5 kg were used. Inflammatory hyperplastic popliteal lymph node model was established in 9 rabbits by injection of complete freund adjuvant into the interdigitial skin of the dorsal aspect of one hind leg, and tumor-bearing popliteal lymph node model was established in another 9 rabbits by injection of VX2 tumor cell suspension. The popliteal lymph nodes of another hind leg of all 18 rabbits were assigned to the normal contral group. In each group, every rabbit underwent MR lymphography examination before and after the inoculation. Volumes of 0.2 ml of Gd [ DTPA-bis ( 2-aminoethoxy ) ethane ] polymeric contrast agent ( Gd-poly-DTPA-EOEA ) injection were injected subcutaneously into the dorsal feet of both hind legs of two groups of rabbits. T 1 -weighted 3D gradient-echo images were obtained, and source images were used to reconstruct images of MIP before and after the administration of agent. The maximum short-axis diameter (MSAD) of each popliteal lymph node was measured on the enhanced 3D MIP images, and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) measurement was performed in the largest popliteal node of each rabbit at each time point in delayed scan. Independent- samples t test was used to compare the sizes of popliteal nodes in MSADs between inflammatorily hyperplastic and tumor-bearing nodes after the inoculation, and the values of SNRs of popliteal nodes at each time point between inflammatorily hyperplastic, tumor-bearing and normal popliteal lymph nodes. Imaging results of the popliteal nodes were analyzed and correlated with pathological findings. Results: All of the rabbits were successfully inoculated except of the 2 rabbits in tumor-bearing nodal group. The size in MSAD of 13 inflammatorily hyperplastic and 11 tumor

  5. Stem cell transplantation for type 1 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltarelli Júlio C

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of stem cells to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus has been proposed for many years, both to downregulate the immune system and to provide β cell regeneration. Conclusion High dose immunosuppression followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is able to induce complete remission (insulin independence in most patients with early onset type 1 diabetes mellitus.

  6. Repopulation of denuded tracheal grafts with alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, N.F.

    1988-01-01

    Repopulation of denuded heterotopic tracheal grafts with populations of specific epithelial cell types is one approach to study the differentiation potential of various cell types. This technique has been adopted to delineate the differentiation pathways of alveolar type II cells isolated from rat lungs. Under the conditions of this experiment, the reestablished epithelial lining was alveolar-like, however, ultrastructural analysis of the cells showed them to be like Clara cells. These preliminary results suggest that the secretary cells of the lung parenchyma and terminal airways may share a common ancestry. (author)

  7. Mielopatia associada ao vírus linfotrópico humanode células T do tipo 1 (HTLV-1 Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1(HTLV-1 - associated myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Gabriel Ramos Ribas

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available A mielopatia associada ao HTLV-1 (HAM, também conhecida como paraparesia espástica tropical (TSP, é uma doença desmielinizante crônica progressiva que afeta a medula espinal e a substância branca do cérebro. Menos de 5% dos portadores crônicos do HTLV-1 desenvolverão essa complicação. As primeiras manifestações da doença ocorrem na quarta década da vida e observa-se relação mulher/homem de 2:1. Os distúrbios da marcha, a fraqueza e o enrijecimento dos membros inferiores constituem os principais sinais e sintomas de apresentação da mielopatia. As extremidades inferiores são afetadas com maior intensidade do que as extremidades superiores. A espasticidade pode variar de moderada a intensa e a dor lombar baixa revela-se comum. Com a progressão da doença há, com freqüência, disfunção vesical e intestinal. O envolvimento sensitivo mostra-se discreto e manifesta-se com graus variados de perdas sensitivas e sensação de disestesia. A ressonância nuclear magnética do sistema nervoso pode resultar normal ou revelar atrofia da medula espinal e alterações inespecíficas no cérebro. Há evidências de envolvimento imunológico na gênese da lesão medular. Não há tratamento eficaz para a mielopatia. Os corticoesteróides e o interferon-a produziram benefícios transitórios no tratamento da doença. Não houve melhora da marcha e da disfunção vesical em pacientes que usaram o danazol, um esteróide anabolizante. O valor da zidovudina (anti-retroviral no tratamento da mielopatia ainda não se encontra definido.HTLV-1-associated myelopathy (HAM, also known as tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP, is a chronic progressive demyelinating disease that affects the spinal cord and white matter of the central nervous system. The lifetime incidence of HAM in HTLV-1 carriers is estimated to be less than 5%. Typical time of onset is in the fourth decade of life, with a female-to-male rate of 2:1. Gait disturbance and weakness and stiffness of the lower limbs are common presenting signs and symptoms of HAM. Lower extremities are affected to a much greater degree than upper extremities. Spasticity may be moderate to severe, and lower back pain is common. As the disease progresses, bladder and bowel dysfunction can occur. Sensory involvement is generally mild and can result in a variable degree of sensory loss and dysesthesia. Results of magnetic resonance imaging may be normal, or the scans show atrophy of the spinal cord and nonspecific lesions in the brain. Immunologic evidence suggests that an immune mechanism may play a role in the development of HAM. There is no effective treatment for the myelopathy. Corticosteroids, and INF-gamma may produce transient responses. Danazol, an anabolic steroid, does not improve gait and bladder function. The value of zidovudine (anti-retroviral agent in the treatment has not been defined yet.

  8. Geographic distribution of human T-lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 among mothers of newborns tested during neonatal screening, Minas Gerais, Brazil Distribución geográfica del virus linfotrópico de células T humanas tipos 1 y 2 en madres de recién nacidos estudiados en el tamizaje neonatal en Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maísa Aparecida Ribeiro

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the geographic distribution of human T-lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2 (HTLV-1/2 in the State of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in puerperal women whose newborns were tested for HTLV-1/2 during neonatal screening, and to overlap seropositivity with social and economic status determinants. METHODS: During September-November 2007, the dry-blood samples taken from newborns on filter paper for routine screening were also tested for maternal IgG anti-HTLV-1/2 antibodies. For reactive samples, the mothers of the newborns had blood drawn to test for these viruses. RESULTS: The study analyzed 55 293 specimens taken from newborns. Of these, 52 (9.4 per 10 000 were reactive and 42 mothers (7.6 per 10 000 were confirmed with HTLV-1/2 infection. HTLV-1/2 geographic distribution was heterogeneous, with a tendency to be higher in the North and North-East parts of Minas Gerais. The highest rates of seropositivity were observed in Vale do Mucuri (55.9 per 10 000 and in Jequitinhonha (16.0 per 10 000, overlapping with the State's worst social and economic indicators. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge this was the first time that neonatal screening for HTLV-1/2 was performed in Brazil. This model could be used in other areas with high HTLV-1/2 prevalence rates. The detection of carrier mothers can enable intervention measures, such as providing infant formula to newborns, to be implemented expeditiously to reduce vertical transmission.OBJETIVOS: Evaluar la distribución geográfica del virus linfotrópico de células T humanas tipos 1 y 2 (HTLV-1/2 en el estado de Minas Gerais (Brasil, en mujeres puérperas en cuyos recién nacidos se analizó la presencia del HTLV-1/2 durante las pruebas neonatales de detección sistemática, y superponer la seropositividad con determinantes del estado socioeconómico. MÉTODOS: Entre septiembre y noviembre de 2007, en las muestras de sangre seca extraída a los recién nacidos en papel de filtro para un tamizaje

  9. Mature Cells Attracting Cells of the Complementary Mating Type in Euplotes woodruffi syngen 3 (Ciliophora, Hypotrichida)(Cell Biology)

    OpenAIRE

    TOSHIKAZU, KOSAKA; Zoological Institute, Faculty of Science, Hiroshima University

    1991-01-01

    A trap for attracting ciliate cells was devised. By using the trap and cells of Euplotes woodruffi syngen 3, effects of gamone-like substance on attraction of cells were studied. Various types of cells such as the same mating type cells, complementary mating type cells, conjugating pairs, exconjugants and immature cells were used as bait in the trap. The cells were prepared for bait by freeze-thawing. Mature cells were attracted to the complementary mating type cells, but not to the same mati...

  10. Title: Evaluation of the prevalence of lymphotropic hepatitis viruses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAra

    Oncol. 17:123-126. Collier JD, Zanke B, Moore M, Kessler G, Krajden M, Shepherd F,. Heathcote J (1999). No association between hepatitis C and B-cell lymphoma. Hepatology 29:1259-1261. Dogan AU, Carbone M, Emri S, Steele I, Tuncer, M, Pass,HI, Baris YI,. (2007). A mesothelioma epidemic in Cappadocia: scientific.

  11. Characterization of cloned cells from an immortalized fetal pulmonary type II cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    A cultured cell line that maintained expression of pulmonary type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous to generate a large number of homogenous cells in which to study the biochemical functions of type II cells. Type II epithelial cells are the source of pulmonary surfactant and a cell of origin for pulmonary adenomas. Last year our laboratory reported the induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant lipid synthesis) in cultured fetal rat lung epithelial (FRLE) cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line of fetal rat lung type II cell origin. Subsequently, the induction of the ability to synthesize surfactant lipid became difficult to repeat. We hypothesized that the cell line was heterogenuous and some cells were more like type II cells than others. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis and to obtain a cultured cell line with type II cell phenotypic markers by cloning several FRLE cells and characterizing them for phenotypic markers of type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and presence of surfactant lipids). Thirty cloned cell lines were analyzed for induced alkaline phosphatase activity (on x-axis) and for percent of phospholipids that were disaturated (i.e., surfactant).

  12. The immunoregulatory role of type I and type II NKT cells in cancer and other diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terabe, Masaki; Berzofsky, Jay A.

    2014-01-01

    NKT cells are CD1d-restricted T cells that recognize lipid antigens. They also have been shown to play critical roles in the regulation of immune responses. In the immune responses against tumors, two subsets of NKT cells, type I and type II, play opposing roles and cross-regulate each other. As members of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, which form a network of multiple components, they also interact with other immune components. Here we discuss the function of NKT cells in tumor immunity and their interaction with other regulatory cells, especially CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. PMID:24384834

  13. Types and distribution of mucous cells of the abalone Haliotis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-08

    May 8, 2012 ... physical stress and predation (Davies and Hawkins,. 1998). On occasions, such products from several different types of mucocyte combine to produce multifunctional mucus (Shirbhate and Cook, 1987). The mucocyte is a type of gland cell, which has many physiological func- tions. Mucous cells secrete ...

  14. Distinguishing human cell types based on housekeeping gene signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyolu, Chuba; Zakharia, Fouad; Baker, Julie

    2012-03-01

    'In this report, we use single cell gene expression to identify transcriptional patterns emerging during the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) into the endodermal lineage. Endoderm-specific transcripts are highly variable between individual CXCR4(+) endodermal cells, suggesting that either the cells generated from in vitro differentiation are distinct or that these embryonic cells tolerate a high degree of transcript variability. Housekeeping transcripts, on the other hand, are far more consistently expressed within the same cellular population. However, when we compare the levels of housekeeping transcripts between hESCs and derived endoderm, patterns emerge that can be used to clearly separate the two embryonic cell types. We further compared four additional human cell types, including 293T, induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC), HepG2, and endoderm-derived iPSC. In each case, the relative levels of housekeeping transcripts defined a particular cell fate. Interestingly, we find that three transcripts, LDHA, NONO, and ACTB, contribute the most to this diversity and together serve to segregate all six cell types. Overall, this suggests that levels of housekeeping transcripts, which are expressed within all cells, can be leveraged to distinguish between human cell types and thus may serve as important biomarkers for stem cell biology and other disciplines. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  15. Lymphotropic administration of photosensitizer as a model of target therapy of testicle inflammation: Experimental and clinical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagudaev, Daniel M; Brechov, Eugene I; Saidov, Ayubdzhon C; Kalyagina, Nina A; Kuznetsova, Julia O; Loschenov, Victor B

    2016-03-01

    The existence of zones of humoral skin-subskin tissue linkage with internal organs as well as the possibility of targeted administration of preparation into the affected organs were studied. An experimental study of preparation and distribution in the bodies of mice was held by both intravenous and lymphotropic methods of administration. By means of detection with a photosensitizer (as a marker), the study was conducted on healthy mice and mice with testicle inflammation. Based on the experimental results, the study has been implemented into the clinical practice of treatment of acute inflammatory diseases of testicle and its epididymis. Patients were administered antibiotics either by the lymphotropic method, or by traditional methods. The concentration of the preparation, administered by the lymphotropic method, maintained in target organs (testicles) at a high level for a longer time, while the intravenous injections provided fast achievement of high concentrations. Moreover there was a lower level of accumulation of the photosensitizer in parenchymal organs after subcutaneous (lymphotropic) administration. The presence of humoral connection of certain areas of skin and subcutaneous tissue with testicles and their epididymis was proved. It was found that the lymphotropic administration leads to earlier clinical improvement and normalization of laboratory indices, and, thus, to significant reduction in hospital stay. Such results open the possibility of targeted drug delivery to the diseased organs. In perspective, the method may be used in treating patients not only in urology, but also in surgery, as well as for many acute, chronic or cancer diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Radiation effects on polyethylene foam of open cell type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Beilin; Kanako Kaji; Iwao Yoshizawa; Choji Kohara; Motoyoshi Hatada

    1991-01-01

    The effects of electron beam irradiation on polyethylene foam of open cell type have been studied. Experiments for determining of gel fraction and physical-mechanical properties of irradiated polyethylene foam of open cell type as a function of dose, respectively, were carried out. The dimensional stability of irradiated specimens at elevated temperatures was measured. It was found that tensile strength did not change and gel fraction increased when the specimen was irradiated in nitrogen atmosphere with increasing dose up to 300 kGy. The result shows that dimensional stability of polyethylene foam of open cell type after being kept in an oven at 70 deg C and 110 deg C for 22 h is improved by irradiation in nitrogen atmosphere. The similar results of irradiated EVA foam of open cell type irradiated foam of open cell type were obtained

  17. Conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccines for sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allali, Slimane; Chalumeau, Martin; Launay, Odile; Ballas, Samir K; de Montalembert, Mariane

    2016-02-16

    People affected with sickle cell disease are at high risk of infection from Haemophilus influenzae type b. Before the implementation of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccination in high-income countries, this was responsible for a high mortality rate in children under five years of age. In African countries, where coverage of this vaccination is still extremely low, Haemophilus influenzae type b remains one of the most common cause of bacteraemias in children with sickle cell disease. The increased uptake of this conjugate vaccination may substantially improve the survival of children with sickle cell disease. The primary objective was to determine whether Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines reduce mortality and morbidity in children and adults with sickle cell disease.The secondary objectives were to assess the following in children and adults with sickle cell disease: the immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines; the safety of these vaccines; and any variation in effect according to type of vaccine, mode of administration (separately or in combination with other vaccines), number of doses, and age at first dose. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group's Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, compiled from electronic database searches and handsearching of journals and conference abstract books. We also contacted relevant pharmaceutical companies to identify unpublished trials.Date of last search: 23 November 2015. All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines with placebo or no treatment, or comparing different types of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in people with sickle cell disease. No trials of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines in people with sickle cell disease were found. There is an absence of evidence from randomised controlled trials relating to the subject of this review. There has

  18. Alveolar epithelial type II cells induce T cell tolerance to specific antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Bernice; Hansen, Søren; Evans, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    The lungs face the immunologic challenge of rapidly eliminating inhaled pathogens while maintaining tolerance to innocuous Ags. A break in this immune homeostasis may result in pulmonary inflammatory diseases, such as allergies or asthma. The observation that alveolar epithelial type II cells (Type...... II) constitutively express the class II MHC led us to hypothesize that Type II cells play a role in the adaptive immune response. Because Type II cells do not express detectable levels of the costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, we propose that Type II cells suppress activation of naive T cells...

  19. Multicolor imaging of cancer cells with fluorophore-tagged aptamers for single cell typing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Song; Kong, Hao; Gong, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Sichun; Zhang, Xinrong

    2014-08-19

    The discrimination of the type of cancer cells remains challenging due to the subtle differences in their expression of membrane receptors. In this work, we developed a multicolor cell imaging method for distinguishing the type of cancer cells with fluorophore-tagged aptamers. We found that the interaction between aptamers and cancer cells was affected by both of the sequence of aptamers and the labeled dyes. As the co-ownership of biomarkers for different cancer cell lines, the fluorophore-tagged aptamers interacted with different cancer cell lines in different degree, resulting in a distinct color to discriminate the type of cancer cells at single cell level. Taking advantage of the cross-reactive ability of the fluorophore-tagged aptamers, we could not only distinguish the cancerous cells quickly from large quantities of noncancerous cells, but also identify the type of the cancerous cells. This work has potential application for cancer diagnostic and therapy in the future.

  20. Type II NKT cells: a distinct CD1d-restricted immune regulatory NKT cell subset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Suryasarathi; Kumar, Vipin

    2016-08-01

    Type II natural killer T cells (NKT) are a subset of the innate-like CD1d-restricted lymphocytes that are reactive to lipid antigens. Unlike the type I NKT cells, which express a semi-invariant TCR, type II NKT cells express a broader TCR repertoire. Additionally, other features, such as their predominance over type I cells in humans versus mice, the nature of their ligands, CD1d/lipid/TCR binding, and modulation of immune responses, distinguish type II NKT cells from type I NKT cells. Interestingly, it is the self-lipid-reactivity of type II NKT cells that has helped define their physiological role in health and in disease. The discovery of sulfatide as one of the major antigens for CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells in mice has been instrumental in the characterization of these cells, including the TCR repertoire, the crystal structure of the CD1d/lipid/TCR complex, and their function. Subsequently, several other glycolipids and phospholipids from both endogenous and microbial sources have been shown to activate type II NKT cells. The activation of a specific subset of type II NKT cells following administration with sulfatide or lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) leads to engagement of a dominant immunoregulatory pathway associated with the inactivation of type I NKT cells, conventional dendritic cells, and inhibition of the proinflammatory Th1/Th17 cells. Thus, type II NKT cells have been shown to be immunosuppressive in autoimmune diseases, inflammatory liver diseases, and in cancer. Knowing their relatively higher prevalence in human than type I NKT cells, understanding their biology is imperative for health and disease.

  1. Freedom of expression: cell-type-specific gene profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuki, Leo; Cheetham, Seth W; Brand, Andrea H

    2014-01-01

    Cell fate and behavior are results of differential gene regulation, making techniques to profile gene expression in specific cell types highly desirable. Many methods now enable investigation at the DNA, RNA and protein level. This review introduces the most recent and popular techniques, and discusses key issues influencing the choice between these such as ease, cost and applicability of information gained. Interdisciplinary collaborations will no doubt contribute further advances, including not just in single cell type but single-cell expression profiling. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Glutathione synthesis and homeostasis in isolated type II alveolar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, K.; Warshaw, J.B.; Prough, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    After isolation of Type II cells from neonatal rat lung, the glutathione (GSH) levels in these cells were greatly depressed. The total glutathione content could be increased 5-fold within 12-24 h by incubating the cells in media containing sulfur amino acids. Similarly, the activity of γ-glutamyltranspeptidase was low immediately after isolation, but was increased 2-fold during the first 24 h culture. Addition of either GSH or GSSG to the culture media increased the GSH content of Type II cells 2-2.5-fold. Buthionine sulfoximine and NaF prevented this replenishment of GSH during 24 h culture. When the rates of de novo synthesis of GSH and GSSG from 35 S-cysteine were measured, the amounts of newly formed GSH decreased to 80% in the presence of GSH or GSSG. This suggests that exogenous GSH/GSSG can be taken up by the Type II cells to replenish the intracellular pool of GSH. Methionine was not as effective as cysteine in the synthesis of GSH. These results suggest that GSH levels in the isolated Type II cell can be maintained by de novo synthesis or uptake of exogenous GSH. Most of the GSH synthesized from cysteine, however, was excreted into the media of the cultured cells indicative of a potential role for the type II cell in export of the non-protein thiol

  3. NLRP3 polymorphism is associated with protection against human T-lymphotropic virus 1 infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anselmo Jiro Kamada

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Inter-individual heterogeneity in the response to human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1 infection has been partially attributed to host genetic background. The antiviral activity of the inflammasome cytoplasmic complex recognises viral molecular patterns and regulates immune responses via the activation of interleukin (IL-1 family (IL-1, IL-18 and IL-33 members. The association between polymorphisms in the inflammasome receptors NLRP1 and NLRP3 and HTLV-1 infection was evaluated in a northeastern Brazilian population (84 HTLV-1 carriers and 155 healthy controls. NLRP3 rs10754558 G/G was associated with protection against HTLV-1 infection (p = 0.012; odds ratio = 0.37. rs10754558 affects NLRP3 mRNA stability; therefore, our results suggest that higher NLRP3 expression may augment first-line defences, leading to the effective protection against HTLV-1 infection.

  4. Cell Type of Origin Dictates the Route to Pluripotency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian M. Nefzger

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Our current understanding of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC generation has almost entirely been shaped by studies performed on reprogramming fibroblasts. However, whether the resulting model universally applies to the reprogramming process of other cell types is still largely unknown. By characterizing and profiling the reprogramming pathways of fibroblasts, neutrophils, and keratinocytes, we unveil that key events of the process, including loss of original cell identity, mesenchymal to epithelial transition, the extent of developmental reversion, and reactivation of the pluripotency network, are to a large degree cell-type specific. Thus, we reveal limitations for the use of fibroblasts as a universal model for the study of the reprogramming process and provide crucial insights about iPSC generation from alternative cell sources. : Nefzger et al. find that the molecular reprogramming trajectories of fibroblasts, neutrophils, and keratinocytes have a cell-type-specific component that only fully converges in induced pluripotent stem cells. The authors also identify universal changes shared by all three cell types, including two transcriptional waves and a conserved transcriptional program involving Egr1 downregulation. Keywords: reprogramming, induced pluripotent stem cells, fibroblasts, neutrophils, keratinocytes, transcriptional dynamics, Egr1

  5. Crosstalk between type II NKT cells and T cells leads to spontaneous chronic inflammatory liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiufang; He, Ying; Visvabharathy, Lavanya; Liao, Chia-Min; Tan, Xiaosheng; Balakumar, Arjun; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2017-10-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are CD1d-restricted innate-like T cells that modulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Unlike the well-characterized invariant/type I NKT cells, type II NKT cells with a diverse T cell receptor repertoire are poorly understood. This study defines the pathogenic role of type II NKT cells in the etiology of chronic liver inflammation. Transgenic mice with the Lck promoter directing CD1d overexpression on T cells in Jα18 wild-type (Lck-CD1dTgJα18 + ; type I NKT cell sufficient) and Jα18-deficient (Lck-CD1dTgJα18 o , type I NKT cell deficient) mice were analyzed for liver pathology and crosstalk between type II NKT cells and conventional T cells. CD1d expression on T cells in peripheral blood samples and liver sections from autoimmune hepatitis patients and healthy individuals were also examined. Lck-CD1dTgJα18 o and Lck-CD1dTgJα18 + mice developed similar degrees of liver pathology resembling chronic autoimmune hepatitis in humans. Increased CD1d expression on T cells promoted the activation of type II NKT cells and other T cells. This resulted in T h 1-skewing and impaired T h 2 cytokine production in type II NKT cells. Dysfunction of type II NKT cells was accompanied by conventional T cell activation and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, leading to a hepatic T/B lymphocyte infiltration, elevated autoantibodies and hepatic injury in Lck-CD1dTg mice. A similar mechanism could be extended to humans as CD1d expression is upregulated on activated human T cells and increased presence of CD1d-expressing T cells was observed in autoimmune hepatitis patients. Our data reveals enhanced crosstalk between type II NKT cells and conventional T cells, leading to a T h 1-skewed inflammatory milieu, and consequently, to the development of chronic autoimmune liver disease. Lay summary: CD1d overexpression on T cells enhances crosstalk between type II NKT cells and T cells, resulting in their aberrant activation and leading to the

  6. Ovarian Small Cell Carcinoma Hypercalcemic Type: A Case Report

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rahma, M B.

    2016-09-01

    A 31-year-old female was diagnosed with small cell carcinoma of the ovary hypercalcaemic type (OSCCHT) post left oophorectomy. This is a rare aggressive ovarian tumour of which less than 300 cases were reported.

  7. β-Cell Replacement in Mice Using Human Type 1 Diabetes Nuclear Transfer Embryonic Stem Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Lina; Danzl, Nichole; Campbell, Sean R; Viola, Ryan; Williams, Damian; Xing, Yuan; Wang, Yong; Phillips, Neil; Poffenberger, Greg; Johannesson, Bjarki; Oberholzer, Jose; Powers, Alvin C; Leibel, Rudolph L; Chen, Xiaojuan; Sykes, Megan; Egli, Dieter

    2018-01-01

    β-Cells derived from stem cells hold great promise for cell replacement therapy for diabetes. Here we examine the ability of nuclear transfer embryonic stem cells (NT-ESs) derived from a patient with type 1 diabetes to differentiate into β-cells and provide a source of autologous islets for cell replacement. NT-ESs differentiate in vitro with an average efficiency of 55% into C-peptide-positive cells, expressing markers of mature β-cells, including MAFA and NKX6.1. Upon transplantation in immunodeficient mice, grafted cells form vascularized islet-like structures containing MAFA/C-peptide-positive cells. These β-cells adapt insulin secretion to ambient metabolite status and show normal insulin processing. Importantly, NT-ES-β-cells maintain normal blood glucose levels after ablation of the mouse endogenous β-cells. Cystic structures, but no teratomas, were observed in NT-ES-β-cell grafts. Isogenic induced pluripotent stem cell lines showed greater variability in β-cell differentiation. Even though different methods of somatic cell reprogramming result in stem cell lines that are molecularly indistinguishable, full differentiation competence is more common in ES cell lines than in induced pluripotent stem cell lines. These results demonstrate the suitability of NT-ES-β-cells for cell replacement for type 1 diabetes and provide proof of principle for therapeutic cloning combined with cell therapy. © 2017 by the American Diabetes Association.

  8. Cell type discovery and representation in the era of high-content single cell phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakken, Trygve; Cowell, Lindsay; Aevermann, Brian D; Novotny, Mark; Hodge, Rebecca; Miller, Jeremy A; Lee, Alexandra; Chang, Ivan; McCorrison, Jamison; Pulendran, Bali; Qian, Yu; Schork, Nicholas J; Lasken, Roger S; Lein, Ed S; Scheuermann, Richard H

    2017-12-21

    A fundamental characteristic of multicellular organisms is the specialization of functional cell types through the process of differentiation. These specialized cell types not only characterize the normal functioning of different organs and tissues, they can also be used as cellular biomarkers of a variety of different disease states and therapeutic/vaccine responses. In order to serve as a reference for cell type representation, the Cell Ontology has been developed to provide a standard nomenclature of defined cell types for comparative analysis and biomarker discovery. Historically, these cell types have been defined based on unique cellular shapes and structures, anatomic locations, and marker protein expression. However, we are now experiencing a revolution in cellular characterization resulting from the application of new high-throughput, high-content cytometry and sequencing technologies. The resulting explosion in the number of distinct cell types being identified is challenging the current paradigm for cell type definition in the Cell Ontology. In this paper, we provide examples of state-of-the-art cellular biomarker characterization using high-content cytometry and single cell RNA sequencing, and present strategies for standardized cell type representations based on the data outputs from these cutting-edge technologies, including "context annotations" in the form of standardized experiment metadata about the specimen source analyzed and marker genes that serve as the most useful features in machine learning-based cell type classification models. We also propose a statistical strategy for comparing new experiment data to these standardized cell type representations. The advent of high-throughput/high-content single cell technologies is leading to an explosion in the number of distinct cell types being identified. It will be critical for the bioinformatics community to develop and adopt data standard conventions that will be compatible with these new

  9. Pathogenic memory type Th2 cells in allergic inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Yusuke; Hirahara, Kiyoshi; Yagi, Ryoji; Tumes, Damon J; Nakayama, Toshinori

    2014-02-01

    Immunological memory is a hallmark of adaptive immunity. Memory CD4 T helper (Th) cells are central to acquired immunity, and vaccines for infectious diseases are developed based on this concept. However, memory Th cells also play a critical role in the pathogenesis of various chronic inflammatory diseases, including asthma. We refer to these populations as 'pathogenic memory Th cells.' Here, we review recent developments highlighting the functions and characteristics of several pathogenic memory type Th2 cell subsets in allergic inflammation. Also discussed are the similarities and differences between pathogenic memory Th2 cells and recently identified type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2), focusing on cytokine production and phenotypic profiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Heterogeneity and Developmental Connections between Cell Types Inhabiting Teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krivanek

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Every tissue is composed of multiple cell types that are developmentally, evolutionary and functionally integrated into the unit we call an organ. Teeth, our organs for biting and mastication, are complex and made of many different cell types connected or disconnected in terms of their ontogeny. In general, epithelial and mesenchymal compartments represent the major framework of tooth formation. Thus, they give rise to the two most important matrix–producing populations: ameloblasts generating enamel and odontoblasts producing dentin. However, the real picture is far from this quite simplified view. Diverse pulp cells, the immune system, the vascular system, the innervation and cells organizing the dental follicle all interact, and jointly participate in transforming lifeless matrix into a functional organ that can sense and protect itself. Here we outline the heterogeneity of cell types that inhabit the tooth, and also provide a life history of the major populations. The mouse model system has been indispensable not only for the studies of cell lineages and heterogeneity, but also for the investigation of dental stem cells and tooth patterning during development. Finally, we briefly discuss the evolutionary aspects of cell type diversity and dental tissue integration.

  11. Towards Optimal Diagnosis of Type II Germ Cell Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Stoop (Hans)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the work described in this thesis is to improve the understanding of the pathobiology of testicular cancer (type II Germ Cell Tumors) to create possibilities for optimalization of diagnosis for this type of malignancy in routine pathology laboratories. The different studies

  12. The development and plasticity of alveolar type 1 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun; Hernandez, Belinda J.; Martinez Alanis, Denise; Narvaez del Pilar, Odemaris; Vila-Ellis, Lisandra; Akiyama, Haruhiko; Evans, Scott E.; Ostrin, Edwin J.; Chen, Jichao

    2016-01-01

    Alveolar type 1 (AT1) cells cover >95% of the gas exchange surface and are extremely thin to facilitate passive gas diffusion. The development of these highly specialized cells and its coordination with the formation of the honeycomb-like alveolar structure are poorly understood. Using new marker-based stereology and single-cell imaging methods, we show that AT1 cells in the mouse lung form expansive thin cellular extensions via a non-proliferative two-step process while retaining cellular plasticity. In the flattening step, AT1 cells undergo molecular specification and remodel cell junctions while remaining connected to their epithelial neighbors. In the folding step, AT1 cells increase in size by more than 10-fold and undergo cellular morphogenesis that matches capillary and secondary septa formation, resulting in a single AT1 cell spanning multiple alveoli. Furthermore, AT1 cells are an unexpected source of VEGFA and their normal development is required for alveolar angiogenesis. Notably, a majority of AT1 cells proliferate upon ectopic SOX2 expression and undergo stage-dependent cell fate reprogramming. These results provide evidence that AT1 cells have both structural and signaling roles in alveolar maturation and can exit their terminally differentiated non-proliferative state. Our findings suggest that AT1 cells might be a new target in the pathogenesis and treatment of lung diseases associated with premature birth. PMID:26586225

  13. Prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 carriers among pregnant women in Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takahiro; Togashi, Takehiro; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki; Imamura, Masahiro; Okubo, Hitoshi; Okabe, Mihiro; Takamuro, Noriko; Tashiro, Kunio; Yano, Koichi; Yamamoto, Nagafumi; Hirakawa, Yukiko; Minakami, Hisanori

    2014-08-01

    As there is a risk of MTCT of HTLV-1, the HSGP HTLV-1 MTCT was organized in 2011. To determine how many pregnant women are infected with HTLV-1 in Hokkaido, which is the northernmost and the second largest island in Japan with a population of 5,467,000 and 39,392 newborns in 2011, the HSGP HTLV-1 MTCT asked all facilities that may care for pregnant women in Hokkaido in July 2013 to provide information on the number of pregnant women who underwent screening for anti-HTLV-1 antibody using particle agglutination or chemiluminescent enzyme immunoassay, and the numbers of those with positive, equivocal, and negative test results in the screening and confirmation tests using western blotting or PCR methods in 2012, respectively. A total of 111 facilities participated in this study and provided information on 33,617 pregnant women who underwent screening in 2012, corresponding to approximately 85% of all pregnant women who gave birth in Hokkaido in 2012. Of 81 candidates for a confirmation test because of positive (n = 77) or equivocal (n = 4) results on screening, 63 (78%) underwent the confirmation test and, finally, 34 (0.1%) and 33,563 (99.8%) women were judged to be HTLV-1 carriers and non-carriers, respectively. It was concluded that the prevalence rate of HTLV-1 carriers was low, one per 1000 pregnant women in Hokkaido. Approximately 40 infants are born yearly to mothers infected with HTLV-1 in Hokkaido. © 2014 The Societies and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  14. Genetic predisposition for beta cell fragility underlies type 1 and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dooley, James; Tian, Lei; Schonefeldt, Susann; Delghingaro-Augusto, Viviane; Garcia-Perez, Josselyn E; Pasciuto, Emanuela; Di Marino, Daniele; Carr, Edward J; Oskolkov, Nikolay; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Franckaert, Dean; Lagou, Vasiliki; Overbergh, Lut; Vandenbussche, Jonathan; Allemeersch, Joke; Chabot-Roy, Genevieve; Dahlstrom, Jane E; Laybutt, D Ross; Petrovsky, Nikolai; Socha, Luis; Gevaert, Kris; Jetten, Anton M; Lambrechts, Diether; Linterman, Michelle A; Goodnow, Chris C; Nolan, Christopher J; Lesage, Sylvie; Schlenner, Susan M; Liston, Adrian

    2016-05-01

    Type 1 (T1D) and type 2 (T2D) diabetes share pathophysiological characteristics, yet mechanistic links have remained elusive. T1D results from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells, whereas beta cell failure in T2D is delayed and progressive. Here we find a new genetic component of diabetes susceptibility in T1D non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, identifying immune-independent beta cell fragility. Genetic variation in Xrcc4 and Glis3 alters the response of NOD beta cells to unfolded protein stress, enhancing the apoptotic and senescent fates. The same transcriptional relationships were observed in human islets, demonstrating the role of beta cell fragility in genetic predisposition to diabetes.

  15. Pathogenic T helper type 17 cells contribute to type 1 diabetes independently of interleukin-22.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellemore, S M; Nikoopour, E; Krougly, O; Lee-Chan, E; Fouser, L A; Singh, B

    2016-03-01

    We have shown that pathogenic T helper type 17 (Th17) cells differentiated from naive CD4(+) T cells of BDC2·5 T cell receptor transgenic non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice by interleukin (IL)-23 plus IL-6 produce IL-17, IL-22 and induce type 1 diabetes (T1D). Neutralizing interferon (IFN)-γ during the polarization process leads to a significant increase in IL-22 production by these Th17 cells. We also isolated IL-22-producing Th17 cells from the pancreas of wild-type diabetic NOD mice. IL-27 also blocked IL-22 production from diabetogenic Th17 cells. To determine the functional role of IL-22 produced by pathogenic Th17 cells in T1D we neutralized IL-22 in vivo by using anti-IL-22 monoclonal antibody. We found that blocking IL-22 did not alter significantly adoptive transfer of disease by pathogenic Th17 cells. Therefore, IL-22 is not required for T1D pathogenesis. The IL-22Rα receptor for IL-22 however, increased in the pancreas of NOD mice during disease progression and based upon our and other studies we suggest that IL-22 may have a regenerative and protective role in the pancreatic islets. © 2015 British Society for Immunology.

  16. Engineered T Regulatory Type 1 Cells for Clinical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Gregori

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available T regulatory cells, a specialized subset of T cells, are key players in modulating antigen (Ag-specific immune responses in vivo. Inducible T regulatory type 1 (Tr1 cells are characterized by the co-expression of CD49b and lymphocyte-activation gene 3 (LAG-3 and the ability to secrete IL-10, TGF-β, and granzyme (Gz B, in the absence of IL-4 and IL-17. The chief mechanisms by which Tr1 cells control immune responses are secretion of IL-10 and TGF-β and killing of myeloid cells via GzB. Tr1 cells, first described in peripheral blood of patients who developed tolerance after HLA-mismatched fetal liver hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, have been proven to modulate inflammatory and effector T cell responses in several immune-mediated diseases. The possibility to generate and expand Tr1 cells in vitro in an Ag-specific manner has led to their clinical use as cell therapy in patients. Clinical grade protocols to generate or to enrich and expand Tr1 cell medicinal products have been established. Proof-of-concept clinical trials with Tr1 cell products have demonstrated the safety and the feasibility of this approach and indicated some clinical benefit. In the present review, we provide an overview on protocols established to induce/expand Tr1 cells in vitro for clinical application and on results obtained in Tr1 cell-based clinical trials. Moreover, we will discuss a recently developed protocol to efficient convert human CD4+ T cells into a homogeneous population of Tr1-like cells by lentiviral vector-mediated IL-10 gene transfer.

  17. Cell-type specific four-component hydrogel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Aberle

    Full Text Available In the field of regenerative medicine we aim to develop implant matrices for specific tissue needs. By combining two per se, cell-permissive gel systems with enzymatic crosslinkers (gelatin/transglutaminase and fibrinogen/thrombin to generate a blend (technical term: quattroGel, an unexpected cell-selectivity evolved. QuattroGels were porous and formed cavities in the cell diameter range, possessed gelation kinetics in the minute range, viscoelastic properties and a mechanical strength appropriate for general cell adhesion, and restricted diffusion. Cell proliferation of endothelial cells, chondrocytes and fibroblasts was essentially unaffected. In contrast, on quattroGels neither endothelial cells formed vascular tubes nor did primary neurons extend neurites in significant amounts. Only chondrocytes differentiated properly as judged by collagen isoform expression. The biophysical quattroGel characteristics appeared to leave distinct cell processes such as mitosis unaffected and favored differentiation of sessile cells, but hampered differentiation of migratory cells. This cell-type selectivity is of interest e.g. during articular cartilage or invertebral disc repair, where pathological innervation and angiogenesis represent adverse events in tissue engineering.

  18. Cytokine-induced killer cells are type II natural killer T cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt-Wolf, Ingo G.H.

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Until now, cytokine-induced killer (CIK cells were assumed to be part of the type I natural killer T (NKT cell population, but it was not yet investigated if this is correct. Methods: For analysis, CIK cells were generated by various culture conditions. Human type I NKT cells express a T cell receptor (TCR composed of an invariant Vα24-JαQ chain combined with one of several Vβ chains. The Vα24 is a reliable marker for the presence of these TCRs. Results: While comparing cultures stimulated with different substances, we observed the lack of any Vα24 on the surface of CIK culture cells. Conclusion: We conclude that CIK cells do not belong to the type I NKT cells.

  19. Cardiac Glycoside Glucoevatromonoside Induces Cancer Type-Specific Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira F. Z. Schneider

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac glycosides (CGs are natural compounds used traditionally to treat congestive heart diseases. Recent investigations repositioned CGs as potential anticancer agents. To discover novel cytotoxic CG scaffolds, we selected the cardenolide glucoevatromonoside (GEV out of 46 CGs for its low nanomolar anti-lung cancer activity. GEV presented reduced toxicity toward non-cancerous cell types (lung MRC-5 and PBMC and high-affinity binding to the Na+/K+-ATPase α subunit, assessed by computational docking. GEV-induced cell death was caspase-independent, as investigated by a multiparametric approach, and culminates in severe morphological alterations in A549 cells, monitored by transmission electron microscopy, live cell imaging and flow cytometry. This non-canonical cell death was not preceded or accompanied by exacerbation of autophagy. In the presence of GEV, markers of autophagic flux (e.g. LC3I-II conversion were impacted, even in presence of bafilomycin A1. Cell death induction remained unaffected by calpain, cathepsin, parthanatos, or necroptosis inhibitors. Interestingly, GEV triggered caspase-dependent apoptosis in U937 acute myeloid leukemia cells, witnessing cancer-type specific cell death induction. Differential cell cycle modulation by this CG led to a G2/M arrest, cyclin B1 and p53 downregulation in A549, but not in U937 cells. We further extended the anti-cancer potential of GEV to 3D cell culture using clonogenic and spheroid formation assays and validated our findings in vivo by zebrafish xenografts. Altogether, GEV shows an interesting anticancer profile with the ability to exert cytotoxic effects via induction of different cell death modalities.

  20. Type I collagen gel protects murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells from TNFα-induced cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Hong-Ju; He, Wen-Qi; Chen, Ling; Liu, Wei-Wei; Xu, Qian; Xia, Ming-Yu; Hayashi, Toshihiko; Fujisaki, Hitomi; Hattori, Shunji; Tashiro, Shin-ichi; Onodera, Satoshi; Ikejima, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Murine fibrosarcoma L929 cells have been used to test efficacy of proinflammatory cytokine TNFα. In the present study, we reported on protective effect of type I collagen gel used as L929 cell culture. L929 cell grew and proliferated well on collagen gel. However, the L929 cells exhibited cobblestone-like morphology which was much different from the spread fusiform shape when cultured on conventional cell dishes as well as the cells tended to aggregate. On conventional cell culture dishes, the cells treated with TNFα became round in shape and eventually died in a necroptotic manner. The cells cultured on collagen gel, however, were completely unaffected. TNFα treatment was reported to induce autophagy in L929 cells on the plastic dish, and therefore we investigated the effect of collagen gel on induction of autophagy. The results indicated that autophagy induced by TNFα treatment was much reduced when the cells were cultured on collagen gel. In conclusion, type I collagen gel protected L929 cell from TNFα-induced cell death. - Highlights: • Collagen gel culture changed the morphology of L929 cells. • L929 cell cultured on collagen gel were resistant to TNFα-induced cell death. • Collagen gel culture inhibited TNFα-induced autophagy in L929 cells

  1. Interaction of Human Tumor Viruses with Host Cell Surface Receptors and Cell Entry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Schäfer

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Currently, seven viruses, namely Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV, high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV, hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV and human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1, have been described to be consistently associated with different types of human cancer. These oncogenic viruses belong to distinct viral families, display diverse cell tropism and cause different malignancies. A key to their pathogenicity is attachment to the host cell and entry in order to replicate and complete their life cycle. Interaction with the host cell during viral entry is characterized by a sequence of events, involving viral envelope and/or capsid molecules as well as cellular entry factors that are critical in target cell recognition, thereby determining cell tropism. Most oncogenic viruses initially attach to cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans, followed by conformational change and transfer of the viral particle to secondary high-affinity cell- and virus-specific receptors. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the host cell surface factors and molecular mechanisms underlying oncogenic virus binding and uptake by their cognate host cell(s with the aim to provide a concise overview of potential target molecules for prevention and/or treatment of oncogenic virus infection.

  2. Diffuse-type giant cell tumor of the subcutaneous thigh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanghvi, D.A.; Purandare, N.C.; Jambhekar, N.A.; Agarwal, A.; Agarwal, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    Diffuse-type giant cell tumor is an extra-articular form of pigmented villonodular synovitis. The localized form of this lesion (tenosynovial giant cell tumor) is frequent, representing the most common subset arising from the synovium of a joint, bursa or tendon sheath, with 85% of cases occurring in the fingers. The less frequent diffuse-type giant cell tumors are commonly located in the periarticular soft tissues, but on rare occasions these lesions can be purely intramuscular or subcutaneous We report the case of a 26-year-old female with diffuse-type giant cell tumor of the subcutaneous thigh, remote from a joint, bursa or tendon sheath. A review of the literature did not reveal any similar description of a diffuse-type giant cell tumor completely within the subcutaneous thigh, remote from a joint, bursa or tendon sheath. These lesions were initially regarded as inflammatory or reactive processes, but since the identification of clonal abnormalities in these patients, and in view of their capacity for autonomous growth, they are now widely considered to represent benign neoplasms. (orig.)

  3. Cell type specific DNA methylation in cord blood: A 450K-reference data set and cell count-based validation of estimated cell type composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gervin, Kristina; Page, Christian Magnus; Aass, Hans Christian D; Jansen, Michelle A; Fjeldstad, Heidi Elisabeth; Andreassen, Bettina Kulle; Duijts, Liesbeth; van Meurs, Joyce B; van Zelm, Menno C; Jaddoe, Vincent W; Nordeng, Hedvig; Knudsen, Gunn Peggy; Magnus, Per; Nystad, Wenche; Staff, Anne Cathrine; Felix, Janine F; Lyle, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Epigenome-wide association studies of prenatal exposure to different environmental factors are becoming increasingly common. These studies are usually performed in umbilical cord blood. Since blood comprises multiple cell types with specific DNA methylation patterns, confounding caused by cellular heterogeneity is a major concern. This can be adjusted for using reference data consisting of DNA methylation signatures in cell types isolated from blood. However, the most commonly used reference data set is based on blood samples from adult males and is not representative of the cell type composition in neonatal cord blood. The aim of this study was to generate a reference data set from cord blood to enable correct adjustment of the cell type composition in samples collected at birth. The purity of the isolated cell types was very high for all samples (>97.1%), and clustering analyses showed distinct grouping of the cell types according to hematopoietic lineage. We explored whether this cord blood and the adult peripheral blood reference data sets impact the estimation of cell type composition in cord blood samples from an independent birth cohort (MoBa, n = 1092). This revealed significant differences for all cell types. Importantly, comparison of the cell type estimates against matched cell counts both in the cord blood reference samples (n = 11) and in another independent birth cohort (Generation R, n = 195), demonstrated moderate to high correlation of the data. This is the first cord blood reference data set with a comprehensive examination of the downstream application of the data through validation of estimated cell types against matched cell counts.

  4. Towards Optimal Diagnosis of Type II Germ Cell Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Stoop, Hans

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe aim of the work described in this thesis is to improve the understanding of the pathobiology of testicular cancer (type II Germ Cell Tumors) to create possibilities for optimalization of diagnosis for this type of malignancy in routine pathology laboratories. The different studies presented here show valuable additional information on the microscopic diagnostics in daily practice. This enables proper and complete diagnosis of this relative rare variant of cancer ensuring the b...

  5. Imaging Case: NK/T-Cell Lymphoma, Nasal Type

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srini vasan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral T-cell lymphomas are a group of heterogeneous disorders and according to WHO classification, are categorized into nodal and extranodal forms. NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type, is a subtype of extranodal peripheral T-cell lymphoma and commonly presents as a midfacial destructive lesion. This disorder is more prevalent in Asia and South America and has a strong association with Epstein Barr Virus infection. Invasion of vessel walls by lymphoid cells, which is known as angiocentricity, is characteristic of nasal type NK/T-cell lymphoma. The tumor cells express CD2 and CD56 antigens; but not CD3. The nasal cavity is the mostly frequently affected site. Other commonly affected sites include palate and upper airways. On cross sectional imaging, the nasal involvement is seen as a diffuse sheet-like mucosal thickening along the nasal turbinates and septum or as a destructive midline mass (Figs 1,2. The latter form was previously described as a lethal midline granuloma or polymorphic reticulosis. The mass frequently extends into subcutaneous tissues of nasal ala and buccinator space (Fig.3. Regional lymphadenopathy is usually not seen. The radiological differential diagnoses for a midline nasal cavity mass include squamous cell carcinoma, minor salivary gland tumor, Wegener’s granulomatosis, and fungal infections. The imaging appearances of NK/T-cell lymphoma are often indistinguishable from the above mentioned conditions. However, predilection to involve both sides of the nasal cavity and tendency to spread as a diffuse thin sheet-like soft tissue along the walls of the nasal cavity enveloping the nasal turbinates and nasal septum favour the diagnosis of NK/T-cell lymphoma. Contiguous extension into the nasopharynx, palate, upper airways, and subcutaneous tissues can also suggest the possibility of NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal type (Fig.4. T-cell lymphoma, compared to B-cell lymphoma, has an aggressive course and poor prognosis. The median

  6. Success of measles virotherapy in ATL depends on type I interferon secretion and responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M Parrula, M Cecilia; Fernandez, Soledad A; Landes, Kristina; Huey, Devra; Lairmore, Michael; Niewiesk, Stefan

    2014-08-30

    Adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a highly aggressive CD4+/CD25+ T-cell malignancy caused by human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). Previous studies in the MET-1 cell/NOD/SCID mouse model of ATL demonstrated that MET-1 cells are very susceptible to measles virus (MV) oncolytic therapy. To further evaluate the potential of MV therapy in ATL, the susceptibility of several HTLV-1 transformed CD4+ T cell lines (MT-1, MT-2, MT-4 and C8166-45) as well as HTLV-1 negative CD4+ T cell lines (Jurkat and CCRF-CEM) to infection with MV was tested in vitro. All cell lines were permissive to MV infection and subsequent cell death, except MT-1 and CCRF-CEM cells which were susceptible and permissive to MV infection, but resistant to cell death. The resistance to MV-mediated cell death was associated with IFNβ produced by MT-1 and CCRF-CEM cells. Inhibition of IFNβ rendered MT-1 and CCRF-CEM cells susceptible to MV-mediated cell death. Cells susceptible to MV-induced cell death did not produce nor were responsive to IFNβ. Upon infection with Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV), MT-1 and CCRF-CEM but not the susceptible cell lines up-regulated pSTAT-2. In vivo, treatment of tumors induced by MT-1 cell lines which produce IFNβ demonstrated only small increases in mean survival time, while only two treatments prolonged mean survival time in mice with MET-1 tumors deficient in type I interferon production. These results indicate that type I interferon production is closely linked with the inability of tumor cells to respond to type I interferon. Screening of tumor cells for type I interferon could be a useful strategy to select candidate patients for MV virotherapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Type 1 Diabetes Candidate Genes Linked to Pancreatic Islet Cell Inflammation and Beta-Cell Apoptosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Størling, Joachim; Pociot, Flemming

    2017-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic immune-mediated disease resulting from the selective destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic islet β-cells. Susceptibility to the disease is the result of complex interactions between environmental and genetic risk factors. Genome-wide association studie...... with focus on pancreatic islet cell inflammation and β-cell apoptosis....

  8. Meta-analysis reveals conserved cell cycle transcriptional network across multiple human cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giotti, Bruno; Joshi, Anagha; Freeman, Tom C

    2017-01-05

    Cell division is central to the physiology and pathology of all eukaryotic organisms. The molecular machinery underpinning the cell cycle has been studied extensively in a number of species and core aspects of it have been found to be highly conserved. Similarly, the transcriptional changes associated with this pathway have been studied in different organisms and different cell types. In each case hundreds of genes have been reported to be regulated, however there seems to be little consensus in the genes identified across different studies. In a recent comparison of transcriptomic studies of the cell cycle in different human cell types, only 96 cell cycle genes were reported to be the same across all studies examined. Here we perform a systematic re-examination of published human cell cycle expression data by using a network-based approach to identify groups of genes with a similar expression profile and therefore function. Two clusters in particular, containing 298 transcripts, showed patterns of expression consistent with cell cycle occurrence across the four human cell types assessed. Our analysis shows that there is a far greater conservation of cell cycle-associated gene expression across human cell types than reported previously, which can be separated into two distinct transcriptional networks associated with the G 1 /S-S and G 2 -M phases of the cell cycle. This work also highlights the benefits of performing a re-analysis on combined datasets.

  9. International Retrovirology Association brings together scientists and clinicians to bridge discoveries about human T-lymphotropic viruses from the laboratory to clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Owen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were among the first human retroviruses discovered in the early 1980's. The International Retrovirology Association is an organized effort that fostered the efforts of scientists and clinicians to form interdisciplinary groups to study this group of retroviruses and their related diseases. The Association promotes excellent science, patient education, and fosters the training of young scientists to promote "bench-to-bedside" research. The International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Viruses sponsored by the Association supports clinicians and researchers in the exchange of research findings and stimulation of new research directions. This years conference will be held from June 22 to 25, in Montego Bay, Jamaica http://www.htlvconference.org.jm/. Since its inception in 1988, these conferences have provided a highly interactive forum for the global community of HTLV scientists. This is of particular importance as HTLV research enters its third decade and a new generation of scientists takes over this important work. Many of the scientists attending the meeting will be from developing countries where HTLV is endemic, consistent with the history of international collaborations that have characterized HTLV research. The International Conference on Human Retrovirology provides a unique opportunity for researchers of all disciplines interested in HTLV infections to meet their peers and to address the questions facing clinicians and scientists who study retroviruses, like HTLV.

  10. International Retrovirology Association brings together scientists and clinicians to bridge discoveries about human T-lymphotropic viruses from the laboratory to clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Edward; Jacobson, Steven; Franchini, Genoveffa; Taylor, Graham P; Hanchard, Barrie; Morgan, Owen; Lairmore, Michael

    2005-03-29

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and HTLV-2 were among the first human retroviruses discovered in the early 1980's. The International Retrovirology Association is an organized effort that fostered the efforts of scientists and clinicians to form interdisciplinary groups to study this group of retroviruses and their related diseases. The Association promotes excellent science, patient education, and fosters the training of young scientists to promote "bench-to-bedside" research. The International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Viruses sponsored by the Association supports clinicians and researchers in the exchange of research findings and stimulation of new research directions. This years conference will be held from June 22 to 25, in Montego Bay, Jamaica http://www.htlvconference.org.jm/. Since its inception in 1988, these conferences have provided a highly interactive forum for the global community of HTLV scientists. This is of particular importance as HTLV research enters its third decade and a new generation of scientists takes over this important work. Many of the scientists attending the meeting will be from developing countries where HTLV is endemic, consistent with the history of international collaborations that have characterized HTLV research. The International Conference on Human Retrovirology provides a unique opportunity for researchers of all disciplines interested in HTLV infections to meet their peers and to address the questions facing clinicians and scientists who study retroviruses, like HTLV.

  11. Susceptibility of different leukocyte cell types to Vaccinia virus infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez-Puig Juana M

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vaccinia virus, the prototype member of the family Poxviridae, was used extensively in the past as the Smallpox vaccine, and is currently considered as a candidate vector for new recombinant vaccines. Vaccinia virus has a wide host range, and is known to infect cultures of a variety of cell lines of mammalian origin. However, little is known about the virus tropism in human leukocyte populations. We report here that various cell types within leukocyte populations have widely different susceptibility to infection with vaccinia virus. Results We have investigated the ability of vaccinia virus to infect human PBLs by using virus recombinants expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP, and monoclonal antibodies specific for PBL subpopulations. Flow cytometry allowed the identification of infected cells within the PBL mixture 1–5 hours after infection. Antibody labeling revealed that different cell populations had very different infection rates. Monocytes showed the highest percentage of infected cells, followed by B lymphocytes and NK cells. In contrast to those cell types, the rate of infection of T lymphocytes was low. Comparison of vaccinia virus strains WR and MVA showed that both strains infected efficiently the monocyte population, although producing different expression levels. Our results suggest that MVA was less efficient than WR in infecting NK cells and B lymphocytes. Overall, both WR and MVA consistently showed a strong preference for the infection of non-T cells. Conclusions When infecting fresh human PBL preparations, vaccinia virus showed a strong bias towards the infection of monocytes, followed by B lymphocytes and NK cells. In contrast, very poor infection of T lymphocytes was detected. These finding may have important implications both in our understanding of poxvirus pathogenesis and in the development of improved smallpox vaccines.

  12. Cell type-specific pharmacological kinase inhibition for cancer chemoprevention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deshmukh, Manjeet; Nakagawa, Shigeki; Higashi, Takaaki; Vincek, Adam; Venkatesh, Anu; Ruiz de Galarreta, Marina; Koh, Anna P; Goossens, Nicolas; Hirschfield, Hadassa; Bian, C Billie; Fujiwara, Naoto; Ono, Atsushi; Hoshida, Hiroki; El-Abtah, Mohamed; Ahmad, Noor B; Lujambio, Amaia; Sanchez, Roberto; Fuchs, Bryan C; Poelstra, Klaas; Prakash, Jai; Hoshida, Yujin

    Safety is prerequisite for preventive medicine, but non-toxic agents are generally ineffective as clinical chemoprevention. Here we propose a strategy overcoming this challenge by delivering molecular-targeted agent specifically to the effector cell type to achieve sufficient potency, while

  13. Single-cell LEP-type cavity on measurement stand

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    A single-cell cavity, made of copper, with tapered connectors for impedance measurements. It was used as a model of LEP-type superconducting cavities, to investigate impedance and higher-order modes and operated at around 600 MHz (the LEP acceleration frequency was 352.2 MHz). See 8202500.

  14. Automated cell type discovery and classification through knowledge transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hao-Chih; Kosoy, Roman; Becker, Christine E.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Motivation: Recent advances in mass cytometry allow simultaneous measurements of up to 50 markers at single-cell resolution. However, the high dimensionality of mass cytometry data introduces computational challenges for automated data analysis and hinders translation of new biological understanding into clinical applications. Previous studies have applied machine learning to facilitate processing of mass cytometry data. However, manual inspection is still inevitable and becoming the barrier to reliable large-scale analysis. Results: We present a new algorithm called Automated Cell-type Discovery and Classification (ACDC) that fully automates the classification of canonical cell populations and highlights novel cell types in mass cytometry data. Evaluations on real-world data show ACDC provides accurate and reliable estimations compared to manual gating results. Additionally, ACDC automatically classifies previously ambiguous cell types to facilitate discovery. Our findings suggest that ACDC substantially improves both reliability and interpretability of results obtained from high-dimensional mass cytometry profiling data. Availability and Implementation: A Python package (Python 3) and analysis scripts for reproducing the results are availability on https://bitbucket.org/dudleylab/acdc. Contact: brian.kidd@mssm.edu or joel.dudley@mssm.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:28158442

  15. White blood cell subtypes and risk of type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongmei; Yang, Zhen; Zhang, Weiwei; Niu, Yixin; Li, Xiaoyong; Qin, Li; Su, Qing

    2017-01-01

    It is reported that total white blood cell is associated with risk of diabetes mellitus. The present study is to investigate the relationship of white blood cell subsets with incidence of type 2 diabetes at baseline and 3year follow-up. We chose individuals without diabetes history as our study population; 8991 individuals were included at baseline. All of the participants underwent a 75-g OGTT at baseline. White blood cell count including all the subsets were measured along with all the other laboratory indices. The participants who were not diagnosed with type 2 diabetes according to the WHO 1999 diagnostic criteria underwent another 75-g OGTT at 3year follow-up. The total WBC count, neutrophil count, and lymphocyte count were significantly increased in subjects newly diagnosed with diabetes mellitus compared to non-DM subjects at baseline (all ptype 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Possible etiologies for tropical spastic paraparesis and human T lymphotropic virus I-associated myelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zaninovic'

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The epidemiology of tropical spastic paraparesis/human T lymphotropic virus I (HTLV-I-associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM is frequently inconsistent and suggests environmental factors in the etiology of these syndromes. The neuropathology corresponds to a toxometabolic or autoimmune process and possibly not to a viral disease. Some logical hypotheses about the etiology and physiopathology of TSP and HAM are proposed. Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity, central distal axonopathies, cassava, lathyrism and cycad toxicity may explain most cases of TSP. The damage caused to astrocytes and to the blood-brain barrier by HTLV-I plus xenobiotics may explain most cases of HAM. Analysis of the HTLV-I/xenobiotic ratio clarifies most of the paradoxical epidemiology of TSP and HAM. Modern neurotoxicology, neuroimmunology and molecular biology may explain the neuropathology of TSP and HAM. It is quite possible that there are other xenobiotics implicated in the etiology of some TSP/HAMs. The prevention of these syndromes appears to be possible today.

  17. Human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLV) in England and Wales, 2004 to 2013: testing and diagnoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ireland, Georgina; Croxford, Sara; Tosswill, Jennifer; Raghu, Rajani; Davison, Katy; Hewitt, Patricia; Simmons, Ruth; Taylor, Graham

    2017-05-18

    Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV) infection has been under enhanced surveillance in England and Wales since 2002, however, little is known about testing patterns. Using data from two surveillance systems held at Public Health England, we described HTLV antibody testing patterns between 2008 and 2013 and the demographic and clinical characteristics of persons diagnosed with HTLV in England and Wales between 2004 and 2013. An increase in HTLV testing was observed in England between 2008 and 2013 (3,581 to 7,130). Most tests (82%; 7,597/9,302) occurred within secondary care, 0.5% (48/9,302) of persons were reactive for HTLV antibodies and 0.3% (27/9,302) were confirmed positive. Increasing age and female sex were predictors of a reactive HTLV screen and confirmed diagnosis. Testing in primary care including sexual health and antenatal services was infrequent. Between 2004 and 2013, 858 people were diagnosed with HTLV, most of whom were female (65%; 549/851), of black Caribbean ethnicity (60%), not born in the United Kingdom (72%; 369/514) and asymptomatic at diagnosis (45%; 267/595). Despite increased testing, the epidemiology and clinical features of those diagnosed with HTLV have remained consistent. Apart from donor screening, testing for HTLV infection remains uncommon, except to diagnose associated disease. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  18. Human mast cells decrease SLPI levels in type II – like alveolar cell model, in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyström Max

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mast cells are known to accumulate at sites of inflammation and upon activation to release their granule content, e.g. histamine, cytokines and proteases. The secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI is produced in the respiratory mucous and plays a role in regulating the activity of the proteases. Result We have used the HMC-1 cell line as a model for human mast cells to investigate their effect on SLPI expression and its levels in cell co-culture experiments, in vitro. In comparison with controls, we found a significant reduction in SLPI levels (by 2.35-fold, p Conclusion These results indicate that SLPI-producing cells may assist mast cell migration and that the regulation of SLPI release and/or consumption by mast cells requires interaction between these cell types. Therefore, a "local relationship" between mast cells and airway epithelial cells might be an important step in the inflammatory response.

  19. Type II NKT-TFH cells against Gaucher lipids regulate B-cell immunity and inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Shiny; Boddupalli, Chandra Sekhar; Verma, Rakesh; Liu, Jun; Yang, Ruhua; Pastores, Gregory M; Mistry, Pramod K; Dhodapkar, Madhav V

    2015-02-19

    Chronic inflammation including B-cell activation is commonly observed in both inherited (Gaucher disease [GD]) and acquired disorders of lipid metabolism. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying B-cell activation in these settings remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that β-glucosylceramide 22:0 (βGL1-22) and glucosylsphingosine (LGL1), 2 major sphingolipids accumulated in GD, can be recognized by a distinct subset of CD1d-restricted human and murine type II natural killer T (NKT) cells. Human βGL1-22- and LGL1-reactive CD1d tetramer-positive T cells have a distinct T-cell receptor usage and genomic and cytokine profiles compared with the classical type I NKT cells. In contrast to type I NKT cells, βGL1-22- and LGL1-specific NKT cells constitutively express T-follicular helper (TFH) phenotype. Injection of these lipids leads to an increase in respective lipid-specific type II NKT cells in vivo and downstream induction of germinal center B cells, hypergammaglobulinemia, and production of antilipid antibodies. Human βGL1-22- and LGL1-specific NKT cells can provide efficient cognate help to B cells in vitro. Frequency of LGL1-specific T cells in GD mouse models and patients correlates with disease activity and therapeutic response. Our studies identify a novel type II NKT-mediated pathway for glucosphingolipid-mediated dysregulation of humoral immunity and increased risk of B-cell malignancy observed in metabolic lipid disorders. © 2015 by The American Society of Hematology.

  20. Sulfatide-activated type II NKT cells prevent allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting type I NKT cell function in a mouse model of asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guqin; Nie, Hanxiang; Yang, Jiong; Ding, Xuhong; Huang, Yi; Yu, Hongying; Li, Ruyou; Yuan, Zhuqing; Hu, Suping

    2011-12-01

    Asthma is a common chronic inflammatory disease involving many different cell types. Recently, type I natural killer T (NKT) cells have been demonstrated to play a crucial role in the development of asthma. However, the roles of type II NKT cells in asthma have not been investigated before. Interestingly, type I and type II NKT cells have been shown to have opposing roles in antitumor immunity, antiparasite immunity, and autoimmunity. We hypothesized that sulfatide-activated type II NKT cells could prevent allergic airway inflammation by inhibiting type I NKT cell function in asthma. Strikingly, in our mouse model, activation of type II NKT cells by sulfatide administration and adoptive transfer of sulfatide-activated type II NKT cells result in reduced-inflammation cell infiltration in the lung and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, decreased levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in the BALF; and decreased serum levels of ovalbumin-specific IgE and IgG1. Furthermore, it is found that the activation of sulfatide-reactive type II NKT cells leads to the functional inactivation of type I NKT cells, including the proliferation and cytokine secretion. Our data reveal that type II NKT cells activated by glycolipids, such as sulfatide, may serve as a novel approach to treat allergic diseases and other disorders characterized by inappropriate type I NKT cell activation.

  1. Therapy-induced selective loss of leukemia-initiating activity in murine adult T cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Hajj, Hiba; El-Sabban, Marwan; Hasegawa, Hideki; Zaatari, Ghazi; Ablain, Julien; Saab, Shahrazad T; Janin, Anne; Mahfouz, Rami; Nasr, Rihab; Kfoury, Youmna; Nicot, Christophe; Hermine, Olivier; Hall, William; de Thé, Hugues; Bazarbachi, Ali

    2010-12-20

    Chronic HTLV-I (human T cell lymphotropic virus type I) infection may cause adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL), a disease with dismal long-term prognosis. The HTLV-I transactivator, Tax, initiates ATL in transgenic mice. In this study, we demonstrate that an As(2)O(3) and IFN-α combination, known to trigger Tax proteolysis, cures Tax-driven ATL in mice. Unexpectedly, this combination therapy abrogated initial leukemia engraftment into secondary recipients, whereas the primary tumor bulk still grew in the primary hosts, only to ultimately abate later on. This loss of initial transplantability required proteasome function. A similar regimen recently yielded unprecedented disease control in human ATL. Our demonstration that this drug combination targeting Tax stability abrogates tumor cell immortality but not short-term growth may foretell a favorable long-term efficiency of this regimen in patients.

  2. Genes affecting β-cell function in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fløyel, Tina; Kaur, Simranjeet; Pociot, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a multifactorial disease resulting from an immune-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic β cells. Several environmental and genetic risk factors predispose to the disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified around 50 genetic regions...... that affect the risk of developing T1D, but the disease-causing variants and genes are still largely unknown. In this review, we discuss the current status of T1D susceptibility loci and candidate genes with focus on the β cell. At least 40 % of the genes in the T1D susceptibility loci are expressed in human...... islets and β cells, where they according to recent studies modulate the β-cell response to the immune system. As most of the risk variants map to noncoding regions of the genome, i.e., promoters, enhancers, intergenic regions, and noncoding genes, their possible involvement in T1D pathogenesis as gene...

  3. Universal cell type identifier based on number theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosma, Antonio

    2018-02-23

    Cell type classification and handling is a key issue for understanding biological systems. The advent of high multiplexing technologies increased the complexity of the classification process and new tools are needed to support the organization of this knowledge. I propose a classification based on both prime numbers and the fundamental theorem of arithmetic. As a not limiting example, I show the application of this method to unambiguously define any existing cell type using the CD nomenclature established by the Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens Workshops. This system allows for the unique identification of any possible combination of markers hence any cell population without previous knowledge and without the need to increment the system. This method can be the future basis of any database and ontology system dealing with cell types and beyond the biological field applies to the description of any entity characterized by a list of discrete qualities. © 2018 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. © 2018 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  4. Automated cell type discovery and classification through knowledge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hao-Chih; Kosoy, Roman; Becker, Christine E; Dudley, Joel T; Kidd, Brian A

    2017-06-01

    Recent advances in mass cytometry allow simultaneous measurements of up to 50 markers at single-cell resolution. However, the high dimensionality of mass cytometry data introduces computational challenges for automated data analysis and hinders translation of new biological understanding into clinical applications. Previous studies have applied machine learning to facilitate processing of mass cytometry data. However, manual inspection is still inevitable and becoming the barrier to reliable large-scale analysis. We present a new algorithm called utomated ell-type iscovery and lassification (ACDC) that fully automates the classification of canonical cell populations and highlights novel cell types in mass cytometry data. Evaluations on real-world data show ACDC provides accurate and reliable estimations compared to manual gating results. Additionally, ACDC automatically classifies previously ambiguous cell types to facilitate discovery. Our findings suggest that ACDC substantially improves both reliability and interpretability of results obtained from high-dimensional mass cytometry profiling data. A Python package (Python 3) and analysis scripts for reproducing the results are availability on https://bitbucket.org/dudleylab/acdc . brian.kidd@mssm.edu or joel.dudley@mssm.edu. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  5. Nuclear DNA Content Varies with Cell Size across Human Cell Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillooly, James F.; Hein, Andrew; Damiani, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Variation in the size of cells, and the DNA they contain, is a basic feature of multicellular organisms that affects countless aspects of their structure and function. Within humans, cell size is known to vary by several orders of magnitude, and differences in nuclear DNA content among cells have been frequently observed. Using published data, here we describe how the quantity of nuclear DNA across 19 different human cell types increases with cell volume. This observed increase is similar to intraspecific relationships between DNA content and cell volume in other species, and interspecific relationships between diploid genome size and cell volume. Thus, we speculate that the quantity of nuclear DNA content in somatic cells of humans is perhaps best viewed as a distribution of values that reflects cell size distributions, rather than as a single, immutable quantity. PMID:26134319

  6. Apoptosis of pancreatic β-cells in Type 1 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuo Tomita

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM results from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic β-cells after an asymptomatic period over years. Insulitis activates antigen presenting cells, which trigger activating CD4+ helper-T cells, releasing chemokines/cytokines. Cytokines activate CD8+ cytotoxic–T cells, which lead to β-cell destruction. Apoptosis pathway consists of extrinsic (receptor-mediated and intrinsic (mitochondria-driven pathway. Extrinsic pathway includes Fas pathway to CD4+-CD8+ interaction, whereas intrinsic pathway includes mitochondria-driven pathway at a balance between anti-apoptotic B-cell lymphoma (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and pro-apoptotic Bad, Bid, and Bik proteins. Activated cleaved caspse-3 is the converging point between extrinsic and intrinsic pathway. Apoptosis takes place only when pro-apoptotic proteins exceed anti-apoptotic proteins. Since the concordance rate of T1DM in identical twins is about 50%, environmental factors are involved in the development of T1DM, opening a door to find means to detect and prevent further development of autoimmune β-cell destruction for a therapeutic application.

  7. The role of alveolar type II cells in swine leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela P. Campos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: This study aimed to investigate a possible relationship between alveolar type II cells and the inflammatory response to infection with Leptospira spp., and thus comprise a further element that can be involved in the pathogenesis of lung injury in naturally infected pigs. The study group consisted of 73 adult pigs that were extensively reared and slaughtered in Teresina, Piauí state, and Timon, Maranhão state, Brazil. The diagnosis of leptospirosis was made using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT aided by immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction. The MAT registered the occurrence of anti-Leptospira antibodies in 10.96% (8/73 of the pigs. Immunohistochemistry allowed for the visualization of the Leptospira spp. antigen in the lungs of 87.67% (64/73 of the pigs. There was hyperplasia of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue and circulatory changes, such as congestion of alveolar septa, parenchymal hemorrhage and edema within the alveoli. Lung inflammation was more intense (p = 0.0312 in infected animals, which also showed increased thickening of the alveolar septa (p = 0.0006. Evaluation of alveolar type II (ATII cells using an anti-TTF-1 (Thyroid Transcription Factor-1 antibody showed that there were more immunostained cells in the non-infected pigs (53.8% than in the infected animals (46.2% and that there was an inverse correlation between TTF-1 positive cells and the inflammatory infiltrate. There was no amplification of Leptospira DNA in the lung samples, but leptospiral DNA amplification was observed in the kidneys. The results of this study showed that a relationship exists between a decrease in alveolar type II cells and a leptospire infection. Thus, this work points to the importance of studying the ATII cells as a potential marker of the level of lung innate immune response during leptospirosis in pigs.

  8. FoxP3+ regulatory T cells are distinct from leukemia cells in HTLV-1-associated adult T-cell leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulza, Frederic; Nosaka, Kisato; Takiguchi, Masafumi; Pagliuca, Tony; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Taylor, Graham P; Bangham, Charles R M

    2009-11-15

    Human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the causative agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). It has been postulated that ATLL cells might act as regulatory T cells (T(regs)) which, in common with ATLL cells, express both CD25 and FoxP3, and so contribute to the severe immune suppression typical of ATLL. We report here that the frequency of CD25(+) cells varied independently of the frequency of FoxP3(+) cells in both a cross-sectional study and in a longitudinal study of 2 patients with chronic ATLL. Furthermore, the capacity of ATLL cells to suppress proliferation of heterologous CD4(+)CD25(-) cells correlated with the frequency of CD4(+) FoxP3(+) cells but was independent of CD25 expression. Finally, the frequency of CD4(+)FoxP3(+) cells was inversely correlated with the lytic activity of HTLV-1-specific CTLs in patients with ATLL. We conclude that ATLL is not a tumor of FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells, and that a population of FoxP3(+) cells distinct from ATLL cells has regulatory functions and may impair the cell-mediated immune response to HTLV-1 in patients with ATLL.

  9. The STATs in cell stress-type responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Best James

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In the early 1990's, a new cell signaling pathway was described. This new paradigm, now known as the JAK/STAT pathway, has been extensively investigated in immune-type cells in response to interferons and interleukins. However, recent evidence suggests that the JAK/STAT pathway also mediates diverse cellular responses to various forms of biological stress including hypoxia/reperfusion, endotoxin, ultraviolet light, and hyperosmolarity. The current literature describing the JAK/STAT pathway's role in cellular stress responses has been reviewed herein, but it is clear that our knowledge in this area is far from complete.

  10. Delicate balance among three types of T cells in concurrent regulation of tumor immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izhak, Liat; Ambrosino, Elena; Kato, Shingo; Parish, Stanley T.; O’Konek, Jessica J.; Weber, Hannah; Xia, Zheng; Venzon, David; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Terabe, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    The nature of the regulatory cell types that dominate in any given tumor is not understood at present. Here we addressed this question for Tregs and type II NKT cells in syngeneic models of colorectal and renal cancer. In mice with both type I and type II NKT cells, or in mice with neither type of NKT cell, Treg depletion was sufficient to protect against tumor outgrowth. Surprisingly, in mice lacking only type I NKT cells, Treg blockade was insufficient for protection. Thus, we hypothesized that type II NKT cells may be neutralized by type I NKT cells, leaving Treg cells as the primary suppressor, whereas in mice lacking type I NKT cells, unopposed type II NKT cells could suppress tumor immunity even when Tregs were blocked. We confirmed this hypothesis in three ways by reconstituting type I NKT cells as well as selectively blocking or activating type II NKT cells with antibody or the agonist sulfatide, respectively. In this manner, we demonstrated that blockade of both type II NKT cells and Tregs is necessary to abrogate suppression of tumor immunity, but a third cell, the type I NKT cell, determines the balance between these regulatory mechanisms. As cancer patients often have deficient type I NKT cell function, managing this delicate balance among three T cell subsets may be critical for the success of immunotherapy of human cancer. PMID:23319803

  11. Preimplantation HLA typing for stem cell transplantation treatment of hemoglobinopathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anver Kuliev

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD for HLA typing is steadily becoming an option for at risk couples with thalassemic children, requiring HLA matched bone marrow transplantation treatment. The paper presents the world’s largest PGD experience of 475 cases for over 2 dozens thalassemia mutations, resulting in birth of 132 unaffected children. A total of 146 cases were performed together with preimplantation HLA typing, resulting in detection and transfer of HLA matched unaffected embryos in 83 of them, yielding the birth of 16 HLA matched children, potential donors for their affected siblings. The presented experience of HLA matched stem cell transplantation for thalassemia, following PGD demonstrated a successful hematopoietic reconstitution both for younger and older patients. The data show that PGD is an efficient approach for HLA matched stem cell transplantation treatment for thalassemia.

  12. Study of homogeneous fuel cells type 10 x 10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montes, J.L.; Perusquia, R.; Ortiz, J.J.; Francois, J.L.; Marquez, C.M.

    2005-01-01

    At the moment in the National Institute of Nuclear Research (ININ) are carried out studies with the purpose of to establish a methodology that allows to carry out the neutron design of fuel cells of type 10 x 10. During the initial stage of the process of cells design, starting from the data that have to do with the planned energy demand it requires to be estimated the average value of the enrichment in U 235 w/o of the one assemble. The experience has shown that the accuracy that is achieved in this estimate it depends, among other factors, of the information (e.g. concentrations of U 235 and Gd 2 O 3 ) of the cells that its are disposed in that moment. For what we consider convenient to enlarge the available information by means of a series of calculations of cell physics; and to the one same time some aspects can be studied on the parameters that define the characteristics of a fuel cell. In this work the effect of the presence of different distributions of the concentrations of the fissile material is analyzed and of burnup poisons on the reactivity parameters of the cell as well as in the peak factor of local power (LPPF-Local Power Peaking Factor). (Author)

  13. Ca(2+) currents and voltage responses in Type I and Type II hair cells of the chick embryo semicircular canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetto, Sergio; Zampini, Valeria; Zucca, Giampiero; Valli, Paolo

    2005-11-01

    Type I and Type II hair cells, and Type II hair cells located in different zones of the semicircular canal crista, express different patterns of voltage-dependent K channels, each one specifically shaping the hair cell receptor potential. We report here that, close to hatching, chicken embryo semicircular canal Type I and Type II hair cells express a similar voltage-dependent L-type calcium current (I(Ca)), whose main features are: activation above -60 mV, fast activation kinetics, and scarce inactivation. I(Ca) should be already active at rest in Zone 1 Type II hair cells, whose resting membrane potential was on average slightly less negative than -60 mV. Conversely, I(Ca) would not be active at rest in Type II hair cells from Zone 2 and 3, nor in Type I hair cells, since their resting membrane potential was significantly more negative than -60 mV. However, even small depolarising currents would activate I(Ca) steadily in Zone 2 and 3 Type II hair cells, but not in Type I hair cells because of the robust repolarising action of their specific array of K(+) currents. The implications of the present findings in the afferent discharge are discussed.

  14. Development and Testing of Shingle-type Solar Cell Modules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The design, development, fabrication and testing of a shingle-type terrestrial solar cell module which produces 98 watts/sq m of exposed module area at 1 kW/sq m insolation and 61 C are reported. These modules make it possible to easily incorporate photovoltaic power generation into the sloping roofs of residential or commercial buildings by simply nailing the modules to the plywood roof sheathing. This design consists of nineteen series-connected 53 mm diameter solar cells arranged in a closely packed hexagon configuration. These cells are individually bonded to the embossed surface of a 3 mm thick thermally tempered hexagon-shaped piece of glass. Polyvinyl butyral is used as the laminating adhesive.

  15. New type of cells with multiple chromosome rearrangements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aseeva, E.A.; Domracheva, E.V.; Neverova, A.L; Bogomazova, A.N.; Snigiryova, G.P.; Novitskaya, N.N.; Khazins, E.D.

    2008-01-01

    Full text: A comparative analysis of the distribution and the frequency of multiaberrant cells (MAC) among lymphocytes in different categories of low dose (up to 0.5 Gy) irradiated people was carried out. MAC were found in most of the examined groups and they were absent in the control population. A highest MAC frequency was observed in people exposed to alpha radiation (Pu, Ra). This fact allows MAC to be considered as an indicator of a high-energy local exposure. A new type of cells with multiple chromosome rearrangements was discovered in the course of analysis of stable aberrations by the FISH method. The biological consequences of MAC formation and possibility of revealing the whole diversity of cells with multiple aberrations by means of modern molecular-cytogenetic methods is discussed

  16. The Functions of Type I and Type II Natural Killer T (NKT) Cells in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chia-Min; Zimmer, Michael I.; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2013-01-01

    CD1d-restricted natural killer T (NKT) cells are a distinct subset of T cells that rapidly produce an array of cytokines upon activation and play a critical role in regulating various immune responses. NKT cells are classified into two groups based on differences in T cell receptor (TCR) usage. Type I NKT cells have an invariant TCRα-chain and are readily detectable by α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer)-loaded CD1d tetramers. Type II NKT cells have a more diverse TCR repertoire and cannot be directly identified. Both types of NKT cells as well as multiple CD1d-expressing cell types are present in the intestine and their interactions are likely to be modulated by pathogenic and commensal microbes, which in turn contribute to the intestinal immune responses in health and disease. Indeed, in several animal models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Type I NKT cells have been shown to make both protective and pathogenic contributions to disease. In contrast, in human patients suffering from ulcerative colitis (UC), and a mouse model in which both CD1d expression and the frequency of Type II NKT cells are increased, Type II NKT cells appear to promote intestinal inflammation. In this review, we summarize present knowledge on the antigen recognition, activation and function of NKT cells with a particular focus on their role in IBD, and discuss factors that may influence the functional outcome of NKT cell responses in intestinal inflammation. PMID:23518808

  17. Cell type specific DNA methylation in cord blood: A 450K-reference data set and cell count-based validation of estimated cell type composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gervin, K. (Kristina); Page, C.M. (Christian Magnus); H.C.D. Aass (Hans Christian Dalsbotten); M.A.E. Jansen (Michelle); Fjeldstad, H.E. (Heidi Elisabeth); B.K. Andreassen (Bettina Kulle); L. Duijts (Liesbeth); J.B.J. van Meurs (Joyce); M.C. van Zelm (Menno); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Nordeng, H. (Hedvig); Knudsen, G.P. (Gunn Peggy); P. Magnus (Per); W. Nystad (Wenche); Staff, A.C. (Anne Cathrine); J.F. Felix (Janine); R. Lyle (Robert)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractEpigenome-wide association studies of prenatal exposure to different environmental factors are becoming increasingly common. These studies are usually performed in umbilical cord blood. Since blood comprises multiple cell types with specific DNA methylation patterns, confounding caused

  18. Evaluation of the use of real-time PCR for human T cell lymphotropic virus 1 and 2 as a confirmatory test in screening for blood donors Análise do uso da PCR em tempo real para HTLV-1 e 2 como teste confirmatório na triagem de doadores de sangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela Gomes Andrade

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: HTLV-1/2 screening among blood donors commonly utilizes an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA, followed by a confirmatory method such as Western blot (WB if the EIA is positive. However, this algorithm yields a high rate of inconclusive results, and is expensive. METHODS: Two qualitative real-time PCR assays were developed to detect HTLV-1 and 2, and a total of 318 samples were tested (152 blood donors, 108 asymptomatic carriers, 26 HAM/TSP patients and 30 seronegative individuals. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of PCR in comparison with WB results were 99.4% and 98.5%, respectively. PCR tests were more efficient for identifying the virus type, detecting HTLV-2 infection and defining inconclusive cases. CONCLUSIONS: Because real-time PCR is sensitive and practical and costs much less than WB, this technique can be used as a confirmatory test for HTLV in blood banks, as a replacement for WB.INTRODUÇÃO: A triagem para HTLV-1/2 em doadores de sangue geralmente utiliza imunoensaio enzimático, seguido de um método confirmatório como Western blot quando o EIA é positivo, mas este algoritmo mostra alta taxa de resultados inconclusivos, e elevado custo. MÉTODOS: Dois ensaios qualitativos de PCR em tempo real foram desenvolvidos para detectar HTLV-1 e 2 e um total de 318 amostras foram testadas por PCR (152 de doadores de sangue, 108 de portadores assintomáticos, 26 de pacientes HAM/TSP e 30 de indivíduos soronegativos. RESULTADOS: A sensibilidade e especificidade das PCR em relação aos resultados de WB foram de 99,4% e 98,5%, respectivamente. As PCR foram mais eficientes em identificar o tipo viral, a infecção pelo HTLV-2 e úteis para definir casos inconclusivos. CONCLUSÕES: Por serem sensíveis, práticas e de custo muito inferior ao do WB, as técnicas de PCR em tempo real podem ser usadas como teste confirmatório do HTLV em bancos de sangue, em substituição ao WB.

  19. Cellulose synthesis in two secondary cell wall processes in a single cell type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendu, Venugopal; Stork, Jozsef; Harris, Darby; DeBolt, Seth

    2011-11-01

    Plant cells have a rigid cell wall that constrains internal turgor pressure yet extends in a regulated and organized manner to allow the cell to acquire shape. The primary load-bearing macromolecule of a plant cell wall is cellulose, which forms crystalline microfibrils that are organized with respect to a cell's function and shape requirements. A primary cell wall is deposited during expansion whereas secondary cell wall is synthesized post expansion during differentiation. A complex form of asymmetrical cellular differentiation occurs in Arabidopsis seed coat epidermal cells, where we have recently shown that two secondary cell wall processes occur that utilize different cellulose synthase (CESA) proteins. One process is to produce pectinaceous mucilage that expands upon hydration and the other is a radial wall thickening that reinforced the epidermal cell structure. Our data illustrate polarized specialization of CESA5 in facilitating mucilage attachment to the parent seed and CESA2, CESA5 and CESA9 in radial cell wall thickening and formation of the columella. Herein, we present a model for the complexity of cellulose biosynthesis in this highly differentiated cell type with further evidence supporting each cellulosic secondary cell wall process.

  20. Cell type-specific neuroprotective activity of untranslocated prion protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Restelli

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available A key pathogenic role in prion diseases was proposed for a cytosolic form of the prion protein (PrP. However, it is not clear how cytosolic PrP localization influences neuronal viability, with either cytotoxic or anti-apoptotic effects reported in different studies. The cellular mechanism by which PrP is delivered to the cytosol of neurons is also debated, and either retrograde transport from the endoplasmic reticulum or inefficient translocation during biosynthesis has been proposed. We investigated cytosolic PrP biogenesis and effect on cell viability in primary neuronal cultures from different mouse brain regions.Mild proteasome inhibition induced accumulation of an untranslocated form of cytosolic PrP in cortical and hippocampal cells, but not in cerebellar granules. A cyclopeptolide that interferes with the correct insertion of the PrP signal sequence into the translocon increased the amount of untranslocated PrP in cortical and hippocampal cells, and induced its synthesis in cerebellar neurons. Untranslocated PrP boosted the resistance of cortical and hippocampal neurons to apoptotic insults but had no effect on cerebellar cells.These results indicate cell type-dependent differences in the efficiency of PrP translocation, and argue that cytosolic PrP targeting might serve a physiological neuroprotective function.

  1. Concise review: alchemy of biology: generating desired cell types from abundant and accessible cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pournasr, Behshad; Khaloughi, Keynoush; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini; Totonchi, Mehdi; Shahbazi, Ebrahim; Baharvand, Hossein

    2011-12-01

    A major goal of regenerative medicine is to produce cells to participate in the generation, maintenance, and repair of tissues that are damaged by disease, aging, or trauma, such that function is restored. The establishment of induced pluripotent stem cells, followed by directed differentiation, offers a powerful strategy for producing patient-specific therapies. Given how laborious and lengthy this process can be, the conversion of somatic cells into lineage-specific stem/progenitor cells in one step, without going back to, or through, a pluripotent stage, has opened up tremendous opportunities for regenerative medicine. However, there are a number of obstacles to overcome before these cells can be widely considered for clinical applications. Here, we focus on induced transdifferentiation strategies to convert mature somatic cells to other mature cell types or progenitors, and we summarize the challenges that need to be met if the potential applications of transdifferentiation technology are to be achieved. Copyright © 2011 AlphaMed Press.

  2. Inhibition of type I NKT cells by retinoids or following sulfatide-mediated activation of type II NKT cells attenuates alcoholic liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricic, Igor; Sheng, Huiming; Marrero, Idania; Seki, Ehikiro; Kisseleva, Tatiana; Chaturvedi, Som; Molle, Natasha; Mathews, K. Stephanie; Gao, Bin; Kumar, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Innate immune mechanisms leading to liver injury following chronic alcohol ingestion are poorly understood. Natural killer T (NKT) cells, enriched in the liver and comprised of at least two distinct subsets, type I and type II, recognize different lipid antigens presented by CD1d molecules. We have investigated whether differential activation of NKT cell subsets orchestrates inflammatory events leading to alcoholic liver disease (ALD). We found that following chronic plus binge feeding of Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet in male C57BL/6 mice, type I but not type II NKT cells are activated leading to recruitment of inflammatory Gr-1highCD11b+ cells into liver. A central finding is that liver injury following alcohol feeding is dependent upon type I NKT cells. Thus liver injury is significantly inhibited in Jα18−/− mice deficient in type I NKT cells as well as following their inactivation by sulfatide-mediated activation of type II NKT cells. Furthermore we have identified a novel pathway involving all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and its receptor RARγ signaling that inhibits type I NKT cells and consequently ALD. A semi-quantitative PCR analysis of hepatic gene expression of some of the key proinflammatory molecules shared in human disease indicated that their upregulation in ALD is dependent upon type I NKT cells. Conclusion Type I but not type II NKT cells become activated following alcohol feeding. Type I NKT cells-induced inflammation and neutrophil recruitment results in liver tissue damage while type II NKT cells protect from injury in ALD. Inhibition of type I NKT cells by retinoids or by sulfatide prevents ALD. Since the CD1d pathway is highly conserved between mice and humans, NKT cell subsets might be targeted for potential therapeutic intervention in ALD. PMID:25477000

  3. SARS-CoV replicates in primary human alveolar type II cell cultures but not in type I-like cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossel, Eric C.; Wang, Jieru; Jeffers, Scott; Edeen, Karen E.; Wang, Shuanglin; Cosgrove, Gregory P.; Funk, C. Joel; Manzer, Rizwan; Miura, Tanya A.; Pearson, Leonard D.; Holmes, Kathryn V.; Mason, Robert J.

    2008-01-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a disease characterized by diffuse alveolar damage. We isolated alveolar type II cells and maintained them in a highly differentiated state. Type II cell cultures supported SARS-CoV replication as evidenced by RT-PCR detection of viral subgenomic RNA and an increase in virus titer. Virus titers were maximal by 24 hours and peaked at approximately 105 pfu/mL. Two cell types within the cultures were infected. One cell type was type II cells, which were positive for SP-A, SP-C, cytokeratin, a type II cell-specific monoclonal antibody, and Ep-CAM. The other cell type was composed of spindle-shaped cells that were positive for vimentin and collagen III and likely fibroblasts. Viral replication was not detected in type I-like cells or macrophages. Hence, differentiated adult human alveolar type II cells were infectible but alveolar type I-like cells and alveolar macrophages did not support productive infection. PMID:18022664

  4. Cell-Type Specific Penetrating Peptides: Therapeutic Promises and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliha Zahid

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell penetrating peptides (CPP, also known as protein transduction domains (PTD, are small peptides able to carry peptides, proteins, nucleic acid, and nanoparticles, including viral particles, across the cellular membranes into cells, resulting in internalization of the intact cargo. In general, CPPs can be broadly classified into tissue-specific and non-tissue specific peptides, with the latter further sub-divided into three types: (1 cationic peptides of 6–12 amino acids in length comprised predominantly of arginine, lysine and/or ornithine residues; (2 hydrophobic peptides such as leader sequences of secreted growth factors or cytokines; and (3 amphipathic peptides obtained by linking hydrophobic peptides to nuclear localizing signals. Tissue-specific peptides are usually identified by screening of large peptide phage display libraries. These transduction peptides have the potential for a myriad of diagnostic as well as therapeutic applications, ranging from delivery of fluorescent or radioactive compounds for imaging, to delivery of peptides and proteins of therapeutic potential, and improving uptake of DNA, RNA, siRNA and even viral particles. Here we review the potential applications as well as hurdles to the tremendous potential of these CPPs, in particular the cell-type specific peptides.

  5. A novel Cre recombinase imaging system for tracking lymphotropic virus infection in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadette M Dutia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection, isolation, and identification of individual virus infected cells during long term infection are critical to advance our understanding of mechanisms of pathogenesis for latent/persistent viruses. However, current approaches to study these viruses in vivo have been hampered by low sensitivity and effects of cell-type on expression of viral encoded reporter genes. We have designed a novel Cre recombinase (Cre-based murine system to overcome these problems, and thereby enable tracking and isolation of individual in vivo infected cells.Murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV-68 was used as a prototypic persistent model virus. A Cre expressing recombinant virus was constructed and characterised. The virus is attenuated both in lytic virus replication, producing ten-fold lower lung virus titres than wild type virus, and in the establishment of latency. However, despite this limitation, when the sEGFP7 mouse line containing a Cre-activated enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP was infected with the Cre expressing virus, sites of latent and persistent virus infection could be identified within B cells and macrophages of the lymphoid system on the basis of EGFP expression. Importantly, the use of the sEGFP7 mouse line which expresses high levels of EGFP allowed individual virus positive cells to be purified by FACSorting. Virus gene expression could be detected in these cells. Low numbers of EGFP positive cells could also be detected in the bone marrow.The use of this novel Cre-based virus/mouse system allowed identification of individual latently infected cells in vivo and may be useful for the study and long-term monitoring of other latent/persistent virus infections.

  6. Human T-cell lymphotropic virus in a population of pregnant women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Routine screening for HTLV infection may go a long way to understanding the epidemiology of HTLV infection in Nigeria and subsequently provide tools for its prevention and control. Keywords: HTLV, prevalence, pregnant women, commercial sex workers, Nigeria. African Health Sciences Vol. 7 (3) 2007: pp.

  7. Cell-type-specific gene delivery into neuronal cells in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parveen, Zahida; Mukhtar, Muhammad; Rafi, Mohammed; Wenger, David A.; Siddiqui, Khwaja M.; Siler, Catherine A.; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Pomerantz, Roger J.; Schnell, Matthias J.; Dornburg, Ralph

    2003-01-01

    The avian retroviruses reticuloendotheliosis virus strain A (REV-A) and spleen necrosis virus (SNV) are not naturally infectious in human cells. However, REV-A-derived viral vectors efficiently infect human cells when they are pseudotyped with envelope proteins displaying targeting ligands specific for human cell-surface receptors. Here we report that vectors containing the gag region of REV-A and pol of SNV can be pseudotyped with the envelope protein of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) and the glycoproteins of different rabies virus (RV) strains. Vectors pseudotyped with the envelope protein of the highly neurotropic RV strain CVS-N2c facilitated cell type-specific gene delivery into mouse and human neurons, but did not infect other human cell types. Moreover, when such vector particles were injected into the brain of newborn mice, only neuronal cells were infected in vivo. Cell-type-specific gene delivery into neurons may present quite specific gene therapy approaches for many degenerative diseases of the brain

  8. Target cell cyclophilins facilitate human papillomavirus type 16 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malgorzata Bienkowska-Haba

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Following attachment to primary receptor heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG, human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV16 particles undergo conformational changes affecting the major and minor capsid proteins, L1 and L2, respectively. This results in exposure of the L2 N-terminus, transfer to uptake receptors, and infectious internalization. Here, we report that target cell cyclophilins, peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases, are required for efficient HPV16 infection. Cell surface cyclophilin B (CyPB facilitates conformational changes in capsid proteins, resulting in exposure of the L2 N-terminus. Inhibition of CyPB blocked HPV16 infection by inducing noninfectious internalization. Mutation of a putative CyP binding site present in HPV16 L2 yielded exposed L2 N-terminus in the absence of active CyP and bypassed the need for cell surface CyPB. However, this mutant was still sensitive to CyP inhibition and required CyP for completion of infection, probably after internalization. Taken together, these data suggest that CyP is required during two distinct steps of HPV16 infection. Identification of cell surface CyPB will facilitate the study of the complex events preceding internalization and adds a putative drug target for prevention of HPV-induced diseases.

  9. Basal Cell Carcinoma in Type 2 Segmental Darier's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Robertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Darier's disease (DD, also known as Keratosis Follicularis or Darier-White disease, is a rare disorder of keratinization. DD can present as a generalized autosomal dominant condition as well as a localized or segmental postzygotic condition (Vázquez et al., 2002. Clinical features of DD include greasy, warty papules and plaques on seborrheic areas, dystrophic nails, palmo-plantar pits, and papules on the dorsum of the hands and feet. Objective. We report a case of basal cell carcinoma developing in a patient with type 2 segmental DD. Conclusion. According to the current literature, Type 2 segmental disease is a rare presentation of Darier's disease with only 8 previous cases reported to date. In addition, nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC arising from DD is rarely reported; however, there may be an association between DD and risk of carcinogenesis.

  10. Acoustic Luneburg lens using orifice-type metamaterial unit cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Choon Mahn; Lee, Sang Hun

    2018-02-01

    A two-dimensional acoustic Luneburg lens that can be easily expanded into a three-dimensional sphere is fabricated. The required spatial distribution of the refractive index for this Luneburg lens is realized using the characteristics of orifice-type metamaterial unit cells. Typical characteristics of the resulting acoustic Luneburg lens, such as its aberration-free performance and capability for antipodal focusing of the lens for the incident plane waves, are investigated through experiments and simulations with the attenuation loss at frequencies that satisfy the homogeneous medium condition of the metamaterial. With the designed metamaterial, we achieved the minimum spot that lies within the classical diffraction limit at the focal point.

  11. Revisit the Candidacy of Brain Cell Types as the Cell(s) of Origin for Human High-Grade Glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Fangjie; Liu, Chong

    2018-01-01

    High-grade glioma, particularly, glioblastoma, is the most aggressive cancer of the central nervous system (CNS) in adults. Due to its heterogeneous nature, glioblastoma almost inevitably relapses after surgical resection and radio-/chemotherapy, and is thus highly lethal and associated with a dismal prognosis. Identifying the cell of origin has been considered an important aspect in understanding tumor heterogeneity, thereby holding great promise in designing novel therapeutic strategies for glioblastoma. Taking advantage of genetic lineage-tracing techniques, performed mainly on genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs), multiple cell types in the CNS have been suggested as potential cells of origin for glioblastoma, among which adult neural stem cells (NSCs) and oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are the major candidates. However, it remains highly debated whether these cell types are equally capable of transforming in patients, given that in the human brain, some cell types divide so slowly, therefore may never have a chance to transform. With the recent advances in studying adult NSCs and OPCs, particularly from the perspective of comparative biology, we now realize that notable differences exist among mammalian species. These differences have critical impacts on shaping our understanding of the cell of origin of glioma in humans. In this perspective, we update the current progress in this field and clarify some misconceptions with inputs from important findings about the biology of adult NSCs and OPCs. We propose to re-evaluate the cellular origin candidacy of these cells, with an emphasis on comparative studies between animal models and humans.

  12. Induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells in a cultured cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Scott, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    The functions of pulmonary type II cells, such as synthesis of pulmonary surfactant and metabolism of inhaled xenobiotics, can be studied in primary isolates of lung cells. However, isolated type II cells, when cultured, quickly lose the phenotypic expressions characteristics of type II cells, including surfactant lipid and protein synthesis and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. A cultured cell line that maintained expression of type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous for the study of such functions as surfactant synthesis and secretion. Such a cell line would allow generation of a large number of homogeneous cells for study. The purpose of the current study was to induce markers of differentiated type II cells in a cultured cell line to facilitate studies of factors that control surfactant synthesis and secretion

  13. Cell-Type-Specific Splicing of Piezo2 Regulates Mechanotransduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Szczot

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Piezo2 is a mechanically activated ion channel required for touch discrimination, vibration detection, and proprioception. Here, we discovered that Piezo2 is extensively spliced, producing different Piezo2 isoforms with distinct properties. Sensory neurons from both mice and humans express a large repertoire of Piezo2 variants, whereas non-neuronal tissues express predominantly a single isoform. Notably, even within sensory ganglia, we demonstrate the splicing of Piezo2 to be cell type specific. Biophysical characterization revealed substantial differences in ion permeability, sensitivity to calcium modulation, and inactivation kinetics among Piezo2 splice variants. Together, our results describe, at the molecular level, a potential mechanism by which transduction is tuned, permitting the detection of a variety of mechanosensory stimuli. : Szczot et al. find that the mechanoreceptor Piezo2 is extensively alternatively spliced, generating multiple distinct isoforms. Their findings indicate that these splice products have specific tissue and cell type expression patterns and exhibit differences in receptor properties. Keywords: Piezo, touch, sensation, ion-channel, splicing

  14. Characterisation of cell adhesion in airway epithelial cell types using electric cell-substrate impedance sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijink, I H; Brandenburg, S M; Noordhoek, J A; Postma, D S; Slebos, D-J; van Oosterhout, A J M

    Research on epithelial cell lines and primary epithelium is required to dissect the mechanisms underlying the structural abnormalities in airway epithelium observed for respiratory diseases, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The novel electric cell-substrate impedance

  15. Choline Deficiency Causes Colonic Type II Natural Killer T (NKT) Cell Loss and Alleviates Murine Colitis under Type I NKT Cell Deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagami, Shintaro; Ueno, Yoshitaka; Tanaka, Shinji; Fujita, Akira; Niitsu, Hiroaki; Hayashi, Ryohei; Hyogo, Hideyuki; Hinoi, Takao; Kitadai, Yasuhiko; Chayama, Kazuaki

    2017-01-01

    Serum levels of choline and its derivatives are lower in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) than in healthy individuals. However, the effect of choline deficiency on the severity of colitis has not been investigated. In the present study, we investigated the role of choline deficiency in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. Methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet lowered the levels of type II natural killer T (NKT) cells in the colonic lamina propria, peritoneal cavity, and mesenteric lymph nodes, and increased the levels of type II NKT cells in the livers of wild-type B6 mice compared with that in mice fed a control (CTR) diet. The gene expression pattern of the chemokine receptor CXCR6, which promotes NKT cell accumulation, varied between colon and liver in a manner dependent on the changes in the type II NKT cell levels. To examine the role of type II NKT cells in colitis under choline-deficient conditions, we assessed the severity of DSS-induced colitis in type I NKT cell-deficient (Jα18-/-) or type I and type II NKT cell-deficient (CD1d-/-) mice fed the MCD or CTR diets. The MCD diet led to amelioration of inflammation, decreases in interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-4 secretion, and a decrease in the number of IFN-γ and IL-4-producing NKT cells in Jα18-/- mice but not in CD1d-/- mice. Finally, adaptive transfer of lymphocytes with type II NKT cells exacerbated DSS-induced colitis in Jα18-/- mice with MCD diet. These results suggest that choline deficiency causes proinflammatory type II NKT cell loss and alleviates DSS-induced colitis. Thus, inflammation in DSS-induced colitis under choline deficiency is caused by type II NKT cell-dependent mechanisms, including decreased type II NKT cell and proinflammatory cytokine levels.

  16. Membrane Targeting of P-type ATPases in Plant Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Jeffrey F.

    2004-01-01

    How membrane proteins are targeted to specific subcellular locations is a very complex and poorly understood area of research. Our long-term goal is to use P-type ATPases (ion pumps), in a model plant system Arabidopsis, as a paradigm to understand how members of a family of closely related membrane proteins can be targeted to different subcellular locations. The research is divided into two specific aims. The first aim is focused on determining the targeting destination of all 10 ACA-type calcium pumps (Arabidopsis Calcium ATPase) in Arabidopsis. ACAs represent a plant specific-subfamily of plasma membrane-type calcium pumps. In contrast to animals, the plant homologs have been found in multiple membrane systems, including the ER (ACA2), tonoplast (ACA4) and plasma membrane (ACA8). Their high degree of similarity provides a unique opportunity to use a comparative approach to delineate the membrane specific targeting information for each pump. One hypothesis to be tested is that an endomembrane located ACA can be re-directed to the plasma membrane by including targeting information from a plasma membrane isoform, ACA8. Our approach is to engineer domain swaps between pumps and monitor the targeting of chimeric proteins in plant cells using a Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) as a tag. The second aim is to test the hypothesis that heterologous transporters can be engineered into plants and targeted to the plasma membrane by fusing them to a plasma membrane proton pump. As a test case we are evaluating the targeting properties of fusions made between a yeast sodium/proton exchanger (Sod2) and a proton pump (AHA2). This fusion may potentially lead to a new strategy for engineering salt resistant plants. Together these aims are designed to provide fundamental insights into the biogenesis and function of plant cell membrane systems

  17. Membrane Targeting of P-type ATPases in Plant Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeffrey F. Harper, Ph.D.

    2004-06-30

    How membrane proteins are targeted to specific subcellular locations is a very complex and poorly understood area of research. Our long-term goal is to use P-type ATPases (ion pumps), in a model plant system Arabidopsis, as a paradigm to understand how members of a family of closely related membrane proteins can be targeted to different subcellular locations. The research is divided into two specific aims. The first aim is focused on determining the targeting destination of all 10 ACA-type calcium pumps (Arabidopsis Calcium ATPase) in Arabidopsis. ACAs represent a plant specific-subfamily of plasma membrane-type calcium pumps. In contrast to animals, the plant homologs have been found in multiple membrane systems, including the ER (ACA2), tonoplast (ACA4) and plasma membrane (ACA8). Their high degree of similarity provides a unique opportunity to use a comparative approach to delineate the membrane specific targeting information for each pump. One hypothesis to be tested is that an endomembrane located ACA can be re-directed to the plasma membrane by including targeting information from a plasma membrane isoform, ACA8. Our approach is to engineer domain swaps between pumps and monitor the targeting of chimeric proteins in plant cells using a Green Fluorescence Protein (GFP) as a tag. The second aim is to test the hypothesis that heterologous transporters can be engineered into plants and targeted to the plasma membrane by fusing them to a plasma membrane proton pump. As a test case we are evaluating the targeting properties of fusions made between a yeast sodium/proton exchanger (Sod2) and a proton pump (AHA2). This fusion may potentially lead to a new strategy for engineering salt resistant plants. Together these aims are designed to provide fundamental insights into the biogenesis and function of plant cell membrane systems.

  18. 2B4-SAP signaling is required for the priming of naive CD8+T cells by antigen-expressing B cells and B lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hsuan; Tsai, Kevin; Tan, Sara Y; Kang, Sohyeong; Ford, Mandy L; Harder, Kenneth W; Priatel, John J

    2017-01-01

    Mutations in SH2D1A gene that encodes SAP (SLAM-associated protein) result in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP), a rare primary immunodeficiency disease defined by exquisite sensitivity to the B-lymphotropic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and B cell lymphomas. However, the precise mechanism of how the loss of SAP function contributes to extreme vulnerability to EBV and the development of B cell lymphomas remains unclear. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that SAP is critical for CD8 + T cell immune surveillance of antigen (Ag)-expressing B cells or B lymphoma cells under conditions of defined T cell receptor (TCR) signaling. Sh2d1a - / - CD8 + T cells exhibited greatly diminished proliferation relative to wild type when Ag-presenting-B cells or -B lymphoma cells served as the primary Ag-presenting cell (APC). By contrast, Sh2d1a - / - CD8 + T cells responded equivalently to wild-type CD8 + T cells when B cell-depleted splenocytes, melanoma cells or breast carcinoma cells performed Ag presentation. Through application of signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM) family receptor blocking antibodies or SLAM family receptor-deficient CD8 + T cells and APCs, we found that CD48 engagement on the B cell surface by 2B4 is crucial for initiating SAP-dependent signaling required for the Ag-driven CD8 + T cell proliferation and differentiation. Altogether, a pivotal role for SAP in promoting the expansion and differentiation of B cell-primed viral-specific naive CD8 + T cells may explain the selective immune deficiency of XLP patients to EBV and B cell lymphomas.

  19. Type of cell death induced by seven metals in cultured mouse osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, René García; Vilchis, José Rogelio Scougall; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yuko; Nakamura, Yukio; Hibino, Yasushi; Nakajima, Hiroshi; Shimada, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The use of dental metal alloys in the daily clinic makes it necessary to evaluate the cytotoxicity of eluted metal components against oral cells. However, the cytotoxic mechanism and the type of cell death induced by dental metals in osteoblasts have not been well characterized. This study investigated the cytotoxicity of seven metals against the mouse osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. alpha-MEM was used as a culture medium, since this medium provided much superior proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells over DMEM. Ag (NH(3))(2)F was the most cytotoxic, followed by CuCl>CuCl(2) >CoCl(2), NiCl(2)>FeCl(3) and FeCl(2) (least toxic). None of the metals showed any apparent growth stimulating effect (so-called 'hormesis') at lower concentrations. A time course study demonstrated that two hours of contact between oral cells and Ag (NH(3))(2)F, CuCl, CoCl(2) or NiCl(2) induced irreversible cell death. Contact with these metals induced a smear pattern of DNA fragmentation without activation of caspase-3. Preincubation of MC3T3-E1 cells with either a caspase inhibitor (Z-VAD-FMK) or autophagy inhibitors (3-methyladenine, bafilomycin) failed to rescue them from metal cytotoxicity. These data suggest the induction of necrotic cell death rather than apoptosis and autophagy by metals in this osteoblastic cell line.

  20. A model for cell type localization in the migrating slug of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    PRAKASH

    . Localization of the three major cell types within the migrating slug stage is a dynamic process (Sternfeld 1992;. A model for cell type localization in the migrating slug of Dictyostelium discoideum based on differential chemotactic sensitivity to ...

  1. Cell Type-Specific Chromatin Signatures Underline Regulatory DNA Elements in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells and Somatic Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ming-Tao; Shao, Ning-Yi; Hu, Shijun; Ma, Ning; Srinivasan, Rajini; Jahanbani, Fereshteh; Lee, Jaecheol; Zhang, Sophia L; Snyder, Michael P; Wu, Joseph C

    2017-11-10

    Regulatory DNA elements in the human genome play important roles in determining the transcriptional abundance and spatiotemporal gene expression during embryonic heart development and somatic cell reprogramming. It is not well known how chromatin marks in regulatory DNA elements are modulated to establish cell type-specific gene expression in the human heart. We aimed to decipher the cell type-specific epigenetic signatures in regulatory DNA elements and how they modulate heart-specific gene expression. We profiled genome-wide transcriptional activity and a variety of epigenetic marks in the regulatory DNA elements using massive RNA-seq (n=12) and ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with high-throughput sequencing; n=84) in human endothelial cells (CD31 + CD144 + ), cardiac progenitor cells (Sca-1 + ), fibroblasts (DDR2 + ), and their respective induced pluripotent stem cells. We uncovered 2 classes of regulatory DNA elements: class I was identified with ubiquitous enhancer (H3K4me1) and promoter (H3K4me3) marks in all cell types, whereas class II was enriched with H3K4me1 and H3K4me3 in a cell type-specific manner. Both class I and class II regulatory elements exhibited stimulatory roles in nearby gene expression in a given cell type. However, class I promoters displayed more dominant regulatory effects on transcriptional abundance regardless of distal enhancers. Transcription factor network analysis indicated that human induced pluripotent stem cells and somatic cells from the heart selected their preferential regulatory elements to maintain cell type-specific gene expression. In addition, we validated the function of these enhancer elements in transgenic mouse embryos and human cells and identified a few enhancers that could possibly regulate the cardiac-specific gene expression. Given that a large number of genetic variants associated with human diseases are located in regulatory DNA elements, our study provides valuable resources for deciphering

  2. Changing practice: red blood cell typing by molecular methods for patients with sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, Jessica; Friedman, David F; Jackson, Tannoa; Vege, Sunitha; Westhoff, Connie M; Chou, Stella T

    2015-06-01

    Extended red blood cell (RBC) antigen matching is recommended to limit alloimmunization in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD). DNA-based testing to predict blood group phenotypes has enhanced availability of antigen-negative donor units and improved typing of transfused patients, but replacement of routine serologic typing for non-ABO antigens with molecular typing for patients has not been reported. This study compared the historical RBC antigen phenotypes obtained by hemagglutination methods with genotype predictions in 494 patients with SCD. For discrepant results, repeat serologic testing was performed and/or investigated by gene sequencing for silent or variant alleles. Seventy-one typing discrepancies were identified among 6360 antigen comparisons (1.1%). New specimens for repeat serologic testing were obtained for 66 discrepancies and retyping agreed with the genotype in 64 cases. One repeat Jk(b-) serologic phenotype, predicted Jk(b+) by genotype, was found by direct sequencing of JK to be a silenced allele, and one N typing discrepancy remains under investigation. Fifteen false-negative serologic results were associated with alleles encoding weak antigens or single-dose Fy(b) expression. DNA-based RBC typing provided improved accuracy and expanded information on RBC antigens compared to hemagglutination methods, leading to its implementation as the primary method for extended RBC typing for patients with SCD at our institution. © 2015 AABB.

  3. Alveolar epithelial type II cells induce T cell tolerance to specific antigen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lo, Bernice; Hansen, Søren; Evans, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    The lungs face the immunologic challenge of rapidly eliminating inhaled pathogens while maintaining tolerance to innocuous Ags. A break in this immune homeostasis may result in pulmonary inflammatory diseases, such as allergies or asthma. The observation that alveolar epithelial type II cells (Ty...

  4. Enteroviruses, pancreatic beta-cells, and dendritic cells: a dangerous triangle in type 1 diabetes etiology?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schulte, B.M.

    2010-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus) is an endocrine autoimmune disorder in which the insulin-producing beta-cells in the pancreas are gradually destroyed. Enterovirus infections (in particular coxsackievirus and echovirus) have been implicated in the development of

  5. The Macrophage Galactose-Type C-Type Lectin (MGL Modulates Regulatory T Cell Functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilaria Grazia Zizzari

    Full Text Available Regulatory T cells (Tregs are physiologically designed to prevent autoimmune disease and maintain self-tolerance. In tumour microenvironments, their presence is related to a poor prognosis, and they influence the therapeutic outcome due to their capacity to suppress the immune response by cell-cell contact and to release immunosuppressive cytokines. In this study, we demonstrate that Treg immunosuppressive activity can be modulated by the cross-linking between the CD45RA expressed by Tregs and the C-type lectin MGL. This specific interaction strongly decreases the immunosuppressive activity of Tregs, restoring the proliferative capacity of co-cultured T lymphocytes. This effect can be attributed to changes in CD45RA and TCR signalling through the inhibition of Lck and inactivation of Zap-70, an increase in the Foxp3 methylation status and, ultimately, the reduced production of suppressive cytokines. These results indicate a role of MGL as an immunomodulator within the tumour microenvironment interfering with Treg functions, suggesting its possible use in the design of anticancer vaccines.

  6. The statistical geometry of transcriptome divergence in cell-type evolution and cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Cong; Forrest, Alistair R. R.; Wagner, Günter P.; Alam, Intikhab; Albanese, Davide; Altschuler, Gabriel; Andersson, Robin; Arakawa, Takahiro; Archer, John; Arner, Erik; Arner, Peter; Babina, Magda; Baillie, Kenneth; Bajic, Vladmir; Baker, Sarah; Balic, Adam; Balwierz, Piotr; Beckhouse, Anthony; Bertin, Nicolas; Blake, Judith A.; Blumenthal, Antje; Bodega, Beatrice; Bonetti, Alessandro; Briggs, James; Brombacher, Frank; Burroughs, Max; Califano, Andrea; Cannistraci, Carlo; Carbajo, Daniel; Carninci, Piero; Chen, Yun; Chierici, Marco; Ciani, Yari; Clevers, Hans; Dalla, Emiliano; Daub, Carsten; Davis, Carrie; de Hoon, Michiel; de Lima Morais, David; Dermar, Michael; Diehl, Alexander; Dimont, Emmanuel; Dohl, Taeko; Drabros, Finn; Edge, Albert; Edinger, Matthias; Ekwall, Karl; Endoh, Mitsuhiro; Enomoto, Hideki; Fagiolini, Michela; Fairbairn, Lynsey; Fang, Hai; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Faulkner, Geoffery; Favorov, Alexander; Fisher, Malcolm; Forrest, Alistair; Francescatto, Margherita; Freeman, Tom; Frith, Martin; Fujita, Rie; Fukuda, Shiro; Furlanello, Cesare; Furuno, Masaaki; Furusawa, Jun-ichi; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; Gibson, Andrew; Gingeras, Thomas; Goldowithz, Daniel; Gough, Julian; Guhl, Sven; Guler, Reto; Gustincich, Stefano; Ha, Thomas; Haberle, Vanja; Hamaguchi, Masahide; Hara, Mitsuko; Harbers, Matthias; Harshbarger, Jayson; Hasegawa, Akira; Hasegawa, Yuki; Hashimoto, Takehiro; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide; Herlyn, Meenhard; Heutink, Peter; Hide, Winston; Hitchens, Kelly; Ho Sui, Shannan; Hofmann, Oliver; Hoof, Ilka; Hori, Fumi; Hume, David; Huminiecki, Lukasz; Iida, Kei; Ikawa, Tomokatsu; Ishizu, Yuri; Itoh, Masayoshi; Jankovic, Boris; Jia, Hui; Jorgensen, Mette; Joshi, Anagha; Jurman, Giuseppe; Kaczkowski, Bogumil; Kai, Chieko; Kaida, Kaoru; Kaiho, Ai; Kajiyama, Kazuhiro; Kanamori-Katayama, Mutsuni; Kasianov, Artem; Kasukawa, Takeya; Katayama, Shintaro; Kato Ishikawa, Sachi; Kawaguchi, Shuji; Kawai, Jun; Kawaji, Hideya; Kawamoto, Hiroshi; Kawamura, Yuki; Kawashima, Tsugumi; Kempfle, Judith; Kenna, Tony; Kere, Juha; Khachigian, Levon; Kitamura, Toshio; Klinken, Peter; Knox, Alan; Kojima, Miki; Kojima, Soichi; Kondo, Naoto; Koseki, Haruhiko; Koyasu, Shigeo; Krampitz, Sarah; Kubosaki, Atsutaka; Kulakovskiy, Ivan; Kwon, Andrew Tae Jun; Laros, Jeroen; Lassmann, Timo; Lenhard, Boris; Lennartsson, Andreas; Li, Kang; Lilji, Berit; Lipovich, Leonard; Lizio, Marina; Mackay-sim, Alan; Makeev, Vsevolod; Manabe, Riichiro; Mar, Jessica; Marchand, Benoit; Mathelier, Anthony; Medvedeva, Yulia; Meehan, Terrence F.; Mejhert, Niklas; Meynert, Alison; Mizuno, Yosuke; Morikawa, Hiromasa; Morimoto, Mitsuru; Moro, Kazuyo; Motakis, Efthymios; Motohashi, Hozumi; Mummery, Christine; Mungall, Christopher J.; Murata, Mitsuyoshi; Nagao Sato, Sayaka; Nakachi, Yutaka; Nakahara, Fumio; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Nakamura, Yukio; Nakazato, Kenichi; Ninomiya Fukuda, Noriko; Nishiyori Sueki, Hiromi; Noma, Shohei; Nozaki, Tadasuke; Ogishima, Soichi; Ohkura, Naganari; Ohmiya, Hiroko; Ohno, Hiroshi; Ohshima, Mitsuhiro; Okada-Hatakeyama, Mariko; Okazaki, Yasushi; Orlando, Valerio; Ovchinnikov, Dmitry; Pain, Arnab; Passier, Robert; Persson, Helena; Piazza, Silvano; Plessy, Charles; Pradhan-Bhatt, Swati; Prendergast, James; Rackham, Owen; Ramilowski, Jordan; Rashid, Mamoon; Ravasi, Timothy; Rehli, Michael; Rizzu, Patrizia; Roncador, Marco; Roy, Sugata; Rye, Morten; Saijyo, Eri; Sajantila, Antti; Saka, Akiko; Sakaguchi, Shimon; Sakai, Mizuho; Sandelin, Albin; Sato, Hiroki; Satoh, Hironori; Suzana, Savvi; Alka, Saxena; Schaefer, Ulf; Schmeier, Sebastian; Schmidl, Christian; Schneider, Claudio; Schultes, Erik A.; Schulze-Tanzil, Gundula; Schwegmann, Anita; Semple, Colin; Sengstag, Thierry; Severin, Jessica; Sheng, Guojun; Shimoji, Hisashi; Shimoni, Yishai; Shin, Jay; Simon, Christophe; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Takaaki; Summers, Kim; Suzuki, Harukazu; Suzuki, Masanori; Suzuki, Naoko; Swoboda, Rolf; T Hoen, Peter; Tagami, Michihira; Takahashi, Naoko; Takai, Jun; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Tatsukawa, Hideki; Tatum, Zuotian; Taylor, Martin; Thompson, Mark; Toyoda, Hiroo; Toyoda, Tetsuro; Valen, Eivind; van de Wetering, Marc; van den Berg, Linda; van Nimwegen, Erik; Verardo, Roberto; Vijayan, Dipti; Vitezic, Morana; Vorontzov, Ilya; Wasserman, Wyeth; Watanabe, Shoko; Wells, Christine; Winteringham, Louise; Wolvetang, Ernst; Wood, Emily J.; Yamaguchi, Yoko; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Yoneda, Misako; Yonekura, Yohei; Yoshida, Shigehiro; Young, Robert; Zabierowski, Suzan E.; Zhang, Peter; Zhao, Xiaobei; Zucchelli, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    In evolution, body plan complexity increases due to an increase in the number of individualized cell types. Yet, there is very little understanding of the mechanisms that produce this form of organismal complexity. One model for the origin of novel cell types is the sister cell-type model. According

  7. Regulatory domain selectivity in the cell-type specific PKN-dependence of cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Lachmann

    Full Text Available The mammalian protein kinase N (PKN family of Serine/Threonine kinases comprises three isoforms, which are targets for Rho family GTPases. Small GTPases are major regulators of the cellular cytoskeleton, generating interest in the role(s of specific PKN isoforms in processes such as cell migration and invasion. It has been reported that PKN3 is required for prostate tumour cell invasion but not PKN1 or 2. Here we employ a cell model, the 5637 bladder tumour cell line where PKN2 is relatively highly expressed, to assess the potential redundancy of these isoforms in migratory responses. It is established that PKN2 has a critical role in the migration and invasion of these cells. Furthermore, using a PKN wild-type and chimera rescue strategy, it is shown that PKN isoforms are not simply redundant in supporting migration, but appear to be linked through isoform specific regulatory domain properties to selective upstream signals. It is concluded that intervention in PKNs may need to be directed at multiple isoforms to be effective in different cell types.

  8. Regulatory domain selectivity in the cell-type specific PKN-dependence of cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, Sylvie; Jevons, Amy; De Rycker, Manu; Casamassima, Adele; Radtke, Simone; Collazos, Alejandra; Parker, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian protein kinase N (PKN) family of Serine/Threonine kinases comprises three isoforms, which are targets for Rho family GTPases. Small GTPases are major regulators of the cellular cytoskeleton, generating interest in the role(s) of specific PKN isoforms in processes such as cell migration and invasion. It has been reported that PKN3 is required for prostate tumour cell invasion but not PKN1 or 2. Here we employ a cell model, the 5637 bladder tumour cell line where PKN2 is relatively highly expressed, to assess the potential redundancy of these isoforms in migratory responses. It is established that PKN2 has a critical role in the migration and invasion of these cells. Furthermore, using a PKN wild-type and chimera rescue strategy, it is shown that PKN isoforms are not simply redundant in supporting migration, but appear to be linked through isoform specific regulatory domain properties to selective upstream signals. It is concluded that intervention in PKNs may need to be directed at multiple isoforms to be effective in different cell types.

  9. When Is an Alveolar Type 2 Cell an Alveolar Type 2 Cell? A Conundrum for Lung Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Michael F; Moodley, Yuben

    2017-07-01

    Generating mature, differentiated, adult lung cells from pluripotent cells, such as induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells, offers the hope of both generating disease-specific in vitro models and creating definitive and personalized therapies for a host of debilitating lung parenchymal and airway diseases. With the goal of advancing lung-regenerative medicine, several groups have developed and reported on protocols using defined media, coculture with mesenchymal components, or sequential treatments mimicking lung development, to obtain distal lung epithelial cells from stem cell precursors. However, there remains significant controversy about the degree of differentiation of these cells compared with their primary counterparts, coupled with a lack of consistency or uniformity in assessing the resultant phenotypes. Given the inevitable, exponential expansion of these approaches and the probable, but yet-to-emerge second and higher generation techniques to create such assets, we were prompted to pose the question, what makes a lung epithelial cell a lung epithelial cell? More specifically for this Perspective, we also posed the question, what are the minimum features that constitute an alveolar type (AT) 2 epithelial cell? In addressing this, we summarize a body of work spanning nearly five decades, amassed by a series of "lung epithelial cell biology pioneers," which carefully describes well characterized molecular, functional, and morphological features critical for discriminately assessing an AT2 phenotype. Armed with this, we propose a series of core criteria to assist the field in confirming that cells obtained following a differentiation protocol are indeed mature and functional AT2 epithelial cells.

  10. Congenital CMV with LAD type 1 and NK cell deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Narendra; Thakur, Neha

    2013-08-01

    We report a rare case of congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) in a patient who was subsequently diagnosed as leukocyte adhesion defect type 1 with natural killer cell deficiency. The clinical course was complicated by severe CMV pneumonitis during the newborn period. Thereafter the infant suffered from recurrent skin infections without pus formation, otitis media, and bronchopneumonia since 3 months of age. The patient had congenital CMV infection as urine and blood plasma was positive for CMV from day 12 onward. Neutrophil chemotaxis studies showed a decrease in directed chemotaxis. Neutrophils were dyspoetic and nonfunctional lacking HLA DR, CD11c, and CD18. Lymphocytes were polyclonal but lacked CD56, CD16, and surface membrane immunoglobulin.

  11. Internalisation of engineered nanoparticles into mammalian cells in vitro: influence of cell type and particle properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, Wibke; Bastian, Susanne; Trahorsch, Ulrike; Iwe, Maria; Kühnel, Dana; Meißner, Tobias; Springer, Armin; Gelinsky, Michael; Richter, Volkmar; Ikonomidou, Chrysanthy; Potthoff, Annegret; Lehmann, Irina; Schirmer, Kristin

    2011-01-01

    Cellular internalisation of industrial engineered nanoparticles is undesired and a reason for concern. Here we investigated and compared the ability of seven different mammalian cell cultures in vitro to incorporate six kinds of engineered nanoparticles, focussing on the role of cell type and particle properties in particle uptake. Uptake was examined using light and electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) for particle element identification. Flow cytometry was applied for semi-quantitative analyses of particle uptake and for exploring the influence on uptake by the phagocytosis inhibitor Cytochalasin D (CytoD). All particles studied were found to enter each kind of cultured cells. Yet, particles were never found within cell nuclei. The presence of the respective particles within the cells was confirmed by EDX. Live-cell imaging revealed the time-dependent process of internalisation of technical nanoparticles, which was exemplified by tungsten carbide particle uptake into the human skin cells, HaCaT. Particles were found to co-localise with lysosomal structures within the cells. The incorporated nanoparticles changed the cellular granularity, as measured by flow cytometry, already after 3 h of exposure in a particle specific manner. By correlating particle properties with flow cytometry data, only the primary particle size was found to be a weakly influential property for particle uptake. CytoD, an inhibitor of actin filaments and therewith of phagocytosis, significantly inhibited the internalisation of particle uptake in only two of the seven investigated cell cultures. Our study, therefore, supports the notion that nanoparticles can enter mammalian cells quickly and easily, irrespective of the phagocytic ability of the cells.

  12. Low prevalence of antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus-I/II among blood donors in eastern Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawaz, Naglaa A; Tamim, Hala; Almawi, Wassim Y

    2005-04-01

    The seroprevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV)-I/II was assessed in 13,443 consecutive blood donors in eastern Saudi Arabia between 1998 and 2001. Screening by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmation by Western blot resulted in 8 (0.060%) positive cases, of which 5 (0.056%) belonged to Saudi and 3 (0.113%) to non-Saudi donors. The majority of the HTLV-positive donations (6/8) were for patients, and none had a history of known risk factor for HTLV-I/II transmission. Although the very low prevalence of HTLV-I/II among Saudi donors does not support routine screening, screening of donors from other nationalities may be initiated, especially those from HTLV-I/II endemic areas.

  13. Are lipid disorders involved in the predominance of human T-lymphotropic virus-1 infections in women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Debortoli de Carvalho

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION : The human T-lymphotropic virus-1 (HTLV-1 is associated with chronic inflammatory diseases such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP, a chronic inflammatory disease. Disturbances in lipid metabolism are involved in inflammatory and demyelinating diseases. METHODS : Plasma levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, and fractions of HTLV-1-infected individuals of both sexes with different clinical progressions were determined. RESULTS : Elevated levels of triglyceride and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL were exclusively detected in HTLV-1-infected women from asymptomatic and HAM/TSP groups compared with uninfected individuals (p = 0.02. CONCLUSIONS : Elevated triglyceride and VLDL levels in HTLV-1-infected women may be related to the predominance of HAM/TSP in women.

  14. Influence of collagen type II and nucleus pulposus cells on aggregation and differentiation of adipose tissue-derived stem cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.F.; Zandieh Doulabi, B.; Wuisman, P.I.; Bank, R.A.; Helder, M.N.

    2008-01-01

    Tissue microenvironment plays a critical role in guiding local stem cell differentiation. Within the intervertebral disc, collagen type II and nucleus pulposus (NP) cells are two major components. This study aimed to investigate how collagen type II and NP cells affect adipose tissue-derived stem

  15. Red cell distribution width in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada AM

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aml Mohamed Nada Department of Internal Medicine, Unit of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt Objective: To study the indices of some elements of the complete blood count, in type 2 diabetic patients, in comparison with nondiabetic healthy controls; and to find out the effects of glycemic control and different medications on these indices. To the best of our knowledge, this study is novel in our environment and will serve as a foundation for other researchers in this field. Methods: This retrospective study included 260 type 2 diabetic patients on treatment and 44 healthy control subjects. Sex, age, weight, height, blood pressure, complete blood count, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c, and lipid profile data, were available for all of the study population. For diabetic patients, data on duration of diabetes and all medications were also available. Results: Red cell distribution width (RDW was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects (P=0.008. It was also higher in patients with uncontrolled glycemia (HbA1c >7% than those with good control (HbA1c ≤7%; P=0.035. Mean platelet volume (MPV was comparable in both diabetic patients and healthy controls (P=0.238. RDW and MPV did not significantly correlate with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, or duration of diabetes. Both aspirin and clopidogrel did not show a significant effect on MPV. Both insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents did not show a significant effect on RDW, mean corpuscular volume, MPV, platelet count, or white blood cell count. Diabetic patients treated with indapamide or the combined thiazides and angiotensin receptor blockers showed no significant difference in RDW when compared with the control subjects. Conclusion: RDW, which is recently considered as an inflammatory marker with a significant predictive value of mortality in diseased and healthy populations, is significantly higher in

  16. CD4(+) type II NKT cells mediate ICOS and programmed death-1-dependent regulation of type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadri, Nadir; Korpos, Eva; Gupta, Shashank; Briet, Claire; Löfbom, Linda; Yagita, Hideo; Lehuen, Agnes; Boitard, Christian; Holmberg, Dan; Sorokin, Lydia; Cardell, Susanna L

    2012-04-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease that results from T cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic β cells. CD1d-restricted NKT lymphocytes have the ability to regulate immunity, including autoimmunity. We previously demonstrated that CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells, which carry diverse TCRs, prevented T1D in the NOD mouse model for the human disease. In this study, we show that CD4(+) 24αβ type II NKT cells, but not CD4/CD8 double-negative NKT cells, were sufficient to downregulate diabetogenic CD4(+) BDC2.5 NOD T cells in adoptive transfer experiments. CD4(+) 24αβ NKT cells exhibited a memory phenotype including high ICOS expression, increased cytokine production, and limited display of NK cell markers, compared with double-negative 24αβ NKT cells. Blocking of ICOS or the programmed death-1/programmed death ligand 1 pathway was shown to abolish the regulation that occurred in the pancreas draining lymph nodes. To our knowledge, these results provide for the first time cellular and molecular information on how type II CD1d-restricted NKT cells regulate T1D.

  17. An improved ontological representation of dendritic cells as a paradigm for all cell types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mungall Chris

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent increases in the volume and diversity of life science data and information and an increasing emphasis on data sharing and interoperability have resulted in the creation of a large number of biological ontologies, including the Cell Ontology (CL, designed to provide a standardized representation of cell types for data annotation. Ontologies have been shown to have significant benefits for computational analyses of large data sets and for automated reasoning applications, leading to organized attempts to improve the structure and formal rigor of ontologies to better support computation. Currently, the CL employs multiple is_a relations, defining cell types in terms of histological, functional, and lineage properties, and the majority of definitions are written with sufficient generality to hold across multiple species. This approach limits the CL's utility for computation and for cross-species data integration. Results To enhance the CL's utility for computational analyses, we developed a method for the ontological representation of cells and applied this method to develop a dendritic cell ontology (DC-CL. DC-CL subtypes are delineated on the basis of surface protein expression, systematically including both species-general and species-specific types and optimizing DC-CL for the analysis of flow cytometry data. We avoid multiple uses of is_a by linking DC-CL terms to terms in other ontologies via additional, formally defined relations such as has_function. Conclusion This approach brings benefits in the form of increased accuracy, support for reasoning, and interoperability with other ontology resources. Accordingly, we propose our method as a general strategy for the ontological representation of cells. DC-CL is available from http://www.obofoundry.org.

  18. Silver nanowire interactions with primary human alveolar type-II epithelial cell secretions: contrasting bioreactivity with human alveolar type-I and type-II epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Sinbad; Theodorou, Ioannis G.; Zambianchi, Marta; Chen, Shu; Gow, Andrew; Schwander, Stephan; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Chung, Kian Fan; Shaffer, Milo S. P.; Ryan, Mary P.; Porter, Alexandra E.; Tetley, Teresa D.

    2015-06-01

    Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in the alveolar units of the deep lung. The alveolar epithelium is composed of type-I and type-II epithelial cells (ATI and ATII respectively) and is bathed in pulmonary surfactant. The effect of native human ATII cell secretions on nanoparticle toxicity is not known. We investigated the cellular uptake and toxicity of silver nanowires (AgNWs; 70 nm diameter, 1.5 μm length) with human ATI-like cells (TT1), in the absence or presence of Curosurf® (a natural porcine pulmonary surfactant with a low amount of protein) or harvested primary human ATII cell secretions (HAS; containing both the complete lipid as well as the full protein complement of human pulmonary surfactant i.e. SP-A, SP-B, SP-C and SP-D). We hypothesised that Curosurf® or HAS would confer improved protection for TT1 cells, limiting the toxicity of AgNWs. In agreement with our hypothesis, HAS reduced the inflammatory and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating potential of AgNWs with exposed TT1 cells. For example, IL-8 release and ROS generation was reduced by 38% and 29%, respectively, resulting in similar levels to that of the non-treated controls. However in contrast to our hypothesis, Curosurf® had no effect. We found a significant reduction in AgNW uptake by TT1 cells in the presence of HAS but not Curosurf. Furthermore, we show that the SP-A and SP-D are likely to be involved in this process as they were found to be specifically bound to the AgNWs. While ATI cells appear to be protected by HAS, evidence suggested that ATII cells, despite no uptake, were vulnerable to AgNW exposure (indicated by increased IL-8 release and ROS generation and decreased intracellular SP-A levels one day post-exposure). This study provides unique findings that may be important for the study of lung epithelial-endothelial translocation of nanoparticles in general and associated toxicity within the alveolar unit.Inhaled nanoparticles have a high deposition rate in

  19. Lineage relationship of prostate cancer cell types based on gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ware Carol B

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate tumor heterogeneity is a major factor in disease management. Heterogeneity could be due to multiple cancer cell types with distinct gene expression. Of clinical importance is the so-called cancer stem cell type. Cell type-specific transcriptomes are used to examine lineage relationship among cancer cell types and their expression similarity to normal cell types including stem/progenitor cells. Methods Transcriptomes were determined by Affymetrix DNA array analysis for the following cell types. Putative prostate progenitor cell populations were characterized and isolated by expression of the membrane transporter ABCG2. Stem cells were represented by embryonic stem and embryonal carcinoma cells. The cancer cell types were Gleason pattern 3 (glandular histomorphology and pattern 4 (aglandular sorted from primary tumors, cultured prostate cancer cell lines originally established from metastatic lesions, xenografts LuCaP 35 (adenocarcinoma phenotype and LuCaP 49 (neuroendocrine/small cell carcinoma grown in mice. No detectable gene expression differences were detected among serial passages of the LuCaP xenografts. Results Based on transcriptomes, the different cancer cell types could be clustered into a luminal-like grouping and a non-luminal-like (also not basal-like grouping. The non-luminal-like types showed expression more similar to that of stem/progenitor cells than the luminal-like types. However, none showed expression of stem cell genes known to maintain stemness. Conclusions Non-luminal-like types are all representatives of aggressive disease, and this could be attributed to the similarity in overall gene expression to stem and progenitor cell types.

  20. Trophic significance of solitary cells of the prymnesiophyte Phaeocystis globosa depends on cell type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dutz, Jörg; Koski, Marja

    2006-01-01

    With the use of five different isolates of Phaeocystis globosa solitary cells from the North Sea, we conducted experiments to reveal whether grazing and development of the nauplii of the calanoid copepod Temora longicornis varies in response to the cell type. Two P. globosa strains representing...... experiments, revealed that neither the production of transparent exopolymer particles and chitinous threads nor toxicity can explain the observed response. The cohesion of the threads into pentagonal stars was observed only in the avoided mesoflagellate and might cause a mechanical hindrance for the ingestion...

  1. CD1d-Restricted Type II NKT Cells Reactive With Endogenous Hydrophobic Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishioka, Yusuke; Masuda, Sakiko; Tomaru, Utano; Ishizu, Akihiro

    2018-01-01

    NKT cells belong to a distinct subset of T cells that recognize hydrophobic antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex class I-like molecules, such as CD1d. Because NKT cells stimulated by antigens can activate or suppress other immunocompetent cells through an immediate production of a large amount of cytokines, they are regarded as immunological modulators. CD1d-restricted NKT cells are classified into two subsets, namely, type I and type II. CD1d-restricted type I NKT cells express invariant T cell receptors (TCRs) and react with lipid antigens, including the marine sponge-derived glycolipid α-galactosylceramide. On the contrary, CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells recognize a wide variety of antigens, including glycolipids, phospholipids, and hydrophobic peptides, by their diverse TCRs. In this review, we focus particularly on CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells that recognize endogenous hydrophobic peptides presented by CD1d. Previous studies have demonstrated that CD1d-restricted type I NKT cells usually act as pro-inflammatory cells but sometimes behave as anti-inflammatory cells. It has been also demonstrated that CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells play opposite roles to CD1d-restricted type I NKT cells; thus, they function as anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory cells depending on the situation. In line with this, CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells that recognize type II collagen peptide have been demonstrated to act as anti-inflammatory cells in diverse inflammation-induction models in mice, whereas pro-inflammatory CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells reactive with sterol carrier protein 2 peptide have been demonstrated to be involved in the development of small vessel vasculitis in rats.

  2. Amiloride-sensitive channels in type I fungiform taste cells in mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clapp Tod R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taste buds are the sensory organs of taste perception. Three types of taste cells have been described. Type I cells have voltage-gated outward currents, but lack voltage-gated inward currents. These cells have been presumed to play only a support role in the taste bud. Type II cells have voltage-gated Na+ and K+ current, and the receptors and transduction machinery for bitter, sweet, and umami taste stimuli. Type III cells have voltage-gated Na+, K+, and Ca2+ currents, and make prominent synapses with afferent nerve fibers. Na+ salt transduction in part involves amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs. In rodents, these channels are located in taste cells of fungiform papillae on the anterior part of the tongue innervated by the chorda tympani nerve. However, the taste cell type that expresses ENaCs is not known. This study used whole cell recordings of single fungiform taste cells of transgenic mice expressing GFP in Type II taste cells to identify the taste cells responding to amiloride. We also used immunocytochemistry to further define and compare cell types in fungiform and circumvallate taste buds of these mice. Results Taste cell types were identified by their response to depolarizing voltage steps and their presence or absence of GFP fluorescence. TRPM5-GFP taste cells expressed large voltage-gated Na+ and K+ currents, but lacked voltage-gated Ca2+ currents, as expected from previous studies. Approximately half of the unlabeled cells had similar membrane properties, suggesting they comprise a separate population of Type II cells. The other half expressed voltage-gated outward currents only, typical of Type I cells. A single taste cell had voltage-gated Ca2+ current characteristic of Type III cells. Responses to amiloride occurred only in cells that lacked voltage-gated inward currents. Immunocytochemistry showed that fungiform taste buds have significantly fewer Type II cells expressing PLC signalling

  3. Regulated gene expression in cultured type II cells of adult human lung

    OpenAIRE

    Ballard, Philip L.; Lee, Jae W.; Fang, Xiaohui; Chapin, Cheryl; Allen, Lennell; Segal, Mark R.; Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Gonzales, Linda W.; Kolla, Venkatadri; Matthay, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Alveolar type II cells have multiple functions, including surfactant production and fluid clearance, which are critical for lung function. Differentiation of type II cells occurs in cultured fetal lung epithelial cells treated with dexamethasone plus cAMP and isobutylmethylxanthine (DCI) and involves increased expression of 388 genes. In this study, type II cells of human adult lung were isolated at ∼95% purity, and gene expression was determined (Affymetrix) before and after culturing 5 days...

  4. Red cell distribution width in type 2 diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nada, Aml Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    To study the indices of some elements of the complete blood count, in type 2 diabetic patients, in comparison with nondiabetic healthy controls; and to find out the effects of glycemic control and different medications on these indices. To the best of our knowledge, this study is novel in our environment and will serve as a foundation for other researchers in this field. This retrospective study included 260 type 2 diabetic patients on treatment and 44 healthy control subjects. Sex, age, weight, height, blood pressure, complete blood count, fasting plasma glucose, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), and lipid profile data, were available for all of the study population. For diabetic patients, data on duration of diabetes and all medications were also available. Red cell distribution width (RDW) was significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control subjects (P=0.008). It was also higher in patients with uncontrolled glycemia (HbA1c >7%) than those with good control (HbA1c ≤7%; P=0.035). Mean platelet volume (MPV) was comparable in both diabetic patients and healthy controls (P=0.238). RDW and MPV did not significantly correlate with fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, or duration of diabetes. Both aspirin and clopidogrel did not show a significant effect on MPV. Both insulin and oral hypoglycemic agents did not show a significant effect on RDW, mean corpuscular volume, MPV, platelet count, or white blood cell count. Diabetic patients treated with indapamide or the combined thiazides and angiotensin receptor blockers showed no significant difference in RDW when compared with the control subjects. RDW, which is recently considered as an inflammatory marker with a significant predictive value of mortality in diseased and healthy populations, is significantly higher in diabetic patients than healthy subjects and is particularly higher in uncontrolled glycemia. None of the studied hypoglycemic agents showed a significant effect on RDW. Diabetic hypertensive patients receiving

  5. Concise Review: Methods and Cell Types Used to Generate Down Syndrome Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef Hibaoui

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS, trisomy 21, is the most common viable chromosomal disorder, with an incidence of 1 in 800 live births. Its phenotypic characteristics include intellectual impairment and several other developmental abnormalities, for the majority of which the pathogenetic mechanisms remain unknown. Several models have been used to investigate the mechanisms by which the extra copy of chromosome 21 leads to the DS phenotype. In the last five years, several laboratories have been successful in reprogramming patient cells carrying the trisomy 21 anomaly into induced pluripotent stem cells, i.e., T21-iPSCs. In this review, we summarize the different T21-iPSCs that have been generated with a particular interest in the technical procedures and the somatic cell types used for the reprogramming.

  6. Characterization of retinal ganglion cell, horizontal cell, and amacrine cell types expressing the neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase Ret.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmhans, Nadia; Sajgo, Szilard; Niu, Jingwen; Luo, Wenqin; Badea, Tudor Constantin

    2018-03-01

    We report the retinal expression pattern of Ret, a receptor tyrosine kinase for the glial derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family ligands (GFLs), during development and in the adult mouse. Ret is initially expressed in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), followed by horizontal cells (HCs) and amacrine cells (ACs), beginning with the early stages of postmitotic development. Ret expression persists in all three classes of neurons in the adult. Using RNA sequencing, immunostaining and random sparse recombination, we show that Ret is expressed in at least three distinct types of ACs, and ten types of RGCs. Using intersectional genetics, we describe the dendritic arbor morphologies of RGC types expressing Ret in combination with each of the three members of the POU4f/Brn3 family of transcription factors. Ret expression overlaps with Brn3a in 4 RGC types, with Brn3b in 5 RGC types, and with Brn3c in one RGC type, respectively. Ret + RGCs project to the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), pretectal area (PTA) and superior colliculus (SC), and avoid the suprachiasmatic nucleus and accessory optic system. Brn3a + Ret + and Brn3c + Ret + RGCs project preferentially to contralateral retinorecipient areas, while Brn3b + Ret + RGCs shows minor ipsilateral projections to the olivary pretectal nucleus and the LGN. Our findings establish intersectional genetic approaches for the anatomic and developmental characterization of individual Ret + RGC types. In addition, they provide necessary information for addressing the potential interplay between GDNF neurotrophic signaling and transcriptional regulation in RGC type specification. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Transient Hypothyroidism: Dual Effect on Adult-Type Leydig Cell and Sertoli Cell Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eddy Rijntjes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Transient neonatal 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU induced hypothyroidism affects Leydig and Sertoli cell numbers in the developing testis, resulting in increased adult testis size. The hypothyroid condition was thought to be responsible, an assumption questioned by studies showing that uninterrupted fetal/postnatal hypothyroidism did not affect adult testis size. Here, we investigated effects of transient hypothyroidism on Leydig and Sertoli cell development, employing a perinatal iodide-deficient diet in combination with sodium perchlorate. This hypothyroidism inducing diet was continued until days 1, 7, 14, or 28 postpartum (pp respectively, when the rats were switched to a euthyroid diet and followed up to adulthood. Continuous euthyroid and hypothyroid, and neonatal PTU-treated rats switched to the euthyroid diet at 28 days pp, were included for comparison. No effects on formation of the adult-type Leydig cell population or on Sertoli cell proliferation and differentiation were observed when the diet switched at/or before day 14 pp. However, when the diet was discontinued at day 28 pp, Leydig cell development was delayed similarly to what was observed in chronic hypothyroid rats. Surprisingly, Sertoli cell proliferation was 6- to 8-fold increased 2 days after the diet switch and remained elevated the next days. In adulthood, Sertoli cell number per seminiferous tubule cross-section and consequently testis weight was increased in this group. These observations implicate that increased adult testis size in transiently hypothyroid rats is not caused by the hypothyroid condition per se, but originates from augmented Sertoli cell proliferation as a consequence of rapid normalization of thyroid hormone concentrations.

  8. Twenty-five years of HTLV type II follow-up with a possible case of tropical spastic paraparesis in the Kayapo, a Brazilian Indian tribe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Black, FL; Biggar, RJ; Lal, RB; Gabbai, AA; Vieira, JPB

    1996-01-01

    A longitudinal study, spanning 25 years and great demographic and cultural change, found a persistently high prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus type II (HTLV-II) in the Xikrin Kayapo Indians of Brazil, More than 10% of the children continue to develop immune reactions to the virus in infancy,

  9. Types of HLA in the bladder transitional cell carcinoma (TCC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, Erkan; Uğur Özalp, Ali; Cekmen, Arman; Eren, Bülent; Onal, Bülent; Akkuş, Emre; Erdoğan, Ergun

    2013-02-01

    HLA plays a complementary role in the interaction between tumor and body immunology. The aim of this study was to determine the existence of the association between the HLA system and transitional cell carcinoma (TCC). Using standard micro-lymphocytotoxic method of Terasaki, HLA-A, B, DR and DQ antigen types of 30 patients with TCC of the bladder were compared with the control group (30 healthy people). In the TCC patient group, HLA -DQ6(1) and HLA -DQ7(3) antigens were detected with a significantly higher frequency than in the control group (p=0.018 and p=0.038, respectively), whereas HLA-A10, B4, DR53 and DQ1 antigens were detected with significantly higher frequency in the control group (p less 0.05 in all). It suggests that patients who had the antigens detected were at higher risk of TCC, and the ones who had the antigens displaying protective features as were detected in the control group, were at lesser risk.

  10. Steviol Glycosides Modulate Glucose Transport in Different Cell Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, Benedetta; Zambonin, Laura; Leoncini, Emanuela; Vieceli Dalla Sega, Francesco; Prata, Cecilia; Fiorentini, Diana; Hrelia, Silvana

    2013-01-01

    Extracts from Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, a plant native to Central and South America, have been used as a sweetener since ancient times. Currently, Stevia extracts are largely used as a noncaloric high-potency biosweetener alternative to sugar, due to the growing incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, obesity, and metabolic disorders worldwide. Despite the large number of studies on Stevia and steviol glycosides in vivo, little is reported concerning the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning the beneficial effects on human health. The effect of four commercial Stevia extracts on glucose transport activity was evaluated in HL-60 human leukaemia and in SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The extracts were able to enhance glucose uptake in both cellular lines, as efficiently as insulin. Our data suggest that steviol glycosides could act by modulating GLUT translocation through the PI3K/Akt pathway since treatments with both insulin and Stevia extracts increased the phosphorylation of PI3K and Akt. Furthermore, Stevia extracts were able to revert the effect of the reduction of glucose uptake caused by methylglyoxal, an inhibitor of the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt pathway. These results corroborate the hypothesis that Stevia extracts could mimic insulin effects modulating PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:24327825

  11. Tumor Budding Cells, Cancer Stem Cells and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition-type Cells in Pancreatic Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva eKaramitopoulou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC is one of the most lethal cancers with a 5-year survival rate of less than 5%. Moreover, PDAC escapes early detection and resists treatment. Multiple combinations of genetic alterations are known to occur in PDAC including mutational activation of KRAS, inactivation of p16/CDKN2A and SMAD4 (DPC4 and dysregulation of PTEN/PI3K/AKT signaling. Through their interaction with WNT pathway, the downstream molecules of these pathways have been implicated in the promotion of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT. Emerging evidence has demonstrated that cancer stem cells (CSCs, small populations of which have been identified in PDAC, and EMT-type cells play critical roles in drug resistance, invasion and metastasis in pancreatic cancer. EMT may be histologically represented by the presence of tumor budding which is described as the occurrence of single tumor cells or small clusters (<5 of dedifferentiated cells at the invasive front of gastrointestinal (including colorectal, oesophageal, gastric and ampullary carcinomas and is linked to poor prognosis. Tumor budding has recently been shown to occur frequently in PDAC and to be associated with adverse clinicopathological features and decreased disease-free and overall survival. The aim of this review is to present a short overview on the morphological and molecular aspects that underline the relationship between tumor budding cells, CSCs and EMT-type cells in PDAC.

  12. Transcriptomes of major renal collecting duct cell types in mouse identified by single-cell RNA-seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lihe; Lee, Jae Wook; Chou, Chung-Lin; Nair, Anil V; Battistone, Maria A; Păunescu, Teodor G; Merkulova, Maria; Breton, Sylvie; Verlander, Jill W; Wall, Susan M; Brown, Dennis; Burg, Maurice B; Knepper, Mark A

    2017-11-14

    Prior RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) studies have identified complete transcriptomes for most renal epithelial cell types. The exceptions are the cell types that make up the renal collecting duct, namely intercalated cells (ICs) and principal cells (PCs), which account for only a small fraction of the kidney mass, but play critical physiological roles in the regulation of blood pressure, extracellular fluid volume, and extracellular fluid composition. To enrich these cell types, we used FACS that employed well-established lectin cell surface markers for PCs and type B ICs, as well as a newly identified cell surface marker for type A ICs, c-Kit. Single-cell RNA-seq using the IC- and PC-enriched populations as input enabled identification of complete transcriptomes of A-ICs, B-ICs, and PCs. The data were used to create a freely accessible online gene-expression database for collecting duct cells. This database allowed identification of genes that are selectively expressed in each cell type, including cell-surface receptors, transcription factors, transporters, and secreted proteins. The analysis also identified a small fraction of hybrid cells expressing aquaporin-2 and anion exchanger 1 or pendrin transcripts. In many cases, mRNAs for receptors and their ligands were identified in different cells (e.g., Notch2 chiefly in PCs vs. Jag1 chiefly in ICs), suggesting signaling cross-talk among the three cell types. The identified patterns of gene expression among the three types of collecting duct cells provide a foundation for understanding physiological regulation and pathophysiology in the renal collecting duct.

  13. Expression weighted cell type enrichments reveal genetic and cellular nature of major brain disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan Gerald Skene

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The cell types that trigger the primary pathology in many brain diseases remain largely unknown. One route to understanding the primary pathological cell type for a particular disease is to identify the cells expressing susceptibility genes. Although this is straightforward for monogenic conditions where the causative mutation may alter expression of a cell type specific marker, methods are required for the common polygenic disorders. We developed the Expression Weighted Cell Type Enrichment (EWCE method that uses single cell transcriptomes to generate the probability distribution associated with a gene list having an average level of expression within a cell type. Following validation, we applied EWCE to human genetic data from cases of epilepsy, Schizophrenia, Autism, Intellectual Disability, Alzheimer’s disease, Multiple Sclerosis and anxiety disorders. Genetic susceptibility primarily affected microglia in Alzheimer’s and Multiple Sclerosis; was shared between interneurons and pyramidal neurons in Autism and Schizophrenia; while intellectual disabilities and epilepsy were attributable to a range of cell-types, with the strongest enrichment in interneurons. We hypothesised that the primary cell type pathology could trigger secondary changes in other cell types and these could be detected by applying EWCE to transcriptome data from diseased tissue. In Autism, Schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease we find evidence of pathological changes in all of the major brain cell types. These findings give novel insight into the cellular origins and progression in common brain disorders. The methods can be applied to any tissue and disorder and have applications in validating mouse models.

  14. Na+ currents in vestibular type I and type II hair cells of the embryo and adult chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetto, S; Bosica, M; Correia, M J; Ottersen, O P; Zucca, G; Perin, P; Valli, P

    2003-08-01

    In birds, type I and type II hair cells differentiate before birth. Here we describe that chick hair cells, from the semicircular canals, begin expressing a voltage-dependent Na current (INa) from embryonic day 14 (E14) and continue to express the current up to hatching (E21). During this period, INa was present in most (31/43) type I hair cells irrespective of their position in the crista, in most type II hair cells located far from the planum semilunatum (48/63), but only occasionally in type II hair cells close to the planum semilunatum (2/35). INa activated close to -60 mV, showed fast time- and voltage-dependent activation and inactivation, and was completely, and reversibly, blocked by submicromolar concentrations of tetrodotoxin (Kd = 17 nM). One peculiar property of INa concerns its steady-state inactivation, which is complete at -60 mV (half-inactivating voltage = -96 mV). INa was found in type I and type II hair cells from the adult chicken as well, where it had similar, although possibly not identical, properties and regional distribution. Current-clamp experiments showed that INa could contribute to the voltage response provided that the cell membrane was depolarized from holding potentials more negative than -80 mV. When recruited, INa produced a significant acceleration of the cell membrane depolarization, which occasionally elicited a large rapid depolarization followed by a rapid repolarization (action-potential-like response). Possible physiological roles for INa in the embryo and adult chicken are discussed.

  15. Identification of intermediate cell types by keratin expression in the developing human prostate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Xue, Y.; Smedts, F.; Debruyne, F. M.; de la Rosette, J. J.; Schalken, J. A.

    1998-01-01

    The secretory acini of the adult human prostate contain basal, luminal, and intermediate types of exocrine cells. Intermediate cells are thought to play an important role in normal growth and neoplastic transformation. In this study we investigated whether this cell type is present in early stages

  16. CD4+ type II NKT cells mediate ICOS and programmed death-1-dependent regulation of type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kadri, Nadir; Korpos, Eva; Gupta, Shashank

    2012-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease that results from T cell-mediated destruction of pancreatic ß cells. CD1d-restricted NKT lymphocytes have the ability to regulate immunity, including autoimmunity. We previously demonstrated that CD1d-restricted type II NKT cells, which carry...... diverse TCRs, prevented T1D in the NOD mouse model for the human disease. In this study, we show that CD4(+) 24aß type II NKT cells, but not CD4/CD8 double-negative NKT cells, were sufficient to downregulate diabetogenic CD4(+) BDC2.5 NOD T cells in adoptive transfer experiments. CD4(+) 24aß NKT cells...... exhibited a memory phenotype including high ICOS expression, increased cytokine production, and limited display of NK cell markers, compared with double-negative 24aß NKT cells. Blocking of ICOS or the programmed death-1/programmed death ligand 1 pathway was shown to abolish the regulation that occurred...

  17. Differential regulation of C-type lectin expression on tolerogenic dendritic cell subsets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vliet, Sandra J.; van Liempt, Ellis; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2006-01-01

    Antigen presenting cells (APC) express high levels of C-type lectins, which play a major role in cellular interactions as well as pathogen recognition and antigen presentation. The C-type lectin macrophage galactose-type lectin (MGL), expressed by dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages, mediates

  18. p-Type MWT. Integrated cell and module technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tool, C.J.J.; Kossen, E.J.; Bennett, I.J.

    2013-10-15

    A major issue of concern in MWT solar cells is the increased leakage current at reversed bias voltage through the vias compared. At ECN we have been working on reducing this leakage current to levels comparable to H-pattern cells. In this study we present the results of this work. We further show the benefit of a combined cell and module design for MWT solar cells. At the cell level, MWT production costs per wafer are comparable with H-pattern while the cell output increases. At the module level this design results in a further increase of the power output.

  19. Cell stress induces upregulation of osteopontin via the ERK pathway in type II alveolar epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aki Kato

    Full Text Available Osteopontin (OPN is a multifunctional protein that plays important roles in cell growth, differentiation, migration and tissue fibrosis. In human idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and murine bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis, OPN is upregulated in type II alveolar epithelial cells (AEC II. However, the mechanism of OPN induction in AEC II is not fully understood. In this study, we demonstrate the molecular mechanism of OPN induction in AEC II and elucidate the functions of OPN in AEC II and lung fibroblasts. Human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 and mouse alveolar epithelial cells (MLE12, used as type II alveolar epithelial cell lines for in vitro assays, and human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiC were treated with either bleomycin, doxorubicin or tunicamycin. The mechanism of OPN induction in these cells and its function as a pro-fibrotic cytokine on A549 and lung fibroblasts were analyzed. The DNA damaging reagents bleomycin and doxorubicin were found to induce OPN expression in A549, MLE12 and HPAEpiC. OPN expression was induced via activation of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK-dependent signaling pathway in A549 and MLE12. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress-inducing reagent tunicamycin induced OPN mRNA expression in A549, MLE12 and HPAEpiC, and OPN mRNA expression was induced via activation of the ERK-dependent signaling pathway in A549 and MLE12. Another ER stress-inducing reagent thapsigargin induced the expression of OPN mRNA as well as the subsequent production of OPN in A549 and MLE12. Furthermore, OPN promoted the proliferation of A549 and the migration of normal human lung fibroblasts. Inhibition of OPN by small interference RNA or neutralizing antibody suppressed both of these responses. The results of this study suggest that cell stress induces the upregulation of OPN in AEC II by signaling through the ERK pathway, and that upregulated OPN may play a role in fibrogenesis of the lung.

  20. The 3 major types of innate and adaptive cell-mediated effector immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annunziato, Francesco; Romagnani, Chiara; Romagnani, Sergio

    2015-03-01

    The immune system has tailored its effector functions to optimally respond to distinct species of microbes. Based on emerging knowledge on the different effector T-cell and innate lymphoid cell (ILC) lineages, it is clear that the innate and adaptive immune systems converge into 3 major kinds of cell-mediated effector immunity, which we propose to categorize as type 1, type 2, and type 3. Type 1 immunity consists of T-bet(+) IFN-γ-producing group 1 ILCs (ILC1 and natural killer cells), CD8(+) cytotoxic T cells (TC1), and CD4(+) TH1 cells, which protect against intracellular microbes through activation of mononuclear phagocytes. Type 2 immunity consists of GATA-3(+) ILC2s, TC2 cells, and TH2 cells producing IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13, which induce mast cell, basophil, and eosinophil activation, as well as IgE antibody production, thus protecting against helminthes and venoms. Type 3 immunity is mediated by retinoic acid-related orphan receptor γt(+) ILC3s, TC17 cells, and TH17 cells producing IL-17, IL-22, or both, which activate mononuclear phagocytes but also recruit neutrophils and induce epithelial antimicrobial responses, thus protecting against extracellular bacteria and fungi. On the other hand, type 1 and 3 immunity mediate autoimmune diseases, whereas type 2 responses can cause allergic diseases. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Selective expression of muscarinic acetylcholine receptor subtype M3 by mouse type III taste bud cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yusuke; Eguchi, Kohgaku; Yoshii, Kiyonori; Ohtubo, Yoshitaka

    2016-11-01

    Each taste bud cell (TBC) type responds to a different taste. Previously, we showed that an unidentified cell type(s) functionally expresses a muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptor subtype, M3, and we suggested the ACh-dependent modification of its taste responsiveness. In this study, we found that M3 is expressed by type III TBCs, which is the only cell type that possesses synaptic contacts with taste nerve fibers in taste buds. The application of ACh to the basolateral membrane of mouse fungiform TBCs in situ increased the intracellular Ca 2+ concentration in 2.4 ± 1.4 cells per taste bud (mean ± SD, n = 14). After Ca 2+ imaging, we supravitally labeled type II cells (phospholipase C β2 [PLCβ2]-immunoreactive cells) with Lucifer yellow CH (LY), a fluorescent dye and investigated the positional relationship between ACh-responding cells and LY-labeled cells. After fixation, the TBCs were immunohistostained to investigate the positional relationships between immunohistochemically classified cells and LY-labeled cells. The overlay of the two positional relationships obtained by superimposing the LY-labeled cells showed that all of the ACh-responding cells were type III cells (synaptosomal-associated protein 25 [SNAP-25]-immunoreactive cells). The ACh responses required no added Ca 2+ in the bathing solution. The addition of 1 μM U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, decreased the magnitude of the ACh response, whereas that of 1 μM U73343, a negative control, had no effect. These results suggest that type III cells respond to ACh and release Ca 2+ from intracellular stores. We also discuss the underlying mechanism of the Ca 2+ response and the role of M3 in type III cells.

  2. Innovative Approaches to Treating Type 1 Diabetes Addressed in Beta-Cell Replacement Presentations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cells. "Analogous to the O-negative 'universal donor' blood type, udPSCs could be used for all cell-based transplantation therapies in all patients without immune rejection," he theorized. "Once created, the next step would ...

  3. Induction of chromosome aberrations in two lines of cultured cells using different types of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoetelief, J.; Dingjan-Hirschi, E.S.; Hasper, J.; Janse, H.C.; Barendsen, G.W.

    The induction of chromosome aberrations has been investigated in two lines of cultured cells for different types of radiation. The obtained results are compared with information on induction of cell reproductive death and malignant transformation. (Auth.)

  4. Leukemia mortality by cell type in petroleum workers with potential exposure to benzene.

    OpenAIRE

    Raabe, G K; Wong, O

    1996-01-01

    Workers in the petroleum industry are potentially exposed to a variety of petrochemicals, including benzene or benzene-containing liquids. Although a large number of studies of petroleum workers have been conducted to examine leukemia and other cancer risks, few existing studies have investigated cell-type-specific leukemias. One of the major reasons for the lack of cell-type-specific analysis was the small number of deaths by cell type in individual studies. In the present investigation, all...

  5. Sandwich-cell-type bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing liquid crystalline phthalocyanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Yuya; Usui, Toshiki; Nishikawa, Yuki; Nekelson, Fabien; Shimizu, Yo; Fujii, Akihiko; Ozaki, Masanori

    2018-03-01

    Sandwich-cell-type bulk-heterojunction organic solar cells utilizing the liquid crystalline phthalocyanine, 1,4,8,11,15,18,22,25-octahexylphthalocyanine (C6PcH2), have been fabricated and their photovoltaic properties have been studied. The short-circuit current (J SC) and power conversion efficiency (PCE) depended on the blend ratio of donor and acceptor molecules, and the maximum performance, such as J SC of 3.4 mA/cm2 and PCE of 0.67%, was demonstrated, when the blend ratio of the acceptor was 10 mol %. The photovoltaic properties were discussed by taking the relationship between the column axis direction of C6PcH2 and the carrier mobility in the active layer into consideration.

  6. Cell Death Induction By Streptococcus Pyogenes in Four Types of Malignant Cell Llines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Mollaii

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Background:The interest in using bacteria as anti- cancer therapeutic agents dates back to the end of the19th century. Some bacteria like Salmonella and Listeria replicate effectively inside malignant cell lines and suppress their growth. The bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes has become medically famous as a flesh-eating pathogen since mid-1980s. It is the causative agent of a life threatening clinical condition called necrotizing fasciitis. S. pyogenes usually produces a range of lytic enzymes that promote bacterial pathogenesis. With these characters, could this bacteria. be employed as a curing agent for certain cancers? The aim of this study was to determine the influence of S. pyogenes on malignant cellular death (apoptosis or necrosis- in an ex-vivo "experimental- interventional" study.Methods: The cytotoxicity of fifteen internalized streptococcal strains( including 12 clinical isolates, 2 known M types [M1, M3] and standard strain, on four types of malignant cell lines- A549, BT-20, PC-3, L-929- were tested by Trypan blue exclusion, DNAfragmentation and WST-1 methods. The streptococcal protease, lipase, DNase and serum opacity factor (SOF were tested concurrently. The standard strain of Streptococcus (Enterococcus faecalis was employed as negative control. The results were analyzed by statistical Minitab software.   Results: The overall cytotoxicity rate of -internalized- S. pyogenes was 57% by trypan blue method and 50 % by DNA electrophoresis. False positive results occurred for the negative control in WST-1; therefore this test did not present reasonable results. The correlation between production of SOF, lipase, DNase and cytotoxicity of S. pyogenes was not significant (p > 0.05. However, 67% of the protease positive strains induced cellular death in at least one type of - malignant cell line (p

  7. Inactivation of the transforming growth factor beta type II receptor in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, S; Nørgaard, P; Abrahamsen, N

    1999-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) exerts a growth inhibitory effect on many cell types through binding to two types of receptors, the type I and II receptors. Resistance to TGF-beta due to lack of type II receptor (RII) has been described in some cancer types including small cell lung...... cancer (SCLC). The purpose of this study was to examine the cause of absent RII expression in SCLC cell lines. Northern blot analysis showed that RII RNA expression was very weak in 16 of 21 cell lines. To investigate if the absence of RII transcript was due to mutations, we screened the poly-A tract...... for mutations, but no mutations were detected. Additional screening for mutations of the RII gene revealed a GG to TT base substitution in one cell line, which did not express RII. This mutation generates a stop codon resulting in predicted synthesis of a truncated RII of 219 amino acids. The nature...

  8. Cell-type-specific predictive network yields novel insights into mouse embryonic stem cell self-renewal and cell fate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen G Dowell

    Full Text Available Self-renewal, the ability of a stem cell to divide repeatedly while maintaining an undifferentiated state, is a defining characteristic of all stem cells. Here, we clarify the molecular foundations of mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC self-renewal by applying a proven Bayesian network machine learning approach to integrate high-throughput data for protein function discovery. By focusing on a single stem-cell system, at a specific developmental stage, within the context of well-defined biological processes known to be active in that cell type, we produce a consensus predictive network that reflects biological reality more closely than those made by prior efforts using more generalized, context-independent methods. In addition, we show how machine learning efforts may be misled if the tissue specific role of mammalian proteins is not defined in the training set and circumscribed in the evidential data. For this study, we assembled an extensive compendium of mESC data: ∼2.2 million data points, collected from 60 different studies, under 992 conditions. We then integrated these data into a consensus mESC functional relationship network focused on biological processes associated with embryonic stem cell self-renewal and cell fate determination. Computational evaluations, literature validation, and analyses of predicted functional linkages show that our results are highly accurate and biologically relevant. Our mESC network predicts many novel players involved in self-renewal and serves as the foundation for future pluripotent stem cell studies. This network can be used by stem cell researchers (at http://StemSight.org to explore hypotheses about gene function in the context of self-renewal and to prioritize genes of interest for experimental validation.

  9. Stimulation of DNA synthesis in cultured rat alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, C.C.; McCormick-Shannon, K.; Robinson, P.C.; Mason, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Restoration of the alveolar epithelium after injury is thought to be dependent on the proliferation of alveolar type II cells. To understand the factors that may be involved in promoting type II cell proliferation in vivo, we determined the effect of potential mitogens and culture substrata on DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. Type II cells cultured in basal medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) exhibited essentially no DNA synthesis. Factors that stimulated 3 H-thymidine incorporation included cholera toxin, epidermal growth factor, and rat serum. The greatest degree of stimulation was achieved by plating type II cells on an extracellular matrix prepared from bovine corneal endothelial cells and then by culturing the pneumocytes in medium containing rat serum, cholera toxin, insulin, and epidermal growth factor. Under conditions of stimulation of 3 H-thymidine incorporation there was an increased DNA content per culture dish but no increase in cell number. The ability of various culture conditions to promote DNA synthesis in type II cells was verified by autoradiography. Type II cells were identified by the presence of cytoplasmic inclusions, which were visualized by tannic acid staining before autoradiography. These results demonstrate the importance of soluble factors and culture substratum in stimulating DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture

  10. Melanopsin Ganglion Cells Are the Most Resistant Retinal Ganglion Cell Type to Axonal Injury in the Rat Retina

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez de Sevilla Müller, Luis; Sargoy, Allison; Rodriguez, Allen R.; Brecha, Nicholas C.

    2014-01-01

    We report that the most common retinal ganglion cell type that remains after optic nerve transection is the M1 melanopsin ganglion cell. M1 ganglion cells are members of the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell population that mediates non-image-forming vision, comprising ∼2.5% of all ganglion cells in the rat retina. In the present study, M1 ganglion cells comprised 1.7±1%, 28±14%, 55±13% and 82±8% of the surviving ganglion cells 7, 14, 21 and 60 days after optic nerve transect...

  11. Photovoltaic Cell Having A P-Type Polycrystalline Layer With Large Crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, Scot P.; Chamberlin, Rhodes R.

    1996-03-26

    A photovoltaic cell has an n-type polycrystalline layer and a p-type polycrystalline layer adjoining the n-type polycrystalline layer to form a photovoltaic junction. The p-type polycrystalline layer comprises a substantially planar layer portion having relatively large crystals adjoining the n-type polycrystalline layer. The planar layer portion includes oxidized impurities which contribute to obtainment of p-type electrical properties in the planar layer portion.

  12. Distinct ATOH1 and Neurog3 requirements define tuft cells as a new secretory cell type in the intestinal epithelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbe, F.; van Es, J.H.; Makrini, L.; Brulin, B.; Mellitzer, G.; Robine, S.; Romagnolo, B.; Shroyer, N.F.; Bourgaux, J.F.; Pignodel, C.; Clevers, H.; Jay, P.

    2011-01-01

    The unique morphology of tuft cells was first revealed by electron microscopy analyses in several endoderm-derived epithelia. Here, we explore the relationship of these cells with the other cell types of the intestinal epithelium and describe the first marker signature allowing their unambiguous

  13. Development of a shingle-type solar cell module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, N. F., Jr.; Sanchez, L. E.

    1978-01-01

    The development of a solar cell module, which is suitable for use in place of shingles on the sloping roofs of residental or commercial buildings, is reported. The design consists of nineteen series-connected 53 mm diameter solar cells arranged in a closely packed hexagon configuration. The shingle solar cell module consists of two basic functional parts: an exposed rigid portion which contains the solar cell assembly, and a semi-flexible portion which is overlapped by the higher courses of the roof installation. Consideration is given to the semi-flexible substrate configuration and solar cell and module-to-module interconnectors. The results of an electrical performance analysis are given and it is noted that high specific power output can be attributed to the efficient packing of the circular cells within the hexagon shape. The shingle should function for at least 15 years, with a specific power output of 98 W/sq w.

  14. Bushmeat Hunting and Zoonotic Transmission of Simian T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 in Tropical West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossoun, Arsène; Calvignac-Spencer, Sébastien; Anoh, Augustin E; Pauly, Maude S; Driscoll, Daniel A; Michel, Adam O; Nazaire, Lavry Grah; Pfister, Stefan; Sabwe, Pascale; Thiesen, Ulla; Vogler, Barbara R; Wiersma, Lidewij; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Fruth, Barbara; Wittig, Roman M; Leendertz, Fabian H; Schubert, Grit

    2017-05-15

    Simian T-lymphotropic virus 1 (STLV-1) enters human populations through contact with nonhuman primate (NHP) bushmeat. We tested whether differences in the extent of contact with STLV-1-infected NHP bushmeat foster regional differences in prevalence of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1). Using serological and PCR assays, we screened humans and NHPs at two Sub-Saharan African sites where subsistence hunting was expected to be less (Taï region, Côte d'Ivoire [CIV]) or more (Bandundu region, Democratic Republic of the Congo [DRC]) developed. Only 0.7% of human participants were infected with HTLV-1 in CIV ( n = 574), and 1.3% of humans were infected in DRC ( n = 302). Two of the Ivorian human virus sequences were closely related to simian counterparts, indicating ongoing zoonotic transmission. Multivariate analysis of human demographic parameters and behavior confirmed that participants from CIV were less often exposed to NHPs than participants from DRC through direct contact, e.g., butchering. At the same time, numbers of STLV-1-infected NHPs were higher in CIV (39%; n = 111) than in DRC (23%; n = 39). We conclude that similar ultimate risks of zoonotic STLV-1 transmission-defined as the product of prevalence in local NHP and human rates of contact to fresh NHP carcasses-contribute to the observed comparable rates of HTLV-1 infection in humans in CIV and DRC. We found that young adult men and mature women are most likely exposed to NHPs at both sites. In view of the continued difficulties in controlling zoonotic disease outbreaks, the identification of such groups at high risk of NHP exposure may guide future prevention efforts. IMPORTANCE Multiple studies report a high risk for zoonotic transmission of blood-borne pathogens like retroviruses through contact with NHPs, and this risk seems to be particularly high in tropical Africa. Here, we reveal high levels of exposure to NHP bushmeat in two regions of Western and Central tropical Africa. We provide evidence

  15. Single cell-type comparative metabolomics of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Jane Barkla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the remarkable adaptive features of the halophyte and facultative CAM plant Mesembryathemum crystallinum are the specialized modified trichomes called epidermal bladder cells (EBC which cover the leaves, stems, and peduncle of the plant. They are present from an early developmental stage but upon salt stress rapidly expand due to the accumulation of water and sodium. This particular plant feature makes it an attractive system for single cell type studies, with recent proteomics and transcriptomics studies of the EBC establishing that these cells are metabolically active and have roles other than sodium sequestration. To continue our investigation into the function of these unusual cells we carried out a comprehensive global analysis of the metabolites present in the EBC extract by gas chromatography Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF and identified 194 known and 722 total molecular features. Statistical analysis of the metabolic changes between control and salt-treated samples was used to identify 352 significantly differing metabolites (268 after correction for FDR. Principal components analysis provided an unbiased evaluation of the data variance structure. Biochemical pathway enrichment analysis suggested significant perturbations in 13 biochemical pathways as defined in KEGG. More than 50% of the metabolites that show significant changes in the EBC, can be classified as compatible solutes and include sugars, sugar alcohols, protein and non-protein amino acids, and organic acids, highlighting the need to maintain osmotic homeostasis to balance the accumulation of Na and Cl ions. Overall, the comparison of metabolic changes in salt treated relative to control samples suggest large alterations in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum epidermal bladder cells.

  16. Infectivity of wild-type rubella virus in fibrochondrocyte cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina A Figueiredo

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the rapid growth of the rubella virus in samples of a primary fibrochondrocyte cell culture with the development of a cytopathic effect (CPE, in response to infection by the rubella virus. The cells were isolated from the meniscus joint of a rabbit after enzymatic extraction and incubated at 37°C with a Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum. A total of six clinical samples from urine, blood and cerebrospinal fluid were inoculated in the fibrochondrocyte and the cell lines of the African green monkey kidney - ATCC CCL-81 (Vero. The fibrochondrocyte cell showed CPE after 24 hours and virus growth was confirmed by immunohistochemistry and Nested PCR. The cells inoculated with samples were examined by phase contrast microscopy and showed characteristic rounding, along with bipolar and multipolar cells. The infection curve increased during the five days of observation, showing that the titers in fibrochondrocyte cells were then higher than those observed in Vero cell lines.

  17. BMP signalling differentially regulates distinct haematopoietic stem cell types

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Crisan (Mihaela); P. Solaimani Kartalaei (Parham); C.S. Vink (Chris); T. Yamada-Inagawa (Tomoko); K. Bollerot (Karine); W.F.J. van IJcken (Wilfred); R. Van Der Linden (Reinier); S.C. de Sousa Lopes (Susana Chuva); R. Monteiro (Rui); C.L. Mummery (Christine); E.A. Dzierzak (Elaine)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractAdult haematopoiesis is the outcome of distinct haematopoietic stem cell (HSC) subtypes with self-renewable repopulating ability, but with different haematopoietic cell lineage outputs. The molecular basis for this heterogeneity is largely unknown. BMP signalling regulates HSCs as they

  18. Essential role of EBF1 in the generation and function of distinct mature B cell types

    OpenAIRE

    Vilagos, Bojan; Hoffmann, Mareike; Souabni, Abdallah; Sun, Qiong; Werner, Barbara; Medvedovic, Jasna; Bilic, Ivan; Minnich, Martina; Axelsson, Elin; Jaritz, Markus; Busslinger, Meinrad

    2012-01-01

    The transcription factor EBF1 is essential for lineage specification in early B cell development. In this study, we demonstrate by conditional mutagenesis that EBF1 is required for B cell commitment, pro–B cell development, and subsequent transition to the pre–B cell stage. Later in B cell development, EBF1 was essential for the generation and maintenance of several mature B cell types. Marginal zone and B-1 B cells were lost, whereas follicular (FO) and germinal center (GC) B cells were redu...

  19. Coercivity temperature dependence of Sm2Co17-type sintered magnets with different cell and cell boundary microchemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nengjun; Zhu, Minggang; Song, Liwei; Fang, Yikun; Song, KuiKui; Wang, Qiang; Li, Wei

    2018-04-01

    High maximum energy product ((BH)max) Sm(CobalFe0.18Cu0.07Zr0.03)7.7 magnet (type-A) and high temperature Sm(CobalFe0.1Cu0.09Zr0.03)7.2 magnet (type-B) were prepared by a traditional powder metallurgical technology. A record (BH)max of 98.7 kJ/m3 with a coercivity (Hcj) of 501.5 kA/m at 773 K was achieved for the type-B magnet, which is much higher than that of type-A magnet (63.7 kJ/m3). The microstructures of the magnets were revealed by high-resolution transmission electron microscope. The average cell size of the type-A and B magnet are 110 nm and 90 nm, respectively. Moreover, the type-B magnet shows a wider cell boundary than the type-A magnet. Additionally, the element distribution of the cell/cell boundary interfaces was measured by energy-dispersive spectroscopy. The cell phase of the type-A magnet contains a higher Fe content as about 17 at%, comparing with that of the type-B magnet (∼8.9 at%). On the other hand, the Cu content of the cell boundary phase is 18 at% almost twice higher than the type-B magnet (8.6 at%). Theoretical Hcj temperature dependence of these two kinds of magnets indicates that the lower Cu content in the cell boundary phase and the appropriate Fe content in the cell phase are the key factors for the high Hcj for the type-B magnet at elevated temperature.

  20. Regulation of T-type calcium channel expression by sodium butyrate in prostate cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Erika M; Zamora, Francis J; Puplampu-Dove, Yvonne A; Kiessu, Ezechielle; Hearne, Jennifer L; Martin-Caraballo, Miguel

    2015-02-15

    Several cellular mechanisms contribute to the neuroendocrine differentiation of prostate cancer cells, including exposure to sodium butyrate (NaBu), a naturally occurring salt of the short chain fatty acid n-butyric acid. NaBu belongs to a class of histone deacetylase inhibitors with potential anticancer function. T-type calcium channel expression constitutes an important route for calcium influx in tumor cells that may trigger changes in cell proliferation and differentiation. In this work we investigated the role NaBu on the differentiation of lymph node carcinoma of the prostate (LNCaP) cells and its effect on T-type Ca(2+) channel expression. NaBu stimulates the morphological and molecular differentiation of LNCaP cells. Stimulation of LNCaP cells with NaBu evokes a significant increase in the expression of the Cav3.2 T-type channel subunits. Furthermore, the increased Cav3.2 expression promotes membrane insertion of T-type Ca(2+) channels capable of generating fast inactivating Ca(2+) currents, sensitive to 100μM Ni(2+) ions. Inhibition of T-type Ca(2+) channel function reduces the outgrowth of neurite-like processes in LNCaP cells. NaBu-evoked expression of T-type Ca(2+) channels is also involved in the regulation of cell viability. Inhibition of T-type Ca(2+) channels causes a significant reduction in the viability of LNCaP cells treated with 1mM NaBu, suggesting that Ca(2+) influx via T-type channels can promote cell proliferation. However, increased expression of T-type Ca(2+) channels enhanced the cytotoxic effect of thapsigargin and paclitaxel on cell proliferation. These findings demonstrate that NaBu stimulates T-type Ca(2+) channel expression, thereby regulating both the morphological differentiation and growth of prostate cancer cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Recognition of Salmonella by Dectin-1 induces presentation of peptide antigen to type B T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Nicola; Compton, Evan; Trowsdale, John; Kelly, Adrian P

    2014-04-01

    Type B T cells recognize peptide-MHC class II (pMHCII) isoforms that are structurally distinct from those recognized by conventional type A T cells. These alternative type B conformers result from peptide loading in the absence of HLA-DM. Type A conformers are more stable than type B pMHCII conformers but bind the same peptide in the same register. Here, we show that interaction of Salmonella Typhimurium with bone marrow derived dendritic cells (BMDCs) isolated from C3H/HeNCr1 mice results in enhanced presentation of peptide Ag to type B T cells. The effect could be mimicked by purified PAMPs, the most potent of which were curdlan and zymosan, β-(1,3)-glucan-containing polymers that are recognized by Dectin-1. Blocking of Dectin-1 with Ab and laminarin inhibited the induction of the type B T-cell response by BMDCs, confirming its role as a PRR for S. Typhimurium. Splenic DCs (sDCs) expressed Dectin-1 but were refractive to the induction of type B responses by S. Typhimurium and curdlan. Type B T cells have been shown to escape thymic tolerance and to transfer pathology in an autoimmune disease model. The induction of type B responses by gram-negative bacteria provides a mechanism by which autoreactive T cells may be produced during infection. © 2014 The Authors. European Journal of Immunology published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Dynamics of dye release from nanocarriers of different types in model cell membranes and living cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tkacheva T. N.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the dynamics of lipophilic content release from nanocarriers of different types, organic molecular ensembles and inorganic nanoparticles (NPs in vitro experiments. Methods. Two-channel ratiometric fluorescence detection method based on Forster Resonance Energy Transfer, fluorescent spectroscopy and micro-spectroscopy have been used. Results. It has been found that the profiles of lipophilic dyes release from organic nanocarriers (PC liposomes and SDS micelles and inorganic ones (GdYVO4:Eu3+ and CeO2 NPs are well fitted by the first-order reaction kinetics in both model cell membranes and living cells (rat hepatocytes. The dye release constants (K and half-lives (t1/2 were analyzed. Conclusions. GdYVO4:Eu3+ and CeO2 NPs have been shown to provide faster lipophilic content release in model cell membranes as compared to PC liposomes. Negatively charged or lipophilic compounds added into nanocarriers can decrease the rate of lipophilic dyes release. Specific interaction of GdYVO4:Eu3+ NPs with rat hepatocytes has been observed.

  3. [Xenogeneic cell therapeutics: Treatment of type 1 diabetes using porcine pancreatic islets and islet cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godehardt, Antonia W; Schilling-Leiß, Dagmar; Sanzenbacher, Ralf; Tönjes, Ralf R

    2015-11-01

    In view of the existing shortage of human donor organs and tissues, xenogeneic cell therapeutics (xCT) offer an alternative for adequate treatment. In particular, porcine pancreatic islets and islet cells have already entered the field of experimental therapy for type-1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) patients. Thereby, xCT depict challenging products with a glance on medical, ethical, and regulatory questions. With cross-species transplantation (xenotransplantation), the risk of immunological graft rejection as well as the risk of infectious transmission of microbial and viral pathogens must be considered. This includes the bidirectional transmission of microorganisms from graft to host as well as from host to graft. Crossing the border of species requires a critical risk-benefit evaluation as well as a thorough longtime surveillance of transplant recipients after treatment. The international legal and regulatory requirements for xCT are inter alia based on the World Health Organization criteria summarized in the Changsha Communiqué (2008). In the European Union, they were reflected by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Guideline on Xenogeneic Cell-based Medicinal Products following the implementation of the Regulation on Advanced Therapies (ATMP). On the basis of this regulation, the first non-clinical and clinical experiences were obtained for porcine islets. The results suggest that supportive treatment of T1DM risk patients with xCT may be an alternative to established allogeneic organ transplantation in the future.

  4. Cell Type-Specific Immunomodulation Induced by Helminthes: Effect on Metainflammation, Insulin Resistance and Type-2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aravindhan, Vivekanandhan; Anand, Gowrishankar

    2017-12-01

    Recent epidemiological studies have documented an inverse relationship between the decreasing prevalence of helminth infections and the increasing prevalence of metabolic diseases ("metabolic hygiene hypothesis"). Chronic inflammation leading to insulin resistance (IR) has now been identified as a major etiological factor for a variety of metabolic diseases other than obesity and Type-2 diabetes (metainflammation). One way by which helminth infections such as filariasis can modulate IR is by inducing a chronic, nonspecific, low-grade, immune suppression mediated by modified T-helper 2 (Th2) response (induction of both Th2 and regulatory T cells) which can in turn suppress the proinflammatory responses and promote insulin sensitivity (IS). This article provides evidence on how the cross talk between the innate and adaptive arms of the immune responses can modulate IR/sensitivity. The cross talk between innate (macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, natural killer T cells, myeloid derived suppressor cells, innate lymphoid cells, basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils) and adaptive (helper T [CD4 + ] cells, cytotoxic T [CD8 + ] cells and B cells) immune cells forms two opposing circuits, one associated with IR and the other associated with IS under the conditions of metabolic syndrome and helminth-mediated immunomodulation, respectively.

  5. Planarians maintain a constant ratio of different cell types during changes in body size by using the stem cell system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Hiroyuki; Nishimura, Kaneyasu; Agata, Kiyokazu

    2009-12-01

    Planarians change in body size depending upon whether they are in feeding or starving conditions. To investigate how planarians regulate this flexible system, the numbers of total cells and specific cell types were counted and compared among worms 2 mm to 9 mm in body length. The total cell number increased linearly with increasing body length, but the ratio of cell numbers between the head and the trunk portion was constant (1:3). Interestingly, counting the numbers of specific neurons in the eye and brain after immunostaining using cell type-specific antibodies revealed that the ratio between different neuron types was constant regardless of the brain and body size. These results suggest that planarians can maintain proportionality while changing their body size by maintaining a constant ratio of different cell types. To understand this system and reveal how planarians restore the original ratio during eye and brain regeneration, the numbers of specialized cells were Investigated during regeneration. The results further substantiate the existence of some form of "counting mechanism" that has the ability to regulate both the absolute and relative numbers of different cell types in complex organs such as the brain during cell turnover, starvation, and regeneration.

  6. Single-channel L-type Ca2+ currents in chicken embryo semicircular canal type I and type II hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zampini, Valeria; Valli, Paolo; Zucca, Giampiero; Masetto, Sergio

    2006-08-01

    Few data are available concerning single Ca channel properties in inner ear hair cells and particularly none in vestibular type I hair cells. By using the cell-attached configuration of the patch-clamp technique in combination with the semicircular canal crista slice preparation, we determined the elementary properties of voltage-dependent Ca channels in chicken embryo type I and type II hair cells. The pipette solutions included Bay K 8644. With 70 mM Ba(2+) in the patch pipette, Ca channel activity appeared as very brief openings at -60 mV. Ca channel properties were found to be similar in type I and type II hair cells; therefore data were pooled. The mean inward current amplitude was -1.3 +/- 0.1 (SD) pA at - 30 mV (n = 16). The average slope conductance was 21 pS (n = 20). With 5 mM Ba(2+) in the patch pipette, very brief openings were already detectable at -80 mV. The mean inward current amplitude was -0.7 +/- 0.2 pA at -40 mV (n = 9). The average slope conductance was 11 pS (n = 9). The mean open time and the open probability increased significantly with depolarization. Ca channel activity was still present and unaffected when omega-agatoxin IVA (2 microM) and omega-conotoxin GVIA (3.2 microM) were added to the pipette solution. Our results show that types I and II hair cells express L-type Ca channels with similar properties. Moreover, they suggest that in vivo Ca(2+) influx might occur at membrane voltages more negative than -60 mV.

  7. Functional proteomics screen enables enrichment of distinct cell types from human pancreatic islets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revital Sharivkin

    Full Text Available The current world-wide epidemic of diabetes has prompted attempts to generate new sources of insulin-producing cells for cell replacement therapy. An inherent challenge in many of these strategies is the lack of cell-surface markers permitting isolation and characterization of specific cell types from differentiating stem cell populations. Here we introduce an iterative proteomics procedure allowing tag-free isolation of cell types based on their function. Our method detects and associates specific cell-surface markers with particular cell functionality by coupling cell capture on antibody arrays with immunofluorescent labeling. Using this approach in an iterative manner, we discovered marker combinations capable of enriching for discrete pancreatic cell subtypes from human islets of Langerhans: insulin-producing beta cells (CD9high/CD56+, glucagon-producing alpha cells (CD9-/CD56+ and trypsin-producing acinar cells (CD9-/CD56-. This strategy may assist future beta cell research and the development of diagnostic tools for diabetes. It can also be applied more generally for function-based purification of desired cell types from other limited and heterogeneous biological samples.

  8. Inflammatory response and barrier properties of a new alveolar type 1-like cell line (TT1).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bogaard, E.H.J. van den; Dailey, L.A.; Thorley, A.J.; Tetley, T.D.; Forbes, B.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the inflammatory response and barrier formation of a new alveolar type 1-like (transformed type I; TT1) cell line to establish its suitability for toxicity and drug transport studies. METHODS: TT1 and A549 cells were challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Secretion of

  9. The immunoglobulin superfamily member CD200R identifies cells involved in type 2 immune responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Lars H; Martel, Britta C; Larsen, Lau F

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The pathology of allergic diseases involves type 2 immune cells, such as Th2, ILC2, and basophils exerting their effect by production of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13. However, surface receptors that are specifically expressed on type 2 immune cells are less well documented. The aim of this i...

  10. Abnormal A-type lamin organization in a human lung carcinoma cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, BM; Broers, JL; Raymond, Y; de Leij, Louis; Kuijpers, HJH; Caberg, NEH; Ramaekers, Frans C. S.

    We have studied the expression of lamins A and C (A-type lamins) in a lung carcinoma cell line using type-specific monoclonal antibodies, Using immunofluorescence and immunoblotting studies it was noted that several irregularities in lamin expression exist in the cell line GLC-A1, derived from an

  11. Characterization of human endothelial cell urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor protein and messenger RNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barnathan, E S; Kuo, A; Karikó, K

    1990-01-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells in culture (HUVEC) express receptors for urokinase-type plasminogen activators (u-PA). The immunochemical nature of this receptor and its relationship to u-PA receptors expressed by other cell types is unknown. Cross-linking active site-blocked u-PA to HUVEC...

  12. Serum adipokines as biomarkers of beta-cell function in patients with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Minh Nguyet; Kolb, Hubert; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin as serum biomarkers of beta-cell function in patients with type 1 diabetes.......We investigated the adipokines adiponectin, leptin and resistin as serum biomarkers of beta-cell function in patients with type 1 diabetes....

  13. [Red Blood Cells Raman Spectroscopy Comparison of Type Two Diabetes Patients and Rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Liu, Gui-dong; Mu, Xin; Xiao, Hong-bin; Qi, Chao; Zhang, Si-qi; Niu Wen-ying; Jiang, Guang-kun; Feng, Yue-nan; Bian, Jing-qi

    2015-10-01

    By using confocal Raman spectroscopy, Raman spectra were measured in normal rat red blood cells, normal human red blood cells, STZ induced diabetetic rats red blood cells, Alloxan induced diabetetic rats red blood cells and human type 2 diabetes red blood cells. Then principal component analysis (PCA) with support vector machine (SVM) classifier was used for data analysis, and then the distance between classes was used to judge the degree of close to two kinds of rat model with type 2 diabetes. The results found significant differences in the Raman spectra of red blood cell in diabetic and normal red blood cells. To diabetic red blood cells, the peak in the amide VI C=O deformation vibration band is obvious, and amide V N-H deformation vibration band spectral lines appear deviation. Belong to phospholipid fatty acyl C-C skeleton, the 1 130 cm(-1) spectral line is enhanced and the 1 088 cm(-1) spectral line is abated, which show diabetes red cell membrane permeability increased. Raman spectra of PCA combined with SVM can well separate 5 types of red blood cells. Classifier test results show that the classification accuracy is up to 100%. Through the class distance between the two induced method and human type 2 diabetes, it is found that STZ induced model is more close to human type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, Raman spectroscopy can be used for diagnosis of diabetes and rats STZ induced diabetes method is closer to human type 2 diabetes.

  14. Functional and cytometric examination of different human lung epithelial cell types as drug transport barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyoung Ah; Rosania, Gus R; Kim, Chong-Kook; Shin, Meong Cheol

    2016-03-01

    To develop inhaled medications, various cell culture models have been used to examine the transcellular transport or cellular uptake properties of small molecules. For the reproducible high throughput screening of the inhaled drug candidates, a further verification of cell architectures as drug transport barriers can contribute to establishing appropriate in vitro cell models. In the present study, side-by-side experiments were performed to compare the structure and transport function of three lung epithelial cells (Calu-3, normal human bronchial primary cells (NHBE), and NL-20). The cells were cultured on the nucleopore membranes in the air-liquid interface (ALI) culture conditions, with cell culture medium in the basolateral side only, starting from day 1. In transport assays, paracellular transport across all three types of cells appeared to be markedly different with the NHBE or Calu-3 cells, showing low paracellular permeability and high TEER values, while the NL-20 cells showed high paracellular permeability and low TEER. Quantitative image analysis of the confocal microscope sections further confirmed that the Calu-3 cells formed intact cell monolayers in contrast to the NHBE and NL-20 cells with multilayers. Among three lung epithelial cell types, the Calu-3 cell cultures under the ALI condition showed optimal cytometric features for mimicking the biophysical characteristics of in vivo airway epithelium. Therefore, the Calu-3 cell monolayers could be used as functional cell barriers for the lung-targeted drug transport studies.

  15. Infection with human T-lymphotropic virus types-1 and -2 (HTLV-1 and -2): Implications for blood transfusion safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E L

    2016-02-01

    Many countries currently perform antibody screening for HTLV-1 infection in blood donors, and this intervention is likely cost-effective in preventing HTLV-1 related diseases in high prevalence countries. However, a number of high-income countries with low prevalence of HTLV-1 infection also perform universal HTLV-1 screening and debate has arisen regarding the cost-effectiveness of these strategies. Filter-based leukoreduction is likely to substantially reduce HTLV-1 transmission by removing infected lymphocytes, but actual laboratory data on its efficacy is currently lacking. Similarly, cost-effectiveness research on HTLV-1 prevention strategies is limited by poor data on prevalence, transmission efficacy and the cost of treating HTLV1 diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Infection with human T-lymphotropic virus types-1 and -2 (HTLV-1 and -2): Implications for blood transfusion safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    Many countries currently perform antibody screening for HTLV-1 infection in blood donors, and this intervention is likely cost-effective in preventing HTLV-1 related diseases in high prevalence countries. However, a number of high-income countries with low prevalence of HTLV-1 infection also perform universal HTLV-1 screening and debate has arisen regarding the cost-effectiveness of these strategies. Filter-based leukoreduction is likely to substantially reduce HTLV-1 transmission by removing infected lymphocytes, but actual laboratory data on its efficacy is currently lacking. Similarly, cost-effectiveness research on HTLV-1 prevention strategies is limited by poor data on prevalence, transmission efficacy and the cost of treating HTLV1 diseases. PMID:26778839

  17. Long-term in vitro, cell-type-specific genome-wide reprogramming of gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakelien, Anne-Mari; Gaustad, Kristine G.; Taranger, Christel K.; Skalhegg, Bjorn S.; Kuentziger, Thomas; Collas, Philippe

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate a cell extract-based, genome-wide and heritable reprogramming of gene expression in vitro. Kidney epithelial 293T cells have previously been shown to take on T cell properties following a brief treatment with an extract of Jurkat T cells. We show here that 293T cells exposed for 1 h to a Jurkat cell extract undergo genome-wide, target cell-type-specific and long-lasting transcriptional changes. Microarray analyses indicate that on any given week after extract treatment, ∼2500 genes are upregulated >3-fold, of which ∼900 are also expressed in Jurkat cells. Concomitantly, ∼1500 genes are downregulated or repressed, of which ∼500 are also downregulated in Jurkat cells. Gene expression changes persist for over 30 passages (∼80 population doublings) in culture. Target cell-type specificity of these changes is shown by the lack of activation or repression of Jurkat-specific genes by extracts of 293T cells or carcinoma cells. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis confirms the long-term transcriptional activation of genes involved in key T cell functions. Additionally, growth of cells in suspended aggregates, expression of CD3 and CD28 T cell surface markers, and interleukin-2 secretion by 293T cells treated with extract of adult peripheral blood T cells illustrate a functional nuclear reprogramming. Therefore, target cell-type-specific and heritable changes in gene expression, and alterations in cell function, can be promoted by extracts derived from transformed cells as well as from adult primary cells

  18. Goblet cell carcinoid in a patient with neurofibromatosis type 1-a rare combination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Tine; Holt, Nanna; Gronbaek, Henning

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are rare tumors primarily located in the gastrointestinal tract. Goblet cell carcinoid is a rare subgroup of neuroendocrine tumors located in the appendix. Neurofibromatosis type 1 is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a mutation in the NF1 gene. Patients with neurofib......Neuroendocrine tumors are rare tumors primarily located in the gastrointestinal tract. Goblet cell carcinoid is a rare subgroup of neuroendocrine tumors located in the appendix. Neurofibromatosis type 1 is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a mutation in the NF1 gene. Patients...... with neurofibromatosis type 1 have an increased incidence of typical neuroendocrine tumors, but it is unknown if this is the case with goblet cell carcinoids. We describe a patient with both neurofibromatosis type 1 and goblet cell carcinoid, that according to literature would occur in 0.00017 per million per year....... This may suggest a previously unknown association between neurofibromatosis type 1 and goblet cell carcinoids....

  19. Type I interferon is critical for the homeostasis and functional maturation of type 3 γδ T cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerholm, Rasmus; Kadekar, Darshana Dattatraya; Rizk, John

    2017-01-01

    Type I IFN (IFN-I) is highly expressed during viral infection and many autoimmune pathologies such as SLE and psoriasis. In addition, IFN-I is important to maintain the homeostasis of a number of different immune populations. Our aim was to identify whether IFN-I regulates type 3 γδ T (γδT3) cells...... behavior. Such γδT3 anergy is characterized by failure to induce skin inflammation and unresponsiveness to cytokine stimuli. Moreover, IFNAR deficient mice display deregulated γδT3homeostasis due to a neonatal maturation defect. In conclusion, our data show that tonic type I IFN signaling during neonatal...

  20. T-type calcium channel antagonists, mibefradil and NNC-55-0396 inhibit cell proliferation and induce cell apoptosis in leukemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Weifeng; Lu, Chunjing; Wu, Yong; Ouyang, Shou; Chen, Yuanzhong

    2015-05-21

    T-type Ca(2+) channels are often aberrantly expressed in different human cancers and participate in the regulation of cell cycle progression, proliferation and death. RT-PCR, Q-PCR, western blotting and whole-cell patch-clamp recording were employed to assess the expression of T-type Ca(2+) channels in leukemia cell lines. The function of T-type Ca(2+) channels in leukemia cell growth and the possible mechanism of the effect of T-type Ca(2+) channel antagonists on cell proliferation and apoptosis were examined in T-lymphoma cell lines. We show that leukemia cell lines exhibited reduced cell growth when treated with T-type Ca(2+) channel inhibitors, mibefradil and NNC-55-0396 in a concentration-dependent manner. Mechanistically, these inhibitors played a dual role on cell viability: (i) blunting proliferation, through a halt in the progression to the G1-S phase; and (ii) promoting cell apoptosis, partially dependent on the endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) release. In addition, we observed a reduced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in MOLT-4 cells in response to mibefradil and NNC-55-0396 treatment. These results indicate that mibefradil and NNC-55-0396 regulate proliferation and apoptosis in T-type Ca(2+) channel expressing leukemia cell lines and suggest a potential therapeutic target for leukemia.

  1. Mogamulizumab for the treatment of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshimitsu M

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Makoto Yoshimitsu, Naomichi Arima Division of Hematology and Immunology, Center for Chronic Viral Diseases, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan Abstract: Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL is a peripheral T-cell lymphoma caused by latent infection of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1. The outcome for ATLL is very poor, with a 3-year overall survival of approximately 24% with conventional chemotherapy; thus, there is an unmet need for developing new treatment options. Defucosylated humanized anti-CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4 antibody (KW-0761, mogamulizumab has been clinically available for the treatment of relapsed or refractory ATLL in Japan since 2012, and a Phase II study of mogamulizumab for patients with relapsed CCR4+ ATLL demonstrated a 50% objective response, a 30.8% complete response, and an acceptable safety profile. Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used to treat patients with ATLL, and mogamulizumab in combination with allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used successfully in a limited number of patients to treat refractory or relapsed ATLL. The efficacy of combining mogamulizumab with standard chemotherapy (mLSG15 for patients with ATLL has also been examined, and the results have shown higher rates of complete response with the combined therapy (52% compared with for chemotherapy alone (33%. Mogamulizumab also has potential application in the treatment of human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1-associated myelopathy/tropical paraparesis, Epstein–Barr virus-associated T-cell and natural killer-cell lymphoproliferative diseases, and peripheral and cutaneous T-cell lymphomas. Possible adverse events of mogamulizumab have been reported, such as cutaneous adverse reactions (including Stevens–Johnson syndrome, diffuse panbronchiolitis, reactivation of hepatitis B, and opportunistic infections. The treatment outcome of patients

  2. Eryptosis: An Erythrocyte’s Suicidal Type of Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Repsold

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes play an important role in oxygen and carbon dioxide transport. Although erythrocytes possess no nucleus or mitochondria, they fulfil several metabolic activities namely, the Embden-Meyerhof pathway, as well as the hexose monophosphate shunt. Metabolic processes within the erythrocyte contribute to the morphology/shape of the cell and important constituents are being kept in an active, reduced form. Erythrocytes undergo a form of suicidal cell death called eryptosis. Eryptosis results from a wide variety of contributors including hyperosmolarity, oxidative stress, and exposure to xenobiotics. Eryptosis occurs before the erythrocyte has had a chance to be naturally removed from the circulation after its 120-day lifespan and is characterised by the presence of membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, and phosphatidylserine exposure that correspond to nucleated cell apoptotic characteristics. After eryptosis is triggered there is an increase in cytosolic calcium (Ca2+ ion levels. This increase causes activation of Ca2+-sensitive potassium (K+ channels which leads to a decrease in intracellular potassium chloride (KCl and shrinkage of the erythrocyte. Ceramide, produced by sphingomyelinase from the cell membrane’s sphingomyelin, contributes to the occurrence of eryptosis. Eryptosis ensures healthy erythrocyte quantity in circulation whereas excessive eryptosis may set an environment for the clinical presence of pathophysiological conditions including anaemia.

  3. Carbon black nanoparticles induce type II epithelial cells to release chemotaxins for alveolar macrophages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donaldson Ken

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alveolar macrophages are a key cell in dealing with particles deposited in the lungs and in determining the subsequent response to that particle exposure. Nanoparticles are considered a potential threat to the lungs and the mechanism of pulmonary response to nanoparticles is currently under intense scrutiny. The type II alveolar epithelial cell has previously been shown to release chemoattractants which can recruit alveolar macrophages to sites of particle deposition. The aim of this study was to assess the responses of a type II epithelial cell line (L-2 to both fine and nanoparticle exposure in terms of secretion of chemotactic substances capable of inducing macrophage migration. Results Exposure of type II cells to carbon black nanoparticles resulted in significant release of macrophage chemoattractant compared to the negative control and to other dusts tested (fine carbon black and TiO2 and nanoparticle TiO2 as measured by macrophage migration towards type II cell conditioned medium. SDS-PAGE analysis of the conditioned medium from particle treated type II cells revealed that a higher number of protein bands were present in the conditioned medium obtained from type II cells treated with nanoparticle carbon black compared to other dusts tested. Size-fractionation of the chemotaxin-rich supernatant determined that the chemoattractants released from the epithelial cells were between 5 and 30 kDa in size. Conclusion The highly toxic nature and reactive surface chemistry of the carbon black nanoparticles has very likely induced the type II cell line to release pro-inflammatory mediators that can potentially induce migration of macrophages. This could aid in the rapid recruitment of inflammatory cells to sites of particle deposition and the subsequent removal of the particles by phagocytic cells such as macrophages and neutrophils. Future studies in this area could focus on the exact identity of the substance(s released by the

  4. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells-new members of the "type 2 franchise" that mediate allergic airway inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjösberg, Jenny; Spits, Hergen

    2012-05-01

    Type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are members of an ILC family, which contains NK cells and Rorγt(+) ILCs, the latter including lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and ILCs producing IL-17 and IL-22. ILC2s are dedicated to the production of IL-5 and IL-13 and, as such, ILC2s provide an early and important source of type 2 cytokines critical for helminth expulsion in the gut. Several studies have also demonstrated a role for ILC2s in airway inflammation. In this issue of the European Journal of Immunology, Klein Wolterink et al. [Eur. J. Immunol. 2012. 42: 1106-1116] show that ILC2s are instrumental in several models of experimental asthma where they significantly contribute to production of IL-5 and IL-13, key cytokines in airway inflammation. This study sheds light over the relative contribution of ILC2s versus T helper type 2 cells (Th2) in type 2 mediated allergen-specific inflammation in the airways as discussed in this commentary. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Targeting of naproxen covalently linked to HSA to sinusoidal cell types of the liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Melgert, BN; Lebbe, C; Wartna, E; Molema, G; Poelstra, K; Albrecht, C; Reichen, J; Meijer, DKF; Wisse, E; Knook, DL; Balabaud, C

    1997-01-01

    We have coupled the anti-inflammatory drug naproxen (Nap) covalently to human serum albumin (HSA) to deliver this drug selectively to non parenchymal cell types of the liver during endotoxin induced hepatic inflammation. Liver endothelial cells and Kupffer cells play an important role in the

  6. Do post-translational beta cell protein modifications trigger type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Størling, Joachim; Overgaard, Anne Julie; Brorsson, Caroline Anna

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is considered an autoimmune disease characterised by specific T cell-mediated destruction of the insulin-producing beta cells. Yet, except for insulin, no beta cell-specific antigens have been discovered. This may imply that the autoantigens in type 1 diabetes exist in modified...... forms capable of specifically triggering beta cell destruction. In other immune-mediated diseases, autoantigens targeted by the immune system have undergone post-translational modification (PTM), thereby creating tissue-specific neo-epitopes. In a similar manner, PTM of beta cell proteins might create...... beta cell-specific neo-epitopes. We suggest that the current paradigm of type 1 diabetes as a classical autoimmune disease should be reconsidered since the immune response may not be directed against native beta cell proteins. A modified model for the pathogenetic events taking place in islets leading...

  7. Type II NKT Cells in Inflammation, Autoimmunity, Microbial Immunity, and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrero, Idania; Ware, Randle; Kumar, Vipin

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer T cells (NKT) recognize self and microbial lipid antigens presented by non-polymorphic CD1d molecules. Two major NKT cell subsets, type I and II, express different types of antigen receptors (TCR) with distinct mode of CD1d/lipid recognition. Though type II NKT cells are less frequent in mice and difficult to study, they are predominant in human. One of the major subsets of type II NKT cells reactive to the self-glycolipid sulfatide is the best characterized and has been shown to induce a dominant immune regulatory mechanism that controls inflammation in autoimmunity and in anti-cancer immunity. Recently, type II NKT cells reactive to other self-glycolipids and phospholipids have been identified suggesting both promiscuous and specific TCR recognition in microbial immunity as well. Since the CD1d pathway is highly conserved, a detailed understanding of the biology and function of type II NKT cells as well as their interplay with type I NKT cells or other innate and adaptive T cells will have major implications for potential novel interventions in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, microbial immunity, and cancer.

  8. Comparison of Species and Cell-Type Differences in Fraction Unbound of Liver Tissues, Hepatocytes, and Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, Keith; Ryu, Sangwoo; Lin, Jian; Yates, Phillip; Tess, David; Li, Rui; Singh, Dhirender; Holder, Brian R; Kapinos, Brendon; Chang, George; Di, Li

    2018-04-01

    Fraction unbound ( f u ) of liver tissue, hepatocytes, and other cell types is an essential parameter used to estimate unbound liver drug concentration and intracellular free drug concentration. f u,liver and f u,cell are frequently measured in multiple species and cell types in drug discovery and development for various applications. A comparison study of 12 matrices for f u,liver and f u,cell of hepatocytes in five different species (mouse, rat, dog, monkey, and human), as well as f u,cell of Huh7 and human embryonic kidney 293 cell lines, was conducted for 22 structurally diverse compounds with the equilibrium dialysis method. Using an average bioequivalence approach, our results show that the average difference in binding to liver tissue, hepatocytes, or different cell types was within 2-fold of that of the rat f u,liver Therefore, we recommend using rat f u,liver as a surrogate for liver binding in other species and cell types in drug discovery. This strategy offers the potential to simplify binding studies and reduce cost, thereby enabling a more effective and practical determination of f u for liver tissues, hepatocytes, and other cell types. In addition, f u under hepatocyte stability incubation conditions should not be confused with f u,cell , as one is a diluted f u and the other is an undiluted f u Cell density also plays a critical role in the accurate measurement of f u,cell . Copyright © 2018 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  9. Role of type I interferon receptor signaling on NK cell development and functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Guan

    Full Text Available Type I interferons (IFN are unique cytokines transcribed from intronless genes. They have been extensively studied because of their anti-viral functions. The anti-viral effects of type I IFN are mediated in part by natural killer (NK cells. However, the exact contribution of type I IFN on NK cell development, maturation and activation has been somewhat difficult to assess. In this study, we used a variety of approaches to define the consequences of the lack of type I interferon receptor (IFNAR signaling on NK cells. Using IFNAR deficient mice, we found that type I IFN affect NK cell development at the pre-pro NK stage. We also found that systemic absence of IFNAR signaling impacts NK cell maturation with a significant increase in the CD27+CD11b+ double positive (DP compartment in all organs. However, there is tissue specificity, and only in liver and bone marrow is the maturation defect strictly dependent on cell intrinsic IFNAR signaling. Finally, using adoptive transfer and mixed bone marrow approaches, we also show that cell intrinsic IFNAR signaling is not required for NK cell IFN-γ production in the context of MCMV infection. Taken together, our studies provide novel insights on how type I IFN receptor signaling regulates NK cell development and functions.

  10. eTumorType, An Algorithm of Discriminating Cancer Types for Circulating Tumor Cells or Cell-free DNAs in Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinfeng Zou

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available With the technology development on detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs and cell-free DNAs (cfDNAs in blood, serum, and plasma, non-invasive diagnosis of cancer becomes promising. A few studies reported good correlations between signals from tumor tissues and CTCs or cfDNAs, making it possible to detect cancers using CTCs and cfDNAs. However, the detection cannot tell which cancer types the person has. To meet these challenges, we developed an algorithm, eTumorType, to identify cancer types based on copy number variations (CNVs of the cancer founding clone. eTumorType integrates cancer hallmark concepts and a few computational techniques such as stochastic gradient boosting, voting, centroid, and leading patterns. eTumorType has been trained and validated on a large dataset including 18 common cancer types and 5327 tumor samples. eTumorType produced high accuracies (0.86–0.96 and high recall rates (0.79–0.92 for predicting colon, brain, prostate, and kidney cancers. In addition, relatively high accuracies (0.78–0.92 and recall rates (0.58–0.95 have also been achieved for predicting ovarian, breast luminal, lung, endometrial, stomach, head and neck, leukemia, and skin cancers. These results suggest that eTumorType could be used for non-invasive diagnosis to determine cancer types based on CNVs of CTCs and cfDNAs.

  11. Malignant lymphomas in coeliac disease: evidence of increased risks for lymphoma types other than enteropathy-type T cell lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smedby, K E; Åkerman, M; Hildebrand, H; Glimelius, B; Ekbom, A; Askling, J

    2005-01-01

    Background: Numerous studies have reported on the association between coeliac disease and the otherwise uncommon enteropathy-type T cell lymphoma (ETTL). A systematic risk assessment of more prevalent lymphoma entities, such as B cell and non-intestinal lymphomas, in coeliac disease has not been performed. Aims: In light of the increasing number of patients diagnosed with coeliac disease and the unknown aetiology of malignant lymphomas, we aimed to estimate the distribution and risk of lymphoma subtypes in coeliac disease. Methods: We reviewed and reclassified 56 cases of incident malignant lymphomas occurring in a Swedish population based cohort of 11 650 patients hospitalised with coeliac disease. The observed numbers of lymphoma subtypes were compared with those expected in the Swedish population. Results: The majority (n = 32, 57%) of lymphomas in the cohort were not intestinal T cell lymphomas. Significantly increased risks were observed for B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) (standardised incidence ratio (SIR) 2.2 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2–3.6); 11 non-intestinal and five intestinal) and for lymphomas of non-intestinal origin (SIR 3.6 (95% CI 2.3–5.2), 11 B and 14 T cell). Furthermore, 44% of patients with B cell NHL had a history of other autoimmune/inflammatory diseases. The relative risks for T cell NHL (SIR 51 (95% CI 35–68); n = 37) and for primary gastrointestinal lymphomas (SIR 24 (95% CI 16–34); five B and 25 T cell) were markedly increased, as anticipated. Conclusion: Most lymphomas complicating coeliac disease are indeed related to the disease and are not of the ETTL-type. There was a remarkable aggregation of autoimmune/inflammatory disorders, female sex, coeliac disease, and B cell lymphoma. PMID:15591504

  12. Distinct cell clusters touching islet cells induce islet cell replication in association with over-expression of Regenerating Gene (REG protein in fulminant type 1 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaoru Aida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pancreatic islet endocrine cell-supporting architectures, including islet encapsulating basement membranes (BMs, extracellular matrix (ECM, and possible cell clusters, are unclear. PROCEDURES: The architectures around islet cell clusters, including BMs, ECM, and pancreatic acinar-like cell clusters, were studied in the non-diabetic state and in the inflamed milieu of fulminant type 1 diabetes in humans. RESULT: Immunohistochemical and electron microscopy analyses demonstrated that human islet cell clusters and acinar-like cell clusters adhere directly to each other with desmosomal structures and coated-pit-like structures between the two cell clusters. The two cell-clusters are encapsulated by a continuous capsule composed of common BMs/ECM. The acinar-like cell clusters have vesicles containing regenerating (REG Iα protein. The vesicles containing REG Iα protein are directly secreted to islet cells. In the inflamed milieu of fulminant type 1 diabetes, the acinar-like cell clusters over-expressed REG Iα protein. Islet endocrine cells, including beta-cells and non-beta cells, which were packed with the acinar-like cell clusters, show self-replication with a markedly increased number of Ki67-positive cells. CONCLUSION: The acinar-like cell clusters touching islet endocrine cells are distinct, because the cell clusters are packed with pancreatic islet clusters and surrounded by common BMs/ECM. Furthermore, the acinar-like cell clusters express REG Iα protein and secrete directly to neighboring islet endocrine cells in the non-diabetic state, and the cell clusters over-express REG Iα in the inflamed milieu of fulminant type 1 diabetes with marked self-replication of islet cells.

  13. Transcriptome atlas of eight liver cell types uncovers effects of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    College of Life Science and Technology, Xinjiang University, 14# Shengli Road, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang, People's Republic of China; Key Laboratory for Cell Differentiation Regulation, Henan Normal University, 46# East of Construction Road, Xinxiang 453007, People's Republic of China; College of Life Science, Henan ...

  14. Magnetically modified microbial cells: A new type of magnetic adsorbents

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafařík, Ivo; Šafaříková, Miroslava

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 5, 1-2 (2007), s. 19-25 ISSN 1672-2515 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC 108 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : microbial cells * magnetic modification * magnetic adsorbent Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  15. Human papillomavirus type 16 DNA in periungual squamous cell carcinomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moy, R.L.; Eliezri, Y.D.; Bennett, R.G. (UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (USA)); Nuovo, G.J.; Siverstein, S. (UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (USA) Columbia Univ., New York, NY (USA)); Zitelli, J.A. (Montefiore Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1989-05-12

    Ten squamous cell carcinomas (in situ or invasive) of the fingernail region were analyzed for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to human papilloma-virus (HPV) by dot blot hybridization. In most patients, the lesions were verrucae of long-term duration that were refractory to conventional treatment methods. Eight of the lesions contained HPV DNA sequences, and in six of these the sequences were related to HPV 16 as deduced from low-stringency nucleic acid hybridization followed by low- and high-stringency washes. Furthermore, the restriction endonuclease digestion pattern of DNA isolated from four of these lesions was diagnostic of episomal HPV 16. The high-frequency association of HPV 16 with periungual squamous cell carcinoma is similar to that reported for HPV 16 with squamous cell carcinomas on mucous membranes at other sites, notably the genital tract. The findings suggest that HPV 16 may play an important role in the development of squamous cell carcinomas of the finger, most notably those lesions that are chronic and located in the periungual area.

  16. Histamine type I (H1) receptor radioligand binding studies on normal T cell subsets, B cells, and monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, W.; Doyle, K.; Rocklin, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    A single, specific binding site for [ 3 H]pyrilamine on normal human T helper, T suppressor, B cells, and monocytes was documented. The binding of the radioligand to its receptor is reversible with cold H 1 antagonist, saturates at 40 to 60 nM, and binding equilibrium is achieved in 2 to 4 min. Using a computer program (Ligand), the authors calculated the dissociation constants, binding capacities, and numbers of receptors per cell for each of the different cell types. Monocytes were found to have the highest affinity for [ 3 H]pyrilamine, followed by T helper cells, B cells and T suppressor cells (K/sub D/ = 44.6 +/- 49.4 nM). T suppressor cells were found to express the higher number of H 1 receptors per cell followed by B cells, T helper cells, and monocytes. The binding affinity for [ 3 H]pyrilamine increased over a 48-hr period, whereas the number of receptors per T cell was essentially unchanged. In contrast, T cells stimulated with Con A or PHA were shown to have a greater than fourfold increase in the number of receptors per cell, whereas the binding affinity for [ 3 H]pyrilamine decreased over the 48-hr period. Although the function of H 1 receptors on T cells, B cells, and monocytes has not been completely defined, this receptor has the potential of playing an important role in the modulating the immune response

  17. Recognition of lysophosphatidylcholine by type II NKT cells and protection from an inflammatory liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maricic, Igor; Girardi, Enrico; Zajonc, Dirk M; Kumar, Vipin

    2014-11-01

    Lipids presented by the MHC class I-like molecule, CD1d, are recognized by NK T (NKT) cells, which can be broadly categorized into two subsets. The well-characterized type I NKT cells express a semi-invariant TCR and can recognize both α- and β-linked glycolipids, whereas type II NKT cells are less well studied, express a relatively diverse TCR repertoire, and recognize β-linked lipids. Recent structural studies have shown a distinct mode of recognition of a self-glycolipid sulfatide bound to CD1d by a type II NKT TCR. To further characterize Ag recognition by these cells, we have used the structural data and screened other small molecules able to bind to CD1d and activate type II NKT cells. Using plate-bound CD1d and APC-based Ag presentation assay, we found that phospholipids such as lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) can stimulate the sulfatide-reactive type II NKT hybridoma Hy19.3 in a CD1d-dependent manner. Using plasmon resonance studies, we found that this type II NKT TCR binds with CD1d-bound LPC with micromolar affinities similar to that for sulfatide. Furthermore, LPC-mediated activation of type II NKT cells leads to anergy induction in type I NKT cells and affords protection from Con A-induced hepatitis. These data indicate that, in addition to self-glycolipids, self-lysophospholipids are also recognized by type II NKT cells. Because lysophospholipids are involved during inflammation, our findings have implications for not only understanding activation of type II NKT cells in physiological settings, but also for the development of immune intervention in inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  18. Increased replication of T-cell-tropic HIV strains and CXC-chemokine receptor-4 induction in T cells treated with macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES beta-chemokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolei, A; Biolchini, A; Serra, C; Curreli, S; Gomes, E; Dianzani, F

    1998-01-22

    To study, in T-lymphoid cells, the effects of macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES beta-chemokines on the replication of T-cell-tropic HIV-1 strains, since it has been reported that beta-chemokines interfere with the replication of macrophage-tropic HIV-1 strains, but not T-cell-tropic strains. Freshly phytohaemagglutinin (PHA)-activated peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and cultured PHA-activated T cells from healthy volunteers, as well as the C8166 T-cell line, were treated overnight with beta-chemokines before infection with T-cell-tropic HIV-1 isolates, or human T-lymphotropic virus type IIIB. HIV replication was followed by detecting the production of infectious particles, p24 antigen, and viral sequences. CXC-chemokine receptor (CXCR)-4 expression was followed by detection and quantification of specific transcripts. Pretreatment of T cells with MIP-1alpha, MIP-1beta and RANTES affected T-cell-tropic strains, increased the replication of HIV-1beta and HIV-1RPdT strains dose-dependently, as well as virus absorption and provirus DNA accumulation. These findings were associated with increased accumulation of CXCR-4 transcripts, and mediated by the protein tyrosine kinase signalling. Moreover, beta-chemokines stimulated PBL proliferation. Beta-chemokines increase the adsorption and replication of at least some T-cell-tropic HIV-1 strains, and this is related to stimulated expression of the CXCR-4 coreceptor.

  19. Occurrence of thymosin beta4 in human breast cancer cells and in other cell types of the tumor microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L.-I.; Holck, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    that there is a considerable heterogeneity in the cellular distribution of thymosin beta4 in breast cancer. In most tumors examined, cancer cells showed low or intermediate reactivity for thymosin beta4, whereas leukocytes and macrophages showed intense reactivity. In addition, endothelial cells showed variable reactivity...... to thymosin beta4, whereas myofibroblasts were negative. There was no correlation between the intensity of tumor cell staining and histological grade, whereas there was a tendency toward a correlation between endothelial cell staining and grade. These results demonstrate that multiple cell types within...

  20. Occurrence of thymosin ß4 in human breast cancer cells and in other cell types of the tumor microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, Lars-Inge; Holck, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    that there is a considerable heterogeneity in the cellular distribution of thymosin ß4 in breast cancer. In most tumors examined, cancer cells showed low or intermediate reactivity for thymosin ß4, whereas leukocytes and macrophages showed intense reactivity. In addition, endothelial cells showed variable reactivity...... to thymosin ß4, whereas myofibroblasts were negative. There was no correlation between the intensity of tumor cell staining and histological grade, whereas there was a tendency toward a correlation between endothelial cell staining and grade. These results demonstrate that multiple cell types within the tumor...

  1. Proton and Fe Ion-Induced Early and Late Chromosome Aberrations in Different Cell Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Honglu; Lu, Tao; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zhang, Ye; Kadhim, Munira

    2016-01-01

    An early stage of cancer development is believed to be genomic instability (GI) which accelerates the mutation rate in the descendants of the cells surviving radiation exposure. To investigate GI induced by charged particles, we exposed human lymphocytes, human fibroblast cells, and human mammary epithelial cells to high energy protons and Fe ions. In addition, we also investigated GI in bone marrow cells isolated from CBA/CaH (CBA) and C57BL/6 (C57) mice, by analyzing cell survival and chromosome aberrations in the cells after multiple cell divisions. Results analyzed so far from the experiments indicated different sensitivities to charged particles between CBA/CaH (CBA) and C57BL/6 (C57) mouse strains, suggesting that there are two main types of response to irradiation: 1) responses associated with survival of damaged cells and 2) responses associated with the induction of non-clonal chromosomal instability in the surviving progeny of stem cells. Previously, we reported that the RBE for initial chromosome damages was high in human lymphocytes exposed to Fe ions. Our results with different cell types demonstrated different RBE values between different cell types and between early and late chromosomal damages. This study also attempts to offer an explanation for the varying RBE values for different cancer types.

  2. [Regulatory role of NKT cells in the prevention of type 1 diabetes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazarian, Liana; Simoni, Yannick; Pingris, Karine; Beaudoin, Lucie; Lehuen, Agnès

    2013-01-01

    Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease resulting from the destruction of pancreatic β cells by the immune system. NKT cells are innate-like T cells that can exert potent immuno-regulatory functions. The regulatory role of NKT cells was initially proposed after the observed decreased frequency of this subset in mouse models of type 1 diabetes, as well as in patients developing various autoimmune pathologies. Increasing NKT cell frequency and function prevent the development of type 1 diabetes in mouse models. Several mechanisms including IL-4 and IL-10 production by NKT cells and the accumulation of tolerogenic dendritic cells are critical for the dampening of pathogenic anti-islet T cell responses by NKT cells. Importantly, these cells can at the same time prevent diabetes and promote efficient immune responses against infectious agents. These results strengthen the potential role of NKT cells as a key target for the development of therapeutic strategies against type 1 diabetes. © 2013 médecine/sciences – Inserm.

  3. Dendritic cell type-specific HIV-1 activation in effector T cells: implications for latent HIV-1 reservoir establishment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Renée M.; van Capel, Toni M. M.; Speijer, Dave; Sanders, Rogier W.; Berkhout, Ben; de Jong, Esther C.; Jeeninga, Rienk E.; van Montfort, Thijs

    2015-01-01

    Latent HIV type I (HIV-1) infections can frequently occur in short-lived proliferating effector T lymphocytes. These latently infected cells could revert into resting T lymphocytes and thereby contribute to the establishment of the long-lived viral reservoir. Monocyte-derived dendritic cells can

  4. C-type lectin Mermaid inhibits dendritic cell mediated HIV-1 transmission to CD4+ T cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabatov, Alexey A.; de Jong, Marein A. W. P.; de Witte, Lot; Bulgheresi, Silvia; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.

    2008-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are important in HIV-1 transmission; DCs capture invading HIV-1 through the interaction of the gp120 oligosaccharides with the C-type lectin DC-SIGN and migrate to the lymphoid tissues where HIV-1 is transmitted to T cells. Thus, the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 is an

  5. DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin on dendritic cells that unveils many aspects of dendritic cell biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; Engering, Anneke; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2002-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are present in essentially every tissue where they operate at the interface of innate and acquired immunity by recognizing pathogens and presenting pathogen-derived peptides to T cells. It is becoming clear that not all C-type lectins on DC serve as antigen receptors recognizing

  6. Herpes simplex virus type 2 induces rapid cell death and functional impairment of murine dendritic cells in vitro

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, CA; Fernandez, M; Herc, K; Bosnjak, L; Miranda-Saksena, M; Boadle, RA; Cunningham, A

    2003-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) are critical for stimulation of naive T cells. Little is known about the effect of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infection on DC structure or function or if the observed effects of HSV-1 on human DC are reproduced in murine DC. Here, we demonstrate that by 12 h

  7. Analysis of multiple types of human cells subsequent to bioprinting with electrospraying technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Yu; Chai, Gang; Zhang, Ting; Wang, Xiangsheng; Qu, Miao; Tan, Andy; Bogari, Melia; Zhu, Ming; Lin, Li; Hu, Qingxi; Liu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yan

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate bioprinting with electrospraying technology using multiple types of human cell suspensions as bio-ink, in order to lay the initial foundations for the application of the bioprinting technology in tissue engineering. In the current study, six types of human cells were selected and cultured, including human fibroblasts, human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs), human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLCs), adult human retinal pigment epithelial cells (ARPE-19), human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1). Each cell type was divided into two groups, the experimental and control group. All the experimental group cells were electrosprayed using an electrospraying printer (voltage, 15 kV; flow rate, 150 µl/min) and collected in a petri dish placed 15 cm away from the needle (needle diameter, 0.5 mm). Subsequently, cell viability was detected by flow cytometry with a Live/Dead Viability kit. In addition, the cell morphological characteristics were observed with a phase-contrast microscope after 6 h of culturing in order to obtain adherent cells, while cell proliferation was analyzed using a Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. The control groups, without printing, were subjected to the same procedures as the experimental groups. The results of the cell viability and proliferation assays indicated a statistically significant difference after printing between the experiments and control groups only for the hADSCs (P0.05). In addition, there were no observable differences between all experimental and the control groups at any examined time point in the terms of cell morphological characteristics. In conclusion, bioprinting based on electrospraying technology demonstrated no distinct negative effect on cell vitality, proliferation and morphology in the present study, and thus the application of this novel technology to cell printing may provide a promising method in tissue engineering.

  8. Verapamil inhibits L-type calcium channel mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawadzki, Antoni; Liu, Qing; Wang, Yusheng; Melander, Arne; Jeppsson, Bengt; Thorlacius, Henrik

    2008-11-01

    Treatment with calcium channel blockers have been associated with increased colon cancer mortality in epidemiologic studies. We examined the potential expression and function of calcium channels in two human colon cancer cell lines. Both primary (collected at operation) and commercially-available human colon cancer cell lines were used. The colon cancer cells were incubated with a calcium channel blocker (verapamil) and a calcium channel agonist (BayK 8644) at clinically relevant concentrations. L-type calcium channel mRNA was determined by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Intracellular calcium ion levels were measured with fluorometry and apoptosis with flow cytometry. Both types of cells expressed L-type calcium channel mRNA, comprising an alpha-1D and a beta-3 subunit, whereas the cells were negative for N-type and P-type channels. The selective calcium channel agonist (BayK 8644), dose-dependently increased intracellular calcium ion levels and the level of apoptosis in primary human colon cancer cells. Pretreatment with verapamil completely abolished both calcium channel agonist-induced influx of calcium and apoptosis in these cells. These data demonstrate that human colon cancer cells express L-type calcium channels that mediate calcium influx and apoptosis, which warrants further studies to determine whether calcium channel blockers may promote colon cancer growth.

  9. p-type Mesoscopic nickel oxide/organometallic perovskite heterojunction solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kuo-Chin; Jeng, Jun-Yuan; Shen, Po-Shen; Chang, Yu-Cheng; Diau, Eric Wei-Guang; Tsai, Cheng-Hung; Chao, Tzu-Yang; Hsu, Hsu-Cheng; Lin, Pei-Ying; Chen, Peter; Guo, Tzung-Fang; Wen, Ten-Chin

    2014-04-23

    In this article, we present a new paradigm for organometallic hybrid perovskite solar cell using NiO inorganic metal oxide nanocrystalline as p-type electrode material and realized the first mesoscopic NiO/perovskite/[6,6]-phenyl C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) heterojunction photovoltaic device. The photo-induced transient absorption spectroscopy results verified that the architecture is an effective p-type sensitized junction, which is the first inorganic p-type, metal oxide contact material for perovskite-based solar cell. Power conversion efficiency of 9.51% was achieved under AM 1.5 G illumination, which significantly surpassed the reported conventional p-type dye-sensitized solar cells. The replacement of the organic hole transport materials by a p-type metal oxide has the advantages to provide robust device architecture for further development of all-inorganic perovskite-based thin-film solar cells and tandem photovoltaics.

  10. Development and testing of shingle-type solar cell molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, N. F.

    1978-01-01

    The details of a shingle module design which produces in excess of 97 watts/sq m of module area at 1 kW/sq m insolation and at 60 C are reported. This selected design employs a tempered glass coverplate to provide the primary solar cell structural support. The fabrication and testing of a preproduction module of this design has demonstrated that this selected approach will meet the environmental testing requirements imposed by the contract.

  11. Regulation of expression driven by human immunodeficiency virus type 1 and human T-cell leukemia virus type I long terminal repeats in pluripotential human embryonic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maio, J.; Brown, F.L.

    1988-01-01

    Human pluripotential embryonic teratocarcinoma cells differentially expressed gene activity controlled by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I) long terminal repeats (LTRs) when differentiation was induced by the morphogen all-trans retinoic acid. The alterations occurred after commitment and before the appearance of the multiple cell types characteristic of these pluripotential cells. After commitment, gene activity controlled by the HIV-1 LTR markedly increased, whereas that controlled by the HTLV-I LTR decreased. Steady-state mRNA levels and nuclear run-on transcription indicated that the increased HIV-1-directed activity during differentiation occurred posttranscriptionally, whereas the decreased HTLV-I activity was at the transcriptional level. Phorbol esters did not cause commitment but strongly enhanced expression by both viral LTRs at the transcriptional level. Differentiating cells gradually lost the ability to respond to phorbol ester stimulation. Experiments with a deletion mutant of the HIV-1 LTR suggested that this was due to imposition of negative regulation during differentiation that was not reversed by phorbol ester induction. Cycloheximide, with or without phorbol ester, slightly stimulated HIV-1-directed activity at the transcriptional level and massively increased the amounts of steady-state mRNA by posttranscriptional superinduction. It appeared, however, that new nuclear protein synthesis was required for maximal transcriptional stimulation by phorbol esters. Thus, changing cellular regulatory mechanisms influenced human retrovirus expression during human embryonic cell differentiation

  12. T-helper Cell Type-1 Transcription Factor T-Bet Is Down-regulated in Type 1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaseghi, Hajar; Sanati, Mohammad Hossein; Jadali, Zohreh

    2016-10-01

    T cells have been identified as key players in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. However, the exact role of T-cell subpopulations in this pathway is presently unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the expression pattern of two lineage-specifying transcription factors GATA-3 and T-bet, which are important in T helper type 1 (Th1) and Th2 cell development, respectively. Gene expression analysis of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was performed using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Plasma levels of IFN-γ and IL-4 were also determined by ELISA. T-bet and IFN-γ gene expression was significantly lower in patients group compared with healthy controls (p<0.05). The expression of GATA-3 was relatively similar in patients and controls; however, IL-4 mRNAs were significantly increased in the PBMCs from patients as compared with normal controls (p<0.05). In addition, a marked increase in plasma IL-4 levels were observed in patient group compared with controls (p<0.001). To the contrary, IFN-γ protein levels were decreased in patients in comparison with controls (p<0.001). These data suggest additional implications of the role of Th1/Th2 imbalance for the immunopathogenesis of type 1 diabetes.

  13. The GalNAc-type O-Glycoproteome of CHO Cells Characterized by the SimpleCell Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Halim, Adnan; Narimatsu, Yoshiki

    2014-01-01

    of glycan structures (glycostructures) on glycoproteins are well established, our knowledge of the capacity of CHO cells for attaching GalNAc-type O-glycans to proteins (glycosites) is minimal. This type of O-glycosylation is one of the most abundant forms of glycosylation, and it is differentially...

  14. Type I CD20 Antibodies Recruit the B Cell Receptor for Complement-Dependent Lysis of Malignant B Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelberts, Patrick J.; Voorhorst, Marleen; Schuurman, Janine; van Meerten, Tom; Bakker, Joost M.; Vink, Tom; Mackus, Wendy J. M.; Breij, Esther C. W.; Derer, Stefanie; Valerius, Thomas; van de Winkel, Jan G. J.; Parren, Paul W. H. I.; Beurskens, Frank J.

    2016-01-01

    Human IgG1 type I CD20 Abs, such as rituximab and ofatumumab (OFA), efficiently induce complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) of CD20(+) B cells by binding of C1 to hexamerized Fc domains. Unexpectedly, we found that type I CD20 Ab F(ab ')2 fragments, as well as C1q-binding-deficient IgG mutants,

  15. [Insulin pump in type 2 diabetes: B-cell focused treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picková, Klára; Rušavý, Zdeněk

    Type 2 diabetes is a disorder characterized by insulin resistance and progressive deterioration of B-cell insulin secretion. B-cell protective strategies for lowering glucolipotoxicity by rapid achievement of normoglycemia using exogenous insulin improve their function and prolong diabetes remission. Insulin pump is an effective treatment method in newly diagnosed diabetes, where even short-term pump therapy is B-cell protective. Combination therapy with insulin pump and antidiabetics targeting the incretin system acts in synergy to protect the B-cell. While the positive effect of insulin pump is apparent even a year after stopping the therapy, the effect of incretins lasts only while on the medication. Short-term insulin treatment, especially delivered by insulin pump, is an effective method of B-cell protection in recent type 2 diabetes.Key words: B-cell function - diabetes mellitus - insulin pump - insulin resistance - type 2 diabetes.

  16. Pathogenesis and treatment of adult-type granulosa cell tumor of the ovary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Färkkilä, Anniina; Haltia, Ulla-Maija; Tapper, Johanna; McConechy, Melissa K; Huntsman, David G; Heikinheimo, Markku

    2017-08-01

    Adult-type granulosa cell tumor is a clinically and molecularly unique subtype of ovarian cancer. These tumors originate from the sex cord stromal cells of the ovary and represent 3-5% of all ovarian cancers. The majority of adult-type granulosa cell tumors are diagnosed at an early stage with an indolent prognosis. Surgery is the cornerstone for the treatment of both primary and relapsed tumor, while chemotherapy is applied only for advanced or non-resectable cases. Tumor stage is the only factor consistently associated with prognosis. However, every third of the patients relapse, typically in 4-7 years from diagnosis, leading to death in 50% of these patients. Anti-Müllerian Hormone and inhibin B are currently the most accurate circulating biomarkers. Adult-type granulosa cell tumors are molecularly characterized by a pathognomonic somatic missense point mutation 402C->G (C134W) in the transcription factor FOXL2. The FOXL2 402C->G mutation leads to increased proliferation and survival of granulosa cells, and promotes hormonal changes. Histological diagnosis of adult-type granulosa cell tumor is challenging, therefore testing for the FOXL2 mutation is crucial for differential diagnosis. Large international collaborations utilizing molecularly defined cohorts are essential to improve and validate new treatment strategies for patients with high-risk or relapsed adult-type granulosa cell tumor. Key Messages: Adult-type granulosa cell tumor is a unique ovarian cancer with an indolent, albeit unpredictable disease course. Adult-type granulosa cell tumors harbor a pathognomonic somatic missense mutation in transcription factor FOXL2. The key challenges in the treatment of patients with adult-type granulosa cell tumor lie in the identification and management of patients with high-risk or relapsed disease.

  17. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from normal rats stimulates DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leslie, C.C.; McCormick-Shannon, K.; Mason, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Proliferation of alveolar type II cells after lung injury is important for the restoration of the alveolar epithelium. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) may represent an important source of growth factors for alveolar type II cells. To test this possibility, BALF fluid was collected from normal rats, concentrated 10-fold by Amicon filtration, and tested for its ability to stimulate DNA synthesis in rat alveolar type II cells in primary culture. BALF induced a dose-dependent increase in type II cell DNA synthesis resulting in a 6-fold increase in [3H]thymidine incorporation. Similar doses also stimulated [3H]thymidine incorporation into rat lung fibroblasts by 6- to 8-fold. Removal of pulmonary surface active material by centrifugation did not significantly reduce the stimulatory activity of BALF for type II cells. The stimulation of type II cell DNA synthesis by BALF was reduced by 100% after heating at 100 degrees C for 10 min, and by approximately 80% after reduction with dithiothreitol, and after trypsin treatment. Dialysis of BALF against 1 N acetic acid resulted in a 27% reduction in stimulatory activity. The effect of BALF in promoting type II cell DNA synthesis was more pronounced when tested in the presence of serum, although serum itself has very little effect on type II cell DNA synthesis. When BALF was tested in combination with other substances that stimulate type II cell DNA synthesis (cholera toxin, insulin, epidermal growth factor, and acidic fibroblast growth factor), additive effects or greater were observed. When BALF was chromatographed over Sephadex G150, the activity eluted with an apparent molecular weight of 100 kDa

  18. Possible Therapeutic Application of Targeting Type II Natural Killer T Cell-Mediated Suppression of Tumor Immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Shingo; Berzofsky, Jay A.; Terabe, Masaki

    2018-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are a unique T cell subset that exhibits characteristics from both the innate immune cells and T cells. There are at least two subsets of NKT cells, type I and type II. These two subsets of NKT cells have opposite functions in antitumor immunity. Type I NKT cells usually enhance and type II NKT cells suppress antitumor immunity. In addition, these two subsets of NKT cells cross-regulate each other. In this review, we mainly focus on immunosuppressive NKT cells, type II NKT cells. After summarizing their definition, experimental tools to study them, and subsets of them, we will discuss possible therapeutic applications of type II NKT cell pathway targeted therapies. PMID:29520281

  19. Cells that mediate NK like cytotoxicity are present in the human delayed type hypersensitivity response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartof, D; Yung, C W; Curran, J J; Livingston, C; Thalji, Z

    1984-11-01

    By inducing delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) responses under previously formed skin blisters we determined that cells which mediate natural killer (NK) like cytotoxicity are present in the DTH response in man. Similar levels of killing were not present in cells obtained from skin blisters not associated with positive DTH responses. The DTH response associated killer cell was found to be a mononuclear cell that had presumably undergone stimulation since it not only killed NK sensitive K-562 cells, but also NK resistant Daudi target cells.

  20. Modulation of MAA-induced apoptosis in male germ cells: role of Sertoli cell P/Q-type calcium channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aguanno Salvatore

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Spontaneous germ cell death by apoptosis occurs during normal spermatogenesis in mammals and is thought to play a role in the physiological mechanism limiting the clonal expansion of such cell population in the male gonad. In the prepubertal rat testis, the most conspicuous dying cells are pachytene spermatocytes, which are also the primary target of the apoptosis experimentally induced by the methoxyacetic acid (MAA. Since we have recently reported that Sertoli cells, the somatic component of the seminiferous epithelium, regulate not only germ cell viability and differentiation but also their death, we have further investigated the mechanism involved in such a control. In this paper we have used the protein clusterin, produced by Sertoli cells and associated with tissue damage or injury, as indicator of germ cell apoptosis in rat seminiferous tubules treated with MAA in the presence or in the absence of omega-agatoxin, a specific inhibitor of P/Q type voltage-operated calcium channels (VOCC's. We performed both a qualitative analysis of clusterin content and germ cell apoptosis by immunofluorescence experiments and a quantitative analysis by in situ end labelling of apoptotic germ cells followed by flow cytometry. The results obtained demonstrate that Sertoli cells modulate germ cell apoptosis induced by methoxyacetic acid also throughout the P/Q-type VOCC's.

  1. Establishment of a vascular endothelial cell-reactive type II NKT cell clone from a rat model of autoimmune vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iinuma, Chihiro; Waki, Masashi; Kawakami, Ai; Yamaguchi, Madoka; Tomaru, Utano; Sasaki, Naomi; Masuda, Sakiko; Matsui, Yuki; Iwasaki, Sari; Baba, Tomohisa; Kasahara, Masanori; Yoshiki, Takashi; Paletta, Daniel; Herrmann, Thomas; Ishizu, Akihiro

    2015-02-01

    We previously generated a rat model that spontaneously developed small vessel vasculitis (SVV). In this study, a T cell clone reactive with rat vascular endothelial cells (REC) was established and named VASC-1. Intravenous injection of VASC-1 induced SVV in normal recipients. VASC-1 was a TCRαβ/CD3-positive CD4/CD8 double-negative T cell clone with expression of NKG2D. The cytokine mRNA profile under unstimulated condition was positive for IL-4 and IFN-γ but negative for IL-2 and IL-10. After interaction with REC, the mRNA expression of IL-2, IL-5 and IL-6 was induced in VASC-1, which was inhibited by blocking of CD1d on the REC surface. Although the protein levels of these cytokines seemed to be lower than the detection limit in the culture medium, IFN-γ was detectable. The production of IFN-γ from the VASC-1 stimulated with LPS-pre-treated REC was inhibited by the CD1d blockade on the REC. These findings indicated VASC-1 as an NKT cell clone. The NKT cell pool includes two major subsets, namely types I and II. Type I NKT cells are characterized by expression of semi-invariant TCRs and the potential to bind to marine sponge-derived α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) loaded on CD1d; whereas, type II NKT cells do not manifest these characteristics. VASC-1 exhibited a usage of TCR other than the type I invariant TCR α chain and did not bind to α-GalCer-loaded CD1d; therefore, it was determined as a type II NKT cell clone. The collective evidence suggested that REC-reactive type II NKT cells could be involved in the pathogenesis of SVV in rats. © The Japanese Society for Immunology. 2014. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Type I and Type II Interferon Coordinately Regulate Suppressive Dendritic Cell Fate and Function during Viral Persistence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron R Cunningham

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Persistent viral infections are simultaneously associated with chronic inflammation and highly potent immunosuppressive programs mediated by IL-10 and PDL1 that attenuate antiviral T cell responses. Inhibiting these suppressive signals enhances T cell function to control persistent infection; yet, the underlying signals and mechanisms that program immunosuppressive cell fates and functions are not well understood. Herein, we use lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection (LCMV to demonstrate that the induction and functional programming of immunosuppressive dendritic cells (DCs during viral persistence are separable mechanisms programmed by factors primarily considered pro-inflammatory. IFNγ first induces the de novo development of naive monocytes into DCs with immunosuppressive potential. Type I interferon (IFN-I then directly targets these newly generated DCs to program their potent T cell immunosuppressive functions while simultaneously inhibiting conventional DCs with T cell stimulating capacity. These mechanisms of monocyte conversion are constant throughout persistent infection, establishing a system to continuously interpret and shape the immunologic environment. MyD88 signaling was required for the differentiation of suppressive DCs, whereas inhibition of stimulatory DCs was dependent on MAVS signaling, demonstrating a bifurcation in the pathogen recognition pathways that promote distinct elements of IFN-I mediated immunosuppression. Further, a similar suppressive DC origin and differentiation was also observed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, HIV infection and cancer. Ultimately, targeting the underlying mechanisms that induce immunosuppression could simultaneously prevent multiple suppressive signals to further restore T cell function and control persistent infections.

  3. Type I and Type II Interferon Coordinately Regulate Suppressive Dendritic Cell Fate and Function during Viral Persistence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Cameron R.; Champhekar, Ameya; Tullius, Michael V.; Dillon, Barbara Jane; Zhen, Anjie; de la Fuente, Justin Rafael; Herskovitz, Jonathan; Elsaesser, Heidi; Snell, Laura M.; Wilson, Elizabeth B.; de la Torre, Juan Carlos; Kitchen, Scott G.; Horwitz, Marcus A.; Bensinger, Steven J.; Smale, Stephen T.; Brooks, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent viral infections are simultaneously associated with chronic inflammation and highly potent immunosuppressive programs mediated by IL-10 and PDL1 that attenuate antiviral T cell responses. Inhibiting these suppressive signals enhances T cell function to control persistent infection; yet, the underlying signals and mechanisms that program immunosuppressive cell fates and functions are not well understood. Herein, we use lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection (LCMV) to demonstrate that the induction and functional programming of immunosuppressive dendritic cells (DCs) during viral persistence are separable mechanisms programmed by factors primarily considered pro-inflammatory. IFNγ first induces the de novo development of naive monocytes into DCs with immunosuppressive potential. Type I interferon (IFN-I) then directly targets these newly generated DCs to program their potent T cell immunosuppressive functions while simultaneously inhibiting conventional DCs with T cell stimulating capacity. These mechanisms of monocyte conversion are constant throughout persistent infection, establishing a system to continuously interpret and shape the immunologic environment. MyD88 signaling was required for the differentiation of suppressive DCs, whereas inhibition of stimulatory DCs was dependent on MAVS signaling, demonstrating a bifurcation in the pathogen recognition pathways that promote distinct elements of IFN-I mediated immunosuppression. Further, a similar suppressive DC origin and differentiation was also observed in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, HIV infection and cancer. Ultimately, targeting the underlying mechanisms that induce immunosuppression could simultaneously prevent multiple suppressive signals to further restore T cell function and control persistent infections. PMID:26808628

  4. Ontology based molecular signatures for immune cell types via gene expression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background New technologies are focusing on characterizing cell types to better understand their heterogeneity. With large volumes of cellular data being generated, innovative methods are needed to structure the resulting data analyses. Here, we describe an ‘Ontologically BAsed Molecular Signature’ (OBAMS) method that identifies novel cellular biomarkers and infers biological functions as characteristics of particular cell types. This method finds molecular signatures for immune cell types based on mapping biological samples to the Cell Ontology (CL) and navigating the space of all possible pairwise comparisons between cell types to find genes whose expression is core to a particular cell type’s identity. Results We illustrate this ontological approach by evaluating expression data available from the Immunological Genome project (IGP) to identify unique biomarkers of mature B cell subtypes. We find that using OBAMS, candidate biomarkers can be identified at every strata of cellular identity from broad classifications to very granular. Furthermore, we show that Gene Ontology can be used to cluster cell types by shared biological processes in order to find candidate genes responsible for somatic hypermutation in germinal center B cells. Moreover, through in silico experiments based on this approach, we have identified genes sets that represent genes overexpressed in germinal center B cells and identify genes uniquely expressed in these B cells compared to other B cell types. Conclusions This work demonstrates the utility of incorporating structured ontological knowledge into biological data analysis – providing a new method for defining novel biomarkers and providing an opportunity for new biological insights. PMID:24004649

  5. Cancer cell sensitivity to bortezomib is associated with survivin expression and p53 status but not cancer cell types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chanan-Khan Asher A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Survivin is known playing a role in drug resistance. However, its role in bortezomib-mediated inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis is unclear. There are conflicting reports for the effect of bortezomib on survivin expression, which lacks of a plausible explanation. Methods: In this study, we tested cancer cells with both p53 wild type and mutant/null background for the relationship of bortezomib resistance with survivin expression and p53 status using MTT assay, flow cytometry, DNA fragmentation, caspase activation, western blots and RNAi technology. Results We found that cancer cells with wild type p53 show a low level expression of survivin and are sensitive to treatment with bortezomib, while cancer cells with a mutant or null p53 show a high level expression of survivin and are resistant to bortezomib-mediated apoptosis induction. However, silencing of survivin expression utilizing survivin mRNA-specific siRNA/shRNA in p53 mutant or null cells sensitized cancer cells to bortezomib mediated apoptosis induction, suggesting a role for survivin in bortezomib resistance. We further noted that modulation of survivin expression by bortezomib is dependent on p53 status but independent of cancer cell types. In cancer cells with mutated p53 or p53 null, bortezomib appears to induce survivin expression, while in cancer cells with wild type p53, bortezomib downregulates or shows no significant effect on survivin expression, which is dependent on the drug concentration, cell line and exposure time. Conclusions Our findings, for the first time, unify the current inconsistent findings for bortezomib treatment and survivin expression, and linked the effect of bortezomib on survivin expression, apoptosis induction and bortezomib resistance in the relationship with p53 status, which is independent of cancer cell types. Further mechanistic studies along with this line may impact the optimal clinical application of bortezomib in

  6. T Cell Receptor Vβ Staining Identifies the Malignant Clone in Adult T cell Leukemia and Reveals Killing of Leukemia Cells by Autologous CD8+ T cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aileen G Rowan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL responses can contribute to long-term remission of many malignancies. The etiological agent of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL, human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1, contains highly immunogenic CTL epitopes, but ATL patients typically have low frequencies of cytokine-producing HTLV-1-specific CD8+ cells in the circulation. It remains unclear whether patients with ATL possess CTLs that can kill the malignant HTLV-1 infected clone. Here we used flow cytometric staining of TCRVβ and cell adhesion molecule-1 (CADM1 to identify monoclonal populations of HTLV-1-infected T cells in the peripheral blood of patients with ATL. Thus, we quantified the rate of CD8+-mediated killing of the putative malignant clone in ex vivo blood samples. We observed that CD8+ cells from ATL patients were unable to lyse autologous ATL clones when tested directly ex vivo. However, short in vitro culture restored the ability of CD8+ cells to kill ex vivo ATL clones in some donors. The capacity of CD8+ cells to lyse HTLV-1 infected cells which expressed the viral sense strand gene products was significantly enhanced after in vitro culture, and donors with an ATL clone that expressed the HTLV-1 Tax gene were most likely to make a detectable lytic CD8+ response to the ATL cells. We conclude that some patients with ATL possess functional tumour-specific CTLs which could be exploited to contribute to control of the disease.

  7. B Cells Producing Type I IFN Modulate Macrophage Polarization in Tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bénard, Alan; Sakwa, Imme; Schierloh, Pablo; Colom, André; Mercier, Ingrid; Tailleux, Ludovic; Jouneau, Luc; Boudinot, Pierre; Al-Saati, Talal; Lang, Roland; Rehwinkel, Jan; Loxton, Andre G; Kaufmann, Stefan H E; Anton-Leberre, Véronique; O'Garra, Anne; Sasiain, Maria Del Carmen; Gicquel, Brigitte; Fillatreau, Simon; Neyrolles, Olivier; Hudrisier, Denis

    2018-03-15

    In addition to their well-known function as antibody-producing cells, B lymphocytes can markedly influence the course of infectious or noninfectious diseases via antibody-independent mechanisms. In tuberculosis (TB), B cells accumulate in lungs, yet their functional contribution to the host response remains poorly understood. To document the role of B cells in TB in an unbiased manner. We generated the transcriptome of B cells isolated from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)-infected mice and validated the identified key pathways using in vitro and in vivo assays. The obtained data were substantiated using B cells from pleural effusion of patients with TB. B cells isolated from Mtb-infected mice displayed a STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 1)-centered signature, suggesting a role for IFNs in B-cell response to infection. B cells stimulated in vitro with Mtb produced type I IFN, via a mechanism involving the innate sensor STING (stimulator of interferon genes), and antagonized by MyD88 (myeloid differentiation primary response 88) signaling. In vivo, B cells expressed type I IFN in the lungs of Mtb-infected mice and, of clinical relevance, in pleural fluid from patients with TB. Type I IFN expression by B cells induced an altered polarization of macrophages toward a regulatory/antiinflammatory profile in vitro. In vivo, increased provision of type I IFN by B cells in a murine model of B cell-restricted Myd88 deficiency correlated with an enhanced accumulation of regulatory/antiinflammatory macrophages in Mtb-infected lungs. Type I IFN produced by Mtb-stimulated B cells favors macrophage polarization toward a regulatory/antiinflammatory phenotype during Mtb infection.

  8. Cell-surface serglycin promotes adhesion of myeloma cells to collagen type I and affects the expression of matrix metalloproteinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skliris, Antonis; Labropoulou, Vassiliki T; Papachristou, Dionysios J; Aletras, Alexios; Karamanos, Nikos K; Theocharis, Achilleas D

    2013-05-01

    Serglycin (SG) is mainly expressed by hematopoetic cells as an intracellular proteoglycan. Multiple myeloma cells constitutively secrete SG, which is also localized on the cell surface in some cell lines. In this study, SG isolated from myeloma cells was found to interact with collagen type I (Col I), which is a major bone matrix component. Notably, myeloma cells positive for cell-surface SG (csSG) adhered significantly to Col I, compared to cells lacking csSG. Removal of csSG by treatment of the cells with chondroitinase ABC or blocking of csSG by an SG-specific polyclonal antibody significantly reduced the adhesion of myeloma cells to Col I. Significant up-regulation of expression of the matrix metalloproteinases MMP-2 and MMP-9 at both the mRNA and protein levels was observed when culturing csSG-positive myeloma cells on Col I-coated dishes or in the presence of soluble Col I. MMP-9 and MMP-2 were also expressed in increased amounts by myeloma cells in the bone marrow of patients with multiple myeloma. Our data indicate that csSG of myeloma cells affects key functional properties, such as adhesion to Col I and the expression of MMPs, and imply that csSG may serve as a potential prognostic factor and/or target for pharmacological interventions in multiple myeloma. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  9. Beige Adipocytes are a Distinct Type of Thermogenic Fat Cell in Mouse and Human

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jun; Boström, Pontus; Sparks, Lauren M.; Ye, Li; Choi, Jang Hyun; Giang, An-Hoa; Khandekar, Melin; Nuutila, Pirjo; Schaart, Gert; Huang, Kexin; Tu, Hua; van Marken Lichtenbelt, Wouter D.; Hoeks, Joris; Enerbäck, Sven; Schrauwen, Patrick; Spiegelman, Bruce M.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Brown fat defends against hypothermia and obesity through thermogenesis mediated by mitochondrial UCP1. Recent data suggest that there are two distinct types of brown fat: classical brown fat derived from a myf-5 cellular lineage and UCP1-positive cells that emerge in white fat from a non-myf-5 lineage. Here we report the cloning of “beige” cells from murine white fat depots. Beige cells resemble white fat cells in having extremely low basal expression of UCP1, but like classical brown fat, they respond to cyclic AMP stimulation with high UCP1 expression and respiration rates. Beige cells have a gene expression pattern distinct from either white or brown fat and are preferentially sensitive to the polypeptide hormone irisin. Finally, we show that deposits of brown fat previously observed in adult humans are composed of beige adipose cells. These data illustrate a new cell type with therapeutic potential in mouse and human. PMID:22796012

  10. Alveolar type II cell transplantation restores pulmonary surfactant protein levels in lung fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillamat-Prats, Raquel; Gay-Jordi, Gemma; Xaubet, Antoni; Peinado, Victor I; Serrano-Mollar, Anna

    2014-07-01

    Alveolar Type II cell transplantation has been proposed as a cell therapy for the treatment of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Its long-term benefits include repair of lung fibrosis, but its success partly depends on the restoration of lung homeostasis. Our aim was to evaluate surfactant protein restoration after alveolar Type II cell transplantation in an experimental model of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in rats. Lung fibrosis was induced by intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. Alveolar Type II cells were obtained from healthy animals and transplanted 14 days after bleomycin was administered. Furthermore, one group transplanted with alveolar macrophages and another group treated with surfactant were established to evaluate the specificity of the alveolar Type II cell transplantation. The animals were euthanized at 21 days after bleomycin instillation. Lung fibrosis was confirmed by a histologic study and an evaluation of the hydroxyproline content. Changes in surfactant proteins were evaluated by mRNA expression, Western blot and immunofluorescence studies. The group with alveolar Type II cell transplantation was the only one to show a reduction in the degree of lung fibrosis and a complete recovery to normal levels of surfactant proteins. One of the mechanisms involved in the beneficial effect of alveolar Type II cell transplantation is restoration of lung surfactant protein levels, which is required for proper respiratory function. Copyright © 2014 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Management of germ cell tumors with somatic type malignancy: pathological features, prognostic factors and survival outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Kevin R; Magers, Martin J; Beck, Stephen D W; Cary, K Clint; Einhorn, Lawrence H; Ulbright, Thomas M; Foster, Richard S

    2014-11-01

    Germ cell tumors with somatic type malignancy are rare, occurring in approximately 2.7% to 8.6% of germ cell tumor cases. Prognostic factors and optimal management remain poorly defined. The Indiana University testis cancer database was queried from 1979 to 2011 for patients demonstrating germ cell tumor with somatic type malignancy at orchiectomy or subsequent resection. Patients with transformation to primitive neuroectodermal tumor only were excluded from study due to distinct management. Chart review, pathological review and survival analysis were performed. A total of 121 patients met the study inclusion criteria. The most common somatic type malignancy histologies were sarcoma (59), carcinoma (31) and sarcomatoid yolk sac tumor (17). Of these patients 32 demonstrated somatic type malignancy at germ cell tumor diagnosis. For those with delayed identification, median time from germ cell tumor to somatic type malignancy diagnosis was 33 months. This interval was longest for carcinomas (108 months). At a median followup of 71 months, 5-year cancer specific survival was 64%. Predictors of poorer cancer specific survival included somatic type malignancy diagnosed at late relapse (p = 0.017), referral to Indiana University for reoperative retroperitoneal lymph node dissection (p = 0.026) and grade (p = 0.026). None of these factors maintained prognostic significance on multivariate analysis. Somatic type malignancy histology subtype, stage, risk category and number of resections were not predictive of cancer specific survival. Germ cell tumor with somatic type malignancy is associated with poorer cancer specific survival than traditional germ cell tumor. Established prognostic factors for germ cell tumor lose predictive value in the setting of somatic type malignancy. Aggressive and serial resections are often necessary to optimize cancer specific survival. Tumor grade is an important prognostic factor in sarcomas and sarcomatoid yolk sac tumors. Copyright

  12. Physiotherapy for human T-lymphotropic virus 1-associated myelopathy: review of the literature and future perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sá KN

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Katia N Sá,1 Maíra C Macêdo,1 Rosana P Andrade,2 Selena D Mendes,1 José V Martins,3 Abrahão F Baptista1,4 1Neuromusculoskeletal Research Group, Bahian School of Medicine and Human Health, Salvador, Brazil; 2Edgard Santos University Hospital, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, 3Deolindo Couto Institute of Neurology, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, 4Biomorphology Department, Health Sciences Institute, Federal University of Bahia, Salvador, Brazil Abstract: Human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1 infection may be associated with damage to the spinal cord – HTLV-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis – and other neurological symptoms that compromise everyday life activities. There is no cure for this disease, but recent evidence suggests that physiotherapy may help individuals with the infection, although, as far as we are aware, no systematic review has approached this topic. Therefore, the objective of this review is to address the core problems associated with HTLV-1 infection that can be detected and treated by physiotherapy, present the results of clinical trials, and discuss perspectives on the development of knowledge in this area. Major problems for individuals with HTLV-1 are pain, sensory-motor dysfunction, and urinary symptoms. All of these have high impact on quality of life, and recent clinical trials involving exercises, electrotherapeutic modalities, and massage have shown promising effects. Although not influencing the basic pathologic disturbances, a physiotherapeutic approach seems to be useful to detect specific problems related to body structures, activity, and participation related to movement in HTLV-1 infection, as well as to treat these conditions. Keywords: HTLV-1, HAM/TSP, physical therapy modalities, quality of life, pain, sensory-motor dysfunction, urinary symptoms

  13. Receptor for advanced glycation end-products is a marker of type I lung alveolar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasawa, Madoka; Fujiwara, Naoyuki; Hirabayashi, Susumu; Ohno, Hideki; Iida, Junko; Makita, Koshi; Hata, Yutaka

    2004-02-01

    Lung alveolar epithelial cells are comprised of type I (ATI) and type II (ATII) cells. ATI cells are polarized, although they have very flat morphology. The identification of marker proteins for apical and basolateral membranes of ATI cells is important to investigate into the differentiation of ATI cells. In this paper, we characterized receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) as a marker for ATI cells. RAGE was localized on basolateral membranes of ATI cells in the immunoelectron microscopy and its expression was enhanced in a parallel manner to the differentiation of ATI cells in vivo and in primary cultures of ATII cells. RAGE and T1 alpha, a well-known ATI marker protein, were targeted to basolateral and apical membranes, respectively, when expressed in polarized Madine Darby canine kidney cells. Moreover, RAGE was expressed in ATI cells after T1 alpha in vivo and in ex in vivo organ cultures. In conclusion, RAGE is a marker for basolateral membranes of well-differentiated ATI cells. ATI cells require some signal provided by the in vivo environment to express RAGE.

  14. A Generic and Cell-Type-Specific Wound Response Precedes Regeneration in Planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurtzel, Omri; Cote, Lauren E; Poirier, Amber; Satija, Rahul; Regev, Aviv; Reddien, Peter W

    2015-12-07

    Regeneration starts with injury. Yet how injuries affect gene expression in different cell types and how distinct injuries differ in gene expression remain unclear. We defined the transcriptomes of major cell types of planarians--flatworms that regenerate from nearly any injury--and identified 1,214 tissue-specific markers across 13 cell types. RNA sequencing on 619 single cells revealed that wound-induced genes were expressed either in nearly all cell types or specifically in one of three cell types (stem cells, muscle, or epidermis). Time course experiments following different injuries indicated that a generic wound response is activated with any injury regardless of the regenerative outcome. Only one gene, notum, was differentially expressed early between anterior- and posterior-facing wounds. Injury-specific transcriptional responses emerged 30 hr after injury, involving context-dependent patterning and stem-cell-specialization genes. The regenerative requirement of every injury is different; however, our work demonstrates that all injuries start with a common transcriptional response. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Natural killer cell-intrinsic type I IFN signaling controls Klebsiella pneumoniae growth during lung infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borroni, Martina; Kavirayani, Anoop; Przybyszewska, Kornelia N.; Ingram, Rebecca J.; Lienenklaus, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a significant cause of nosocomial pneumonia and an alarming pathogen owing to the recent isolation of multidrug resistant strains. Understanding of immune responses orchestrating K. pneumoniae clearance by the host is of utmost importance. Here we show that type I interferon (IFN) signaling protects against lung infection with K. pneumoniae by launching bacterial growth-controlling interactions between alveolar macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells. Type I IFNs are important but disparate and incompletely understood regulators of defense against bacterial infections. Type I IFN receptor 1 (Ifnar1)-deficient mice infected with K. pneumoniae failed to activate NK cell-derived IFN-γ production. IFN-γ was required for bactericidal action and the production of the NK cell response-amplifying IL-12 and CXCL10 by alveolar macrophages. Bacterial clearance and NK cell IFN-γ were rescued in Ifnar1-deficient hosts by Ifnar1-proficient NK cells. Consistently, type I IFN signaling in myeloid cells including alveolar macrophages, monocytes and neutrophils was dispensable for host defense and IFN-γ activation. The failure of Ifnar1-deficient hosts to initiate a defense-promoting crosstalk between alveolar macrophages and NK cell was circumvented by administration of exogenous IFN-γ which restored endogenous IFN-γ production and restricted bacterial growth. These data identify NK cell-intrinsic type I IFN signaling as essential driver of K. pneumoniae clearance, and reveal specific targets for future therapeutic exploitations. PMID:29112952

  16. Migration of breast epithelial cells on Laminin-5: differential role of integrins in normal and transformed cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plopper, G E; Domanico, S Z; Cirulli, V; Kiosses, W B; Quaranta, V

    1998-09-01

    We examined the role of Laminin-5 (Ln-5) an extracellular matrix component of breast gland basement membrane, in supporting migration of normal (HUMEC), immortalized (MCF-10A), and malignant breast epithelial cells that exhibit different degrees of metastatic potential (MDA-MB-435>MDA-MB-231>MCF-7). HUMEC, MCF-10A, and MCF-7 cells all adhered to purified Ln-5 through the alpha3beta1 integrin receptor in adhesion assays. However, HUMEC and MCF-10A cells remained statically adherent, while MCF-7 cells migrated on Ln-5 in Transwell and colloidal gold displacement assays. Anti-alpha3 integrin antibodies blocked migration of MCF-7 cells on Ln-5. MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-435 cells bound and migrated on Ln-5 through a beta1 integrin receptor that is insensitive to antibodies that block the function of alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alpha6, and alphaV integrin subunits. Migration of all cell types tested was blocked by CM6, a monoclonal antibody directed to a cell adhesion site on the alpha3 chain of Ln-5. Thus, Ln-5 may play an important role in regulating adhesion and migration in normal and transformed breast epithelium. Our results indicate that the type of integrin utilized by breast cells to interact with Ln-5, as well as its functional state, may determine whether cells will be statically adherent or migratory on Ln-5.

  17. Evaluation of IRES-mediated, cell-type-specific cytotoxicity of poliovirus using a colorimetric cell proliferation assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoyi; Chen, Eying; Jiang, Hengguang; Muszynski, Karen; Harris, Raymond D; Giardina, Steven L; Gromeier, Matthias; Mitra, Gautam; Soman, Gopalan

    2009-01-01

    PVS-RIPO is a recombinant oncolytic poliovirus designed for clinical application to target CD155 expressing malignant gliomas and other malignant diseases. PVS-RIPO does not replicate in healthy neurons and is therefore non-pathogenic in rodent and non-human primate models of poliomyelitis. A tetrazolium salt dye-based cellular assay was developed and qualified to define the cytotoxicity of virus preparations on susceptible cells and to explore the target cell specificity of PVS-RIPO. In this assay, PVS-RIPO inhibited proliferation of U87-MG astrocytoma cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, HEK293 cells were much less susceptible to cell killing by PVS-RIPO. In contrast, the Sabin type 1 live attenuated poliovirus vaccine strain (PV(1)S) was cytotoxic to both HEK293 and U87-MG cells. The correlation between expression of CD155 and cytotoxicity was also explored using six different cell lines. There was little or no expression of CD155 and PVS-RIPO-induced cytotoxicity in Jurkat and Daudi cells. HEK293 was the only cell line tested that showed CD155 expression and resistance to PVS-RIPO cytotoxicity. The results indicate that differential cytotoxicity measured by the colorimetric assay can be used to evaluate the cytotoxicity and cell-type specificity of recombinant strains of poliovirus and to demonstrate lot to lot consistency during the manufacture of viruses intended for clinical use.

  18. Cell type specificity of signaling: view from membrane receptors distribution and their downstream transduction networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ying; Yu, Zhonghao; Ge, Dongya; Wang-Sattler, Rui; Thiesen, Hans-Jürgen; Xie, Lu; Li, Yixue

    2012-09-01

    Studies on cell signaling pay more attention to spatial dynamics and how such diverse organization can relate to high order of cellular capabilities. To overview the specificity of cell signaling, we integrated human receptome data with proteome spatial expression profiles to systematically investigate the specificity of receptors and receptor-triggered transduction networks across 62 normal cell types and 14 cancer types. Six percent receptors showed cell-type-specific expression, and 4% signaling networks presented enriched cell-specific proteins induced by the receptors. We introduced a concept of "response context" to annotate the cell-type dependent signaling networks. We found that most cells respond similarly to the same stimulus, as the "response contexts" presented high functional similarity. Despite this, the subtle spatial diversity can be observed from the difference in network architectures. The architecture of the signaling networks in nerve cells displayed less completeness than that in glandular cells, which indicated cellular-context dependent signaling patterns are elaborately spatially organized. Likewise, in cancer cells most signaling networks were generally dysfunctional and less complete than that in normal cells. However, glioma emerged hyper-activated transduction mechanism in malignant state. Receptor ATP6AP2 and TNFRSF21 induced rennin-angiotensin and apoptosis signaling were found likely to explain the glioma-specific mechanism. This work represents an effort to decipher context-specific signaling network from spatial dimension. Our results indicated that although a majority of cells engage general signaling response with subtle differences, the spatial dynamics of cell signaling can not only deepen our insights into different signaling mechanisms, but also help understand cell signaling in disease.

  19. Cell type of origin as well as genetic alterations contribute to breast cancer phenotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, William W.; Qiu, Fang; Band, Hamid; Band, Vimla

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is classified into different subtypes that are associated with different patient survival outcomes, underscoring the importance of understanding the role of precursor cell and genetic alterations in determining tumor subtypes. In this study, we evaluated the oncogenic phenotype of two distinct mammary stem/progenitor cell types designated as K5+/K19− or K5+/K19+ upon introduction of identical combinations of oncogenes-mutant H-Ras (mRas) and mutant p53 (mp53), together with either wild-type ErbB2(wtErbB2) or wild-type EGFR (wtEGFR). We examined their tumor forming and metastasis potential, using both in-vitro and in-vivo assays. Both the combinations efficiently transformed K5+/K19− or K5+/K19+ cells. Xenograft tumors formed by these cells were histologically heterogeneous, with variable proportions of luminal, basal-like and claudin-low type components depending on the cell types and oncogene combinations. Notably, K5+/K19− cells transformed with mRas/mp53/wtEGFR combination had a significantly longer latency for primary tumor development than other cell lines but more lung metastasis incidence than same cells expressing mRas/mp53/wtErbB2. K5+/K19+ cells exhibit shorter overall tumor latency, and high metastatic potential than K5+/K19− cells, suggesting that these K19+ progenitors are more susceptible to oncogenesis and metastasis. Our results suggest that both genetic alterations and cell type of origin contribute to oncogenic phenotype of breast tumors. PMID:25940703

  20. Cell renewal of glomerular cell types in normal rats. An autoradiographic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pabst, R.; Sterzel, R.B.

    1983-01-01

    Normal adult Sprague-Dawley rats received either a single or repetitive injection of the DNA precursor 3 H-thymidine ( 3 H-TdR). For autoradiography semi-thin sections were prepared 2 hr to 14 days after labeling. The majority of labeled cells noted in glomerular tufts were endothelial cells. Mesangial cells had a lower production rate. Podocytes revealed no evidence of proliferation. Bowman's capsule cells showed a higher labeling index than tuft cells at all times. Neither the urinary nor the vascular pole was found to be a proliferative zone for Bowman's capsule cells. The flash and repetitive labeling experiments demonstrated a constant rate of cell renewal of about 1% per day, resulting in a long life span for endothelial and mesangial cells as well as Bowman's capsule cells. These data provide a basis for cell kinetic studies in models of glomerular diseases

  1. Inhibitory effect of aniracetam on N-type calcium current in acutely isolated rat neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, H; Saito, H; Matsuki, N

    1993-04-01

    Effects of aniracetam on whole-cell calcium currents were studied in acutely isolated neuronal cells from postnatal rat ventromedial hypothalamus. There were three types of inward calcium currents, one low-threshold transient current and two high-threshold sustained currents. The nicardipine sensitive L-type current was activated at -20 mV or more depolarized potentials, and the omega-conotoxin sensitive N-type current was recorded at more positive potentials than the L-type. Aniracetam inhibited the N-type current in a dose-dependent manner without affecting the other two types of calcium currents. The effect appeared soon after the addition and lasted for several minutes during washing. Since the N-type current is thought to regulate the release of transmitters, the inhibitory effect may contribute to the nootropic property of aniracetam by modifying the neurotransmission.

  2. Complex heterogeneous tissue constructs containing multiple cell types prepared by inkjet printing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Zhao, Weixin; Zhu, Jian-Ming; Albanna, Mohammad Z; Yoo, James J; Atala, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to develop a versatile method for fabricating complex and heterogeneous three-dimensional (3D) tissue constructs using simultaneous ink-jetting of multiple cell types. Human amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (hAFSCs), canine smooth muscle cells (dSMCs), and bovine aortic endothelial cells (bECs), were separately mixed with ionic cross-linker calcium chloride (CaCl(2)), loaded into separate ink cartridges and printed using a modified thermal inkjet printer. The three cell types were delivered layer-by-layer to pre-determined locations in a sodium alginate-collagen composite located in a chamber under the printer. The reaction between CaCl(2) and sodium alginate resulted in a rapid formation of a solid composite gel and the printed cells were anchored in designated areas within the gel. The printing process was repeated for several cycles leading to a complex 3D multi-cell hybrid construct. The biological functions of the 3D printed constructs were evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Each of the printed cell types maintained their viability and normal proliferation rates, phenotypic expression, and physiological functions within the heterogeneous constructs. The bioprinted constructs were able to survive and mature into functional tissues with adequate vascularization in vivo. These findings demonstrate the feasibility of fabricating complex heterogeneous tissue constructs containing multiple cell types using inkjet printing technology. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. CD4+ T-Cell Reactivity to Orexin/Hypocretin in Patients With Narcolepsy Type 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberger, Melanie; Högl, Birgit; Stefani, Ambra; Mitterling, Thomas; Reindl, Markus; Lutterotti, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Narcolepsy type 1 is accompanied by a selective loss of orexin/hypocretin (hcrt) neurons in the lateral hypothalamus caused by yet unknown mechanisms. Epidemiologic and genetic associations strongly suggest an immune-mediated pathogenesis of the disease. We compared specific T-cell reactivity to orexin/hcrt peptides in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of narcolepsy type 1 patients to healthy controls by a carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester proliferation assay. Orexin/hcrt-specific T-cell reactivity was also determined by cytokine (interferon gamma and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) analysis. Individuals were considered as responders if the cell division index of CD3+CD4+ T cells and both stimulation indices of cytokine secretion exceeded the cutoff 3. Additionally, T-cell reactivity to orexin/hcrt had to be confirmed by showing reactivity to single peptides present in different peptide pools. Using these criteria, 3/15 patients (20%) and 0/13 controls (0%) showed orexin/hcrt-specific CD4+ T-cell proliferation (p = .2262). The heterogeneous reactivity pattern did not allow the identification of a preferential target epitope. A significant role of orexin/hcrt-specific T cells in narcolepsy type 1 patients could not be confirmed in this study. Further studies are needed to assess the exact role of CD4+ T cells and possible target antigens in narcolepsy type 1 patients. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press [on behalf of the Sleep Research Society].

  4. Human T-cell Lymphotropic Virus types I and II (HTLV-I/II in French Guiana: clinical and molecular epidemiology Os Vírus T-Linfotrópicos Humanos tipo I (HTLV-I e tipo II (HTLV-II na Guiana Francesa: epidemiologia clínica e molecular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirdad Kazanji

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available We review here the epidemiological studies performed by our group on human retrovirus HTLV-I and HTLV-II infections and the associated diseases in French Guiana since 1984. French Guiana is an overseas French administrative district located between Brazil and Surinam. Its population is characterized by a large variety of ethnic groups, including several populations of African origin and various populations of Amerindian origin. Several epidemiological studies of large samples of pregnant women and in remote villages showed that HTLV-I is highly endemic in this area but is restricted to groups of African origin, especially the Noir-Marrons. In this endemic population, the results of segregation analysis in a genetic epidemiological study were consistent with the presence of a dominant major gene predisposing to HTLV-I infection, especially in children. In contrast, HTLV-II infection appears to be rare in French Guiana, having been found in only a few individuals of Brazilian origin. From a molecular point of view, the HTLV-I strains present in the Noir-Marrons, Creoles and Amerindians appear to originate from Africa, as they belong to the large cosmopolitan molecular subtype A.Os autores apresentam uma revisão dos estudos epidemiológicos realizados pelo seu grupo de pesquisa sobre a infecção pelos vírus T-linfotrópicos humanos tipo I (HTLV-I e tipo II (HTLV-II e doenças associadas na Guiana Francesa, desde 1984. A Guiana Francesa é um Departamento de Ultramar da França, situado entre o Brasil e o Suriname. A população é caracterizada por uma grande variedade de grupos étnicos, incluindo diversas comunidades de origem africana e outras de origem indígena. Diversos inquéritos epidemiológicos sobre gestantes e em aldeias remotas mostraram que o HTLV-I é altamente endêmico nessas áreas, mas que o vírus é restrito a grupos de origem africana, particularmente os Noir-Marrons. Nessa população endêmica, os resultados de uma análise de segregação num estudo epidemiológico genético eram coerentes com a presença de um gene maior dominante determinando a predisposição para a infecção pelo HTLV-I, especialmente em crianças. Por outro lado, a infecção pelo HTLV-II parece ser rara na Guiana Francesa, tendo sido encontrada apenas em alguns indivíduos de origem brasileira. Do ponto de vista molecular, as cepas de HTLV-I presentes entre os Noir-Marrons, Creoles e indígenas parecem ser originárias da África, uma vez que pertencem ao grande genótipo cosmopolita, ou sub-grupo molecular A.

  5. Cell-type-specific enrichment of risk-associated regulatory elements at ovarian cancer susceptibility loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Simon G; Shen, Howard C; Hazelett, Dennis J; Lawrenson, Kate; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline; Tyrer, Jonathan; Rhie, Suhn K; Levanon, Keren; Karst, Alison; Drapkin, Ronny; Ramus, Susan J; Couch, Fergus J; Offit, Kenneth; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Monteiro, Alvaro N A; Antoniou, Antonis; Freedman, Matthew; Coetzee, Gerhard A; Pharoah, Paul D P; Noushmehr, Houtan; Gayther, Simon A

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the regulatory landscape of the human genome is a central question in complex trait genetics. Most single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with cancer risk lie in non-protein-coding regions, implicating regulatory DNA elements as functional targets of susceptibility variants. Here, we describe genome-wide annotation of regions of open chromatin and histone modification in fallopian tube and ovarian surface epithelial cells (FTSECs, OSECs), the debated cellular origins of high-grade serous ovarian cancers (HGSOCs) and in endometriosis epithelial cells (EECs), the likely precursor of clear cell ovarian carcinomas (CCOCs). The regulatory architecture of these cell types was compared with normal human mammary epithelial cells and LNCaP prostate cancer cells. We observed similar positional patterns of global enhancer signatures across the three different ovarian cancer precursor cell types, and evidence of tissue-specific regulatory signatures compared to non-gynecological cell types. We found significant enrichment for risk-associated SNPs intersecting regulatory biofeatures at 17 known HGSOC susceptibility loci in FTSECs (P = 3.8 × 10(-30)), OSECs (P = 2.4 × 10(-23)) and HMECs (P = 6.7 × 10(-15)) but not for EECs (P = 0.45) or LNCaP cells (P = 0.88). Hierarchical clustering of risk SNPs conditioned on the six different cell types indicates FTSECs and OSECs are highly related (96% of samples using multi-scale bootstrapping) suggesting both cell types may be precursors of HGSOC. These data represent the first description of regulatory catalogues of normal precursor cells for different ovarian cancer subtypes, and provide unique insights into the tissue specific regulatory variation with respect to the likely functional targets of germline genetic susceptibility variants for ovarian cancer. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Human T-cell leukemia virus type-I Tax induces the expression of CD83 on T cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yuetsu; Mizuguchi, Mariko; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Fujii, Hideki; Tanaka, Reiko; Fukushima, Takuya; Tomoyose, Takeaki; Ansari, Aftab A; Nakamura, Masataka

    2015-07-01

    CD83, a cell surface glycoprotein that is stably expressed on mature dendritic cells, can be transiently induced on other hematopoietic cell lineages upon cell activation. In contrast to the membrane form of CD83, soluble CD83 appears to be immunosuppressive. In an analysis of the phenotype of leukemic CD4(+) T cells from patients with adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), we found that a number of primary CD4(+) T cells became positive for cell surface CD83 after short-term culture, and that most of these CD83(+) CD4(+) T cells were positive for human T-cell leukemia virus type-I (HTLV-I) Tax (Tax1). We hypothesized that Tax1 is involved in the induction of CD83. We found that CD83 was expressed selectively on Tax1-expressing human CD4(+) T cells in short-term cultured peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from HTLV-I(+) donors, including ATL patients and HTLV-I carriers. HTLV-I-infected T cell lines expressing Tax1 also expressed cell surface CD83 and released soluble CD83. CD83 can be expressed in the JPX-9 cell line by cadmium-mediated Tax1 induction and in Jurkat cells or PBMCs by Tax1 introduction via infection with a recombinant adenovirus carrying the Tax1 gene. The CD83 promoter was activated by Tax1 in an NF-κB-dependent manner. Based on a previous report showing soluble CD83-mediated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) production from human monocytes in vitro, we tested if PGE2 affected HTLV-I propagation, and found that PGE2 strongly stimulated expression of Tax1 and viral structural molecules. Our results suggest that HTLV-I induces CD83 expression on T cells via Tax1 -mediated NF-κB activation, which may promote HTLV-I infection in vivo.

  7. MOBE-ChIP: Probing Cell Type-Specific Binding Through Large-Scale Chromatin Immunoprecipitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shenqi; Lau, On Sun

    2018-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, the initiation and maintenance of specific cell types often require the activity of cell type-specific transcriptional regulators. Understanding their roles in gene regulation is crucial but probing their DNA targets in vivo, especially in a genome-wide manner, remains a technical challenge with their limited expression. To improve the sensitivity of chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) for detecting the cell type-specific signals, we have developed the Maximized Objects for Better Enrichment (MOBE)-ChIP, where ChIP is performed at a substantially larger experimental scale and under low background conditions. Here, we describe the procedure in the study of transcription factors in the model plant Arabidopsis. However, with some modifications, the technique should also be implemented in other systems. Besides cell type-specific studies, MOBE-ChIP can also be used as a general strategy to improve ChIP signals.

  8. DNA loop domain organization in nucleoids from cells of different types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasieva, Katerina; Chopei, Marianna; Lozovik, Alexandra; Semenova, Anastasia; Lukash, Lyubov; Sivolob, Andrei

    2017-01-29

    The loop domain organization of chromatin plays an important role in transcription regulation and thus may be assumed to vary in cells of different types. We investigated the kinetics of DNA loop migration during single cell gel electrophoresis (the comet assay) for nucleoids obtained from human lymphocytes, lymphoblasts and glioblastoma T98G cells. The results confirm our previous observation that there are three parts of DNA in nucleoids: DNA on the nucleoid surface, loops up to ∼150 kb inside the nucleoid, and larger loops that cannot migrate. However, the relative amounts of the three parts were found to be very different for different cell types. The distributions of the loop length up to 150 kb were shown to be exponential, with the distribution parameter, the loop density, to be dependent on the cell type. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A molecular census of arcuate hypothalamus and median eminence cell types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John N; Macosko, Evan Z; Fenselau, Henning

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamic arcuate-median eminence complex (Arc-ME) controls energy balance, fertility and growth through molecularly distinct cell types, many of which remain unknown. To catalog cell types in an unbiased way, we profiled gene expression in 20,921 individual cells in and around the adult...... mouse Arc-ME using Drop-seq. We identify 50 transcriptionally distinct Arc-ME cell populations, including a rare tanycyte population at the Arc-ME diffusion barrier, a new leptin-sensing neuron population, multiple agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) subtypes, and an orexigenic...... somatostatin neuron population. We extended Drop-seq to detect dynamic expression changes across relevant physiological perturbations, revealing cell type-specific responses to energy status, including distinct responses in AgRP and POMC neuron subtypes. Finally, integrating our data with human genome...

  10. C-type lectins do not act as functional receptors for filovirus entry into cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuno, Keita; Nakayama, Eri; Noyori, Osamu; Marzi, Andrea; Ebihara, Hideki; Irimura, Tatsuro; Feldmann, Heinz; Takada, Ayato

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Filovirus glycoprotein (GP) having a deficient receptor binding region were generated. → Mutant GPs mediated virus entry less efficiently than wild-type GP. → Mutant GPs bound to C-type lectins but not mediated entire steps of cellular entry. → C-type lectins do not independently mediate filovirus entry into cells. → Other molecule(s) are required for C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses. -- Abstract: Cellular C-type lectins have been reported to facilitate filovirus infection by binding to glycans on filovirus glycoprotein (GP). However, it is not clearly known whether interaction between C-type lectins and GP mediates all the steps of virus entry (i.e., attachment, internalization, and membrane fusion). In this study, we generated vesicular stomatitis viruses pseudotyped with mutant GPs that have impaired structures of the putative receptor binding regions and thus reduced ability to infect the monkey kidney cells that are routinely used for virus propagation. We found that infectivities of viruses with the mutant GPs dropped in C-type lectin-expressing cells, parallel with those in the monkey kidney cells, whereas binding activities of these GPs to the C-type lectins were not correlated with the reduced infectivities. These results suggest that C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses requires other cellular molecule(s) that may be involved in virion internalization or membrane fusion.

  11. C-type lectins do not act as functional receptors for filovirus entry into cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuno, Keita; Nakayama, Eri; Noyori, Osamu [Department of Global Epidemiology, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo (Japan); Marzi, Andrea; Ebihara, Hideki [Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, MT (United States); Irimura, Tatsuro [Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Science, University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Feldmann, Heinz [Laboratory of Virology, Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Rocky Mountain Laboratories, Hamilton, MT (United States); Takada, Ayato, E-mail: atakada@czc.hokudai.ac.jp [Department of Global Epidemiology, Hokkaido University Research Center for Zoonosis Control, Sapporo (Japan)

    2010-12-03

    Research highlights: {yields} Filovirus glycoprotein (GP) having a deficient receptor binding region were generated. {yields} Mutant GPs mediated virus entry less efficiently than wild-type GP. {yields} Mutant GPs bound to C-type lectins but not mediated entire steps of cellular entry. {yields} C-type lectins do not independently mediate filovirus entry into cells. {yields} Other molecule(s) are required for C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses. -- Abstract: Cellular C-type lectins have been reported to facilitate filovirus infection by binding to glycans on filovirus glycoprotein (GP). However, it is not clearly known whether interaction between C-type lectins and GP mediates all the steps of virus entry (i.e., attachment, internalization, and membrane fusion). In this study, we generated vesicular stomatitis viruses pseudotyped with mutant GPs that have impaired structures of the putative receptor binding regions and thus reduced ability to infect the monkey kidney cells that are routinely used for virus propagation. We found that infectivities of viruses with the mutant GPs dropped in C-type lectin-expressing cells, parallel with those in the monkey kidney cells, whereas binding activities of these GPs to the C-type lectins were not correlated with the reduced infectivities. These results suggest that C-type lectin-mediated entry of filoviruses requires other cellular molecule(s) that may be involved in virion internalization or membrane fusion.

  12. Uptake kinetics and nanotoxicity of silica nanoparticles are cell type dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechinger, Julia; Bauer, Alexander T; Torrano, Adriano A; Gorzelanny, Christian; Bräuchle, Christoph; Schneider, Stefan W

    2013-12-09

    In this study, it is shown that the cytotoxic response of cells as well as the uptake kinetics of nanoparticles (NPs) is cell type dependent. We use silica NPs with a diameter of 310 nm labeled with perylene dye and 304 nm unlabeled particles to evaluate cell type-dependent uptake and cytotoxicity on human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) and cancer cells derived from the cervix carcinoma (HeLa). Besides their size, the particles are characterized concerning homogeneity of the labeling and their zeta potential. The cellular uptake of the labeled NPs is quantified by imaging the cells via confocal microscopy in a time-dependent manner, with subsequent image analysis via a custom-made and freely available digital method, Particle_in_Cell-3D. We find that within the first 4 h of interaction, the uptake of silica NPs into the cytoplasm is up to 10 times more efficient in HUVEC than in HeLa cells. Interestingly, after 10 or 24 h of interaction, the number of intracellular particles for HeLa cells by far surpasses the one for HUVEC. Inhibitor studies show that these endothelial cells internalize 310 nm SiO₂ NPs via the clathrin-dependent pathway. Remarkably, the differences in the amount of taken up NPs are not directly reflected by the metabolic activity and membrane integrity of the individual cell types. Interaction with NPs leads to a concentration-dependent decrease in mitochondrial activity and an increase in membrane leakage for HUVEC, whereas HeLa cells show only a reduced mitochondrial activity and no membrane leakage. In addition, silica NPs lead to HUVEC cell death while HeLa cells survive. These findings indicate that HUVEC are more sensitive than HeLa cells upon silica NP exposure. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Essential role of EBF1 in the generation and function of distinct mature B cell types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilagos, Bojan; Hoffmann, Mareike; Souabni, Abdallah; Sun, Qiong; Werner, Barbara; Medvedovic, Jasna; Bilic, Ivan; Minnich, Martina; Axelsson, Elin; Jaritz, Markus; Busslinger, Meinrad

    2012-04-09

    The transcription factor EBF1 is essential for lineage specification in early B cell development. In this study, we demonstrate by conditional mutagenesis that EBF1 is required for B cell commitment, pro-B cell development, and subsequent transition to the pre-B cell stage. Later in B cell development, EBF1 was essential for the generation and maintenance of several mature B cell types. Marginal zone and B-1 B cells were lost, whereas follicular (FO) and germinal center (GC) B cells were reduced in the absence of EBF1. Activation of the B cell receptor resulted in impaired intracellular signaling, proliferation and survival of EBF1-deficient FO B cells. Immune responses were severely reduced upon Ebf1 inactivation, as GCs were formed but not maintained. ChIP- and RNA-sequencing of FO B cells identified EBF1-activated genes that encode receptors, signal transducers, and transcriptional regulators implicated in B cell signaling. Notably, ectopic expression of EBF1 efficiently induced the development of B-1 cells at the expense of conventional B cells. These gain- and loss-of-function analyses uncovered novel important functions of EBF1 in controlling B cell immunity.

  14. Human oocytes reprogram adult somatic nuclei of a type 1 diabetic to diploid pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Mitsutoshi; Johannesson, Bjarki; Sagi, Ido; Burnett, Lisa Cole; Kort, Daniel H; Prosser, Robert W; Paull, Daniel; Nestor, Michael W; Freeby, Matthew; Greenberg, Ellen; Goland, Robin S; Leibel, Rudolph L; Solomon, Susan L; Benvenisty, Nissim; Sauer, Mark V; Egli, Dieter

    2014-06-26

    The transfer of somatic cell nuclei into oocytes can give rise to pluripotent stem cells that are consistently equivalent to embryonic stem cells, holding promise for autologous cell replacement therapy. Although methods to induce pluripotent stem cells from somatic cells by transcription factors are widely used in basic research, numerous differences between induced pluripotent stem cells and embryonic stem cells have been reported, potentially affecting their clinical use. Because of the therapeutic potential of diploid embryonic stem-cell lines derived from adult cells of diseased human subjects, we have systematically investigated the parameters affecting efficiency of blastocyst development and stem-cell derivation. Here we show that improvements to the oocyte activation protocol, including the use of both kinase and translation inhibitors, and cell culture in the presence of histone deacetylase inhibitors, promote development to the blastocyst stage. Developmental efficiency varied between oocyte donors, and was inversely related to the number of days of hormonal stimulation required for oocyte maturation, whereas the daily dose of gonadotropin or the total number of metaphase II oocytes retrieved did not affect developmental outcome. Because the use of concentrated Sendai virus for cell fusion induced an increase in intracellular calcium concentration, causing premature oocyte activation, we used diluted Sendai virus in calcium-free medium. Using this modified nuclear transfer protocol, we derived diploid pluripotent stem-cell lines from somatic cells of a newborn and, for the first time, an adult, a female with type 1 diabetes.

  15. ACh-induced hyperpolarization and decreased resistance in mammalian type II vestibular hair cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poppi, Lauren A; Tabatabaee, Hessam; Drury, Hannah R; Jobling, Phillip; Callister, Robert J; Migliaccio, Americo A; Jordan, Paivi M; Holt, Joseph C; Rabbitt, Richard D; Lim, Rebecca; Brichta, Alan M

    2018-01-01

    In the mammalian vestibular periphery, electrical activation of the efferent vestibular system (EVS) has two effects on afferent activity: 1) it increases background afferent discharge and 2) decreases afferent sensitivity to rotational stimuli. Although the cellular mechanisms underlying these two contrasting afferent responses remain obscure, we postulated that the reduction in afferent sensitivity was attributed, in part, to the activation of α9- containing nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (α9*nAChRs) and small-conductance potassium channels (SK) in vestibular type II hair cells, as demonstrated in the peripheral vestibular system of other vertebrates. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effects of the predominant EVS neurotransmitter ACh on vestibular type II hair cells from wild-type (wt) and α9-subunit nAChR knockout (α9 -/- ) mice. Immunostaining for choline acetyltransferase revealed there were no obvious gross morphological differences in the peripheral EVS innervation among any of these strains. ACh application onto wt type II hair cells, at resting potentials, produced a fast inward current followed by a slower outward current, resulting in membrane hyperpolarization and decreased membrane resistance. Hyperpolarization and decreased resistance were due to gating of SK channels. Consistent with activation of α9*nAChRs and SK channels, these ACh-sensitive currents were antagonized by the α9*nAChR blocker strychnine and SK blockers apamin and tamapin. Type II hair cells from α9 -/- mice, however, failed to respond to ACh at all. These results confirm the critical importance of α9nAChRs in efferent modulation of mammalian type II vestibular hair cells. Application of exogenous ACh reduces electrical impedance, thereby decreasing type II hair cell sensitivity. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Expression of α9 nicotinic subunit was crucial for fast cholinergic modulation of mammalian vestibular type II hair cells. These findings show a multifaceted

  16. Epstein-Barr Virus Type 2 Infects T Cells in Healthy Kenyan Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Carrie B; Daud, Ibrahim I; Ogolla, Sidney O; Ritchie, Julie A; Smith, Nicholas A; Sumba, Peter O; Dent, Arlene E; Rochford, Rosemary

    2017-09-15

    The 2 strains of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), EBV type 1 (EBV-1) and EBV-2, differ in latency genes, suggesting that they use distinct mechanisms to establish latency. We previously reported that EBV-2 infects T cells in vitro. In this study, we tested the possibility that EBV-2 infects T cells in vivo. Purified T-cell fractions isolated from children positive for EBV-1 or EBV-2 and their mothers were examined for the presence of EBV and for EBV type. We detected EBV-2 in all T-cell samples obtained from EBV-2-infected children at 12 months of age, with some children retaining EBV-2-positive T cells through 24 months of age, suggesting that EBV-2 persists in T cells. We were unable to detect EBV-2 in T-cell samples from mothers but could detect EBV-2 in samples of their breast milk and saliva. These data suggest that EBV-2 uses T cells as an additional latency reservoir but that, over time, the frequency of infected T cells may drop below detectable levels. Alternatively, EBV-2 may establish a prolonged transient infection in the T-cell compartment. Collectively, these novel findings demonstrate that EBV-2 infects T cells in vivo and suggest EBV-2 may use the T-cell compartment to establish latency. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Engineering of red cells of Arabidopsis thaliana and comparative genome-wide gene expression analysis of red cells versus wild-type cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ming-Zhu; Xie, De-Yu

    2011-04-01

    We report metabolic engineering of Arabidopsis red cells and genome-wide gene expression analysis associated with anthocyanin biosynthesis and other metabolic pathways between red cells and wild-type (WT) cells. Red cells of A. thaliana were engineered for the first time from the leaves of production of anthocyanin pigment 1-Dominant (pap1-D). These red cells produced seven anthocyanin molecules including a new one that was characterized by LC-MS analysis. Wild-type cells established as a control did not produce anthocyanins. A genome-wide microarray analysis revealed that nearly 66 and 65% of genes in the genome were expressed in the red cells and wild-type cells, respectively. In comparison with the WT cells, 3.2% of expressed genes in the red cells were differentially expressed. The expression levels of 14 genes involved in the biosynthetic pathway of anthocyanin were significantly higher in the red cells than in the WT cells. Microarray and RT-PCR analyses demonstrated that the TTG1-GL3/TT8-PAP1 complex regulated the biosynthesis of anthocyanins. Furthermore, most of the genes with significant differential expression levels in the red cells versus the WT cells were characterized with diverse biochemical functions, many of which were mapped to different metabolic pathways (e.g., ribosomal protein biosynthesis, photosynthesis, glycolysis, glyoxylate metabolism, and plant secondary metabolisms) or organelles (e.g., chloroplast). We suggest that the difference in gene expression profiles between the two cell lines likely results from cell types, the overexpression of PAP1, and the high metabolic flux toward anthocyanins.

  18. Gene Editing in Human Lymphoid Cells: Role for Donor DNA, Type of Genomic Nuclease and Cell Selection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Zotova

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Programmable endonucleases introduce DNA breaks at specific sites, which are repaired by non-homologous end joining (NHEJ or homology recombination (HDR. Genome editing in human lymphoid cells is challenging as these difficult-to-transfect cells may also inefficiently repair DNA by HDR. Here, we estimated efficiencies and dynamics of knockout (KO and knockin (KI generation in human T and B cell lines depending on repair template, target loci and types of genomic endonucleases. Using zinc finger nuclease (ZFN, we have engineered Jurkat and CEM cells with the 8.2 kb human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 ∆Env genome integrated at the adeno-associated virus integration site 1 (AAVS1 locus that stably produce virus particles and mediate infection upon transfection with helper vectors. Knockouts generated by ZFN or clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR/Cas9 double nicking techniques were comparably efficient in lymphoid cells. However, unlike polyclonal sorted cells, gene-edited cells selected by cloning exerted tremendous deviations in functionality as estimated by replication of HIV-1 and human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1 in these cells. Notably, the recently reported high-fidelity eCas9 1.1 when combined to the nickase mutation displayed gene-dependent decrease in on-target activity. Thus, the balance between off-target effects and on-target efficiency of nucleases, as well as choice of the optimal method of edited cell selection should be taken into account for proper gene function validation in lymphoid cells.

  19. Hepatocytes: a key cell type for innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhou; Xu, Ming-Jiang; Gao, Bin

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocytes, the major parenchymal cells in the liver, play pivotal roles in metabolism, detoxification, and protein synthesis. Hepatocytes also activate innate immunity against invading microorganisms by secreting innate immunity proteins. These proteins include bactericidal proteins that directly kill bacteria, opsonins that assist in the phagocytosis of foreign bacteria, iron-sequestering proteins that block iron uptake by bacteria, several soluble factors that regulate lipopolysaccharide signaling, and the coagulation factor fibrinogen that activates innate immunity. In this review, we summarize the wide variety of innate immunity proteins produced by hepatocytes and discuss liver-enriched transcription factors (e.g. hepatocyte nuclear factors and CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins), pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g. interleukin (IL)-6, IL-22, IL-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α), and downstream signaling pathways (e.g. signal transducer and activator of transcription factor 3 and nuclear factor-κB) that regulate the expression of these innate immunity proteins. We also briefly discuss the dysregulation of these innate immunity proteins in chronic liver disease, which may contribute to an increased susceptibility to bacterial infection in patients with cirrhosis.

  20. Inorganic p-Type Semiconductors: Their Applications and Progress in Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells and Perovskite Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Hsien Li

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the increasing global demand for energy and the harmful ecological impact of conventional energy sources, it is obvious that development of clean and renewable energy is a necessity. Since the Sun is our only external energy source, harnessing its energy, which is clean, non-hazardous and infinite, satisfies the main objectives of all alternative energy strategies. With attractive features, i.e., good performance, low-cost potential, simple processibility, a wide range of applications from portable power generation to power-windows, photoelectrochemical solar cells like dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs represent one of the promising methods for future large-scale power production directly from sunlight. While the sensitization of n-type semiconductors (n-SC has been intensively studied, the use of p-type semiconductor (p-SC, e.g., the sensitization of wide bandgap p-SC and hole transport materials with p-SC have also been attracting great attention. Recently, it has been proved that the p-type inorganic semiconductor as a charge selective material or a charge transport material in organometallic lead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs shows a significant impact on solar cell performance. Therefore the study of p-type semiconductors is important to rationally design efficient DSCs and PSCs. In this review, recent published works on p-type DSCs and PSCs incorporated with an inorganic p-type semiconductor and our perspectives on this topic are discussed.

  1. In vitro cytotoxicity on human ovarian cancer cells by T-type calcium channel blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sun Jeong; Choi, Heung Woo; Choi, Doo Li; Cho, Sehyeon; Rim, Hong-Kun; Choi, Hye-Eun; Kim, Ki-Sun; Huang, Minghua; Rhim, Hyewhon; Lee, Kyung-Tae; Lee, Jae Yeol

    2013-12-15

    The growth inhibition of human cancer cells via T-type Ca(2+) channel blockade has been well known. Herein, a series of new 3,4-dihydroquinazoline derivatives were synthesized via a brief SAR study on KYS05090 template and evaluated for both T-type Ca(2+) channel (Cav3.1) blockade and cytotoxicity on three human ovarian cancer cells (SK-OV-3, A2780 and A2780-T). Most of compounds except 6i generally exhibited more potent cytotoxicity on SK-OV-3 than mibefradil as a positive control regardless of the degree of T-type channel blockade. In particular, eight compounds (KYS05090, 6a and 6c-6h) showing strong channel blockade exhibited almost equal and more potent cytotoxicity on A2780 when compared to mibefradil. On A2780-T paclitaxel-resistant human ovarian carcinoma, two compounds (KYS05090 and 6d) were 20-fold more active than mibefradil. With respect to cell cycle arrest effect on A2780 and A2780-T cells, KYS05090 induced large proportion of sub-G1 phase in the cell cycle progression of A2780 and A2780-T, meaning the induction of cancer cell death instead of cell cycle arrest via blocking T-type Ca(2+) channel. Among new analogues, compounds 6g and 6h induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase of A2780 and A2780-T cells in dose-dependent manner and exhibited strong anti-proliferation effects of ovarian cancer cells by blocking T-type Ca(2+) channel. Furthermore, 6g and 6h possessing strong cytotoxic effects could induce apoptosis of A2780 cells, which was detected by confocal micrographs using DAPI staining. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. eTumorType, An Algorithm of Discriminating Cancer Types for Circulating Tumor Cells or Cell-free DNAs in Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Jinfeng; Wang, Edwin

    2017-04-01

    With the technology development on detecting circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and cell-free DNAs (cfDNAs) in blood, serum, and plasma, non-invasive diagnosis of cancer becomes promising. A few studies reported good correlations between signals from tumor tissues and CTCs or cfDNAs, making it possible to detect cancers using CTCs and cfDNAs. However, the detection cannot tell which cancer types the person has. To meet these challenges, we developed an algorithm, eTumorType, to identify cancer types based on copy number variations (CNVs) of the cancer founding clone. eTumorType integrates cancer hallmark concepts and a few computational techniques such as stochastic gradient boosting, voting, centroid, and leading patterns. eTumorType has been trained and validated on a large dataset including 18 common cancer types and 5327 tumor samples. eTumorType produced high accuracies (0.86-0.96) and high recall rates (0.79-0.92) for predicting colon, brain, prostate, and kidney cancers. In addition, relatively high accuracies (0.78-0.92) and recall rates (0.58-0.95) have also been achieved for predicting ovarian, breast luminal, lung, endometrial, stomach, head and neck, leukemia, and skin cancers. These results suggest that eTumorType could be used for non-invasive diagnosis to determine cancer types based on CNVs of CTCs and cfDNAs. Copyright © 2017 Beijing Institute of Genomics, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Genetics Society of China. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Th17 Cells in Type 1 Diabetes: Role in the Pathogenesis and Regulation by Gut Microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangyang Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D is an autoimmune disease which is characterized by progressive destruction of insulin producing pancreatic islet β cells. The risk of developing T1D is determined by both genetic and environmental factors. A growing body of evidence supports an important role of T helper type 17 (Th17 cells along with impaired T regulatory (Treg cells in the development of T1D in animal models and humans. Alteration of gut microbiota has been implicated to be responsible for the imbalance between Th17 and Treg cells. However, there is controversy concerning a pathogenic versus protective role of Th17 cells in murine models of diabetes in the context of influence of gut microbiota. In this review we will summarize current knowledge about Th17 cells and gut microbiota involved in T1D and propose Th17 targeted therapy in children with islet autoimmunity to prevent progression to overt diabetes.

  4. Strenuous exercise decreases the percentage of type 1 T cells in the circulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, A; Toft, A D; Bruunsgaard, H

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged strenuous exercise is followed by a temporary functional immune impairment. Low numbers of CD4+ T helper (Th) and CD8+ T cytotoxic (Tc) cells are found in the circulation. These cells can be divided according to their cytokine profile into type 1 (Th1 and Tc1), which produce interferon...

  5. C-type lectin receptors in the control of T helper cell differentiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; Gringhuis, Sonja I.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogen recognition by C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) expressed by dendritic cells is important not only for antigen presentation, but also for the induction of appropriate adaptive immune responses via T helper (TH) cell differentiation. CLRs act either by themselves or in cooperation with other

  6. Prenatal induced chronic dietary hypothyroidism delays but does not block adult-type Leydig cell development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijntjes, E.; Teerds, K.J.; Swarts, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    Transient hypothyroidism induced by propyl-2-thiouracyl blocks postpartum Leydig cell development. In the present study, the effects of chronic hypothyroidism on the formation of this adult-type Leydig cell population were investigated, using a more physiological approach. Before mating, dams were

  7. Chronic hypothyroidism only marginally affects adult-type Leydig cell generation after EDS administration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijntjes, E.; Kesteren-Buiting, van A.; Keijer, J.; Teerds, K.J.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic prenatally induced dietary hypothyroidism delays adult-type Leydig cell development, but does not block this process. Using a chemical model to induce hypothyroidism, it was suggested that development of a new population of Leydig cells was completely inhibited following the addition of the

  8. Type I hair cell degeneration in the utricular macula of the waltzing guinea pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severinsen, Stig A; Raarup, Merete Krog; Ulfendahl, Mats

    2008-01-01

    Waltzing guinea pigs are an inbred guinea pig strain with a congenital and progressive balance and hearing disorder. A unique rod-shaped structure is found in the type I vestibular hair cells, that traverses the cell in an axial direction, extending towards the basement membrane. The present stud...

  9. Cell-mediated immunity in recent-onset type 1 diabetic children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EL-HAKIM

    Methods: This study was conducted on 20 children of recent onset type 1 diabetes (disease duration <6 months) who were ... percentage of CD8+ and CD8+ CD25+ T-cells in peripheral blood, a normal percentage of CD4+ and CD4+ CD25+ ..... engraftment of fully allogenic beta cells or block rejection of islet transplants.26.

  10. Endothelin-Type A receptors mediate pain in a mouse model of sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Brianna Marie; Wu, Shaogen; Gu, Xiyao; Atianjoh, Fidelis E; Li, Zhen; Fox, Brandon M; Pollock, David M; Tao, Yuan-Xiang

    2018-03-15

    Sickle cell disease is associated with acute painful episodes and chronic intractable pain. Endothelin-1, a known pain inducer, is elevated in the blood plasma of both sickle cell patients and mouse models of sickle cell disease. We show here that the levels of endothelin-1 and its endothelin type A receptor are increased in the dorsal root ganglia of a mouse model of sickle cell disease. Pharmacologic inhibition or neuron-specific knockdown of endothelin type A receptors in primary sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglion alleviated basal and post-hypoxia evoked pain hypersensitivities in sickle cell mice. Mechanistically, endothelin type A receptors contribute to sickle cell disease-associated pain likely through the activation of NF-κB-induced Nav1.8 channel upregulation in primary sensory neurons of sickle cell mice. Our findings suggest that endothelin type A receptor is a potential target for the management of sickle cell disease-associated pain, although this expectation needs to be further verified in clinic settings. Copyright © 2018, Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  11. Functional and morphological comparison of three primary liver cell types cultured in the AMC bioartificial liver

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poyck, Paul P. C.; Hoekstra, Ruurdtje; van Wijk, Albert C. W. A.; Attanasio, Chiara; Calise, Fulvio; Chamuleau, Robert A. F. M.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2007-01-01

    The selection of a cell type for bioartificial liver (BAL) systems for the treatment of patients with acute liver failure is in part determined by issues concerning patient safety and cell availability. Consequently, mature porcine hepatocytes (MPHs) have been widely applied in BAL systems. The

  12. A probabilistic approach for the interpretation of RNA profiles as cell type evidence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Zoete, J.; Curran, J.; Sjerps, M.

    2016-01-01

    DNA profiles can be used as evidence to distinguish between possible donors of a crime stain. In some cases, both the prosecution and the defence claim that the cell material was left by the suspect but they dispute which cell type was left behind. For example, in sexual offense cases the

  13. Burkholderia type VI secretion systems have distinct roles in eukaryotic and bacterial cell interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarz, Sandra; West, T Eoin; Boyer, Frédéric

    2010-01-01

    fluorescens and Serratia proteamaculans-leaving it 100- to 1000-fold less fit than the wild-type in competition experiments with these organisms. Flow cell biofilm assays showed that T6S-dependent interbacterial interactions are likely relevant in the environment. B. thai cells lacking T6SS-1 were rapidly...

  14. Development of Type 1 Diabetes: Monocytes and dendritic cells in the pancreas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.M.C. Welzen-Coppens (Jojanneke)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis focuses on the presence of precursors for dendritic cells and the characterization of dendritic cell subsets in the normal pancreas in mice and humans as well as in the pancreas of the NOD mouse, a type 1 diabetes mouse model. Therefore, we give a short introduction to

  15. Ingression-type cell migration drives vegetal endoderm internalisation in the Xenopus gastrula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Jason Wh; Winklbauer, Rudolf

    2017-08-10

    During amphibian gastrulation, presumptive endoderm is internalised as part of vegetal rotation, a large-scale movement that encompasses the whole vegetal half of the embryo. It has been considered a gastrulation process unique to amphibians, but we show that at the cell level, endoderm internalisation exhibits characteristics reminiscent of bottle cell formation and ingression, known mechanisms of germ layer internalisation. During ingression proper, cells leave a single-layered epithelium. In vegetal rotation, the process occurs in a multilayered cell mass; we refer to it as ingression-type cell migration. Endoderm cells move by amoeboid shape changes, but in contrast to other instances of amoeboid migration, trailing edge retraction involves ephrinB1-dependent macropinocytosis and trans -endocytosis. Moreover, although cells are separated by wide gaps, they are connected by filiform protrusions, and their migration depends on C-cadherin and the matrix protein fibronectin. Cells move in the same direction but at different velocities, to rearrange by differential migration.

  16. Differential satellite cell density of type I and II fibres with lifelong endurance running in old men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackey, Abigail; Karlsen, A; Couppé, C

    2014-01-01

    between these variables were determined. RESULTS: In O-Un and O-Tr, type II fibres were smaller and contained fewer satellite cells than type I fibres. However, when expressed relative to fibre area, the difference in satellite cell content between fibre types was eliminated in O-Tr, but not O...... the satellite cell pool and (ii) is associated with a similar density of satellite cells in type I and II fibres despite a failure to preserve the equal fibre type distribution of satellite cells observed in young individuals. Taken together, these data reveal a differential regulation of satellite cell content...

  17. New World hantaviruses activate IFNlambda production in type I IFN-deficient vero E6 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Prescott

    Full Text Available Hantaviruses indigenous to the New World are the etiologic agents of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome (HCPS. These viruses induce a strong interferon-stimulated gene (ISG response in human endothelial cells. African green monkey-derived Vero E6 cells are used to propagate hantaviruses as well as many other viruses. The utility of the Vero E6 cell line for virus production is thought to owe to their lack of genes encoding type I interferons (IFN, rendering them unable to mount an efficient innate immune response to virus infection. Interferon lambda, a more recently characterized type III IFN, is transcriptionally controlled much like the type I IFNs, and activates the innate immune system in a similar manner.We show that Vero E6 cells respond to hantavirus infection by secreting abundant IFNlambda. Three New World hantaviruses were similarly able to induce IFNlambda expression in this cell line. The IFNlambda contained within virus preparations generated with Vero E6 cells independently activates ISGs when used to infect several non-endothelial cell lines, whereas innate immune responses by endothelial cells are specifically due to viral infection. We show further that Sin Nombre virus replicates to high titer in human hepatoma cells (Huh7 without inducing ISGs.Herein we report that Vero E6 cells respond to viral infection with a highly active antiviral response, including secretion of abundant IFNlambda. This cytokine is biologically active, and when contained within viral preparations and presented to human epithelioid cell lines, results in the robust activation of innate immune responses. We also show that both Huh7 and A549 cell lines do not respond to hantavirus infection, confirming that the cytoplasmic RNA helicase pathways possessed by these cells are not involved in hantavirus recognition. We demonstrate that Vero E6 actively respond to virus infection and inhibiting IFNlambda production in these cells might increase their utility

  18. Type 3 innate lymphoid cells maintain intestinal epithelial stem cells after tissue damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Aparicio-Domingo (Patricia); M. Romera-Hernandez (Monica); J.J. Karrich (Julien J.); F.H.J. Cornelissen (Ferry); N. Papazian (Natalie); D.J. Lindenbergh-Kortleve (Dicky); J.A. Butler (James A.); L. Boon (Louis); M. Coles (Mark); J.N. Samsom (Janneke); T. Cupedo (Tom)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractDisruption of the intestinal epithelial barrier allows bacterial translocation and predisposes to destructive inflammation. To ensure proper barrier composition, crypt-residing stem cells continuously proliferate and replenish all intestinal epithelial cells within days. As a consequence

  19. Extra! Extracellular Effector Delivery into Host Cells via the Type 3 Secretion System

    OpenAIRE

    Kendall, Melissa M.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The type three secretion system (T3SS) is critical for the virulence of diverse bacterial pathogens. Pathogens use the T3SS to deliver effector proteins into host cells and manipulate host signaling pathways. The prevailing mechanism is that effectors translocate from inside the T3SS directly into the host cell. Recent studies reveal an alternative mechanism of effector translocation, in which an effector protein located outside the bacterial cell relies on the T3SS for delivery into...

  20. Is Type 2 Diabetes a Glycogen Storage Disease of Pancreatic β Cells?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashcroft, Frances M; Rohm, Maria; Clark, Anne; Brereton, Melissa F

    2017-07-05

    Elevated plasma glucose leads to pancreatic β cell dysfunction and death in type 2 diabetes. Glycogen accumulation, due to impaired metabolism, contributes to this "glucotoxicity" via dysregulated biochemical pathways promoting β cell dysfunction. Here, we review emerging data, and re-examine published findings, on the role of glycogen in β cells in normoglycemia and in diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Growth inhibition of human cancer cells in vitro by T-type calcium channel blockers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Yeol; Park, Seong Jun; Park, Sung Jun; Lee, Min Joo; Rhim, Hyewhon; Seo, Seon Hee; Kim, Ki-Sun

    2006-10-01

    This paper describes the preliminary biological results that novel T-type calcium channel blockers inhibit the growth of human cancer cells by blocking calcium influx into the cell, based on unknown mechanism on the cell cycle responsible for cellular proliferation. Among the selected compounds from compound library, compound 9c (KYS05041) was identified to be nearly equipotent with Cisplatin against some human cancers in the micromolar range.

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat upregulates interleukin-2 secretion in activated T cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Westendorp, M O; Li-Weber, M; Frank, R W; Krammer, P H

    1994-01-01

    Dysregulation of cytokines secreted by T cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AIDS. To investigate the effects of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Tat on interleukin-2 (IL-2) expression, we used IL-2 promoter-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase constructs and IL-2-secreting Jurkat T cells as a model system. Transient expression of HIV-1 Tat induced a five- to eightfold increase in IL-2 promoter activity in Jurkat T cells stimulated with phytohemagglutinin and phorb...

  3. Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Renders Infected Cells Resistant to Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte-Induced Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jerome, Keith R.; Tait, Jonathan F.; Koelle, David M.; Corey, Lawrence

    1998-01-01

    Many viruses interfere with apoptosis of infected cells, presumably preventing cellular apoptosis as a direct response to viral infection. Since cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) induce apoptosis of infected cells as part of the “lethal hit,” inhibition of apoptosis could represent an effective immune evasion strategy. We report here herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) interference with CTL-induced apoptosis of infected cells and show that HSV-1 inhibits the nuclear manifestations of apoptosis bu...

  4. Inhibition of apoptosis in T cells expressing human T cell leukemia virus type I Tax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, K F; Haaksma, A G; Goudsmit, J; Krammer, P H; Heeney, J L

    1994-10-01

    This study set out to determine whether T cell dysfunction associated with HTLV-I led to increased sensitivity of infected cells to apoptosis or, owing to their potential to develop ATL, if infected cells would become resistant to this process. To test this hypothesis we utilized the monoclonal antibody anti-APO-1, which has been demonstrated to induce apoptosis in human T cells. Human T cell lines expressing HTLV-I showed reduced susceptibility to anti-APO-1-induced apoptosis despite expression of high levels of cell surface APO-1. Cell-free supernatant of the Tax-expressing cell line C8166 and heat-inactivated supernatant of the HTLV-I-producing cell line MT2 transferred increased resistance to anti-APO-1 to susceptible Jurkat T cells. Susceptible T cells transfected with an HTLV-I Tax-expressing vector or treated with soluble Tax protein became less susceptible to anti-APO-1-induced cell death. Furthermore, primary human lymphocytes treated with soluble Tax were less susceptible to apoptosis induced by anti-APO-1. The protective effect of Tax in T cell lines and primary human lymphocytes was reversed by the addition of anti-Tax antibodies. Anti-APO-1-induced apoptosis was also found to be inhibited in Jurkat cells by the induction of protein kinase C (PKC) with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA). Resistance to apoptosis conferred by HTLV-I Tax and an active PKC pathway may be factors contributing to the survival of dysregulated HTLV-I-infected T cells prone to the development of adult T cell leukemia.

  5. Multifactorial treatment increases endothelial progenitor cells in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhard, H; Jacobsen, P Karl; Lajer, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) augment vascular repair and neovascularisation. Patients with type 2 diabetes have reduced EPC and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), which is reduced by multifactorial intervention. Our aim, therefore, was to evaluate in type 2 diabetic patients...

  6. Evaluation of prenatal RHD typing strategies on cell-free fetal DNA from maternal plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grootkerk-Tax, Martine G. H. M.; Soussan, Aicha Ait; de Haas, Masja; Maaskant-van Wijk, Petra A.; van der Schoot, C. Ellen

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The discovery of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal plasma led to the development of assays to predict the fetal D status with RHD-specific sequences. Few assays are designed in such a way that the fetus can be typed in RHDpsi mothers and that RHDpsi fetuses are correctly typed. Owing to

  7. Genetic analysis of somatic cell score and udder type traits in South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Selection accuracy for resistance to mastitis may be increased by combining somatic cell score (SCS) and udder type into an udder health index, using genetic parameter estimates among them. A multi-trait animal model was used to estimate genetic parameters among lactation average SCS and udder type traits in South ...

  8. Inhibition of apoptosis in T cells expressing human T cell leukemia virus type I Tax

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Copeland, K. F.; Haaksma, A. G.; Goudsmit, J.; Krammer, P. H.; Heeney, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    This study set out to determine whether T cell dysfunction associated with HTLV-I led to increased sensitivity of infected cells to apoptosis or, owing to their potential to develop ATL, if infected cells would become resistant to this process. To test this hypothesis we utilized the monoclonal

  9. Analysis of type II diabetes mellitus adipose-derived stem cells for tissue engineering applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minteer, Danielle Marie; Young, Matthew T; Lin, Yen-Chih; Over, Patrick J; Rubin, J Peter; Gerlach, Jorg C; Marra, Kacey G

    2015-01-01

    To address the functionality of diabetic adipose-derived stem cells in tissue engineering applications, adipose-derived stem cells isolated from patients with and without type II diabetes mellitus were cultured in bioreactor culture systems. The adipose-derived stem cells were differentiated into adipocytes and maintained as functional adipocytes. The bioreactor system utilizes a hollow fiber-based technology for three-dimensional perfusion of tissues in vitro, creating a model in which long-term culture of adipocytes is feasible, and providing a potential tool useful for drug discovery. Daily metabolic activity of the adipose-derived stem cells was analyzed within the medium recirculating throughout the bioreactor system. At experiment termination, tissues were extracted from bioreactors for immunohistological analyses in addition to gene and protein expression. Type II diabetic adipose-derived stem cells did not exhibit significantly different glucose consumption compared to adipose-derived stem cells from patients without type II diabetes (p > 0.05, N = 3). Expression of mature adipocyte genes was not significantly different between diabetic/non-diabetic groups (p > 0.05, N = 3). Protein expression of adipose tissue grown within all bioreactors was verified by Western blotting.The results from this small-scale study reveal adipose-derived stem cells from patients with type II diabetes when removed from diabetic environments behave metabolically similar to the same cells of non-diabetic patients when cultured in a three-dimensional perfusion bioreactor, suggesting that glucose transport across the adipocyte cell membrane, the hindrance of which being characteristic of type II diabetes, is dependent on environment. The presented observation describes a tissue-engineered tool for long-term cell culture and, following future adjustments to the culture environment and increased sample sizes, potentially for anti-diabetic drug testing.

  10. Accumulation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA in T cells: results of multiple infection events.

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, H L; Zinkus, D M

    1990-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA synthesis was followed in a CD4+ line of T cells (C8166) grown in the presence or absence of a monoclonal antibody to CD4 that blocks infection By 48 h after infection, cultures grown in the presence of the antibody contained approximately 4 copies of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA per cell, whereas those grown in the absence of the antibody contained approximately 80 copies of viral DNA per cell. Most of the viral DNA in cultures grown in the ...

  11. Collagen type II enhances chondrogenesis in adipose tissue-derived stem cells by affecting cell shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, Z.; Doulabi, B.Z.; Huang, C.; Bank, R.A.; Helder, M.N.

    2010-01-01

    Ideally, biomaterials have inductive properties, favoring specific lineage differentiation. For chondrogenic induction, these properties have been attributed to collagen type II. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether collagen type II favors

  12. Collagen Type II Enhances Chondrogenesis in Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells by Affecting Cell Shape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, ZuFu; Doulabi, Behrouz Zandieh; Huang, ChunLing; Bank, Ruud A.; Helder, Marco N.

    Ideally, biomaterials have inductive properties, favoring specific lineage differentiation. For chondrogenic induction, these properties have been attributed to collagen type II. However, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether collagen type II favors

  13. Feeder Cell Type Affects the Growth of In Vitro Cultured Bovine Trophoblast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Islam M. Saadeldin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Trophectoderm cells are the foremost embryonic cells to differentiate with prospective stem-cell properties. In the current study, we aimed at improving the current approach for trophoblast culture by using granulosa cells as feeders. Porcine granulosa cells (PGCs compared to the conventional mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs were used to grow trophectoderm cells from hatched bovine blastocysts. Isolated trophectoderm cells were monitored and displayed characteristic epithelial/cuboidal morphology. The isolated trophectoderm cells expressed mRNA of homeobox protein (CDX2, cytokeratin-8 (KRT8, and interferon tau (IFNT. The expression level was higher on PGCs compared to MEFs throughout the study. In addition, primary trophectoderm cell colonies grew faster on PGCs, with a doubling time of approximately 48 hrs, compared to MEFs. PGCs feeders produced a fair amount of 17β-estradiol and progesterone. We speculated that the supplementation of sex steroids and still-unknown factors during the trophoblasts coculture on PGCs have helped to have better trophectoderm cell’s growth than on MEFs. This is the first time to use PGCs as feeders to culture trophectoderm cells and it proved superior to MEFs. We propose PGCs as alternative feeders for long-term culture of bovine trophectoderm cells. This model will potentially benefit studies on the early trophoblast and embryonic development in bovines.

  14. Comprehensive Identification and Spatial Mapping of Habenular Neuronal Types Using Single-Cell RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shristi; Shekhar, Karthik; Regev, Aviv; Schier, Alexander F

    2018-04-02

    The identification of cell types and marker genes is critical for dissecting neural development and function, but the size and complexity of the brain has hindered the comprehensive discovery of cell types. We combined single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) with anatomical brain registration to create a comprehensive map of the zebrafish habenula, a conserved forebrain hub involved in pain processing and learning. Single-cell transcriptomes of ∼13,000 habenular cells with 4× cellular coverage identified 18 neuronal types and dozens of marker genes. Registration of marker genes onto a reference atlas created a resource for anatomical and functional studies and enabled the mapping of active neurons onto neuronal types following aversive stimuli. Strikingly, despite brain growth and functional maturation, cell types were retained between the larval and adult habenula. This study provides a gene expression atlas to dissect habenular development and function and offers a general framework for the comprehensive characterization of other brain regions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Collagen type I and decorin expression in tenocytes depend on the cell isolation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagenhäuser Markus U

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backround The treatment of rotator cuff tears is still challenging. Tendon tissue engineering (TTE might be an alternative in future. Tenocytes seem to be the most suitable cell type as they are easy to obtain and no differentiation in vitro is necessary. The aim of this study was to examine, if the long head of the biceps tendon (LHB can deliver viable tenocytes for TTE. In this context, different isolation methods, such as enzymatic digestion (ED and cell migration (CM, are investigated on differences in gene expression and cell morphology. Methods Samples of the LHB were obtained from patients, who underwent surgery for primary shoulder arthroplasty. Using ED as isolation method, 0.2% collagenase I solution was used. Using CM as isolation method, small pieces of minced tendon were put into petri-dishes. After cell cultivation, RT-PCR was performed for collagen type I, collagen type III, decorin, tenascin-C, fibronectin, Scleraxis, tenomodulin, osteopontin and agreccan. Results The total number of isolated cells, in relation to 1 g of native tissue, was 14 times higher using ED. The time interval for cell isolation was about 17 hours using ED and approximately 50 days using CM. Cell morphology in vitro was similar for both isolation techniques. Higher expression of collagen type I could be observed in tenocyte-like cell cultures (TLCC using ED as isolation method (p  Conclusion In summary tenocyte-like cells can be obtained with both isolation methods (ED and CM from the LHB. As no obvious disadvantage could be seen using ED, this method is more suitable for clinical use, as time for cell isolation is shorter and a remarkably higher number of cells can be obtained. However, both isolation methods can further be improved.

  16. Adaptation of a CXCR4-using human immunodeficiency type 1 NDK virus in intestinal cells is associated with CD4-independent replication

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chenine, A. L.; Pion, M.; Matoušková, Eva; Gondois-Rey, F.; Vigne, R.; Hirsch, I.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 2002, č. 304 (2002), s. 403-414 ISSN 0042-6822 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : HIV-1 envelope glycoproteins * T-lymphotropic retrovirus * monoclonal-antibodies Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.363, year: 2002

  17. T Cell-Mediated Beta Cell Destruction: Autoimmunity and Alloimmunity in the Context of Type 1 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam L. Burrack

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type 1 diabetes (T1D results from destruction of pancreatic beta cells by T cells of the immune system. Despite improvements in insulin analogs and continuous blood glucose level monitoring, there is no cure for T1D, and some individuals develop life-threatening complications. Pancreas and islet transplantation have been attractive therapeutic approaches; however, transplants containing insulin-producing cells are vulnerable to both recurrent autoimmunity and conventional allograft rejection. Current immune suppression treatments subdue the immune system, but not without complications. Ideally a successful approach would target only the destructive immune cells and leave the remaining immune system intact to fight foreign pathogens. This review discusses the autoimmune diabetes disease process, diabetic complications that warrant a transplant, and alloimmunity. First, we describe the current understanding of autoimmune destruction of beta cells including the roles of CD4 and CD8 T cells and several possibilities for antigen-specific tolerance induction. Second, we outline diabetic complications necessitating beta cell replacement. Third, we discuss transplant recognition, potential sources for beta cell replacement, and tolerance-promoting therapies under development. We hypothesize that a better understanding of autoreactive T cell targets during disease pathogenesis and alloimmunity following transplant destruction could enhance attempts to re-establish tolerance to beta cells.

  18. Expression and regulation of M-type K+channel in PC12 cells and rat adrenal medullary cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Keita; Matsuoka, Hidetada; Inoue, Masumi

    2018-02-27

    M-type K + channels contribute to the resting membrane potential in the sympathetic ganglion neurons of various animals, whereas their expression in adrenal medullary (AM) cells has been controversial. The present experiment aims to explore the expression of M channels comprising the KCNQ2 subunit in the rat AM cell and its immortalized cell line PC12 cells at the protein level and how its expression in PC12 cells is regulated. The KCNQ2 isoform was recognized in homogenates of PC12 cells but not the rat adrenal medullae by immunoblotting and KCNQ2-like immunoreactivity (IR) was detected in PC12 cells but not in rat AM cells. When the PC12 cells were maintained in a dexamethasone-containing medium, KCNQ2-like IR in the cells was suppressed, whereas the removal of fetal bovine serum from the culture medium for 1 day resulted in an increase in KCNQ2-like IR. A similar enhancement occurred when PC12 cells were cultured under conditions where glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and/or mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) activities were suppressed. These morphological findings were confirmed in functional analysis. The cells cultured in the presence of an inhibitor of either GR or MR exhibited larger amplitudes of Ca 2+ signal in response to an M channel inhibitor than did the cells in its absence, whereas the resting Ca 2+ level in the former was lower than that in the latter. These results indicate that the M channel is not expressed in rat AM cells and this absence of expression may be ascribed to the suppression by glucocorticoid activity.

  19. Low-cost zinc-plated photoanode for fabric-type dye-sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Lingfeng; Bao, Yunna; Guo, Wanwan; Cheng, Li; Du, Jun; Liu, Renlong; Wang, Yundong; Fan, Xing; Tao, Changyuan

    2016-02-01

    Fabric-type flexible solar cells have been recently proposed as a very promising power source for wearable electronics. To increase the photocurrent of fabric-type flexible solar cells, low-cost zinc-plated wire and mesh photoanodes are assembled for the first time through a mild wet process. Given the protection of the compact protection layer, the DSSC device could benefit from the low work function of Zn and self-repairing behavior on the Zn/ZnO interface. An evident current increase by ∼6 mA/cm2 could be observed after coating a layer of metal Zn on various metal substrates, such as traditional stainless steel wire. Given the self-repairing behavior on Zn/ZnO interface, the Zn layer can help to improve the interfacial carrier transfer, leading to better photovoltaic performance, for both liquid-type and solid-type cells.

  20. Equine Herpesvirus Type 1 Enhances Viral Replication in CD172a+ Monocytic Cells upon Adhesion to Endothelial Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, Kathlyn; Favoreel, Herman W; Poelaert, Katrien C K; Van Cleemput, Jolien; Nauwynck, Hans J

    2015-11-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is a main cause of respiratory disease, abortion, and encephalomyelopathy in horses. Monocytic cells (CD172a(+)) are the main carrier cells of EHV-1 during primary infection and are proposed to serve as a "Trojan horse" to facilitate the dissemination of EHV-1 to target organs. However, the mechanism by which EHV-1 is transferred from CD172a(+) cells to endothelial cells (EC) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate EHV-1 transmission between these two cell types. We hypothesized that EHV-1 employs specific strategies to promote the adhesion of infected CD172a(+) cells to EC to facilitate EHV-1 spread. Here, we demonstrated that EHV-1 infection of CD172a(+) cells resulted in a 3- to 5-fold increase in adhesion to EC. Antibody blocking experiments indicated that α4β1, αLβ2, and αVβ3 integrins mediated adhesion of infected CD172a(+) cells to EC. We showed that integrin-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and ERK/MAPK signaling pathways were involved in EHV-1-induced CD172a(+) cell adhesion at early times of infection. EHV-1 replication was enhanced in adherent CD172a(+) cells, which correlates with the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In the presence of neutralizing antibodies, approximately 20% of infected CD172a(+) cells transferred cytoplasmic material to uninfected EC and 0.01% of infected CD172a(+) cells transmitted infectious virus to neighboring cells. Our results demonstrated that EHV-1 infection induces adhesion of CD172a(+) cells to EC, which enhances viral replication, but that transfer of viral material from CD172a(+) cells to EC is a very specific and rare event. These findings give new insights into the complex pathogenesis of EHV-1. Equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is a highly prevalent pathogen worldwide, causing frequent outbreaks of abortion and myeloencephalopathy, even in vaccinated horses. After primary replication in the respiratory tract, EHV-1 disseminates

  1. Beta-cell, thyroid, gastric, adrenal and coeliac autoimmunity and HLA-DQ types in type 1 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    De block, C E M; De leeuw, I H; Vertommen, J J F; Rooman, R P A; Du Caju, M V L; Van Campenhout, C M; Weyler, J J; Winnock, F; Van Autreve, J; Gorus, F K

    2001-01-01

    The autoimmune attack in type 1 diabetes is not only targeted to β cells. We assessed the prevalence of thyroid peroxidase (aTPO), parietal cell (PCA), antiadrenal (AAA) and endomysial antibodies (EmA-IgA), and of overt autoimmune disease in type 1 diabetes, in relation to gender, age, duration of disease, age at onset, β-cell antibody status (ICA, GADA, IA2A) and HLA-DQ type. Sera from 399 type 1 diabetic patients (M/F: 188/211; mean age: 26 ± 16 years; duration: 9 ± 8 years) were tested for ICA, PCA, AAA and EmA-IgA by indirect immunofluorescence, and for IA2A (tyrosine phosphatase antibodies), GADA (glutamic acid decarboxylase-65 antibodies) and aTPO by radiobinding assays. The prevalence rates were: GADA 70%; IA2A, 44%; ICA, 39%; aTPO, 22%; PCA, 18%; EmA-IgA, 2%; and AAA, 1%. aTPO status was determined by female gender (β = − 1·15, P = 0·002), age (β = 0·02, P = 0·01) and GADA + (β = 1·06, P = 0·02), but not by HLA-DQ type or IA2A status. Dysthyroidism (P < 0·0001) was more frequent in aTPO + subjects. PCA status was determined by age (β = 0·03, P = 0·002). We also observed an association between PCA + and GADA + (OR = 1·9, P = 0·049), aTPO + (OR = 1·9, P = 0·04) and HLA DQA1*0501-DQB1*0301 status (OR = 2·4, P = 0·045). Iron deficiency anaemia (OR = 3·0, P = 0·003) and pernicious anaemia (OR = 40, P < 0·0001) were more frequent in PCA + subjects. EmA-IgA + was linked to HLA DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201 + (OR = 7·5, P = 0·039), and coeliac disease was found in three patients. No patient had Addison's disease. In conclusion, GADA but not IA2A indicate the presence of thyrogastric autoimmunity in type 1 diabetes. aTPO have a female preponderance, PCA are weakly associated with HLA DQA1*0501-DQB1*0301 and EmA-IgA + with HLA DQA1*0501-DQB1*0201. PMID:11703366

  2. Therapeutic potential of umbilical cord blood cells for type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Binbin; Li, Xia; Yu, Haibo; Zhou, Zhiguang

    2015-11-01

    Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disorder that results from autoimmune-mediated destruction of pancreatic islet β-cells. However, to date, no conventional intervention has successfully treated the disease. The optimal therapeutic method for T1DM should effectively control the autoimmunity, restore immune homeostasis, preserve residual β-cells, reverse β-cell destruction, and protect the regenerated insulin-producing cells against re-attack. Umbilical cord blood is rich in regulatory T (T(reg)) cells and multiple types of stem cells that exhibit immunomodulating potential and hold promise in their ability to restore peripheral tolerance towards pancreatic islet β-cells through remodeling of immune responses and suppression of autoreactive T cells. Recently, reinfusion of autologous umbilical cord blood or immune cells from cord blood has been proposed as a novel therapy for T1DM, with the advantages of no risk to the donors, minimal ethical concerns, a low incidence of graft-versus-host disease and easy accessibility. In this review, we revisit the role of autologous umbilical cord blood or immune cells from cord blood-based applications for the treatment of T1DM. © 2015 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Molecular model of a type III secretion system needle: Implications for host-cell sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Janet E; Roversi, Pietro; Cordes, Frank S; Johnson, Steven; Kenjale, Roma; Daniell, Sarah; Booy, Frank; Picking, William D; Picking, Wendy L; Blocker, Ariel J; Lea, Susan M

    2006-08-15

    Type III secretion systems are essential virulence determinants for many Gram-negative bacterial pathogens. The type III secretion system consists of cytoplasmic, transmembrane, and extracellular domains. The extracellular domain is a hollow needle protruding above the bacterial surface and is held within a basal body that traverses both bacterial membranes. Effector proteins are translocated, via this external needle, directly into host cells, where they subvert normal cell functions to aid infection. Physical contact with host cells initiates secretion and leads to formation of a pore, thought to be contiguous with the needle channel, in the host-cell membrane. Here, we report the crystal structure of the Shigella flexneri needle subunit MxiH and a complete model for the needle assembly built into our three-dimensional EM reconstruction. The model, combined with mutagenesis data, reveals that signaling of host-cell contact is relayed through the needle via intersubunit contacts and suggests a mode of binding for a tip complex.

  4. Human Innate Lymphoid Cell Subsets Possess Tissue-Type Based Heterogeneity in Phenotype and Frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simoni, Yannick; Fehlings, Michael; Kloverpris, Henrik N.

    2017-01-01

    Animal models have highlighted the importance of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) in multiple immune responses. However, technical limitations have hampered adequate characterization of ILCs in humans. Here, we used mass cytometry including a broad range of surface markers and transcription factors...... to accurately identify and profile ILCs across healthy and inflamed tissue types. High dimensional analysis allowed for clear phenotypic delineation of ILC2 and ILC3 subsets. We were not able to detect ILC1 cells in any of the tissues assessed, however, we identified intra-epithelial (ie)ILC1-like cells...... that represent a broader category of NK cells in mucosal and non-mucosal pathological tissues. In addition, we have revealed the expression of phenotypic molecules that have not been previously described for ILCs. Our analysis shows that human ILCs are highly heterogeneous cell types between individuals...

  5. Development of coin-type cell and engineering of its compartments for rechargeable seawater batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jinhyup; Hwang, Soo Min; Go, Wooseok; Senthilkumar, S. T.; Jeon, Donghoon; Kim, Youngsik

    2018-01-01

    Cell design and optimization of the components, including active materials and passive components, play an important role in constructing robust, high-performance rechargeable batteries. Seawater batteries, which utilize earth-abundant and natural seawater as the active material in an open-structured cathode, require a new platform for building and testing the cells other than typical Li-ion coin-type or pouch-type cells. Herein, we present new findings based on our optimized cell. Engineering the cathode components-improving the wettability of cathode current collector and seawater catholyte flow-improves the battery performance (voltage efficiency). Optimizing the cell component and design is the key to identifying the electrochemical processes and reactions of active materials. Hence, the outcome of this research can provide a systematic study of potentially active materials used in seawater batteries and their effectiveness on the electrochemical performance.

  6. Cell-type-specific roles for COX-2 in UVB-induced skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herschman, Harvey

    2014-01-01

    In human tumors, and in mouse models, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) levels are frequently correlated with tumor development/burden. In addition to intrinsic tumor cell expression, COX-2 is often present in fibroblasts, myofibroblasts and endothelial cells of the tumor microenvironment, and in infiltrating immune cells. Intrinsic cancer cell COX-2 expression is postulated as only one of many sources for prostanoids required for tumor promotion/progression. Although both COX-2 inhibition and global Cox-2 gene deletion ameliorate ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced SKH-1 mouse skin tumorigenesis, neither manipulation can elucidate the cell type(s) in which COX-2 expression is required for tumorigenesis; both eliminate COX-2 activity in all cells. To address this question, we created Cox-2 flox/flox mice, in which the Cox-2 gene can be eliminated in a cell-type-specific fashion by targeted Cre recombinase expression. Cox-2 deletion in skin epithelial cells of SKH-1 Cox-2 flox/flox;K14Cre + mice resulted, following UVB irradiation, in reduced skin hyperplasia and increased apoptosis. Targeted epithelial cell Cox-2 deletion also resulted in reduced tumor incidence, frequency, size and proliferation rate, altered tumor cell differentiation and reduced tumor vascularization. Moreover, Cox-2 flox/flox;K14Cre + papillomas did not progress to squamous cell carcinomas. In contrast, Cox-2 deletion in SKH-1 Cox-2 flox/flox; LysMCre + myeloid cells had no effect on UVB tumor induction. We conclude that (i) intrinsic epithelial COX-2 activity plays a major role in UVB-induced skin cancer, (ii) macrophage/myeloid COX-2 plays no role in UVB-induced skin cancer and (iii) either there may be another COX-2-dependent prostanoid source(s) that drives UVB skin tumor induction or there may exist a COX-2-independent pathway(s) to UVB-induced skin cancer. PMID:24469308

  7. The Regulated Secretory Pathway in CD4+ T cells Contributes to Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type-1 Cell-to-Cell Spread at the Virological Synapse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolly, Clare; Welsch, Sonja; Michor, Stefanie; Sattentau, Quentin J.

    2011-01-01

    Direct cell-cell spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1) at the virological synapse (VS) is an efficient mode of dissemination between CD4+ T cells but the mechanisms by which HIV-1 proteins are directed towards intercellular contacts is unclear. We have used confocal microscopy and electron tomography coupled with functional virology and cell biology of primary CD4+ T cells from normal individuals and patients with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome and report that the HIV-1 VS displays a regulated secretion phenotype that shares features with polarized secretion at the T cell immunological synapse (IS). Cell-cell contact at the VS re-orientates the microtubule organizing center (MTOC) and organelles within the HIV-1-infected T cell towards the engaged target T cell, concomitant with polarization of viral proteins. Directed secretion of proteins at the T cell IS requires specialized organelles termed secretory lysosomes (SL) and we show that the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env) localizes with CTLA-4 and FasL in SL-related compartments and at the VS. Finally, CD4+ T cells that are disabled for regulated secretion are less able to support productive cell-to-cell HIV-1 spread. We propose that HIV-1 hijacks the regulated secretory pathway of CD4+ T cells to enhance its dissemination. PMID:21909273

  8. The regulated secretory pathway in CD4(+ T cells contributes to human immunodeficiency virus type-1 cell-to-cell spread at the virological synapse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare Jolly

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Direct cell-cell spread of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (HIV-1 at the virological synapse (VS is an efficient mode of dissemination between CD4(+ T cells but the mechanisms by which HIV-1 proteins are directed towards intercellular contacts is unclear. We have used confocal microscopy and electron tomography coupled with functional virology and cell biology of primary CD4(+ T cells from normal individuals and patients with Chediak-Higashi Syndrome and report that the HIV-1 VS displays a regulated secretion phenotype that shares features with polarized secretion at the T cell immunological synapse (IS. Cell-cell contact at the VS re-orientates the microtubule organizing center (MTOC and organelles within the HIV-1-infected T cell towards the engaged target T cell, concomitant with polarization of viral proteins. Directed secretion of proteins at the T cell IS requires specialized organelles termed secretory lysosomes (SL and we show that the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (Env localizes with CTLA-4 and FasL in SL-related compartments and at the VS. Finally, CD4(+ T cells that are disabled for regulated secretion are less able to support productive cell-to-cell HIV-1 spread. We propose that HIV-1 hijacks the regulated secretory pathway of CD4(+ T cells to enhance its dissemination.

  9. Quantification of the virus-host interaction in human T lymphotropic virus I infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Graham P

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HTLV-I causes the disabling inflammatory disease HAM/TSP: there is no vaccine, no satisfactory treatment and no means of assessing the risk of disease or prognosis in infected people. Like many immunopathological diseases with a viral etiology the outcome of infection is thought to depend on the virus-host immunology interaction. However the dynamic virus-host interaction is complex and current models of HAM/TSP pathogenesis are conflicting. The CD8+ cell response is thought to be a determinant of both HTLV-I proviral load and disease status but its effects can obscure other factors. Results We show here that in the absence of CD8+ cells, CD4+ lymphocytes from HAM/TSP patients expressed HTLV-I protein significantly more readily than lymphocytes from asymptomatic carriers of similar proviral load (P = 0.017. A high rate of viral protein expression was significantly associated with a large increase in the prevalence of HAM/TSP (P = 0.031, 89% of cases correctly classified. Additionally, a high rate of Tax expression and a low CD8+ cell efficiency were independently significantly associated with a high proviral load (P = 0.005, P = 0.003 respectively. Conclusion These results disentangle the complex relationship between immune surveillance, proviral load, inflammatory disease and viral protein expression and indicate that increased protein expression may play an important role in HAM/TSP pathogenesis. This has important implications for therapy since it suggests that interventions should aim to reduce Tax expression rather than proviral load per se.

  10. Gene expression relationship between prostate cancer cells of Gleason 3, 4 and normal epithelial cells as revealed by cell type-specific transcriptomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascal, Laura E; Liu, Alvin Y; Vêncio, Ricardo ZN; Page, Laura S; Liebeskind, Emily S; Shadle, Christina P; Troisch, Pamela; Marzolf, Bruz; True, Lawrence D; Hood, Leroy E

    2009-01-01

    Prostate cancer cells in primary tumors have been typed CD10 - /CD13 - /CD24 hi /CD26 + /CD38 lo /CD44 - /CD104 - . This CD phenotype suggests a lineage relationship between cancer cells and luminal cells. The Gleason grade of tumors is a descriptive of tumor glandular differentiation. Higher Gleason scores are associated with treatment failure. CD26 + cancer cells were isolated from Gleason 3+3 (G3) and Gleason 4+4 (G4) tumors by cell sorting, and their gene expression or transcriptome was determined by Affymetrix DNA array analysis. Dataset analysis was used to determine gene expression similarities and differences between G3 and G4 as well as to prostate cancer cell lines and histologically normal prostate luminal cells. The G3 and G4 transcriptomes were compared to those of prostatic cell types of non-cancer, which included luminal, basal, stromal fibromuscular, and endothelial. A principal components analysis of the various transcriptome datasets indicated a closer relationship between luminal and G3 than luminal and G4. Dataset comparison also showed that the cancer transcriptomes differed substantially from those of prostate cancer cell lines. Genes differentially expressed in cancer are potential biomarkers for cancer detection, and those differentially expressed between G3 and G4 are potential biomarkers for disease stratification given that G4 cancer is associated with poor outcomes. Differentially expressed genes likely contribute to the prostate cancer phenotype and constitute the signatures of these particular cancer cell types

  11. Regulated gene expression in cultured type II cells of adult human lung.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Philip L; Lee, Jae W; Fang, Xiaohui; Chapin, Cheryl; Allen, Lennell; Segal, Mark R; Fischer, Horst; Illek, Beate; Gonzales, Linda W; Kolla, Venkatadri; Matthay, Michael A

    2010-07-01

    Alveolar type II cells have multiple functions, including surfactant production and fluid clearance, which are critical for lung function. Differentiation of type II cells occurs in cultured fetal lung epithelial cells treated with dexamethasone plus cAMP and isobutylmethylxanthine (DCI) and involves increased expression of 388 genes. In this study, type II cells of human adult lung were isolated at approximately 95% purity, and gene expression was determined (Affymetrix) before and after culturing 5 days on collagen-coated dishes with or without DCI for the final 3 days. In freshly isolated cells, highly expressed genes included SFTPA/B/C, SCGB1A, IL8, CXCL2, and SFN in addition to ubiquitously expressed genes. Transcript abundance was correlated between fetal and adult cells (r = 0.88), with a subset of 187 genes primarily related to inflammation and immunity that were expressed >10-fold higher in adult cells. During control culture, expression increased for 8.1% of expressed genes and decreased for approximately 4% including 118 immune response and 10 surfactant-related genes. DCI treatment promoted lamellar body production and increased expression of approximately 3% of probed genes by > or =1.5-fold; 40% of these were also induced in fetal cells. Highly induced genes (> or =10-fold) included PGC, ZBTB16, DUOX1, PLUNC, CIT, and CRTAC1. Twenty-five induced genes, including six genes related to surfactant (SFTPA/B/C, PGC, CEBPD, and ADFP), also had decreased expression during control culture and thus are candidates for hormonal regulation in vivo. Our results further define the adult human type II cell molecular phenotype and demonstrate that a subset of genes remains hormone responsive in cultured adult cells.

  12. Type i CD20 antibodies recruit the B cell receptor for complement-dependent lysis of malignant B cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelberts, P. J.; Voorhorst, M.; Schuurman, J.

    2016-01-01

    . We hypothesized that CD20 Ab-induced clustering of the IgM or IgG BCR was involved in accessory CDC. Indeed, accessory CDC was consistently observed in B cell lines expressing an IgM BCR and in some cell lines expressing an IgG BCR, but it was absent in BCR- B cell lines. A direct relationship...... between BCR expression and accessory CDC was established by transfecting the BCR into CD20+ cells: OFA-F(ab')2 fragments were able to induce CDC in the CD20+BCR+ cell population, but not in the CD20+BCR- population. Importantly, OFA-F(ab')2 fragments were able to induce CDC ex vivo in malignant B cells...... isolated from patients with mantle cell lymphoma and Waldenström macroglobulinemia. In summary, accessory CDC represents a novel effector mechanism that is dependent on type I CD20 Ab-induced BCR clustering. Accessory CDC may contribute to the excellent capacity of type I CD20 Abs to induce CDC...

  13. The Adaptor Protein SAP Regulates Type II NKT Cell Development, Cytokine Production and Cytotoxicity Against Lymphoma1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Xiufang; Liao, Chia-Min; Bagchi, Sreya; Cardell, Susanna L.; Stein, Paul L.; Wang, Chyung-Ru

    2014-01-01

    CD1d-restricted NKT cells represent a unique lineage of immunoregulatory T cells that are divided into two groups, type I and type II, based on their TCR usage. Because there are no specific tools to identify type II NKT cells, little is known about their developmental requirements and functional regulation. In our previous study, we showed that signaling lymphocytic activation molecule-associated protein (SAP) is essential for the development of type II NKT cells. Here, using a type II NKT cell TCR transgenic mouse model (24αβTg), we demonstrated that CD1d-expressing hematopoietic cells but not thymic epithelial cells meditate efficient selection of type II NKT cells. Further, we showed that SAP regulates type II NKT cell development by controlling Egr2 and PLZF expression. SAP-deficient 24αβ transgenic T cells (24αβ T cells) exhibited an immature phenotype with reduced Th2 cytokine-producing capacity and diminished cytotoxicity to CD1d-expressing lymphoma cells. The impaired IL-4 production by SAP-deficient 24αβ T cells was associated with reduced IRF4 and GATA-3 induction following TCR stimulation. Collectively, these data suggest that SAP is critical for regulating type II NKT cell responses. Aberrant responses of these T cells may contribute to the immune dysregulation observed in X-linked lymphoproliferative disease caused by mutations in SAP. PMID:25236978

  14. Occurrence of thymosin beta4 in human breast cancer cells and in other cell types of the tumor microenvironment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsson, L.-I.; Holck, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that the G-actin sequestering polypeptide thymosin beta4 frequently is overexpressed in cancers and that such overexpression correlates to malignant progression. However, the localization of thymosin beta4 in human cancers has not been determined. We now demonstrate...... that there is a considerable heterogeneity in the cellular distribution of thymosin beta4 in breast cancer. In most tumors examined, cancer cells showed low or intermediate reactivity for thymosin beta4, whereas leukocytes and macrophages showed intense reactivity. In addition, endothelial cells showed variable reactivity...... to thymosin beta4, whereas myofibroblasts were negative. There was no correlation between the intensity of tumor cell staining and histological grade, whereas there was a tendency toward a correlation between endothelial cell staining and grade. These results demonstrate that multiple cell types within...

  15. Graft rejection as a Th1-type process amenable to regulation by donor Th2-type cells through an interleukin-4/STAT6 pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariotti, Jacopo; Foley, Jason; Ryan, Kaitlyn; Buxhoeveden, Nicole; Kapoor, Veena; Amarnath, Shoba; Fowler, Daniel H

    2008-12-01

    Graft rejection has been defined as the mirror image of graft-versus-host disease, which is biologically characterized primarily as a Th1-type process. As such, we reasoned that graft rejection would represent a Th1 response amenable to Th2 modulation. Indeed, adoptive transfer of host Th1-type cells mediated rejection of fully MHC-disparate murine bone marrow allografts more effectively than host Th2-type cells. Furthermore, STAT1-deficient host T cells did not differentiate into Th1-type cells in vivo and failed to mediate rejection. We next hypothesized that donor Th2 cell allograft augmentation would prevent rejection by modulation of the host Th1/Th2 balance. In the setting of donor Th2 cell therapy, host-anti-donor allospecific T cells acquired Th2 polarity, persisted posttransplantation, and did not mediate rejection. Abrogation of rejection required donor Th2 cell IL-4 secretion and host T-cell STAT6 signaling. In conclusion, T cell-mediated marrow graft rejection primarily resembles a Th1-type process that can be abrogated by donor Th2 cell therapy that promotes engraftment through a novel mechanism whereby cytokine polarization is transferred to host T cells.

  16. Increased CXCR3 Expression of Infiltrating Plasma Cells in Hunner Type Interstitial Cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Yoshiyuki; Morikawa, Teppei; Maeda, Daichi; Shintani, Yukako; Niimi, Aya; Nomiya, Akira; Nakayama, Atsuhito; Igawa, Yasuhiko; Fukayama, Masashi; Homma, Yukio

    2016-01-01

    An up-regulated CXCR3 pathway and affluent plasma cell infiltration are characteristic features of Hunner type interstitial cystitis (HIC). We further examined these two features using bladder biopsy samples taken from 27 patients with HIC and 15 patients with non-IC cystitis as a control. The number of CD3-positive T lymphocytes, CD20-positive B lymphocytes, CD138-positive plasma cells, and CXCR3-positive cells was quantified by digital image analysis. Double-immunofluorescence for CXCR3 and CD138 was used to detect CXCR3 expression in plasma cells. Correlations between CXCR3 positivity and lymphocytic and plasma cell numbers and clinical parameters were explored. The density of CXCR3-positive cells showed no significant differences between HIC and non-IC cystitis specimens. However, distribution of CXCR3-positivity in plasma cells indicated co-localization of CXCR3 with CD138 in HIC specimens, but not in non-IC cystitis specimens. The number of CXCR3-positive cells correlated with plasma cells in HIC specimens alone. Infiltration of CXCR3-positive cells was unrelated to clinical parameters of patients with HIC. These results suggest that infiltration of CXCR3-positive plasma cells is a characteristic feature of HIC. The CXCR3 pathway and specific immune responses may be involved in accumulation/retention of plasma cells and pathophysiology of the HIC bladder. PMID:27339056

  17. Pancreatic Nonhormone Expressing Endocrine Cells in Children With Type 1 Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moin, Abu Saleh Md; Cory, Megan; Ong, Allison; Choi, Jennifer; Dhawan, Sangeeta

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that the deficit in β-cell mass in type 1 diabetes (T1D) may be due, in part, to β-cell degranulation to chromogranin-positive hormone-negative (CPHN) cells. The frequency and distribution of pancreatic CPHN cells were investigated in 19 children with T1D compared with 14 nondiabetic (ND) children. We further evaluated these cells for replication and expression of endocrine lineage markers Nkx6.1 and Nkx2.2, and compared these frequencies with those previously reported in CPHN cells in adults with T1D. In contrast to adults’ cells, pancreatic CPHN cells were comparably abundant (percentage of endocrine cells ± standard error of the mean, 1.4 ± 0.2 vs 1.0 ± 0.2 in patients with T1D vs ND subjects, respectively; P = not significant) and comparably distributed in children with T1D vs ND donors. Replication of CPHN cells was detected but unchanged in children with T1D vs ND children, as was the percentage of CPHN cells expressing Nkx6.1 or NKx2.2. In children with T1D, the frequency of pancreatic CPHN cells was not increased, and this differed from adults with T1D. PMID:28782056

  18. Establishment and culture optimization of a new type of pituitary immortalized cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokubu, Yuko [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Asashima, Makoto [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Life Science Center of TARA, The University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken 305-8577 (Japan); Kurisaki, Akira, E-mail: akikuri@hotmail.com [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Biotechnology Research Institute for Drug Discovery, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    The pituitary gland is a center of the endocrine system that controls homeostasis in an organism by secreting various hormones. The glandular anterior pituitary consists of five different cell types, each expressing specific hormones. However, their regulation and the appropriate conditions for their in vitro culture are not well defined. Here, we report the immortalization of mouse pituitary cells by introducing TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes. The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed a thyrotroph-specific thyroid stimulating hormone beta (Tshb). After optimization of the culture conditions, these immortalized cells proliferated and maintained morphological characteristics similar to those of primary pituitary cells under sphere culture conditions in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with N2, B27, basic FGF, and EGF. These cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators and induced the expression of Tshb mRNA. Moreover, transplantation of the immortalized cell line into subcutaneous regions and kidney capsules of mice further increased Tshb expression. These results suggest that immortalization of pituitary cells with TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes is a useful method for generating proliferating cells for the in vitro analysis of pituitary regulatory mechanisms. - Highlights: • Mouse pituitary cell lines were immortalized by introducing TERT, E6, and E7. • The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed thyroid stimulating hormone beta. • The cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators, and induced Tshb.

  19. Epithelial cells derived from human embryonic stem cells display p16INK4A senescence, hypermotility, and differentiation properties shared by many P63+ somatic cell types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabelsteen, Sally; Hercule, Paula; Barron, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Human embryonic stem (hES) cells can generate cells expressing p63, K14, and involucrin, which have been proposed to be keratinocytes. Although these hES-derived, keratinocyte-like (hESderK) cells form epithelioid colonies when cultured in a fibroblast feeder system optimal for normal tissue......(+)/K14(+) urothelial and tracheobronchial epithelial cells. Primary and immortalized lines of these cell types had growth requirements and hypermotility responses similar to keratinocytes and bmi1 expression facilitated their immortalization by engineering to express the catalytic subunit of telomerase...

  20. Chloroquine Inhibits Dengue Virus Type 2 Replication in Vero Cells but Not in C6/36 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleber Juvenal Silva Farias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dengue viruses are the most important arthropod-borne viruses in terms of morbidity and mortality in the world. Since there is no dengue vaccine available for human use, we have set out to investigate the use of chloroquine as an antiviral drug against dengue. Chloroquine, an amine acidotropic drug known to affect intracellular exocytic pathways by increasing endosomal pH, was used in the in vitro treatment of Vero and C6/36 cells infected with dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2. Real-time RT-PCR and plaque assays were used to quantify the DENV-2 load in infected Vero and C6/36 cells after chloroquine treatment. Our results showed that a dose of 50 μg/ml of chloroquine was not toxic to the cells and induced a statistically significant inhibition of virus production in infected Vero cells when compared to untreated cells. In C6/36 cells, chloroquine does not induce a statistically significant difference in viral replication when compared to untreated cells, showing that this virus uses an unlikely pathway of penetration in these cells, and results were also confirmed by the plaque assay (PFU. These data suggest that the inhibition of virus infection induced by chloroquine is due to interference with acidic vesicles in mammalian cells.

  1. A probabilistic approach for the interpretation of RNA profiles as cell type evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zoete, Jacob; Curran, James; Sjerps, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    DNA profiles can be used as evidence to distinguish between possible donors of a crime stain. In some cases, both the prosecution and the defence claim that the cell material was left by the suspect but they dispute which cell type was left behind. For example, in sexual offense cases the prosecution could claim that the sample contains semen cells where the defence argues that the sample contains skin cells. In these cases, traditional methods (e.g. a phosphatase test) can be used to examine the cell type contained in the sample. However, there are some drawbacks when using these methods. For instance, many of these techniques need to be carried out separately for each cell type and each of them requires part of the available sample, which reduces the amount that can be used for DNA analysis. Another option is messenger RNA (mRNA) evidence. mRNA expression levels vary among cell types and can be used to make (probability) statements about the cell type(s) present in a sample. Existing methods for the interpretation of RNA profiles as evidence for the presence of certain cell types aim at making categorical statements. Such statements limit the possibility to report the associated uncertainty. Some of these existing methods will be discussed. Most notably, a method based on a 'n/2' scoring rule (Lindenbergh et al.) and a method using marker values and cell type scoring thresholds (Roeder et al.). From a statistical point of view, a probabilistic approach is the most obvious choice. Two approaches (multinomial logistic regression and naïve Bayes') are suggested. All methods are compared, using two different datasets and several criteria regarding their ability to assess the evidential value of RNA profiles. We conclude that both the naïve Bayes' method and a method based on multinomial logistic regression, that produces a probabilistic statement as measure of the evidential value, are an important improvement of the existing methods. Besides a better performance

  2. C-type lectin receptors on dendritic cells and Langerhans cells.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Figdor, C.G.; Kooyk, Y. van; Adema, G.J.

    2002-01-01

    Dendritic cells and Langerhans cells are specialized for the recognition of pathogens and have a pivotal role in the control of immunity. As guardians of the immune system, they are present in essentially every organ and tissue, where they operate at the interface of innate and acquired immunity.

  3. Can widely used cell type markers predict the suitability of immortalized or primary mammary epithelial cell models?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Corneille Ontsouka

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mammary cell cultures are convenient tools for in vitro studies of mammary gland biology. However, the heterogeneity of mammary cell types, e.g., glandular milk secretory epithelial or myoepithelial cells, often complicates the interpretation of cell-based data. The present study was undertaken to determine the relevance of bovine primary mammary epithelial cells isolated from American Holstein (bMEC US or Swiss Holstein-Friesian (bMEC CH cows, and of primary bovine mammary alveolar epithelial cells stably transfected with simian virus-40 (SV-40 large T-antigen (MAC-T for in vitro analyses. This was evaluated by testing their expression pattern of cytokeratin (CK 7, 18, 19, vimentin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA. RESULTS: The expression of the listed markers was assessed using real-time quantitative PCR, flow cytometry and immunofluorescence microscopy. Characteristic markers of the mesenchymal (vimentin, myoepithelial (α-SMA and glandular secretory cells (CKs showed differential expression among the studied cell cultures, partly depending on the analytical method used. The relative mRNA expression of vimentin, CK7 and CK19, respectively, was lower (P < 0.05 in immortalized than in primary mammary cell cultures. The stain index (based on flow cytometry of CK7 and CK19 protein was lower (P < 0.05 in MAC-T than in bMECs, while the expression of α-SMA and CK18 showed an inverse pattern. Immunofluorescence microscopy analysis mostly confirmed the mRNA data, while partly disagreed with flow cytometry data (e.g., vimentin level in MAC-T. The differential expression of CK7 and CK19 allowed discriminating between immortal and primary mammary cultures. CONCLUSIONS: The expression of the selected widely used cell type markers in primary and immortalized MEC cells did not allow a clear preference between these two cell models for in vitro analyses studying aspects of milk composition. All tested cell models exhibited to a variable

  4. Unique cell-type specific patterns of DNA methylation in the root meristem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakatsu, Taiji; Stuart, Tim; Valdes, Manuel; Breakfield, Natalie; Schmitz, Robert J.; Nery, Joseph R.; Urich, Mark A.; Han, Xinwei; Lister, Ryan; Benfey, Philip N.; Ecker, Joseph R.

    2016-01-01

    DNA methylation is an epigenetic modification that differs between plant organs and tissues, but the extent of variation between cell types is not known. Here, we report single-base resolution whole genome DNA methylomes, mRNA transcriptomes, and small RNA transcriptomes for six cell populations covering the major cell types of the Arabidopsis root meristem. We identify widespread cell type specific patterns of DNA methylation, especially in the CHH sequence context. The genome of the columella root cap is the most highly methylated Arabidopsis cell characterized to date. It is hypermethylated within transposable elements, accompanied by increased abundance of transcripts encoding RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) pathway components and 24 nt small RNAs. Absence of the nucleosome remodeler DECREASED DNA METHYLATION 1, required for maintenance of DNA methylation, and low abundance of histone transcripts involved in heterochromatin formation suggests a loss of heterochromatin may occur in the columella, thus allowing access of RdDM factors to the whole genome, and producing excess 24 nt small RNAs in this tissue. Together, these maps provide new insights into the epigenomic diversity that exists between distinct plant somatic cell types. PMID:27243651

  5. [Sulfatide-loaded CD1d tetramer to detect typeII NKT cells in mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gu-qin; Nie, Han-xiang; Yang, Jiong; Yu, Hong-ying

    2012-07-01

    To create a method of detecting typeII natural killer T (NKT) cells of mice. Biotinylated mouse CD1d monomers were mixed with sulfatide at a molar ratio of 1:3 (protein:lipid) and incubated at room temperature overnight, and then 80 μg of streptavidin-PE was added into 200 μg of the CD1d-sulfatide mixture and incubated at room temperature for 4 h to get sulfatide/CD1d tetramer. Flow cytometry was used to detect the percentage of typeII NKT cells in mononuclear cells (MNCs) of lung and spleen of normal mice, as well as the percentage of typeII NKT cells in spleen MNCs of mice after stimulated with sulfatide. In normal mice, the percentage of typeII NKT cells accounted for (0.875±0.096)% and (1.175±0.263)% in MNCs of spleen and lung; the percentage in spleen MNCs after activated with sulfatide was (2.75±0.603)%, which significantly increased as compared with that in normal mice (PNKT cells in mice.

  6. Arachidonate metabolism increases as rat alveolar type II cells differentiate in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipchik, R.J.; Chauncey, J.B.; Paine, R.; Simon, R.H.; Peters-Golden, M.

    1990-01-01

    Rat type II alveolar epithelial cells are known to undergo morphological and functional changes when maintained in culture for several days. Having previously demonstrated that these cells can deacylate free arachidonic acid (AA) and metabolize it to products of the cyclooxygenase pathway, the present study was undertaken to determine whether in vitro differentiation was accompanied by alterations in the availability and metabolism of AA. We assessed the constitutive and ionophore A23187-induced deacylation and metabolism of endogenous AA, as well as the metabolism of exogenously supplied AA, in primary cultures of rat type II cells at days 2, 4, and 7 after isolation. Levels of free endogenous AA were increased at day 4, whereas eicosanoid synthesis, predominantly prostaglandin E2 and prostacyclin, increased markedly only at day 7. A similar time course of augmentation of prostanoid release was seen in response to exogenous AA. Type II cells cultured on fibronectin, intended to hasten cell flattening and spreading, demonstrated accelerated increases in available free AA in response to A23187; cells cultured on basement membrane derived from Engelbreth-Holm-Swarm mouse sarcoma, known to maintain the type II phenotype, exhibited diminished levels of available free AA. From these findings, we conclude that alterations in arachidonate metabolism are linked to alterations in cellular phenotype. The potentiation of eicosanoid synthesis accompanying in vitro differentiation suggests a possible role for the alveolar epithelium in the modulation of inflammation and fibrosis in the distal lung

  7. Interleukin-1 exerts distinct actions on different cell types of the brain in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying An

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ying An, Qun Chen, Ning QuanDepartment of Oral Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Interleukin-1 (IL-1 is a critical neuroinflammatory mediator in the central nervous system (CNS. In this study, we investigated the effect of IL-1 on inducing inflammation-related gene expression in three astrocyte, two microglial, and one brain endothelial cell line. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β is found to be produced by the two microglial cell lines constitutively, but these cells do not respond to IL-1β stimulation. The three astrocyte cell lines responded to IL-1ß stimulation by expressing MCP-1, CXCL-1, and VCAM-1, but different subtypes of astrocytes exhibited different expression profiles after IL-1β stimulation. The brain endothelial cells showed strongest response to IL-1β by producing MCP-1, CXCL-1, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, IL-6, and COX-2 mRNA. The induction of endothelial COX-2 mRNA is shown to be mediated by p38 MAPK pathway, whereas the induction of other genes is mediated by the NF-κB pathway. These results demonstrate that IL-1 exerts distinct cell type-specific action in CNS cells and suggest that IL-1-mediated neuroinflammation is the result of the summation of multiple responses from different cell types in the CNS to IL-1.Keywords: astrocyte, microglia, endothelial cells, signal transduction pathways, gene expression 

  8. Role of Interleukin-33 in Innate-Type Immune Cells in Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susumu Nakae

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-33 (IL-33, a member of the IL-1 cytokine family, is preferentially and constitutively expressed in epithelial cells, and it is especially localized in the cells' nucleus. The nuclear IL-33 is released by necrotic cells after tissue injury and/or trauma, and subsequently provokes local inflammation as an alarmin, like high-mobility group box protein-1 (HMGB-1 and IL-1α. IL-33 mainly activates Th2 cells and such innate-type immune cells as mast cells, basophils, eosinophils and natural helper cells that express IL-33R (a heterodimer of IL-1 receptor-like 1 [IL-1RL1; also called ST2, T1, Der4, fit-1] and IL-1 receptor accessory protein [IL-1RAcP]. That activation causes the cells to produce Th2 cytokines, which contribute to host defense against nematodes. On the other hand, excessive and/or inappropriate production of IL-33 is also considered to be involved in the development of such disorders as allergy. In this review, we summarize current knowledge regarding the pathogenic roles of IL-33 in the development of allergic inflammation by focusing on its effects on innate-type immune cells.

  9. Establishment and evaluation of a stable cattle type II alveolar epithelial cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Su

    Full Text Available Macrophages and dendritic cells are recognized as key players in the defense against mycobacterial infection. Recent research has confirmed that alveolar epithelial cells (AECs also play important roles against mycobacterium infections. Thus, establishing a stable cattle AEC line for future endogenous immune research on bacterial invasion is necessary. In the present study, we first purified and immortalized type II AECs (AEC II cells by transfecting them with a plasmid containing the human telomerase reverse trancriptase gene. We then tested whether or not the immortalized cells retained the basic physiological properties of primary AECs by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Finally, we tested the secretion capacity of immortalized AEC II cells upon stimulation by bacterial invasion. The cattle type II alveolar epithelial cell line (HTERT-AEC II that we established retained lung epithelial cell characteristics: the cells were positive for surfactants A and B, and they secreted tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 in response to bacterial invasion. Thus, the cell line we established is a potential tool for research on the relationship between AECs and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  10. Antigen Specificity of Type I NKT Cells Is Governed by TCR β-Chain Diversity.

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    Cameron, Garth; Pellicci, Daniel G; Uldrich, Adam P; Besra, Gurdyal S; Illarionov, Petr; Williams, Spencer J; La Gruta, Nicole L; Rossjohn, Jamie; Godfrey, Dale I

    2015-11-15

    NKT cells recognize lipid-based Ags presented by CD1d. Type I NKT cells are often referred to as invariant owing to their mostly invariant TCR α-chain usage (Vα14-Jα18 in mice, Vα24-Jα18 in humans). However, these cells have diverse TCR β-chains, including Vβ8, Vβ7, and Vβ2 in mice and Vβ11 in humans, joined to a range of TCR Dβ and Jβ genes. In this study, we demonstrate that TCR β-chain composition can dramatically influence lipid Ag recognition in an Ag-dependent manner. Namely, the glycolipids α-glucosylceramide and isoglobotrihexosylceramide were preferentially recognized by Vβ7(+) NKT cells from mice, whereas the α-galactosylceramide analog OCH, with a truncated sphingosine chain, was preferentially recognized by Vβ8(+) NKT cells from mice. We show that the influence of the TCR β-chain is due to a combination of Vβ-, Jβ-, and CDR3β-encoded residues and that these TCRs can recapitulate the selective Ag reactivity in TCR-transduced cell lines. Similar observations were made with human NKT cells where different CDR3β-encoded residues determined Ag preference. These findings indicate that NKT TCR β-chain diversity results in differential and nonhierarchical Ag recognition by these cells, which implies that some Ags can preferentially activate type I NKT cell subsets. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. M27 Expressed by Cytomegalovirus Counteracts Effective Type I Interferon Induction of Myeloid Cells but Not of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells

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    Döring, Marius; Lessin, Irina; Frenz, Theresa; Spanier, Julia; Kessler, Annett; Tegtmeyer, Pia; Dağ, Franziska; Thiel, Nadine; Trilling, Mirko; Lienenklaus, Stefan; Weiss, Siegfried; Scheu, Stefanie; Messerle, Martin; Cicin-Sain, Luka; Hengel, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT In healthy individuals, the functional immune system effectively confines human cytomegalovirus (CMV) replication, while viral immune evasion and persistence preclude sterile immunity. Mouse CMV (MCMV) is a well-established model to study the delicate CMV-host balance. Effective control of MCMV infection depends on the induction of protective type I interferon (IFN-I) responses. Nevertheless, it is unclear whether in professional antigen-presenting cell subsets MCMV-encoded evasins inhibit the induction of IFN-I responses. Upon MCMV treatment, enhanced expression of MCMV immediate-early and early proteins was detected in bone marrow cultures of macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells compared with plasmacytoid dendritic cell cultures, whereas plasmacytoid dendritic cells mounted more vigorous IFN-I responses. Experiments with Toll-like receptor (TLR)- and/or RIG-I like helicase (RLH)-deficient cell subsets revealed that upon MCMV treatment of myeloid cells, IFN-I responses were triggered independently of TLR and RLH signaling, whereas in plasmacytoid dendritic cells, IFN-I induction was strictly TLR dependent. Macrophages and myeloid dendritic cells treated with either UV-inactivated MCMV or live MCMV that lacked the STAT2 antagonist M27 mounted significantly higher IFN-I responses than cells treated with live wild-type MCMV. In contrast, plasmacytoid dendritic cells responded similarly to UV-inactivated and live MCMV. These experiments illustrated that M27 not only inhibited IFN-I-mediated receptor signaling, but also evaded the induction of IFN responses in myeloid dendritic cells. Furthermore, we found that additional MCMV-encoded evasins were needed to efficiently shut off IFN-I responses of macrophages, but not of myeloid dendritic cells, thus further elucidating the subtle adjustment of the host-pathogen balance. IMPORTANCE MCMV may induce IFN-I responses in fibroblasts and epithelial cells, as well as in antigen-presenting cell subsets. We focused

  12. Adenovirus type 5 induces progression of quiescent rat cells into S phase without polyamine accumulation.

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    Cheetham, B F; Shaw, D C; Bellett, A J

    1982-01-01

    Adenovirus type 5 induces cellular DNA synthesis and thymidine kinase in quiescent rat cells but does not induce ornithine decarboxylase. We now show that unlike serum, adenovirus type 5 fails to induce S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase or polyamine accumulation. The inhibition by methylglyoxal bis(guanylhydrazone) of the induction of thymidine kinase by adenovirus type 5 is probably unrelated to its effects on polyamine biosynthesis. Thus, induction of cellular thymidine kinase and DNA replication by adenovirus type 5 is uncoupled from polyamine accumulation. PMID:7177112

  13. The role of mast cells and fibre type in ischaemia reperfusion injury of murine skeletal muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bortolotto Susan K

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ischaemia reperfusion (IR injury of skeletal muscle, is a significant cause of morbidity following trauma and surgical procedures, in which muscle fibre types exhibit different susceptibilities. The relative degree of mast cell mediated injury, within different muscle types, is not known. Methods In this study we compared susceptibility of the fast-twitch, extensor digitorum longus (EDL, mixed fast/slow-twitch gastrocnemius and the predominately slow-twitch soleus, muscles to ischemia reperfusion (IR injury in four groups of mice that harbour different mast cell densities; C57/DBA mast cell depleted (Wf/Wf, their heterozygous (Wf/+ and normal littermates (+/+ and control C57BL/6 mice. We determined whether susceptibility to IR injury is associated with mast cell content and/or fibre type and/or mouse strain. In experimental groups, the hind limbs of mice were subjected to 70 minutes warm tourniquet ischemia, followed by 24 h reperfusion, and the muscle viability was assessed on fresh whole-mount slices by the nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT histochemical assay. Results Viability was remarkably higher in the Wf/Wf strain irrespective of muscle type. With respect to muscle type, the predominately slow-twitch soleus muscle was significantly more resistant to IR injury than gastrocnemius and the EDL muscles in all groups. Mast cell density was inversely correlated to muscle viability in all types of muscle. Conclusion These results show that in skeletal muscle, IR injury is dependent upon both the presence of mast cells and on fibre type and suggest that a combination of preventative therapies may need to be implemented to optimally protect muscles from IR injury.

  14. IgE promotes type 2 innate lymphoid cells in murine food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, O T; Medina Tamayo, J; Stranks, A J; Miller, S; Koleoglou, K J; Weinberg, E O; Oettgen, H C

    2018-03-01

    Mast cells serve an important sentinel function at mucosal barriers and have been implicated as key early inducers of type 2 immune responses in food allergy. The generation of Th2 and IgE following food allergen ingestion is inhibited in the absence of mast cells. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells are also thought to play an important early role in nascent allergic responses. To test whether IgE-mediated mast cell activation promotes intestinal ILC2 responses following ingestion of food allergens and whether ILC2 amplify food allergy. Two different mouse models of food allergy, one using intraperitoneally ovalbumin (OVA)-primed BALB/c animals and the other using enterally peanut-sensitized inherently atopic IL4raF709 mice, were applied to test the contributions of IgE antibodies and mast cells to ILC2 responses. The effect of ILC2 on mast cell activation and on anaphylaxis was tested. ILC2 responses were significantly impaired in both models of food allergy in Igh7 -/- mice harbouring a targeted deletion of the gene encoding IgE. A similar reduction in food allergen-induced ILC2 was observed in mast cell-deficient Il4raF709 Kit W-sh mice, and this was partially corrected by reconstituting these animals using cultured bone marrow mast cells. Mast cells activated ILC2 for IL-13 production in an IL-4Rα-dependent manner. Activated ILC2 amplified systemic anaphylaxis by increasing target tissue sensitivity to mast cell mediators. These findings support an important role for IgE-activated mast cells in driving intestinal ILC2 expansion in food allergy and reveal that ILC2, in turn, can enhance responsiveness to the mediators of anaphylaxis produced by mast cells. Strategies designed to inhibit IgE signalling or mast cell activation are likely to inhibit both type 2 immunity and immediate hypersensitivity in food allergy. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Global impact of Salmonella type III secretion effector SteA on host cells

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    Cardenal-Muñoz, Elena, E-mail: e_cardenal@us.es; Gutiérrez, Gabriel, E-mail: ggpozo@us.es; Ramos-Morales, Francisco, E-mail: framos@us.es

    2014-07-11

    Highlights: • We analyzed HeLa cells transcriptome in response to Salmonella SteA. • Significant differential expression was detected for 58 human genes. • They are involved in ECM organization and regulation of some signaling pathways. • Cell death, cell adhesion and cell migration were decreased in SteA-expressing cells. • These results contribute to understand the role of SteA during infections. - Abstract: Salmonella enterica is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes gastroenteritis, bacteremia and typhoid fever in several animal species including humans. Its virulence is greatly dependent on two type III secretion systems, encoded in pathogenicity islands 1 and 2. These systems translocate proteins called effectors into eukaryotic host cell. Effectors interfere with host signal transduction pathways to allow the internalization of pathogens and their survival and proliferation inside vacuoles. SteA is one of the few Salmonella effectors that are substrates of both type III secretion systems. Here, we used gene arrays and bioinformatics analysis to study the genetic response of human epithelial cells to SteA. We found that constitutive synthesis of SteA in HeLa cells leads to induction of genes related to extracellular matrix organization and regulation of cell prolifer