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Sample records for cell lines mitochondria

  1. Mitochondria are involved in apoptosis induced by ultraviolet radiation in lepidopteran Spodoptera litura cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shigang Shan; Kaiyu Liu; Jianxin Peng; Hanchao Yao; Yi Li; Huazhu Hong

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in apoptosis of mammalian cells and even single-cell organisms, but mitochondria are not required in apoptosis in cultured Drosophila cells such as S2 and BG2 cell lines. It is not very clear whether mitochondria are involved in apoptosis in other insect cells such as lepidopteran cell lines. Thus, we determined to elucidate the role of mitochondria in apoptosis induced by ultraviolet radiation in Spodoptera litura (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) cell line (SL-ZSU-1). The Western blot results suggested that cytochrome c in the ultraviolet-treated SL-1 cells was released from the mitochondria to cytosol as early as 4 h after the induction of ultraviolet radiation and increased in the cytosolic fractions in a time-dependent manner. Flow cytometric analysis of mitochondrial membrane potential (△Ψm) of SL-ZSU-1 cell treated with ultraviolet-C (UV-C) light indicated the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential was dependent on the times of ultraviolet treatment. Both of them are different from apoptosis in cultured Drosophila melanogaster cell lines (S2 and BG2) and it appears evident mitochondria are involved in apoptosis of the studied lepidopteran cells.

  2. Warburg and Crabtree effects in premalignant Barrett's esophagus cell lines with active mitochondria.

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    Martin T Suchorolski

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased glycolysis is a hallmark of cancer metabolism, yet relatively little is known about this phenotype at premalignant stages of progression. Periodic ischemia occurs in the premalignant condition Barrett's esophagus (BE due to tissue damage from chronic acid-bile reflux and may select for early adaptations to hypoxia, including upregulation of glycolysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We compared rates of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in four cell lines derived from patients with BE (CP-A, CP-B, CP-C and CP-D in response to metabolic inhibitors and changes in glucose concentration. We report that cell lines derived from patients with more advanced genetically unstable BE have up to two-fold higher glycolysis compared to a cell line derived from a patient with early genetically stable BE; however, all cell lines preserve active mitochondria. In response to the glycolytic inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose, the most glycolytic cell lines (CP-C and CP-D had the greatest suppression of extra-cellular acidification, but were able to compensate with upregulation of oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, these cell lines showed the lowest compensatory increases in glycolysis in response to mitochondrial uncoupling by 2,4-dinitrophenol. Finally, these cell lines also upregulated their oxidative phosphorylation in response to glucose via the Crabtree effect, and demonstrate a greater range of modulation of oxygen consumption. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings suggest that cells from premalignant Barrett's esophagus tissue may adapt to an ever-changing selective microenvironment through changes in energy metabolic pathways typically associated with cancer cells.

  3. Peroxide effects of iodide excess on mitochondria in Fischer rat thyroid cell line in the early period

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the peroxide effects of iodide excess on mitochondria in Fischer rat thyroid cell line(FRTL)in the early period.Methods After treatment with 0.0 mmol/L(control group)or 0.1 mmol/L potassium iodide(KI)for 2,4 and 24 h,respectively,changes of mitochondrial superoxide formation were assayed by flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy using mitochondria-targeted hydroethidine(Mito SOX).

  4. 3-Methyl pyruvate enhances radiosensitivity through increasing mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species in tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable interest has recently been focused on the special characteristics of cancer metabolism, and several drugs designed to modulate cancer metabolism have been tested as potential anticancer agents. To date, however, very few studies have been conducted to investigate the combined effects of anticancer drugs and radiotherapy. In this study, to evaluate the role of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the radiation-induced cell death of tumor cells, we have examined the effect of 3-methyl pyruvate (MP). MP is a membrane-permeable pyruvate derivative that is capable of activating mitochondrial energy metabolism in human lung carcinoma A549 cells and murine squamous carcinoma SCCVII cells. Pretreatment with MP significantly enhanced radiation-induced cell death in both cell lines, and also led to increases in the mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular adenosine triphosphate content, and mitochondria-derived ROS production following the exposure of the cells to X-rays. In A549 cells, MP-induced radiosensitization was completely abolished by vitamin C. In contrast, it was partially abolished in SCCVII cells. These results therefore suggest that the treatment of the cells with MP induced radiosensitization via the production of excess mitochondria-derived ROS in tumor cells. (author)

  5. Mitochondria are required for ATM activation by extranuclear oxidative stress in cultured human hepatoblastoma cell line Hep G2 cells

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    Morita, Akinori, E-mail: morita@tokushima-u.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Medicine, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Department of Radiological Science, Institute of Health Biosciences, The University of Tokushima Graduate School, Tokushima 770-8509 (Japan); Tanimoto, Keiji; Murakami, Tomoki; Morinaga, Takeshi [Department of Radiation Medicine, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Hosoi, Yoshio, E-mail: hosoi@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Radiation Medicine, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima 734-8553 (Japan); Department of Radiation Biology, Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan)

    2014-01-24

    Highlights: • Oxidative ATM activation can occur in the absence of nuclear DNA damage response. • The oxidized Hep G2 cells were subjected to subcellular fractionation. • The obtained results suggest that the ATM activation occurs in mitochondria. • ATM failed to respond to oxidative stress in mitochondria-depleted Hep G2 cells. • Mitochondria are required for the oxidative activation of ATM. - Abstract: Ataxia–telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a central role in DNA damage response (DDR). A recent study reported that oxidized ATM can be active in the absence of DDR. However, the issue of where ATM is activated by oxidative stress remains unclear. Regarding the localization of ATM, two possible locations, namely, mitochondria and peroxisomes are possible. We report herein that ATM can be activated when exposed to hydrogen peroxide without inducing nuclear DDR in Hep G2 cells, and the oxidized cells could be subjected to subcellular fractionation. The first detergent-based fractionation experiment revealed that active, phosphorylated ATM was located in the second fraction, which also contained both mitochondria and peroxisomes. An alternative fractionation method involving homogenization and differential centrifugation, which permits the light membrane fraction containing peroxisomes to be produced, but not mitochondria, revealed that the light membrane fraction contained only traces of ATM. In contrast, the heavy membrane fraction, which mainly contained mitochondrial components, was enriched in ATM and active ATM, suggesting that the oxidative activation of ATM occurs in mitochondria and not in peroxisomes. In Rho 0-Hep G2 cells, which lack mitochondrial DNA and functional mitochondria, ATM failed to respond to hydrogen peroxide, indicating that mitochondria are required for the oxidative activation of ATM. These findings strongly suggest that ATM can be activated in response to oxidative stress in mitochondria

  6. Mitochondria are required for ATM activation by extranuclear oxidative stress in cultured human hepatoblastoma cell line Hep G2 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Oxidative ATM activation can occur in the absence of nuclear DNA damage response. • The oxidized Hep G2 cells were subjected to subcellular fractionation. • The obtained results suggest that the ATM activation occurs in mitochondria. • ATM failed to respond to oxidative stress in mitochondria-depleted Hep G2 cells. • Mitochondria are required for the oxidative activation of ATM. - Abstract: Ataxia–telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a central role in DNA damage response (DDR). A recent study reported that oxidized ATM can be active in the absence of DDR. However, the issue of where ATM is activated by oxidative stress remains unclear. Regarding the localization of ATM, two possible locations, namely, mitochondria and peroxisomes are possible. We report herein that ATM can be activated when exposed to hydrogen peroxide without inducing nuclear DDR in Hep G2 cells, and the oxidized cells could be subjected to subcellular fractionation. The first detergent-based fractionation experiment revealed that active, phosphorylated ATM was located in the second fraction, which also contained both mitochondria and peroxisomes. An alternative fractionation method involving homogenization and differential centrifugation, which permits the light membrane fraction containing peroxisomes to be produced, but not mitochondria, revealed that the light membrane fraction contained only traces of ATM. In contrast, the heavy membrane fraction, which mainly contained mitochondrial components, was enriched in ATM and active ATM, suggesting that the oxidative activation of ATM occurs in mitochondria and not in peroxisomes. In Rho 0-Hep G2 cells, which lack mitochondrial DNA and functional mitochondria, ATM failed to respond to hydrogen peroxide, indicating that mitochondria are required for the oxidative activation of ATM. These findings strongly suggest that ATM can be activated in response to oxidative stress in mitochondria

  7. Role of the mitochondria in immune-mediated apoptotic death of the human pancreatic β cell line βLox5.

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    Yaíma L Lightfoot

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are indispensable in the life and death of many types of eukaryotic cells. In pancreatic beta cells, mitochondria play an essential role in the secretion of insulin, a hormone that regulates blood glucose levels. Unregulated blood glucose is a hallmark symptom of diabetes. The onset of Type 1 diabetes is preceded by autoimmune-mediated destruction of beta cells. However, the exact role of mitochondria has not been assessed in beta cell death. In this study, we examine the role of mitochondria in both Fas- and proinflammatory cytokine-mediated destruction of the human beta cell line, βLox5. IFNγ primed βLox5 cells for apoptosis by elevating cell surface Fas. Consequently, βLox5 cells were killed by caspase-dependent apoptosis by agonistic activation of Fas, but only after priming with IFNγ. This beta cell line undergoes both apoptotic and necrotic cell death after incubation with the combination of the proinflammatory cytokines IFNγ and TNFα. Additionally, both caspase-dependent and -independent mechanisms that require proper mitochondrial function are involved. Mitochondrial contributions to βLox5 cell death were analyzed using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA depleted βLox5 cells, or βLox5 ρ(0 cells. βLox5 ρ(0 cells are not sensitive to IFNγ and TNFα killing, indicating a direct role for the mitochondria in cytokine-induced cell death of the parental cell line. However, βLox5 ρ(0 cells are susceptible to Fas killing, implicating caspase-dependent extrinsic apoptotic death is the mechanism by which these human beta cells die after Fas ligation. These data support the hypothesis that immune mediators kill βLox5 cells by both mitochondrial-dependent intrinsic and caspase-dependent extrinsic pathways.

  8. Mitochondria: pharmacological manipulation of cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Bouchier-Hayes, Lisa; Lartigue, Lydia; Newmeyer, Donald D.

    2005-01-01

    Cell death by apoptosis or necrosis is often important in the etiology and treatment of disease. Since mitochondria play important roles in cell death pathways, these organelles are potentially prime targets for therapeutic intervention. Here we discuss the mechanisms through which mitochondria participate in the cell death process and also survey some of the pharmacological approaches that target mitochondria in various ways.

  9. 3-Bromopyruvate and sodium citrate induce apoptosis in human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803 by inhibiting glycolysis and promoting mitochondria-regulated apoptosis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xingyu; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wang, Tingan; Xian, Shulin; Lu, Yunfei

    2016-06-17

    Cancer cells are mainly dependent on glycolysis to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and intermediates required for cell growth and proliferation. Thus, inhibition of glycolysis might be of therapeutic value in antitumor treatment. Our previously studies had found that both 3-bromopyruvate (BP) and sodium citrate (SCT) can inhibit tumor growth and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism involved in the BP and SCT mediated antitumor activity is not entirely clear. In this work, it is demonstrated that BP inhibits the enzyme hexokinase (HK) activity and SCT suppresses the phosphofructokinase (PFK) activity respectively, both the two agents decrease viability, ATP generation and lactate content in the human gastric cancer cell line MGC-803. These effects are directly correlated with blockage of glycolysis. Furthermore, BP and SCT can induce the characteristic manifestations of mitochondria-regulated apoptosis, such as down-regulation of anti-apoptosis proteins Bcl-2 and Survivin, up-regulation of pro-apoptosis protein Bax, activation of caspase-3, as well as leakage of cytochrome c (Cyt-c). In summary, our results provided evidences that BP and SCT inhibit the MGC-803 cells growth and proliferation might be correlated with inhibiting glycolysis and promoting mitochondria-regulated apoptosis. PMID:27163639

  10. Doubly uniparental inheritance of mitochondria as a model system for studying germ line formation.

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    Liliana Milani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Doubly Uniparental Inheritance (DUI of mitochondria occurs when both mothers and fathers are capable of transmitting mitochondria to their offspring, in contrast to the typical Strictly Maternal Inheritance (SMI. DUI was found in some bivalve molluscs, in which two mitochondrial genomes are inherited, one through eggs, the other through sperm. During male embryo development, spermatozoon mitochondria aggregate in proximity of the first cleavage furrow and end up in the primordial germ cells, while they are dispersed in female embryos. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We used MitoTracker, microtubule staining and transmission electron microscopy to examine the mechanisms of this unusual distribution of sperm mitochondria in the DUI species Ruditapes philippinarum. Our results suggest that in male embryos the midbody deriving from the mitotic spindle of the first division concurs in positioning the aggregate of sperm mitochondria. Furthermore, an immunocytochemical analysis showed that the germ line determinant Vasa segregates close to the first cleavage furrow. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: In DUI male embryos, spermatozoon mitochondria aggregate in a stable area on the animal-vegetal axis: in organisms with spiral segmentation this zone is not involved in cleavage, so the aggregation is maintained. Moreover, sperm mitochondria reach the same embryonic area in which also germ plasm is transferred. In 2-blastomere embryos, the segregation of sperm mitochondria in the same region with Vasa suggests their contribution in male germ line formation. In DUI male embryos, M-type mitochondria must be recognized by egg factors to be actively transferred in the germ line, where they become dominant replacing the Balbiani body mitochondria. The typical features of germ line assembly point to a common biological mechanism shared by DUI and SMI organisms. Although the molecular dynamics of the segregation of sperm mitochondria in DUI species are unknown

  11. Human cultured cells are capable to incorporate isolated plant mitochondria loaded with exogenous DNA

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    Laktionov P. P.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the possibility of human cultured cells to incorporate isolated mitochondria together with exogenous DNA introduced into organelles. Methods. Two approaches were used for this purpose, fluorescent labelling of mitochondria and/or DNA with subsequent analysis of the cells subjected to incubation by microscopy or by quantitative PCR. Results. We have shown that human cultured cells lines, HeLa and HUVEC, are capable to uptake isolated plant mitochondria and that this process depends on the incubation time and concentration of organelles present in medium. The incorporated mitochondria can serve as vehicles to deliver exogenous DNA into human cells, this DNA is then distributed in different cell compartments. Conclusions. These results are preliminary and need further investigations, including testing the possibility of human cells to incorporate the mitochondria of human or animal origin and creating genetic construction which could provide certain selectivity or stability of the transferred exogenous DNA upon cell uptake of the mitochondria as vectors.

  12. Connecting Mitochondria, Metabolism, and Stem Cell Fate.

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    Wanet, Anaïs; Arnould, Thierry; Najimi, Mustapha; Renard, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    As sites of cellular respiration and energy production, mitochondria play a central role in cell metabolism. Cell differentiation is associated with an increase in mitochondrial content and activity and with a metabolic shift toward increased oxidative phosphorylation activity. The opposite occurs during reprogramming of somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells. Studies have provided evidence of mitochondrial and metabolic changes during the differentiation of both embryonic and somatic (or adult) stem cells (SSCs), such as hematopoietic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and tissue-specific progenitor cells. We thus propose to consider those mitochondrial and metabolic changes as hallmarks of differentiation processes. We review how mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, and function are directly involved in embryonic and SSC differentiation and how metabolic and sensing pathways connect mitochondria and metabolism with cell fate and pluripotency. Understanding the basis of the crosstalk between mitochondria and cell fate is of critical importance, given the promising application of stem cells in regenerative medicine. In addition to the development of novel strategies to improve the in vitro lineage-directed differentiation of stem cells, understanding the molecular basis of this interplay could lead to the identification of novel targets to improve the treatment of degenerative diseases.

  13. Mitochondria, cholesterol and cancer cell metabolism.

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    Ribas, Vicent; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, José C

    2016-12-01

    Given the role of mitochondria in oxygen consumption, metabolism and cell death regulation, alterations in mitochondrial function or dysregulation of cell death pathways contribute to the genesis and progression of cancer. Cancer cells exhibit an array of metabolic transformations induced by mutations leading to gain-of-function of oncogenes and loss-of-function of tumor suppressor genes that include increased glucose consumption, reduced mitochondrial respiration, increased reactive oxygen species generation and cell death resistance, all of which ensure cancer progression. Cholesterol metabolism is disturbed in cancer cells and supports uncontrolled cell growth. In particular, the accumulation of cholesterol in mitochondria emerges as a molecular component that orchestrates some of these metabolic alterations in cancer cells by impairing mitochondrial function. As a consequence, mitochondrial cholesterol loading in cancer cells may contribute, in part, to the Warburg effect stimulating aerobic glycolysis to meet the energetic demand of proliferating cells, while protecting cancer cells against mitochondrial apoptosis due to changes in mitochondrial membrane dynamics. Further understanding the complexity in the metabolic alterations of cancer cells, mediated largely through alterations in mitochondrial function, may pave the way to identify more efficient strategies for cancer treatment involving the use of small molecules targeting mitochondria, cholesterol homeostasis/trafficking and specific metabolic pathways. PMID:27455839

  14. Mitochondria Biogenesis and Bioenergetics Gene Profiles in Isogenic Prostate Cells with Different Malignant Phenotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Tanya C. Burch; Rhim, Johng S.; Julius O Nyalwidhe

    2016-01-01

    Background. The most significant hallmarks of cancer are directly or indirectly linked to deregulated mitochondria. In this study, we sought to profile mitochondria associated genes in isogenic prostate cell lines with different tumorigenic phenotypes from the same patient. Results. Two isogenic human prostate cell lines RC77N/E (nonmalignant cells) and RC77T/E (malignant cells) were profiled for expression of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism genes by qRT-PCR using the Human Mit...

  15. MITOCHONDRIA: INSIGHT TARGET OF DRUG DEVELOPMENT IN CANCER CELLS

    OpenAIRE

    Md. Ataur Rahman

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are involved in different physiological and pathological processes that are crucial for tumor cell physiology, growth and survival and its dysfunction leads to many human abnormalities, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune disorders and cancer. The present review is focused on the different experimental and therapeutic cancer strategies addressed to either target mitochondria directly, or use mitochondria as mediators of apoptosis, although it...

  16. Damage of oxidative stress on mitochondria during microspores development in Honglian CMS line of rice.

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    Wan, Cuixiang; Li, Shaoqing; Wen, Li; Kong, Jin; Wang, Kun; Zhu, Yingguo

    2007-03-01

    One of the cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) types used for hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.) production in China is the Honglian (HL)-CMS. Previous studies suggested that pollen abortion of the sterile plants was resulted from a special programmed cell death (PCD) program started at meiosis in the microspores. To elucidate the molecular basis of the pollen abortion, we compared the biochemical and physiological properties such as content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ATP, NADH, total glutathione and ascorbate acid, the activities of dehydroascrbate reductase, glutathione reductase, ascorbate peroxides and superoxide dismutase, and the integrity of mitochondrial genome DNA isolated from an HL-CMS line, Yuetai A and its maintainer line, Yuetai B. Our results indicated that the mitochondria of the HL-CMS line suffered from a serious oxidative stress during microspores development. Oxidative stress induced by abnormal increased ROS at meiosis stage resulted in the depletion of ATP and NADH, and the degradation of mitochondrial genomic DNA. This suggests that the presence of redox signal originated in mitochondria affects the rest of the cell. Therefore, it is possible that the abortion of premature microspores in HL-CMS line is induced by the chronic oxidative stress in mitochondria in the early stage of pollen development.

  17. Mitochondria in human pluripotent stem cell apoptosis.

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    TeSlaa, Tara; Setoguchi, Kiyoko; Teitell, Michael A

    2016-04-01

    Human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) have great potential in regenerative medicine because they can differentiate into any cell type in the body. Genome integrity is vital for human development and for high fidelity passage of genetic information across generations through the germ line. To ensure genome stability, hPSCs maintain a lower rate of mutation than somatic cells and undergo rapid apoptosis in response to DNA damage and additional cell stresses. Furthermore, cellular metabolism and the cell cycle are also differentially regulated between cells in pluripotent and differentiated states and can aid in protecting hPSCs against DNA damage and damaged cell propagation. Despite these safeguards, clinical use of hPSC derivatives could be compromised by tumorigenic potential and possible malignant transformation from failed to differentiate cells. Since hPSCs and mature cells differentially respond to cell stress, it may be possible to specifically target undifferentiated cells for rapid apoptosis in mixed cell populations to enable safer use of hPSC-differentiated cells in patients. PMID:26828436

  18. Mitochondria Biogenesis and Bioenergetics Gene Profiles in Isogenic Prostate Cells with Different Malignant Phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya C. Burch

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The most significant hallmarks of cancer are directly or indirectly linked to deregulated mitochondria. In this study, we sought to profile mitochondria associated genes in isogenic prostate cell lines with different tumorigenic phenotypes from the same patient. Results. Two isogenic human prostate cell lines RC77N/E (nonmalignant cells and RC77T/E (malignant cells were profiled for expression of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism genes by qRT-PCR using the Human Mitochondria and the Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism RT2 PCR arrays. Forty-seven genes were differentially regulated between the two cell lines. The interaction and regulatory networks of these genes were generated by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. UCP2 was the most significantly upregulated gene in primary adenocarcinoma cells in the current study. The overexpression of UCP2 upon malignant transformation was further validated using human prostatectomy clinical specimens. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the overexpression of multiple genes that are involved in mitochondria biogenesis, bioenergetics, and modulation of apoptosis. These genes may play a role in malignant transformation and disease progression. The upregulation of some of these genes in clinical samples indicates that some of the differentially transcribed genes could be the potential targets for therapeutic interventions.

  19. Mitochondria Biogenesis and Bioenergetics Gene Profiles in Isogenic Prostate Cells with Different Malignant Phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burch, Tanya C; Rhim, Johng S; Nyalwidhe, Julius O

    2016-01-01

    Background. The most significant hallmarks of cancer are directly or indirectly linked to deregulated mitochondria. In this study, we sought to profile mitochondria associated genes in isogenic prostate cell lines with different tumorigenic phenotypes from the same patient. Results. Two isogenic human prostate cell lines RC77N/E (nonmalignant cells) and RC77T/E (malignant cells) were profiled for expression of mitochondrial biogenesis and energy metabolism genes by qRT-PCR using the Human Mitochondria and the Mitochondrial Energy Metabolism RT(2) PCR arrays. Forty-seven genes were differentially regulated between the two cell lines. The interaction and regulatory networks of these genes were generated by Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. UCP2 was the most significantly upregulated gene in primary adenocarcinoma cells in the current study. The overexpression of UCP2 upon malignant transformation was further validated using human prostatectomy clinical specimens. Conclusions. This study demonstrates the overexpression of multiple genes that are involved in mitochondria biogenesis, bioenergetics, and modulation of apoptosis. These genes may play a role in malignant transformation and disease progression. The upregulation of some of these genes in clinical samples indicates that some of the differentially transcribed genes could be the potential targets for therapeutic interventions. PMID:27478826

  20. Lysosome-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) regulate intracellular positioning of mitochondria in MC3T3-E1 cells.

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    Rajapakshe, Anupama R; Podyma-Inoue, Katarzyna A; Terasawa, Kazue; Hasegawa, Katsuya; Namba, Toshimitsu; Kumei, Yasuhiro; Yanagishita, Masaki; Hara-Yokoyama, Miki

    2015-02-01

    The intracellular positioning of both lysosomes and mitochondria meets the requirements of degradation and energy supply, which are respectively the two major functions for cellular maintenance. The positioning of both lysosomes and mitochondria is apparently affected by the nutrient status of the cells. However, the mechanism coordinating the positioning of the organelles has not been sufficiently elucidated. Lysosome-associated membrane proteins-1 and -2 (LAMP-1 and LAMP-2) are highly glycosylated proteins that are abundant in lysosomal membranes. In the present study, we demonstrated that the siRNA-mediated downregulation of LAMP-1, LAMP-2 or their combination enhanced the perinuclear localization of mitochondria, in the pre-osteoblastic cell line MC3T3-E1. On the other hand, in the osteocytic cell line MLO-Y4, in which both the lysosomes and mitochondria originally accumulate in the perinuclear region and mitochondria also fill dendrites, the effect of siRNA of LAMP-1 or LAMP-2 was barely observed. LAMPs are not directly associated with mitochondria, and there do not seem to be any accessory molecules commonly required to recruit the motor proteins to lysosomes and mitochondria. Our results suggest that LAMPs may regulate the positioning of lysosomes and mitochondria. A possible mechanism involving the indirect and context-dependent action of LAMPs is discussed. PMID:25246127

  1. Morphological and functional changes of mitochondria in apoptotic esophageal carcinoma cells induced by arsenic trioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong-Ying Shen; Jian Shen; Qiao-Shan Li; Cai-Yun Chen; Jiong-Yu Chen; Yi Zeng

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate that mitochondrial morphological andfunctional changes are an important intermediate link in thecourse of apoptosis in esophageal carcinoma cells inducedby As2O3.METHODS: The esophageal carcinoma cell line SHEEC1,established in our laboratory, was cultured in 199 growthmedium, supplemented with 100mL@ L-1 calf serum and3 mol@L-1 As2O3( the same below). After 2, 4, 6, 12, 24 hof drug adding, the SHEEC1 cells were collected for light-and electron-microscopic examination. The mitochondriawere labeled by Rhodamine fluorescence probe and thefluorescence intensity of the mitochondria was measured byflow cytometer and cytofluorimetric analysis. Further, themitochondrial transmembrane potential ( MTP, ΔΨm )change was also calculated.RESULTS: The mitochondrial morphological change afteradding As2O3 could be divided into three stages. In theearly-stage (2-6h) after adding As2O3, an adaptiveproliferation of mitochondria appeared; in the mid-stage (6-12 h ) e degenerative change was observed; and in the late-stage (12-24 h ) the mitochondria swelled with outermembrana broken down and then calls death with apoptoticchanges of nucleus. The functional change of themitochondria indicated by fluorescent intensity, whichreflected the MTP status of mitochondria, was in accordancewith morphological change of the mitochondria. Thefluorescent intensity increased at early-stage, declined inmid-stage and decreased to the lowest in the late@ stage. 24h after As2O3 adding, the cell nucleus showed typicalapoptotic changes.CONCLUSION: Under the inducement of As2O3, the earlyapoptotic changes of SHEEC1 cells were the apparentmorphological and functional changes of mitochondria,afterwards the nucleus changes followed. lt is consideredthat changes of mitochondria are an important intermediatelink in the course of apoptosis of esophageal carcinomacalls induced by As2O3.

  2. Detection of PIWI and piRNAs in the mitochondria of mammalian cancer cells

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    Kwon, ChangHyuk, E-mail: netbuyer@hanmail.net [Cancer Genomics Branch, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Tak, Hyosun, E-mail: chuberry@naver.com [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Rho, Mina, E-mail: minarho@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Computer Science, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, Hae Ryung, E-mail: heyhae@ncc.re.kr [New Experimental Therapeutics Branch, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Yon Hui, E-mail: yhkim@ncc.re.kr [New Experimental Therapeutics Branch, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Tae, E-mail: bioktkim@ncc.re.kr [Molecular Epidemiology Branch, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of); Balch, Curt, E-mail: curt.balch@gmail.com [Medical Sciences Program, Department of Cellular and Integrative Physiology, Indiana University School of Medicine, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States); Lee, Eun Kyung, E-mail: leeek@catholic.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, Seoul 137-701 (Korea, Republic of); Nam, Seungyoon, E-mail: seungyoon.nam@ncc.re.kr [Cancer Genomics Branch, National Cancer Center, Goyang 410-769 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • piRNA sequences were mapped to human mitochondrial (mt) genome. • We inspected small RNA-Seq datasets from somatic cell mt subcellular fractions. • Piwi and piRNA transcripts are present in mammalian somatic cancer cell mt fractions. - Abstract: Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are 26–31 nt small noncoding RNAs that are processed from their longer precursor transcripts by Piwi proteins. Localization of Piwi and piRNA has been reported mostly in nucleus and cytoplasm of higher eukaryotes germ-line cells, where it is believed that known piRNA sequences are located in repeat regions of nuclear genome in germ-line cells. However, localization of PIWI and piRNA in mammalian somatic cell mitochondria yet remains largely unknown. We identified 29 piRNA sequence alignments from various regions of the human mitochondrial genome. Twelve out 29 piRNA sequences matched stem-loop fragment sequences of seven distinct tRNAs. We observed their actual expression in mitochondria subcellular fractions by inspecting mitochondrial-specific small RNA-Seq datasets. Of interest, the majority of the 29 piRNAs overlapped with multiple longer transcripts (expressed sequence tags) that are unique to the human mitochondrial genome. The presence of mature piRNAs in mitochondria was detected by qRT-PCR of mitochondrial subcellular RNAs. Further validation showed detection of Piwi by colocalization using anti-Piwil1 and mitochondria organelle-specific protein antibodies.

  3. Detection of PIWI and piRNAs in the mitochondria of mammalian cancer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • piRNA sequences were mapped to human mitochondrial (mt) genome. • We inspected small RNA-Seq datasets from somatic cell mt subcellular fractions. • Piwi and piRNA transcripts are present in mammalian somatic cancer cell mt fractions. - Abstract: Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are 26–31 nt small noncoding RNAs that are processed from their longer precursor transcripts by Piwi proteins. Localization of Piwi and piRNA has been reported mostly in nucleus and cytoplasm of higher eukaryotes germ-line cells, where it is believed that known piRNA sequences are located in repeat regions of nuclear genome in germ-line cells. However, localization of PIWI and piRNA in mammalian somatic cell mitochondria yet remains largely unknown. We identified 29 piRNA sequence alignments from various regions of the human mitochondrial genome. Twelve out 29 piRNA sequences matched stem-loop fragment sequences of seven distinct tRNAs. We observed their actual expression in mitochondria subcellular fractions by inspecting mitochondrial-specific small RNA-Seq datasets. Of interest, the majority of the 29 piRNAs overlapped with multiple longer transcripts (expressed sequence tags) that are unique to the human mitochondrial genome. The presence of mature piRNAs in mitochondria was detected by qRT-PCR of mitochondrial subcellular RNAs. Further validation showed detection of Piwi by colocalization using anti-Piwil1 and mitochondria organelle-specific protein antibodies

  4. Induction of apoptosis in human cancer cells by targeting mitochondria with gold nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkandawire, M. M.; Lakatos, M.; Springer, A.; Clemens, A.; Appelhans, D.; Krause-Buchholz, U.; Pompe, W.; Rödel, G.; Mkandawire, M.

    2015-06-01

    A major challenge in designing cancer therapies is the induction of cancer cell apoptosis, although activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathways by targeting gold nanoparticles to mitochondria is promising. We report an in vitro procedure targeting mitochondria with conjugated gold nanoparticles and investigating effects on apoptosis induction in the human breast cancer cell line Jimt-1. Gold nanoparticles were conjugated to a variant of turbo green fluorescent protein (mitoTGFP) harbouring an amino-terminal mitochondrial localization signal. Au nanoparticle conjugates were further complexed with cationic maltotriose-modified poly(propylene imine) third generation dendrimers. Fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy revealed that Au nanoparticle conjugates were directed to mitochondria upon transfection, causing partial rupture of the outer mitochondrial membrane, triggering cell death. The ability to target Au nanoparticles into mitochondria of breast cancer cells and induce apoptosis reveals an alternative application of Au nanoparticles in photothermal therapy of cancer.A major challenge in designing cancer therapies is the induction of cancer cell apoptosis, although activation of intrinsic apoptotic pathways by targeting gold nanoparticles to mitochondria is promising. We report an in vitro procedure targeting mitochondria with conjugated gold nanoparticles and investigating effects on apoptosis induction in the human breast cancer cell line Jimt-1. Gold nanoparticles were conjugated to a variant of turbo green fluorescent protein (mitoTGFP) harbouring an amino-terminal mitochondrial localization signal. Au nanoparticle conjugates were further complexed with cationic maltotriose-modified poly(propylene imine) third generation dendrimers. Fluorescence and transmission electron microscopy revealed that Au nanoparticle conjugates were directed to mitochondria upon transfection, causing partial rupture of the outer mitochondrial membrane, triggering cell

  5. Light-dependent intracellular positioning of mitochondria in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Sayeedul; Niwa, Yasuo; Takagi, Shingo

    2009-06-01

    Mitochondria, the power house of the cell, are one of the most dynamic cell organelles. Although there are several reports on actin- or microtubule-dependent movement of mitochondria in plant cells, intracellular positioning and motility of mitochondria under different light conditions remain open questions. Mitochondria were visualized in living Arabidopsis thaliana leaf cells using green fluorescent protein fused to a mitochondrion-targeting signal. In darkness, mitochondria were distributed randomly in palisade cells. In contrast, mitochondria accumulated along the periclinal walls, similar to the accumulation response of chloroplasts, when treated with weak blue light (470 nm, 4 micromol m(-2) s(-1)). Under strong blue light (100 micromol m(-2) s(-1)), mitochondria occupied the anticlinal positions similar to the avoidance response of chloroplasts and nuclei. While strong red light (660 nm, 100 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) induced the accumulation of mitochondria along the inner periclinal walls, green light exhibited little effect on the distribution of mitochondria. In addition, the mode of movement of individual mitochondria along the outer periclinal walls under different light conditions was precisely analyzed by time-lapse fluorescence microscopy. A gradual increase in the number of static mitochondria located in the vicinity of chloroplasts with a time period of blue light illumination clearly demonstrated the accumulation response of mitochondria. Light-induced co-localization of mitochondria with chloroplasts strongly suggested their mutual metabolic interactions. This is the first characterization of the light-dependent redistribution of mitochondria in plant cells.

  6. Bax translocation into mitochondria during dihydroartemisinin(DHA)-induced apoptosis in human lung adenocarcinoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying-ying; Chen, Tong-sheng; Qu, Jun-Le

    2009-02-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua, has been shown to possess promising anticancer activities and induce cancer cell death through apoptotic pathways. However, the molecular mechanisms are not well understood. This study was investigated in human lung adenocarconoma ASTC-a-1 cell line and aimed to determine whether the apoptotic process was mediated by Bax activation and translocation during DHA-induced apoptosis. In this study, DHA induced a time-dependent apoptotic cell death, which was assayed by Cell Counting Kit (CCK-8) and Hoechst 33258 staining. Detection of Bax aggregation and translocation to mitochondria was observed in living cells which were co-transfected with GFP-Bax and Dsred-mito plasmid using confocal fluorescence microscope technique. Overall, these results demonstrated that Bax activation and translocation to mitochondria occurred during DHA-induced apoptosis.

  7. Transition metal catalysis in the mitochondria of living cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomás-Gamasa, María; Martínez-Calvo, Miguel; Couceiro, José R.; Mascareñas, José L.

    2016-09-01

    The development of transition metal catalysts capable of promoting non-natural transformations within living cells can open significant new avenues in chemical and cell biology. Unfortunately, the complexity of the cell makes it extremely difficult to translate standard organometallic chemistry to living environments. Therefore, progress in this field has been very slow, and many challenges, including the possibility of localizing active metal catalysts into specific subcellular sites or organelles, remain to be addressed. Herein, we report a designed ruthenium complex that accumulates preferentially inside the mitochondria of mammalian cells, while keeping its ability to react with exogenous substrates in a bioorthogonal way. Importantly, we show that the subcellular catalytic activity can be used for the confined release of fluorophores, and even allows selective functional alterations in the mitochondria by the localized transformation of inert precursors into uncouplers of the membrane potential.

  8. MITOCHONDRIA: INSIGHT TARGET OF DRUG DEVELOPMENT IN CANCER CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ataur Rahman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are involved in different physiological and pathological processes that are crucial for tumor cell physiology, growth and survival and its dysfunction leads to many human abnormalities, including cardiovascular diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, autoimmune disorders and cancer. The present review is focused on the different experimental and therapeutic cancer strategies addressed to either target mitochondria directly, or use mitochondria as mediators of apoptosis, although its total molecular mechanism has not been elucidated. Therefore, the role of mitochondria in the etiology and progression of several function and explore potential therapeutic benefits of targeting mitochondria in the disease processes. Newly evolving advances in disease diagnostics and therapy will further facilitate future growth in the field of mitochondrian biology, where there is a dire need for sensitive and more affordable diagnostic tools and an urgency to develop effective therapies and identify reliable drug to predict accurately the response to a cancer therapy. These approaches to treat mitochondrial dysfunction rationally could lead to selective protection of cells in different tissues and various disease states. To avoid mitochondrial liabilities, routine screens need to be positioned within the drug-development process as targets of drug-induced cytotoxicity or cancer promotion, as regulators of apoptosis, as sources of cell signalling through reactive oxygen species, and mitochondrial control of specific nuclear responses. However, several novel mitochondrial targets are now emerging, including the potential to manipulate the mitochondrial pool to maintain function via biogenesis and mitophagy. Forthcoming insights into the fine regulation of mitochondrial apoptosis will likely open future perspectives for cancer drug development.

  9. Death of mitochondria during programmed cell death of leaf mesophyll cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selga, Tūrs; Selga, Maija; Pāvila, Vineta

    2005-12-01

    The role of plant mitochondria in the programmed cell death (PCD) is widely discussed. However, spectrum and sequence of mitochondrial structural changes during different types of PCD in leaves are poorly described. Pea, cucumber and rye plants were grown under controlled growing conditions. A part of them were sprinkled with ethylene releaser to accelerate cell death. During yellowing the palisade parenchyma mitochondria were attracted to nuclear envelope. Mitochondrial matrix became electron translucent. Mitochondria entered vacuole by invagination of tonoplast and formed multivesicular bodies. Ethephon treatment increased the frequency of sticking of mitochondria to the nuclear envelope or chloroplasts and peroxisomes. Mitochondria divided by different mechanisms and became enclosed in Golgi and ER derived authopagic vacuoles or in the central vacuole. Several fold increase of the diameter of cristae became typical. In all cases mitochondria were attached to nuclear envelope. It can be considered as structural mechanism of promoting of PCD.

  10. The mitochondria-mediate apoptosis of Lepidopteran cells induced by azadirachtin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingfei Huang

    Full Text Available Mitochondria have been shown to play an important role in apoptosis using mammalian cell lines. However, this seems not to be the case in Drosophila, an insect model organism; thus more in-depth studies of insect cell apoptosis are necessary. In the present study, mitochondrial involvement during azadirachtin- and camptothecin-induced apoptosis in Spodoptera frugiperda Sf9 cells (isolated from Spodoptera frugiperda pupal ovarian tissue was investigated. The results showed that both azadirachtin and camptothecin could induce apoptosis in Sf9 cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, activation of mitochondrial permeability transition pores (MPTPs and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP were observed very early during apoptosis and were followed subsequently by the release of cytochrome-c from the mitochondria. Furthermore, the results also revealed that the opening of MPTPs and the loss of MMP induced by azadirachtin could be significantly inhibited by the permeability transition pore (PTP inhibitor cyclosporin A (CsA, which was used to identify the key role of mitochondria in the apoptosis of Sf9 cells. However, in camptothecin-treated Sf9 cells, CsA could not suppress the opening of MPTPs and the loss of MMP when apoptosis was induced. The data from caspase-3 and caspase-9 activity assays and detection of apoptosis by morphological observation and flow cytometry also uncovered the different effect of CsA on the two botanical apoptosis inducers. Although different mechanisms of apoptosis induction exist, our study revealed that mitochondria play a crucial role in insect cell line apoptosis.

  11. Well-functioning cell mitochondria promote good health

    OpenAIRE

    Chowanadisai, Winyoo; Shenoy, Sonia F; Sharman, Edward; Carl L. Keen; Liu, Jiankang; Rucker, Robert B

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondriol function can be directly linked to protection from certain chronic diseases and conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and chronic inflammation, as well as the aging processes. Mitochondria are central to normal glucose, amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, in addition to antioxidant modulation and virtually all aspects of cell turnover and maintenance. Nutrition plays an essential role in optimizing such functions. We describe strategies for the regula...

  12. Ion transport by mitochondria-rich cells in toad skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Ussing, H H; Spring, K R

    1987-01-01

    The optical sectioning video imaging technique was used for measurements of the volume of mitochondria-rich (m.r.) cells of the isolated epithelium of toad skin. Under short-circuit conditions, cell volume decreased by about 14% in response to bilateral exposure to Cl-free (gluconate substitution......) solutions, apical exposure to a sodium-free solution, or to amiloride. Serosal exposure to ouabain resulted in a large increase in volume, which could be prevented either by the simultaneous application of amiloride in the apical solution or by the exposure of the epithelium to bilateral Cl-free solutions...

  13. Clozapine-induced mitochondria alterations and inflammation in brain and insulin-responsive cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verόnica Contreras-Shannon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS is a constellation of factors including abdominal obesity, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemias, and hypertension that increase morbidity and mortality from diabetes and cardiovascular diseases and affects more than a third of the population in the US. Clozapine, an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia, has been found to cause drug-induced metabolic syndrome (DIMS and may be a useful tool for studying cellular and molecular changes associated with MetS and DIMS. Mitochondria dysfunction, oxidative stress and inflammation are mechanisms proposed for the development of clozapine-related DIMS. In this study, the effects of clozapine on mitochondrial function and inflammation in insulin responsive and obesity-associated cultured cell lines were examined. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Cultured mouse myoblasts (C2C12, adipocytes (3T3-L1, hepatocytes (FL-83B, and monocytes (RAW 264.7 were treated with 0, 25, 50 and 75 µM clozapine for 24 hours. The mitochondrial selective probe TMRM was used to assess membrane potential and morphology. ATP levels from cell lysates were determined by bioluminescence assay. Cytokine levels in cell supernatants were assessed using a multiplex array. Clozapine was found to alter mitochondria morphology, membrane potential, and volume, and reduce ATP levels in all cell lines. Clozapine also significantly induced the production of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, GM-CSF and IL12-p70, and this response was particularly robust in the monocyte cell line. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Clozapine damages mitochondria and promotes inflammation in insulin responsive cells and obesity-associated cell types. These phenomena are closely associated with changes observed in human and animal studies of MetS, obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. Therefore, the use of clozapine in DIMS may be an important and relevant tool for investigating cellular and molecular changes associated

  14. Mitochondria as therapeutic targets for cancer stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    In Sung Song; Jeong Yu Jeong; Seung Hun Jeong; Hyoung Kyu Kim; Kyung Soo Ko; Byoung Doo Rhee; Nari Kim; Jin Han

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are maintained by theirsomatic stem cells and are responsible for tumorinitiation, chemoresistance, and metastasis. Evidencefor the CSCs existence has been reported for a numberof human cancers. The CSC mitochondria have beenshown recently to be an important target for cancertreatment, but clinical significance of CSCs and theirmitochondria properties remain unclear. Mitochondriatargetedagents are considerably more effectivecompared to other agents in triggering apoptosis ofCSCs, as well as general cancer cells, via mitochondrialdysfunction. Mitochondrial metabolism is altered incancer cells because of their reliance on glycolyticintermediates, which are normally destined for oxidativephosphorylation. Therefore, inhibiting cancer-specificmodifications in mitochondrial metabolism, increasingreactive oxygen species production, or stimulatingmitochondrial permeabilization transition could bepromising new therapeutic strategies to activate celldeath in CSCs as well, as in general cancer cells. Thisreview analyzed mitochondrial function and its potentialas a therapeutic target to induce cell death in CSCs.Furthermore, combined treatment with mitochondriatargeteddrugs will be a promising strategy for thetreatment of relapsed and refractory cancer.

  15. Respiratory chain complexes in dynamic mitochondria display a patchy distribution in life cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Britta Muster

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mitochondria, the main suppliers of cellular energy, are dynamic organelles that fuse and divide frequently. Constraining these processes impairs mitochondrial is closely linked to certain neurodegenerative diseases. It is proposed that functional mitochondrial dynamics allows the exchange of compounds thereby providing a rescue mechanism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The question discussed in this paper is whether fusion and fission of mitochondria in different cell lines result in re-localization of respiratory chain (RC complexes and of the ATP synthase. This was addressed by fusing cells containing mitochondria with respiratory complexes labelled with different fluorescent proteins and resolving their time dependent re-localization in living cells. We found a complete reshuffling of RC complexes throughout the entire chondriome in single HeLa cells within 2-3 h by organelle fusion and fission. Polykaryons of fused cells completely re-mixed their RC complexes in 10-24 h in a progressive way. In contrast to the recently described homogeneous mixing of matrix-targeted proteins or outer membrane proteins, the distribution of RC complexes and ATP synthase in fused hybrid mitochondria, however, was not homogeneous but patterned. Thus, complete equilibration of respiratory chain complexes as integral inner mitochondrial membrane complexes is a slow process compared with matrix proteins probably limited by complete fusion. In co-expressing cells, complex II is more homogenously distributed than complex I and V, resp. Indeed, this result argues for higher mobility and less integration in supercomplexes. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results clearly demonstrate that mitochondrial fusion and fission dynamics favours the re-mixing of all RC complexes within the chondriome. This permanent mixing avoids a static situation with a fixed composition of RC complexes per mitochondrion.

  16. Shikonin Directly Targets Mitochondria and Causes Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Wiench

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemotherapy is a mainstay of cancer treatment. Due to increased drug resistance and the severe side effects of currently used therapeutics, new candidate compounds are required for improvement of therapy success. Shikonin, a natural naphthoquinone, was used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of different inflammatory diseases and recent studies revealed the anticancer activities of shikonin. We found that shikonin has strong cytotoxic effects on 15 cancer cell lines, including multidrug-resistant cell lines. Transcriptome-wide mRNA expression studies showed that shikonin induced genetic pathways regulating cell cycle, mitochondrial function, levels of reactive oxygen species, and cytoskeletal formation. Taking advantage of the inherent fluorescence of shikonin, we analyzed its uptake and distribution in live cells with high spatial and temporal resolution using flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Shikonin was specifically accumulated in the mitochondria, and this accumulation was associated with a shikonin-dependent deregulation of cellular Ca2+ and ROS levels. This deregulation led to a breakdown of the mitochondrial membrane potential, dysfunction of microtubules, cell-cycle arrest, and ultimately induction of apoptosis. Seeing as both the metabolism and the structure of mitochondria show marked differences between cancer cells and normal cells, shikonin is a promising candidate for the next generation of chemotherapy.

  17. Xenogenic transfer of isolated murine mitochondria into human rho0 cells can improve respiratory function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katrangi, Eyad; D'Souza, Gerard; Boddapati, Sarathi V; Kulawiec, Mariola; Singh, Keshav K; Bigger, Brian; Weissig, Volkmar

    2007-12-01

    Mitochondrial DNA mutations are the direct cause of several physiological disorders and are also associated with the aging process. The modest progress made over the past two decades towards manipulating the mitochondrial genome and understanding its function within living mammalian cells means that cures for mitochondrial DNA mutations are still elusive. Here, we report that transformed mammalian cells internalize exogenous isolated mitochondria upon simple co-incubation. We first demonstrate the physical presence of internalized mitochondria within recipient cells using fluorescence microscopy. Second, we show that xenogenic transfer of murine mitochondria into human cells lacking functional mitochondria can functionally restore respiration in cells lacking mtDNA. Third, utilizing the natural competence of isolated mitochondria to take up linear DNA molecules, we demonstrate the feasibility of using cellular internalization of isolated exogenous mitochondria as a potential tool for studying mitochondrial genetics in living mammalian cells. PMID:18069915

  18. Correlation between chloride flux via the mitochondria-rich cells and transepithelial water movement in isolated frog skin (Rana esculenta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Robert

    1995-01-01

    Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells.......Antidiuretic hormone; chloride transport; electroosmosis; Frog skin; Intercalated cells; Local osmosis; Mitochondria-rich cells....

  19. Mitochondria are targets for peroxisome-derived oxidative stress in cultured mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Van Veldhoven, Paul P; Brees, Chantal; Rubio, Noemí; Nordgren, Marcus; Apanasets, Oksana; Kunze, Markus; Baes, Myriam; Agostinis, Patrizia; Fransen, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Many cellular processes are driven by spatially and temporally regulated redox-dependent signaling events. Although mounting evidence indicates that organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria can function as signaling platforms for oxidative stress-regulated pathways, little is known about the role of peroxisomes in these processes. In this study, we employ targeted variants of the genetically encoded photosensitizer KillerRed to gain a better insight into the interplay between peroxisomes and cellular oxidative stress. We show that the phototoxic effects of peroxisomal KillerRed induce mitochondria-mediated cell death and that this process can be counteracted by targeted overexpression of a select set of antioxidant enzymes, including peroxisomal glutathione S-transferase kappa 1, superoxide dismutase 1, and mitochondrial catalase. We also present evidence that peroxisomal disease cell lines deficient in plasmalogen biosynthesis or peroxisome assembly are more sensitive to KillerRed-induced oxidative stress than control cells. Collectively, these findings confirm and extend previous observations suggesting that disturbances in peroxisomal redox control and metabolism can sensitize cells to oxidative stress. In addition, they lend strong support to the ideas that peroxisomes and mitochondria share a redox-sensitive relationship and that the redox communication between these organelles is not only mediated by diffusion of reactive oxygen species from one compartment to the other. Finally, these findings indicate that mitochondria may act as dynamic receivers, integrators, and transmitters of peroxisome-derived mediators of oxidative stress, and this may have profound implications for our views on cellular aging and age-related diseases.

  20. Mitochondria and Mitophagy: The Yin and Yang of Cell Death Control

    OpenAIRE

    Kubli, Dieter A.; Gustafsson, Åsa B.

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are primarily responsible for providing the contracting cardiac myocyte with a continuous supply of ATP. However, mitochondria can rapidly change into death-promoting organelles. In response to changes in the intracellular environment, mitochondria become producers of excessive reactive oxygen species and release pro-death proteins, resulting in disrupted ATP synthesis and activation of cell death pathways. Interestingly, cells have developed a defense mechanism against aberrant ...

  1. Pancratistatin selectively targets cancer cell mitochondria and reduces growth of human colon tumor xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Carly; Karnik, Aditya; McNulty, James; Pandey, Siyaram

    2011-01-01

    The naturally occurring Amaryllidaceae alkaloid pancratistatin exhibits potent apoptotic activity against a large panel of cancer cells lines and has an insignificant effect on noncancerous cell lines, although with an elusive cellular target. Many current chemotherapeutics induce apoptosis via genotoxic mechanisms and thus have low selectivity. The observed selectivity of pancratistatin for cancer cells promoted us to consider the hypothesis that this alkaloid targets cancer cell mitochondria rather than DNA or its replicative machinery. In this study, we report that pancratistatin decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and induced apoptotic nuclear morphology in p53-mutant (HT-29) and wild-type p53 (HCT116) colorectal carcinoma cell lines, but not in noncancerous colon fibroblast (CCD-18Co) cells. Interestingly, pancratistatin was found to be ineffective against mtDNA-depleted (ρ(0)) cancer cells. Moreover, pancratistatin induced cell death in a manner independent of Bax and caspase activation, and did not alter β-tubulin polymerization rate nor cause double-stranded DNA breaks. For the first time we report the efficacy of pancratistatin in vivo against human colorectal adenocarcinoma xenografts. Intratumor administration of pancratistatin (3 mg/kg) caused significant reduction in the growth of subcutaneous HT-29 tumors in Nu/Nu mice (n = 6), with no apparent toxicity to the liver or kidneys as indicated by histopathologic analysis and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling. Altogether, this work suggests that pancratistatin may be a novel mitochondria-targeting compound that selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells and significantly reduces tumor growth. PMID:21220492

  2. Exendin-4 protects mitochondria from reactive oxygen species induced apoptosis in pancreatic Beta cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial oxidative stress is the basis for pancreatic β-cell apoptosis and a common pathway for numerous types of damage, including glucotoxicity and lipotoxicity. We cultivated mice pancreatic β-cell tumor Min6 cell lines in vitro and observed pancreatic β-cell apoptosis and changes in mitochondrial function before and after the addition of Exendin-4. Based on these observations, we discuss the protective role of Exendin-4 against mitochondrial oxidative damage and its relationship with Ca(2+-independent phospholipase A2. METHODS: We established a pancreatic β-cell oxidative stress damage model using Min6 cell lines cultured in vitro with tert-buty1 hydroperoxide and hydrogen peroxide. We then added Exendin-4 to observe changes in the rate of cell apoptosis (Annexin-V-FITC-PI staining flow cytometry and DNA ladder. We detected the activity of the caspase 3 and 8 apoptotic factors, measured the mitochondrial membrane potential losses and reactive oxygen species production levels, and detected the expression of cytochrome c and Smac/DLAMO in the cytosol and mitochondria, mitochondrial Ca2-independent phospholipase A2 and Ca(2+-independent phospholipase A2 mRNA. RESULTS: The time-concentration curve showed that different percentages of apoptosis occurred at different time-concentrations in tert-buty1 hydroperoxide- and hydrogen peroxide-induced Min6 cells. Incubation with 100 µmol/l of Exendin-4 for 48 hours reduced the Min6 cell apoptosis rate (p<0.05. The mitochondrial membrane potential loss and total reactive oxygen species levels decreased (p<0.05, and the release of cytochrome c and Smac/DLAMO from the mitochondria was reduced. The study also showed that Ca(2+-independent phospholipase A2 activity was positively related to Exendin-4 activity. CONCLUSION: Exendin-4 reduces Min6 cell oxidative damage and the cell apoptosis rate, which may be related to Ca(2-independent phospholipase A2.

  3. Mitochondrial transit peptide exhibits cell penetration ability and efficiently delivers macromolecules to mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Aastha; Chugh, Archana

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondrial malfunction under various circumstances can lead to a variety of disorders. Effective targeting of macromolecules (drugs) is important for restoration of mitochondrial function and treatment of related disorders. We have designed a novel cell-penetrating mitochondrial transit peptide (CpMTP) for delivery of macromolecules to mitochondria. Comparison between properties of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) and mitochondrial signal sequences enabled prediction of peptides with dual ability for cellular translocation and mitochondrial localization. Among the predicted peptides, CpMTP translocates across HeLa cells and shows successful delivery of noncovalently conjugated cargo molecules to mitochondria. CpMTP may have applications in transduction and transfection of mitochondria for therapeutics.

  4. Methods for Mitochondria and Mitophagy Flux Analyses in Stem Cells of Resting and Regenerating Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Prat, Laura; Martínez-Vicente, Marta; Muñoz-Cánoves, Pura

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria generate most of the cell's supply of ATP as a source of energy. They are also implicated in the control of cell's growth and death. Because of these critical functions, mitochondrial fitness is key for cellular homeostasis. Often, however, mitochondria become defective following damage or stress. To prevent accumulation of damaged mitochondria, the cells clear them through mitophagy, which is defined as the selective degradation of mitochondria by autophagy (the process for degradation of long-lived proteins and damaged organelles in lysosomes). Recently, constitutive mitophagic activity has been reported in quiescent muscle stem cells (satellite cells), which sustain regeneration of skeletal muscle. In response to muscle damage, these cells activate, expand, and differentiate to repair damaged myofibers. Mitophagy was shown to be required for maintenance of satellite cells in their healthy quiescent state. Conversely, damaged mitochondria accumulated in satellite cells with aging and this was attributed to defective mitophagy. This caused increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and loss of muscle stem cell regenerative capacity at old age. In this chapter, we describe different experimental strategies to evaluate mitochondria status and mitophagy in muscle stem cells from mice. They should improve our ability to study muscle stem homeostasis in adult life, and their loss of function in aging and disease. PMID:27492176

  5. Mps1 kinase regulates tumor cell viability via its novel role in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X; Ling, Y; Guo, Y; Bai, Y; Shi, X; Gong, F; Tan, P; Zhang, Y; Wei, C; He, X; Ramirez, A; Liu, X; Cao, C; Zhong, H; Xu, Q; Ma, R Z

    2016-01-01

    Targeting mitotic kinase monopolar spindle 1 (Mps1) for tumor therapy has been investigated for many years. Although it was suggested that Mps1 regulates cell viability through its role in spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), the underlying mechanism remains less defined. In an endeavor to reveal the role of high levels of mitotic kinase Mps1 in the development of colon cancer, we unexpectedly found the amount of Mps1 required for cell survival far exceeds that of maintaining SAC in aneuploid cell lines. This suggests that other functions of Mps1 besides SAC are also employed to maintain cell viability. Mps1 regulates cell viability independent of its role in cytokinesis as the genetic depletion of Mps1 spanning from metaphase to cytokinesis affects neither cytokinesis nor cell viability. Furthermore, we developed a single-cycle inhibition strategy that allows disruption of Mps1 function only in mitosis. Using this strategy, we found the functions of Mps1 in mitosis are vital for cell viability as short-term treatment of mitotic colon cancer cell lines with Mps1 inhibitors is sufficient to cause cell death. Interestingly, Mps1 inhibitors synergize with microtubule depolymerizing drug in promoting polyploidization but not in tumor cell growth inhibition. Finally, we found that Mps1 can be recruited to mitochondria by binding to voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) via its C-terminal fragment. This interaction is essential for cell viability as Mps1 mutant defective for interaction fails to main cell viability, causing the release of cytochrome c. Meanwhile, deprivation of VDAC1 can make tumor cells refractory to loss of Mps1-induced cell death. Collectively, we conclude that inhibition of the novel mitochondrial function Mps1 is sufficient to kill tumor cells. PMID:27383047

  6. Overexpression of DNA ligase III in mitochondria protects cells against oxidative stress and improves mitochondrial DNA base excision repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Akbari, Mansour; Keijzers, Guido; Maynard, Scott;

    2014-01-01

    by rotenone. Our results suggest that the amount of DNA ligase III in mitochondria may be critical for cell survival following prolonged oxidative stress, and demonstrate a functional link between mitochondrial DNA damage and repair, cell survival upon oxidative stress, and removal of dysfunctional......Base excision repair (BER) is the most prominent DNA repair pathway in human mitochondria. BER also results in a temporary generation of AP-sites, single-strand breaks and nucleotide gaps. Thus, incomplete BER can result in the generation of DNA repair intermediates that can disrupt mitochondrial...... DNA replication and transcription and generate mutations. We carried out BER analysis in highly purified mitochondrial extracts from human cell lines U2OS and HeLa, and mouse brain using a circular DNA substrate containing a lesion at a specific position. We found that DNA ligation is significantly...

  7. Mitochondria-targeted superoxide dismutase (SOD2) regulates radiation resistance and radiation stress response in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) act as a mediator of ionizing radiation-induced cellular damage. Previous studies have indicated that MnSOD (SOD2) plays a critical role in protection against ionizing radiation in mammalian cells. In this study, we constructed two types of stable HeLa cell lines overexpressing SOD2, HeLa S3/SOD2 and T-REx HeLa/SOD2, to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the protection against radiation by SOD2. SOD2 overexpression in mitochondria enhanced the survival of HeLa S3 and T-REx HeLa cells following γ-irradiation. The levels of γH2AX significantly decreased in HeLa S3/SOD2 and T-REx HeLa/SOD2 cells compared with those in the control cells. MitoSoxTM Red assays showed that both lines of SOD2-expressing cells showed suppression of the superoxide generation in mitochondria. Furthermore, flow cytometry with a fluorescent probe (2',7'-dichlorofluorescein) revealed that the cellular levels of ROS increased in HeLa S3 cells during post-irradiation incubation, but the increase was markedly attenuated in HeLa S3/SOD2 cells. DNA microarray analysis revealed that, of 47,000 probe sets analyzed, 117 and 166 probes showed more than 2-fold changes after 5.5 Gy of γ-irradiation in control and HeLa S3/SOD2 cells, respectively. Pathway analysis revealed different expression profiles in irradiated control cells and irradiated SOD2-overexpressing cells. These results indicate that SOD2 protects HeLa cells against cellular effects of γ-rays through suppressing oxidative stress in irradiated cells caused by ROS generated in the mitochondria and through regulating the expression of genes which play a critical role in protection against ionizing radiation. (author)

  8. Helium-neon laser irradiation stimulates cell proliferation through photostimulatory effects in mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wan-Ping; Wang, Jeh-Jeng; Yu, Chia-Li; Lan, Cheng-Che E; Chen, Gow-Shing; Yu, Hsin-Su

    2007-08-01

    Previous reports have shown that cellular functions could be influenced by visual light (400-700 nm). Recent evidence indicates that cellular proliferation could be triggered by the interaction of a helium-neon laser (He-Ne laser, 632.8 nm) with the mitochondrial photoacceptor-cytochrome c oxidase. Our previous studies demonstrated that He-Ne irradiation induced an increase in cell proliferation, but not migration, in the melanoma cell line A2058 cell. The aim of this study was to investigate the underlying mechanisms involved in photostimulatory effects induced by an He-Ne laser. Using the A2058 cell as a model for cell proliferation, the photobiologic effects induced by an He-Ne laser were studied. He-Ne irradiation immediately induced an increase in mitochondrial membrane potential (delta psi(mt)), ATP, and cAMP via enhanced cytochrome c oxidase activity and promoted phosphorylation of Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) expressions. He-Ne irradiation-induced A2058 cell proliferation was significantly abrogated by the addition of delta psi(mt) and JNK inhibitors. Moreover, treatment with an He-Ne laser resulted in delayed effects on IL-8 and transforming growth factor-beta1 release from A2058 cells. These results suggest that He-Ne irradiation elicits photostimulatory effects in mitochondria processes, which involve JNK/AP-1 activation and enhanced growth factor release, and ultimately lead to A2058 cell proliferation.

  9. The antineoplastic agent α-bisabolol promotes cell death by inducing pores in mitochondria and lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigo, Antonella; Vinante, Fabrizio

    2016-08-01

    The sesquiterpene α-bisabolol (α-BSB) has been shown to be an effective cytotoxic agent for a variety of human cancer cells in culture and animal models. However, much of its intracellular action remains elusive. We evaluated the cytotoxic action of α-BSB against CML-T1, Jurkat and HeLa cell lines, as preclinical models for myeloid, lymphoid and epithelial neoplasias. The approach included single cell analysis (flow cytometry, immunocytology) combined with cytotoxicity and proliferation assays to characterize organelle damage, autophagy, cytostatic effect, and apoptosis. The study focuses on the relevant steps in the cytotoxic cascade triggered by α-BSB: (1) the lipid rafts through which α-BSB enters the cells, (2) the opening of pores in the mitochondria and lysosomes, (3) the activation of both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death pathways, (4) the induction of autophagy and (5) apoptosis. The effectiveness of α-BSB as an agent against tumor cells is grounded on its capability to act on different layers of cell regulation to elicit different concurrent death signals, thereby neutralizing a variety of aberrant survival mechanisms leading to treatment resistance in neoplastic cell. PMID:27278818

  10. Metabolic pathways in Anopheles stephensi mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giulivi, Cecilia; Ross-Inta, Catherine; Horton, Ashley A; Luckhart, Shirley

    2008-10-15

    No studies have been performed on the mitochondria of malaria vector mosquitoes. This information would be valuable in understanding mosquito aging and detoxification of insecticides, two parameters that have a significant impact on malaria parasite transmission in endemic regions. In the present study, we report the analyses of respiration and oxidative phosphorylation in mitochondria of cultured cells [ASE (Anopheles stephensi Mos. 43) cell line] from A. stephensi, a major vector of malaria in India, South-East Asia and parts of the Middle East. ASE cell mitochondria share many features in common with mammalian muscle mitochondria, despite the fact that these cells are of larval origin. However, two major differences with mammalian mitochondria were apparent. One, the glycerol-phosphate shuttle plays as major a role in NADH oxidation in ASE cell mitochondria as it does in insect muscle mitochondria. In contrast, mammalian white muscle mitochondria depend primarily on lactate dehydrogenase, whereas red muscle mitochondria depend on the malate-oxaloacetate shuttle. Two, ASE mitochondria were able to oxidize proline at a rate comparable with that of alpha-glycerophosphate. However, the proline pathway appeared to differ from the currently accepted pathway, in that oxoglutarate could be catabolized completely by the tricarboxylic acid cycle or via transamination, depending on the ATP need.

  11. Porcine parvovirus infection induces apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongling; Huang, Yong; Du, Qian; Luo, Xiaomao; Zhang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaomin; Tong, Dewen, E-mail: dwtong@nwsuaf.edu.cn

    2015-01-09

    Highlights: • PPV reduces PK-15 cells viability by inducing apoptosis. • PPV infection induces apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathway. • PPV infection activates p53 to regulate the mitochondria apoptotic signaling. - Abstract: Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection has been reported to induce the cytopathic effects (CPE) in some special host cells and contribute the occurrence of porcine parvovirus disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PPV-induced CPE are not clear. In this study, we investigated the morphological and molecular changes of porcine kidney cell line (PK-15 cells) infected with PPV. The results showed that PPV infection inhibited the viability of PK-15 cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. PPV infection induced typical apoptotic features including chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, nuclear fragmentation, and Annexin V-binding activity. Further studies showed that Bax was increased and translocated to mitochondria, whereas Bcl-2 was decreased in PPV-infected cells, which caused mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization, resulting in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, followed by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. However, the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) did not appear significant changes in the process of PPV-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PPV infection activated p53 signaling, which was involved in the activation of apoptotic signaling induced by PPV infection via regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PPV infection induced apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. This study may contribute to shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of PPV infection.

  12. Porcine parvovirus infection induces apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • PPV reduces PK-15 cells viability by inducing apoptosis. • PPV infection induces apoptosis through mitochondria-mediated pathway. • PPV infection activates p53 to regulate the mitochondria apoptotic signaling. - Abstract: Porcine parvovirus (PPV) infection has been reported to induce the cytopathic effects (CPE) in some special host cells and contribute the occurrence of porcine parvovirus disease, but the molecular mechanisms underlying PPV-induced CPE are not clear. In this study, we investigated the morphological and molecular changes of porcine kidney cell line (PK-15 cells) infected with PPV. The results showed that PPV infection inhibited the viability of PK-15 cells in a time and concentration dependent manner. PPV infection induced typical apoptotic features including chromatin condensation, apoptotic body formation, nuclear fragmentation, and Annexin V-binding activity. Further studies showed that Bax was increased and translocated to mitochondria, whereas Bcl-2 was decreased in PPV-infected cells, which caused mitochondrial outer-membrane permeabilization, resulting in the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c, followed by caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. However, the expression of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) did not appear significant changes in the process of PPV-induced apoptosis. Moreover, PPV infection activated p53 signaling, which was involved in the activation of apoptotic signaling induced by PPV infection via regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. Taken together, our results demonstrated that PPV infection induced apoptosis in PK-15 cells through activation of p53 and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway. This study may contribute to shed light on the molecular pathogenesis of PPV infection

  13. The role of mitochondria in defence mechanisms of human endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Wilkinson, J R

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Mitochondria are considered to be the powerhouse of the cell being the primary generators of ATP, they also have numerous other important functions including; being the main generator of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a central role in apoptosis. As the main intracellular source of ROS, many people believe that mitochondria play a significant role in ageing. Senescence is associated with ageing and has been associated with atherosclerotic vascular disease. The concept of huma...

  14. PKCα translocation from mitochondria to nucleus is closely related to induction of apoptosis in gastric cancer cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU; Qiao(吴乔); LIU; Su(刘苏); DING; Liang(丁亮); YE; Xiaofeng(叶晓峰); SU; Wenjin(苏文金)

    2002-01-01

    PKCs have been implicated in the regulation of cellular differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis and signal transduction. It was demonstrated in this study that PKC? was located both at mitochondria and in cytosol in gastric cancer cell line BGC-823. Treatment of cells with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) resulted in the translocation of PKCα from both mitochondria and cytosol to nucleus as clearly shown by laser-scanning-confocal microscopy, while the protein level of PKCα was not changed by TPA treatment as detected by Western blot. The results also revealed that TPA-induced translocation of PKCα was in close association with apoptosis induction, and such association was further affirmed by other experiments where various apoptotic stimuli and specific inhibitors of PKC were used. Taken together, these findings indicate that translocation of PKCα from both mitochondria and cytosol to nucleus in gastric cancer cell is accompanied by induction of apoptosis, and may imply a new mechanism of the potential linking between cell apoptosis and PKCα translocation.

  15. Toward genetic transformation of mitochondria in mammalian cells using a recoded drug-resistant selection marker

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Young Geol Yoon; Michael Duane Koob

    2011-01-01

    Due to technical difficulties, the genetic transformation of mitochondria in mammalian cells is still a challenge. In this report, we described our attempts to transform mammalian mitochondria with an engineered mitochondrial genome based on selection using a drug resistance gene. Because the standard drug-resistant neomycin phosphotransferase confers resistance to high concentrations of G418 when targeted to the mitochondria, we generated a recoded neomycin resistance gene that uses the mammalian mitochondrial genetic code to direct the synthesis of this protein in the mitochondria, but not in the nucleus (mitochondrial version). We also generated a universal version of the recoded neomycin resistance gene that allows synthesis of the drug-resistant proteins both in the mitochondria and nucleus. When we transfected these recoded neomycin resistance genes that were incorporated into the mouse mitochondrial genome clones into mouse tissue culture cells by electroporation, no DNA constructs were delivered into the mitochondria. We found that the universal version of the recoded neomycin resistance gene was expressed in the nucleus and thus conferred drug resistance to G418 selection, while the synthetic mitochondrial version of the gene produced no background drug-resistant cells from nuclear transformation. These recoded synthetic drug-resistant genes could be a useful tool for selecting mitochondrial genetic transformants as a precise technology for mitochondrial transformation is developed.

  16. Mitochondria-derived hydrogen peroxide selectively enhances T cell receptor-initiated signal transduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Tejpal; Levine, Alan D

    2013-09-01

    T cell receptor (TCR)-initiated signal transduction is reported to increase production of intracellular reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide (O2˙(-)) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), as second messengers. Although H2O2 can modulate signal transduction by inactivating protein phosphatases, the mechanism and the subcellular localization of intracellular H2O2 as a second messenger of the TCR are not known. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) catalyzes the dismutation of highly reactive O2˙(-) into H2O2 and thus acts as an intracellular generator of H2O2. As charged O2˙(-) is unable to diffuse through intracellular membranes, cells express distinct SOD isoforms in the cytosol (Cu,Zn-SOD) and mitochondria (Mn-SOD), where they locally scavenge O2˙(-) leading to production of H2O2. A 2-fold organelle-specific overexpression of either SOD in Jurkat T cell lines increases intracellular production of H2O2 but does not alter the levels of intracellular H2O2 scavenging enzymes such as catalase, membrane-bound peroxiredoxin1 (Prx1), and cytosolic Prx2. We report that overexpression of Mn-SOD enhances tyrosine phosphorylation of TCR-associated membrane proximal signal transduction molecules Lck, LAT, ZAP70, PLCγ1, and SLP76 within 1 min of TCR cross-linking. This increase in mitochondrial H2O2 specifically modulates MAPK signaling through the JNK/cJun pathway, whereas overexpressing Cu,Zn-SOD had no effect on any of these TCR-mediated signaling molecules. As mitochondria translocate to the immunological synapse during TCR activation, we hypothesize this translocation provides the effective concentration of H2O2 required to selectively modulate downstream signal transduction pathways.

  17. Mitochondria in mesenchymal stem cell biology and cell therapy: From cellular differentiation to mitochondrial transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Chao; Wu, Yu-Ting; Yu, Ting-Hsien; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2016-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are characterized to have the capacity of self-renewal and the potential to differentiate into mesoderm, ectoderm-like and endoderm-like cells. MSCs hold great promise for cell therapies due to their multipotency in vitro and therapeutic advantage of hypo-immunogenicity and lower tumorigenicity. Moreover, it has been shown that MSCs can serve as a vehicle to transfer mitochondria into cells after cell transplantation. Mitochondria produce most of the energy through oxidative phosphorylation in differentiated cells. It has been increasingly clear that the switch of energy supply from glycolysis to aerobic metabolism is essential for successful differentiation of MSCs. Post-translational modifications of proteins have been established to regulate mitochondrial function and metabolic shift during MSCs differentiation. In this article, we review and provide an integrated view on the roles of different protein kinases and sirtuins in the maintenance and differentiation of MSCs. Importantly, we provide evidence to suggest that alteration in the expression of Sirt3 and Sirt5 and relative changes in the acylation levels of mitochondrial proteins might be involved in the activation of mitochondrial function and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived MSCs. We summarize their roles in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism, oxidative responses and differentiation of MSCs. On the other hand, we discuss recent advances in the study of mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial transfer as well as their roles in the differentiation and therapeutic application of MSCs to improve cell function in vitro and in animal models. Accumulating evidence has substantiated that the therapeutic potential of MSCs is conferred not only by cell replacement and paracrine effects but also by transferring mitochondria into injured tissues or cells to modulate the cellular metabolism in situ. Therefore, elucidation of the underlying mechanisms

  18. Mitochondria in mesenchymal stem cell biology and cell therapy: From cellular differentiation to mitochondrial transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Yi-Chao; Wu, Yu-Ting; Yu, Ting-Hsien; Wei, Yau-Huei

    2016-04-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are characterized to have the capacity of self-renewal and the potential to differentiate into mesoderm, ectoderm-like and endoderm-like cells. MSCs hold great promise for cell therapies due to their multipotency in vitro and therapeutic advantage of hypo-immunogenicity and lower tumorigenicity. Moreover, it has been shown that MSCs can serve as a vehicle to transfer mitochondria into cells after cell transplantation. Mitochondria produce most of the energy through oxidative phosphorylation in differentiated cells. It has been increasingly clear that the switch of energy supply from glycolysis to aerobic metabolism is essential for successful differentiation of MSCs. Post-translational modifications of proteins have been established to regulate mitochondrial function and metabolic shift during MSCs differentiation. In this article, we review and provide an integrated view on the roles of different protein kinases and sirtuins in the maintenance and differentiation of MSCs. Importantly, we provide evidence to suggest that alteration in the expression of Sirt3 and Sirt5 and relative changes in the acylation levels of mitochondrial proteins might be involved in the activation of mitochondrial function and adipogenic differentiation of adipose-derived MSCs. We summarize their roles in the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and metabolism, oxidative responses and differentiation of MSCs. On the other hand, we discuss recent advances in the study of mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial transfer as well as their roles in the differentiation and therapeutic application of MSCs to improve cell function in vitro and in animal models. Accumulating evidence has substantiated that the therapeutic potential of MSCs is conferred not only by cell replacement and paracrine effects but also by transferring mitochondria into injured tissues or cells to modulate the cellular metabolism in situ. Therefore, elucidation of the underlying mechanisms

  19. Biocavity laser spectroscopy of genetically altered yeast cells and isolated yeast mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourley, Paul L.; Hendricks, Judy K.; McDonald, Anthony E.; Copeland, R. Guild; Naviaux, Robert K.; Yaffe, Michael P.

    2006-02-01

    We report an analysis of 2 yeast cell mutants using biocavity laser spectroscopy. The two yeast strains differed only by the presence or absence of mitochondrial DNA. Strain 104 is a wild-type (ρ +) strain of the baker's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strain 110 was derived from strain 104 by removal of its mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Removal of mtDNA causes strain 110 to grow as a "petite" (ρ -), named because it forms small colonies (of fewer cells because it grows more slowly) on agar plates supplemented with a variety of different carbon sources. The absence of mitochondrial DNA results in the complete loss of all the mtDNA-encoded proteins and RNAs, and loss of the pigmented, heme-containing cytochromes a and b. These cells have mitochondria, but the mitochondria lack the normal respiratory chain complexes I, III, IV, and V. Complex II is preserved because its subunits are encoded by genes located in nuclear DNA. The frequency distributions of the peak shifts produced by wild-type and petite cells and mitochondria show striking differences in the symmetry and patterns of the distributions. Wild-type ρ + cells (104) and mitochondria produced nearly symmetric, Gaussian distributions. The ρ - cells (110) and mitochondria showed striking asymmetry and skew that appeared to follow a Poisson distribution.

  20. Mitochondria-targeted vitamin E analogs inhibit breast cancer cell energy metabolism and promote cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent research has revealed that targeting mitochondrial bioenergetic metabolism is a promising chemotherapeutic strategy. Key to successful implementation of this chemotherapeutic strategy is the use of new and improved mitochondria-targeted cationic agents that selectively inhibit energy metabolism in breast cancer cells, while exerting little or no long-term cytotoxic effect in normal cells. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and alterations in bioenergetic metabolism induced by mitochondria-targeted vitamin E analog (Mito-chromanol, Mito-ChM) and its acetylated ester analog (Mito-ChMAc). Assays of cell death, colony formation, mitochondrial bioenergetic function, intracellular ATP levels, intracellular and tissue concentrations of tested compounds, and in vivo tumor growth were performed. Both Mito-ChM and Mito-ChMAc selectively depleted intracellular ATP and caused prolonged inhibition of ATP-linked oxygen consumption rate in breast cancer cells, but not in non-cancerous cells. These effects were significantly augmented by inhibition of glycolysis. Mito-ChM and Mito-ChMAc exhibited anti-proliferative effects and cytotoxicity in several breast cancer cells with different genetic background. Furthermore, Mito-ChM selectively accumulated in tumor tissue and inhibited tumor growth in a xenograft model of human breast cancer. We conclude that mitochondria-targeted small molecular weight chromanols exhibit selective anti-proliferative effects and cytotoxicity in multiple breast cancer cells, and that esterification of the hydroxyl group in mito-chromanols is not a critical requirement for its anti-proliferative and cytotoxic effect

  1. Study on the role of mitochondria in sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis of ovarian carcinoma cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Wei; Tang Chunsheng; Rong Fengnian

    2005-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the role of mitochondria in sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis of ovarian carcinoma cells in vitro.Methods:Human ovarian epithelial cancer 3AO cells were cultured in vitro and treated with sodium butyrate of different concentration for different time. The characters of apoptosis were assessed through light microscopy and DNA ladder analysis. The morphological changes of mitochondria were detected through electron and epifluorescence microscopy. The functional changes of mitochondria and the expression of Bcl-2/Bax protein were analyzed by flow cytometry.Results:As the concentration of sodium butyrate rose to 4mmol/L, the morphologic characters of apoptosis were found by light microscopy, DNA ladder was observed. Under epifluorescence microscope the fluorescence of the control group was stronger than that of the experimental group. Under electron microscope swelled mitochondria was detected. Flow cytometry analysis showed mitochondria transmembrane potentials decreased and there were down-regulate of Bcl-2 protein and up-regulate of the Bax protein(P<0.05).Conclusion:Sodium butyrate can induce apoptosis of 3AO cells in a time-dose dependent manner. Mitochondrion may play a key role in the procedure of apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells.

  2. Homocysteine activates T cells by enhancing endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria coupling and increasing mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Juan; Lü, Silin; Ding, Yanhong; Zheng, Ming; Wang, Xian

    2016-06-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) accelerates atherosclerosis by increasing proliferation and stimulating cytokine secretion in T cells. However, whether homocysteine (Hcy)-mediated T cell activation is associated with metabolic reprogramming is unclear. Here, our in vivo and in vitro studies showed that Hcy-stimulated splenic T-cell activation in mice was accompanied by increased levels of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) and calcium, mitochondrial mass and respiration. Inhibiting mitochondrial ROS production and calcium signals or blocking mitochondrial respiration largely blunted Hcy-induced T-cell interferon γ (IFN-γ) secretion and proliferation. Hcy also enhanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in T cells, and inhibition of ER stress with 4-phenylbutyric acid blocked Hcy-induced T-cell activation. Mechanistically, Hcy increased ER-mitochondria coupling, and uncoupling ER-mitochondria by the microtubule inhibitor nocodazole attenuated Hcy-stimulated mitochondrial reprogramming, IFN-γ secretion and proliferation in T cells, suggesting that juxtaposition of ER and mitochondria is required for Hcy-promoted mitochondrial function and T-cell activation. In conclusion, Hcy promotes T-cell activation by increasing ER-mitochondria coupling and regulating metabolic reprogramming.

  3. Biochemistry, proteomics, and phosphoproteomics of plant mitochondria from non-photosynthetic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jesper; Thelen, Jay J.; Møller, Ian Max

    2013-01-01

    functions depending on the tissue and cell type, as well as environmental conditions. We will here review the biochemistry and proteomics of mitochondria from non-green cells and organs, which differ from those of photosynthetic organs in a number of respects. We will briefly cover purification...

  4. Mitochondria-Rich Cells as Experimental Model in Studies of Epithelial Chloride Channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willumsen, Niels J.; Amstrup, Jan; Møbjerg, Nadja;

    2002-01-01

    The mitochondria-rich (mr) cell of amphibian skin epithelium is differentiated as a highly specialised pathway for passive transepithelial transport of chloride. The apical membrane of mr cells expresses several types of Cl- channels, of which the function of only two types has been studied...

  5. Radiosensitivity of mesothelioma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out in order to examine the radiosensitivity of malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines. Cell kinetics, radiation-induced delay of the cell cycle and DNA ploidy of the cell lines were also determined. For comparison an HeLa and a human foetal fibroblast cell line were simultaneously explored. Six previously cytogenetically and histologically characterized mesothelioma tumor cell lines were applied. A rapid tiazolyl blue microtiter (MTT) assay was used to analyze radiosensitivity and cell kinetics and DNA ploidy of the cultured cells were determined by flow cytometry. The survival fraction after a dose of 2 Gy (SF2), parameters α and β of the linear quadratic model (LQ-model) and mean inactivation dose (DMID) were also estimated. The DNA index of four cell lines equaled 1.0 and two cell lines equaled 1.5 and 1.6. Different mesothelioma cell lines showed a great variation in radiosensitivity. Mean survival fraction after a radiation dose of 2 Gy (SF2) was 0.60 and ranged from 0.36 to 0.81 and mean α value was 0.26 (range 0.48-0.083). The SF2 of the most sensitive diploid mesothelioma cell line was 0.36: Less than that of the foetal fibroblast cell line (0.49). The survival fractions (0.81 and 0.74) of the two most resistant cell lines, which also were aneuploid, were equal to that of the HeLa cell line (0.78). The α/β ratios of the most sensitive cell lines were almost an order of magnitude greater than those of the two most resistant cell lines. Radiation-induced delay of the most resistant aneuploid cell line was similar to that of HeLa cells but in the most sensitive (diploid cells) there was practically no entry into the G1 phase following the 2 Gy radiation dose during 36 h. (orig.)

  6. CLO : The cell line ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Lin, Yu; Xiang, Zuoshuang; Meehan, Terrence F.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Vempati, Uma D.; Schuerer, Stephan C.; Pang, Chao; Malone, James; Parkinson, Helen; Liu, Yue; Takatsuki, Terue; Saijo, Kaoru; Masuya, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yukio; Brush, Matthew H.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Zheng, Jie; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Peters, Bjoern; Mungall, Christopher J.; Carey, Thomas E.; States, David J.; Athey, Brian D.; He, Yongqun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cell lines have been widely used in biomedical research. The community-based Cell Line Ontology (CLO) is a member of the OBO Foundry library that covers the domain of cell lines. Since its publication two years ago, significant updates have been made, including new groups joining the CLO

  7. Ca2+ transport by mitochondria from L1210 mouse ascites tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynafarje, B; Lehninger, A L

    1973-06-01

    Mitochondria isolated from the ascites form of L1210 mouse leukemia cells readily accumulate Ca(2+) from the suspending medium and eject H(+) during oxidation of succinate in the presence of phosphate and Mg(2+), with normal stoichiometry between Ca(2+) uptake and electron transport. Ca(2+) loads up to 1600 ng-atoms per mg of protein are attained. As is the case in mitochondria from normal tissues, Ca(2+) uptake takes precedence over oxidative phosphorylation. However, Ca(2+) transport by the L-1210 mitochondria is unusual in other respects, which may possibly have general significance in tumor cells. The apparent affinity of the L1210 mitochondria for Ca(2+) in stimulation of oxygen uptake is about 3-fold greater than in normal liver mitochondria; moreover, the maximal rate of Ca(2+) transport is also considerably higher. Furthermore, when Ca(2+) pulses are added to L1210 mitochondria in the absence of phosphate or other permeant anions, much larger amounts of Ca(2+) are bound and H(+) ejected per atom of oxygen consumed than in the presence of phosphate; up to 7 Ca(2+) ions are bound per pair of electrons passing each energy-conserving site of the electron-transport chain. Such "superstoichiometry" of Ca(2+) uptake can be accounted for by two distinct types of respiration-dependent interaction of Ca(2+) with the L1210 mitochondria. One is the stimulation of oxygen consumption, which is achieved by relatively low concentrations of Ca(2+) (K(m) congruent with 8 muM) and is accompanied by binding of Ca(2+) up to 40 ng-atoms per mg of protein. The second process, also dependent on electron transport, is the binding of further Ca(2+) from the medium in exchange with previously stored membrane-bound protons, in which the affinity for Ca(2+) is much lower (K(m) congruent with 120 muM).

  8. Human mitochondrial transcription factor A functions in both nuclei and mitochondria and regulates cancer cell growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) localizes in nuclei and binds tightly to the nuclear chromatin. → mtTFA contains two putative nuclear localization signals (NLS) in the HMG-boxes. → Overexpression of mtTFA enhances the growth of cancer cells, whereas downregulation of mtTFA inhibits their growth by regulating mtTFA target genes, such as baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 5 (BIRC5; also known as survivin). → Knockdown of mtTFA expression induces p21-dependent G1 cell cycle arrest. -- Abstract: Mitochondrial transcription factor A (mtTFA) is one of the high mobility group protein family and is required for both transcription from and maintenance of mitochondrial genomes. However, the roles of mtTFA have not been extensively studied in cancer cells. Here, we firstly reported the nuclear localization of mtTFA. The proportion of nuclear-localized mtTFA varied among different cancer cells. Some mtTFA binds tightly to the nuclear chromatin. DNA microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that mtTFA can regulate the expression of nuclear genes. Overexpression of mtTFA enhanced the growth of cancer cell lines, whereas downregulation of mtTFA inhibited their growth by regulating mtTFA target genes, such as baculoviral IAP repeat-containing 5 (BIRC5; also known as survivin). Knockdown of mtTFA expression induced p21-dependent G1 cell cycle arrest. These results imply that mtTFA functions in both nuclei and mitochondria to promote cell growth.

  9. ER-mitochondria contacts couple mtDNA synthesis with mitochondrial division in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Samantha C; Uchiyama, Lauren F; Nunnari, Jodi

    2016-07-15

    Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) encodes RNAs and proteins critical for cell function. In human cells, hundreds to thousands of mtDNA copies are replicated asynchronously, packaged into protein-DNA nucleoids, and distributed within a dynamic mitochondrial network. The mechanisms that govern how nucleoids are chosen for replication and distribution are not understood. Mitochondrial distribution depends on division, which occurs at endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria contact sites. These sites were spatially linked to a subset of nucleoids selectively marked by mtDNA polymerase and engaged in mtDNA synthesis--events that occurred upstream of mitochondrial constriction and division machine assembly. Our data suggest that ER tubules proximal to nucleoids are necessary but not sufficient for mtDNA synthesis. Thus, ER-mitochondria contacts coordinate licensing of mtDNA synthesis with division to distribute newly replicated nucleoids to daughter mitochondria.

  10. 叶酰聚谷氨酸合成酶基因在甲氨蝶呤对映体获得性耐药A549细胞株中的表达差异%Differential gene expression of folylpolyglutamate synthetase in cytoplasm and mitochondria in acquired methotrexate enantiomers resistant to lung cancer A549 cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周红艳; 何晓东; 孙余婕; 凡任芝; 孙利; 沈佐君

    2011-01-01

    index of MTX resistance cell lines were detected by MTT.The gene expressions of FPGS in cytoplasm and mitochondria were detected by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Results The resistance indice of D-( - )-MTX resistant cell lines were higher than those of L-( + )-MTX resistant cells (32.7±9.3 vs 11.5 ±2.9,P <0.05).The resistant indice of L-( + )-MTX /A549 were from 5 to 15,which mean the middle resistance.The resistant indice of D-( - )-MTX/A549 were more than 15,which mean the severe resistance.The expression of mFPGS had difference between resistant cell lines of L-( + )and D-( - )-MTX except at 15 μmol/L MTX (at 25 μmol/L,1.3 ±0.7 vs.2.3 ±0.9;at 35 μmol/L,1.1 ±0.9 vs.2.6±0.3;at 45 μmol/L,1.0±1.0 vs.1.4±0.8;at 55 μmol/L,0.2±0.1 vs.1.0±0.2;all P<0.05).The expressions of cFPGS had no difference between resistant cell lines of L-( + ) and D-( - )-MTX at 15 μmol/L MTX,while at 25 -55 μmol/L,the cFPGS levels and resistance indice of D-( - )-MTX/A549 resistant cell lines showed a highly negative correlation ( r = - 0.95,P<0.05 ).Conclusion There may be a different mechanism between the first time treatment with 15 μmol/L dosage and the continual treatment with more than 25 μmol/L dosage in A549 cell lines.There had higher resistant index in D-( - )-MTX/A549 cell line than in L-( + )-MTX/A549 cell line.The results indicated that the difference in chirality should be considered in clinical treatment with MTX.

  11. Contribution of mitochondria and lysosomes to photodynamic therapy-induced death in cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieminen, Anna-Liisa; Azizuddin, Kashif; Zhang, Ping; Kenney, Malcolm E.; Pediaditakis, Peter; Lemasters, John J.; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2008-02-01

    In photodynamic therapy (PDT), visible light activates a photosensitizing drug added to a tissue, resulting in singlet oxygen formation and cell death. Employing confocal microscopy, we previously found that the phthalocyanine Pc 4 localized primarily to mitochondrial membranes in various cancer cell lines, resulting in mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, followed by inner membrane permeabilization (mitochondrial permeability transition) with mitochondrial depolarization and swelling, which in turn led to cytochrome c release and apoptotic death. Recently, derivatives of Pc 4 with OH groups added to one of the axial ligands were synthesized. These derivatives appeared to be taken up more avidly by cells and caused more cytotoxicity than the parent compound Pc 4. Using organelle-specific fluorophores, we found that one of these derivatives, Pc 181, accumulated into lysosomes and that PDT with Pc 181 caused rapid disintegration of lysosomes. We hypothesized that chelatable iron released from lysosomes during PDT contributes to mitochondrial damage and subsequent cell death. We monitored cytosolic Fe2+ concentrations after PDT with calcein. Fe2+ binds to calcein causing quenching of calcein fluorescence. After bafilomycin, an inhibitor of the vacuolar proton-translocating ATPase, calcein fluorescence became quenched, an effect prevented by starch desferal s-DFO, an iron chelator that enters cells by endocytosis. After Pc 181-PDT, cytosolic calcein fluorescence also decreased, indicating increased chelatable Fe2+ in the cytosol, and apoptosis occurred. s-DFO decreased Pc 181-PDT-induced apoptosis as measured by a decrease of caspase-3 activation. In isolated mitochondria preparations, Fe2+ induced mitochondrial swelling, which was prevented by Ru360, an inhibitor of the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter. The data support a hypothesis of oxidative injury in which Pc 181-PDT disintegrates lysosomes and releases constituents that synergistically promote

  12. Biochemistry, proteomics and phosphoproteomics of plant mitochondria from non-photosynthetic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Foged Havelund

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria fulfill some basic roles in all plant cells. They supply the cell with energy in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents (NAD(PH and they provide the cell with intermediates for a range of biosynthetic pathways. In addition to this, mitochondria contribute to a number of specialized functions depending on the tissue and cell type, as well as environmental conditions. We will here review the biochemistry and proteomics of mitochondria from non-green cells and organs, which differ from those of photosynthetic organs in a number of respects. We will briefly cover purification of mitochondria and general biochemical properties such as oxidative phosphorylation. We will then mention a few adaptive properties in response to water stress, seed maturation and germination and the ability to function under hypoxic conditions. The discussion will mainly focus on Arabidopsis cell cultures, etiolated germinating rice seedlings and potato tubers as model plants. It will cover the general proteome as well as the posttranslational modification protein phosphorylation. To date 64 phosphorylated mitochondrial proteins with a total of 103 phosphorylation sites have been identified.

  13. Role of mitochondria-associated hexokinase II in cancer cell death induced by 3-Bromopyruvate

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Zhao; Zhang, Hui; Lu, Weiqin; Huang, Peng

    2009-01-01

    It has long been observed that cancer cells rely more on glycolysis to generate ATP and actively use certain glycolytic metabolic intermediates for biosynthesis. Hexokinase II (HKII) is a key glycolytic enzyme that plays a role in the regulation of the mitochondria-initiated apoptotic cell death. As a potent inhibitor of hexokinase, 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA) is known to inhibit cancer cell energy metabolism and trigger cell death, supposedly through depletion of cellular ATP. The current study...

  14. Nickel (II)-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in human proximal tubule cells through a ROS- and mitochondria-mediated pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel compounds are known to be toxic and carcinogenic in kidney and lung. In this present study, we investigated the roles of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondria in nickel (II) acetate-induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis in the HK-2 human renal cell line. The results showed that the cytotoxic effects of nickel (II) involved significant cell death and DNA damage. Nickel (II) increased the generation of ROS and induced a noticeable reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). Analysis of the sub-G1 phase showed a significant increase in apoptosis in HK-2 cells after nickel (II) treatment. Pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) not only inhibited nickel (II)-induced cell death and DNA damage, but also significantly prevented nickel (II)-induced loss of MMP and apoptosis. Cell apoptosis triggered by nickel (II) was characterized by the reduced protein expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and the induced the protein expression of Bad, Bcl-Xs, Bax, cytochrome c and caspases 9, 3 and 6. The regulation of the expression of Bcl-2-family proteins, the release of cytochrome c and the activation of caspases 9, 3 and 6 were inhibited in the presence of NAC. These results suggest that nickel (II) induces cytotoxicity and apoptosis in HK-2 cells via ROS generation and that the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic signaling pathway may be involved in the positive regulation of nickel (II)-induced renal cytotoxicity.

  15. A receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Tyrphostin A9 induces cancer cell death through Drp1 dependent mitochondria fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We screened and identified Tyrphostin A9, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor as a strong mitochondria fission inducer. → Tyrphostin A9 treatment promotes mitochondria dysfunction and contributes to cytotoxicity in cancer cells. → Tyrphostin A9 induces apoptotic cell death through a Drp1-mediated pathway. → Our studies suggest that Tyrphostin A9 induces mitochondria fragmentation and apoptotic cell death via Drp1 dependently. -- Abstract: Mitochondria dynamics controls not only their morphology but also functions of mitochondria. Therefore, an imbalance of the dynamics eventually leads to mitochondria disruption and cell death. To identify specific regulators of mitochondria dynamics, we screened a bioactive chemical compound library and selected Tyrphostin A9, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as a potent inducer of mitochondrial fission. Tyrphostin A9 treatment resulted in the formation of fragmented mitochondria filament. In addition, cellular ATP level was decreased and the mitochondrial membrane potential was collapsed in Tyr A9-treated cells. Suppression of Drp1 activity by siRNA or over-expression of a dominant negative mutant of Drp1 inhibited both mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death induced by Tyrpohotin A9. Moreover, treatment of Tyrphostin A9 also evoked mitochondrial fragmentation in other cells including the neuroblastomas. Taken together, these results suggest that Tyrphostin A9 induces Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission and apoptotic cell death.

  16. Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated cell death via impairing electron transport chain complex III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Heptachlor inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. •Heptachlor promoted generation of reactive oxygen species. •Heptachlor induced Bax activation. •Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. -- Abstract: Environmental toxins like pesticides have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Epidemiological studies suggested that exposures to organochlorine pesticides have an association with an increased PD risk. In the present study, we examined the mechanism of toxicity induced by an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor. In a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, heptachlor induced both morphological and functional damages in mitochondria. Interestingly, the compound inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. Rapid generation of reactive oxygen species and the activation of Bax were then detected. Subsequently, mitochondria-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptosis followed. Our results raise a possibility that an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor can act as a neurotoxicant associated with PD

  17. Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated cell death via impairing electron transport chain complex III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Seokheon; Kim, Joo Yeon; Hwang, Joohyun [Department of Molecular Biology, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Ki Soon [Department of Biology, Department of Life and Nanopharmaceutical Sciences, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Shin Jung, E-mail: sjkang@sejong.ac.kr [Department of Molecular Biology, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-09

    Highlights: •Heptachlor inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. •Heptachlor promoted generation of reactive oxygen species. •Heptachlor induced Bax activation. •Heptachlor induced mitochondria-mediated and caspase-dependent apoptosis. -- Abstract: Environmental toxins like pesticides have been implicated in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Epidemiological studies suggested that exposures to organochlorine pesticides have an association with an increased PD risk. In the present study, we examined the mechanism of toxicity induced by an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor. In a human dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells, heptachlor induced both morphological and functional damages in mitochondria. Interestingly, the compound inhibited mitochondrial electron transport chain complex III activity. Rapid generation of reactive oxygen species and the activation of Bax were then detected. Subsequently, mitochondria-mediated, caspase-dependent apoptosis followed. Our results raise a possibility that an organochlorine pesticide heptachlor can act as a neurotoxicant associated with PD.

  18. Role of Mitochondria-rich Cells for Passive Chloride Transport, discussion of Ussing's Contribution to Our Understanding of Shunt Pathways in Epithelia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Hviid; Kristensen, Poul; Nedergaard, Signe Nielsen;

    2001-01-01

    Toad skin, Mitochondria-rich cells, Chloride channels, Epithelial shunt pathways, Leaky epithelia, Recirculation theory of isotonic transport......Toad skin, Mitochondria-rich cells, Chloride channels, Epithelial shunt pathways, Leaky epithelia, Recirculation theory of isotonic transport...

  19. Bezielle selectively targets mitochondria of cancer cells to inhibit glycolysis and OXPHOS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Chen

    Full Text Available Bezielle (BZL101 is a candidate oral drug that has shown promising efficacy and excellent safety in the early phase clinical trials for advanced breast cancer. Bezielle is an aqueous extract from the herb Scutellaria barbata. We have reported previously that Bezielle was selectively cytotoxic to cancer cells while sparing non-transformed cells. In tumor, but not in non-transformed cells, Bezielle induced generation of ROS and severe DNA damage followed by hyperactivation of PARP, depletion of the cellular ATP and NAD, and inhibition of glycolysis. We show here that tumor cells' mitochondria are the primary source of reactive oxygen species induced by Bezielle. Treatment with Bezielle induces progressively higher levels of mitochondrial superoxide as well as peroxide-type ROS. Inhibition of mitochondrial respiration prevents generation of both types of ROS and protects cells from Bezielle-induced death. In addition to glycolysis, Bezielle inhibits oxidative phosphorylation in tumor cells and depletes mitochondrial reserve capacity depriving cells of the ability to produce ATP. Tumor cells lacking functional mitochondria maintain glycolytic activity in presence of Bezielle thus supporting the hypothesis that mitochondria are the primary target of Bezielle. The metabolic effects of Bezielle towards normal cells are not significant, in agreement with the low levels of oxidative damage that Bezielle inflicts on them. Bezielle is therefore a drug that selectively targets cancer cell mitochondria, and is distinguished from other such drugs by its ability to induce not only inhibition of OXPHOS but also of glycolysis. This study provides a better understanding of the mechanism of Bezielle's cytotoxicity, and the basis of its selectivity towards cancer cells.

  20. Dracocephalum: Novel Anticancer Plant Acting on Liver Cancer Cell Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Talari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum kotschyi Boiss. (Labiatae is a native Iranian medicinal plant which has been used in combination with Peganum harmala L. as a remedy for many forms of human cancer especially leukemia and gastrointestinal malignancies. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is the third leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. In this investigation HCC was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DEN in corn oil at 200 mg/kg body weight to rats. Two weeks after DEN administration, cancer development was promoted with dietary 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF (0.02%, w/w for 2 weeks. Serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP concentration, serum alanine transaminase (ALT, aspartate transaminase (AST, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP activities were also determined for confirmation of hepatocellular carcinoma induction. Then rat hepatocytes were isolated with collagen perfusion technique and tumoral hepatocytes were sorted by flow cytometry. Finally isolated mitochondria obtained from both tumoral and nontumoral hepatocytes were used for any probable toxic effect of Dracocephalum kotschyi ethanolic extract. Our results showed that D. kotschyi extract (250 µg/mL induced reactive oxygen species (ROS formation, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization (MMP, and mitochondrial swelling and cytochrome c release only in tumoral but not nontumoral hepatocyte. These findings propose Dracocephalum kotschyi as a promising candidate for future anticancer research.

  1. Mitochondria, calcium and pro-apoptotic proteins as mediators in cell death signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Smaili

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Cellular Ca2+ signals are crucial in the control of most physiological processes, cell injury and programmed cell death through the regulation of a number of Ca2+-dependent enzymes such as phospholipases, proteases, and nucleases. Mitochondria along with the endoplasmic reticulum play pivotal roles in regulating intracellular Ca2+ content. Mitochondria are endowed with multiple Ca2+ transport mechanisms by which they take up and release Ca2+ across their inner membrane. During cellular Ca2+ overload, mitochondria take up cytosolic Ca2+, which in turn induces opening of permeability transition pores and disrupts the mitochondrial membrane potential (Dym. The collapse of Dym along with the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria is followed by the activation of caspases, nuclear fragmentation and cell death. Members of the Bcl-2 family are a group of proteins that play important roles in apoptosis regulation. Members of this family appear to differentially regulate intracellular Ca2+ level. Translocation of Bax, an apoptotic signaling protein, from the cytosol to the mitochondrial membrane is another step in this apoptosis signaling pathway.

  2. Pluripotent stem cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Junying; Thomson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The derivation of human embryonic stem cells 10 years ago ignited an explosion of public interest in stem cells, yet this achievement depended on prior decades of research on mouse embryonic carcinoma cells and embryonic stem cells. In turn, the recent derivation of mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells depended on the prior studies on mouse and human embryonic stem cells. Both human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells can self-renew indefinitely in vitro while ma...

  3. Mitochondria-Targeted Analogues of Metformin Exhibit Enhanced Antiproliferative and Radiosensitizing Effects in Pancreatic Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Gang; Zielonka, Jacek; Ouari, Olivier; Lopez, Marcos; McAllister, Donna; Boyle, Kathleen; Barrios, Christy S; Weber, James J; Johnson, Bryon D; Hardy, Micael; Dwinell, Michael B; Kalyanaraman, Balaraman

    2016-07-01

    Metformin (Met) is an approved antidiabetic drug currently being explored for repurposing in cancer treatment based on recent evidence of its apparent chemopreventive properties. Met is weakly cationic and targets the mitochondria to induce cytotoxic effects in tumor cells, albeit not very effectively. We hypothesized that increasing its mitochondria-targeting potential by attaching a positively charged lipophilic substituent would enhance the antitumor activity of Met. In pursuit of this question, we synthesized a set of mitochondria-targeted Met analogues (Mito-Mets) with varying alkyl chain lengths containing a triphenylphosphonium cation (TPP(+)). In particular, the analogue Mito-Met10, synthesized by attaching TPP(+) to Met via a 10-carbon aliphatic side chain, was nearly 1,000 times more efficacious than Met at inhibiting cell proliferation in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Notably, in PDAC cells, Mito-Met10 potently inhibited mitochondrial complex I, stimulating superoxide and AMPK activation, but had no effect in nontransformed control cells. Moreover, Mito-Met10 potently triggered G1 cell-cycle phase arrest in PDAC cells, enhanced their radiosensitivity, and more potently abrogated PDAC growth in preclinical mouse models, compared with Met. Collectively, our findings show how improving the mitochondrial targeting of Met enhances its anticancer activities, including aggressive cancers like PDAC in great need of more effective therapeutic options. Cancer Res; 76(13); 3904-15. ©2016 AACR. PMID:27216187

  4. Control of Cell Differentiation by Mitochondria, Typically Evidenced in Dictyostelium Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuo Maeda

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In eukaryotic cells, mitochondria are self-reproducing organelles with their own DNA and they play a central role in adenosine triphosphate (ATP synthesis by respiration. Increasing evidence indicates that mitochondria also have critical and multiple functions in the initiation of cell differentiation, cell-type determination, cell movement, and pattern formation. This has been most strikingly realized in development of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium. For example, the expression of the mitochondrial ribosomal protein S4 (mt-rps4 gene is required for the initial differentiation. The Dictyostelium homologue (Dd-TRAP1 of TRAP-1 (tumor necrosis receptor-associated protein 1, a mitochondrial molecular chaperone belonging to the Hsp90 family, allows the prompt transition of cells from growth to differentiation through a novel prestarvation factor (PSF-3 in growth medium. Moreover, a cell-type-specific organelle named a prespore-specific vacuole (PSV is constructed by mitochondrial transformation with the help of the Golgi complex. Mitochondria are also closely involved in a variety of cellular activities including CN-resistant respiration and apoptosis. These mitochondrial functions are reviewed in this article, with special emphasis on the regulation of Dictyostelium development.

  5. Control of cell differentiation by mitochondria, typically evidenced in dictyostelium development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Yasuo; Chida, Junji

    2013-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, mitochondria are self-reproducing organelles with their own DNA and they play a central role in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis by respiration. Increasing evidence indicates that mitochondria also have critical and multiple functions in the initiation of cell differentiation, cell-type determination, cell movement, and pattern formation. This has been most strikingly realized in development of the cellular slime mold Dictyostelium. For example, the expression of the mitochondrial ribosomal protein S4 (mt-rps4) gene is required for the initial differentiation. The Dictyostelium homologue (Dd-TRAP1) of TRAP-1 (tumor necrosis receptor-associated protein 1), a mitochondrial molecular chaperone belonging to the Hsp90 family, allows the prompt transition of cells from growth to differentiation through a novel prestarvation factor (PSF-3) in growth medium. Moreover, a cell-type-specific organelle named a prespore-specific vacuole (PSV) is constructed by mitochondrial transformation with the help of the Golgi complex. Mitochondria are also closely involved in a variety of cellular activities including CN-resistant respiration and apoptosis. These mitochondrial functions are reviewed in this article, with special emphasis on the regulation of Dictyostelium development. PMID:24970198

  6. Tumor cell phenotype is sustained by selective MAPK oxidation in mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Galli

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are major cellular sources of hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2, the production of which is modulated by oxygen availability and the mitochondrial energy state. An increase of steady-state cell H(2O(2 concentration is able to control the transition from proliferating to quiescent phenotypes and to signal the end of proliferation; in tumor cells thereby, low H(2O(2 due to defective mitochondrial metabolism can contribute to sustain proliferation. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs orchestrate signal transduction and recent data indicate that are present in mitochondria and regulated by the redox state. On these bases, we investigated the mechanistic connection of tumor mitochondrial dysfunction, H(2O(2 yield, and activation of MAPKs in LP07 murine tumor cells with confocal microscopy, in vivo imaging and directed mutagenesis. Two redox conditions were examined: low 1 microM H(2O(2 increased cell proliferation in ERK1/2-dependent manner whereas high 50 microM H(2O(2 arrested cell cycle by p38 and JNK1/2 activation. Regarding the experimental conditions as a three-compartment model (mitochondria, cytosol, and nuclei, the different responses depended on MAPKs preferential traffic to mitochondria, where a selective activation of either ERK1/2 or p38-JNK1/2 by co-localized upstream kinases (MAPKKs facilitated their further passage to nuclei. As assessed by mass spectra, MAPKs activation and efficient binding to cognate MAPKKs resulted from oxidation of conserved ERK1/2 or p38-JNK1/2 cysteine domains to sulfinic and sulfonic acids at a definite H(2O(2 level. Like this, high H(2O(2 or directed mutation of redox-sensitive ERK2 Cys(214 impeded binding to MEK1/2, caused ERK2 retention in mitochondria and restricted shuttle to nuclei. It is surmised that selective cysteine oxidations adjust the electrostatic forces that participate in a particular MAPK-MAPKK interaction. Considering that tumor mitochondria are dysfunctional, their inability to

  7. A novel class of mitochondria-targeted soft electrophiles modifies mitochondrial proteins and inhibits mitochondrial metabolism in breast cancer cells through redox mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen K Vayalil

    Full Text Available Despite advances in screening and treatment over the past several years, breast cancer remains a leading cause of cancer-related death among women in the United States. A major goal in breast cancer treatment is to develop safe and clinically useful therapeutic agents that will prevent the recurrence of breast cancers after front-line therapeutics have failed. Ideally, these agents would have relatively low toxicity against normal cells, and will specifically inhibit the growth and proliferation of cancer cells. Our group and others have previously demonstrated that breast cancer cells exhibit increased mitochondrial oxygen consumption compared with non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells. This suggests that it may be possible to deliver redox active compounds to the mitochondria to selectively inhibit cancer cell metabolism. To demonstrate proof-of-principle, a series of mitochondria-targeted soft electrophiles (MTSEs has been designed which selectively accumulate within the mitochondria of highly energetic breast cancer cells and modify mitochondrial proteins. A prototype MTSE, IBTP, significantly inhibits mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation, resulting in decreased breast cancer cell proliferation, cell attachment, and migration in vitro. These results suggest MTSEs may represent a novel class of anti-cancer agents that prevent cancer cell growth by modification of specific mitochondrial proteins.

  8. Mitochondria from cultured cells derived from normal and thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia individuals efficiently import thiamine diphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singleton Charles K

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Thiamine diphosphate (ThDP is the active form of thiamine, and it serves as a cofactor for several enzymes, both cytosolic and mitochondrial. Isolated mitochondria have been shown to take up thiamine yet thiamine diphosphokinase is cytosolic and not present in mitochondria. Previous reports indicate that ThDP can also be taken up by rat mitochondria, but the kinetic constants associated with such uptake seemed not to be physiologically relevant. Results Here we examine ThDP uptake by mitochondria from several human cell types, including cells from patients with thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anemia (TRMA that lack a functional thiamine transporter of the plasma membrane. Although mitochondria from normal lymphoblasts took up thiamine in the low micromolar range, surprisingly mitochondria from TRMA lymphoblasts lacked this uptake component. ThDP was taken up efficiently by mitochondria isolated from either normal or TRMA lymphoblasts. Uptake was saturable and biphasic with a high affinity component characterized by a Km of 0.4 to 0.6 μM. Mitochondria from other cell types possessed a similar high affinity uptake component with variation seen in uptake capacity as revealed by differences in Vmax values. Conclusions The results suggest a shared thiamine transporter for mitochondria and the plasma membrane. Additionally, a high affinity component of ThDP uptake by mitochondria was identified with the apparent affinity constant less than the estimates of the cytosolic concentration of free ThDP. This finding indicates that the high affinity uptake is physiologically significant and may represent the main mechanism for supplying phosphorylated thiamine for mitochondrial enzymes.

  9. Isolation of mitochondria from CNS

    OpenAIRE

    Kristian, Tibor

    2010-01-01

    This unit contains a protocol describing the isolation of brain mitochondria by using discontinuous Percoll gradient centrifugation. The Percoll density gradient centrifugation separates synaptosomes, myelin, and free non-synaptic mitochondria released from cells during tissue homogenization into individual fractions. Mitochondria entrapped in synaptosomes (synaptic mitochondria) can be liberated using nitrogen cavitation and then further purified by Percoll gradient centrifugation. These met...

  10. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation in ascites tumor mitochondria and cells by intramitochondrial Ca2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobo, A; Lehninger, A L

    1980-03-25

    Accumulation of Ca2+ (+ phosphate) by respiring mitochondria from Ehrlich ascites or AS30-D hepatoma tumor cells inhibits subsequent phosphorylating respiration in response to ADP. The respiratory chain is still functional since a proton-conducting uncoupler produces a normal stimulation of electron transport. The inhibition of phosphorylating respiration is caused by intramitochondrial Ca2+ (+ phosphate). ATP + Mg2+ together, but not singly, prevents the inhibitory action of Ca2+. Neither AMP, GTP, GDP, nor any other nucleoside 5'-triphosphate or 5'-diphosphate could replace ATP in this effect. Phosphorylating respiration on NAD(NADP)-linked substrates was much more susceptible to the inhibitory effect of intramitochondrial Ca2+ than succinate-linked respiration. Significant inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation is given by the endogenous Ca2+ present in freshly isolated tumor mitochondria. The phosphorylating respiration of permeabilized Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is also inhibited by Ca2+ accumulated by the mitochondria in situ. Possible causes of the Ca2+-induced inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation are considered.

  11. Inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation in ascites tumor mitochondria and cells by intramitochondrial Ca2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalobo, A; Lehninger, A L

    1980-03-25

    Accumulation of Ca2+ (+ phosphate) by respiring mitochondria from Ehrlich ascites or AS30-D hepatoma tumor cells inhibits subsequent phosphorylating respiration in response to ADP. The respiratory chain is still functional since a proton-conducting uncoupler produces a normal stimulation of electron transport. The inhibition of phosphorylating respiration is caused by intramitochondrial Ca2+ (+ phosphate). ATP + Mg2+ together, but not singly, prevents the inhibitory action of Ca2+. Neither AMP, GTP, GDP, nor any other nucleoside 5'-triphosphate or 5'-diphosphate could replace ATP in this effect. Phosphorylating respiration on NAD(NADP)-linked substrates was much more susceptible to the inhibitory effect of intramitochondrial Ca2+ than succinate-linked respiration. Significant inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation is given by the endogenous Ca2+ present in freshly isolated tumor mitochondria. The phosphorylating respiration of permeabilized Ehrlich ascites tumor cells is also inhibited by Ca2+ accumulated by the mitochondria in situ. Possible causes of the Ca2+-induced inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation are considered. PMID:6766937

  12. Edaravone protects PC12 cells from ischemic-like injury via attenuating the damage to mitochondria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Ying; LI Meng; LI Ji-cheng; WEI Er-qing

    2006-01-01

    Background: Edaravone had been validated to effectively protect against ischemic injuries. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of edaravone by observing the effects on anti-apoptosis, regulation of Bcl-2/Bax protein expression and recovering from damage to mitochondria after OGD (oxygen-glucose deprivation)-reperfusion. Methods: Viability of PC 12cells which were injured at different time of OGD injury, was quantified by measuring MTT (2-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) staining. In addition, PC 12 cells' viability was also quantified after their preincubation in different concentration of edaravone for 30 min followed by (OGD). Furthermore, apoptotic population of PC12 cells that reinsulted from OGD-reperfusion with or without preincubation with edaravone was determined by flow cytometer analysis,electron microscope and Hoechst/PI staining. Finally, change of Bcl-2/Bax protein expression was detected by Westem blot.Results: (1) The viability of PC 12 cells decreased with time (1~12 h) after OGD. We regarded the model of OGD 2 h, then replacing DMEM (Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium) for another 24 h as an OGD-reperfusion in this research. Furthermore,most PC12 cells were in the state of apoptosis after OGD-reperfusion. (2) The viability of PC12 cells preincubated with edaravone at high concentrations (1,0.1, 0.01 μmol/L) increased significantly with edaravone protecting PC 12 cells from apoptosis after OGD-reperfusion injury. (3) Furthermore, edaravone attenuates the damage of OGD-reperfusion on mitochondria and regulated Bcl-2/Bax protein imbalance expression after OGD-reperfusion. Conclusion: Neuroprotective effects of edaravone on ischemic or other brain injuries may be partly mediated through inhibition of Bcl-2/Bax apoptotic pathways by recovering from the damage of mitochondria.

  13. Dihydroartemisinin induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells through the mitochondria-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Min; Sun, Luhaoran; Zhou, Jin; Yang, Jing

    2014-06-01

    Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua, has been shown to exhibit antitumor activity in various cancer cells, including colorectal cancer. However, the detailed mechanisms underlying its antitumor activity in colorectal cancer remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated DHA-induced apoptosis in human colorectal cancer HCT-116 cells in vitro. The results showed that DHA treatment significantly reduced cell viability in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Furthermore, DHA induced G1 cell cycle arrest, apoptotic cell death, and accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). We also found that DHA decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential; activated the caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9; and increased the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2. Meanwhile, the translocation of apoptotic inducing factor (AIF) and the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria were observed. Strikingly, the free radical scavenger N-acetylcysteine or the caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO significantly prevented DHA-induced apoptotic cell death. Taken together, we concluded that DHA-triggered apoptosis in HCT-116 cells occurs through the ROS-mediated mitochondria-dependent pathway. Our data suggest that DHA has great potential to be developed as a novel therapeutic agent for the treatment of human colorectal cancer. PMID:24519064

  14. Starvation induced cell death in autophagy-defective yeast mutants is caused by mitochondria dysfunction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho W Suzuki

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a highly-conserved cellular degradation and recycling system that is essential for cell survival during nutrient starvation. The loss of viability had been used as an initial screen to identify autophagy-defective (atg mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but the mechanism of cell death in these mutants has remained unclear. When cells grown in a rich medium were transferred to a synthetic nitrogen starvation media, secreted metabolites lowered the extracellular pH below 3.0 and autophagy-defective mutants mostly died. We found that buffering of the starvation medium dramatically restored the viability of atg mutants. In response to starvation, wild-type (WT cells were able to upregulate components of the respiratory pathway and ROS (reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes, but atg mutants lacked this synthetic capacity. Consequently, autophagy-defective mutants accumulated the high level of ROS, leading to deficient respiratory function, resulting in the loss of mitochondria DNA (mtDNA. We also showed that mtDNA deficient cells are subject to cell death under low pH starvation conditions. Taken together, under starvation conditions non-selective autophagy, rather than mitophagy, plays an essential role in preventing ROS accumulation, and thus in maintaining mitochondria function. The failure of response to starvation is the major cause of cell death in atg mutants.

  15. Cell lines and Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge R de; Hendriks H; Garssen J; Universteit Utrecht, afdeling; MGB; LPI

    2001-01-01

    In human gastrointestinal disease caused by Salmonella, transepithelial migration of neutrophils follows the attachment of bacteria to epithelial tissue. This migration of neutrophils is stimulated by the release of chemokines, including interleukin-8 (Il -8), from the epithelial cells. We have dev

  16. Glucocorticoid and estrogen receptors are reduced in mitochondria of lung epithelial cells in asthma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davina C M Simoes

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial glucocorticoid (mtGR and estrogen (mtER receptors participate in the coordination of the cell's energy requirement and in the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation enzyme (OXPHOS biosynthesis, affecting reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and induction of apoptosis. Although activation of mtGR and mtER is known to trigger anti-inflammatory signals, little information exists on the presence of these receptors in lung tissue and their role in respiratory physiology and disease. Using a mouse model of allergic airway inflammation disease and applying confocal microscopy, subcellular fractionation, and Western blot analysis we showed mitochondrial localization of GRα and ERβ in lung tissue. Allergic airway inflammation caused reduction in mtGRα, mtERβ, and OXPHOS enzyme biosynthesis in lung cells mitochondria and particularly in bronchial epithelial cells mitochondria, which was accompanied by decrease in lung mitochondrial mass and induction of apoptosis. Confirmation and validation of the reduction of the mitochondrial receptors in lung epithelial cells in human asthma was achieved by analyzing autopsies from fatal asthma cases. The presence of the mitochondrial GRα and ERβ in lung tissue cells and especially their reduction in bronchial epithelial cells during allergic airway inflammation suggests a crucial role of these receptors in the regulation of mitochondrial function in asthma, implicating their involvement in the pathophysiology of the disease.

  17. Biogenesis and dynamics of mitochondria during the cell cycle: significance of 3'UTRs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Martínez-Diez

    Full Text Available Nowadays, we are facing a renaissance of mitochondria in cancer biology. However, our knowledge of the basic cell biology and on the timing and mechanisms that control the biosynthesis of mitochondrial constituents during progression through the cell cycle of mammalian cells remain largely unknown. Herein, we document the in vivo changes on mitochondrial morphology and dynamics that accompany cellular mitosis, and illustrate the following key points of the biogenesis of mitochondria during progression of liver cells through the cycle: (i the replication of nuclear and mitochondrial genomes is synchronized during cellular proliferation, (ii the accretion of OXPHOS proteins is asynchronously regulated during proliferation being the synthesis of beta-F1-ATPase and Hsp60 carried out also at G2/M and, (iii the biosynthesis of cardiolipin is achieved during the S phase, although full development of the mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim is attained at G2/M. Furthermore, we demonstrate using reporter constructs that the mechanism regulating the accretion of beta-F1-ATPase during cellular proliferation is controlled at the level of mRNA translation by the 3'UTR of the transcript. The 3'UTR-driven synthesis of the protein at G2/M is essential for conferring to the daughter cells the original phenotype of the parental cell. Our findings suggest that alterations on this process may promote deregulated beta-F1-ATPase expression in human cancer.

  18. [Effect of lidamycin on mitochondria initiated apoptotic pathway in human cancer cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Qiang; Wang, Zhen; Jiang, Jian-ming; Li, Dian-dong

    2007-02-01

    Although enediyne antibiotic lidamycin ( LDM) is a potent inducer of apoptosis, the underlying mechanisms of its apoptotic functions remain to be explored. Here, we aim to elucidate its possible mechanisms in mitochondria initiated apoptotic pathway involved in human BEL-7402 and MCF-7 cells. Cytochrome c released from mitchondria to cytosol fraction was detected by Western blotting. p53 and Bax, Bcl-2 expressions were detected by Western blotting and RT-PCR. MTT assay was used to detect cytotoxicity of LDM with or without caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. After the BEL-7402 cells were exposed to 0. 1 micromol x L(-1) LDM within 6 h, the increase of cytochrome c in the cytosol and decrease in the mitochondria were observed when compared with untreated cells. The expression of Bax, an important proapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family, increased gradually in the BEL-7402 cells after exposure to LDM of 0. 1 micromol x L (-1) for 2, 6, and 9 h, separately, while Bcl-2 increased at 2 and 6 h, and decreased at 9 h after LDM treatment. Enhanced protein expressions were parallel with respective increased mRNA level for Bax only, but not p53. Caspase inhibitor may inhibit partially the killing effects induced by LDM. Therefore we conclude that the rapid activation of mitochondrial pathway induced by LDM in tumor cells might contribute to its highly potent cytotoxicities. PMID:17518039

  19. Mitochondria, the Cell Cycle, and the Origin of Sex via a Syncytial Eukaryote Common Ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sriram G; Martin, William F

    2016-07-02

    Theories for the origin of sex traditionally start with an asexual mitosing cell and add recombination, thereby deriving meiosis from mitosis. Though sex was clearly present in the eukaryote common ancestor, the order of events linking the origin of sex and the origin of mitosis is unknown. Here, we present an evolutionary inference for the origin of sex starting with a bacterial ancestor of mitochondria in the cytosol of its archaeal host. We posit that symbiotic association led to the origin of mitochondria and gene transfer to host's genome, generating a nucleus and a dedicated translational compartment, the eukaryotic cytosol, in which-by virtue of mitochondria-metabolic energy was not limiting. Spontaneous protein aggregation (monomer polymerization) and Adenosine Tri-phosphate (ATP)-dependent macromolecular movement in the cytosol thereby became selectable, giving rise to continuous microtubule-dependent chromosome separation (reduction division). We propose that eukaryotic chromosome division arose in a filamentous, syncytial, multinucleated ancestor, in which nuclei with insufficient chromosome numbers could complement each other through mRNA in the cytosol and generate new chromosome combinations through karyogamy. A syncytial (or coenocytic, a synonym) eukaryote ancestor, or Coeca, would account for the observation that the process of eukaryotic chromosome separation is more conserved than the process of eukaryotic cell division. The first progeny of such a syncytial ancestor were likely equivalent to meiospores, released into the environment by the host's vesicle secretion machinery. The natural ability of archaea (the host) to fuse and recombine brought forth reciprocal recombination among fusing (syngamy and karyogamy) progeny-sex-in an ancestrally meiotic cell cycle, from which the simpler haploid and diploid mitotic cell cycles arose. The origin of eukaryotes was the origin of vertical lineage inheritance, and sex was required to keep vertically

  20. Energy transfer in "parasitic" cancer metabolism: mitochondria are the powerhouse and Achilles' heel of tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Pestell, Richard G; Howell, Anthony; Tykocinski, Mark L; Nagajyothi, Fnu; Machado, Fabiana S; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2011-12-15

    It is now widely recognized that the tumor microenvironment promotes cancer cell growth and metastasis via changes in cytokine secretion and extracellular matrix remodeling. However, the role of tumor stromal cells in providing energy for epithelial cancer cell growth is a newly emerging paradigm. For example, we and others have recently proposed that tumor growth and metastasis is related to an energy imbalance. Host cells produce energy-rich nutrients via catabolism (through autophagy, mitophagy, and aerobic glycolysis), which are then transferred to cancer cells to fuel anabolic tumor growth. Stromal cell-derived L-lactate is taken up by cancer cells and is used for mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) to produce ATP efficiently. However, "parasitic" energy transfer may be a more generalized mechanism in cancer biology than previously appreciated. Two recent papers in Science and Nature Medicine now show that lipolysis in host tissues also fuels tumor growth. These studies demonstrate that free fatty acids produced by host cell lipolysis are re-used via beta-oxidation (beta-OX) in cancer cell mitochondria. Thus, stromal catabolites (such as lactate, ketones, glutamine and free fatty acids) promote tumor growth by acting as high-energy onco-metabolites. As such, host catabolism, via autophagy, mitophagy and lipolysis, may explain the pathogenesis of cancer-associated cachexia and provides exciting new druggable targets for novel therapeutic interventions. Taken together, these findings also suggest that tumor cells promote their own growth and survival by behaving as a "parasitic organism." Hence, we propose the term "Parasitic Cancer Metabolism" to describe this type of metabolic coupling in tumors. Targeting tumor cell mitochondria (OXPHOS and beta-OX) would effectively uncouple tumor cells from their hosts, leading to their acute starvation. In this context, we discuss new evidence that high-energy onco-metabolites (produced by the stroma) can

  1. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes. PMID:1726925

  2. Enhanced cytotoxicity to cancer cells by mitochondria-targeting MWCNTs containing platinum(IV) prodrug of cisplatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Sia Lee; Wong, Bin Sheng; Zhou, Qi Ling; Chin, Chee Fei; Li, Jian; Venkatesan, Thirumalai; Ho, Han Kiat; Yu, Victor; Ang, Wee Han; Pastorin, Giorgia

    2014-01-01

    Among the arsenal of nano-materials, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are becoming more prominent due to favorable attributes including their unique shape, which promotes cellular-uptake, and large aspect-ratio that facilitates functionalization of bioactive molecules on their surface. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were functionalized with either mitochondrial-targeting fluorescent rhodamine-110 (MWCNT-Rho) or non-targeting fluorescein (MWCNT-Fluo). Despite structural similarities, MWCNT-Rho associated well with mitochondria (ca. 80% co-localization) in contrast to MWCNT-Fluo, which was poorly localized (ca. 21% co-localization). Additionally, MWCNT-Rho entrapping platinum(IV) pro-drug of cisplatin (PtBz) displayed enhanced potency (IC50 = 0.34 ± 0.07 μM) compared to a construct based on MWCNT-Fluo (IC50 ≥ 2.64 μM). Concurrently, preliminary in vitro toxicity evaluation revealed that empty MWCNT-Rho neither decreased cell viability significantly nor interfered with mitochondrial membrane-potential, while seemingly being partially expelled from cells. Due to its targeting capability and apparent lack of cytotoxicity, MWCNT-Rho complex was used to co-encapsulate PtBz and a chemo-potentiator, 3-bromopyruvate (BP), and the resulting MWCNT-Rho(PtBz+BP) construct demonstrated superior efficacy over PtBz free drug in several cancer cell lines tested. Importantly, a 2-fold decrease in mitochondrial potential was observed, implying that mitochondrial targeting of compounds indeed incurred additional intended damage to mitochondria. PMID:24140044

  3. Curcumin induces apoptosis through the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic pathway in HT-29 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-bo WANG; Li-li QI; Shui-di ZHENG; Tian-xing WU

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effects of curcumin on release of cytochrome c and expressions of Bcl-2,Bax,Bad,Bcl-xL,caspase-3,poly ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP),and survivin of HT-29 cells.Methods:HT-29 cells were treated with curcumin (0~80 μmol/L) for 24 h.The release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria and the apoptosis-related proteins Bax,Bcl-2,Bci-xL,Bad,caspase-3,PARP,and survivin were determined by Western blot analysis and their mRNA expressions by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Results:Curcumin significantly induced the growth inhibition and apoptosis of HT-29 ceils.A decrease in expressions of Bcl-2,Bci-xL and survivin was observed after exposure to 10~80 μmol/L curcumin,while the levels of Bax and Bad increased in the curcumin-treated cells.Curcumin also induced the release of cytochrome c,the activation ofcaspase-3,and the cleavage of PARP in a dose-dependent manner.Conclusion:These data suggest that curcumin induced the HT-29 cell apoptosis possibly via the mitochondria-mediated pathway.

  4. Solanine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human pancreatic cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Hongwei; Lv, Chongqing; Yang, Longlong; Wang, Yingxiu; Zhang, Qingshun; Yu, Suhui; Kong, Hongru; Wang, Meng; Xie, Jianming; Zhang, Chunwu; Zhou, Mengtao

    2014-01-01

    Steroid alkaloids have been suggested as potential anticancer compounds. However, the underlying mechanisms of how steroid alkaloids inhibit the tumor growth are largely unknown. Here, we reported that solanine, a substance of steroid alkaloids, has a positive effect on the inhibition of pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. In pancreatic cancer cells and nu/nu nude mice model, we found that solanine inhibited cancer cells growth through caspase-3 dependent mitochondrial apoptosis. Mechanically, solanine promotes the opening of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore (MPTP) by downregulating the Bcl-2/Bax ratio; thereafter, Cytochrome c and Smac are released from mitochondria into cytosol to process the caspase-3 zymogen into an activated form. Moreover, we found that the expression of tumor metastasis related proteins, MMP-2 and MMP-9, was also decreased in the cells treated with solanine. Therefore, our results suggested that solanine was an effective compound for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  5. Solanine Induces Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis in Human Pancreatic Cancer Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Sun

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Steroid alkaloids have been suggested as potential anticancer compounds. However, the underlying mechanisms of how steroid alkaloids inhibit the tumor growth are largely unknown. Here, we reported that solanine, a substance of steroid alkaloids, has a positive effect on the inhibition of pancreatic cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. In pancreatic cancer cells and nu/nu nude mice model, we found that solanine inhibited cancer cells growth through caspase-3 dependent mitochondrial apoptosis. Mechanically, solanine promotes the opening of mitochondrial membrane permeability transition pore (MPTP by downregulating the Bcl-2/Bax ratio; thereafter, Cytochrome c and Smac are released from mitochondria into cytosol to process the caspase-3 zymogen into an activated form. Moreover, we found that the expression of tumor metastasis related proteins, MMP-2 and MMP-9, was also decreased in the cells treated with solanine. Therefore, our results suggested that solanine was an effective compound for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  6. He-Ne laser irradiation causes changes in mitochondria ultrastructure in successive generations of yeast cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the mitochondria ultrastructural organization in the Torulopsis sphaerica yeast cells, cultivated in 18 hours after irradiation by the He-Ne laser, are studied. Two doses - 460 and 1150 J/m2 were chosen, while irradiation in low doses optimally stimulates the given culture growth (the biomass increases up to 141.2 %). The studies were conducted on the cells of 4-5 generation after irradiation. It is shown, that laser irradiation in the yeast cells effects the ATP-ase synthesis not only through the mechanism of fast respiratory control but also through the synthesis of mitochondrial fermentation complexes (slow respiratory control), which is regulated at the genetic level

  7. Axin is expressed in mitochondria and suppresses mitochondrial ATP synthesis in HeLa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jee-Hye; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Rhyu, Im Joo; Kee, Sun-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Many recent studies have revealed that axin is involved in numerous cellular functions beyond the negative regulation of β-catenin-dependent Wnt signaling. Previously, an association of ectopic axin with mitochondria was observed. In an effort to investigate the relationship between axin and mitochondria, we found that axin expression suppressed cellular ATP production, which was more apparent as axin expression levels increased. Also, mitochondrial expression of axin was observed using two axin-expressing HeLa cell models: doxycycline-inducible ectopic axin expression (HeLa-axin) and axin expression enhanced by long-term treatment with XAV939 (HeLa-XAV). In biochemical analysis, axin is associated with oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complex IV and is involved in defects in the assembly of complex IV-containing supercomplexes. Functionally, axin expression reduced the activity of OXPHOS complex IV and the oxygen consumption rate (OCR), suggesting axin-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Subsequent studies using various inhibitors of Wnt signaling showed that the reduction in cellular ATP levels was weaker in cases of ICAT protein expression and treatment with iCRT3 or NSC668036 compared with XAV939 treatment, suggesting that XAV939 treatment affects ATP synthesis in addition to suppressing Wnt signaling activity. Axin-mediated regulation of mitochondrial function may be an additional mechanism to Wnt signaling for regulation of cell growth.

  8. HBsAg inhibits the translocation of JTB into mitochondria in HepG2 cells and potentially plays a role in HCC progression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Peng Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The expression of the jumping translocation breakpoint (JTB gene is upregulated in malignant liver tissues; however, JTB is associated with unbalanced translocations in many other types of cancer that suppress JTB expression. No comprehensive analysis on its function in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC has been performed to date. We aimed to define the biological consequences for interaction between JTB and HBsAg in HCC cell lines. METHODS: We employed the stable transfection to establish small HBsAg expressing HepG2 cell line, and stably silenced the JTB expression using short hairpin RNA in HepG2 cell line. The effects of JTB and small HBsAg in vitro were determined by assessing cell apoptosis and motility. RESULTS: Silencing of JTB expression promoted cancer cell motility and reduced cell apoptosis, which was significantly enhanced by HBs expression. Expression of HBsAg inhibited the translocation of JTB to the mitochondria. Furthermore, silencing of the JTB resulted in an increase in the phosphorylation of p65 in HepG2 cells and HepG2-HBs cells, whereas HBsAg expression decreased the phosphorylation of p65. The silencing of JTB in HepG2-HBs cells conferred increased advantages in cell motility and anti-apoptosis. CONCLUSION: HBsAg inhibited the translocation of JTB to the mitochondria and decreased the phosphorylation of p65 through the interaction with JTB, After JTB knockdown, HBsAg exhibited a stronger potential to promote tumor progression. Our data suggested that JTB act as a tumor suppressor gene in regards to HBV infection and its activation might be applied as a therapeutic strategy for in control of HBV related HCC development.

  9. Repercussion of mitochondria deformity induced by anti-Hsp90 drug 17AAG in human tumor cells

    KAUST Repository

    Vishal, Chaturvedi

    2011-06-07

    Inhibiting Hsp90 chaperone roles using 17AAG induces cytostasis or apoptosis in tumor cells through destabilization of several mutated cancer promoting proteins. Although mitochondria are central in deciding the fate of cells, 17AAG induced effects on tumor cell mitochondria were largely unknown. Here, we show that Hsp90 inhibition with 17AAG first affects mitochondrial integrity in different human tumor cells, neuroblastoma, cervical cancer and glial cells. Using human neuroblastoma tumor cells, we found the early effects associated with a change in mitochondrial membrane potential, elongation and engorgement of mitochondria because of an increased matrix vacuolization. These effects are specific to Hsp90 inhibition as other chemotherapeutic drugs did not induce similar mitochondrial deformity. Further, the effects are independent of oxidative damage and cytoarchitecture destabilization since cytoskeletal disruptors and mitochondrial metabolic inhibitors also do not induce similar deformity induced by 17AAG. The 1D PAGE LC MS/ MS mitochondrial proteome analysis of 17AAG treated human neuroblastoma cells showed a loss of 61% proteins from membrane, metabolic, chaperone and ribonucleoprotein families. About 31 unmapped protein IDs were identified from proteolytic processing map using Swiss-Prot accession number, and converted to the matching gene name searching the ExPASy proteomics server. Our studies display that Hsp90 inhibition effects at first embark on mitochondria of tumor cells and compromise mitochondrial integrity. the author(s), publisher and licensee Libertas Academica Ltd.

  10. Beclin-1-independent autophagy mediates programmed cancer cell death through interplays with endoplasmic reticulum and/or mitochondria in colbat chloride-induced hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lei; Liu, Ning; Liu, Shan-Shan; Xia, Wu-Yan; Liu, Meng-Yao; Li, Lin-Feng; Gao, Jian-Xin

    2015-01-01

    Autophagy has dual functions in cell survival and death. However, the effects of autophagy on cancer cell survival or death remain controversial. In this study, we show that Autophagy can mediate programmed cell death (PCD) of cancer cells in responding to cobalt chloride (CoCl2)-induced hypoxia in a Beclin-1-independent but autophagy protein 5 (ATG5)-dependent manner. Although ATG5 is not directly induced by CoCl2, its constitutive expression is essential for CoCl2-induced PCD. The ATG5-mediated autophagic PCD requires interplays with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and/or mitochondria. In this process, ATG5 plays a central role in regulating ER stress protein CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) homologous protein (CHOP) and mitochondrial protein second mitochondria derived activator of caspases (Smac). Two pathways for autophagic PCD in cancer cells responding to hypoxia have been identified: ATG5/CHOP/Smac pathway and ATG5/Smac pathway, which are probably dependent on the context of cell lines. The former is more potent than the latter for the induction of PCD at the early stage of hypoxia, although the ultimate efficiency of both pathways is comparable. In addition, both pathways may require ATG5-mediated conversion of LC3-I into LC3-II. Therefore, we have defined two autophagy-mediated pathways for the PCD of cancer cells in hypoxia, which are dependent on ATG5, interplayed with ER and mitochondria and tightly regulated by hypoxic status. The findings provide a new evidence that autophagy may inhibit tumor cell proliferation through trigger of PCD, facilitating the development of novel anti-cancer drugs. PMID:26609472

  11. Vibrio cholerae Porin OmpU Induces Caspase-independent Programmed Cell Death upon Translocation to the Host Cell Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Shelly; Prasad, G V R Krishna; Mukhopadhaya, Arunika

    2015-12-25

    Porins, a major class of outer membrane proteins in Gram-negative bacteria, primarily act as transport channels. OmpU is one of the major porins of human pathogen, Vibrio cholerae. In the present study, we show that V. cholerae OmpU has the ability to induce target cell death. Although OmpU-mediated cell death shows some characteristics of apoptosis, such as flipping of phosphatidylserine in the membrane as well as cell size shrinkage and increased cell granularity, it does not show the caspase-3 activation and DNA laddering pattern typical of apoptotic cells. Increased release of lactate dehydrogenase in OmpU-treated cells indicates that the OmpU-mediated cell death also has characteristics of necrosis. Further, we show that the mechanism of OmpU-mediated cell death involves major mitochondrial changes in the target cells. We observe that OmpU treatment leads to the disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in the release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF). AIF translocates to the host cell nucleus, implying that it has a crucial role in OmpU-mediated cell death. Finally, we observe that OmpU translocates to the target cell mitochondria, where it directly initiates mitochondrial changes leading to mitochondrial membrane permeability transition and AIF release. Partial blocking of AIF release by cyclosporine A in OmpU-treated cells further suggests that OmpU may be inducing the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. All of these results lead us to the conclusion that OmpU induces cell death in target cells in a programmed manner in which mitochondria play a central role.

  12. Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Stem Ethanolic Extract Liberates Reactive Oxygen Species and Induces Mitochondria Mediated Apoptosis in KB Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Saba; Siddiqui, Sahabjada; Dhasmana, Anupam; Safia; Haque, Ejazul; Kamil, Mohammed; Lohani, Mohtashim; Arshad, Mohammad; Mir, Snober Shabnam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cissus quadrangularis Linn. (CQ) commonly known as Hadjod (Family: Vitaceae) is usually distributed in India and Sri Lanka and contains several bioactive compounds responsible for various metabolic and physiologic effects. Objective: In this study, the biological effects of CQ ethanolic extract were evaluated by in vitro and supported by in silico analysis on KB oral epidermoid cancer cell line. Materials and Methods: Anti-cancer potential of ethanolic extract of CQ stem against KB oral epidermoid cancer cells was evaluated in terms of morphological analysis, nuclei staining, liberation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cell cycle arrest, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and p53 and Bcl-2 protein expression which reveal the induction of apoptosis along with supporting in silico analysis. Results: Ethanolic extract of CQ stem contains various bioactive compounds responsible for cancer cell morphological alterations, liberation of ROS, G1 phase cell cycle arrest and decreased MMP along with up-regulation of p53 and down-regulation of Bcl-2. By employing in silico approach, we have also postulated that the CQ extract active constituents sequester Bcl-2 with higher affinity as compared to p53, which may be the reason for induction of growth arrest and apoptosis in KB cells. Conclusion: Our data indicate that the CQ extract has a remarkable apoptotic effect that suggests that it could be a viable treatment option for specific types of cancers. SUMMARY Cissus quadrangularis stem ethanolic extract induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest at G1 phaseIt liberates (ROS) and mitochondria mediated apoptosisIt upregulates p53 and down-regulates Bcl-2 protein expressionIn silico studies indicates that the active constituents of CQ binds Bcl-2 with higher affinity as compared to p53. PMID:26929569

  13. A newly identified essential complex, Dre2-Tah18, controls mitochondria integrity and cell death after oxidative stress in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Vernis

    Full Text Available A mutated allele of the essential gene TAH18 was previously identified in our laboratory in a genetic screen for new proteins interacting with the DNA polymerase delta in yeast [1]. The present work shows that Tah18 plays a role in response to oxidative stress. After exposure to lethal doses of H(2O(2, GFP-Tah18 relocalizes to the mitochondria and controls mitochondria integrity and cell death. Dre2, an essential Fe/S cluster protein and homologue of human anti-apoptotic Ciapin1, was identified as a molecular partner of Tah18 in the absence of stress. Moreover, Ciapin1 is able to replace yeast Dre2 in vivo and physically interacts with Tah18. Our results are in favour of an oxidative stress-induced cell death in yeast that involves mitochondria and is controlled by the newly identified Dre2-Tah18 complex.

  14. Mitochondria-Mediated Protein Regulation Mechanism of Polymorphs-Dependent Inhibition of Nanoselenium on Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ge; Guo, Yuming; Yang, Gai; Yang, Lin; Ma, Xiaoming; Wang, Kui; Zhu, Lin; Sun, Jiaojiao; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Hua

    2016-01-01

    The present study was (i) to prepare two types of selenium nanoparticles, namely an amorphous form of selenium quantum dots (A-SeQDs) and a crystalline form of selenium quantum dots (C-SeQDs); and (ii) to investigate the nano-bio interactions of A-SeQDs and C-SeQDs in MCF-7, HepG2, HeLa, NIH/3T3, L929 cells and BRL-3A cells. It was found that A-SeQDs could induce the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, necrosis and death of cells, while C-SeQDs had much weaker effects. This polymorphs-dependent anti-proliferative activity of nano-selenium was scarcely reported. Further investigation demonstrated that A-SeQDs could differentially regulate 61 proteins and several pathways related to stress response, protein synthesis, cell migration and cell cycle, including "p38 MAPK Signaling", "p53 Signaling", "14-3-3-mediated Signaling", "p70S6K Signaling" and "Protein Ubiquitination Pathway". This was the first report to demonstrate the involvement of protein synthesis and post-translational modification pathways in the anti-proliferative activity associated with NMs. Compared with previously fragmentary studies, this study use a nanomics approach combining bioinformatics and proteomics to systematically investigate the nano-bio interactions of selenium nanoparticles in cancer cells. PMID:27514819

  15. Mitochondria-Mediated Protein Regulation Mechanism of Polymorphs-Dependent Inhibition of Nanoselenium on Cancer Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ge; Guo, Yuming; Yang, Gai; Yang, Lin; Ma, Xiaoming; Wang, Kui; Zhu, Lin; Sun, Jiaojiao; Wang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Hua

    2016-08-01

    The present study was (i) to prepare two types of selenium nanoparticles, namely an amorphous form of selenium quantum dots (A-SeQDs) and a crystalline form of selenium quantum dots (C-SeQDs); and (ii) to investigate the nano-bio interactions of A-SeQDs and C-SeQDs in MCF-7, HepG2, HeLa, NIH/3T3, L929 cells and BRL-3A cells. It was found that A-SeQDs could induce the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, necrosis and death of cells, while C-SeQDs had much weaker effects. This polymorphs-dependent anti-proliferative activity of nano-selenium was scarcely reported. Further investigation demonstrated that A-SeQDs could differentially regulate 61 proteins and several pathways related to stress response, protein synthesis, cell migration and cell cycle, including “p38 MAPK Signaling”, “p53 Signaling”, “14-3-3-mediated Signaling”, “p70S6K Signaling” and “Protein Ubiquitination Pathway”. This was the first report to demonstrate the involvement of protein synthesis and post-translational modification pathways in the anti-proliferative activity associated with NMs. Compared with previously fragmentary studies, this study use a nanomics approach combining bioinformatics and proteomics to systematically investigate the nano-bio interactions of selenium nanoparticles in cancer cells.

  16. Prohibitin 2 regulates the proliferation and lineage-specific differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells in mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Kowno

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pluripotent state of embryonic stem (ES cells is controlled by a network of specific transcription factors. Recent studies also suggested the significant contribution of mitochondria on the regulation of pluripotent stem cells. However, the molecules involved in these regulations are still unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study, we found that prohibitin 2 (PHB2, a pleiotrophic factor mainly localized in mitochondria, is a crucial regulatory factor for the homeostasis and differentiation of ES cells. PHB2 was highly expressed in undifferentiated mouse ES cells, and the expression was decreased during the differentiation of ES cells. Knockdown of PHB2 induced significant apoptosis in pluripotent ES cells, whereas enhanced expression of PHB2 contributed to the proliferation of ES cells. However, enhanced expression of PHB2 strongly inhibited ES cell differentiation into neuronal and endodermal cells. Interestingly, only PHB2 with intact mitochondrial targeting signal showed these specific effects on ES cells. Moreover, overexpression of PHB2 enhanced the processing of a dynamin-like GTPase (OPA1 that regulates mitochondrial fusion and cristae remodeling, which could induce partial dysfunction of mitochondria. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that PHB2 is a crucial mitochondrial regulator for homeostasis and lineage-specific differentiation of ES cells.

  17. The pathways of glutamate and glutamine oxidation by tumor cell mitochondria. Role of mitochondrial NAD(P)+-dependent malic enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreadith, R W; Lehninger, A L

    1984-05-25

    Little evidence has been available on the oxidative pathways of glutamine and glutamate, the major respiratory substrates of cancer cells. Glutamate formed from glutamine by phosphate-dependent glutaminase undergoes quantitative transamination by aerobic tumor mitochondria to yield aspartate. However, when malate is also added there is a pronounced decrease in aspartate production and a large formation of citrate and alanine, in both state 3 and 4 conditions. In contrast, addition of malate to normal rat heart, liver, or kidney mitochondria oxidizing glutamate causes a marked increase in aspartate production. Further analysis showed that extramitochondrial malate is oxidized almost quantitatively to pyruvate + CO2 by NAD(P)+-linked malic enzyme, present in the mitochondria of all tumors tested, but absent in heart, liver, and kidney mitochondria. On the other hand intramitochondrial malate generated from glutamate is oxidized quantitatively to oxalacetate by mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase of tumors. Acetyl-CoA derived from extramitochondrial malate via pyruvate and oxalacetate derived from glutamate via intramitochondrial malate are quantitatively converted into citrate, which is extruded. No evidence was found that malic enzyme of tumor mitochondria converts glutamate-derived malate into pyruvate as postulated in other reports. Possible mechanisms for the integration of mitochondrial malic enzyme and malate dehydrogenase activities in tumors are discussed.

  18. The pathways of glutamate and glutamine oxidation by tumor cell mitochondria. Role of mitochondrial NAD(P)+-dependent malic enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreadith, R W; Lehninger, A L

    1984-05-25

    Little evidence has been available on the oxidative pathways of glutamine and glutamate, the major respiratory substrates of cancer cells. Glutamate formed from glutamine by phosphate-dependent glutaminase undergoes quantitative transamination by aerobic tumor mitochondria to yield aspartate. However, when malate is also added there is a pronounced decrease in aspartate production and a large formation of citrate and alanine, in both state 3 and 4 conditions. In contrast, addition of malate to normal rat heart, liver, or kidney mitochondria oxidizing glutamate causes a marked increase in aspartate production. Further analysis showed that extramitochondrial malate is oxidized almost quantitatively to pyruvate + CO2 by NAD(P)+-linked malic enzyme, present in the mitochondria of all tumors tested, but absent in heart, liver, and kidney mitochondria. On the other hand intramitochondrial malate generated from glutamate is oxidized quantitatively to oxalacetate by mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase of tumors. Acetyl-CoA derived from extramitochondrial malate via pyruvate and oxalacetate derived from glutamate via intramitochondrial malate are quantitatively converted into citrate, which is extruded. No evidence was found that malic enzyme of tumor mitochondria converts glutamate-derived malate into pyruvate as postulated in other reports. Possible mechanisms for the integration of mitochondrial malic enzyme and malate dehydrogenase activities in tumors are discussed. PMID:6144677

  19. Three dimensional time lapse imaging of live cell mitochondria with photothermal optical lock-in optical coherence microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sison, Miguel; Chakrabortty, Sabyasachi; Extermann, Jerome; Nahas, Amir; Pache, Christophe; Weil, Tanja; Lasser, Theo

    2016-03-01

    The photothermal optical lock-in optical coherence microscope (poli-OCM) introduced molecular specificity to OCM imaging, which is conventionally, a label-free technique. Here we achieve three-dimensional live cell and mitochondria specific imaging using ~4nm protein-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs). These nanoparticles do not photobleach and we demonstrate they're suitability for long-term time lapse imaging. We compare the accuracy of labelling with these AuNPs using classical fluorescence confocal imaging with a standard mitochondria specific marker. Furthermore, time lapse poli-OCM imaging every 5 minutes over 1.5 hours period was achieved, revealing the ability for three-dimensional monitoring of mitochondria dynamics.

  20. Effects of Genistein on Cell Cycle and Apoptosis of Two Murine Melanoma Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effects of genistein on several tumor cell lines were investigated to study the effects of genistein on cell growth, cell cycle, and apoptosis of two murine melanoma cell lines, B16 and K1735M2. These two closely related murine melanoma cell lines, however, have different responses to the genistein treatment. Genistein inhibits the growth of both the B16 and K1735M2 cell lines and arrests the growth at the G2/M phase. After treatment with 60 μmol/L genistein for 72 h, apoptosis and caspase activities were detected in B16 cells, while such effects were not found in K1735M2. Further tests showed that after genistein treatment the protein content and mRNA levels of p53 increased in B16, but remained the same in K1735M2. The protein content and mRNA levels of p21WAF1/CIP1 increased in both cell lines after treatment.The results show that genistein might induce apoptosis in B16 cells by damaging the DNA, inhibiting topoisomerase Ⅱ, increasing p53 expression, releasing cytochrome c from the mitochondria, and activating the caspases which will lead to apoptosis.

  1. The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the mitochondrial matrix is sensed by PINK1 to induce PARK2/Parkin-mediated mitophagy of polarized mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Seok Min; Youle, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Defective mitochondria exert deleterious effects on host cells. To manage this risk, mitochondria display several lines of quality control mechanisms: mitochondria-specific chaperones and proteases protect against misfolded proteins at the molecular level, and fission/fusion and mitophagy segregate and eliminate damage at the organelle level. An increase in unfolded proteins in mitochondria activates a mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) to increase chaperone production, while the...

  2. Interlab Cell Line Collection: Bioresource of Established Human and Animal Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Parodi, Barbara; Aresu, Ottavia; Visconti, Paola; Manniello, Maria Assunta; Strada, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The Interlab Cell Line Collection (ICLC) was established in 1994 as a core facility of the National Institute of Cancer Research. It supplies: human and animal cell lines; Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling of human cell lines; quality control service; mycoplasma detection and eradication service; safe deposit service and patent deposit service of cell lines and hybridomas. The catalogue of services is on-line, and the cell lines are distributed all over the world. 

  3. Momordica charantia Extract Induces Apoptosis in Human Cancer Cells through Caspase- and Mitochondria-Dependent Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Chia-Jung Li; Shih-Fang Tsang; Chun-Hao Tsai; Hsin-Yi Tsai; Jong-Ho Chyuan; Hsue-Yin Hsu

    2012-01-01

    Plants are an invaluable source of potential new anti-cancer drugs. Momordica charantia is one of these plants with both edible and medical value and reported to exhibit anticancer activity. To explore the potential effectiveness of Momordica charantia, methanol extract of Momordica charantia (MCME) was used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity on four human cancer cell lines, Hone-1 nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, AGS gastric adenocarcinoma cells, HCT-116 colorectal carcinoma cells, and CL1-0 ...

  4. Human Cells Require Non-stop Ribosome Rescue Activity in Mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather A Feaga

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria use trans-translation and the alternative rescue factors ArfA (P36675 and ArfB (Q9A8Y3 to hydrolyze peptidyl-tRNA on ribosomes that stall near the 3' end of an mRNA during protein synthesis. The eukaryotic protein ICT1 (Q14197 is homologous to ArfB. In vitro ribosome rescue assays of human ICT1 and Caulobacter crescentus ArfB showed that these proteins have the same activity and substrate specificity. Both ArfB and ICT1 hydrolyze peptidyl-tRNA on nonstop ribosomes or ribosomes stalled with ≤6 nucleotides extending past the A site, but are unable to hydrolyze peptidyl-tRNA when the mRNA extends ≥14 nucleotides past the A site. ICT1 provided sufficient ribosome rescue activity to support viability in C. crescentus cells that lacked both trans-translation and ArfB. Likewise, expression of ArfB protected human cells from death when ICT1 was silenced with siRNA. These data indicate that ArfB and ICT1 are functionally interchangeable, and demonstrate that ICT1 is a ribosome rescue factor. Because ICT1 is essential in human cells, these results suggest that ribosome rescue activity in mitochondria is required in humans.

  5. Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells, Mitochondria, and MicroRNAs: Their Involvement in the Pathogenesis of ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitkanou, Stavroula; Della Gatta, Paul A.; Russell, Aaron P.

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND), is a fatal motor neuron disorder. It results in progressive degeneration and death of upper and lower motor neurons, protein aggregation, severe muscle atrophy and respiratory insufficiency. Median survival with ALS is between 2 and 5 years from the onset of symptoms. ALS manifests as either familial ALS (FALS) (~10% of cases) or sporadic ALS (SALS), (~90% of cases). Mutations in the copper/zinc (CuZn) superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene account for ~20% of FALS cases and the mutant SOD1 mouse model has been used extensively to help understand the ALS pathology. As the precise mechanisms causing ALS are not well understood there is presently no cure. Recent evidence suggests that motor neuron degradation may involve a cell non-autonomous phenomenon involving numerous cell types within various tissues. Skeletal muscle is now considered as an important tissue involved in the pathogenesis of ALS by activating a retrograde signaling cascade that degrades motor neurons. Skeletal muscle heath and function are regulated by numerous factors including satellite cells, mitochondria and microRNAs. Studies demonstrate that in ALS these factors show various levels of dysregulation within the skeletal muscle. This review provides an overview of their dysregulation in various ALS models as well as how they may contribute individually and/or synergistically to the ALS pathogenesis. PMID:27679581

  6. Skeletal Muscle Satellite Cells, Mitochondria, and MicroRNAs: Their Involvement in the Pathogenesis of ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitkanou, Stavroula; Della Gatta, Paul A; Russell, Aaron P

    2016-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND), is a fatal motor neuron disorder. It results in progressive degeneration and death of upper and lower motor neurons, protein aggregation, severe muscle atrophy and respiratory insufficiency. Median survival with ALS is between 2 and 5 years from the onset of symptoms. ALS manifests as either familial ALS (FALS) (~10% of cases) or sporadic ALS (SALS), (~90% of cases). Mutations in the copper/zinc (CuZn) superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene account for ~20% of FALS cases and the mutant SOD1 mouse model has been used extensively to help understand the ALS pathology. As the precise mechanisms causing ALS are not well understood there is presently no cure. Recent evidence suggests that motor neuron degradation may involve a cell non-autonomous phenomenon involving numerous cell types within various tissues. Skeletal muscle is now considered as an important tissue involved in the pathogenesis of ALS by activating a retrograde signaling cascade that degrades motor neurons. Skeletal muscle heath and function are regulated by numerous factors including satellite cells, mitochondria and microRNAs. Studies demonstrate that in ALS these factors show various levels of dysregulation within the skeletal muscle. This review provides an overview of their dysregulation in various ALS models as well as how they may contribute individually and/or synergistically to the ALS pathogenesis. PMID:27679581

  7. Mechanisms of cell signaling by nitric oxide and peroxynitrite: from mitochondria to MAP kinases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levonen, A. L.; Patel, R. P.; Brookes, P.; Go, Y. M.; Jo, H.; Parthasarathy, S.; Anderson, P. G.; Darley-Usmar, V. M.

    2001-01-01

    Many of the biological and pathological effects of nitric oxide (NO) are mediated through cell signaling pathways that are initiated by NO reacting with metalloproteins. More recently, it has been recognized that the reaction of NO with free radicals such as superoxide and the lipid peroxyl radical also has the potential to modulate redox signaling. Although it is clear that NO can exert both cytotoxic and cytoprotective actions, the focus of this overview are those reactions that could lead to protection of the cell against oxidative stress in the vasculature. This will include the induction of antioxidant defenses such as glutathione, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in response to blood flow, and modulation of mitochondrial function and its impact on apoptosis. Models are presented that show the increased synthesis of glutathione in response to shear stress and inhibition of cytochrome c release from mitochondria. It appears that in the vasculature NO-dependent signaling pathways are of three types: (i) those involving NO itself, leading to modulation of mitochondrial respiration and soluble guanylate cyclase; (ii) those that involve S-nitrosation, including inhibition of caspases; and (iii) autocrine signaling that involves the intracellular formation of peroxynitrite and the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases. Taken together, NO plays a major role in the modulation of redox cell signaling through a number of distinct pathways in a cellular setting.

  8. Novel mitochondria-targeted heat-soluble proteins identified in the anhydrobiotic Tardigrade improve osmotic tolerance of human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sae; Tanaka, Junko; Miwa, Yoshihiro; Horikawa, Daiki D; Katayama, Toshiaki; Arakawa, Kazuharu; Toyoda, Atsushi; Kubo, Takeo; Kunieda, Takekazu

    2015-01-01

    Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called "anhydrobiosis". Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble) and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble) proteins, which are secreted or localized in most intracellular compartments, except the mitochondria. Although mitochondrial integrity is crucial to ensure cellular survival, protective molecules for mitochondria have remained elusive. Here, we identified two novel mitochondrial heat-soluble proteins, RvLEAM and MAHS (Mitochondrial Abundant Heat Soluble), as potent mitochondrial protectants from Ramazzottius varieornatus. RvLEAM is a group3 LEA protein and immunohistochemistry confirmed its mitochondrial localization in tardigrade cells. MAHS-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localized in human mitochondria and was heat-soluble in vitro, though no sequence similarity with other known proteins was found, and one region was conserved among tardigrades. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RvLEAM protein as well as MAHS protein improved the hyperosmotic tolerance of human cells. The findings of the present study revealed that tardigrade mitochondria contain at least two types of heat-soluble proteins that might have protective roles in water-deficient environments. PMID:25675104

  9. Novel mitochondria-targeted heat-soluble proteins identified in the anhydrobiotic Tardigrade improve osmotic tolerance of human cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sae Tanaka

    Full Text Available Tardigrades are able to tolerate almost complete dehydration through transition to a metabolically inactive state, called "anhydrobiosis". Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA proteins are heat-soluble proteins involved in the desiccation tolerance of many anhydrobiotic organisms. Tardigrades, Ramazzottius varieornatus, however, express predominantly tardigrade-unique heat-soluble proteins: CAHS (Cytoplasmic Abundant Heat Soluble and SAHS (Secretory Abundant Heat Soluble proteins, which are secreted or localized in most intracellular compartments, except the mitochondria. Although mitochondrial integrity is crucial to ensure cellular survival, protective molecules for mitochondria have remained elusive. Here, we identified two novel mitochondrial heat-soluble proteins, RvLEAM and MAHS (Mitochondrial Abundant Heat Soluble, as potent mitochondrial protectants from Ramazzottius varieornatus. RvLEAM is a group3 LEA protein and immunohistochemistry confirmed its mitochondrial localization in tardigrade cells. MAHS-green fluorescent protein fusion protein localized in human mitochondria and was heat-soluble in vitro, though no sequence similarity with other known proteins was found, and one region was conserved among tardigrades. Furthermore, we demonstrated that RvLEAM protein as well as MAHS protein improved the hyperosmotic tolerance of human cells. The findings of the present study revealed that tardigrade mitochondria contain at least two types of heat-soluble proteins that might have protective roles in water-deficient environments.

  10. Identification of active elementary flux modes in mitochondria using selectively permeabilized CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolae, Averina; Wahrheit, Judith; Nonnenmacher, Yannic; Weyler, Christian; Heinzle, Elmar

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic compartmentation is a key feature of mammalian cells. Mitochondria are the powerhouse of eukaryotic cells, responsible for respiration and the TCA cycle. We accessed the mitochondrial metabolism of the economically important Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using selective permeabilization. We tested key substrates without and with addition of ADP. Based on quantified uptake and production rates, we could determine the contribution of different elementary flux modes to the metabolism of a substrate or substrate combination. ADP stimulated the uptake of most metabolites, directly by serving as substrate for the respiratory chain, thus removing the inhibitory effect of NADH, or as allosteric effector. Addition of ADP favored substrate metabolization to CO2 and did not enhance the production of other metabolites. The controlling effect of ADP was more pronounced when we supplied metabolites to the first part of the TCA cycle: pyruvate, citrate, α-ketoglutarate and glutamine. In the second part of the TCA cycle, the rates were primarily controlled by the concentrations of C4-dicarboxylates. Without ADP addition, the activity of the pyruvate carboxylase-malate dehydrogenase-malic enzyme cycle consumed the ATP produced by oxidative phosphorylation, preventing its accumulation and maintaining metabolic steady state conditions. Aspartate was taken up only in combination with pyruvate, whose uptake also increased, a fact explained by complex regulatory effects. Isocitrate dehydrogenase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase were identified as the key regulators of the TCA cycle, confirming existent knowledge from other cells. We have shown that selectively permeabilized cells combined with elementary mode analysis allow in-depth studying of the mitochondrial metabolism and regulation.

  11. [Cationic specificity of a Ca2+-accumulating system in smooth muscle cell mitochondria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veklich, T O; Kosterin, S O; Shynlova, O P

    2002-01-01

    In the experiments conducted with application of an isotopic technique (45Ca2+) on the myometrium cells suspension treated by digitonin solution (0.1 mg/ml) some properties of Ca ions accumulation system in the mitochondria--cationic and substrate specificity as well as effects of Mg2+ and some other bivalent metals ions on the Ca2+ accumulation velocity have been estimated. Ca ions accumulation from the incubation medium containing 3 mM sodium succinate Na, 2 mM Pi (as potassium K(+)-phosphate buffer, pH 7.4 at 37 degrees C), 0.01 mM (40CaCl2 + 45CaCl2) and 100 nM thapsigargin--selective inhibiting agent of endoplasmatic reticulum calcium pump were demonstrated as detected just only in presence of Mg, while not Ni, Co or Cu ions. The increase of Mg2+ concentration from 1 x 10(-6) to 10(-3) M induced the ATP dependent transport activation in the myometrium mitochondria. Under [Mg2+] increase till 40 mM this cation essentially decreased Ca2+ accumulation (by 65% from the maximal value). The optimum for Ca2+ transport in the myometrium cells suspension is Mg2+ 10 mM concentration. Ka activation apparent constant along Mg2+ value (in presence 3 mM ATP and 3 mM sodium succinate) is 4.27 mM. The above listed bivalent metals decreased Mg2+, ATP-dependent accumulation of calcium, values of inhibition apparent constants for ions Co2+, Ni2+ and Cu2+ were--2.9 x 10(-4) M, 5.1 x 10(-5) M and 4.2 x 10(-6) M respectively. For Mg2+, ATP-dependent Ca2+ transport in the uterus myocytes mitocondria a high substrate specificity is a characteristic phenomenon in elation to ATP: GTP, CTP and UTP practically fail to provide for Ca accumulation process. PMID:12199098

  12. A mitochondria-targeted ratiometric fluorescent probe to monitor endogenously generated sulfur dioxide derivatives in living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wang; Teoh, Chai Lean; Peng, Juanjuan; Su, Dongdong; Yuan, Lin; Chang, Young-Tae

    2015-07-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO2) can be endogenously produced by enzymes in mitochondria during oxidation of H2S or sulphur-containing amino acids, and plays important roles in several physiological processes. However, the design and synthesis of fluorescent probes which can detect mitochondrial SO2 and its derivatives in living cells still remain unresolved. Herein, we report the preparation of a lipophilic cationic dye 1 (Mito-Ratio-SO2), which targets the mitochondria in living cells and is sensitive to the presence of SO2 derivatives. The ratiometric probe Mito-Ratio-SO2 displays a 170 nm blue-shift in emission with two well-resolved emission bands upon addition of sulfite. Mechanistic studies indicate that three probe-SO2 adducts coexist after reaction, as supported by liquid chromatography and density function theory investigations. Importantly, the ratiometric probe is highly selective for sulfite over other bio-species including H2S. Fluorescence co-localization studies indicate that the probe localizes solely in the mitochondria of HeLa cells. Last but not least, fluorescent imaging of HeLa cells successfully demonstrates the detection of intrinsically generated intracellular SO2 derivatives in living cells.

  13. Monomethylarsonous acid, but not inorganic arsenic, is a mitochondria-specific toxicant in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Clare; Banerjee, Tania Das; Welch, Barrett; Khalili, Roxana; Dagda, Ruben K; Angermann, Jeff

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic exposure has been implicated as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer, yet the role mitochondrial dysfunction plays in the cellular mechanisms of pathology is largely unknown. To investigate arsenic-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we exposed rat aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) to inorganic arsenic (iAs(III)) and its metabolite monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) and compared their effects on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that MMA(III) is significantly more toxic to mitochondria than iAs(III). Exposure of VSMCs to MMA(III), but not iAs(III), significantly decreased basal and maximal oxygen consumption rates and concomitantly increased compensatory extracellular acidification rates, a proxy for glycolysis. Treatment with MMA(III) significantly increased hydrogen peroxide and superoxide levels compared to iAs(III). Exposure to MMA(III) resulted in significant decreases in mitochondrial ATP, aberrant perinuclear clustering of mitochondria, and decreased mitochondrial content. Mechanistically, we observed that mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide contribute to mitochondrial toxicity, as treatment of cells with MnTBAP (a mitochondrial superoxide dismutase mimetic) and catalase significantly reduced mitochondrial respiration deficits and cell death induced by both arsenic compounds. Overall, our data demonstrates that MMA(III) is a mitochondria-specific toxicant that elevates mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial sources of ROS. PMID:27327130

  14. Monomethylarsonous acid, but not inorganic arsenic, is a mitochondria-specific toxicant in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Clare; Banerjee, Tania Das; Welch, Barrett; Khalili, Roxana; Dagda, Ruben K; Angermann, Jeff

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic exposure has been implicated as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, metabolic disorders, and cancer, yet the role mitochondrial dysfunction plays in the cellular mechanisms of pathology is largely unknown. To investigate arsenic-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), we exposed rat aortic smooth muscle cells (A7r5) to inorganic arsenic (iAs(III)) and its metabolite monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III)) and compared their effects on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress. Our results indicate that MMA(III) is significantly more toxic to mitochondria than iAs(III). Exposure of VSMCs to MMA(III), but not iAs(III), significantly decreased basal and maximal oxygen consumption rates and concomitantly increased compensatory extracellular acidification rates, a proxy for glycolysis. Treatment with MMA(III) significantly increased hydrogen peroxide and superoxide levels compared to iAs(III). Exposure to MMA(III) resulted in significant decreases in mitochondrial ATP, aberrant perinuclear clustering of mitochondria, and decreased mitochondrial content. Mechanistically, we observed that mitochondrial superoxide and hydrogen peroxide contribute to mitochondrial toxicity, as treatment of cells with MnTBAP (a mitochondrial superoxide dismutase mimetic) and catalase significantly reduced mitochondrial respiration deficits and cell death induced by both arsenic compounds. Overall, our data demonstrates that MMA(III) is a mitochondria-specific toxicant that elevates mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial sources of ROS.

  15. ZnPcS2P2-based Photodynamic Therapy Induces Mitochondria-dependent Apoptosis in K562 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Fang HUANG; Yuan-Zhong CHEN; Yong WU

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in the regulation of apoptosis induced by numerous antitumor chemotherapeutic and other toxic agents. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) exerts significant cellular killing efficacy through either an apoptotic or necrotic cell death pathway. This study investigated the mechanism underlying the killing effects of a novel amphipathic photosensitizer [di-sulfonated di-phthalimidomethyl phthalocyanine zinc (ZnPcS2P2)]-mediated photodynamic therapy (ZnPcS2P2-PDT) on K562 cells. Apoptosis was evident in the post-PDT cells through the TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and DNA fragmentation assay. After ZnPcS2P2-PDT, K562 cells underwent mitochondria-dependent apoptosis as evidenced by the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria into cytosol, accompanied by mitochondrial membrane potential (Δ#m) reduction, indicating the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP). The activities of protease from the caspase family and caspase-3 were also significantly elevated.Furthermore, ZnPcS2P2-PDT down-regulated the expression of chimaeric Bcr-Abl oncoprotein, which is the molecular hallmark of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML).

  16. ING1 induces apoptosis through direct effects at the mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bose, P; Thakur, S; Thalappilly, S;

    2013-01-01

    The ING family of tumor suppressors acts as readers and writers of the histone epigenetic code, affecting DNA repair, chromatin remodeling, cellular senescence, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. The best characterized member of the ING family, ING1,interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear...... translocates to the mitochondria of primary fibroblasts and established epithelial cell lines in response to apoptosis inducing stimuli, independent of the cellular p53 status. The ability of ING1 to induce apoptosis in various breast cancer cell lines correlates well with its degree of translocation...... to the mitochondria after UV treatment. Endogenous ING1 protein specifically interacts with the pro-apoptotic BCL2 family member BAX, and colocalizes with BAX in a UV-inducible manner. Ectopic expression of a mitochondria-targeted ING1 construct is more proficient in inducing apoptosis than the wild type ING1 protein...

  17. Human Cell Line and Tissue Sample Authentication

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, Margaret M.; McLaren, Robert S.; Hebble, Kathryn D.; Ready, Kim; Storts, Douglas R.; Hooper, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Background: Short Tandem Repeat (STR) genotyping analysis is a proven technology for uniquely identifying virtually all human samples. STR genotyping was adopted as the preferred technology for identification of human tissue culture cell lines by the ATCC Standards Development Organization (ASN-0002: Authentication of Human Cell Lines: Standardization of STR Profiling). We developed new automation-compatible protocols/systems for generating STR profiles from human cell lines or tissue samples...

  18. Mitochondria: a target for bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobet, Elodie; Letesson, Jean-Jacques; Arnould, Thierry

    2015-04-01

    Eukaryotic cells developed strategies to detect and eradicate infections. The innate immune system, which is the first line of defence against invading pathogens, relies on the recognition of molecular patterns conserved among pathogens. Pathogen associated molecular pattern binding to pattern recognition receptor triggers the activation of several signalling pathways leading to the establishment of a pro-inflammatory state required to control the infection. In addition, pathogens evolved to subvert those responses (with passive and active strategies) allowing their entry and persistence in the host cells and tissues. Indeed, several bacteria actively manipulate immune system or interfere with the cell fate for their own benefit. One can imagine that bacterial effectors can potentially manipulate every single organelle in the cell. However, the multiple functions fulfilled by mitochondria especially their involvement in the regulation of innate immune response, make mitochondria a target of choice for bacterial pathogens as they are not only a key component of the central metabolism through ATP production and synthesis of various biomolecules but they also take part to cell signalling through ROS production and control of calcium homeostasis as well as the control of cell survival/programmed cell death. Furthermore, considering that mitochondria derived from an ancestral bacterial endosymbiosis, it is not surprising that a special connection does exist between this organelle and bacteria. In this review, we will discuss different mitochondrial functions that are affected during bacterial infection as well as different strategies developed by bacterial pathogens to subvert functions related to calcium homeostasis, maintenance of redox status and mitochondrial morphology.

  19. Molecular Characterization of Putative Chordoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silke Brüderlein

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Immortal tumor cell lines are an important model system for cancer research, however, misidentification and cross-contamination of cell lines are a common problem. Seven chordoma cell lines are reported in the literature, but none has been characterized in detail. We analyzed gene expression patterns and genomic copy number variations in five putative chordoma cell lines (U-CH1, CCL3, CCL4, GB60, and CM319. We also created a new chordoma cell line, U-CH2, and provided genotypes for cell lines for identity confirmation. Our analyses revealed that CCL3, CCL4, and GB60 are not chordoma cell lines, and that CM319 is a cancer cell line possibly derived from chordoma, but lacking expression of key chordoma biomarkers. U-CH1 and U-CH2 both have gene expression profiles, copy number aberrations, and morphology consistent with chordoma tumors. These cell lines also harbor genetic changes, such as loss of p16, MTAP, or PTEN, that make them potentially useful models for studying mechanisms of chordoma pathogenesis and for evaluating targeted therapies.

  20. HLA expression in hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadee, A A; Paterson, A; Coplan, K A; Reddy, S G

    1994-08-01

    The present study undertook to investigate the biological significance of human leucocyte antigen expression in hepatocellular carcinoma and to elucidate the role of potential modulating agents on human leucocyte antigen expression. These studies used several hepatic tumour-derived cell lines as in vitro model systems. The cell lines included PLC/PRF/5 (Alexander cell line), Hep3B, HepG2, TONG PHC, HA22T/VGH, HA59T/VGH and Mahlavu. The cell lines K562 and Raji were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. K562, a B lymphoid-derived cell line, was shown to express negligible amounts of human leucocyte antigens, while Raji, an erythromyeloid-derived cell line, expressed both class I and class II human leucocyte antigens as well as their respective invariant chains, beta 2-microglobulin and Ii. Using an ELISA, experiments performed on these cell lines confirmed the natural expression of class I and class II antigens by the HA22T/VGH and HA59T/VGH cell lines, whereas PLC/PRF/5 displayed class II surface antigens only. The effects of modulating agents such as interferon-gamma sodium butyrate and clofazimine on human leucocyte antigen expression were investigated using the HA22T/VGH, HA59T/VGH and TONG PHC cell lines. These agents increased class II and class II human leucocyte antigen expression on HA22T/VGH and TONG PHC cells, but had no effect on the HA59T/VGH cell line. The results suggest a potential use for these agents as modulators of human leucocyte antigen expression by human heptocellular cell lines.

  1. A cell-permeable fluorescent polymeric thermometer for intracellular temperature mapping in mammalian cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruyuki Hayashi

    Full Text Available Changes in intracellular temperatures reflect the activity of the cell. Thus, the tool to measure intracellular temperatures could provide valuable information about cellular status. We previously reported a method to analyze the intracellular temperature distribution using a fluorescent polymeric thermometer (FPT in combination with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM. Intracellular delivery of the FPT used in the previous study required microinjection. We now report a novel FPT that is cell permeable and highly photostable, and we describe the application of this FPT to the imaging of intracellular temperature distributions in various types of mammalian cell lines. This cell-permeable FPT displayed a temperature resolution of 0.05°C to 0.54°C within the range from 28°C to 38°C in HeLa cell extracts. Using our optimized protocol, this cell-permeable FPT spontaneously diffused into HeLa cells within 10 min of incubation and exhibited minimal toxicity over several hours of observation. FLIM analysis confirmed a temperature difference between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and heat production near the mitochondria, which were also detected previously using the microinjected FPT. We also showed that this cell-permeable FPT protocol can be applied to other mammalian cell lines, COS7 and NIH/3T3 cells. Thus, this cell-permeable FPT represents a promising tool to study cellular states and functions with respect to temperature.

  2. A cell-permeable fluorescent polymeric thermometer for intracellular temperature mapping in mammalian cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Teruyuki; Fukuda, Nanaho; Uchiyama, Seiichi; Inada, Noriko

    2015-01-01

    Changes in intracellular temperatures reflect the activity of the cell. Thus, the tool to measure intracellular temperatures could provide valuable information about cellular status. We previously reported a method to analyze the intracellular temperature distribution using a fluorescent polymeric thermometer (FPT) in combination with fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM). Intracellular delivery of the FPT used in the previous study required microinjection. We now report a novel FPT that is cell permeable and highly photostable, and we describe the application of this FPT to the imaging of intracellular temperature distributions in various types of mammalian cell lines. This cell-permeable FPT displayed a temperature resolution of 0.05°C to 0.54°C within the range from 28°C to 38°C in HeLa cell extracts. Using our optimized protocol, this cell-permeable FPT spontaneously diffused into HeLa cells within 10 min of incubation and exhibited minimal toxicity over several hours of observation. FLIM analysis confirmed a temperature difference between the nucleus and the cytoplasm and heat production near the mitochondria, which were also detected previously using the microinjected FPT. We also showed that this cell-permeable FPT protocol can be applied to other mammalian cell lines, COS7 and NIH/3T3 cells. Thus, this cell-permeable FPT represents a promising tool to study cellular states and functions with respect to temperature.

  3. Telomeres, mitochondria and stem cell aging%端粒、线粒体和干细胞衰老

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄黎亚; 陈书艳

    2012-01-01

    Stem cells are the special cells which play a key role in the whole life cycle. It is very important to maintain the activity of stem cells, slow down slem cell aging and prolong the life of stem cells. In this paper, the molecular mechanism of stem cell aging is reviewed from the aspects including genome maintenance, telomeres, cell cycle inhibitors and mitochondria. The relationship between telomere-p53 pathway and mitochondria-reactive oxygen species pathway is focused, and the impacts of the two pathways on stem cell aging are introduced.%干细胞是一类在所有生命周期中具有关键性作用的特殊细胞,保持干细胞活力、延缓干细胞衰老及延长干细胞寿命具有重要意义.该文从基因组维护和端粒、细胞周期抑制因子、线粒体等几个方面对干细胞衰老的分子机制作一整体性综述,侧重于端粒-p53通路和线粒体-活性氧自由基途径间的关系及其对干细胞衰老的影响.

  4. Apoptosis induction and mitochondria alteration in human HeLa tumour cells by photoproducts of Rose Bengal acetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarini, Elisa; Tenuzzo, Bernadette; Palazzo, Fabio; Chionna, Alfonsina; Dini, Luciana

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the apoptosis induction and mitochondria alteration after photodamage exerted by incubation of HeLa cells with Rose Bengal acetate-derivative (RBAc) followed by irradiation for a total dose of 1.6 J/cm2. This treatment was previously demonstrated to reduce cell viability under mild treatment conditions, suggesting the restoration of the photoactive molecule in particularly sensitive cell sites. Indeed, Rose Bengal (RB) is a very efficient photosensitizer, whose photophysical properties are inactivated by addition of the quencher group acetate. The RBAc behaves as a fluorogenic substrate by entering easily the cells where the original, photoactive molecule is restored by specific esterases. Different intracellular sites of photodamage of RB are present. In particular, fluorescence imaging of Rodamine 123 and JC-1 labelled cells showed altered morphology and loss of potential membrane of mitochondria. MTT and NR assays gave indications of alteration of mitochondrial and lysosomal enzyme activities. These damaged sites were likely responsible for triggering apoptosis. Significant amount of apoptotic cell death (about 40%) was induced after light irradiation followed RBAc incubation as revealed by morphological (modification of cell shape and blebs formation), cytochemical (FITC-Annexin-V positive cells) and nuclear fragmentation assays.

  5. Effect of solanine on the membrane potential of mitochondria in HepG2 cells and [Ca2+]i in the cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi-Yong Gao; Qiu-Juan Wang; Yu-Bin Ji

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To observe the effect of solanine on the membrane potential of mitochondria in HepG2 cells and [Ca2+]i in the cells, and to uncover the mechanism by which solanine induces apoptosis.METHODS: HepG2 cells were double stained with AO/EB, and morphological changes of the cells were observed using laser confocal scanning microscopy (LCSM). HepG2 cells were stained with TMRE, and change in the membrane potential of mitochondria in the cells were observed using LCSM. HepG2 cells were double stained with Fluo-3/AM, and change of [Ca2+]i in the cells were observed using LCSM. HepG2 cells were double stained with TMRE and Fluo-3/AM, and both the change in membrane potential of mitochondria and that of [Ca2+]i in the cells were observed using LCSM.RESULTS: Cells in treated groups showed typical signs of apoptosis. Staining with TMRE showed that solanine could lower membrane potential; staining with Fluo-3/AM showed that solanine could increase the concentration of Ca2+ in tumor cells; and those of double staining with TMRE and Fluo-3/AM showed that solanine could increase the concentration of Ca2+ in the cells at the same time as it lowered the membrane potential of mitochondria.CONCLUSION: Solanine opens up the PT channels in the membrane by lowering the membrane potential, leading to Ca2+ being transported down its concentration gradient, which in turn leads to the rise of the concentration of Ca2+ in the cell, turning on the mechanism for apoptosis.

  6. A novel synthetic C-1 analogue of 7-deoxypancratistatin induces apoptosis in p53 positive and negative human colorectal cancer cells by targeting the mitochondria: enhancement of activity by tamoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Dennis; Tremblay, Phillip; Mahngar, Kevinjeet; Akbari-Asl, Pardis; Collins, Jonathan; Hudlicky, Tomas; McNulty, James; Pandey, Siyaram

    2012-06-01

    The natural compound pancratistatin (PST), isolated from the Hymenocallis littoralis plant, specifically induces apoptosis in many cancer cell lines. Unlike many other chemotherapeutics, PST is not genotoxic and has minimal adverse effects on non-cancerous cells. However, its availability for preclinical and clinical work is limited due to its low availability in its natural source and difficulties in its chemical synthesis. Several synthetic analogues of 7-deoxypancratistatin with different modifications at C-1 were synthesized and screened for apoptosis inducing activity in human colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. We found that a C-1 acetoxymethyl derivative of 7-deoxypancratistatin, JC-TH-acetate-4 (JCTH-4), was effective in inducing apoptosis in both p53 positive (HCT 116) and p53 negative (HT-29) human CRC cell lines, demonstrating similar efficacy to that of natural PST. JCTH-4 was able to decrease mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), increase levels of reactive oxygen species in isolated mitochondria, cause release of the apoptogenic factor cytochrome c (Cyto c) from isolated mitochondria, and induce autophagy in HCT 116 and HT-29 cells. Interestingly, when JCTH-4 was administered with tamoxifen (TAM), there was an enhanced effect in apoptosis induction, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and Cyto c release by isolated mitochondria, and autophagic induction by CRC cells. Minimal toxicity was exhibited by a normal human fetal fibroblast (NFF) and a normal colon fibroblast (CCD-18Co) cell line. Hence, JCTH-4 is a novel compound capable of selectively inducing apoptosis and autophagy in CRC cells alone and in combination with TAM and may serve as a safer and more effective alternative to current cancer therapies. PMID:21494837

  7. Rhein Elicits In Vitro Cytotoxicity in Primary Human Liver HL-7702 Cells by Inducing Apoptosis through Mitochondria-Mediated Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy-Armel Bounda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study rhein-induced apoptosis signaling pathway and to investigate its molecular mechanisms in primary human hepatic cells. Results. Cell viability of HL-7702 cells treated with rhein showed significant decrease in dose-dependent manner. Following rhein treatment (25 μM, 50 μM, and 100 μM for 12 h, the detection of apoptotic cells was significantly analyzed by flow cytometry and nuclear morphological changes by Hoechst 33258, respectively. Fatty degeneration studies showed upregulation level of the relevant hepatic markers (P < 0.01. Caspase activities expressed significant upregulation of caspase-3, caspase-9, and caspase-8. Moreover, apoptotic cells by rhein were significantly inhibited by Z-LEHD-FMK and Z-DEVD-FMK, caspase-9 inhibitor, and caspase-3 inhibitor, respectively. Overproduction of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential were detected by fluorometry. Additionally, NAC, a ROS scavenger, significantly attenuated rhein-induced oxidative damage in HL-7702 cells. Furthermore, real-time qPCR results showed significant upregulation of p53, PUMA, Apaf-1, and Casp-9 and Casp-3 mRNA, with no significant changes of Fas and Cytochrome-c. Immunoblotting revealed significant Cytochrome-c release from mitochondria into cytosol and no change in Fas expression. Conclusion. Taken together, these observations suggested that rhein could induce apoptosis in HL-7702 cells via mitochondria-mediated signal pathway with involvement of oxidative stress mechanism.

  8. SIRT1 positively regulates autophagy and mitochondria function in embryonic stem cells under oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Xuan; Lee, Man Ryul; Huang, Xinxin; Messina-Graham, Steven; Broxmeyer, Hal E

    2014-05-01

    SIRT1, an NAD-dependent deacetylase, plays a role in regulation of autophagy. SIRT1 increases mitochondrial function and reduces oxidative stress, and has been linked to age-related reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which is highly dependent on mitochondrial metabolism. H2O2 induces oxidative stress and autophagic cell death through interference with Beclin 1 and the mTOR signaling pathways. We evaluated connections between SIRT1 activity and induction of autophagy in murine (m) and human (h) embryonic stem cells (ESCs) upon ROS challenge. Exogenous H2 O2 (1 mM) induced apoptosis and autophagy in wild-type (WT) and Sirt1-/- mESCs. High concentrations of H2O2 (1 mM) induced more apoptosis in Sirt1-/-, than in WT mESCs. However, addition of 3-methyladenine, a widely used autophagy inhibitor, in combination with H2O2 induced more cell death in WT than in Sirt1-/- mESCs. Decreased induction of autophagy in Sirt1-/- mESCs was demonstrated by decreased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II, lowered expression of Beclin-1, and decreased LC3 punctae and LysoTracker staining. H2O2 induced autophagy with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and disruption of mitochondrial dynamics in Sirt1-/- mESCs. Increased phosphorylation of P70/85-S6 kinase and ribosomal S6 was noted in Sirt1-/- mESCs, suggesting that SIRT1 regulates the mTOR pathway. Consistent with effects in mESCs, inhibition of SIRT1 using Lentivirus-mediated SIRT1 shRNA in hESCs demonstrated that knockdown of SIRT1 decreased H2O2-induced autophagy. This suggests a role for SIRT1 in regulating autophagy and mitochondria function in ESCs upon oxidative stress, effects mediated at least in part by the class III PI3K/Beclin 1 and mTOR pathways.

  9. Smac/DIABLO release from mitochondria and XIAP inhibition are essential to limit clonogenicity of Type I tumor cells after TRAIL receptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, C; Verbrugge, I; de Vries, E; Savich, G; van de Kooij, L W; Tait, S W G; Borst, J

    2010-10-01

    Death receptors, such as Fas/CD95 and TRAIL receptors, engage the extrinsic pathway for caspase activation, but also couple to the intrinsic mitochondrial route. In so-called Type II cells, death receptors require the mitochondrial pathway for apoptotic execution, whereas in Type I cells they reportedly do not. For established tumor cell lines, the Type I/Type II distinction is based on short-term apoptosis assays. We report here that the mitochondrial pathway is essential for apoptotic execution of Type I tumor cells by death receptors, when long-term clonogenicity is taken into account. A blockade of the mitochondrial pathway in Type I tumor cells - by RNA interference for Bid or Bcl-2 overexpression - reduced effector caspase activity and mediated significant clonogenic resistance to TRAIL. Downstream from the mitochondria, Caspase-9 did not contribute to clonogenic death of TRAIL-treated Type I cells. Rather, the release of Smac/DIABLO and the inhibition of XIAP activity proved to be crucial for full effector caspase activity and clonogenic execution. Thus, in Type I cells the intrinsic pathway downstream from death receptors is not redundant, but limits clonogenicity by virtue of Smac/DIABLO release and XIAP inhibition. This finding is relevant for cancer therapy using death receptor agonists. PMID:20395960

  10. Asiatic acid uncouples respiration in isolated mouse liver mitochondria and induces HepG2 cells death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yapeng; Liu, Siyuan; Wang, Ying; Wang, Dang; Gao, Jing; Zhu, Li

    2016-09-01

    Asiatic acid, one of the triterpenoid components isolated from Centella asiatica, has received increasing attention due to a wide variety of biological activities. To date, little is known about its mechanisms of action. Here we examined the cytotoxic effect of asiatic acid on HepG2 cells and elucidated some of the underlying mechanisms. Asiatic acid induced rapid cell death, as well as mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) dissipation, ATP depletion and cytochrome c release from mitochondria to the cytosol in HepG2 cells. In mitochondria isolated from mouse liver, asiatic acid treatment significantly stimulated the succinate-supported state 4 respiration rate, dissipated the MMP, increased Ca(2+) release from Ca(2+)-loaded mitochondria, decreased ATP content and promoted cytochrome c release, indicating the uncoupling effect of asiatic acid. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by succinate-supported mitochondrial respiration was also significantly inhibited by asiatic acid. In addition, asiatic acid inhibited Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial swelling but did not induce mitochondrial swelling in hyposmotic potassium acetate medium which suggested that asiatic acid may not act as a protonophoric uncoupler. Inhibition of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) or blockade of adenine nucleotide transporter (ANT) attenuated the effect of asiatic acid on MMP dissipation, Ca(2+) release, mitochondrial respiration and HepG2 cell death. When combined inhibition of UCPs and ANT, asiatic acid-mediated uncoupling effect was noticeably alleviated. These results suggested that both UCPs and ANT partially contribute to the uncoupling properties of asiatic acid. In conclusion, asiatic acid is a novel mitochondrial uncoupler and this property is potentially involved in its toxicity on HepG2 cells. PMID:27288117

  11. Pancreatic β-cell Na+ channels control global Ca2+ signaling and oxidative metabolism by inducing Na+ and Ca2+ responses that are propagated into mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nita, Iulia I; Hershfinkel, Michal; Kantor, Chase; Rutter, Guy A; Lewis, Eli C; Sekler, Israel

    2014-08-01

    Communication between the plasma membrane and mitochondria is essential for initiating the Ca(2+) and metabolic signals required for secretion in β cells. Although voltage-dependent Na(+) channels are abundantly expressed in β cells and activated by glucose, their role in communicating with mitochondria is unresolved. Here, we combined fluorescent Na(+), Ca(2+), and ATP imaging, electrophysiological analysis with tetrodotoxin (TTX)-dependent block of the Na(+) channel, and molecular manipulation of mitochondrial Ca(2+) transporters to study the communication between Na(+) channels and mitochondria. We show that TTX inhibits glucose-dependent depolarization and blocks cytosolic Na(+) and Ca(2+) responses and their propagation into mitochondria. TTX-sensitive mitochondrial Ca(2+) influx was largely blocked by knockdown of the mitochondrial Ca(2+) uniporter (MCU) expression. Knockdown of the mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCLX) and Na(+) dose response analysis demonstrated that NCLX mediates the mitochondrial Na(+) influx and is tuned to sense the TTX-sensitive cytosolic Na(+) responses. Finally, TTX blocked glucose-dependent mitochondrial Ca(2+) rise, mitochondrial metabolic activity, and ATP production. Our results show that communication of the Na(+) channels with mitochondria shape both global Ca(2+) and metabolism signals linked to insulin secretion in β cells.- Nita, I. I., Hershfinkel, M., Kantor, C., Rutter, G. A., Lewis, E. C., Sekler, I. Pancreatic β-cell Na(+) channels control global Ca(2+) signaling and oxidative metabolism by inducing Na(+) and Ca(2+) responses that are propagated into mitochondria.

  12. Mitochondria and calcium flux as targets of neuroprotection caused by minocycline in cerebellar granule cells

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Martinez, Eva Maria; Sanz-Blasco, Sara; Karachitos, Andonis; Bandez, Miguel J.; Fernandez-Gomez, Francisco J.; Perez-Alvarez, Sergio; Mera, Raquel Maria Melero Fernandez De; Jordan, Maria J.; Aguirre, Norberto; Galindo, Maria F.; Villalobos, Carlos; Navarro, Ana; Kmita, Hanna; Jordán, Joaquín

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Minocycline, an antibiotic of the tetracycline family, has attracted considerable interest for its theoretical therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanism of action underlying its effect remains elusive. Here we have studied the effect of minocycline under excitotoxic conditions. Fluorescence and bioluminescence imaging studies in rat cerebellar granular neuron cultures using fura-2/AM and mitochondria-targeted aequorin revealed that mino...

  13. Noscapine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zi-Rong; Liu, Meng; Peng, Xiu-Lan; Lei, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Ji-Xiang; Dong, Wei-Guo

    2012-05-11

    Noscapine, a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been widely used as a cough suppressant for decades. Noscapine has recently been shown to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of several therapies by inducing apoptosis in various malignant cells without any detectable toxicity in cells or tissues. However, the mechanism by which noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells remains unclear. The signaling pathways by which noscapine induces apoptosis were investigated in colon cancer cell lines treated with various noscapine concentrations for 72 h, and a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability was observed. Noscapine effectively inhibited the proliferation of LoVo cells in vitro (IC(50)=75 μM). This cytotoxicity was reflected by cell cycle arrest at G(2)/M and subsequent apoptosis, as indicated by increased chromatin condensation and fragmentation, the upregulation of Bax and cytochrome c (Cyt-c), the downregulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, in a xenograft tumor model in mice, noscapine injection clearly inhibited tumor growth via the induction of apoptosis, which was demonstrated using a TUNEL assay. These results suggest that noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways. Noscapine may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human colon cancer. PMID:22546556

  14. Aluminium based adjuvants and their effects on mitochondria and lysosomes of phagocytosing cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Lars; Exley, Christopher; Darabi, Anna; Sandén, Emma; Siesjö, Peter; Eriksson, Håkan

    2013-11-01

    Aluminium oxyhydroxide, Al(OH)3 is one of few compounds approved as an adjuvant in human vaccines. However, the mechanism behind its immune stimulating properties is still poorly understood. In vitro co-culture of an aluminium adjuvant and the human monocytic cell line THP-1 resulted in reduced cell proliferation. Inhibition occurred at concentrations of adjuvant several times lower than would be found at the injection site using a vaccine formulation containing an aluminium adjuvant. Based on evaluation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, THP-1 cells showed no mitochondrial rupture after co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant, instead an increase in mitochondrial activity was seen. The THP-1 cells are phagocytosing cells and after co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant the phagosomal pathway was obstructed. Primary or early phagosomes mature into phagolysosomes with an internal pH of 4.5 - 5 and carry a wide variety of hydrolysing enzymes. Co-culture with the aluminium adjuvant yielded a reduced level of acidic vesicles and cathepsin L activity, a proteolytic enzyme of the phagolysosomes, was almost completely inhibited. THP-1 cells are an appropriate in vitro model in order to investigate the mechanism behind the induction of a phagocytosing antigen presenting cell into an inflammatory cell by aluminium adjuvants. Much information will be gained by investigating the phagosomal pathway and what occurs inside the phagosomes and to elucidate the ultimate fate of phagocytosed aluminium particles.

  15. The acylphloroglucinols hyperforin and myrtucommulone A cause mitochondrial dysfunctions in leukemic cells by direct interference with mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiechmann, Katja; Müller, Hans; Fischer, Dagmar; Jauch, Johann; Werz, Oliver

    2015-11-01

    The acylphloroglucinols hyperforin (Hypf) and myrtucommulone A (MC A) induce death of cancer cells by triggering the intrinsic/mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis, accompanied by a loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential and release of cytochrome c. However, the upstream targets and mechanisms leading to these mitochondrial events in cancer cells remain elusive. Here we show that Hypf and MC A directly act on mitochondria derived from human leukemic HL-60 cells and thus, disrupt mitochondrial functions. In isolated mitochondria, Hypf and MC A efficiently impaired mitochondrial viability (EC50 = 0.2 and 0.9 µM, respectively), caused loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential (at 0.03 and 0.1 µM, respectively), and suppressed mitochondrial ATP synthesis (IC50 = 0.2 and 0.5 µM, respectively). Consequently, the compounds activated the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in HL-60 cells, a cellular energy sensor involved in apoptosis of cancer cells. Side by side comparison with the protonophore CCCP and the ATP synthase inhibitor oligomycin suggest that Hypf and MC A act as protonophores that primarily dissipate the mitochondrial membrane potential by direct interaction with the mitochondrial membrane. Together, Hypf and MC A abolish the mitochondrial proton motive force that on one hand impairs mitochondrial viability and on the other cause activation of AMPK due to lowered ATP levels which may further facilitate the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis.

  16. Mitochondria and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Wei-Xing; Rabinowitz, Joshua D; White, Eileen

    2016-03-01

    Decades ago, Otto Warburg observed that cancers ferment glucose in the presence of oxygen, suggesting that defects in mitochondrial respiration may be the underlying cause of cancer. We now know that the genetic events that drive aberrant cancer cell proliferation also alter biochemical metabolism, including promoting aerobic glycolysis, but do not typically impair mitochondrial function. Mitochondria supply energy; provide building blocks for new cells; and control redox homeostasis, oncogenic signaling, innate immunity, and apoptosis. Indeed, mitochondrial biogenesis and quality control are often upregulated in cancers. While some cancers have mutations in nuclear-encoded mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes that produce oncogenic metabolites, there is negative selection for pathogenic mitochondrial genome mutations. Eliminating mtDNA limits tumorigenesis, and rare human tumors with mutant mitochondrial genomes are relatively benign. Thus, mitochondria play a central and multifunctional role in malignant tumor progression, and targeting mitochondria provides therapeutic opportunities. PMID:26942671

  17. Mitochondria and Endothelial Function

    OpenAIRE

    Kluge, Matthew A.; Fetterman, Jessica L.; Vita, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    In contrast to their role in other cell types with higher energy demands, mitochondria in endothelial cells primarily function in signaling cellular responses to environmental cues. This article provides an overview of key aspects of mitochondrial biology in endothelial cells, including subcellular location, biogenesis, dynamics, autophagy, ROS production and signaling, calcium homeostasis, regulated cell death, and heme biosynthesis. In each section, we introduce key concepts and then review...

  18. Mitochondria and neuroplasticity

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Aiwu; Hou, Yan; Mattson, Mark P.

    2010-01-01

    The production of neurons from neural progenitor cells, the growth of axons and dendrites and the formation and reorganization of synapses are examples of neuroplasticity. These processes are regulated by cell-autonomous and intercellular (paracrine and endocrine) programs that mediate responses of neural cells to environmental input. Mitochondria are highly mobile and move within and between subcellular compartments involved in neuroplasticity (synaptic terminals, dendrites, cell body and th...

  19. Standards for Cell Line Authentication and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kenneth D.; Plant, Anne L.

    2016-01-01

    Different genomic technologies have been applied to cell line authentication, but only one method (short tandem repeat [STR] profiling) has been the subject of a comprehensive and definitive standard (ASN-0002). Here we discuss the power of this document and why standards such as this are so critical for establishing the consensus technical criteria and practices that can enable progress in the fields of research that use cell lines. We also examine other methods that could be used for authentication and discuss how a combination of methods could be used in a holistic fashion to assess various critical aspects of the quality of cell lines. PMID:27300367

  20. Difference in Membrane Repair Capacity Between Cancer Cell Lines and a Normal Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; McNeil, Anna K; Novak, Ivana; McNeil, Paul L; Gehl, Julie

    2016-08-01

    Electroporation-based treatments and other therapies that permeabilize the plasma membrane have been shown to be more devastating to malignant cells than to normal cells. In this study, we asked if a difference in repair capacity could explain this observed difference in sensitivity. Membrane repair was investigated by disrupting the plasma membrane using laser followed by monitoring fluorescent dye entry over time in seven cancer cell lines, an immortalized cell line, and a normal primary cell line. The kinetics of repair in living cells can be directly recorded using this technique, providing a sensitive index of repair capacity. The normal primary cell line of all tested cell lines exhibited the slowest rate of dye entry after laser disruption and lowest level of dye uptake. Significantly, more rapid dye uptake and a higher total level of dye uptake occurred in six of the seven tested cancer cell lines (p electroporation. Viability in the primary normal cell line (98 % viable cells) was higher than in the three tested cancer cell lines (81-88 % viable cells). These data suggest more effective membrane repair in normal, primary cells and supplement previous explanations why electroporation-based therapies and other therapies permeabilizing the plasma membrane are more effective on malignant cells compared to normal cells in cancer treatment. PMID:27312328

  1. Targeting mitochondria in cancer cells using gold nanoparticle-enhanced radiotherapy: A Monte Carlo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Radiation damage to mitochondria has been shown to alter cellular processes and even lead to apoptosis. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) may be used to enhance these effects in scenarios where they collect on the outer membranes of mitochondria. A Monte Carlo (MC) approach is used to estimate mitochondrial dose enhancement under a variety of conditions. Methods: The PENELOPE MC code was used to generate dose distributions resulting from photons striking a 13 nm diameter AuNP with various thicknesses of water-equivalent coatings. Similar dose distributions were generated with the AuNP replaced by water so as to estimate the gain in dose on a microscopic scale due to the presence of AuNPs within an irradiated volume. Models of mitochondria with AuNPs affixed to their outer membrane were then generated—considering variation in mitochondrial size and shape, number of affixed AuNPs, and AuNP coating thickness—and exposed (in a dose calculation sense) to source spectra ranging from 6 MV to 90 kVp. Subsequently dose enhancement ratios (DERs), or the dose with the AuNPs present to that for no AuNPs, for the entire mitochondrion and its components were tallied under these scenarios. Results: For a representative case of a 1000 nm diameter mitochondrion affixed with 565 AuNPs, each with a 13 nm thick coating, the mean DER over the whole organelle ranged from roughly 1.1 to 1.6 for the kilovoltage sources, but was generally less than 1.01 for the megavoltage sources. The outer membrane DERs remained less than 1.01 for the megavoltage sources, but rose to 2.3 for 90 kVp. The voxel maximum DER values were as high as 8.2 for the 90 kVp source and increased further when the particles clustered together. The DER exhibited dependence on the mitochondrion dimensions, number of AuNPs, and the AuNP coating thickness. Conclusions: Substantial dose enhancement directly to the mitochondria can be achieved under the conditions modeled. If the mitochondrion dose can be directly

  2. Targeting mitochondria in cancer cells using gold nanoparticle-enhanced radiotherapy: A Monte Carlo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkby, Charles, E-mail: charles.kirkby@albertahealthservices.ca; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel [Department of Medical Physics, Jack Ady Cancer Centre, Lethbridge, Alberta T1J 1W5 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Department of Oncology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: Radiation damage to mitochondria has been shown to alter cellular processes and even lead to apoptosis. Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) may be used to enhance these effects in scenarios where they collect on the outer membranes of mitochondria. A Monte Carlo (MC) approach is used to estimate mitochondrial dose enhancement under a variety of conditions. Methods: The PENELOPE MC code was used to generate dose distributions resulting from photons striking a 13 nm diameter AuNP with various thicknesses of water-equivalent coatings. Similar dose distributions were generated with the AuNP replaced by water so as to estimate the gain in dose on a microscopic scale due to the presence of AuNPs within an irradiated volume. Models of mitochondria with AuNPs affixed to their outer membrane were then generated—considering variation in mitochondrial size and shape, number of affixed AuNPs, and AuNP coating thickness—and exposed (in a dose calculation sense) to source spectra ranging from 6 MV to 90 kVp. Subsequently dose enhancement ratios (DERs), or the dose with the AuNPs present to that for no AuNPs, for the entire mitochondrion and its components were tallied under these scenarios. Results: For a representative case of a 1000 nm diameter mitochondrion affixed with 565 AuNPs, each with a 13 nm thick coating, the mean DER over the whole organelle ranged from roughly 1.1 to 1.6 for the kilovoltage sources, but was generally less than 1.01 for the megavoltage sources. The outer membrane DERs remained less than 1.01 for the megavoltage sources, but rose to 2.3 for 90 kVp. The voxel maximum DER values were as high as 8.2 for the 90 kVp source and increased further when the particles clustered together. The DER exhibited dependence on the mitochondrion dimensions, number of AuNPs, and the AuNP coating thickness. Conclusions: Substantial dose enhancement directly to the mitochondria can be achieved under the conditions modeled. If the mitochondrion dose can be directly

  3. Establishment of a hamster lymphoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe,Shinji

    1974-08-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of a hamster lymphoma cell line was attempted. Simple mincing and trypsinization of lymphoma tissue resulted in a high degree of cell degeneration. The ascitic tumor cells produced by intraperitoneal transplantation of lymphoma tissue gave a better result. These ascitic cells grew and were cultured successively in medium consisting of RPMI 1640 and 20% fetal calf serum. Cells were round and grew in suspension. Accelerated cell growth was observed one month after starting the culture. In the stained preparations, cells were lymphoblastic. Cells were transplantable into new-born hamsters and produced tumors, but not in young adult hamsters.

  4. Noscapine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vivo and in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zi-Rong; Liu, Meng; Peng, Xiu-Lan; Lei, Xiao-Fei; Zhang, Ji-Xiang [Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, Hubei Province (China); Dong, Wei-Guo, E-mail: dongwg1966@yahoo.com.cn [Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan 430060, Hubei Province (China)

    2012-05-11

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noscapine inhibited cell viability of colon cancer in a time- and dose- dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer G{sub 2}/M phase arrest and chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noscapine promoted apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumorigenicity was inhibited by noscapine. -- Abstract: Noscapine, a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been widely used as a cough suppressant for decades. Noscapine has recently been shown to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of several therapies by inducing apoptosis in various malignant cells without any detectable toxicity in cells or tissues. However, the mechanism by which noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells remains unclear. The signaling pathways by which noscapine induces apoptosis were investigated in colon cancer cell lines treated with various noscapine concentrations for 72 h, and a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability was observed. Noscapine effectively inhibited the proliferation of LoVo cells in vitro (IC{sub 50} = 75 {mu}M). This cytotoxicity was reflected by cell cycle arrest at G{sub 2}/M and subsequent apoptosis, as indicated by increased chromatin condensation and fragmentation, the upregulation of Bax and cytochrome c (Cyt-c), the downregulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, in a xenograft tumor model in mice, noscapine injection clearly inhibited tumor growth via the induction of apoptosis, which was demonstrated using a TUNEL assay. These results suggest that noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways. Noscapine may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human colon cancer.

  5. Noscapine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in human colon cancer cells in vivo and in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Noscapine inhibited cell viability of colon cancer in a time- and dose- dependent manner. ► G2/M phase arrest and chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were induced. ► Noscapine promoted apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways. ► Tumorigenicity was inhibited by noscapine. -- Abstract: Noscapine, a phthalide isoquinoline alkaloid derived from opium, has been widely used as a cough suppressant for decades. Noscapine has recently been shown to potentiate the anti-cancer effects of several therapies by inducing apoptosis in various malignant cells without any detectable toxicity in cells or tissues. However, the mechanism by which noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells remains unclear. The signaling pathways by which noscapine induces apoptosis were investigated in colon cancer cell lines treated with various noscapine concentrations for 72 h, and a dose-dependent inhibition of cell viability was observed. Noscapine effectively inhibited the proliferation of LoVo cells in vitro (IC50 = 75 μM). This cytotoxicity was reflected by cell cycle arrest at G2/M and subsequent apoptosis, as indicated by increased chromatin condensation and fragmentation, the upregulation of Bax and cytochrome c (Cyt-c), the downregulation of survivin and Bcl-2, and the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9. Moreover, in a xenograft tumor model in mice, noscapine injection clearly inhibited tumor growth via the induction of apoptosis, which was demonstrated using a TUNEL assay. These results suggest that noscapine induces apoptosis in colon cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways. Noscapine may be a safe and effective chemotherapeutic agent for the treatment of human colon cancer.

  6. Chromium(VI)-induced Production of Reactive Oxygen Species, Change of Plasma Membrane Potential and Dissipation of Mitochondria Membrane Potential in Chinese Hamster Lung Cell Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective To examine whether Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) is generated, and whether plasma membrane potential and mitochondrial membrane potential are depolarized in Chinese Hamster Lung (CHL) cell lines exposed to Cr (VI). Methods CHL cells were incubated with Cr(VI) at 10 μmol/L, 2.5 μmol/L, 0.65 μmol/L for 3 and 6 hours, respectively. The production of ROS was performed by using 2,7_dichlorofluorescin diacetate; The changes in plasma membrane potential were estimated using fluorescent cationic dye DiBAC4; And the changes in mitochondria membrane potential were estimated using fluorescent dye Rhodamine 123. Results The ROS levels in CHL cells increased in all treated groups compared with the control group (P<0.01); The plasma membrane potential and mitochondrial membrane potential in CHL cells dissipated after incubated with Cr(VI) at 10 μmol/L for 3 hours and 6 hours (P<0.01), at 2.5 μmol/L for 6 hours (P<0.01 or 0.05). Conclusion Cr(VI) causes the dissipation of plasma membrane potential and mitochondrial membrane potential in CHL cell cultures, and Cr(VI)_induced ROS may play a role in the injuries.

  7. Chromium(VI)—induces Production of Reactive Oxygen Species,Change of Plasma Membrane Potential and Dissipation of Mitochondria Membrane otential in Chinese Hamster Lung Cell Cultures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIEYI; ZHUANGZHI-XIONG

    2001-01-01

    Objective:To examine whether Reactive Oxygen Species(ROS) is generated,and whether plasma membrane potential and mitochnodrial membrane potential are depolarized in Chinese Hamster Lung(CHL)cell lines exposed to Cr(VI),Methods:CHL Cells were incubated with Cr(VI) at 10 umol/L,2.5umol/L,0.65umol/L for 3 and 6 hours,respectively.The rpoduction of ROS was performed by using 2,7-dichlorofluorescin discetate;The changes in plasma membrane potential were performed by using 2,7-dichlorofluorescin discetate;The changes in plasma membrane potential were performed by using 2,7-dichlorofluorescin diacetate;The changes in plasma membrane potential were estimated using fluorescent cationic dye DiBAC4;And the changes in mitochondria membrane potential were estimated using fluorescent dye Rhodamine 123,Results:The ROS levels in CHL cells increased in all treated groups compared with the control group(P<0.01);The plasma membrane potential and mitochondrial membrane potential in CHL cells dissipated after incubated with Cr(VI) at 10umol/L for 3 hours and 6 hours(P<0.01),at 2.5umol/L for 6 hours(P<0.01 or 0.05),Conclusion:Cr(VI) causes the dissipation of plasma membrane potential and mitochnodrial membrane otential in CHL cell cultrues,and Cr(VI)-induced ROS may play a role in the injuries.

  8. Susceptibility of cell lines to avian viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoni Isabela Cristina

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the five cell lines - IB-RS-2, RK-13, Vero, BHK-21, CER - to reovirus S1133 and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV vaccine GBV-8 strain was studied to better define satisfactory and sensitive cell culture systems. Cultures were compared for presence of CPE, virus titers and detection of viral RNA. CPE and viral RNA were detected in CER and BHK-21 cells after reovirus inoculation and in RK-13 cell line after IBDV inoculation and with high virus titers. Virus replication by production of low virus titers occurred in IB-RS-2 and Vero cells with reovirus and in BHK-21 cell line with IBDV.

  9. Mitochondria and Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, Sejal; Zaganjor, Elma; Haigis, Marcia C

    2016-07-28

    Mitochondria are bioenergetic, biosynthetic, and signaling organelles that are integral in stress sensing to allow for cellular adaptation to the environment. Therefore, it is not surprising that mitochondria are important mediators of tumorigenesis, as this process requires flexibility to adapt to cellular and environmental alterations in addition to cancer treatments. Multiple aspects of mitochondrial biology beyond bioenergetics support transformation, including mitochondrial biogenesis and turnover, fission and fusion dynamics, cell death susceptibility, oxidative stress regulation, metabolism, and signaling. Thus, understanding mechanisms of mitochondrial function during tumorigenesis will be critical for the next generation of cancer therapeutics. PMID:27471965

  10. On Cellular Darwinism: Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Larry

    2016-01-01

    The significant role of mitochondria within cells is becoming increasingly clear. This letter uses the NKCS model of coupled fitness landscapes to explore aspects of organelle-nucleus coevolution. The phenomenon of mitochondrial diversity is allowed to emerge under a simple intracellular evolutionary process, including varying the relative rate of evolution by the organelle. It is shown how the conditions for the maintenance of more than one genetic variant of mitochondria are similar to those previously suggested as needed for the original symbiotic origins of the relationship using the NKCS model.

  11. The oncology drug elesclomol selectively transports copper to the mitochondria to induce oxidative stress in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masazumi; Vo, Nha H; Shin Ogawa, Luisa; Chimmanamada, Dinesh; Inoue, Takayo; Chu, John; Beaudette-Zlatanova, Britte C; Lu, Rongzhen; Blackman, Ronald K; Barsoum, James; Koya, Keizo; Wada, Yumiko

    2012-05-15

    Elesclomol is an investigational drug that exerts potent anticancer activity through the elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and is currently under clinical evaluation as a novel anticancer therapeutic. Here we report the first description of selective mitochondrial ROS induction by elesclomol in cancer cells based on the unique physicochemical properties of the compound. Elesclomol preferentially chelates copper (Cu) outside of cells and enters as elesclomol-Cu(II). The elesclomol-Cu(II) complex then rapidly and selectively transports the copper to mitochondria. In this organelle Cu(II) is reduced to Cu(I), followed by subsequent ROS generation. Upon dissociation from the complex, elesclomol is effluxed from cells and repeats shuttling elesclomol-Cu complexes from the extracellular to the intracellular compartments, leading to continued copper accumulation within mitochondria. An optimal range of redox potentials exhibited by copper chelates of elesclomol and its analogs correlated with the elevation of mitochondrial Cu(I) levels and cytotoxic activity, suggesting that redox reduction of the copper triggers mitochondrial ROS induction. Importantly the mitochondrial selectivity exhibited by elesclomol is a distinct characteristic of the compound that is not shared by other chelators, including disulfiram. Together these findings highlight a unique mechanism of action with important implications for cancer therapy.

  12. Unveiling interactions among mitochondria, caspase-like proteases, and the actin cytoskeleton during plant programmed cell death (PCD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina E N Lord

    Full Text Available Aponogeton madagascariensis produces perforations over its leaf surface via programmed cell death (PCD. PCD begins between longitudinal and transverse veins at the center of spaces regarded as areoles, and continues outward, stopping several cells from these veins. The gradient of PCD that exists within a single areole of leaves in an early stage of development was used as a model to investigate cellular dynamics during PCD. Mitochondria have interactions with a family of proteases known as caspases, and the actin cytoskeleton during metazoan PCD; less is known regarding these interactions during plant PCD. This study employed the actin stain Alexa Fluor 488 phalloidin, the actin depolymerizer Latrunculin B (Lat B, a synthetic caspase peptide substrate and corresponding specific inhibitors, as well as the mitochondrial pore inhibitor cyclosporine A (CsA to analyze the role of these cellular constituents during PCD. Results depicted that YVADase (caspase-1 activity is higher during the very early stages of perforation formation, followed by the bundling and subsequent breakdown of actin. Actin depolymerization using Lat B caused no change in YVADase activity. In vivo inhibition of YVADase activity prevented PCD and actin breakdown, therefore substantiating actin as a likely substrate for caspase-like proteases (CLPs. The mitochondrial pore inhibitor CsA significantly decreased YVADase activity, and prevented both PCD and actin breakdown; therefore suggesting the mitochondria as a possible trigger for CLPs during PCD in the lace plant. To our knowledge, this is the first in vivo study using either caspase-1 inhibitor (Ac-YVAD-CMK or CsA, following which the actin cytoskeleton was examined. Overall, our findings suggest the mitochondria as a possible upstream activator of YVADase activity and implicate these proteases as potential initiators of actin breakdown during perforation formation via PCD in the lace plant.

  13. Silencing of Pokemon enhances caspase-dependent apoptosis via fas- and mitochondria-mediated pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Qin Zhang

    Full Text Available The role of Pokemon (POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic actor, a recently identified POK transcription factor with proto-oncogenic activity, in hepatocellular carcinogenesis has only been assessed by a few studies. Our previous study revealed that Pokemon is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC and promotes HCC cell proliferation and migration via an AKT- and ERK- dependent manner. In the present study, we used the TUNEL assay and FACS analysis to demonstrate that oxaliplatin induced apoptosis was significantly increased in cells with silenced Pokemon. Western blots showed that p53 expression and phosphorylation were significantly increased in Pokemon defective cells, thereby initiating the mitochondria-mediated and death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathways. In the mitochondria-mediated pathway, expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members (including Bad, Bid, Bim and Puma as well as AIF was increased and decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential resulted in cytochrome C released from mitochondrial in HepG2 si-Pokemon cells. In addition, upon oxaliplatin treatment of Pokemon-silenced cells, the FAS receptor, FADD and their downstream targets caspase-10 and caspase-8 were activated, causing increased release of caspase-8 active fragments p18 and p10. Increased activated caspase-8-mediated cleavage and activation of downstream effector caspases such as caspase-9 and caspase-3 was observed in HepG2 si-Pokemon cells as compared to control. Therefore, Pokemon might serve as an important mediator of crosstalk between intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in HCC cells. Moreover, our findings suggest that Pokemon could be an attractive therapeutic target gene for human cancer therapy.

  14. Silencing of Pokemon enhances caspase-dependent apoptosis via fas- and mitochondria-mediated pathways in hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Qin; Xiao, Chuan-Xing; Lin, Bi-Yun; Shi, Ying; Liu, Yun-Peng; Liu, Jing-Jing; Guleng, Bayasi; Ren, Jian-Lin

    2013-01-01

    The role of Pokemon (POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic actor), a recently identified POK transcription factor with proto-oncogenic activity, in hepatocellular carcinogenesis has only been assessed by a few studies. Our previous study revealed that Pokemon is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and promotes HCC cell proliferation and migration via an AKT- and ERK- dependent manner. In the present study, we used the TUNEL assay and FACS analysis to demonstrate that oxaliplatin induced apoptosis was significantly increased in cells with silenced Pokemon. Western blots showed that p53 expression and phosphorylation were significantly increased in Pokemon defective cells, thereby initiating the mitochondria-mediated and death receptor-mediated apoptotic pathways. In the mitochondria-mediated pathway, expression of pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members (including Bad, Bid, Bim and Puma) as well as AIF was increased and decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential resulted in cytochrome C released from mitochondrial in HepG2 si-Pokemon cells. In addition, upon oxaliplatin treatment of Pokemon-silenced cells, the FAS receptor, FADD and their downstream targets caspase-10 and caspase-8 were activated, causing increased release of caspase-8 active fragments p18 and p10. Increased activated caspase-8-mediated cleavage and activation of downstream effector caspases such as caspase-9 and caspase-3 was observed in HepG2 si-Pokemon cells as compared to control. Therefore, Pokemon might serve as an important mediator of crosstalk between intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways in HCC cells. Moreover, our findings suggest that Pokemon could be an attractive therapeutic target gene for human cancer therapy. PMID:23874836

  15. Virus Discovery Using Tick Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Attoui, Houssam

    2016-01-01

    While ticks have been known to harbor and transmit pathogenic arboviruses for over 80 years, the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies has revealed that ticks also appear to harbor a diverse range of endogenous tick-only viruses belonging to many different families. Almost nothing is known about these viruses; indeed, it is unclear in most cases whether the identified viral sequences are derived from actual replication-competent viruses or from endogenous virus elements incorporated into the ticks’ genomes. Tick cell lines play an important role in virus discovery and isolation through the identification of novel viruses chronically infecting such cell lines and by acting as host cells to aid in determining whether or not an entire replication-competent, infective virus is present in a sample. Here, we review recent progress in tick-borne virus discovery and comment on the actual and potential applications for tick cell lines in this emerging research area. PMID:27679414

  16. Pollen mitochondria in cytoplasmically male sterile tobacco zygotic and embryonic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An attempt is being made to establish cytoplasmic organelles transmission during the process of fertilization, by using tobacco grain pollen labelled with leucine 14C and tritiated thymidine. Through autoradiography the fate of pollen germination and its entry into the embryo sac has been studied. A few days after fertilization, labelled cytoplasmic organelles - mainly mitochondria - were detected in the embryo sac. However, labelling was not observed in cytoplasmic organelles by using tritiated thymidine. For more conclusive results labelled DNA incorporated in cytoplasmic organelles have to be traced during the embryo and endosperm development

  17. Resveratrol protects against hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage to mitochondria by activating SIRT1 in rat mesangial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Resveratrol has potent protective effects on diabetes and diabetic complications including diabetic nephropathy. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of resveratrol on mitochondria and the underlying mechanisms by using an in vitro model of hyperglycemia. We exposed primary cultured rat mesangial cells to high glucose (30 mM) for 48 h. We found that pretreatment with resveratrol (10 μM) 6 h prior to high glucose treatment significantly reduced hyperglycemia-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial superoxide generation, as well as stimulated MnSOD activity. In addition, resveratrol pretreatment significantly reversed the decrease of mitochondrial complex III activity in glucose-treated mesangial cells, which is considered to be the major source of mitochondrial oxidative stress in glucose-treated cells. Furthermore, resveratrol pretreatment efficiently restored the hyperpolarization of ∆Ψm, increased ATP production and preserved the mtDNA content. All of these protective effects of resveratrol were successfully blocked by siRNA targeting SIRT1 and EX-527, a specific inhibitor of SIRT1 activity. Our results indicated that resveratrol efficiently reduced oxidative stress and maintained mitochondrial function related with activating SIRT1 in glucose-treated mesangial cells. It suggested that resveratrol is pharmacologically promising for treating diabetic nephropathy. -- Highlights: ► We treat mesangial cells with glucose as an in vitro model of diabetic nephropathy. ► We find that the nephroprotective effects of resveratrol relate with mitochondria. ► The beneficial effect of resveratrol was prevented by siRNA SIRT1 or its inhibitor.

  18. Resveratrol protects against hyperglycemia-induced oxidative damage to mitochondria by activating SIRT1 in rat mesangial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Ying [Base for Drug Clinical Trial, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400037 (China); Nie, Ling [Department of Nephrology, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400037 (China); Yin, Yang-Guang [Emergency Department, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400037 (China); Tang, Jian-Lin; Zhou, Ji-Yin; Li, Dan-Dan [Base for Drug Clinical Trial, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400037 (China); Zhou, Shi-Wen, E-mail: Zhoushiwen1956@yahoo.cn [Base for Drug Clinical Trial, Xinqiao Hospital, Third Military Medical University, Chongqing, 400037 (China)

    2012-03-15

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Resveratrol has potent protective effects on diabetes and diabetic complications including diabetic nephropathy. We aimed to investigate the protective effects of resveratrol on mitochondria and the underlying mechanisms by using an in vitro model of hyperglycemia. We exposed primary cultured rat mesangial cells to high glucose (30 mM) for 48 h. We found that pretreatment with resveratrol (10 μM) 6 h prior to high glucose treatment significantly reduced hyperglycemia-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial superoxide generation, as well as stimulated MnSOD activity. In addition, resveratrol pretreatment significantly reversed the decrease of mitochondrial complex III activity in glucose-treated mesangial cells, which is considered to be the major source of mitochondrial oxidative stress in glucose-treated cells. Furthermore, resveratrol pretreatment efficiently restored the hyperpolarization of ∆Ψm, increased ATP production and preserved the mtDNA content. All of these protective effects of resveratrol were successfully blocked by siRNA targeting SIRT1 and EX-527, a specific inhibitor of SIRT1 activity. Our results indicated that resveratrol efficiently reduced oxidative stress and maintained mitochondrial function related with activating SIRT1 in glucose-treated mesangial cells. It suggested that resveratrol is pharmacologically promising for treating diabetic nephropathy. -- Highlights: ► We treat mesangial cells with glucose as an in vitro model of diabetic nephropathy. ► We find that the nephroprotective effects of resveratrol relate with mitochondria. ► The beneficial effect of resveratrol was prevented by siRNA SIRT1 or its inhibitor.

  19. Time-resolved spectroscopy of mitochondria, cells and tissues under normal and pathological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauvoit, B; Chance, B

    1998-07-01

    In this study, the detailed dependence of light scattering on tissue architecture and intracellular composition has been investigated. Firstly, we simulated the reduced scattering coefficient (mu(s)') of the rat liver using the Mie theory, the Rayleigh-Debye-Gans approximation and electron microscopy data. Then, the reduced scattering coefficient of isolated rat liver mitochondria, isolated hepatocytes and various rat tissues (i.e. perfused liver, brain, muscle, tumors) was measured at 780 nm by using time-resolved spectroscopy and a sample-substitution protocol. The comparison of the isolated mitochondria data with the isolated hepatocyte and whole liver measurements suggests that the mitochondrial compartment is the primary factor for light propagation in hepatic tissue, thus strengthening the relevance of the preliminary theoretical study. Nevertheless, the possibility that other intracellular components, such as peroxisomes and lysosomes, interfere with light propagation in rat liver is discussed. Finally, we demonstrate that light scattering in normal rat tissues and tumors is roughly proportional to the mitochondrial content, according to estimates of the mitochondrial protein content of the tissues. PMID:9746339

  20. Analysis of glutathione and glutathione disulfide in whole cells and mitochondria by postcolumn derivatization high-performance liquid chromatography with ortho-phthalaldehyde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, K J; Therriault, H; Wagner, J R

    1999-10-01

    A method is described for the detection of glutathione (GSH) and glutathione disulfide (GSSG) based on a HPLC postcolumn reaction with ortho-phthalaldehyde (OPT) at pH 12 followed by fluorescence detection. Although similar methods have been reported, the high pH of the postcolumn reaction adds considerable selectivity and sensitivity to the measurement of GSH and glutathione disulfide. The limit of detection approaches 100 fmol, which is sufficient to detect whole-cell glutathione disulfide in 10,000 cells or mitochondrial glutathione disulfide in 20 million cells. Using this method, glutathione and glutathione disulfide were measured in human lymphocytes, granulocytes, and cultured Jurkat T cells, as well as in the corresponding samples of mitochondria. The percentage of glutathione disulfide to total glutathione in whole-cell extracts was approximately 1%. In contrast, the percentage was relatively high in mitochondria, with the mitochondria of granulocytes having the highest (25%) followed by those of lymphocytes (15%) and finally by cultured Jurkat T cells (9%). This method extends the analysis of glutathione and glutathione disulfide to mitochondria obtained from a relatively small number of cells. PMID:10527505

  1. Melatonin promotes Bax sequestration to mitochondria reducing cell susceptibility to apoptosis via the lipoxygenase metabolite 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid

    KAUST Repository

    Radogna, Flavia

    2015-03-01

    Extra-neurological functions of melatonin include control of the immune system and modulation of apoptosis. We previously showed that melatonin inhibits the intrinsic apoptotic pathway in leukocytes via stimulation of high affinity MT1/MT2 receptors, thereby promoting re-localization of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein to mitochondria. Here we show that Bcl-2 sequesters pro-apoptotic Bax into mitochondria in an inactive form after melatonin treatment, thus reducing cell propensity to apoptosis. Bax translocation and the anti-apoptotic effect of melatonin are strictly dependent on the presence of Bcl-2, and on the 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) metabolite 5-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-HETE), which we have previously shown to be produced as a consequence of melatonin binding to its low affinity target calmodulin. Therefore, the anti-apoptotic effect of melatonin requires the simultaneous, independent interaction with high (MT1/MT2) and low (calmodulin) affinity targets, eliciting two independent signal transduction pathways converging into Bax sequestration and inactivation. MT1/MT2 vs. lipoxygenase pathways are activated by 10-9 vs. 10-5M melatonin, respectively; the anti-apoptotic effect of melatonin is achieved at 10-5M, but drops to 10-9M upon addition of exogenous 5-HETE, revealing that lipoxygenase activation is the rate-limiting pathway. Therefore, in areas of inflammation with increased 5-HETE levels, physiological nanomolar concentrations of melatonin may suffice to maintain leukocyte viability.

  2. Investigation of the selenium metabolism in cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunøe, Kristoffer; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Stürup, Stefan;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare different selenium species for their ability to induce cell death in different cancer cell lines, while investigating the underlying chemistry by speciation analysis. A prostate cancer cell line (PC-3), a colon cancer cell line (HT-29) and a leukaemia cell line...

  3. Quantitative proteomics reveals oxygen-dependent changes in neuronal mitochondria affecting function and sensitivity to rotenone

    OpenAIRE

    Villeneuve, Lance; Tiede, LeAnn M.; Morsey, Brenda; Fox, Howard S

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria are implicated in a variety of degenerative disorders and aging. Mitochondria are responsive to the oxygen in their environment yet tissue culture is performed at atmospheric (21%) oxygen and not at physiological (1-11%) oxygen levels found in tissues. We employed imaging of mitochondrial probes, mass spectrometry, western blots and ATP assays of the human neuroblastoma cell-line SH-SY5Y; and imaging of mitochondrial probes in human primary neurons in standard non-physiological o...

  4. Hsp105 family proteins suppress staurosporine-induced apoptosis by inhibiting the translocation of Bax to mitochondria in HeLa cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsp105 (Hsp105α and Hsp105β), major heat shock proteins in mammalian cells, belong to a subgroup of the HSP70 family, HSP105/110. Previously, we have shown that Hsp105α has completely different effects on stress-induced apoptosis depending on cell type. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Hsp105α regulates stress-induced apoptosis are not fully understood. Here, we established HeLa cells that overexpress either Hsp105α or Hsp105β by removing doxycycline and examined how Hsp105 modifies staurosporine (STS)-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Apoptotic features such as the externalization of phosphatidylserine on the plasma membrane and nuclear morphological changes were induced by the treatment with STS, and the STS-induced apoptosis was suppressed by overexpression of Hsp105α or Hsp105β. In addition, we found that overexpression of Hsp105α or Hsp105β suppressed the activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 by preventing the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. Furthermore, the translocation of Bax to mitochondria, which results in the release of cytochrome c from the mitochondria, was also suppressed by the overexpression of Hsp105α or Hsp105β. Thus, it is suggested that Hsp105 suppresses the stress-induced apoptosis at its initial step, the translocation of Bax to mitochondria in HeLa cells

  5. Translation and Assembly of Radiolabeled Mitochondrial DNA-Encoded Protein Subunits from Cultured Cells and Isolated Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formosa, Luke E; Hofer, Annette; Tischner, Christin; Wenz, Tina; Ryan, Michael T

    2016-01-01

    In higher eukaryotes, the mitochondrial electron transport chain consists of five multi-subunit membrane complexes responsible for the generation of cellular ATP. Of these, four complexes are under dual genetic control as they contain subunits encoded by both the mitochondrial and nuclear genomes, thereby adding another layer of complexity to the puzzle of respiratory complex biogenesis. These subunits must be synthesized and assembled in a coordinated manner in order to ensure correct biogenesis of different respiratory complexes. Here, we describe techniques to (1) specifically radiolabel proteins encoded by mtDNA to monitor the rate of synthesis using pulse labeling methods, and (2) analyze the stability, assembly, and turnover of subunits using pulse-chase methods in cultured cells and isolated mitochondria.

  6. Alamethicin permeabilizes the plasma membrane and mitochondria but not the tonoplast in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv Bright Yellow) suspension cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matic, S.; Geisler, D.A.; Møller, I.M.;

    2005-01-01

    The ion channel-forming peptide AlaM (alamethicin) is known to permeabilize isolated mitochondria as well as animal cells. When intact tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) Bright Yellow-2 cells were treated with AlaM, the cells became permeable for low-molecular-mass molecules as shown by induced leakage...... remained intact, as indicated by an unaffected tonoplast proton gradient. Low-flux permeabilization of plasma membranes and mitochondria at moderate AlaM concentrations was reversible and did not affect cell vigour. Higher AlaM concentrations induced cell death. After the addition of catalase that removes...... the H2O2 necessary for NADH oxidation by apoplastic peroxidases, mitochondrial oxygen consumption could be measured in permeabilized cells. Inhibitor-sensitive oxidation of the respiratory substrates succinate, malate and NADH was observed after the addition of the appropriate coenzymes (ATP, NAD...

  7. A TP-FRET-based two-photon fluorescent probe for ratiometric visualization of endogenous sulfur dioxide derivatives in mitochondria of living cells and tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Yibo; Zhang, Xiufang; Yang, Sheng; Chen, Yun; Guo, Jingru; Li, Xiaoxuan; Qing, Zhihe; Yang, Ronghua

    2016-08-11

    A ratiometric two-photon fluorescent probe for SO2 derivatives was first proposed based on acedan-merocyanine dyads via a TP-FRET strategy. It was successfully applied to visualization of the fluctuations of enzymatically generated SO2 derivatives in the mitochondria of HepG2 cells and rat liver tissues using two-photon fluorescence microscopy imaging. PMID:27469474

  8. IN VITRO STUDY ON CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF THE ORGANOPHO-SPHOROUS PESTICIDE PROFENOFOS ON THE GILL CELL LINE, FG-9307, OF THE FLOUNDER (PARALICHTHYS OLIVACEUS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The FG-9307 cell line derived from the gill of flounder Paralichthys olivaceus was used in the present study to determine the acute cytotoxic effects of the organophosphorous pesticide, profenofos. It was found that the cell growth rate was markedly reduced by profenofos at the concentrations of 2.5, 5 and 7.5 mg/L tested; and that the fine structures of the cells were also altered by profenofos, as evidenced by dilation of nuclear membranes and mitochondria cristae, and presence of enlarged lysosomes with engulfed organelles and numerous vacuoles in the cytoplasm. Probably, mitochondria, the cell energy-generating sites, are the most prominent sites of profenofos cytotoxity in the cells. This seems to be the first report of the use of marine fish cell line for evaluation of the acute in vitro cytotoxicity of organophosphorus pesticide.

  9. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felthaus, O. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Ettl, T.; Gosau, M.; Driemel, O. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Brockhoff, G. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reck, A. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Zeitler, K. [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Hautmann, M. [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reichert, T.E. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Schmalz, G. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Morsczeck, C., E-mail: christian.morsczeck@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  10. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). → Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. → Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. → In situ CD133+ cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. → CD133+ and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133+ cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced JNK activation is a critical event leading to mitochondria-mediated cell death caused by β-lapachone treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyemi Lee

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: β-Lapachone (β-lap is a bioreductive agent that is activated by the two-electron reductase NAD(PH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1. Although β-lap has been reported to induce apoptosis in various cancer types in an NQO1-dependent manner, the signaling pathways by which β-lap causes apoptosis are poorly understood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: β-Lap-induced apoptosis and related molecular signaling pathways in NQO1-negative and NQO1-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 cells were investigated. Pharmacological inhibitors or siRNAs against factors involved in β-lap-induced apoptosis were used to clarify the roles played by such factors in β-lap-activated apoptotic signaling pathways. β-Lap leads to clonogenic cell death and apoptosis in an NQO1-dependent manner. Treatment of NQO1-overexpressing MDA-MB-231 cells with β-lap causes rapid disruption of mitochondrial membrane potential, nuclear translocation of AIF and Endo G from mitochondria, and subsequent caspase-independent apoptotic cell death. siRNAs targeting AIF and Endo G effectively attenuate β-lap-induced clonogenic and apoptotic cell death. Moreover, β-lap induces cleavage of Bax, which accumulates in mitochondria, coinciding with the observed changes in mitochondria membrane potential. Pretreatment with Salubrinal (Sal, an endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress inhibitor, efficiently attenuates JNK activation caused by β-lap, and subsequent mitochondria-mediated cell death. In addition, β-lap-induced generation and mitochondrial translocation of cleaved Bax are efficiently blocked by JNK inhibition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that β-lap triggers induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, thereby leading to JNK activation and mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. The signaling pathways that we revealed in this study may significantly contribute to an improvement of NQO1-directed tumor therapies.

  12. Glutathione and mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas, Vicent; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Fernández-Checa, José C.

    2014-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) is the main non-protein thiol in cells whose functions are dependent on the redox-active thiol of its cysteine moiety that serves as a cofactor for a number of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. While synthesized exclusively in the cytosol from its constituent amino acids, GSH is distributed in different compartments, including mitochondria where its concentration in the matrix equals that of the cytosol. This feature and its negative charge at physiological pH imply the e...

  13. 地西他滨对同步化的G0/G1期MDS-L细胞系线粒体功能的影响%Role of decitabine in the mitochondria biogenesis of synchronized G0/G1 phase MDS-L cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱宗建; 杨娟; 宋强

    2014-01-01

    目的:初步探讨地西他滨( DAC)在不整合入基因组DNA的情况下对线粒体生物学功能的影响。方法采用阿非迪霉素( APC)将MDS-L细胞同步化在G0/G1期。 DCFH-DA检测不同浓度DAC(0、5、10、15μmol/L)处理后的同步化G0/G1期细胞系活性氧( ROS)的产生水平。采用qRT-PCR法检测线粒体DNA拷贝数和线粒体编码基因NADH脱氢酶1、6( ND1、ND6) mRNA改变。结果与对照组相比,DAC在低浓度5μmol/L条件下可以通过不依赖DNA损伤的途径增加细胞ROS的产生(P<0.05),同时细胞内线粒体DNA(MtDNA)的拷贝数较对照组明显增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。但随着DAC浓度增加,DAC在高浓度(15μmol/L)可降低ROS的产生(P<0.05)。此外,在高浓度DAC作用下,ND1和ND6基因表达较对照组明显升高(P<0.05)。结论 DAC通过影响细胞ROS产生,改变线粒体DNA的拷贝数以及调控线粒体基因的表达,产生对线粒体功能的影响,并呈浓度依赖性。%Objective To investigate the effect of decitabin ( DAC) on the mitochondrial biogenesis of synchronized G0/G1 cells.Methods MDS-L cells were treated with aphidicolin ( APC) to synchronize cell cycle at G0/G1 stage. After treatment of decitabine at different concentrations (0, 5, 10, 15μmol/L), reactive oxygen species (ROS) pro-ductions were detected by DCFH-DA.Changes of mitochondrial DNA copy number and expressions of coded genes, NADH dehydrogenase 1 (ND1) and NADH dehydrogenase 6(ND6), were detected with qRT-PCR.Results In com-parison with the control group, decitabine at low concentration (5μmol/L) could promote the production of ROS ( P<0.05) and increase the copy number of mtDNA ( P<0.05); however, as the concentration increased to 15μmol/L, ROS production started to decline to even lower than that of the control (P<0.05).Besides, DAC could significantly change the expressions of ND1 and ND6 at high

  14. Mitochondria: Redox Metabolism and Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Kang; Shazib Pervaiz

    2012-01-01

    Mitochondria are the main intracellular location for fuel generation; however, they are not just power plants but involved in a range of other intracellular functions including regulation of redox homeostasis and cell fate. Dysfunction of mitochondria will result in oxidative stress which is one of the underlying causal factors for a variety of diseases including neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. In this paper, generation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen sp...

  15. Autophagy Protects Against Senescence and Apoptosis via the RAS-Mitochondria in High-Glucose-Induced Endothelial Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds: Autophagy is an important process in the pathogenesis of diabetes and plays a critical role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. However, the autophagic response and its mechanism in diabetic vascular endothelium remain unclear. Methods and Results: We studied high-glucose-induced renin-angiotensin system (RAS-mitochondrial damage and its effect on endothelial cells. With regard to therapeutics, we investigated the beneficial effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs or angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs against high-glucose-induced endothelial responses. High glucose activated RAS, enhanced mitochondrial damage and increased senescence, apoptosis and autophagic-responses in endothelial cells, and these effects were mimicked by using angiotensin II (Ang. The use of an ACEI or ARB, however, inhibited the negative effects of high glucose. Direct mitochondrial injury caused by carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP resulted in similar negative effects of high glucose or Ang and abrogated the protective effects of an ACEI or ARB. Additionally, by impairing autophagy, high-glucose-induced senescence and apoptosis were accelerated and the ACEI- or ARB-mediated beneficial effects were abolished. Furthermore, increases in FragEL™ DNA Fragmentation (TUNEL-positive cells, β-galactosidase activation and the expression of autophagic biomarkers were revealed in diabetic patients and rats, and the treatment with an ACEI or ARB decreased these responses. Conclusions: These data suggest that autophagy protects against senescence and apoptosis via RAS-mitochondria in high-glucose-induced endothelial cells.

  16. Chitosan attenuates dibutyltin-induced apoptosis in PC12 cells through inhibition of the mitochondria-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaorui; Miao, Junqiu; Yan, Chaoqun; Ge, Rui; Liang, Taigang; Liu, Enli; Li, Qingshan

    2016-10-20

    Dibutyltin (DBT) which was widely used as biocide and plastic stabilizer has been described as a potent neurotoxicant. Chitosan (CS), a natural nontoxic biopolymer, possesses a variety of biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal, free radical scavenging and neuroprotective activities. The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effects of CS against DBT-induced apoptosis in rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells and the underlying mechanisms in vitro. Our results demonstrated that pretreatment with CS significantly increased the cell viability and decreased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release induced by DBT in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, DBT-induced cell apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) disruption, and generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were attenuated by CS. Real-time PCR assay showed that DBT markedly enhanced the mRNA levels of Bax, Bad, cytochrome-c and Apaf-1, reduced the Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL mRNA levels, while these genes expression alteration could be partially reversed by CS treatment. Furthermore, CS also inhibited the DBT-inducted activation of caspase-9, and -3 at mRNA and protein expression levels. Taken together, these results suggested that CS could protect the PC12 cells from apoptosis induced by DBT through inhibition of the mitochondria-dependent pathway. PMID:27474647

  17. Nitro-Arachidonic Acid Prevents Angiotensin II-Induced Mitochondrial Dysfunction in a Cell Line of Kidney Proximal Tubular Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Sánchez-Calvo

    Full Text Available Nitro-arachidonic acid (NO2-AA is a cell signaling nitroalkene that exerts anti-inflammatory activities during macrophage activation. While angiotensin II (ANG II produces an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction in renal tubular cells, little is known regarding the potential protective effects of NO2-AA in ANG II-mediated kidney injury. As such, this study examines the impact of NO2-AA on ANG II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in an immortalized renal proximal tubule cell line (HK-2 cells. Treatment of HK-2 cells with ANG II increases the production of superoxide (O2●-, nitric oxide (●NO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2 expression, peroxynitrite (ONOO- and mitochondrial dysfunction. Using high-resolution respirometry, it was observed that the presence of NO2-AA prevented ANG II-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Attempting to address mechanism, we treated isolated rat kidney mitochondria with ONOO-, a key mediator of ANG II-induced mitochondrial damage, in the presence or absence of NO2-AA. Whereas the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH and ATP synthase (ATPase were diminished upon exposure to ONOO-, they were restored by pre-incubating the mitochondria with NO2-AA. Moreover, NO2-AA prevents oxidation and nitration of mitochondrial proteins. Combined, these data demonstrate that ANG II-mediated oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction is abrogated by NO2-AA, identifying this compound as a promising pharmacological tool to prevent ANG II-induced renal disease.

  18. Minireview: Selective Degradation of Mitochondria by Mitophagy*

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Insil; Rodriguez-Enriquez, Sara; Lemasters, John J.

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondria are the essential site of aerobic energy production in eukaryotic cells. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are an inevitable by-product of mitochondria metabolism and can cause mitochondrial DNA mutations and dysfunction. Mitochondrial damage can also be the consequence of disease processes. Therefore, maintaining a healthy population of mitochondria is essential to the well-being of cells. Autophagic delivery to lysosomes is the major degradative pathway in mitochondrial turnover, a...

  19. Redox Signaling and Bioenergetics Influence Lung Cancer Cell Line Sensitivity to the Isoflavone ME-344.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manevich, Yefim; Reyes, Leticia; Britten, Carolyn D; Townsend, Danyelle M; Tew, Kenneth D

    2016-08-01

    ME-344 [(3R,4S)-3,4-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-8-methyl-3,4-dihydro-2H-chromen-7-ol] is a second-generation derivative natural product isoflavone presently under clinical development. ME-344 effects were compared in lung cancer cell lines that are either intrinsically sensitive or resistant to the drug and in primary immortalized human lung embryonic fibroblasts (IHLEF). Cytotoxicity at low micromolar concentrations occurred only in sensitive cell lines, causing redox stress, decreased mitochondrial ATP production, and subsequent disruption of mitochondrial function. In a dose-dependent manner the drug caused instantaneous and pronounced inhibition of oxygen consumption rates (OCR) in drug-sensitive cells (quantitatively significantly less in drug-resistant cells). This was consistent with targeting of mitochondria by ME-344, with specific effects on the respiratory chain (resistance correlated with higher glycolytic indexes). OCR inhibition did not occur in primary IHLEF. ME-344 increased extracellular acidification rates in drug-resistant cells (significantly less in drug-sensitive cells), implying that ME-344 targets mitochondrial proton pumps. Only in drug-sensitive cells did ME-344 dose-dependently increase the intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species and cause oxidation of total (mainly glutathione) and protein thiols and the concomitant immediate increases in NADPH levels. We conclude that ME-344 causes complex, redox-specific, and mitochondria-targeted effects in lung cancer cells, which differ in extent from normal cells, correlate with drug sensitivity, and provide indications of a beneficial in vitro therapeutic index. PMID:27255112

  20. The Research Progress of Mitochondria and Cell Regulation%线粒体与细胞调控的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤浩(综述); 林春龙(审校)

    2015-01-01

    线粒体是一种细胞器,广泛存在于除红细胞以外的大多数细胞体内,同时也是细胞进行氧化磷酸化、三羧酸循环及氧化呼吸链的主要场所,产生 ATP,提供细胞活动所需能量,同时线粒体也参与细胞代谢的多个环节,如细胞增殖、凋亡等。近年来,线粒体与细胞调控对疾病的发生、发展成为潜在的研究热点。因此,明确线粒体在细胞调控中的作用机制,以便更好地认识及指导对相关性疾病的治疗具有重要意义。%Mitochondria is a cell organelle,which widely exists in the majority of the cells except red blood cells,at the same time,it is an important place for cell to carry out oxidative phosphorylation ,three tri-carboxylic acid cycle and oxidative respiratory chain , producing ATP for the requirement of cell activity , moreover,mitochondria also participates in multiple processes of cell metabolism ,such as cell proliferation, apoptosis,etc.In recent years,the mitochondria and cell regulation on the occurrence of diseases has become a potential research hotspot.Therefore clarifying the mechanism of cell regulation in mitochondria has a great significance for understanding and guiding the treatment of associated diseases.

  1. Conditionally lethal mutations in chinese hamster cells. Characterization of a cell line with a possible defect in the Krebs cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFrancesco, L; Werntz, D; Scheffler, I E

    1975-04-01

    A variant Chinese hamster cell line has been isolated from a mutagenized population that has a markedly reduced ability to oxidize a variety of substrates via the Krebs cycle. The production of 14CO2 from 14C-labeled compounds was measured using pyruvate, acetate, beta-hydroxybutyrate, palmitate and glutamate, and in all cases it was neglibible in the mutant. In contrast to this, significant amounts of 14CO2 were produced from 14C-aspartate and 14C-succinate which suggest that some reactions of the Krebs cycle can take place and this conclusion is supported by tracer experiments with labeled compounds. The rate of respiration measured with a Clark oxygen electrode in the mutant was compared to several normal Chinese hamster cell lines and was found to be only 8%. Mitochondria appear to be present in normal numbers and with only minor differences in morphology. The measurement of difference spectra between oxidized and reduced states permits us to conclude that the cytochromes are all present and functional. These results lead us to believe that there may be a defect in the Krebs cycle between alpha-ketoglutarate and succinate. Alternatively a defect in a structural component of the mitochondria or in the electron-transport chain itself may be causing pleiotropic effects in the Krebs cycle and respiration.

  2. Isoflurane preconditioning increases B-cell lymphoma-2 expression and reduces cytochrome c release from the mitochondria in the ischemic penumbra of rat brain

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Liaoliao; Peng, Longyun; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2008-01-01

    We and others have shown that prior exposure to the volatile anesthetic isoflurane induces ischemic tolerance in the brain. Our results also suggest that isoflurane preconditioning reduces cell apoptosis in the penumbral region of rat brain. We designed this study to determine whether isoflurane preconditioning decreased mitochondria-dependent cell apoptosis. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to or not exposed to 2% isoflurane for 30 min at 24 h before the permanent middle cerebral ...

  3. Mitochondria-dependent apoptogenic activity of the aqueous root extract of Croton membranaceus against human BPH-1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afriyie, D K; Asare, G A; Bugyei, K; Lin, J; Peng, J; Hong, Z

    2015-01-01

    Croton membranaceus aqueous root extract (CMARE) is among the widely used phytotherapeutics in Ghana for the management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer. However, the mechanism of action of CMARE remains to be elucidated. This study aimed to establish whether apoptosis is involved in the antiproliferative effect of CMARE on human BPH-1 cells. We determined the effect of treatment with 0, 1, 3, and 5 mg/mL CMARE for 24, 48, and 72 h on the viability and morphology of BPH-1 cells using the MMT assay and phase-contrast microscopy, respectively. We examined the apoptosis-inducing effects of CMARE after 48 h at the cellular level using Hoescht 33258 and JC-1 dye staining and flow cytometry analysis. We performed reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting to confirm the apoptotic effects of CMARE at the molecular level. CMARE induced a significant dose-dependent inhibition in the proliferation of BPH-1 cells (P < 0.05) and an alteration in their morphology and a reduction their density. Furthermore, CMARE induced dose-dependent staining of the nuclear chromatin, significant DNA fragmentation with G₀/G₁ sub-diploid cells (P < 0.01), and loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential in the treated cells compared to the controls after 48 h (P < 0.01). Additionally, while CMARE induced a significant upregulation of the mRNA and protein levels of Bax, those of Bcl2 did not change significantly. Therefore, induction of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis of BPH-1 cells may be a possible mechanism of action of CMARE.

  4. Role of mitochondria in cell apoptosis during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury and protective effect of ischemic postconditioning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kai Sun; Zhi-Su Liu; Quan Sun

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of mitochondria in cell apoptosis during hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury and protective effect of ischemic postconditioning (IPC).METHODS: A rat model of acute hepatic ischemia-reperfusion was established, 24 healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham-operated group, ischemia-reperfusion group (IR) and IPC group. IPC was achieved by several brief pre-reperfusions followed by a persistent reperfusion.Concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) and activity of several antioxidant enzymes in hepatic tissue were measured respectively. Apoptotic cells were detected by TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) and expression of Bcl-2 protein was measured by immunohistochemical techniques. Moreover, mitochondrial ultrastructure and parameters of morphology of the above groups were observed by electron microscope.RESULTS: Compared with IR group, the concentration of MDA and the hepatocellular apoptotic index in IPC group was significantly reduced (P<0.05), while the activity of antioxidant enzymes and OD value of Bcl-2 protein were markedly enhanced (P<0.05). Moreover, the injury of mitochondrial ultrastructure in IPC group was also obviously relieved.CONCLUSION: IPC can depress the synthesis of oxygen free radicals to protect the mitochondrial ultrastructure and increase the expression of Bcl-2 protein that lies across the mitochondrial membrane. Consequently, IPC can reduce hepatocellular apoptosis after reperfusion and has a protective effect on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  5. Susceptibility testing of fish cell lines for virus isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    compare susceptibility between cell lines and between lineages within a laboratory and between laboratories (Inter-laboratory Proficiency Test). The objective being that the most sensitive cell line and lineages are routinely selected for diagnostic purposes.In comparing cell lines, we simulated "non......-cell-culture-adapted" virus by propagating the virus in heterologous cell lines to the one tested. A stock of test virus was produced and stored at - 80 °C and tests were conducted biannually. This procedure becomes complicated when several cell lines are in use and does not account for variation among lineages. In comparing...... cell lineages, we increased the number of isolates of each virus, propagated stocks in a given cell line and tested all lineages of that line in use in the laboratory. Testing of relative cell line susceptibility between laboratories is carried out annually via the Inter-laboratory Proficiency Test...

  6. THE CYTOTOXIC EFFECTS OF CRUDE BILE ON HUMAN PANCREATIC CANCER CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective To identify effects of bile acids on pancreatic cancer, The ultrastructure and growth of PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cell lines in crude bile modified medium were studied. Methods The growth of PANC-1 and MIA PaCa-2 cells in RPMI 1640 with or without 1%, 2% and 4% of the purified crude bile (containing total bile acids 10.17mmol/L) was assessed for 2, 4, 6, 8d by using MTT assay to determine inhibitory rate. The cell surface and intracellular ultrastructure of PANC-1 cells was investigated by SEM and TEM at 24h and 48h, respectively. Re sults The proliferation of both cell lines in bile treated medium were greatly retarded (P <0.001). The inhibitory rate of 1%, 2% and 4% bile on Panc-1 cells in 4d were 38%, 60% and 66%, respectively (P <0. 05), on MIA PaCa-2 cells at 4d were 28%, 39% and 52%, respectively (P <0. 05). The cells grown in bile for 48h lost their mi crovilli, their mitochondria and other organelles became vacuolated. Conclusion The bile acids in bile has cytotoxicity on PANC-1 and MIAPACA-2 cells, which may inhibit pancreatic cancer progress in patients clinically.

  7. How to prevent 'half-bastard' progeny? or An alternative for three-parent babies: two-parent babies through transplantation of sperm mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongaerts, Ger P A

    2006-01-01

    Body development and activity depend on the level of internal energy generation. Therefore, unaffected, optimally active mitochondria are indispensable in a healthy and vital body. A mutation in the DNA of the semi-autonomous mitochondria (mtDNA) may cause an inheritable insufficiency that is due to decreased energy generation needed for adequate development. Sperm mitochondria will not enter the egg cell during fusion of male and female gametocytes. Since women with mutated mtDNA will increasingly know and realize the effect of such mutation in their own body, they will more often ask for treatment to stop the effect of such inconvenient mutation in their progeny. Thus far, solutions for this problem were thought to be: (i) nucleus transplantation just after fertilization into a nucleus-free egg cell of a second healthy woman and later (ii) transplantation of healthy mitochondria from a second woman into the egg cell before fertilization. Although both transplantations create babies with three, instead of two-parents that have contributed to the genetic content, in case of the newer mitochondria transplantation technique the part of the second woman is somewhat more reduced, but still clearly present. Thus, assisted-reproduction techniques that mix egg cell mitochondria from two women may create not only 'three-parents' babies, but also fears for 'three-parents' babies, since this handling may create non-scientific problems, especially regarding emotional, ethical, religious and juridical aspects of life. Transplantation of healthy sperm mitochondria of the partner into the egg cell with insufficient mitochondria is thought to be the best solution for this problem, since it may create a 'two-parents' instead of a 'three-parents' baby. This only implies that at the moment of (successful) transplantation the biological dogma is broken that mitochondria are maternally inherited: the mitochondria of the maternal line of the woman will have been substituted by the

  8. Mitochondria-dependent apoptosis induced by a novel amphipathic photochemotherapeutic agent ZnPcS2P2 in HL60 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-fang HUANG; Yuan-zhong CHEN; Yong WU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the mechanism underlying the killing effects of a novel amphipathic photosensitizer, disulfonated diphthalimidomethyl phthalocyanine zinc (ZnPcS2P2), mediated photodynamic therapy (ZnPc-PDT) in human myelogenous leukemia HL60 cells. Methods: After incubation for 5 h with 0.5 μmol/L ZnPcS2P2, the HL60 cells were exposed to a light source of 670 nm wavelength.Thereafter, the cells were detected at different time intervals after PDT. The characteristics of apoptosis were detected by observation of ultrastructure assay,DNA fragmentation assay and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase deoxyuridine nick-end labeling method (TUNEL). Mitochondria-dependent apoptosis was determined by the detection of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), activities of caspase family protease and of caspase-3, cytosol cytochrome c. Proteins Bcl-2and Bax were detected by immunoblot analysis. Results: Evident characteristics of apoptosis were observed post-ZnPc-PDT with ultrastructure assay, DNA fragmentation assay and TUNEL staining. TUNEL assay showed that apoptotic rates in the cells collected from 6 h, 12 h and 24 h after PDT were 9.6%, 24.4%, and 33.0%,respectively. HL60 cells underwent mitochondria-dependent apoptosis as a result of cytochrome c release from mitochondria into cytosol accompanied by a reduction of Δψm. The activities of caspase family protease and of caspase-3were elevated. Furthermore, ZnPc-PDT could remarkably down-regulate the Bcl-2pro-apoptotic protein and up-regulate the anti-apoptotic Bax protein. Conclusion:ZnPc-PDT could induce mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in HL60 cells.

  9. Regulatory networks define phenotypic classes of human stem cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Franz-Josef; Louise C. Laurent; Kostka, Dennis; Ulitsky, Igor; Williams, Roy; Lu, Christina; Park, In-Hyun; Rao, Mahendra S.; Shamir, Ron; Philip H. Schwartz; Schmidt, Nils O.; Loring, Jeanne F.

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells are defined as self-renewing cell populations that can differentiate into multiple distinct cell types. However, hundreds of different human cell lines from embryonic, fetal, and adult sources have been called stem cells, even though they range from pluripotent cells, typified by embryonic stem cells, which are capable of virtually unlimited proliferation and differentiation, to adult stem cell lines, which can generate a far more limited repertory of differentiated cell types. The...

  10. Proton pump activity of mitochondria-rich cells: The interpretation of external proton-concentration gradients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Jørn; Sørensen, Jens N.; Larsen, Erik Hviid;

    1997-01-01

    Active Cl*O- transport, reheogenic H*O+ pump, unstirred layer, mathematics of diffusion, proton concentration-profiles outside epithelial cells......Active Cl*O- transport, reheogenic H*O+ pump, unstirred layer, mathematics of diffusion, proton concentration-profiles outside epithelial cells...

  11. Gambogic acid induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis by modulation of Bcl-2 and Bax in mantle cell lymphoma JeKo-1 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingyan Xu; Min Zhou; Jian Ouyang; Jing Wang; Qiguo Zhang; Yong Xu; Yueyi Xu

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To study the mechanisms in gambogic acid (GA)-induced JeKo-1 human Mantle Cell Lymphoma cell apoptosis in vitro.Methods:The proliferation of GA-treated JeKo-1 cells was measured by CCK-8 assay and Ki-67 immunocytochemical detection.Apoptosis,cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential were measured by flow cytometric analysis.Caspase-3,-8 and-9 were detected by colorimetric assay.Bcl-2 and Bax were analyzed by Western blotting.Results:GA inhibited cell growth in a time-and dose-dependent manner.GA induces apoptosis in JeKo-1 cells but not in normal bone marrow cells,which was involved in reducing the membrane potential of mitochondria,activating caspases-3,-8 and-9 and decreasing the ratio of Bcl-2 and Bax without cell cycle arresting.Conclusions:GA induced apoptosis in human MCL JeKo-1 cells by regulating Bcl-2/Bax and activating caspase-3,-8 and-9 via mitochondrial pathway without affecting cell cycle.

  12. Mitochondria as determinant of nucleotide pools and chromosomal stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Claus Desler; Munch-Petersen, Birgitte; Stevnsner, Tinna;

    2007-01-01

    Mitochondrial function plays an important role in multiple human diseases and mutations in the mitochondrial genome have been detected in nearly every type of cancer investigated to date. However, the mechanism underlying the interrelation is unknown. We used human cell lines depleted of mitochon...... mitochondrial activity. Our results suggest that mitochondria are central players in maintaining genomic stability and in controlling essential nuclear processes such as upholding a balanced supply of nucleotides....

  13. High prevalence of side population in human cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Boesch, Maximilian; Zeimet, Alain G; Fiegl, Heidi; Wolf, Barbara; Huber, Julia; Klocker, Helmut; Gastl, Guenther; Sopper, Sieghart; Wolf, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cell lines are essential platforms for performing cancer research on human cells. We here demonstrate that, across tumor entities, human cancer cell lines harbor minority populations of putative stem-like cells, molecularly defined by dye extrusion resulting in the side population phenotype. These findings establish a heterogeneous nature of human cancer cell lines and argue for their stem cell origin. This should be considered when interpreting research involving these model systems.

  14. Expression of Cyclooxygenase-2 in Ovarian Cancer Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in ovarian cancer cell lines,RT-PCR and immunocytochemistry were used to detect the expression of COX-2 in 5 ovarian cancer cell lines. The expression of COX-2 mRNA and protein was detected in all 5 cell lines. It is suggested that COX-2 is expressed in ovarian cancer cell lines, which provides a basis for the chemoprevention of ovarian cancer.

  15. Plumbagin induces the apoptosis of human tongue carcinoma cells through the mitochondria-mediated pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Jia-Xuan; He, Yuan-qiao; Wang, Yong; Xu, Ru-liang; Qin, You; Shen, Xiang; Zhou, Shu-Feng; Mao, Zong-Fu

    2013-01-01

    Background Plumbagin, a quinonoid constituent isolated from the root of Plumbago zeylanica L., has been proven to possess anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. However, its anti-tumor properties for human tongue carcinoma have not been reported. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect and the underlying mechanism of plumbagin on the growth of human tongue carcinoma cells. Material/Methods Cell proliferation ability was detected by EdU incorporation assay and colony form...

  16. Empowering self-renewal and differentiation: the role of mitochondria in stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rehman, Jalees

    2010-01-01

    Stem cells are characterized by their multi-lineage differentiation potential (pluripotency) and their ability for self-renewal, which permits them to proliferate while avoiding lineage commitment and senescence. Recent studies demonstrate that undifferentiated, pluripotent stem cells display lower levels of mitochondrial mass and oxidative phosphorylation, and instead preferentially use non-oxidative glycolysis as a major source of energy. Hypoxia is a potent suppressor of mitochondrial oxid...

  17. A reversible and highly selective fluorescence "on-off-on" probe for detecting nickel ion in the mitochondria of living cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Tian, Xiaohe; Li, Hong; Li, Wei; Zhu, Weiju; Zhou, Hongping; Tian, Yupeng; Wu, Jieying

    2016-08-15

    A simple molecular fluorescent probe L has been designed, synthesized and characterized. The probe upon interaction with different metals ions show high selectivity and sensitivity for Ni(2+) through fluorescence "turn-off" response in acetonitrile, and the fluorescence could be recovered when chelating agent TPEN is added in this system, viz an "on-off-on" process. Its recognition mechanism has been established by fluorescence spectra, (1)H NMR study. Moreover, to further explore its utility in biological system, L is selected as a probe for Ni(2+) indicator in live cells and shows sensitivity on Ni(2+) intracellular distribution. Fluorescence co-localization studies demonstrate that L is a specific mitochondria-targeted fluorescent probe with excellent cell membrane permeability. Furthermore, a rapidly reversible fluorescence imaging of probe L detecting Ni(2+) in the mitochondria is successfully achieved. These facts would make this probe a great potential for detecting Ni(2+) in biology. PMID:27043479

  18. 77 FR 5489 - Identification of Human Cell Lines Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Identification of Human Cell Lines Project AGENCY: National... tandem repeat (STR) profiling up to 1500 human cell line samples as part of the Identification of Human Cell Lines Project. All data and corresponding information will be posted in a publically held...

  19. Glutathione and Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicent eRibas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione (GSH is the main nonprotein thiol in cells whose functions are dependent on the redox-active thiol of its cysteine moiety that serves as a cofactor for a number of antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. While synthesized exclusively in the cytosol from its constituent amino acids, GSH is distributed in different compartments, including mitochondria where its concentration in the matrix equals that of the cytosol. This feature and its negative charge at physiological pH imply the existence of specific carriers to import GSH from the cytosol to the mitochondrial matrix, where it plays a key role in defense against respiration-induced reactive oxygen species and in the detoxification of lipid hydroperoxides and electrophiles. Moreover, as mitochondria play a central strategic role in the activation and mode of cell death, mitochondrial GSH has been shown to critically regulate the level of sensitization to secondary hits that induce mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and release of proteins confined in the intermembrane space that once in the cytosol engage the molecular machinery of cell death. In this review, we summarize recent data on the regulation of mitochondrial GSH and its role in cell death and prevalent human diseases, such as cancer, fatty liver disease and Alzheimer’s disease.

  20. Translocation of p53 to Mitochondria Is Regulated by Its Lipid Binding Property to Anionic Phospholipids and It Participates in Cell Death Control1

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ching-Hao; Cheng, Yu-Wen; Liao, Po-Ling; Kang, Jaw-Jou

    2010-01-01

    p53, can regulate cell apoptosis in both transcription-dependent and -independent manners. The transcription-independent pathway was demonstrated by the translocation of p53 to mitochondria. Our study showed that p53 mitochondrial translocation was found in mitomycin C (MMC)-treated HepG2. The p53 C-terminal domain is clustered with potential nuclear leading sequences and showed strong electrostatic ion-ion interactions with cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidic acid in vitro. Di...

  1. Translocation of p53 to Mitochondria Is Regulated by Its Lipid Binding Property to Anionic Phospholipids and It Participates in Cell Death Control

    OpenAIRE

    Ching-Hao Li; Yu-Wen Cheng; Po-Ling Liao; Jaw-Jou Kang

    2010-01-01

    p53, can regulate cell apoptosis in both transcription-dependent and -independent manners. The transcription-independent pathway was demonstrated by the translocation of p53 to mitochondria. Our study showed that p53 mitochondrial translocation was found in mitomycin C (MMC)-treated HepG2. The p53 C-terminal domain is clustered with potential nuclear leading sequences and showed strong electrostatic ion-ion interactions with cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidic acid in vitro. Di...

  2. Plastids and mitochondria comportment in dividing meiocytes of Psilotum nudum

    OpenAIRE

    D. Tchórzewska; V. B. Brukhin; J. Bednara

    2014-01-01

    In prophase I meiocyte plastids and mitochondria were situated at random. By telophase I plastids and mitochondria were aggregated in an equatorial plane. The aggregation was differentiated into three layers, the middle layer formed mostly by mitochondria, the outer layers consisted largely of plastids. By telophase II the mitochondria layers separated the cell into four domains, while plastid layers were disaggregated. Inside the mitochondrial layer the cell plates were formed. During this p...

  3. Crosstalk between mitochondria and peroxisomes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean; Demarquoy; Fran?oise; Le; Borgne

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondria and peroxisomes are small ubiquitous organelles. They both play major roles in cell metabolism,especially in terms of fatty acid metabolism,reactive oxygen species(ROS) production,and ROS scavenging,and it is now clear that they metabolically interact with each other. These two organelles share some properties,such as great plasticity and high potency to adapt their form and number according to cell requirements. Their functions are connected,and any alteration in the function of mitochondria may induce changes inperoxisomal physiology. The objective of this paper was to highlight the interconnection and the crosstalk existing between mitochondria and peroxisomes. Special emphasis was placed on the best known connections between these organelles:origin,structure,and metabolic interconnections.

  4. Chloride transport in a glioma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolpaw, E.W.

    1984-01-01

    Maintenance of the extracellular environment is a major function of central nervous system astroglia. The transport of Cl/sup -/ across the cell membrane may be an integral part of this function, since Cl/sup -/ transport has been implicated in homeostasis of cell volume, pH, and extracellular K/sup +/ concentration. The work presented here investigated Cl/sup -/ transport in the glioma cell line LRM55. Results indicate that LRM55 cells are a good model for astroglia and that these cells contain three Cl/sup -/ transporters; a Cl/sup -//HCO/sub 3//sup -/ exchanger, a K/sup +//Cl/sup -/ cotransporter, and a Cl/sup -//SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ exchanger. Ion transport studies measured the fluxes of Cl/sup -/ (as /sup 36/Cl/sup -/), K/sup +/ (as /sup 86/Rb/sup +/), and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ (as /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/). Cl/sup -/ flux was trans-simulated by Cl/sup -/ or HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and was inhibited by SITS or furosemide. External K/sup +/ stimulated Cl/sup -/ influx and external Cl/sup -/ stimulated Rb/sup +/ influx. Furosemide, but not SITS, inhibited the K/sup +//Cl/sup -/ cotransporter. High K/sup +/ medium increased cell volume and Cl/sup -/ content. Steady-state Cl/sup -/ concentration was at least twice that predicted from passive equilibration according to the Nernst equation. SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ flux was trans-stimulated by SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ or by Cl/sup -/. Cl/sup -/ was a competitive inhibitor of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ influx, but SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ had no detectable effect on Cl/sup -/ influx or efflux. SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ flux was inhibited by SITS or furosemide.

  5. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon components contribute to the mitochondria-antiapoptotic effect of fine particulate matter on human bronchial epithelial cells via the aryl hydrocarbon receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baeza-Squiban Armelle

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays, effects of fine particulate matter (PM2.5 are well-documented and related to oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory response. Nevertheless, epidemiological studies show that PM2.5 exposure is correlated with an increase of pulmonary cancers and the remodeling of the airway epithelium involving the regulation of cell death processes. Here, we investigated the components of Parisian PM2.5 involved in either the induction or the inhibition of cell death quantified by different parameters of apoptosis and delineated the mechanism underlying this effect. Results In this study, we showed that low levels of Parisian PM2.5 are not cytotoxic for three different cell lines and primary cultures of human bronchial epithelial cells. Conversely, a 4 hour-pretreatment with PM2.5 prevent mitochondria-driven apoptosis triggered by broad spectrum inducers (A23187, staurosporine and oligomycin by reducing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential loss, the subsequent ROS production, phosphatidylserine externalization, plasma membrane permeabilization and typical morphological outcomes (cell size decrease, massive chromatin and nuclear condensation, formation of apoptotic bodies. The use of recombinant EGF and specific inhibitor led us to rule out the involvement of the classical EGFR signaling pathway as well as the proinflammatory cytokines secretion. Experiments performed with different compounds of PM2.5 suggest that endotoxins as well as carbon black do not participate to the antiapoptotic effect of PM2.5. Instead, the water-soluble fraction, washed particles and organic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH could mimic this antiapoptotic activity. Finally, the activation or silencing of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR showed that it is involved into the molecular mechanism of the antiapoptotic effect of PM2.5 at the mitochondrial checkpoint of apoptosis. Conclusions The PM2.5-antiapoptotic effect in addition

  6. Mechanistic studies of cancer cell mitochondria- and NQO1-mediated redox activation of beta-lapachone, a potentially novel anticancer agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta-lapachone (beta-Lp) derived from the Lapacho tree is a potentially novel anticancer agent currently under clinical trials. Previous studies suggested that redox activation of beta-Lp catalyzed by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) accounted for its killing of cancer cells. However, the exact mechanisms of this effect remain largely unknown. Using chemiluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping techniques, this study for the first time demonstrated the real-time formation of ROS in the redox activation of beta-lapachone from cancer cells mediated by mitochondria and NQO1 in melanoma B16–F10 and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cancer cells. ES936, a highly selective NQO1 inhibitor, and rotenone, a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport chain (METC) complex I were found to significantly block beta-Lp meditated redox activation in B16–F10 cells. In HepG2 cells ES936 inhibited beta-Lp-mediated oxygen radical formation by ∼ 80% while rotenone exerted no significant effect. These results revealed the differential contribution of METC and NQO1 to beta-lapachone-induced ROS formation and cancer cell killing. In melanoma B16–F10 cells that do not express high NQO1 activity, both NOQ1 and METC play a critical role in beta-Lp redox activation. In contrast, in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells expressing extremely high NQO1 activity, redox activation of beta-Lp is primarily mediated by NQO1 (METC plays a minor role). These findings will contribute to our understanding of how cancer cells are selectively killed by beta-lapachone and increase our ability to devise strategies to enhance the anticancer efficacy of this potentially novel drug while minimizing its possible adverse effects on normal cells. - Highlights: • Both isolated mitochondria and purified NQO1 are able to generate ROS by beta-Lp. • The differential roles of mitochondria and NQO1 in mediating redox activation of beta-Lp • In cancer cells with

  7. Mechanistic studies of cancer cell mitochondria- and NQO1-mediated redox activation of beta-lapachone, a potentially novel anticancer agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jason Z. [Virginia Tech CRC, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Ke, Yuebin [Shenzhen Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Shenzhen 518055 (China); Misra, Hara P. [Virginia Tech CRC, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Trush, Michael A. [Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD (United States); Li, Y. Robert [Campbell University School of Osteopathic Medicine, Buies Creek, NC (United States); Virginia Tech-Wake Forest University SBES, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, NC (United States); Zhu, Hong, E-mail: zhu@campbell.edu [Campbell University School of Osteopathic Medicine, Buies Creek, NC (United States); Jia, Zhenquan, E-mail: z_jia@uncg.edu [Department of Biology, University of North Carolina at Greensboro, NC (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Beta-lapachone (beta-Lp) derived from the Lapacho tree is a potentially novel anticancer agent currently under clinical trials. Previous studies suggested that redox activation of beta-Lp catalyzed by NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) accounted for its killing of cancer cells. However, the exact mechanisms of this effect remain largely unknown. Using chemiluminescence and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin-trapping techniques, this study for the first time demonstrated the real-time formation of ROS in the redox activation of beta-lapachone from cancer cells mediated by mitochondria and NQO1 in melanoma B16–F10 and hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cancer cells. ES936, a highly selective NQO1 inhibitor, and rotenone, a selective inhibitor of mitochondrial electron transport chain (METC) complex I were found to significantly block beta-Lp meditated redox activation in B16–F10 cells. In HepG2 cells ES936 inhibited beta-Lp-mediated oxygen radical formation by ∼ 80% while rotenone exerted no significant effect. These results revealed the differential contribution of METC and NQO1 to beta-lapachone-induced ROS formation and cancer cell killing. In melanoma B16–F10 cells that do not express high NQO1 activity, both NOQ1 and METC play a critical role in beta-Lp redox activation. In contrast, in hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells expressing extremely high NQO1 activity, redox activation of beta-Lp is primarily mediated by NQO1 (METC plays a minor role). These findings will contribute to our understanding of how cancer cells are selectively killed by beta-lapachone and increase our ability to devise strategies to enhance the anticancer efficacy of this potentially novel drug while minimizing its possible adverse effects on normal cells. - Highlights: • Both isolated mitochondria and purified NQO1 are able to generate ROS by beta-Lp. • The differential roles of mitochondria and NQO1 in mediating redox activation of beta-Lp • In cancer cells with

  8. Role of mitochondria in drug-induced cholestatic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, George E N; Price, Shirley C

    2008-02-01

    Mitochondria have multiple functions in eukaryotic cells and are organized into dynamic tubular networks that continuously undergo changes through coordinated fusion and fission and migration through the cytosol. Mitochondria integrate cell-signaling networks, especially those involving the intracellular messenger Ca(2+), into the regulation of metabolic pathways. Recently, it has become clear that mitochondria are central to the three main cell death pathways, namely necrosis, apoptosis, and autophagic cell death. This article discusses the role of mitochondria in drug-induced cholestatic injury to the liver. The role of mitochondria in the cellular adaptation against the toxic effects of bile acids is discussed also. PMID:18242496

  9. Mitochondria-acting hexokinase II peptides carried by short-length carbon nanotubes with increased cellular uptake, endosomal evasion, and enhanced bioactivity against cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong, Sia Lee; Lau, Wei Liang; Liu, Ang Yu; Prendergast, D'arcy; Ho, Han Kiat; Yu, Victor Chun Kong; Lee, Chengkuo; Ang, Wee Han; Pastorin, Giorgia

    2015-08-01

    Type II hexokinase (HKII) has emerged as a viable therapeutic target due to its involvement in metabolic reprogramming and also apoptosis prevention. The peptide derived from the fifteen amino acid sequence in the HKII N-terminal region [HKII(pep)] can compete with endogenous proteins for binding on mitochondria and trigger apoptosis. However, this peptide is not cell-permeable. In this study, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were used to effectively deliver HKII(pep) across cellular barriers without compromising their bioactivity. The peptide was conjugated on either oxidized MWCNTs or 2,2'-(ethylenedioxy)bis(ethylamine)-functionalized MWCNTs, yielding MWCNT-HKII(pep) and MWCNT-TEG-HKII(pep), respectively. Both conjugates were shown to be internalized by breast cancer MCF-7 cells using confocal microscopy. Moreover, these nanoconjugates seemed to have escaped from endosomes and be in the vicinity of mitochondria. The WST-1 cytotoxicity assay conducted on MCF-7 and colon carcinoma HCT116 cells revealed that MWCNT-peptide conjugates were significantly more effective in curbing cancer cell growth compared to a commercially available cell permeable HKII fusion peptide. In addition, both nanoconjugates displayed an enhanced ability in eliciting apoptosis and depleting the ATP level in HCT116 cells compared to the mere HKII peptide. Importantly, hexokinase II release from mitochondria was demonstrated in MWCNT-HKII(pep) and MWCNT-TEG-HKII(pep) treated cells, highlighting that the structure and bioactivity of HKII(pep) were not compromised after covalent conjugation to MWCNTs.Type II hexokinase (HKII) has emerged as a viable therapeutic target due to its involvement in metabolic reprogramming and also apoptosis prevention. The peptide derived from the fifteen amino acid sequence in the HKII N-terminal region [HKII(pep)] can compete with endogenous proteins for binding on mitochondria and trigger apoptosis. However, this peptide is not cell-permeable. In this study

  10. Reactive oxygen species regulated mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in PC12 cells exposed to chlorpyrifos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactive oxidative species (ROS) generated by environmental toxicants including pesticides could be one of the factors underlying the neuronal cell damage in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we found that chlorpyrifos (CPF) induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal components of PC12 cells as demonstrated by the activation of caspases and nuclear condensation. Furthermore, CPF also reduced the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive immunoreactivity in substantia nigra of the rat. In addition, CPF induced inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity. Importantly, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment effectively blocked apoptosis via the caspase-9 and caspase-3 pathways while NAC attenuated the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity as well as the oxidative metabolism of dopamine (DA). These results demonstrated that CPF-induced apoptosis was involved in mitochondrial dysfunction through the production of ROS. In the response of cellular antioxidant systems to CPF, we found that CPF treatment increased HO-1 expression while the expression of CuZnSOD and MnSOD was reduced. In addition, we found that CPF treatment activated MAPK pathways, including ERK 1/2, the JNK, and the p38 MAP kinase in a time-dependent manner. NAC treatment abolished MAPK phosphorylation caused by CPF, indicating that ROS are upstream signals of MAPK. Interestingly, MAPK inhibitors abolished cytotoxicity and reduced ROS generation by CPF treatment. Our results demonstrate that CPF induced neuronal cell death in part through MAPK activation via ROS generation, suggesting its potential to generate oxidative stress via mitochondrial damage and its involvement in oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative disease. -- Highlights: ► Chlorpyrifos induces apoptosis. ► Chlorpyrifos inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity. ► ROS is involved in chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis. ► Chlorpyrifos affects cellular antioxidant systems. ► Chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis mediates activation of MAPK.

  11. Reactive oxygen species regulated mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in PC12 cells exposed to chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Eun [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyeon [Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, In Chul [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Hyun Chul, E-mail: hckoh@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-01

    Reactive oxidative species (ROS) generated by environmental toxicants including pesticides could be one of the factors underlying the neuronal cell damage in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we found that chlorpyrifos (CPF) induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal components of PC12 cells as demonstrated by the activation of caspases and nuclear condensation. Furthermore, CPF also reduced the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive immunoreactivity in substantia nigra of the rat. In addition, CPF induced inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity. Importantly, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment effectively blocked apoptosis via the caspase-9 and caspase-3 pathways while NAC attenuated the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity as well as the oxidative metabolism of dopamine (DA). These results demonstrated that CPF-induced apoptosis was involved in mitochondrial dysfunction through the production of ROS. In the response of cellular antioxidant systems to CPF, we found that CPF treatment increased HO-1 expression while the expression of CuZnSOD and MnSOD was reduced. In addition, we found that CPF treatment activated MAPK pathways, including ERK 1/2, the JNK, and the p38 MAP kinase in a time-dependent manner. NAC treatment abolished MAPK phosphorylation caused by CPF, indicating that ROS are upstream signals of MAPK. Interestingly, MAPK inhibitors abolished cytotoxicity and reduced ROS generation by CPF treatment. Our results demonstrate that CPF induced neuronal cell death in part through MAPK activation via ROS generation, suggesting its potential to generate oxidative stress via mitochondrial damage and its involvement in oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative disease. -- Highlights: ► Chlorpyrifos induces apoptosis. ► Chlorpyrifos inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity. ► ROS is involved in chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis. ► Chlorpyrifos affects cellular antioxidant systems. ► Chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis mediates activation of MAPK.

  12. EXPRESSION OF Fas LIGAND IN HUMAN COLON CANCER CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建军; 丁尔迅; 王强; 陈学云; 付志仁

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the expression of Fas ligand in human colon carcinoma cell lines. Methods: A total of six human colon cancer cell lines were examined for the expression of Fas ligand mRNA and cell surface protein by using RT-PCR and flow cytometry respectively. Results: The results showed that Fas ligand mRNA was expressed in all of the six cancer cell lines and Fas ligand cell surface protein was expressed in part of them. Conclusion: These data suggest that Fas ligand was expressed, at least in part, in human colon cancer cell lines and might facilitate to escape from immune surveillance of the host.

  13. Cu(II)-disulfide complexes with superoxide dismutase- and catalase-like activities protect mitochondria and whole cells against oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aliaga, Margarita E; Sandoval-Acuña, Cristián; López-Alarcón, Camilo; Fuentes, Jocelyn; Speisky, Hernan

    2014-10-01

    Mitochondria are a major subcellular site of superoxide (O2(-)) formation. Conditions leading to an uncontrolled production, accumulation and/or conversion of O2(-) into hydrogen peroxide result in an increment in the intramitochondrial oxidative tone which, ultimately leads to the loss of cell viability. Recently, we reported on the ability of a series of Cu(II)-disulfide complexes to act simultaneously as SOD- and catalase-like molecules. In the present study, we addressed the potential of such compounds to protect mitochondria and cells against the oxidative stress and the cytolytic damage induced by diclofenac. Exposure of Caco-2 cells to diclofenac (250µM, 20min) led to a near 80% inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity and almost doubled the rate of mitochondrial O2(-) production (assessed by Mitosox). A comparable increment was seen in whole cells when the oxidative tone was assessed through the largely hydrogen peroxide-dependent dichlorofluorescein (DCFH) oxidation. The increment in mitochondrial O2(-) production was totally and concentration-dependently prevented by the addition of the complexes formed between Cu(II) and the disulfides of glutathione, homocysteine, or a-dehydro-lipoic acid (20µM each); comparatively, the Cu(II)-cystine complex exerted a weaker protection. A comparable protection pattern was seen at the whole cell level, as these complexes were also effective in preventing the increment in DCFH oxidation. The mitochondrial and whole cell antioxidant protection also translated into a full protection against the cytolytic effects of diclofenac (45min). Results from the present study indicate that the here-tested Cu(II)-disulfides complexes are able to effectively protect cells against the oxidative and the lytic effects of O2(-)-overproducing mitochondria, suggesting a potential for these type of compounds to act as SOD- and catalase-like molecules under oxidative-stress conditions. Supported by FONDECYT #1110018. PMID:26461399

  14. DNA profiling and characterization of animal cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Glyn N; Byrne, Ed; Hawkins, J Ross

    2014-01-01

    The history of the culture of animal cell lines is littered with published and much unpublished experience with cell lines that have become switched, mislabelled, or cross-contaminated during laboratory handling. To deliver valid and good quality research and to avoid waste of time and resources on such rogue lines, it is vital to perform some kind of qualification for the provenance of cell lines used in research and particularly in the development of biomedical products. DNA profiling provides a valuable tool to compare different sources of the same cells and, where original material or tissue is available, to confirm the correct identity of a cell line. This chapter provides a review of some of the most useful techniques to test the identity of cells in the cell culture laboratory and gives methods which have been used in the authentication of cell lines. PMID:24297409

  15. Absolute quantification of superoxide dismutase in cytosol and mitochondria of mice hepatic cells exposed to mercury by a novel metallomic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Identification and quantification of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase in mice hepatic cells. • IDA-ICP-MSis applied to obtain a high degree of accuracy, precision and sensibility. • This methodology reduces the time of analysis and avoids clean-up procedures. • The application of this method to Hg-exposed mice reveals perturbations in Cu,Zn-SOD. - Abstract: In the last years, the development of new methods for analyzing accurate and precise individual metalloproteins is of increasing importance, since numerous metalloproteins are excellent biomarkers of oxidative stress and diseases. In that way, methods based on the use of post column isotopic dilution analysis (IDA) or enriched protein standards are required to obtain a sufficient degree of accuracy, precision and high limits of detection. This paper reports the identification and absolute quantification of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) in cytosol and mitochondria from mice hepatic cells using a innovative column switching analytical approach. The method consisted of orthogonal chromatographic systems coupled to inductively coupling plasma-mass spectrometry equipped with a octopole reaction systems (ICP-ORS-MS) and UV detectors: size exclusion fractionation (SEC) of the cytosolic and mitochondrial extracts followed by online anion exchange chromatographic (AEC) separation of Cu/Zn containing species. After purification, Cu,Zn-SOD was identified after tryptic digestion by molecular mass spectrometry (MS). The MS/MS spectrum of a doubly charged peptide was used to obtain the sequence of the protein using the MASCOT searching engine. This optimized methodology reduces the time of analysis and avoids the use of sample preconcentration and clean-up procedures, such as cut-off centrifuged filters, solid phase extraction (SPE), precipitation procedures, off-line fractions insolates, etc. In this sense, the method is robust, reliable and fast with typical chromatographic run time less than 20 min

  16. Absolute quantification of superoxide dismutase in cytosol and mitochondria of mice hepatic cells exposed to mercury by a novel metallomic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Sevillano, M.A.; García-Barrera, T. [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Huelva 21007 (Spain); Research Center on Health and Environment (CYSMA), University of Huelva (Spain); International Campus of Excellence on Agrofood (ceiA3), University of Huelva (Spain); Navarro, F. [International Campus of Excellence on Agrofood (ceiA3), University of Huelva (Spain); Department of Environmental Biology and Public Health, Cell Biology, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, Campus El Carmen, Huelva 21007 (Spain); Gómez-Ariza, J.L., E-mail: ariza@uhu.es [Department of Chemistry and Materials Science, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Huelva, Campus de El Carmen, Huelva 21007 (Spain); Research Center on Health and Environment (CYSMA), University of Huelva (Spain); International Campus of Excellence on Agrofood (ceiA3), University of Huelva (Spain)

    2014-09-09

    Highlights: • Identification and quantification of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase in mice hepatic cells. • IDA-ICP-MSis applied to obtain a high degree of accuracy, precision and sensibility. • This methodology reduces the time of analysis and avoids clean-up procedures. • The application of this method to Hg-exposed mice reveals perturbations in Cu,Zn-SOD. - Abstract: In the last years, the development of new methods for analyzing accurate and precise individual metalloproteins is of increasing importance, since numerous metalloproteins are excellent biomarkers of oxidative stress and diseases. In that way, methods based on the use of post column isotopic dilution analysis (IDA) or enriched protein standards are required to obtain a sufficient degree of accuracy, precision and high limits of detection. This paper reports the identification and absolute quantification of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD) in cytosol and mitochondria from mice hepatic cells using a innovative column switching analytical approach. The method consisted of orthogonal chromatographic systems coupled to inductively coupling plasma-mass spectrometry equipped with a octopole reaction systems (ICP-ORS-MS) and UV detectors: size exclusion fractionation (SEC) of the cytosolic and mitochondrial extracts followed by online anion exchange chromatographic (AEC) separation of Cu/Zn containing species. After purification, Cu,Zn-SOD was identified after tryptic digestion by molecular mass spectrometry (MS). The MS/MS spectrum of a doubly charged peptide was used to obtain the sequence of the protein using the MASCOT searching engine. This optimized methodology reduces the time of analysis and avoids the use of sample preconcentration and clean-up procedures, such as cut-off centrifuged filters, solid phase extraction (SPE), precipitation procedures, off-line fractions insolates, etc. In this sense, the method is robust, reliable and fast with typical chromatographic run time less than 20 min

  17. Biological characteristics of cell lines of human dental alveolus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈世璋; 黄靖香; 孙明学; 赵斌

    2003-01-01

    Objective To investigate the biological characteristics of cell lines of healthy and diseased human dental alveoli. Methods Primary cell lines from either healthy or diseased human dental alveoli were obtained. Two cell lines, H-258 and H-171 derived from healthy and diseased human tissues respectively, were selected for morphological study and research on their growth and aging, using cell counting, and histochemical and immunohistochemical staining. Results Primary cell lines were successfully established from innormal dental alveoli. After freezing and thawing for three times, cell growth was continued and no morphological alterations were observed. The doubling time was 53.4 hours and mean division index (MDI) was 4‰. Cells were kept normal after twenty generations with no obvious reduction of doubling time and MDI. Of twenty-six primary cell lines derived from healthy human dental alveoli, only three cell lines achieved generation. After freezing and thawing for twice, cultured cells were still alive at a decreased growth speed, with doubling time of 85.9 hours and MDI of 3‰. Both cell lines, H-171 and H-258, shared the characteristics of osteoblast. Conclusions Primary cell lines of diseased human dental alveoli show greater growth potential. All cell lines of dental alveoli share characteristics of osteoblast. The technique we developed may be put into practice for the treatment of abnormal dental alveoli.

  18. Sulfide detoxification in plant mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birke, Hannah; Hildebrandt, Tatjana M; Wirtz, Markus; Hell, Rüdiger

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to animals, which release the signal molecule sulfide in small amounts from cysteine and its derivates, phototrophic eukaryotes generate sulfide as an essential intermediate of the sulfur assimilation pathway. Additionally, iron-sulfur cluster turnover and cyanide detoxification might contribute to the release of sulfide in mitochondria. However, sulfide is a potent inhibitor of cytochrome c oxidase in mitochondria. Thus, efficient sulfide detoxification mechanisms are required in mitochondria to ensure adequate energy production and consequently survival of the plant cell. Two enzymes have been recently described to catalyze sulfide detoxification in mitochondria of Arabidopsis thaliana, O-acetylserine(thiol)lyase C (OAS-TL C), and the sulfur dioxygenase (SDO) ethylmalonic encephalopathy protein 1 (ETHE1). Biochemical characterization of sulfide producing and consuming enzymes in mitochondria of plants is fundamental to understand the regulatory network that enables mitochondrial sulfide homeostasis under nonstressed and stressed conditions. In this chapter, we provide established protocols to determine the activity of the sulfide releasing enzyme β-cyanoalanine synthase as well as sulfide-consuming enzymes OAS-TL and SDO. Additionally, we describe a reliable and efficient method to purify OAS-TL proteins from plant material.

  19. Cloning of aminopeptidase Npromoter and its activity in hematopoietic cell and different tumor cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Aminopeptidase N (APN) promoter region was cloned and sequenced from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The recombinant reporter construct containing the promoter and luciferase gene, designated pXP1-APNLuc, was introduced into myeloblastic cell line, T lymphocyte cell line and various tumor cell lines. Luciferase assay showed that APN upstream promoter is myeloid-specific for high expression in myeloblastic cell line and much lower expres sion in T lymphocyte cell line. The promoter activity was relatively high in lung adenoma cell line compared with other tumor cell lines including hepatoma cell line, tong cancer cell line and esophageal cancer cell line in which the promoter activity significantly diminished or was almost undetectable. The characteristics of APN promoter may pro vide a new strategy for specific myeloprotection while tumor patients are being treated with chemotherapy and/or radio therapy.

  20. Mitochondria-involved apoptosis induced by MPPa mediated photodynamic therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous new photosensitizers are now in various stages of trials demonstrating the broad applicability of Photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, only a handful of photosensitizers have received regulatory approval. Lack of effective photosensitizers has become a major limit for extensive application of PDT. Our previous study showed MPPa to be a good photosensitizer candidature, MPPa-PDT can lead PC-3M cell line to death mainly via apoptotic way both in vitro and in vivo, and part of the mechanism was investigated. Mitochondria may play a key role in the process, in order to further elucidate the mechanism, we investigated the level of ROS, GSH, NO, Ca2+, mitochondrial membrane potential, as well as cytochrome C. All in all, ROS production, depletion of GSH, and the activation of ROS downstream, such as mitochondria depolarization, cytochrome C release, were detected in our study. The results provide a mechanism by which oxidative stress provokes apoptosis of PC-3M cells

  1. Mitochondria, Energy and Cancer: The Relationship with Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Michael J.; Rosario-Pérez, Glorivee; Guzmán, Angélica M.; Miranda-Massari, Jorge R.; Duconge, Jorge; Lavergne, Julio; Fernandez, Nadia; Ortiz, Norma; Quintero, Ana; Mikirova, Nina; Riordan, Neil H.; Ricart, Carlos M.

    2012-01-01

    Ascorbic Acid (AA) has been used in the prevention and treatment of cancer with reported effectiveness. Mitochondria may be one of the principal targets of ascorbate's cellular activity and it may play an important role in the development and progression of cancer. Mitochondria, besides generating adenosine triphosphate (ATP), has a role in apoptosis regulation and in the production of regulatory oxidative species that may be relevant in gene expression. At higher concentrations AA may increase ATP production by increasing mitochondrial electron flux, also may induce apoptotic cell death in tumor cell lines, probably via its pro-oxidant action In contrast, at lower concentrations AA displays antioxidant properties that may prevent the activation of oxidant-induced apoptosis. These concentration dependent activities of ascorbate may explain in part the seemingly contradictory results that have been reported previously. PMID:23565030

  2. ERKs and mitochondria-related pathways are essential for glycyrrhizic acid-mediated neuroprotection against glutamate-induced toxicity in differentiated PC12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study focuses on the neuroprotective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA, a major compound separated from Glycyrrhiza Radix, which is a crude Chinese traditional drug) against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in differentiated PC12 (DPC12) cells. The results showed that GA treatment improved cell viability and ameliorated abnormal glutamate-induced alterations in mitochondria in DPC12 cells. GA reversed glutamate-suppressed B-cell lymphoma 2 levels, inhibited glutamate-enhanced expressions of Bax and cleaved caspase 3, and reduced cytochrome C (Cyto C) release. Exposure to glutamate strongly inhibited phosphorylation of AKT (protein kinase B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); however, GA pretreatment enhanced activation of ERKs but not AKT. The presence of PD98059 (a mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase [MEK] inhibitor) but not LY294002 (a phosphoinositide 3-kinase [PI3K] inhibitor) diminished the potency of GA for improving viability of glutamate-exposed DPC12 cells. These results indicated that ERKs and mitochondria-related pathways are essential for the neuroprotective effect of GA against glutamate-induced toxicity in DPC12 cells. The present study provides experimental evidence supporting GA as a potential therapeutic agent for use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases

  3. ERKs and mitochondria-related pathways are essential for glycyrrhizic acid-mediated neuroprotection against glutamate-induced toxicity in differentiated PC12 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D. [School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun (China); The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Guo, T.Q. [School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Wang, Z.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Lu, J.H.; Liu, D.P.; Meng, Q.F.; Xie, J. [School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Zhang, X.L. [Faculty of ScienceNational University of Singapore (Singapore); Liu, Y. [School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Teng, L.S. [School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun (China); The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, Jilin University, Changchun (China)

    2014-07-25

    The present study focuses on the neuroprotective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA, a major compound separated from Glycyrrhiza Radix, which is a crude Chinese traditional drug) against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in differentiated PC12 (DPC12) cells. The results showed that GA treatment improved cell viability and ameliorated abnormal glutamate-induced alterations in mitochondria in DPC12 cells. GA reversed glutamate-suppressed B-cell lymphoma 2 levels, inhibited glutamate-enhanced expressions of Bax and cleaved caspase 3, and reduced cytochrome C (Cyto C) release. Exposure to glutamate strongly inhibited phosphorylation of AKT (protein kinase B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); however, GA pretreatment enhanced activation of ERKs but not AKT. The presence of PD98059 (a mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase [MEK] inhibitor) but not LY294002 (a phosphoinositide 3-kinase [PI3K] inhibitor) diminished the potency of GA for improving viability of glutamate-exposed DPC12 cells. These results indicated that ERKs and mitochondria-related pathways are essential for the neuroprotective effect of GA against glutamate-induced toxicity in DPC12 cells. The present study provides experimental evidence supporting GA as a potential therapeutic agent for use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  4. Electroacupuncture inhibits apoptosis in annulus fibrosis cells through suppression of the mitochondria-dependent pathway in a rat model of cervical intervertebral disc degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate whether treatment with electroacupuncture (EA inhibited mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in annulus fibrosis (AF cells in a rat model of cervical intervertebral disc degradation induced by unbalanced dynamic and static forces. Forty Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study, of which 30 underwent surgery to induce cervical intervertebral disc degradation, 10 rats received EA at acupoints Dazhui (DU 14 and Shousanli (LI 10. TUNEL staining was measured to assess apoptosis in AF cells, immunohistochemistry was used to examine Bcl-2 and Bax expression, colorimetric assays were used to determine caspase 9 and caspase 3 activities and RT-PCR and western blotting were used to assess the mRNA and protein expression of Crk and ERK2. Treatment with EA reduced the number of AF-positive cells in TUNEL staining, increased Bcl-2-positive cells and decreased Bax-positive cells in immunohistochemical staining, significantly inhibited the activation of caspases-9 and -3, and enhanced the mRNA and protein expression of Crk and ERK2. Our data show that EA inhibits AF cell apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway and up-regulates Crk and ERK2 expression. These results suggest that treatment with may be a good alternative therapy for preventing cervical spondylosis.

  5. Safrole induces cell death in human tongue squamous cancer SCC-4 cells through mitochondria-dependent caspase activation cascade apoptotic signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fu-Shun; Huang, An-Cheng; Yang, Jai-Sing; Yu, Chun-Shu; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-07-01

    Safrole is one of important food-borne phytotoxin that exhibits in many natural products such as oil of sassafras and spices such as anise, basil, nutmeg, and pepper. This study was performed to elucidate safrole-induced apoptosis in human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-4 cells. The effect of safrole on apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and DAPI staining and its regulatory molecules were studied by Western blotting analysis. Safrole-induced apoptosis was accompanied with up-regulation of the protein expression of Bax and Bid and down-regulation of the protein levels of Bcl-2 (up-regulation of the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2), resulting in cytochrome c release, promoted Apaf-1 level and sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in a time-dependent manner. We also used real-time PCR to show safrole promoted the mRNA expressions of caspase-3, -8, and -9 in SCC-4 cells. These findings indicate that safrole has a cytotoxic effect in human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-4 cells by inducing apoptosis. The induction of apoptosis of SCC-4 cells by safrole is involved in mitochondria- and caspase-dependent signal pathways.

  6. Safrole induces cell death in human tongue squamous cancer SCC-4 cells through mitochondria-dependent caspase activation cascade apoptotic signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fu-Shun; Huang, An-Cheng; Yang, Jai-Sing; Yu, Chun-Shu; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Chiang, Jo-Hua; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Chung, Jing-Gung

    2012-07-01

    Safrole is one of important food-borne phytotoxin that exhibits in many natural products such as oil of sassafras and spices such as anise, basil, nutmeg, and pepper. This study was performed to elucidate safrole-induced apoptosis in human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-4 cells. The effect of safrole on apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and DAPI staining and its regulatory molecules were studied by Western blotting analysis. Safrole-induced apoptosis was accompanied with up-regulation of the protein expression of Bax and Bid and down-regulation of the protein levels of Bcl-2 (up-regulation of the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2), resulting in cytochrome c release, promoted Apaf-1 level and sequential activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3 in a time-dependent manner. We also used real-time PCR to show safrole promoted the mRNA expressions of caspase-3, -8, and -9 in SCC-4 cells. These findings indicate that safrole has a cytotoxic effect in human tongue squamous carcinoma SCC-4 cells by inducing apoptosis. The induction of apoptosis of SCC-4 cells by safrole is involved in mitochondria- and caspase-dependent signal pathways. PMID:21591240

  7. Development and characterization of a new human hepatic cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramboer, Eva; De Craene, Bram; De Kock, Joey; Berx, Geert; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Vinken, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    The increasing demand and hampered use of primary human hepatocytes for research purposes have urged scientists to search for alternative cell sources, such as immortalized hepatic cell lines. The aim of this study was to develop a human hepatic cell line using the combined overexpression of TERT and the cell cycle regulators cyclin D1 and mutant isoform CDK4R24C. Following transduction of adult human primary hepatocytes with the selected immortalization genes, cell growth was triggered and a cell line was established. When cultured under appropriate conditions, the cell line expressed several hepatocytic markers and liver-enriched transcription factors at the transcriptional and/or translational level, secreted liver-specific proteins and showed glycogen deposition. These results suggest that the immortalization strategy applied to primary human hepatocytes could generate a novel hepatic cell line that seems to retain some key hepatic characteristics. PMID:26869867

  8. MODERATE CYTOTOXICITY OF PROANTHOCYANIDINS TO HUMAN TUMOR-CELL LINES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOLODZIEJ, H; HABERLAND, C; WOERDENBAG, HJ; KONINGS, AWT

    1995-01-01

    In the present study the cytotoxicity of 16 proanthocyanidins was evaluated in GLC(4), a human small cell lung carcinoma cell line, and in COLO 320, a human colorectal cancer cell line, using the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. With IC50 values ranging from 18 to >200 mu m following continuous

  9. Distinct differentiation characteristics of individual human embryonic stem cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuutila Sakari

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual differences between human embryonic stem cell (hESC lines are poorly understood. Here, we describe the derivation of five hESC lines (called FES 21, 22, 29, 30 and 61 from frozen-thawed human embryos and compare their individual differentiation characteristic. Results The cell lines were cultured either on human or mouse feeder cells. The cells grew significantly faster and could be passaged enzymatically only on mouse feeders. However, this was found to lead to chromosomal instability after prolonged culture. All hESC lines expressed the established markers of pluripotent cells as well as several primordial germ cell (PGC marker genes in a uniform manner. However, the cell lines showed distinct features in their spontaneous differentiation patterns. The embryoid body (EB formation frequency of FES 30 cell line was significantly lower than that of other lines and cells within the EBs differentiated less readily. Likewise, teratomas derived from FES 30 cells were constantly cystic and showed only minor solid tissue formation with a monotonous differentiation pattern as compared with the other lines. Conclusion hESC lines may differ substantially in their differentiation properties although they appear similar in the undifferentiated state.

  10. Analysis of three marine fish cell lines by rapd assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H R; Zhang, S C; Tong, S L; Xiang, J H

    2001-01-01

    We tested the applicability of the random amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (RAPD) analysis for identification of three marine fish cell lines FG, SPH, and RSBF, and as a possible tool to detect cross-contamination. Sixty commercial 10-mer RAPD primers were tested on the cell lines and on samples collected from individual fish. The results obtained showed that the cell lines could be identified to the correspondent species on the basis of identical patterns produced by 35-48% of the primers tested; the total mean similarity indices for cell lines versus correspondent species of individual fish ranged from 0.825 to 0.851, indicating the existence of genetic variation in these cell lines in relation to the species of their origin. Also, four primers, which gave a monomorphic band pattern within species/line, but different among the species/line, were obtained. These primers can be useful for identification of these cell lines and for characterization of the genetic variation of these cell lines in relation to the species of their origin. This supported the use of RAPD analysis as an effective tool in species identification and cross-contamination test among different cell lines. PMID:11573817

  11. POTENTIAL CELL LINE TOXICITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Durga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, the unprecedented growth rate and urbanization along with the rapid increase in motor vehicle activity and industrialization are contributing to high levels of urban air pollution. The population is mainly exposed to high air pollution concentrations, where motor vehicle emissions constitute the main source of fine and ultrafine particles. Motor exhaust emissions is a mixture of gases and Particulate Matter (PM. Diesel and petrol fuels in vehicles produce combustion-derived particles as a result of combustion. Vehicle exhaust particles are the main constituents of environmental nanoparticles. In the present investigation, environmental nanoparticles such as Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP and Petrol Exhaust Particles (PEP were collected from on-road vehicles using a specially designed collection chamber. The surface morphology of the collected particles was analyzed through Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM, and the elemental mapping was performed through EDAX analysis. Results indicated the presence of nanometer-size particles in both the categories of vehicle exhaust. These small-size particles of respirable range can enter the respiratory tract of humans and get deposited in the lungs and cause various effects inside the human body. The aim of this study is to assess the cytotoxicity of the collected Diesel Exhaust Nanoparticles (DENPs and Petrol Exhaust Nanoparticles (PENPs. Cytotoxicity endpoint, such as IC50 (50% Inhibitory Concentration, was determined after a 24-h exposure. Results of this study indicated that all five cell lines were sensitive to these vehicle exhaust nanoparticles at varying levels.

  12. Cellular radiosensitivity of small-cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, M; Poulsen, H S; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1997-01-01

    . The multitarget single hit model was applied to calculate the cellular radiosensitivity (D0), the capacity for sublethal damage repair (Dq), and the extrapolation number (n). Values for alpha and beta were determined from best-fit curves according to the linear-quadratic model and these values were applied...... to calculate the surviving fraction after 2-Gy irradiation (SF2). RESULTS: In our investigation, the extrapolation method proved to be inappropriate for the study of in vitro cellular radiosensitivity due to lack of reproducibility. The results obtained by the clonogenic assay showed that the cell lines...

  13. The new research on mitochondria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Yu-bin; ZHANG He; JI Chen-feng; LIU Hong-juan

    2008-01-01

    Apoptosis, also known as programmed cell death, is the removal of damaged body organizations,aging or redundant cells in a suicide, has to maintain the health of the body, the normal development of the nervous system, the immune system to maintain the normal function of such areas is of great significance. The morphological characteristics of apoptosis are the cytoplasm concentrated, condensed nuclear chromatin, DNA fragments of a large-scale, the cell membrane invagination and foam formation of apoptotic bodies. There are two classic apoptosis ways which are generally accepted by majority of the scholars currently: Mitochondrial pathway and Death receptor pathway. Mitochondrial membrane is a two-tier structure surrounded the cystic, between the external cavity and internal cavity which is called the Room, surrounded by the internal cavity known as the mitochondria internal room or mitochondrial matrix. Mitochondria with the functions of control cell survival and death: mitochondria play an important role in physiological such as oxidative phosphorylation, electronic transfer, storage Ca2+, energy metabolism, anti-oxidation activity and so on, to provide the basic energy to the various activities of cell life. Study found that mitochondria contain some of the material is closely related to apoptosis, such as Cyt-C, Smac/Diablo, AIF, Ca2+, ROS and so on. In the signal to stimulate apoptosis, mitochondrial membrane permeability, resulting in a series of key changes, including Cyt-C, Smac/Diablo release, decline of the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), the state of the redox within cells, the intervention of Bcl gene family and so on. Different signal transduction ultimately focuses on the mitochondria to activate or inhibit these incidents, then the corresponding signal transduction to control apoptosis. Therefore, the mitochondria in the incidence of apoptosis play an important role. In recent years, the study confirmed that apoptosis imbalance can cause a

  14. Bufalin Induces Mitochondria-Dependent Apoptosis in Pancreatic and Oral Cancer Cells by Downregulating hTERT Expression via Activation of the JNK/p38 Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Tian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bufalin, a digoxin-like active component of the traditional Chinese medicine Chan Su, exhibits potent antitumor activities in many human cancers. Bufalin induces mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in cancer cells, but the detailed molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. hTERT, the catalytic subunit of telomerase, protects against mitochondrial damage by binding to mitochondrial DNA and reducing mitochondrial ROS production. In the present study, we investigated the effects of bufalin on the cell viability, ROS production, DNA damage, and apoptosis of CAPAN-2 human pancreatic and CAL-27 human oral cancer cells. Bufalin reduced CAPAN-2 and CAL-27 cell viability with IC50 values of 159.2 nM and 122.6 nM, respectively. The reduced cell viability was accompanied by increased ROS production, DNA damage, and apoptosis and decreased expression of hTERT. hTERT silencing in CAPAN-2 and CAL-27 cells by siRNA resulted in increased caspase-9/-3 cleavage and DNA damage and decreased cell viability. Collectively, these data suggest that bufalin downregulates hTERT to induce mitochondria-dependent apoptosis in CAPAN-2 and CAL-27 cells. Moreover, bufalin increased the phosphorylation of JNK and p38-MAPK in CAPAN-2 and CAL-27 cells, and blocking the JNK/p38-MAPK pathway using the JNK inhibitor SP600125 or the p38-MAPK inhibitor SB203580 reversed bufalin-induced hTERT downregulation. Thus, the JNK/p38 pathway is involved in bufalin-induced hTERT downregulation and subsequent induction of apoptosis by the mitochondrial pathway.

  15. DNA content analysis of insect cell lines by flow cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Léry, Xavier; Charpentier, Guy; Belloncik, Serge

    1999-01-01

    The DNA content of insect cell lines (6 lepidoptera, 1 coleoptera and 1 diptera) was determined by flow cytometry. The DNA profiles of the 8 cell lines tested were different. They were characterized by the presence of several peaks (2 to 7) corresponding to different ploidy levels, by differences in the fluorescence intensity of each peak and by the proportion of cells in each peak. Two cell lines (Cf124 and BmN) were constituted of 2 distinct populations of cells. The DNA profiles of the cel...

  16. Biochemistry of Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Koc

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are energy source of cells. They have external and internal membranes, cristas and matrix. External membranes consist of specialized transport proteins. They have monoamine oxidase and citokrome-c reductase which both play role in KREBS cycle as catalyst and many enzymes which are necessary for phospholipid and phosphoric acid synthesis. Enzymes of electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation are located in the internal membranes. Also, here, there are transport systems for specific substances, such as ATP, ADP, P1, pyruvate, succinate, malate, citrate, and -ketoglutarate . Matrix; having gel-like consistency, contains a large number of enzymes. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(0.100: 1-13

  17. RECQL4 localizes to mitochondria and preserves mitochondrial DNA integrity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croteau, Deborah L; Rossi, Marie L; Canugovi, Chandrika;

    2012-01-01

    in mitochondria. Q-PCR amplification of mitochondrial DNA demonstrated that mtDNA damage accumulated in RECQL4-deficient cells. Microarray analysis suggested that mitochondrial bioenergetic pathways might be affected in RTS. Measurements of mitochondrial bioenergetics showed a reduction in the mitochondrial...... reserve capacity after lentiviral knockdown of RECQL4 in two different primary cell lines. Additionally, biochemical assays with RECQL4, mitochondrial transcription factor A, and mitochondrial DNA polymerase ¿ showed that the polymerase inhibited RECQL4's helicase activity. RECQL4 is the first 3'-5' Rec...

  18. The Failure of Mitochondria Leads to Neurodegeneration: Do Mitochondria Need A Jump Start?

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Junghee; Boo, Jung Hyun; Ryu, Hoon

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondria are the power engine generating biochemical energy in the cell. Mitochondrial dysfunction and bioenergy deficiency is closely linked to the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. Mitochondria play a variety of roles by integrating extracellular signals and executing important intracellular events in neuronal survival and death. In this context, the regulation of mitochondrial function via therapeutic approaches may exert some salutary and neuroprotective mechanisms. Underst...

  19. PERK silence inhibits glioma cell growth under low glucose stress by blockage of p-AKT and subsequent HK2's mitochondria translocation

    KAUST Repository

    Hou, Xu

    2015-03-12

    Glioma relies on glycolysis to obtain energy and sustain its survival under low glucose microenvironment in vivo. The mechanisms on glioma cell glycolysis regulation are still unclear. Signaling mediated by Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR) - like ER kinase (PERK) is one of the important pathways of unfolded protein response (UPR) which is comprehensively activated in cancer cells upon the hypoxic and low glucose stress. Here we show that PERK is significantly activated in human glioma tissues. PERK silencing results in decreased glioma cell viability and ATP/lactate production upon low glucose stress, which is mediated by partially blocked AKT activation and subsequent inhibition of Hexokinase II (HK2)\\'s mitochondria translocation. More importantly, PERK silenced glioma cells show decreased tumor formation capacity. Our results reveal that PERK activation is involved in glioma glycolysis regulation and may be a potential molecular target for glioma treatment.

  20. Ursodeoxycholic acid suppresses mitochondria-dependent programmed cell death induced by sodium nitroprusside in SH-SY5Y cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and its highly water-soluble formula (Yoo's solution; YS) have been shown to prevent neuronal damage, the effects of UDCA or YS against Parkinson's disease (PD)-related dopaminergic cell death has not been studied. This study investigated the protective effects of UDCA and YS on sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced cytotoxicity in human dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells. Both UDCA (50–200 μM) and YS (100–200 μM) dose-dependently prevented SNP (1 mM)-induced cell death. Results showed that both UDCA and YS effectively attenuated the production of total reactive oxygen species (ROS), peroxynitrite (ONOO−) and nitric oxide (NO), and markedly inhibited the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss and intracellular reduced glutathione (GSH) depletion. SNP-induced programmed cell death events, such as nuclear fragmentation, caspase-3/7 and -9 activation, Bcl-2/Bax ratio decrease, and cytochrome c release, were significantly attenuated by both UDCA and YS. Furthermore, selective inhibitor of phosphatidylinositiol-3-kinase (PI3K), LY294002, and Akt/PKB inhibitor, triciribine, reversed the preventive effects of UDCA on the SNP-induced cytotoxicity and Bax translocation. These results suggest that UDCA can protect SH-SY5Y cells under programmed cell death process by regulating PI3K-Akt/PKB pathways.

  1. Targeting mitochondria with small molecules: the preparation of MitoB and MitoP as exomarkers of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, Andrew G; McQuaker, Stephen J.; Murphy, Michael P; Hartley, Richard C.

    2015-01-01

    Small molecules can be physicochemically targeted to mitochondria using the lipophilic alkyltriphenylphosphonium (TPP) group. Once in the mitochondria the TPP-conjugate can detect or influence processes within the mitochondrial matrix directly. Alternatively, the conjugate can behave as a prodrug, which is activated by release from the TPP group either using an internal or external instruction. Small molecules can be designed that can be used in any cell line, tissue or whole organism, allow ...

  2. Reactive biomolecular divergence in genetically altered yeast cells and isolated mitochondria as measured by biocavity laser spectroscopy : a rapid diagnostic method for studying cellular responses to stress and disease.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaffe, Michael P. (University of California, San Diego, CA); Gourley, Paul Lee; Copeland, Robert Guild; McDonald, Anthony Eugene; Hendricks, Judy K.; Naviaux, Robert K. (Univesity of California, San Diego, CA)

    2006-12-01

    We report an analysis of four strains of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) using biocavity laser spectroscopy. The four strains are grouped in two pairs (wild type and altered), in which one strain differs genetically at a single locus, affecting mitochondrial function. In one pair, the wild-type rho+ and a rho0 strain differ by complete removal of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). In the second pair, the wild-type rho+ and a rho- strain differ by knock-out of the nuclear gene encoding Cox4, an essential subunit of cytochrome c oxidase. The biocavity laser is used to measure the biophysical optic parameter Deltalambda, a laser wavelength shift relating to the optical density of cell or mitochondria that uniquely reflects its size and biomolecular composition. As such, Deltalambda is a powerful parameter that rapidly interrogates the biomolecular state of single cells and mitochondria. Wild-type cells and mitochondria produce Gaussian-like distributions with a single peak. In contrast, mutant cells and mitochondria produce leptokurtotic distributions that are asymmetric and highly skewed to the right. These distribution changes could be self-consistently modeled with a single, log-normal distribution undergoing a thousand-fold increase in variance of biomolecular composition. These features reflect a new state of stressed or diseased cells that we call a reactive biomolecular divergence (RBD) that reflects the vital interdependence of mitochondria and the nucleus.

  3. Trichloroethylene toxicity in a human hepatoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenin, E.; McMillian, J. [Medical Univ. of Charleston South Carolina, SC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The experiments conducted in this study were designed to determine the usefullness of hepatocyte cultures and a human hepatoma cell line as model systems for assessing human susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma due to exposure to trichloroethylene. The results from these studies will then be analyzed to determine if human cell lines can be used to conduct future experiments of this nature.

  4. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCM-1 was derived from a failed to fertilise egg undergoing parthenogenetic stimulation. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  5. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCM1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, P A; Tye, B J; Sneddon, S; Bruce, K; Dand, P; Russell, G; Collins, D M; Greenshields, A; McDonald, K; Bradburn, H; Gardner, J; Downie, J M; Courtney, A; Brison, D R

    2016-03-01

    The human embryonic stem cell line RCM-1 was derived from a failed to fertilise egg undergoing parthenogenetic stimulation. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available. PMID:27346018

  6. Cancer and inflammation studies using zebrafish cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Shuning

    2010-01-01

    As the zebrafish, Danio rerio, has been increasingly used as an animal model for biomedical research, we aimed to establish zebrafish cell line models for inflammation and cancer studies in this thesis. Several zebrafish cell lines were characterized and their genetic and physiological properties we

  7. Characterization of xenoantiserum produced against B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akagi,Tadaatsu

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available Antiserum was produced in white rabbit by intravenously injecting living cells of a B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL line (BALL-1. The reactivity of the antiserum against various lymphoid cell lines was examined by membrane immunofluorescence after appropriate absorption. Serum absorbed with non-T, non-B (NALL-1 and T-ALL (TALL-1 cells recognized B cell antigens distinct from Ia-like antigens on both normal and neoplastic B cells. After further absorption with tonsillar cells or normal B cell line (KO-HL-3, it reacted only with BALL-1 cells and did not react with other leukemia/lymphoma and normal B cell lines. The serum absorbed with tonsillar cells reacted only with BALL-1 and some B cell lines. Thus we were able to obtain antisera with specificity to B cell antigen, B-ALL antigen, and B cell line antigen.

  8. Regulated expression of erythropoietin by two human hepatoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, M.A.; Glass, G.A.; Cunningham, J.M.; Bunn, H.F.

    1987-11-01

    The development of a cell culture system that produces erythropoietin (Epo) in a regulated manner has been the focus of much effort. The authors have screened multiple renal and hepatic cell lines for either constitutive or regulated expression of Epo. Only the human hepatoma cell lines, Hep3B and HepG2, made significant amounts of Epo as measured both by radioimmunoassay and in vitro bioassay (as much as 330 milliunits per 10/sup 6/ cells in 24 hr). The constitutive production of Epo increased dramatically as a function of cell density in both cell lines. At cell densities < 3.3 x 10/sup 5/ cells per cm/sup 2/, there was little constitutive release of Epo in the medium. With Hep3B cells grown at low cell densities, a mean 18-fold increase in Epo expression was seen in response to hypoxia and a 6-fold increase was observed in response to incubation in medium containing 50 ..mu..M cobalt(II) chloride. At similar low cell densities, Epo production in HepG2 cells could be enhanced an average of about 3-fold by stimulation with either hypoxia or cobalt(II) chloride. Upon such stimulation, both cell lines demonstrated markedly elevated levels of Epo mRNA. Hence, both Hep3B and HepG2 cell lines provide an excellent in vitro system in which to study the physiological regulation of Epo expression.

  9. Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from the Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Fu FANG; Fan JIN; Hui GAI; Ying CHEN; Li WU; Ai Lian LIU; Bin CHEN; Hui Zhen SHENG

    2005-01-01

    Six human embryonic stem cell lines were established from surplus blastocysts. The cell lines expressed alkaline phosphatase and molecules typical of primate embryonic stem cells, including Oct-4, Nanog, TDGF1, Sox2, EBAF,Thy-1, FGF4, Rex-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. Five of the six lines formed embryoid bodies that expressed markers of a variety of cell types; four of them formed teratomas with tissue types representative of all three embryonic germ layers. These human embryonic stem cells are capable of producing clones of undifferentiated morphology, and one of them was propagated to become a subline. Human embryonic stem cell lines from the Chinese population should facilitate stem cell research and may be valuable in studies of population genetics and ecology.

  10. The transcriptional diversity of 25 Drosophila cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherbas, L.; Willingham, A.; Zhang, D.; Yang, L.; Zou, Y.; Eads, B. D.; Carlson, J. W.; Landolin, J. M.; Kapranov, P.; Dumais, J.; Samsonova, A.; Choi, J. -H.; Roberts, J.; Davis, C. A.; Tang, H.; van Baren, M. J.; Ghosh, S.; Dobin, A.; Bell, K.; Lin, W.; Langton, L.; Duff, M. O.; Tenney, A. E.; Zaleski, C.; Brent, M. R.; Hoskins, R. A.; Kaufman, T. C.; Andrews, J.; Graveley, B. R.; Perrimon, N.; Celniker, S. E.; Gingeras, T. R.; Cherbas, P.

    2010-12-22

    Drosophila melanogaster cell lines are important resources for cell biologists. Here, we catalog the expression of exons, genes, and unannotated transcriptional signals for 25 lines. Unannotated transcription is substantial (typically 19% of euchromatic signal). Conservatively, we identify 1405 novel transcribed regions; 684 of these appear to be new exons of neighboring, often distant, genes. Sixty-four percent of genes are expressed detectably in at least one line, but only 21% are detected in all lines. Each cell line expresses, on average, 5885 genes, including a common set of 3109. Expression levels vary over several orders of magnitude. Major signaling pathways are well represented: most differentiation pathways are ‘‘off’’ and survival/growth pathways ‘‘on.’’ Roughly 50% of the genes expressed by each line are not part of the common set, and these show considerable individuality. Thirty-one percent are expressed at a higher level in at least one cell line than in any single developmental stage, suggesting that each line is enriched for genes characteristic of small sets of cells. Most remarkable is that imaginal discderived lines can generally be assigned, on the basis of expression, to small territories within developing discs. These mappings reveal unexpected stability of even fine-grained spatial determination. No two cell lines show identical transcription factor expression. We conclude that each line has retained features of an individual founder cell superimposed on a common ‘‘cell line‘‘ gene expression pattern. Wereport the transcriptional profiles of 25 Drosophila melanogaster cell lines, principally by whole-genome tiling microarray analysis of total RNA, carried out as part of the modENCODE project. The data produced in this study add to our knowledge of the cell lines and of the Drosophila transcriptome in several ways. We summarize the expression of previously annotated genes in each of the 25 lines with emphasis on what

  11. Antibiotics that target mitochondria effectively eradicate cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types: treating cancer like an infectious disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Rebecca; Ozsvari, Bela; Lisanti, Camilla L; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Howell, Anthony; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2015-03-10

    Here, we propose a new strategy for the treatment of early cancerous lesions and advanced metastatic disease, via the selective targeting of cancer stem cells (CSCs), a.k.a., tumor-initiating cells (TICs). We searched for a global phenotypic characteristic that was highly conserved among cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types, to provide a mutation-independent approach to cancer therapy. This would allow us to target cancer stem cells, effectively treating cancer as a single disease of "stemness", independently of the tumor tissue type. Using this approach, we identified a conserved phenotypic weak point - a strict dependence on mitochondrial biogenesis for the clonal expansion and survival of cancer stem cells. Interestingly, several classes of FDA-approved antibiotics inhibit mitochondrial biogenesis as a known "side-effect", which could be harnessed instead as a "therapeutic effect". Based on this analysis, we now show that 4-to-5 different classes of FDA-approved drugs can be used to eradicate cancer stem cells, in 12 different cancer cell lines, across 8 different tumor types (breast, DCIS, ovarian, prostate, lung, pancreatic, melanoma, and glioblastoma (brain)). These five classes of mitochondrially-targeted antibiotics include: the erythromycins, the tetracyclines, the glycylcyclines, an anti-parasitic drug, and chloramphenicol. Functional data are presented for one antibiotic in each drug class: azithromycin, doxycycline, tigecycline, pyrvinium pamoate, as well as chloramphenicol, as proof-of-concept. Importantly, many of these drugs are non-toxic for normal cells, likely reducing the side effects of anti-cancer therapy. Thus, we now propose to treat cancer like an infectious disease, by repurposing FDA-approved antibiotics for anti-cancer therapy, across multiple tumor types. These drug classes should also be considered for prevention studies, specifically focused on the prevention of tumor recurrence and distant metastasis. Finally, recent

  12. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell line Genea022

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea022 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea022 was demonstrated with 84% of cells expressed Nanog, 98% Oct4, 55% Tra1–60 and 97% SSEA4, gave a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 42.95, Novelty of 1.23, demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  13. Derivation of Genea052 human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea052 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea052 was demonstrated with 85% of cells expressing Nanog, 87% Oct4, 60% Tra1-60 and 97% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 27.21, Novelty score of 1.2 and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination.

  14. Derivation of Genea047 human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea047 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype and female allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea047 was demonstrated with 88% of cells expressing Nanog, 95% Oct4, 59% Tra1-60 and 99% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 30.86, Novelty score of 1.23 and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination.

  15. Derivation of Genea015 human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea015 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male Allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea015 was demonstrated with 80% of cells expressing Nanog, 97% Oct4, 75% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 29.52, Novelty score of 1.3 and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination.

  16. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell line Genea023

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea023 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea023 was demonstrated with 85% of cells expressed Nanog, 98% Oct4, 55% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4, gave a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 42.76, Novelty of 1.23, demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  17. Derivation of Genea042 human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea042 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype and female allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea042 was demonstrated with 81% of cells expressing Nanog, 95% Oct4, 53% Tra1-60 and 97% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 30.06, Novelty score of 1.24 and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination.

  18. The Refsum disease marker phytanic acid, a branched chain fatty acid, affects Ca2+ homeostasis and mitochondria, and reduces cell viability in rat hippocampal astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlert, Stefan; Schönfeld, Peter; Reiser, Georg

    2005-02-01

    The saturated branched chain fatty acid, phytanic acid, a degradation product of chlorophyll, accumulates in Refsum disease, an inherited peroxisomal disorder with neurological clinical features. To elucidate the pathogenic mechanism, we investigated the influence of phytanic acid on cellular physiology of rat hippocampal astrocytes. Phytanic acid (100 microM) induced an immediate transient increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, followed by a plateau. The peak of this biphasic Ca2+ response was largely independent of extracellular Ca2+, indicating activation of cellular Ca2+ stores by phytanic acid. Phytanic acid depolarized mitochondria without causing in situ swelling of mitochondria. The slow decrease of mitochondrial potential is not consistent with fast and simultaneous opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore. However, phytanic acid induced substantial generation of reactive oxygen species. Phytanic acid caused astroglia cell death after a few hours of exposure. We suggest that the cytotoxic effect of phytanic acid seems to be due to a combined action on Ca2+ regulation, mitochondrial depolarization, and increased ROS generation in brain cells.

  19. Cytotoxinic Mechanism of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles on Human Hepatoma Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xian-ying; QI Zhi-tao; DAI Hong-lian; YAN Yu-hua; LI Shi-pu

    2003-01-01

    Stable and single-dispersed HAP nanoparticles were synthesized with chemical method assisted by ultrasonic treatment.HAP nanoparticles were surveyed by AFM and Zataplus.The effect on the Bel-7402 human hepatoma cell lines treated with HAP nanoparticles was investigated by the MTT methods and observation of morphology,and the mechanism was studied in changes of cell cycle and ultrastructure.The result shows that inhibition of HAP nanoparticles on the Bel-7402 human hepatoma cell lines is obviously in vitro.HAP nanoparticles the entered cancer cytoplasm,and cell proliferation is stopped at G1 phase of cell cycle,thus,cancer cells die directly.

  20. Recombinant protein production from stable mammalian cell lines and pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, David L; Balasubramanian, Sowmya

    2016-06-01

    We highlight recent developments for the production of recombinant proteins from suspension-adapted mammalian cell lines. We discuss the generation of stable cell lines using transposons and lentivirus vectors (non-targeted transgene integration) and site-specific recombinases (targeted transgene integration). Each of these methods results in the generation of cell lines with protein yields that are generally superior to those achievable through classical plasmid transfection that depends on the integration of the transfected DNA by non-homologous DNA end-joining. This is the main reason why these techniques can also be used for the generation of stable cell pools, heterogenous populations of recombinant cells generated by gene delivery and genetic selection without resorting to single cell cloning. This allows the time line from gene transfer to protein production to be reduced.

  1. Establishment of human embryonic stem cell line from gamete donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tao; ZHOU Can-quan; MAI Qing-yun; ZHUANG Guang-lun

    2005-01-01

    Background Human embryonic stem (HES) cell derived from human blastocyst can be propagated indefinitely in the primitive undifferentiated state while remaining pluripotent. It has exciting potential in human developmental biology, drug discovery, and transplantation medicine. But there are insufficient HES cell lines for further study. Methods Three oocyte donors were studied, and 3 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles were carried out to get blastocysts for the establishment of HES cell line. Isolated from blastocysts immunosurgically, inner cell mass (ICM) was cultured and propagated on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Once established, morphology, cell surface markers, karyotype and differentiating ability of the cell line were thoroughly analyzed.Results Four ICMs from 7 blastocysts were cultured on MEFs. After culture, one cell line (cHES-1) was established and met the criteria for defining human pluripotent stem cells including a series of markers used to identify pluripotent stem cells, morphological similarity to primate embryonic stem cells and HES reported else where. Normal and stable karyotype maintained over 60 passages, and demonstrated ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types.Conclusions HES cell lines can be established from gamete donors at a relatively highly efficient rate. The establishment will exert a widespread impact on biomedical research.

  2. Susceptibility of various cell lines to Neospora caninum tachyzoites cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khordadmehr, M.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a coccidian protozoan parasite which is a major cause of bovine abortions and neonatal mortality in cattle, sheep, goat and horse. Occasionally, cultured cells are used for isolation and multiplication of the agent in vitro with several purposes. In this study the tachyzoite yields of N. caninum were compared in various cell cultures as the host cell lines. Among the cell cultures tested, two presented good susceptibility to the agent: cell lines Vero and MA-104. SW742 and TLI (in vitro suspension culture of lymphoid cells infected with Theileria lestoquardi showed moderate sensitivity. No viable tachyzoite were detected in the culture of MDCK and McCoy cell lines. These results demonstrate that MA-104 and SW742 cells present adequate susceptibility to N. caninum compared to Vero cells, which have been largely used to multiply the parasite in vitro. Moreover, these have easy manipulation, fast multiplication and relatively low nutritional requirements. In addition, the result of this study showed that TLI cell line as a suspension cell culture is susceptible to Nc-1 tachyzoites infection and could be used as an alternative host cell line for tachyzoites culture in vitro studies.

  3. Establishment of Germ-line Competent C57BL/6J Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-jun YAN; Zheng GU; Jian WANG; Jia-ke TSO

    2004-01-01

    Objective To establish C57BL/6J embryonic stem (ES) cell lines with potential germline contribution Methods ES cells were isolated from blastocyst inner cell mass of C57BL/6J mice, and cultured for 15 passages, and then injected into blastococels of lCR mice blastocysts to establish chimeric mice.Results Three ES cell lines (mC57ESl,mC57ES3, mC57ES7) derived from the inner cell mass of C57BL/6J mice blastocysts were established. They were characteristic of undifferentiated state, including normal XY karyotype, expression of a specific cell surface marker "stage-specific embryonic antigen-1" and alkaline phosphatase in continuous passage. When injected into immunodeficient mice, mC5 7ES1 cells consis tently differentiated into derivatives of all three embryonic germ layers. When mC57ES1cells were transferred into ICR mice blastocysts, 4 chimeric mice have been obtained.One male of them revealed successful germ-line transmission. Conclussion We have obtained C57BL/6J ES cell lines with a potential germ-line contribution, which can be used to generate transgenic and gene knock-out mice.

  4. Generation and characterization of human insulin-releasing cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Joffé Elisa; Machado Marcel CC; Buchanan Cecilia; Terra Letícia F; Stigliano Iván; Krogh Karin; Peters Maria G; Labriola Leticia; Puricelli Lydia; Sogayar Mari C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The in vitro culture of insulinomas provides an attractive tool to study cell proliferation and insulin synthesis and secretion. However, only a few human beta cell lines have been described, with long-term passage resulting in loss of insulin secretion. Therefore, we set out to establish and characterize human insulin-releasing cell lines. Results We generated ex-vivo primary cultures from two independent human insulinomas and from a human nesidioblastosis, all of which w...

  5. Non-cytotoxic copper overload boosts mitochondrial energy metabolism to modulate cell proliferation and differentiation in the human erythroleukemic cell line K562.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Lina M; Jensen, Erik L; Rossel, Yancing; Puas, German I; Gonzalez-Ibanez, Alvaro M; Bustos, Rodrigo I; Ferrick, David A; Elorza, Alvaro A

    2016-07-01

    Copper is integral to the mitochondrial respiratory complex IV and contributes to proliferation and differentiation, metabolic reprogramming and mitochondrial function. The K562 cell line was exposed to a non-cytotoxic copper overload to evaluate mitochondrial dynamics, function and cell fate. This induced higher rates of mitochondrial turnover given by an increase in mitochondrial fusion and fission events and in the autophagic flux. The appearance of smaller and condensed mitochondria was also observed. Bioenergetics activity included more respiratory complexes, higher oxygen consumption rate, superoxide production and ATP synthesis, with no decrease in membrane potential. Increased cell proliferation and inhibited differentiation also occurred. Non-cytotoxic copper levels can modify mitochondrial metabolism and cell fate, which could be used in cancer biology and regenerative medicine. PMID:27094959

  6. Exogenous ether lipids predominantly target mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Kuerschner

    Full Text Available Ether lipids are ubiquitous constituents of cellular membranes with no discrete cell biological function assigned yet. Using fluorescent polyene-ether lipids we analyzed their intracellular distribution in living cells by microscopy. Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum accumulated high amounts of ether-phosphatidylcholine and ether-phosphatidylethanolamine. Both lipids were specifically labeled using the corresponding lyso-ether lipids, which we established as supreme precursors for lipid tagging. Polyfosine, a fluorescent analogue of the anti-neoplastic ether lipid edelfosine, accumulated to mitochondria and induced morphological changes and cellular apoptosis. These data indicate that edelfosine could exert its pro-apoptotic power by targeting and damaging mitochondria and thereby inducing cellular apoptosis. In general, this study implies an important role of mitochondria in ether lipid metabolism and intracellular ether lipid trafficking.

  7. Generation and characterization of human insulin-releasing cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joffé Elisa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The in vitro culture of insulinomas provides an attractive tool to study cell proliferation and insulin synthesis and secretion. However, only a few human beta cell lines have been described, with long-term passage resulting in loss of insulin secretion. Therefore, we set out to establish and characterize human insulin-releasing cell lines. Results We generated ex-vivo primary cultures from two independent human insulinomas and from a human nesidioblastosis, all of which were cultured up to passage number 20. All cell lines secreted human insulin and C-peptide. These cell lines expressed neuroendocrine and islets markers, confirming the expression profile found in the biopsies. Although all beta cell lineages survived an anchorage independent culture, none of them were able to invade an extracellular matrix substrate. Conclusion We have established three human insulin-releasing cell lines which maintain antigenic characteristics and insulin secretion profiles of the original tumors. These cell lines represent valuable tools for the study of molecular events underlying beta cell function and dysfunction.

  8. Generation and characterization of human insulin-releasing cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labriola, Leticia; Peters, Maria G; Krogh, Karin; Stigliano, Iván; Terra, Letícia F; Buchanan, Cecilia; Machado, Marcel CC; Joffé, Elisa Bal de Kier; Puricelli, Lydia; Sogayar, Mari C

    2009-01-01

    Background The in vitro culture of insulinomas provides an attractive tool to study cell proliferation and insulin synthesis and secretion. However, only a few human beta cell lines have been described, with long-term passage resulting in loss of insulin secretion. Therefore, we set out to establish and characterize human insulin-releasing cell lines. Results We generated ex-vivo primary cultures from two independent human insulinomas and from a human nesidioblastosis, all of which were cultured up to passage number 20. All cell lines secreted human insulin and C-peptide. These cell lines expressed neuroendocrine and islets markers, confirming the expression profile found in the biopsies. Although all beta cell lineages survived an anchorage independent culture, none of them were able to invade an extracellular matrix substrate. Conclusion We have established three human insulin-releasing cell lines which maintain antigenic characteristics and insulin secretion profiles of the original tumors. These cell lines represent valuable tools for the study of molecular events underlying beta cell function and dysfunction. PMID:19545371

  9. Getting mitochondria to center stage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The question of how eukaryotic cells assemble their mitochondria was long considered to be inaccessible to biochemical investigation. This attitude changed about fifty years ago when the powerful tools of yeast genetics, electron microscopy and molecular biology were brought to bear on this problem. The rising interest in mitochondrial biogenesis thus paralleled and assisted in the birth of modern biology. This brief recollection recounts the days when research on mitochondrial biogenesis was an exotic effort limited to a small group of outsiders

  10. Mitochondria and Mitochondrial ROS in Cancer: Novel Targets for Anticancer Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuhui; Karakhanova, Svetlana; Hartwig, Werner; D'Haese, Jan G; Philippov, Pavel P; Werner, Jens; Bazhin, Alexandr V

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondria are indispensable for energy metabolism, apoptosis regulation, and cell signaling. Mitochondria in malignant cells differ structurally and functionally from those in normal cells and participate actively in metabolic reprogramming. Mitochondria in cancer cells are characterized by reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction, which promotes cancer development by inducing genomic instability, modifying gene expression, and participating in signaling pathways. Mitochondrial and nuclear DNA mutations caused by oxidative damage that impair the oxidative phosphorylation process will result in further mitochondrial ROS production, completing the "vicious cycle" between mitochondria, ROS, genomic instability, and cancer development. The multiple essential roles of mitochondria have been utilized for designing novel mitochondria-targeted anticancer agents. Selective drug delivery to mitochondria helps to increase specificity and reduce toxicity of these agents. In order to reduce mitochondrial ROS production, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants can specifically accumulate in mitochondria by affiliating to a lipophilic penetrating cation and prevent mitochondria from oxidative damage. In consistence with the oncogenic role of ROS, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants are found to be effective in cancer prevention and anticancer therapy. A better understanding of the role played by mitochondria in cancer development will help to reveal more therapeutic targets, and will help to increase the activity and selectivity of mitochondria-targeted anticancer drugs. In this review we summarized the impact of mitochondria on cancer and gave summary about the possibilities to target mitochondria for anticancer therapies. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2570-2581, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The Salmonella effector SopB prevents ROS-induced apoptosis of epithelial cells by retarding TRAF6 recruitment to mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Haihua; Zhang, Zhen; Tian, Li; Wang, Suying; Hu, Shuangyan; Qiao, Jian-Jun

    2016-09-16

    Microbial pathogens enter host cells by injecting effector proteins of the Type III secretion system (T3SS), which facilitate pathogen translocation across the host cell membrane. These effector proteins exert their effects by modulating a variety of host innate immune responses, thereby facilitating bacterial replication and systemic infection. Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium (S.typhimurium) is a clinically important pathogen that causes food poisoning and gastroenteritis. The SopB effector protein of S. typhimurium, encoded by Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPI)-1 T3SS, protects host epithelial cells from infection-induced apoptosis. However, how SopB influences apoptosis induction remains unclear. Here, we investigated the mechanism of SopB action in host cells. We found that SopB inhibits infection-induced apoptosis by attenuating the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria, the crucial organelles for apoptosis initiation. Further investigation revealed that SopB binds to cytosolic tumor necrosis factor receptor associated factor 6 (TRAF6) and forms a trap preventing the mitochondrial recruitment of TRAF6, an essential event for ROS generation within mitochondria. By studying the response of Traf6(+/+) and Traf6(-/-)mouse embryonic fibroblasts to S. typhimurium infection, we found that TRAF6 promoted apoptosis by increasing ROS accumulation, which led to increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, Bax recruitment to mitochondrial membrane, and release of Cyt c into the cytoplasm. These findings show that SopB suppresses host cell apoptosis by binding to TRAF6 and preventing mitochondrial ROS generation. PMID:27473656

  12. Investigation of radiosensitivity gene signatures in cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S Hall

    Full Text Available Intrinsic radiosensitivity is an important factor underlying radiotherapy response, but there is no method for its routine assessment in human tumours. Gene signatures are currently being derived and some were previously generated by expression profiling the NCI-60 cell line panel. It was hypothesised that focusing on more homogeneous tumour types would be a better approach. Two cell line cohorts were used derived from cervix [n = 16] and head and neck [n = 11] cancers. Radiosensitivity was measured as surviving fraction following irradiation with 2 Gy (SF2 by clonogenic assay. Differential gene expression between radiosensitive and radioresistant cell lines (SF2 median was investigated using Affymetrix GeneChip Exon 1.0ST (cervix or U133A Plus2 (head and neck arrays. There were differences within cell line cohorts relating to tissue of origin reflected by expression of the stratified epithelial marker p63. Of 138 genes identified as being associated with SF2, only 2 (1.4% were congruent between the cervix and head and neck carcinoma cell lines (MGST1 and TFPI, and these did not partition the published NCI-60 cell lines based on SF2. There was variable success in applying three published radiosensitivity signatures to our cohorts. One gene signature, originally trained on the NCI-60 cell lines, did partially separate sensitive and resistant cell lines in all three cell line datasets. The findings do not confirm our hypothesis but suggest that a common transcriptional signature can reflect the radiosensitivity of tumours of heterogeneous origins.

  13. Development of a cell line from Echinococcus granulosus germinal layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albani, Clara María; Cumino, Andrea Carina; Elissondo, María Celina; Denegri, Guillermo María

    2013-10-01

    In vitro culture of parasitic helminths provides an important tool to study cell regeneration and physiology, as well as for molecular biology and genetic engineering studies. In the present study, we established in vitro propagation of cells from Echinococcus granulosus germinal cyst layer. E. granulosus germinal cells grew beyond 100 passages and showed no signs of reduced proliferation capacity. Microscopic analysis revealed that cells grew both attached to the substrate and in suspension, forming three-dimensional structures like mammalian stem cell aggregates. Examination of the chromosome number of attached germinal cells showed a high degree of heteroploidy, suggesting the occurrence of transformation during culture. Monolayer cells survived cryopreservation and were able to proliferate after thawing. Based on the characteristics displayed by E. granulosus germinal cells, we establish a cell line from the E. granulosus germinal layer. Furthermore, we propose that this cell line could be useful for drug screening and for obtaining parasite material.

  14. Differential heat shock response of primary human cell cultures and established cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, W W; Issinger, O G

    1986-01-01

    degrees C treatment, whereas in immortalized cell lines usually 90% of the cells were found in suspension. Enhanced expression of the major heat shock protein (hsp 70) was found in all heat-treated cells. In contrast to the primary cell cultures, established and transformed cell lines synthesized a...

  15. Establishment of Jurkat tet-on cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Tet-control system is developed to tightly control target gene expression in mammalian cells by using the regulatory elements of tetracycline-repressor of the transposor Tn10 from E.Coli.We have transfected reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator gene (rtTA) into genome of Jurkat cells and established two Jurkat tet-on cell lines.Induction of luciferase reporter activity with doxycycline,a tetracycline derivative,is dose-dependent with a peak value of 32-fold increment.Establishment of Jurkat tet-on cell lines greatly facilitates quantitative studies on target gene functions in the cells.

  16. Antiproliferative effect of isopentenylated coumarins on several cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Ogawa, K; Sugiura, M; Yano, M; Yoshizawa, Y; Ito, C; Furukawa, H

    2001-01-01

    33 coumarins, mainly the simple isopentenylated coumarins and derived pyrano- and furanocoumarins, were examined for their antiproliferative activity towards several cancer and normal human cell lines. The pyrano- and furanocoumarins showed strong activity against the cancer cell lines, whereas they had weak antiproliferative activity against the normal human cell lines. The decreasing rank order of potency was osthenone (10), clausarin (25), clausenidin (26), dentatin (24), nordentatin (23), imperatorin (29), seselin (27), xanthyletin (21), suberosin (17), phebalosin (8) and osthol (12). The structure-activity relationship established from the results revealed that the 1,1-dimethylallyl and isopentenyl groups have an important role for antiproliferative activity. PMID:11497276

  17. Differential effects of bisphosphonates on breast cancer cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdijk, R.; Franke, H.R.; Wolbers, F.; Vermes, I.

    2007-01-01

    Bisphosphonates may induce direct anti-tumor effects in breast cancers cells in virtro. In this study, six bisphosphonates were administered to three breast caner cell lines. Cell proliferation was measured by quantification of th expressio of Cyclin D1 mRNA. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytome

  18. Molecular profiling reveals primary mesothelioma cell lines recapitulate human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernova, T; Sun, X M; Powley, I R; Galavotti, S; Grosso, S; Murphy, F A; Miles, G J; Cresswell, L; Antonov, A V; Bennett, J; Nakas, A; Dinsdale, D; Cain, K; Bushell, M; Willis, A E; MacFarlane, M

    2016-07-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive, fatal tumor strongly associated with asbestos exposure. There is an urgent need to improve MM patient outcomes and this requires functionally validated pre-clinical models. Mesothelioma-derived cell lines provide an essential and relatively robust tool and remain among the most widely used systems for candidate drug evaluation. Although a number of cell lines are commercially available, a detailed comparison of these commercial lines with freshly derived primary tumor cells to validate their suitability as pre-clinical models is lacking. To address this, patient-derived primary mesothelioma cell lines were established and characterized using complementary multidisciplinary approaches and bioinformatic analysis. Clinical markers of mesothelioma, transcriptional and metabolic profiles, as well as the status of p53 and the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A and NF2, were examined in primary cell lines and in two widely used commercial lines. Expression of MM-associated markers, as well as the status of CDKN2A, NF2, the 'gatekeeper' in MM development, and their products demonstrated that primary cell lines are more representative of the tumor close to its native state and show a degree of molecular diversity, thus capturing the disease heterogeneity in a patient cohort. Molecular profiling revealed a significantly different transcriptome and marked metabolic shift towards a greater glycolytic phenotype in commercial compared with primary cell lines. Our results highlight that multiple, appropriately characterised, patient-derived tumor cell lines are required to enable concurrent evaluation of molecular profiles versus drug response. Furthermore, application of this approach to other difficult-to-treat tumors would generate improved cellular models for pre-clinical evaluation of novel targeted therapies. PMID:26891694

  19. Creatine Prevents the Structural and Functional Damage to Mitochondria in Myogenic, Oxidatively Stressed C2C12 Cells and Restores Their Differentiation Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbieri, Elena; Guescini, Michele; Calcabrini, Cinzia; Vallorani, Luciana; Diaz, Anna Rita; Fimognari, Carmela; Canonico, Barbara; Luchetti, Francesca; Papa, Stefano; Battistelli, Michela; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Romanello, Vanina; Sandri, Marco; Stocchi, Vilberto; Ciacci, Caterina; Sestili, Piero

    2016-01-01

    Creatine (Cr) is a nutritional supplement promoting a number of health benefits. Indeed Cr has been shown to be beneficial in disease-induced muscle atrophy, improve rehabilitation, and afford mild antioxidant activity. The beneficial effects are likely to derive from pleiotropic interactions. In accord with this notion, we previously demonstrated that multiple pleiotropic effects, including preservation of mitochondrial damage, account for the capacity of Cr to prevent the differentiation arrest caused by oxidative stress in C2C12 myoblasts. Given the importance of mitochondria in supporting the myogenic process, here we further explored the protective effects of Cr on the structure, function, and networking of these organelles in C2C12 cells differentiating under oxidative stressing conditions; the effects on the energy sensor AMPK, on PGC-1α, which is involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and its downstream effector Tfam were also investigated. Our results indicate that damage to mitochondria is crucial in the differentiation imbalance caused by oxidative stress and that the Cr-prevention of these injuries is invariably associated with the recovery of the normal myogenic capacity. We also found that Cr activates AMPK and induces an upregulation of PGC-1α expression, two events which are likely to contribute to the protection of mitochondrial quality and function. PMID:27610211

  20. The apoptotic members CD95, BclxL, and Bcl-2 cooperate to promote cell migration by inducing Ca2+ flux from the endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouqué, A; Lepvrier, E; Debure, L; Gouriou, Y; Malleter, M; Delcroix, V; Ovize, M; Ducret, T; Li, C; Hammadi, M; Vacher, P; Legembre, P

    2016-01-01

    Metalloprotease-processed CD95L (cl-CD95L) is a soluble cytokine that implements a PI3K/Ca2+ signaling pathway in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. Accordingly, high levels of cl-CD95L in TNBC women correlate with poor prognosis, and administration of this ligand in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model accelerates the metastatic dissemination of TNBC cells. The molecular mechanism underlying CD95-mediated cell migration remains unknown. Here, we present genetic and pharmacologic evidence that the anti-apoptotic molecules BclxL and Bcl-2 and the pro-apoptotic factors BAD and BID cooperate to promote migration of TNBC cells stimulated with cl-CD95L. BclxL was distributed in both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrion membranes. The mitochondrion-localized isoform promoted cell migration by interacting with voltage-dependent anion channel 1 to orchestrate Ca2+ transfer from the ER to mitochondria in a BH3-dependent manner. Mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter contributed to this flux, which favored ATP production and cell migration. In conclusion, this study reveals a novel molecular mechanism controlled by BclxL to promote cancer cell migration and supports the use of BH3 mimetics as therapeutic options not only to kill tumor cells but also to prevent metastatic dissemination in TNBCs. PMID:27367565

  1. Mercury specifically induces LINE-1 activity in a human neuroblastoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, Laleh; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Tabrizi, Mina; Modarressi, Mohammad Hossein; Akrami, Seyed Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    L1 retro-elements comprise 17% of the human genome. Approximately 100 copies of these autonomous mobile elements are active in our DNA and can cause mutations, gene disruptions, and genomic instability. Therefore, human cells control the activities of L1 elements, in order to prevent their deleterious effects through different mechanisms. However, some toxic agents increase the retrotransposition activity of L1 elements in somatic cells. In order to identify specific effects of neurotoxic metals on L1 activity in neuronal cells, we studied the effects of mercury and cobalt on L1-retroelement activity by measuring levels of cellular transcription, protein expression, and genomic retrotransposition in a neuroblastoma cell line compared with the effects in three non-neuronal cell lines. Our results show that mercury increased the expression of L1 RNA, the activity of the L1 5'UTR, and L1 retrotransposition exclusively in the neuroblastoma cell line but not in non-neuronal cell lines. However, cobalt increased the expression of L1 RNA in neuroblastoma cells, HeLa cells, and wild-type human fibroblasts, and also increased the activity of the L1 5'UTR as well as the SV40 promoter in HeLa cells but not in neuroblastoma cells. Exposure to cobalt did not result in increased retrotransposition activity in HeLa cells or neuroblastoma cells. We conclude that non-toxic levels of the neurotoxic agent mercury could influence DNA by increasing L1 activities, specifically in neuronal cells, and may make these cells susceptible to neurodegeneration over time.

  2. A ginseng saponin metabolite-induced apoptosis in HepG2 cells involves a mitochondria-mediated pathway and its downstream caspase-8 activation and Bid cleavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    20-O-(β-D-Glucopyranosyl)-20(S)-protopanaxadiol (IH901), an intestinal bacterial metabolite of ginseng saponin formed from ginsenosides Rb1, Rb2, and Rc, is suggested to be a potential chemopreventive agent. Here, we show that IH901 induces apoptosis in human hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells. IH901 led to an early activation of procaspase-3 (12 h posttreatment), and the activation of caspase-8 became evident only later (18 h posttreatment). Caspase activation was a necessary requirement for apoptosis because caspase inhibitors significantly inhibited cell death by IH901. Treatment of HepG2 cells with IH901 also induced the cleavage of cytosolic factors such as Bid and Bax and translocation of truncated Bid (tBid) to mitochondria. A time-dependent release of cytochrome c from mitochondria was observed, which was accompanied by activation of caspase-9. A broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Val-Ala-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zVAD-fmk), and a specific inhibitor for caspase-8, N-benzyloxycarbonyl-Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp-fluoromethylketone (zIETD-fmk), abrogated Bid processing and translocation, and caspase-3 activation. Cytochrome c release was inhibited by zVAD-fmk, however, the inhibition by zIETD-fmk was not complete. The activation of caspase-8 was inhibited not only by zIETD-fmk but also by zVAD-fmk. The results, together with the kinetic change of caspase activation, indicate that activation of caspase-8 occurred downstream of caspase-3 and -9. Our data suggest that the activation of caspase-8 after early caspase-3 activation might act as an amplification loop necessary for successful apoptosis. Primary hepatocytes isolated from normal Sprague-Dawley rats were not affected by IH901 (0-60 μM). The very low toxicity in normal hepatocytes and high activity in hepatoblastoma HepG2 cells suggest that IH901 is a promising experimental cancer chemopreventive agent

  3. ROS production is essential for the apoptotic function of E2F1 in pheochromocytoma and neuroblastoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Espada

    Full Text Available In this study we demonstrate that accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS is essential for E2F1 mediated apoptosis in ER-E2F1 PC12 pheochromocytoma, and SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD neuroblastoma stable cell lines. In these cells, the ER-E2F1 fusion protein is expressed in the cytosol; the addition of 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT induces its translocation to the nucleus and activation of E2F1target genes. Previously we demonstrated that, in ER-E2F1 PC12 cells, OHT treatment induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3. Here we show that caspase-8 activity did not change upon treatment with OHT. Moreover, over-expression of Bcl-xL arrested OHT-induced apoptosis; by contrast, over-expression of c-FLIP, did not have any effect on OHT-induced apoptosis. OHT addition induces BimL expression, its translocation to mitochondria and activation of Bax, which is paralleled by diminished mitochondrial enrichment of Bcl-xL. Treatment with a Bax-inhibitory peptide reduced OHT-induced apoptosis. These results point out the essential role of mitochondria on the apoptotic process driven by E2F1. ROS accumulation followed E2F1 induction and treatment with the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine, inhibited E2F1-induced Bax translocation to mitochondria and subsequent apoptosis. The role of ROS in mediating OHT-induced apoptosis was also studied in two neuroblastoma cell lines, SH-SY5Y and SK-N-JD. In SH-SY5Y cells, activation of E2F1 by the addition of OHT induced ROS production and apoptosis, whereas over-expression of E2F1 in SK-N-JD cells failed to induce either response. Transcriptional profiling revealed that many of the genes responsible for scavenging ROS were down-regulated following E2F1-induction in SH-SY5Y, but not in SK-N-JD cells. Finally, inhibition of GSK3β blocked ROS production, Bax activation and the down regulation of ROS scavenging genes. These findings provide an explanation for the apparent contradictory role of E2F1 as an apoptotic agent versus a cell

  4. Membrane lipidome of an epithelial cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampaio, Julio L; Gerl, Mathias J; Klose, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Tissue differentiation is an important process that involves major cellular membrane remodeling. We used Madin-Darby canine kidney cells as a model for epithelium formation and investigated the remodeling of the total cell membrane lipidome during the transition from a nonpolarized morphology...

  5. Pathway-specific differences between tumor cell lines and normal and tumor tissue cells

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    Tozeren Aydin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell lines are used in experimental investigation of cancer but their capacity to represent tumor cells has yet to be quantified. The aim of the study was to identify significant alterations in pathway usage in cell lines in comparison with normal and tumor tissue. Methods This study utilized a pathway-specific enrichment analysis of publicly accessible microarray data and quantified the gene expression differences between cell lines, tumor, and normal tissue cells for six different tissue types. KEGG pathways that are significantly different between cell lines and tumors, cell lines and normal tissues and tumor and normal tissue were identified through enrichment tests on gene lists obtained using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM. Results Cellular pathways that were significantly upregulated in cell lines compared to tumor cells and normal cells of the same tissue type included ATP synthesis, cell communication, cell cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, purine, pyrimidine and pyruvate metabolism, and proteasome. Results on metabolic pathways suggested an increase in the velocity nucleotide metabolism and RNA production. Pathways that were downregulated in cell lines compared to tumor and normal tissue included cell communication, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs, and ECM-receptor interaction. Only a fraction of the significantly altered genes in tumor-to-normal comparison had similar expressions in cancer cell lines and tumor cells. These genes were tissue-specific and were distributed sparsely among multiple pathways. Conclusion Significantly altered genes in tumors compared to normal tissue were largely tissue specific. Among these genes downregulation was a major trend. In contrast, cell lines contained large sets of significantly upregulated genes that were common to multiple tissue types. Pathway upregulation in cell lines was most pronounced over metabolic pathways including cell nucleotide metabolism and oxidative

  6. Global Conservation of Protein Status between Cell Lines and Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Biau

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Common preclinical models for testing anticancer treatment include cultured human tumor cell lines in monolayer, and xenografts derived from these cell lines in immunodeficient mice. Our goal was to determine how similar the xenografts are compared with their original cell line and to determine whether it is possible to predict the stability of a xenograft model beforehand. We studied a selection of 89 protein markers of interest in 14 human cell cultures and respective subcutaneous xenografts using the reverse-phase protein array technology. We specifically focused on proteins and posttranslational modifications involved in DNA repair, PI3K pathway, apoptosis, tyrosine kinase signaling, stress, cell cycle, MAPK/ERK signaling, SAPK/JNK signaling, NFκB signaling, and adhesion/cytoskeleton. Using hierarchical clustering, most cell culture-xenograft pairs cluster together, suggesting a global conservation of protein signature. Particularly, Akt, NFkB, EGFR, and Vimentin showed very stable protein expression and phosphorylation levels highlighting that 4 of 10 pathways were highly correlated whatever the model. Other proteins were heterogeneously conserved depending on the cell line. Finally, cell line models with low Akt pathway activation and low levels of Vimentin gave rise to more reliable xenograft models. These results may be useful for the extrapolation of cell culture experiments to in vivo models in novel targeted drug discovery.

  7. Phenotypes and karyotypes of human malignant mesothelioma cell lines.

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    Vandana Relan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive tumour of serosal surfaces most commonly pleura. Characterised cell lines represent a valuable tool to study the biology of mesothelioma. The aim of this study was to develop and biologically characterise six malignant mesothelioma cell lines to evaluate their potential as models of human malignant mesothelioma. METHODS: Five lines were initiated from pleural biopsies, and one from pleural effusion of patients with histologically proven malignant mesothelioma. Mesothelial origin was assessed by standard morphology, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and immunocytochemistry. Growth characteristics were assayed using population doubling times. Spectral karyotyping was performed to assess chromosomal abnormalities. Authentication of donor specific derivation was undertaken by DNA fingerprinting using a panel of SNPs. RESULTS: Most of cell lines exhibited spindle cell shape, with some retaining stellate shapes. At passage 2 to 6 all lines stained positively for calretinin and cytokeratin 19, and demonstrated capacity for anchorage-independent growth. At passage 4 to 16, doubling times ranged from 30-72 hours, and on spectral karyotyping all lines exhibited numerical chromosomal abnormalities ranging from 41 to 113. Monosomy of chromosomes 8, 14, 22 or 17 was observed in three lines. One line displayed four different karyotypes at passage 8, but only one karyotype at passage 42, and another displayed polyploidy at passage 40 which was not present at early passages. At passages 5-17, TEM showed characteristic features of mesothelioma ultrastructure in all lines including microvilli and tight intercellular junctions. CONCLUSION: These six cell lines exhibit varying cell morphology, a range of doubling times, and show diverse passage-dependent structural chromosomal changes observed in malignant tumours. However they retain characteristic immunocytochemical protein expression profiles of

  8. Strategies for selecting recombinant CHO cell lines for cGMP manufacturing: improving the efficiency of cell line generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Alison J; Racher, Andrew J; Preziosi, Richard; Dickson, Alan J

    2010-01-01

    Transfectants with a wide range of cellular phenotypes are obtained during the process of cell line generation. For the successful manufacture of a therapeutic protein, a means is required to identify a cell line with desirable growth and productivity characteristics from this phenotypically wide-ranging transfectant population. This identification process is on the critical path for first-in-human studies. We have stringently examined a typical selection strategy used to isolate cell lines suitable for cGMP manufacturing. One-hundred and seventy-five transfectants were evaluated as they progressed through the different assessment stages of the selection strategy. High producing cell lines, suitable for cGMP manufacturing, were identified. However, our analyses showed that the frequency of isolation of the highest producing cell lines was low and that ranking positions were not consistent between each assessment stage, suggesting that there is potential to improve upon the strategy. Attempts to increase the frequency of isolation of the 10 highest producing cell lines, by in silico analysis of alternative selection strategies, were unsuccessful. We identified alternative strategies with similar predictive capabilities to the typical selection strategy. One alternate strategy required fewer cell lines to be progressed at the assessment stages but the stochastic nature of the models means that cell line numbers are likely to change between programs. In summary, our studies illuminate the potential for improvement to this and future selection strategies, based around use of assessments that are more informative or that reduce variance, paving the way to improved efficiency of generation of manufacturing cell lines. PMID:20623584

  9. MORPHOMETRIC SUBTYPING FOR A PANEL OF BREAST CANCER CELL LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Ju; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Wang, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joe W.; Parvin, Bahram

    2009-05-08

    A panel of cell lines of diverse molecular background offers an improved model system for high-content screening, comparative analysis, and cell systems biology. A computational pipeline has been developed to collect images from cell-based assays, segment individual cells and colonies, represent segmented objects in a multidimensional space, and cluster them for identifying distinct subpopulations. While each segmentation strategy can vary for different imaging assays, representation and subpopulation analysis share a common thread. Application of this pipeline to a library of 41 breast cancer cell lines is demonstrated. These cell lines are grown in 2D and imaged through immunofluorescence microscopy. Subpopulations in this panel are identified and shown to correlate with previous subtyping literature that was derived from transcript data.

  10. Biobanking human embryonic stem cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell banks curating and distributing human embryonic stem cells have been established in a number of countries and by a number of private institutions. This paper identifies and critically discusses a number of arguments that are used to justify the importance of such banks in policy...... are curiously absent from the particular stem cell banking policy discourse. This to some extent artificially isolates this discourse from the broader discussions about the flows of reproductive materials and tissues in modern society, and such isolation may lead to the interests of important actors being...

  11. Cold storage and cryopreservation of tick cell lines

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    Lallinger Gertrud

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tick cell lines are now available from fifteen ixodid and argasid species of medical and veterinary importance. However, some tick cell lines can be difficult to cryopreserve, and improved protocols for short- and long-term low temperature storage will greatly enhance their use as tools in tick and tick-borne pathogen research. In the present study, different protocols were evaluated for cold storage and cryopreservation of tick cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis. For short-term cold storage, cells were kept under refrigeration at 6°C for 15, 30 and 45 days. For cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, use of a sucrose-phosphate-glutamate freezing buffer (SPG as cryoprotectant was compared with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO supplemented with sucrose. Cell viability was determined by the trypan blue exclusion test and cell morphology was evaluated in Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears. Results Cold storage at 6°C for up to 30 days was successful in preserving R. (B. microplus, R. (B. decoloratus, I. ricinus and I. scapularis cell lines; lines from the latter three species could be easily re-cultivated after 45 days under refrigeration. While cell lines from all four tick species cryopreserved with 6% DMSO were successfully resuscitated, the R. (B. decoloratus cells did not survive freezing in SPG and of the other three species, only the R. (B. microplus cells resumed growth during the observation period. Conclusions This constitutes the first report on successful short-term refrigeration of cells derived from R. (B. decoloratus, R. (B. microplus, and I. ricinus, and use of SPG as an alternative to DMSO for cryopreservation, thus making an important contribution to more reliable and convenient tick cell culture maintenance.

  12. Proteomics of human mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmfeldt, Johan; Bross, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Proteomics have passed through a tremendous development in the recent years by the development of ever more sensitive, fast and precise mass spectrometry methods. The dramatically increased research in the biology of mitochondria and their prominent involvement in all kinds of diseases and ageing...... of the catalog of human mitochondrial proteins and discuss proteins with dual localization in mitochondria and other cellular compartments. We describe the status and developments of pertinent mass spectrometric strategies, and the use of databases and bioinformatics. Using selected illustrative examples, we...... on human mitochondria and pinpoint fields where the evolving technologies will be exploited....

  13. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in tumor cell lines research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRS can be used non-invasively to study the several trace metabolites and energy metabolism in vivo. By quantitatively analyzing the compounds changes we could detect abnormal metabolism in tumor and its surrounding tissue, and estimate tumor infiltration in vivo and vitro. In recent years, MRS has been applied in cell line research and is becoming a promising method. In this article we summarized the applications of MRS in cell lines in studying diagnosis, treatment, and tumor mechanisms. (authors)

  14. The membrane targeted apoptosis modulators erucylphosphocholine and erucylphosphohomocholine increase the radiation response of human glioblastoma cell lines in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkylphosphocholines constitute a novel class of antineoplastic synthetic phospholipid derivatives that induce apoptosis of human tumor cell lines by targeting cellular membranes. We could recently show that the first intravenously applicable alkylphosphocholine erucylphosphocholine (ErPC) is a potent inducer of apoptosis in highly resistant human astrocytoma/glioblastoma cell lines in vitro. ErPC was shown to cross the blood brain barrier upon repeated intravenous injections in rats and thus constitutes a promising candidate for glioblastoma therapy. Aim of the present study was to analyze putative beneficial effects of ErPC and its clinically more advanced derivative erucylphosphohomocholine (erucyl-N, N, N-trimethylpropanolaminphosphate, ErPC3, Erufosine™ on radiation-induced apoptosis and eradication of clonogenic tumor cells in human astrocytoma/glioblastoma cell lines in vitro. While all cell lines showed high intrinsic resistance against radiation-induced apoptosis as determined by fluorescence microscopy, treatment with ErPC and ErPC3 strongly increased sensitivity of the cells to radiation-induced cell death (apoptosis and necrosis). T98G cells were most responsive to the combined treatment revealing highly synergistic effects while A172 showed mostly additive to synergistic effects, and U87MG cells sub-additive, additive or synergistic effects, depending on the respective radiation-dose, drug-concentration and treatment time. Combined treatment enhanced therapy-induced damage of the mitochondria and caspase-activation. Importantly, combined treatment also increased radiation-induced eradication of clonogenic T98G cells as determined by standard colony formation assays. Our observations make the combined treatment with ionizing radiation and the membrane targeted apoptosis modulators ErPC and ErPC3 a promising approach for the treatment of patients suffering from malignant glioma. The use of this innovative treatment concept in an in vivo xenograft

  15. Reliable in vitro studies require appropriate ovarian cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Francis; Nixdorf, Sheri; Hacker, Neville F; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola A

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death in women and the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancies. Of the 75% women diagnosed with locally advanced or disseminated disease, only 30% will survive five years following treatment. This poor prognosis is due to the following reasons: limited understanding of the tumor origin, unclear initiating events and early developmental stages of ovarian cancer, lack of reliable ovarian cancer-specific biomarkers, and drug resistance in advanced cases. In the past, in vitro studies using cell line models have been an invaluable tool for basic, discovery-driven cancer research. However, numerous issues including misidentification and cross-contamination of cell lines have hindered research efforts. In this study we examined all ovarian cancer cell lines available from cell banks. Hereby, we identified inconsistencies in the reporting, difficulties in the identification of cell origin or clinical data of the donor patients, restricted ethnic and histological type representation, and a lack of tubal and peritoneal cancer cell lines. We recommend that all cell lines should be distributed via official cell banks only with strict guidelines regarding the minimal available information required to improve the quality of ovarian cancer research in future. PMID:24936210

  16. Cyclosporin and mitochondria: a neuroprotective approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Singh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporin A (CsA an immunophilin, discovered in 1969 and approved in 1983 to be used as immunosuppressant agent and is widely used in organ transplantation and auto-immune disorders. Its ability to alter mitochondria and apoptotic pathways makes it attractive agent to be employed in variety of diseases including age related neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondria play pivotal role in cell energetics and reactive oxygen species production and are known to be key regulator of apoptosis hence it is important in a wide range of diseases. The structural and functional properties of mitochondria enable the targeting of drugs supposed to modulate the function of organelle for therapeutic advantage. By targeting mitochondria we can prevent oxidative damage associated with neurodegenerative diseases and ischemia and reperfusion tissue injury. Similarly targeting Bcl-2 can be helpful in cancer by triggering apoptosis. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(3.000: 339-340

  17. In vitro Rb-1 gene transfer to retinoblastoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After transfection of Rb-vector to packaging cell line (CRIP) by Ca-P precipitation method, we could select nineteen colonies of G-418 resistant clone by ring cloning. Each colony was transduced to NIH3T3 cells to select the one which produces high titer virus. After NIH3T3 cells transduction, we could get 28 colony counts for the high, 127 for the middle, and 6 for the low viral titer. With the supernatant of the high viral titer colony (CRIPRb 2-5). We transduct retinoblastoma cell lines. 5 figs, 11 refs. (Author)

  18. Expressional patterns of chaperones in ten human tumor cell lines

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    Slavc Irene

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chaperones (CH play an important role in tumor biology but no systematic work on expressional patterns has been reported so far. The aim of the study was therefore to present an analytical method for the concomitant determination of several CH in human tumor cell lines, to generate expressional patterns in the individual cell lines and to search for tumor and non-tumor cell line specific CH expression. Human tumor cell lines of neuroblastoma, colorectal and adenocarcinoma of the ovary, osteosarcoma, rhabdomyosarcoma, malignant melanoma, lung, cervical and breast cancer, promyelocytic leukaemia were homogenised, proteins were separated on two-dimensional gel electrophoresis with in-gel digestion of proteins and MALDI-TOF/TOF analysis was carried out for the identification of CH. Results A series of CH was identified including the main CH groups as HSP90/HATPas_C, HSP70, Cpn60_TCP1, DnaJ, Thioredoxin, TPR, Pro_isomerase, HSP20, ERP29_C, KE2, Prefoldin, DUF704, BAG, GrpE and DcpS. Conclusions The ten individual tumor cell lines showed different expression patterns, which are important for the design of CH studies in tumor cell lines. The results can serve as a reference map and form the basis of a concomitant determination of CH by a protein chemical rather than an immunochemical method, independent of antibody availability or specificity.

  19. HIV-1 Vpr triggers mitochondrial destruction by impairing Mfn2-mediated ER-mitochondria interaction.

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    Chih-Yang Huang

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1 viral protein R (Vpr has been shown to induce host cell death by increasing the permeability of mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM. The mechanism underlying the damage to the mitochondria by Vpr, however, is not clearly illustrated. In this study, Vpr that is introduced, via transient transfection or lentivirus infection, into the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293, human CD4(+ T lymphoblast cell line SupT1, or human primary CD4(+ T cells serves as the model system to study the molecular mechanism of Vpr-mediated HIV-1 pathogenesis. The results show that Vpr injures MOM and causes a loss in membrane potential (MMP by posttranscriptionally reducing the expression of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2 via VprBP-DDB1-CUL4A ubiquitin ligase complex, gradually weakening MOM, and increasing mitochondrial deformation. Vpr also markedly decreases cytoplasmic levels of dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1 and increases bulging in mitochondria-associated membranes (MAM, the specific regions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER which form physical contacts with the mitochondria. Overexpression of Mfn2 and DRP1 significantly decreased the loss of MMP and apoptotic cell death caused by Vpr. Furthermore, by employing time-lapse confocal fluorescence microscopy, we identify the transport of Vpr protein from the ER, via MAM to the mitochondria. Taken together, our results suggest that Vpr-mediated cellular damage may occur on an alternative protein transport pathway from the ER, via MAM to the mitochondria, which are modulated by Mfn2 and DRP1.

  20. Airborne urban particles (Milan winter-PM2.5) cause mitotic arrest and cell death: Effects on DNA, mitochondria, AhR binding and spindle organization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gualtieri, Maurizio [Applied Cell Biology and Particles Effects, Department of Environmental Science, University Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Ovrevik, Johan [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Mollerup, Steen [Section for Toxicology, National Institute of Occupational Health, N-0033 Oslo (Norway); Asare, Nana [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Longhin, Eleonora [Applied Cell Biology and Particles Effects, Department of Environmental Science, University Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Dahlman, Hans-Jorgen [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway); Camatini, Marina [Applied Cell Biology and Particles Effects, Department of Environmental Science, University Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Centre Research POLARIS, Department of Environmental Science, University Milano-Bicocca, Piazza della Scienza 1, 20126 Milano (Italy); Holme, Jorn A., E-mail: jorn.holme@fhi.no [Division of Environmental Medicine, Norwegian Institute of Public Health, P.O. Box 4404 Nydalen, N-0403 Oslo (Norway)

    2011-08-01

    Highlights: {yields} PM2.5 induces mitotic arrest in BEAS-2B cells. {yields} PM2.5 induces DNA damage and activates DNA damage response. {yields} AhR regulated genes (Cyp1A1, Cyp1B1 and AhRR) are upregulated after PM exposure. {yields} Mitotic spindle assembly is perturbed in PM exposed cells. - Abstract: Airborne particulate matter (PM) is considered to be an important contributor to lung diseases. In the present study we report that Milan winter-PM2.5 inhibited proliferation in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) by inducing mitotic arrest. The cell cycle arrest was followed by an increase in mitotic-apoptotic cells, mitotic slippage and finally an increase in 'classical' apoptotic cells. Exposure to winter-PM10 induced only a slight effect which may be due to the presence of PM2.5 in this fraction while pure combustion particles failed to disturb mitosis. Fewer cells expressing the mitosis marker phospho-histone H3 compared to cells with condensed chromosomes, suggest that PM2.5 induced premature mitosis. PM2.5 was internalized into the cells and often localized in laminar organelles, although particles without apparent plasma membrane covering were also seen. In PM-containing cells mitochondria and lysosomes were often damaged, and in mitotic cells fragmented chromosomes often appeared. PM2.5 induced DNA strands breaks and triggered a DNA-damage response characterized by increased phosphorylation of ATM, Chk2 and H2AX; as well as induced a marked increase in expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-regulated genes, CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and AhRR. Furthermore, some disturbance of the organization of microtubules was indicated. It is hypothesized that the induced mitotic arrest and following cell death was due to a premature chromosome condensation caused by a combination of DNA, mitochondrial and spindle damage.

  1. Airborne urban particles (Milan winter-PM2.5) cause mitotic arrest and cell death: Effects on DNA, mitochondria, AhR binding and spindle organization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → PM2.5 induces mitotic arrest in BEAS-2B cells. → PM2.5 induces DNA damage and activates DNA damage response. → AhR regulated genes (Cyp1A1, Cyp1B1 and AhRR) are upregulated after PM exposure. → Mitotic spindle assembly is perturbed in PM exposed cells. - Abstract: Airborne particulate matter (PM) is considered to be an important contributor to lung diseases. In the present study we report that Milan winter-PM2.5 inhibited proliferation in human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B) by inducing mitotic arrest. The cell cycle arrest was followed by an increase in mitotic-apoptotic cells, mitotic slippage and finally an increase in 'classical' apoptotic cells. Exposure to winter-PM10 induced only a slight effect which may be due to the presence of PM2.5 in this fraction while pure combustion particles failed to disturb mitosis. Fewer cells expressing the mitosis marker phospho-histone H3 compared to cells with condensed chromosomes, suggest that PM2.5 induced premature mitosis. PM2.5 was internalized into the cells and often localized in laminar organelles, although particles without apparent plasma membrane covering were also seen. In PM-containing cells mitochondria and lysosomes were often damaged, and in mitotic cells fragmented chromosomes often appeared. PM2.5 induced DNA strands breaks and triggered a DNA-damage response characterized by increased phosphorylation of ATM, Chk2 and H2AX; as well as induced a marked increase in expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-regulated genes, CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and AhRR. Furthermore, some disturbance of the organization of microtubules was indicated. It is hypothesized that the induced mitotic arrest and following cell death was due to a premature chromosome condensation caused by a combination of DNA, mitochondrial and spindle damage.

  2. Neurohypophysial Receptor Gene Expression by Thymic T Cell Subsets and Thymic T Cell Lymphoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hansenne

    2004-01-01

    transcribed in thymic epithelium, while immature T lymphocytes express functional neurohypophysial receptors. Neurohypophysial receptors belong to the G protein-linked seven-transmembrane receptor superfamily and are encoded by four distinct genes, OTR, V1R, V2R and V3R. The objective of this study was to identify the nature of neurohypophysial receptor in thymic T cell subsets purified by immunomagnetic selection, as well as in murine thymic lymphoma cell lines RL12-NP and BW5147. OTR is transcribed in all thymic T cell subsets and T cell lines, while V3R transcription is restricted to CD4+ CD8+ and CD8+ thymic cells. Neither V1R nor V2R transcripts are detected in any kind of T cells. The OTR protein was identified by immunocytochemistry on thymocytes freshly isolated from C57BL/6 mice. In murine fetal thymic organ cultures, a specific OTR antagonist does not modify the percentage of T cell subsets, but increases late T cell apoptosis further evidencing the involvement of OT/OTR signaling in the control of T cell proliferation and survival. According to these data, OTR and V3R are differentially expressed during T cell ontogeny. Moreover, the restriction of OTR transcription to T cell lines derived from thymic lymphomas may be important in the context of T cell leukemia pathogenesis and treatment.

  3. Mitochondrial modulation of oxygen-dependent radiosensitivity in some human tumour cell lines.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Anoopkumar-Dukie, S

    2009-10-01

    Oxygen-dependent radiosensitivity of tumour cells reflects direct oxidative damage to DNA, but non-nuclear mechanisms including signalling pathways may also contribute. Mitochondria are likely candidates because not only do they integrate signals from each of the main kinase pathways but mitochondrial kinases responsive to oxidative stress communicate to the rest of the cell. Using pharmacological and immunochemical methods, we tested the role of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) and the Bcl-2 proteins in oxygen-dependent radiosensitivity. Drug-treated or untreated cervical cancer HeLa, breast cancer MCF-7 and melanoma MeWo cell lines were irradiated at 6.2 Gy under normoxic and hypoxic conditions then allowed to proliferate for 7 days. The MPT blocker cyclosporin A (2 microM) strongly protected HeLa but not the other two lines against oxygen-dependent radiosensitivity. By contrast, bongkrekic acid (50 microM), which blocks MPT by targeting the adenine nucleotide transporter, had only marginal effect and calcineurin inhibitor FK-506 (0.1 microM) had none. Nor was evidence found for the modulation of oxygen-dependent radiosensitivity by Bax\\/Bcl-2 signalling, mitochondrial ATP-dependent potassium (mitoK(ATP)) channels or mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake. In conclusion, calcineurin-independent protection by cyclosporin A suggests that MPT but not mitoK(ATP) or the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway plays a causal role in oxygen-dependent radiosensitivity of HeLa cells. Targeting MPT may therefore improve the effectiveness of radiotherapy in some solid tumours.

  4. Transcription profiles of non-immortalized breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searches for differentially expressed genes in tumours have made extensive use of array technology. Most samples have been obtained from tumour biopsies or from established tumour-derived cell lines. Here we compare cultures of non-immortalized breast cancer cells, normal non-immortalized breast cells and immortalized normal and breast cancer cells to identify which elements of a defined set of well-known cancer-related genes are differentially expressed. Cultures of cells from pleural effusions or ascitic fluids from breast cancer patients (MSSMs) were used in addition to commercially-available normal breast epithelial cells (HMECs), established breast cancer cell lines (T-est) and established normal breast cells (N-est). The Atlas Human Cancer 1.2 cDNA expression array was employed. The data obtained were analysed using widely-available statistical and clustering software and further validated through real-time PCR. According to Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) and AtlasImage software, 48 genes differed at least 2-fold in adjusted intensities between HMECs and MSSMs (p < 0.01). Some of these genes have already been directly linked with breast cancer, metastasis and malignant progression, whilst others encode receptors linked to signal transduction pathways or are otherwise related to cell proliferation. Fifty genes showed at least a 2.5-fold difference between MSSMs and T-est cells according to AtlasImage, 2-fold according to SAM. Most of these classified as genes related to metabolism and cell communication. The expression profiles of 1176 genes were determined in finite life-span cultures of metastatic breast cancer cells and of normal breast cells. Significant differences were detected between the finite life-span breast cancer cell cultures and the established breast cancer cell lines. These data suggest caution in extrapolating information from established lines for application to clinical cancer research

  5. Extensive fusion of mitochondria in spinal cord motor neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey C Owens

    Full Text Available The relative roles played by trafficking, fission and fusion in the dynamics of mitochondria in neurons have not been fully elucidated. In the present study, a slow widespread redistribution of mitochondria within cultured spinal cord motor neurons was observed as a result of extensive organelle fusion. Mitochondria were labeled with a photoconvertible fluorescent protein (mitoKaede that is red-shifted following brief irradiation with blue light. The behavior of these selectively labeled mitochondria was followed by live fluorescence imaging. Marking mitochondria within the cell soma revealed a complete mixing, within 18 hours, of these organelles with mitochondria coming from the surrounding neurites. Fusion of juxtaposed mitochondria was directly observed in neuritic processes at least 200 microns from the cell body. Within 24 hours, photoconverted mitoKaede was dispersed to all of the mitochondria in the portion of neurite under observation. When time lapse imaging over minutes was combined with long-term observation of marked mitochondria, moving organelles that traversed the field of view did not initially contain photoconverted protein, but after several hours organelles in motion contained both fluorescent proteins, coincident with widespread fusion of all of the mitochondria within the length of neurite under observation. These observations suggest that there is a widespread exchange of mitochondrial components throughout a neuron as a result of organelle fusion.

  6. Proteomics of Breast Muscle Tissue Associated with the Phenotypic Expression of Feed Efficiency within a Pedigree Male Broiler Line: I. Highlight on Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Byung-Whi; Lassiter, Kentu; Piekarski-Welsher, Alissa; Dridi, Sami; Reverter-Gomez, Antonio; Hudson, Nicholas James; Bottje, Walter Gay

    2016-01-01

    As feed represents 60 to 70% of the cost of raising an animal to market weight, feed efficiency (the amount of dry weight intake to amount of wet weight gain) remains an important genetic trait in animal agriculture. To gain greater understanding of cellular mechanisms of feed efficiency (FE), shotgun proteomics was conducted using in-gel trypsin digestion and tandem mass spectrometry on breast muscle samples obtained from pedigree male (PedM) broilers exhibiting high feed efficiency (FE) or low FE phenotypes (n = 4 per group). The high FE group had greater body weight gain (P = 0.004) but consumed the same amount of feed (P = 0.30) from 6 to 7 wk resulting in higher FE (P Analysis (IPA) program. In the entire data set, 228 mitochondrial proteins were identified whose collective expression indicates a higher mitochondrial expression in the high FE phenotype (binomial probability P analysis also identified mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative phosphorylation as the number 1 and 5 differentially expressed canonical pathways (up-regulated in high FE) in the proteomic dataset. Upstream analysis (based on DE of downstream molecules) predicted that insulin receptor, insulin like growth receptor 1, nuclear factor, erythroid 2-like 2, AMP activated protein kinase (α subunit), progesterone and triiodothyronine would be activated in the high FE phenotype whereas rapamycin independent companion of target of rapamycin, mitogen activated protein kinase 4, and serum response factor would be inhibited in the high FE phenotype. The results provide additional insight into the fundamental molecular landscape of feed efficiency in breast muscle of broilers as well as further support for a role of mitochondria in the phenotypic expression of FE. Funding provided by USDA-NIFA (#2013-01953), Arkansas Biosciences Institute (Little Rock, AR), McMaster Fellowship (AUS to WB) and the Agricultural Experiment Station (Univ. of Arkansas, Fayetteville). PMID:27244447

  7. The Rice Mitochondria Proteome and its Response During Development and to the Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaobai eHuang

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Rice (Oryza sativa L. is both a major crop species and the key model grass for molecular and physiological research. Mitochondria are important in rice, as in all crops, as the main source of ATP for cell maintenance and growth. However, the practical significance of understanding the function of mitochondria in rice is increased by the widespread farming practice of using hybrids to boost rice production. This relies on cytoplasmic male-sterile (CMS lines with abortive pollen caused by dysfunctional mitochondria. We provide an overview of what is known about the mitochondrial proteome of rice seedlings. To date, more than 320 proteins have been identified in purified rice mitochondria using mass spectrometry. The insights from this work include a broad understanding of the major subunits of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and TCA cycle enzymes, carbon and nitrogen metabolism enzymes as well as details of the supporting machinery for biogenesis and the subset of stress-responsive mitochondrial proteins. Many proteins with unknown functions have also been found in rice mitochondria. Proteomic analysis has also revealed the features of rice mitochondrial protein presequences required for mitochondrial targeting, as well as cleavage site features for processing of precursors after import. Changes in the abundance of rice mitochondrial proteins in response to different stresses, especially anoxia and light, are summarized. Future research on quantitative analysis of the rice mitochondrial proteomes at the spatial and developmental level, its response to environmental stresses and recent advances in understanding of basis of rice CMS systems are highlighted.

  8. The toxicity of rifampicin polylactic acid nanoparticles against Mycobacterium bovis BCG and human macrophage THP-1 cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erokhina, M.; Rybalkina, E.; Barsegyan, G.; Onishchenko, G.; Lepekha, L.

    2015-11-01

    Tuberculosis is rapidly becoming a major health problem. The rise in tuberculosis incidence stimulates efforts to develop more effective delivery systems for the existing antituberculous drugs while decreasing the side effects. The nanotechnology may provide novel drug delivery tools allowing controlled drug release. Rifampicin is one of the main antituberculous drugs, characterized by high toxicity, and Poly (L-lactic acid) (PLLA) is a biodegradable polymer used for the preparation of encapsulated drugs. The aim of our work was to evaluate the toxicity of rifampicin-PLLA nanoparticles against Mycobacterium bovis BCG using human macrophage THP-1 cell line. Our data demonstrate that rifampicin-PLLA is effective against M. bovis BCG in the infected macrophages. The drug is inducing the dysfunction of mitochondria and apoptosis in the macrophages and is acting as a potential substrate of Pgp thereby modulating cell chemosensitivity. The severity of the toxic effects of the rifampicin-PLLA nanoparticles is increasing in a dose-dependent manner. We suggest that free rifampicin induces death of M. bovis BCG after PLLA degradation and diffusion from phago-lysosomes to cytoplasm causing mitochondria dysfunction and affecting the Pgp activity.

  9. Mitochondria in Neurodegeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Lezi, E; Swerdlow, Russell H.

    2012-01-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases demonstrate abnormal mitochondrial morphology and biochemical dysfunction. Alterations are often systemic rather than brain-limited. Mitochondrial dysfunction may arise as a consequence of abnormal mitochondrial DNA, mutated nuclear proteins that interact directly or indirectly with mitochondria, or through unknown causes. In most cases it is unclear where mitochondria sit in relation to the overall disease cascades that ultimately causes neuronal dysfunction a...

  10. Cell Line Modeling to Study Biomarker Panel in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    NickKholgh, Bita; Fang, Xiaolan; Winters, Shira M.; Raina, Anvi; Pandya, Komal S.; Gyabaah, Kenneth; Fino, Nora; Balaji, K.C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND African–American men with prostate cancer (PCa) present with higher-grade and -stage tumors compared to Caucasians. While the disparity may result from multiple factors, a biological basis is often strongly suspected. Currently, few well-characterized experimental model systems are available to study the biological basis of racial disparity in PCa. We report a validated in vitro cell line model system that could be used for the purpose. METHODS We assembled a PCa cell line model that included currently available African–American PCa cell lines and LNCaP (androgen-dependent) and C4-2 (castration-resistant) Caucasian PCa cells. The utility of the cell lines in studying the biological basis of variance in a malignant phenotype was explored using a multiplex biomarker panel consisting of proteins that have been proven to play a role in the progression of PCa. The panel expression was evaluated by Western blot and RT-PCR in cell lines and validated in human PCa tissues by RT-PCR. As proof-of-principle to demonstrate the utility of our model in functional studies, we performed MTS viability assays and molecular studies. RESULTS The dysregulation of the multiplex biomarker panel in primary African–American cell line (E006AA) was similar to metastatic Caucasian cell lines, which would suggest that the cell line model could be used to study an inherent aggressive phenotype in African–American men with PCa. We had previously demonstrated that Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is a novel kinase that is down regulated in advanced prostate cancer. We established the functional relevance by over expressing PKD1, which resulted in decreased proliferation and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in PCa cells. Moreover, we established the feasibility of studying the expression of the multiplex biomarker panel in archived human PCa tissue from African–Americans and Caucasians as a prelude to future translational studies. CONCLUSION We have characterized a novel in

  11. Ethanol induced mitochondria injury and permeability transition pore opening: Role of mitochondria in alcoholic liver disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Yan; Ping Zhu; Hui-Min Liu; Hai-Tao Zhang; Li Liu

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To observe changes of mitochondria and investigate the effect of ethanol on mitochondrial permeability transition pore (PTP), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, Δψm) and intracellular calcium concentration in hepatocytes by establishing an animal model of alcoholic liver disease (ALD).METHODS: Fourty adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups, the model group (20) was administered alcohol intragastrically plus an Oliver oil diet to establish an ALD model, and the control group (20) was given an equal amount of normal saline. The ultramicrostructural changes of mitochondria were observed under electron microscopy. Mitochondria of liver was extracted, and patency of PTP, mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), mitochondrial mass and intracellular calcium concentration of isolated hepacytes were detected by flow cytometry using rhodamine123 (Rh123), Nonyl-Acridine Orange and calcium fluorescent probe Fluo-3/AM, respectively.RESULTS: Membrane and cristae were broken or disappeared in mitochondria in different shapes under electron microscopy. Some mitochondria showed U shape or megamitochondrion. In the model group, liver mitochondria PTP was broken, and mitochondria swelled, the absorbance at 450 nm, A540 decreased (0.0136 ± 0.0025 vs 0.0321 ± O.0013,model vs control,P<O.01);mitochondria transmembrane potential (239.4638 ± 12.7263 vs 377.5850 ± 16.8119,P<0.01) was lowered;mitochondrial mass (17.4350 ± 1.9880 vs 31.6738 ± 3.4930,P<0.01);and [Ca2+]i was increased in liver cells (7.0020 ± 0.5008 vs 10.2050 ± 0.4701,P<0.01).CONCLUSION:Chronic alcohol intake might lead to broken mitochondria PTP,decreased mitochondria membrane potential and injury,and elevated intracellular Ca2+ production.Ethanol-induced chondriosome injury may be an important mechanism of alcoholic diseases.

  12. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems PVL Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Shearer - Stark State College; Gregory Rush - Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems

    2012-05-01

    In July 2010, Stark State College (SSC), received Grant DE-EE0003229 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Golden Field Office, for the development of the electrical and control systems, and mechanical commissioning of a unique 20kW scale high-pressure, high temperature, natural gas fueled Stack Block Test System (SBTS). SSC worked closely with subcontractor, Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) over a 13 month period to successfully complete the project activities. This system will be utilized by RRFCS for pre-commercial technology development and training of SSC student interns. In the longer term, when RRFCS is producing commercial products, SSC will utilize the equipment for workforce training. In addition to DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies program funding, RRFCS internal funds, funds from the state of Ohio, and funding from the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program have been utilized to design, develop and commission this equipment. Construction of the SBTS (mechanical components) was performed under a Grant from the State of Ohio through Ohio's Third Frontier program (Grant TECH 08-053). This Ohio program supported development of a system that uses natural gas as a fuel. Funding was provided under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program for modifications required to test on coal synthesis gas. The subject DOE program provided funding for the electrical build, control system development and mechanical commissioning. Performance testing, which includes electrical commissioning, was subsequently performed under the DOE SECA program. Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems is developing a megawatt-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stationary power generation system. This system, based on RRFCS proprietary technology, is fueled with natural gas, and operates at elevated pressure. A critical success factor for development of the full scale system is the capability

  13. Tissue kinetics, ion transport, and recruitment of mitochondria-rich cells in the skin of the toad (Bufo bufo) in response to exposure to distilled water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz, Poul Egede; Christoffersen, Betina C.; Johansen, Jesper S.;

    1995-01-01

    Mitochondria-rich cells (MRC) of the amphibian epidermis are responsible for active chloride uptake at low external salinity, and new MRCs are recruited in response to exposure to distilled (deionized) water. The time-course of this recruitment, the tissue kinetics and ion transport have been...

  14. Steroid hormone secretion in inflammatory breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illera, Juan Carlos; Caceres, Sara; Peña, Laura; de Andres, Paloma J; Monsalve, Beatriz; Illera, Maria J; Woodward, Wendy A; Reuben, James M; Silvan, Gema

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) is a special type of breast cancer with a poor survival rate. Though several IBC cell lines have been established, recently a first IMC cell line was established. The aims of this study were: (1) to validate a highly sensitive, reliable, accurate and direct amplified enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure several cell-secreted steroid hormones: progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T), 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone sulfate (SO4E1) in the culture medium. (2) To assess whether hormone production profile by IPC-366 cells validates the IMC model for human IBC. We validated a non-competitive amplified EIA for inflammatory breast cancer cell lines based on the results of accuracy, precision, sensitivity and parallelism. The low detection limits of the technique were: P4=13.2 pg/well, A4=2.3 pg/well, T=11.4 pg/well, E2=1.9 pg/well and SO4E1=4.5 pg/well. Intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation percentages were 90%. In all hormones studied SUM149 have higher levels (1.4 times, but not significant) than IPC-366, and the correlation index between SUM149 and IPC-366 concentrations were >97%. We can coclude that cells of both cell lines, IPC-366 and SUM149, are capable to produce steroid hormone in culture media. The presented EIA methodology is very valuable for the detection of steroid production in culture media and could be used in hormone regulation studies and therapeutic agents in cell lines of inflammatory and non-inflammatory mammary carcinoma or other cancer cell lines in preclinical studies. PMID:26495931

  15. Differential production of superoxide by neuronal mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levin Leonard A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA mutations, which are present in all mitochondria-containing cells, paradoxically cause tissue-specific disease. For example, Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON results from one of three point mutations mtDNA coding for complex I components, but is only manifested in retinal ganglion cells (RGCs, a central neuron contained within the retina. Given that RGCs use superoxide for intracellular signaling after axotomy, and that LHON mutations increase superoxide levels in non-RGC transmitochondrial cybrids, we hypothesized that RGCs regulate superoxide levels differently than other neuronal cells. To study this, we compared superoxide production and mitochondrial electron transport chain (METC components in isolated RGC mitochondria to mitochondria isolated from cerebral cortex and neuroblastoma SK-N-AS cells. Results In the presence of the complex I substrate glutamate/malate or the complex II substrate succinate, the rate of superoxide production in RGC-5 cells was significantly lower than cerebral or neuroblastoma cells. Cerebral but not RGC-5 or neuroblastoma cells increased superoxide production in response to the complex I inhibitor rotenone, while neuroblastoma but not cerebral or RGC-5 cells dramatically decreased superoxide production in response to the complex III inhibitor antimycin A. Immunoblotting and real-time quantitative PCR of METC components demonstrated different patterns of expression among the three different sources of neuronal mitochondria. Conclusion RGC-5 mitochondria produce superoxide at significantly lower rates than cerebral and neuroblastoma mitochondria, most likely as a result of differential expression of complex I components. Diversity in METC component expression and function could explain tissue specificity in diseases associated with inherited mtDNA abnormalities.

  16. MOLECULAR AND CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF LUNG TUMOR CELL LINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have measured the levels of amplification of oncogenes and tumor marker genes or other genes of interest in nine human lung tumor cell lines in comparison to normal human bronchial epithelial cells or normal blood lymphocytes to test the hypothesis that aberrant amplification ...

  17. Transportation characteristics of nolatrexed in three tumor cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Yi-lei; ZHAO Ai-guo; WU Shu-guang

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the association of the transportation characteristics of nolatrexed in tumor cells with its drug sensitivity. Methods: The sensitivity of 3 tumor cell lines, C6, SRS82 and LoVo, to nolatrexed were determined by growth inhibition study. After exposure to 20 μmol/L nolatrexed at different time intervals ranging from 0 to 30 min, or to nolatrexed at different concentrations ranging from 0 to 40μmol/L for 10 min, the intracellular drug concentration was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. Results: C6 was the most sensitive cell line among the three, with sensitivity 6. 8-fold and 13.8-fold those of SRS-82 and LoVo cells respectively. Transportation of nolatrexed in the 3 cell lines were qualitatively similar, which rapidly achieved steady-state within 5 min, and linear relationship between the intracellular and extracellular drug concentration was observed. The intracellular steady-state level achieved in C6 was significantly higher than those in the other two cell lines, the latter having comparable levels. Conclusion: Nolatrexed enters the cell very quickly and different transport capacities are involved in the generation of varied sensitivity to nolatrexed in tumor cells.

  18. Frequency and distribution of Notch mutations in tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulated Notch signaling is linked to a variety of tumors and it is therefore important to learn more about the frequency and distribution of Notch mutations in a tumor context. In this report, we use data from the recently developed Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia to assess the frequency and distribution of Notch mutations in a large panel of cancer cell lines in silico. Our results show that the mutation frequency of Notch receptor and ligand genes is at par with that for established oncogenes and higher than for a set of house-keeping genes. Mutations were found across all four Notch receptor genes, but with notable differences between protein domains, mutations were for example more prevalent in the regions encoding the LNR and PEST domains in the Notch intracellular domain. Furthermore, an in silico estimation of functional impact showed that deleterious mutations cluster to the ligand-binding and the intracellular domains of NOTCH1. For most cell line groups, the mutation frequency of Notch genes is higher than in associated primary tumors. Our results shed new light on the spectrum of Notch mutations after in vitro culturing of tumor cells. The higher mutation frequency in tumor cell lines indicates that Notch mutations are associated with a growth advantage in vitro, and thus may be considered to be driver mutations in a tumor cell line context. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1278-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  19. Continuous production of erythropoietin by an established human renal carcinoma cell line: development of the cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, J.B.; Shouval, D.

    1986-01-01

    Establishment of a stable, transformed human renal carcinoma cell line that produces erythropoietin in vitro and has maintained this function continuously since 1981 and for > 150 passages in monolayer culture was accomplished by transplantation of human renal clear cell carcinoma tissue from a patient with erythrocytosis into an immunosuppressed athymic mouse. In addition to its immunocrossreactivity with native human urinary erythropoietin, the tumor erythropoietin demonstrates biological activity in the in vitro mouse erythroid colony-forming unit assay and in tumor-bearing nude mice. The cloned renal carcinoma cell line has an abnormal human karyotype and has ultrastructural features characteristic of human renal clear cell carcinoma. This cell line provides a reproducible model system for the production of an erythropoietin-like material and for the study of its synthesis and secretion.

  20. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell line Genea019

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea019 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype, female Allele pattern and unaffected Htt CAG repeat length, compared to HD affected sibling Genea020. Pluripotency of Genea019 was demonstrated with 75% of cells expressing Nanog, 89% Oct4, 48% Tra1-60 and 85% SSEA4, a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 22.97, Novelty score of 1.42, tri-lineage teratoma formation and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination.

  1. Mitochondria-targeted peptide antioxidants: Novel neuroprotective agents

    OpenAIRE

    Szeto, Hazel H.

    2006-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress play a crucial role in the majority of neurodegenerative diseases. Mitochondria are a major source of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are particularly vulnerable to oxidative stress. Oxidative damage to mitochondria has been shown to impair mitochondrial function and lead to cell death via apoptosis and necrosis. Because dysfunctional mitochondria will produce more ROS, a feed-forward loop is set ...

  2. Establishment, immortalisation and characterisation of pteropid bat cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Crameri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bats are the suspected natural reservoir hosts for a number of new and emerging zoonotic viruses including Nipah virus, Hendra virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola virus. Since the discovery of SARS-like coronaviruses in Chinese horseshoe bats, attempts to isolate a SL-CoV from bats have failed and attempts to isolate other bat-borne viruses in various mammalian cell lines have been similarly unsuccessful. New stable bat cell lines are needed to help with these investigations and as tools to assist in the study of bat immunology and virus-host interactions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Black flying foxes (Pteropus alecto were captured from the wild and transported live to the laboratory for primary cell culture preparation using a variety of different methods and culture media. Primary cells were successfully cultured from 20 different organs. Cell immortalisation can occur spontaneously, however we used a retroviral system to immortalise cells via the transfer and stable production of the Simian virus 40 Large T antigen and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein. Initial infection experiments with both cloned and uncloned cell lines using Hendra and Nipah viruses demonstrated varying degrees of infection efficiency between the different cell lines, although it was possible to infect cells in all tissue types. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The approaches developed and optimised in this study should be applicable to bats of other species. We are in the process of generating further cell lines from a number of different bat species using the methodology established in this study.

  3. Plant cyclopeptide RA-V kills human breast cancer cells by inducing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through blocking PDK1–AKT interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present paper, we examined the effects of a natural cyclopeptide RA-V on human breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. RA-V significantly inhibited the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 cells and murine breast cancer 4T1 cells. In addition, RA-V triggered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway which was indicated by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the release of cytochrome c, and the activation of caspase cascade. Further study showed that RA-V dramatically inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, RA-V disrupted the interaction between PDK1 and AKT in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, RA-V-induced apoptosis could be enhanced by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor or attenuated by over-expression of AKT in all the three kinds of breast cancer cells. Taken together, this study shows that RA-V, which can induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, exerts strong anti-tumor activity against human breast cancer. The underlying anti-cancer mechanism of RA-V is related to the blockage of the interaction between PDK1 and AKT. - Highlights: ► Plant cyclopeptide RA-V kills human breast cancer cells. ► RA-V triggered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human breast cancer cells. ► RA-V inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and PDK1 in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. ► Its mechanism is related to the blockage of the interaction between PDK1 and AKT

  4. Plant cyclopeptide RA-V kills human breast cancer cells by inducing mitochondria-mediated apoptosis through blocking PDK1–AKT interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Xian-Ying; Chen, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Han Kou Road, Nanjing (China); Fan, Jun-Ting [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China); Song, Ran; Wang, Lu [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Han Kou Road, Nanjing (China); Gu, Yan-Hong [Department of Clinical Oncology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Zeng, Guang-Zhi [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China); Shen, Yan; Wu, Xue-Feng [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Han Kou Road, Nanjing (China); Tan, Ning-Hua, E-mail: nhtan@mail.kib.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Phytochemistry and Plant Resources in West China, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming (China); Xu, Qiang, E-mail: molpharm@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Han Kou Road, Nanjing (China); Sun, Yang, E-mail: yangsun@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, School of Life Sciences, Nanjing University, 22 Han Kou Road, Nanjing (China)

    2013-02-15

    In the present paper, we examined the effects of a natural cyclopeptide RA-V on human breast cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. RA-V significantly inhibited the growth of human breast cancer MCF-7, MDA-MB-231 cells and murine breast cancer 4T1 cells. In addition, RA-V triggered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway which was indicated by the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, the release of cytochrome c, and the activation of caspase cascade. Further study showed that RA-V dramatically inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) in MCF-7 cells. Moreover, RA-V disrupted the interaction between PDK1 and AKT in MCF-7 cells. Furthermore, RA-V-induced apoptosis could be enhanced by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor or attenuated by over-expression of AKT in all the three kinds of breast cancer cells. Taken together, this study shows that RA-V, which can induce mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, exerts strong anti-tumor activity against human breast cancer. The underlying anti-cancer mechanism of RA-V is related to the blockage of the interaction between PDK1 and AKT. - Highlights: ► Plant cyclopeptide RA-V kills human breast cancer cells. ► RA-V triggered mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in human breast cancer cells. ► RA-V inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and PDK1 in breast cancer MCF-7 cells. ► Its mechanism is related to the blockage of the interaction between PDK1 and AKT.

  5. Monoclonal antibodies against the human leukemia cell line K 562.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böttger, V; Hering, S; Jantscheff, P; Micheel, B

    1985-01-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies raised against K 562, a cell line originally established from a patient with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) in terminal blast crisis, were selected according to their distinct reaction pattern. Whereas two antibodies (ZIK-C1-A/C5 and ZIK-C1-A/H5 also designated C and H) recognized antigens, present on K 562 cells and other immature and mature hematopoietic cells (cell lines and normal blood and bone marrow cells), antibody ZIK-C1-A/D9 also designated Y showed an exclusive binding to K 562 cells. The results obtained (here and in the following paper) indicate, that antibody ZIK-C1-A/D9 defines an early differentiation antigen of hematopoiesis or a leukemia-associated antigen.

  6. Translocation of p53 to Mitochondria Is Regulated by Its Lipid Binding Property to Anionic Phospholipids and It Participates in Cell Death Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hao Li

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available p53, can regulate cell apoptosis in both transcription-dependent and -independent manners. The transcription-independent pathway was demonstrated by the translocation of p53 to mitochondria. Our study showed that p53 mitochondrial translocation was found in mitomycin C (MMC-treated HepG2. The p53 C-terminal domain is clustered with potential nuclear leading sequences and showed strong electrostatic ion-ion interactions with cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidic acid in vitro. Disruption of cardiolipin biosynthesis by phosphatidylglycero-phosphate synthase (PGS or CDP-diacylglycerol synthase 2 (CDS-2 short hairpin RNA (shRNA transfection eliminated the MMC-induced translocation of mitochondrial p53. The elimination of mitochondrial p53 translocation also reduced Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 mitochondrial distribution. In HEK 293T models with saturated p53 expression, the mitochondrial partition of p53, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-2 obviously decreased in their PGS shRNA- or CDS-2 shRNA-expressing stable clones. In p53-null H1299 models, both the mitochondrial partitions of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 were strongly reduced in relation to the HEK 293T models. The Bcl-xL mitochondrial partition was elevated in H1299 models expressing pCEP4-p53wt suggesting the direct carrier role of p53 in transporting Bcl-xL to the mitochondria. We also found that the cytosolic pool of Bcl-xL and Bcl-2 remained unaffected in the low-dose MMC treatment but decreased in the high-dose MMC treatment. The cytosolic pool of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL directly regulated their amounts in p53-dependent mitochondrial distribution. In the low-dose MMC treatment, the increased mitochondrial p53, Bcl-xL, and Bcl-2 could attenuate apoptosis. However, in the high-dose MMC treatment, only the p53 translocated to the mitochondria and resulted in apoptosis progression. On the basis of this study, we thought mitochondrial p53 might regulate apoptosis in a biphasic manner.

  7. Comparative Metabolic Flux Profiling of Melanoma Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, David A.; Richardson, Adam D.; Filipp, Fabian V.; Knutzen, Christine A.; Chiang, Gary G.; Ronai, Ze'ev A.; Osterman, Andrei L.; Smith, Jeffrey W.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic rewiring is an established hallmark of cancer, but the details of this rewiring at a systems level are not well characterized. Here we acquire this insight in a melanoma cell line panel by tracking metabolic flux using isotopically labeled nutrients. Metabolic profiling and flux balance analysis were used to compare normal melanocytes to melanoma cell lines in both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. All melanoma cells exhibited the Warburg phenomenon; they used more glucose and produced more lactate than melanocytes. Other changes were observed in melanoma cells that are not described by the Warburg phenomenon. Hypoxic conditions increased fermentation of glucose to lactate in both melanocytes and melanoma cells (the Pasteur effect). However, metabolism was not strictly glycolytic, as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle was functional in all melanoma lines, even under hypoxia. Furthermore, glutamine was also a key nutrient providing a substantial anaplerotic contribution to the TCA cycle. In the WM35 melanoma line glutamine was metabolized in the “reverse” (reductive) direction in the TCA cycle, particularly under hypoxia. This reverse flux allowed the melanoma cells to synthesize fatty acids from glutamine while glucose was primarily converted to lactate. Altogether, this study, which is the first comprehensive comparative analysis of metabolism in melanoma cells, provides a foundation for targeting metabolism for therapeutic benefit in melanoma. PMID:21998308

  8. K-Ras and mitochondria: Dangerous liaisons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiri Neuzil; Jakub Rohlena; Lan-Feng Dong

    2012-01-01

    It is well documented that the KRAS oncogene efficiently transforms non-malignant cells,and there is some evidence for the role of mitochondria in this process.Now Peng Huang and colleagues show that K-Ras induction results early on in mitochondria assuming the phenotype consistent with the so-called Warburg effect,i.e.,increased glycolysis and attenuated oxidative phosphorylation.Thus the K-Ras protein capable of swift induction of phenotypic changes typical of cancer cells,yet these changes are reversible,and for cells to irreversibly reach their full malignant potential a much longer K-Ras expression is required,implicating mitochondria in the longer-term effects of the oncogene.

  9. Mechanism(s of Toxic Action of Zn2+ and Selenite: A Study on AS-30D Hepatoma Cells and Isolated Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Belyaeva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria of AS-30D rat ascites hepatoma cells are found to be the main target for Zn2+ and sodium selenite (Na2SeO3. High [mu]M concentrations of Zn2+ or selenite were strongly cytotoxic, killing the AS-30D cells by both apoptotic and necrotic ways. Both Zn2+ and selenite produced strong changes in intracellular generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and the mitochondrial dysfunction via the mitochondrial electron transport chain (mtETC disturbance, the membrane potential dissipation, and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore opening. The significant distinctions in toxic action of Zn2+ and selenite on AS-30D cells were found. Selenite induced a much higher intracellular ROS level (the early event compared to Zn2+ but a lower membrane potential loss and a lower decrease of the uncoupled respiration rate of the cells, whereas the mtETC disturbance was the early and critical event in the mechanism of Zn2+ cytotoxicity. Sequences of events manifested in the mitochondrial dysfunction produced by the metal/metalloid under test are compared with those obtained earlier for Cd2+, Hg2+, and Cu2+ on the same model system.

  10. Differential protection by wildtype vs. organelle-specific Bcl-2 suggests a combined requirement of both the ER and mitochondria in ceramide-mediated caspase-independent programmed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belka Claus

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Programmed cell death (PCD is essential for development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms and can occur by caspase-dependent apoptosis or alternatively, by caspase-independent PCD (ciPCD. Bcl-2, a central regulator of apoptosis, localizes to both mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER. Whereas a function of mitochondrial and ER-specific Bcl-2 in apoptosis has been established in multiple studies, corresponding data for ciPCD do not exist. Methods We utilized Bcl-2 constructs specifically localizing to mitochondria (Bcl-2 ActA, the ER (Bcl-2 cb5, both (Bcl-2 WT or the cytosol/nucleus (Bcl-2 ΔTM and determined their protective effect on ceramide-mediated ciPCD in transiently and stably transfected Jurkat cells. Expression of the constructs was verified by immunoblots. Ceramide-mediated ciPCD was induced by treatment with human recombinant tumor necrosis factor and determined by flow cytometric measurement of propidium iodide uptake as well as by optical analysis of cell morphology. Results Only wildtype Bcl-2 had the ability to efficiently protect from ceramide-mediated ciPCD, whereas expression of Bcl-2 solely at mitochondria, the ER, or the cytosol/nucleus did not prevent ceramide-mediated ciPCD. Conclusion Our data suggest a combined requirement for both mitochondria and the ER in the induction and the signaling pathways of ciPCD mediated by ceramide.

  11. Differential protection by wildtype vs. organelle-specific Bcl-2 suggests a combined requirement of both the ER and mitochondria in ceramide-mediated caspase-independent programmed cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is essential for development and homeostasis of multicellular organisms and can occur by caspase-dependent apoptosis or alternatively, by caspase-independent PCD (ciPCD). Bcl-2, a central regulator of apoptosis, localizes to both mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Whereas a function of mitochondrial and ER-specific Bcl-2 in apoptosis has been established in multiple studies, corresponding data for ciPCD do not exist. We utilized Bcl-2 constructs specifically localizing to mitochondria (Bcl-2 ActA), the ER (Bcl-2 cb5), both (Bcl-2 WT) or the cytosol/nucleus (Bcl-2 ΔTM) and determined their protective effect on ceramide-mediated ciPCD in transiently and stably transfected Jurkat cells. Expression of the constructs was verified by immunoblots. Ceramide-mediated ciPCD was induced by treatment with human recombinant tumor necrosis factor and determined by flow cytometric measurement of propidium iodide uptake as well as by optical analysis of cell morphology. Only wildtype Bcl-2 had the ability to efficiently protect from ceramide-mediated ciPCD, whereas expression of Bcl-2 solely at mitochondria, the ER, or the cytosol/nucleus did not prevent ceramide-mediated ciPCD. Our data suggest a combined requirement for both mitochondria and the ER in the induction and the signaling pathways of ciPCD mediated by ceramide

  12. Skin Biopsy and Patient-Specific Stem Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yao; Nguyen, Huy V.; Tsang, Stephen H.

    2016-01-01

    The generation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells permits the development of next-generation patient-specific systems biology models reflecting personalized genomics profiles to better understand pathophysiology. In this chapter, we describe how to create a patient-specific iPS cell line. There are three major steps: (1) performing a skin biopsy procedure on the patient; (2) extracting human fibroblast cells from the skin biopsy tissue; and (3) reprogramming patient-specific fibroblast cells into the pluripotent stem cell stage. PMID:26141312

  13. Mitochondrial translocation of EGFR regulates mitochondria dynamics and promotes metastasis in NSCLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Ting-Fang; Lin, Ching-Wen; Wu, Yi-Ying; Chen, Yu-Ju; Han, Chia-Li; Chang, Yih-leong; Wu, Chen-Tu; Hsiao, Tzu-Hung; Hong, Tse-Ming; Yang, Pan-Chyr

    2015-11-10

    Dysfunction of the mitochondria is well-known for being associated with cancer progression. In the present study, we analyzed the mitochondria proteomics of lung cancer cell lines with different invasion abilities and found that EGFR is highly expressed in the mitochondria of highly invasive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. EGF induces the mitochondrial translocation of EGFR; further, it leads to mitochondrial fission and redistribution in the lamellipodia, upregulates cellular ATP production, and enhances motility in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, EGFR can regulate mitochondrial dynamics by interacting with Mfn1 and disturbing Mfn1 polymerization. Overexpression of Mfn1 reverses the phenotypes resulting from EGFR mitochondrial translocation. We show that the mitochondrial EGFR expressions are higher in paired samples of the metastatic lymph node as compared with primary lung tumor and are inversely correlated with the overall survival in NSCLC patients. Therefore, our results demonstrate that besides the canonical role of EGFR as a receptor tyrosine, the mitochondrial translocation of EGFR may enhance cancer invasion and metastasis through regulating mitochondria dynamics.

  14. Human cell lines: A promising alternative for recombinant FIX production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Bomfim, Aline; Cristina Corrêa de Freitas, Marcela; Picanço-Castro, Virgínia; de Abreu Soares Neto, Mário; Swiech, Kamilla; Tadeu Covas, Dimas; Maria de Sousa Russo, Elisa

    2016-05-01

    Factor IX (FIX) is a vitamin K-dependent protein, and it has become a valuable pharmaceutical in the Hemophilia B treatment. We evaluated the potential of recombinant human FIX (rhFIX) expression in 293T and SK-Hep-1 human cell lines. SK-Hep-1-FIX cells produced higher levels of biologically active protein. The growth profile of 293T-FIX cells was not influenced by lentiviral integration number into the cellular genome. SK-Hep-1-FIX cells showed a significantly lower growth rate than SK-Hep-1 cells. γ-carboxylation process is significant to FIX biological activity, thus we performed a expression analysis of genes involved in this process. The 293T gene expression suggests that this cell line could efficiently carboxylate FIX, however only 28% of the total secreted protein is active. SK-Hep-1 cells did not express high amounts of VKORC1 and carboxylase, but this cell line secreted large amounts of active protein. Enrichment of culture medium with Ca(+2) and Mg(+2) ions did not affect positively rhFIX expression in SK-Hep-1 cells. In 293T cells, the addition of 0.5 mM Ca(+2) and 1 mM Mg(+2) resulted in higher rhFIX concentration. SK-Hep-1 cell line proved to be very effective in rhFIX production, and it can be used as a novel biotechnological platform for the production of recombinant proteins.

  15. Human cell lines: A promising alternative for recombinant FIX production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Bomfim, Aline; Cristina Corrêa de Freitas, Marcela; Picanço-Castro, Virgínia; de Abreu Soares Neto, Mário; Swiech, Kamilla; Tadeu Covas, Dimas; Maria de Sousa Russo, Elisa

    2016-05-01

    Factor IX (FIX) is a vitamin K-dependent protein, and it has become a valuable pharmaceutical in the Hemophilia B treatment. We evaluated the potential of recombinant human FIX (rhFIX) expression in 293T and SK-Hep-1 human cell lines. SK-Hep-1-FIX cells produced higher levels of biologically active protein. The growth profile of 293T-FIX cells was not influenced by lentiviral integration number into the cellular genome. SK-Hep-1-FIX cells showed a significantly lower growth rate than SK-Hep-1 cells. γ-carboxylation process is significant to FIX biological activity, thus we performed a expression analysis of genes involved in this process. The 293T gene expression suggests that this cell line could efficiently carboxylate FIX, however only 28% of the total secreted protein is active. SK-Hep-1 cells did not express high amounts of VKORC1 and carboxylase, but this cell line secreted large amounts of active protein. Enrichment of culture medium with Ca(+2) and Mg(+2) ions did not affect positively rhFIX expression in SK-Hep-1 cells. In 293T cells, the addition of 0.5 mM Ca(+2) and 1 mM Mg(+2) resulted in higher rhFIX concentration. SK-Hep-1 cell line proved to be very effective in rhFIX production, and it can be used as a novel biotechnological platform for the production of recombinant proteins. PMID:26802680

  16. Secreted proteome of the murine multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cell line DKmix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecke, Nina; Templin, Christian; Muetzelburg, Marika Victoria; Neumann, Detlef; Just, Ingo; Pich, Andreas

    2010-03-15

    Administration of the multipotent hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) line DKmix improved cardiac function after myocardial infarction and accelerated dermal wound healing due to paracrine mechanisms. The aim of this study was to analyse the secreted proteins of DKmix cells in order to identify the responsible paracrine factors and assess their relevance to the wide spectrum of therapeutic effects. A mass spectrometry (MS)-based approach was used to identify secreted proteins of DKmix cells. Serum free culture supernatants of DKmix-conditioned medium were collected and the proteins present were separated, digested by trypsin and the resulting peptides were then analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF/TOF) MS. Overall 95 different proteins were identified. Among them, secretory proteins galectin-3 and gelsolin were identified. These proteins are known to stimulate cell migration and influence wound healing and cardiac remodelling. The remaining proteins originate from intracellular compartments like cytoplasm (69%), nucleus (12%), mitochondria (4%), and cytoplasmic membrane (3%) indicating permeable or leaky DKmix cells in the conditioned medium. Additionally, a sandwich immunoassay was used to detect and quantify cytokines and chemokines. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-13 (IL-13), monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), monocyte-chemoattractant protein-3 (MCP-3), monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1alpha (MIP-1alpha) and monocyte-chemoattractant protein-1beta (MIP-1beta) were detected in low concentrations. This study identified a subset of proteins present in the DKmix-conditioned medium that act as paracrine modulators of tissue repair. Moreover, it suggests that DKmix-derived conditioned medium might have therapeutic potency by promoting tissue regeneration. PMID:20127908

  17. Analysis of LINE-1 expression in human pluripotent cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Lopez, Martin; Garcia-Cañadas, Marta; Macia, Angela; Morell, Santiago; Garcia-Perez, Jose L

    2012-01-01

    Half of the human genome is composed of repeated DNA, and some types are mobile within our genome (transposons and retrotransposons). Despite their abundance, only a small fraction of them are currently active in our genome (Long Interspersed Element-1 (LINE-1), Alu, and SVA elements). LINE-1 or L1 elements are a family of active non-LTR retrotransposons, the ongoing mobilization of which still impacts our genome. As selfish DNA elements, L1 activity is more prominent in early human development, where new insertions would be transmitted to the progeny. Here, we describe the conventional methods aimed to determine the expression level of LINE-1 elements in pluripotent human cells.

  18. Comparison of repair capability of four human tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast and reliable method for assessment of repair capacity of cells based on the restoration of transcription of the gene for the green fluorescent protein carried by a plasmid vector is presented. Repair capacity of the cells counted under fluorescent microscope 24 hours following transcription. This approach has been applied to compare the rates of repair of different types of DNA lesions in four human tumor cell lines. The analysis of the obtained results show that there are considerable differences in the repair capacity of the different cell lines towards the different types of lesions. It should be noted that the difference in repair capacity of the host cells are better evident when plasmids with lower rather that higher number of lesions per unit length of plasmid DNA are used. This is probably because the egfp genes with fewer lesions can be fully repaired while egfp genes with more lesions remain inactive even after some of the lesions have been repaired

  19. Establishment of cell suspension line of Populus tomentosa Carr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Na; ZHANG Zhi-yi; AN Xin-min; YANG Kai

    2008-01-01

    Leaves of fine Populus tomentosa genotype TC152 were used as explants to establish cell suspension lines. The effects of plant growth regulators on callus induction and establishment of cell suspension lines were studied. The callus induction rate was the highest on a MS solid medium supplemented with 1.0 mg·L-1 2,4-D. A cell suspension line could be obtained by inoculating calli which were not subeultured into a MS liquid medium supplemented with 1.5 mg·L-1 2,4-D. The best subculture medium was MS+ 0.8 mg·L-1 2,4-D + 30 g·L-1 sucrose with a subculture cycle of seven days.

  20. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV in two human glioma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sedo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that dipeptidyl peptidase IV [DPP-IV, EC 3.4.14.5] takes part in the metabolism of biologically active peptides participating in the regulation of growth and transformation of glial cells. However, the knowledge on the DPP-IV expression in human glial and glioma cells is still very limited. In this study, using histochemical and biochemical techniques, the DPP-IV activity was demonstrated in two commercially available human glioma cell lines of different transformation degree, as represented by U373 astrocytoma (Grade III and U87 glioblastoma multiforme (Grade IV lines. Higher total activity of the enzyme, as well as its preferential localisation in the plasma membrane, was observed in U87 cells. Compared to U373 population, U87 cells were morphologically more pleiomorphic, they were cycling at lower rate and expressing less Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein. The data revealed positive correlation between the degree of transformation of cells and activity of DPP-IV. Great difference in expression of this enzyme, together with the phenotypic differences of cells, makes these lines a suitable standard model for further 57 studies of function of this enzyme in human glioma cells.

  1. Different susceptibility of colon cancer DLD-1 and LOVO cell lines to apoptosis induced by DMU-212, a synthetic resveratrol analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Hanna; Myszkowski, Krzysztof; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Murias, Marek; Kulcenty, Katarzyna; Wierzchowski, Marcin; Jodynis-Liebert, Jadwiga

    2013-12-01

    The cytotoxic activity of DMU-212 has been shown to vary in cell lines derived from the same type of cancer, i.e. ovarian, breast and colorectal ones. However, the molecular mechanism of DMU-212 cytotoxicity has not been clarified in colon cancer cells. This study aims to elucidate the mechanism of antitumor effects of DMU-212 in two human colon cancer cell lines, DLD-1 and LOVO. We showed the stronger cytotoxic activity in DLD-1 cells in which DMU-212 evoked a greater pro-apoptotic effect as compared to that of LOVO cells. The analysis of the expression pattern of 84 apoptosis-related genes indicated transcripts specific to the mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway in both colon cancer cell lines used. We found that DMU-212 caused up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bak1, Bok, Bik, Noxa, Bad, Bax, p53 and Apaf1 transcripts level in DLD-1 cell line, whereas anti-apoptotic Bcl-2, Bcl-xL and Bag1 mRNA expression was decreased. Changes in apoptosis-related genes expression were less pronounced in LOVO cells which did not express CYP1B1 protein and showed lower expression of CYP1A1 protein level than that in DLD-1 cells. Our results suggest that anticancer activity of DMU-212 is closely related to its biotransformation catalysed by these cytochrome P450 isoenzymes.

  2. Antiproliferative effect of Tualang honey on oral squamous cell carcinoma and osteosarcoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Noorliza M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC and human osteosarcoma (HOS includes surgery and/or radiotherapy which often lead to reduced quality of life. This study was aimed to study the antiproliferative activity of local honey (Tualang on OSCC and HOS cell lines. Methods Several concentrations of Tualang honey (1% - 20% were applied on OSCC and HOS cell lines for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Morphological characteristics were observed under light and fluorescent microscope. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay and the optical density for absorbance values in each experiment was measured at 570 nm by an ELISA reader. Detection of cellular apoptosis was done using the Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit. Results Morphological appearance showed apoptotic cellular changes like becoming rounded, reduction in cell number, blebbed membrane and apoptotic nuclear changes like nuclear shrinkage, chromatin condensation and fragmented nucleus on OSCC and HOS cell lines. Cell viability assay showed a time and dose-dependent inhibitory effect of honey on both cell lines. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 for OSCC and HOS cell lines was found to be 4% and 3.5% respectively. The maximum inhibition of cell growth of ≥80% was obtained at 15% for both cell lines. Early apoptosis was evident by flow cytometry where percentage of early apoptotic cells increased in dose and time dependent manner. Conclusion Tualang honey showed antiproliferative effect on OSCC and HOS cell lines by inducing early apoptosis.

  3. Simultaneous measurement of natural killer cell cytotoxicity against each of three different target cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, K

    1994-02-10

    A time-resolved fluorometric assay for the simultaneous measurement of natural killer cell activity against three different lanthanide diethylenetriaminopentaacetate (LaDTPA) labelled target cell lines is described. The target cell line K-562 was labelled with SmDTPA, the cell line Molt with TbDTPA and the cell line Raji with EuDTPA. After co-incubation of the three target cell lines with effector cells the fluorescence of the lanthanides released from the lysed target cells was measured in an enhancer solution in which they formed highly fluorescent complexes. It was possible to differentiate the specific release from the three target cell lines because the emission lines of the europium, samarium and terbium complexes formed in the enhancer solution are well separated from each other. The autofluorescence from culture media supplemented with serum was avoided by the use of time-resolved fluorometry. The results show that applying fluorometry based on the combination of spectral and temporal resolution to natural killer cell assays, makes possible the simultaneous determination of lysis in up to three target cell lines in complex culture medium. PMID:8308301

  4. Oral bioavailability of glyphosate: studies using two intestinal cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasiluk, Luba; Pinto, Linda J; Moore, Margo M

    2005-01-01

    Glyphosate is a commonly used nonselective herbicide that inhibits plant growth through interference with the production of essential aromatic amino acids. In vivo studies in mammals with radiolabeled glyphosate have shown that 34% of radioactivity was associated with intestinal tissue 2 h after oral administration. The aim of our research was to investigate the transport, binding, and toxicity of glyphosate to the cultured human intestinal epithelial cell line, Caco-2, and the rat small intestinal crypt-derived cell line, ileum epithelial cells-18 (IEC-18). An in vitro analysis of the transport kinetics of [14C]-glyphosate showed that 4 h after exposure, approximately 8% of radiolabeled glyphosate moved through the Caco-2 monolayer in a dose-dependent manner. Binding of glyphosate to cells was saturable and approximately 4 x 10(11) binding sites/cell were estimated from bound [14C]. Exposure of Caco-2 cells to > or =10 mg/ml glyphosate reduced transmembrane electrical resistance (TEER) by 82 to 96% and increased permeability to [3H]-mannitol, indicating that paracellular permeability increased in glyphosate-treated cells. At 10-mg/ml glyphosate, both IEC-18 and Caco-2 cells showed disruption in the actin cytoskeleton. In Caco-2 cells, significant lactate dehydrogenase leakage was observed when cells were exposed to 15 mg/ml of glyphosate. These data indicate that at doses >10 mg/ml, glyphosate significantly disrupts the barrier properties of cultured intestinal cells.

  5. Derivation of a Homozygous Human Androgenetic Embryonic Stem Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chenhui; Huang, Sunxing; Qi, Quan; Fu, Rui; Zhu, Wanwan; Cai, Bing; Hong, Pingping; Liu, Zhengxin; Gu, Tiantian; Zeng, Yanhong; Wang, Jing; Xu, Yanwen; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Zhou, Qi; Zhou, Canquan

    2015-10-01

    Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have long been considered as a promising source for cell replacement therapy. However, one major obstacle for the use of these cells is immune compatibility. Histocompatible human parthenogenetic ESCs have been reported as a new method for generating human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched hESCs. To further investigate the possibility of obtaining histocompatible stem cells from uniparental embryos, we tried to produce androgenetic haploid human embryos by injecting a single spermatozoon into enucleated human oocyte, and establish human androgenetic embryonic stem (hAGES) cell lines from androgenetic embryos. In the present study, a diploid hAGES cell line has been established, which exhibits typical features of human ESCs, including the expression of pluripotency markers, having differentiation potential in vitro and in vivo, and stable propagation in an undifferentiated state (>P40). Bisulfite sequencing of the H19, Snrpn, Meg3, and Kv imprinting control regions suggested that hAGES cells maintained to a certain extent a sperm methylation pattern. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism, short tandem repeat, and HLA analyses revealed that the hAGES cell genome was highly homozygous. These results suggest that hAGES cells from spermatozoon could serve as a useful tool for studying the mechanisms underlying genomic imprinting in humans. It might also be used as a potential resource for cell replacement therapy as parthenogenetic stem cells.

  6. Characterization of cloned cells from an immortalized fetal pulmonary type II cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    A cultured cell line that maintained expression of pulmonary type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous to generate a large number of homogenous cells in which to study the biochemical functions of type II cells. Type II epithelial cells are the source of pulmonary surfactant and a cell of origin for pulmonary adenomas. Last year our laboratory reported the induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant lipid synthesis) in cultured fetal rat lung epithelial (FRLE) cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line of fetal rat lung type II cell origin. Subsequently, the induction of the ability to synthesize surfactant lipid became difficult to repeat. We hypothesized that the cell line was heterogenuous and some cells were more like type II cells than others. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis and to obtain a cultured cell line with type II cell phenotypic markers by cloning several FRLE cells and characterizing them for phenotypic markers of type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and presence of surfactant lipids). Thirty cloned cell lines were analyzed for induced alkaline phosphatase activity (on x-axis) and for percent of phospholipids that were disaturated (i.e., surfactant).

  7. Alloreactive cloned T cell lines. I. Interactions between cloned amplifier and cytolytic T cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Several T cell clones have been derived by limiting dilution of secondary mixed leukocyte culture cells stimulated by H-2- and M locus (Mls)-disparate spleen cells. When examined for the expression of cytolytic activity and the ability to proliferate, these cell clones can be classified into two major categories. One type of cell is noncytolytic; when cultured with irradiated spleen cells, such clones proliferate in response to Mls determinants. Some, but not all, of these clones express Lyt-...

  8. Mitochondrial DNA dynamics during in vitro culture and pluripotency induction of a bovine Rho0 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessôa, L V F; Bressan, F F; Chiaratti, M R; Pires, P R L; Perecin, F; Smith, L C; Meirelles, F V

    2015-10-30

    Large number of cellular changes and diseases are related to mutations in the mitochondrial DNA copy number. Cell culture in the presence of ethidium bromide is a known way of depleting mitochondrial DNA and is a useful model for studying such conditions. Interestingly, the morphology of these depleted cells resembles that of pluripotent cells, as they present larger and fragmented mitochondria with poorly developed cristae. Herein, we aimed to study the mechanisms responsible for the control of mitochondrial DNA replication during mitochondrial DNA depletion mediated by ethidium bromide and during the in vitro induction of cellular pluripotency with exogenous transcription factor expression in a bovine model. This article reports the generation of a bovine Rho0 mesenchymal cell line and describes the analysis of mitochondrial DNA copy number in a time-dependent manner. The expression of apoptosis and mitochondrial-related genes in the cells during mitochondrial DNA repletion were also analyzed. The dynamics of mitochondrial DNA during both the depletion process and in vitro reprogramming are discussed. It was possible to obtain bovine mesenchymal cells almost completely depleted of their mitochondrial DNA content (over 90%). However, the production of induced pluripotent stem cells from the transduction of both control and Rho0 bovine mesenchymal cells with human reprograming factors was not successful.

  9. Baicalein Triggers Mitochondria-Mediated Apoptosis and Enhances the Antileukemic Effect of Vincristine in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia CCRF-CEM Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-Ju Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL accounts for approximately 75% of childhood leukemia, and chemotherapy remains the mainstay therapy. Baicalein is an active flavonoid used in traditional Chinese medicine and has recently been found to have anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and antiallergic properties. This study aims to investigate the molecular apoptotic mechanisms of baicalein in CCRF-CEM leukemic cells and to evaluate the combined therapeutic efficacy of baicalein with several commonly used chemotherapeutic drugs in CCRF-CEM cells. Our results demonstrate that baicalein induces mitochondria-dependent cleavage of caspases-9 and -3 and PARP with concomitant decreases in IAP family proteins, survivin, and XIAP. Furthermore, our results present for the first time that baicalein triggers a convergence of the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways via the death receptor-caspase 8-tBid signaling cascade in CCRF-CEM cells. In addition, we also present for the first time that the combination of baicalein and vincristine results in a synergistic therapeutic efficacy. Overall, this combination strategy is recommended for future clinical trials in the treatment of pediatric leukemia owing to baicalein’s beneficial effects in alleviating the vomiting, nausea, and skin rashes caused by chemotherapy.

  10. Viola plant cyclotide vigno 5 induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis via cytochrome C release and caspases activation in cervical cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmaeili, Mohammad Ali; Abagheri-Mahabadi, Nazanin; Hashempour, Hossein; Farhadpour, Mohsen; Gruber, Christian W; Ghassempour, Alireza

    2016-03-01

    Cyclotides describe a unique cyclic peptide family that displays a broad range of biological activities including uterotonic, anti-bacteria, anti-cancer and anti-HIV. The vigno cyclotides consist of vigno 1-10 were reported recently from Viola ignobilis. In the present study, we examined the effects of vigno 5, a natural cyclopeptide from V. ignobilis, on cervical cancer cells and the underlying mechanisms. We found that vigno 5-treated Hela cells were killed off by apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner within 24h, and were characterized by the appearance of nuclear shrinkage, cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and DNA fragmentation. The mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis revealed that cytochrome C is released from mitochondria to cytosol, associated with the activation of caspase-9 and -3, and the cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). Overall, the results indicate that vigno 5 induces apoptosis in part via the mitochondrial pathway, which is associated with a release of cytochrome C and elevated activity of caspase-9 and -3 in Hela cells. PMID:26751970

  11. Drosophila Follicle Stem Cells are regulated by proliferation and niche adhesion as well as mitochondria and ROS

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zhu A.; Huang, Jianhua; Kalderon, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying adult stem cell behavior are likely to be diverse and have not yet been investigated systematically. Here we conducted an unbiased genetic screen using Drosophila ovarian follicle stem cells (FSCs) to probe essential functions regulating self-renewal of epithelial stem cells. Surprisingly, we find that niche adhesion emerge as the most commonly affected essential stem cell property, and that proliferation is critical for stem cell maintenance. We also find that PI3K ...

  12. LINEing germ and embryonic stem cells' silencing of retrotransposons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishiuchi, Takashi; Torres-Padilla, Maria-Elena

    2014-07-01

    Almost half of our genome is occupied by transposable elements. Although most of them are inactive, one type of non-long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposon, long interspersed nuclear element 1 (LINE1), is capable of retrotransposition. Two studies in this issue, Pezic and colleagues (pp. 1410-1428) and Castro-Diaz and colleagues (pp. 1397-1409), provide novel insight into the regulation of LINE1s in human embryonic stem cells and mouse germ cells and shed new light on the conservation of complex mechanisms to ensure silencing of transposable elements in mammals.

  13. Cellular and Phenotypic Characterization of Canine Osteosarcoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E. Legare, Jamie Bush, Amanda K. Ashley, Taka Kato, William H. Hanneman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine and human osteosarcoma (OSA have many similarities, with the majority of reported cases occurring in the appendicular skeleton, gender predominance noted, high rate of metastasis at the time of presentation, and a lack of known etiology for this devastating disease. Due to poor understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying OSA, we have characterized seven different OSA canine cell lines: Abrams, D17, Grey, Hughes, Ingles, Jarques, and Marisco and compared them to U2, a human OSA cell line, for the following parameters: morphology, growth, contact inhibition, migrational tendencies, alkaline phosphatase staining, heterologous tumor growth, double-strand DNA breaks, and oxidative damage. All results demonstrated the positive characteristics of the Abrams cell line for use in future studies of OSA. Of particular interest, the robust growth of a subcutaneous tumor and rapid pulmonary metastasis of the Abrams cell line in an immunocompromised mouse shows incredible potential for the future use of Abrams as a canine OSA model. Further investigations utilizing a canine cell model of OSA, such as Abrams, will be invaluable to understanding the molecular events underlying OSA, pharmaceutical inhibition of metastasis, and eventual prevention of this devastating disease.

  14. A reaction to mitochondria in action

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark P Mattson

    2011-01-01

    In most cells and under most conditions,mitochondria produce the majority of the readily available energy (in the form of ATP) to sustain a myriad of biochemical processes necessary for the survival and proper function of the cell.Excitable cells,such as neurons and muscle cells,require very high amounts of ATP to maintain and restore the ion gradients across membranes as they experience frequent bouts of depolarization-induced Na+ and Ca2* influx [ 1 ].

  15. Osmotic stress affects functional properties of human melanoma cell lines

    CERN Document Server

    La Porta, Caterina A M; Pasini, Maria; Laurson, Lasse; Alava, Mikko J; Zapperi, Stefano; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of microenvironment in cancer growth and metastasis is a key issue for cancer research. Here, we study the effect of osmotic pressure on the functional properties of primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines. In particular, we experimentally quantify individual cell motility and transmigration capability. We then perform a circular scratch assay to study how a cancer cell front invades an empty space. Our results show that primary melanoma cells are sensitive to a low osmotic pressure, while metastatic cells are less. To better understand the experimental results, we introduce and study a continuous model for the dynamics of a cell layer and a stochastic discrete model for cell proliferation and diffusion. The two models capture essential features of the experimental results and allow to make predictions for a wide range of experimentally measurable parameters.

  16. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract induced mitochondria-associated apoptosis in human acute myeloid leukaemia 14.3D10 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Hong; QIN Yi-min

    2006-01-01

    @@ The important aim in cancer treatment is the selective killing of cancer cells without damaging healthy cells and the most commonly used chemotherapy for eliminating cancer is achieved by activating the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway.1 Therefore, identification of new agents that can selectively kill cancer cells becomes crucial in cancer clinical treatment.

  17. Cell membrane fatty acid composition differs between normal and malignant cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xialong; Riordan, Neil H; Riordan, Hugh D; Mikirova, Nina; Jackson, James; González, Michael J; Miranda-Massari, Jorge R; Mora, Edna; Trinidad Castillo, Waleska

    2004-06-01

    Twenty-eight fatty acids (C8:0 to C24:l n-9) were measured by gas chromatography in four normal cell lines (C3H / 10T1 / 2, CCD-18Co, CCD-25SK and CCD-37Lu) and seven cancer cell lines (C-41, Caov-3, LS-180, PC-3, SK-MEL-28, SK-MES-1 and U-87 MG). Results show differences in the content and proportions of fatty acids when comparing cancer cell lines with their normal counterparts. Cancer cell lines showed lower C20: 4 n-6, C24:1 n-9, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's) and ratios of C20:4 n-6 to C20:5 n-3 and C16:0 to C18:1 n-9 and stearic to oleic (SA/OA) than their normal counterparts. All cancer cell lines had SA/OA ratios lower than 7.0 while normal cell lines had ratios greater than 0.7 (p<0.05). In addition, the ratios of total saturated fatty acids (SFA) to PUFA'S and the concentration of C18:1 n-9, C18:2 n-6, C20:5 n-3 were higher in cancer cell lines as compared to normal cell lines. A positive correlation was detected between C16:0 and longer SFA'S (r = +0.511, p<0.05) in normal cell lines whereas a negative correlation (r=0.608, p<0.05) was obtained for malignant cell lines. Moreover, cancerous cell lines exhibited a particular desaturation defect and an abnormal incorporation of C18:2 n-6 and C20-4 n-6 fatty acids. PMID:15377057

  18. UOK 268 Cell Line for Hereditary Leiomyomatosis and Renal Cell Carcinoma | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute’s Urologic Oncology Branch seeks parties to co-develop the UOK 262 immortalized cell line as research tool to study aggressive hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma (HLRCC)-associated recurring kidney cancer.

  19. Induction of intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis pathways in the human leukemic MOLT-4 cell line by terpinen-4-ol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaw-on, Patompong; Banjerdpongchai, Ratana

    2012-01-01

    Terpinen-4-ol is a terpene found in the rhizome of Plai (Zingiber montanum (Koenig) Link ex Dietr.). In this study apoptogenic activity and mechanisms of cell death induced by terpinen-4-ol were investigated in the human leukemic MOLT-4 cell line. Terpinen-4-ol exhibited cytotoxicity in MOLT-4 cells, with characteristic morphological features of apoptosis by Wright's staining. The mode of cell death was confirmed to be apoptosis by flow cytometric analysis after staining with annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide. A sub-G1 peak in DNA histograms of cell cycle assays was observed. Terpinen-4-ol induced-MOLT-4 cell apoptosis mediated through an intrinsic pathway involving the loss of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) and release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. In addition, terpinen-4-ol also induced apoptosis via an extrinsic pathway by caspase-8 activation resulting in the cleavage of cytosolic Bid. Truncated-Bid (tBid) translocated to mitochondria and activated the mitochondrial pathway in conjunction with down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein expression. Caspase-3 activity also increased. In conclusion, terpinen-4-ol can induce human leukemic MOLT-4 cell apoptosis via both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. PMID:22994712

  20. Adhesion of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to a human oral cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Mintz, K. P.; Fives-Taylor, P M

    1994-01-01

    Two quantitative, rapid assays were developed to study the adhesion of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an oral bacterium associated with periodontal disease, to human epithelial cells. The human oral carcinoma cell line KB was grown in microtiter plates, and adherent bacteria were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with purified anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans serum and horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody or [3H]thymidine-labeled bacteria. Adhesion was found...

  1. Cysteine modified polyaniline films improve biocompatibility for two cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work focuses on one of the most exciting application areas of conjugated conducting polymers, which is cell culture and tissue engineering. To improve the biocompatibility of conducting polymers we present an easy method that involves the modification of the polymer backbone using L-cysteine. In this publication, we show the synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) films supported onto Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and modified using cysteine (PANI-Cys) in order to generate a biocompatible substrate for cell culture. The PANI-Cys films are characterized by Fourier Transform infrared and UV–visible spectroscopy. The changes in the hydrophilicity of the polymer films after and before the modification were tested using contact angle measurements. After modification the contact angle changes from 86° ± 1 to 90° ± 1, suggesting a more hydrophylic surface. The adhesion properties of LM2 and HaCaT cell lines on the surface of PANI-Cys films in comparison with tissue culture plastic (TCP) are studied. The PANI-Cys film shows better biocompatibility than PANI film for both cell lines. The cell morphologies on the TCP and PANI-Cys film were examined by florescence and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microscopic observations show normal cellular behavior when PANI-Cys is used as a substrate of both cell lines (HaCaT and LM2) as when they are cultured on TCP. The ability of these PANI-Cys films to support cell attachment and growth indicates their potential use as biocompatible surfaces and in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A new surface PANI-Cys was produced on films of polyethylene terephthalate. • The relationship between surface characteristics and biocompatibility is analyzed. • The PANI-Cys film presents good biocompatibility for two cell lines

  2. Cysteine modified polyaniline films improve biocompatibility for two cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yslas, Edith I., E-mail: eyslas@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina); Cavallo, Pablo; Acevedo, Diego F.; Barbero, César A. [Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina); Rivarola, Viviana A. [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina)

    2015-06-01

    This work focuses on one of the most exciting application areas of conjugated conducting polymers, which is cell culture and tissue engineering. To improve the biocompatibility of conducting polymers we present an easy method that involves the modification of the polymer backbone using L-cysteine. In this publication, we show the synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) films supported onto Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and modified using cysteine (PANI-Cys) in order to generate a biocompatible substrate for cell culture. The PANI-Cys films are characterized by Fourier Transform infrared and UV–visible spectroscopy. The changes in the hydrophilicity of the polymer films after and before the modification were tested using contact angle measurements. After modification the contact angle changes from 86° ± 1 to 90° ± 1, suggesting a more hydrophylic surface. The adhesion properties of LM2 and HaCaT cell lines on the surface of PANI-Cys films in comparison with tissue culture plastic (TCP) are studied. The PANI-Cys film shows better biocompatibility than PANI film for both cell lines. The cell morphologies on the TCP and PANI-Cys film were examined by florescence and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microscopic observations show normal cellular behavior when PANI-Cys is used as a substrate of both cell lines (HaCaT and LM2) as when they are cultured on TCP. The ability of these PANI-Cys films to support cell attachment and growth indicates their potential use as biocompatible surfaces and in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A new surface PANI-Cys was produced on films of polyethylene terephthalate. • The relationship between surface characteristics and biocompatibility is analyzed. • The PANI-Cys film presents good biocompatibility for two cell lines.

  3. 2-DE analysis of breast cancer cell lines 1833 and 4175 with distinct metastatic organ-specific potentials: comparison with parental cell line MDA-MB-231.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selicharova, Irena; Sanda, Miloslav; Mladkova, Jana; Ohri, Sujata Saraswat; Vashishta, Aruna; Fusek, Martin; Jiracek, Jiri; Vetvicka, Vaclav

    2008-05-01

    Human MDA-MB-231 derived breast cancer cell lines 1833 and 4175 have different metastatic potentials in terms of their tissue tropisms and aggressiveness. Cell line 1833 is specifically metastatic to the bone. The highly aggressive cell line 4175 is specific to the lung. We performed 2-DE analysis of the cell lines. We found 16 significantly changed protein spots, 14 protein spots were identified. Expression of cathepsin D, triosephosphate isomerase, phosphoglycerate kinase 1, heme binding protein 1 and annexin 2 could be correlated with the in vitro aggressiveness of the respective cell lines. Interstitial collagenase and dimethylargininase 2 were exclusive to the cell line 1833 and might contribute to its bone specificity. Serpin B9, cathepsin B chain b, galectin 3 and HSP 27 were changed in the lung specific cell line 4175. The possible contribution of identified proteins to differences in metastatic behavior of the cell lines is discussed. PMID:18425382

  4. Establishment and applications of male germ cell and Sertoli cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wen, Liping; Yuan, Qingqing; Sun, Min; Niu, Minghui; He, Zuping

    2016-08-01

    Within the seminiferous tubules there are two major cell types, namely male germ cells and Sertoli cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that male germ cells and Sertoli cells can have significant applications in treating male infertility and other diseases. However, primary male germ cells are hard to proliferate in vitro and the number of spermatogonial stem cells is scarce. Therefore, methods that promote the expansion of these cell populations are essential for their use from the bench to the bed side. Notably, a number of cell lines for rodent spermatogonia, spermatocytes and Sertoli cells have been developed, and significantly we have successfully established a human spermatogonial stem cell line with an unlimited proliferation potential and no tumor formation. This newly developed cell line could provide an abundant source of cells for uncovering molecular mechanisms underlying human spermatogenesis and for their utilization in the field of reproductive and regenerative medicine. In this review, we discuss the methods for establishing spermatogonial, spermatocyte and Sertoli cell lines using various kinds of approaches, including spontaneity, transgenic animals with oncogenes, simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen, the gene coding for a temperature-sensitive mutant of p53, telomerase reverse gene (Tert), and the specific promoter-based selection strategy. We further highlight the essential applications of these cell lines in basic research and translation medicine. PMID:27069011

  5. 76 FR 16609 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ...; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST...) profiling up to 1500 human cell line samples as part of the Identification of Human Cell Lines Project. All... for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) and will be used to differentiate among cell lines, as...

  6. Silicon Carbide Tiles for Sidewall Lining in Aluminium Electrolysis Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUANBo; ZHAOJunguo; 等

    1999-01-01

    The paper introduces the nitride bonded silicon carbide used for sidewall lining in aluminium eletrolysis cells ,including technical process,main properties and application results.Comparison tests on various physical properties of silicon carbide products made by LIRR and other producers worldwide have also been conducted in an independent laboratory.

  7. Third-line chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, WK; ten Hacken, NHT; Groen, HJM

    2006-01-01

    Efficacy of third-line chemotherapy treatment for small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is unknown. We present our experience with third-tine chemotherapy for recurrent SCLC. Between January 1996 and July 2004 all. consecutive patients treated for SCLC were retrospectively studied. We recorded patient chara

  8. RADIATION-INDUCED APOPTOSIS OF TWO NASOPHARANGEAL CARCINOMA CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng-wei; LIANG Ke; YIN Wei-bo; SHEN Yu; SHENG Xiu-gui

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To study apoptosis induced by radiation in two nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines, CNE and CNE-2. Methods: Hoechst 33342 staining, immunohistochemical staining, RT-PCR, DNA dot blotting and Southern blotting were used to identify apoptosis.Results: A single dose of X-irradiation resulted in apoptosis, the apoptotic index (AI) was time- and dosedependent. Different apoptotic responses existed in the two cell lines. Immunohistochemical staining showed that bcl-2 protein was strongly positive in CNE but negative in CNE-2. However, RT-PCR revealed p53mRNA in CNE-2 but not in CNE. P53 and bcl-2 genes were both present in the two cell lines as shown by DNA blotting, but the 2.8 kb fragment of the p53 gene was much lower than the 5.6 kb fragment on CNE which was clearly shown in Southern hybridization, suggestive of partial deletion of p53 gene in CNE. Conclusion:Apoptotic response to radiation is different in two NPC cell lines. CNE is more radioresistant than CNE-2.Overexpression of bcl-2 protein and partial deletion of p53 gene may explain their difference in radiosensitivity.

  9. Cryopreservation of specialized chicken lines using cultured primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Whyte, J; Taylor, L; Sherman, A; Nair, V; Kaiser, P; McGrew, M J

    2016-08-01

    Biosecurity and sustainability in poultry production requires reliable germplasm conservation. Germplasm conservation in poultry is more challenging in comparison to other livestock species. Embryo cryopreservation is not feasible for egg-laying animals, and chicken semen conservation has variable success for different chicken breeds. A potential solution is the cryopreservation of the committed diploid stem cell precursors to the gametes, the primordial germ cells ( PGCS: ). Primordial germ cells are the lineage-restricted cells found at early embryonic stages in birds and form the sperm and eggs. We demonstrate here, using flocks of partially inbred, lower-fertility, major histocompatibility complex- ( MHC-: ) restricted lines of chicken, that we can easily derive and cryopreserve a sufficient number of independent lines of male and female PGCs that would be sufficient to reconstitute a poultry breed. We demonstrate that germ-line transmission can be attained from these PGCs using a commercial layer line of chickens as a surrogate host. This research is a major step in developing and demonstrating that cryopreserved PGCs could be used for the biobanking of specialized flocks of birds used in research settings. The prospective application of this technology to poultry production will further increase sustainability to meet current and future production needs. PMID:27099306

  10. DIVERSITY OF ARSENIC METABOLISM IN CULTURED HUMAN CANCER CELL LINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diversity of arsenic metabolism in cultured human cancer cell lines. Arsenic has been known to cause a variety of malignancies in human. Pentavalent As (As 5+) is reduced to trivalent As (As3+) which is further methylated by arsenic methyltransferase(s) to monomethylarson...

  11. Smac/DIABLO release from mitochondria and XIAP inhibition are essential to limit clonogenicity of Type I tumor cells after TRAIL receptor stimulation

    OpenAIRE

    Borst, Jannie; Maas, Chiel; Verbrugge, Inge; de Vries, Evert; Savich, Gleb; Van De Kooij, Lambertus W; Tait, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Death receptors such as Fas/CD95 and TRAIL receptors engage the extrinsic pathway for caspase activation, but also couple to the intrinsic mitochondrial route. In so-called Type II cells, death receptors require the mitochondrial pathway for apoptotic execution, whereas in Type I cells they reportedly do not. For established tumor cell lines, the Type I/Type II distinction is based on short-term apoptosis assays. We report here that the mitochondrial pathway is essential f...

  12. Sphere-forming cell subpopulations with cancer stem cell properties in human hepatoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer stem cells (CSCs are regarded as the cause of tumor formation and recurrence. The isolation and identification of CSCs could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies specifically targeting CSCs. Methods Human hepatoma cell lines were plated in stem cell conditioned culture system allowed for sphere forming. To evaluate the stemness characteristics of spheres, the self-renewal, proliferation, chemoresistance, tumorigenicity of the PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells, and the expression levels of stem cell related proteins in the PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells were assessed, comparing with the parental cells. The stem cell RT-PCR array was performed to further explore the biological properties of liver CSCs. Results The PLC/PRF/5, MHCC97H and HepG2 cells could form clonal nonadherent 3-D spheres and be serially passaged. The PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells possessed a key criteria that define CSCs: persistent self-renewal, extensive proliferation, drug resistance, overexpression of liver CSCs related proteins (Oct3/4, OV6, EpCAM, CD133 and CD44. Even 500 sphere-forming cells were able to form tumors in NOD/SCID mice, and the tumor initiating capability was not decreased when spheres were passaged. Besides, downstream proteins DTX1 and Ep300 of the CSL (CBF1 in humans, Suppressor of hairless in Drosophila and LAG1 in C. elegans -independent Notch signaling pathway were highly expressed in the spheres, and a gamma-secretase inhibitor MRK003 could significantly inhibit the sphere formation ability. Conclusions Nonadherent tumor spheres from hepatoma cell lines cultured in stem cell conditioned medium possess liver CSC properties, and the CSL-independent Notch signaling pathway may play a role in liver CSCs.

  13. Evaluating the uptake and intracellular fate of polystyrene nanoparticles by primary and hepatocyte cell lines in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are being used within diverse applications such as medicines, clothing, cosmetics and food. In order to promote the safe development of such nanotechnologies it is essential to assess the potential adverse health consequences associated with human exposure. The liver is recognised as a target site for NP toxicity, due to NP accumulation within this organ subsequent to injection, inhalation or instillation. The uptake of fluorescent polystyrene carboxylated particles (20 nm or 200 nm diameter) by hepatocytes was determined using confocal microscopy; with cells imaged 'live' during particle exposure or after exposure within fixed cells. Comparisons between the uptake of polystyrene particles by primary rat hepatocytes, and human hepatocyte cell lines (C3A and HepG2) were made. Uptake of particles by hepatocytes was size, time, and serum dependent. Specifically, the uptake of 200 nm particles was limited, but 20 nm NPs were internalised by all cell types from 10 min onwards. At 10 min, 20 nm NP fluorescence co-localised with the tubulin cytoskeleton staining; after 30 min NP fluorescence compartmentalised into structures located within and/or between cells. The fate of internalised NPs was considered and they were not contained within early endosomes or lysosomes, but within mitochondria of cell lines. NPs accumulated within bile canaliculi to a limited extent, which suggests that NPs can be eliminated within bile. This is in keeping with the finding that gold NPs were eliminated in bile following intravenous injection into rats. The findings were, in the main, comparable between primary rat hepatocytes and the different human hepatocyte cell lines.

  14. Induction of Apoptosis in MCF-7 Cells via Oxidative Stress Generation, Mitochondria-Dependent and Caspase-Independent Pathway by Ethyl Acetate Extract of Dillenia suffruticosa and Its Chemical Profile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin Sim Tor

    Full Text Available Dillenia suffruticosa, which is locally known as Simpoh air, has been traditionally used to treat cancerous growth. The ethyl acetate extract of D. suffruticosa (EADs has been shown to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells in our previous study. The present study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in EADs-induced apoptosis and to identify the major compounds in the extract. EADs was found to promote oxidative stress in MCF-7 cells that led to cell death because the pre-treatment with antioxidants α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of the extract (P<0.05. DCFH-DA assay revealed that treatment with EADs attenuated the generation of intracellular ROS. Apoptosis induced by EADs was not inhibited by the use of caspase-inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK, suggesting that the cell death is caspase-independent. The use of JC-1 dye reflected that EADs caused disruption in the mitochondrial membrane potential. The related molecular pathways involved in EADs-induced apoptosis were determined by GeXP multiplex system and Western blot analysis. EADs is postulated to induce cell cycle arrest that is p53- and p21-dependent based on the upregulated expression of p53 and p21 (P<0.05. The expression of Bax was upregulated with downregulation of Bcl-2 following treatment with EADs. The elevated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that EADs-induced apoptosis is mitochondria-dependent. The expression of oxidative stress-related AKT, p-AKT, ERK, and p-ERK was downregulated with upregulation of JNK and p-JNK. The data indicate that induction of oxidative-stress related apoptosis by EADs was mediated by inhibition of AKT and ERK, and activation of JNK. The isolation of compounds in EADs was carried out using column chromatography and elucidated using the nuclear resonance magnetic analysis producing a total of six compounds including 3-epimaslinic acid, kaempferol, kaempferide

  15. Choosing the right chondrocyte cell line: Focus on nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Anna; Conde, Javier; Scotece, Morena; Abella, Vanessa; López, Verónica; Pino, Jesús; Gómez, Rodolfo; Gómez-Reino, Juan Jesús; Gualillo, Oreste

    2015-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been considered a catabolic factor that contributes to OA pathology by inducing chondrocytes apoptosis, matrix metalloproteinases synthesis, and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression. Thus, the research on NO regulation in chondrocytes represents a relevant field which needs to be explored in depth. However, to date, only the murine ATDC-5 cell line and primary chondrocytes are well-established cells to study NO production in cartilage tissues. The goal of this study is to determine whether two commonly used human chondrocytic cell lines: SW-1353 and T/C-28a2 cell lines are good models to examine lipopolysaccharide and/or pro-inflammatory cytokine-driven NO release and iNOS expression. To this aim, we carefully examined NO production and iNOS protein expression in human T/C-28a2 and SW-1353 chondrocytes stimulated with LPS and interleukin (IL)-1 alone or in combination. We also use ATDC-5 cells as a positive control for NO production. NO accumulation has been determined by colorimetric Griess reaction, whereas NOS type II expression was determined by Western Blot analysis. Our results clearly demonstrated that neither human T/C-28a2 nor SW-1353 chondrocytes showed a detectable increase in NO production or iNOS expression after bacterial endotoxin or cytokines challenge with IL-1. Our study demonstrated that T/C-28a2 and SW-1353 human cell lines are not suitable for studying NO release and iNOS expression confirming that ATDC5 and human primary cultured chondrocytes are the best in vitro cell system to study the actions derived from this mediator. PMID:26016689

  16. THP-1 cell line: an in vitro cell model for immune-modulation approach : Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chanput, W.; Mes, J.J.; Wichers, H.J.

    2014-01-01

    THP-1 is a human leukemia monocytic cell line, which has been extensively used to study monocyte/macrophage functions, mechanisms, signaling pathways, and nutrient and drug transport. This cell line has become a common model to estimate modulation of monocyte and macrophage activities. This review a

  17. Human Embryonic St me Cell Lines fromthe Chinese Population and Differentiation to Liver and Muscle Cell Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    We have established 6 hES cell lines from IVF surplus blastocysts. Characterization of these lines have shown that 4 of the 6 lines meet all of the criterion (Science) for hES cell lines and 2 of them display most characteristics of hES cells but do not form teratoma. In order to produce hES cell lines without using mouse feeders, we have produced a hES cell line using feeders derived from hES cells themselves, and showed that hES-derived feeders are capable of supporting the derivation of new hES cell line...

  18. Simultaneous measurement of NK cell cytotoxicity against two target cell lines labelled with fluorescent lanthanide chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövgren, J; Blomberg, K

    1994-07-12

    We describe a cytotoxicity assay which permits the simultaneous measurement of natural killer cell activity against two different cell lines. The target cell lines are labelled either with a fluorescent europium chelate or with a fluorescent terbium chelate and cell death is quantified by measuring the chelate release. K-562, Molt4 and Daudi cell lines have been used as targets. The release of the two chelates from the target cells can be detected with the help of time resolved fluorometry. As the measurements are made after background fluorescence has decayed no additional steps are needed to correct for the background from the medium. The assay procedure used for measurement of cytotoxicity against two target cell lines is very similar to the widely used 51Cr release assay. PMID:8034979

  19. Intracoronary Delivery of Mitochondria to the Ischemic Heart for Cardioprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Douglas B.; Yao, Rouan; Akurathi, Vamsidhar; Snay, Erin R.; Thedsanamoorthy, Jerusha K.; Zurakowski, David; Ericsson, Maria; Friehs, Ingeborg; Wu, Yaotang; Levitsky, Sidney; del Nido, Pedro J.; Packard, Alan B.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that transplantation of autologously derived, respiration-competent mitochondria by direct injection into the heart following transient ischemia and reperfusion enhances cell viability and contractile function. To increase the therapeutic potential of this approach, we investigated whether exogenous mitochondria can be effectively delivered through the coronary vasculature to protect the ischemic myocardium and studied the fate of these transplanted organelles in the heart. Langendorff-perfused rabbit hearts were subjected to 30 minutes of ischemia and then reperfused for 10 minutes. Mitochondria were labeled with 18F-rhodamine 6G and iron oxide nanoparticles. The labeled mitochondria were either directly injected into the ischemic region or delivered by vascular perfusion through the coronary arteries at the onset of reperfusion. These hearts were used for positron emission tomography, microcomputed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging with subsequent microscopic analyses of tissue sections to confirm the uptake and distribution of exogenous mitochondria. Injected mitochondria were localized near the site of delivery; while, vascular perfusion of mitochondria resulted in rapid and extensive dispersal throughout the heart. Both injected and perfused mitochondria were observed in interstitial spaces and were associated with blood vessels and cardiomyocytes. To determine the efficacy of vascular perfusion of mitochondria, an additional group of rabbit hearts were subjected to 30 minutes of regional ischemia and reperfused for 120 minutes. Immediately following regional ischemia, the hearts received unlabeled, autologous mitochondria delivered through the coronary arteries. Autologous mitochondria perfused through the coronary vasculature significantly decreased infarct size and significantly enhanced post-ischemic myocardial function. In conclusion, the delivery of mitochondria through the coronary arteries resulted in their rapid

  20. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial functions in the intestinal Caco-2/15 cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rame Taha

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are central mechanisms in various pathological conditions, they have not been extensively studied in the gastrointestinal tract, which is known to be constantly exposed to luminal oxidants from ingested foods. Key among these is the simultaneous consumption of iron salts and ascorbic acid, which can cause oxidative damage to biomolecules. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The objective of the present work was to evaluate how iron-ascorbate (FE/ASC-mediated lipid peroxidation affects mitochondrion functioning in Caco-2/15 cells. Our results show that treatment of Caco-2/15 cells with FE/ASC (0.2 mM/2 mM (1 increased malondialdehyde levels assessed by HPLC; (2 reduced ATP production noted by luminescence assay; (3 provoked dysregulation of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis as evidenced by confocal fluorescence microscopy; (4 upregulated the protein expression of cytochrome C and apoptotic inducing factor, indicating exaggerated apoptosis; (5 affected mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes I, II, III and IV; (6 elicited mtDNA lesions as illustrated by the raised levels of 8-OHdG; (7 lowered DNA glycosylase, one of the first lines of defense against 8-OHdG mutagenicity; and (8 altered the gene expression and protein mass of mitochondrial transcription factors (mtTFA, mtTFB1, mtTFB2 without any effects on RNA Polymerase. The presence of the powerful antioxidant BHT (50 microM prevented the occurrence of oxidative stress and most of the mitochondrial abnormalities. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Collectively, our findings indicate that acute exposure of Caco-2/15 cells to FE/ASC-catalyzed peroxidation produces harmful effects on mitochondrial functions and DNA integrity, which are abrogated by the powerful exogenous BHT antioxidant. Functional derangements of mitochondria may have implications in oxidative stress-related disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases.

  1. Every Single Cell Clones from Cancer Cell Lines Growing Tumors In Vivo May Not Invalidate the Cancer Stem Cell Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fengzhi

    2009-01-01

    We present the result of our research on the tumorigenic ability of single cell clones isolated from an aggressive murine breast cancer cell line in a matched allografting mouse model. Tumor formation is basically dependent on the cell numbers injected per location. We argue that in vivo tumor formation from single cell clones, isolated in vitro from cancer cell lines, may not provide conclusive evidence to disprove the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory without additional data.

  2. Human mesenchymal stem cells reprogram adult cardiomyocytes toward a progenitor-like state through partial cell fusion and mitochondria transfer : Cell fusion-mediated cardiomyocyte reprogramming.

    OpenAIRE

    Acquistapace, Adrien; Bru, Thierry; Lesault, Pierre-François; Figeac, Florence; Coudert, Amélie,; Le Coz, Olivier; Christov, Christo; Baudin, Xavier; Auber, Fréderic; Yiou, René; Dubois-Randé, Jean-Luc; Rodriguez, Anne-Marie

    2011-01-01

    International audience Because stem cells are often found to improve repair tissue including heart without evidence of engraftment or differentiation, mechanisms underlying wound healing are still elusive. Several studies have reported that stem cells can fuse with cardiomyocytes either by permanent or partial cell fusion processes. However, the respective physiological impact of these two processes remains unknown in part because of the lack of knowledge of the resulting hybrid cells. To ...

  3. Effect of 8-Chloroadenosine on Undifferentiatied HL-60 Cell Line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CUIJing-rong; HUIYu; XIANGYou-qing; ZHANGLi-he

    2003-01-01

    Aim To study the effect of 8-chloroadenosine (8-CA)on undifferentiatied HL-60 cell line. Methods The IC50 of cancer cell proliferation was determined using a microculture plate reader at 570 nm (MTT) and 540 nm (SRB).Morphology of HL-60 cells was observed under a scanning electron microscope and a transmission electron microscope. The differentiation of HL-60 cells was examined by nitro blue tetrazolium reduction (NBT) and acid phosphatase assay. The cycle of HL-60 cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. Results 8-CA inhibited proliferation of eight human cancer cell lines.The IC50 ranked in the following order; KB (0.05 μmol·L-1 ) < HL-60 (0.25 μmol·L-1) < Bel-7402 (0.56μmol·L-1 )< MCF-7 (0.65μmol·L-1) < HCT (0.79 μmol·L-1) < HeLa (0.89μmol·L-1) < BGC-823 ( 1.149μmol·L-1) cell surface shortened, and the shape of HL-60 cells nuclei changed to kidney-shaped, horse shoe-shaped and bilob ated after treatment with 8-CA. Meanwhile, 8-CA promoted NBT reduction and increased activity of acid phosphatase in HL-60 ceils in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Flow cytometry analysis indicated that 8-CA induced an appreciable increase of the cell population in G1 phase with a marked reduction in S phase. Conclusion 8-CA can induce differentiation of HL-60 cells and block the cells at G1 phase, thus inhibiting proliferation of HL-60 cells.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA sequence analysis of two mouse hepatocarcinoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-Gang Dai; Xia Lei; Jia-Xin Min; Guo-Qiang Zhang; Hong Wei

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To study genetic difference of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)between two hepatocarcinoma cell lines (Hca-F and Hca-P)with diverse metastatic characteristics and the relationship between mtDNA changes in cancer cells and their oncogenic phenotype.METHODS: Mitochondrial DNA D-loop, tRNAMet+Glu+Ile and ND3gene fragments from the hepatocarcinoma cell lines with 1100, 1126 and 534 bp in length respectively were analysed by PCR amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. The D-loop 3' end sequence of the hepatocarcinoma cell lines was determined by sequencing.RESULTS: No amplification fragment length polymorphism and restriction fragment length polymorphism were observed in tRNAMet+Glu+Ile,ND3 and D-loop of mitochondrial DNA of the hepatocarcinoma cells. Sequence differences between Hca-F and Hca-P were found in mtDNA D-loop.CONCLUSION: Deletion mutations of mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment may not play a significant role in carcinogenesis. Genetic difference of mtDNA D-loop between Hca-F and Hca-P, which may reflect the environmental and genetic influences during tumor progression, could be linked to their tumorigenic phenotypes.

  5. Growth inhibition by tyrosine kinase inhibitors in mesothelioma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Joyce E; O'Toole, Kieran; Gonzalez, David; Lunec, John

    2009-06-01

    Clinical outcome following chemotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma is poor and improvements are needed. This preclinical study investigates the effect of five tyrosine kinase inhibitors (PTK787, ZD6474, ZD1839, SU6668 and SU11248) on the growth of three mesothelioma cell lines (NCI H226, NCI H28 and MSTO 211H), the presence of growth factor receptors and inhibition of their downstream signalling pathways. GI50 values were determined: ZD6474 and SU11248, mainly VEGFR2 inhibitors, gave the lowest GI50 across all cell lines (3.5-6.9 microM) whereas ZD1839 gave a GI50 in this range only in H28 cells. All cell lines were positive for EGFR, but only H226 cells were positive for VEGFR2 by Western blotting. ZD6474 and ZD1839 inhibited EGF-induced phosphorylation of EGFR, AKT and ERK, whereas VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 was completely inhibited with 0.1 microM SU11248. VEGFR2 was detected in tumour samples by immunohistochemistry. VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors warrant further investigation in mesothelioma. PMID:19318229

  6. Cytotoxic studies of paclitaxel (Taxol) in human tumour cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Liebmann, J. E.; Cook, J. A.; Lipschultz, C.; Teague, D.; Fisher, J; Mitchell, J B

    1993-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of paclitaxel against eight human tumour cell lines has been studied with in vitro clonogenic assays. The fraction of surviving cells fell sharply after exposure for 24 h to paclitaxel concentrations ranging from 2 to 20 nM; the paclitaxel IC50 was found to range between 2.5 and 7.5 nM. Increasing the paclitaxel concentration above 50 nM, however, resulted in no additional cytotoxicity after a 24 h drug exposure. Cells incubated in very high concentrations of paclitaxel (10,0...

  7. Regulation of Mitochondria-dependent Apoptosis in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer: Implications for Cancer Therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Checinska, A.

    2007-01-01

    Summary The work described in this thesis focuses on the characterization of the mechanism(s) underlying the deregulated activation of the intrinsic or mitochondrial apoptotic pathway in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Apoptosis suppression might contribute to the chemoresistance often o

  8. Dynamic effects of autophagy on arsenic trioxide-induced death of human leukemia cell line HL60 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping YANG; Zhong-qin LIANG; Bo GAO; Yan-li JIA; Zheng-hong QIN

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the contribution of an autophagic mechanism to the As2O3-induced death of human acute myeloid leukaemia cell line HL60 cells. Methods: The growth inhibition of HL60 cells induced by As2O3 was assessed with 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazohum bromide colorimetric assay. The ac-tivation of autophagy was determined with monodansylcadaverine labeling and transmission electron microscope. The role of autophagy in the As2O3-induced death of HL60 cells was assessed using autophagic and lysosomal inhibitors. Immunofluorescence, flow cytometry, and Western blot analysis were used to study the apoptotic and autophagic mechanisms. Results: After treatment with As2O3, the proliferation of HL60 cells was significantly inhibited and the formation of autophagosomes increased. The blockade of autophagy maturation with the autophagy-specific inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or the lysosome-neutraliz-ing agent NH4C11 h before As2O3 potentiated the As2O3-induced death of HL60 cells. In contrast, 3-MA attenuated As2O3-induced death when administered 30 min after As2O3. 3-MA and NH4Cl also inhibited As2O3-induced upregulation of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, the protein required for autophagy in mammalian cells. Following As2O3, lysosomes were activated as indicated by increased levels of cathepsins B and L. The apoptotic response of HL60 cells to As2O3 was suggested by the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential, re-lease of cytochrome c from mitochondria, and the activation of caspase-3. Pre-treatment with 3-MA prior to As2O3 amplified these apoptotic signals, while post-treatment with 3-MA 30 min after As2O3 attenuated the apoptotic pathways. Conclusion: Autophagy plays complex roles in the As2O3-induced death of HL60 cells; it inhibits As2O3-induced apoptosis in the initiation stage, but amplifies the AS2O3-mediated apoptotic program if it is persistently activated.

  9. Plasmids and packaging cell lines for use in phage display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2012-07-24

    The invention relates to a novel phagemid display system for packaging phagemid DNA into phagemid particles which completely avoids the use of helper phage. The system of the invention incorporates the use of bacterial packaging cell lines which have been transformed with helper plasmids containing all required phage proteins but not the packaging signals. The absence of packaging signals in these helper plasmids prevents their DNA from being packaged in the bacterial cell, which provides a number of significant advantages over the use of both standard and modified helper phage. Packaged phagemids expressing a protein or peptide of interest, in fusion with a phage coat protein such as g3p, are generated simply by transfecting phagemid into the packaging cell line.

  10. Cytotoxic effect of Plantago spp. on cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez, Marina; Martín-Cordero, Carmen; López-Lázaro, Miguel; Cortés, Felipe; Ayuso, María Jesús

    2003-10-01

    Methanolic extracts from seven Plantago species used in traditional medicine for the treatment of cancer, were evaluated for cytotoxic activity against three human cancer cell lines recommended by the National Cancer Institute (NCI, USA). The results showed that Plantago species exhibited cytotoxic activity, showing a certain degree of selectivity against the tested cells in culture. Since the flavonoids are able to strongly inhibit the proliferation of human cancer cell lines, we have identified luteolin-7-O-beta-glucoside as major flavonoid present in most of the Plantago species. Also, we have evaluated this compound and its aglycon, luteolin, for their cytotoxic and DNA topoisomerase I poisons activities. These results could justify the traditional use of the Plantago species and topoisomerase-mediated DNA damage might be a possible mechanism by which flavonoids of Plantago exert their cytotoxicity potential. PMID:12963131

  11. ROS-induced toxicity: exposure of 3T3, RAW264.7, and MCF7 cells to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles results in cell death by mitochondria-dependent apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4, SPIO) have been used as magnetic resonance imaging enhancers for years. However, bio-safety issues concerning nanoparticles remain largely unexplored. Of particular concern is the possible cellular impact of nanoparticles during SPIO uptake and subsequent oxidative stress. SPIO causes cell death by apoptosis via a little understood mitochondrial pathway. To more closely examine this process, three kinds of cells—3T3, RAW264.7, and MCF7—were treated with SPIO coated with polyethylene glycol (SPIO-PEG) and monitored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), using cytotoxicity evaluation, mitochondrial activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and Annexin V assay. TEM revealed that SPIO-PEG nanoparticles surrounded the cellular endosome membrane, creating a bulge in the endosome. Compared to 3T3 cells, greater numbers of SPIO-PEG nanoparticles infiltrated the mitochondria of RAW264.7 and MCF7 cells. SPIO-PEG residency is associated with boosted ROS, with elevated levels of mitochondrial activity, and advancement of cell apoptosis. Furthermore, correlation analysis showed that a polynomial model demonstrates a better fit than a linear model in MCF7, implying that cytotoxicity may have alternative impacts on cell death at different concentrations. Thus, we believe that MCF7 cell death results from the apoptosis pathway triggered by mitochondria, and we find lower cytotoxicity in 3T3. We propose that optimal levels of SPIO-PEG nanoparticles lead to increased levels of ROS and a resulting oxidative stress environment which will kill only cancer cells while sparing normal cells. This finding has great potential for use in cancer therapies in the future

  12. ROS-induced toxicity: exposure of 3T3, RAW264.7, and MCF7 cells to superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles results in cell death by mitochondria-dependent apoptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, Hui-Chen, E-mail: d93548008@ntu.edu.tw; Chen, Chung-Ming, E-mail: chung@ntu.edu.tw [National Taiwan University, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (China); Hsieh, Wen-Yuan, E-mail: hsiehw@itri.org.tw [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Biomedical Technology and Device Research Labs (China); Chen, Ching-Yun, E-mail: chingyun523@gmail.com; Liu, Chia-Ching, E-mail: d95548005@ntu.edu.tw; Lin, Feng-Huei, E-mail: double@ntu.edu.tw [National Taiwan University, Institute of Biomedical Engineering (China)

    2015-02-15

    Superparamagnetic nanoparticles (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, SPIO) have been used as magnetic resonance imaging enhancers for years. However, bio-safety issues concerning nanoparticles remain largely unexplored. Of particular concern is the possible cellular impact of nanoparticles during SPIO uptake and subsequent oxidative stress. SPIO causes cell death by apoptosis via a little understood mitochondrial pathway. To more closely examine this process, three kinds of cells—3T3, RAW264.7, and MCF7—were treated with SPIO coated with polyethylene glycol (SPIO-PEG) and monitored by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), using cytotoxicity evaluation, mitochondrial activity, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and Annexin V assay. TEM revealed that SPIO-PEG nanoparticles surrounded the cellular endosome membrane, creating a bulge in the endosome. Compared to 3T3 cells, greater numbers of SPIO-PEG nanoparticles infiltrated the mitochondria of RAW264.7 and MCF7 cells. SPIO-PEG residency is associated with boosted ROS, with elevated levels of mitochondrial activity, and advancement of cell apoptosis. Furthermore, correlation analysis showed that a polynomial model demonstrates a better fit than a linear model in MCF7, implying that cytotoxicity may have alternative impacts on cell death at different concentrations. Thus, we believe that MCF7 cell death results from the apoptosis pathway triggered by mitochondria, and we find lower cytotoxicity in 3T3. We propose that optimal levels of SPIO-PEG nanoparticles lead to increased levels of ROS and a resulting oxidative stress environment which will kill only cancer cells while sparing normal cells. This finding has great potential for use in cancer therapies in the future.

  13. Direct electric current treatment modifies mitochondrial function and lipid body content in the A549 cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holandino, Carla; Teixeira, Cesar Augusto Antunes; de Oliveira, Felipe Alves Gomes; Barbosa, Gleyce Moreno; Siqueira, Camila Monteiro; Messeder, Douglas Jardim; de Aguiar, Fernanda Silva; da Veiga, Venicio Feo; Girard-Dias, Wendell; Miranda, Kildare; Galina, Antonio; Capella, Marcia Alves Marques; Morales, Marcelo Marcos

    2016-10-01

    Electrochemical therapy (EChT) entails treatment of solid tumors with direct electric current (DC). This work evaluated the specific effects of anodic flow generated by DC on biochemical and metabolic features of the A549 human lung cancer cell line. Apoptosis was evaluated on the basis of caspase-3 activity and mitochondrial transmembrane potential dissipation. Cell morphology was analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, and lipid droplets were studied through morphometric analysis and X-ray qualitative elemental microanalysis. High-resolution respirometry was used to assess mitochondrial respiratory parameters. Results indicated A549 viability decreased in a dose-dependent manner with a prominent drop between 18 and 24h after treatment (p<0.001), together with a two-fold increase in caspase-3 activity. AF-treatment induced a significantly increase (p<0.01) in the cell number with disrupted mitochondrial transmembrane potential. Furthermore, treated cells demonstrated important ultrastructural mitochondria damage and a three-fold increase in the cytoplasmic lipid bodies' number, quantified by morphometrical analyses. Conversely, 24h after treatment, the cells presented a two-fold increase of residual oxygen consumption, accounting for 45.3% of basal oxygen consumption. These results show remarkable alterations promoted by anodic flow on human lung cancer cells which are possibly involved with the antitumoral effects of EChT.

  14. Survey of Differentially Methylated Promoters in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Wang

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation, copy number in the genomes of three immortalized prostate epithelial, five cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC3, PC3M, PC3M-Pro4, PC3MLN4 were compared using a microarray-based technique. Genomic DNA is cut with a methylation-sensitive enzyme Hpall, followed by linker ligation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification, labeling, hybridization to an array of promoter sequences. Only those parts of the genomic DNA that have unmethylated restriction sites within a few hundred base pairs generate PCR products detectable on an array. Of 2732 promoter sequences on a test array, 504 (18.5% showed differential hybridization between immortalized prostate epithelial, cancer cell lines. Among candidate hypermethylated genes in cancer-derived lines, there were eight (CD44, CDKN1A, ESR1, PLAU, RARB, SFN, TNFRSF6, TSPY previously observed in prostate cancer, 13 previously known methylation targets in other cancers (ARHI, bcl-2, BRCA1, CDKN2C, GADD45A, MTAP, PGR, SLC26A4, SPARC, SYK, TJP2, UCHL1, WIT-1. The majority of genes that appear to be both differentially methylated, differentially regulated between prostate epithelial, cancer cell lines are novel methylation targets, including PAK6, RAD50, TLX3, PIR51, MAP2K5, INSR, FBN1, GG2-1, representing a rich new source of candidate genes used to study the role of DNA methylation in prostate tumors.

  15. The genomic landscape of epithelioid sarcoma cell lines and tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Farzad; Bashashati, Ali; Shumansky, Karey; Dickson, Brendan; Gokgoz, Nalan; Wunder, Jay S; Andrulis, Irene L; Lazar, Alexander J; Shah, Sohrab P; Huntsman, David G; Nielsen, Torsten O

    2016-01-01

    We carried out whole genome and transcriptome sequencing on four tumour/normal pairs of epithelioid sarcoma. These index cases were supplemented with whole transcriptome sequencing of three additional tumours and three cell lines. Unlike rhabdoid tumour (the other major group of SMARCB1-negative cancers), epithelioid sarcoma shows a complex genome with a higher mutational rate, comparable to that of ovarian carcinoma. Despite this mutational burden, SMARCB1 mutations remain the most frequently recurring event and are probably critical drivers of tumour formation. Several cases show heterozygous SMARCB1 mutations without inactivation of the second allele, and we explore this further in vitro. Finding CDKN2A deletions in our discovery cohort, we evaluated CDKN2A protein expression in a tissue microarray. Six out of 16 cases had lost CDKN2A in greater than or equal to 90% of cells, while the remaining cases had retained the protein. Expression analysis of epithelioid sarcoma cell lines by transcriptome sequencing shows a unique profile that does not cluster with any particular tissue type or with other SWI/SNF-aberrant lines. Evaluation of the levels of members of the SWI/SNF complex other than SMARCB1 revealed that these proteins are expressed as part of a residual complex, similarly to previously studied rhabdoid tumour lines. This residual SWI/SNF is susceptible to synthetic lethality and may therefore indicate a therapeutic opportunity. PMID:26365879

  16. Mitochondria in vascular health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dromparis, Peter; Michelakis, Evangelos D

    2013-01-01

    The eukaryote's mitochondrial network is perhaps the cell's most sophisticated and dynamic responsive sensing system. Integrating metabolic, oxygen, or danger signals with inputs from other organelles, as well as local and systemic signals, mitochondria have a profound impact on vascular function in both health and disease. This review highlights recently discovered aspects of mitochondrial function (oxygen sensing, inflammation, autophagy, and apoptosis) and discusses their role in diseases of both systemic and pulmonary vessels. We also emphasize the role of mitochondria as therapeutic targets for vascular disease. We highlight the intriguing similarities of mitochondria-driven molecular mechanisms in terms of both pathogenesis and therapies in very diverse diseases, such as atherosclerosis, pulmonary hypertension, and cancer, to support the foundation of a new field in medicine: mitochondrial medicine. PMID:23157555

  17. Correlation between Twist expression and multidrug resistance of breast cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yue-Xi Wang; Xiao-Mei Chen; Jun Yan; Zhi-Ping Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the correlation between Twist expression and multidrug resistance of breast cancer cell lines. Methods:Human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, cisplatin-resistant human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7/DDP, doxorubicin-resistant human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7/Adr and taxol-resistant human breast cancer cell lines MCF/PTX were cultured, Twist in human breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 was overexpressed and treated with doxorubicin, and then cell viability and expression levels of EMT marker molecules and related signaling pathway molecules were detected. Results:mRNA contents and protein contents of Twist in drug-resistant breast cancer cell lines MCF-7/DDP, MCF-7/Adr and MCF/PTX were higher than those in MCF-7 cell lines;after doxorubicin treatment, inhibitory rates of cell viability in MCF-7 cell lines were higher than those in MCF-7/Adr and MCF-7/Twist cell lines;E-cadherin expression levels in MCF-7/Adr cell lines and MCF-7/Twist cell lines were lower than those in MCF-7 cell lines, and mRNA contents and protein contents of N-cadherin, Vimentin, TGF-β, Smad, Wnt,β-catenin, TNF-αand NF-kB were higher than those in MCF-7 cell lines. Conclusion:Increased expression of Twist is associated with the occurrence of drug resistance in breast cancer cells.

  18. The cytoskeleton of Drosophila-derived Schneider line-1 and Kc23 cells undergoes significant changes during long-term culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatten, H.; Hedrick, J.; Chakrabarti, A.

    1998-01-01

    Insect cell cultures derived from Drosophila melanogaster are increasingly being used as an alternative system to mammalian cell cultures, as they are amenable to genetic manipulation. Although Drosophila cells are an excellent tool for the study of genes and expression of proteins, culture conditions have to be considered in the interpretation of biochemical results. Our studies indicate that significant differences occur in cytoskeletal structure during the long-term culture of the Drosophila-derived cell lines Schneider Line-1 (S1) and Kc23. Scanning, transmission-electron, and immunofluorescence microscopy studies reveal that microfilaments, microtubules, and centrosomes become increasingly different during the culture of these cells from 24 h to 7-14 days. Significant cytoskeletal changes are observed at the cell surface where actin polymerizes into microfilaments, during the elongation of long microvilli. Additionally, long protrusions develop from the cell surface; these protrusions are microtubule-based and establish contact with neighboring cells. In contrast, the microtubule network in the interior of the cells becomes disrupted after four days of culture, resulting in altered transport of mitochondria. Microtubules and centrosomes are also affected in a small percent of cells during cell division, indicating an instability of centrosomes. Thus, the cytoskeletal network of microfilaments, microtubules, and centrosomes is affected in Drosophila cells during long-term culture. This implies that gene regulation and post-translational modifications are probably different under different culture conditions.

  19. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor zebularine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Zebularine inhibited cell growth of gastric cancer in a time- and dose-dependent manner. ► Chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were induced. ► Zebularine promoted apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways. ► Tumorigenicity was inhibited by zebularine. -- Abstract: DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor zebularine has been reported to potentiate the anti-tumor effect by reactivating the expression of tumor suppressor genes and apoptosis-related genes in various malignant cells. However, the apoptotic signaling pathway in gastric cancer cells induced by zebularine is not well understood. In the study, the effects of zebularine on the growth and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells were investigated by MTT assay, Hoechst assay, Western blot analysis, flow cytometric analysis of annexin V-FITC/PI staining, and TUNEL assay. Zebularine was an effective inhibitor of human gastric cancer cells proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The effects were dose dependent. A zebularine concentration of 50 μM accounted for the inhibition of cell proliferation of 67% at 48 h. The treatment with zebularine upregulated Bax, and decreased Bcl-2 protein. Caspase-3 was activated, suggesting that the apoptosis is mediated by mitochondrial pathways. Moreover, zebularine injection successfully inhibited the tumor growth via apoptosis induction which was demonstrated by TUNEL assay in xenograft tumor mouse model. These results demonstrated that zebularine induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways, and zebularine might become a therapeutic approach for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  20. The DNA methyltransferase inhibitor zebularine induces mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Wei, E-mail: polo5352877@163.com [Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Zhou, Wei; Yu, Hong-gang; Luo, He-Sheng; Shen, Lei [Department of Gastroenterology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zebularine inhibited cell growth of gastric cancer in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation were induced. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Zebularine promoted apoptosis via mitochondrial pathways. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumorigenicity was inhibited by zebularine. -- Abstract: DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor zebularine has been reported to potentiate the anti-tumor effect by reactivating the expression of tumor suppressor genes and apoptosis-related genes in various malignant cells. However, the apoptotic signaling pathway in gastric cancer cells induced by zebularine is not well understood. In the study, the effects of zebularine on the growth and apoptosis of gastric cancer cells were investigated by MTT assay, Hoechst assay, Western blot analysis, flow cytometric analysis of annexin V-FITC/PI staining, and TUNEL assay. Zebularine was an effective inhibitor of human gastric cancer cells proliferation in vitro and in vivo. The effects were dose dependent. A zebularine concentration of 50 {mu}M accounted for the inhibition of cell proliferation of 67% at 48 h. The treatment with zebularine upregulated Bax, and decreased Bcl-2 protein. Caspase-3 was activated, suggesting that the apoptosis is mediated by mitochondrial pathways. Moreover, zebularine injection successfully inhibited the tumor growth via apoptosis induction which was demonstrated by TUNEL assay in xenograft tumor mouse model. These results demonstrated that zebularine induced apoptosis in gastric cancer cells via mitochondrial pathways, and zebularine might become a therapeutic approach for the treatment of gastric cancer.

  1. Characterization of a transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, R R; Agarwal, P; Prasanna, G; Vopat, K; Lambert, W; Sheedlo, H J; Pang, I H; Shade, D; Wordinger, R J; Yorio, T; Clark, A F; Agarwal, N

    2001-01-31

    The purpose of the present study was to establish a rat retinal ganglion cell line by transformation of rat retinal cells. For this investigation, retinal cells were isolated from postnatal day 1 (PN1) rats and transformed with the psi2 E1A virus. In order to isolate retinal ganglion cells (RGC), single cell clones were chosen at random from the transformed cells. Expression of Thy-1 (a marker for RGC), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, a positive marker for Muller cells), HPC-1/syntaxin (a marker for amacrine cells), 8A1 (a marker for horizontal and ganglion cells) and neurotrophins was studied using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. One of the retinal cell clones, designated RGC-5, was positive for Thy-1, Brn-3C, Neuritin, NMDA receptor, GABA-B receptor, and synaptophysin expression and negative for GFAP, HPC-1, and 8A1, suggesting that it represented a putative RGC clone. The results of RT-PCR analysis were confirmed by immunocytochemistry for Thy-1 and GFAP. Upon further characterization by immunoblotting, the RGC-5 clone was positive for Thy-1, negative for GFAP, 8A1 and syntaxin. RGC 5 cells were also positive for the expression of neurotrophins and their cognate receptors. To establish the physiological relevance of RGC-5, the effects of serum/trophic factor deprivation and glutamate toxicity were analyzed to determine if these cells would undergo apoptosis. The protective effects of neurotrophins on RGC-5 after serum deprivation was also investigated. Apoptosis was studied by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated fluoresceinated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Serum deprivation resulted in apoptosis and supplementation with both BDNF and NT-4 in the growth media, protected the RGC-5 cells from undergoing apoptosis. On differentiation with succinyl concanavalin A (sConA), RGC-5 cells became sensitive to glutamate toxicity, which could be reversed by inclusion of ciplizone (MK801

  2. Melatonin and Doxorubicin synergistically induce cell apoptosis in human hepatoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether Melatonin has synergistic effects with Doxorubicin in the growth-inhibition and apoptosis-induction of human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Bel-7402.METHODS:The synergism of Melatonin and Doxorubicin inhibited the cell growth and induced cell apoptosis in human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Bel-7402.Cell viability was analyzed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide(MTT)assay.Cell apoptosis was evaluated using TUNEL method and flow cytometry.Apoptosis-r...

  3. Feeder-independent continuous culture of the PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line is a bipotent cell line, i.e., capable of forming either bile ductules or hepatocyte monolayers in vitro, that was derived from the primary culture of pig embryonic stem cells. The cell line has been strictly feeder-dependent in that cell replication morphology,...

  4. Interaction of Insulin-like Growth Factor-binding Protein-3 and BAX in Mitochondria Promotes Male Germ Cell Apoptosis

    OpenAIRE

    Jia, Yue; Lee, Kuk-Wha; Swerdloff, Ronald; Hwang, David; Cobb, Laura J.; Sinha Hikim, Amiya; Lue, Yan He; Cohen, Pinchas; Wang, Christina

    2009-01-01

    Germ cell apoptosis is crucial for spermatogenesis and can be triggered by various stimuli, including intratesticular hormone deprivation. This study proposes a role for insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) in male germ cell apoptosis. Groups of adult Sprague-Dawley male rats received one of the following treatments for 5 days: (i) daily intratesticular (IT) injections with saline (control); (ii) a single subcutaneous injection of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonis...

  5. Regulation of osteoprotegerin expression by Notch signaling in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeeranan Manokawinchoke; Thanaphum Osathanon; Prasit Pavasant

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the influence of Notch signaling on osteoprotegerin (OPG) expression in a human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line. Methods: Activation of Notch signaling was performed by seeding cells on Jagged1 immobilized surfaces. In other experiments, a γ-secretase inhibitor was added to the culture medium to inhibit intracellular Notch signaling. OPG mRNA and protein were determined by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. Finally, publicly available microarray database analysis was performed using connection up- or down-regulation expression analysis of microarrays software. Results: Jagged1-treatment of HSC-4 cells enhanced HES1 and HEY1 mRNA expres-sion, confirming the intracellular activation of Notch signaling. OPG mRNA and protein levels were significantly suppressed upon Jagged1 treatment. Correspondingly, HSC-4 cells treated with a γ-secretase inhibitor resulted in a significant reduction of HES1 and HEY1 mRNA levels, and a marked increase in OPG protein expression was observed. These results implied that Notch signaling regulated OPG expression in HSC-4 cells. However, Jagged1 did not alter OPG expression in another human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line (HSC-5) or a human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma cell line (HN22). Conclusions: Notch signaling regulated OPG expression in an HSC-4 cell line and this mechanism could be cell line specific.

  6. Redox interplay between mitochondria and peroxisomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celien eLismont

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Reduction-oxidation or ‘redox’ reactions are an integral part of a broad range of cellular processes such as gene expression, energy metabolism, protein import and folding, and autophagy. As many of these processes are intimately linked with cell fate decisions, transient or chronic changes in cellular redox equilibrium are likely to contribute to the initiation and progression of a plethora of human diseases. Since a long time, it is known that mitochondria are major players in redox regulation and signaling. More recently, it has become clear that also peroxisomes have the capacity to impact redox-linked physiological processes. To serve this function, peroxisomes cooperate with other organelles, including mitochondria. This review provides a comprehensive picture of what is currently known about the redox interplay between mitochondria and peroxisomes in mammals. We first outline the pro- and antioxidant systems of both organelles and how they may function as redox signaling nodes. Next, we critically review and discuss emerging evidence that peroxisomes and mitochondria share an intricate redox-sensitive relationship and cooperate in cell fate decisions. Key issues include possible physiological roles, messengers, and mechanisms. We also provide examples of how data mining of publicly-available datasets from ‘omics’ technologies can be a powerful means to gain additional insights into potential redox signaling pathways between peroxisomes and mitochondria. Finally, we highlight the need for more studies that seek to clarify the mechanisms of how mitochondria may act as dynamic receivers, integrators, and transmitters of peroxisome-derived mediators of oxidative stress. The outcome of such studies may open up exciting new avenues for the community of researchers working on cellular responses to organelle-derived oxidative stress, a research field in which the role of peroxisomes is currently highly underestimated and an issue of

  7. Absence of C-type virus production in human leukemic B cell, T cell and null cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogura,Hajime

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Electron microscope observation of cultured human leukemic B cell, T cell and null cell lines and reverse transcriptase assay of the culture supernatants were all negative for the presence of C-type virus. Bat cell line, which propagates primate C-type viruses well, was cocultivated with the human leukemic cell lines, in the hope of amplification of virus if present. Three weeks after mixed culture, the culture supernatants were again examined for reverse transcriptase activity and the cells were tested for syncytia formation by cocultivation with rat XC, human KC and RSb cell lines. All these tests, except for the positive control using a simian sarcoma virus, were negative, suggesting that no C-type was produced from these human leukemic cell lines.

  8. Cytolytic replication of echoviruses in colon cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gullberg Maria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, killing nearly 50% of patients afflicted. Though progress is being made within surgery and other complementary treatments, there is still need for new and more effective treatments. Oncolytic virotherapy, meaning that a cancer is cured by viral infection, is a promising field for finding new and improved treatments. We have investigated the oncolytic potential of several low-pathogenic echoviruses with rare clinical occurrence. Echoviruses are members of the enterovirus genus within the family Picornaviridae. Methods Six colon cancer cell lines (CaCo-2, HT29, LoVo, SW480, SW620 and T84 were infected by the human enterovirus B species echovirus 12, 15, 17, 26 and 29, and cytopathic effects as well as viral replication efficacy were investigated. Infectivity was also tested in spheroids grown from HT29 cells. Results Echovirus 12, 17, 26 and 29 replicated efficiently in almost all cell lines and were considered highly cytolytic. The infectivity of these four viruses was further evaluated in artificial tumors (spheroids, where it was found that echovirus 12, 17 and 26 easily infected the spheroids. Conclusions We have found that echovirus 12, 17 and 26 have potential as oncolytic agents against colon cancer, by comparing the cytolytic capacity of five low-pathogenic echoviruses in six colon cancer cell lines and in artificial tumors.

  9. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell lines from parthenogenetic blastocysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyun Mai; Yang Yu; Tao Li; Liu Wang; Mei-jue Chen; Shu-zhen Huang; Canquan Zhou; Qi Zhou

    2007-01-01

    Parthenogenesis is one of the main, and most useful, methods to derive embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which may be an important source of histocompatible cells and tissues for cell therapy. Here we describe the derivation and characterization of two ESC lines (hPES-1 and hPES-2) from in vitro developed blastocysts following parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes. Typical ESC morphology was seen, and the expression of ESC markers was as expected for alkaline phosphatase, octamer-binding transcription factor 4, stage-specific embryonic antigen 3, stage-specific embryonic antigen 4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81, and there was absence of expression of negative markers such as stage-specific embryonic antigen 1. Expression of genes specific for different embryonic germ layers was detected from the embryoid bodies (EBs) of both hESC lines, suggesting their differentiation potential in vitro. However, in vivo, only hPES-1 formed teratoma consisting of all three embryonic germ layers (hPES-2 did not). Interestingly, after continuous proliferation for more than 100 passages, hPES-1 cells still maintained a normal 46 XX karyotype; hPES-2 displayed abnormalities such as chromosome translocation after long term passages. Short Tandem Repeat (STR) results demonstrated that the hPES lines were genetic matches with the egg donors, and gene imprinting data confirmed the parthenogenetic origin of these ES cells. Genome-wide SNP analysis showed a pattern typical of parthenogenesis. All of these results demonstrated the feasibility to isolate and establish human parthenogenetic ESC lines, which provides an important tool for studying epigenetic effects in ESCs as well as for future therapeutic interventions in a clinical setting.

  10. Apoptosis in Raji cell line induced by influenza A virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李虹; 肖丽英; 李华林; 李婉宜; 蒋中华; 张林; 李明远

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the apoptotic effects of influenza A virus on the Raji cell line. Methods Cultured Raji cells were infected with influenza A virus at a multiplicity of infection (m.o.i) of 20 and the effects of apoptosis were detected at different time points post infection using the following methods: electron microscope, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, PI stained flow cytometry (FCM) and Annexin-V FITC/PI stained FCM.Results Raji cells infected with influenza A virus showed changes of morphology apoptotis, DNA agarose electrophoresis also demonstrated a ladder-like pattern of DNA fragments in a time-dependent manner. PI stained FCM showed "apoptosis peak" and FITC/PI stained FCM showed apoptotic cells. Quantitative analysis indicated that the percentage of apoptotic Raji cells increased after infection, and cycloheximide (CHX), an eukaryotic transcription inhibitor, could effectively inhibit the apoptotic effects of influenza A virus in vitro.Conclusions Influenza A virus can induce apoptosis in Raji cell line suggesting that it may lead to a potential method for tumor therapy.

  11. Why Do Older Women Have Poor Implantation Rates? A Possible Role of the Mitochondria

    OpenAIRE

    Bartmann, Ana Karina; Romão, Gustavo Salata; da Silveira Ramos, Ester; Ferriani, Rui Alberto

    2004-01-01

    Mitochondria are organelles responsible for oxidative phosphorylation, the main energy source for all eukaryotic cells. In oocytes and embryos, it seems that mitochondria provide sufficient energy for fecundation by supporting spindle formation during meiosis II, and for implantation. Since mitochondria are inherited from mother to child, it is important that oocyte mitochondria should be intact. Older women seem to have more mitochondrial DNA mutations, which can be responsible for poor impl...

  12. Involvement of mitochondria in apoptosis of cancer cells induced by photodynamic therapy Envolvimento da mitocôndria em apoptose de células cancerígenas induzida por terapia fotodinâmica

    OpenAIRE

    Joselito Nardy Ribeiro; André Romero da Silva; Renato Atilio Jorge

    2004-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a promising cancer treatment that employs a combination of a photosensitizing chemical, oxygen, and visible light, induces apoptosis in tumor cells. However, the precise mechanism of PDT-induced apoptosis is not well characterized. Many of the photosensitizers currently in clinical or pre-clinical studies of PDT are localized in or have a major influence on mitochondria. The treatment with PDT causes mitochondrial damage and induces apoptosis through the release of...

  13. Establishment and characterization of primary lung cancer cell lines from Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao ZHENG; Yi-hua SUN; Xiao-lei YE; Hai-quan CHEN; Hong-bin JI

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To establish and characterize primary lung cancer cell lines from Chinese population.Methods: Lung cancer specimens or pleural effusions were collected from Chinese lung cancer patients and cultured in vitro with ACL4 medium (for non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC)) or HITES medium (for small cell lung carcinomas (SCLC)) supplemented with 5%FBS. All cell lines were maintained in culture for more than 25 passages. Most of these cell lines were further analyzed for oncogenic mutations, karyotype, cell growth kinetics, and tumorigenicity in nude mice.Results: Eight primary cell lines from Chinese lung cancer patients were established and characterized, including seven NSCLC cell lines and one SCLC cell line. Five NSCLC cell lines were found to harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations.Conclusion: These well-characterized primary lung cancer cell lines from Chinese population provide a unique platform for future studies of the ethnic differences in lung cancer biology and drug response.

  14. Designing of promiscuous inhibitors against pancreatic cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Singla, Deepak; Gautam, Ankur; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2014-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains the most devastating disease with worst prognosis. There is a pressing need to accelerate the drug discovery process to identify new effective drug candidates against pancreatic cancer. We have developed QSAR models for predicting promiscuous inhibitors using the pharmacological data. Our models achieved maximum Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.86, when evaluated on 10-fold cross-validation. Our models have also successfully validated the drug-to-oncogene relationship and further we used these models to screen FDA approved drugs and tested them in vitro. We have integrated these models in a webserver named as DiPCell, which will be useful for screening and designing novel promiscuous drug molecules. We have also identified the most and least effective drugs for pancreatic cancer cell lines. On the other side, we have identified resistant pancreatic cancer cell lines, which need investigative scanner on them to put light on resistant mechanism in pancreatic cancer.

  15. Mitochondria and the evolutionary roots of cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Alfonso F.; Zamorano, Pedro

    2013-04-01

    Cancer disease is inherent to, and widespread among, metazoans. Yet, some of the hallmarks of cancer such as uncontrolled cell proliferation, lack of apoptosis, hypoxia, fermentative metabolism and free cell motility (metastasis) are akin to a prokaryotic lifestyle, suggesting a link between cancer disease and evolution. In this hypothesis paper, we propose that cancer cells represent a phenotypic reversion to the earliest stage of eukaryotic evolution. This reversion is triggered by the dysregulation of the mitochondria due to cumulative oxidative damage to mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. As a result, the phenotype of normal, differentiated cells gradually reverts to the phenotype of a facultative anaerobic, heterotrophic cell optimized for survival and proliferation in hypoxic environments. This phenotype matches the phenotype of the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) that resulted from the endosymbiosis between an α-proteobacteria (which later became the mitochondria) and an archaebacteria. As such, the evolution of cancer within one individual can be viewed as a recapitulation of the evolution of the eukaryotic cell from fully differentiated cells to LECA. This evolutionary model of cancer is compatible with the current understanding of the disease, and explains the evolutionary basis for most of the hallmarks of cancer, as well as the link between the disease and aging. It could also open new avenues for treatment directed at reestablishing the synergy between the mitochondria and the cancerous cell.

  16. Mitochondria and the evolutionary roots of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer disease is inherent to, and widespread among, metazoans. Yet, some of the hallmarks of cancer such as uncontrolled cell proliferation, lack of apoptosis, hypoxia, fermentative metabolism and free cell motility (metastasis) are akin to a prokaryotic lifestyle, suggesting a link between cancer disease and evolution. In this hypothesis paper, we propose that cancer cells represent a phenotypic reversion to the earliest stage of eukaryotic evolution. This reversion is triggered by the dysregulation of the mitochondria due to cumulative oxidative damage to mitochondrial and nuclear DNA. As a result, the phenotype of normal, differentiated cells gradually reverts to the phenotype of a facultative anaerobic, heterotrophic cell optimized for survival and proliferation in hypoxic environments. This phenotype matches the phenotype of the last eukaryotic common ancestor (LECA) that resulted from the endosymbiosis between an α-proteobacteria (which later became the mitochondria) and an archaebacteria. As such, the evolution of cancer within one individual can be viewed as a recapitulation of the evolution of the eukaryotic cell from fully differentiated cells to LECA. This evolutionary model of cancer is compatible with the current understanding of the disease, and explains the evolutionary basis for most of the hallmarks of cancer, as well as the link between the disease and aging. It could also open new avenues for treatment directed at reestablishing the synergy between the mitochondria and the cancerous cell. (paper)

  17. Cell line profiling to improve monoclonal antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sohye; Ren, Da; Xiao, Gang; Daris, Kristi; Buck, Lynette; Enyenihi, Atim A; Zubarev, Roman; Bondarenko, Pavel V; Deshpande, Rohini

    2014-04-01

    Mammalian cell culture performance is influenced by both intrinsic (genetic) and extrinsic (media and process) factors. In this study, intrinsic capacity of various monoclonal antibody-producing Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines was compared by exposing them to the same culture condition. Microarray-based transcriptomics and LC-MS/MS shotgun proteomics technologies were utilized to obtain expression landscape of different cell lines. Specific transcripts and proteins correlating with productivity, growth rate and cell size have been identified. The proteomics analysis results showed a strong correlation between the intracellular protein expression levels of the recombinant DHFR and productivity. In contrast, neither the light chain nor the heavy chain of the recombinant monoclonal antibody showed correlation to productivity. Other top ranked proteins which demonstrated positive correlation to productivity included the adaptor protein complex subunits AP3D1and AP2B2, DNA repair protein DDB1 and the ER translocation complex component, SRPR. The subunits of molecular chaperone T-complex protein 1 and the regulator of mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism MTHFD2 showed negative correlation to productivity. The transcriptomics analysis has identified the regulators of calcium signaling, Tmem20 and Rcan1, as the top ranked genes displaying positive and negative correlation to productivity, respectively. For the second part of the study, the principal component analysis (PCA) was generated to view the underlying global structure of the expression data. A clear division and expression polarity was observed between the two distinct clusters of cell lines, independent of link to productivity or any other traits examined. The primary component of the PCA generated from either transcriptomics or proteomics data displayed a strong correlation to cell size and doubling time, while none of the main principal components showed correlation to productivity. Our findings suggest

  18. RBE of neutrons for induction of cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations in three cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have compared the RBE values for induction of dicentrics and centric rings with those for cell inactivation and with the mean or effective quality factors (Q) recommended for radiation protection. The induction of cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations has been investigated in plateau phase cultures of established lines of a rat rhabdomyosarcoma, a rat ureter carcinoma and Chinese hamster cells for single doses of 300 kV X-rays and 0.5, 4.2 and 15 MeV neutrons. The different cell lines show considerable variations in sensitivity and the RBE values obtained are presented in tabular form. The mean RBE values for the rat rhabdomyosarcoma cells are lower than those for the other two relatively resistant cell lines. Those for the Chinese hamster cells extrapolated to levels according to low doses of X-rays are in good agreement with the quoted Q values. (Auth./C.F.)

  19. Effect of histone deacetylase inhibitor on proliferation of biliary tract cancer cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-Ning Xu; Xin Wang; Sheng-Quan Zou

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effect of histone deacetylase inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA) on the growth of biliary tract cancer cell lines (gallbladder carcinoma cell line and cholangiocarcinoma cell line) in v/vo and in vitro,and to investigate the perspective of histone deacetylase inhibitor in its clinical application.METHODS: The survival rates of gallbladder carcinoma cell line (Mz-ChA-I cell line) and cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (QBC939, KMBC and OZ cell lines) treated with various doses of TSA were detected by methylthiazoy tetrazolium (MTT) assay.A nude mouse model of transplanted gallbladder carcinoma (Mz-ChA-I cell line)was successfully established, and changes in the growth of transplanted tumor after treated with TSAwere measured.RESULTS: TSA could inhibit the proliferation of gallbladder carcinoma cell line (Mz-ChA-I cell line) and cholangiocarcinoma cell lines (QBC939, KMBC and OZ cell lines) in a dose-dependent manner.After the nude mouse model of transplanted gallbladder carcinoma (Mz-ChA-I cell line) was successfully established, the growth of cancer was inhibited in the model, after treated with TSA.CONCLUSION: TSA can inhibit the growth of cholangiocarcinoma and gallbladder carcinoma cell lines in vitro and in vivo.

  20. UV light blocks EGFR signalling in human cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, BB; Neves-Petersen, M T; Klitgaard, S;

    2007-01-01

    antibodies. There was a threshold level, below which the receptor could not be blocked. In addition, illumination caused the cells to upregulate the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1, irrespective of the p53 status. Since the EGF receptor is often overexpressed in cancers and other proliferative skin......UV light excites aromatic residues, causing these to disrupt nearby disulphide bridges. The EGF receptor is rich in aromatic residues near the disulphide bridges. Herein we show that laser-pulsed UV illumination of two different skin-derived cancer cell lines i.e. Cal-39 and A431, which both...

  1. Off-line test of the KISS gas cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, Yoshikazu, E-mail: yoshikazu.hirayama@kek.jp [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Watanabe, Yutaka; Imai, Nobuaki; Ishiyama, Hironobu; Jeong, Sun-Chan; Miyatake, Hiroari; Oyaizu, Michihiro [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kim, Yung Hee [Seoul National University, Seoul 151 742 (Korea, Republic of); Mukai, Momo [Tsukuba University, Ibaraki 305 0006 (Japan); Matsuo, Yukari; Sonoda, Tetsu; Wada, Michiharu [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351 0198 (Japan); Huyse, Mark; Kudryavtsev, Yuri; Van Duppen, Piet [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Construction of the KEK Isotope Separation System (KISS) at RIKEN. • Ionization scheme of an iron. • Measurement of transport time profile in a gas cell. -- Abstract: The KEK Isotope Separation System (KISS) has been constructed at RIKEN to study the β-decay properties of neutron-rich isotopes with neutron numbers around N = 126 for application to astrophysics. A key component of KISS is a gas cell filled with argon gas at a pressure of 50 kPa to stop and collect the unstable nuclei, where the isotopes of interest will be selectively ionized using laser resonance ionization. We have performed off-line tests to study the basic properties of the gas cell and of KISS using nickel and iron filaments placed in the gas cell.

  2. In vitro chemosensitivity of head and neck cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuler PJ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC includes a variety of antineoplastic drugs. However, drug-resistance interferes with the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Preclinical testing models are needed in order to develop approaches to overcome chemoresistance. Methods Ten human cell lines were obtained from HNSCC, including one with experimentally-induced cisplatin resistance. Inhibition of cell growth by seven chemotherapeutic agents (cisplatin, carboplatin, 5- fluorouracil, methotrexate, bleomycin, vincristin, and paclitaxel was measured using metabolic MTT-uptake assay and correlated to clinically-achievable plasma concentrations. Results All drugs inhibited cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 comparable to that achievable in vivo. However, response curves for methotrexate were unsatisfactory and for paclitaxel, the solubilizer cremophor EL was toxic. Cross-resistance was observed between cisplatin and carboplatin. Conclusion Chemosensitivity of HNSCC cell lines can be determined using the MTT-uptake assay. For DNA-interfering cytostatics and vinca alkaloids this is a simple and reproducible procedure. Determined in vitro chemosensitivity serves as a baseline for further experimental approaches aiming to modulate chemoresistance in HNSCC with potential clinical significance.

  3. Propranolol induced chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mozhgan Sedigh-Ardekani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Propranolol (PL, a non-selective beta-blocker, is a cardiovascular drug widely used to treat hypertension. The present study was concerned with assessing the cytogenetic effects of this drug on Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cell line. MTT assay was then carried out to determine the cytotoxicity index (IC50 of the drug. The IC50 value of PL was 0.43±0.02 mM. To investigate the clastogenic effects of the drug, chromatid and chromosome breaks and polyploidy in metaphases were analyzed. CHO cells were exposed to different concentrations of the drug (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 mM for 24 hours. Considering that PL has liver metabolism, experiments were carried out in the presence and absence of the metabolic activation system (S9 mix. Mitomycin-C and sodium arsenite were used as positive controls. It was observed that in cells treated with different PL concentrations as 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 mM, the frequency of chromatid and chromosome breaks as well as polyploidy increased when compared with untreated CHO cells. The addition of S9 mix significantly decreased the chromatid breaks, chromosome breaks and polyploidy compared to the treatment of PL alone. It is concluded that, PL causes chromatid and chromosome aberrations in CHO cell line and the metabolic activation system (S9 mix, playing an important role in drug cytotoxicity reduction.

  4. Pseudoislet of hybrid cellular spheroids from commercial cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Y H; Nam, B M; Kim, B Y; Nemeno, J G; Lee, S; Yeo, J E; Yang, W; Park, S H; Kim, Y S; Lee, J I

    2013-10-01

    Investigators conducting diabetes-related research have focused on islet transplantation as a radical therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Pancreatic islet isolation, an essential process, is a very demanding work because of the proteolytic enzymes, species, treatment time, and individual difference. Replacement of primary isolated pancreatic islets must be carried out continuously for various in vitro tests, making primary isolated islets a useful tool for cell transplantation research. Hence, we sought to develop pseudoislets from commercial pancreas-derived cell lines. In this study, we used RIN-5F and RIN-m cells, which secrete insulin, somatostatin, or glucagon. To manufacture hybrid cellular spheroids, the cells were cultured under hanging drop plate and nonadhesive plate methods. We observed that hybrid cellular pseudoislets exhibited an oval shape, with sizes ranging from 590 to 1200 μm. Their morphology was similar to naïve islets. Cell line pseudoislets secreted and expressed insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin, as confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunohistochemistry analyses. Thus, the current artificially manufactured biomimetic pseudoislets resembled pancreatic islets of the endocrine system, appearing as cellular aggregates that secreted insulin, glucagon, and somatostatin. Enhanced immunoisolation techniques may lead to the development of new islet sources for pancreatic transplantation through this pseudoislet strategy.

  5. Impairment of cell cycle progression by aflatoxin B1 in human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricordy, R; Gensabella, G; Cacci, E; Augusti-Tocco, G

    2002-05-01

    Aflatoxin B1 is a mycotoxin produced by Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticum, which may be present as a food contaminant. It is known to cause acute toxic effects and act as a carcinogenic agent. The carcinogenic action has been related to its ability to form unstable adducts with DNA, which represent possible mutagenic sites. On the other hand, the primary cellular target responsible for its toxic action has not yet been clearly identified. Previous data suggested a possible correlation between cell proliferation and responsiveness to aflatoxin toxicity. These observations led us to investigate the effect of the toxin on cell cycle progression of three human cell lines (HepG2, SK-N-MC and SK-N-SH derived from liver and nervous tissue tumours); they were shown to display different responses to toxin exposure and have different growth kinetics. We performed analysis of the cell cycle, DNA synthesis and expression of p21 and p53 in the presence and absence of the toxin in all cell lines exposed. The results of cell cycle cytofluorometric analysis show significant alterations of cell cycle progression as a result of toxin treatment. In all cell lines exposure to a 24 h toxin treatment causes a dose-dependent accumulation in S phase, however, the ability to recover from impairment to traverse S phase varies in the cell lines under study. SK-N-MC cells appear more prone to resume DNA synthesis when the toxin is removed, while the other two cell lines maintain a significant inhibition of DNA synthesis, as indicated by cytofluorimetry and [(3)H]dTR incorporation. The level of p53 and p21 expression in the three cell lines was examined by western blot analysis and significant differences were detected. The ready resumption of DNA synthesis displayed by SK-N-MC cells could possibly be related to the absence of p53 control of cell cycle progression.

  6. Silencing of Pokemon Enhances Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis via Fas- and Mitochondria-Mediated Pathways in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Qin Zhang; Chuan-Xing Xiao; Bi-Yun Lin; Ying Shi; Yun-Peng Liu; Jing-Jing Liu; Bayasi Guleng; Jian-Lin Ren

    2013-01-01

    The role of Pokemon (POK erythroid myeloid ontogenic actor), a recently identified POK transcription factor with proto-oncogenic activity, in hepatocellular carcinogenesis has only been assessed by a few studies. Our previous study revealed that Pokemon is overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) and promotes HCC cell proliferation and migration via an AKT- and ERK- dependent manner. In the present study, we used the TUNEL assay and FACS analysis to demonstrate that oxaliplatin induce...

  7. PGC-1 family coactivators and cell fate: roles in cancer, neurodegeneration, cardiovascular disease and retrograde mitochondria-nucleus signalling.

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A W; Z. Yao; Vicencio, J. M.; Karkucinska-Wieckowska, A.; Szabadkai, G.

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, a complex nuclear transcriptional machinery controlling mitochondrial biogenesis and function has been described. Central to this network are the PGC-1 family coactivators, characterised as master regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis. Recent literature has identified a broader role for PGC-1 coactivators in both cell death and cellular adaptation under conditions of stress, here reviewed in the context of the pathology associated with cancer, neurodegeneration and...

  8. Responding to hypoxia: lessons from a model cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seta, K A; Spicer, Z; Yuan, Y; Lu, G; Millhorn, D E

    2002-08-20

    Mammalian cells require a constant supply of oxygen to maintain adequate energy production, which is essential for maintaining normal function and for ensuring cell survival. Sustained hypoxia can result in cell death. It is, therefore, not surprising that sophisticated mechanisms have evolved that allow cells to adapt to hypoxia. "Oxygen-sensing" is a special phenotype that functions to detect changes in oxygen tension and to transduce this signal into organ system functions that enhance the delivery of oxygen to tissue in various organisms. Oxygen-sensing cells can be segregated into two distinct cell types: those that functionally depolarize (excitable) and those that do not functionally depolarize (nonexcitable) in response to reduced oxygen. Theoretically, excitable cells have all the same signaling capabilities as the nonexcitable cells, but the nonexcitable cells cannot have all the signaling capabilities as excitable cells. A number of signaling pathways have been identified that regulate gene expression during hypoxia. These include the Ca2+-calmodulin pathway, the 3'-5' adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, the p42 and p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase [(MAPK); also known as the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) for ERK1 and ERK2] pathway, the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK; also known as p38 kinase) pathway, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway. In this review, we describe hypoxia-induced signaling in the model O2-sensing rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line, the current level of understanding of the major signaling events that are activated by reduced O2, and how these signaling events lead to altered gene expression in both excitable and nonexcitable oxygen-sensing cells. PMID:12189251

  9. Boldine: a potential new antiproliferative drug against glioma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Daniéli; Horn, Ana Paula; Gaelzer, Mariana Maier; Frozza, Rudimar Luiz; Delgado-Cañedo, Andrés; Pelegrini, Alessandra Luiza; Henriques, Amélia T; Lenz, Guido; Salbego, Christianne

    2009-12-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common and devastating primary tumors of the central nervous system. Currently no efficient treatment is available. This study evaluated the effect and underlying mechanisms of boldine, an aporphine alkaloid of Peumus boldus, on glioma proliferation and cell death. Boldine decreased the cell number of U138-MG, U87-MG and C6 glioma lines at concentrations of 80, 250 and 500 muM. We observed that cell death caused by boldine was cell-type specific and dose-dependent. Exposure to boldine for 24 h did not activate key mediators of apoptosis. However, it induced alterations in the cell cycle suggesting a G(2)/M arrest in U138-MG cells. Boldine had no toxic effect on non-tumor cells when used at the same concentrations as those used on tumor cells. Based on these results, we speculate that boldine may be a promising compound for evaluation as an anti-cancer agent. PMID:19050827

  10. Preparation of cell lines for single-cell analysis of transcriptional activation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafalska-Metcalf, Ilona U; Janicki, Susan M

    2013-01-01

    Imaging molecularly defined regions of chromatin in single living cells during transcriptional activation has the potential to provide new insight into gene regulatory mechanisms. Here, we describe a method for isolating cell lines with multi-copy arrays of reporter transgenes, which can be used for real-time high-resolution imaging of transcriptional activation dynamics in single cells.

  11. Establishment and characterization of feeder-cell-dependent bovine fetal liver cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The establishment and initial characterization of bovine fetal liver cell lines is described. Bovine fetal hepatocytes were cultured from the liver of a 34-day bovine fetus by physical disruption of the liver tissue. Released liver cells and clumps of cells were plated on STO feeder layers and wer...

  12. BCL-2 family proteins as regulators of mitochondria metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Atan

    2016-08-01

    The BCL-2 family proteins are major regulators of apoptosis, and one of their major sites of action are the mitochondria. Mitochondria are the cellular hubs for metabolism and indeed selected BCL-2 family proteins also possess roles related to mitochondria metabolism and dynamics. Here we discuss the link between mitochondrial metabolism/dynamics and the fate of stem cells, with an emphasis on the role of the BID-MTCH2 pair in regulating this link. We also discuss the possibility that BCL-2 family proteins act as metabolic sensors/messengers coming on and off of mitochondria to "sample" the cytosol and provide the mitochondria with up-to-date metabolic information. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'EBEC 2016: 19th European Bioenergetics Conference, Riva del Garda, Italy, July 2-6, 2016', edited by Prof. Paolo Bernardi. PMID:26827940

  13. Expression of cadherin and NCAM in human small cell lung cancer cell lines and xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, K; Møller, C; Bock, E;

    1992-01-01

    Tumour cell adhesion, detachment and aggregation seem to play an important part in tumour invasion and metastasis, and numerous cell adhesion molecules are expressed by tumour cells. Several families of cell-cell adhesion molecules have been described, of which two groups are particularly well...... characterised, the cadherin family and the Ig superfamily member, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). We investigated expression of these two adhesion molecule families in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and xenografts by immunoblotting. Nineteen tumours established from 15 patients with SCLC were...... embryonic development, which may play a role in connection with tumour invasion and metastasis, was found in 14/18 NCAM expressing SCLC tumours. Individual tumours grown as cell lines and as nude mouse xenografts showed no qualitative differences in cadherin or NCAM expression....

  14. Fluorouracil Selectively Enriches Stem-like Leukemic Cells in a Leukemic Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhang, Song Yang, Yu-Juan He, Hui-Yuan Shao, Li Wang, Hui Chen, Yu-Jie Gao, Feng-Xian Qing, Xian-Chun Chen, Liu-Yang Zhao, Shi Tan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported that cancer stem cells (CSCs could be isolated from solid cancer cell lines, in which the purity of CSCs was higher than that from tumor tissues. Separation of CSCs from leukemic cell lines was rarely reported. In this study, CD34+CD38- stem-like cell subsets in human KG-1a leukemic cell line were enriched by cytotoxic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU. After 4 days incubation of KG-1a cell line with 5-FU (50 μg/ml, the CD34+CD38- subpopulation of cell lines was enriched more than 10 times. The enriched cells had proliferate potential in vitro, low level of RNA transcription and Hoechst 33342 dye efflux ability, accompanied by high expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter protein ABCG2. Our findings suggest that treatment with 5-FU offers an easy method to isolate leukemic stem-like subpopulation. It can facilitate studies of leukemic stem cell biology and the development of new therapeutic strategies.

  15. Establishment of a novel human medulloblastoma cell line characterized by highly aggressive stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia Benites Gonçalves da; Rodini, Carolina Oliveira; Kaid, Carolini; Nakahata, Adriana Miti; Pereira, Márcia Cristina Leite; Matushita, Hamilton; Costa, Silvia Souza da; Okamoto, Oswaldo Keith

    2016-08-01

    Medulloblastoma is a highly aggressive brain tumor and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality related to childhood cancer. These tumors display differential ability to metastasize and respond to treatment, which reflects their high degree of heterogeneity at the genetic and molecular levels. Such heterogeneity of medulloblastoma brings an additional challenge to the understanding of its physiopathology and impacts the development of new therapeutic strategies. This translational effort has been the focus of most pre-clinical studies which invariably employ experimental models using human tumor cell lines. Nonetheless, compared to other cancers, relatively few cell lines of human medulloblastoma are available in central repositories, partly due to the rarity of these tumors and to the intrinsic difficulties in establishing continuous cell lines from pediatric brain tumors. Here, we report the establishment of a new human medulloblastoma cell line which, in comparison with the commonly used and well-established cell line Daoy, is characterized by enhanced proliferation and invasion capabilities, stem cell properties, increased chemoresistance, tumorigenicity in an orthotopic metastatic model, replication of original medulloblastoma behavior in vivo, strong chromosome structural instability and deregulation of genes involved in neural development. These features are advantageous for designing biologically relevant experimental models in clinically oriented studies, making this novel cell line, named USP-13-Med, instrumental for the study of medulloblastoma biology and treatment. PMID:26358937

  16. The role of mitochondria in neurodegenerative diseases: mitochondria as a therapeutic target in Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, P. Hemachandra

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondria are cytoplasmic organelles responsible for life and death. Extensive evidence from animal and clinical studies suggests that mitochondria play a critical role in aging, cancer, diabetes and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. Several lines of research suggest that mitochondrial oxidative damage is an important cellular change in most late-onset neurodegenerative diseases. Further, emerging evidence suggests that ...

  17. Multidrug resistance and retroviral transduction potential in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, M D; Gram, G J; Jensen, P B;

    1999-01-01

    blue colonies after X-Gal staining of the cells grown in soft agar. All examined SCLC cell lines were transducible with either vector. Transduction efficiencies varied from 5.7% to 33.5% independent of the presence of MDR. These results indicate that MDR does not severely impair transduction of SCLC......Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major problem in the successful treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). New treatment strategies are needed, such as gene therapy specifically targeting the MDR cells in the tumor. Retroviral LacZ gene-containing vectors that were either pseudotyped for the...... gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV-1) receptor or had specificity for the amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV-A) receptor were used for transduction of five SCLC cell lines differing by a range of MDR mechanisms. Transduction efficiencies in these cell lines were compared by calculating the percentage of...

  18. Multidrug resistance and retroviral transduction potential in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, M D; Gram, G J; Jensen, P B;

    1999-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major problem in the successful treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). New treatment strategies are needed, such as gene therapy specifically targeting the MDR cells in the tumor. Retroviral LacZ gene-containing vectors that were either pseudotyped...... for the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV-1) receptor or had specificity for the amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV-A) receptor were used for transduction of five SCLC cell lines differing by a range of MDR mechanisms. Transduction efficiencies in these cell lines were compared by calculating the percentage...... of blue colonies after X-Gal staining of the cells grown in soft agar. All examined SCLC cell lines were transducible with either vector. Transduction efficiencies varied from 5.7% to 33.5% independent of the presence of MDR. These results indicate that MDR does not severely impair transduction of SCLC...

  19. Glucose-Modulated Mitochondria Adaptation in Tumor Cells: A Focus on ATP Synthase and Inhibitor Factor 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Mavelli

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Warburg’s hypothesis has been challenged by a number of studies showing that oxidative phosphorylation is repressed in some tumors, rather than being inactive per se. Thus, treatments able to shift energy metabolism by activating mitochondrial pathways have been suggested as an intriguing basis for the optimization of antitumor strategies. In this study, HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells were cultivated with different metabolic substrates under conditions mimicking “positive” (activation/biogenesis or “negative” (silencing mitochondrial adaptation. In addition to the expected up-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, glucose deprivation caused an increase in phosphorylating respiration and a rise in the expression levels of the ATP synthase β subunit and Inhibitor Factor 1 (IF1. Hyperglycemia, on the other hand, led to a markedly decreased level of the transcriptional coactivator PGC-α suggesting down-regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis, although no change in mitochondrial mass and no impairment of phosphorylating respiration were observed. Moreover, a reduction in mitochondrial networking and in ATP synthase dimer stability was produced. No effect on β-ATP synthase expression was elicited. Notably, hyperglycemia caused an increase in IF1 expression levels, but it did not alter the amount of IF1 associated with ATP synthase. These results point to a new role of IF1 in relation to high glucose utilization by tumor cells, in addition to its well known effect upon mitochondrial ATP synthase regulation.

  20. The comparison of glycosphingolipids isolated from an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line and a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line using MALDI-MS and MALDI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanayake, Krishani K; Taylor, William R; Isailovic, Dragan

    2016-08-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are important biomolecules, which are linked to many diseases such as GSL storage disorders and cancer. Consequently, the expression of GSLs may be altered in ovarian cancer cell lines in comparison to apparently healthy cell lines. Here, differential expressions of GSLs in an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 and a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line T29 were studied using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and MALDI-MS/MS. The isolation of GSLs from SKOV3 and T29 cell lines was carried out using Folch partition. GSLs were successfully detected by MALDI-MS, and structurally assigned by a comparison of their MALDI-MS/MS fragmentation patterns with MS/MS data found in SimLipid database. Additionally, LIPID MAPS was used to assign GSL ion masses in MALDI-MS spectra. Seventeen neutral GSLs were identified in Folch partition lower (chloroform/methanol) phases originating from both cell lines, while five globo series neutral GSLs were identified only in the Folch partition lower phase of SKOV3 cell line. Several different sialylated GSLs were detected in Folch partition upper (water/methanol) phases of SKOV3 and T29 cell lines. Overall, this study demonstrates the alteration and increased glycosylation of GSLs in an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line in comparison to a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line. PMID:27267063

  1. Chromosome abnormalities in Japanese Burkitt lymphoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamasaki,Kazuhide

    1982-02-01

    Full Text Available Six established Japanese Burkitt lymphoma (BL cell lines including one case with null cell type were studied by chromosomal banding techniques. The modal chromosome number was diploid or nearly diploid in five cases and hyperdiploid in one case. The marker chromosome 14q+ was observed in four of the six cases; the origin of the extra band was a chromosome 8 in three including the null cell case but could not be identified in the other. The two cases lacking the 14q+ marker had variant translocations involving the long arm of chromosome 8, one of which carried a translocation, t(8;22 (q24;q13 and the other a translocation, t(2;8 (p12;q24. Although structural and/or numerical aberrations were found in all six cell lines, chromosome 8 was the one most consistently involved. This frequent involvement of chromosome 8 in aberrations; therefore, may be an important event in the development of BL rather than the presence of a 14q+ marker chromosome.

  2. Hypoxia induces adipogenic differentitation of myoblastic cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoigawa, Yoshiaki [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kishimoto, Koshi N., E-mail: kishimoto@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Okuno, Hiroshi; Sano, Hirotaka [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Kaneko, Kazuo [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Itoi, Eiji [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} C2C12 and G8 myogenic cell lines treated by hypoxia differentiate into adipocytes. {yields} The expression of C/EBP{beta}, {alpha} and PPAR{gamma} were increased under hypoxia. {yields} Myogenic differentiation of C2C12 was inhibited under hypoxia. -- Abstract: Muscle atrophy usually accompanies fat accumulation in the muscle. In such atrophic conditions as back muscles of kyphotic spine and the rotator cuff muscles with torn tendons, blood flow might be diminished. It is known that hypoxia causes trans-differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow into adipocytes. However, it has not been elucidated yet if hypoxia turned myoblasts into adipocytes. We investigated adipogenesis in C2C12 and G8 murine myogenic cell line treated by hypoxia. Cells were also treated with the cocktail of insulin, dexamethasone and IBMX (MDI), which has been known to inhibit Wnt signaling and promote adipogenesis. Adipogenic differentiation was seen in both hypoxia and MDI. Adipogenic marker gene expression was assessed in C2C12. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) {beta}, {alpha} and peroxisome proliferator activating receptor (PPAR) {gamma} were increased by both hypoxia and MDI. The expression profile of Wnt10b was different between hypoxia and MDI. The mechanism for adipogenesis of myoblasts in hypoxia might be regulated by different mechanism than the modification of Wnt signaling.

  3. Cloned goats (Gapra hircus) from foetal fibroblast cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Mammalian cloning has been one of the most active research topics in the world.Cloning with in vitro culured foetal fibroblast cells,in comparison with embryonic cells,can be used not only to theoretically study the embryonic or cellular development and differentiation in mammals,but also to utilize the unlimited fibroblast cells to produce large numbers of clonings.The preliminary results are as follows:(i) The division and development of the cloned embryos with embryonic donor cells and goat foetal fibroblast donor cells were 55%,77% and 35%,31%,respectively.There is no significant statistical difference between them.(ii) These studies result in the birth of two cloned goats derived from two 30-day foetal fibroblast cell lines,which are the first cloned mammals from somatic cells in China.This project has established a technological data base for the furture research on adult mammalian somatic cloning and nucleocytoplasmic interactions in animal development,and a novel technique for the cloning of animals with a high-level expression of transgene(s).

  4. Characterization of cell lines stably transfected with rubella virus replicons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Xu, Jie [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States); Frey, Teryl K., E-mail: tfrey@gsu.edu [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    Rubella virus (RUBV) replicons expressing a drug resistance gene and a gene of interest were used to select cell lines uniformly harboring the replicon. Replicons expressing GFP and a virus capsid protein GFP fusion (C-GFP) were compared. Vero or BHK cells transfected with either replicon survived drug selection and grew into a monolayer. However, survival was {approx}9-fold greater following transfection with the C-GFP-replicon than with the GFP-expressing replicon and while the C-GFP-replicon cells grew similarly to non-transfected cells, the GFP-replicon cells grew slower. Neither was due to the ability of the CP to enhance RNA synthesis but survival during drug selection was correlated with the ability of CP to inhibit apoptosis. Additionally, C-GFP-replicon cells were not cured of the replicon in the absence of drug selection. Interferon-alpha suppressed replicon RNA and protein synthesis, but did not cure the cells, explaining in part the ability of RUBV to establish persistent infections.

  5. CD3 receptor modulation in Jurkat leukemic cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek M Witkowski

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available CD3 antigen is a crucial molecule in T cell signal transduction. Although its expression on cell surface is constitutive, dynamic regulation of TCR-CD3 level is probably the most important mechanism allowing T cells to calibrate their response to different levels of stimuli. In our study we examined the role of two main T cell signal transduction pathways in controlling the surface level of CD3 antigen, one based on protein kinase C activity and the other dependent on calcineurin. As an experimental model we used three clones derived from Jurkat cell line, expressing different levels of CD3 antigen surface expression: CD3(low (217.6, CD3+(217.9 or CD3(low (217.7. The cells were stimulated with PMA or ionomycin, acting directly on PKC and calcineurin, respectively. Prior to the stimulation cells were incubated with PKC inhibitor--chelerythrine or calcineurin blocker--cyclosporine A. Changes in CD3 surface expression were measured by flow cytometry. Only PMA and chelerythrine were able to change CD3 expression suggesting important involvement of PKC in the regulation of its expression. To confirm these findings, PKC activity was estimated in Jurkat clones. Our data demonstrated that Jurkat clones with different CD3 expression showed also different PKC activities, so we conclude that PKC-dependent pathway is the main way of controlling CD3 level on Jurkat clones.

  6. Metabolic integration during the evolutionary origin of mitochondria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENNIS G SEARCY

    2003-01-01

    Although mitochondria provide eukaryotic cells with certain metabolic advantages, in other ways they may be disadvantageous. For example, mitochondria produce reactive oxygen species that damage both nucleocytoplasm and mitochondria, resulting in mutations, diseases, and aging. The relationship of mitochondria to the cytoplasm is best understood in the context of evolutionary history. Although it is clear that mitochondria evolved from symbiotic bacteria, the exact nature of the initial symbiosis is a matter of continuing debate. The exchange of nutrients between host and symbiont may have differed from that between the cytoplasm and mitochondria in modern cells. Speculations about the initial relationships include the following. (1) The pre-mitochondrion may have been an invasive, parasitic bacterium. The host did not benefit. (2) The relationship was a nutritional syntrophy based upon transfer of organic acids from host to symbiont. (3) The relationship was a syntrophy based upon H2 transfer from symbiont to host, where the host was a methanogen. (4) There was a syntrophy based upon reciprocal exchange of sulfur compounds.The last conjecture receives support from our detection in eukaryotic cells of substantial H2S-oxidizing activity in mitochondria, and sulfur-reducing activity in the cytoplasm.

  7. Stable Isotope Tracer Analysis in Isolated Mitochondria from Mammalian Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon-Pierre Gravel

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria are a focal point in metabolism, given that they play fundamental roles in catabolic, as well as anabolic reactions. Alterations in mitochondrial functions are often studied in whole cells, and metabolomics experiments using 13C-labeled substrates, coupled with mass isotopomer distribution analyses, represent a powerful approach to study global changes in cellular metabolic activities. However, little is known regarding the assessment of metabolic activities in isolated mitochondria using this technology. Studies on isolated mitochondria permit the evaluation of whether changes in cellular metabolic activities are due to modifications in the intrinsic properties of the mitochondria. Here, we present a streamlined approach to accurately determine 13C, as well as 12C enrichments in isolated mitochondria from mammalian tissues or cultured cells by GC/MS. We demonstrate the relevance of this experimental approach by assessing the effects of drugs perturbing mitochondrial functions on the mass isotopomer enrichment of metabolic intermediates. Furthermore, we investigate 13C and 12C enrichments in mitochondria isolated from cancer cells given the emerging role of metabolic alterations in supporting tumor growth. This original method will provide a very sensitive tool to perform metabolomics studies on isolated mitochondria.

  8. Glucose generates sub-plasma membrane ATP microdomains in single islet beta-cells. Potential role for strategically located mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, H J; Pouli, A E; Ainscow, E K; Jouaville, L S; Rizzuto, R; Rutter, G A

    1999-05-01

    Increases in the concentration of free ATP within the islet beta-cell may couple elevations in blood glucose to insulin release by closing ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels and activating Ca2+ influx. Here, we use recombinant targeted luciferases and photon counting imaging to monitor changes in free [ATP] in subdomains of single living MIN6 and primary beta-cells. Resting [ATP] in the cytosol ([ATP]c), in the mitochondrial matrix ([ATP]m), and beneath the plasma membrane ([ATP]pm) were similar ( approximately 1 mM). Elevations in extracellular glucose concentration (3-30 mM) increased free [ATP] in each domain with distinct kinetics. Thus, sustained increases in [ATP]m and [ATP]pm were observed, but only a transient increase in [ATP]c. However, detectable increases in [ATP]c and [ATP]pm, but not [ATP]m, required extracellular Ca2+. Enhancement of glucose-induced Ca2+ influx with high [K+] had little effect on the apparent [ATP]c and [ATP]m increases but augmented the [ATP]pm increase. Underlying these changes, glucose increased the mitochondrial proton motive force, an effect mimicked by high [K+]. These data support a model in which glucose increases [ATP]m both through enhanced substrate supply and by progressive Ca2+-dependent activation of mitochondrial enzymes. This may then lead to a privileged elevation of [ATP]pm, which may be essential for the sustained closure of KATP channels. Luciferase imaging would appear to be a useful new tool for dynamic in vivo imaging of free ATP concentration.

  9. LINE-1 induces hTERT and ensures telomere maintenance in tumour cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschacher, T; Wolf, B; Enzmann, F; Kienzl, P; Messner, B; Sampl, S; Svoboda, M; Mechtcheriakova, D; Holzmann, K; Bergmann, M

    2016-01-01

    A hallmark of cancer cells is an activated telomere maintenance mechanism, which allows prolonged survival of the malignant cells. In more than 80% of tumours, telomeres are elongated by the enzyme telomerase, which adds de novo telomere repeats to the ends of chromosomes. Cancer cells are also characterized by expression of active LINE-1 elements (L1s, long interspersed nuclear elements-1). L1 elements are abundant retrotransposons in the eukaryotic genome that are primarily known for facilitating aberrant recombination. Using L1-knockdown (KD), we show for the first time that L1 is critical for telomere maintenance in telomerase-positive tumour cells. The reduced length of telomeres in the L1-KD-treated cells correlated with an increased rate of telomere dysfunction foci, a reduced expression of shelterin proteins and an increased rate of anaphase bridges. The decreased telomere length was associated with a decreased telomerase activity and decreased telomerase mRNA level; the latter was increased upon L1 overexpression. L1-KD also led to a decrease in mRNA and protein expression of cMyc and KLF-4, two main transcription factors of telomerase and altered mRNA levels of other stem-cell-associated proteins such as CD44 and hMyb, as well as a corresponding reduced growth of spheroids. The KD of KLF-4 or cMyc decreased the level of L1-ORF1 mRNA, suggesting a specific reciprocal regulation with L1. Thus, our findings contribute to the understanding of L1 as a pathogenicity factor in cancer cells. As L1 is only expressed in pathophysiological conditions, L1 now appears to be target in the rational treatment of telomerase-positive cancer.

  10. Molecular signatures in response to Isoliquiritigenin in lymphoblastoid cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Eun; Hong, Eun-Jung; Nam, Hye-Young [National Biobank of Korea, Center for Genome Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Meeyul [Research Center for Biomedical Resource of Oriental Medicine, Daegu Haany University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji-Hyun [National Biobank of Korea, Center for Genome Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Korea, Republic of); Han, Bok-Ghee, E-mail: bokghee@nih.go.kr [National Biobank of Korea, Center for Genome Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Jae-Pil, E-mail: jpjeon@cdc.go.kr [National Biobank of Korea, Center for Genome Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identified the inhibitory effect of ISL on cell proliferation of LCLs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ISL-induced genes and miRNAs through microarray approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ISL-treated LCLs represented gene expression changes in cell cycle and p53 pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We revealed 12 putative mRNA-miRNA functional pairs associated with ISL effect. -- Abstract: Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) has been known to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of various cancer cells. However, genetic factors regulating ISL effects remain unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular signatures involved in ISL-induced cell death of EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) using microarray analyses. For gene expression and microRNA (miRNA) microarray experiments, each of 12 LCL strains was independently treated with ISL or DMSO as a vehicle control for a day prior to total RNA extraction. ISL treatment inhibited cell proliferation of LCLs in a dose-dependent manner. Microarray analysis showed that ISL-treated LCLs represented gene expression changes in cell cycle and p53 signaling pathway, having a potential as regulators in LCL survival and sensitivity to ISL-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, 36 miRNAs including five miRNAs with unknown functions were differentially expressed in ISL-treated LCLs. The integrative analysis of miRNA and gene expression profiles revealed 12 putative mRNA-miRNA functional pairs. Among them, miR-1207-5p and miR-575 were negatively correlated with p53 pathway- and cell cycle-associated genes, respectively. In conclusion, our study suggests that miRNAs play an important role in ISL-induced cytotoxicity in LCLs by targeting signaling pathways including p53 pathway and cell cycle.

  11. Integrative proteomic profiling of ovarian cancer cell lines reveals precursor cell associated proteins and functional status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscia, F.; Watters, K. M.; Curtis, M.; Eckert, M. A.; Chiang, C. Y.; Tyanova, S.; Mon