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Sample records for cell line u937

  1. Effect of anti-carbohydrate antibodies on HIV infection in a monocytic cell line (U937)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Clausen, H; Mathiesen, Lars Reinhardt; Nielsen, Jens Ole

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against carbohydrate epitopes of gp120 have recently been found to inhibit HIV infection of lymphocytes in vitro thereby opening new possibilities for vaccine considerations. Antibody-dependent enhancement of infection has however come increasingly into focus. This...... study therefore investigated the neutralization of HIV in a monocytic cell line (U937) using mAbs against these carbohydrate gp120-epitopes. While antibodies against one of the epitopes (AI) neutralized infection of U937 cells despite binding to the Fc-receptor, one mAb against the sialosyl-Tn epitope...

  2. Assessment of the U937 cell line for the detection of contact allergens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The human myeloid cell line U937 was evaluated as an in vitro test system to identify contact sensitizers in order to develop alternatives to animal tests for the cosmetic industry. Specific culture conditions (i.e., presence of interleukin-4, IL-4) were applied to obtain a dendritic cell-like phenotype. In the described test protocol, these cells were exposed to test chemicals and then analyzed by flow cytometry for CD86 expression and by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for IL-1β and IL-8 gene expressions. Eight sensitizers, three non-sensitizers and five oxidative hair dye precursors were examined after 24-, 48- and 72-h exposure times. Test item-specific modulations of the chosen activation markers (CD86, IL-1β and IL-8) suggest that this U937 activation test could discriminate test items classified as contact sensitizers or non-sensitizers in the local lymph node assay in mice (LLNA). More specifically, a test item can be considered as a potential sensitizer when it significantly induced the upregulation of the expression of at least two markers. Using this approach, we could correctly evaluate the dendritic cell (DC) activation potential for 15 out of 16 tested chemicals. We conclude that the U937 activation test may represent an useful tool in a future in vitro test battery for predicting sensitizing properties of chemicals

  3. Induction of apoptosis in the human Leukemic U937 cell line by Kaempferia parviflora Wall.ex.Baker extract and effects of paclitaxel and camptothecin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banjerdpongchai, Ratana; Chanwikruy, Yupa; Rattanapanone, Viboon; Sripanidkulchai, Bungorn

    2009-01-01

    Kaempferia parviflora Wall.ex.Baker is a Thai medicinal herb that has high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Apoptotic effects of the herbal extract alone and in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs, paclitaxel and camptothecin, were here studied in the human promonocytic leukemic U937 cell line. K. parviflora extract suppressed cell proliferation and decreased cell viability in a dose- and time-dependent manner as assessed using the trypan blue exclusion assay. Staining of extract-treated cells with propidium iodide and examination under a fluorescence microscope showed condensed nuclei and apoptotic bodies. Mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) decreased after treatment and the number of cells with decreased MTP also increased. Furthermore, activation of caspase-3 was found in herbal extract-treated cells. When the extract was combined with paclitaxel, an additive effect on U937 cell apoptosis was obtained, whereas camptothecin exerted an antagonistic effect. PMID:20192599

  4. Purification of a 110-kilodalton cytosolic phospholipase A2 from the human monocytic cell line U937.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, J. D.; Milona, N; Knopf, J L

    1990-01-01

    The major dithiothreitol-resistant phospholipase A2 activity present in the cytosol of U937 cells has been purified greater than 200,000-fold by sequential chromatography on phenyl-5PW, heparin-Sepharose CL-6B, high-performance hydroxylapatite, TSK-gel G3000-SW, and Mono Q columns. This 110-kDa cytosolic phospholipase A2 is distinct from the relatively small (14-kDa) dithiothreitol-sensitive phospholipases A2 that are secreted from many cell types. This additional phospholipase A2 selectively...

  5. Microgravity modifies protein kinase C isoform translocation in the human monocytic cell line U937 and human peripheral blood T-cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Jason P.; Gaubert, Francois; Cazenave, Jean-Pierre; Schmitt, Didier; Hashemi, B. B. (Principal Investigator); Hughes-Fulford, M. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Individual protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms fulfill distinct roles in the regulation of the commitment to differentiation, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in both monocytes and T-cells. The human monocyte like cell line U937 and T-cells were exposed to microgravity, during spaceflight and the translocation (a critical step in PKC signaling) of individual isoforms to cell particulate fraction examined. PKC activating phorbol esters induced a rapid translocation of several PKC isoforms to the particulate fraction of U937 monocytes under terrestrial gravity (1 g) conditions in the laboratory. In microgravity, the translocation of PKC beta II, delta, and epsilon in response to phorbol esters was reduced in microgravity compared to 1 g, but was enhanced in weak hypergravity (1.4 g). All isoforms showed a net increase in particulate PKC following phorbol ester stimulation, except PKC delta which showed a net decrease in microgravity. In T-cells, phorbol ester induced translocation of PKC delta was reduced in microgravity, compared to 1 g, while PKC beta II translocation was not significantly different at the two g-levels. These data show that microgravity differentially alters the translocation of individual PKC isoforms in monocytes and T-cells, thus providing a partial explanation for the modifications previously observed in the activation of these cell types under microgravity.

  6. Immunogenic and antigenic epitopes of immunoglobulins binding of human monoclonal anti-D antibodies to FcRI on the monocyte-like U937 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M R; Kumpel, B M; Thompson, K; Woof, J M; Burton, D R; Jefferis, R

    1988-01-01

    Seventeen human monoclonal IgG1- or IgG3 anti-D-secreting clones have been examined for their ability to sensitise O+ red cells for Fc-receptor-mediated rosette formation with U937 cells. IgG3 but not IgG1 anti-D antibodies were able to mediate stable rosette formation with unstimulated U937 cells via interaction with the FcRI receptor. Decreasing FcRI density by incubating U937 cells with di-butyryl cAMP almost completely abolished rosette formation, whilst increasing FcRI density by incubating U937 cells with interferon-gamma increased the percentage of cells forming rosettes with IgG3- and IgG1-sensitised red cells. These data suggest that rosette formation between IgG anti-D-sensitised red cells and FcRI-expressing cells is dependent upon the density of IgG3 on the red cell surface, the density of FcRI on the effector cell, multiple FcRI/IgG interactions are required for stable rosette formation and that more FcRI/IgG1 than FcRI/IgG3 interactions are required. PMID:2464239

  7. Elimination of clonogenic tumor cells from HL-60, Daudi, and U-937 cell lines by laser photoradiation therapy: implications for autologous bone marrow purging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliya, K.S.; Pervaiz, S.

    1989-03-01

    Laser photoradiation therapy was tested in an in vitro model for its efficacy in the elimination of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cells. Results show that at 31.2 J/cm2 of laser light in the presence of 20 micrograms/mL of merocyanine 540 (MC540) there was greater than 5 log reduction in Burkitt's lymphoma (Daudi) cells. Similar tumor cell kill was obtained for leukemia (HL-60) cells at a laser light dose of 93.6 J/cm2. However, to obtain the same efficiency of killing for histiocytic lymphoma (U-937) cells, a higher dose of MC540 (25 micrograms/mL) was required. Clonogenic tumor stem cell colony formation was reduced by greater than 5 logs after laser photoradiation therapy. Under identical conditions for each cell line the percent survival for granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM, 45.9%, 40%, 17.5%), granulocyte/erythroid/macrophage/megakaryocyte (GEMM, 40.1%, 20.1%, 11.5%), colony-forming units (CFU-C, 16.2%, 9.1%, 1.8%), and erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E, 33.4%, 17.8%, 3.9%) was significantly higher than the tumor cells. Mixing of gamma ray-irradiated normal marrow cells with tumor cells (1:1 and 10:1 ratio) did not interfere with the elimination of tumor cells. The effect of highly purified recombinant interferon alpha (rIFN) on laser photoradiation therapy of tumor cells was also investigated. In the presence of rIFN (30 to 3,000 U/mL), the viability of leukemic cells was observed to increase from 0% to 1.5% with a concurrent decrease in membrane polarization, suggesting an increase in fluidity of cell membrane in response to rIFN. However, at higher doses of rIFN (6,000 to 12,000 U/mL) this phenomenon was not observed. The viability of lymphoma cells remained unaffected at all doses of rIFN tested.

  8. Elimination of clonogenic tumor cells from HL-60, Daudi, and U-937 cell lines by laser photoradiation therapy: implications for autologous bone marrow purging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser photoradiation therapy was tested in an in vitro model for its efficacy in the elimination of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cells. Results show that at 31.2 J/cm2 of laser light in the presence of 20 micrograms/mL of merocyanine 540 (MC540) there was greater than 5 log reduction in Burkitt's lymphoma (Daudi) cells. Similar tumor cell kill was obtained for leukemia (HL-60) cells at a laser light dose of 93.6 J/cm2. However, to obtain the same efficiency of killing for histiocytic lymphoma (U-937) cells, a higher dose of MC540 (25 micrograms/mL) was required. Clonogenic tumor stem cell colony formation was reduced by greater than 5 logs after laser photoradiation therapy. Under identical conditions for each cell line the percent survival for granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM, 45.9%, 40%, 17.5%), granulocyte/erythroid/macrophage/megakaryocyte (GEMM, 40.1%, 20.1%, 11.5%), colony-forming units (CFU-C, 16.2%, 9.1%, 1.8%), and erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E, 33.4%, 17.8%, 3.9%) was significantly higher than the tumor cells. Mixing of gamma ray-irradiated normal marrow cells with tumor cells (1:1 and 10:1 ratio) did not interfere with the elimination of tumor cells. The effect of highly purified recombinant interferon alpha (rIFN) on laser photoradiation therapy of tumor cells was also investigated. In the presence of rIFN (30 to 3,000 U/mL), the viability of leukemic cells was observed to increase from 0% to 1.5% with a concurrent decrease in membrane polarization, suggesting an increase in fluidity of cell membrane in response to rIFN. However, at higher doses of rIFN (6,000 to 12,000 U/mL) this phenomenon was not observed. The viability of lymphoma cells remained unaffected at all doses of rIFN tested

  9. Cell shape and organelle modification in apoptotic U937 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MR Montinari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available U937 cells induced to apoptosis, progressively and dramatically modified their cell shape by intense blebbing formation, leading to the production of apoptotic bodies. The blebs evolved with time; milder forms of blebbing involving only a region or just the cortical part of the cytoplasm were observed within the first hour of incubation with puromycin; blebbing involving the whole cell body with very deep constrictions is the most frequent event observed during late times of incubation. The ultrastructural analysis of apoptotic cells revealed characteristic features of nuclear fragmentation (budding and cleavage mode and cytoplasmatic modifications. The cytoplasm of blebs does not contain organelles, such as ribosomes or mitochondria. Scarce presence of endoplasmic reticulum can be observed at the site of bleb detachment. However, blebbing is a dispensable event as evaluated by using inhibitor of actin polymerization. In the present study, the progressive modifications of the nucleus, mitochondria, nuclear fragmentation, cytoplasmic blebs formation and production of apoptotic bodies in U937 monocytic cells induced to apoptosis by puromycin (an inhibitor of protein synthesis were simultaneously analyzed.

  10. Polypeptide structure of a human dermal fibroblast-activating factor (FAF) derived from the U937 cultured line of human monocyte-like cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six liter batches of 1 x 106 U937 cells/ml of serum-free RPMI medium were incubated with 100 ng/ml of phorbol myristate acetate for 48 hr at 370C in 5% CO2 in air to generate FAFs, as quantified by the stimulation of uptake of [3H]thymidine by quiescent human dermal fibroblasts. Filtration of the supernatants on Sephadex G-75 resolved two FAFs of approximately 40,000 and 10-13,000 daltons. The latter principle was purified to homogeneity by sequential Sephadex G-50 filtration, revealing an apparent m.w. of 7-8000, Mono-Q FPLC anion-exchange chromatography with a linear gradient from 20 mM Tris-HCl (pH 8.3) to 0.5 M NaCl-20 mM Tris-HCl in 30 min, and two cycles of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) on a 300 A pore 10 μm C4 column at 1 ml/min with 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) in water to 30:70 (v:v) and then to 60:40 (v:v) acetonitrile: 0.05% TFA linearly in 15 min and 30 min, respectively, The FAF activity eluted from HPLC in a sharp peak of O.D. 215 nm at 45% acetonitrile. Analyses of amino acid composition of the highly purified 7-8000 dalton FAF-U937 revealed 37% hydrophobic, 14% basic, and 21% acidic or amide residues, as well as one tryrosine and one methionine. This U937 cell-derived FAF appears to be a unique acidic polypeptide growth factor

  11. New Approach in Translational Medicine: Effects of Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW on NF-κB/iNOS Pathway in U937 Cell Line under Altered Redox State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Franceschelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is known that increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS can exert harmful effects, altering the cellular redox state. Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW produced near the cathode during water electrolysis exhibits high pH, high concentration of dissolved hydrogen and an extremely negative redox potential. Several findings indicate that ERW had the ability of a scavenger free radical, which results from hydrogen molecules with a high reducing ability and may participate in the redox regulation of cellular function. We investigated the effect of ERW on H2O2-induced U937 damage by evaluating the modulation of redox cellular state. Western blotting and spectrophotometrical analysis showed that ERW inhibited oxidative stress by restoring the antioxidant capacity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Consequently, ERW restores the ability of the glutathione reductase to supply the cell of an important endogenous antioxidant, such as GSH, reversing the inhibitory effect of H2O2 on redox balance of U937 cells. Therefore, this means a reduction of cytotoxicity induced by peroxynitrite via a downregulation of the NF-κB/iNOS pathway and could be used as an antioxidant for preventive and therapeutic application. In conclusion, ERW can protect the cellular redox balance, reducing the risk of several diseases with altered cellular homeostasis such as inflammation.

  12. Multiple Defects of Cell Cycle Checkpoints in U937-ASPI3K, an U937 Cell Mutant Stably Expressing Anti-Sense ATM Gene cDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    (Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated gene (ATM) functions in control of cell cycle checkpoints in responding to DNA damage and protects cells from undergoing apoptosis. Knock-out within tumor cells of endogenous ATM will achieve therapeutic benefits and nable a better understanding of the decisive mechanisms of cell death or survival in response to DNA damaging agents. ) In present paper, we sought to characterize the cell cycle checkpoint profiles in U937-ASPI3K, a U937 cell mutant that was previously established with endogenous ATM knock-out phenotype. Synchronized U937-ASPI3K was exposed to 137Cs irradiation, G1, S, G2/M cell cycle checkpoint profiles were evaluated by determining cell cycle kinetics, p53/p21 protein, cyclin dependent kinase 2 (CDK2) and p34CDC2 kinase activity in response to irradiation. U937-ASPI3K exhibited multiple defects in cell cycle checkpoints as defined by failing to arrest cells upon irradiation. The accumulation of cellular p53/p21 protein and inhibition of CDK kinase was also abolished in U937-ASPI3K. It was concluded that the stable expression of anti-sense PI3K cDNA fragment completely abolished multiple cell cycle checkpoints in U937-ASPI3K, and hence U937-ASPI3K with an AT-like phenotype could serves as a valuable model system for investigating the signal transduction pathway in responding to DNA damaging-based cancer therapy.

  13. A micro-Raman spectroscopic investigation of leukemic U-937 cells in aged cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazio, Enza; Trusso, Sebastiano; Franco, Domenico; Nicolò, Marco Sebastiano; Allegra, Alessandro; Neri, Fortunato; Musolino, Caterina; Guglielmino, Salvatore P. P.

    2016-04-01

    Recently it has been shown that micro-Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis is able to discriminate among different types of tissues and tumoral cells by the detection of significant alterations and/or reorganizations of complex biological molecules, such as nucleic acids, lipids and proteins. Moreover, its use, being in principle a non-invasive technique, appears an interesting clinical tool for the evaluation of the therapeutical effects and of the disease progression. In this work we analyzed molecular changes in aged cultures of leukemia model U937 cells with respect to fresh cultures of the same cell line. In fact, structural variations of individual neoplastic cells on aging may lead to a heterogeneous data set, therefore falsifying confidence intervals, increasing error levels of analysis and consequently limiting the use of Raman spectroscopy analysis. We found that the observed morphological changes of U937 cells corresponded to well defined modifications of the Raman contributions in selected spectral regions, where markers of specific functional groups, useful to characterize the cell state, are present. A detailed subcellular analysis showed a change in cellular organization as a function of time, and correlated to a significant increase of apoptosis levels. Besides the aforementioned study, Raman spectra were used as input for principal component analysis (PCA) in order to detect and classify spectral changes among U937 cells.

  14. Hibiscus sabdariffa extractivities on cadmium-mediated alterations of human U937 cell viability and activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tebekeme Okoko; Diepreye Ere

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of the anthocyanin-rich extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) calyx on the viability of cadmium-treated U937 cells and cadmium-mediated activation of U937-derived macrophages. Methods:The macrophage cell line U937 was treated with cadmium (0.1μmol/L) and later incubated with the anthocyanin-rich extract and cell viability was assessed via trypan blue staining. In the other experiment, the U937 cells were transformed to the macrophage form by treatment with phorbol 12, myristate 13, and acetate and incubated with cadmium (10μmol/L). The anthocyanin-rich extract was added to the cells later and subsequently, the supernatant of each cell culture was analysed for the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), nitric oxide, and catalase activity as indices for the activation of macrophages. Results:It revealed that the anthocynanin-rich extract significantly (P <0.05) increased the viability of the cells which was suppressed by cadmium when compared to quercetin dihydrate. The extract also reduced the cadmium-mediated production of the markers of macrophage-activation when compared to quercetin dihydrate. In both experiments, the activity of the extract was concentration-dependent (P <0.05). Conclusion:The findings show that H. sabdariffa possesses significant immunoprotective effect. These corroborate the immense reported antioxidant and medicinal potential of the calyces of the plant which could be exploited for pharmacological and neutraceutical advantages.

  15. Cytotoxicity and its mechanism of zinc oxide nanoparticles on human leukemic monocyte lymphoma cell line U937%纳米氧化锌对人单核细胞系U937的毒性及其机制研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘佳蕙; 杨胜韬; 王海芳; 刘元方

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨纳米氧化锌(ZnO)对U937细胞的毒性及机制.方法 对4种不同粒径的ZnO(直径分别为10、30、60、500nm)进行详细表征.通过台盼蓝拒染实验、噻唑蓝(MTT)实验检测各种粒径ZnO在不同浓度时(浓度分别为12、120、240、600、1200 μmol/L)对U937细胞存活率和细胞活力的影响;利用锌离子探针监测细胞内锌离子浓度变化;利用透射电子显微镜观察细胞超微结构及其对ZnO的吞噬情况.结果 4种粒径ZnO均呈棒状,属于闪锌矿,六方晶系,样品纯度>99%,比表面积变化规律与粒径相吻合.浓度12~600 μmol/L,4种ZnO染毒组细胞相对活力[ZnO-n10为:(97±19)%、(91 ±4)%、(24 ±4)%、(15±2)%;ZnO-n30为:(111±24)%、(81±3)%、(24 ±2)%、(27±8)%;ZnO-n60为:(105±11)%、(73±20)%、(43±11)%、(28±14)%;ZnO-μm为:(88±16)%、(62±7)%、(22±4)%、(13±5)%]均随着染毒浓度的增加而降低(r值分别为:0.965、0.979、0.998、0.992;对应的相关系数统计检验值t值分别为:19.8、25.3、76.3、40.9,P值均0.05).200 μmol/L ZnO-n30或ZnAc2孵育3 h后,ZnO-n30使高锌含量细胞占总细胞数的(87.6±2.6)%,ZnAc2组为(86.9±3.2)%,二者差异无统计学意义(F=1.5,P>0.05).结论 纳米ZnO对U937细胞产生严重的细胞毒性,溶解产生锌离子是主要机制.%Objective To investigate the cytotoxicity and its mechanism of ZnO nanoparticles on human leukemic monocyte lymphoma cell line U937. Methods Four different size ZnO (10, 30, 60,500 nm) were carefully characterized. The survival rate and viability were measured by trypan blue assay and MTT assay for each size ZnO particles at different concentrations (12,120,240,600,1200 μmol/L). The zinc probe, Fluozin-3, was used to detect the intracellular free zinc. Transmission electron microscopy was adopted to observe the cellular ultrastructure and the uptake of ZnO. Results All four kinds of ZnO were rod shape,with a purity of >99.9 wt% ,and they were classified as zincite phase

  16. A Central Role for JNK/AP-1 Pathway in the Pro-Oxidant Effect of Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate through Superoxide Dismutase 1 Gene Repression and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Hematopoietic Human Cancer Cell Line U937

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin, Pascal; Lomri, Abderrahim

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) known as antioxidant and specific inhibitor of NF-κB was also described as pro-oxidant by inducing cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in cancer. However, the mechanism by which PDTC indices its pro-oxidant effect is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of PDTC on the human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene transcription in hematopoietic human cancer cell line U937. We herein show for the first time that PDTC decreases SOD1 transcripts, protein and promoter activity. Furthermore, SOD1 repression by PDTC was associated with an increase in oxidative stress as evidenced by ROS production. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays (EMSA) show that PDTC increased binding of activating protein-1 (AP-1) in dose dependent-manner suggesting that the MAPkinase up-stream of AP-1 is involved. Ectopic NF-κB p65 subunit overexpression had no effect on SOD1 transcription. In contrast, in the presence of JNK inhibitor (SP600125), p65 induced a marked increase of SOD1 promoter, suggesting that JNK pathway is up-stream of NF-κB signaling and controls negatively its activity. Indeed, using JNK deficient cells, PDTC effect was not observed nether on SOD1 transcription or enzymatic activity, nor on ROS production. Finally, PDTC represses SOD1 in U937 cells through JNK/c-Jun phosphorylation. Taken together, these results suggest that PDTC acts as pro-oxidant compound in JNK/AP-1 dependent-manner by repressing the superoxide dismutase 1 gene leading to intracellular ROS accumulation. PMID:25996379

  17. Rapid intracellular calcium changes in U937 monocyte cell line: transient increases in response to platelet-activating factor and chemotactic peptide but not interferon-gamma or lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maudsley, D J; Morris, A G

    1987-06-01

    The dye fura-2, a potentially more sensitive successor to quin2 for measuring intracellular free calcium ion concentrations [(Ca2+]i), has been applied here to investigate the possible involvement of early changes in [Ca2+]i in the stimulation of the human monocyte-macrophage-like cell line U937. The calcium ionophores A23187 and ionomycin, known pharmacological stimuli for macrophages, were found to cause sharp rises in [Ca2+]i as expected. Responses analogous to those reported for a murine macrophage cell (J774) were obtained on stimulation of U937 cells with ATP which caused rapid, but transient, increases in [Ca2+]i (from resting levels of about 70 nM to peaks of about 200 mM). In addition to ATP, several agents known to activate macrophages were used as stimuli. In particular, platelet-activating factor (PAF; 1-0-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) was found to cause rapid, but transient, increases in [Ca2+]i (from resting levels of about 70 nM to peaks of about 400 nM) even at concentrations as low as 10(-10) M. This contrasts with responses to ATP that were markedly reduced at 10(-6) M compared with 10(-5) M or above, suggesting that PAF is a highly potent stimulus for intracellular calcium mobilization in macrophages. Similar responses were obtained with chemotactic peptide (N-formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine). On the other hand, two agents known to be potent activators of macrophages, interferon gamma and lipopolysaccharide, had no rapid effect on [Ca2+]i. This may reflect differences in the kinetics of signal-response coupling or alternatively a different mechanism of action by-passing the need for rapid elevation of [Ca2+]i. PMID:3110054

  18. Some bioactive potentials of two biflavanols isolated from Garcinia kola on cadmium-induced alterations of raw U937 cells and U937-derived macrophages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tebekeme Okoko; Diepreye Ere

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the abilities of two flavonoids - Garcinia biflavanol-1 (GB-1) and Garcinia biflavanol-2 (GB-2) from Garcinia kola (G. kola) in reducing cadmium-induced effects on raw U937 cells and U937-derived macrophages. Methods: Macrophage U937 cells were incubated with cadmium followed by treatment with the flavonoids and cell viability assessed via trypan blue staining. In the other experiment, the U937 cells were transformed to the macrophage form and treated with cadmium in order to activate them. The cells were later incubated with the flavonoids and finally the supernatant of each cell culture was analysed for the secretion of nitric oxide, catalyse activity, and the release of tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 and interleukin-2 as indices of macrophage activation. Quercetin (a flavonol) was used as the reference flavonoid in all experiments. Results: It revealed that the flavonoids significantly increased the viability of the cells and also reduced the cadmium-induced activation of the macrophage cells in a concentration-dependent manner. The flavanols GB-1 and GB-2 possessed higher activities than quercetin in all cases (P<0.05). Garcinia biflavanol-2 possessed a higher bioactivity than GB-1 significantly (P<0.05). Conclusions: In addition to corroborating the several reported importance of G. kola as a potential neutraceutical and pharmacological condiment, the study also clearly indicates the role hydroxylation especially at the 3´- position of polyphenols could play in enhancing bioactivities of flavonoids.

  19. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor expression in U937 foam cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGPeng-Yuan; RUIYao-Cheng; JINYou-Xin; LITie-Jun; QIUYan; ZHANGLi; WANGJie-Song

    2003-01-01

    AIM:To study the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced by oxidized low density liprotein (ox-LDL) and the inhibitory effects of antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (asODN) on the levels of VEGF protein and mRNA in the U937 foam cells. METHODS: U937 cells were incubated with ox-LDL 80 mg/L for 48h, then ,the foam cells were treated with asODN (0,5,10, and 20μmol/L). The VEGF concentration in the media was determined by ELISA. The VEGF protein expression level in cells was measured by immuohistochemistry; the positive ratio detected by a morphometrical analysis system was used as the amount of the VEGF expression level. The VEGF mRNA level was examined by Northern blotting. RESULTS: After U937 cells were incubated with ox-LDL, VEGF expression level increased greatly both in the cells and in the media. asODN markeldy inhibited the increase of VEGF. After treatment with asODN 20μmol/L, the VEGF protein concentration in the media decreased by 45.0%, the VEGF positive ratio detected by immuohistochemistry in cells decreased by 64.9%, and the VEGF mRNA level decreased by 47.1%. CONCLUSION: The expression of VEGF in U937 foam cells was strong. asODN inhibited VEGF expression significantly in U937 foam cells in vitro.

  20. Phagocytosis of IgA Immune Complexes by Human U937 Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭彩云; 崔薇; 张伟

    2003-01-01

    In order to study FcαR Ⅰ mediated phagocytosis ot lgA immune complexes by U937 cells, antigen 8.9NIP/BSA was labeled with FITC and reacted with anti-NIP IgA or anti-NIP IgG antibody to form immune complexes (ICs). They were then incubated with phorbol 12-myristate B-acetate (PMA) stimulated U937 cells. The phagocytosed ICs were quantified by flow cytometry. The results was that the expression of FcαR Ⅰ on U937 cells was higher than that of FcγR Ⅰ , FcyR Ⅱ and FcγR Ⅲ. After stimulation by PMA, expression of FcαR Ⅰ on U937 cells was markedly upregulated and the phagocytosis of IgA ICs was enhanced. FcαR Ⅰ mediated specific IgA phagocytosis was stronger than FcγR Ⅰ and FcγR Ⅱ mediated IgG phagocytosis. Complement receptors, CR1 and CR3, enhanced U937 cell phagocytosis of IgA ICs. It concludes that FcγR Ⅰ mediated strong phagocytosis of IgA ICs.

  1. Effects of TNF-α and curcumin on the expression of VEGF in Raji and U937 cells and on angiogenesis in ECV304 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei-hua; CHEN Yan; CUI Guo-hui

    2005-01-01

    Background To better understand the possibilities of antiangiogenic tumor therapy and to assess possible side effects, we investigated the effect of tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and curcumin on the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in U937 and Raji cell lines and their effect on angiogenesis in a human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs)-derived cell line (ECV304), and also the relationship between Notch1 and VEGF. The aim of this study was to elucidate potential mechanisms controlling tumor neovascularization. Methods VEGF secreted by U937 and Raji cell lines was determined by ELISA. Angiogenesis was tested by network formation of endothelial cells on Matrigel. Levels of VEGF mRNA in U937 and Raji cells and Notch1 mRNA levels in EV304 cells were determined by RT-PCR. Results Secretion of VEGF by U937 and Raji cells was increased by TNF-α treatment and suppressed by curcumin (P0.05).Conclusions Expressions of VEGF mRNA in U937 and Raji cells were increased by TNF-α and suppressed by curcumin. VEGF and TNF-α can induce angiogenesis, and curcumin can inhibit angiogenesis in ECV304 cells.

  2. Metabolism of arachidonic acid in phorbol ester, interferon and dimethyl sulfoxide differentiation induced U937 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    U937, a human macrophage cell line can metabolize arachidonic acid to a prostaglandin E2-like substance, and an unidentified lipoxygenase product. This metabolism occurs at very low levels however since these cells have low lipase and fatty acid oxygenase activities. The investigated the appearance of these enzyme activities during differentiation induced by phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), human gamma interferon (INF), and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) on days 1,3 and 5 of stimulation using 3H-arachidonic acid (3H-AA). Culture supernatants were analyzed for free 3H-AA and 3H metabolites by radio-thin layer chromatography (3H-MET). The increasing percentage of 3H-AA release suggests the appearance of phospholipase activity during differentiation

  3. B7-H3 silencing by RNAi inhibits tumor progression and enhances chemosensitivity in U937 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang W

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Wei Zhang, Jing Wang, Yanfang Wang, Fei Dong, Mingxia Zhu, Wenli Wan, Haishen Li, Feifei Wu, Xinxing Yan, Xiaoyan Ke Department of Hematology and Lymphoma Research Center, Peking University Third Hospital, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Background: The role of B7-H3 in acute monocytic leukemia U937 cells has not been thoroughly investigated.Materials and methods: B7-H3 knockdown in the U937 cell line was performed using small hairpin (shRNA lentivirus transduction. The effects on cell proliferation, cycle, migration, and invasion were investigated by Cell Counting Kit-8 assay, methyl cellulose colony-forming assay, propidium iodide staining, and Transwell assays in vitro. Changes in cell growth inhibition and apoptosis, when combined with chemotherapy drugs, were determined using the Cell Counting Kit-8 and Annexin V-FITC/PI assays. U937 xenograft models were used to assess the effects of B7-H3 on tumorigenicity and the therapeutic effect of B7-H3 knockdown in combination with chemotherapy drugs in vivo.Results: Downregulation of B7-H3 significantly decreased U937 cell growth and colony-forming ability. The mean inhibition rate of tumor growth with B7-H3 knockdown was 59.4%, and the expression of both Ki-67 and PCNA in xenografts was significantly reduced. After B7-H3 silencing, the U937 cell cycle was arrested at the G0/G1 phase. The cell migration rate of B7-H3 knockdown cells was reduced more than fivefold, and invasion capacity decreased by 86.7%. B7-H3 RNAi profoundly increased the antitumor effect of chemotherapy in vitro and in vivo. On day 19, inhibition rates of tumor growth in B7-H3 shRNA combined with idarubicin, cytarabine, and idarubicin plus cytarabine were 70.5%, 80.0%, and 90.0%, respectively (P=0.006, P=0.004, and P=0.016, respectively.Conclusion: B7-H3 may promote U937 cell progression, and shRNA targeting B7-H3 significantly enhances sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs. These results may provide new insight into the

  4. Deguelin regulates nuclear pore complex proteins Nup98 and Nup88 in U937 cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-li LIU; Yan CHEN; Guo-hui CUI; Qiu-ling WU; Jing HE; Wei-hua CHEN; Jian-feng ZHOU

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the anticancer effects and the molecular mechanisms of deguelin on human U937 leukemia cells, and to explore the underlying mechanism regulating nucleoporin 98 (Nup98) and nucleoporin 88 (Nup88) in vitro. Methods: The effects of deguelin on the growth of U937 cells were studied by MTT assay.The effect of deguelin on the cell cycle of U937 cells was studied by using a propidium iodide method. The localization of the nuclear pore complex proteins Nup98 and Nup88 was investigated by using immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. The expression of Nup98 and Nup88 in U937 cells was investigated by using flow cytometry and Western blot. Results: The proliferation of U937 cells was inhibited in the deguelin-treated group, with a 24-h IC50 value of 21.61 nmol/L and a 36-h IC50 value of 17.07 nmol/L. U937 cells treated with deguelin had reduced percentages of cells in the G0/G1 phase, whereas cells accumulated in the S and G2/M phases. Nup88 and Nup98 were found on both the nuclear and cytoplasmic sides of the U937 cells by using immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. The expression of Nup98 was upregulated and that of the Nup88 protein was downregulated in U937 cells treated with deguelin.Conclusion: Deguelin is able to inhibit the proliferation of U937 cells by regulating the cell cycle such that cells are arrested at the S and G2/M phases, so that the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase decreases. The antitumor effects of deguelin are related to upregulating the expression of Nup98 and downregulating the expression of Nup88 protein in U937 cells.

  5. hCLP46 regulates U937 cell proliferation via Notch signaling pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Knock down of hCLP46 by RNAi impairs mammalian Notch signaling. → hCLP46 affects neither cell surface Notch1 expression nor ligand-receptor binding. → Knock down of hCLP46 inhibits U937 cell-growth by up-regulation of CDKN1B. -- Abstract: Human CAP10-like protein 46 kDa (hCLP46) is the homolog of Rumi, which is the first identified protein O-glucosyltransferase that modifies Notch receptor in Drosophila. Dysregulation of hCLP46 occurs in many hematologic diseases, but the role of hCLP46 remains unclear. Knockdown of hCLP46 by RNA interference resulted in decreased protein levels of endogenous Notch1, Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and Notch target gene Hes-1, suggesting the impairment of the Notch signaling. However, neither cell surface Notch expression nor ligand binding activities were affected. In addition, down-regulated expression of hCLP46 inhibited the proliferation of U937 cells, which was correlated with increased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) CDKN1B (p27) and decreased phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (RB) protein. We showed that lack of hCLP46 results in impaired ligand induced Notch activation in mammalian cell, and hCLP46 regulates the proliferation of U937 cell through CDKI-RB signaling pathway, which may be important for the pathogenesis of leukemia.

  6. hCLP46 regulates U937 cell proliferation via Notch signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Wenzhan; Du, Jie; Chu, Qiaoyun [College of Life Science, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Youxin [School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Liu, Lixin [College of Life Science, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Song, Manshu [School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Wang, Wei, E-mail: wei6014@yahoo.com [College of Life Science, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China)

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Knock down of hCLP46 by RNAi impairs mammalian Notch signaling. {yields} hCLP46 affects neither cell surface Notch1 expression nor ligand-receptor binding. {yields} Knock down of hCLP46 inhibits U937 cell-growth by up-regulation of CDKN1B. -- Abstract: Human CAP10-like protein 46 kDa (hCLP46) is the homolog of Rumi, which is the first identified protein O-glucosyltransferase that modifies Notch receptor in Drosophila. Dysregulation of hCLP46 occurs in many hematologic diseases, but the role of hCLP46 remains unclear. Knockdown of hCLP46 by RNA interference resulted in decreased protein levels of endogenous Notch1, Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and Notch target gene Hes-1, suggesting the impairment of the Notch signaling. However, neither cell surface Notch expression nor ligand binding activities were affected. In addition, down-regulated expression of hCLP46 inhibited the proliferation of U937 cells, which was correlated with increased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) CDKN1B (p27) and decreased phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (RB) protein. We showed that lack of hCLP46 results in impaired ligand induced Notch activation in mammalian cell, and hCLP46 regulates the proliferation of U937 cell through CDKI-RB signaling pathway, which may be important for the pathogenesis of leukemia.

  7. Molecular mechanisms of ZD1839 (Iressa)-induced apoptosis in human leukemic U937 cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong-oh MOON; Moon-ok KIM; Jae-dong LEE; Yung-hyun CHOI; Min-ki LEE; Gi-young KIM

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the molecular mechanisms of ZD1839-induced apoptosis in human leukemic U937 cells. Methods: The inhibition of human leukemic U937 cell growth was assessed by 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphnyl-2H-tetrazolim bromide (MTT) assays, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, and cell cycle distribution. The expression of anti- and ro-apoptotic proteins was detected by Western blot analysis. Results: This study demonstrated that ZD 1839 induced apoptosis in leukemic U937 cells by the downregulation of Bcl-2, caspase activa-tion and subsequent apoptotic features. Cotreatment with ZD1839 and the caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk blocked apoptosis, indicating that caspase-3 activationis at least partially responsible for ZD 1839-induced apoptosis. The ectopic expres-sion of Bcl-2 attenuated caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, and subsequent indicators of apoptosis, including sub-G1 DNA content and LDH release. These results indicate that the downregulation of Bcl-2 plays a major role in the initiation of ZD1839-nduced apoptosis, and that the activation of a caspase cascade is involved in the execution of apoptosis. Furthermore, ZD 1839 treatment triggered the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and the down-regulation of c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphatidyl inositol 3-kinase PI3K)/Akt. The inhibition of the ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways also significantly increased cellular death. Conclusion:ZD1839 activated caspase-3 and the inhibited Bcl-2 in human leukemic U937 cells through the downregulation of the ERK and PI3K/Akt pathways.

  8. Induction of type 1 interferon receptor by zinc in U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, Takeaki; Nakajima, Kastuyuki; Takada, Hisashi; Sekine, Yoshitaka; Suzuki, Kazuhiro

    2009-06-01

    This study aims to determine whether zinc enhances interferon (IFN)-alpha activity in U937 cells. Type 1 IFN2 receptor (IFNAR2) protein in U937 cells was measured by flow cytometry. After 24h of exposure to zinc chloride or polaprezinc (a chelate of zinc and L-carnosine) at concentrations ranging from 50 to 200 microM, histograms showing anti-IFNAR2 antibody-positive cells shifted to a higher FITC intensity. Zinc chloride and polaprezinc increased IFNAR2 mRNA levels approximately 30% and 40%, respectively, compared to the control. L-carnosine alone did not alter IFNAR2 mRNA or protein levels. Cellular levels of 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetases (OAS) were markedly increased by IFN-alpha, and the increase was significantly accelerated by polaprezinc. However, polaprezinc alone did not increase 2'-5'OAS levels. The finding suggests that zinc, especially polaprezinc, enhances the expression of INFAR2 in U937 cells, thereby inducing production of the anti-viral protein 2'-5'OAS. PMID:19362011

  9. Staurosporine induces necroptotic cell death under caspase-compromised conditions in U937 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna A Dunai

    Full Text Available For a long time necrosis was thought to be an uncontrolled process but evidences recently have revealed that necrosis can also occur in a regulated manner. Necroptosis, a type of programmed necrosis is defined as a death receptor-initiated process under caspase-compromised conditions. The process requires the kinase activity of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3 and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL, as a substrate of RIPK3. The further downstream events remain elusive. We applied known inhibitors to characterize the contributing enzymes in necroptosis and their effect on cell viability and different cellular functions were detected mainly by flow cytometry. Here we report that staurosporine, the classical inducer of intrinsic apoptotic pathway can induce necroptosis under caspase-compromised conditions in U937 cell line. This process could be hampered at least partially by the RIPK1 inhibitor necrotstin-1 and by the heat shock protein 90 kDa inhibitor geldanamycin. Moreover both the staurosporine-triggered and the classical death ligand-induced necroptotic pathway can be effectively arrested by a lysosomal enzyme inhibitor CA-074-OMe and the recently discovered MLKL inhibitor necrosulfonamide. We also confirmed that the enzymatic role of poly(ADP-ribosepolymerase (PARP is dispensable in necroptosis but it contributes to membrane disruption in secondary necrosis. In conclusion, we identified a novel way of necroptosis induction that can facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of necroptosis. Our results shed light on alternative application of staurosporine, as a possible anticancer therapeutic agent. Furthermore, we showed that the CA-074-OMe has a target in the signaling pathway leading to necroptosis. Finally, we could differentiate necroptotic and secondary necrotic processes based on participation of PARP enzyme.

  10. Urokinase receptor mRNA level and gene transcription are strongly and rapidly increased by phorbol myristate acetate in human monocyte-like U937 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, L R; Rønne, E; Roldan, A L;

    1991-01-01

    We have studied the effect of the tumor promotor phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) on the level of mRNA for the receptor for urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PAR) in the human monocyte-like cell line U937. PMA causes an early increase in the u-PAR mRNA level which reaches a maximal 50-fold e...

  11. 12-o-Tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-differentiated U937 cells express a macrophage-like profile of neutral proteinases. High levels of secreted collagenase and collagenase inhibitor accompany low levels of intracellular elastase and cathepsin G.

    OpenAIRE

    Welgus, H G; Connolly, N L; Senior, R M

    1986-01-01

    Human monocytic tumor cells of the U937 cell line contain substantial quantities of two neutrophil neutral proteinases, elastase and cathepsin G, raising the question of whether their presence reflects an expression of transformation or whether normal monocytes undergo a developmental stage in which they produce certain neutrophil proteinases. To address this issue, we examined U937 cells for production of collagenase, since human alveolar macrophages release fibroblast-like collagenase, an e...

  12. Synergism between arsenite and proteasome inhibitor MG132 over cell death in myeloid leukaemic cells U937 and the induction of low levels of intracellular superoxide anion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, Tomás [Laboratorio de Immunotoxicologia (LaITO), IDEHU-CONICET, Hospital de Clínicas, José de San Martín, Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cavaliere, Victoria; Costantino, Susana N. [Laboratorio de Inmunología Tumoral (LIT), IDEHU-CONICET, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kornblihtt, Laura [Servicio de Hematología, Hospital de Clínicas, José de San Martín (UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alvarez, Elida M. [Laboratorio de Inmunología Tumoral (LIT), IDEHU-CONICET, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Blanco, Guillermo A., E-mail: gblanco@ffyb.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Immunotoxicologia (LaITO), IDEHU-CONICET, Hospital de Clínicas, José de San Martín, Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-02-01

    associated with superoxide levels as assessed by flow cytometry. ► Synergism between arsenite and MG132 in U937 leukemia cell line. ► Synergism turned into antagonism by low levels of hydrogen peroxide. ► Resistance to arsenic cytotoxicity linked to early superoxide anion increased levels.

  13. Synergism between arsenite and proteasome inhibitor MG132 over cell death in myeloid leukaemic cells U937 and the induction of low levels of intracellular superoxide anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    and MG132 in U937 leukemia cell line. ► Synergism turned into antagonism by low levels of hydrogen peroxide. ► Resistance to arsenic cytotoxicity linked to early superoxide anion increased levels.

  14. The growth of human HIV-1 infected U937 cells in immune-deprived mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernukhin, I V; Chepurnov, A A; Gaidul, K V

    1995-01-01

    We report in vivo growth of human promonocytic cells infected with HIV-1 presented in new mouse model. Cloned U937 cells chronically infected with HIV-1 were grafted in (CBA*C57B1/6)F1 mice deprived of immunity by thymectomia and total body irradiation with subsequent marrow reconstitution. Nine weeks after cell inoculation, HIV-1-positive cells were found only in mice that received an additional single dose of cyclophosphamide (100 mg/kg bw) prior to transplantation, whereas, in mice without further immune deprivation, the complete elimination of cells bearing viral antigen occurred already on the seventh day after transplantation. The approach described may be suitable for in vivo development of antiviral drugs against latent infection in macrophage-like cells which represent a serious problem in therapy of AIDS in humans. PMID:8562863

  15. Mechanism for Clofarabine Inducing Autophagic Death of Acute Myelocytic Leukemia Cell U937%氯法拉滨诱导U937细胞自噬性死亡的机制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李程亮; 刘海波; 张梅; 贺鹏程

    2013-01-01

    本研究旨在探讨氯法拉滨诱导急性髓系白血病(AML)细胞U937自噬性死亡的机制.不同浓度氯法拉滨作用U937细胞24、48 h后,用MTT法计算细胞生长抑制率及氯法拉滨半数抑制浓度(IC50),流式细胞术检测细胞自噬率的变化;Western blot方法检测细胞自噬相关蛋白Beclin1的表达变化.结果表明,0.01和0.15 μmol/L氯法拉滨作用U937细胞48 h,增殖抑制率分别为(46.92±4.24)%和(86.10±1.16)%,IC50为0.022 μmol/L,与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).0.01和0.1μmol/L氯法拉滨作用U937细胞48 h,自噬率分别为(11.0033±1.4387)%和(59.4133±3.5409)%,且呈剂量依赖性增强(r=0.99);随药物浓度的增加,Beclin 1表达逐渐上调,与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:氯法拉滨对U937细胞有明显的增殖抑制作用,且存在剂量依赖性,其作用机制可能是通过上调Beclin 1的蛋白表达诱导U937细胞自噬性死亡.%To explore the mechanism of autophagic death of acute myelocytic leukemia cell U937 induced by clofarabine, the MTT bioassay was used to analyze the growth inhibitory effect and half inhibition concentration on U937 incubated in vitro with different concentrations of clofarabine for 24 and 48 hours, and the flow cytometry was used to detect the autophagy rate of U937. The expression of Beclin 1 in U937 treated by clofarabine for 48h was meaused by Western blot. The results indicated that when U937 cells were treated with 0. 01 μmol/L and 0.15 μmol/L clofarabine for 48 hours, the proliferation inhibition rate was 46. 92% ±4. 24% and 86. 10% ± 1. 16% , and the half inhibition concentration of clofarabine was 0.022 μmol/L. With 0.01 μmol/L and 0.1μmol/L clofarabine on U937 for 48 hours, the autophagy rate was 11.0033% ±1.4387% and 59.4133% ±3.5409% ,and increased in dose-dependent manner(r = 0.99). Meanwhile the Beclin 1 was upregulated along with increase of clofarabine concentration, as

  16. Phorbol ester induces the biosynthesis of glycosylated and nonglycosylated plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 in high excess over urokinase-type plasminogen activator in human U-937 lymphoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    1987-01-01

    The tumor-promoting phorbol ester PMA induces changes in the histiocytic human lymphoma cell line U-937 akin to cellular differentiation (Ralph, P., N. Williams, M. A. S. Moore, and P. B. Litcofsky, 1982, Cell. Immunol., 71:215-223) and concomitantly stimulates the biosynthesis of plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI 2) and of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). PAI 2 is found in a nonglycosylated intracellular and a glycosylated secreted form. The former appears to be identical to...

  17. Contact sensitizers modulate the arachidonic acid metabolism of PMA-differentiated U-937 monocytic cells activated by LPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the effective induction of a hapten-specific T cell immune response toward contact sensitizers, in addition to covalent-modification of skin proteins, the redox and inflammatory statuses of activated dendritic cells are crucial. The aim of this study was to better understand how sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response through cytokines production and COX metabolism cascade. To address this purpose, we used the human monocytic-like U-937 cell line differentiated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and investigated the effect of 6 contact sensitizers (DNCB, PPD, hydroquinone, propyl gallate, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) and 3 non sensitizers (lactic acid, glycerol and tween 20) on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and on the arachidonic acid metabolic profile after bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results showed that among the tested molecules, all sensitizers specifically prevent the production of PMA/LPS-induced COX-2 metabolites (PGE2, TxB2 and PGD2), eugenol and cinnamaldehyde inhibiting also the production of IL-1β and TNF-α. We further demonstrated that there is no unique PGE2 inhibition mechanism: while the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipids does not appear do be a target of modulation, COX-2 expression and/or COX-2 enzymatic activity are the major steps of prostaglandin synthesis that are inhibited by sensitizers. Altogether these results add a new insight into the multiple biochemical effects described for sensitizers. - Highlights: → We investigated how contact sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response. → We used macrophage-differentiated cell line, U-937 treated with PMA/LPS. → Sensitizers specifically inhibit the production of COX metabolites (PGE2, TxB2). → Several mechanisms of inhibition: COX-2 expression/enzymatic activity, isomerases. → New insight in the biochemical properties of sensitizers.

  18. Surface expression of Mo3e antigen by activated human monocytes and U-937 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd R.F. III; Bury, M.J.; Liu, D.Y.

    1986-03-05

    The surface expression of a protease-sensitive antigen, Mo3e, by activated human monocytes and U-937 cells is a plasma membrane feature of the activated state. Mo3e, which is an 80 kD protein on Western blot analysis, may represent the surface receptor for migration inhibitory factor (MIF), as evidenced by inhibition of MIF responsiveness produced by anti-Mo3e monoclonal antibody. Mo3e is barely detectable (by surface immunofluorescence) on freshly isolated monocytes but becomes expressed in high antigen density during 18-24 hrs culture in medium containing E. coli lipopolysaccharide (> 1 ng/ml), 4..beta..-phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) (5-10 nM), or muramyl dipeptide (0.1-1 ..mu..M). In U-937 cells, Mo3e surface expression is detectable after 24 hrs exposure to PMA and other pharmacological activators of protein kinase C: 4..beta..-phorbol 12, 13 dibutyrate, 4..beta..-phorbol 12, 13 didecanoate, mezerein, or Sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol. The biologically-inactivate phorbol compounds, 4..cap alpha..-phorbol 12, 13 didecanoate and 4/sub ..beta../-phorbol do not stimulate Mo3e expression. The calcium ionophore, ionomycin, has a synergistic effect on Mo3e expression stimulated by PMA; conversely, calcium antagonists block PMA-induced Mo3e expression. These results suggest the involvement of protein kinase C activation and intracellular calcium mobilization in the stimulated expression of Mo3e by activated human mononuclear phagocytes.

  19. 12-o-Tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-differentiated U937 cells express a macrophage-like profile of neutral proteinases. High levels of secreted collagenase and collagenase inhibitor accompany low levels of intracellular elastase and cathepsin G.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welgus, H G; Connolly, N L; Senior, R M

    1986-05-01

    Human monocytic tumor cells of the U937 cell line contain substantial quantities of two neutrophil neutral proteinases, elastase and cathepsin G, raising the question of whether their presence reflects an expression of transformation or whether normal monocytes undergo a developmental stage in which they produce certain neutrophil proteinases. To address this issue, we examined U937 cells for production of collagenase, since human alveolar macrophages release fibroblast-like collagenase, an enzyme that is distinct from neutrophil collagenase. Using an immunoassay that utilized antibody to skin fibroblast collagenase, we found that U937 cells secreted barely detectable quantities of enzyme, 10-12 ng/10(6) cells per 24 h, under basal conditions. Upon incubation with 10 nM 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (TPA), however, collagenase release increased 200-fold, comparable to the amount secreted by phorbol-stimulated human fibroblasts. Metabolic labeling and immunoprecipitation confirmed the enhanced synthesis of U937 cell collagenase upon TPA exposure. This enzyme activity further resembled fibroblast collagenase and differed from neutrophil collagenase by exhibiting preferential cleavage of monomeric type III collagen relative to type I. As previously observed with human alveolar macrophages, U937 cells also released a protein identical to the collagenase inhibitor produced by human skin fibroblasts, a molecule not associated with neutrophils. Release of this inhibitor increased 10-fold with TPA exposure. In contrast to collagenase and collagense inhibitor, TPA-treated U937 cells contained only 10-15% as much elastase and cathepsin G activities as control cells. Thus, TPA-induced differentiation modified the presence of these enzymes in the direction of their content in normal monocytes. Since the neutral proteinase profile of undifferentiated U937 cells resembles that of neutrophils and changes markedly after cellular differentiation to one that is

  20. Two distinct classes of IgG Fc receptors on a human monocyte line (U937) defined by differences in binding of murine IgG subclasses at low ionic strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two distinct classes of IgG Fc receptors (FcR) on cells of a human monocytic line (U937) by analyzing the direct binding of murine IgG subclasses in medium of low ionic strength. Four lines of evidence support this contention. (1) The binding of aggregated murine IgB2b (AggmIgG2b) to U937 and Daudi cells was enhanced at low ionic strength, whereas monomeric murine IgG2a (mIgG2a) did not bind to Daudi cells and its high affinity binding to U937 cells was unaffected by changes in ionic strength. (2) Double reciprocal inhibition experiments with U937 cells indicated that the binding of both ligands was inhibited 30 to 135 times more efficiently by the homologous ligand than by the heterologous one. That is, the binding of 125I-AggmIgG2b was inhibited 50% by 3.5 μg/ml of AggmIgG2b and 100 μg/ml of mIgG2a. Similarly, the binding of 125I-mIgG2a was inhibited 50% by 2.5 μg/ml of mIgG2a and only 44% by 243 μg/ml of AggmIgG2b. (3) A monoclonal antibody of the IgG2b subclass raised against an IgG FcR on K562 cells inhibited binding to U937 cells of AggmIgG2b but not of mIgG2a. (4) Trypsinization of U937 cells abrogated by 32% the binding of mIgG2a but did not affect the binding of AggmIgG2b. Human IgG inhibited binding of both AggmIgG2b and mIgG2a t U937 cells. They propose that the newly recognized FcR that binds AggmIgG2b is the human homologue of the murine macrophage IgG2b/1 FcR (FcRII), and that the previously described 72,000 dalton high-affinity FcR on U937 cells that binds mIgG2a is the human equivalent of the murine macrophage IgG2a FcR (FcRI)

  1. Characterization of NF-κB Reporter U937 Cells and Their Application for the Detection of Inflammatory Immune-Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Kecse-Nagy

    Full Text Available Our study tested the hypothesis that immunoglobulins differ in their ability to activate the nuclear factor-κB pathway mediated cellular responses. These responses are modulated by several properties of the immune complex, including the ratio of antibody isotypes binding to antigen. Immunoassays allow the measurement of antigen specific antibodies belonging to distinct immunoglobulin classes and subclasses but not the net biological effect of the combination of these antibodies. We set out to develop a biosensor that is suitable for the detection and characterization of antigen specific serum antibodies. We genetically modified the monocytoid U937 cell line carrying Fc receptors with a plasmid encoding NF-κB promoter-driven GFP. This clone, U937-NF-κB, was characterized with respect to FcR expression and response to solid-phase immunoglobulins. Human IgG3, IgG4 and IgG1 induced GFP production in a time- and dose-dependent manner, in this order of efficacy, while IgG2 triggered no activation at the concentrations tested. IgA elicited no response alone but showed significant synergism with IgG3 and IgG4. We confirmed the importance of activation via FcγRI by direct stimulation with monoclonal antibody and by competition assays. We used citrullinated peptides and serum from rheumatoid arthritis patients to generate immune complexes and to study the activation of U937-NF-κB, observing again a synergistic effect between IgG and IgA. Our results show that immunoglobulins have distinct pro-inflammatory potential, and that U937-NF-κB is suitable for the estimation of biological effects of immune-complexes, offering insight into monocyte activation and pathogenesis of antibody mediated diseases.

  2. Characterization of NF-κB Reporter U937 Cells and Their Application for the Detection of Inflammatory Immune-Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecse-Nagy, Csilla; Szittner, Zoltán; Papp, Krisztián; Hegyi, Zoltán; Rovero, Paolo; Migliorini, Paola; Lóránd, Veronika; Homolya, László; Prechl, József

    2016-01-01

    Our study tested the hypothesis that immunoglobulins differ in their ability to activate the nuclear factor-κB pathway mediated cellular responses. These responses are modulated by several properties of the immune complex, including the ratio of antibody isotypes binding to antigen. Immunoassays allow the measurement of antigen specific antibodies belonging to distinct immunoglobulin classes and subclasses but not the net biological effect of the combination of these antibodies. We set out to develop a biosensor that is suitable for the detection and characterization of antigen specific serum antibodies. We genetically modified the monocytoid U937 cell line carrying Fc receptors with a plasmid encoding NF-κB promoter-driven GFP. This clone, U937-NF-κB, was characterized with respect to FcR expression and response to solid-phase immunoglobulins. Human IgG3, IgG4 and IgG1 induced GFP production in a time- and dose-dependent manner, in this order of efficacy, while IgG2 triggered no activation at the concentrations tested. IgA elicited no response alone but showed significant synergism with IgG3 and IgG4. We confirmed the importance of activation via FcγRI by direct stimulation with monoclonal antibody and by competition assays. We used citrullinated peptides and serum from rheumatoid arthritis patients to generate immune complexes and to study the activation of U937-NF-κB, observing again a synergistic effect between IgG and IgA. Our results show that immunoglobulins have distinct pro-inflammatory potential, and that U937-NF-κB is suitable for the estimation of biological effects of immune-complexes, offering insight into monocyte activation and pathogenesis of antibody mediated diseases. PMID:27232500

  3. Suppressive effects of liquid crystal compounds on the growth of U937 human leukemic monocyte lymphoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishikawa Junya

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the biological and pharmaceutical activities of 14 amphiphilic liquid-crystalline compounds (LCs, i.e, phenylpyrimidine derivatives possessing D-glucamine and cyanobiphenyl derivatives with a terminal hydroxyl unit. Results The cytotoxic properties of the LCs on the cell growth, cell cycle distribution, and cell signaling pathway of U937 human leukemic monocyte lymphoma cells were assessed by flow cytometry and western blot analysis. Some LCs showed cytostatic effects, suppressing cell growth via S-phase arrest and without apoptosis in U937 cells. To investigate the mechanisms of the LC-induced S-phase arrest, proteins relevant to cell cycle regulation were investigated by western blot analysis. The rate of LC-induced S-phase arrest was congruent with the decreased expression of MCM2, cyclin A, cyclin B, CDK2, phospho-CDK1 and Cdc25C. Observed changes in cell cycle distribution by LC treated might be caused by insufficient preparation for G2/M transition. Considering the structure of the LCs, the rod-like molecules displaying cytotoxicity against U937 cells possessed flexible spacers with no bulky polar group attached via the flexible spacer. Conclusions Our results revealed that some LCs showed cytotoxic properties against non-solid type tumor human leukemic cells via LC-induced S-phase arrest and decreasing expression of several cell cycle related proteins.

  4. HLA-B27 Modulates Intracellular Growth of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 2 Mutants and Production of Cytokines in Infected Monocytic U937 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Shichao Ge; Qiushui He; Kaisa Granfors

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4 KS8822/88 replicates rapidly in HLA-B27-transfected human monocytic U937 cells. In this process, Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2) genes play a crucial role. Our previous study indicated that 118 Salmonella genes, including 8 SPI-2 genes were affected by HLA-B27 antigen during Salmonella infection of U937 cells. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further investigate Salmonella replication in HLA-B27-positive U937 monocytic cells, two...

  5. Investigation of the interaction between the MIR-503 and CD40 genes in irradiated U937 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a group of small noncoding RNAs that take part in diverse biological processes by suppressing target gene expression. Relatively few miRNAs have been studied in detail, especially miR-503, and hence the biological relevance of majority remains to be uncovered. Whether altered expression of miRNA-503 affects the immunity response to radiotherapy has yet to be addressed. In the present study, we applied ionizing radiation with a dose of either 0.1 Gy or 5 Gy to irradiate U937 cells to confirm CD40 as a miR-503 target, which was identified using a bioimformatics tool. In high dose (5 Gy) ionizing-irradiated U937 cells, expression of miR-503 was up regulated while the expression of CD40 gene was down regulated. Using the transfection of the miR-503 gene into U937 cells and Luciferase assay, we confirmed that miR-503 suppressed the expression of CD40, and was a negtive regulator of CD40. To our knowledge, we are the first to describe involvement of miR-503 in radiobiological effect at a molecular level. This initial finding suggested the evidence that ionizing radiation could alter the expression of miR-503 and its target gene CD40, and may be very important to shed light on a possible mechanism regarding regulation of immune responses to irradiation

  6. Contact sensitizers modulate the arachidonic acid metabolism of PMA-differentiated U-937 monocytic cells activated by LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Bufalo, Aurélia; Bernad, José; Dardenne, Christophe; Verda, Denis; Meunier, Jean Roch; Rousset, Françoise; Martinozzi-Teissier, Silvia; Pipy, Bernard

    2011-10-01

    For the effective induction of a hapten-specific T cell immune response toward contact sensitizers, in addition to covalent-modification of skin proteins, the redox and inflammatory statuses of activated dendritic cells are crucial. The aim of this study was to better understand how sensitizers modulate an inflammatory response through cytokines production and COX metabolism cascade. To address this purpose, we used the human monocytic-like U-937 cell line differentiated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and investigated the effect of 6 contact sensitizers (DNCB, PPD, hydroquinone, propyl gallate, cinnamaldehyde and eugenol) and 3 non sensitizers (lactic acid, glycerol and tween 20) on the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and on the arachidonic acid metabolic profile after bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. Our results showed that among the tested molecules, all sensitizers specifically prevent the production of PMA/LPS-induced COX-2 metabolites (PGE(2,) TxB(2) and PGD(2)), eugenol and cinnamaldehyde inhibiting also the production of IL-1β and TNF-α. We further demonstrated that there is no unique PGE(2) inhibition mechanism: while the release of arachidonic acid (AA) from membrane phospholipids does not appear do be a target of modulation, COX-2 expression and/or COX-2 enzymatic activity are the major steps of prostaglandin synthesis that are inhibited by sensitizers. Altogether these results add a new insight into the multiple biochemical effects described for sensitizers. PMID:21807015

  7. Regulation of miR-503 on the expression of CD40 induced by irradiation in U937 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study whether or not CD40 gene is a target of miR-503 in U937 cells, and to observe the regulatory effects of miR-503 on expression of CD40 induced by irradiation in U937 cells. Methods: The miR-503 sequence was inserted into pcDNA-DEST-47 plasmid to construct the eukaryotic expression vector (pcDNA-DEST-miR-503) and to construct the CD40 gene 3'-UTR luciferase reporter plasmid (psiCHECK2-CD40) at the same time.They were used to transfect U937 cells together for analysis of the regulatory effects of miR-503 on the expression of CD40. Meanwhile the miR-203 and miR-29b were used as controls to observe whether or not CD40 gene was a target of miR-503. The expression change of CD40 after irradiation,and the inhibitory effect of miR-503 on the expression of CD40 was confirmed by Western blot assay. The expression of miR-503 was detected by real-time RT-PCR (qPCR) after irradiation with doses of 5.0 Gy. Results: The expression of luciferase in the group of transfected with pcDNA-DEST-miR-503 and psiCHECK2-CD40 plasmids was significantly lower than that in the group transfected with empty plasmid and CD40 gene (t=3.16, P<0.05). And the miR-203 and miR-29b could not inhibit the activity of CD40 luciferase, but the miR-503 could significantly inhibit the activity of it (t=5.25, P<0.01). The expression of CD40 protein in U937 cells was decreased after the cells were transfected with pcDNA-DEST-miR-503. After irradiation with dose of 5.0 Gy, the expression of miR-503 were increased (t=3.63-17.00, P<0.01) and the expression of CD40 protein decreased. Conclusions: The CD40 gene might be the target of miR-503,and miR-503 could regulate the expression of CD40 gene. Irradiation could up-regulate the expression of miR-503 and inhibit the expression of CD40 protein in U937 cells. miR-503 might play a role in the process of regulation of irradiation on expression of CD40 protein in tumor cells. (authors)

  8. HLA-B27-Transfected (Salmonella Permissive) and HLA-A2-Transfected (Salmonella Nonpermissive) Human Monocytic U937 Cells Differ in Their Production of Cytokines

    OpenAIRE

    Ekman, Päivi; Saarinen, Marja; He, Qiushui; Gripenberg-Lerche, Christel; Grönberg, Alvar; Arvilommi, Heikki; Granfors, Kaisa

    2002-01-01

    The cytokine secretion of the Salmonella-permissive, HLA-B27-positive U937 cells was examined, as it was previously shown that these cells kill Salmonella less efficiently than controls. Salmonella-permissive U937 cells showed upregulated production of interleukin 10 and to a lesser extent tumor necrosis factor alpha. HLA-B27-associated modulation of cytokine responses may have importance in the pathogenesis of reactive arthritis.

  9. 2-hydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone from Hedyotis diffusa Willd induces apoptosis in human leukemic U937 cells through modulation of MAPK pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Li, Dong-Yang; Niu, Hui-Yan; Zhang, Yi; He, Ping; Wang, Jia-He

    2013-06-01

    The herb of Hedyotis diffusa Willd (H. diffusa Willd), an annual herb distributed in northeastern Asia, has been known as a traditional oriental medicine for the treatment of cancer. Recently, Chinese researchers have discovered that two anthraquinones isolated from a water extract of H. diffusa Willd showed apoptosis-inducing effects against cancer cells. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are poorly understood. The current study determines the role of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in human leukemic U937 cells apoptosis induced by 2-hydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone from H. diffusa. Our results showed that 2-hydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone decreased phosphorylation-ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), and increased p-p38MAPK, but did not affect expressions of p-JNK1/2 in U937 cells. Moreover, treatment of U937 cells with 2-hydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone resulted in activation of caspase-3. Furthermore, PD98059 (ERK1/2 inhibitor) significantly enhanced 2-hydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone-induced apoptosis in U937 cells, whereas caspase-3 inhibitor or SB203580 (p-p38MAPK inhibitor), decreased apoptosis in U937 cells. Taken together, our study for the first time suggests that 2-hydroxy-3-methylanthraquinone is able to enhance apoptosis of U937 cells, at least in part, through activation of p-p38MAPK and downregulation of p-ERK1/2. Moreover, the triggering of caspase-3 activation mediated apoptotic induction. PMID:23550028

  10. Molecular Mechanism of Differentiation and Apoptosis of U937 Cells Induced by 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol-13-Acetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Luo; Yunpeng Liu; Kezuo Hou; Su Wang; Yan Wang

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the effects of 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) on differentiation, apoptosis and related molecular mechanisms in U937 myelomonocytic leukemia cells.METHODS Morphological changes were analyzed by phase contrast and light microscopy, expression of the monocytic differentiation maker CD11b by direct immunofluorescence staining, cell cycle distribution and apoptosis by flow cytometry, and expression of bcl-2, Bax, survivin and p21Cip1/Waf1proteins by Western analysis.RESULTS Treatment of U937 cells with 10 nmol/L TPA induced cell adherence. The adherent cells showed G0/G1 cell cycle arrest (69.0% at 24h vs 52.1% control; P< 0.01),and morphologic changes and increased expression of the monocytic differentiation marker CD11b (63.0% at 72 h vs15.3% control; P< 0.01 ). In addition to these effects, about 20% of the cells still remained in suspension and exhibited a time-dependent increasing apoptosis, which reached 70.3% after 72 h of treatment ( P< 0.01 ). TPA treatment for 24 h induced expression of p21Cip1/Waf1 in the adherent cells, but not in the non-adherent cells. Furthermore, bcl-2 and survivin expression declined in 24 h-TPA-treated non-adherent cells compared with untreated control and adherent cells, whereas no change in the expression of Bax was detected.CONCLUSION TPA induces both differentiation and apoptosis in U937 cells,which may be related to the upregulation of p21Cip1/Waf1 and downregulation of bcl-2 and survivin expression.

  11. In vitro studies of the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles on HeLa and U937 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba SI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Said I Kaba, Elena M Egorova Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Moscow, Russia Abstract: In the last decade, much attention has been paid to studies of the effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs on tumor cells. Apart from elucidation of the mechanism of NPs’ interaction with mammalian cells, these studies are aimed at discovering new effective antitumor drugs. In this work, we report about the toxic effects of Ag NPs observed on two types of tumor cells: HeLa (adhesive cells and U937 (suspension cells. The Ag NPs were obtained by an original method of biochemical synthesis. Particle size was 13.2±4.72 nm, and zeta potential was -61.9±3.2 mV. The toxicity of Ag NPs in the concentration range 0.5–8.0 µg Ag/mL was determined by means of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and cytofluorometry after 4 and 24 hours' incubation. It was found that Ag NPs had high toxicity toward both cell types. The minimal concentrations where a toxicity effect was registered (toxicity thresholds lied in the range 0.5–2.0 µg Ag/mL. In parallel with the Ag NP solution, cells were incubated with water solutions of the NP stabilizer (aerosol-OT and Ag+ ions (as silver nitrate. It was shown that aerosol-OT had no effect on the viability on HeLa cells, but was moderately toxic toward U937, though less dangerous for these cells than Ag NPs. With Ag+ ions, for HeLa no toxic effect was observed, while for U937 they were as toxic as the Ag NPs. The data obtained indicate that Ag NPs as used in this study may prove to be useful for the creation of medicines for cancer therapy. Keywords: silver nanoparticles, cell viability, apoptosis, tumor cells

  12. NF-kB activity-dependent P-selectin involved in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation in U937 cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi, E-mail: wangyi2004a@126.com [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China); Wang, Xiang; Sun, Minghui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Cao, Heng; Chen, Xiaoqing [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. {yields} Ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and augment of NF-kB activity and protein level during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. {yields} P-selectin and NF-kB may be identified as pivotal regulators of ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. {yields} Therapy based on the inhibition of P-selectin and NF-kB may complement conventional treatments to prevent atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays a critical role in regulation of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the role of Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) activity-dependent P-selectin in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation during atherosclerosis. In this study, we first investigated ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of U937 cells with ox-LDL increased lipid accumulation as well as intracellular cholesterol content. Next, a comparative analysis of gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray and Real-time-PCR indicated that ox-LDL exposure induced, in three treated groups, an extremely marked increase in the mRNA level of P-selectin. Protein levels of P-selectin and its upstream regulators IkBa and NF-kB showed that NF-kB pathway is involved in the ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. Finally, overexpression of NF-kB significantly accelerated, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB with siRNA remarkably attenuated ox-LDL-induced macrophage-derived foam cell formation. It was concluded that the activity of NF-kB is augmented during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. Activation of NF-kB increased, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB decreased ox-LDL-induced P-selectin expression and lipid accumulation in macrophages, suggesting ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and activation of NF-kB in the

  13. NF-kB activity-dependent P-selectin involved in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation in U937 cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. → Ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and augment of NF-kB activity and protein level during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. → P-selectin and NF-kB may be identified as pivotal regulators of ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. → Therapy based on the inhibition of P-selectin and NF-kB may complement conventional treatments to prevent atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays a critical role in regulation of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the role of Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) activity-dependent P-selectin in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation during atherosclerosis. In this study, we first investigated ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of U937 cells with ox-LDL increased lipid accumulation as well as intracellular cholesterol content. Next, a comparative analysis of gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray and Real-time-PCR indicated that ox-LDL exposure induced, in three treated groups, an extremely marked increase in the mRNA level of P-selectin. Protein levels of P-selectin and its upstream regulators IkBa and NF-kB showed that NF-kB pathway is involved in the ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. Finally, overexpression of NF-kB significantly accelerated, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB with siRNA remarkably attenuated ox-LDL-induced macrophage-derived foam cell formation. It was concluded that the activity of NF-kB is augmented during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. Activation of NF-kB increased, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB decreased ox-LDL-induced P-selectin expression and lipid accumulation in macrophages, suggesting ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and activation of NF-kB in the regulation of foam

  14. Altered regulation of ELAVL1/HuR in HLA-B27-expressing U937 monocytic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna S Sahlberg

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of HLA-B27 expression in the regulation of RNA binding protein (RBP Embryonic Lethal Abnormal Vision (ELAV L1/Human antigen R (HuR expression in Salmonella-infected or LPS-stimulated human monocytic cells, since HuR is a critical regulator of the post-transcriptional fate of many genes (e.g. TNFα important in inflammatory response. METHODS: U937 monocytic cells were stably transfected with pSV2neo resistant vector (mock, wild type HLA-B27, or mutated HLA-B27 with amino acid substitutions in the B pocket. Cells were differentiated, infected with Salmonella enteritidis or stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The expression levels of HuR protein and cleavage products (CP1 and CP2 were detected by Western blotting and flow cytometry. Specific inhibitors were used to study the role of PKR and p38 in HuR expression and generation of CPs. TNFα and IL-10 secretion after p38 and PKR inhibition were measured by ELISA. RESULTS: Full length HuR is overexpressed and HuR cleavage is disturbed in U937 monocytic cells expressing HLA-B27 heavy chains (HC. Increased full length HuR expression, disturbed cleavage and reduced dependence on PKR after infection correlate with the expression of glutamic acid 45 in the B pocket that is linked to the misfolding of HLA-B27. CONCLUSION: Results show that the expression of HLA-B27 HCs modulates the intracellular environment of U937 monocyte/macrophages by altering HuR regulation. This phenomenon is at least partly dependent on the misfolding feature of the B27 molecule. Since HuR is an important regulator of multiple genes involved in inflammatory response observations offer an explanation how HLA-B27 may modulate inflammatory response.

  15. The role of intracellular Ca2+ in apoptosis induced by hyperthermia and its enhancement by verapamil in U937 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The relationship between apoptosis induced by 42 deg. C and 44 deg. C hyperthermia alone or in combination with verapamil and changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) was investigated in U937 cells. Methods: Apoptosis induced by hyperthermia was assessed according to DNA fragmentation, nuclear morphologic changes, and expression of phosphatidylserine on the outside plasma cell membrane. These changes were measured by flow cytometry. The [Ca2+]i of individual cells after hyperthermia was monitored by a digital image-analyzing technique using Fura-2. Results: Hyperthermia-induced apoptosis reached a plateau after 6 h and was found to be both time and temperature-dependent. DNA fragmentation was maximum at 44 deg. C after 30 min. Verapamil enhanced the apoptosis induced by 42 deg. C and 44 deg. C hyperthermia in normal cells and by 44 deg. C hyperthermia in thermotolerant cells. The number of cells containing higher [Ca2+]i (more than 200 nM) was significantly increased by hyperthermia and further elevated by the addition of verapamil in both normal and thermotolerant cells. Apoptosis induced by hyperthermia was markedly decreased by an intracellular Ca2+ chelator, BAPTA-AM, in a dose-dependent manner. Conclusion: These results indicate that [Ca2+]i increase plays a crucial role in apoptosis induced by hyperthermia and the combined treatment with verapamil in normal and thermotolerant U937 cells. Furthermore, hyperthermia-combined drug therapy has potential significance in cancer therapy

  16. Phorbol ester induces the biosynthesis of glycosylated and nonglycosylated plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 in high excess over urokinase-type plasminogen activator in human U-937 lymphoma cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genton, C.; Kruithof, E.K.; Schleuning, W.D.

    1987-03-01

    The tumor-promoting phorbol ester PMA induces changes in the histiocytic human lymphoma cell line U-937 akin to cellular differentiation and concomitantly stimulates the biosynthesis of plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 (PAI 2) and of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA). PAI 2 is found in a nonglycosylated intracellular and a glycosylated secreted form. The former appears to be identical to PAI 2 previously purified from placental extracts and large-scale U-937 cell cultures. The sixfold increase of PAI 2 antigen measured 24 h after PMA treatment in cell extracts and conditioned media is accompanied by an equal increase of active PAI 2 mRNA, whereas the 6 to 13-fold increase of u-PA antigen in the same samples is associated with only a 1.5-fold mRNA increase. The increase of PAI 2, but not of u-PA, biosynthesis requires transcription. A 50-fold molar excess of PAI 2 over u-PA is found in both extracts and conditioned media of PMA-treated cells. PAI 2 represents at least 0.3% of total de novo synthesized protein 24 h after induction with PMA. Thus, PAI 2, but not u-PA, is an abundant product of this precursor analogue of the mononuclear phagocyte lineage, and might represent a new marker for monocyte/macrophage differentiation.

  17. Apoptosis induction of U937 human leukemia cells by diallyl trisulfide induces through generation of reactive oxygen species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Yung

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diallyl trisulfide (DATS is one of the major constituents in garlic oil and has demonstrated various pharmacological activities, including antimicrobial, antihyperlipidemic, antithrombotic, and anticancer effects. However, the mechanisms of antiproliferative activity in leukemia cells are not fully understood. In this study, the apoptotic effects of DATS were investigated in human leukemia cells. Results Results of this study indicated that treatment with DATS resulted in significantly inhibited leukemia cell growth in a concentration- and time-dependent manner by induction of apoptosis. In U937 cells, DATS-induced apoptosis was correlated with down-regulation of Bcl-2, XIAP, and cIAP-1 protein levels, cleavage of Bid proteins, activation of caspases, and collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential. The data further demonstrated that DATS increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS generation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC, a scavenger of ROS. In addition, administration of NAC resulted in significant inhibition of DATS-induced apoptosis by inhibiting activation of caspases. Conclusions The present study reveals that the cytotoxicity caused by DATS is mediated by generation of ROS and subsequent activation of the ROS-dependent caspase pathway in U937 leukemia cells.

  18. HLA-B27 modulates intracellular growth of Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 mutants and production of cytokines in infected monocytic U937 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shichao Ge

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis PT4 KS8822/88 replicates rapidly in HLA-B27-transfected human monocytic U937 cells. In this process, Salmonella pathogenicity island 2 (SPI-2 genes play a crucial role. Our previous study indicated that 118 Salmonella genes, including 8 SPI-2 genes were affected by HLA-B27 antigen during Salmonella infection of U937 cells. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To further investigate Salmonella replication in HLA-B27-positive U937 monocytic cells, two SPI-2 genes, ssaS and sscA up-regulated most during Salmonella infection of HLA-B27-transfected U937 cells, were mutated by using one-step gene disruption method. Intracellular survival and replication of the mutants in the U937 cells was compared to that of the wild type strain. Surprisingly, the two mutated strains replicated significantly more than the wild type bacteria in HLA-B27-transfected cells. Secretion of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α and interleukin 10 (IL-10 was significantly induced during the infection of HLA-B27-transfected U937 cells with the mutants. The results indicated that the certain SPI-2 genes in wild type bacteria suppress Salmonella intracellular growth and production of cytokines in infected HLA-B27-transfected cells. HLA-B27-associated modulation of Salmonella SPI-2 genes and cytokine production may have importance in the persistent infection of the bacteria and the pathogenesis of reactive arthritis. CONCLUSIONS: The study provides evidence that certain virulence factors of pathogens can reduce the intracellular growth in the host cells. We suggest that the limiting intracellular growth might be a strategy for persistence of bacteria in host cells, keeping a balance between pathogenic growth and pathogenesis.

  19. Ca2(+)-sensitive binding of thrombospondin to U937 cells is due to the formation of calcium precipitate in the binding medium.

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, X.; Mosher, D F

    1991-01-01

    Thrombospondin (TSP) binds to U937 monocytic cells in a Ca2(+)-enhancible and EDTA-inhibitable manner (Silverstein, R. L., and R. L. Nachman. 1987. J. Clin. Invest. 79:867-874; Silverstein, R. L., A. S. Asch, and R. L. Nachman. 1989. J. Clin. Invest. 84:546-552). We reproduced the results when RPMI cell culture medium, but not when HBSS was used as binding medium. Addition of 1 mM Ca2+ to RPMI medium increased the binding of TSP to suspended U937 cells more than eightfold; the increase was bl...

  20. Effects of Liposomal Compositions with Oxidized Dextrans on Functional Activity of U937 Macrophage-Like Cells In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozhin, P M; Chechushkov, A V; Zaitseva, N S; Lemza, A E; Men'shchikova, E B; Troitskii, A V; Shkurupy, V A

    2015-11-01

    We studied the effects of liposomal pharmaceutical compositions with oxidized dextrans on functional activity of U937 monocyte/macrophage-like cells. Liposomes in the emulsion contained oxidized dextran with a molecular weights of 40 kDa or 70 kDa or isonicotinic acid hydrazide (INAH) conjugated with oxidized dextran (40 kDa). Cell viability was evaluated by MTT test; mitochondrial transmembrane potential and production of superoxide anion and H2O2 were studied by fluorescent methods. The studied compositions exhibited no cytotoxic effect and even improved cell viability and mitochondrial respiration. Liposomes with oxidized 40 kDa dextran, including those with INAH-conjugated dextran, inhibited production of superoxide anion, but increased H2O2 generation. PMID:26601843

  1. HSV-1-induced activation of NF-κB protects U937 monocytic cells against both virus replication and apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino-Merlo, Francesca; Papaianni, Emanuela; Medici, Maria Antonietta; Macchi, Beatrice; Grelli, Sandro; Mosca, Claudia; Borner, Christoph; Mastino, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) is a crucial player of the antiviral innate response. Intriguingly, however, NF-κB activation is assumed to favour herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection rather than restrict it. Apoptosis, a form of innate response to viruses, is completely inhibited by HSV in fully permissive cells, but not in cells incapable to fully sustain HSV replication, such as immunocompetent cells. To resolve the intricate interplay among NF-κB signalling, apoptosis and permissiveness to HSV-1 in monocytic cells, we utilized U937 monocytic cells in which NF-κB activation was inhibited by expressing a dominant-negative IκBα. Surprisingly, viral production was increased in monocytic cells in which NF-κB was inhibited. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB led to increased apoptosis following HSV-1 infection, associated with lysosomal membrane permeabilization. High expression of late viral proteins and induction of apoptosis occurred in distinct cells. Transcriptional analysis of known innate response genes by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR excluded a contribution of the assayed genes to the observed phenomena. Thus, in monocytic cells NF-κB activation simultaneously serves as an innate process to restrict viral replication as well as a mechanism to limit the damage of an excessive apoptotic response to HSV-1 infection. This finding may clarify mechanisms controlling HSV-1 infection in monocytic cells. PMID:27584793

  2. Effect of platinum nanoparticles on cell death induced by ultrasound in human lymphoma U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jawaid, Paras; Rehman, Mati Ur; Hassan, Mariame Ali; Zhao, Qing Li; Li, Peng; Miyamoto, Yusei; Misawa, Masaki; Ogawa, Ryohei; Shimizu, Tadamichi; Kondo, Takashi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we report on the potential use of platinum nanoparticles (Pt-NPs), a superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase mimetic antioxidant, in combination with 1MHz ultrasound (US) at an intensity of 0.4W/cm(2), 10% duty factor, 100Hz PRF, for 2min. Apoptosis induction was assessed by DNA fragmentation assay, cell cycle analysis and Annexin V-FITC/PI staining. Cell killing was confirmed by cell counting and microscopic examination. The mitochondrial and Ca(2+)-dependent pathways were investigated. Caspase-8 expression and autophagy-related proteins were detected by spectrophotometry and western blot analysis, respectively. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) elevation was detected by flow cytometry, while extracellular free radical formation was assessed by electron paramagnetic resonance spin trapping spectrometry. The results showed that Pt-NPs exerted differential effects depending on their internalization. Pt-NPs functioned as potent free radical scavengers when added immediately before sonication while pre-treatment with Pt-NPs suppressed the induction of apoptosis as well as autophagy (AP), and resulted in enhanced cell killing. Dead cells displayed the features of pyknosis. The exact mode of cell death is still unclear. In conclusion, the results indicate that US-induced AP may contribute to cell survival post sonication. To our knowledge this is the first study to discuss autophagy as a pro-survival pathway in the context of US. The combination of Pt-NPs and US might be effective in cancer eradication. PMID:26964942

  3. Arbutin, an intracellular hydroxyl radical scavenger, protects radiation-induced apoptosis in human lymphoma U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Li-Hua; Li, Peng; Zhao, Qing-Li; Piao, Jin-Lan; Jiao, Yu-Fei; Kadowaki, Makoto; Kondo, Takashi

    2014-11-01

    Ionizing radiation (IR) can generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Excessive ROS have the potential to damage cellular macromolecules including DNA, proteins, and lipids and eventually lead to cell death. In this study, we evaluated the potential of arbutin, a drug chosen from a series of traditional herbal medicine by measuring intracellular hydroxyl radical scavenging ability in X-irradiated U937 cells. Arbutin (hydroquinone-β-D-glucopyranoside), a naturally occurring glucoside of hydroquinone, has been traditionally used to treat pigmentary disorders. However, there are no reports describing the effect of arbutin on IR-induced apoptosis. We confirmed that arbutin can protect cells from apoptosis induced by X-irradiation. The combination of arbutin and X-irradiation could reduce intracellular hydroxyl radical production and prevent mitochondrial membrane potential loss. It also could down-regulate the expression of phospho-JNK, phospho-p38 in whole cell lysate and activate Bax in mitochondria. Arbutin also inhibits cytochrome C release from mitochondria to cytosol. To verify the role of JNK in X-irradiation-induced apoptosis, the cells were pretreated with a JNK inhibitor, and found that JNK inhibitor could reduce apoptosis induced by X-irradiation. Taken together, our data indicate that arbutin plays an anti-apoptotic role via decreasing intracellular hydroxyl radical production, inhibition of Bax-mitochondria pathway and activation of the JNK/p38 MAPK pathway. PMID:25187044

  4. Bioactivity-guided identification and cell signaling technology to delineate the immunomodulatory effects of Panax ginseng on human promonocytic U937 cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rong Jian-hui; Li James CB; Chik Stanley CC; Yang Cindy LH; Lee Davy CW; Chan Godfrey CF; Lau Allan SY

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Ginseng is believed to have beneficial effects against human diseases, and its active components, ginsenosides, may play critical roles in its diverse physiological actions. However, the mechanisms underlying ginseng's effects remain to be investigated. We hypothesize some biological effects of ginseng are due to its anti-inflammatory effects. Methods Human promonocytic U937 cells were used to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of ginseng following TNF-α treatment. A...

  5. Signaling factors and pathways of α-particle irradiation induced bilateral bystander responses between Beas-2B and U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jiamei; Wang, Juan; Wang, Xiangdong; Wang, Ping; Xu, Jinping; Zhou, Cuiping; Bai, Yang; Shao, Chunlin

    2016-07-01

    Although radiation induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been investigated for decades for their potential health risk, the underlying gene regulation is still largely unclear, especially the roles of immune system and inflammatory response in RIBE. In the present study, macrophage U937 cells and epithelial Beas-2B cells were co-cultured to disclose the cascades of bystander signaling factors and intercellular communications. After α-particle irradiation, both ERK and p38 pathways were activated in Beas-2B cells and were associated with the autocrine and paracrine signaling of TNF-α and IL-8, resulting in direct damage to the irradiated cells. Similar upregulation of TNF-α and IL-8 was induced in the bystander U937 cells after co-culture with α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. This upregulation was dependent on the activation of NF-κB pathway and was responsible for the enhanced damage of α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. Interestingly, the increased expressions of TNF-α and IL-8 mRNAs in the bystander U937 cells were clearly relayed on the activated ERK and p38 pathways in the irradiated Beas-2B cells, and the upregulation of TNF-α and IL-8 mRNAs in co-cultured Beas-2B cells was also partly due to the activated NF-κB pathway in the bystander U937 cells. With the pretreatment of U0126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor), SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) or BAY 11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor), the aggravated damage in the α-irradiated Beas-2B cells could be largely alleviated. Our results disclosed novel signaling cascades of macrophage-mediated bilateral bystander responses that the release of TNF-α and IL-8 regulated by MAPK and NF-κB pathways synergistically increased cellular injury after α-particle irradiation. PMID:27155559

  6. A micro-Raman spectroscopic investigation of leukemic U-937 cells treated with Crotalaria agatiflora Schweinf and the isolated compound madurensine

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, Karlien; Prinsloo, Linda C.; Hussein, Ahmed A.; Lall, Namrita

    In South Africa traditional medicine plays an important role in primary health care and therefore it is very important that the medicinal use of plants is scientifically tested for toxicity and effectiveness. It was established that the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Crotalaria agatiflora, as well as the isolated compound madurensine, is moderately toxic against leukemic U-937 cells. Light microscopic investigations indicated that symptoms of cell death are induced during treatments, but flow cytometry analysis of treated cells, using annexin-V and propidium iodide, showed that apoptosis and necrosis are insignificantly induced. The Raman results suggested that protein extraction and DNA melting occur in the cells during treatment with the ethanolic extracts (IC50 value 73.9 μg/mL), drastically changing the molecular content of the cells. In contrast, treatment with madurensine (IC50 value 136.5 μg/mL), an isolated pyrrolizidine alkaloid from the ethanolic extract of the leaves, did not have the same effect. The results are also compared to that of cells treated with actinomycin D, a compound known to induce apoptosis. The investigation showed that micro-Raman spectroscopy has great promise to be used for initial screening of samples to determine the effects of different treatments on cancerous cell lines together with conventional methods. The results highlight the fact that for many natural products used for medicinal purposes, the therapeutic effect of the crude plant extract tends to be significantly more effective than the particular action of its individual constituents.

  7. Microarray Analysis of Response of Salmonella during Infection of HLA-B27- Transfected Human Macrophage-Like U937 Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hinton Jay CD; He Qiushui; Danino Vittoria; Ge Shichao; Granfors Kaisa

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 is strongly associated with the development of reactive arthritis (ReA) in humans after salmonellosis. Human monocytic U937 cells transfected with HLA-B27 are less able to eliminate intracellular Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis than those transfected with control HLA antigens (e.g. HLA-A2). To investigate further the mechanisms by which HLA-B27-transfected cells allow increased replication of these bacteria, a DNA-based microarray ...

  8. Effect of Bee Venom and Its Fractions on the Release of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in PMA-Differentiated U937 Cells Co-Stimulated with LPS

    OpenAIRE

    Jonans Tusiimire; Jennifer Wallace; Nicola Woods; Dufton, Mark J.; Parkinson, John A.; Grainne Abbott; Clements, Carol J.; Louise Young; Jin Kyu Park; Jong Woon Jeon; Ferro, Valerie A.; Watson, David G.

    2016-01-01

    The venom of Apis mellifera (honey bee) has been reported to play a role in immunotherapy, but existing evidence to support its immuno-modulatory claims is insufficient. Four fractions from whole bee venom (BV) were separated using medium pressure liquid chromatography. Their ability to induce the production of cytokines TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-treated U937 cells was assessed. The levels of the three cytokines produced by stimulation with the four fractio...

  9. Unidirectional Flux Balance of Monovalent Ions in Cells with Na/Na and Li/Na Exchange: Experimental and Computational Studies on Lymphoid U937 Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereninov, Igor A.; Yurinskaya, Valentina E.; Model, Michael A.; Vereninov, Alexey A.

    2016-01-01

    Monovalent ion traffic across the cell membrane occurs via various pathways. Evaluation of individual fluxes in whole cell is hampered by their strong interdependence. This difficulty can be overcome by computational analysis of the whole cell flux balance. However, the previous computational studies disregarded ion movement of the self-exchange type. We have taken this exchange into account. The developed software allows determination of unidirectional fluxes of all monovalent ions via the major pathways both under the balanced state and during transient processes. We show how the problem of finding the rate coefficients can be solved by measurement of monovalent ion concentrations and some of the fluxes. Interdependence of fluxes due to the mandatory conditions of electroneutrality and osmotic balance and due to specific effects can be discriminated, enabling one to identify specific changes in ion transfer machinery under varied conditions. To test the effectiveness of the developed approach we made use of the fact that Li/Na exchange is known to be an analogue of the coupled Na/Na exchange. Thus, we compared the predicted and experimental data obtained on U937 cells under varied Li+ concentrations and following inhibition of the sodium pump with ouabain. We found that the coupled Na/Na exchange in U937 cells comprises a significant portion of the entire Na+ turnover. The data showed that the loading of the sodium pump by Li/Na exchange involved in the secondary active Li+ transport at 1–10 mM external Li+ is small. This result may be extrapolated to similar Li+ and Na+ flux relationships in erythrocytes and other cells in patients treated with Li+ in therapeutic doses. The developed computational approach is applicable for studying various cells and can be useful in education for demonstrating the effects of individual transporters and channels on ion gradients, cell water content and membrane potential. PMID:27159324

  10. Bioactivity-guided identification and cell signaling technology to delineate the immunomodulatory effects of Panax ginseng on human promonocytic U937 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong Jian-hui

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ginseng is believed to have beneficial effects against human diseases, and its active components, ginsenosides, may play critical roles in its diverse physiological actions. However, the mechanisms underlying ginseng's effects remain to be investigated. We hypothesize some biological effects of ginseng are due to its anti-inflammatory effects. Methods Human promonocytic U937 cells were used to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of ginseng following TNF-α treatment. A global gene expression profile was obtained by using genechip analysis, and specific cytokine expression was measured by quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA. HPLC was used to define the composition of ginsenosides in 70% ethanol-water extracts of ginseng. Activation of signalling kinases was examined by Western blot analysis. Results Seventy percent ethanol-water extracts of ginseng significantly inhibited the transcription and secretion of CXCL-10 following TNF-α stimulation. Nine ginsenosides including Rb1, Rb2, Rc, Rd, Re, Rf, Rg1, Rg3 and Rh1 were identified in our extract by HPLC. Seven out of nine ginsenosides could significantly inhibit TNF-α-induced CXCL-10 expression in U937 cells and give comparable inhibition of CXCL-10 transcription to those with the extract. However, the CXCL-10 suppressive effect of individual ginsenosides was less than that of the crude extract or the mixture of ginsenosides. The CXCL-10 suppression can be correlated with the inactivation of ERK1/2 pathways by ginseng. Conclusion We showed ginseng suppressed part of the TNF-α-inducible cytokines and signalling proteins in promonocytic cells, suggesting that it exerts its anti-inflammatory property targeting at different levels of TNF-α activity. The anti-inflammatory role of ginseng may be due to the combined effects of ginsenosides, contributing in part to the diverse actions of ginseng in humans.

  11. INVOLVEMENT OF p38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE IN E.Coli-INDUCED U937 APOPTOSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-he Wang; Yi-jun Zhou; Ping He; Bai-yi Chen

    2007-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether the effect of E. coli on U937 cell lines apoptosis is mediated via p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation.Methods The U937 cell lines were treated with E. coli at different time or together with SB203580, an inhibitor for p38. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. p38 activities were detected by Western blotting.Results E. coli induced apoptosis in cultured U937 cell lines in a time-dependent manner. The phosphorylation of p38 was induced after 10 minutes infection, reached the peak after 20 minutes, and started to decline after 30 minutes. In contrast, the level of total p38 protein was not changed in whole experimental period. Inhibition of p38 with SB203580 significantly inhibited E. coli induced apoptosis in U937 cells.Conclusion The activation of the p38 MAPK in U937 cell lines by E. coli is a major pathway to mediate the apoptosis.

  12. Effects of nitrogen on the apoptosis of and changes in gene expression in human lymphoma U937 cells exposed to argon-based cold atmospheric pressure plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Uchiyama, Hidefumi; Zhao, Qing-Li; Yunoki, Tatsuya; Andocs, Gabor; Nojima, Nobuyuki; Takeda, Keigo; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Kondo, Takashi

    2016-06-01

    Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) is known as a source of biologically active agents, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). In the present study, we examined the effects of nitrogen (N2) on the apoptosis of and changes in gene expression in human lymphoma U937 cells exposed to argon (Ar)-CAP. Enormous amounts of hydroxyl (·OH) radicals in aqueous solution were produced using Ar‑CAP generated using a 20 kHz low frequency at 18 kV with a flow rate of 2 l/min. The increase in the levels of ·OH radicals was significantly attenuated by the addition of N2 to Ar gas. On the other hand, the level of total nitrate/nitrite in the supernatant was significantly elevated in the Ar + N2-CAP‑exposed U937 cells. When the cells were exposed to Ar‑CAP, a significant increase in apoptosis was observed, whereas apoptosis was markedly decreased in the cells exposed to Ar + N2-CAP. Microarray and pathway analyses revealed that a newly identified gene network containing a number of heat shock proteins (HSPs), anti-apoptotic genes, was mainly associated with the biological function of the prevention of apoptosis. Quantitative PCR revealed that the expression levels of HSPs were significantly elevated in the cells exposed to Ar + N2-CAP than those exposed to Ar‑CAP. These results indicate that N2 gas in Ar‑CAP modifies the ratio of ROS to RNS, and suppresses the apoptosis induced by Ar‑CAP. The modulation of gaseous conditions in CAP may thus prove to be useful for future clinical applications, such as for switching from a sterilizing mode to cytocidal effect for cancer cells. PMID:27121589

  13. Andrographolide Analogue Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy Mediated Cell Death in U937 Cells by Inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar

    Full Text Available Current chemotherapeutic agents based on apoptosis induction are lacking in desired efficacy. Therefore, there is continuous effort to bring about new dimension in control and gradual eradication of cancer by means of ever evolving therapeutic strategies. Various forms of PCD are being increasingly implicated in anti-cancer therapy and the complex interplay among them is vital for the ultimate fate of proliferating cells. We elaborated and illustrated the underlying mechanism of the most potent Andrographolide analogue (AG-4 mediated action that involved the induction of dual modes of cell death-apoptosis and autophagy in human leukemic U937 cells.AG-4 induced cytotoxicity was associated with redox imbalance and apoptosis which involved mitochondrial depolarisation, altered apoptotic protein expressions, activation of the caspase cascade leading to cell cycle arrest. Incubation with caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk or Bax siRNA decreased cytotoxic efficacy of AG-4 emphasising critical roles of caspase and Bax. In addition, AG-4 induced autophagy as evident from LC3-II accumulation, increased Atg protein expressions and autophagosome formation. Pre-treatment with 3-MA or Atg 5 siRNA suppressed the cytotoxic effect of AG-4 implying the pro-death role of autophagy. Furthermore, incubation with Z-VAD-fmk or Bax siRNA subdued AG-4 induced autophagy and pre-treatment with 3-MA or Atg 5 siRNA curbed AG-4 induced apoptosis-implying that apoptosis and autophagy acted as partners in the context of AG-4 mediated action. AG-4 also inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Inhibition of mTOR or Akt augmented AG-4 induced apoptosis and autophagy signifying its crucial role in its mechanism of action.Thus, these findings prove the dual ability of AG-4 to induce apoptosis and autophagy which provide a new perspective to it as a potential molecule targeting PCD for future cancer therapeutics.

  14. Effect of Bee Venom and Its Fractions on the Release of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in PMA-Differentiated U937 Cells Co-Stimulated with LPS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tusiimire, Jonans; Wallace, Jennifer; Woods, Nicola; Dufton, Mark J; Parkinson, John A; Abbott, Grainne; Clements, Carol J; Young, Louise; Park, Jin Kyu; Jeon, Jong Woon; Ferro, Valerie A; Watson, David G

    2016-01-01

    The venom of Apis mellifera (honey bee) has been reported to play a role in immunotherapy, but existing evidence to support its immuno-modulatory claims is insufficient. Four fractions from whole bee venom (BV) were separated using medium pressure liquid chromatography. Their ability to induce the production of cytokines TNFα, IL-1β and IL-6 in phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-treated U937 cells was assessed. The levels of the three cytokines produced by stimulation with the four fractions and crude BV without LPS were not significantly different from negative control values. However, co-stimulation of the cells with LPS and Fraction 4 (F-4) induced a 1.6-fold increase in TNF-α level (p < 0.05) compared to LPS alone. Likewise, LPS-induced IL-1β production was significantly synergised in the presence of F-1 (nine-fold), F-2 (six-fold), F-3 (four-fold) and F-4 (two-fold) fractions, but was only slightly enhanced with crude BV (1.5-fold) relative to LPS. Furthermore, the LPS-stimulated production of IL-6 was not significantly increased in cells co-treated with F-2 and F-3, but the organic fraction (F-4) showed an inhibitory effect (p < 0.05) on IL-6 production. The latter was elucidated by NMR spectroscopy and found to contain(Z)-9-eicosen-1-ol. The effects observed with the purified BV fractions were more marked than those obtained with the crude sample. PMID:27104574

  15. Microarray Analysis of Response of Salmonella during Infection of HLA-B27- Transfected Human Macrophage-Like U937 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinton Jay CD

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human leukocyte antigen (HLA-B27 is strongly associated with the development of reactive arthritis (ReA in humans after salmonellosis. Human monocytic U937 cells transfected with HLA-B27 are less able to eliminate intracellular Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis than those transfected with control HLA antigens (e.g. HLA-A2. To investigate further the mechanisms by which HLA-B27-transfected cells allow increased replication of these bacteria, a DNA-based microarray was used for comparative genomic analysis of S. Enteritidis grown in HLA-B27- or HLA-A2-transfected cells. The microarray consisted of 5080 oligonucleotides from different serovars of Salmonella including S. Enteritidis PT4-specific genes. Bacterial RNA was isolated from the infected HLA-B27- or HLA-A2-transfected cells, reverse-transcribed to cDNA, and hybridized with the oligonucleotides on the microarrays. Some microarray results were confirmed by RT-PCR. Results When gene expression was compared between Salmonella grown in HLA-B27 cells and in HLA-A2 cells, 118 of the 4610 S. Enteritidis-related genes differed in expression at 8 h after infection, but no significant difference was detectable at 2 h after infection. These differentially expressed genes are mainly involved in Salmonella virulence, DNA replication, energy conversion and metabolism, and uptake and metabolism of nutrient substances, etc. The difference suggests HLA-B27-dependent modulation of Salmonella gene expression, resulting in increased Salmonella replication in HLA-B27-positive cells. Among the up-regulated genes were those located in Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI-2, which play a central role in intracellular survival and replication of Salmonella. Conclusions This is the first report to show the regulation of Salmonella gene expression by HLA-B27 during infection of host cells. This regulation probably leads to increased Salmonella survival and replication in HLA-B27-positive

  16. Delayed translational silencing of ceruloplasmin transcript in gamma interferon-activated U937 monocytic cells: role of the 3' untranslated region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, B.; Fox, P. L.

    1999-01-01

    Ceruloplasmin (Cp) is an acute-phase protein with ferroxidase, amine oxidase, and pro- and antioxidant activities. The primary site of Cp synthesis in human adults is the liver, but it is also synthesized by cells of monocytic origin. We have shown that gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) induces the synthesis of Cp mRNA and protein in monocytic cells. We now report that the induced synthesis of Cp is terminated by a mechanism involving transcript-specific translational repression. Cp protein synthesis in U937 cells ceased after 16 h even in the presence of abundant Cp mRNA. RNA isolated from cells treated with IFN-gamma for 24 h exhibited a high in vitro translation rate, suggesting that the transcript was not defective. Ribosomal association of Cp mRNA was examined by sucrose centrifugation. When Cp synthesis was high, i.e., after 8 h of IFN-gamma treatment, Cp mRNA was primarily associated with polyribosomes. However, after 24 h, when Cp synthesis was low, Cp mRNA was primarily in the nonpolyribosomal fraction. Cytosolic extracts from cells treated with IFN-gamma for 24 h, but not for 8 h, contained a factor which blocked in vitro Cp translation. Inhibitor expression was cell type specific and present in extracts of human cells of myeloid origin, but not in several nonmyeloid cells. The inhibitory factor bound to the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of Cp mRNA, as shown by restoration of in vitro translation by synthetic 3'-UTR added as a "decoy" and detection of a binding complex by RNA gel shift analysis. Deletion mapping of the Cp 3'-UTR indicated an internal 100-nucleotide region of the Cp 3'-UTR that was required for complex formation as well as for silencing of translation. Although transcript-specific translational control is common during development and differentiation and global translational control occurs during responses to cytokines and stress, to our knowledge, this is the first report of translational silencing of a specific transcript following cytokine

  17. C-jun N-terminal Kinase-mediated Signaling Is Essential for Staphylococcus Aureus-induced U937 Apoptosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-he Wang; Bo Yu; Hui-yan Niu; Hui Li; Yi Zhang; Xin Wang; Ping He

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of SP600125, a specific c-jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) inhibitor, on Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-induced U937 cell death and the underlying mechanism. Methods The human monocytic U937 cells were treated with S. aureus at different time with or without SP600125. Cell apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry. JNK, Bax, and caspase-3 activities were detected by Western blotting. Results S. aureus induced apoptosis in cultured U937 cells in a time-dependent manner. Expression of Bax and phospho-JNK significantly increased in S. aureus-treated U937 cells, and the level of activated caspase-3 also increased in a time-dependent manner. Inhibition of JNK with SP600125 significantly inhibited S. aureus-induced apoptosis in U937 cells. Conclusions S. aureus can induce apoptosis in U937 cells by phosphorylation of JNK and activation of Bax and caspase-3. SP600125 protects U937 cells from apoptosis induced by S. aureus via inhibiting the activity of JNK.

  18. Andrographolide Analogue Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy Mediated Cell Death in U937 Cells by Inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Kumar; Bimolendu Das; Rupashree Sen; Priyanka Kundu; Alak Manna; Avijit Sarkar; Chinmay Chowdhury; Mitali Chatterjee; Padma Das

    2015-01-01

    Background Current chemotherapeutic agents based on apoptosis induction are lacking in desired efficacy. Therefore, there is continuous effort to bring about new dimension in control and gradual eradication of cancer by means of ever evolving therapeutic strategies. Various forms of PCD are being increasingly implicated in anti-cancer therapy and the complex interplay among them is vital for the ultimate fate of proliferating cells. We elaborated and illustrated the underlying mechanism of th...

  19. Internalization, lysosomal degradation and new synthesis of surface membrane CD4 in phorbol ester-activated T-lymphocytes and U-937 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, C M; Christensen, E I; Andresen, B S;

    1992-01-01

    degradation was low in resting cells. Endocytosis and/or degradation of anti-CD4 mAb was suppressed by H7, and by inhibitors of membrane traffic (Monensin) and lysosome function (methylamine, chloroquine). Immunocytochemistry localized CD4 to the surface of unstimulated T-cells. Upon PMA stimulation...... occasional labeling was seen in endosomes but whole cell CD4 decreased dramatically. However, methylamine-treated PMA blasts showed accumulation of CD4 in lysosomes and accordingly, pulse-chase experiments in biolabeled cell cultures suggested a manifest reduction of CD4 half-life in response to PMA. Despite...... lysosomal degradation of membrane CD4. Transport of CD4 to the cell surface and CD4 synthesis is unaffected by activation....

  20. Momilactone B induces apoptosis and G1 arrest of the cell cycle in human monocytic leukemia U937 cells through downregulation of pRB phosphorylation and induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21Waf1/Cip1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol; Jeong, Na Young; Kim, Gi-Young; Han, Min Ho; Chung, Ill-Min; Kim, Wun-Jae; Yoo, Young Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2014-04-01

    Momilactone B, a terpenoid phytoalexin present in rice bran, has been shown to exhibit several biological activities. The present study was conducted using cultured human leukemia U937 cells to elucidate the possible mechanisms by which momilactone B exerts its anticancer activity, which to date has remained poorly understood. Momilactone B treatment of U937 cells resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth and induced apoptotic cell death as detected by chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation, the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and Annexin V-FITC staining. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that momilactone B resulted in G1 arrest in cell cycle progression, which was associated with the dephosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein (pRB) and enhanced binding of pRB with the E2F transcription factor family proteins. Treatment with momilactone B also increased the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitor p21Waf1/Cip1 in a p53-independent manner, without any noticeable changes in G1 cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), except a slight decrease in cyclin E. Moreover, in vitro kinase assay indicated that momilactone B significantly decreased Cdk4- and Cdk6-associated kinase activities through a notably increased binding of p21 to Cdk4 and Cdk6. Our results demonstrated that momilactone B caused G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in U937 cells through the induction of p21 expression, inhibition of Cdk/cyclin-associated kinase activities, and reduced phosphorylation of pRB, which may be related to anticancer activity. PMID:24503697

  1. CoCr wear particles generated from CoCr alloy metal-on-metal hip replacements, and cobalt ions stimulate apoptosis and expression of general toxicology-related genes in monocyte-like U937 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cobalt-chromium (CoCr) particles in the nanometre size range and their concomitant release of Co and Cr ions into the patients' circulation are produced by wear at the articulating surfaces of metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. This process is associated with inflammation, bone loss and implant loosening and led to the withdrawal from the market of the DePuy ASR™ MoM hip replacements in 2010. Ions released from CoCr particles derived from a resurfacing implant in vitro and their subsequent cellular up-take were measured by ICP-MS. Moreover, the ability of such metal debris and Co ions to induce both apoptosis was evaluated with both FACS and immunoblotting. qRT-PCR was used to assess the effects on the expression of lymphotoxin alpha (LTA), BCL2-associated athanogene (BAG1), nitric oxide synthase 2 inducible (NOS2), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS), growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible alpha (GADD45A). ICP-MS showed that the wear debris released significant (p < 0.05) amounts of Co and Cr ions into the culture medium, and significant (p < 0.05) cellular uptake of both ions. There was also an increase (p < 0.05) in apoptosis after a 48 h exposure to wear debris. Analysis of qRT-PCR results found significant up-regulation (p < 0.05) particularly of NOS2 and BAG1 in Co pre-treated cells which were subsequently exposed to Co ions + debris. Metal debris was more effective as an inducer of apoptosis and gene expression when cells had been pre-treated with Co ions. This suggests that if a patient receives sequential bilateral CoCr implants, the second implant may be more likely to produce adverse effects than the first one. - Highlights: • Effects of CoCr nanoparticles and Co ions on U937 cells were investigated. • Ions released from wear debris play an important role in cellular response, • Toxicity of Co ions could be related to NO metabolic processes and apoptosis. • CoCr particles were a more effective inducer of apoptosis after cell

  2. CoCr wear particles generated from CoCr alloy metal-on-metal hip replacements, and cobalt ions stimulate apoptosis and expression of general toxicology-related genes in monocyte-like U937 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posada, Olga M., E-mail: O.M.PosadaEstefan@leeds.ac.uk [Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Strathclyde, Wolfson Centre, Glasgow G4 0NW (United Kingdom); Gilmour, Denise [Pure and Applied Chemistry Department, University of Strathclyde, Thomas Graham Building, Glasgow G1 1XL (United Kingdom); Tate, Rothwelle J., E-mail: r.j.tate@strath.ac.uk [Strathclyde Institute for Pharmacy and Biomedical Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G4 0RE (United Kingdom); Grant, M. Helen [Biomedical Engineering Department, University of Strathclyde, Wolfson Centre, Glasgow G4 0NW (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-15

    Cobalt-chromium (CoCr) particles in the nanometre size range and their concomitant release of Co and Cr ions into the patients' circulation are produced by wear at the articulating surfaces of metal-on-metal (MoM) implants. This process is associated with inflammation, bone loss and implant loosening and led to the withdrawal from the market of the DePuy ASR™ MoM hip replacements in 2010. Ions released from CoCr particles derived from a resurfacing implant in vitro and their subsequent cellular up-take were measured by ICP-MS. Moreover, the ability of such metal debris and Co ions to induce both apoptosis was evaluated with both FACS and immunoblotting. qRT-PCR was used to assess the effects on the expression of lymphotoxin alpha (LTA), BCL2-associated athanogene (BAG1), nitric oxide synthase 2 inducible (NOS2), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (FOS), growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible alpha (GADD45A). ICP-MS showed that the wear debris released significant (p < 0.05) amounts of Co and Cr ions into the culture medium, and significant (p < 0.05) cellular uptake of both ions. There was also an increase (p < 0.05) in apoptosis after a 48 h exposure to wear debris. Analysis of qRT-PCR results found significant up-regulation (p < 0.05) particularly of NOS2 and BAG1 in Co pre-treated cells which were subsequently exposed to Co ions + debris. Metal debris was more effective as an inducer of apoptosis and gene expression when cells had been pre-treated with Co ions. This suggests that if a patient receives sequential bilateral CoCr implants, the second implant may be more likely to produce adverse effects than the first one. - Highlights: • Effects of CoCr nanoparticles and Co ions on U937 cells were investigated. • Ions released from wear debris play an important role in cellular response, • Toxicity of Co ions could be related to NO metabolic processes and apoptosis. • CoCr particles were a more effective inducer of apoptosis after cell

  3. Molecular characterization of Helicobacter pylori VacA induction of IL-8 in U937 cells reveals a prominent role for p38MAPK in activating transcription factor-2, cAMP response element binding protein, and NF-kappaB activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisatsune, Junzo; Nakayama, Masaaki; Isomoto, Hajime;

    2008-01-01

    intracellular Ca(2+) channels (dantrolene) blocked VacA-induced IL-8 production. Furthermore, an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator (BAPTA-AM), which inhibited VacA-activated p38 MAPK, caused a dose-dependent reduction in VacA-induced IL-8 secretion by U937 cells, implying a role for intracellular Ca(2+) in......Helicobacter pylori VacA induces multiple effects on susceptible cells, including vacuolation, mitochondrial damage, inhibition of cell growth, and enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 expression. To assess the ability of H. pylori to modulate the production of inflammatory mediators, we examined the...... mediating activation of MAPK and the canonical NF-kappaB pathway. VacA stimulated translocation of NF-kappaBp65 to the nucleus, consistent with enhancement of IL-8 expression by activation of the NF-kappaB pathway. In addition, small interfering RNA of activating transcription factor (ATF)-2 or CREB, which...

  4. Dynamic monitoring of changes in endothelial cell-substrate adhesiveness during leukocyte adhesion by microelectrical impedance assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yakun Ge; Tongle Deng; Xiaoxiang Zheng

    2009-01-01

    Adhesion of leukocytes to endothelial cells in inflammation processes leads to changes of endothelial cell-substrate adhesiveness, and understanding of such changes will provide us with important information of inflammation processes. In this study, we used a non-invasive biosensor system referred to as real-time cell electronic sensor (RT-CES) system to monitor the changes in endothelial cell-substrate adhesiveness induced by human monoblastic cell line U937 cell adhesion in a dynamic and quantitative manner. This assay, which is based on cell-substrate impedance readout, is able to monitor transient changes in cell-substrate adhesiveness as a result of U937 cell adhesion. The U937 cell adhesion to endothelial cells was induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in a dose-dependent manner. Although the number of adherent U937 cells to the endothelial cells was verified by a standard assay, the adhesiveness of endothelial cells after addition of U937 cells was monitored by the RT-CES system. Furthermore, focal adhesion kinase protein decrease and F-actin rearrangement in endothelial cells were observed after addition of U937 cells. Our results indicated that the adhesion of U937 cells to LPS-treated endothelial cells reduced the cell adhesiveness to the substrate, and such reduction might facilitate infiltration of leukocytes.

  5. Expression of interleukin 2 receptors and binding of interleukin 2 by gamma interferon-induced human leukemic and normal monocytic cells

    OpenAIRE

    1985-01-01

    Gamma interferon induced surface expression of interleukin 2 (IL-2) receptors on normal human monocytes and the monocytoid cell lines U937 and HL60. These receptors were detected by anti-IL-2 receptor monoclonal antibodies, and U937 IL-2 receptors were indistinguishable from T lymphocyte IL-2 receptors by immunoprecipitation. Also, U937 IL- 2 receptors bound biologically active IL-2. These results suggest a role for monocyte IL-2 receptors in T cell/monocyte interaction during an immune respo...

  6. Expression of P120 Catenin mRNA in Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ying; LIU Wenli; SUN Hanying; ZHOU Hongsheng; XU Huizhen

    2006-01-01

    To investigate p120 catenin Mrna expression in Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) cell lines (U937, Raji, Jurkat and Molt4) and normal lymphocytes and explore the relationship between p120 catenin and Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, total RNA sample was extracted by using TRIzol and reversely transcripted into Cdna. Polymerase chain reaction was performed to detect Mrna expression of p120 catenin in NHL cell lines U937, Raji, Jurkat and Molt4. Normal lymphocytes were used as control. It was found expressions of p120 catenin 1A and 3A Mrna were high in above-mentioned NHL cell lines, but neither p120 catenin 1A nor 3A was found in normal lymphocytes as shown by RT-PCR. It is concluded that both P120ctn1A and P120ctn3A Mrna transcripts were found in all NHL cell lines U937, Raji, Jurkat and Molt4 but they don't exist in normal lymphocytes, suggesting p120ctn possibly is of importance in diagnosis and therapy of lymphoma.

  7. A phagocytosis assay for oxidized low-density lipoprotein versus immunoglobulin G-coated microbeads in human U937 macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, David T; Dufresne, Jaimie; Florentinus-Mefailoski, Angelique; Tucholska, Monika; Trimble, William; Grinstein, Sergio; Marshall, John G

    2016-05-01

    The human monocyte cell line U937 was differentiated into an adherent macrophage phenotype using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to assay the phagocytosis of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) that may play a role in atherosclerosis. Microbeads were coated with the inflammatory ligand oxLDL to create a novel phagocytosis assay that models the binding of macrophages to oxLDL in the solid phase such as found in the fatty streaks of the arteries. The oxLDL was prepared with LDL from human ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) plasma oxidized with an excess (5 mM) of the strong oxidizing agent CuSO4 and characterized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with Western blot. The binding of the oxLDL to the beads was confirmed by DilC18-oxLDL staining and confocal microscopy in addition to trypsin digestion of the microbeads for liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization, and tandem mass spectrometry. Phagocytosis of the oxLDL versus human bulk immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1)-coated microbeads was assayed over time, in the presence and absence of serum factors, by pulse chase and with enzyme inhibitor treatments. The ligand beads were then stained with specific antibodies to oxLDL versus human IgG to differentially stain external versus engulfed ligand microbeads. The phagocytosis of oxLDL and IgG ligand microbeads was abolished by the actin polymerization inhibitors cytochalasin D and latrunculin. Pharmacological inhibitors of the receptor enzymes JAK, SRC, and PLC prevented both IgG and oxLDL receptor function. In contrast, the function of the oxLDL phagocytic receptor complex was more sensitive to inhibition of PTK2, PKC, and SYK activity. PMID:26800863

  8. Comparison of the transcriptional activity of the long terminal repeats of simian immunodeficiency viruses SIVmac251 and SIVmac239 in T-cell lines and macrophage cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, M G; Clements, J E

    1991-01-01

    The U3 regions of the long terminal repeats (LTRs) of simian immunodeficiency viruses SIVmac251 and SIVmac239 were analyzed for basal transcriptional activity and for interaction with cellular factors in the T-cell line HUT-78 and the monocyte/macrophage cell line U937. A number of 5' deletions and mutations were made in the U3 regions of the two LTRs, and these constructs were placed upstream of a plasmid containing the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase reporter gene. The nucleotid...

  9. Combination of small interfering RNA-directed B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 oncogene silencing and arsenic using a nanomedicine strategy for the enhanced cytotoxicity of acute myelogenous leukemia in vitro%载小干扰RNA纳米微粒沉默U937细胞B细胞淋巴瘤/白血病-2基因增加砷剂细胞毒效应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾林涓; 钟淑萍; 李学刚; 林忠; 黄开红; 陈茵婷

    2014-01-01

    目的 观察载小干扰RNA(siRNAs)纳米微粒沉默B细胞淋巴瘤/白血病-2(bcl-2)基因联合纳米砷剂协同抗急性髓性白血病效应.方法 凝胶阻滞电泳、荧光显微镜、流式细胞仪及噻唑蓝(MTT)法分别用于评估正聚乙二醇(PEG)-多聚赖氨酸(PLL)负载siRNAs能力、细胞转染效率及对细胞活力影响,Western blot法观察siRNAs沉默靶基因,MTT法评估siRNAs联合纳米砷剂对U937协同抑制效应.结果 N/P-10时,PEG-PLL和siRNAs基本复合,U937细胞活力为(85.06±5.80)%,转染效率为(83.70±0.37)%,转染后bcl-2蛋白表达下降为(44.1 l±4.39)%.空载体、纯砷单药、纳米As单药及联合用药组细胞活力分别为(99.44±1.45)%、(87.76±2.21)%、(92.98±4.34)%、(67.93±8.16)%(P<0.05)(砷1.25 μmol/L);(99.56±2.53)%、(54.08±4.46)%、(57.85±2.11)%、(38.60±6.24)%(P<0.05)(砷2.50 μmol/L); (98.88±1.59)%、(37.62±1.38)%、(51.31±3.14)%、(28.92±4.97)%(p<0.05)(砷5.00 μmol/L);(97.72±2.55)%、(29.44±4.14)%、(40.18±3.72)%、(20.56±4.97)%(P<0.05)(砷10.00 μmol/L); (96.65±2.03)%、(21.49±1.60)%、(26.34±0.97)%、(15.90±1.70)%(P<0.05)(砷20.00 μmol/L).结论 PEG-PLL对U937细胞毒性较低、转染效率较高,PEG-PLL/siRNAs沉默bel-2联合纳米As获得协同抗白血病效应.%Objective To observed the synergetic inhibitory effects on human acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) by nanoparticle-mediated small interfering RNA (siRNAs) and arsenic therapy in vitro.Methods Gel retardation assay,fluorescence microscopy,flow cytometry assay and methyl thiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay was performed to evaluate siRNAs complexation capacity,transfection efficiency and in-fluence on cell viability of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-poly (L-lysine) (PLL).The down regulation of B cell lymphoma/leukemia-2 (bcl-2) gene expression was comfirmed by Western blotting assay.The MTT assay was further performed to evaluate the synergetic inhibitory

  10. Regulation of CD43-induced U937 homotypic aggregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cho, J. Y.; Chain, B.; M. Vives, J.; Hořejší, Václav; Katz, D. R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 290, č. 1 (2003), s. 155-167. ISSN 0014-4827 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : CD43 * cell adhesion Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.949, year: 2003

  11. Comparative In Vitro Sensitivities of Human Immune Cell Lines, Vaginal and Cervical Epithelial Cell Lines, and Primary Cells to Candidate Microbicides Nonoxynol 9, C31G, and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate

    OpenAIRE

    Krebs, Fred C.; Miller, Shendra R.; Catalone, Bradley J.; Fichorova, Raina; Anderson, Deborah; Malamud, Daniel; Howett, Mary K; Wigdahl, Brian

    2002-01-01

    In experiments to assess the in vitro impact of the candidate microbicides nonoxynol 9 (N-9), C31G, and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) on human immune and epithelial cell viability, cell lines and primary cell populations of lymphocytic and monocytic origin were generally shown to be equally sensitive to exposures ranging from 10 min to 48 h. However, U-937 cells were more sensitive to N-9 and C31G after 48 h than were primary monocyte-derived macrophages. Cytokine activation of monocytes and l...

  12. Characterization of tight junction disruption and immune response modulation in a miniaturized Caco-2/U937 coculture-based in vitro model of the human intestinal barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Qasem; Jing, Lin

    2016-02-01

    A microfluidic-based dynamic in vitro model of the human intestinal barrier has been constructed and characterized. The intestinal epithelial monolayer was mimicked by culturing caco-2 cells on a porous membrane in a double-layered microfluidic chip and interfaced with a co-culture of U937 as a model of immune responsive cells. The physiological flow was also mimicked by a continuous perfusion of culture media from the apical and basolateral side of the porous membrane. This dynamic "in vivo-like" environment maintains a continuous supply of cell nutrient and waste removal and create mechanical shear stress within the physiological ranges which promotes uniform cell growth and tight junction formation. The monolayer permeability to soluble ion changes after treating with LPS, and TNF α as indicated by the reduction of the TEER value. In addition, the immune competent caco-2/U937-based model allowed the investigating the role of the epithelial layer as a protection barrier to biological hazards as indicated by the suppressing of the pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. PMID:26809386

  13. MBA-induced differentiation of myeloid leukemic cell lines is associated with altered G1 cell cycle regulators and related genes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王钦红; 谢毅; 范华骅

    2004-01-01

    @@The proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells can be regulated by a number of physiological agents including hexamethylene bisacetamide (HMBA). Clinically, HMBA has been used for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.1 However, the mechanism of the effect of HMBA on the differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells is largely unkown. Up to now, related reports have not been found. We used HL-60 and U937 cell lines to study the effect of HMBA on the differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells and to explore the possible mechanism.

  14. Differential regulation of vitamin D receptor expression in distinct leukemic cell lines upon phorbol ester-induced growth arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Folgueira M.A.A.K.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A close correlation between vitamin D receptor (VDR abundance and cell proliferation rate has been shown in NIH-3T3 fibroblasts, MCF-7 breast cancer and in HL-60 myeloblastic cells. We have now determined if this association occurs in other leukemic cell lines, U937 and K562, and if VDR content is related to c-myc expression, which is also linked to cell growth state. Upon phorbol myristate acetate (PMA treatment, cells from the three lineages (HL-60, U937 and K562 differentiated and expressed specific surface antigens. All cell lines analyzed were growth inhibited by PMA and the doubling time was increased, mainly due to an increased fraction of cells in the G0/G1 phase, as determined by flow cytometry measurements of incorporated bromodeoxyuridine and cell DNA content. C-myc mRNA expression was down-regulated and closely correlated to cell growth arrest. However, VDR expression in leukemic cell lines, as determined by immunofluorescence and Northern blot assays, was not consistently changed upon inhibition of cell proliferation since VDR levels were down-regulated only in HL-60 cells. Our data suggest that VDR expression cannot be explained simply as a reflection of the leukemic cell growth state.

  15. 1,3,4-Oxadiazole-containing histone deacetylase inhibitors: anticancer activities in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Sergio; Trisciuoglio, Daniela; De Luca, Teresa; Nebbioso, Angela; Labella, Donatella; Lenoci, Alessia; Bigogno, Chiara; Dondio, Giulio; Miceli, Marco; Brosch, Gerald; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Altucci, Lucia; Mai, Antonello

    2014-07-24

    We describe 1,3,4-oxadiazole-containing hydroxamates (2) and 2-aminoanilides (3) as histone deacetylase inhibitors. Among them, 2t, 2x, and 3i were the most potent and selective against HDAC1. In U937 leukemia cells, 2t was more potent than SAHA in inducing apoptosis, and 3i displayed cell differentiation with a potency similar to MS-275. In several acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, as well as in U937 cells in combination with doxorubicin, 3i showed higher antiproliferative effects than SAHA. PMID:24972008

  16. Uptake of {sup 99m}Tc tetrofosmin in lymphoma cell lines: a comparative study with {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, H.-J.; Shiau, Y.-C.; Tsai, S.-C.; Wang, J.-J.; Ho, S.-T.; Kao, Albert E-mail: albertkaotw@yahoo.com.tw

    2002-06-01

    Technetium-99m ({sup 99m}Tc) tetrofosmin has been used as a tumor-seeking agent. However, its role in detecting lymphomas has not been widely investigated. The aim of the present study was to determine the uptake and clearance characteristics of {sup 99m}Tc tetrofosmin in lymphoma cell lines. {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi was also evaluated for comparison. Three lymphoma cell lines (U-937: monocyte-like, histiocytic lymphoma, human; RAMOS: B-lymphoma cell line, American Burkitt lymphoma, lymphoblastoid, human; Hs445: Hodgkin's disease, lymphoid, human) were studied. After incubation of radiotracers {sup 99m}Tc tetrofosmin and {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi in medium for 0, 10, 20, 30, 60, 120 and 180 min, the uptake and clearance of each radiotracer were measured in the three lymphoma cell lines. The uptake of {sup 99m}Tc tetrofosmin was lower than that of {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi in these lymphoma cell lines. Among the three cell lines, Hs445 showed the greatest {sup 99m}Tc tetrofosmin uptake capacity. RAMOS and U-937 showed similar {sup 99m}Tc tetrofosmin uptake capacities. {sup 99m}Tc tetrofosmin accumulated in the three tested lymphoma cell lines, especially in the Hodgkin's disease cell line. However, in comparison with {sup 99m}Tc sestamibi, {sup 99m}Tc tetrofosmin may not be the best radiotracer for detection of lymphoma.

  17. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Upregulates Functional CXCR4 Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Coreceptors in U937 Minus Clones: NF-κB-Independent Enhancement of Viral Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Biswas, Priscilla; Mengozzi, Manuela; Mantelli, Barbara; Delfanti, Fanny; Brambilla, Andrea; Vicenzi, Elisa; Poli, Guido

    1998-01-01

    U937 cell clones which sustain efficient or poor replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) (referred to herein as plus clones and minus clones, respectively) have been previously described. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (vitamin D3) potently induced HIV-1 replication and proviral DNA accumulation in minus clones but not in plus clones. Vitamin D3 did not induce NF-κB activation but selectively upregulated CXCR4 expression in minus clones. The CXCR4 ligand stromal-cell derived fact...

  18. Dose-dependent thresholds of 10-ns electric pulse induced plasma membrane disruption and cytotoxicity in multiple cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennett L Ibey

    Full Text Available In this study, we determined the LD(50 (50% lethal dose for cell death, and the ED(50 (50% of cell population staining positive for propidium (Pr iodide uptake, and phosphatidylserine (PS externalization for several commonly studied cell lines (HeLa, Jurkat, U937, CHO-K1, and GH3 exposed to 10-ns electric pulses (EP. We found that the LD(50 varied substantially across the cell lines studied, increasing from 51 J/g for Jurkat to 1861 J/g for HeLa. PS externalized at doses equal or lower than that required for death in all cell lines ranging from 51 J/g in Jurkat, to 199 J/g in CHO-K1. Pr uptake occurred at doses lower than required for death in three of the cell lines: 656 J/g for CHO-K1, 634 J/g for HeLa, and 142 J/g for GH3. Both Jurkat and U937 had a LD(50 lower than the ED(50 for Pr uptake at 780 J/g and 1274 J/g, respectively. The mechanism responsible for these differences was explored by evaluating cell size, calcium concentration in the exposure medium, and effect of trypsin treatment prior to exposure. None of the studied parameters correlated with the observed results suggesting that cellular susceptibility to injury and death by 10-ns EP was largely determined by cell physiology. In contrast to previous studies, our findings suggest that permeabilization of internal membranes may not necessarily be responsible for cell death by 10-ns EP. Additionally, a mixture of Jurkat and HeLa cells was exposed to 10-ns EP at a dose of 280 J/g. Death was observed only in Jurkat cells suggesting that 10-ns EP may selectively kill cells within a heterogeneous tissue.

  19. Cathepsin H indirectly regulates morphogenetic protein-4 (BMP-4) in various human cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathepsin H is a cysteine protease considered to play a major role in tumor progression, however, its precise function in tumorigenesis is unclear. Cathepsin H was recently proposed to be involved in processing of bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP-4) in mice. In order to clarify whether cathepsin H also regulates BMP-4 in humans, its impact on BMP-4 expression, processing and degradation was investigated in prostate cancer (PC-3), osteosarcoma (HOS) and pro-monocytic (U937) human cell lines. BMP-4 expression was founded to be regulated by cathepsin H using PCR array technology and confirmed by real time PCR. Immunoassays including Western blot and confocal microscopy were used to evaluate the influence of cathepsin H on BMP-4 processing. In contrast to HOS, the expression of BMP-4 mRNA in U937 and PC3 cells was significantly decreased by cathepsin H. The different regulation of BMP-4 synthesis could be associated with the absence of the mature 28 kDa cathepsin H form in HOS cells, where only the intermediate 30 kDa form was observed. No co-localization of BMP-4 and cathepsin H was observed in human cell lines and the multistep processing of BMP-4 was not altered in the presence of specific cathepsin H inhibitor. Isolated cathepsin H does not cleave mature recombinant BMP-4, neither with its amino- nor its endopeptidase activity. Our results exclude direct proteolytic processing of BMP-4 by cathepsin H, however, they provide support for its involvement in the regulation of BMP-4 expression

  20. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is toxic to human colonic, lung and monocytic cell lines, but does not increase the IgE response in a mouse model for allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined whether the common crop mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) from Fusarium species is toxic to human colonic (Caco-2), lung (A549) and monocytic (U937) cell lines. Moreover, since DON reportedly induces increased levels of Th2 cytokines and total IgE, and we have observed that mould extracts adjuvated allergy development in mice, possible adjuvant effect of DON on allergy was studied in a mouse model. For all the cells, exposure to DON for 24 h reduced cellular protein synthesis, proliferation and survival rate dose-dependently. In addition, production of IL-8 in the U937 cell line increased up to eight-fold at levels of DON just lower than the most toxic one, suggesting that IL-8 can be used as an additional index for cytotoxicity in mononuclear phagocytes. However, DON did not increase levels of allergen-specific IgE or IgG1 in the mouse model for allergy. These results suggest that DON, when inhaled or ingested, may have toxic effect on human alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells in lungs and colon, but does not increase the allergic response to allergens

  1. Monocytes conditioned media stimulate fibronectin expression and spreading of inflammatory breast cancer cells in three-dimensional culture: A mechanism mediated by IL-8 signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Mona M

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC is the most aggressive form of breast cancer characterized by invasion of carcinoma cells into dermal lymphatic vessels where they form tumor emboli over expressing adhesion molecule E-cadherin. Although invasion and metastasis are dynamic processes controlled by complex interaction between tumor cells and microenvironment the mechanisms by which soluble mediators may regulate motility and invasion of IBC cells are poorly understood. The present study investigated the effect of media conditioned by human monocytes U937 secreted cytokines, chemokines and growth factors on the expression of adhesion molecules E-cadherin and fibronectin of human IBC cell line SUM149. Furthermore, cytokines signaling pathway involved were also identified. Results U937 secreted cytokines, chemokines and growth factors were characterized by cytokine antibody array. The major U937 secreted cytokines/chemokines were interleukin-8 (IL-8 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1/CCL2. When SUM149 cells were seeded in three dimensional (3D models with media conditioned by U937 secreted cytokines, chemokines and growth factors; results showed: 1 changes in the morphology of IBC cells from epithelial to migratory spindle shape branched like structures; 2 Over-expression of adhesion molecule fibronectin and not E-cadherin. Further analysis revealed that over-expression of fibronectin may be mediated by IL-8 via PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Conclusion The present results suggested that cytokines secreted by human monocytes may promote chemotactic migration and spreading of IBC cell lines. Results also indicated that IL-8 the major secreted cytokine by U937 cells may play essential role in fibronectin expression by SUM149 cells via interaction with IL-8 specific receptors and stimulation of PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  2. Plumbagin Modulates Leukemia Cell Redox Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Gaascht

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Plumbagin is a plant naphtoquinone exerting anti-cancer properties including apoptotic cell death induction and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. The aim of this study was to elucidate parameters explaining the differential leukemia cell sensitivity towards this compound. Among several leukemia cell lines, U937 monocytic leukemia cells appeared more sensitive to plumbagin treatment in terms of cytotoxicity and level of apoptotic cell death compared to more resistant Raji Burkitt lymphoma cells. Moreover, U937 cells exhibited a ten-fold higher ROS production compared to Raji. Neither differential incorporation, nor efflux of plumbagin was detected. Pre-treatment with thiol-containing antioxidants prevented ROS production and subsequent induction of cell death by apoptosis whereas non-thiol-containing antioxidants remained ineffective in both cellular models. We conclude that the anticancer potential of plumbagin is driven by pro-oxidant activities related to the cellular thiolstat.

  3. Diagnosis of Cell Death by Means of Infrared Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Zelig, Udi; Kapelushnik, Joseph; Moreh, Raymond; Mordechai, Shaul; Nathan, Ilana

    2009-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been established as a fast spectroscopic method for biochemical analysis of cells and tissues. In this research we aimed to investigate FTIR's utility for identifying and characterizing different modes of cell death, using leukemic cell lines as a model system. CCRF-CEM and U937 leukemia cells were treated with arabinoside and doxorubicin apoptosis inducers, as well as with potassium cyanide, saponin, freezing-thawing, and H2O2 necrosis induc...

  4. Regulation of urokinase receptors in monocytelike U937 cells by phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picone, R; Kajtaniak, E L; Nielsen, L S;

    1989-01-01

    A specific surface receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) recognizes the amino-terminal growth factor-like sequence of uPA, a region independent from and not required for the catalytic activity of this enzyme. The properties of the uPA receptor (uPAR) and the localization and distribu...

  5. Interaction of human IgG chimeric antibodies with the human FcRI and FcRII receptors: requirements for antibody-mediated host cell-target cell interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M R; Woof, J M; Brüggemann, M; Jefferis, R; Burton, D R

    1989-04-01

    Chimeric monoclonal antibodies (McAb), specific for the hapten 5-iodo-4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenacetyl (NIP), expressing human IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 subclass constant domains, have been examined for their ability to interact with the human FcRII receptor. Human red blood cells (RBC) sensitized by each of these McAbs have been assayed for their ability to form rosettes with the human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cell line, human B cell line Daudi and erythroblastoid K562 cell line. IgG1 and IgG3 sensitized RBC formed significant rosettes with the FcR- and FcRII+ Daudi and K562 cell lines, the percentage of cells forming rosettes being directly proportional to the degree of sensitization of the RBC. Bromelin treating Daudi cells did not alter this pattern of reactivity, whereas bromelin treated FcRI+ and FcRII+ U937 cells formed significant resettes with IgG1, IgG3 and IgG4 sensitized RBC, demonstrating a difference in the IgG subclass specificity between human FcRI and FcRII. Murine IgG2b anti-NIP sensitized RBC did not form rosettes with any cell line tested; however, RBC sensitized by some members of a panel of murine IgG1 McAb, specific for the glycophorin A molecule, were able to form rosettes with Daudi, U937 and K562 cells. This interaction was enhanced by bromelin treating the Daudi or U937 cells and can be correlated to the disposition of the epitopes recognized, relative to the target cell membrane, those McAbs recognizing epitopes furthest from the RBC surface being most effective in interacting with FcRII. The data are interpreted in terms of a simple model for antibody-mediated cell--cell interaction. PMID:2716734

  6. G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Tumor Selective Apoptosis of Acute Leukemia Cells by a Promising Benzophenone Thiosemicarbazone Compound

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrera, Maia; Gomez, Natalia; Remes Lenicov, Federico; Echeverría, Emiliana; Shayo, Carina; Moglioni, Albertina; Fernández, Natalia; Davio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Anti-mitotic therapies have been considered a hallmark in strategies against abnormally proliferating cells. Focusing on the extensively studied family of thiosemicarbazone (TSC) compounds, we have previously identified 4,4’-dimethoxybenzophenone thiosemicarbazone (T44Bf) as a promising pharmacological compound in a panel of human leukemia cell lines (HL60, U937, KG1a and Jurkat). Present findings indicate that T44Bf-mediated antiproliferative effects are associated with a reversible chronic ...

  7. Lapatinib induces autophagic cell death and differentiation in acute myeloblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YJ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Jen Chen,1–4 Li-Wen Fang,5 Wen-Chi Su,6,7 Wen-Yi Hsu,1 Kai-Chien Yang,1 Huey-Lan Huang8 1Department of Medical Research, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, 3Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 4Institute of Pharmacology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 5Department of Nutrition, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 6Research Center for Emerging Viruses, China Medical University Hospital, 7Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, 8Department of Bioscience Technology, College of Health Science, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Lapatinib is an oral-form dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ErbB/Her superfamily members with anticancer activity. In this study, we examined the effects and mechanism of action of lapatinib on several human leukemia cells lines, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL cells. We found that lapatinib inhibited the growth of human AML U937, HL-60, NB4, CML KU812, MEG-01, and ALL Jurkat T cells. Among these leukemia cell lines, lapatinib induced apoptosis in HL-60, NB4, and Jurkat cells, but induced nonapoptotic cell death in U937, K562, and MEG-01 cells. Moreover, lapatinib treatment caused autophagic cell death as shown by positive acridine orange staining, the massive formation of vacuoles as seen by electronic microscopy, and the upregulation of LC3-II, ATG5, and ATG7 in AML U937 cells. Furthermore, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine and knockdown of ATG5, ATG7, and Beclin-1 using short hairpin RNA (shRNA partially rescued lapatinib-induced cell death. In addition, the induction of phagocytosis and ROS production as well as the upregulation of surface markers CD14 and CD68 was detected in lapatinib-treated U937 cells, suggesting the induction of

  8. Antileukemic activity of the leaf extract of Bischofia javanica blume on human leukemic cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sutharson Lingadurai

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : Leaves of Bichofia javanica (BJ have been traditionally used for many ailments including cancer. In the present study, antileukemic activity of the leaf extract was evaluated on human leukemic cell lines. Materials and Methods : Human leukemic cell lines U937, K562, and HL60 were purchased from National Facility for Animal Tissue and Cell Culture, Pune, India. The cells were routinely maintained in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% heat inactivated fetal calf serum. Cultures were maintained at 37ºC in a humidified atmosphere containing 5% CO 2 in air. The methanol extract of BJ (MEBJ was dissolved in PBS and used at the concentrations of 5, 10, and 15 μg/ml for cell viability and cytotoxicity studies (MTT assay. Cell counts were made in quadruplicate samples at the interval of 24, 48, and 72 h and cytarabine (20 μg/ml served as standard drug. The apoptotic pathway of cytotoxicity was assessed by DNA agarose gel electrophoresis technique and confirmed by fluorescence and confocal microscopic methods at the concentration of 10 μg/ml. Results : MEBJ showed significant cytotoxicity (P<0.001 in leukemic cell lines in the in-vitro cell proliferation assay. IC 50 of MEBJ was very low (3.5 μg/ml at 72 h in the HL60 cell line. The apoptotic pathway of cytotoxicity was observed at 10 μg/ml of MEBJ by the fragmented DNA pattern in the apoptosis assay, chromatin condensation, and apoptotic body formation as revealed in the fluorescence and confocal microscopic studies. Conclusion : The present findings support the ethno-medicinal use of BJ for cancer by mediating through the apoptosis pathway.

  9. Methoxyflavone derivatives modulate the effect of TRAIL-induced apoptosis in human leukemic cell lines

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    Wudtiwai Benjawan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL induces apoptosis in various tumor cells, but does not affect normal cells or human leukemic cells, such as MOLT-4 and U937 cells, which are relatively resistant to TRAIL. Three flavonoids extracted from the rhizome of K. parviflora were 5,7-dimethoxyflavone (DMF, 5,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (TMF and 3,5,7,3',4'-pentamethoxyflavone (PMF, and synthetic flavonoids including 5-methoxyflavone (5-MF and 2'-methoxyflavone (2"-MF were chosen for testing in this study. The aims of this study were to examine whether the treatment of TRAIL-resistant leukemia MOLT-4 and U937 cells, with methoxyflavone derivatives could enhance the apoptotic response and to identify the mechanism involved. Methods The cytotoxic effect of methoxyflavone (MF derivatives in MOLT-4, U937 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was analyzed by the MTT assay. The induction of apoptosis and the reduction of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm after staining with annexin V FITC and propidium iodide (PI, and 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide (DiOC6, respectively, were performed using flow cytometry. ROS production was determined by staining with 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate and processed with a flow cytometer. DR4, DR5, cFLIP, Mcl-1, BAX and Bid expression were demonstrated by immunoblotting. Caspase-8 and -3 activities were determined by using IETD-AFC and DEVD-AFC substrates and the fluorescence intensity was measured. Results All methoxyflavone derivatives were cytotoxic to MOLT-4, U937 cells and PBMCs, except DMF, TMF and PMF were not toxic to PBMCs. All MF derivatives induced human leukemic MOLT-4 cell apoptosis, but not in U937 cells. Percentage of MOLT-4 cells with (ΔΨm was increased when treated with DMF, TMF, PMF, 5-MF and 2'-MF in the presence of TRAIL. 5-MF and 2'-MF enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis through the up-regulation of both DRs and the down-regulation of c

  10. Inhibitory and Cytotoxic Activities of Salvia Officinalis L. Extract on Human Lymphoma and Leukemia Cells by Induction of Apoptosis

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    Abbas Azadmehr

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Salvia officinalis L., also known as Maryam Goli, is one of the native plants used to Persian medicinal herbs. Hence, the objective of this study was to examine the in vitro cytotoxic activities of a standardized crude methanol extracts prepared from Salvia officinalis L., on a non-Hodgkin’s B-cell lymphoma (Raji and human leukemic monocyte lymphoma (U937, Human acute myelocytic leukemia (KG-1A and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC cell lines. Methods: The effect of methanolic extract on the inhibition of cell proliferation and cytotoxic activity was evaluated by Dye exclusion and Micro culture tetrazolium test (MTT cytotoxicity assay. Cell death ELISA was employed to quantify the nucleosome production result from nuclear DNA fragmentation during apoptosis and determined whether the mechanism involves induction of apoptosis or necrosis. Results: The present results demonstrated that methanolic extract at 50 to 800 μg/ml dose and time-dependently suppressed the proliferation of KG-1A, U937 and Raji cells by more than 80% (p800 Ag/ml. Nucleosome productions in KG-1A, Raji and U937 cells were significantly increased respectively upon the treatment of Salvia officinalis L. extract. Conclusion: The Salvia officinalis L. extract was found dose and time-dependently inhibits the proliferation of lymphoma and leukemic cells possibly via an apoptosis-dependent pathway.

  11. Methylation of Gene CHFR Promoter in Acute Leukemia Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GONG Hui; LIU Wengli; ZHOU Jianfeng; XU Huizhen

    2005-01-01

    Summary: In order to explore whether gene CHFR was inactivated by methylation in leukemia cells, the expression of CHFR was examined before and after treatment with demethylation agent in Molt-4, Jurkat and U937 leukemia cell lines by means of RT-PCR. The methylation of promoter in Molt-4, Jurkat and U937 cells as well as 41 acute leukemia patients was analyzed by MS-PCR. The results showed that methylation of CHFR promoter was inactivated and could be reversed by treatment with a demethylating agent in Molt-4, Jurkat and U937. CHFR promoter methylation was detected in 39 % of acute leukemia patients. There was no difference in incidence of CHFR promoter methylation between acute myelocytic leukemia and acute lymphocytic leukemia. In conclusion, CHFR is frequently inactivated in acute leukemia and is a good candidate for the leukemia supper gene. By affecting mitotic checkpoint function, CHFR inactivation likely plays a key role in tumorigenesis in acute leukemia. Moreover, the methylation of gene CHFR appears to be a good index with which to predict the sensitivity of acute leukemia to microtubule inhibitors.

  12. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Quorum Sensing Molecule N-(3-Oxododecanoyl)-L-Homoserine-Lactone Induces HLA-G Expression in Human Immune Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortolotti, Daria; LeMaoult, Joel; Trapella, Claudio; Di Luca, Dario; Carosella, Edgardo D; Rizzo, Roberta

    2015-10-01

    HLA-G is a nonclassical class I human leukocyte antigen (HLA) involved in mechanisms of immune tolerance. The objective of this study was to determine whether N-(3-oxododecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3O-C12-HSL), a quorum sensing molecule produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, could modify HLA-G expression to control the host immune response. We evaluated the ability of 3O-C12-HSL to induce HLA-G expression in primary immune cells, monocytes (U937 and THP1), and T-cell lines (Jurkat) in vitro and analyzed the cellular pathway responsible for HLA-G expression. We studied the HLA-G promoter with a luciferase assay and interleukin-10 (IL-10) and p38/CREB signaling with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunofluorescence, respectively. We observed that 3O-C12-HSL is able to induce HLA-G expression in human monocytes and T cells. We showed that the induction of HLA-G by 3O-C12-HSL is p38/CREB and IL-10 dependent. 3O-C12-HSL treatment is able to arrest only the U937 cell cycle, possibly due to the peculiar expression of the ILT2 receptor in the U937 cell line. Our observations suggest HLA-G as a mechanism to create a protected niche for the bacterial reservoir, similar to the role of HLA-G molecules during viral infections. PMID:26195547

  13. Demonstration of the mineralocorticoid hormone receptor and action in human leukemic cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshahi, M; Mirshahi, S; Golestaneh, N; Mishal, Z; Nicolas, C; Hecquet, C; Agarwal, M K

    2000-06-01

    We studied the expression of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MCR), and of the amiloride-sensitive sodium channel (ASSC) regulated by the MCR, in human leukemic cell lines. Cell extracts from TF1 (proerythroblastic), HEL (human erythroblastic leukemia) and U937 (myeloblastic) cell line were positive for the ASSC, as a 82 kDa band in Western blots developed with the aid of a polyclonal antibody raised against the peptide QGLGKGDKREEQGL, corresponding to the region 44-58 of the alpha subunit of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) cloned from rat colon, linked to KLH. The polyclonal antibody against the MCR revealed a single band of about 102 kDa in extracts from HEL and TF1 cells. The immunofluorescent labelling of the MCR in all cell lines showed a nucleocytoplasmic localization of the receptor but the ASSC was exclusively membrane-bound and these results were confirmed by confocal microscopy. The expression of the MCR in the HEL cells was evident as a predicted band of 843 bp (234 amino acids) in electrophoresis of the PCR product obtained after total RNA had been reverse transcribed and then amplified using the primers 5'-AGGCTACCACAGTCTCCCTG-3' and 5'-GCAGTGTAAAATCTCCAGTC-3' (sense and antisense, respectively). The ENaC was similarly evident with the aid of the primers 5'-CTGCCmATG GATGATGGT-3' (sense) and 5'-GTTCAGCTCGAAGAAGA-3' (antisense) as a predicted band of 520 bp. In both cases, 100% identity was observed between the sequences of the PCR products compared to those from known human sources. The multiplication of the HEL cells was influenced by antagonists (RU 26752, ZK 91587) targeted for specificity to the MCR and this was selectively reversed by the natural hormone aldosterone. These steroids also provoked chromatin condensation in the HEL population. These permit new and novel possibilities to understand the pathobiology of human leukemia and to delineate sodium-water homeostasis in nonepithelial cells. PMID:10865975

  14. Constitutive activation of the ATM/BRCA1 pathway prevents DNA damage-induced apoptosis in 5-azacytidine-resistant cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, Satoshi; Umezu, Tomohiro; Ohtsuki, Kazushige; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Ohyashiki, Junko H

    2014-06-01

    5-Azacytidine (AZA) exerts its anti-tumor effects by exerting cytotoxicity via its incorporation into RNA and DNA, which causes the reactivation of aberrantly silenced growth-regulatory genes by promoter demethylation, as well as DNA damage. AZA is used for patients with myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia. However, some patients demonstrate resistance to AZA, the mechanisms of which are not fully elucidated. We therefore sought to better characterize the molecular mechanism of AZA resistance using an in vitro model of AZA resistance. We established AZA-resistant cell lines by exposing the human leukemia cell lines U937 and HL-60 to clinical concentrations of AZA, and characterized these cells. AZA-resistant cells showed a down-regulation of the DNMT3A protein, in correlation with their marked genome-wide DNA hypomethylation. Furthermore, genes involved in pyrimidine metabolism were down-regulated in both AZA-resistant cell lines; AZA sensitivity was restored by inhibition of CTP synthase. Of note is that the DNA damage response pathway is constitutively activated in the AZA-resistant cell lines, but not in the parental cell lines. Inhibition of the DNA damage response pathway canceled the AZA resistance, in association with an increase in apoptotic cells. We found that the molecular mechanism underlying AZA resistance involves pyrimidine metabolism and the DNA damage response through ATM kinase. This study therefore sheds light on the mechanisms underlying AZA resistance, and will enable better understanding of AZA resistance in patients undergoing AZA treatment. PMID:24680865

  15. N-alkylated isatins evade P-gp mediated efflux and retain potency in MDR cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vine, Kara L; Belfiore, Lisa; Jones, Luke; Locke, Julie M; Wade, Samantha; Minaei, Elahe; Ranson, Marie

    2016-01-01

    The search for novel anticancer therapeutics with the ability to overcome multi-drug resistance (MDR) mechanisms is of high priority. A class of molecules that show potential in overcoming MDR are the N-alkylated isatins. In particular 5,7-dibromo-N-alkylisatins are potent microtubule destabilizing agents that act to depolymerize microtubules, induce apoptosis and inhibit primary tumor growth in vivo. In this study we evaluated the ability of four dibrominated N-alkylisatin derivatives and the parent compound, 5,7-dibromoisatin, to circumvent MDR. All of the isatin-based compounds examined retained potency against the MDR cell lines; U937VbR and MES-SA/Dx5 and displayed bioequivalent dose-dependent cytotoxicity to that of the parental control cell lines. We show that one mechanism by which the isatin-based compounds overcome MDR is by circumventing P-glycoprotein (P-gp) mediated drug efflux. Thus, as the isatin-based compounds are not susceptible to extrusion from P-gp overexpressing tumor cells, they represent a promising alternative strategy as a stand-alone or combination therapy for treating MDR cancer. PMID:27441242

  16. Depletion of the surface CD4 molecule by the envelope protein of human immunodeficiency virus expressed in a human CD4+ monocytoid cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A CD4+ human monocytoid cell line, U937, was transfected with a constructed plasmid which has the envelope gene of human immunodeficiency virus under the transcriptional control of the human metallothionein IIA promoter and was cloned thereafter. These cloned cell lines (EH and EL cells) expressed the viral gp160 in the cytoplasm. The expression of surface CD4 antigen examined by Leu3a and OKT4 monoclonal antibodies, however, disappeared completely in EH cells, which produce a larger amount of gp160, while diminishing only partly in EL cells, which produce a smaller amount of gp160. These results indicate that the level of expression of surface CD4 antigen correlates inversely with the amount of intracellular gp160. Moreover, immunoprecipitation studies using lysate from EH cells showed that OKT4 monoclonal antibody precipitated a significant number of CD4 molecules even after surface CD4 disappeared. However, Leu3a monoclonal antibody, which recognizes the binding site for envelope protein, could not precipitate any CD4 molecules in the same cell lysate. Taken together, these results suggested that CD4 molecules are still synthesized normally after the augmented production of gp160 in the cells but form a complex with the envelope protein in the cytoplasm and become unable to be transported to the cell surface, resulting in the observed depletion of surface CD4 antigen. This mechanism may explain the decrease or absence of surface CD4 antigens in human lymphocytes infected with human immunodeficiency virus

  17. Radiosensitivity of mesothelioma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out in order to examine the radiosensitivity of malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines. Cell kinetics, radiation-induced delay of the cell cycle and DNA ploidy of the cell lines were also determined. For comparison an HeLa and a human foetal fibroblast cell line were simultaneously explored. Six previously cytogenetically and histologically characterized mesothelioma tumor cell lines were applied. A rapid tiazolyl blue microtiter (MTT) assay was used to analyze radiosensitivity and cell kinetics and DNA ploidy of the cultured cells were determined by flow cytometry. The survival fraction after a dose of 2 Gy (SF2), parameters α and β of the linear quadratic model (LQ-model) and mean inactivation dose (DMID) were also estimated. The DNA index of four cell lines equaled 1.0 and two cell lines equaled 1.5 and 1.6. Different mesothelioma cell lines showed a great variation in radiosensitivity. Mean survival fraction after a radiation dose of 2 Gy (SF2) was 0.60 and ranged from 0.36 to 0.81 and mean α value was 0.26 (range 0.48-0.083). The SF2 of the most sensitive diploid mesothelioma cell line was 0.36: Less than that of the foetal fibroblast cell line (0.49). The survival fractions (0.81 and 0.74) of the two most resistant cell lines, which also were aneuploid, were equal to that of the HeLa cell line (0.78). The α/β ratios of the most sensitive cell lines were almost an order of magnitude greater than those of the two most resistant cell lines. Radiation-induced delay of the most resistant aneuploid cell line was similar to that of HeLa cells but in the most sensitive (diploid cells) there was practically no entry into the G1 phase following the 2 Gy radiation dose during 36 h. (orig.)

  18. Synchrony in human, mouse and bacterial cell cultures--a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmstetter, Charles E.; Thornton, Maureen; Romero, Ana; Eward, K. Leigh

    2003-01-01

    Growth characteristics of synchronous human MOLT-4, human U-937 and mouse L1210 cultures produced with a new minimally-disturbing technology were compared to each other and to synchronous Escherichia coli B/r. Based on measurements of cell concentrations during synchronous growth, synchrony persisted in similar fashion for all cells. Cell size and DNA distributions in the mammalian cultures also progressed synchronously and reproducibly for multiple cell cycles. The results demonstrate that unambiguous multi-cycle synchrony, critical for verifying the absence of significant growth imbalances induced by the synchronization procedure, is feasible with these cell lines, and possibly others.

  19. Gamma interferon augments Fc gamma receptor-mediated dengue virus infection of human monocytic cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Kontny, U; Kurane, I; Ennis, F A

    1988-01-01

    It has been reported that anti-dengue antibodies at subneutralizing concentrations augment dengue virus infection of monocytic cells. This is due to the increased uptake of dengue virus in the form of virus-antibody complexes by cells via Fc gamma receptors. We analyzed the effects of recombinant human gamma interferon (rIFN-gamma) on dengue virus infection of human monocytic cells. U937 cells, a human monocytic cell line, were infected with dengue virus in the form of virus-antibody complexe...

  20. Biology of SNU Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Ku, Ja-Lok; Park, Jae-Gahb

    2005-01-01

    SNU (Seoul National University) cell lines have been established from Korean cancer patients since 1982. Of these 109 cell lines have been characterized and reported, i.e., 17 colorectal carcinoma, 12 hepatocellular carcinoma, 11 gastric carcinoma, 12 uterine cervical carcinoma, 17 B-lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from cancer patients, 5 ovarian carcinoma, 3 malignant mixed Mllerian tumor, 6 laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma, 7 renal cell carcinoma, 9 brain tumor, 6 biliary tract, and 4 pa...

  1. Hyperketonemia increases monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and is mediated by LFA-1 expression in monocytes and ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells

    OpenAIRE

    Rains, Justin L.; Jain, Sushil K.

    2011-01-01

    Frequent episodes of hyperketonemia are associated with a higher incidence of vascular disease. The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that hyperketonemia increases monocyte-endothelial cell (EC) adhesion and the development of vascular disease in diabetes. Human U937 and THP-1 monocyte cell lines and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured with acetoacetate (AA) (0–10 mM) or β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) (0–10 mM) for 24 h prior to evaluating adhesion and a...

  2. 9-cis-Retinoic Acid Promotes Cell Adhesion Through Integrin Dependent and Independent Mechanisms Across Immune Lineages

    OpenAIRE

    Whelan, Jarrett T.; Chen, Jianming; Miller, Jabin; Morrow, Rebekah L.; Lingo, Joshuah D.; Merrell, Kaitlin; Shaikh, Saame Raza; Bridges, Lance C.

    2012-01-01

    Retinoids are essential in the proper establishment and maintenance of immunity. Although retinoids are implicated in immune related processes, their role in immune cell adhesion has not been well established. In this study, the effect of 9-cis-retinoic acid (9-cis-RA) on human hematopoietic cell adhesion was investigated. 9-cis-RA treatment specifically induced cell adhesion of the human immune cell lines HuT-78, NB4, RPMI 8866, and U937. Due to the prominent role of integrin receptors in me...

  3. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2536 protein implicated in specific binding to human cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    García, Javier; Puentes, Alvaro; Rodríguez, Luis; Ocampo, Marisol; Curtidor, Hernando; Vera, Ricardo; Lopez, Ramses; Valbuena, John; Cortes, Jimena; Vanegas, Magnolia; Barrero, Carlos; Patarroyo, Manuel A; Urquiza, Mauricio; Patarroyo, Manuel E.

    2005-01-01

    The gene encoding the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv2536 protein is present in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (as assayed by PCR) and transcribed (as determined by RT-PCR) in M. tuberculosis H37Rv, M. tuberculosis H37Ra, M. bovis BCG, and M. africanum strains. Rabbits immunized with synthetic polymer peptides from this protein produced antibodies specifically recognizing a 25-kDa band in mycobacterial sonicate. U937 and A549 cells were used in binding assays involving 20-amino-acid-lon...

  4. Pluripotent stem cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Junying; Thomson, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The derivation of human embryonic stem cells 10 years ago ignited an explosion of public interest in stem cells, yet this achievement depended on prior decades of research on mouse embryonic carcinoma cells and embryonic stem cells. In turn, the recent derivation of mouse and human induced pluripotent stem cells depended on the prior studies on mouse and human embryonic stem cells. Both human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells can self-renew indefinitely in vitro while ma...

  5. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides can induce human monocytic leukemia cells into dendritic cells with immuno-stimulatory function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Yu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies demonstrated Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GL-PS, a form of bioactive β-glucan can stimulate the maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC. The question of how leukemic cells especially in monocytic lineage respond to GL-PS stimuli remains unclear. Results In this study, we used in vitro culture model with leukemic monocytic cell-lines THP-1 and U937 as monocytic effectors cells for proliferation responses and DCs induction. We treated the THP-1 and U937 cells with purified GL-PS (100 μg/mL or GL-PS with GM-CSF/IL-4. GL-PS alone induced proliferative response on both THP-1 and U937 cells but only THP-1 transformed into typical DC morphology when stimulated with GL-PS plus GM-CSF/IL-4. The transformed THP-1 DCs had significant increase expression of HLA-DR, CD40, CD80 and CD86 though not as high as the extent of normal monocyte-derived DCs. They had similar antigen-uptake ability as the normal monocyte-derived DCs positive control. However, their potency in inducing allogeneic T cell proliferation was also less than that of normal monocyte-derived DCs. Conclusion Our findings suggested that GL-PS could induce selected monocytic leukemic cell differentiation into DCs with immuno-stimulatory function. The possible clinical impact of using this commonly used medicinal mushroom in patients with monocytic leukemia (AML-M4 and M5 deserved further investigation.

  6. The effect of Isosorbide Dinitrate on vascular endothelial growth factor production by human leukemic cell lines in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajighasemi F

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has mitogenic effect for endothelial cells and is an important mediator of tumor expansion, metastasis and angiogenesis in vivo. Isosorbide dinitrate, as a nitric oxide donor, has been widely used in treatment of many cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure and acute coronary syndromes. Furthermore this drug was found to have inhibitory effect on angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. In the present study we evaluated the isosorbide effect on the VEGF production using some human leukemic cell lines. "nMethods: Human leukemic MOLT-4, JURKAT and U937 cells were cultured in complete RPMI medium. The cells at the exponential growth phase were then incubated with different concentrations of Isosorbide (4´10-7 -4´10-4 M in the presence or absence of PMA (25ng/ml for 24 hours. The VEGF concentrations in the culture supernatants were measured by enzyme immunoassay kits (R&D systems according to the manufacturer's instructions. "nResults: The level of VEGF produced by the human leukemic cell lines which was treated with different concentrations of isosorbide, did not show any significant difference with untreated control cells. "nConclusions: The results of this study showed that isosorbide had no significant effect on VEGF production. Our findings suggest that anti-angiogenesis effect of isosorbide could be mediated through VEGF-independent mechanism(s. Further studies are warranted to determine definite isosorbide effect on VEGF and other angiogenic factors production in patients as well as animal models.

  7. Resveratrol‑4‑O‑D‑(2'‑galloyl)‑glucopyranoside exerts an anticancer effect on leukemia cells via inducing apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pu; Wang, Beili; Pan, Baishen; Guo, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the anticancer effects of resveratrol‑4‑O‑D-(2'‑galloyl)-glucopyranoside (REG) on leukemia and the mechanism underlying its effects. Three leukemia cell lines (HL‑60, Jurkat and U937) were used in this study. A Cell Counting kit‑8 assay was performed to evaluate the anti‑proliferative activity of REG on leukemia cell lines, and flow cytometric analysis was used to detect REG‑induced apoptosis. In addition, western blot analysis was conducted to detect the levels of apoptosis‑related proteins including, cytochrome c, cleaved (c)‑caspases‑3 and ‑9, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) and Bcl‑2‑associated protein x (Bax). Finally, a HL‑60 cell xenograft model in nude mice was used to evaluate the antitumor effect of REG on leukemia in vivo. The present results indicated that REG can significantly inhibit the proliferation of HL‑60, Jurkat and U937 cell lines in a concentration‑ and time‑dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration values were 38.4, 49.1 and 48.2 µg/ml for HL‑60, Jurkat and U937 cells, respectively. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that REG can induce the apoptosis of HL‑60 cells, as well as increase the levels of cytochrome c, c‑caspases‑3 and ‑9, and Bax, as well as downregulate the expression of Bcl‑2. In vivo, REG was found to possess a marked anticancer effect on leukemia. In combination, the present results indicated that REG exerts significant anticancer effects on leukemia in vivo and in vitro through the induction of apoptosis. PMID:26781500

  8. The targeted inhibition of mitochondrial Hsp90 overcomes the apoptosis resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have reported that a Gamitrinib variant containing triphenylphosphonium (G-TPP) binds to mitochondrial Hsp90 and rapidly inhibits its activity, thus inducing the apoptotic pathway in the cells. Accordingly, G-TPP shows a potential as a promising drug for the treatment of cancer. A cell can die from different types of cell death such as apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis, and autophagic cell death. In this study, we further investigated the mechanisms and modes of cell death in the G-TPP-treated Hep3B and U937 cell lines. We discovered that G-TPP kills the U937 cells through the apoptotic pathway and the overexpression of Bcl-2 significantly inhibits U937 cell death to G-TPP. We further discovered that G-TPP kills the Hep3B cells by activating necroptosis in combination with the partial activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Importantly, G-TPP overcomes the apoptosis resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis. We also observed that G-TPP induces compensatory autophagy in the Hep3B cell line. We further found that whereas there is a Bcl-2-Beclin 1 interaction in response to G-TPP, silencing the beclin 1 gene failed to block LC3-II accumulation in the Hep3B cells, indicating that G-TPP triggers Beclin 1-independent protective autophagy in Hep3B cells. Taken together, these data reveal that G-TPP induces cell death through a combination of death pathways, including necroptosis and apoptosis, and overcomes the apoptosis resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis. These findings are important for the therapeutic exploitation of necroptosis as an alternative cell death program to bypass the resistance to apoptosis. Highlights: ► G-TPP binds to mitochondrial Hsp90. ► G-TPP induces apoptosis in U937 human leukemia cancer cells. ► G-TPP induces combination of death pathways in Hep3B cell. ► G-TPP overcomes the resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis. ► G-TPP triggers Beclin 1-independent

  9. The targeted inhibition of mitochondrial Hsp90 overcomes the apoptosis resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Chunlan [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Dong-A University College of Medicine and Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physiology, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310058 (China); Oh, Joon Seok; Yoo, Seung Hee; Lee, Jee Suk [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Dong-A University College of Medicine and Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Young Geol [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Dong-A University College of Medicine and Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Biomedical Science, Institute for Biomedical and Health Sciences, Jungwon University, Chungbuk, 367-805 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Yoo Jin; Jang, Min Seok [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Dong-A University College of Medicine and Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang Yeob [Department of Rheumatology, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Jun [Department of Toxicology, Hangzhou Normal University School of Public Health, Hangzhou, Zhejiang, 310036 China (China); Lee, Sang Hwa [Department of Microbiology and, Dong-A University College of Medicine, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye Young [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Dong-A University College of Medicine and Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Young Hyun, E-mail: yhyoo@dau.ac.kr [Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, Dong-A University College of Medicine and Mitochondria Hub Regulation Center, Busan, 602-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that a Gamitrinib variant containing triphenylphosphonium (G-TPP) binds to mitochondrial Hsp90 and rapidly inhibits its activity, thus inducing the apoptotic pathway in the cells. Accordingly, G-TPP shows a potential as a promising drug for the treatment of cancer. A cell can die from different types of cell death such as apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis, and autophagic cell death. In this study, we further investigated the mechanisms and modes of cell death in the G-TPP-treated Hep3B and U937 cell lines. We discovered that G-TPP kills the U937 cells through the apoptotic pathway and the overexpression of Bcl-2 significantly inhibits U937 cell death to G-TPP. We further discovered that G-TPP kills the Hep3B cells by activating necroptosis in combination with the partial activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Importantly, G-TPP overcomes the apoptosis resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis. We also observed that G-TPP induces compensatory autophagy in the Hep3B cell line. We further found that whereas there is a Bcl-2-Beclin 1 interaction in response to G-TPP, silencing the beclin 1 gene failed to block LC3-II accumulation in the Hep3B cells, indicating that G-TPP triggers Beclin 1-independent protective autophagy in Hep3B cells. Taken together, these data reveal that G-TPP induces cell death through a combination of death pathways, including necroptosis and apoptosis, and overcomes the apoptosis resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis. These findings are important for the therapeutic exploitation of necroptosis as an alternative cell death program to bypass the resistance to apoptosis. Highlights: ► G-TPP binds to mitochondrial Hsp90. ► G-TPP induces apoptosis in U937 human leukemia cancer cells. ► G-TPP induces combination of death pathways in Hep3B cell. ► G-TPP overcomes the resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis. ► G-TPP triggers Beclin 1-independent

  10. Expression of MICA, MICB and NKG2D in human leukemic myelomonocytic and cervical cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza-Rincon Jorge

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer cells are known to secrete the stress molecules MICA and MICB that activate cytotoxicity by lymphocytes and NK cells through their NKG2D receptor as a mechanism of immunological defense. This work was undertaken to evaluate if cancer cells can also express this receptor as a possible mechanisms of depletion of MIC molecules and thus interfere with their immune recognition. Methods Myelomonocytic leukemic (TPH-1 and U-937 and cervical cancer (CALO and INBL cell lines were evaluated by Western Blot, ELISA, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry to evaluate their capacity to express and secrete MICA and MICB and to be induced to proliferate by these molecules as well as to express their receptor NKG2D. Statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA for time course analysis and Student's t-test for comparison between groups. Values were considered significantly different if p Results THP-1 and U-937 produce and secrete the stress MICA and MICB as shown by Western Blot of lysed cells and by ELISA of their conditioned media. By Western Blot and flow cytometry we found that these cells also express the receptor NKG2D. When THP-1 and U-937 were cultured with recombinant MICA and MICB they exhibited a dose dependent induction for their proliferation. CALO and INBL also produce MICA and MICB and were induced to proliferate by these stress molecules. By Western Blot, flow cytometry and immunocytochemistry we also found that these cells express NKG2D. Conclusions Our novel results that tumor cells can simultaneously secrete MIC molecules and express their receptor, and to be induced for proliferation by these stress molecules, and that tumor epithelial cells can also express the NKG2D receptor that was thought to be exclusive of NK and cytotoxic lymphocytes is discussed as a possible mechanism of immunological escape and of tumor growth induction.

  11. Allium compounds, dipropyl and dimethyl thiosulfinates as antiproliferative and differentiating agents of human acute myeloid leukemia cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Merhi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Faten Merhi1, Jacques Auger2, Francine Rendu1, Brigitte Bauvois11UMR 7131 UPMC Paris Universitas/CNRS, Groupe Hospitalier Broussais-HEGP, Paris, France; 2University F. Rabelais, IRBI, UPRESA CNRS 6035, Tours, FranceAbstract: Epidemiologic studies support the premise that Allium vegetables may lower the risk of cancers. The beneficial effects appear related to the organosulfur products generated upon processing of Allium. Leukemia cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML display high proliferative capacity and have a reduced capacity of undergoing apoptosis and maturation. Whether the sulfur-containing molecules thiosulfinates (TS, diallyl TS (All2TS, dipropyl TS (Pr2TS and dimethyl TS (Me2TS, are able to exert chemopreventative activity against AML is presently unknown. The present study was an evaluation of proliferation, cytotoxicity, differentiation and secretion of AML cell lines (U937, NB4, HL-60, MonoMac-6 in response to treatment with these TS and their related sulfides (diallylsulfide, diallyl disulfide, dipropyl disulfide, dimethyl disulfide. As assessed by flow cytometry, ELISA, gelatin zymogaphy and RT-PCR, we showed that Pr2TS and Me2TS, but not All2TS and sulfides, 1 inhibited cell proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manner and this process was neither due to cytotoxicity nor apoptosis, 2 induced macrophage maturation, and 3 inhibited the levels of secreted MMP-9 (protein and activity and TNF-α protein, without altering mRNA levels. By establishing for the first time that Pr2TS and Me2TS affect proliferation, differentiation and secretion of leukemic cell lines, this study provides the opportunity to explore the potential efficiency of these molecules in AML.Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia, thiosulfinate, proliferation, differentiation, matrix metalloproteinase-9

  12. SphK1 inhibitor II (SKI-II) inhibits acute myelogenous leukemia cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Li; Weng, Wei; Sun, Zhi-Xin; Fu, Xian-Jie; Ma, Jun, E-mail: majuntongrensh1@126.com; Zhuang, Wen-Fang, E-mail: wenfangzhuangmd@163.com

    2015-05-15

    Previous studies have identified sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) as a potential drug target for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the current study, we investigated the potential anti-leukemic activity of a novel and specific SphK1 inhibitor, SKI-II. We demonstrated that SKI-II inhibited growth and survival of human AML cell lines (HL-60 and U937 cells). SKI-II was more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors SK1-I and FTY720 in inhibiting AML cells. Meanwhile, it induced dramatic apoptosis in above AML cells, and the cytotoxicity by SKI-II was almost reversed by the general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. SKI-II treatment inhibited SphK1 activation, and concomitantly increased level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) precursor ceramide in AML cells. Conversely, exogenously-added S1P protected against SKI-II-induced cytotoxicity, while cell permeable short-chain ceramide (C6) aggravated SKI-II's lethality against AML cells. Notably, SKI-II induced potent apoptotic death in primary human AML cells, but was generally safe to the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy donors. In vivo, SKI-II administration suppressed growth of U937 leukemic xenograft tumors in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. These results suggest that SKI-II might be further investigated as a promising anti-AML agent. - Highlights: • SKI-II inhibits proliferation and survival of primary and transformed AML cells. • SKI-II induces apoptotic death of AML cells, but is safe to normal PBMCs. • SKI-II is more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors in inhibiting AML cells. • SKI-II inhibits SphK1 activity, while increasing ceramide production in AML cells. • SKI-II dose-dependently inhibits U937 xenograft growth in SCID mice.

  13. SphK1 inhibitor II (SKI-II) inhibits acute myelogenous leukemia cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies have identified sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) as a potential drug target for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the current study, we investigated the potential anti-leukemic activity of a novel and specific SphK1 inhibitor, SKI-II. We demonstrated that SKI-II inhibited growth and survival of human AML cell lines (HL-60 and U937 cells). SKI-II was more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors SK1-I and FTY720 in inhibiting AML cells. Meanwhile, it induced dramatic apoptosis in above AML cells, and the cytotoxicity by SKI-II was almost reversed by the general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. SKI-II treatment inhibited SphK1 activation, and concomitantly increased level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) precursor ceramide in AML cells. Conversely, exogenously-added S1P protected against SKI-II-induced cytotoxicity, while cell permeable short-chain ceramide (C6) aggravated SKI-II's lethality against AML cells. Notably, SKI-II induced potent apoptotic death in primary human AML cells, but was generally safe to the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy donors. In vivo, SKI-II administration suppressed growth of U937 leukemic xenograft tumors in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. These results suggest that SKI-II might be further investigated as a promising anti-AML agent. - Highlights: • SKI-II inhibits proliferation and survival of primary and transformed AML cells. • SKI-II induces apoptotic death of AML cells, but is safe to normal PBMCs. • SKI-II is more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors in inhibiting AML cells. • SKI-II inhibits SphK1 activity, while increasing ceramide production in AML cells. • SKI-II dose-dependently inhibits U937 xenograft growth in SCID mice

  14. Cell lines and Salmonella

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge R de; Hendriks H; Garssen J; Universteit Utrecht, afdeling; MGB; LPI

    2001-01-01

    In human gastrointestinal disease caused by Salmonella, transepithelial migration of neutrophils follows the attachment of bacteria to epithelial tissue. This migration of neutrophils is stimulated by the release of chemokines, including interleukin-8 (Il -8), from the epithelial cells. We have dev

  15. Dose-dependent ATP depletion and cancer cell death following calcium electroporation, relative effect of calcium concentration and electric field strength.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Louise Hansen

    Full Text Available Electroporation, a method for increasing the permeability of membranes to ions and small molecules, is used in the clinic with chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatment (electrochemotherapy. Electroporation with calcium causes ATP (adenosine triphosphate depletion and cancer cell death and could be a novel cancer treatment. This study aims at understanding the relationship between applied electric field, calcium concentration, ATP depletion and efficacy.In three human cell lines--H69 (small-cell lung cancer, SW780 (bladder cancer, and U937 (leukaemia, viability was determined after treatment with 1, 3, or 5 mM calcium and eight 99 μs pulses with 0.8, 1.0, 1.2, 1.4 or 1.6 kV/cm. Fitting analysis was applied to quantify the cell-killing efficacy in presence of calcium. Post-treatment intracellular ATP was measured in H69 and SW780 cells. Post-treatment intracellular ATP was observed with fluorescence confocal microscopy of quinacrine-labelled U937 cells.Both H69 and SW780 cells showed dose-dependent (calcium concentration and electric field decrease in intracellular ATP (p<0.05 and reduced viability. The 50% effective cell kill was found at 3.71 kV/cm (H69 and 3.28 kV/cm (SW780, reduced to 1.40 and 1.15 kV/cm (respectively with 1 mM calcium (lower EC50 for higher calcium concentrations. Quinacrine fluorescence intensity of calcium-electroporated U937 cells was one third lower than in controls (p<0.0001.Calcium electroporation dose-dependently reduced cell survival and intracellular ATP. Increasing extracellular calcium allows the use of a lower electric field.This study supports the use of calcium electroporation for treatment of cancer and possibly lowering the applied electric field in future trials.

  16. Melatonin Prevents Chemical-Induced Haemopoietic Cell Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Salucci

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Melatonin (MEL, a methoxyindole synthesized by the pineal gland, is a powerful antioxidant in tissues as well as within cells, with a fundamental role in ameliorating homeostasis in a number of specific pathologies. It acts both as a direct radical scavenger and by stimulating production/activity of intracellular antioxidant enzymes. In this work, some chemical triggers, with different mechanisms of action, have been chosen to induce cell death in U937 hematopoietic cell line. Cells were pre-treated with 100 µM MEL and then exposed to hydrogen peroxide or staurosporine. Morphological analyses, TUNEL reaction and Orange/PI double staining have been used to recognize ultrastructural apoptotic patterns and to evaluate DNA behavior. Chemical damage and potential MEL anti-apoptotic effects were quantified by means of Tali® Image-Based Cytometer, able to monitor cell viability and apoptotic events. After trigger exposure, chromatin condensation, micronuclei formation and DNA fragmentation have been observed, all suggesting apoptotic cell death. These events underwent a statistically significant decrease in samples pre-treated with MEL. After caspase inhibition and subsequent assessment of cell viability, we demonstrated that apoptosis occurs, at least in part, through the mitochondrial pathway and that MEL interacts at this level to rescue U937 cells from death.

  17. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes. PMID:1726925

  18. Automation of cell line development

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Kristina; Salmén, Andréa; Lundgren, Mats; Bylund, Lovisa; Ebler, Åsa; Fäldt, Eric; Sörvik, Lina; Fenge, Christel; Skoging-Nyberg, Ulrica

    2009-01-01

    An automated platform for development of high producing cell lines for biopharmaceutical production has been established in order to increase throughput and reduce development costs. The concept is based on the Cello robotic system (The Automation Partnership) and covers screening for colonies and expansion of static cultures. In this study, the glutamine synthetase expression system (Lonza Biologics) for production of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in Chinese hamster ovary cells was used ...

  19. Interlab Cell Line Collection: Bioresource of Established Human and Animal Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Parodi, Barbara; Aresu, Ottavia; Visconti, Paola; Manniello, Maria Assunta; Strada, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The Interlab Cell Line Collection (ICLC) was established in 1994 as a core facility of the National Institute of Cancer Research. It supplies: human and animal cell lines; Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling of human cell lines; quality control service; mycoplasma detection and eradication service; safe deposit service and patent deposit service of cell lines and hybridomas. The catalogue of services is on-line, and the cell lines are distributed all over the world. 

  20. Interaction of leukemic cells with proteins of the extracellular matrix Interações de células leucêmicas com proteínas da matriz extracelular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rodrigues-Anjos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of neoplastic cells with basement membrane molecules is the first step for the dissemination of tumor cells in vivo. Leukemic cells have a great ability to spread in the host, since cells are released from the bone marrow to the circulation. In this study we analysed whether CEM, U937, K562 and HL-60 cells were able to attach to different concentrations of laminin and/or fibronectin and/or type IV collagen. Attachment to type IV collagen was low, but it increased with the addition of laminin and occurred in all four leukemic cell lines. On the other hand, attachment to fibronectin was higher, but it decreased with the addition of laminin in the assays using U937 and HL-60 cells. The combination of type IV collagen and fibronectin was a good substratum for cellular attachment. However, the addition of laminin to this substratum impaired its attachment activity in U937, HL-60 and K562. These data suggest that laminin may control cellular attachment to the extracellular matrix during leukemic dissemination in hosts in different ways.A interação de células neoplásicas com moléculas da membrana basal é a primeira etapa para a disseminação, in vivo, de células tumorais in vivo. As células leucêmicas possuem grande capacidade de espraiamento e disseminação no organismo uma vez que as mesmas são liberadas da medula óssea para a circulação. Neste trabalho avaliamos a capacidade das linhagens celulares CEM, U937, K562 and HL-60 em aderirem a uma matriz extracelular constituída por diferentes concentrações de laminina e,ou fibronectina e sobre colágeno IV. A adesão de todas a linhagens leucêmicas a colágeno IV foi baixa, mas aumentou com a associação à laminina. Por outro lado, as células U937 e HL-60 apresentaram alta ligação à fibronectina porém, foi reduzida com a adição de laminina. A associação de colágeno IV e fibronectina possibilitou um bom substrato para a adesão celular. Entretanto, a adi

  1. Potassium channels mediate killing by human natural killer cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood spontaneously recognize and kill a wide variety of target cells. It has been suggested that ion channels are involved in the killing process because there is a Ca-dependent stage and because killing by presensitized cytotoxic T lymphocytes, which in many respects resembles NK killing, is associated with changes in K and Na transport in the target cell. Using the whole-cell variation of the patch-clamp technique, the authors found a voltage-dependent potassium (K+) current in NK cells. The K+ current was reduced in a dose-dependent manner by the K-channel blockers 4-aminopyridine and quinidine and by the traditional Ca-channel blockers verapamil and Cd2+. They tested the effects of ion-channel blockers on killing of two commonly used target cell lines: K562, which is derived from a human myeloid leukemia, and U937, which is derived from a human histiocytic leukemia. Killing of K562 target cells, determined in a standard 51Cr-release assay, was inhibited in a dose-dependent manner by verapamil, quinidine, Cd2+, and 4-aminopyridine at concentrations comparable to those that blocked the K+ current in NK cells. In K562 target cells only a voltage-dependent Na= current was found and it was blocked by concentrations of tetrodotoxin that had no effect on killing. Killing of U937 target cells was also inhibited by the two ion-channel blockers tested, quinidine and verapamil. In this cell line only a small K+ current was found that was similar to the one in NK cells. The findings show that there are K channels in NK cells and that these channels play a necessary role in the killing process

  2. Generation of rabbit pluripotent stem cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Tancos, Z.; Nemes, C.; Polgar, Z.; Gocza, E; Daniel, N; Stout, T. A. E.; P. Maraghechi; Pirity, M.K.; Osteil, P.; Tapponnier, Y.; Markossian, S.; Godet, M.; Afanassieff, M.; Bosze, Z.; Duranthon, V

    2012-01-01

    Pluripotent stem cells have the capacity to divide indefinitely and to differentiate into all somatic cells and tissue lines. They can be genetically manipulated in vitro by knocking genes in or out, and therefore serve as an excellent tool for gene function studies and for the generation of models for some human diseases. Since 1981, when the first mouse embryonic stem cell (ESC) line was generated, many attempts have been made to generate pluripotent stem cell lines from other species. Comp...

  3. Anionic Pulmonary Surfactant Phospholipids Inhibit Inflammatory Responses from Alveolar Macrophages and U937 Cells by Binding the Lipopolysaccharide-interacting Proteins CD14 and MD-2*♦

    OpenAIRE

    Kuronuma, Koji; Mitsuzawa, Hiroaki; Takeda, Katsuyuki; Nishitani, Chiaki; Chan, Edward D.; Kuroki, Yoshio; Nakamura, Mari; Voelker, Dennis R.

    2009-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), derived from Gram-negative bacteria, is a major cause of acute lung injury and respiratory distress syndrome. Pulmonary surfactant is secreted as a complex mixture of lipids and proteins onto the alveolar surface of the lung. Surfactant phospholipids are essential in reducing surface tension at the air-liquid interface and preventing alveolar collapse at the end of the respiratory cycle. In the present study, we determined that palmitoyl-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol a...

  4. Synthesis of unsymmetrical monocarbonyl curcumin analogues with potent inhibition on prostaglandin E2 production in LPS-induced murine and human macrophages cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Aluwi, Mohd Fadhlizil Fasihi; Rullah, Kamal; Yamin, Bohari M; Leong, Sze Wei; Abdul Bahari, Mohd Nazri; Lim, Sock Jin; Mohd Faudzi, Siti Munirah; Jalil, Juriyati; Abas, Faridah; Mohd Fauzi, Norsyahida; Ismail, Nor Hadiani; Jantan, Ibrahim; Lam, Kok Wai

    2016-05-15

    The syntheses and bioactivities of symmetrical curcumin and its analogues have been the subject of interest by many medicinal chemists and pharmacologists over the years. To improve our understanding, we have synthesized a series of unsymmetrical monocarbonyl curcumin analogues and evaluated their effects on prostaglandin E2 production in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 and U937 cells. Initially, compounds 8b and 8c exhibited strong inhibition on the production of PGE2 in both LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 (8b, IC50=12.01μM and 8c, IC50=4.86μM) and U937 (8b, IC50=3.44μM and 8c, IC50=1.65μM) cells. Placing vanillin at position Ar2 further improved the potency when both compounds 15a and 15b significantly lowered the PGE2 secretion level (RAW264.7: 15a, IC50=0.78μM and 15b, IC50=1.9μM while U937: 15a, IC50=0.95μM and 15b, IC50=0.92μM). Further experiment showed that compounds 8b, 8c, 15a and 15b did not target the activity of downstream inflammatory COX-2 mediator. Finally, docking simulation on protein targets COX-2, IKK-β, ERK, JNK2, p38α and p38β were performed using the conformation of 15a determined by single-crystal XRD. PMID:27040659

  5. Human Cell Line and Tissue Sample Authentication

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, Margaret M.; McLaren, Robert S.; Hebble, Kathryn D.; Ready, Kim; Storts, Douglas R.; Hooper, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    Background: Short Tandem Repeat (STR) genotyping analysis is a proven technology for uniquely identifying virtually all human samples. STR genotyping was adopted as the preferred technology for identification of human tissue culture cell lines by the ATCC Standards Development Organization (ASN-0002: Authentication of Human Cell Lines: Standardization of STR Profiling). We developed new automation-compatible protocols/systems for generating STR profiles from human cell lines or tissue samples...

  6. Combined 17β-Estradiol with TCDD Promotes M2 Polarization of Macrophages in the Endometriotic Milieu with Aid of the Interaction between Endometrial Stromal Cells and Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to elucidate the effects of 17β-estradiol and TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on macrophage phenotypes in the endometriotic milieu. Co-culture of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs and U937 cells (macrophage cell line was performed to simulate the endometriotic milieu and to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol and/or TCDD on IL10, IL12 production and HLA-DR, CD86 expression by U937 macrophages. We found that combining 17β-estradiol with TCDD has a synergistic effect on inducing M2 activation when macrophages are co-cultured with ESCs. Moreover, the combination of 17β-estradiol and TCDD significantly enhanced STAT3 and P38 phosphorylation in macrophages. Differentiation of M2 macrophages induced by 17β-estradiol and TCDD were effectively abrogated by STAT3 and P38MAPK inhibitors, but not by ERK1/2 and JNK inhibitors. In conclusion, 17β-estradiol and TCDD in the ectopic milieu may lead to the development of endometriosis by inducing M2 polarization of macrophages through activation of the STAT3 and P38MAPK pathways.

  7. Difference in Membrane Repair Capacity Between Cancer Cell Lines and a Normal Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; McNeil, Anna K; Novak, Ivana; McNeil, Paul L; Gehl, Julie

    2016-08-01

    Electroporation-based treatments and other therapies that permeabilize the plasma membrane have been shown to be more devastating to malignant cells than to normal cells. In this study, we asked if a difference in repair capacity could explain this observed difference in sensitivity. Membrane repair was investigated by disrupting the plasma membrane using laser followed by monitoring fluorescent dye entry over time in seven cancer cell lines, an immortalized cell line, and a normal primary cell line. The kinetics of repair in living cells can be directly recorded using this technique, providing a sensitive index of repair capacity. The normal primary cell line of all tested cell lines exhibited the slowest rate of dye entry after laser disruption and lowest level of dye uptake. Significantly, more rapid dye uptake and a higher total level of dye uptake occurred in six of the seven tested cancer cell lines (p electroporation. Viability in the primary normal cell line (98 % viable cells) was higher than in the three tested cancer cell lines (81-88 % viable cells). These data suggest more effective membrane repair in normal, primary cells and supplement previous explanations why electroporation-based therapies and other therapies permeabilizing the plasma membrane are more effective on malignant cells compared to normal cells in cancer treatment. PMID:27312328

  8. Standards for Cell Line Authentication and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Kenneth D.; Plant, Anne L.

    2016-01-01

    Different genomic technologies have been applied to cell line authentication, but only one method (short tandem repeat [STR] profiling) has been the subject of a comprehensive and definitive standard (ASN-0002). Here we discuss the power of this document and why standards such as this are so critical for establishing the consensus technical criteria and practices that can enable progress in the fields of research that use cell lines. We also examine other methods that could be used for authentication and discuss how a combination of methods could be used in a holistic fashion to assess various critical aspects of the quality of cell lines. PMID:27300367

  9. Establishment of a hamster lymphoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe,Shinji

    1974-08-01

    Full Text Available The establishment of a hamster lymphoma cell line was attempted. Simple mincing and trypsinization of lymphoma tissue resulted in a high degree of cell degeneration. The ascitic tumor cells produced by intraperitoneal transplantation of lymphoma tissue gave a better result. These ascitic cells grew and were cultured successively in medium consisting of RPMI 1640 and 20% fetal calf serum. Cells were round and grew in suspension. Accelerated cell growth was observed one month after starting the culture. In the stained preparations, cells were lymphoblastic. Cells were transplantable into new-born hamsters and produced tumors, but not in young adult hamsters.

  10. Microgravity-induced alterations in signal transduction in cells of the immune system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Katrin; Thiel, Cora; Timm, Johanna; Schmidt, Peter M.; Huber, Kathrin; Tauber, Svantje; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Seibt, Dieter; Kroll, Hartmut; Grote, Karl-Heinrich; Zipp, Frauke; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Cogoli, Augusto; Hilliger, Andre; Engelmann, Frank; Ullrich, Oliver

    2010-11-01

    Since decades it is known that the activity of cells of the immune system is severely dysregulated in microgravity, however, the underlying molecular aspects have not been elucidated yet. The identification of gravity-sensitive molecular mechanisms in cells of the immune system is an important and indispensable prerequisite for the development of counteractive measures to prevent or treat disturbed immune cell function of astronauts during long-term space missions. Moreover, their sensitivity to altered gravity renders immune cells an ideal model system to understand if and how gravity on Earth is required for normal mammalian cell function and signal transduction. We investigated the effect of simulated weightlessness (2D clinostat) and of real microgravity (parabolic flights) on key signal pathways in a human monocytic and a T lymphocyte cell line. We found that cellular responses to microgravity strongly depend on the cell-type and the conditions in which the cells are subjected to microgravity. In Jurkat T cells, enhanced phosphorylation of the MAP kinases ERK-1/2, MEK and p38 and inhibition of nuclear translocation of NF-kB were the predominant responses to simulated weightlessness, in either stimulated or non-stimulated cells. In contrast, non-stimulated monocytic U937 cells responded to simulated weightlessness with enhanced overall tyrosine-phosphorylation and activation of c-jun, whereas PMA-stimulated U937 cells responded the opposite way with reduced tyrosine-phosphorylation and reduced activation of c-jun, compared with PMA-stimulated 1 g controls. P53 protein was phosphorylated rapidly in microgravity. The identification of gravi-sensitive mechanisms in cells of the immune system will not only enable us to understand and prevent the negative effects of long time exposure to microgravity on Astronauts, but could also lead to novel therapeutic targets in general.

  11. Near neighbour analysis of variant cell lines derived from the promyeloid cell line HL60.

    OpenAIRE

    Bunce, C. M.; Lord, J M; Wong, A K; Brown, G.

    1988-01-01

    The human promyeloid cell line H60 can be induced to differentiate towards either neutrophils or monocytes. Variant cell lines, derived from HL60, which show reduced capacities for neutrophil and monocyte differentiation can be arranged in a developmental sequence which suggests that the potentials for neutrophil and monocyte differentiation are expressed sequentially by HL60 cells in this order. Analysis of the patterns of total cellular phosphoproteins within HL60 and 5 variant cell lines, ...

  12. Susceptibility of cell lines to avian viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoni Isabela Cristina

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The susceptibility of the five cell lines - IB-RS-2, RK-13, Vero, BHK-21, CER - to reovirus S1133 and infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV vaccine GBV-8 strain was studied to better define satisfactory and sensitive cell culture systems. Cultures were compared for presence of CPE, virus titers and detection of viral RNA. CPE and viral RNA were detected in CER and BHK-21 cells after reovirus inoculation and in RK-13 cell line after IBDV inoculation and with high virus titers. Virus replication by production of low virus titers occurred in IB-RS-2 and Vero cells with reovirus and in BHK-21 cell line with IBDV.

  13. Comparative DNA microarray analysis of human monocyte derived dendritic cells and MUTZ-3 cells exposed to the moderate skin sensitizer cinnamaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The number of studies involved in the development of in vitro skin sensitization tests has increased since the adoption of the EU 7th amendment to the cosmetics directive proposing to ban animal testing for cosmetic ingredients by 2013. Several studies have recently demonstrated that sensitizers induce a relevant up-regulation of activation markers such as CD86, CD54, IL-8 or IL-1β in human myeloid cell lines (e.g., U937, MUTZ-3, THP-1) or in human peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (PBMDCs). The present study aimed at the identification of new dendritic cell activation markers in order to further improve the in vitro evaluation of the sensitizing potential of chemicals. We have compared the gene expression profiles of PBMDCs and the human cell line MUTZ-3 after a 24-h exposure to the moderate sensitizer cinnamaldehyde. A list of 80 genes modulated in both cell types was obtained and a set of candidate marker genes was selected for further analysis. Cells were exposed to selected sensitizers and non-sensitizers for 24 h and gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results indicated that PIR, TRIM16 and two Nrf2-regulated genes, CES1 and NQO1, are modulated by most sensitizers. Up-regulation of these genes could also be observed in our recently published DC-activation test with U937 cells. Due to their role in DC activation, these new genes may help to further refine the in vitro approaches for the screening of the sensitizing properties of a chemical.

  14. Mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways cooperate in zearalenone-induced apoptosis of human leukemic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokchaichamnankit Daranee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zearalenone (ZEA is a phytoestrogen from Fusarium species. The aims of the study was to identify mode of human leukemic cell death induced by ZEA and the mechanisms involved. Methods Cell cytotoxicity of ZEA on human leukemic HL-60, U937 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was performed by using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Reactive oxygen species production, cell cycle analysis and mitochondrial transmembrane potential reduction was determined by employing 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, propidium iodide and 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide and flow cytometry, respectively. Caspase-3 and -8 activities were detected by using fluorogenic Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (DEVD-AMC and Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (IETD-AMC substrates, respectively. Protein expression of cytochrome c, Bax, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL was performed by Western blot. The expression of proteins was assessed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis (PAGE coupled with LC-MS2 analysis and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR approach. Results ZEA was cytotoxic to U937 > HL-60 > PBMCs and caused subdiploid peaks and G1 arrest in both cell lines. Apoptosis of human leukemic HL-60 and U937 cell apoptosis induced by ZEA was via an activation of mitochondrial release of cytochrome c through mitochondrial transmembrane potential reduction, activation of caspase-3 and -8, production of reactive oxygen species and induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Bax was up regulated in a time-dependent manner and there was down regulation of Bcl-xL expression. Two-dimensional PAGE coupled with LC-MS2 analysis showed that ZEA treatment of HL-60 cells produced differences in the levels of 22 membrane proteins such as apoptosis inducing factor and the ER stress proteins including endoplasmic reticulum protein 29 (ERp29, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, heat shock

  15. Dose-dependent ATP depletion and cancer cell death following calcium electroporation, relative effect of calcium concentration and electric field strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Emilie Louise; Sozer, Esin Bengisu; Romeo, Stefania;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Electroporation, a method for increasing the permeability of membranes to ions and small molecules, is used in the clinic with chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer treatment (electrochemotherapy). Electroporation with calcium causes ATP (adenosine triphosphate) depletion and cancer cell......-dependently reduced cell survival and intracellular ATP. Increasing extracellular calcium allows the use of a lower electric field. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study supports the use of calcium electroporation for treatment of cancer and possibly lowering the applied electric field in future trials....... death and could be a novel cancer treatment. This study aims at understanding the relationship between applied electric field, calcium concentration, ATP depletion and efficacy. METHODS: In three human cell lines--H69 (small-cell lung cancer), SW780 (bladder cancer), and U937 (leukaemia), viability was...

  16. Tetracycline regulator expression alters the transcriptional program of mammalian cells

    OpenAIRE

    Hackl, Hubert; Rommer, Anna; Konrad, Torsten A; Nassimbeni, Christine; Wieser, Rotraud

    2010-01-01

    Tetracycline regulated ectopic gene expression is a widely used tool to study gene function. However, the tetracycline regulator (tetR) itself has been reported to cause certain phenotypic changes in mammalian cells. We, therefore, asked whether human myeloid U937 cells expressing the tetR in an autoregulated manner would exhibit alterations in gene expression upon removal of tetracycline.

  17. Plant Cell Lines in Cell Morphogenesis Research

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Seifertová, Daniela; Klíma, Petr; Pařezová, Markéta; Petrášek, Jan; Zažímalová, Eva; Opatrný, Z.

    Vol. 1080. New York: Humana Press, 2014 - (Žárský, V.; Cvrčková, F.), s. 215-229. (Methods in Molecular Biology). ISBN 978-1-62703-643-6 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/0797; GA ČR(CZ) GAP305/11/2476 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : BY-2 * VBI-0 * Suspension-cultured cells Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  18. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felthaus, O. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Ettl, T.; Gosau, M.; Driemel, O. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Brockhoff, G. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reck, A. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Zeitler, K. [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Hautmann, M. [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reichert, T.E. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Schmalz, G. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Morsczeck, C., E-mail: christian.morsczeck@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  19. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). → Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. → Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. → In situ CD133+ cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. → CD133+ and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133+ cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  20. Butyrate regulates the expression of inflammatory and chemotactic cytokines in human acute leukemic cells during apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, Stephanie R; Pellom, Samuel T; Shanker, Anil; Adunyah, Samuel E

    2016-08-01

    Butyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor implicated in many studies as a potential therapy for various forms of cancer. High concentrations of butyrate (>1.5mM) have been shown to activate apoptosis in several cancer cell lines including prostate, breast, and leukemia. Butyrate is also known to influence multiple signaling pathways that are mediators of cytokine production. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of high concentrations of butyrate on the cancer microenvironment vis-à-vis apoptosis, cellular migration, and capacity to modulate cytokine expression in cancer cells. The results indicate that high concentrations of butyrate induced a 2-fold activation of caspase-3 and reduced cell viability by 60% in U937 leukemia cells. Within 24h, butyrate significantly decreased the levels of chemokines CCL2 and CCL5 in HL-60 and U937 cells, and decreased CCL5 in THP-1 leukemia cells. Differential effects were observed in treatments with valproic acid for CCL2 and CCL5 indicating butyrate-specificity. Many of the biological effects examined in this study are linked to activation of the AKT and MAPK signaling pathways; therefore, we investigated whether butyrate alters the levels of phosphorylated forms of these signaling proteins and how it correlated with the expression of chemokines. The results show that butyrate may partially regulate CCL5 production via p38 MAPK. The decrease in p-ERK1/2 and p-AKT levels correlated with the decrease in CCL2 production. These data suggest that while promoting apoptosis, butyrate has the potential to influence the cancer microenvironment by inducing differential expression of cytokines. PMID:27253488

  1. Inhibition of c-MYC with involvement of ERK/JNK/MAPK and AKT pathways as a novel mechanism for shikonin and its derivatives in killing leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiaoli; Assimopoulou, Andreana N; Klauck, Sabine M; Damianakos, Harilaos; Chinou, Ioanna; Kretschmer, Nadine; Rios, José-Luis; Papageorgiou, Vassilios P; Bauer, Rudolf; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-11-17

    Leukemia remains life-threatening despite remarkable advances in chemotherapy. The poor prognosis and drug resistance are challenging treatment. Novel drugs are urgently needed. Shikonin, a natural naphthoquinone, has been previously shown by us to be particularly effective towards various leukemia cell lines compared to solid tumors. However, the underlying mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here, we investigated shikonin and 14 derivatives on U937 leukemia cells. Four derivatives (isobutyrylshikonin, 2-methylbutyrylshikonin, isovalerylshikonin and β,β-dimethylacrylshikonin) were more active than shikonin. AnnexinV-PI analysis revealed that shikonins induced apoptosis. Cell cycle G1/S check point regulation and the transcription factor c-MYC, which plays a vital role in cell cycle regulation and proliferation, were identified as the most commonly down-regulated mechanisms upon treatment with shikonins in mRNA microarray hybridizations. Western blotting and DNA-binding assays confirmed the inhibition of c-MYC expression and transcriptional activity by shikonins. Reduction of c-MYC expression was closely associated with deregulated ERK, JNK MAPK and AKT activity, indicating their involvement in shikonin-triggered c-MYC inactivation. Molecular docking studies revealed that shikonin and its derivatives bind to the same DNA-binding domain of c-MYC as the known c-MYC inhibitors 10058-F4 and 10074-G5. This finding indicates that shikonins bind to c-MYC. The effect of shikonin on U937 cells was confirmed in other leukemia cell lines (Jurkat, Molt4, CCRF-CEM, and multidrug-resistant CEM/ADR5000), where shikonin also inhibited c-MYC expression and influenced phosphorylation of AKT, ERK1/2, and SAPK/JNK. In summary, inhibition of c-MYC and related pathways represents a novel mechanism of shikonin and its derivatives to explain their anti-leukemic activity. PMID:26472107

  2. Acidosis Decreases c-Myc Oncogene Expression in Human Lymphoma Cells: A Role for the Proton-Sensing G Protein-Coupled Receptor TDAG8

    OpenAIRE

    Zhigang Li; Lixue Dong; Eric Dean; Yang, Li V.

    2013-01-01

    Acidosis is a biochemical hallmark of the tumor microenvironment. Here, we report that acute acidosis decreases c-Myc oncogene expression in U937 human lymphoma cells. The level of c-Myc transcripts, but not mRNA or protein stability, contributes to c-Myc protein reduction under acidosis. The pH-sensing receptor TDAG8 (GPR65) is involved in acidosis-induced c-Myc downregulation. TDAG8 is expressed in U937 lymphoma cells, and the overexpression or knockdown of TDAG8 further decreases or partia...

  3. Cellular radiosensitivity of small-cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, M; Poulsen, H S; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine the radiobiological characteristics of a panel of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines by use of a clonogenic assay. In addition, we tested whether comparable results could be obtained by employing a growth extrapolation method based on the...

  4. Characterization of Plasminogen Binding to NB4 Promyelocytic Cells Using Monoclonal Antibodies against Receptor-Induced Binding Sites in Cell-Bound Plasminogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercè Jardí

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The NB4 promyelocytic cell line exhibits many of the characteristics of acute promyelocytic leukemia blast cells, including the translocation (15 : 17 that fuses the PML gene on chromosome 15 to the RARα gene on chromosome 17. These cells have a very high fibrinolytic capacity. In addition to a high secretion of urokinase, NB4 cells exhibit a 10-fold higher plasminogen binding capacity compared with other leukemic cell lines. When tissue-type plasminogen activator was added to acid-treated cells, plasmin generation was 20–26-fold higher than that generated by U937 cells or peripheral blood neutrophils, respectively. We found that plasminogen bound to these cells can be detected by fluorescence-activated cell sorting using an antiplasminogen monoclonal antibody that specifically reacts with this antigen when it is bound to cell surfaces. All-trans retinoid acid treatment of NB4 cells markedly decreased the binding of this monoclonal antibody. This cell line constitutes a unique model to explore plasminogen binding and activation on cell surfaces that can be modulated by all-trans retinoid acid treatment.

  5. Aberrant methylation of the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor gene in leukemic cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1) plays a crucial role in several signaling pathways and may act as tumor-suppressor. This study examined the expression and methylation of the PLA2R1 gene in Jurkat and U937 leukemic cell lines and its methylation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or acute leukemia. Sites of methylation of the PLA2R1 locus were identified by sequencing bisulfite-modified DNA fragments. Methylation specific-high resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis was then carried out to quantify PLA2R1 methylation at 5-CpG sites identified with differences in methylation between healthy control subjects and leukemic patients using sequencing of bisulfite-modified genomic DNA. Expression of PLA2R1 was found to be completely down-regulated in Jurkat and U937 cells, accompanied by complete methylation of PLA2R1 promoter and down-stream regions; PLA2R1 was re-expressed after exposure of cells to 5-aza-2´-deoxycytidine. MS-HRM analysis of the PLA2R1 locus in patients with different types of leukemia indicated an average methylation of 28.9% ± 17.8%, compared to less than 9% in control subjects. In MDS patients the extent of PLA2R1 methylation significantly increased with disease risk. Furthermore, measurements of PLA2R1 methylation appeared useful for predicting responsiveness to the methyltransferase inhibitor, azacitidine, as a pre-emptive treatment to avoid hematological relapse in patients with high-risk MDS or acute myeloid leukemia. The study shows for the first time that PLA2R1 gene sequences are a target of hypermethylation in leukemia, which may have pathophysiological relevance for disease evolution in MDS and leukemogenesis

  6. Aberrant methylation of the M-type phospholipase A2 receptor gene in leukemic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Menschikowski Mario

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The M-type phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R1 plays a crucial role in several signaling pathways and may act as tumor-suppressor. This study examined the expression and methylation of the PLA2R1 gene in Jurkat and U937 leukemic cell lines and its methylation in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS or acute leukemia. Methods Sites of methylation of the PLA2R1 locus were identified by sequencing bisulfite-modified DNA fragments. Methylation specific-high resolution melting (MS-HRM analysis was then carried out to quantify PLA2R1 methylation at 5`-CpG sites identified with differences in methylation between healthy control subjects and leukemic patients using sequencing of bisulfite-modified genomic DNA. Results Expression of PLA2R1 was found to be completely down-regulated in Jurkat and U937 cells, accompanied by complete methylation of PLA2R1 promoter and down-stream regions; PLA2R1 was re-expressed after exposure of cells to 5-aza-2´-deoxycytidine. MS-HRM analysis of the PLA2R1 locus in patients with different types of leukemia indicated an average methylation of 28.9% ± 17.8%, compared to less than 9% in control subjects. In MDS patients the extent of PLA2R1 methylation significantly increased with disease risk. Furthermore, measurements of PLA2R1 methylation appeared useful for predicting responsiveness to the methyltransferase inhibitor, azacitidine, as a pre-emptive treatment to avoid hematological relapse in patients with high-risk MDS or acute myeloid leukemia. Conclusions The study shows for the first time that PLA2R1 gene sequences are a target of hypermethylation in leukemia, which may have pathophysiological relevance for disease evolution in MDS and leukemogenesis.

  7. Regulatory networks define phenotypic classes of human stem cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Franz-Josef; Louise C. Laurent; Kostka, Dennis; Ulitsky, Igor; Williams, Roy; Lu, Christina; Park, In-Hyun; Rao, Mahendra S.; Shamir, Ron; Philip H. Schwartz; Schmidt, Nils O.; Loring, Jeanne F.

    2008-01-01

    Stem cells are defined as self-renewing cell populations that can differentiate into multiple distinct cell types. However, hundreds of different human cell lines from embryonic, fetal, and adult sources have been called stem cells, even though they range from pluripotent cells, typified by embryonic stem cells, which are capable of virtually unlimited proliferation and differentiation, to adult stem cell lines, which can generate a far more limited repertory of differentiated cell types. The...

  8. Investigation of the selenium metabolism in cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunøe, Kristoffer; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Stürup, Stefan; Andresen, Lars; Skov, Søren; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare different selenium species for their ability to induce cell death in different cancer cell lines, while investigating the underlying chemistry by speciation analysis. A prostate cancer cell line (PC-3), a colon cancer cell line (HT-29) and a leukaemia cell line...... incubated with cells for 24 h and the induction of cell death was measured using flow cytometry. The amounts of total selenium in cell medium, cell lysate and the insoluble fractions was determined by ICP-MS. Speciation analysis of cellular fractions was performed by reversed phase, anion exchange and size...... exclusion chromatography and ICP-MS detection. The selenium compounds exhibited large differences in their ability to induce cell death in the three cell lines and the susceptibilities of the cell lines were different. Full recovery of selenium in the cellular fractions was observed for all Se compounds...

  9. Experiment list: SRX385395 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eq source_name=U937 clone 2MIXL containing MIXL1 enforced expression vector, grown for 48 hours before harve...st || cell line=U937 || vector=MIXL1 enforced expression vector || clone=2MIXL ||

  10. Experiment list: SRX385394 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available eq source_name=U937 clone 1MIXL containing MIXL1 enforced expression vector, grown for 48 hours before harve...st || cell line=U937 || vector=MIXL1 enforced expression vector || clone=1MIXL ||

  11. High prevalence of side population in human cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Boesch, Maximilian; Zeimet, Alain G; Fiegl, Heidi; Wolf, Barbara; Huber, Julia; Klocker, Helmut; Gastl, Guenther; Sopper, Sieghart; Wolf, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cell lines are essential platforms for performing cancer research on human cells. We here demonstrate that, across tumor entities, human cancer cell lines harbor minority populations of putative stem-like cells, molecularly defined by dye extrusion resulting in the side population phenotype. These findings establish a heterogeneous nature of human cancer cell lines and argue for their stem cell origin. This should be considered when interpreting research involving these model systems.

  12. Stimulation of granulocytic cell iodination by pine cone antitumor substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antitumor substances (Fractions VI and VII) prepared from the NaOH extract of pine cone significantly stimulated the iodination (incorporation of radioactive iodine into an acid-insoluble fraction) of human peripheral blood adherent mononuclear cells, polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), and human promyelocytic leukemic HL-60 cells. In contrast, these fractions did not significantly increase the iodination of nonadherent mononuclear cells, red blood cells, other human leukemic cell lines (U-937, THP-1, K-562), human diploid fibroblast (UT20Lu), or mouse cell lines (L-929, J774.1). Iodination of HL-60 cells, which were induced to differentiate by treatment with either retinoic acid or tumor necrosis factor, were stimulated less than untreated cells. The stimulation of iodination of both PMN and HL-60 cells required the continuous presence of these fractions and was almost completely abolished by the presence of myeloperoxidase inhibitors. The stimulation activity of these fractions was generally higher than that of various other immunopotentiators. Possible mechanisms of extract stimulation of myeloperoxidase-containing cell iodination are discussed

  13. Radiosensitivity of Human Melanoma Cell Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergoc, R. M.; Medina, V.; Cricco, G.; Mohamed, N.; Martin, G.; Nunez, M.; Croci, M.; Crescenti, E. J.; Rivera, E. S.

    2004-07-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is a skin cancer resulting from the malign transformation of skin-pigment cells, the melanocytes. The radiotherapy, alone or in combination with other treatment, is an important therapy for this disease. the objective of this paper was to determine in vitro the radiosensitivity of two human melanoma cell lines with different metastatic capability: WM35 and MI/15, and to study the effect of drugs on radiobiological parameters. The Survival Curves were adjusted to the mathematical Linear-quadratic model using GrapsPad Prism software. Cells were seeded in RPMI medium (3000-3500 cells/flask), in triplicate and irradiated 24 h later. The irradiation was performed using an IBL 437C H Type equipment (189 TBq, 7.7 Gy/min) calibrated with a TLD 700 dosimeter. The range of Doses covered from 0 to 10 Gy and the colonies formed were counted at day 7th post-irradiation. Results obtained were: for WM35, {alpha}=0.37{+-}0.07 Gy''-1 and {beta}=0.06{+-}0.02 Gy''-2, for M1/15m {alpha}=0.47{+-}0.03 Gy''-1 and {beta}=0.06{+-}0.01 Gy''-2. The {alpha}/{beta} values WM35: {alpha}/{beta} values WM35: {alpha}/{beta}=6.07 Gy and M1/15: {alpha}/{beta}{sub 7}.33 Gy were similar, independently of their metastatic capabillity and indicate that both lines exhibit high radioresistance. Microscopic observation of irradiated cells showed multinuclear cells with few morphologic changes non-compatible with apoptosis. By means of specific fluorescent dyes and flow cytometry analysis we determined the intracellular levels of the radicals superoxide and hydrogen peroxide and their modulation in response to ionizing radiation. The results showed a marked decreased in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} intracellular levels with a simultaneous increase in superoxide that will be part of a mechanism responsible for induction of cell radioresistance. This response triggered by irradiated cells could not be abrogated by different treatments like histamine or the

  14. The studies of DNA metabolic dynamics in embryonic cell line and non-embryonic cell line of Onobrychis viciaefolia scop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hypocotyls of aseptic seedlings of Onobrychis viciaefolia Scop. were used as explants for inducing callus. The embryonic cell line (E-line) and non-embryonic cell line (NE line) were established. The DNA synthesis dynamics in both cell lines were studied by autoradiography. The results showed that: DNA synthesis in E-line was active and confined to embryonic cell or cell masses and then the cells divided quickly and formed somatic embryos at different stages. The changes of DNA metabolism took place in a certain pattern and the maximum rate of DNA synthesis occured during the formation of globular embryo. There was a clear relationship between the difference of DNA synthesis rate and the polarity of the embryo. In NE-line, the beginning of cell division and the forming of callus were also based on DNA replication but were much deoxythymidine. There was a significant difference in DNA synthesis dynamics between the two cell lines

  15. Susceptibility testing of fish cell lines for virus isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    Passage of cell cultures may adversely influence cell susceptibility to virus infection through selection of cell clones that thrive in vitro but may not necessarily display high sensitivity to virus infection. Susceptibility to a given virus can therefore vary not only between cell lines and......-cell-culture-adapted" virus by propagating the virus in heterologous cell lines to the one tested. A stock of test virus was produced and stored at - 80 °C and tests were conducted biannually. This procedure becomes complicated when several cell lines are in use and does not account for variation among lineages. In comparing...... cell lineages, we increased the number of isolates of each virus, propagated stocks in a given cell line and tested all lineages of that line in use in the laboratory. Testing of relative cell line susceptibility between laboratories is carried out annually via the Inter-laboratory Proficiency Test...

  16. The Role of Myeloma Cells to Osteoclast Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahare Sadeghi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Multiple myeloma (MM is a hematological malignancy characterized by osteolyticbone disease which is associated with severe bone pain and pathological bonefractures. The receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK and receptor activator ofnuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL system has an important role in regulation of boneremodeling process. The aim of this study was to evaluate the expression of the RANK/RANKL molecules by the myeloma cells derived from patients and myeloma cell lineU-266.Materials and Methods: Myeloma cells derived from 7 myeloma patients and plasma cellleukemia were included into this study to evaluate the expression of the RANK/RANKLmolecules by the reverse transcriptions-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR method atthe mRNA level. As well as human myeloma cell line U266, U937, RPMI-8866 and Helawere used as control groups.Results: In this study we show the expression of RANK and its ligand at the mRNA levelin U-266 (myeloma cell line and plasma cells derived from patients by the RT-PCR technique.Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that expression of RANK and RANKL by plasmacells can contribute to induction of osteoclasts and plasma cell activation which elevatesbone resorption in myeloma patients.

  17. Detection algorithm for the validation of human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eltonsy, Névine; Gabisi, Vivian; Li, Xuesong; Russe, K Blair; Mills, Gordon B; Stemke-Hale, Katherine

    2012-09-15

    Cell lines are an important tool in understanding all aspects of cancer growth, development, metastasis and tumor cell death. There has been a dramatic increase in the number of cell lines and diversity of the cancers they represent; however, misidentification and cross-contamination of cell lines can lead to erroneous conclusions. One method that has gained favor for authenticating cell lines is the use of short tandem repeats (STR) to generate a unique DNA profile. The challenge in validating cell lines is the requirement to compare the large number of existing STR profiles against cell lines of interest, particularly when considering that the profiles of many cell lines have drifted over time and original samples are not available. We report here methods that analyze the variations and the proportional changes extracted from tetra-nucleotide repeat regions in the STR analysis. This technique allows a paired match between a target cell line and a reference database of cell lines to find cell lines that match within a user designated percentage cut-off quality matrix. Our method accounts for DNA instability and can suggest whether the target cell lines are misidentified or unstable. PMID:22419365

  18. Chloride transport in a glioma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolpaw, E.W.

    1984-01-01

    Maintenance of the extracellular environment is a major function of central nervous system astroglia. The transport of Cl/sup -/ across the cell membrane may be an integral part of this function, since Cl/sup -/ transport has been implicated in homeostasis of cell volume, pH, and extracellular K/sup +/ concentration. The work presented here investigated Cl/sup -/ transport in the glioma cell line LRM55. Results indicate that LRM55 cells are a good model for astroglia and that these cells contain three Cl/sup -/ transporters; a Cl/sup -//HCO/sub 3//sup -/ exchanger, a K/sup +//Cl/sup -/ cotransporter, and a Cl/sup -//SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ exchanger. Ion transport studies measured the fluxes of Cl/sup -/ (as /sup 36/Cl/sup -/), K/sup +/ (as /sup 86/Rb/sup +/), and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ (as /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/). Cl/sup -/ flux was trans-simulated by Cl/sup -/ or HCO/sub 3//sup -/ and was inhibited by SITS or furosemide. External K/sup +/ stimulated Cl/sup -/ influx and external Cl/sup -/ stimulated Rb/sup +/ influx. Furosemide, but not SITS, inhibited the K/sup +//Cl/sup -/ cotransporter. High K/sup +/ medium increased cell volume and Cl/sup -/ content. Steady-state Cl/sup -/ concentration was at least twice that predicted from passive equilibration according to the Nernst equation. SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ flux was trans-stimulated by SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ or by Cl/sup -/. Cl/sup -/ was a competitive inhibitor of SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ influx, but SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ had no detectable effect on Cl/sup -/ influx or efflux. SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ flux was inhibited by SITS or furosemide.

  19. Polyglycerol-coated nanodiamond as a macrophage-evading platform for selective drug delivery in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Li; Xu, Yong-Hong; Akasaka, Tsukasa; Abe, Shigeaki; Komatsu, Naoki; Watari, Fumio; Chen, Xiao

    2014-07-01

    A successful targeted drug delivery device for cancer chemotherapy should ideally be able to avoid non-specific uptake by nonmalignant cells, particularly the scavenging monocyte-macrophage system as well as targeting efficacy to bring the drug preferentially into tumor cells. To this purpose, we developed a platform based on detonation nanodiamond (dND) with hyperbranched polyglycerol (PG) coating (dND-PG). dND-PG was first demonstrated to evade non-specific cell uptake, particularly by macrophages (U937). RGD targeting peptide was then conjugated to dND-PG through multistep organic transformations to yield dND-PG-RGD that still evaded macrophage uptake but was preferentially taken up by targeted A549 cancer cells (expressing RGD peptide receptors). dND-PG and dND-PG-RGD showed good aqueous solubility and cytocompatibitlity. Subsequently, the anticancer agent doxorubicin (DOX) was loaded through acid-labile hydrazone linkage to yield dND-PG-DOX and dND-PG-RGD-DOX. Their cellular uptake and cytotoxicity were compared against DOX in A549 cells and U937 macrophages. It was found that dND-PG-DOX uptake was substantially reduced, displaying little toxicity in either type of cells by virtue of PG coating, whereas dND-PG-RGD-DOX exerted selective toxicity to A549 cells over U937 macrophages that are otherwise highly sensitive to DOX. Finally, dND-PG was demonstrated to have little influence on U937 macrophage cell functions, except for a slight increase of TNF-α production in resting U937 macrophages. dND-PG is a promising drug carrier for realization of highly selective drug delivery in tumor cells through specific uptake mechanisms, with minimum uptake in and influence on macrophages. PMID:24720879

  20. Bioluminescence Imaging Cells Labeled with Membrane-Anchored Form of Gaussia Luciferase%膜锚定Gaussia萤光素酶的细胞标记及生物荧光成像

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊炜; 贾帅争; 王怡; 阎少多; 高博; 彭剑淳; 詹林盛

    2011-01-01

    目的:制备表达膜锚定Gaussia萤光素酶(extGluc)报告基因的慢病毒,用于标记细胞.方法:将报告基因extGluc克隆至慢病毒载体pCCsin.PPT.SFFV.IRES.eGFP.Wpre (VeGFP)中,以聚乙烯亚胺(PEI)介导,将慢病毒包装所需4种质粒(pVeGFP-extGLuc、pMDL、pRey、pVSVG),转染293FT细胞,72 h后收集病毒上清进行浓缩,感染293FT细胞,并用流式细胞仪检测病毒滴度,生物荧光成像和化学发光分析extGluc的表达;之后,用收集的慢病毒感染人单核细胞白血病细胞株U937.结果:对经PCR筛选出的阳性克隆所含质粒进行酶切鉴定,表明extGlu报告基因插入载体中;重组慢病毒包装成功且病毒滴度为5×106 TU/mL;用包装的病毒颗粒感染293FT、细胞,生物荧光成像和化学发光证实extGluc的膜定位,且酶活性与细胞数目呈线性相关;病毒颗粒能够感染悬浮细胞U937.结论:包装了extGluc标记的重组慢病毒,可用于标记细胞,为体内监测细胞迁移、聚集和变化提供了一种方法.%Objective: To produce lentivirus expressing reporter gene membrane-anchored form of Gaussia lu-ciferase (extGluc) used for bioluminescence imaging cells. Methods: Reporter gene extGluc was cloned into pCCsin. PPT.SFFV.IRES.eGFP.Wpre(VeGFP). pVeGFP-extGLuc, pMDL, pRev and pVSVG, which were required for packaging, were cotransfected into 293FT cells mediated by polyethylenimine branched. Lentivirus was collected at 72 h post-transfection, concentrated and then was used to infect 293FT cells. Viral titer was determined by flow cytome-try. Luciferase activity was detected by bioluminescence imaging and chemiluminescence. At last, human monocytic leukemia cell line U937 were infected by viral supernatant. Results: PCR and enzyme digestion results indicated that reporter gene extGLuc was successfully cloned into VeGFP. The lentivirus was packaged successfully. The lentivirus titer was 5xlO6 TU/mL. After infecting 293FT with virus particles, ext

  1. DNA profiling and characterization of animal cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Glyn N; Byrne, Ed; Hawkins, J Ross

    2014-01-01

    The history of the culture of animal cell lines is littered with published and much unpublished experience with cell lines that have become switched, mislabelled, or cross-contaminated during laboratory handling. To deliver valid and good quality research and to avoid waste of time and resources on such rogue lines, it is vital to perform some kind of qualification for the provenance of cell lines used in research and particularly in the development of biomedical products. DNA profiling provides a valuable tool to compare different sources of the same cells and, where original material or tissue is available, to confirm the correct identity of a cell line. This chapter provides a review of some of the most useful techniques to test the identity of cells in the cell culture laboratory and gives methods which have been used in the authentication of cell lines. PMID:24297409

  2. Effects of glycosaminoglycan from scallop skirt on foam cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu-shengSUN; SaiLIU

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study effects of glycosaminoglycan from scallop skirt (SS-GAG) on NO production, antioxidative enzyme activity,and formation of macrophage-derived and smooth muscle cell-derived foam cell; to study the effects of SS-GAG on VEGF expression, intracellular Ca2~ level, and cytokines secretion of macrophage-derived foam cell. METHODS: Foam-like cells were generated by incubating the U937 cells or porcine artery smooth

  3. Daintain/AIF-1 Plays Roles in Coronary Heart Disease via Affecting the Blood Composition and Promoting Macrophage Uptake and Foam Cell Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhan Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Daintain/AIF-1 is an inflammatory polypeptide factor/allograft inflammatory factor 1 derived from macrophages. It is characterized in APOE-/- mice as a novel inflammatory factor associated with atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to characterize its function in human atherosclerosis. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the expression of daintain/AIF-1 in vessel segments within and far from atherosclerotic plaques; High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to display the effects of daintain/AIF-1 on C-reactive protein (CRP, oxidative capacity and superoxide dismutase (SOD in vivo; Oil Red O Staining was used to show the effects of daintain/AIF-1 on uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL into U937 cells, a macrophage line; Western Blot was used to test scavenger receptor A (SRA expression. Results: A high density of daintain/AIF-1 was observed in the tunica intima and media of coronary artery with atherosclerotic plaque, and fewer daintain/AIF-1 in the vessels without atherosclerotic plaque; Daintain/AIF-1 injected intravenously into BALB/c mice boosted oxidative capacity, significantly impaired SOD activities and augmented the CRP level in blood. According to the oil red O test, daintain/AIF-1 profoundly facilitated the uptake of ox-LDL in U937 macrophages and formation of foam cells in the endothelium. We also found that the molecular mechanisms are effective by promoting overexpression of SRA on macrophages. Conclusion: These findings implicate that the inflammatory factor daintain/AIF-1 is closely associated with atherogenesis, and could be further characterized as a novel risk factor for atherosclerosis

  4. Development and characterization of a new human hepatic cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramboer, Eva; De Craene, Bram; De Kock, Joey; Berx, Geert; Rogiers, Vera; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Vinken, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    The increasing demand and hampered use of primary human hepatocytes for research purposes have urged scientists to search for alternative cell sources, such as immortalized hepatic cell lines. The aim of this study was to develop a human hepatic cell line using the combined overexpression of TERT and the cell cycle regulators cyclin D1 and mutant isoform CDK4R24C. Following transduction of adult human primary hepatocytes with the selected immortalization genes, cell growth was triggered and a cell line was established. When cultured under appropriate conditions, the cell line expressed several hepatocytic markers and liver-enriched transcription factors at the transcriptional and/or translational level, secreted liver-specific proteins and showed glycogen deposition. These results suggest that the immortalization strategy applied to primary human hepatocytes could generate a novel hepatic cell line that seems to retain some key hepatic characteristics. PMID:26869867

  5. FTIR microspectroscopy discriminates anticancer action on human leukemic cells by extracts of Pinus kesiya; Cratoxylum formosum ssp. pruniflorum and melphalan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machana, Sasipawan; Weerapreeyakul, Natthida; Barusrux, Sahapat; Thumanu, Kanjana; Tanthanuch, Waraporn

    2012-05-15

    Apoptosis is the principal molecular goal of chemotherapeutics for effective anticancer action. We studied the effect of 50% ethanolic-water extracts of Pinus kesiya, Cratoxylum formosum ssp. pruniflorum and melphalan on cytotoxicity and apoptosis induction for human leukemic U937 cells, and explored the mode of action using FTIR microspectroscopy. The number of viable U937 cells in vitro was decreased in a concentration-dependent manner by all tested compounds, although potency differed between the U937 and Vero cells. Melphalan and the extract of C. formosum exhibited relatively lower IC(50) values (15.0 ± 1.0 and 82.7 ± 3.2 μg/mL respectively) and higher selectivity (selective index>3) than the extract of P. kesiya (299.0 ± 5.2 μg/mL; selective index<3) on the U937 cells. All three compounds significantly induced apoptosis through the late stage - seen by the indicative DNA ladder - with the most effective being melphalan, then the P. kesiya and C. formosum extracts. FTIR microspectroscopy revealed that all three compounds raised the intensity of the β-pleated sheet - higher than that of the untreated U937 cells - corresponding to a shift in the α-helix band associated with an alteration in the secondary structure of the protein band, confirming induction of apoptosis via pro-apoptotic proteins. The differences in intensity of the FTIR bands associated with lipids, proteins and nucleic acids were responsible for discrimination of the anticancer mode of action of each of the three compounds. The FTIR data suggest that the two plant extracts possessed anticancer activity with a different mode of action than melphalan. PMID:22483925

  6. Effects of Cigarette Smoke Condensate on Oxidative Stress, Apoptotic Cell Death, and HIV Replication in Human Monocytic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pss Rao

    Full Text Available While cigarette smoking is prevalent amongst HIV-infected patients, the effects of cigarette smoke constituents in cells of myeloid lineage are poorly known. Recently, we have shown that nicotine induces oxidative stress through cytochrome P450 (CYP 2A6-mediated pathway in U937 monocytic cells. The present study was designed to examine the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC, which contains majority of tobacco constituents, on oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, expression of CYP1A1, and/or HIV-1 replication in HIV-infected (U1 and uninfected U937 cells. The effects of CSC on induction of CYP1 enzymes in HIV-infected primary macrophages were also analyzed. The results showed that the CSC-mediated increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in U937 cells is dose- and time-dependent. Moreover, CSC treatment was found to induce cytotoxicity in U937 cells through the apoptotic pathway via activation of caspase-3. Importantly, pretreatment with vitamin C blocked the CSC-mediated production of ROS and induction of caspase-3 activity. In U1 cells, acute treatment of CSC increased ROS production at 6H (>2-fold and both ROS (>2 fold and HIV-1 replication (>3-fold after chronic treatment. The CSC mediated effects were associated with robust induction in the expression of CYP1A1 mRNA upon acute CSC treatment of U937 and U1 cells (>20-fold, and upon chronic CSC treatment to U1 cells (>30-fold. In addition, the CYP1A1 induction in U937 cells was mediated through the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor pathway. Lastly, CSC, which is known to increase viral replication in primary macrophages, was also found to induce CYP1 enzymes in HIV-infected primary macrophages. While mRNA levels of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 were elevated following CSC treatment, only CYP1B1 protein levels were increased in HIV-infected primary macrophages. In conclusion, these results suggest a possible association between oxidative stress, CYP1 expression, and viral replication in

  7. Distinct differentiation characteristics of individual human embryonic stem cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knuutila Sakari

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individual differences between human embryonic stem cell (hESC lines are poorly understood. Here, we describe the derivation of five hESC lines (called FES 21, 22, 29, 30 and 61 from frozen-thawed human embryos and compare their individual differentiation characteristic. Results The cell lines were cultured either on human or mouse feeder cells. The cells grew significantly faster and could be passaged enzymatically only on mouse feeders. However, this was found to lead to chromosomal instability after prolonged culture. All hESC lines expressed the established markers of pluripotent cells as well as several primordial germ cell (PGC marker genes in a uniform manner. However, the cell lines showed distinct features in their spontaneous differentiation patterns. The embryoid body (EB formation frequency of FES 30 cell line was significantly lower than that of other lines and cells within the EBs differentiated less readily. Likewise, teratomas derived from FES 30 cells were constantly cystic and showed only minor solid tissue formation with a monotonous differentiation pattern as compared with the other lines. Conclusion hESC lines may differ substantially in their differentiation properties although they appear similar in the undifferentiated state.

  8. Analysis of three marine fish cell lines by rapd assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H R; Zhang, S C; Tong, S L; Xiang, J H

    2001-01-01

    We tested the applicability of the random amplified polymorphic deoxyribonucleic acid (RAPD) analysis for identification of three marine fish cell lines FG, SPH, and RSBF, and as a possible tool to detect cross-contamination. Sixty commercial 10-mer RAPD primers were tested on the cell lines and on samples collected from individual fish. The results obtained showed that the cell lines could be identified to the correspondent species on the basis of identical patterns produced by 35-48% of the primers tested; the total mean similarity indices for cell lines versus correspondent species of individual fish ranged from 0.825 to 0.851, indicating the existence of genetic variation in these cell lines in relation to the species of their origin. Also, four primers, which gave a monomorphic band pattern within species/line, but different among the species/line, were obtained. These primers can be useful for identification of these cell lines and for characterization of the genetic variation of these cell lines in relation to the species of their origin. This supported the use of RAPD analysis as an effective tool in species identification and cross-contamination test among different cell lines. PMID:11573817

  9. POTENTIAL CELL LINE TOXICITY OF ENVIRONMENTAL NANOPARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan Durga

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In India, the unprecedented growth rate and urbanization along with the rapid increase in motor vehicle activity and industrialization are contributing to high levels of urban air pollution. The population is mainly exposed to high air pollution concentrations, where motor vehicle emissions constitute the main source of fine and ultrafine particles. Motor exhaust emissions is a mixture of gases and Particulate Matter (PM. Diesel and petrol fuels in vehicles produce combustion-derived particles as a result of combustion. Vehicle exhaust particles are the main constituents of environmental nanoparticles. In the present investigation, environmental nanoparticles such as Diesel Exhaust Particles (DEP and Petrol Exhaust Particles (PEP were collected from on-road vehicles using a specially designed collection chamber. The surface morphology of the collected particles was analyzed through Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM, and the elemental mapping was performed through EDAX analysis. Results indicated the presence of nanometer-size particles in both the categories of vehicle exhaust. These small-size particles of respirable range can enter the respiratory tract of humans and get deposited in the lungs and cause various effects inside the human body. The aim of this study is to assess the cytotoxicity of the collected Diesel Exhaust Nanoparticles (DENPs and Petrol Exhaust Nanoparticles (PENPs. Cytotoxicity endpoint, such as IC50 (50% Inhibitory Concentration, was determined after a 24-h exposure. Results of this study indicated that all five cell lines were sensitive to these vehicle exhaust nanoparticles at varying levels.

  10. Investigation of the selenium metabolism in cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunøe, Kristoffer; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Stürup, Stefan;

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to compare different selenium species for their ability to induce cell death in different cancer cell lines, while investigating the underlying chemistry by speciation analysis. A prostate cancer cell line (PC-3), a colon cancer cell line (HT-29) and a leukaemia cell line...... (Jurkat E6-1) were incubated with five selenium compounds representing inorganic as well as organic Se compounds in different oxidation states. Selenomethionine (SeMet), Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys), methylseleninic acid (MeSeA), selenite and selenate in the concentration range 5-100 mu M were...... incubated with cells for 24 h and the induction of cell death was measured using flow cytometry. The amounts of total selenium in cell medium, cell lysate and the insoluble fractions was determined by ICP-MS. Speciation analysis of cellular fractions was performed by reversed phase, anion exchange and size...

  11. Modulation of cell proliferation, survival and gene expression by RAGE and TLR signaling in cells of the innate and adaptive immune response: role of p38 MAPK and NF-KB

    Science.gov (United States)

    de MEDEIROS, Marcell Costa; FRASNELLI, Sabrina Cruz Tfaile; BASTOS, Alliny de Souza; ORRICO, Silvana Regina Perez; ROSSA JUNIOR, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible synergism between AGE-RAGE and TLR4 signaling and the role of p38 MAPK and NF-kB signaling pathways on the modulation of the expression of inflammatory cytokines and proliferation of cells from the innate and adaptive immune response. Material and Methods T lymphocyte (JM) and monocyte (U937) cell lines were stimulated with LPS and AGE-BSA independently and associated, both in the presence and absence of p38 MAPK and NF-kB inhibitors. Proliferation was assessed by direct counting and viability was assessed by a biochemical assay of mitochondrial function. Cytokine gene expression for RAGe, CCL3, CCR5, IL-6 and TNF-α was studied by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. Results RAGE mRNA expression was detected in both cell lines. LPS and AGE-BSA did not influence cell proliferation and viability of either cell line up to 72 hours. LPS and LPS associated with AGE induced expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in monocytes and T cells, respectively. Conclusions There is no synergistic effect between RAGE and TLR signaling on the expression of IL-6, TNF-α , RAGE, CCR5 and CCL3 by monocytes and lymphocytes. Activation of RAGE associated or not with TLR signaling also had no effect on cell proliferation and survival of these cell types. PMID:25025559

  12. Modulation of ganglioside expression in human melanoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell surface gangliosides in human melanoma cell lines were modulated by pretreatment and adaptation to 6-thioguanine and 5-bromo-deoxyuridine. Chemo- and radiation sensitivities were compared in original cell lines and modulated cells by the human tumor colony-forming assay. Modulated cells showed decreased expression of cell surface GM2 and GD2 gangliosides. This reduction was correlated with increased resistance to bleomycin, vincristine, cisplatin and radiation treatment. These results suggest that cell surface GM2 and GD2 ganglioside expression in human melanoma cells is intimately associated with several cellular biological properties, such as drug or radiation sensitivity and cellular differentiation. (author)

  13. DNA content analysis of insect cell lines by flow cytometry

    OpenAIRE

    Léry, Xavier; Charpentier, Guy; Belloncik, Serge

    1999-01-01

    The DNA content of insect cell lines (6 lepidoptera, 1 coleoptera and 1 diptera) was determined by flow cytometry. The DNA profiles of the 8 cell lines tested were different. They were characterized by the presence of several peaks (2 to 7) corresponding to different ploidy levels, by differences in the fluorescence intensity of each peak and by the proportion of cells in each peak. Two cell lines (Cf124 and BmN) were constituted of 2 distinct populations of cells. The DNA profiles of the cel...

  14. Routine enterovirus diagnosis in a human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Bell, Eleanor J.; Cosgrove, Bonnie P.

    1980-01-01

    For many years a substitute cell line has been sought to replace monkey kidney cell cultures for the diagnosis of enterovirus infections. Reports by various workers have shown that the RD cell line, derived from a human rhabdomyosarcoma, will support the replication of most of the prototype strains of enterovirus. The present study shows that, with the exception of the group B coxsackieviruses, RD cells are more sensitive than cynomolgus monkey kidney cultures for the isolation of a wide vari...

  15. tert-Butylcarbamate-containing histone deacetylase inhibitors: apoptosis induction, cytodifferentiation, and antiproliferative activities in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, Sergio; Trisciuoglio, Daniela; Tardugno, Maria; Benedetti, Rosaria; Labella, Donatella; Secci, Daniela; Mercurio, Ciro; Boggio, Roberto; Tomassi, Stefano; Di Maro, Salvatore; Novellino, Ettore; Altucci, Lucia; Del Bufalo, Donatella; Mai, Antonello; Cosconati, Sandro

    2013-05-01

    Herein we report novel pyrrole- and benzene-based hydroxamates (8, 10) and 2'-aminoanilides (9, 11) bearing the tert-butylcarbamate group at the CAP moiety as histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors. Compounds 8 b and 10 c selectively inhibited HDAC6 at the nanomolar level, whereas the other hydroxamates effected an increase in acetyl-α-tubulin levels in human acute myeloid leukemia U937 cells. In the same cell line, compounds 8 b and 10 c elicited 18.4 and 21.4 % apoptosis, respectively (SAHA: 16.9 %), and the pyrrole anilide 9 c displayed the highest cytodifferentiating effect (90.9 %). In tests against a wide range of various cancer cell lines to determine its antiproliferative effects, compound 10 c exhibited growth inhibition from sub-micromolar (neuroblastoma LAN-5 and SH-SY5Y cells, chronic myeloid leukemia K562 cells) to low-micromolar (lung H1299 and A549, colon HCT116 and HT29 cancer cells) concentrations. In HT29 cells, 10 c increased histone H3 acetylation, and decreased the colony-forming potential of the cancer cells by up to 60 %. PMID:23526814

  16. Characterization of xenoantiserum produced against B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akagi,Tadaatsu

    1982-10-01

    Full Text Available Antiserum was produced in white rabbit by intravenously injecting living cells of a B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL line (BALL-1. The reactivity of the antiserum against various lymphoid cell lines was examined by membrane immunofluorescence after appropriate absorption. Serum absorbed with non-T, non-B (NALL-1 and T-ALL (TALL-1 cells recognized B cell antigens distinct from Ia-like antigens on both normal and neoplastic B cells. After further absorption with tonsillar cells or normal B cell line (KO-HL-3, it reacted only with BALL-1 cells and did not react with other leukemia/lymphoma and normal B cell lines. The serum absorbed with tonsillar cells reacted only with BALL-1 and some B cell lines. Thus we were able to obtain antisera with specificity to B cell antigen, B-ALL antigen, and B cell line antigen.

  17. Permissiveness of human hepatoma cell lines for HCV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sainz Bruno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although primary and established human hepatoma cell lines have been evaluated for hepatitis C virus (HCV infection in vitro, thus far only Huh7 cells have been found to be highly permissive for infectious HCV. Since our understanding of the HCV lifecycle would benefit from the identification of additional permissive cell lines, we assembled a panel of hepatic and non-hepatic cell lines and assessed their ability to support HCV infection. Here we show infection of the human hepatoma cell lines PLC/PRF/5 and Hep3B with cell culture-derived HCV (HCVcc, albeit to lower levels than that achieved in Huh7 cells. To better understand the reduced permissiveness of PLC and Hep3B cells for HCVcc infection, we performed studies to evaluate the ability of each cell line to support specific steps of the viral lifecycle (i.e. entry, replication, egress and spread. Results We found that while the early events in HCV infection (i.e. entry plus replication initiation are cumulatively equivalent or only marginally reduced in PLC and Hep3B cells, later steps of the viral life cycle such as steady-state replication, de novo virus production and/or spread are impaired to different degrees in PLC and Hep3B cultures compared to Huh7 cell cultures. Interestingly, we also observed that interferon stimulated gene (i.e. ISG56 expression was significantly and differentially up-regulated in PLC and Hep3B cells following viral infection. Conclusions We conclude that the restrictions observed later during HCV infection in these cell lines could in part be attributed to HCV-induced innate signaling. Nevertheless, the identification of two new cell lines capable of supporting authentic HCVcc infection, even at reduced levels, expands the current repertoire of cell lines amendable for the study of HCV in vitro and should aid in further elucidating HCV biology and the cellular determinants that modulate HCV infection.

  18. G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Tumor Selective Apoptosis of Acute Leukemia Cells by a Promising Benzophenone Thiosemicarbazone Compound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, Maia; Gomez, Natalia; Remes Lenicov, Federico; Echeverría, Emiliana; Shayo, Carina; Moglioni, Albertina; Fernández, Natalia; Davio, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Anti-mitotic therapies have been considered a hallmark in strategies against abnormally proliferating cells. Focusing on the extensively studied family of thiosemicarbazone (TSC) compounds, we have previously identified 4,4'-dimethoxybenzophenone thiosemicarbazone (T44Bf) as a promising pharmacological compound in a panel of human leukemia cell lines (HL60, U937, KG1a and Jurkat). Present findings indicate that T44Bf-mediated antiproliferative effects are associated with a reversible chronic mitotic arrest caused by defects in chromosome alignment, followed by induced programmed cell death. Furthermore, T44Bf selectively induces apoptosis in leukemia cell lines when compared to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The underlying mechanism of action involves the activation of the mitochondria signaling pathway, with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and sustained phosphorylation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL as well as increased Bcl-2 (enhanced phosphorylated fraction) and pro-apoptotic protein Bad levels. In addition, ERK signaling pathway activation was found to be a requisite for T44Bf apoptotic activity. Our findings further describe a novel activity for a benzophenone thiosemicarbazone and propose T44Bf as a promising anti-mitotic prototype to develop chemotherapeutic agents to treat acute leukemia malignancies. PMID:26360247

  19. G2/M Cell Cycle Arrest and Tumor Selective Apoptosis of Acute Leukemia Cells by a Promising Benzophenone Thiosemicarbazone Compound.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Cabrera

    Full Text Available Anti-mitotic therapies have been considered a hallmark in strategies against abnormally proliferating cells. Focusing on the extensively studied family of thiosemicarbazone (TSC compounds, we have previously identified 4,4'-dimethoxybenzophenone thiosemicarbazone (T44Bf as a promising pharmacological compound in a panel of human leukemia cell lines (HL60, U937, KG1a and Jurkat. Present findings indicate that T44Bf-mediated antiproliferative effects are associated with a reversible chronic mitotic arrest caused by defects in chromosome alignment, followed by induced programmed cell death. Furthermore, T44Bf selectively induces apoptosis in leukemia cell lines when compared to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The underlying mechanism of action involves the activation of the mitochondria signaling pathway, with loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and sustained phosphorylation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL as well as increased Bcl-2 (enhanced phosphorylated fraction and pro-apoptotic protein Bad levels. In addition, ERK signaling pathway activation was found to be a requisite for T44Bf apoptotic activity. Our findings further describe a novel activity for a benzophenone thiosemicarbazone and propose T44Bf as a promising anti-mitotic prototype to develop chemotherapeutic agents to treat acute leukemia malignancies.

  20. 77 FR 5489 - Identification of Human Cell Lines Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... Human Subjects. Paperwork Reduction Act: This notice contains collection of information requirements... National Institute of Standards and Technology Identification of Human Cell Lines Project AGENCY: National... tandem repeat (STR) profiling up to 1500 human cell line samples as part of the Identification of...

  1. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCM-1 was derived from a failed to fertilise egg undergoing parthenogenetic stimulation. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  2. Trichloroethylene toxicity in a human hepatoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thevenin, E.; McMillian, J. [Medical Univ. of Charleston South Carolina, SC (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The experiments conducted in this study were designed to determine the usefullness of hepatocyte cultures and a human hepatoma cell line as model systems for assessing human susceptibility to hepatocellular carcinoma due to exposure to trichloroethylene. The results from these studies will then be analyzed to determine if human cell lines can be used to conduct future experiments of this nature.

  3. GREG cells, a dysferlin-deficient myogenic mouse cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dysferlinopathies (e.g. LGMD2b, Myoshi myopathy) are progressive, adult-onset muscle wasting syndromes caused by mutations in the gene coding for dysferlin. Dysferlin is a large (∼ 200 kDa) membrane-anchored protein, required for maintenance of plasmalemmal integrity in muscle fibers. To facilitate analysis of dysferlin function in muscle cells, we have established a dysferlin-deficient myogenic cell line (GREG cells) from the A/J mouse, a genetic model for dysferlinopathy. GREG cells have no detectable dysferlin expression, but proliferate normally in growth medium and fuse into functional myotubes in differentiation medium. GREG myotubes exhibit deficiencies in plasma membrane repair, as measured by laser wounding in the presence of FM1–43 dye. Under the wounding conditions used, the majority (∼ 66%) of GREG myotubes lack membrane repair capacity, while no membrane repair deficiency was observed in dysferlin-normal C2C12 myotubes, assayed under the same conditions. We discuss the possibility that the observed heterogeneity in membrane resealing represents genetic compensation for dysferlin deficiency.

  4. GREG cells, a dysferlin-deficient myogenic mouse cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphrey, Glen W.; Mekhedov, Elena; Blank, Paul S. [Program in Physical Biology, Eunice Kennedy Schriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Morree, Antoine de [Center for Human Genetics, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden (Netherlands); Pekkurnaz, Gulcin [Program in Physical Biology, Eunice Kennedy Schriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Nagaraju, Kanneboyina [Research Center for Genetic Medicine, Children' s National Medical Center, Washington, DC 20010 (United States); Zimmerberg, Joshua, E-mail: zimmerbj@mail.nih.gov [Program in Physical Biology, Eunice Kennedy Schriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2012-01-15

    The dysferlinopathies (e.g. LGMD2b, Myoshi myopathy) are progressive, adult-onset muscle wasting syndromes caused by mutations in the gene coding for dysferlin. Dysferlin is a large ({approx} 200 kDa) membrane-anchored protein, required for maintenance of plasmalemmal integrity in muscle fibers. To facilitate analysis of dysferlin function in muscle cells, we have established a dysferlin-deficient myogenic cell line (GREG cells) from the A/J mouse, a genetic model for dysferlinopathy. GREG cells have no detectable dysferlin expression, but proliferate normally in growth medium and fuse into functional myotubes in differentiation medium. GREG myotubes exhibit deficiencies in plasma membrane repair, as measured by laser wounding in the presence of FM1-43 dye. Under the wounding conditions used, the majority ({approx} 66%) of GREG myotubes lack membrane repair capacity, while no membrane repair deficiency was observed in dysferlin-normal C2C12 myotubes, assayed under the same conditions. We discuss the possibility that the observed heterogeneity in membrane resealing represents genetic compensation for dysferlin deficiency.

  5. Human embryonic stem cell lines derived from the Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen Fu FANG; Fan JIN; Hui GAI; Ying CHEN; Li WU; Ai Lian LIU; Bin CHEN; Hui Zhen SHENG

    2005-01-01

    Six human embryonic stem cell lines were established from surplus blastocysts. The cell lines expressed alkaline phosphatase and molecules typical of primate embryonic stem cells, including Oct-4, Nanog, TDGF1, Sox2, EBAF,Thy-1, FGF4, Rex-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81. Five of the six lines formed embryoid bodies that expressed markers of a variety of cell types; four of them formed teratomas with tissue types representative of all three embryonic germ layers. These human embryonic stem cells are capable of producing clones of undifferentiated morphology, and one of them was propagated to become a subline. Human embryonic stem cell lines from the Chinese population should facilitate stem cell research and may be valuable in studies of population genetics and ecology.

  6. The transcriptional diversity of 25 Drosophila cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherbas, L.; Willingham, A.; Zhang, D.; Yang, L.; Zou, Y.; Eads, B. D.; Carlson, J. W.; Landolin, J. M.; Kapranov, P.; Dumais, J.; Samsonova, A.; Choi, J. -H.; Roberts, J.; Davis, C. A.; Tang, H.; van Baren, M. J.; Ghosh, S.; Dobin, A.; Bell, K.; Lin, W.; Langton, L.; Duff, M. O.; Tenney, A. E.; Zaleski, C.; Brent, M. R.; Hoskins, R. A.; Kaufman, T. C.; Andrews, J.; Graveley, B. R.; Perrimon, N.; Celniker, S. E.; Gingeras, T. R.; Cherbas, P.

    2010-12-22

    Drosophila melanogaster cell lines are important resources for cell biologists. Here, we catalog the expression of exons, genes, and unannotated transcriptional signals for 25 lines. Unannotated transcription is substantial (typically 19% of euchromatic signal). Conservatively, we identify 1405 novel transcribed regions; 684 of these appear to be new exons of neighboring, often distant, genes. Sixty-four percent of genes are expressed detectably in at least one line, but only 21% are detected in all lines. Each cell line expresses, on average, 5885 genes, including a common set of 3109. Expression levels vary over several orders of magnitude. Major signaling pathways are well represented: most differentiation pathways are ‘‘off’’ and survival/growth pathways ‘‘on.’’ Roughly 50% of the genes expressed by each line are not part of the common set, and these show considerable individuality. Thirty-one percent are expressed at a higher level in at least one cell line than in any single developmental stage, suggesting that each line is enriched for genes characteristic of small sets of cells. Most remarkable is that imaginal discderived lines can generally be assigned, on the basis of expression, to small territories within developing discs. These mappings reveal unexpected stability of even fine-grained spatial determination. No two cell lines show identical transcription factor expression. We conclude that each line has retained features of an individual founder cell superimposed on a common ‘‘cell line‘‘ gene expression pattern. Wereport the transcriptional profiles of 25 Drosophila melanogaster cell lines, principally by whole-genome tiling microarray analysis of total RNA, carried out as part of the modENCODE project. The data produced in this study add to our knowledge of the cell lines and of the Drosophila transcriptome in several ways. We summarize the expression of previously annotated genes in each of the 25 lines with emphasis on what

  7. Derivation of Genea052 human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea052 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea052 was demonstrated with 85% of cells expressing Nanog, 87% Oct4, 60% Tra1-60 and 97% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 27.21, Novelty score of 1.2 and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination.

  8. Derivation of Genea047 human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea047 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype and female allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea047 was demonstrated with 88% of cells expressing Nanog, 95% Oct4, 59% Tra1-60 and 99% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 30.86, Novelty score of 1.23 and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination.

  9. Derivation of Genea015 human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea015 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male Allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea015 was demonstrated with 80% of cells expressing Nanog, 97% Oct4, 75% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 29.52, Novelty score of 1.3 and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination.

  10. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell line Genea023

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea023 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea023 was demonstrated with 85% of cells expressed Nanog, 98% Oct4, 55% Tra1-60 and 98% SSEA4, gave a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 42.76, Novelty of 1.23, demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  11. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell line Genea022

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea022 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XY karyotype and male allele pattern through CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea022 was demonstrated with 84% of cells expressed Nanog, 98% Oct4, 55% Tra1–60 and 97% SSEA4, gave a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 42.95, Novelty of 1.23, demonstrated Alkaline Phosphatase activity and tri-lineage teratoma formation. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and visible contamination.

  12. Derivation of Genea042 human embryonic stem cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea042 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated human feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype and female allele pattern through traditional karyotyping, CGH and STR analysis. Pluripotency of Genea042 was demonstrated with 81% of cells expressing Nanog, 95% Oct4, 53% Tra1-60 and 97% SSEA4, a PluriTest Pluripotency score of 30.06, Novelty score of 1.24 and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination.

  13. Cytotoxinic Mechanism of Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles on Human Hepatoma Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Xian-ying; QI Zhi-tao; DAI Hong-lian; YAN Yu-hua; LI Shi-pu

    2003-01-01

    Stable and single-dispersed HAP nanoparticles were synthesized with chemical method assisted by ultrasonic treatment.HAP nanoparticles were surveyed by AFM and Zataplus.The effect on the Bel-7402 human hepatoma cell lines treated with HAP nanoparticles was investigated by the MTT methods and observation of morphology,and the mechanism was studied in changes of cell cycle and ultrastructure.The result shows that inhibition of HAP nanoparticles on the Bel-7402 human hepatoma cell lines is obviously in vitro.HAP nanoparticles the entered cancer cytoplasm,and cell proliferation is stopped at G1 phase of cell cycle,thus,cancer cells die directly.

  14. Protein C inhibitor (PCI binds to phosphatidylserine exposing cells with implications in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and activated platelets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Rieger

    Full Text Available Protein C Inhibitor (PCI is a secreted serine protease inhibitor, belonging to the family of serpins. In addition to activated protein C PCI inactivates several other proteases of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems, suggesting a regulatory role in hemostasis. Glycosaminoglycans and certain negatively charged phospholipids, like phosphatidylserine, bind to PCI and modulate its activity. Phosphatidylerine (PS is exposed on the surface of apoptotic cells and known as a phagocytosis marker. We hypothesized that PCI might bind to PS exposed on apoptotic cells and thereby influence their removal by phagocytosis. Using Jurkat T-lymphocytes and U937 myeloid cells, we show here that PCI binds to apoptotic cells to a similar extent at the same sites as Annexin V, but in a different manner as compared to live cells (defined spots on ∼10-30% of cells. PCI dose dependently decreased phagocytosis of apoptotic Jurkat cells by U937 macrophages. Moreover, the phagocytosis of PS exposing, activated platelets by human blood derived monocytes declined in the presence of PCI. In U937 cells the expression of PCI as well as the surface binding of PCI increased with time of phorbol ester treatment/macrophage differentiation. The results of this study suggest a role of PCI not only for the function and/or maturation of macrophages, but also as a negative regulator of apoptotic cell and activated platelets removal.

  15. Establishment of human embryonic stem cell line from gamete donors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tao; ZHOU Can-quan; MAI Qing-yun; ZHUANG Guang-lun

    2005-01-01

    Background Human embryonic stem (HES) cell derived from human blastocyst can be propagated indefinitely in the primitive undifferentiated state while remaining pluripotent. It has exciting potential in human developmental biology, drug discovery, and transplantation medicine. But there are insufficient HES cell lines for further study. Methods Three oocyte donors were studied, and 3 in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles were carried out to get blastocysts for the establishment of HES cell line. Isolated from blastocysts immunosurgically, inner cell mass (ICM) was cultured and propagated on mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Once established, morphology, cell surface markers, karyotype and differentiating ability of the cell line were thoroughly analyzed.Results Four ICMs from 7 blastocysts were cultured on MEFs. After culture, one cell line (cHES-1) was established and met the criteria for defining human pluripotent stem cells including a series of markers used to identify pluripotent stem cells, morphological similarity to primate embryonic stem cells and HES reported else where. Normal and stable karyotype maintained over 60 passages, and demonstrated ability to differentiate into a wide variety of cell types.Conclusions HES cell lines can be established from gamete donors at a relatively highly efficient rate. The establishment will exert a widespread impact on biomedical research.

  16. Susceptibility of various cell lines to Neospora caninum tachyzoites cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khordadmehr, M.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a coccidian protozoan parasite which is a major cause of bovine abortions and neonatal mortality in cattle, sheep, goat and horse. Occasionally, cultured cells are used for isolation and multiplication of the agent in vitro with several purposes. In this study the tachyzoite yields of N. caninum were compared in various cell cultures as the host cell lines. Among the cell cultures tested, two presented good susceptibility to the agent: cell lines Vero and MA-104. SW742 and TLI (in vitro suspension culture of lymphoid cells infected with Theileria lestoquardi showed moderate sensitivity. No viable tachyzoite were detected in the culture of MDCK and McCoy cell lines. These results demonstrate that MA-104 and SW742 cells present adequate susceptibility to N. caninum compared to Vero cells, which have been largely used to multiply the parasite in vitro. Moreover, these have easy manipulation, fast multiplication and relatively low nutritional requirements. In addition, the result of this study showed that TLI cell line as a suspension cell culture is susceptible to Nc-1 tachyzoites infection and could be used as an alternative host cell line for tachyzoites culture in vitro studies.

  17. HIGH EFFICIENCY RETROVIRUS-MEDIATED GENE TRANSFER TO LEUKEMIA CELLS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Jian-xin; CHEN Zi-xing; CEN Jian-nong; WANG Wei; RUAN Chang-geng

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To establish an efficient and safe gene transfer system mediated by retrovirus for gene marking and gene therapy of human leukemia. Method: The retroviral vector LXSN, containing the neomycin resistance (NeoR) gene, was transferred into amphotropic packaging cells GP+envAm12 by liposome transfection or by ecotropic retrovirus transduction. Amphotropic retrovirus in supernatants with higher titer was used to infect human leukemic cell lines NB4, U937, and THP-1.The efficiency of gene transfer was assayed on colonies formed by transduced K562 cells. Results: The titer of DOSPER directly transfected GP+envAm12 cells determined on NIH3T3 cells was 8.0×105 CFU/ml, while that of producer infected with retrovirus was 1.6×107CFU/ml. Integration of NeoR gene into all leukemia cells was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).Absence of replication-competent virus was proved by both nested PCR for env gene and marker gene rescue assay. Gene transfer with the efficiency as high as 93.3 to 100% in K562 cells was verified by seminested PCR for integrated NeoR gene on colonies after 7 days' culture.Conclusion: The efficiency and safety of retrovirus mediated gene transfer system might provide an optimal system in gene therapy for leukemia or genetic diseases.

  18. Generation and characterization of human insulin-releasing cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Joffé Elisa; Machado Marcel CC; Buchanan Cecilia; Terra Letícia F; Stigliano Iván; Krogh Karin; Peters Maria G; Labriola Leticia; Puricelli Lydia; Sogayar Mari C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background The in vitro culture of insulinomas provides an attractive tool to study cell proliferation and insulin synthesis and secretion. However, only a few human beta cell lines have been described, with long-term passage resulting in loss of insulin secretion. Therefore, we set out to establish and characterize human insulin-releasing cell lines. Results We generated ex-vivo primary cultures from two independent human insulinomas and from a human nesidioblastosis, all of which w...

  19. Cytotoxic Activity of Highly Purified Silver Nanoparticles Sol Against Cells of Human Immune System

    OpenAIRE

    Barbasz, Anna; Oćwieja, Magdalena; Barbasz, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (AgN) in the articles of common use justifies the need to investigate their effects on the human body. Nanosilver toxicity of highly purified, stable, and well-characterized Ag sol toward human immune cells at various differentiation stages has been studied. Human promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL-60) were differentiated to granulocytes using dimethyl sulfoxide and to macrophage-like cells by phorbol ester. Human monocytic cells (U-937) were different...

  20. Generation and characterization of human insulin-releasing cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joffé Elisa

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The in vitro culture of insulinomas provides an attractive tool to study cell proliferation and insulin synthesis and secretion. However, only a few human beta cell lines have been described, with long-term passage resulting in loss of insulin secretion. Therefore, we set out to establish and characterize human insulin-releasing cell lines. Results We generated ex-vivo primary cultures from two independent human insulinomas and from a human nesidioblastosis, all of which were cultured up to passage number 20. All cell lines secreted human insulin and C-peptide. These cell lines expressed neuroendocrine and islets markers, confirming the expression profile found in the biopsies. Although all beta cell lineages survived an anchorage independent culture, none of them were able to invade an extracellular matrix substrate. Conclusion We have established three human insulin-releasing cell lines which maintain antigenic characteristics and insulin secretion profiles of the original tumors. These cell lines represent valuable tools for the study of molecular events underlying beta cell function and dysfunction.

  1. Generation and characterization of human insulin-releasing cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labriola, Leticia; Peters, Maria G; Krogh, Karin; Stigliano, Iván; Terra, Letícia F; Buchanan, Cecilia; Machado, Marcel CC; Joffé, Elisa Bal de Kier; Puricelli, Lydia; Sogayar, Mari C

    2009-01-01

    Background The in vitro culture of insulinomas provides an attractive tool to study cell proliferation and insulin synthesis and secretion. However, only a few human beta cell lines have been described, with long-term passage resulting in loss of insulin secretion. Therefore, we set out to establish and characterize human insulin-releasing cell lines. Results We generated ex-vivo primary cultures from two independent human insulinomas and from a human nesidioblastosis, all of which were cultured up to passage number 20. All cell lines secreted human insulin and C-peptide. These cell lines expressed neuroendocrine and islets markers, confirming the expression profile found in the biopsies. Although all beta cell lineages survived an anchorage independent culture, none of them were able to invade an extracellular matrix substrate. Conclusion We have established three human insulin-releasing cell lines which maintain antigenic characteristics and insulin secretion profiles of the original tumors. These cell lines represent valuable tools for the study of molecular events underlying beta cell function and dysfunction. PMID:19545371

  2. Radiobiological characteristics of cancer stem cells from esophageal cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Jian-Lin; Yu, Jing-Ping; Zhi-qiang SUN; Sun, Su-Ping

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To study the cancer stem cell population in esophageal cancer cell lines KYSE-150 and TE-1 and identify whether the resulting stem-like spheroid cells display cancer stem cells and radiation resistance characteristics.

  3. Differential heat shock response of primary human cell cultures and established cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, W W; Issinger, O G

    1986-01-01

    degrees C treatment, whereas in immortalized cell lines usually 90% of the cells were found in suspension. Enhanced expression of the major heat shock protein (hsp 70) was found in all heat-treated cells. In contrast to the primary cell cultures, established and transformed cell lines synthesized a...

  4. Establishment of Jurkat tet-on cell line

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Tet-control system is developed to tightly control target gene expression in mammalian cells by using the regulatory elements of tetracycline-repressor of the transposor Tn10 from E.Coli.We have transfected reverse tetracycline-controlled transactivator gene (rtTA) into genome of Jurkat cells and established two Jurkat tet-on cell lines.Induction of luciferase reporter activity with doxycycline,a tetracycline derivative,is dose-dependent with a peak value of 32-fold increment.Establishment of Jurkat tet-on cell lines greatly facilitates quantitative studies on target gene functions in the cells.

  5. Antiproliferative effect of isopentenylated coumarins on several cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaii, S; Tomono, Y; Ogawa, K; Sugiura, M; Yano, M; Yoshizawa, Y; Ito, C; Furukawa, H

    2001-01-01

    33 coumarins, mainly the simple isopentenylated coumarins and derived pyrano- and furanocoumarins, were examined for their antiproliferative activity towards several cancer and normal human cell lines. The pyrano- and furanocoumarins showed strong activity against the cancer cell lines, whereas they had weak antiproliferative activity against the normal human cell lines. The decreasing rank order of potency was osthenone (10), clausarin (25), clausenidin (26), dentatin (24), nordentatin (23), imperatorin (29), seselin (27), xanthyletin (21), suberosin (17), phebalosin (8) and osthol (12). The structure-activity relationship established from the results revealed that the 1,1-dimethylallyl and isopentenyl groups have an important role for antiproliferative activity. PMID:11497276

  6. Characterization of an epithelial cell line from bovine mammary gland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Tania; Barash, Itamar

    2002-05-01

    Elucidation of the bovine mammary gland's unique characteristics depends on obtaining an authentic cell line that will reproduce its function in vitro. Representative clones from bovine mammary cell populations, differing in their attachment capabilities, were cultured. L-1 cells showed strong attachment to the plate, whereas H-7 cells detached easily. Cultures established from these clones were nontumorigenic upon transplantation to an immunodeficient host; they exhibited the epithelial cell characteristics of positive cytokeratin but not smooth muscle actin staining. Both cell lines depended on fetal calf serum for proliferation. They exhibited distinct levels of differentiation on Matrigel in serum-free, insulin-supplemented medium on the basis of their organization and beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) secretion. H-7 cells organized into mammospheres, whereas L-1 cells arrested in a duct-like morphology. In both cell lines, prolactin activated phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription, Stat5-a regulator of milk protein gene transcription, and of PHAS-I-an inhibitor of translation initiation in its nonphosphorylated form. De novo synthesis and secretion of BLG were detected in differentiated cultures: in L-1 cells, BLG was dependent on lactogenic hormones for maximal induction but was less stringently controlled than was beta-casein in the mouse CID-9 cell line. L-1 cells also encompassed a near-diploid chromosomal karyotype and may serve as a tool for studying functional characteristics of the bovine mammary gland. PMID:12418925

  7. Molecular profiling reveals primary mesothelioma cell lines recapitulate human disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernova, T; Sun, X M; Powley, I R; Galavotti, S; Grosso, S; Murphy, F A; Miles, G J; Cresswell, L; Antonov, A V; Bennett, J; Nakas, A; Dinsdale, D; Cain, K; Bushell, M; Willis, A E; MacFarlane, M

    2016-07-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an aggressive, fatal tumor strongly associated with asbestos exposure. There is an urgent need to improve MM patient outcomes and this requires functionally validated pre-clinical models. Mesothelioma-derived cell lines provide an essential and relatively robust tool and remain among the most widely used systems for candidate drug evaluation. Although a number of cell lines are commercially available, a detailed comparison of these commercial lines with freshly derived primary tumor cells to validate their suitability as pre-clinical models is lacking. To address this, patient-derived primary mesothelioma cell lines were established and characterized using complementary multidisciplinary approaches and bioinformatic analysis. Clinical markers of mesothelioma, transcriptional and metabolic profiles, as well as the status of p53 and the tumor suppressor genes CDKN2A and NF2, were examined in primary cell lines and in two widely used commercial lines. Expression of MM-associated markers, as well as the status of CDKN2A, NF2, the 'gatekeeper' in MM development, and their products demonstrated that primary cell lines are more representative of the tumor close to its native state and show a degree of molecular diversity, thus capturing the disease heterogeneity in a patient cohort. Molecular profiling revealed a significantly different transcriptome and marked metabolic shift towards a greater glycolytic phenotype in commercial compared with primary cell lines. Our results highlight that multiple, appropriately characterised, patient-derived tumor cell lines are required to enable concurrent evaluation of molecular profiles versus drug response. Furthermore, application of this approach to other difficult-to-treat tumors would generate improved cellular models for pre-clinical evaluation of novel targeted therapies. PMID:26891694

  8. Pathway-specific differences between tumor cell lines and normal and tumor tissue cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tozeren Aydin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell lines are used in experimental investigation of cancer but their capacity to represent tumor cells has yet to be quantified. The aim of the study was to identify significant alterations in pathway usage in cell lines in comparison with normal and tumor tissue. Methods This study utilized a pathway-specific enrichment analysis of publicly accessible microarray data and quantified the gene expression differences between cell lines, tumor, and normal tissue cells for six different tissue types. KEGG pathways that are significantly different between cell lines and tumors, cell lines and normal tissues and tumor and normal tissue were identified through enrichment tests on gene lists obtained using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM. Results Cellular pathways that were significantly upregulated in cell lines compared to tumor cells and normal cells of the same tissue type included ATP synthesis, cell communication, cell cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, purine, pyrimidine and pyruvate metabolism, and proteasome. Results on metabolic pathways suggested an increase in the velocity nucleotide metabolism and RNA production. Pathways that were downregulated in cell lines compared to tumor and normal tissue included cell communication, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs, and ECM-receptor interaction. Only a fraction of the significantly altered genes in tumor-to-normal comparison had similar expressions in cancer cell lines and tumor cells. These genes were tissue-specific and were distributed sparsely among multiple pathways. Conclusion Significantly altered genes in tumors compared to normal tissue were largely tissue specific. Among these genes downregulation was a major trend. In contrast, cell lines contained large sets of significantly upregulated genes that were common to multiple tissue types. Pathway upregulation in cell lines was most pronounced over metabolic pathways including cell nucleotide metabolism and oxidative

  9. Strategies for selecting recombinant CHO cell lines for cGMP manufacturing: improving the efficiency of cell line generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Alison J; Racher, Andrew J; Preziosi, Richard; Dickson, Alan J

    2010-01-01

    Transfectants with a wide range of cellular phenotypes are obtained during the process of cell line generation. For the successful manufacture of a therapeutic protein, a means is required to identify a cell line with desirable growth and productivity characteristics from this phenotypically wide-ranging transfectant population. This identification process is on the critical path for first-in-human studies. We have stringently examined a typical selection strategy used to isolate cell lines suitable for cGMP manufacturing. One-hundred and seventy-five transfectants were evaluated as they progressed through the different assessment stages of the selection strategy. High producing cell lines, suitable for cGMP manufacturing, were identified. However, our analyses showed that the frequency of isolation of the highest producing cell lines was low and that ranking positions were not consistent between each assessment stage, suggesting that there is potential to improve upon the strategy. Attempts to increase the frequency of isolation of the 10 highest producing cell lines, by in silico analysis of alternative selection strategies, were unsuccessful. We identified alternative strategies with similar predictive capabilities to the typical selection strategy. One alternate strategy required fewer cell lines to be progressed at the assessment stages but the stochastic nature of the models means that cell line numbers are likely to change between programs. In summary, our studies illuminate the potential for improvement to this and future selection strategies, based around use of assessments that are more informative or that reduce variance, paving the way to improved efficiency of generation of manufacturing cell lines. PMID:20623584

  10. Phenotypes and karyotypes of human malignant mesothelioma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandana Relan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive tumour of serosal surfaces most commonly pleura. Characterised cell lines represent a valuable tool to study the biology of mesothelioma. The aim of this study was to develop and biologically characterise six malignant mesothelioma cell lines to evaluate their potential as models of human malignant mesothelioma. METHODS: Five lines were initiated from pleural biopsies, and one from pleural effusion of patients with histologically proven malignant mesothelioma. Mesothelial origin was assessed by standard morphology, Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM and immunocytochemistry. Growth characteristics were assayed using population doubling times. Spectral karyotyping was performed to assess chromosomal abnormalities. Authentication of donor specific derivation was undertaken by DNA fingerprinting using a panel of SNPs. RESULTS: Most of cell lines exhibited spindle cell shape, with some retaining stellate shapes. At passage 2 to 6 all lines stained positively for calretinin and cytokeratin 19, and demonstrated capacity for anchorage-independent growth. At passage 4 to 16, doubling times ranged from 30-72 hours, and on spectral karyotyping all lines exhibited numerical chromosomal abnormalities ranging from 41 to 113. Monosomy of chromosomes 8, 14, 22 or 17 was observed in three lines. One line displayed four different karyotypes at passage 8, but only one karyotype at passage 42, and another displayed polyploidy at passage 40 which was not present at early passages. At passages 5-17, TEM showed characteristic features of mesothelioma ultrastructure in all lines including microvilli and tight intercellular junctions. CONCLUSION: These six cell lines exhibit varying cell morphology, a range of doubling times, and show diverse passage-dependent structural chromosomal changes observed in malignant tumours. However they retain characteristic immunocytochemical protein expression profiles of

  11. Surface charge characteristics of cells from malignant cell lines and normal cell lines of the human hematopoietic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marikovsky, Y; Ben-Bassat, H; Leibovich, S J; Cividalli, L; Fischler, H; Danon, D

    1979-02-01

    Cells from malignant and normal lines of human hematopoietic origin were studied for their surface charge characteristics with the use of the following criteria: 1) the electron microscopic appearance of cell membranes after labeling with cationized ferritin (CF) either before or after glutaraldehyde fixation, 2) electrophoretic mobility, 3) total sialic acid content, and 4) agglutinability with poly-L-lysine (PLL). CF induced a time-dependent redistribution of surface receptors in unfixed malignant cells but not in unfixed normal cells. After 10 seconds of labeling with CF, both normal and malignant unfixed cells showed a uniform and even labeling pattern. After 5 minutes of labeling, malignant cells exhibited a highly pronounced pattern of clusters and patches, as distinct from a random and even pattern exhibited by normal cells. Both normal and malignant cells after fixation exhibited an equivalent random and even labeling pattern with CF, independent of the duration of labeling. The malignant cells studied possessed less sialic acid, had a lower electric mobility, and were agglutinated more readily with PLL than were the normal cells. PMID:310907

  12. MORPHOMETRIC SUBTYPING FOR A PANEL OF BREAST CANCER CELL LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Ju; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Wang, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joe W.; Parvin, Bahram

    2009-05-08

    A panel of cell lines of diverse molecular background offers an improved model system for high-content screening, comparative analysis, and cell systems biology. A computational pipeline has been developed to collect images from cell-based assays, segment individual cells and colonies, represent segmented objects in a multidimensional space, and cluster them for identifying distinct subpopulations. While each segmentation strategy can vary for different imaging assays, representation and subpopulation analysis share a common thread. Application of this pipeline to a library of 41 breast cancer cell lines is demonstrated. These cell lines are grown in 2D and imaged through immunofluorescence microscopy. Subpopulations in this panel are identified and shown to correlate with previous subtyping literature that was derived from transcript data.

  13. Biobanking human embryonic stem cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Stem cell banks curating and distributing human embryonic stem cells have been established in a number of countries and by a number of private institutions. This paper identifies and critically discusses a number of arguments that are used to justify the importance of such banks in policy...... curiously absent from the particular stem cell banking policy discourse. This to some extent artificially isolates this discourse from the broader discussions about the flows of reproductive materials and tissues in modern society, and such isolation may lead to the interests of important actors being...

  14. Cold storage and cryopreservation of tick cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lallinger Gertrud

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tick cell lines are now available from fifteen ixodid and argasid species of medical and veterinary importance. However, some tick cell lines can be difficult to cryopreserve, and improved protocols for short- and long-term low temperature storage will greatly enhance their use as tools in tick and tick-borne pathogen research. In the present study, different protocols were evaluated for cold storage and cryopreservation of tick cell lines derived from Rhipicephalus (Boophilus decoloratus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus, Ixodes ricinus and Ixodes scapularis. For short-term cold storage, cells were kept under refrigeration at 6°C for 15, 30 and 45 days. For cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, use of a sucrose-phosphate-glutamate freezing buffer (SPG as cryoprotectant was compared with dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO supplemented with sucrose. Cell viability was determined by the trypan blue exclusion test and cell morphology was evaluated in Giemsa-stained cytocentrifuge smears. Results Cold storage at 6°C for up to 30 days was successful in preserving R. (B. microplus, R. (B. decoloratus, I. ricinus and I. scapularis cell lines; lines from the latter three species could be easily re-cultivated after 45 days under refrigeration. While cell lines from all four tick species cryopreserved with 6% DMSO were successfully resuscitated, the R. (B. decoloratus cells did not survive freezing in SPG and of the other three species, only the R. (B. microplus cells resumed growth during the observation period. Conclusions This constitutes the first report on successful short-term refrigeration of cells derived from R. (B. decoloratus, R. (B. microplus, and I. ricinus, and use of SPG as an alternative to DMSO for cryopreservation, thus making an important contribution to more reliable and convenient tick cell culture maintenance.

  15. The p38 MAPK and JNK pathways protect host cells against Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagahama, Masahiro; Shibutani, Masahiro; Seike, Soshi; Yonezaki, Mami; Takagishi, Teruhisa; Oda, Masataka; Kobayashi, Keiko; Sakurai, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Clostridium perfringens beta-toxin is an important agent of necrotic enteritis and enterotoxemia. Beta-toxin is a pore-forming toxin (PFT) that causes cytotoxicity. Two mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways (p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK]-like) provide cellular defense against various stresses. To investigate the role of the MAPK pathways in the toxic effect of beta-toxin, we examined cytotoxicity in five cell lines. Beta-toxin induced cytotoxicity in cells in the following order: THP-1 = U937 > HL-60 > BALL-1 = MOLT-4. In THP-1 cells, beta-toxin formed oligomers on lipid rafts in membranes and induced the efflux of K(+) from THP-1 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and JNK occurred in response to an attack by beta-toxin. p38 MAPK (SB203580) and JNK (SP600125) inhibitors enhanced toxin-induced cell death. Incubation in K(+)-free medium intensified p38 MAPK activation and cell death induced by the toxin, while incubation in K(+)-high medium prevented those effects. While streptolysin O (SLO) reportedly activates p38 MAPK via reactive oxygen species (ROS), we showed that this pathway did not play a major role in p38 phosphorylation in beta-toxin-treated cells. Therefore, we propose that beta-toxin induces activation of the MAPK pathway to promote host cell survival. PMID:23876806

  16. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy in tumor cell lines research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRS can be used non-invasively to study the several trace metabolites and energy metabolism in vivo. By quantitatively analyzing the compounds changes we could detect abnormal metabolism in tumor and its surrounding tissue, and estimate tumor infiltration in vivo and vitro. In recent years, MRS has been applied in cell line research and is becoming a promising method. In this article we summarized the applications of MRS in cell lines in studying diagnosis, treatment, and tumor mechanisms. (authors)

  17. Characterization of xenoantiserum produced against B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Akagi,Tadaatsu; Sonobe, Hiroshi; Miyoshi, Isao; Yoshimoto,Shizuo

    1982-01-01

    Antiserum was produced in white rabbit by intravenously injecting living cells of a B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) line (BALL-1). The reactivity of the antiserum against various lymphoid cell lines was examined by membrane immunofluorescence after appropriate absorption. Serum absorbed with non-T, non-B (NALL-1) and T-ALL (TALL-1) cells recognized B cell antigens distinct from Ia-like antigens on both normal and neoplastic B cells. After further absorption with tonsillar cells or n...

  18. Reliable in vitro studies require appropriate ovarian cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Francis; Nixdorf, Sheri; Hacker, Neville F; Heinzelmann-Schwarz, Viola A

    2014-01-01

    Ovarian cancer is the fifth most common cause of cancer death in women and the leading cause of death from gynaecological malignancies. Of the 75% women diagnosed with locally advanced or disseminated disease, only 30% will survive five years following treatment. This poor prognosis is due to the following reasons: limited understanding of the tumor origin, unclear initiating events and early developmental stages of ovarian cancer, lack of reliable ovarian cancer-specific biomarkers, and drug resistance in advanced cases. In the past, in vitro studies using cell line models have been an invaluable tool for basic, discovery-driven cancer research. However, numerous issues including misidentification and cross-contamination of cell lines have hindered research efforts. In this study we examined all ovarian cancer cell lines available from cell banks. Hereby, we identified inconsistencies in the reporting, difficulties in the identification of cell origin or clinical data of the donor patients, restricted ethnic and histological type representation, and a lack of tubal and peritoneal cancer cell lines. We recommend that all cell lines should be distributed via official cell banks only with strict guidelines regarding the minimal available information required to improve the quality of ovarian cancer research in future. PMID:24936210

  19. In vitro Rb-1 gene transfer to retinoblastoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After transfection of Rb-vector to packaging cell line (CRIP) by Ca-P precipitation method, we could select nineteen colonies of G-418 resistant clone by ring cloning. Each colony was transduced to NIH3T3 cells to select the one which produces high titer virus. After NIH3T3 cells transduction, we could get 28 colony counts for the high, 127 for the middle, and 6 for the low viral titer. With the supernatant of the high viral titer colony (CRIPRb 2-5). We transduct retinoblastoma cell lines. 5 figs, 11 refs. (Author)

  20. Neurohypophysial Receptor Gene Expression by Thymic T Cell Subsets and Thymic T Cell Lymphoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hansenne

    2004-01-01

    transcribed in thymic epithelium, while immature T lymphocytes express functional neurohypophysial receptors. Neurohypophysial receptors belong to the G protein-linked seven-transmembrane receptor superfamily and are encoded by four distinct genes, OTR, V1R, V2R and V3R. The objective of this study was to identify the nature of neurohypophysial receptor in thymic T cell subsets purified by immunomagnetic selection, as well as in murine thymic lymphoma cell lines RL12-NP and BW5147. OTR is transcribed in all thymic T cell subsets and T cell lines, while V3R transcription is restricted to CD4+ CD8+ and CD8+ thymic cells. Neither V1R nor V2R transcripts are detected in any kind of T cells. The OTR protein was identified by immunocytochemistry on thymocytes freshly isolated from C57BL/6 mice. In murine fetal thymic organ cultures, a specific OTR antagonist does not modify the percentage of T cell subsets, but increases late T cell apoptosis further evidencing the involvement of OT/OTR signaling in the control of T cell proliferation and survival. According to these data, OTR and V3R are differentially expressed during T cell ontogeny. Moreover, the restriction of OTR transcription to T cell lines derived from thymic lymphomas may be important in the context of T cell leukemia pathogenesis and treatment.

  1. Xenotropic retrovirus Bxv1 in human pancreatic β cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkegaard, Jeannette S; Ravassard, Philippe; Ingvarsen, Signe; Diedisheim, Marc; Bricout-Neveu, Emilie; Grønborg, Mads; Frogne, Thomas; Scharfmann, Raphael; Madsen, Ole D; Rescan, Claude; Albagli, Olivier

    2016-03-01

    It has been reported that endogenous retroviruses can contaminate human cell lines that have been passaged as xenotransplants in immunocompromised mice. We previously developed and described 2 human pancreatic β cell lines (EndoC-βH1 and EndoC-βH2) that were generated in this way. Here, we have shown that B10 xenotropic virus 1 (Bxv1), a xenotropic endogenous murine leukemia virus (MuLV), is present in these 2 recently described cell lines. We determined that Bxv1 was also present in SCID mice that were used for in vivo propagation of EndoC-βH1/2 cells, suggesting that contamination occurred during xenotransplantation. EndoC-βH1/2 cells released Bxv1 particles that propagated to human 293T and Mus dunni cells. Mobilization assays demonstrated that Bxv1 transcomplements defective MuLV-based retrovectors. In contrast, common rodent β cell lines, rat INS-1E and RIN-5F cells and mouse MIN6 and βTC3 cells, displayed either no or extremely weak xenotropic helper activity toward MuLV-based retrovectors, although xenotropic retrovirus sequences and transcripts were detected in both mouse cell lines. Bxv1 propagation from EndoC-βH1/2 to 293T cells occurred only under optimized conditions and was overall poorly efficient. Thus, although our data imply that MuLV-based retrovectors should be cautiously used in EndoC-βH1/2 cells, our results indicate that an involuntary propagation of Bxv1 from these cells can be easily avoided with good laboratory practices. PMID:26901817

  2. Up-Regulation of P21 Inhibits TRAIL-Mediated Extrinsic Apoptosis, Contributing Resistance to SAHA in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: P21, a multifunctional cell cycle-regulatory molecule, regulates apoptotic cell death. In this study we examined the effect of altered p21 expression on the sensitivity of acute myeloid leukemia cells in response to HDAC inhibitor SAHA treatment and investigated the underlying mechanism. Methods: Stably transfected HL60 cell lines were established in RPMI-1640 with supplementation of G-418. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Western blot was applied to assess the protein expression levels of target genes. Cell apoptosis was monitored by AnnexinV-PE/7AAD assay. Results: We showed HL60 cells that that didn't up-regulate p21 expression were more sensitive to SAHA-mediated apoptosis than NB4 and U937 cells that had increased p21 level. Enforced expression of p21 in HL60 cells reduced sensitivity to SAHA and blocked TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Conversely, p21 silencing in NB4 cells enhanced SAHA-mediated apoptosis and lethality. Finally, we found that combined treatment with SAHA and rapamycin down-regulated p21 and enhanced apoptosis in AML cells. Conclusion: We conclude that up-regulated p21 expression mediates resistance to SAHA via inhibition of TRAIL apoptotic pathway. P21 may serve as a candidate biomarker to predict responsiveness or resistance to SAHA-based therapy in AML patients. In addition, rapamycin may be an effective agent to override p21-mediated resistance to SAHA in AML patients.

  3. In vitro radiosensitivity of human leukemia cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The in vitro radiobiologic survival values (n, D0) of four tumor lines derived from human hematopoietic tumors were studied. These cell lines were HL50 (n . 1.3, D0 . 117 rad[1.17 Gy]), promyelocytic leukemia; K562 (n . 1.4, D0 . 165 rad[1.65 Gy]), erythroleukemia; 45 (n . 1.1, D0 . 147 rad[1.47 Gy]), acute lymphocyte leukemia; and 176 (n . 4.0, D0 . 76 rad[0.76 Gy]), acute monomyelogenous leukemia. More cell lines must be examined before the exact relationship between in vitro radiosensitivity and clinical radiocurability is firmly established

  4. Effect of dehydrodidemnin B on human colon carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobo, C; García-Pozo, S G; Núñez de Castro, I; Alonso, F J

    1997-01-01

    Didemnins are cytotoxic agents belonging to a depsipeptide family isolated from marine tunicates. In the present study, a new member, dehydrodidemnin B (DDB), isolated from the mediterranean tunicate Aplidium albicans, was used. The effect of the drug on human colon cultured cell lines was tested using multiple approaches: proliferation studies, long term survival after three hours of exposure to DDB by means of a clonogenic assay and the decrease of the protooncogen, ornithine decarboxylase, activity. A dehydrodidemnin B concentration of 10(-8) M completely inhibited cell growth. The IC50 obtained using the MTT proliferation test, indicated that the most proliferative cell line (CT-2) was the most sensitive to the drug. Using a clonogenic assay a clear dose-response was obtained for the three cell lines used; HT-29 cell line showed the minimum survival after 3 hours of dehydrodidemnin B treatment. A dose-dependent decrease in ornithine decarboxylase activity was also observed in three cell lines assayed. The data presented indicate that the dehydrodidemnin B is a potent cytotoxic agent on rapidly dividing human colon cancer cells. PMID:9066673

  5. Transcription profiles of non-immortalized breast cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Searches for differentially expressed genes in tumours have made extensive use of array technology. Most samples have been obtained from tumour biopsies or from established tumour-derived cell lines. Here we compare cultures of non-immortalized breast cancer cells, normal non-immortalized breast cells and immortalized normal and breast cancer cells to identify which elements of a defined set of well-known cancer-related genes are differentially expressed. Cultures of cells from pleural effusions or ascitic fluids from breast cancer patients (MSSMs) were used in addition to commercially-available normal breast epithelial cells (HMECs), established breast cancer cell lines (T-est) and established normal breast cells (N-est). The Atlas Human Cancer 1.2 cDNA expression array was employed. The data obtained were analysed using widely-available statistical and clustering software and further validated through real-time PCR. According to Significance Analysis of Microarray (SAM) and AtlasImage software, 48 genes differed at least 2-fold in adjusted intensities between HMECs and MSSMs (p < 0.01). Some of these genes have already been directly linked with breast cancer, metastasis and malignant progression, whilst others encode receptors linked to signal transduction pathways or are otherwise related to cell proliferation. Fifty genes showed at least a 2.5-fold difference between MSSMs and T-est cells according to AtlasImage, 2-fold according to SAM. Most of these classified as genes related to metabolism and cell communication. The expression profiles of 1176 genes were determined in finite life-span cultures of metastatic breast cancer cells and of normal breast cells. Significant differences were detected between the finite life-span breast cancer cell cultures and the established breast cancer cell lines. These data suggest caution in extrapolating information from established lines for application to clinical cancer research

  6. Membrane lipidome of an epithelial cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampaio, Julio L; Gerl, Mathias J; Klose, Christian;

    2011-01-01

    Tissue differentiation is an important process that involves major cellular membrane remodeling. We used Madin-Darby canine kidney cells as a model for epithelium formation and investigated the remodeling of the total cell membrane lipidome during the transition from a nonpolarized morphology to an...... epithelial morphology and vice versa. To achieve this, we developed a shotgun-based lipidomics workflow that enabled the absolute quantification of mammalian membrane lipidomes with minimal sample processing from low sample amounts. Epithelial morphogenesis was accompanied by a major shift from sphingomyelin...... to glycosphingolipid, together with an increase in plasmalogen, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cholesterol content, whereas the opposite changes took place during an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Moreover, during polarization, the sphingolipids became longer, more saturated, and more...

  7. Cell Line Modeling to Study Biomarker Panel in Prostate Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    NickKholgh, Bita; Fang, Xiaolan; Winters, Shira M.; Raina, Anvi; Pandya, Komal S.; Gyabaah, Kenneth; Fino, Nora; Balaji, K.C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND African–American men with prostate cancer (PCa) present with higher-grade and -stage tumors compared to Caucasians. While the disparity may result from multiple factors, a biological basis is often strongly suspected. Currently, few well-characterized experimental model systems are available to study the biological basis of racial disparity in PCa. We report a validated in vitro cell line model system that could be used for the purpose. METHODS We assembled a PCa cell line model that included currently available African–American PCa cell lines and LNCaP (androgen-dependent) and C4-2 (castration-resistant) Caucasian PCa cells. The utility of the cell lines in studying the biological basis of variance in a malignant phenotype was explored using a multiplex biomarker panel consisting of proteins that have been proven to play a role in the progression of PCa. The panel expression was evaluated by Western blot and RT-PCR in cell lines and validated in human PCa tissues by RT-PCR. As proof-of-principle to demonstrate the utility of our model in functional studies, we performed MTS viability assays and molecular studies. RESULTS The dysregulation of the multiplex biomarker panel in primary African–American cell line (E006AA) was similar to metastatic Caucasian cell lines, which would suggest that the cell line model could be used to study an inherent aggressive phenotype in African–American men with PCa. We had previously demonstrated that Protein kinase D1 (PKD1) is a novel kinase that is down regulated in advanced prostate cancer. We established the functional relevance by over expressing PKD1, which resulted in decreased proliferation and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) in PCa cells. Moreover, we established the feasibility of studying the expression of the multiplex biomarker panel in archived human PCa tissue from African–Americans and Caucasians as a prelude to future translational studies. CONCLUSION We have characterized a novel in

  8. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems PVL Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Susan Shearer - Stark State College; Gregory Rush - Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems

    2012-05-01

    In July 2010, Stark State College (SSC), received Grant DE-EE0003229 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Golden Field Office, for the development of the electrical and control systems, and mechanical commissioning of a unique 20kW scale high-pressure, high temperature, natural gas fueled Stack Block Test System (SBTS). SSC worked closely with subcontractor, Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) over a 13 month period to successfully complete the project activities. This system will be utilized by RRFCS for pre-commercial technology development and training of SSC student interns. In the longer term, when RRFCS is producing commercial products, SSC will utilize the equipment for workforce training. In addition to DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies program funding, RRFCS internal funds, funds from the state of Ohio, and funding from the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program have been utilized to design, develop and commission this equipment. Construction of the SBTS (mechanical components) was performed under a Grant from the State of Ohio through Ohio's Third Frontier program (Grant TECH 08-053). This Ohio program supported development of a system that uses natural gas as a fuel. Funding was provided under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program for modifications required to test on coal synthesis gas. The subject DOE program provided funding for the electrical build, control system development and mechanical commissioning. Performance testing, which includes electrical commissioning, was subsequently performed under the DOE SECA program. Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems is developing a megawatt-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stationary power generation system. This system, based on RRFCS proprietary technology, is fueled with natural gas, and operates at elevated pressure. A critical success factor for development of the full scale system is the capability

  9. Steroid hormone secretion in inflammatory breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illera, Juan Carlos; Caceres, Sara; Peña, Laura; de Andres, Paloma J; Monsalve, Beatriz; Illera, Maria J; Woodward, Wendy A; Reuben, James M; Silvan, Gema

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory breast carcinoma (IBC) is a special type of breast cancer with a poor survival rate. Though several IBC cell lines have been established, recently a first IMC cell line was established. The aims of this study were: (1) to validate a highly sensitive, reliable, accurate and direct amplified enzyme immunoassay (EIA) to measure several cell-secreted steroid hormones: progesterone (P4), androstenedione (A4), testosterone (T), 17β-estradiol (E2) and estrone sulfate (SO4E1) in the culture medium. (2) To assess whether hormone production profile by IPC-366 cells validates the IMC model for human IBC. We validated a non-competitive amplified EIA for inflammatory breast cancer cell lines based on the results of accuracy, precision, sensitivity and parallelism. The low detection limits of the technique were: P4=13.2 pg/well, A4=2.3 pg/well, T=11.4 pg/well, E2=1.9 pg/well and SO4E1=4.5 pg/well. Intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variation percentages were 90%. In all hormones studied SUM149 have higher levels (1.4 times, but not significant) than IPC-366, and the correlation index between SUM149 and IPC-366 concentrations were >97%. We can coclude that cells of both cell lines, IPC-366 and SUM149, are capable to produce steroid hormone in culture media. The presented EIA methodology is very valuable for the detection of steroid production in culture media and could be used in hormone regulation studies and therapeutic agents in cell lines of inflammatory and non-inflammatory mammary carcinoma or other cancer cell lines in preclinical studies. PMID:26495931

  10. MOLECULAR AND CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS OF LUNG TUMOR CELL LINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    We have measured the levels of amplification of oncogenes and tumor marker genes or other genes of interest in nine human lung tumor cell lines in comparison to normal human bronchial epithelial cells or normal blood lymphocytes to test the hypothesis that aberrant amplification ...

  11. Novel human multiple myeloma cell line UHKT-893

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uherková, L.; Vančurová, I.; Vyhlídalová, I.; Pleschnerová, M.; Špička, I.; Mihalová, R.; Březinová, J.; Hodný, Zdeněk; Čermáková, K.; Polanská, V.; Marinov, I.; Jedelský, P.L.; Kuželová, K.; Stöckbauer, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2013), s. 320-326. ISSN 0145-2126 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : human myeloma cell line * human multiple myeloma * plasma cell * IL-6 dependence * immunoglobulin * free light chain Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.692, year: 2013

  12. Frequency and distribution of Notch mutations in tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deregulated Notch signaling is linked to a variety of tumors and it is therefore important to learn more about the frequency and distribution of Notch mutations in a tumor context. In this report, we use data from the recently developed Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia to assess the frequency and distribution of Notch mutations in a large panel of cancer cell lines in silico. Our results show that the mutation frequency of Notch receptor and ligand genes is at par with that for established oncogenes and higher than for a set of house-keeping genes. Mutations were found across all four Notch receptor genes, but with notable differences between protein domains, mutations were for example more prevalent in the regions encoding the LNR and PEST domains in the Notch intracellular domain. Furthermore, an in silico estimation of functional impact showed that deleterious mutations cluster to the ligand-binding and the intracellular domains of NOTCH1. For most cell line groups, the mutation frequency of Notch genes is higher than in associated primary tumors. Our results shed new light on the spectrum of Notch mutations after in vitro culturing of tumor cells. The higher mutation frequency in tumor cell lines indicates that Notch mutations are associated with a growth advantage in vitro, and thus may be considered to be driver mutations in a tumor cell line context. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1278-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  13. Continuous production of erythropoietin by an established human renal carcinoma cell line: development of the cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Establishment of a stable, transformed human renal carcinoma cell line that produces erythropoietin in vitro and has maintained this function continuously since 1981 and for > 150 passages in monolayer culture was accomplished by transplantation of human renal clear cell carcinoma tissue from a patient with erythrocytosis into an immunosuppressed athymic mouse. In addition to its immunocrossreactivity with native human urinary erythropoietin, the tumor erythropoietin demonstrates biological activity in the in vitro mouse erythroid colony-forming unit assay and in tumor-bearing nude mice. The cloned renal carcinoma cell line has an abnormal human karyotype and has ultrastructural features characteristic of human renal clear cell carcinoma. This cell line provides a reproducible model system for the production of an erythropoietin-like material and for the study of its synthesis and secretion

  14. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell line Genea019

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biljana Dumevska

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Genea019 human embryonic stem cell line was derived from a donated, fully commercially consented ART blastocyst, through ICM outgrowth on inactivated feeders. The line showed pluripotent cell morphology and genomic analysis verified a 46, XX karyotype, female Allele pattern and unaffected Htt CAG repeat length, compared to HD affected sibling Genea020. Pluripotency of Genea019 was demonstrated with 75% of cells expressing Nanog, 89% Oct4, 48% Tra1-60 and 85% SSEA4, a Pluritest Pluripotency score of 22.97, Novelty score of 1.42, tri-lineage teratoma formation and Alkaline Phosphatase activity. The cell line was negative for Mycoplasma and any visible contamination.

  15. Female sex bias in human embryonic stem cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Yosef, Dalit; Amit, Ami; Malcov, Mira; Frumkin, Tsvia; Ben-Yehudah, Ahmi; Eldar, Ido; Mey-Raz, Nava; Azem, Foad; Altarescu, Gheona; Renbaum, Paul; Beeri, Rachel; Varshaver, Irit; Eldar-Geva, Talia; Epsztejn-Litman, Silvina; Levy-Lahad, Ephrat; Eiges, Rachel

    2012-02-10

    The factors limiting the rather inefficient derivation of human embryonic stem cells (HESCs) are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to analyze the sex ratio in our 42 preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)-HESC lines, in an attempt to verify its affect on the establishment of HESC lines. The ratio between male and female PGD-derived cell lines was compared. We found a significant increase in female cell lines (76%). This finding was further confirmed by a meta-analysis for combining the results of all PGD-derived HESC lines published to date (148) and all normal karyotyped HESC lines derived from spare in vitro fertilization embryos worldwide (397). Further, gender determination of embryos demonstrated that this difference originates from the actual derivation process rather than from unequal representation of male and female embryos. It can therefore be concluded that the clear-cut tendency for female preponderance is attributed to suboptimal culture conditions rather than from a true gender imbalance in embryos used for derivation of HESC lines. We propose a mechanism in which aberrant X chromosome inactivation and/or overexpression of critical metabolic X-linked genes might explain this sex dimorphism. PMID:21585244

  16. Establishment, immortalisation and characterisation of pteropid bat cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Crameri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bats are the suspected natural reservoir hosts for a number of new and emerging zoonotic viruses including Nipah virus, Hendra virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola virus. Since the discovery of SARS-like coronaviruses in Chinese horseshoe bats, attempts to isolate a SL-CoV from bats have failed and attempts to isolate other bat-borne viruses in various mammalian cell lines have been similarly unsuccessful. New stable bat cell lines are needed to help with these investigations and as tools to assist in the study of bat immunology and virus-host interactions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Black flying foxes (Pteropus alecto were captured from the wild and transported live to the laboratory for primary cell culture preparation using a variety of different methods and culture media. Primary cells were successfully cultured from 20 different organs. Cell immortalisation can occur spontaneously, however we used a retroviral system to immortalise cells via the transfer and stable production of the Simian virus 40 Large T antigen and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein. Initial infection experiments with both cloned and uncloned cell lines using Hendra and Nipah viruses demonstrated varying degrees of infection efficiency between the different cell lines, although it was possible to infect cells in all tissue types. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The approaches developed and optimised in this study should be applicable to bats of other species. We are in the process of generating further cell lines from a number of different bat species using the methodology established in this study.

  17. Toxicity and immunomodulatory activity of liposomal vectors formulated with cationic lipids toward immune effector cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filion, M C; Phillips, N C

    1997-10-23

    Liposomal vectors formulated with cationic lipids (cationic liposomes) and fusogenic dioleoylphosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) have potential for modulating the immune system by delivering gene or antisense oligonucleotide inside immune cells. The toxicity and the immunoadjuvant activity of cationic liposomes containing nucleic acids toward immune effector cells has not been investigated in detail. In this report, we have evaluated the toxicity of liposomes formulated with various cationic lipids towards murine macrophages and T lymphocytes and the human monocyte-like U937 cell line. The effect of these cationic liposomes on the synthesis of two immunomodulators produced by activated macrophages, nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), has also been determined. We have found that liposomes formulated from DOPE and cationic lipids based on diacyltrimethylammonium propane (dioleoyl-, dimyristoyl-, dipalmitoyl-, disteroyl-: DOTAP, DMTAP, DPTAP, DSTAP) or dimethyldioctadecylammonium bromide (DDAB) are highly toxic in vitro toward phagocytic cells (macrophages and U937 cells), but not towards non-phagocytic T lymphocytes. The rank order of toxicity was DOPE/DDAB > DOPE/DOTAP > DOPE/DMTAP > DOPE/DPTAP > DOPE/DSTAP. The ED50's for macrophage toxicity were 1000 nmol/ml for DOPE/DSTAP. The incorporation of DNA (antisense oligonucleotide or plasmid vector) into the cationic liposomes marginally reduced their toxicity towards macrophages. Although toxicity was observed with cationic lipids alone, it was clearly enhanced by the presence of DOPE. The replacement of DOPE by dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) significantly reduced liposome toxicity towards macrophages, and the presence of dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine-PEG2000 (DPPE-PEG2000: 10 mol%) in the liposomes completely abolished this toxicity. Cationic liposomes, irrespective of their DNA content, downregulated NO and TNF-alpha synthesis by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon-gamma (IFN

  18. Nestin expression in the cell lines derived from glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestin is a protein belonging to class VI of intermediate filaments that is produced in stem/progenitor cells in the mammalian CNS during development and is consecutively replaced by other intermediate filament proteins (neurofilaments, GFAP). Down-regulated nestin may be re-expressed in the adult organism under certain pathological conditions (brain injury, ischemia, inflammation, neoplastic transformation). Our work focused on a detailed study of the nestin cytoskeleton in cell lines derived from glioblastoma multiforme, because re-expression of nestin together with down-regulation of GFAP has been previously reported in this type of brain tumor. Two cell lines were derived from the tumor tissue of patients treated for glioblastoma multiforme. Nestin and other cytoskeletal proteins were visualized using imunocytochemical methods: indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold-labelling. Using epifluorescence and confocal microscopy, we described the morphology of nestin-positive intermediate filaments in glioblastoma cells of both primary cultures and the derived cell lines, as well as the reorganization of nestin during mitosis. Our most important result came through transmission electron microscopy and provided clear evidence that nestin is present in the cell nucleus. Detailed information concerning the pattern of the nestin cytoskeleton in glioblastoma cell lines and especially the demonstration of nestin in the nucleus represent an important background for further studies of nestin re-expression in relationship to tumor malignancy and invasive potential

  19. Human cell lines: A promising alternative for recombinant FIX production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa Bomfim, Aline; Cristina Corrêa de Freitas, Marcela; Picanço-Castro, Virgínia; de Abreu Soares Neto, Mário; Swiech, Kamilla; Tadeu Covas, Dimas; Maria de Sousa Russo, Elisa

    2016-05-01

    Factor IX (FIX) is a vitamin K-dependent protein, and it has become a valuable pharmaceutical in the Hemophilia B treatment. We evaluated the potential of recombinant human FIX (rhFIX) expression in 293T and SK-Hep-1 human cell lines. SK-Hep-1-FIX cells produced higher levels of biologically active protein. The growth profile of 293T-FIX cells was not influenced by lentiviral integration number into the cellular genome. SK-Hep-1-FIX cells showed a significantly lower growth rate than SK-Hep-1 cells. γ-carboxylation process is significant to FIX biological activity, thus we performed a expression analysis of genes involved in this process. The 293T gene expression suggests that this cell line could efficiently carboxylate FIX, however only 28% of the total secreted protein is active. SK-Hep-1 cells did not express high amounts of VKORC1 and carboxylase, but this cell line secreted large amounts of active protein. Enrichment of culture medium with Ca(+2) and Mg(+2) ions did not affect positively rhFIX expression in SK-Hep-1 cells. In 293T cells, the addition of 0.5 mM Ca(+2) and 1 mM Mg(+2) resulted in higher rhFIX concentration. SK-Hep-1 cell line proved to be very effective in rhFIX production, and it can be used as a novel biotechnological platform for the production of recombinant proteins. PMID:26802680

  20. Density and Affinity of IL-6 Receptors in Human Leukemic Cells%IL-6受体在人白血病细胞膜上的表达及亲和力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爽; 奚永志; 郭斯启; 刘楠; 屠敏; 金荔; 陈兴国; 孔繁华

    2000-01-01

    目的:研究各种白血病细胞膜IL-6R的表达、密度及亲和力,为深入探讨对IL-6/IL-6R系统介导IL-6-PE40外毒素融合蛋白靶向杀伤白血病细胞的敏感性提供可靠依据。方法:采用放射性配基结合实验(RBA)并结合Satchard作图法,系统分析IL-6R在8种极具代表性的人类白血病细胞系U937,HL-60,KG1,TF1,K562,CEM,HUT28和Raji上的表达密度及亲和力,同时应用流式细胞术(FACS)检测IL-6R的α和β亚单位蛋白在这些白血病细胞上的表达。结果:RBA表明,粒、单、红白血病细胞系HL-60,U937,KG1和TF1表面存在着高亲和力IL-6R,平均IL-6R密度/细胞分别为2 502个,2 874个,2 319个及9 329个,而淋系白血病细胞系CEM,HUT28和Raji以及慢粒K562细胞系则未测到IL-6R。FACS显示,HL-60,KG1,U937和TF1均高表达IL-6R的α亚单位蛋白,而CEM,HUT28及K562则不表达IL-6Rα亚单位蛋白;IL-6Rβ亚单位蛋白在U937,KG1,TF1,HUT28及CEM中呈阳性表达,而在HL-60,Raji和K562细胞中则为阴性。结论:鉴于粒、单、红白血病细胞异常高表达IL-6R,而淋系和慢粒白血病呈阴性表达这一事实,提示急非淋白血病可能更适合用重组IL-6-PE40外毒素融合蛋白进行IL-6/IL-6R介导的靶向治疗。%Objective: To make a study of density and affinity of IL-6R in human leukemic cell lines, and discuss the affection of high affinity IL-6R to the targeted treatment of leukemia with IL-6-PE40 fusion protein. Methods: Radial binding assay with scatchard plot and FACS were used to analysis the density and affinity of IL-6R and protein expression of IL-6Rα and β subunits in totally 8 representative human leukemic cell lines. Results: Myelocytie, monocytic and erythrocytic leukemic cell lines U937, HL-60, KG1 and TF1 express high affinity IL-6R, whose average density per cell is 2 502,2 874, 2 319 and 9 329 respectively, however no 125I-IL-6 binding was

  1. Characterization of cloned cells from an immortalized fetal pulmonary type II cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    A cultured cell line that maintained expression of pulmonary type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous to generate a large number of homogenous cells in which to study the biochemical functions of type II cells. Type II epithelial cells are the source of pulmonary surfactant and a cell of origin for pulmonary adenomas. Last year our laboratory reported the induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant lipid synthesis) in cultured fetal rat lung epithelial (FRLE) cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line of fetal rat lung type II cell origin. Subsequently, the induction of the ability to synthesize surfactant lipid became difficult to repeat. We hypothesized that the cell line was heterogenuous and some cells were more like type II cells than others. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis and to obtain a cultured cell line with type II cell phenotypic markers by cloning several FRLE cells and characterizing them for phenotypic markers of type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and presence of surfactant lipids). Thirty cloned cell lines were analyzed for induced alkaline phosphatase activity (on x-axis) and for percent of phospholipids that were disaturated (i.e., surfactant).

  2. Antiproliferative effect of Tualang honey on oral squamous cell carcinoma and osteosarcoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Noorliza M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC and human osteosarcoma (HOS includes surgery and/or radiotherapy which often lead to reduced quality of life. This study was aimed to study the antiproliferative activity of local honey (Tualang on OSCC and HOS cell lines. Methods Several concentrations of Tualang honey (1% - 20% were applied on OSCC and HOS cell lines for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Morphological characteristics were observed under light and fluorescent microscope. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay and the optical density for absorbance values in each experiment was measured at 570 nm by an ELISA reader. Detection of cellular apoptosis was done using the Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit. Results Morphological appearance showed apoptotic cellular changes like becoming rounded, reduction in cell number, blebbed membrane and apoptotic nuclear changes like nuclear shrinkage, chromatin condensation and fragmented nucleus on OSCC and HOS cell lines. Cell viability assay showed a time and dose-dependent inhibitory effect of honey on both cell lines. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 for OSCC and HOS cell lines was found to be 4% and 3.5% respectively. The maximum inhibition of cell growth of ≥80% was obtained at 15% for both cell lines. Early apoptosis was evident by flow cytometry where percentage of early apoptotic cells increased in dose and time dependent manner. Conclusion Tualang honey showed antiproliferative effect on OSCC and HOS cell lines by inducing early apoptosis.

  3. Comparison of repair capability of four human tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast and reliable method for assessment of repair capacity of cells based on the restoration of transcription of the gene for the green fluorescent protein carried by a plasmid vector is presented. Repair capacity of the cells counted under fluorescent microscope 24 hours following transcription. This approach has been applied to compare the rates of repair of different types of DNA lesions in four human tumor cell lines. The analysis of the obtained results show that there are considerable differences in the repair capacity of the different cell lines towards the different types of lesions. It should be noted that the difference in repair capacity of the host cells are better evident when plasmids with lower rather that higher number of lesions per unit length of plasmid DNA are used. This is probably because the egfp genes with fewer lesions can be fully repaired while egfp genes with more lesions remain inactive even after some of the lesions have been repaired

  4. Simultaneous measurement of natural killer cell cytotoxicity against each of three different target cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blomberg, K

    1994-02-10

    A time-resolved fluorometric assay for the simultaneous measurement of natural killer cell activity against three different lanthanide diethylenetriaminopentaacetate (LaDTPA) labelled target cell lines is described. The target cell line K-562 was labelled with SmDTPA, the cell line Molt with TbDTPA and the cell line Raji with EuDTPA. After co-incubation of the three target cell lines with effector cells the fluorescence of the lanthanides released from the lysed target cells was measured in an enhancer solution in which they formed highly fluorescent complexes. It was possible to differentiate the specific release from the three target cell lines because the emission lines of the europium, samarium and terbium complexes formed in the enhancer solution are well separated from each other. The autofluorescence from culture media supplemented with serum was avoided by the use of time-resolved fluorometry. The results show that applying fluorometry based on the combination of spectral and temporal resolution to natural killer cell assays, makes possible the simultaneous determination of lysis in up to three target cell lines in complex culture medium. PMID:8308301

  5. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV in two human glioma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sedo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that dipeptidyl peptidase IV [DPP-IV, EC 3.4.14.5] takes part in the metabolism of biologically active peptides participating in the regulation of growth and transformation of glial cells. However, the knowledge on the DPP-IV expression in human glial and glioma cells is still very limited. In this study, using histochemical and biochemical techniques, the DPP-IV activity was demonstrated in two commercially available human glioma cell lines of different transformation degree, as represented by U373 astrocytoma (Grade III and U87 glioblastoma multiforme (Grade IV lines. Higher total activity of the enzyme, as well as its preferential localisation in the plasma membrane, was observed in U87 cells. Compared to U373 population, U87 cells were morphologically more pleiomorphic, they were cycling at lower rate and expressing less Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein. The data revealed positive correlation between the degree of transformation of cells and activity of DPP-IV. Great difference in expression of this enzyme, together with the phenotypic differences of cells, makes these lines a suitable standard model for further 57 studies of function of this enzyme in human glioma cells.

  6. Alloreactive cloned T cell lines. I. Interactions between cloned amplifier and cytolytic T cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    1980-01-01

    Several T cell clones have been derived by limiting dilution of secondary mixed leukocyte culture cells stimulated by H-2- and M locus (Mls)-disparate spleen cells. When examined for the expression of cytolytic activity and the ability to proliferate, these cell clones can be classified into two major categories. One type of cell is noncytolytic; when cultured with irradiated spleen cells, such clones proliferate in response to Mls determinants. Some, but not all, of these clones express Lyt-...

  7. Toxicity to the normal hemocytes by ALA-PDT for the ex vivo purging of hematopoietic stem cell grafts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Baoqin; Zhang Zhenxi; Miao Lixia; Tan Lu; Xiao Mi; Xu Xia

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study the toxic effects of 5-amionlevulinic acid-based photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), cord blood mononuclear cells (CBMCs) and peripheral blood stem cells (PBSCs), and furthermore, to understand the possible causes of this response. Methods We used MTT assay to detect the survival rate of PBMCs, CBMCs and PBSCs after treated by ALA-PDT under the optimum experiment conditions with U937 as control;Annexin V-FITC/PI was used to detect the pattern of cell death induced by ALA-PDT. By using flow cytometry, we detected intracellular PpIX fluorescence intensity. Results After ALA-PDT treatment the survival rate of PBMCs had no significant change;however in PBSCs and CBMCs, the survival rate reduced to 70%, and the survival rate of leukemia cell U937 was the lowest, about 30%. After incubation with ALA,except for PBMCs, intraceUuiar PplX fluorescence intensity of the other two kinds of normal haemocytes and U937 increased obviously. These results combined with the flow cytometry suggested that the main pattern of cell death here was apoptosts. Conclusion Under the optimum experiment conditions, ALA-PDT has a slight effect on normal haemocytes but excellent depletions of leukemia cells. Therefore, it can effectively purify autologons bone marrow or stem cell grafts.

  8. Cellular and Phenotypic Characterization of Canine Osteosarcoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie E. Legare, Jamie Bush, Amanda K. Ashley, Taka Kato, William H. Hanneman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Canine and human osteosarcoma (OSA have many similarities, with the majority of reported cases occurring in the appendicular skeleton, gender predominance noted, high rate of metastasis at the time of presentation, and a lack of known etiology for this devastating disease. Due to poor understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying OSA, we have characterized seven different OSA canine cell lines: Abrams, D17, Grey, Hughes, Ingles, Jarques, and Marisco and compared them to U2, a human OSA cell line, for the following parameters: morphology, growth, contact inhibition, migrational tendencies, alkaline phosphatase staining, heterologous tumor growth, double-strand DNA breaks, and oxidative damage. All results demonstrated the positive characteristics of the Abrams cell line for use in future studies of OSA. Of particular interest, the robust growth of a subcutaneous tumor and rapid pulmonary metastasis of the Abrams cell line in an immunocompromised mouse shows incredible potential for the future use of Abrams as a canine OSA model. Further investigations utilizing a canine cell model of OSA, such as Abrams, will be invaluable to understanding the molecular events underlying OSA, pharmaceutical inhibition of metastasis, and eventual prevention of this devastating disease.

  9. GPC3 reduces cell proliferation in renal carcinoma cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Valsechi, Marina Curado; Oliveira, Ana Beatriz Bortolozo; Conceição, André Luis Giacometti; Stuqui, Bruna; Candido, Natalia Maria; Provazzi, Paola Jocelan Scarin; de Araújo, Luiza Ferreira; Silva, Wilson Araújo; Calmon, Marilia Freitas; Rahal, Paula

    2014-01-01

    Background Glypican 3 (GPC3) is a member of the family of glypican heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs). The GPC3 gene may play a role in controlling cell migration, negatively regulating cell growth and inducing apoptosis. GPC3 is downregulated in several cancers, which can result in uncontrolled cell growth and can also contribute to the malignant phenotype of some tumors. The purpose of this study was to analyze the mechanism of action of the GPC3 gene in clear cell renal cell carcinoma. ...

  10. Mouse DRG Cell Line with Properties of Nociceptors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciara Doran

    Full Text Available In vitro cell lines from DRG neurons aid drug discovery because they can be used for early stage, high-throughput screens for drugs targeting pain pathways, with minimal dependence on animals. We have established a conditionally immortal DRG cell line from the Immortomouse. Using immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR and calcium microfluorimetry, we demonstrate that the cell line MED17.11 expresses markers of cells committed to the sensory neuron lineage. Within a few hours under differentiating conditions, MED17.11 cells extend processes and following seven days of differentiation, express markers of more mature DRG neurons, such as NaV1.7 and Piezo2. However, at least at this time-point, the nociceptive marker NaV1.8 is not expressed, but the cells respond to compounds known to excite nociceptors, including the TRPV1 agonist capsaicin, the purinergic receptor agonist ATP and the voltage gated sodium channel agonist, veratridine. Robust calcium transients are observed in the presence of the inflammatory mediators bradykinin, histamine and norepinephrine. MED17.11 cells have the potential to replace or reduce the use of primary DRG culture in sensory, pain and developmental research by providing a simple model to study acute nociception, neurite outgrowth and the developmental specification of DRG neurons.

  11. The effect of gallic acid on Jurkat cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sourani Zahra

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL is the most prevalent leukemia in children. Fruits and plants have a wide range of biological functions including anti-proliferative effect. Gallic acid (GA, is a polyhydroxyphenolic compound that is widely distributed in the natural plants. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the effect of GA on proliferation inhibition of Jurkat cells, the lymphoblastic leukemia cell line. Methods: Jurkat cell line was cultured in blood cells culture media in a standard conditions with different concentrations of GA (0-100 μm for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The effect of GA on cell viability was measured using MTS assay. Results: Decline of cell viability to less than 50% was observed at 60, 50 and 30 μm concentrations after 24, 48 and 72 hours incubation time, respectively. Conclusion: The results demonstrated that the polyphenolic compound, GA with antioxidant capability is effective in proliferation inhibition in Jurkat lymphoblastic leukemia cell line with a time and dose dependent manner. Therefore, GA may be a potential compound for cancer prevention and treatment.

  12. Effect of selected insecticides on SF9 insect cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The toxic effect of three insecticides: dimethoate (organophosphate insecticide), acetamiprid (neonicotinoid insecticide) and deltamethrin (pyrethroid insecticide) were evaluated in vitro on cultured Sf9 cell line. Cell growth inhibition was measured by the 3- (4,5- dimethylthiazol - 2-yl) - 2,5 - diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Regression Analysis was used to estimate the 20% inhibition of cells growth (IC 20). The IC 20 values obtained for deltamethrin, acetamipridand dimethoate were: 46.8, 61.6 and 68.9 μM, respectively. The proportion of phagocytic cells was positively correlated with the applied concentrations of the insecticides. (author)

  13. Proteoglycans secreted by packaging cell lines inhibit retrovirus infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Doux, J M; Morgan, J.R.; Snow, R G; Yarmush, M. L.

    1996-01-01

    Using a model recombinant retrovirus encoding the Escherichia coli lacZ gene, we have found that medium conditioned with NIH 3T3 cells and packaging cell lines derived from NIH 3T3 cells inhibits infection. Most of the inhibitory activity was greater than 100 kDa and was sensitive to chondroitinase ABC digestion, which is consistent with the inhibitor being a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. Proteoglycans secreted by NIH 3T3 cells and purified by anion-exchange chromatography inhibited ampho...

  14. Dengue-3 Virus Entry into Vero Cells: Role of Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in the Outcome of Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccini, Luana E.; Castilla, Viviana; Damonte, Elsa B.

    2015-01-01

    The endocytic uptake and intracellular trafficking for penetration of DENV-3 strain H-87 into Vero cells was analyzed by using several biochemical inhibitors and dominant negative mutants of cellular proteins. The results presented show that the infective entry of DENV-3 into Vero cells occurs through a non-classical endocytosis pathway dependent on low pH and dynamin, but non-mediated by clathrin. After uptake, DENV-3 transits through early endosomes to reach Rab 7-regulated late endosomes, and according with the half-time for ammonium chloride resistance viral nucleocapsid is released into the cytosol approximately at 12 min post-infection. Furthermore, the influence of the clathrin pathway in DENV-3 infective entry in other mammalian cell lines of human origin, such as A549, HepG2 and U937 cells, was evaluated demonstrating that variable entry pathways are employed depending on the host cell. Results show for the first time the simultaneous coexistence of infective and non -infective routes for DENV entry into the host cell, depending on the usage of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. PMID:26469784

  15. Dengue-3 Virus Entry into Vero Cells: Role of Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in the Outcome of Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccini, Luana E; Castilla, Viviana; Damonte, Elsa B

    2015-01-01

    The endocytic uptake and intracellular trafficking for penetration of DENV-3 strain H-87 into Vero cells was analyzed by using several biochemical inhibitors and dominant negative mutants of cellular proteins. The results presented show that the infective entry of DENV-3 into Vero cells occurs through a non-classical endocytosis pathway dependent on low pH and dynamin, but non-mediated by clathrin. After uptake, DENV-3 transits through early endosomes to reach Rab 7-regulated late endosomes, and according with the half-time for ammonium chloride resistance viral nucleocapsid is released into the cytosol approximately at 12 min post-infection. Furthermore, the influence of the clathrin pathway in DENV-3 infective entry in other mammalian cell lines of human origin, such as A549, HepG2 and U937 cells, was evaluated demonstrating that variable entry pathways are employed depending on the host cell. Results show for the first time the simultaneous coexistence of infective and non -infective routes for DENV entry into the host cell, depending on the usage of clathrin-mediated endocytosis. PMID:26469784

  16. Dengue-3 Virus Entry into Vero Cells: Role of Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in the Outcome of Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana E Piccini

    Full Text Available The endocytic uptake and intracellular trafficking for penetration of DENV-3 strain H-87 into Vero cells was analyzed by using several biochemical inhibitors and dominant negative mutants of cellular proteins. The results presented show that the infective entry of DENV-3 into Vero cells occurs through a non-classical endocytosis pathway dependent on low pH and dynamin, but non-mediated by clathrin. After uptake, DENV-3 transits through early endosomes to reach Rab 7-regulated late endosomes, and according with the half-time for ammonium chloride resistance viral nucleocapsid is released into the cytosol approximately at 12 min post-infection. Furthermore, the influence of the clathrin pathway in DENV-3 infective entry in other mammalian cell lines of human origin, such as A549, HepG2 and U937 cells, was evaluated demonstrating that variable entry pathways are employed depending on the host cell. Results show for the first time the simultaneous coexistence of infective and non -infective routes for DENV entry into the host cell, depending on the usage of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  17. Selection of Phage Display Peptides Targeting Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Progenitor Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bignone, Paola A; Krupa, Rachel A; West, Michael D; Larocca, David

    2016-01-01

    The ability of human pluripotent stem cells (hPS) to both self-renew and differentiate into virtually any cell type makes them a promising source of cells for cell-based regenerative therapies. However, stem cell identity, purity, and scalability remain formidable challenges that need to be overcome for translation of pluripotent stem cell research into clinical applications. Directed differentiation from hPS cells is inefficient and residual contamination with pluripotent cells that have the potential to form tumors remains problematic. The derivation of scalable (self-renewing) embryonic progenitor stem cell lines offers a solution because they are well defined and clonally pure. Clonally pure progenitor stem cell lines also provide a means for identifying cell surface targeting reagents that are useful for identification, tracking, and repeated derivation of the corresponding progenitor stem cell types from additional hPS cell sources. Such stem cell targeting reagents can then be applied to the manufacture of genetically diverse banks of human embryonic progenitor cell lines for drug screening, disease modeling, and cell therapy. Here we present methods to identify human embryonic progenitor stem cell targeting peptides by selection of phage display libraries on clonal embryonic progenitor cell lines and demonstrate their use for targeting quantum dots (Qdots) for stem cell labeling. PMID:25410289

  18. Osmotic stress affects functional properties of human melanoma cell lines

    CERN Document Server

    La Porta, Caterina A M; Pasini, Maria; Laurson, Lasse; Alava, Mikko J; Zapperi, Stefano; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of microenvironment in cancer growth and metastasis is a key issue for cancer research. Here, we study the effect of osmotic pressure on the functional properties of primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines. In particular, we experimentally quantify individual cell motility and transmigration capability. We then perform a circular scratch assay to study how a cancer cell front invades an empty space. Our results show that primary melanoma cells are sensitive to a low osmotic pressure, while metastatic cells are less. To better understand the experimental results, we introduce and study a continuous model for the dynamics of a cell layer and a stochastic discrete model for cell proliferation and diffusion. The two models capture essential features of the experimental results and allow to make predictions for a wide range of experimentally measurable parameters.

  19. Cell membrane fatty acid composition differs between normal and malignant cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xialong; Riordan, Neil H; Riordan, Hugh D; Mikirova, Nina; Jackson, James; González, Michael J; Miranda-Massari, Jorge R; Mora, Edna; Trinidad Castillo, Waleska

    2004-06-01

    Twenty-eight fatty acids (C8:0 to C24:l n-9) were measured by gas chromatography in four normal cell lines (C3H / 10T1 / 2, CCD-18Co, CCD-25SK and CCD-37Lu) and seven cancer cell lines (C-41, Caov-3, LS-180, PC-3, SK-MEL-28, SK-MES-1 and U-87 MG). Results show differences in the content and proportions of fatty acids when comparing cancer cell lines with their normal counterparts. Cancer cell lines showed lower C20: 4 n-6, C24:1 n-9, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA's) and ratios of C20:4 n-6 to C20:5 n-3 and C16:0 to C18:1 n-9 and stearic to oleic (SA/OA) than their normal counterparts. All cancer cell lines had SA/OA ratios lower than 7.0 while normal cell lines had ratios greater than 0.7 (p<0.05). In addition, the ratios of total saturated fatty acids (SFA) to PUFA'S and the concentration of C18:1 n-9, C18:2 n-6, C20:5 n-3 were higher in cancer cell lines as compared to normal cell lines. A positive correlation was detected between C16:0 and longer SFA'S (r = +0.511, p<0.05) in normal cell lines whereas a negative correlation (r=0.608, p<0.05) was obtained for malignant cell lines. Moreover, cancerous cell lines exhibited a particular desaturation defect and an abnormal incorporation of C18:2 n-6 and C20-4 n-6 fatty acids. PMID:15377057

  20. Detection of immunotoxicity using T-cell based cytokine reporter cell lines ('Cell Chip')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety assessment of chemicals and drugs is an important regulatory issue. The evaluation of potential adverse effects of compounds on the immune system depends today on animal experiments. An increasing demand, however, exists for in vitro alternatives. Cytokine measurement is a promising tool to evaluate chemical exposure effects on the immune system. Fortunately, this type of measurement can be performed in conjunction with in vitro exposure models. We have taken these considerations as the starting point to develop an in vitro method to efficiently screen compounds for potential immunotoxicity. The T-cell lymphoma cell line EL-4 was transfected with the regulatory sequences of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-γ or actin fused to the gene for enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in either a stabile or a destabilised form. Consequently, changes in fluorescence intensity represent changes in cytokine expression with one cell line per cytokine. We used this prototype 'Cell Chip' to test, by means of flow cytometry, the immunomodulatory potential of 13 substances and were able to detect changes in cytokine expression in 12 cases (successful for cyclosporine, rapamycin, pentamidine, thalidomide, bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide, house dust mite allergen (Der p I), 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, benzocaine, tolylene 2,4-diisocyanate, potassium tetrachloroplatinate, sodium dodecyl sulphate and mercuric chloride; unsuccessful for penicillin G). In conclusion, this approach seems promising for in vitro screening for potential immunotoxicity, especially when additional cell lines besides T-cells are included

  1. Cysteine modified polyaniline films improve biocompatibility for two cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work focuses on one of the most exciting application areas of conjugated conducting polymers, which is cell culture and tissue engineering. To improve the biocompatibility of conducting polymers we present an easy method that involves the modification of the polymer backbone using L-cysteine. In this publication, we show the synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) films supported onto Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and modified using cysteine (PANI-Cys) in order to generate a biocompatible substrate for cell culture. The PANI-Cys films are characterized by Fourier Transform infrared and UV–visible spectroscopy. The changes in the hydrophilicity of the polymer films after and before the modification were tested using contact angle measurements. After modification the contact angle changes from 86° ± 1 to 90° ± 1, suggesting a more hydrophylic surface. The adhesion properties of LM2 and HaCaT cell lines on the surface of PANI-Cys films in comparison with tissue culture plastic (TCP) are studied. The PANI-Cys film shows better biocompatibility than PANI film for both cell lines. The cell morphologies on the TCP and PANI-Cys film were examined by florescence and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microscopic observations show normal cellular behavior when PANI-Cys is used as a substrate of both cell lines (HaCaT and LM2) as when they are cultured on TCP. The ability of these PANI-Cys films to support cell attachment and growth indicates their potential use as biocompatible surfaces and in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A new surface PANI-Cys was produced on films of polyethylene terephthalate. • The relationship between surface characteristics and biocompatibility is analyzed. • The PANI-Cys film presents good biocompatibility for two cell lines

  2. Adhesion of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans to a human oral cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Mintz, K. P.; Fives-Taylor, P M

    1994-01-01

    Two quantitative, rapid assays were developed to study the adhesion of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, an oral bacterium associated with periodontal disease, to human epithelial cells. The human oral carcinoma cell line KB was grown in microtiter plates, and adherent bacteria were detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay with purified anti-A. actinomycetemcomitans serum and horseradish peroxidase-conjugated secondary antibody or [3H]thymidine-labeled bacteria. Adhesion was found...

  3. Cysteine modified polyaniline films improve biocompatibility for two cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yslas, Edith I., E-mail: eyslas@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina); Cavallo, Pablo; Acevedo, Diego F.; Barbero, César A. [Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina); Rivarola, Viviana A. [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina)

    2015-06-01

    This work focuses on one of the most exciting application areas of conjugated conducting polymers, which is cell culture and tissue engineering. To improve the biocompatibility of conducting polymers we present an easy method that involves the modification of the polymer backbone using L-cysteine. In this publication, we show the synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) films supported onto Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and modified using cysteine (PANI-Cys) in order to generate a biocompatible substrate for cell culture. The PANI-Cys films are characterized by Fourier Transform infrared and UV–visible spectroscopy. The changes in the hydrophilicity of the polymer films after and before the modification were tested using contact angle measurements. After modification the contact angle changes from 86° ± 1 to 90° ± 1, suggesting a more hydrophylic surface. The adhesion properties of LM2 and HaCaT cell lines on the surface of PANI-Cys films in comparison with tissue culture plastic (TCP) are studied. The PANI-Cys film shows better biocompatibility than PANI film for both cell lines. The cell morphologies on the TCP and PANI-Cys film were examined by florescence and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microscopic observations show normal cellular behavior when PANI-Cys is used as a substrate of both cell lines (HaCaT and LM2) as when they are cultured on TCP. The ability of these PANI-Cys films to support cell attachment and growth indicates their potential use as biocompatible surfaces and in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A new surface PANI-Cys was produced on films of polyethylene terephthalate. • The relationship between surface characteristics and biocompatibility is analyzed. • The PANI-Cys film presents good biocompatibility for two cell lines.

  4. Methylation of CIITA promoter IV causes loss of HLA-II inducibility by IFN-γ in promyelocytic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ambrosis, Alessandro; Banelli, Barbara; Pira, Giuseppina Li; Aresu, Ottavia; Romani, Massimo; Ferrini, Silvano; Accolla, Roberto S.

    2008-01-01

    The human promyelocytic cell line THP-1 expresses high level of HLA class II (HLA-II) molecules after IFN-γ treatment. Here, we report a variant of THP-1 that does not express HLA-II after IFN-γ. The variant's HLA-II phenotype is constant over time in culture and it is not related to a defective IFN-γ-signalling pathway. Transfection of CIITA, the HLA-II transcriptional activator, under the control of a cytomegalovirus promoter rescues high level of HLA-DR surface expression in the variant indicating that the biosynthetic block resides in the expression of CIITA and not in the CIITA-dependent transactivation of the HLA-II promoters. Treatment of the variant with 5-azacytidine (5-aza), which inhibits CpG methylation, restores inducibility of HLA-II by IFN-γ both at transcriptional and phenotypic level and antigen presenting and processing function of the variant. DNA studies demonstrate that the molecular defect of the THP-1 variant originates from the methylation of the CIITA promoter IV. Furthermore, treatment with 5-aza produces a substantial demethylation of CIITA promoter IV and a significant increase of IFN-γ-dependent HLA-II expression in another myelomonocytic cell line, U937. Therefore hyper-methylation of CIITA promoter IV may be a relevant mechanism of epigenetic control preventing HLA-II IFN-γ inducibility in the myelomonocytic cell lineage. PMID:18829986

  5. Establishment and applications of male germ cell and Sertoli cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Wen, Liping; Yuan, Qingqing; Sun, Min; Niu, Minghui; He, Zuping

    2016-08-01

    Within the seminiferous tubules there are two major cell types, namely male germ cells and Sertoli cells. Recent studies have demonstrated that male germ cells and Sertoli cells can have significant applications in treating male infertility and other diseases. However, primary male germ cells are hard to proliferate in vitro and the number of spermatogonial stem cells is scarce. Therefore, methods that promote the expansion of these cell populations are essential for their use from the bench to the bed side. Notably, a number of cell lines for rodent spermatogonia, spermatocytes and Sertoli cells have been developed, and significantly we have successfully established a human spermatogonial stem cell line with an unlimited proliferation potential and no tumor formation. This newly developed cell line could provide an abundant source of cells for uncovering molecular mechanisms underlying human spermatogenesis and for their utilization in the field of reproductive and regenerative medicine. In this review, we discuss the methods for establishing spermatogonial, spermatocyte and Sertoli cell lines using various kinds of approaches, including spontaneity, transgenic animals with oncogenes, simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen, the gene coding for a temperature-sensitive mutant of p53, telomerase reverse gene (Tert), and the specific promoter-based selection strategy. We further highlight the essential applications of these cell lines in basic research and translation medicine. PMID:27069011

  6. Biological characteristics of side population cells in a self-established human ovarian cancer cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    WEI, ZHENTONG; LV, SHUANG; WANG, YISHU; SUN, MEIYU; CHI, GUANGFAN; GUO, JUN; SONG, PEIYE; FU, XIAOYU; ZHANG, SONGLING; LI, YULIN

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to establish an ovarian cancer (OC) cell line from ascites of an ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma patient and investigate the biological characteristics of its side population (SP) cells. The OC cell line was established by isolating, purifying and subculturing primary cells from ascites of an ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma patient (stage IIIc; grade 3). SP and non-SP (NSP) cells were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and cultured in serum-free medium and soft agar to compare the tumorsphere and colony formation capacities. Furthermore, SP and NSP cell tumorigenesis was examined by subcutaneous and intraperitoneal injection of the cells to non-obese diabetic/severe combined immune deficiency (NOD/SCID) mice. Drug resistance to cisplatin was examined by cell counting kit-8. The OC cell line was successfully established from ascites of an ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma patient, which exhibited properties similar to primary tumors subsequent to >50 passages and >2 years of culture. The SP cell ratio was 0.38% in the OC cell line, and a similar SP cell ratio (0.39%) was observed when sorted SP cells were cultured for 3 weeks. Compared with NSP cells, SP cells exhibited increased abilities in differentiation and tumorsphere and colony formation, in addition to the formation of xenografted tumors and ascites and metastasis of the tumors in NOD/SCID mice, even at low cell numbers (3.0×103 cells). The xenografted tumors demonstrated histological features similar to primary tumors and expressed the ovarian serous cystadenocarcinoma marker CA125. In addition, SP cells demonstrated a significantly stronger drug resistance to cisplatin compared with NSP and unsorted cells, while treatment with verapamil, an inhibitor of ATP-binding cassette transporters, potently abrogated SP cell drug resistance. In conclusion, the present study verified SP cells from an established OC cell line and characterized the cells with self

  7. Sphere-forming cell subpopulations with cancer stem cell properties in human hepatoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer stem cells (CSCs are regarded as the cause of tumor formation and recurrence. The isolation and identification of CSCs could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies specifically targeting CSCs. Methods Human hepatoma cell lines were plated in stem cell conditioned culture system allowed for sphere forming. To evaluate the stemness characteristics of spheres, the self-renewal, proliferation, chemoresistance, tumorigenicity of the PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells, and the expression levels of stem cell related proteins in the PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells were assessed, comparing with the parental cells. The stem cell RT-PCR array was performed to further explore the biological properties of liver CSCs. Results The PLC/PRF/5, MHCC97H and HepG2 cells could form clonal nonadherent 3-D spheres and be serially passaged. The PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells possessed a key criteria that define CSCs: persistent self-renewal, extensive proliferation, drug resistance, overexpression of liver CSCs related proteins (Oct3/4, OV6, EpCAM, CD133 and CD44. Even 500 sphere-forming cells were able to form tumors in NOD/SCID mice, and the tumor initiating capability was not decreased when spheres were passaged. Besides, downstream proteins DTX1 and Ep300 of the CSL (CBF1 in humans, Suppressor of hairless in Drosophila and LAG1 in C. elegans -independent Notch signaling pathway were highly expressed in the spheres, and a gamma-secretase inhibitor MRK003 could significantly inhibit the sphere formation ability. Conclusions Nonadherent tumor spheres from hepatoma cell lines cultured in stem cell conditioned medium possess liver CSC properties, and the CSL-independent Notch signaling pathway may play a role in liver CSCs.

  8. Cryopreservation of specialized chicken lines using cultured primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Whyte, J; Taylor, L; Sherman, A; Nair, V; Kaiser, P; McGrew, M J

    2016-08-01

    Biosecurity and sustainability in poultry production requires reliable germplasm conservation. Germplasm conservation in poultry is more challenging in comparison to other livestock species. Embryo cryopreservation is not feasible for egg-laying animals, and chicken semen conservation has variable success for different chicken breeds. A potential solution is the cryopreservation of the committed diploid stem cell precursors to the gametes, the primordial germ cells ( PGCS: ). Primordial germ cells are the lineage-restricted cells found at early embryonic stages in birds and form the sperm and eggs. We demonstrate here, using flocks of partially inbred, lower-fertility, major histocompatibility complex- ( MHC-: ) restricted lines of chicken, that we can easily derive and cryopreserve a sufficient number of independent lines of male and female PGCs that would be sufficient to reconstitute a poultry breed. We demonstrate that germ-line transmission can be attained from these PGCs using a commercial layer line of chickens as a surrogate host. This research is a major step in developing and demonstrating that cryopreserved PGCs could be used for the biobanking of specialized flocks of birds used in research settings. The prospective application of this technology to poultry production will further increase sustainability to meet current and future production needs. PMID:27099306

  9. 9-β-arabinofuranosyladenine preferentially sensitizes radioresistant squamous cell carcinoma cell lines to x-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of 9-β-arabinofuranosyladenine (ara-A) on sensitivity to the deleterious effects of x-rays was studied in six squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. Three lines were relatively radioresistant, having D0 values of 2.31 to 2.89 Gy, and the other three lines were relatively radiosensitive, having D0 values of between 1.07 and 1.45 Gy. Ara-A (50 or 500 μM) was added to cultures 30 min prior to irradiation and removed 30 min after irradiation, and sensitivity was measured in terms of cell survival. The radiosensitizing effect of ara-A was very dependent on the inherent radiosensitivity of the tumor cell line. Fifty micromolar concentrations of ara-A sensitized only the two most radioresistant lines, SCC-12B.2 and JSQ-3. Five hundred micromolar concentrations of ara-A sensitized the more sensitive cell lines, SQ-20B and SQ-9G, but failed to have any effect on the radiation response of the two most sensitive cell lines, SQ-38 and SCC-61. Concentrations of ara-A as low as 10 μM were equally efficient in inhibiting DNA synthesis in all six cell lines. These results suggest that the target for the radiosensitizing effect of ara-A is probably related to the factor controlling the inherent radiosensitivity of human tumor cells. Therefore, ara-A might be useful in overcoming radiation resistance in vivo

  10. Human Embryonic St me Cell Lines fromthe Chinese Population and Differentiation to Liver and Muscle Cell Types

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    We have established 6 hES cell lines from IVF surplus blastocysts. Characterization of these lines have shown that 4 of the 6 lines meet all of the criterion (Science) for hES cell lines and 2 of them display most characteristics of hES cells but do not form teratoma. In order to produce hES cell lines without using mouse feeders, we have produced a hES cell line using feeders derived from hES cells themselves, and showed that hES-derived feeders are capable of supporting the derivation of new hES cell line...

  11. Choosing the right chondrocyte cell line: Focus on nitric oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoro, Anna; Conde, Javier; Scotece, Morena; Abella, Vanessa; López, Verónica; Pino, Jesús; Gómez, Rodolfo; Gómez-Reino, Juan Jesús; Gualillo, Oreste

    2015-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been considered a catabolic factor that contributes to OA pathology by inducing chondrocytes apoptosis, matrix metalloproteinases synthesis, and pro-inflammatory cytokines expression. Thus, the research on NO regulation in chondrocytes represents a relevant field which needs to be explored in depth. However, to date, only the murine ATDC-5 cell line and primary chondrocytes are well-established cells to study NO production in cartilage tissues. The goal of this study is to determine whether two commonly used human chondrocytic cell lines: SW-1353 and T/C-28a2 cell lines are good models to examine lipopolysaccharide and/or pro-inflammatory cytokine-driven NO release and iNOS expression. To this aim, we carefully examined NO production and iNOS protein expression in human T/C-28a2 and SW-1353 chondrocytes stimulated with LPS and interleukin (IL)-1 alone or in combination. We also use ATDC-5 cells as a positive control for NO production. NO accumulation has been determined by colorimetric Griess reaction, whereas NOS type II expression was determined by Western Blot analysis. Our results clearly demonstrated that neither human T/C-28a2 nor SW-1353 chondrocytes showed a detectable increase in NO production or iNOS expression after bacterial endotoxin or cytokines challenge with IL-1. Our study demonstrated that T/C-28a2 and SW-1353 human cell lines are not suitable for studying NO release and iNOS expression confirming that ATDC5 and human primary cultured chondrocytes are the best in vitro cell system to study the actions derived from this mediator. PMID:26016689

  12. Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from equine fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, Kristina; Sung, Hoon-Ki; Zhang, Puzheng; Laflamme, Simon; Vincent, Patrick; Agha-Mohammadi, Siamak; Woltjen, Knut; Monetti, Claudio; Michael, Iacovos Prodromos; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Nagy, Andras

    2011-09-01

    The domesticated horse represents substantial value for the related sports and recreational fields, and holds enormous potential as a model for a range of medical conditions commonly found in humans. Most notable of these are injuries to muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints. Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have sparked tremendous hopes for future regenerative therapies of conditions that today are not possible to cure. Equine iPS (EiPS) cells, in addition to bringing promises to the veterinary field, open up the opportunity to utilize horses for the validation of stem cell based therapies before moving into the human clinical setting. In this study, we report the generation of iPS cells from equine fibroblasts using a piggyBac (PB) transposon-based method to deliver transgenes containing the reprogramming factors Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc, expressed in a temporally regulated fashion. The established iPS cell lines express hallmark pluripotency markers, display a stable karyotype even during long-term culture, and readily form complex teratomas containing all three embryonic germ layer derived tissues upon in vivo grafting into immunocompromised mice. Our EiPS cell lines hold the promise to enable the development of a whole new range of stem cell-based regenerative therapies in veterinary medicine, as well as aid the development of preclinical models for human applications. EiPS cell could also potentially be used to revive recently extinct or currently threatened equine species. PMID:21347602

  13. Simultaneous measurement of NK cell cytotoxicity against two target cell lines labelled with fluorescent lanthanide chelates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lövgren, J; Blomberg, K

    1994-07-12

    We describe a cytotoxicity assay which permits the simultaneous measurement of natural killer cell activity against two different cell lines. The target cell lines are labelled either with a fluorescent europium chelate or with a fluorescent terbium chelate and cell death is quantified by measuring the chelate release. K-562, Molt4 and Daudi cell lines have been used as targets. The release of the two chelates from the target cells can be detected with the help of time resolved fluorometry. As the measurements are made after background fluorescence has decayed no additional steps are needed to correct for the background from the medium. The assay procedure used for measurement of cytotoxicity against two target cell lines is very similar to the widely used 51Cr release assay. PMID:8034979

  14. Every Single Cell Clones from Cancer Cell Lines Growing Tumors In Vivo May Not Invalidate the Cancer Stem Cell Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fengzhi

    2009-01-01

    We present the result of our research on the tumorigenic ability of single cell clones isolated from an aggressive murine breast cancer cell line in a matched allografting mouse model. Tumor formation is basically dependent on the cell numbers injected per location. We argue that in vivo tumor formation from single cell clones, isolated in vitro from cancer cell lines, may not provide conclusive evidence to disprove the cancer stem cell (CSC) theory without additional data.

  15. Borrelia Spirochetes Upregulate Release and Activation of Matrix Metalloproteinase Gelatinase B (MMP-9) and Collagenase 1 (MMP-1) in Human Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gebbia, Joseph A.; Coleman, James L.; Benach, Jorge L

    2001-01-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the spirochetal agent of Lyme disease, stimulated human peripheral blood monocytes to release pro-matrix metalloproteinase-9 (gelatinase B; pro-MMP-9) and active matrix metalloproteinase-1 (collagenase-1; MMP-1). Human neutrophils also released pro-MMP-9 and a 130-kDa protein with gelatinolytic activity in response to live B. burgdorferi. In addition, U937 cells and human keratinocyte cells were also stimulated to release pro-MMP-9 under the same conditions. However, hum...

  16. Continuous production of erythropoietin by an established human renal carcinoma cell line: development of the cell line.

    OpenAIRE

    Sherwood, J B; Shouval, D

    1986-01-01

    Establishment of a stable, transformed human renal carcinoma cell line that produces erythropoietin in vitro and has maintained this function continuously since 1981 and for greater than 150 passages in monolayer culture was accomplished by transplantation of human renal clear cell carcinoma tissue from a patient with erythrocytosis into an immunosuppressed athymic mouse. In addition to its immunocrossreactivity with native human urinary erythropoietin, the tumor erythropoietin demonstrates b...

  17. Evaluation Of Lenalidomide Activity On Glioblastoma Cell Lines In Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Mut, Melike; Gregory POLAR; Carpenter, Joan E.; Gerard REDPATH; Larner, James; Schiff, David; Shaffrey, Mark E.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: Thalidomide analog, Lenalidomide (Revlimid®) is a chemotherapeutic agent. In this study, lenalidomide was used in human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines to determine its pro-apoptotic, anti-proliferative and radiosensitizing properties. Methods: The GBM cells were treated with lenalidomide [0, 1, 5, 30, 60 µM] before ultravioletB (UVB) [0, 50, 100 mj] or γ -irradiation [0, 5, 20 Gy], and kept in drug for 5 days. Viable cell numbers were determined by trypan blue exclusion. Th...

  18. Cytotoxic studies of paclitaxel (Taxol) in human tumour cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Liebmann, J. E.; Cook, J. A.; Lipschultz, C.; Teague, D.; Fisher, J; Mitchell, J B

    1993-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of paclitaxel against eight human tumour cell lines has been studied with in vitro clonogenic assays. The fraction of surviving cells fell sharply after exposure for 24 h to paclitaxel concentrations ranging from 2 to 20 nM; the paclitaxel IC50 was found to range between 2.5 and 7.5 nM. Increasing the paclitaxel concentration above 50 nM, however, resulted in no additional cytotoxicity after a 24 h drug exposure. Cells incubated in very high concentrations of paclitaxel (10,0...

  19. Growth inhibition by tyrosine kinase inhibitors in mesothelioma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nutt, Joyce E; O'Toole, Kieran; Gonzalez, David; Lunec, John

    2009-06-01

    Clinical outcome following chemotherapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma is poor and improvements are needed. This preclinical study investigates the effect of five tyrosine kinase inhibitors (PTK787, ZD6474, ZD1839, SU6668 and SU11248) on the growth of three mesothelioma cell lines (NCI H226, NCI H28 and MSTO 211H), the presence of growth factor receptors and inhibition of their downstream signalling pathways. GI50 values were determined: ZD6474 and SU11248, mainly VEGFR2 inhibitors, gave the lowest GI50 across all cell lines (3.5-6.9 microM) whereas ZD1839 gave a GI50 in this range only in H28 cells. All cell lines were positive for EGFR, but only H226 cells were positive for VEGFR2 by Western blotting. ZD6474 and ZD1839 inhibited EGF-induced phosphorylation of EGFR, AKT and ERK, whereas VEGF-induced phosphorylation of VEGFR2 was completely inhibited with 0.1 microM SU11248. VEGFR2 was detected in tumour samples by immunohistochemistry. VEGFR2 tyrosine kinase inhibitors warrant further investigation in mesothelioma. PMID:19318229

  20. Plasmids and packaging cell lines for use in phage display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2012-07-24

    The invention relates to a novel phagemid display system for packaging phagemid DNA into phagemid particles which completely avoids the use of helper phage. The system of the invention incorporates the use of bacterial packaging cell lines which have been transformed with helper plasmids containing all required phage proteins but not the packaging signals. The absence of packaging signals in these helper plasmids prevents their DNA from being packaged in the bacterial cell, which provides a number of significant advantages over the use of both standard and modified helper phage. Packaged phagemids expressing a protein or peptide of interest, in fusion with a phage coat protein such as g3p, are generated simply by transfecting phagemid into the packaging cell line.

  1. Effects of irradiation on cytokine production in glioma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of irradiation on cytokine production in glioma cell lines, NP1, NP2 and NP3, were studied. Culture supernatants were collected after 6, 24, 48 or 72 hours and the concentrations of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Spontaneous and IL-1β-stimulated productions were analyzed. Some cells were given a single dose of Lineac irradiation (10 or 20 Gy). Production of IL-6 (with or without IL-1β stimulation) increased gradually to a maximum after 72 hours, more in the 20 Gy-irradiated cells than 10 Gy cells (p<0.01). Production of IL-8 increased gradually to a maximum after 48 or 72 hours. Spontaneous production of IL-8 increased more in 20 Gy-irradiated cells than 10 Gy cells after 6 and 24 hours (p<0.01), but increased more in 10 Gy cells than 20 Gy cells after 48 and 72 hours (p<0.01). The production of IL-8 stimulated by IL-1β increased more in 10 Gy cells than 20 Gy cells 24 hours later (p<0.01). IL-6 and IL-8 production differed in the response to irradiation. Our data suggest that bidirectional communication between the immune system and glioma cells changes after radiotherapy. (author)

  2. Heterogeneity of a human T-lymphoblastoid cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snow, K.; Judd, W.

    1987-08-01

    A human T-lymphoblastoid cell line (Jurkat) was cloned, and four resulting sublines were characterized in a variety of ways with the objective of gaining information on heterogeneity in cell lines. Within a few weeks of cloning, distinct cellular morphologies and growth patterns became apparent in the four sublines. Growth rate measurements made over 3 months did not show any significant differences between the sublines. Surface protein profiles obtained by radioimmunoprecipitation using antisera in conjunction with extracts from (/sup 35/S)Met and /sup 125/I-labeled cells revealed differences between the sublines. Analysis of total cell DNA showed that one of the sublines possessed only half the chromosome complement of the other sublines and the parental line. Karyotyping confirmed this result and, in addition, demonstrated that chromosome numbers fluctuated around a mean value for each subline. Karyotypic variability became apparent within 2 months of cloning and tended to increase with time in culture. G-banding analysis showed that the analyzed cell populations contained distinctive cytogenetic aberrations. Properties of the cloned sublines were monitored over a 9-month period. One of the sublines that had shown heterogeneous morphology even after 6 weeks maintained the heterogeneity throughout this time. Another subline underwent a marked change in morphology (round to irregular) and growth habit (single cells to large clumps) with increasing time in culture. Interestingly, several alterations to surface proteins accompanied these growth changes. A third subline had relatively stable morphology and chromosome number throughout the 9-month period. The modal chromosome number was hypotetraploid for three sublines and the parent line, but was diploid for another subline.

  3. Survey of Differentially Methylated Promoters in Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yipeng Wang

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available DNA methylation, copy number in the genomes of three immortalized prostate epithelial, five cancer cell lines (LNCaP, PC3, PC3M, PC3M-Pro4, PC3MLN4 were compared using a microarray-based technique. Genomic DNA is cut with a methylation-sensitive enzyme Hpall, followed by linker ligation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification, labeling, hybridization to an array of promoter sequences. Only those parts of the genomic DNA that have unmethylated restriction sites within a few hundred base pairs generate PCR products detectable on an array. Of 2732 promoter sequences on a test array, 504 (18.5% showed differential hybridization between immortalized prostate epithelial, cancer cell lines. Among candidate hypermethylated genes in cancer-derived lines, there were eight (CD44, CDKN1A, ESR1, PLAU, RARB, SFN, TNFRSF6, TSPY previously observed in prostate cancer, 13 previously known methylation targets in other cancers (ARHI, bcl-2, BRCA1, CDKN2C, GADD45A, MTAP, PGR, SLC26A4, SPARC, SYK, TJP2, UCHL1, WIT-1. The majority of genes that appear to be both differentially methylated, differentially regulated between prostate epithelial, cancer cell lines are novel methylation targets, including PAK6, RAD50, TLX3, PIR51, MAP2K5, INSR, FBN1, GG2-1, representing a rich new source of candidate genes used to study the role of DNA methylation in prostate tumors.

  4. The genomic landscape of epithelioid sarcoma cell lines and tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamshidi, Farzad; Bashashati, Ali; Shumansky, Karey; Dickson, Brendan; Gokgoz, Nalan; Wunder, Jay S; Andrulis, Irene L; Lazar, Alexander J; Shah, Sohrab P; Huntsman, David G; Nielsen, Torsten O

    2016-01-01

    We carried out whole genome and transcriptome sequencing on four tumour/normal pairs of epithelioid sarcoma. These index cases were supplemented with whole transcriptome sequencing of three additional tumours and three cell lines. Unlike rhabdoid tumour (the other major group of SMARCB1-negative cancers), epithelioid sarcoma shows a complex genome with a higher mutational rate, comparable to that of ovarian carcinoma. Despite this mutational burden, SMARCB1 mutations remain the most frequently recurring event and are probably critical drivers of tumour formation. Several cases show heterozygous SMARCB1 mutations without inactivation of the second allele, and we explore this further in vitro. Finding CDKN2A deletions in our discovery cohort, we evaluated CDKN2A protein expression in a tissue microarray. Six out of 16 cases had lost CDKN2A in greater than or equal to 90% of cells, while the remaining cases had retained the protein. Expression analysis of epithelioid sarcoma cell lines by transcriptome sequencing shows a unique profile that does not cluster with any particular tissue type or with other SWI/SNF-aberrant lines. Evaluation of the levels of members of the SWI/SNF complex other than SMARCB1 revealed that these proteins are expressed as part of a residual complex, similarly to previously studied rhabdoid tumour lines. This residual SWI/SNF is susceptible to synthetic lethality and may therefore indicate a therapeutic opportunity. PMID:26365879

  5. Melatonin and Doxorubicin synergistically induce cell apoptosis in human hepatoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether Melatonin has synergistic effects with Doxorubicin in the growth-inhibition and apoptosis-induction of human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Bel-7402.METHODS:The synergism of Melatonin and Doxorubicin inhibited the cell growth and induced cell apoptosis in human hepatoma cell lines HepG2 and Bel-7402.Cell viability was analyzed by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide(MTT)assay.Cell apoptosis was evaluated using TUNEL method and flow cytometry.Apoptosis-r...

  6. Absence of C-type virus production in human leukemic B cell, T cell and null cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogura,Hajime

    1978-06-01

    Full Text Available Electron microscope observation of cultured human leukemic B cell, T cell and null cell lines and reverse transcriptase assay of the culture supernatants were all negative for the presence of C-type virus. Bat cell line, which propagates primate C-type viruses well, was cocultivated with the human leukemic cell lines, in the hope of amplification of virus if present. Three weeks after mixed culture, the culture supernatants were again examined for reverse transcriptase activity and the cells were tested for syncytia formation by cocultivation with rat XC, human KC and RSb cell lines. All these tests, except for the positive control using a simian sarcoma virus, were negative, suggesting that no C-type was produced from these human leukemic cell lines.

  7. Feeder-independent continuous culture of the PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    The PICM-19 pig liver stem cell line is a bipotent cell line, i.e., capable of forming either bile ductules or hepatocyte monolayers in vitro, that was derived from the primary culture of pig embryonic stem cells. The cell line has been strictly feeder-dependent in that cell replication morphology,...

  8. Cytolytic replication of echoviruses in colon cancer cell lines

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    Gullberg Maria

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Colorectal cancer is one of the most common cancers in the world, killing nearly 50% of patients afflicted. Though progress is being made within surgery and other complementary treatments, there is still need for new and more effective treatments. Oncolytic virotherapy, meaning that a cancer is cured by viral infection, is a promising field for finding new and improved treatments. We have investigated the oncolytic potential of several low-pathogenic echoviruses with rare clinical occurrence. Echoviruses are members of the enterovirus genus within the family Picornaviridae. Methods Six colon cancer cell lines (CaCo-2, HT29, LoVo, SW480, SW620 and T84 were infected by the human enterovirus B species echovirus 12, 15, 17, 26 and 29, and cytopathic effects as well as viral replication efficacy were investigated. Infectivity was also tested in spheroids grown from HT29 cells. Results Echovirus 12, 17, 26 and 29 replicated efficiently in almost all cell lines and were considered highly cytolytic. The infectivity of these four viruses was further evaluated in artificial tumors (spheroids, where it was found that echovirus 12, 17 and 26 easily infected the spheroids. Conclusions We have found that echovirus 12, 17 and 26 have potential as oncolytic agents against colon cancer, by comparing the cytolytic capacity of five low-pathogenic echoviruses in six colon cancer cell lines and in artificial tumors.

  9. Derivation of human embryonic stem cell lines from parthenogenetic blastocysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qingyun Mai; Yang Yu; Tao Li; Liu Wang; Mei-jue Chen; Shu-zhen Huang; Canquan Zhou; Qi Zhou

    2007-01-01

    Parthenogenesis is one of the main, and most useful, methods to derive embryonic stem cells (ESCs), which may be an important source of histocompatible cells and tissues for cell therapy. Here we describe the derivation and characterization of two ESC lines (hPES-1 and hPES-2) from in vitro developed blastocysts following parthenogenetic activation of human oocytes. Typical ESC morphology was seen, and the expression of ESC markers was as expected for alkaline phosphatase, octamer-binding transcription factor 4, stage-specific embryonic antigen 3, stage-specific embryonic antigen 4, TRA-1-60, and TRA-1-81, and there was absence of expression of negative markers such as stage-specific embryonic antigen 1. Expression of genes specific for different embryonic germ layers was detected from the embryoid bodies (EBs) of both hESC lines, suggesting their differentiation potential in vitro. However, in vivo, only hPES-1 formed teratoma consisting of all three embryonic germ layers (hPES-2 did not). Interestingly, after continuous proliferation for more than 100 passages, hPES-1 cells still maintained a normal 46 XX karyotype; hPES-2 displayed abnormalities such as chromosome translocation after long term passages. Short Tandem Repeat (STR) results demonstrated that the hPES lines were genetic matches with the egg donors, and gene imprinting data confirmed the parthenogenetic origin of these ES cells. Genome-wide SNP analysis showed a pattern typical of parthenogenesis. All of these results demonstrated the feasibility to isolate and establish human parthenogenetic ESC lines, which provides an important tool for studying epigenetic effects in ESCs as well as for future therapeutic interventions in a clinical setting.

  10. Apoptosis in Raji cell line induced by influenza A virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李虹; 肖丽英; 李华林; 李婉宜; 蒋中华; 张林; 李明远

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the apoptotic effects of influenza A virus on the Raji cell line. Methods Cultured Raji cells were infected with influenza A virus at a multiplicity of infection (m.o.i) of 20 and the effects of apoptosis were detected at different time points post infection using the following methods: electron microscope, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, PI stained flow cytometry (FCM) and Annexin-V FITC/PI stained FCM.Results Raji cells infected with influenza A virus showed changes of morphology apoptotis, DNA agarose electrophoresis also demonstrated a ladder-like pattern of DNA fragments in a time-dependent manner. PI stained FCM showed "apoptosis peak" and FITC/PI stained FCM showed apoptotic cells. Quantitative analysis indicated that the percentage of apoptotic Raji cells increased after infection, and cycloheximide (CHX), an eukaryotic transcription inhibitor, could effectively inhibit the apoptotic effects of influenza A virus in vitro.Conclusions Influenza A virus can induce apoptosis in Raji cell line suggesting that it may lead to a potential method for tumor therapy.

  11. Establishment and characterization of primary lung cancer cell lines from Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chao ZHENG; Yi-hua SUN; Xiao-lei YE; Hai-quan CHEN; Hong-bin JI

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To establish and characterize primary lung cancer cell lines from Chinese population.Methods: Lung cancer specimens or pleural effusions were collected from Chinese lung cancer patients and cultured in vitro with ACL4 medium (for non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC)) or HITES medium (for small cell lung carcinomas (SCLC)) supplemented with 5%FBS. All cell lines were maintained in culture for more than 25 passages. Most of these cell lines were further analyzed for oncogenic mutations, karyotype, cell growth kinetics, and tumorigenicity in nude mice.Results: Eight primary cell lines from Chinese lung cancer patients were established and characterized, including seven NSCLC cell lines and one SCLC cell line. Five NSCLC cell lines were found to harbor epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase domain mutations.Conclusion: These well-characterized primary lung cancer cell lines from Chinese population provide a unique platform for future studies of the ethnic differences in lung cancer biology and drug response.

  12. Designing of promiscuous inhibitors against pancreatic cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Singla, Deepak; Gautam, Ankur; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2014-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains the most devastating disease with worst prognosis. There is a pressing need to accelerate the drug discovery process to identify new effective drug candidates against pancreatic cancer. We have developed QSAR models for predicting promiscuous inhibitors using the pharmacological data. Our models achieved maximum Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.86, when evaluated on 10-fold cross-validation. Our models have also successfully validated the drug-to-oncogene relationship and further we used these models to screen FDA approved drugs and tested them in vitro. We have integrated these models in a webserver named as DiPCell, which will be useful for screening and designing novel promiscuous drug molecules. We have also identified the most and least effective drugs for pancreatic cancer cell lines. On the other side, we have identified resistant pancreatic cancer cell lines, which need investigative scanner on them to put light on resistant mechanism in pancreatic cancer.

  13. RBE of neutrons for induction of cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations in three cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have compared the RBE values for induction of dicentrics and centric rings with those for cell inactivation and with the mean or effective quality factors (Q) recommended for radiation protection. The induction of cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations has been investigated in plateau phase cultures of established lines of a rat rhabdomyosarcoma, a rat ureter carcinoma and Chinese hamster cells for single doses of 300 kV X-rays and 0.5, 4.2 and 15 MeV neutrons. The different cell lines show considerable variations in sensitivity and the RBE values obtained are presented in tabular form. The mean RBE values for the rat rhabdomyosarcoma cells are lower than those for the other two relatively resistant cell lines. Those for the Chinese hamster cells extrapolated to levels according to low doses of X-rays are in good agreement with the quoted Q values. (Auth./C.F.)

  14. Cell line profiling to improve monoclonal antibody production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sohye; Ren, Da; Xiao, Gang; Daris, Kristi; Buck, Lynette; Enyenihi, Atim A; Zubarev, Roman; Bondarenko, Pavel V; Deshpande, Rohini

    2014-04-01

    Mammalian cell culture performance is influenced by both intrinsic (genetic) and extrinsic (media and process) factors. In this study, intrinsic capacity of various monoclonal antibody-producing Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cell lines was compared by exposing them to the same culture condition. Microarray-based transcriptomics and LC-MS/MS shotgun proteomics technologies were utilized to obtain expression landscape of different cell lines. Specific transcripts and proteins correlating with productivity, growth rate and cell size have been identified. The proteomics analysis results showed a strong correlation between the intracellular protein expression levels of the recombinant DHFR and productivity. In contrast, neither the light chain nor the heavy chain of the recombinant monoclonal antibody showed correlation to productivity. Other top ranked proteins which demonstrated positive correlation to productivity included the adaptor protein complex subunits AP3D1and AP2B2, DNA repair protein DDB1 and the ER translocation complex component, SRPR. The subunits of molecular chaperone T-complex protein 1 and the regulator of mitochondrial one-carbon metabolism MTHFD2 showed negative correlation to productivity. The transcriptomics analysis has identified the regulators of calcium signaling, Tmem20 and Rcan1, as the top ranked genes displaying positive and negative correlation to productivity, respectively. For the second part of the study, the principal component analysis (PCA) was generated to view the underlying global structure of the expression data. A clear division and expression polarity was observed between the two distinct clusters of cell lines, independent of link to productivity or any other traits examined. The primary component of the PCA generated from either transcriptomics or proteomics data displayed a strong correlation to cell size and doubling time, while none of the main principal components showed correlation to productivity. Our findings suggest

  15. UV light blocks EGFR signalling in human cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, BB; Neves-Petersen, M T; Klitgaard, S;

    2007-01-01

    antibodies. There was a threshold level, below which the receptor could not be blocked. In addition, illumination caused the cells to upregulate the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1, irrespective of the p53 status. Since the EGF receptor is often overexpressed in cancers and other proliferative skin......UV light excites aromatic residues, causing these to disrupt nearby disulphide bridges. The EGF receptor is rich in aromatic residues near the disulphide bridges. Herein we show that laser-pulsed UV illumination of two different skin-derived cancer cell lines i.e. Cal-39 and A431, which both...

  16. In vitro chemosensitivity of head and neck cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuler PJ

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic treatment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC includes a variety of antineoplastic drugs. However, drug-resistance interferes with the effectiveness of chemotherapy. Preclinical testing models are needed in order to develop approaches to overcome chemoresistance. Methods Ten human cell lines were obtained from HNSCC, including one with experimentally-induced cisplatin resistance. Inhibition of cell growth by seven chemotherapeutic agents (cisplatin, carboplatin, 5- fluorouracil, methotrexate, bleomycin, vincristin, and paclitaxel was measured using metabolic MTT-uptake assay and correlated to clinically-achievable plasma concentrations. Results All drugs inhibited cell growth in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 comparable to that achievable in vivo. However, response curves for methotrexate were unsatisfactory and for paclitaxel, the solubilizer cremophor EL was toxic. Cross-resistance was observed between cisplatin and carboplatin. Conclusion Chemosensitivity of HNSCC cell lines can be determined using the MTT-uptake assay. For DNA-interfering cytostatics and vinca alkaloids this is a simple and reproducible procedure. Determined in vitro chemosensitivity serves as a baseline for further experimental approaches aiming to modulate chemoresistance in HNSCC with potential clinical significance.

  17. Molecular mechanisms of alkylation sensitivity in Indian muntjac cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musk, S R; Hatton, D H; Bouffler, S D; Margison, G P; Johnson, R T

    1989-07-01

    The responses of two Indian muntjac cell lines to two monofunctional alkylating agents were investigated. An SV40-transformed line (SVM) had an increased sensitivity to cell killing when compared to the other, euploid line (DM) after exposure both to methyl nitrosourea (MNU) and to dimethylsulphate (DMS) and also exhibited higher frequencies of sister chromatid exchanges (SCEs) following alkylation. The hypersensitivity of SVM to DMS correlates with the defective repair of single-strand breaks that results in the generation of long-lived breaks in the DNA following exposure, leading eventually to the formation of chromosome aberrations. In contrast no difference is seen in the formation of long-lived breaks in the DNA of SVM and DM after treatment with biologically relevant doses of MNU; in this case hypersensitivity may be due to the loss of O6-alkylguanine-DNA-alkyltransferase activity. The conclusion that the hypersensitivites of SVM to MNU and to DMS have different molecular bases is supported by transfection of SVM with plasmids containing the protein coding region of the Escherichia coli ada+ gene; subsequent expression within the cell corrects its hypersensitivity to the cytotoxic and SCE-inducing effects of MNU but has very little influence upon the lethality, SCE induction or the repair of long-lived DNA strand breaks after exposure to DMS. PMID:2544312

  18. A novel lineage restricted, pericyte-like cell line isolated from human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood-Goodwin, Midori; Yang, Jiwei; Hassanipour, Mohammad; Larocca, David

    2016-01-01

    Pericytes (PCs) are endothelium-associated cells that play an important role in normal vascular function and maintenance. We developed a method comparable to GMP quality protocols for deriving self-renewing perivascular progenitors from the human embryonic stem cell (hESC), line ESI-017. We identified a highly scalable, perivascular progenitor cell line that we termed PC-A, which expressed surface markers common to mesenchymal stromal cells. PC-A cells were not osteogenic or adipogenic under standard differentiation conditions and showed minimal angiogenic support function in vitro. PC-A cells were capable of further differentiation to perivascular progenitors with limited differentiation capacity, having osteogenic potential (PC-O) or angiogenic support function (PC-M), while lacking adipogenic potential. Importantly, PC-M cells expressed surface markers associated with pericytes. Moreover, PC-M cells had pericyte-like functionality being capable of co-localizing with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and enhancing tube stability up to 6 days in vitro. We have thus identified a self-renewing perivascular progenitor cell line that lacks osteogenic, adipogenic and angiogenic potential but is capable of differentiation toward progenitor cell lines with either osteogenic potential or pericyte-like angiogenic function. The hESC-derived perivascular progenitors described here have potential applications in vascular research, drug development and cell therapy. PMID:27109637

  19. HIV-1 latency in actively dividing human T cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berkhout Ben

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Eradication of HIV-1 from an infected individual cannot be achieved by current drug regimens. Viral reservoirs established early during the infection remain unaffected by anti-retroviral therapy and are able to replenish systemic infection upon interruption of the treatment. Therapeutic targeting of viral latency will require a better understanding of the basic mechanisms underlying the establishment and long-term maintenance of HIV-1 in resting memory CD4 T cells, the most prominent reservoir of transcriptional silent provirus. However, the molecular mechanisms that permit long-term transcriptional control of proviral gene expression in these cells are still not well understood. Exploring the molecular details of viral latency will provide new insights for eventual future therapeutics that aim at viral eradication. Results We set out to develop a new in vitro HIV-1 latency model system using the doxycycline (dox-inducible HIV-rtTA variant. Stable cell clones were generated with a silent HIV-1 provirus, which can subsequently be activated by dox-addition. Surprisingly, only a minority of the cells was able to induce viral gene expression and a spreading infection, eventhough these experiments were performed with the actively dividing SupT1 T cell line. These latent proviruses are responsive to TNFα treatment and alteration of the DNA methylation status with 5-Azacytidine or genistein, but not responsive to the regular T cell activators PMA and IL2. Follow-up experiments in several T cell lines and with wild-type HIV-1 support these findings. Conclusion We describe the development of a new in vitro model for HIV-1 latency and discuss the advantages of this system. The data suggest that HIV-1 proviral latency is not restricted to resting T cells, but rather an intrinsic property of the virus.

  20. Responding to hypoxia: lessons from a model cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seta, K A; Spicer, Z; Yuan, Y; Lu, G; Millhorn, D E

    2002-08-20

    Mammalian cells require a constant supply of oxygen to maintain adequate energy production, which is essential for maintaining normal function and for ensuring cell survival. Sustained hypoxia can result in cell death. It is, therefore, not surprising that sophisticated mechanisms have evolved that allow cells to adapt to hypoxia. "Oxygen-sensing" is a special phenotype that functions to detect changes in oxygen tension and to transduce this signal into organ system functions that enhance the delivery of oxygen to tissue in various organisms. Oxygen-sensing cells can be segregated into two distinct cell types: those that functionally depolarize (excitable) and those that do not functionally depolarize (nonexcitable) in response to reduced oxygen. Theoretically, excitable cells have all the same signaling capabilities as the nonexcitable cells, but the nonexcitable cells cannot have all the signaling capabilities as excitable cells. A number of signaling pathways have been identified that regulate gene expression during hypoxia. These include the Ca2+-calmodulin pathway, the 3'-5' adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-protein kinase A (PKA) pathway, the p42 and p44 mitogen-activated protein kinase [(MAPK); also known as the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) for ERK1 and ERK2] pathway, the stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK; also known as p38 kinase) pathway, and the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-Akt pathway. In this review, we describe hypoxia-induced signaling in the model O2-sensing rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell line, the current level of understanding of the major signaling events that are activated by reduced O2, and how these signaling events lead to altered gene expression in both excitable and nonexcitable oxygen-sensing cells. PMID:12189251

  1. Boldine: a potential new antiproliferative drug against glioma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, Daniéli; Horn, Ana Paula; Gaelzer, Mariana Maier; Frozza, Rudimar Luiz; Delgado-Cañedo, Andrés; Pelegrini, Alessandra Luiza; Henriques, Amélia T; Lenz, Guido; Salbego, Christianne

    2009-12-01

    Malignant gliomas are the most common and devastating primary tumors of the central nervous system. Currently no efficient treatment is available. This study evaluated the effect and underlying mechanisms of boldine, an aporphine alkaloid of Peumus boldus, on glioma proliferation and cell death. Boldine decreased the cell number of U138-MG, U87-MG and C6 glioma lines at concentrations of 80, 250 and 500 muM. We observed that cell death caused by boldine was cell-type specific and dose-dependent. Exposure to boldine for 24 h did not activate key mediators of apoptosis. However, it induced alterations in the cell cycle suggesting a G(2)/M arrest in U138-MG cells. Boldine had no toxic effect on non-tumor cells when used at the same concentrations as those used on tumor cells. Based on these results, we speculate that boldine may be a promising compound for evaluation as an anti-cancer agent. PMID:19050827

  2. Effects of Genistein on Cell Cycle and Apoptosis of Two Murine Melanoma Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The effects of genistein on several tumor cell lines were investigated to study the effects of genistein on cell growth, cell cycle, and apoptosis of two murine melanoma cell lines, B16 and K1735M2. These two closely related murine melanoma cell lines, however, have different responses to the genistein treatment. Genistein inhibits the growth of both the B16 and K1735M2 cell lines and arrests the growth at the G2/M phase. After treatment with 60 μmol/L genistein for 72 h, apoptosis and caspase activities were detected in B16 cells, while such effects were not found in K1735M2. Further tests showed that after genistein treatment the protein content and mRNA levels of p53 increased in B16, but remained the same in K1735M2. The protein content and mRNA levels of p21WAF1/CIP1 increased in both cell lines after treatment.The results show that genistein might induce apoptosis in B16 cells by damaging the DNA, inhibiting topoisomerase Ⅱ, increasing p53 expression, releasing cytochrome c from the mitochondria, and activating the caspases which will lead to apoptosis.

  3. Fluorouracil Selectively Enriches Stem-like Leukemic Cells in a Leukemic Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Zhang, Song Yang, Yu-Juan He, Hui-Yuan Shao, Li Wang, Hui Chen, Yu-Jie Gao, Feng-Xian Qing, Xian-Chun Chen, Liu-Yang Zhao, Shi Tan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have reported that cancer stem cells (CSCs could be isolated from solid cancer cell lines, in which the purity of CSCs was higher than that from tumor tissues. Separation of CSCs from leukemic cell lines was rarely reported. In this study, CD34+CD38- stem-like cell subsets in human KG-1a leukemic cell line were enriched by cytotoxic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU. After 4 days incubation of KG-1a cell line with 5-FU (50 μg/ml, the CD34+CD38- subpopulation of cell lines was enriched more than 10 times. The enriched cells had proliferate potential in vitro, low level of RNA transcription and Hoechst 33342 dye efflux ability, accompanied by high expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter protein ABCG2. Our findings suggest that treatment with 5-FU offers an easy method to isolate leukemic stem-like subpopulation. It can facilitate studies of leukemic stem cell biology and the development of new therapeutic strategies.

  4. Fluorodeoxyglucose cell incorporation as an index of cell proliferation: evaluation of accuracy in cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We aimed to correlate the effects of the toxic agents bleomycin and unlabelled meta-iodobenzylguanidine (mIBG) on cellular metabolism and proliferation. We determined the in vitro metabolic and cytotoxic effects of bleomycin and mIBG by measuring the incorporation of fluorine-18 FDG (%UFDG) and hydrogen-3 thymidine (%UTHY) in cells of the human premonocytic line U937 in the presence of increasing concentrations of these agents. Proliferation rate of these cells was studied by means of limiting dilution analysis. %UTHY appeared more sensitive to bleomycin or mIBG-mediated cell injury than %UFDG. After 1 h of exposure to 0.5 μM bleomycin, %UTHY was significantly reduced to 62.0% ± 10.4% of control value whereas %UFDG remained unchanged (91.6% ± 5.3%). Similar results were obtained after 1 h of exposure to increasing concentrations of mIBG (1 μM to 1 mM). After 20 h of exposure to bleomycin, %UTHY and %UFDG were significantly reduced as a function of concentration. After 20 h of exposure to mIBG, a transient increase in %UFDG up to 149.3% ± 11.2% with 50 μM mIBG was further followed by a reduction to 20.1% ± 6.7% with 0.5 mM. The clonogenic efficiency was reduced as a function of bleomycin or mIBG concentration and nearly abolished with 0.1 μM bleomycin or 0.1 mM mIBG. In conclusion, %UTHY appears to be a more sensitive index of cytotoxicity in vitro and more accurately relates to cell proliferation than %UFDG. (orig./MG)

  5. Establishment of a novel human medulloblastoma cell line characterized by highly aggressive stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia Benites Gonçalves da; Rodini, Carolina Oliveira; Kaid, Carolini; Nakahata, Adriana Miti; Pereira, Márcia Cristina Leite; Matushita, Hamilton; Costa, Silvia Souza da; Okamoto, Oswaldo Keith

    2016-08-01

    Medulloblastoma is a highly aggressive brain tumor and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality related to childhood cancer. These tumors display differential ability to metastasize and respond to treatment, which reflects their high degree of heterogeneity at the genetic and molecular levels. Such heterogeneity of medulloblastoma brings an additional challenge to the understanding of its physiopathology and impacts the development of new therapeutic strategies. This translational effort has been the focus of most pre-clinical studies which invariably employ experimental models using human tumor cell lines. Nonetheless, compared to other cancers, relatively few cell lines of human medulloblastoma are available in central repositories, partly due to the rarity of these tumors and to the intrinsic difficulties in establishing continuous cell lines from pediatric brain tumors. Here, we report the establishment of a new human medulloblastoma cell line which, in comparison with the commonly used and well-established cell line Daoy, is characterized by enhanced proliferation and invasion capabilities, stem cell properties, increased chemoresistance, tumorigenicity in an orthotopic metastatic model, replication of original medulloblastoma behavior in vivo, strong chromosome structural instability and deregulation of genes involved in neural development. These features are advantageous for designing biologically relevant experimental models in clinically oriented studies, making this novel cell line, named USP-13-Med, instrumental for the study of medulloblastoma biology and treatment. PMID:26358937

  6. Musashi2 modulates K562 leukemic cell proliferation and apoptosis involving the MAPK pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Huijuan; Tan, Shi; Wang, Juan; Chen, Shana; Quan, Jing; Xian, Jingrong; Zhang, Shuai shuai; He, Jingang; Zhang, Ling, E-mail: lingzhang@cqmu.edu.cn

    2014-01-01

    The RNA-binding protein Musashi2 (Msi2) has been identified as a master regulator within a variety of stem cell populations via the regulation of translational gene expression. A recent study has suggested that Msi2 is strongly expressed in leukemic cells of acute myeloid leukemia patients, and elevated Msi2 is associated with poor prognosis. However, the potential role of Msi2 in leukemogenesis is still not well understood. Here, we investigated the effect of Msi2 knockdown on the biological properties of leukemic cells. High expression of Msi2 was found in K562 and KG-1a leukemic cell lines, and low expression was observed in the U937 cell line. We transduced K562 cells with two independent adenoviral shRNA vectors targeting Msi2 and confirmed knockdown of Msi2 at the mRNA and protein levels. Msi2 silencing inhibited cell growth and caused cell cycle arrest by increasing the expression of p21 and decreasing the expression of cyclin D1 and cdk2. In addition, knockdown of Msi2 promoted cellular apoptosis via the upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, Msi2 knockdown resulted in the inactivation of the ERK/MAPK and p38/MAPK pathways, but no remarkable change in p-AKT was observed. These data provide evidence that Msi2 plays an important role in leukemogenesis involving the MAPK signaling pathway, which indicates that Msi2 may be a novel target for leukemia treatment. - Highlights: • Knockdown of Msi2 inhibited K562 cell growth and arrested cell cycle progression. • Knockdown of Msi2 induced K562 cell apoptosis via the regulation of Bax and Bcl-2. • The MAPK pathway was involved in the process of Msi2-mediated leukemogenesis. • Our data indicate that Msi2 is a potential new target for leukemia treatment.

  7. Evaluation of nitroimidazole hypoxic cell radiosensitizers in a human tumor cell line high in intracellular glutathione

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five nitroimidazole hypoxic cell radiosensitizers were evaluated in a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549) whose GSH level was 8-fold higher than Chinese hamster V79 cells. One millimolar concentrations of Misonidazole (MISO), SR-2508, RSU-1164, RSU-1172, and Ro-03-8799 sensitized hypoxic A549 cells to radiation, with Ro-03-8799 giving the highest sensitizer enhancement ration (SER) (2.3). However, MISO, SR-2508 and Ro-03-8799 were less effective in this cell line than in V79 cells, presumably due to higher GSH content of the A549 cells. Increased hypoxic radiosensitization was seen with 0.1 mM Ro-03-8799 after GSH depletion by BSO as compared to 0.1 mM Ro-03-8799 alone (SER-1.8 vs 1.3). The combination of GSH depletion and 0.1 mM Ro-03-8799 was considerably more toxic than 0.1 mM or 1.0 mM Ro-03-8799 alone. This sensitivity was much greater than has been observed for SR-2508. These data show that Ro-03-8799 was the most efficient hypoxic cell radiosensitizer in a human tumor cell line considerably higher in GSH than the rodent cell lines often used in hypoxic radiosensitization studies. Thus, Ro-03-8799 may be a more effective hypoxic cell sensitizer in human tumors that are high in GSH

  8. Multidrug resistance and retroviral transduction potential in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, M D; Gram, G J; Jensen, P B;

    1999-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major problem in the successful treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). New treatment strategies are needed, such as gene therapy specifically targeting the MDR cells in the tumor. Retroviral LacZ gene-containing vectors that were either pseudotyped...... for the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV-1) receptor or had specificity for the amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV-A) receptor were used for transduction of five SCLC cell lines differing by a range of MDR mechanisms. Transduction efficiencies in these cell lines were compared by calculating the percentage...... of blue colonies after X-Gal staining of the cells grown in soft agar. All examined SCLC cell lines were transducible with either vector. Transduction efficiencies varied from 5.7% to 33.5% independent of the presence of MDR. These results indicate that MDR does not severely impair transduction of SCLC...

  9. Multidrug resistance and retroviral transduction potential in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, M D; Gram, G J; Jensen, P B;

    1999-01-01

    blue colonies after X-Gal staining of the cells grown in soft agar. All examined SCLC cell lines were transducible with either vector. Transduction efficiencies varied from 5.7% to 33.5% independent of the presence of MDR. These results indicate that MDR does not severely impair transduction of SCLC......Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major problem in the successful treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). New treatment strategies are needed, such as gene therapy specifically targeting the MDR cells in the tumor. Retroviral LacZ gene-containing vectors that were either pseudotyped for the...... gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV-1) receptor or had specificity for the amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV-A) receptor were used for transduction of five SCLC cell lines differing by a range of MDR mechanisms. Transduction efficiencies in these cell lines were compared by calculating the percentage of...

  10. The comparison of glycosphingolipids isolated from an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line and a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line using MALDI-MS and MALDI-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajanayake, Krishani K; Taylor, William R; Isailovic, Dragan

    2016-08-01

    Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are important biomolecules, which are linked to many diseases such as GSL storage disorders and cancer. Consequently, the expression of GSLs may be altered in ovarian cancer cell lines in comparison to apparently healthy cell lines. Here, differential expressions of GSLs in an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line SKOV3 and a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line T29 were studied using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and MALDI-MS/MS. The isolation of GSLs from SKOV3 and T29 cell lines was carried out using Folch partition. GSLs were successfully detected by MALDI-MS, and structurally assigned by a comparison of their MALDI-MS/MS fragmentation patterns with MS/MS data found in SimLipid database. Additionally, LIPID MAPS was used to assign GSL ion masses in MALDI-MS spectra. Seventeen neutral GSLs were identified in Folch partition lower (chloroform/methanol) phases originating from both cell lines, while five globo series neutral GSLs were identified only in the Folch partition lower phase of SKOV3 cell line. Several different sialylated GSLs were detected in Folch partition upper (water/methanol) phases of SKOV3 and T29 cell lines. Overall, this study demonstrates the alteration and increased glycosylation of GSLs in an epithelial ovarian cancer cell line in comparison to a nontumorigenic epithelial ovarian cell line. PMID:27267063

  11. Cloned goats (Gapra hircus) from foetal fibroblast cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Mammalian cloning has been one of the most active research topics in the world.Cloning with in vitro culured foetal fibroblast cells,in comparison with embryonic cells,can be used not only to theoretically study the embryonic or cellular development and differentiation in mammals,but also to utilize the unlimited fibroblast cells to produce large numbers of clonings.The preliminary results are as follows:(i) The division and development of the cloned embryos with embryonic donor cells and goat foetal fibroblast donor cells were 55%,77% and 35%,31%,respectively.There is no significant statistical difference between them.(ii) These studies result in the birth of two cloned goats derived from two 30-day foetal fibroblast cell lines,which are the first cloned mammals from somatic cells in China.This project has established a technological data base for the furture research on adult mammalian somatic cloning and nucleocytoplasmic interactions in animal development,and a novel technique for the cloning of animals with a high-level expression of transgene(s).

  12. CD3 receptor modulation in Jurkat leukemic cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek M Witkowski

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available CD3 antigen is a crucial molecule in T cell signal transduction. Although its expression on cell surface is constitutive, dynamic regulation of TCR-CD3 level is probably the most important mechanism allowing T cells to calibrate their response to different levels of stimuli. In our study we examined the role of two main T cell signal transduction pathways in controlling the surface level of CD3 antigen, one based on protein kinase C activity and the other dependent on calcineurin. As an experimental model we used three clones derived from Jurkat cell line, expressing different levels of CD3 antigen surface expression: CD3(low (217.6, CD3+(217.9 or CD3(low (217.7. The cells were stimulated with PMA or ionomycin, acting directly on PKC and calcineurin, respectively. Prior to the stimulation cells were incubated with PKC inhibitor--chelerythrine or calcineurin blocker--cyclosporine A. Changes in CD3 surface expression were measured by flow cytometry. Only PMA and chelerythrine were able to change CD3 expression suggesting important involvement of PKC in the regulation of its expression. To confirm these findings, PKC activity was estimated in Jurkat clones. Our data demonstrated that Jurkat clones with different CD3 expression showed also different PKC activities, so we conclude that PKC-dependent pathway is the main way of controlling CD3 level on Jurkat clones.

  13. Characterization of cell lines stably transfected with rubella virus replicons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Xu, Jie [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States); Frey, Teryl K., E-mail: tfrey@gsu.edu [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    Rubella virus (RUBV) replicons expressing a drug resistance gene and a gene of interest were used to select cell lines uniformly harboring the replicon. Replicons expressing GFP and a virus capsid protein GFP fusion (C-GFP) were compared. Vero or BHK cells transfected with either replicon survived drug selection and grew into a monolayer. However, survival was {approx}9-fold greater following transfection with the C-GFP-replicon than with the GFP-expressing replicon and while the C-GFP-replicon cells grew similarly to non-transfected cells, the GFP-replicon cells grew slower. Neither was due to the ability of the CP to enhance RNA synthesis but survival during drug selection was correlated with the ability of CP to inhibit apoptosis. Additionally, C-GFP-replicon cells were not cured of the replicon in the absence of drug selection. Interferon-alpha suppressed replicon RNA and protein synthesis, but did not cure the cells, explaining in part the ability of RUBV to establish persistent infections.

  14. Interactions of Streptococcus iniae with phagocytic cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Aamri, Fatima; Remuzgo-Martínez, S; Acosta, Félix; Real, Fernando; Ramos-Vivas, José; Icardo, José M; Padilla, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Streptococcus iniae has become one of the most serious aquatic pathogens in the last decade, causing large losses in wild and farmed fish worldwide. There is clear evidence that this pathogen is capable not only of causing serious disease in fish but also of being transferred to and infecting humans. In this study, we investigate the interaction of S. iniae with two murine macrophage cell lines, J774-A1 and RAW 264.7. Cytotoxicity assay demonstrated significant differences between live and UV-light killed IUSA-1 strains. The burst respiratory activity decreased to baseline after 1 and 4 h of exposure for J774-A1 and RAW 264.7, respectively. Immunofluorescent and ultrastructural study of infected cells confirmed the intracellular localization of bacteria at 1 h and 24 h post-infection. Using qRT-PCR arrays, we investigated the changes in the gene expression of immune relevant genes associated with macrophage activation. In this screening, we identified 11 of 84 genes up-regulated, we observed over-expression of pro-inflammatory response as IL-1α, IL-1β, and TNF-α, without a good anti-inflammatory response. Present findings suggest a capacity of S. iniae to modulate a mammalian macrophages cell lines to their survival and replication intracellular, which makes this cell type as a reservoir for continued infection. PMID:24956597

  15. Hypoxia induces adipogenic differentitation of myoblastic cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoigawa, Yoshiaki [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kishimoto, Koshi N., E-mail: kishimoto@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Okuno, Hiroshi; Sano, Hirotaka [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Kaneko, Kazuo [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Itoi, Eiji [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} C2C12 and G8 myogenic cell lines treated by hypoxia differentiate into adipocytes. {yields} The expression of C/EBP{beta}, {alpha} and PPAR{gamma} were increased under hypoxia. {yields} Myogenic differentiation of C2C12 was inhibited under hypoxia. -- Abstract: Muscle atrophy usually accompanies fat accumulation in the muscle. In such atrophic conditions as back muscles of kyphotic spine and the rotator cuff muscles with torn tendons, blood flow might be diminished. It is known that hypoxia causes trans-differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow into adipocytes. However, it has not been elucidated yet if hypoxia turned myoblasts into adipocytes. We investigated adipogenesis in C2C12 and G8 murine myogenic cell line treated by hypoxia. Cells were also treated with the cocktail of insulin, dexamethasone and IBMX (MDI), which has been known to inhibit Wnt signaling and promote adipogenesis. Adipogenic differentiation was seen in both hypoxia and MDI. Adipogenic marker gene expression was assessed in C2C12. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) {beta}, {alpha} and peroxisome proliferator activating receptor (PPAR) {gamma} were increased by both hypoxia and MDI. The expression profile of Wnt10b was different between hypoxia and MDI. The mechanism for adipogenesis of myoblasts in hypoxia might be regulated by different mechanism than the modification of Wnt signaling.

  16. Hypoxia induces adipogenic differentitation of myoblastic cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → C2C12 and G8 myogenic cell lines treated by hypoxia differentiate into adipocytes. → The expression of C/EBPβ, α and PPARγ were increased under hypoxia. → Myogenic differentiation of C2C12 was inhibited under hypoxia. -- Abstract: Muscle atrophy usually accompanies fat accumulation in the muscle. In such atrophic conditions as back muscles of kyphotic spine and the rotator cuff muscles with torn tendons, blood flow might be diminished. It is known that hypoxia causes trans-differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow into adipocytes. However, it has not been elucidated yet if hypoxia turned myoblasts into adipocytes. We investigated adipogenesis in C2C12 and G8 murine myogenic cell line treated by hypoxia. Cells were also treated with the cocktail of insulin, dexamethasone and IBMX (MDI), which has been known to inhibit Wnt signaling and promote adipogenesis. Adipogenic differentiation was seen in both hypoxia and MDI. Adipogenic marker gene expression was assessed in C2C12. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) β, α and peroxisome proliferator activating receptor (PPAR) γ were increased by both hypoxia and MDI. The expression profile of Wnt10b was different between hypoxia and MDI. The mechanism for adipogenesis of myoblasts in hypoxia might be regulated by different mechanism than the modification of Wnt signaling.

  17. Sphingosine 1-phosphate antagonizes apoptosis of human leukemia cells by inhibiting release of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvillier, O; Levade, T

    2001-11-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S-1P) has been implicated as a second messenger preventing apoptosis by counteracting activation of executioner caspases. Here it is reported that S-1P prevents apoptosis and executioner caspase-3 activation by inhibiting the translocation of cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria to the cytosol induced by anti-Fas, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), serum deprivation, and cell-permeable ceramides in the human acute leukemia Jurkat, U937, and HL-60 cell lines. Furthermore, the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate, which stimulates sphingosine kinase, the enzyme responsible for S-1P production, also inhibits cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO release. In contrast, dimethylsphingosine (DMS), a specific inhibitor of sphingosine kinase, sensitizes cells to cytochrome c and Smac/DIABLO release triggered by anti-Fas, TNF-alpha, serum deprivation, or ceramide. DMS-induced mitochondrial apoptogenic factor leakage can likewise be overcome by S-1P cotreatment. Hence, S-1P, likely generated through a protein kinase C- mediated activation of sphingosine kinase, inhibits the apoptotic cascade upstream of the release of the mitochondrial apoptogenic factors, cytochrome c, and Smac/DIABLO in human acute leukemia cells. PMID:11675357

  18. Role of ATM in bystander signaling between human monocytes and lung adenocarcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Ghosh, Anu; Krishna, Malini

    2015-12-01

    The response of a cell or tissue to ionizing radiation is mediated by direct damage to cellular components and indirect damage mediated by radiolysis of water. Radiation affects both irradiated cells and the surrounding cells and tissues. The radiation-induced bystander effect is defined by the presence of biological effects in cells that were not themselves in the field of irradiation. To establish the contribution of the bystander effect in the survival of the neighboring cells, lung carcinoma A549 cells were exposed to gamma-irradiation, 2Gy. The medium from the irradiated cells was transferred to non-irradiated A549 cells. Irradiated A549 cells as well as non-irradiated A549 cells cultured in the presence of medium from irradiated cells showed decrease in survival and increase in γ-H2AX and p-ATM foci, indicating a bystander effect. Bystander signaling was also observed between different cell types. Phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA)-stimulated and gamma-irradiated U937 (human monocyte) cells induced a bystander response in non-irradiated A549 (lung carcinoma) cells as shown by decreased survival and increased γ-H2AX and p-ATM foci. Non-stimulated and/or irradiated U937 cells did not induce such effects in non-irradiated A549 cells. Since ATM protein was activated in irradiated cells as well as bystander cells, it was of interest to understand its role in bystander effect. Suppression of ATM with siRNA in A549 cells completely inhibited bystander effect in bystander A549 cells. On the other hand suppression of ATM with siRNA in PMA stimulated U937 cells caused only a partial inhibition of bystander effect in bystander A549 cells. These results indicate that apart from ATM, some additional factor may be involved in bystander effect between different cell types. PMID:26653982

  19. Radiosensitivity of brain cancer stem cells from malignant glicoma cell line U251 in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the radiosensitivity of brain cancer stem cells of different conditions isolated from malignant glioma cell line U251 irt vitro. Methods: The brain cancer stem cells in U251 or the brain cancer stem cells isolated from U251 were irradiated by 60Co γ-rays. TUNEL and Annexin-FITC were employed to detect the apoptosis. The brain cancer stem cells were subcutaneously transplanted to nude mouse. Flow cytometry was used to detect cell cycle. Results: The brain cancer stem cells isolated from malignant glioma cell line U251 were in active cell cycle and sensitive to 60Co γ-rays. Thed apoptotic cells were increased obviously after irradiation. After subcutaneously transplanted to unde mouse, there was no tumor appear. However; the brain cancer stem cells existed in U251 were in G0-G1 and resisted to 60Co γ-rays. They differentiated into the parent glioma type after traqnsplantation. Conclusions: The brain cancer stem cells existed in the malignant glioma cell line is resisted to irradiation, and this phenomenon may explain the glioma relapse irt situ after radiation therapy. (authors)

  20. Molecular signatures in response to Isoliquiritigenin in lymphoblastoid cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Eun; Hong, Eun-Jung; Nam, Hye-Young [National Biobank of Korea, Center for Genome Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Meeyul [Research Center for Biomedical Resource of Oriental Medicine, Daegu Haany University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji-Hyun [National Biobank of Korea, Center for Genome Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Korea, Republic of); Han, Bok-Ghee, E-mail: bokghee@nih.go.kr [National Biobank of Korea, Center for Genome Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Jae-Pil, E-mail: jpjeon@cdc.go.kr [National Biobank of Korea, Center for Genome Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identified the inhibitory effect of ISL on cell proliferation of LCLs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ISL-induced genes and miRNAs through microarray approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ISL-treated LCLs represented gene expression changes in cell cycle and p53 pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We revealed 12 putative mRNA-miRNA functional pairs associated with ISL effect. -- Abstract: Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) has been known to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of various cancer cells. However, genetic factors regulating ISL effects remain unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular signatures involved in ISL-induced cell death of EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) using microarray analyses. For gene expression and microRNA (miRNA) microarray experiments, each of 12 LCL strains was independently treated with ISL or DMSO as a vehicle control for a day prior to total RNA extraction. ISL treatment inhibited cell proliferation of LCLs in a dose-dependent manner. Microarray analysis showed that ISL-treated LCLs represented gene expression changes in cell cycle and p53 signaling pathway, having a potential as regulators in LCL survival and sensitivity to ISL-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, 36 miRNAs including five miRNAs with unknown functions were differentially expressed in ISL-treated LCLs. The integrative analysis of miRNA and gene expression profiles revealed 12 putative mRNA-miRNA functional pairs. Among them, miR-1207-5p and miR-575 were negatively correlated with p53 pathway- and cell cycle-associated genes, respectively. In conclusion, our study suggests that miRNAs play an important role in ISL-induced cytotoxicity in LCLs by targeting signaling pathways including p53 pathway and cell cycle.

  1. High radiosensitivity of the MOLT-4 leukaemic cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation survival of MOLT-4, a leukaemic T-lymphocyte cell line, was measured by counting colonies formed in 0.8% methyl cellulose. The survival curve was a simple exponential and showed the cells to be radiation sensitive, with D0=0.49+-0.02 Gy and extrapolation number n=0.92+-0.09. No increase in survival as measured by colony-forming ability or trypan blue dye exclusion was seen when the dose was split into two fractions, separated by a 5 h incubation period. Electron microscopy and trypan blue dye exclusion showed that 5 h after exposure to high doses, MOLT-4 cells began to die and displayed condensed, marginated chromatin and cellular vesticulation. (author)

  2. New model for gastroenteropancreatic large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: establishment of two clinically relevant cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Krieg

    Full Text Available Recently, a novel WHO-classification has been introduced that divided gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NEN according to their proliferation index into G1- or G2-neuroendocrine tumors (NET and poorly differentiated small-cell or large-cell G3-neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC. Our knowledge on primary NECs of the GEP-system is limited due to the rarity of these tumors and chemotherapeutic concepts of highly aggressive NEC do not provide convincing results. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable cell line model for NEC that could be helpful in identifying novel druggable molecular targets. Cell lines were established from liver (NEC-DUE1 or lymph node metastases (NEC-DUE2 from large cell NECs of the gastroesophageal junction and the large intestine, respectively. Morphological characteristics and expression of neuroendocrine markers were extensively analyzed. Chromosomal aberrations were mapped by array comparative genomic hybridization and DNA profiling was analyzed by DNA fingerprinting. In vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity was evaluated and the sensitivity against chemotherapeutic agents assessed. Both cell lines exhibited typical morphological and molecular features of large cell NEC. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that both cell lines retained their malignant properties. Whereas NEC-DUE1 and -DUE2 were resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin, etoposide and oxaliplatin, a high sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil was observed for the NEC-DUE1 cell line. Taken together, we established and characterized the first GEP large-cell NEC cell lines that might serve as a helpful tool not only to understand the biology of these tumors, but also to establish novel targeted therapies in a preclinical setup.

  3. Isolation and characterization of cancer stem-like cells from MHCC97H Cell Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shanyong Yi; Kejun Nan; Aihua Yuan; Chuangxin Lu

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To identify and isolate CD133 positive cancer stem-like cells (CD133+ cells) from the highly invasive human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line(MHCC97H), and examine their potential for clonogenicity and tumorigenicity. Methods: CD133+ and CD133- cells were isolated from MHCC97H cell line by magnetic bead cell sorting(MACS), and the potentials of CD133+ cells for colony formation and tumorigenicity were evaluated by soft agar cloning and tumor formation following nude mice inoculation. Results:CD133+ cells represent a minority(0.5-2.0%) of the tumor cell population with a greater colony-forming efficiency and greater tumor production ability. The colony-forming efficiency of CD133+ cells in soft agar was significantly higher than CD133- cells(36.8±1.4 vs 12.9±0.8, P<0.05).After 6 weeks, 3/5 mice inoculated with 1 × 103 CD133+ cells, 4/5 with 1 × 104 CD133+ cells and 5/5 with 1 × 105 CD133+ cells developed detectable tumors at the injection site, while only one tumor was found in mice treated with same numbers of CD133- cells. Conclusion: CD133 may be a hallmark of liver cancer stem cells (CSC) in human hepatocellular carcinoma(HCC), because the CD133+ cells identified and isolated with anti-CD133 labeled magnetic beads from MHCC97H cell line exhibit high potentials for clonogenicity and tumorigenicity. These CD133+ cells might contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis, as well as the growth and recurrence of human HCC, and therefore may be a useful target for anti-cancer therapy.

  4. Functional somatostatin receptors on a rat pancreatic acinar cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somatostatin receptors from a rat pancreatic acinar cell line, AR4-2J, were characterized biochemically, structurally, and functionally. Binding of 125I-[Tyr11]Somatostatin to AR4-2J cells was saturable, exhibiting a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a maximal binding capacity of 258 ± 20 fmol/106 cells. Somatostatin receptor structure was analyzed by covalently cross-linking 125I-[Tyr11]somatostatin to its plasma membrane receptors. Gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of cross-linked proteins revealed a peptide containing the somatostatin receptor. Somatostatin inhibited vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-stimulated adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) formation in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration of somatostatin that caused half-maximal inhibition of cAMP formation was close to the receptor affinity for somatostatin. Pertussis toxin pretreatment of AR4-2J cells prevented somatostatin inhibition of VIP-stimulated cAMP formation as well as somatostatin binding. The authors conclude that AR4-2J cells exhibit functional somatostatin receptors that retain both specificity and affinity of the pancreatic acinar cell somatostatin receptors and act via the pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein Ni to inhibit adenylate cyclase

  5. Breast cancer cell lines carry cell line-specific genomic alterations that are distinct from aberrations in breast cancer tissues: Comparison of the CGH profiles between cancer cell lines and primary cancer tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell lines are commonly used in various kinds of biomedical research in the world. However, it remains uncertain whether genomic alterations existing in primary tumor tissues are represented in cell lines and whether cell lines carry cell line-specific genomic alterations. This study was performed to answer these questions. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) was employed with 4030 bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) that cover the genome at 1.0 megabase resolution to analyze DNA copy number aberrations (DCNAs) in 35 primary breast tumors and 24 breast cancer cell lines. DCNAs were compared between these two groups. A tissue microdissection technique was applied to primary tumor tissues to reduce the contamination of samples by normal tissue components. The average number of BAC clones with DCNAs was 1832 (45.3% of spotted clones) and 971 (24.9%) for cell lines and primary tumor tissues, respectively. Gains of 1q and 8q and losses of 8p, 11q, 16q and 17p were detected in >50% of primary cancer tissues. These aberrations were also frequently detected in cell lines. In addition to these alterations, the cell lines showed recurrent genomic alterations including gains of 5p14-15, 20q11 and 20q13 and losses of 4p13-p16, 18q12, 18q21, Xq21.1 and Xq26-q28 that were barely detected in tumor tissue specimens. These are considered to be cell line-specific DCNAs. The frequency of the HER2 amplification was high in both cell lines and tumor tissues, but it was statistically different between cell lines and primary tumors (P = 0.012); 41.3 ± 29.9% for the cell lines and 15.9 ± 18.6% for the tissue specimens. Established cell lines carry cell lines-specific DCNAs together with recurrent aberrations detected in primary tumor tissues. It must therefore be emphasized that cell lines do not always represent the genotypes of parental tumor tissues

  6. Effects and mechanisms of silibinin on human hepatoma cell lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To investigate in vitro effects and mechanisms of silibinin on hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell growth. METHODS: Human HCC cell lines were treated with different doses of silibinin. The effects of silibinin on HCC cell growth and proliferation, apoptosis, cell cycle progression, histone acetylation, and other related signal transductions were systematically examined. RESULTS: We demonstrated that silibinin significantly reduced the growth of HUH7, HepG2, Hep3B, and PLC/PRF/5 human hepatoma cells. Silibinin-reduced HuH7 cell growth was associated with significantly upregulated p21/CDK4 and p27/CDK4 complexes, downregulated Rb-phosphorylation and E2F1/DP1 complex. Silibinin promoted apoptosis of HuH7 cells that was associated with down-regulated survivin and upregulated activated caspase-3 and -9. Silibinin's anti angiogenic effects were indicated by down-regulated metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and CD34. We found that silibinin-reduced growth of HuH7 cells was associated with increased activity of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) and decreased p-Akt production, indicating the role of PTEN/ PI3K/Akt pathway in silibinin-mediated anti-HCC effects. We also demonstrated that silibinin increased acetylation of histone H3 and H4 (AC-H3 and AC-H4), indicating a possible role of altered histone acetylation in silibininreduced HCC cell proliferation.CONCLUSION: Our results defined silibinin's in vitro anti-HCC effects and possible mechanisms, and provided a rationale to further test silibinin for HCC chemoprevention.

  7. Chloride channels in the small intestinal cell line IEC-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basavappa, Srisaila; Vulapalli, Sreesatya Raju; Zhang, Hui; Yule, David; Coon, Steven; Sundaram, Uma

    2005-01-01

    Small intestinal crypt cells play a critical role in modulating Cl- secretion during digestion. The types of Cl- channels mediating Cl- secretion in the small intestine was investigated using the intestinal epithelial cell line, IEC-18, which was derived from rat small intestine crypt cells. In initial radioisotope efflux studies, exposure to forskolin, ionomycin or a decrease in extracellular osmolarity significantly increased 36Cl efflux as compared to control cells. Whole cell patch clamp techniques were subsequently used to examine in more detail the swelling-, Ca2+-, and cAMP-activated Cl- conductance. Decreasing the extracellular osmolarity from 290 to 200 mOsm activated a large outwardly rectifying Cl- current that was voltage-independent and had an anion selectivity of I- > Cl-. Increasing cytosolic Ca2+ by ionomycin activated whole cell Cl- currents, which were also outwardly rectifying but were voltage-dependent. The increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels with ionomycin was confirmed with fura-2 loaded IEC-18 cells. A third type of whole cell Cl- current was observed after increases in intracellular cAMP induced by forskolin. These cAMP-activated Cl- currents have properties consistent with cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) Cl- channels, as the currents were blocked by glibenclamide or NPPB but insensitive to DIDS. In addition, the current-voltage relationship was linear and had an anion selectivity of Cl- > I-. Confocal immunofluorescence studies and Western blots with two different anti-CFTR antibodies confirmed the expression of CFTR. These results suggest that small intestinal crypt cells express multiple types of Cl- channels, which may all contribute to net Cl- secretion. PMID:15389550

  8. Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M; Poulsen, H S

    1992-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor expression was evaluated in a panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell lines with radioreceptor assay, affinity labeling, and Northern blotting. We found high-affinity receptors to be expressed in 10 cell lines. Scatchard analysis of the binding data...... lung cancer cell lines express the EGF receptor....... demonstrated that the cells bound between 3 and 52 fmol/mg protein with a KD ranging from 0.5 x 10(-10) to 2.7 x 10(-10) M. EGF binding to the receptor was confirmed by affinity-labeling EGF to the EGF receptor. The cross-linked complex had a M(r) of 170,000-180,000. Northern blotting showed the expression of...

  9. Analysis of expression profiles of MAGE-A antigens in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reichert Torsten E

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The immunological response to solid tumours is insufficient. Therefore, tumour specific antigens have been explored to facilitate the activation of the immune system. The cancer/testis antigen class of MAGE-A antigens is a possible target for vaccination. Their differential expression profiles also modulate the course of the cancer disease and its response to antineoplastic drugs. Methods The expression profiles of MAGE-A2, -A3, -A4, -A6 and -A10 in five own oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines were characterised by rt-PCR, qrt-PCR and immunocytochemistry with a global MAGE-A antibody (57B and compared with those of an adult keratinocyte cell line (NHEK. Results All tumour cell lines expressed MAGE-A antigens. The antigens were expressed in groups with different preferences. The predominant antigens expressed were MAGE-A2, -A3 and -A6. MAGE-A10 was not expressed in the cell lines tested. The MAGE-A gene products detected in the adult keratinocyte cell line NHEK were used as a reference. Conclusion MAGE-A antigens are expressed in oral squamous cell carcinomas. The expression profiles measured facilitate distinct examinations in forthcoming studies on responses to antineoplastic drugs or radiation therapy. MAGE-A antigens are still an interesting aim for immunotherapy.

  10. Expression of caspase-3 gene in apoptotic HL-60 cell and different human tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To research the expression of caspase-3 gene in the apoptotic and the control HL-60 cells and in the different human tumor cell lines. Methods: Caspase-3 mRNA in the control and γ-radiation-induced apoptotic HL-60 cells, and in the 6 types of human tumor cell lines, was analysed by Northern blot. Results: The caspase-3 gene transcript was more highly expressed in leukemia cells HL-60, CEM, K562 and neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y than in cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa and breast carcinoma MCF7, and more highly in the radiation-induced apoptotic HL-60 than in the control HL-60 cells. Conclusion: The high level of expression of caspase-3 may aid the efforts to understand the tumor cell sensitivity to radiation, apoptosis and its inherent ability to survive

  11. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: Problems & perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvi H Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been ′discarded′ or ′spare′ fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. In case a couple does not desire to ′cryopreserve′ their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered ′spare′ or if a couple is no longer in need of the ′cryopreserved′ embryos then these also can be considered as ′spare′. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, "what about ′slightly′ over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to ′discarded′ embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of ′discarding′ embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential ′use′ of ESC derived from the ′abnormal appearing′ embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material.

  12. IMTA-cultivated Osmundea pinnatifida inhibited cell proliferation in MCF-7 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Jorge Silva

    2014-06-01

    The antitumor potential of methanolic and dichloromethane extracts, obtained from wild and IMTA-cultivated seaweed, were evaluated on the MCF-7 cells (human breast adenocarcinoma cell line. The cell viability and the cell proliferation assays were performed according to MTT method. The viability of MCF-7 cells was not significantly reduced by the tested extracts (1 mg/ml; 24 h, remaining below 20%. However, MCF-7 cell proliferation was reduced 61% and 75% by the dichloromethane extracts (1 mg/ml; 24 h obtained from wild and IMTA-cultivated algae, respectively. The data suggests that O. pinnatifida is a promising source of new bioactive molecules with high antiproliferative properties.

  13. Spheroid control of malignant glioma cell lines after fractionated irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spheroid control doses (SCD50) were determined for ten human glioma lines after fractionated irradiation under oxic conditions. In addition, SF2 values and colony forming efficiencies (CFE) were measured in a soft agarose clonogenic assay. A significant relationship existed between the SCD50 values and the SF2CFE data pairs (p=0.01) but the SCD50 values were higher than expected from the SF2 and CFE values. This comparison shows the influence of environmental factors (different in both model systems) on reproductive tumour cell death after irradiation. (author). figs., tab

  14. Characterization of cancer stem-like cells in the side population cells of human gastric cancer cell line MKN-45

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hai-hong ZHANG; Ai-zhen CAI; Xue-ming WEI; Li DING; Feng-zhi LI; Ai-ming ZHENG; Da-jiang DAI

    2013-01-01

    Objective:Side population (SP) cells may play a crucial role in tumorigenesis and the recurrence of cancer.Many kinds of cell lines and tissues have demonstrated the presence of SP cells,including several gastric cancer cell lines.This study is aimed to identify the cancer stem-like cells in the SP of gastric cancer cell line MKN-45.Methods:We used fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) to sort SP cells in the human gastric carcinoma cell line MKN-45 (cells labeled with Hoechst 33342) and then characterized the cancer stem-like properties of SP cells.Results:This study found that the SP cells had higher clone formation efficiency than major population (MP) cells.Five stemness-related gene expression profiles,including OCT-4,SOX-2,NANOG,CD44,and adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-binding cassette transporters gene ABCG2,were tested in SP and MP cells using quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR).Western blot was used to show the difference of protein expression between SP and MP cells.Both results show that there was significantly higher protein expression in SP cells than in MP cells.When inoculated into non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficiency (NOD/SCID) mice,SP cells show higher tumorigenesis tendency than MP cells.Conclusions:These results indicate that SP cells possess cancer stem cell properties and prove that SP cells from MKN-45 are gastric cancer stem-like cells.

  15. Characterization of UV radiation sensitive frog cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-one subclones of nine frog cell isolates were tested for sensitivity to a panel of DNA damaging agents. Two clones were identified which had a greater than wild type level of sensitivity to UV radiation but had a wild type level of sensitivity to the other agents. These clones were the haploid RRP602-7 and the diploid RRP802-1. RRP802-1 was found to be unstable with respect to UV sensitivity. The line was cloned in order to isolate stable sensitive and wild type derivatives. RRP802-1-16, a UV sensitive clone and RRP802-1-13, a clone with a wild type level of sensitivity to UV radiation, were isolated. The UV radiation sensitivity of RRP602-7, RRP802-1 and RRP802-1-16 did not correlate with cell size, cell shape, cell cycle distribution or ploidy. The cell cycle distribution after UV irradiation, the rate of DNA synthesis after UV-irradiation, the DNA polymerase α activity and the sister chromatid exchange frequency were all measured in RRP602-7, RRP802-1 and RRP802-1-16 in order to examine the DNA repair capacity. The presence of DNA repair pathways was examined directly in RRP602-7, RRP802-1 and RRP802-1-16. All were found to be proficient in photo-reactivation repair and postreplication repair of UV elicited DNA damage

  16. Identification of genes associated with cisplatin resistance in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ping

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin is widely used for chemotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, details of the molecular mechanism responsible for cisplatin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the expression of genes related to cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Methods A cisplatin-resistant cell line, Tca/cisplatin, was established from a cisplatin-sensitive cell line, Tca8113, which was derived from moderately-differentiated tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Global gene expression in this resistant cell line and its sensitive parent cell line was analyzed using Affymetrix HG-U95Av2 microarrays. Candidate genes involved in DNA repair, the MAP pathway and cell cycle regulation were chosen to validate the microarray analysis results. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis following cisplatin exposure were also investigated. Results Cisplatin resistance in Tca/cisplatin cells was stable for two years in cisplatin-free culture medium. The IC50 for cisplatin in Tca/cisplatin was 6.5-fold higher than that in Tca8113. Microarray analysis identified 38 genes that were up-regulated and 25 that were down-regulated in this cell line. Some were novel candidates, while others are involved in well-characterized mechanisms that could be relevant to cisplatin resistance, such as RECQL for DNA repair and MAP2K6 in the MAP pathway; all the genes were further validated by Real-time PCR. The cell cycle-regulated genes CCND1 and CCND3 were involved in cisplatin resistance; 24-hour exposure to 10 μM cisplatin induced a marked S phase block in Tca/cisplatin cells but not in Tca8113 cells. Conclusion The Tca8113 cell line and its stable drug-resistant variant Tca/cisplatin provided a useful model for identifying candidate genes responsible for the mechanism of cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Our data provide a useful basis for screening candidate targets for early diagnosis

  17. Identification of genes associated with cisplatin resistance in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cisplatin is widely used for chemotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, details of the molecular mechanism responsible for cisplatin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the expression of genes related to cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. A cisplatin-resistant cell line, Tca/cisplatin, was established from a cisplatin-sensitive cell line, Tca8113, which was derived from moderately-differentiated tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Global gene expression in this resistant cell line and its sensitive parent cell line was analyzed using Affymetrix HG-U95Av2 microarrays. Candidate genes involved in DNA repair, the MAP pathway and cell cycle regulation were chosen to validate the microarray analysis results. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis following cisplatin exposure were also investigated. Cisplatin resistance in Tca/cisplatin cells was stable for two years in cisplatin-free culture medium. The IC50 for cisplatin in Tca/cisplatin was 6.5-fold higher than that in Tca8113. Microarray analysis identified 38 genes that were up-regulated and 25 that were down-regulated in this cell line. Some were novel candidates, while others are involved in well-characterized mechanisms that could be relevant to cisplatin resistance, such as RECQL for DNA repair and MAP2K6 in the MAP pathway; all the genes were further validated by Real-time PCR. The cell cycle-regulated genes CCND1 and CCND3 were involved in cisplatin resistance; 24-hour exposure to 10 μM cisplatin induced a marked S phase block in Tca/cisplatin cells but not in Tca8113 cells. The Tca8113 cell line and its stable drug-resistant variant Tca/cisplatin provided a useful model for identifying candidate genes responsible for the mechanism of cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Our data provide a useful basis for screening candidate targets for early diagnosis and further intervention in cisplatin resistance

  18. Receptors for B cell stimulatory factor 2. Quantitation, specificity, distribution, and regulation of their expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taga, T.; Kawanishi, Y.; Hardy, R.R.; Hirano, T.; Kishimoto, T.

    1987-10-01

    B cell stimulatory factor 2 receptors (BSF-2-R) were studied using radioiodinated recombinant BSF-2 with a specific activity of 6.16 X 10(13) cpm/g. Kinetic studies showed that binding of /sup 125/I-BSF-2 to CESS cells reached maximum level within 150 min at 0 degrees C. There was a single class of receptors with high affinity (Kd 3.4 X 10(-10) M) on CESS, and the number of receptors was 2700 per cell. Binding of /sup 125/I-BSF-2 to CESS was competitively inhibited by unlabeled BSF-2 but not by IL-1, IL-2, IFN-beta, IFN-gamma, and G-CSF, indicating the presence of the receptors specific for BSF-2. EBV-transformed B lymphoblastoid cell lines (CESS, SKW6-CL4, LCL13, and LCL14) expressed BSF-2-R, whereas Burkitt's lines did not. EBV or EBNA2 did not induce the expression of the receptors on Burkitt's cells. The plasma cell lines (ARH-77 and U266) expressed BSF-2-R, fitting the function of BSF-2 as plasma cell growth factor. Several other cell lines, the histiocytic line U937, the promyelocytic line HL60, the astrocytoma line U373 and the glioblastoma line SK-MG-4, in which BSF-2 was inducible with IL-1 or TPA, displayed BSF-2-R with Kd in the range of 1.3-6.4 X 10(-10) M, suggesting the autocrine mechanism in BSF-2 function. The four T cell lines (CEM, HSB, Jurkat, and OM 1) did not express a detectable number of receptors, but normal resting T cells expressed 100-1000 receptors per cell. BSF-2-R were not present on normal resting B cells but expressed on activated B cells with a Kd of 3.6-5.0 X 10(-10) M, fitting the function of BSF-2, which acts on B cells at the final maturation stage to induce immunoglobulin production.

  19. Analysis of G-banding in tumor cell lines derived from human neural stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Junhua Zou; Yanhui Li

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The application of neural stem cell (NSC) is restricted because of its tumorigenesis, and the possible pathogenesis needs investigation.OBJECTIVE: To compare the differences of chromosomal G-banding between human NSCs (hNSCs) derived tumor cell line and hNSCs derived normal cell lines.DESIGN: A randomized controlled observation.SETTING: Building of Anatomy, Peking University Health Science Center.MATERIALS: The hNSC lines and hNSC-derived tumor cell lines were provided by the Research Center of Stem Cells, Peking University; DMEM/F12 (1:1) medium, N2 additive, B27 additive epidermal growth factor (EGF) and basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) were produced by GIBCO BRL Company (USA); fetal bovine serum by HYCLONE Company (USA).METHODS: The experiments were carried out in the Department of Genetics, Peking University Health Science Center from February 2003 to July 2004. Human fetal striatal NSCs were inoculated hypodermically on the right scapular of nude mice; Normal human fetal striatal NSCs were cultured to 5-8 passages as controls. Karyotyping was performed on the 5th passage of hNSC-derived tumor cells at 6 weeks after hN-SC transplantation into nude mice (T1) and tumor cells at 15 weeks after transplantation (T2). Metaphase chromosomes were examined with microscope, G-banding cytogenetic analysis and karyotyping were performed according to the Cytoscan Karyotyping FISH and CGH software system (United biotechnology USA Corporation).MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: G-banded analytical results of human fetal striatal nerve stem cells derived tumor cell lines (T1 and T2) of metaphase chromosomes were observed.RESULTS: ① Chromosome analysis of hNSC-derived tumor cell lines 1 (T1): Twenty-five well-spread metaphases were randomly selected for analysis. The karyotypes were 64, XX (8, 32%); 65, XX (1, 4%); 67,XX (5, 20%); 68, XX (11, 44%). The modal number of chromosomes in this cell lines was 68, which were all hypotriploid. The analysis of 8 G

  20. 3-Bromopyruvate induces necrotic cell death in sensitive melanoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qin, J.-Z.; Xin, H. [Oncology Institute, Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Loyola University of Chicago Medical Center (United States); Nickoloff, B.J., E-mail: bnickol@lumc.edu [Oncology Institute, Cardinal Bernardin Cancer Center, Loyola University of Chicago Medical Center (United States)

    2010-05-28

    Clinicians successfully utilize high uptake of radiolabeled glucose via PET scanning to localize metastases in melanoma patients. To take advantage of this altered metabolome, 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA) was used to overcome the notorious resistance of melanoma to cell death. Using four melanoma cell lines, BrPA triggered caspase independent necrosis in two lines, whilst the other two lines were resistant to killing. Mechanistically, sensitive cells differed from resistant cells by; constitutively lower levels of glutathione, reduction of glutathione by BrPA only in sensitive cells; increased superoxide anion reactive oxygen species, loss of outer mitochondrial membrane permeability, and rapid ATP depletion. Sensitive cell killing was blocked by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. When glutathione levels were reduced in resistant cell lines, they became sensitive to killing by BrPA. Taken together, these results identify a metabolic-based Achilles' heel in melanoma cells to be exploited by use of BrPA. Future pre-clinical and clinical trials are warranted to translate these results into improved patient care for individuals suffering from metastatic melanoma.

  1. In vitro evaluation of a new nitrosourea, TCNU, against human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, H; Vindeløv, L L; Spang-Thomsen, M; Christensen, I J; Hansen, H H

    1987-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of a new nitrosourea, TCNU, was compared with that of BCNU in five human small cell lung cancer cell lines in vitro. TCNU was found to be equivalent or inferior to BCNU when compared on a microgram to microgram basis. If the potential of in vitro phase II trials for selection...

  2. Sensitivity of Three Cell Lines to Japanese Encephalitis Virus Infectivity Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Daji, Hu; Morita, Kouichi; Igarashi, Akira

    1992-01-01

    Comparative sensitivity test on three established cell lines for the plaque formation of Japanese encephalitis (JE) virus showed that the highest infectivity was recorded on Vero, followed by BHK21 and then Hep-2 cell lines. The result indicated that these cell lines possess different sensitivity to JE virus in the early stage of infection.

  3. File list: Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 Unclassified Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  4. File list: Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 Unclassified Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  5. File list: Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 Unclassified Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.10.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  6. File list: DNS.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 DNase-seq Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line...0,SRX091618,SRX091595,SRX091598,SRX469953 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  7. File list: His.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 Histone Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line...5,SRX306570,SRX106080,SRX306566,SRX306568 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  8. File list: Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 TFs and others Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line...ciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  9. File list: His.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 Histone Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line...2,SRX306570,SRX356718,SRX356754,SRX026069 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  10. File list: Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 TFs and others Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line...ciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  11. File list: Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 RNA polymerase Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line... SRX306575,SRX306580,SRX306576,SRX306578 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.10.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  12. File list: Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 RNA polymerase Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line... SRX306580,SRX306578,SRX306576,SRX306575 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  13. File list: DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 DNase-seq Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line...091606,SRX469953,SRX091596 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  14. File list: Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 Unclassified Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line... http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Unc.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  15. File list: ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 All antigens Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  16. File list: ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 All antigens Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line...6,SRX306568,SRX469953,SRX144527,SRX144520,SRX091596 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  17. File list: Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 RNA polymerase Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line... SRX306580,SRX306575,SRX306578,SRX306576 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.50.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  18. File list: DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 DNase-seq Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line...8,SRX091598,SRX091626,SRX469951,SRX469953,SRX469955 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Bld.10.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  19. File list: ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 All antigens Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line...ve.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  20. File list: His.Bld.10.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.10.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 Histone Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line...7,SRX356718,SRX356754,SRX026054,SRX026069 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.10.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  1. File list: Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 TFs and others Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line...ciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.10.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  2. File list: His.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 Histone Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line...8,SRX356735,SRX356754,SRX306535,SRX026069 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/His.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  3. File list: DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 DNase-seq Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line...8,SRX091623,SRX091605,SRX469953,SRX469951,SRX469955 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/DNS.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  4. File list: Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 TFs and others Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line...ciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Oth.Bld.20.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  5. File list: ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 All antigens Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line...://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/ALL.Bld.10.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  6. File list: Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line hg19 RNA polymerase Blood Lymphoblastoid cell line... SRX306575,SRX306580,SRX306576,SRX306578 http://dbarchive.biosciencedbc.jp/kyushu-u/hg19/assembled/Pol.Bld.05.AllAg.Lymphoblastoid_cell_line.bed ...

  7. Laser Light Induced Photosensitization Of Lymphomas Cells And Normal Bone Marrow Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulliya, Kirpal S.; Pervaiz, Shazib; Nealon, Don G.; VanderMeulen, David L.

    1988-06-01

    Dye mediated, laser light induced photosensitization was tested in an in vitro model for its efficacy in eliminating the contaminating tumor cells for ex vivo autologous bone marrow purging. Daudi and U-937 cells (3 x 106/ml) in RPMI-1640 supplemented with 0.25% human albumin were mixed with 20 µg/ml and 25 µg/ml of MC-540, respectively. These cell-dye mixtures were then exposed to 514 nm argon laser light. Identical treatment was given to the normal bone marrow cells. Viability was determined by the trypan blue exclusion method. Results show that at 31.2 J/cm2 irradiation, 99.9999% Daudi cells were killed while 87% of the normal bone marrow cells survived. No regrowth of Daudi cells was observed for 30 days in culture. However, a light dose of 93.6 J/cm2 was required to obtain 99.999% U-937 cell kill with 80% normal bone marrow cell survival. Mixing of irradiated bone marrow cells with an equal number of lymphoma cells did not interfere with the photodynamic killing of lymphoma cells. Exposure of cells to low doses of recombinant interferon-alpha prior to photodynamic therapy increased the viability of lymphoma cells.

  8. Opioid binding site in EL-4 thymoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using EL-4 thymoma cell-line we found a binding site similar to the k opioid receptor of the nervous system. The Scatchard analysis of the binding of [3H] bremazocine indicated a single site with a K/sub D/ = 60 +/- 17 nM and Bmax = 2.7 +/- 0.8 pmols/106 cells. To characterize this binding site, competition studies were performed using selective compounds for the various opioid receptors. The k agonist U-50,488H was the most potent displacer of [3H] bremazocine with an IC50 value = 0.57μM. The two steroisomers levorphanol and dextrorphan showed the same affinity for this site. While morphine, [D-Pen2, D-Pen5] enkephalin and β-endorphin failed to displace, except at very high concentrations, codeine demonstrated a IC50 = 60μM, that was similar to naloxone. 32 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  9. Isolation and Enrichment of Mouse Female Germ Line Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Khosravi-Farsani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The existence of female germ-line stem cells (FGSCs has been the subject of a wide range of recent studies. Successful isolation and culture of FGSCs could facilitate studies on regenerative medicine and infertility treatments in the near future. Our aim in the present study was evaluation of the most commonly used techniques in enrichment of FGSCs and in establishment of the best procedure. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, after digesting neonate ovary from C57Bl/6 mice, we performed 2 different isolation experiments: magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS and pre-plating. MACS was applied using two different antibodies against mouse vasa homolog (MVH and stage-specific embryonic antigen-1 (SSEA1 markers. After the cells were passaged and proliferated in vitro, colony-forming cells were characterized using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR (for analysis of expression of Oct4, Nanog, C-kit, Fragilis, Mvh, Dazl, Scp3 and Zp3, alkaline phosphatase (AP activity test and immunocytochemistry. Results: Data showed that colonies can be seen more frequently in pre-plating technique than that in MACS. Using the SSEA1 antibody with MACS, 1.98 ± 0.49% (Mean ± SDV positive cells were yield as compared to the total cells sorted. The colonies formed after pre-plating expressed pluripotency and germ stem cell markers (Oct4, Nanog, C-kit, Fragilis, Mvh and Dazl whereas did not express Zp3 and Scp3 at the mRNA level. Immunocytochemistry in these colonies further confirmed the presence of OCT4 and MVH proteins, and AP activity measured by AP-kit showed positive reaction. Conclusion: We established a simple and an efficient pre-plating technique to culture and to enrich FGSCs from neonatal mouse ovaries.

  10. Characterisation and Manipulation of Docetaxel Resistant Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Amanda J

    2011-10-07

    Abstract Background There is no effective treatment strategy for advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer. Although Docetaxel (Taxotere®) represents the most active chemotherapeutic agent it only gives a modest survival advantage with most patients eventually progressing because of inherent or acquired drug resistance. The aims of this study were to further investigate the mechanisms of resistance to Docetaxel. Three Docetaxel resistant sub-lines were generated and confirmed to be resistant to the apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of increasing concentrations of Docetaxel. Results The resistant DU-145 R and 22RV1 R had expression of P-glycoprotein and its inhibition with Elacridar partially and totally reversed the resistant phenotype in the two cell lines respectively, which was not seen in the PC-3 resistant sublines. Resistance was also not mediated in the PC-3 cells by cellular senescence or autophagy but multiple changes in pro- and anti-apoptotic genes and proteins were demonstrated. Even though there were lower basal levels of NF-κB activity in the PC-3 D12 cells compared to the Parental PC-3, docetaxel induced higher NF-κB activity and IκB phosphorylation at 3 and 6 hours with only minor changes in the DU-145 cells. Inhibition of NF-κB with the BAY 11-7082 inhibitor reversed the resistance to Docetaxel. Conclusion This study confirms that multiple mechanisms contribute to Docetaxel resistance and the central transcription factor NF-κB plays an immensely important role in determining docetaxel-resistance which may represent an appropriate therapeutic target.

  11. Epigenetic alterations differ in phenotypically distinct human neuroblastoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epigenetic aberrations and a CpG island methylator phenotype have been shown to be associated with poor outcomes in children with neuroblastoma (NB). Seven cancer related genes (THBS-1, CASP8, HIN-1, TIG-1, BLU, SPARC, and HIC-1) that have been shown to have epigenetic changes in adult cancers and play important roles in the regulation of angiogenesis, tumor growth, and apoptosis were analyzed to investigate the role epigenetic alterations play in determining NB phenotype. Two NB cell lines (tumorigenic LA1-55n and non-tumorigenic LA1-5s) that differ in their ability to form colonies in soft agar and tumors in nude mice were used. Quantitative RNA expression analyses were performed on seven genes in LA1-5s, LA1-55n and 5-Aza-dC treated LA1-55n NB cell lines. The methylation status around THBS-1, HIN-1, TIG-1 and CASP8 promoters was examined using methylation specific PCR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to examine histone modifications along the THBS-1 promoter. Luciferase assay was used to determine THBS-1 promoter activity. Cell proliferation assay was used to examine the effect of 5-Aza-dC on NB cell growth. The soft agar assay was used to determine the tumorigenicity. Promoter methylation values for THBS-1, HIN-1, TIG-1, and CASP8 were higher in LA1-55n cells compared to LA1-5s cells. Consistent with the promoter methylation status, lower levels of gene expression were detected in the LA1-55n cells. Histone marks associated with repressive chromatin states (H3K9Me3, H3K27Me3, and H3K4Me3) were identified in the THBS-1 promoter region in the LA1-55n cells, but not the LA1-5s cells. In contrast, the three histone codes associated with an active chromatin state (acetyl H3, acetyl H4, and H3K4Me3) were present in the THBS-1 promoter region in LA1-5s cells, but not the LA1-55n cells, suggesting that an accessible chromatin structure is important for THBS-1 expression. We also show that 5-Aza-dC treatment of LA1-55n cells alters the DNA methylation

  12. p-Cresol affects reactive oxygen species generation, cell cycle arrest, cytotoxicity and inflammation/atherosclerosis-related modulators production in endothelial cells and mononuclear cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Chi Chang

    Full Text Available AIMS: Cresols are present in antiseptics, coal tar, some resins, pesticides, and industrial solvents. Cresol intoxication leads to hepatic injury due to coagulopathy as well as disturbance of hepatic circulation in fatal cases. Patients with uremia suffer from cardiovascular complications, such as atherosclerosis, thrombosis, hemolysis, and bleeding, which may be partly due to p-cresol toxicity and its effects on vascular endothelial and mononuclear cells. Given the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS and inflammation in vascular thrombosis, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of p-cresol on endothelial and mononuclear cells. METHODS: EA.hy926 (EAHY endothelial cells and U937 cells were exposed to different concentrations of p-cresol. Cytotoxicity was evaluated by 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5 -diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assay and trypan blue dye exclusion technique, respectively. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed by propidium iodide flow cytometry. Endothelial cell migration was studied by wound closure assay. ROS level was measured by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF fluorescence flow cytometry. Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR, and uPA production were determined by Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA. RESULTS: Exposure to 100-500 µM p-cresol decreased EAHY cell number by 30-61%. P-cresol also decreased the viability of U937 mononuclear cells. The inhibition of EAHY and U937 cell growth by p-cresol was related to induction of S-phase cell cycle arrest. Closure of endothelial wounds was inhibited by p-cresol (>100 µM. P-cresol (>50 µM also stimulated ROS production in U937 cells and EAHY cells but to a lesser extent. Moreover, p-cresol markedly stimulated PAI-1 and suPAR, but not PGF2α, and uPA production in EAHY cells. CONCLUSIONS: p-Cresol may contribute to atherosclerosis and thrombosis in patients with

  13. Global Proteome Analysis of the NCI-60 Cell Line Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Moghaddas Gholami

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The NCI-60 cell line collection is a very widely used panel for the study of cellular mechanisms of cancer in general and in vitro drug action in particular. It is a model system for the tissue types and genetic diversity of human cancers and has been extensively molecularly characterized. Here, we present a quantitative proteome and kinome profile of the NCI-60 panel covering, in total, 10,350 proteins (including 375 protein kinases and including a core cancer proteome of 5,578 proteins that were consistently quantified across all tissue types. Bioinformatic analysis revealed strong cell line clusters according to tissue type and disclosed hundreds of differentially regulated proteins representing potential biomarkers for numerous tumor properties. Integration with public transcriptome data showed considerable similarity between mRNA and protein expression. Modeling of proteome and drug-response profiles for 108 FDA-approved drugs identified known and potential protein markers for drug sensitivity and resistance. To enable community access to this unique resource, we incorporated it into a public database for comparative and integrative analysis (http://wzw.tum.de/proteomics/nci60.

  14. Effect of metformin on residual cells after chemotherapy in a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Kitazono, Satoru; Takiguchi, Yuichi; ASHINUMA, HIRONORI; SAITO-KITAZONO, MIYAKO; Kitamura, Atsushi; Chiba, Tetsuhiro; Sakaida, Emiko; Sekine, Ikuo; Tada, Yuji; KUROSU, KATSUSHI; Sakao, Seiichiro; Tanabe, Nobuhiro; Iwama, Atsushi; Yokosuka, Osamu; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2013-01-01

    Cancer chemotherapy, including molecular targeted therapy, has major limitations because it does not kill all the cancer cells; the residual cells survive until they acquire chemoresistance. In the present study, the combined effects of metformin and gefitinib were examined in vivo in a mouse xenograft model, inoculated with a human lung adenocarcinoma cell line that possesses an activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutation. The mechanism of the interaction was further elucidated in v...

  15. Origin of the U87MG glioma cell line: Good news and bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Marie; Bjerke, Mia; Edlund, Hanna; Nelander, Sven; Westermark, Bengt

    2016-08-31

    Human tumor-derived cell lines are indispensable tools for basic and translational oncology. They have an infinite life span and are easy to handle and scalable, and results can be obtained with high reproducibility. However, a tumor-derived cell line may not be authentic to the tumor of origin. Two major questions emerge: Have the identity of the donor and the actual tumor origin of the cell line been accurately determined? To what extent does the cell line reflect the phenotype of the tumor type of origin? The importance of these questions is greatest in translational research. We have examined these questions using genetic profiling and transcriptome analysis in human glioma cell lines. We find that the DNA profile of the widely used glioma cell line U87MG is different from that of the original cells and that it is likely to be a bona fide human glioblastoma cell line of unknown origin. PMID:27582061

  16. Englerin A Agonizes the TRPC4/C5 Cation Channels to Inhibit Tumor Cell Line Proliferation

    OpenAIRE

    Carson, Cheryl; Raman, Pichai; Tullai, Jennifer; Xu, Lei; Henault, Martin; Thomas, Emily; Yeola, Sarita; Lao, Jianmin; McPate, Mark; Verkuyl, J. Martin; Marsh, George; Sarber, Jason; Amaral, Adam; Bailey, Scott; Lubicka, Danuta

    2015-01-01

    Englerin A is a structurally unique natural product reported to selectively inhibit growth of renal cell carcinoma cell lines. A large scale phenotypic cell profiling experiment (CLiP) of englerin A on ¬over 500 well characterized cancer cell lines showed that englerin A inhibits growth of a subset of tumor cell lines from many lineages, not just renal cell carcinomas. Expression of the TRPC4 cation channel was the cell line feature that best correlated with sensitivity to englerin A, suggest...

  17. 'Fluorescent Cell Chip' for immunotoxicity testing: Development of the c-fos expression reporter cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fluorescent Cell Chip for in vitro immunotoxicity testing employs cell lines derived from lymphocytes, mast cells, and monocytes-macrophages transfected with various EGFP cytokine reporter gene constructs. While cytokine expression is a valid endpoint for in vitro immunotoxicity screening, additional marker for the immediate-early response gene expression level could be of interest for further development and refinement of the Fluorescent Cell Chip. We have used BW.5147.3 murine thymoma transfected with c-fos reporter constructs to obtain reporter cell lines expressing ECFP under the control of murine c-fos promoter. These cells upon serum withdrawal and readdition and incubation with heavy metal compounds showed paralleled induction of c-Fos expression as evidenced by Real-Time PCR and ECFP fluorescence as evidenced by computer-supported fluorescence microscopy. In conclusion, we developed fluorescent reporter cell lines that could be employed in a simple and time-efficient screening assay for possible action of chemicals on c-Fos expression in lymphocytes. The evaluation of usefulness of these cells for the Fluorescent Cell Chip-based detection of immunotoxicity will require additional testing with a larger number of chemicals

  18. Histamine as a Radiosensitizer of Malignant Cell Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been established that the treatment with Histamine (Hi) produces a significant growth inhibition of different cell lines derived from human neoplasia. In a model of Knockout mice completely depleted of endogenous Hi, it was observed a significant delay in bone marroe repopulation after whole body irradiation. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that histamine has a role in the regulation of haematopoiesis as well as an inhibitory effect on apoptosis. The objective of this paper was to study the possible effect of Hi as protector of normal cells and radiosensitizer of malignant ones. To study the effect of Hi on small-intestine and bone marrow, thirty made mice were randomly separeted into two groups: Control irradiated (C), and irradiated receiving Histamine (HI-group). All animals received a single dose of 10 Gy on whole-body employing a ''137Cs source of 189 TBq (Dose rate: 7.7 Gy/min) calibrated with TLD 700 dosimeter. Hi-group recieved a daily se injection (0.1 mg/kg) starting 20 hs before irradiation. Mice were sacrificed 5 days after irradiation. Histopathological analysis indicated that intestinal mucosae of C group showed important injury, whist mucosae of Hi-treated mice showed mild mucosal atrophy with conservation of villous projections and absence of vascular congestive changes. In order to investigate the effect of Hi on radiosensitivity of transformed cells, MDA-MB-231 (human breast carcinoma cells) were irradiated in vitro with doses ranging from 0 to 10 Gy. Results of radiobiological parameters indicate a significant increase on radiosensitivity of malignant cells. Employing specific fluorescent dyes and flow cytometric analysis we determined that the intracellular levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) are significant increased by Hi 10 μM in control and also in irradiated MDA-MB-231 cells, while the levels of superoxide (SO2) were not significantly modified by Hi-treatment. (Author) 9 refs

  19. Secretion of mucus proteinase inhibitor and elafin by Clara cell and type II pneumocyte cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenave, J M; Silva, A; Marsden, M E; Ryle, A P

    1993-02-01

    The regulation of proteinases secreted by neutrophils is very important for the prevention of tissue injury. We recently described the isolation of elafin from bronchial secretions, a new elastase-specific inhibitor that is also found in the skin of patients with psoriasis. In this study, we investigated the secretion of elafin and mucus proteinase inhibitor (MPI), another inhibitor showing sequence similarity with elafin, in two lung carcinoma cell lines, NCI-H322 and A549, which have features of Clara cells and type II alveolar cells, respectively. The results presented show that the two inhibitors are produced when the cells are cultured either in serum-free or in serum-containing media. MPI was detected immunologically as a unique molecule of M(r) 14 kD, in accordance with previous studies. Conversely, one or two elafin-immunoreactive species were detected depending on the cell line: a 12- to 14-kD species was observed in the A549 cell line, regardless of the culture conditions, whereas in the NCI-H322 cell line we detected a 6-kD species in serum-containing (10% fetal calf serum) conditions and a 12- to 14-kD species in serum-free conditions. The 12- to 14-kD molecule probably represents an active precursor of elafin. Whether the cleavage of the 12- to 14-kD precursor giving rise to the elafin molecule is of any physiologic significance is not known. In showing for the first time that MPI and elafin (and its precursor) are secreted by the A549 cell line, this report implicates the type II alveolar cell in the defense of the peripheral lung against the neutrophil elastase secreted during inflammation. PMID:8427705

  20. Gene expression analysis of cell death induction by Taurolidine in different malignant cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The anti-infective agent Taurolidine (TRD) has been shown to have cell death inducing properties, but the mechanism of its action is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to identify potential common target genes modulated at the transcriptional level following TRD treatment in tumour cell lines originating from different cancer types. Five different malignant cell lines (HT29, Chang Liver, HT1080, AsPC-1 and BxPC-3) were incubated with TRD (100 μM, 250 μM and 1000 μM). Proliferation after 8 h and cell viability after 24 h were analyzed by BrdU assay and FACS analysis, respectively. Gene expression analyses were carried out using the Agilent -microarray platform to indentify genes which displayed conjoint regulation following the addition of TRD in all cell lines. Candidate genes were subjected to Ingenuity Pathways Analysis and selected genes were validated by qRT-PCR and Western Blot. TRD 250 μM caused a significant inhibition of proliferation as well as apoptotic cell death in all cell lines. Among cell death associated genes with the strongest regulation in gene expression, we identified pro-apoptotic transcription factors (EGR1, ATF3) as well as genes involved in the ER stress response (PPP1R15A), in ubiquitination (TRAF6) and mitochondrial apoptotic pathways (PMAIP1). This is the first conjoint analysis of potential target genes of TRD which was performed simultaneously in different malignant cell lines. The results indicate that TRD might be involved in different signal transduction pathways leading to apoptosis

  1. Extracellular vesicles from a muscle cell line (C2C12 enhance cell survival and neurite outgrowth of a motor neuron cell line (NSC-34

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roger D. Madison

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is renewed interest in extracellular vesicles over the past decade or 2 after initially being thought of as simple cellular garbage cans to rid cells of unwanted components. Although there has been intense research into the role of extracellular vesicles in the fields of tumour and stem cell biology, the possible role of extracellular vesicles in nerve regeneration is just in its infancy. Background: When a peripheral nerve is damaged, the communication between spinal cord motor neurons and their target muscles is disrupted and the result can be the loss of coordinated muscle movement. Despite state-of-the-art surgical procedures only approximately 10% of adults will recover full function after peripheral nerve repair. To improve upon such results will require a better understanding of the basic mechanisms that influence axon outgrowth and the interplay between the parent motor neuron and the distal end organ of muscle. It has previously been shown that extracellular vesicles are immunologically tolerated, display targeting ligands on their surface, and can be delivered in vivo to selected cell populations. All of these characteristics suggest that extracellular vesicles could play a significant role in nerve regeneration. Methods: We have carried out studies using 2 very well characterized cell lines, the C2C12 muscle cell line and the motor neuron cell line NSC-34 to ask the question: Do extracellular vesicles from muscle influence cell survival and/or neurite outgrowth of motor neurons? Conclusion: Our results show striking effects of extracellular vesicles derived from the muscle cell line on the motor neuron cell line in terms of neurite outgrowth and survival.

  2. Spontaneous transformation of human granulosa cell tumours into an aggressive phenotype: a metastasis model cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granulosa cell tumours (GCTs) are frequently seen in menopausal women and are relatively indolent. Although the physiological properties of normal granulosa cells have been studied extensively, little is known about the molecular mechanism of GCT progression. Here, we characterise the unique behavioural properties of a granulosa tumour cell line, KGN cells, for the molecular analysis of GCT progression. Population doubling was carried out to examine the proliferation capacity of KGN cells. Moreover, the invasive capacity of these cells was determined using the in vitro invasion assay. The expression level of tumour markers in KGN cells at different passages was then determined by Western blot analysis. Finally, the growth and metastasis of KGN cells injected subcutaneously (s.c.) into nude mice was observed 3 months after injection. During in vitro culture, the advanced passage KGN cells grew 2-fold faster than the early passage cells, as determined by the population doubling assay. Moreover, we found that the advanced passage cells were 2-fold more invasive than the early passage cells. The expression pattern of tumour markers, such as p53, osteopontin, BAX and BAG-1, supported the notion that with passage, KGN cells became more aggressive. Strikingly, KGN cells at both early and advanced passages metastasized to the bowel when injected s.c. into nude mice. In addition, more tumour nodules were formed when the advanced passage cells were implanted. KGN cells cultured in vitro acquire an aggressive phenotype, which was confirmed by the analysis of cellular activities and the expression of biomarkers. Interestingly, KGN cells injected s.c. are metastatic with nodule formation occurring mostly in the bowel. Thus, this cell line is a good model for analysing GCT progression and the mechanism of metastasis in vivo

  3. Effect of Docosahexaenoic Acid on Cell Cycle Pathways in Breast Cell Lines With Different Transformation Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rescigno, Tania; Capasso, Anna; Tecce, Mario Felice

    2016-06-01

    n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), abundant in fish, have been shown to affect development and progression of some types of cancer, including breast cancer. The aim of our study was to further analyze and clarify the effects of these nutrients on the molecular mechanisms underlying breast cancer. Following treatments with DHA we examined cell viability, death, cell cycle, and some molecular effects in breast cell lines with different transformation, phenotypic, and biochemical characteristics (MCF-10A, MCF-7, SK-BR-3, ZR-75-1). These investigations showed that DHA is able to affect cell viability, proliferation, and cell cycle progression in a different way in each assayed breast cell line. The activation of ERK1/2 and STAT3 pathways and the expression and/or activation of molecules involved in cell cycle regulation such as p21(Waf1/Cip1) and p53, are very differently regulated by DHA treatments in each cell model. DHA selectively: (i) arrests non tumoral MCF-10A breast cells in G0 /G1 cycle phase, activating p21(Waf1/Cip1) , and p53, (ii) induces to death highly transformed breast cells SK-BR-3, reducing ERK1/2 and STAT3 phosphorylation and (iii) only slightly affects each analyzed process in MCF-7 breast cell line with transformation degree lower than SK-BR-3 cells. These findings suggest a more relevant inhibitory role of DHA within early development and late progression of breast cancer cell transformation and a variable effect in the other phases, depending on individual molecular properties and degree of malignancy of each clinical case. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1226-1236, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26480024

  4. Measurement of separase proteolytic activity in single living cells by a fluorogenic flow cytometry assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiltrud Haaß

    Full Text Available ESPL1/Separase, an endopeptidase, is required for centrosome duplication and separation of sister-chromatides in anaphase of mitosis. Overexpression and deregulated proteolytic activity of Separase as frequently observed in human cancers is associated with the occurrence of supernumerary centrosomes, chromosomal missegregation and aneuploidy. Recently, we have hypothesized that increased Separase proteolytic activity in a small subpopulation of tumor cells may serve as driver of tumor heterogeneity and clonal evolution in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Currently, there is no quantitative assay to measure Separase activity levels in single cells. Therefore, we have designed a flow cytometry-based assay that utilizes a Cy5- and rhodamine 110 (Rh110-biconjugated Rad21 cleavage site peptide ([Cy5-D-R-E-I-M-R]2-Rh110 as smart probe and intracellular substrate for detection of Separase enzyme activity in living cells. As measured by Cy5 fluorescence the cellular uptake of the fluorogenic peptide was fast and reached saturation after 210 min of incubation in human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells. Separase activity was recorded as the intensity of Rh110 fluorescence released after intracellular peptide cleavage providing a linear signal gain within a 90-180 min time slot. Compared to conventional cell extract-based methods the flow cytometric assay delivers equivalent results but is more reliable, bypasses the problem of vague loading controls and unspecific proteolysis associated with whole cell extracts. Especially suited for the investigaton of blood- and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells the flow cytometric Separase assay allows generation of Separase activity profiles that tell about the number of Separase positive cells within a sample i.e. cells that currently progress through mitosis and about the range of intercellular variation in Separase activity levels within a cell population. The assay was used to quantify Separase proteolytic

  5. Electrophysiological Characteristics of Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes are Cell Line-Dependent

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    Tobias Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modelling of cardiac development, physiology and pharmacology by differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs requires comparability of cardiac differentiation between different ESC lines. To investigate whether the outcome of cardiac differentiation is consistent between different ESC lines, we compared electrophysiological properties of ESC-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs of different murine ESC lines. Methods: Two wild-type (D3 and R1 and two transgenic ESC lines (D3/aPIG44 and CGR8/AMPIGX-7 were differentiated under identical culture conditions. The transgenic cell lines expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP and puromycin-N-acetyltransferase under control of the cardiac specific α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC promoter. Action potentials (APs were recorded using sharp electrodes and multielectrode arrays in beating clusters of ESC-CMs. Results: Spontaneous AP frequency and AP duration (APD as well as maximal upstroke velocity differed markedly between unpurified CMs of the four ESC lines. APD heterogeneity was negligible in D3/aPIG44, moderate in D3 and R1 and extensive in CGR8/AMPIGX-7. Interspike intervals calculated from long-term recordings showed a high degree of variability within and between recordings in CGR8/AMPIGX-7, but not in D3/aPIG44. Purification of the αMHC+ population by puromycin treatment posed only minor changes to APD in D3/aPIG44, but significantly shortened APD in CGR8/AMPIGX-7. Conclusion: Electrophysiological properties of ESC-CMs are strongly cell line-dependent and can be influenced by purification of cardiomyocytes by antibiotic selection. Thus, conclusions on cardiac development, physiology and pharmacology derived from single stem cell lines have to be interpreted carefully.

  6. Expression of myc family oncoproteins in small-cell lung-cancer cell lines and xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, K; Vindeløv, L L; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1993-01-01

    A number of genes have altered activity in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), but especially genes of the myc family (c-myc, L-myc and N-myc) are expressed at high levels in SCLC. Most studies have explored expression at the mRNA level, whereas studies of myc family oncoprotein expression are sparse....... WE examined the expression of myc proto-oncogenes at the mRNA and protein level in 23 cell lines or xenografts. In the cell lines, the doubling time and the cell-cycle distribution, as determined by flow-cytometric DNA analysis, were examined to establish whether the level of myc...... general, the level of expression of c-myc and N-myc was similar at the mRNA and the protein level. Expression of c-myc was positively correlated with the proliferative index (sum of S and G2+M phases) of cell lines, but not with the population doubling time. In general, L-myc-expressing cell lines had a...

  7. Comprehensive characterization of genomic instability in pluripotent stem cells and their derived neuroprogenitor cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor Luis Lopez Corrales

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The genomic integrity of two human pluripotent stem cells and their derived neuroprogenitor cell lines was studied, applying a combination of high-resolution genetic methodologies. The usefulness of combining array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH and multiplex fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH techniques should be delineated to exclude/detect a maximum of possible genomic structural aberrations. Interestingly, in parts different genomic imbalances at chromosomal and subchromosomal levels were detected in pluripotent stem cells and their derivatives. Some of the copy number variations were inherited from the original cell line, whereas other modifications were presumably acquired during the differentiation and manipulation procedures. These results underline the necessity to study both pluripotent stem cells and their differentiated progeny by as many approaches as possible in order to assess their genomic stability before using them in clinical therapies.

  8. Tualang Honey Promotes Apoptotic Cell Death Induced by Tamoxifen in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nik Soriani Yaacob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tualang honey (TH is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids and has significant anticancer activity against breast cancer cells comparable to the effect of tamoxifen (TAM, in vitro. The current study evaluated the effects of TH when used in combination with TAM on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. We observed that TH promoted the anticancer activity of TAM in both the estrogen receptor-(ER-responsive and ER-nonresponsive human breast cancer cell lines. Flow cytometric analyses indicated accelerated apoptosis especially in MDA-MB-231 cells and with the involvement of caspase-3/7, -8 and -9 activation as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane was also increased in both cell lines when TH was used in combination with TAM compared to TAM treatment alone. TH may therefore be a potential adjuvant to be used with TAM for reducing the dose of TAM, hence, reducing TAM-induced adverse effects.

  9. Heterotransplantation of human leukemic B-cell, T-cell and null-cell lines in hamsters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraki,Shunkichi

    1979-02-01

    Full Text Available Human leukemic B-cell (BALL-1, T-cell (TALL-1 and null-cell (NALL-1 lines have been established from three patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL. To study the heterotransplantability and in vivo growth characteristics, attempts were made to transplant these ALL cell lines into newborn Syrian hamsters treated with rabbit anti-hamster thymocyte serum. Intraperitoneal implantation of 1.8-3.5 x 10(7 cells gave rise to invasive tumors in all recipients after 15 to 41 days. In addition to a common in vivo feature of mesenteric and retroperitoneal tumors, BALL-1 line was characterized by infiltration of the skin, massive ascites and bone marrow invasion. TALL-1 cells infiltrated various organs including the lymph nodes, liver, gallbladder, spleen, bone marrow, central nervous system and eyes. NALL-1 line grew slowly, producing the least tumors, although there were distant metastases in the lungs. Tumor cells were detected in the blood of 2 of 3 BALL-1-bearing hamsters and in the blood of 4 of 5 TALL-1-bearing hamsters. Thus, these three ALL cell lines were found to exhibit a characteristic biological behavior in hamsters, which might be related to the different cell lineage.

  10. Single-cell printing to form three-dimensional lines of olfactory ensheathing cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological laser printing (BioLP(TM)) is a unique tool capable of printing high resolution two- and three-dimensional patterns of living mammalian cells, with greater than 95% viability. These results have been extended to primary cultured olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs), harvested from adult Sprague-Dawley rats. OECs have been found to provide stimulating environments for neurite outgrowth in spinal cord injury models. BioLP is unique in that small load volumes (∼μLs) are required to achieve printing, enabling low numbers of OECs to be harvested, concentrated and printed. BioLP was used to form several 8 mm lines of OECs throughout a multilayer hydrogel scaffold. The line width was as low as 20 μm, with most lines comprising aligned single cells. Fluorescent confocal microscopy was used to determine the functionality of the printed OECs, to monitor interactions between printed OECs, and to determine the extent of cell migration throughout the 3D scaffold. High-resolution printing of low cell count, harvested OECs is an important advancement for in vitro study of cell interactions and functionality. In addition, these cell-printed scaffolds may provide an alternative for spinal cord repair studies, as the single-cell patterns formed here are on relevant size scales for neurite outgrowth

  11. Application of the inter-line PCR for the analyse of genomic rearrangements in radiation-transformed mammalian cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Repetitive DNA sequences of the LINE-family (long interspersed elements) that are widely distributed among the mammalian genome can be activated or altered by the exposure to ionizing radiation [1]. By the integration at new sites in the genome alterations in the expression of genes that are involved in cell transformation and/or carcinogenesis may occur [2, 3]. A new technique -the inter-LINE PCR - has been developed in order to detect and analyse such genomic rearrangements in radiation-transformed cell lines. From the sites of transformation- or tumour-specific changes in the genome it might be possible to develop new tumour markers for diagnostic purpose. (orig.)

  12. Side population cells isolated from KATO Ⅲ human gastric cancer cell line have cancer stem cell-like characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Jun She; Peng-Ge Zhang; Xuan Wang; Xiang-Ming Che; Zi-Ming Wang

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate whether the side population (SP)cells possess cancer stem cell-like characteristics in vitro and the role of SP cells in tumorigenic process in gastric cancer.METHODS:We analyzed the presence of SP cells in different human gastric carcinoma cell lines,and then isolated and identified the SP cells from the KATO Ⅲ human gastric cancer cell line by flow cytometry.The clonogenic ability and self-renewal were evaluated by clone and sphere formation assays.The related genes were determined by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction.To compare tumorigenic ability,SP and non-side population (NSP) cells from the KATO Ⅲ human gastric cancer cell line were subcutaneously injected into nude mice.RESULTS:SP cells from the total population accounted for 0.57% in KATO Ⅲ,1.04% in Hs-746T,and 0.02% in AGS (CRL-1739).SP cells could grow clonally and have self-renewal capability in conditioned media.The expression of ABCG2,MDRI,Bmi-1 and Oct-4 was different between SP and NSP cells.However,there was no apparent difference between SP and NSP cells when they were injected into nude mice.CONCLUSION:SP cells have some cancer stem celllike characteristics in vitro and can be used for studying the tumorigenic process in gastric cancer.

  13. Sulphamoylated 2-methoxyestradiol analogues induce apoptosis in adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Visagie

    Full Text Available 2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME2 is a naturally occurring estradiol metabolite which possesses antiproliferative, antiangiogenic and antitumor properties. However, due to its limited biological accessibility, synthetic analogues have been synthesized and tested in attempt to develop drugs with improved oral bioavailability and efficacy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiproliferative effects of three novel in silico-designed sulphamoylated 2ME2 analogues on the HeLa cervical adenocarcinoma cell line and estrogen receptor-negative breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-231 cells. A dose-dependent study (0.1-25 μM was conducted with an exposure time of 24 hours. Results obtained from crystal violet staining indicated that 0.5 μM of all 3 compounds reduced the number of cells to 50%. Lactate dehydrogenase assay was used to assess cytotoxicity, while the mitotracker mitochondrial assay and caspase-6 and -8 activity assays were used to investigate the possible occurrence of apoptosis. Tubulin polymerization assays were conducted to evaluate the influence of these sulphamoylated 2ME2 analogues on tubulin dynamics. Double immunofluorescence microscopy using labeled antibodies specific to tyrosinate and detyrosinated tubulin was conducted to assess the effect of the 2ME2 analogues on tubulin dynamics. An insignificant increase in the level of lactate dehydrogenase release was observed in the compounds-treated cells. These sulphamoylated compounds caused a reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and caspase 3 activation indicating apoptosis induction by means of the intrinsic pathway in HeLa and MDA-MB-231 cells. Microtubule depolymerization was observed after exposure to these three sulphamoylated analogues.

  14. Analysis of differential protein expression in normal and neoplastic human breast epithelial cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K.; Chubb, C.; Huberman, E.; Giometti, C.S.

    1997-07-01

    High resolution two dimensional get electrophoresis (2DE) and database analysis was used to establish protein expression patterns for cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells and thirteen breast cancer cell lines. The Human Breast Epithelial Cell database contains the 2DE protein patterns, including relative protein abundances, for each cell line, plus a composite pattern that contains all the common and specifically expressed proteins from all the cell lines. Significant differences in protein expression, both qualitative and quantitative, were observed not only between normal cells and tumor cells, but also among the tumor cell lines. Eight percent of the consistently detected proteins were found in significantly (P < 0.001) variable levels among the cell lines. Using a combination of immunostaining, comigration with purified protein, subcellular fractionation, and amino-terminal protein sequencing, we identified a subset of the differentially expressed proteins. These identified proteins include the cytoskeletal proteins actin, tubulin, vimentin, and cytokeratins. The cell lines can be classified into four distinct groups based on their intermediate filament protein profile. We also identified heat shock proteins; hsp27, hsp60, and hsp70 varied in abundance and in some cases in the relative phosphorylation levels among the cell lines. Finally, we identified IMP dehydrogenase in each of the cell lines, and found the levels of this enzyme in the tumor cell lines elevated 2- to 20-fold relative to the levels in normal cells.

  15. Liposome encapsulation of retrovirus allows efficient superinfection of resistant cell lines.

    OpenAIRE

    Faller, D V; Baltimore, D

    1984-01-01

    Cell lines which are infected with retrovirus are resistant to superinfection by a related retrovirus. Packaging of whole virions within synthetic lipid vesicles allows efficient infection of such resistant cell lines. This system is more efficient in introducing encapsulated virus into infected cells than into uninfected cells.

  16. MiR-203 controls proliferation, migration and invasive potential of prostate cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viticchiè, Giuditta; Lena, Anna Maria; Latina, Alessia;

    2011-01-01

    cell lines compared to normal epithelial prostatic cells. Overexpression of miR-203 in brain or bone metastatic prostate cell lines (DU145 and PC3) is sufficient to induce a mesenchymal to epithelial transition with inhibition of cell proliferation, migration and invasiveness. We have identified CKAP2...

  17. Transcriptional signature of accessory cells in the lateral line, using the Tnk1bp1:EGFP transgenic zebrafish line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behra Martine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the structural and molecular similarities between the two systems, the lateral line, a fish and amphibian specific sensory organ, has been widely used in zebrafish as a model to study the development/biology of neuroepithelia of the inner ear. Both organs have hair cells, which are the mechanoreceptor cells, and supporting cells providing other functions to the epithelium. In most vertebrates (excluding mammals, supporting cells comprise a pool of progenitors that replace damaged or dead hair cells. However, the lack of regenerative capacity in mammals is the single leading cause for acquired hearing disorders in humans. Results In an effort to understand the regenerative process of hair cells in fish, we characterized and cloned an egfp transgenic stable fish line that trapped tnks1bp1, a highly conserved gene that has been implicated in the maintenance of telomeres' length. We then used this Tg(tnks1bp1:EGFP line in a FACsorting strategy combined with microarrays to identify new molecular markers for supporting cells. Conclusions We present a Tg(tnks1bp1:EGFP stable transgenic line, which we used to establish a transcriptional profile of supporting cells in the zebrafish lateral line. Therefore we are providing a new set of markers specific for supporting cells as well as candidates for functional analysis of this important cell type. This will prove to be a valuable tool for the study of regeneration in the lateral line of zebrafish in particular and for regeneration of neuroepithelia in general.

  18. Lipid analysis of eight human breast cancer cell lines with ToF-SIMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Michael A.; Graham, Daniel J.; Morrish, Fionnuala; Hockenbery, David; Gamble, Lara J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, four triple negative (TN) cell lines, three ER+ and PR+ receptor positive (RP) cell lines, and one ER+, PR+, and HER2+ cell line were chemically distinguished from one another using time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) and principal component analysis (PCA). PCA scores separation was observed between the individual cell lines within a given classification (TN and RP) and there were distinctly different trends found in the fatty acid and lipid compositions of the two different classifications. These trends indicated that the RP cell lines separated out based on the carbon chain length of the lipids while the TN cell lines showed separation based on cholesterol-related peaks (in the positive ion data). Both cell types separated out by trends in fatty acid chain length and saturation in the negative ions. These chemical differences may be manifestations of unique metabolic processes within each of the different cell lines. Additionally, the HER2+ cell line was distinguished from three other RP cell types as having a unique distribution of fatty acids including anticorrelation to 18-carbon chain fatty acids. As these cell lines could not be grown in the same growth media, a combination of chemical fixation, rinsing, C60+ presputtering, and selection of cellular regions-of-interest is also presented as a successful method to acquire ToF-SIMS data from cell lines grown in different media. PMID:26319020

  19. Derivation and characterization of matched cell lines from primary and recurrent serous ovarian cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Létourneau Isabelle J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell line models have proven to be effective tools to investigate a variety of ovarian cancer features. Due to the limited number of cell lines, particularly of the serous subtype, the heterogeneity of the disease, and the lack of cell lines that model disease progression, there is a need to further develop cell line resources available for research. This study describes nine cell lines derived from three ovarian cancer cases that were established at initial diagnosis and at subsequent relapse after chemotherapy. Methods The cell lines from three women diagnosed with high-grade serous ovarian cancer (1369, 2295 and 3133 were derived from solid tumor (TOV and ascites (OV, at specific time points at diagnosis and relapse (R. Primary treatment was a combination of paclitaxel/carboplatin (1369, 3133, or cisplatin/topotecan (2295. Second line treatment included doxorubicin, gemcitabine and topotecan. In addition to molecular characterization (p53, HER2, the cell lines were characterized based on cell growth characteristics including spheroid growth, migration potential, and anchorage independence. The in vivo tumorigenicity potential of the cell lines was measured. Response to paclitaxel and carboplatin was assessed using a clonogenic assay. Results All cell lines had either a nonsense or missense TP53 mutations. The ability to form compact spheroids or aggregates was observed in six of nine cell lines. Limited ability for migration and anchorage independence was observed. The OV3133(R cell line, formed tumors at subcutaneous sites in SCID mice. Based on IC50 values and dose response curves, there was clear evidence of acquired resistance to carboplatin for TOV2295(R and OV2295(R2 cell lines. Conclusion The study identified nine new high-grade serous ovarian cancer cell lines, derived before and after chemotherapy that provides a unique resource for investigating the evolution of this common histopathological subtype of ovarian

  20. Establishment of a pig fibroblast-derived cell line for locus-directed transgene expression in cell cultures and blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik E; Li, Juan; Moldt, Brian;

    2011-01-01

    We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based do......We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon...

  1. Genetic instability of cell lines derived from a single human small cell carcinoma of the lung

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelholm, S A; Vindeløv, L L; Spang-Thomsen, M;

    1985-01-01

    different DNA content appeared. By cloning, permanent cell lines were established from the new subpopulations, whereas the original population stopped growing. The cloned cell lines were characterized by morphology, chromosomes analysis, electron microscopy and plating efficiency; the stability of the DNA...... instability was demonstrated in these mouse-grown tumors as well. Development of resistance to antineoplastic treatment may be due to heterogeneity in sensitivity among subpopulations in a tumor. Isolation of populations with different DNA contents allows the study of interaction between subpopulations and...

  2. Mantle cell lymphoma cell lines show no evident immunoglobulin heavy chain stereotypy but frequent light chain stereotypy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pighi, Chiara; Barbi, Stefano; Bertolaso, Anna; Zamò, Alberto

    2013-08-01

    Mantle cell lymphoma shows a peculiar immunogenetic profile, but the functional consequences of this fact are unknown. We have determined the precise sequences of rearranged heavy and light chain genes in several mantle cell lymphoma cell lines and investigated the presence of heavy and light chain stereotypy. These cell lines use IGHV and IGLV genes that are known to be preferentially rearranged in mantle cell lymphoma, but we found no evidence of heavy chain stereotypy. In contrast, one cell line (Mino) showed a nearly identical light chain complementarity-determining region 3 when compared to the only published light chain cluster. Two cell line couples (Jeko-1/UPN-2 and JVM-2/JVM-13) showed a highly similar light chain that satisfied the criteria for stereotypy. Our data show that mantle cell lymphoma cell lines resemble the IGHV and IGLV usage of mantle cell lymphoma, and foster the hypothesis that light chain stereotypy might be under-recognized. PMID:23245212

  3. Drug Treatment of Cancer Cell Lines: A Way to Select for Cancer Stem Cells?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiodi, Ilaria; Belgiovine, Cristina; Donà, Francesca; Scovassi, A. Ivana; Mondello, Chiara, E-mail: mondello@igm.cnr.it [Institute of Molecular Genetics, CNR, via Abbiategrasso 207, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2011-03-04

    Tumors are generally composed of different cell types. In recent years, it has been shown that in many types of cancers a subset of cells show peculiar characteristics, such as the ability to induce tumors when engrafted into host animals, self-renew and being immortal, and give rise to a differentiated progeny. These cells have been defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor initiating cells. CSCs can be isolated both from tumor specimens and established cancer cell lines on the basis of their ability to exclude fluorescent dyes, express specific cell surface markers or grow in particular culture conditions. A key feature of CSCs is their resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, which could contribute to the remaining of residual cancer cells after therapeutic treatments. It has been shown that CSC-like cells can be isolated after drug treatment of cancer cell lines; in this review, we will describe the strategies so far applied to identify and isolate CSCs. Furthermore, we will discuss the possible use of these selected populations to investigate CSC biology and develop new anticancer drugs.

  4. Identification of tumor-initiating cells in a canine hepatocellular carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michishita, Masaki; Ezaki, Shiori; Ogihara, Kikumi; Naya, Yuko; Azakami, Daigo; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Sasaki, Nobuo; Arai, Toshiro; Shida, Takuo; Takahashi, Kimimasa

    2014-04-01

    Tumor-initiating cells (TICs) or cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small subset of tumor cells, are involved in tumor initiation, progression, recurrence and metastasis. In human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), TICs are enriched with cell surface markers and have the ability to self-renew and differentiate tumors at a high frequency. We established a canine HCC cell line, HCC930599, and analyzed it for stem and progenitor cell marker expression using flow cytometry. HCC930599 showed high CD44 and CD29, moderate CD90, and low CD133, CD34, CD24, CD117, and CD13 expression. CD90(+)CD44(+) and CD90(-)CD44(+) cells were characterized using the in vitro sphere assay and an in vivo transplant model. CD90(+)CD44(+) cells acquired enhanced self-renewal capacity, proliferative activity and tumourigenicity compared with CD90(-)CD44(+) cells, suggesting that TICs exist in the HCC930599 cell line and that CD90 is a marker for enriched TICs. Understanding TIC characteristics may help elucidate hepatic carcinogenesis and HCC therapy development. PMID:24534130

  5. Drug Treatment of Cancer Cell Lines: A Way to Select for Cancer Stem Cells?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tumors are generally composed of different cell types. In recent years, it has been shown that in many types of cancers a subset of cells show peculiar characteristics, such as the ability to induce tumors when engrafted into host animals, self-renew and being immortal, and give rise to a differentiated progeny. These cells have been defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor initiating cells. CSCs can be isolated both from tumor specimens and established cancer cell lines on the basis of their ability to exclude fluorescent dyes, express specific cell surface markers or grow in particular culture conditions. A key feature of CSCs is their resistance to chemotherapeutic agents, which could contribute to the remaining of residual cancer cells after therapeutic treatments. It has been shown that CSC-like cells can be isolated after drug treatment of cancer cell lines; in this review, we will describe the strategies so far applied to identify and isolate CSCs. Furthermore, we will discuss the possible use of these selected populations to investigate CSC biology and develop new anticancer drugs

  6. Design, development, and validation of an in-situ biosensor array for metabolite monitoring of cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boero, Cristina; Casulli, Maria Antonietta; Olivo, Jacopo; Foglia, Lorenzo; Orso, Eric; Mazza, Marco; Carrara, Sandro; De Micheli, Giovanni

    2014-11-15

    Conventional pharmaceutical processes involving cell culture growth are generally taken under control with expensive and long laboratory tests performed by direct sampling to evaluate quality. This traditional and well-established approach is just partially adequate in providing information about cell state. Electrochemical enzyme-based biosensors offer several advantages towards this application. In particular, they lend themselves to miniaturization and integration with cheap electronics. In the present work we go through the design, the development, and the validation of a self-contained device for the on-line measurement of metabolites in cell culture media. We microfabricated a sensing platform by using thin film technologies. We exploited electrodeposition to precisely immobilize carbon nanotubes and enzymes on miniaturized working electrodes. We designed and realized the electronics to perform the electrochemical measurements and an Android application to display the measurements on smartphones and tablets. In cell culture media glucose biosensor shows a sensitivity of 4.7 ± 1.3 nA mM(-1)mm(-2) and a detection limit of 1.4mM (S/N = 3σ), while for lactate biosensor the sensitivity is 12.2 ± 3.8 nA mM(-1)mm(-2) and the detection limit is 0.3mM. The whole system was then validated by monitoring U937 cell line over 88 h. Metabolic trends were fully congruent with cell density and viability. This self-contained device is a promising tool to provide more detailed information on cell metabolism that are unprecedented in cell biology. PMID:24906082

  7. Cytotoxic Effects of Fascaplysin against Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Hamilton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fascaplysin, the natural product of a marine sponge, exhibits anticancer activity against a broad range of tumor cells, presumably through interaction with DNA, and/or as a highly selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4 inhibitor. In this study, cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin against a panel of small cell lung cancer (SCLC cell lines and putative synergism with chemotherapeutics was investigated. SCLC responds to first-line chemotherapy with platinum-based drugs/etoposide, but relapses early with topotecan remaining as the single approved therapeutic agent. Fascaplysin was found to show high cytotoxicity against SCLC cells and to induce cell cycle arrest in G1/0 at lower and S-phase at higher concentrations, respectively. The compound generated reactive oxygen species (ROS and induced apoptotic cell death in the chemoresistant NCI-H417 SCLC cell line. Furthermore, fascaplysin revealed marked synergism with the topoisomerase I-directed camptothecin and 10-hydroxy-camptothecin. The Poly(ADP-ribose-Polymerase 1 (PARP1 inhibitor BYK 204165 antagonized the cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin, pointing to the involvement of DNA repair in response to the anticancer activity of the drug. In conclusion, fascaplysin seems to be suitable for treatment of SCLC, based on high cytotoxic activity through multiple routes of action, affecting topoisomerase I, integrity of DNA and generation of ROS.

  8. Tumor cell-macrophage interactions increase angiogenesis through secretion of EMMPRIN

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    MichalAmitRahat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Tumor macrophages are generally considered to be alternatively/M2 activated to induce secretion of pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF and MMPs. EMMPRIN (CD147, basigin is overexpressed in many tumor types, and has been shown to induce fibroblasts and endothelial cell expression of MMPs and VEGF. We first show that tumor cell interactions with macrophages resulted in increased expression of EMMPRIN and induction of MMP-9 and VEGF. Human A498 renal carcinoma or MCF-7 breast carcinoma cell lines were co-cultured with the U937 monocytic-like cell line in the presence of TNFalpha (1 ng/ml. Membranal EMMPRIN expression was increased in the co-cultures (by 3-4 folds, p<0.01, as was the secretion of MMP-9 and VEGF (by 2-5 folds for both MMP-9 and VEGF, p<0.01, relative to the single cultures with TNFalpha. Investigating the regulatory mechanisms, we show that EMMPRIN was post-translationally regulated by miR-146a, as no change was observed in the tumoral expression of EMMPRIN mRNA during co-culture, expression of miR-146a was increased and its neutralization by its antagomir inhibited EMMPRIN expression. The secretion of EMMPRIN was also enhanced (by 2-3 folds, p<0.05, only in the A498 co-culture via shedding off of the membranal protein by a serine protease that is yet to be identified, as demonstrated by the use of wide range protease inhibitors. Finally, soluble EMMPRIN enhanced monocytic secretion of MMP-9 and VEGF, as inhibition of its expression levels by neutralizing anti-EMMPRIN or siRNA in the tumor cells lead to subsequent decreased induction of these two pro-angiogenic proteins. These results reveal a mechanism whereby tumor cell-macrophage interactions promote angiogenesis via an EMMPRIN-mediated pathway.

  9. Characterization of novel carcinoma cell lines for the analysis of therapeutical strategies fighting pancreatic cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zechner, Dietmar; Bürtin, Florian; Amme, Jonas; Lindner, Tobias; Radecke, Tobias; Hadlich, Stefan; Kühn, Jens-Peter; Vollmar, Brigitte

    2015-01-01

    Background Preclinical evaluations of chemotherapies depend on clinically relevant animal models for pancreatic cancer. The injection of syngeneic murine adenocarcinoma cells is one efficient option to generate carcinomas in mice with an intact immune system. However, this option is constrained by the paucity of appropriate cell lines. Results The murine pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines 6606PDA and 7265PDA were compared to the 6606l cell line isolated from a liver metastasis from mice suf...

  10. Immortalized human hepatic cell lines for in vitro testing and research purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Ramboer, Eva; Vanhaecke, Tamara; Rogiers, Vera; Vinken, Mathieu

    2015-01-01

    The ubiquitous shortage of primary human hepatocytes has urged the scientific community to search for alternative cell sources, such as immortalized hepatic cell lines. Over the years, several human hepatic cell lines have been produced, whether or not using a combination of viral oncogenes and human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein. Conditional approaches for hepatocyte immortalization have also been established and allow generation of growth-controlled cell lines. A variety of immor...

  11. Establishment and characterization of a new highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line derived from Saos2

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Lin; Fan, Qiming; Tu, Bing; Yan, Wei; Tang, Tingting

    2014-01-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignancy of bone in adolescents and young adults. There is a shortage of tumorigenic and highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell lines that can be used for metastasis study. Here we establish and characterize a highly metastatic human osteosarcoma cell line that is derived from Saos2 cell line based on bioluminescence. The occasional pulmonary metastatic cells developed from Saos2 were isolated, harvested, characterized and named Saos2-l. The parent...

  12. Evaluation of Stem Cell Markers, CD44/CD24 in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Hashemi Arabi

    2014-05-01

    Four breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 ، T47D ، MDA-MB231 and MDA-MB468 were purchased from National cell Bank of Iran based in Iran Pasture Institute and were cultured in high glucose DMEM supplemented with 10% FCS. Cells were stained with antiCD44-PE and antiCD24-FITC antibodies and Status of CD44 and CD24 as markers of breast cancer stem cells were evaluated using flow cytometer and fluorescent microscopy.Evaluation of CD44 and CD24 as markers of breast cancer stem cells showed that MDA-MB231 with 97±1.2% CD44+/CD24-/low cells is significantly different from the others that they were mainly CD44 and CD24 positive cells(p

  13. Biological characteristics of a novel giant cell tumor cell line derived from spine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhenhua; Li, Yan; Xu, Leqin; Wang, Xudong; Chen, Su; Yang, Cheng; Xiao, Jianru

    2016-07-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone(GCTB) is a special bone tumor for it consists of various cell types, and its biological characteristics is different from common benign or malignant neoplasm. In the present study, we report the biological features of a primary Asian GCTB cell line named GCTB28. We analyzed extensive properties of the GCTB28 cells including morphological observations, growth, cell cycle, karyotype, proliferation, proteins expression, surface biomarker verification, and tumorigenicity in nude mice. We found that the stromal cells of GCTB were endowed with self-renewal capacity and played dominant roles in GCTB development. Moreover, we confirmed that GCTB cells can be CD33(-)CD14(-) phenotype which was not in accord with previous study. This study provides an in vitro model system to investigate pathogenic mechanisms and molecular characteristics of GCTB and also provides a useful tool for researching the therapeutic targeting of GCTB. PMID:26801673

  14. Establishment and characterization of 7 novel hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines from patient-derived tumor xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xin

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common cancer with poor prognosis worldwide and the molecular mechanism is not well understood. This study aimed to establish a collection of human HCC cell lines from patient-derived xenograft (PDX models. From the 20 surgical HCC sample collections, 7 tumors were successfully developed in immunodeficient mice and further established 7 novel HCC cell lines (LIXC002, LIXC003, LIXC004, LIXC006, LIXC011, LIXC012 and CPL0903 by primary culture. The characterization of cell lines was defined by morphology, growth kinetics, cell cycle, chromosome analysis, short tandem repeat (STR analysis, molecular profile, and tumorigenicity. Additionally, response to clinical chemotherapeutics was validated both in vitro and in vivo. STR analysis indicated that all cell lines were unique cells different from known cell lines and free of contamination by bacteria or mycoplasma. The other findings were quite heterogeneous between individual lines. Chromosome aberration could be found in all cell lines. Alpha-fetoprotein was overexpressed only in 3 out of 7 cell lines. 4 cell lines expressed high level of vimentin. Ki67 was strongly stained in all cell lines. mRNA level of retinoic acid induced protein 3 (RAI3 was decreased in all cell lines. The 7 novel cell lines showed variable sensitivity to 8 tested compounds. LIXC011 and CPL0903 possessed multiple drug resistance property. Sorafenib inhibited xenograft tumor growth of LIXC006, but not of LIXC012. Our results indicated that the 7 novel cell lines with low passage maintaining their clinical and pathological characters could be good tools for further exploring the molecular mechanism of HCC and anti-cancer drug screening.

  15. Establishment and Characterization of 7 Novel Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cell Lines from Patient-Derived Tumor Xenografts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Gang; Xie, Fubo; Ouyang, Kedong; Tang, Xuzhen; Wang, Minjun; Wen, Danyi; Zhu, Yizhun; Qin, Xiaoran

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a common cancer with poor prognosis worldwide and the molecular mechanism is not well understood. This study aimed to establish a collection of human HCC cell lines from patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. From the 20 surgical HCC sample collections, 7 tumors were successfully developed in immunodeficient mice and further established 7 novel HCC cell lines (LIXC002, LIXC003, LIXC004, LIXC006, LIXC011, LIXC012 and CPL0903) by primary culture. The characterization of cell lines was defined by morphology, growth kinetics, cell cycle, chromosome analysis, short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, molecular profile, and tumorigenicity. Additionally, response to clinical chemotherapeutics was validated both in vitro and in vivo. STR analysis indicated that all cell lines were unique cells different from known cell lines and free of contamination by bacteria or mycoplasma. The other findings were quite heterogeneous between individual lines. Chromosome aberration could be found in all cell lines. Alpha-fetoprotein was overexpressed only in 3 out of 7 cell lines. 4 cell lines expressed high level of vimentin. Ki67 was strongly stained in all cell lines. mRNA level of retinoic acid induced protein 3 (RAI3) was decreased in all cell lines. The 7 novel cell lines showed variable sensitivity to 8 tested compounds. LIXC011 and CPL0903 possessed multiple drug resistance property. Sorafenib inhibited xenograft tumor growth of LIXC006, but not of LIXC012. Our results indicated that the 7 novel cell lines with low passage maintaining their clinical and pathological characters could be good tools for further exploring the molecular mechanism of HCC and anti-cancer drug screening. PMID:24416385

  16. Transfection of the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor gene promotes neuronal differentiation

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Jie; Gao, Xiaoqing; Deng, Li; Chang, Nengbin; Xiong, Huailin; Zheng, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor recombinant adenovirus vector-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells were induced to differentiate into neuron-like cells using inductive medium containing retinoic acid and epidermal growth factor. Cell viability, microtubule-associated protein 2-positive cell ratio, and the expression levels of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor, nerve growth factor and growth-associated protein-43 protein in the supernatant were significantly hig...

  17. Impacts of autophagy-inducing ingredient of areca nut on tumor cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Yu Yen

    Full Text Available Areca nut (AN is a popular carcinogen used by about 0.6-1.2 billion people worldwide. Although AN contains apoptosis-inducing ingredients, we previously demonstrated that both AN extract (ANE and its 30-100 kDa fraction (ANE 30-100K predominantly induce autophagic cell death in both normal and malignant cells. In this study, we further explored the action mechanism of ANE 30-100K-induced autophagy (AIA in Jurkat T lymphocytes and carcinoma cell lines including OECM-1 (mouth, CE81T/VGH (esophagus, SCC25 (tongue, and SCC-15 (tongue. The results showed that chemical- and small hairpin RNA (shRNA-mediated inhibition of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK resulted in the attenuation of AIA in Jurkat T but not in OECM-1 cells. Knockdown of Atg5 and Beclin 1 expressions ameliorated AIA in OECM-1/CE81T/VGH/Jurkat T and OECM-1/SCC25/SCC-15, respectively. Furthermore, ANE 30-100K could activate caspase-3 after inhibition of Beclin 1 expression in OECM-1/SCC25/SCC15 cells. Meanwhile, AMPK was demonstrated to be the upstream activator of the extracellular-regulated kinase (ERK in Jurkat T cells, and inhibition of MEK attenuated AIA in Jurkat T/OECM-1/CE81T/VGH cells. Finally, we also found that multiple myeloma RPMI8226, lymphoma U937, and SCC15 cells survived from long-term non-cytotoxic ANE 30-100K treatment exhibited stronger resistance against serum deprivation through upregulated autophagy. Collectively, our studies indicate that Beclin-1 and Atg5 but not AMPK are commonly required for AIA, and MEK/ERK pathway is involved in AIA. Meanwhile, it is also suggested that long-term AN usage might increase the resistance of survived tumor cells against serum-limited conditions.

  18. Histamine as a Radiosensitizer of Malignant Cell Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, E. S.; Medina, V.; Cricco, G.; Mohamed, N.; Croci, M.; Martin, G.; Nunez, M.; Bergoc, R. M.

    2004-07-01

    It has been established that the treatment with Histamine (Hi) produces a significant growth inhibition of different cell lines derived from human neoplasia. In a model of Knockout mice completely depleted of endogenous Hi, it was observed a significant delay in bone marroe repopulation after whole body irradiation. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that histamine has a role in the regulation of haematopoiesis as well as an inhibitory effect on apoptosis. The objective of this paper was to study the possible effect of Hi as protector of normal cells and radiosensitizer of malignant ones. To study the effect of Hi on small-intestine and bone marrow, thirty made mice were randomly separeted into two groups: Control irradiated (C), and irradiated receiving Histamine (HI-group). All animals received a single dose of 10 Gy on whole-body employing a ''137Cs source of 189 TB{sub q} (Dose rate: 7.7 Gy/min) calibrated with TLD 700 dosimeter. Hi-group recieved a daily se injection (0.1 mg/kg) starting 20 hs before irradiation. Mice were sacrificed 5 days after irradiation. Histopathological analysis indicated that intestinal mucosae of C group showed important injury, whist mucosae of Hi-treated mice showed mild mucosal atrophy with conservation of villous projections and absence of vascular congestive changes. In order to investigate the effect of Hi on radiosensitivity of transformed cells, MDA-MB-231 (human breast carcinoma cells) were irradiated in vitro with doses ranging from 0 to 10 Gy. Results of radiobiological parameters indicate a significant increase on radiosensitivity of malignant cells. Employing specific fluorescent dyes and flow cytometric analysis we determined that the intracellular levels of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) are significant increased by Hi 10 {mu}M in control and also in irradiated MDA-MB-231 cells, while the levels of superoxide (SO{sub 2}) were not significantly modified by Hi-treatment. (Author) 9 refs.

  19. Bimodal cell death induced by high radiation doses in the radioresistant sf9 insect cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This study was conducted to investigate the mode(s) of cell death induced by high radiation doses in the highly radioresistant Sf9 insect ovarian cell line. Methods: Cells were exposed to γ-radiation doses 200Gy and 500Gy, harvested at various time intervals (6h-72h) following irradiation, and subjected to cell morphology assay, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; comet assay) and Annexin-V labeling for the detection of membrane phosphatidylserine externalization. Cell morphology was assessed in cells entrapped and fixed in agarose gel directly from the cell suspension, thus preventing the possible loss of fragments/ apoptotic bodies. Surviving fraction of Sf9 cells was 0.01 at 200Gy and 98%) undergoing extensive DNA fragmentation at 500Gy, whereas the frequency of cells with DNA fragmentation was considerably less (∼12%) at 200Gy. Conclusions: While the mode of cell death at 200Gy seems to be different from typical apoptosis, a dose of 500Gy induced bimodal cell death, with typical apoptotic as well as the atypical cell death observed at 200Gy

  20. Comparison of mammalian and fish cell line cytotoxicity: impact of endpoint and exposure duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparisons of acute toxic concentrations of chemicals to fish in vivo and cytotoxic concentrations to fish cell lines in vitro reveal rather good correlations of the toxic potencies in vitro and in vivo, but a clearly lower sensitivity of the fish cells. To examine whether the low sensitivity is specific for fish cells, cytotoxic potencies of reference chemicals from the Multicenter Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxicity program (MEIC) reported for the fish cell lines R1 and RTG-2 were compared with those obtained with the mouse Balb/c 3T3 cell line. Cytotoxic potencies (EC50 values) for MEIC reference chemicals were determined with exponentially growing Balb/c 3T3 cells using three different test protocols. To assess both endpoints, cell proliferation and cell survival, EC50 values were measured for the decrease in final cell protein after 24 and 72 h of exposure and for the reduction of cell protein increase during 24 h of exposure. EC50 values obtained with the fish cell lines R1 and RTG-2 using cell survival as endpoint were taken from the MEIC data base. The comparison of cytotoxic potencies shows that, in general, the fish cell lines and the mammalian cell line are almost equally sensitive towards the cytotoxic action of chemicals. The mammalian cell line assay, however, becomes considerably more sensitive, by factors of 3.4-8.5, than the fish cell line assays, if cell growth instead of cell survival is used as endpoint. It is concluded, that cell proliferation might be a better endpoint than cell survival and that mammalian cell lines might be suited to assess fish acute toxicity

  1. Expression of Delayed Cell Death and DNA Repair in Human Epithelial Cell Lines Following Exposure to Ultraviolet Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The long term effects of UVA and UVB have been investigated using two human epithelial cell lines, HTori-3 (a human thyroid epithelial cell line) and 340 RPE-T53 (a human retinal pigment epithelial cell line). There was a marked difference in clonogenic survival following exposure between the two cell lines. DNA repair studies were undertaken using ara-C treatment. Ara-C administered immediately after UVB exposure, reduced survival in both cell lines indicating that DNA repair was inhibited. The plating efficiency, as an index of delayed cell death of both cell lines measured up to 20 population doublings following exposure to UV was reduced in a dose dependent manner after exposure to UVB but not to UVA. (author)

  2. Opioid binding site in EL-4 thymoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorica, E.; Spector, S.

    1988-01-01

    Using EL-4 thymoma cell-line we found a binding site similar to the k opioid receptor of the nervous system. The Scatchard analysis of the binding of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine indicated a single site with a K/sub D/ = 60 +/- 17 nM and Bmax = 2.7 +/- 0.8 pmols/10/sup 6/ cells. To characterize this binding site, competition studies were performed using selective compounds for the various opioid receptors. The k agonist U-50,488H was the most potent displacer of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine with an IC/sub 50/ value = 0.57..mu..M. The two steroisomers levorphanol and dextrorphan showed the same affinity for this site. While morphine, (D-Pen/sup 2/, D-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin and ..beta..-endorphin failed to displace, except at very high concentrations, codeine demonstrated a IC/sub 50/ = 60..mu..M, that was similar to naloxone. 32 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  3. Identifying anti-growth factors for human cancer cell lines through genome-scale metabolic modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaffari, Pouyan; Mardinoglu, Adil; Asplund, Anna;

    2015-01-01

    Human cancer cell lines are used as important model systems to study molecular mechanisms associated with tumor growth, hereunder how genomic and biological heterogeneity found in primary tumors affect cellular phenotypes. We reconstructed Genome scale metabolic models (GEMs) for eleven cell lines...... 85 antimetabolites that can inhibit growth of, or even kill, any of the cell lines, while at the same time not being toxic for 83 different healthy human cell types. 60 of these antimetabolites were found to inhibit growth in all cell lines. Finally, we experimentally validated one of the predicted...... antimetabolites using two cell lines with different phenotypic origins, and found that it is effective in inhibiting the growth of these cell lines. Using immunohistochemistry, we also showed high or moderate expression levels of proteins targeted by the validated antimetabolite. Identified anti-growth factors...

  4. Expression of cadherin and NCAM in human small cell lung cancer cell lines and xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, K; Møller, C; Bock, E;

    1992-01-01

    embryonic development, which may play a role in connection with tumour invasion and metastasis, was found in 14/18 NCAM expressing SCLC tumours. Individual tumours grown as cell lines and as nude mouse xenografts showed no qualitative differences in cadherin or NCAM expression....

  5. Ectopic expression of Flt3 kinase inhibits proliferation and promotes cell death in different human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oveland, Eystein; Wergeland, Line; Hovland, Randi; Lorens, James B; Gjertsen, Bjørn Tore; Fladmark, Kari E

    2012-08-01

    Stable ectopic expression of Flt3 receptor tyrosine kinase is usually performed in interleukin 3 (IL-3)-dependent murine cell lines like Ba/F3, resulting in loss of IL-3 dependence. Such high-level Flt3 expression has to date not been reported in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines, despite the fact that oncogenic Flt3 aberrancies are frequent in AML patients. We show here that ectopic Flt3 expression in different human cancer cell lines might reduce proliferation and induce apoptotic cell death, involving Bax/Bcl2 modulation. Selective depletion of Flt3-expressing cells occurred in human AML cell lines transduced with retroviral Flt3 constructs, shown here using the HL-60 leukemic cell line. Flt3 expression was investigated in two cellular model systems, the SAOS-2 osteosarcoma cell line and the human embryonic kidney HEK293 cell line, and proliferation was reduced in both systems. HEK293 cells underwent apoptosis upon ectopic Flt3 expression and cell death could be rescued by overexpression of Bcl-2. Furthermore, we observed that the Flt3-induced inhibition of proliferation in HL-60 cells appeared to be Bax-dependent. Our results thus suggest that excessive Flt3 expression has growth-suppressive properties in several human cancer cell lines. PMID:22422053

  6. Screening of Highly-expressed-HMGB1-Gene Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi LIU

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective Lung cancer is a type of malignant tumor which threats human health and life. Its morbidity might increase dramatically in a long period. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death all over the world. HMGB1 (high mobility group box B 1 is a non-histone chromosome binding protein in the cells. It takes part in many biological processes including genes transcription and DNA repair. HMGB1 overexpression can result in cell apoptosis, differentiation, migration and proliferation. The main purpose of this study was to detect the HMGB1 expression of 4 lung cancer cell lines in order to select the most suitable cell line to do the work next step. Methods Four lung cancer cell lines were cultured by normal method, Western blot and real-time quantitative PCR were used to verify the levels of expression of HMGB1. The cell line which HMGB1 over-expressed was selected. Results HMGB1 expressed in all 4 lung cancer cell lines, the cell line L9981 was the most highly expressed cell line (P < 0.001. Conclusion All 4 lung cancer cell lines expree HMGB1 gene. As the HMGB1 overexpression cell line, L9981 is an ideal material for follow-up research.

  7. Retrovirus-mediated conditional immortalization and analysis of established cell lines of osteoclast precursor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osteoclast precursor cells (OPCs) have previously been established from bone marrow cells of SV40 temperature-sensitive T antigen-expressing transgenic mice. Here, we use retrovirus-mediated gene transfer to conditionally immortalize OPCs by expressing temperature-sensitive large T antigen (tsLT) from wild type bone marrow cells. The immortalized OPCs proliferated at the permissive temperature of 33.5 deg. C, but stopped growing at the non-permissive temperature of 39 deg. C. In the presence of receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL), the OPCs differentiated into tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells and formed multinucleate osteoclasts at 33.5 deg. C. From these OPCs, we cloned two types of cell lines. Both differentiated into TRAP-positive cells, but one formed multinucleate osteoclasts while the other remained unfused in the presence of RANKL. These results indicate that the established cell lines are useful for analyzing mechanisms of differentiation, particularly multinucleate osteoclast formation. Retrovirus-mediated conditional immortalization should be a useful method to immortalize OPCs from primary bone marrow cells

  8. Properties of resistant cells generated from lung cancer cell lines treated with EGFR inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling plays an important role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and therapeutics targeted against EGFR have been effective in treating a subset of patients bearing somatic EFGR mutations. However, the cancer eventually progresses during treatment with EGFR inhibitors, even in the patients who respond to these drugs initially. Recent studies have identified that the acquisition of resistance in approximately 50% of cases is due to generation of a secondary mutation (T790M) in the EGFR kinase domain. In about 20% of the cases, resistance is associated with the amplification of MET kinase. In the remaining 30-40% of the cases, the mechanism underpinning the therapeutic resistance is unknown. An erlotinib resistant subline (H1650-ER1) was generated upon continuous exposure of NSCLC cell line NCI-H1650 to erlotinib. Cancer stem cell like traits including expression of stem cell markers, enhanced ability to self-renew and differentiate, and increased tumorigenicity in vitro were assessed in erlotinib resistant H1650-ER1 cells. The erlotinib resistant subline contained a population of cells with properties similar to cancer stem cells. These cells were found to be less sensitive towards erlotinib treatment as measured by cell proliferation and generation of tumor spheres in the presence of erlotinib. Our findings suggest that in cases of NSCLC accompanied by mutant EGFR, treatment targeting inhibition of EGFR kinase activity in differentiated cancer cells may generate a population of cancer cells with stem cell properties

  9. Network signatures of cellular immortalization in human lymphoblastoid cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Sung-Mi; Jung, So-Young; Nam, Hye-Young; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Lee, Mee-Hee; Kim, Jun-Woo; Han, Bok-Ghee [National Biobank of Korea, Center for Genome Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Osong 363-951 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Jae-Pil, E-mail: jaepiljeon@hanmail.net [Division of Brain Diseases, Center for Biomedical Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Osong 363-951 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •We identified network signatures of LCL immortalization from transcriptomic profiles. •More than 41% of DEGs are possibly regulated by miRNAs in LCLs. •MicroRNA target genes in LCLs are involved in apoptosis and immune-related functions. •This approach is useful to find functional miRNA targets in specific cell conditions. -- Abstract: Human lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) has been used as an in vitro cell model in genetic and pharmacogenomic studies, as well as a good model for studying gene expression regulatory machinery using integrated genomic analyses. In this study, we aimed to identify biological networks of LCL immortalization from transcriptomic profiles of microRNAs and their target genes in LCLs. We first selected differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and microRNAs (DEmiRs) between early passage LCLs (eLCLs) and terminally differentiated late passage LCLs (tLCLs). The in silico and correlation analysis of these DEGs and DEmiRs revealed that 1098 DEG–DEmiR pairs were found to be positively (n = 591 pairs) or negatively (n = 507 pairs) correlated with each other. More than 41% of DEGs are possibly regulated by miRNAs in LCL immortalizations. The target DEGs of DEmiRs were enriched for cellular functions associated with apoptosis, immune response, cell death, JAK–STAT cascade and lymphocyte activation while non-miRNA target DEGs were over-represented for basic cell metabolisms. The target DEGs correlated negatively with miR-548a-3p and miR-219-5p were significantly associated with protein kinase cascade, and the lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. In addition, the miR-106a and miR-424 clusters located in the X chromosome were enriched in DEmiR–mRNA pairs for LCL immortalization. In this study, the integrated transcriptomic analysis of LCLs could identify functional networks of biologically active microRNAs and their target genes involved in LCL immortalization.

  10. A novel cell growth-promoting factor identified in a B cell leukemia cell line, BALL-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel leukemia cell growth-promoting activity has been identified in the culture supernatant from a human B cell leukemia cell line, BALL-1. The supernatant from unstimulated cultures of the BALL-1 cells significantly promoted the growth of 16 out of 24 leukemia/lymphoma cell lines of different lineages (T, B and non-lymphoid) in a minimal concentration of fetal bovine serum (FBS), and 5 out of 12 cases of fresh leukemia cells in FBS-free medium. The growth-promoting sieve filtration and dialysis. The MW of the factor was less than 10 kDa. The growth-promoting activity was heat and acid stable and resistant to trypsin treatment. The factor isolated from the BALL-1 supernatant was distinct from known polypeptide growth factors with MW below 10 kDa, such as epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor α, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-II and insulin, as determine by specific antibodies and by cell-growth-promoting tests. The factor is the BALL-1 supernatant did not promote the proliferation of normal human fresh peripheral blood lymphocytes or mouse fibroblast cell line, BALB/C 3T3. In addition to the BALL-1 supernatant, a similar growth-promoting activity was found in the culture supernatant from 13 of 17 leukemia/lymphoma cell lines tested. The activity in these culture supernatant promoted the growth of leukemia/lymphoma cell lines in autocrine and/or paracrine fashions. These observations suggest that the low MW cell growth-promoting activity found in the BALL-1 culture supernatant is mediated by a novel factor which may be responsible for the clonal expansion of particular leukemic clones. (author)

  11. Cell and membrane lipid analysis by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy in five breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moyec, L; Tatoud, R; Eugène, M; Gauvillé, C; Primot, I; Charlemagne, D; Calvo, F

    1992-10-01

    The lipid composition of five human breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, T47D, ZR-75-1, SKBR3 and MDA-MB231) was assessed by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) in whole cells and membrane-enriched fractions. The proportions of the three main lipid resonances in 1D spectra were different for each cell line. These resonances included mobile methyl and methylene functions from fatty acids of triglycerides and phospholipids and N-trimethyl from choline of phospholipids. T47D and ZR-75-1 cells presented a high methylene/methyl ratio (6.02 +/- 0.35 and 6.28 +/- 0.90). This ratio was significantly lower for SKBR3, MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells (2.76 +/- 0.22, 2.27 +/- 0.57 and 1.39 +/- 0.39). The N-trimethyl/methyl ratio was high for MDA-MB231 and SKBR3 cells (1.38 +/- 0.54 and 0.86 +/- 0.32), but lower for MCF-7, T47D and ZR-75-1 cells (0.49 +/- 0.11, 0.16 +/- 0.07 and 0.07 +/- 0.03). 2D COSY spectra confirmed these different proportions in mobile lipids. From 1D spectra obtained on membrane preparations, T47D and ZR-75-1 were the only cell lines to retain a signal from mobile methylene functions. These differences might be related to the heterogeneity found for several parameters of these cells (tumorigenicity, growth rate, hormone receptors); an extended number of cases from fresh samples might enable clinical correlations. PMID:1329906

  12. Monocytic cells synthesize, adhere to, and migrate on laminin-8 (alpha 4 beta 1 gamma 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza, C; Geberhiwot, T; Ingerpuu, S; Assefa, D; Wondimu, Z; Kortesmaa, J; Tryggvason, K; Virtanen, I; Patarroyo, M

    2000-11-15

    Laminins, a growing family of large heterotrimeric proteins with cell adhesive and signaling properties, are major components of vascular and other basement membranes. Expression, recognition, and use of laminin isoforms by leukocytes are poorly understood. In monoblastic THP-1 cells, transcripts for laminin gamma(1)-, beta(1)-, and alpha(4)-chains were detected by RT-PCR. Following immunoaffinity purification on a laminin beta(1) Ab-Sepharose column, laminin beta(1)- (220 kDa), gamma(1)- (200 kDa), and alpha(4)- (180/200 kDa) chains were detected by Western blotting in THP-1 cells and in two other monoblastic cell lines, U-937 and Mono Mac 6. After cell permeabilization, a mAb to laminin gamma(1)-chain reacted with practically all blood monocytes by immunofluorescence flow cytometry, and laminin-8 (alpha(4)beta(1)gamma(1)) could be isolated also from these cells. Monoblastic JOSK-I cells adhered constitutively to immobilized recombinant laminin-8, less than to laminin-10/11 (alpha(5)beta(1)gamma(1)/alpha(5)beta(2)gamma(1)) but to a higher level than to laminin-1 (alpha(1)beta(1)gamma(1)). Compared with the other laminin isoforms, adhesion to laminin-8 was preferentially mediated by alpha(6)beta(1) and beta(2) integrins. Laminin-8 and, to a lower extent, laminin-1 promoted spontaneous and chemokine-induced migration of blood monocytes, whereas laminin-10/11 was inhibitory. Altogether, the results indicate that leukocytes, as other cell types, are able to synthesize complete laminin molecules. Expression, recognition, and use of laminin-8 by leukocytes suggest a major role of this laminin isoform in leukocyte physiology. PMID:11067943

  13. Generación de una línea de macrófagos con expresión del represor de tetraciclina para su implementación en un modelo de silenciamiento genético inducible / Generation of a macrophage cell line expressing tetracycline repressor for the establishment of an inducible gene silencing model

    OpenAIRE

    Salazar Terreros, Myriam Janeth

    2010-01-01

    La línea promonocítica U937 ha sido utilizada como modelo in vitro para estudios de infección de patógenos intracelulares, fisiopatología del cáncer y procesos de diferenciación celular. En este proyecto se generó una línea celular derivada de la línea U937, con expresión estable del represor de tetraciclina (U937-TR+) para utilizarla eventualmente en un sistema de silenciamiento genético inducible mediado por miRNA. La generación de la línea U937-TR+ se logró mediante transfección por lipofe...

  14. 76 FR 16609 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Identification of Human Cell Lines Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-24

    ...) profiling up to 1500 human cell line samples as part of the Identification of Human Cell Lines Project. All... being that can be grown in the laboratory and are considered immortal (alive and reproduce forever in a... the tissue they're from. Once cells from a tissue have been grown in the lab they are called a...

  15. Molecular characterization of neoplastic and normal "sister" lymphoblastoid B-cell lines from chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanemo Myhrinder, Anna; Hellqvist, Eva; Bergh, Ann-Charlotte;

    2013-01-01

    ) and DNA/short tandem repeat (STR) fingerprinting. Innate B-cell features, i.e. natural Ab production and CD5 receptors, were present in most CLL cell lines, but in none of the normal LCLs. This panel of immortalized CLL-derived cell lines is a valuable reference representing a renewable source of...

  16. Beta-cell lines derived from transgenic mice expressing a hybrid insulin gene-oncogene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efrat, S; Linde, S; Kofod, Hans;

    1988-01-01

    Three pancreatic beta-cell lines have been established from insulinomas derived from transgenic mice carrying a hybrid insulin-promoted simian virus 40 tumor antigen gene. The beta tumor cell (beta TC) lines maintain the features of differentiated beta cells for about 50 passages in culture. The ...

  17. The genomic sequence of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xun; Pan, Shengkai; Liu, Xin; Chen, Wenbin; Xie, Min; Wang, Wenliang; Nagarajan, Harish; Lewis, Nathan; Famili, Iman; Palsson, Bernhard O.; Cai, Zhiming; Gui, Yaoting; Hammond, Stephanie; Lee, Kelvin H.; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Neff, Norma; Passarelli, Benedetto; Koh, Winston; Fan, H. Christina; Wang, Jianbin; Quake, Stephen R.; Betenbaugh, Michael; Palsson, Bernhard; Wang, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-derived cell lines are the preferred host cells for the production of therapeutic proteins. Here we present a draft genomic sequence of the CHO-K1 ancestral cell line. The assembly comprises 2.45 Gb of genomic sequence, with 24,383 predicted genes. We associate most of...

  18. The effects of phenoxodiol on the cell cycle of prostate cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Mahoney, Simon; Arfuso, Frank; Millward, Michael; Dharmarajan, Arun

    2014-01-01

    Background Prostate cancer is associated with a poor survival rate. The ability of cancer cells to evade apoptosis and exhibit limitless replication potential allows for progression of cancer from a benign to a metastatic phenotype. The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro the effect of the isoflavone phenoxodiol on the expression of cell cycle genes. Methods Three prostate cancer cell lines-LNCaP, DU145, and PC3 were cultured in vitro, and then treated with phenoxodiol (10 μM and 30...

  19. A suspended cell line from Trichoplusia ni (Lepidoptera):Characterization and expression of recombinant proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min-Juan Meng; Tian-Long Li; Chang-You Li; Guo-Xun Li

    2008-01-01

    A suspended cell line from Trichoplusia ni embryos was established, and its susceptibility to Autographa californica multiple nuclear polyhedrosis virus (AcMNPV)infection was investigated. This cell line had characteristics distinct from the BTI-Tn5B 14 cell line (Tn5B 1-4) from T. ni in growth, and showed approximately the same responses to AcMNPV infection, production of occlusion bodies, and levels of recombinant protein expression. No clumps were observed at maximum cell density at late-log phase in shakeflask or T-flask cultures, and thus the cells represent a useful new contribution for baculovirus research. The cells consist of two major morphological types: approximately 70% spindle-shaped cells and 30% round cells. The cell line was highly susceptible to virus infection and produced around 107 AcMNPV occlusion bodies per cell, on average.Production of β-galactosidase and secreted alkaline phosphatase was high with 3.97 + 0.13×104 IU/mL and 3.48±0.40 IU/mL, respectively. This cell line may be applicable for studies of scale-up production of viruses or baculovirus-insect cell expression. We also believe the new line can be a source for cell clones with higher production of virus and recombinant proteins compared to the parent or other existing cell lines such as Tn5B 1-4.

  20. Radiosensitivity evaluation of Human tumor cell lines by single cell gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of determining radiosensitivity of human tumor cell lines in vitro using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Methods: Three human tumor cell lines were selected in this study, HepG2, EC-9706 and MCF-7. The surviving fraction (SF) and DNA damage were detected by MTT assay, nested PCR technique and comet assay respectively. Results: MTT assay: The SF of HepG2 and EC-9706 after irradiated by 2, 4 and 8 Gy was lower significantly than that of MCF-7, which showed that the radiosensitivity of HepG2 and EC-9706 was higher than that of MCF-7. But there was no statistical difference of SF between HepG2 and EC-9706. SCGE: The difference of radiosensitivity among these three tumor cell lines was significant after 8 Gy γ-ray irradiation. Conclusion: The multi-utilization of many biological parameter is hopeful to evaluate the radiosensitivity of tumor cells more objectively and exactly. (authors)

  1. Gene probes to detect cross-culture contamination in hormone producing cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matsuba, I; Lernmark, A; Madsen, Ole Dragsbæk;

    1988-01-01

    Cross-culture contamination of cell lines propagated in continuous culture is a frequent event and particularly difficult to resolve in cells expressing similar phenotypes. We demonstrate that DNA-DNA hybridization to blotted endonuclease-digested cell DNA effectively detects cross-culture contam...... effective use of gene probes to control the origin of cell cultures.......Cross-culture contamination of cell lines propagated in continuous culture is a frequent event and particularly difficult to resolve in cells expressing similar phenotypes. We demonstrate that DNA-DNA hybridization to blotted endonuclease-digested cell DNA effectively detects cross......-culture contamination to monitor inter-species as well as intra-species cross contamination. An insulin-producing cell-line, Clone-16, originally cloned from a human fetal endocrine pancreatic cell line did not produce human c-peptide as anticipated. DNA from these cells showed no hybridization to the human ALU...

  2. Establishment and characterization of a cell line from the Chinese soft-shelled turtle Pelodiscus sinensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Haijie; Xia, Zhaonan; Tang, Wei; Mao, Zhijuan; Qian, Guoying; Wang, Caisheng

    2016-06-01

    The establishment and partial characterization of Pelodiscus sinensis continuous cell line is described here. A novel P. sinensis fibroblast cell line, designated PSF, was established from heart tissue by the semi-digestion explant culture technique. Since its initiation in July 2013, the cell line has been subcultured at 30°C in minimal essential medium (MEM) containing 15% (v/v) fetal bovine serum for more than 50 passages. The growth curve of the cell line revealed the population doubling time was 51.1 h. Karyotyping analysis indicated the modal chromosome number was 66, and no microbial contamination was detected. The PSF cell line produced significant fluorescent signals after transfection with plasmid pEGFP-C3. Analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome D-loop sequences revealed 96% identity among other Chinese turtle subspecies. Several cell line characterizations included morphological analysis and immunocytochemistry, which revealed the origin of the PSF cell line was fibroblast-like cells. Measurement of the isoenzymes lactic dehydrogenase and malic dehydrogenase showed no cross-contamination of this cell line with other species. This newly established cell line will be a valuable tool for transgenic and genetic manipulation studies and will act as an efficient instrument for studies of the viral diseases of the soft-shelled turtle. PMID:27059326

  3. EXPRESSION OF THE O6-METHYLGUANINE-DNA METHYLTRANSFERASE GENE IN EIGHT HUMAN TUMOR CELL LINES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建敏; 章扬培; 吴英

    1994-01-01

    O6-methylguanine-DNA methltransferase(MGMT) gene expression in 6 Mer+(HeLa S3,SMMC-7721,SGC-7901,B-239,AGZY83-a,and Cc801)and 2Mer-(SHG-44,AND HeLa MR) haman tumor cell lines was examined.Southern blot analysis revealed no deletion,amplification,or rearrangement of the MGMT gene in these cell lines.However,-1.0kb transcripts were detected in the 6 Mer+ cell lines but not in the 2 Mer- cell lines by Northern blot analysis.Furthermore,a rough correlation between MGMT activity and mRNA level in these cell lines was observed.These results suggest that transcriptional regulation of the MGMT gene is the molecular basis of the absence of MGMT activity in Mer- cell lines.

  4. Mechanism of multidrug resistance of human small cell lung cancer cell line H446/VP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-ling; YAN Yun-li; ZHOU Na-jing; HAN Shuo; ZHAO Jun-xia; CAO Cui-li; Lü Yu-hong

    2010-01-01

    Background Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the most aggressive form of lung cancer. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of human small cell lung cancer cell line resistance to etoposide (VP-16), H446/VP.Methods The cell viability was measured by M∏ assay. Immunocytochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting methods were used to detect the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), bcl-2, bax and the topoisomerase Ⅱ (Topo Ⅱ) expressions in H446 and H446/VP cells after treated with or without VP-16.Results The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of VP-16 on H446 cells was 49 mg/L, and 836 mg/L was for H446/VP cells. The expressions of MDR1 and bcl-2 were up-regulated, while the amounts of bax and Topo Ⅱ were reduced in H446/VP cells. After treated with 49 mg/L of VP-16, it showed that the drug could significantly inhibit bcl-2 and Topo Ⅱ expressions, and increase bax expression in H446 cells compared with that of H446/VP cells.Conclusions The H446/VP cell was stably resistant to VP-16. The decreased expression of Topo Ⅱ was correlated with the H446/VP multidrug resistance. The elevated expressions of MDR1, and the altered apoptotic pathways also played an important role in VP-16 induced multidrug resistance of SCLC.

  5. Rabbit embryonic stem cell lines derived from fertilized, parthenogenetic or somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embryonic stem cells were isolated from rabbit blastocysts derived from fertilization (conventional rbES cells), parthenogenesis (pES cells) and nuclear transfer (ntES cells), and propagated in a serum-free culture system. Rabbit ES (rbES) cells proliferated for a prolonged time in an undifferentiated state and maintained a normal karyotype. These cells grew in a monolayer with a high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio and contained a high level of alkaline phosphate activity. In addition, rbES cells expressed the pluripotent marker Oct-4, as well as EBAF2, FGF4, TDGF1, but not antigens recognized by antibodies against SSEA-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-10 and TRA-1-81. All 3 types of ES cells formed embryoid bodies and generated teratoma that contained tissue types of all three germ layers. rbES cells exhibited a high cloning efficiency, were genetically modified readily and were used as nuclear donors to generate a viable rabbit through somatic cell nuclear transfer. In combination with genetic engineering, the ES cell technology should facilitate the creation of new rabbit lines

  6. Prediction of epigenetically regulated genes in breast cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loss, Leandro A; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Durinck, Steffen; Nautiyal, Shivani; Flaucher, Diane; Carlton, Victoria EH; Moorhead, Martin; Lu, Yontao; Gray, Joe W; Faham, Malek; Spellman, Paul; Parvin, Bahram

    2010-05-04

    Methylation of CpG islands within the DNA promoter regions is one mechanism that leads to aberrant gene expression in cancer. In particular, the abnormal methylation of CpG islands may silence associated genes. Therefore, using high-throughput microarrays to measure CpG island methylation will lead to better understanding of tumor pathobiology and progression, while revealing potentially new biomarkers. We have examined a recently developed high-throughput technology for measuring genome-wide methylation patterns called mTACL. Here, we propose a computational pipeline for integrating gene expression and CpG island methylation profles to identify epigenetically regulated genes for a panel of 45 breast cancer cell lines, which is widely used in the Integrative Cancer Biology Program (ICBP). The pipeline (i) reduces the dimensionality of the methylation data, (ii) associates the reduced methylation data with gene expression data, and (iii) ranks methylation-expression associations according to their epigenetic regulation. Dimensionality reduction is performed in two steps: (i) methylation sites are grouped across the genome to identify regions of interest, and (ii) methylation profles are clustered within each region. Associations between the clustered methylation and the gene expression data sets generate candidate matches within a fxed neighborhood around each gene. Finally, the methylation-expression associations are ranked through a logistic regression, and their significance is quantified through permutation analysis. Our two-step dimensionality reduction compressed 90% of the original data, reducing 137,688 methylation sites to 14,505 clusters. Methylation-expression associations produced 18,312 correspondences, which were used to further analyze epigenetic regulation. Logistic regression was used to identify 58 genes from these correspondences that showed a statistically signifcant negative correlation between methylation profles and gene expression in the

  7. Inhibition of geranylgeranylation mediates sensitivity to CHOP-induced cell death of DLBCL cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prenylation is a post-translational hydrophobic modification of proteins, important for their membrane localization and biological function. The use of inhibitors of prenylation has proven to be a useful tool in the activation of apoptotic pathways in tumor cell lines. Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (Rab GGT) is responsible for the prenylation of the Rab family. Overexpression of Rab GGTbeta has been identified in CHOP refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Using a cell line-based model for CHOP resistant DLBCL, we show that treatment with simvastatin, which inhibits protein farnesylation and geranylgeranylation, sensitizes DLBCL cells to cytotoxic treatment. Treatment with the farnesyl transferase inhibitor FTI-277 or the geranylgeranyl transferase I inhibitor GGTI-298 indicates that the reduction in cell viability was restricted to inhibition of geranylgeranylation. In addition, treatment with BMS1, a combined inhibitor of farnesyl transferase and Rab GGT, resulted in a high cytostatic effect in WSU-NHL cells, demonstrated by reduced cell viability and decreased proliferation. Co-treatment of BMS1 or GGTI-298 with CHOP showed synergistic effects with regard to markers of apoptosis. We propose that inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation together with conventional cytostatic therapy is a potential novel strategy for treating patients with CHOP refractory DLBCL.

  8. Inhibition of geranylgeranylation mediates sensitivity to CHOP-induced cell death of DLBCL cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageberg, Malin, E-mail: Malin.Ageberg@med.lu.se [Division of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Lund University, BMC C14, 221 84 Lund (Sweden); Rydstroem, Karin, E-mail: Karin.Rydstom@skane.se [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden); Linden, Ola, E-mail: Ola.Linden@skane.se [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden); Linderoth, Johan, E-mail: Johan.Linderoth@skane.se [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden); Jerkeman, Mats, E-mail: Mats.Jerkeman@skane.se [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden); Drott, Kristina, E-mail: Kristina.Drott@med.lu.se [Division of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Lund University, BMC C14, 221 84 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-05-01

    Prenylation is a post-translational hydrophobic modification of proteins, important for their membrane localization and biological function. The use of inhibitors of prenylation has proven to be a useful tool in the activation of apoptotic pathways in tumor cell lines. Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (Rab GGT) is responsible for the prenylation of the Rab family. Overexpression of Rab GGTbeta has been identified in CHOP refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Using a cell line-based model for CHOP resistant DLBCL, we show that treatment with simvastatin, which inhibits protein farnesylation and geranylgeranylation, sensitizes DLBCL cells to cytotoxic treatment. Treatment with the farnesyl transferase inhibitor FTI-277 or the geranylgeranyl transferase I inhibitor GGTI-298 indicates that the reduction in cell viability was restricted to inhibition of geranylgeranylation. In addition, treatment with BMS1, a combined inhibitor of farnesyl transferase and Rab GGT, resulted in a high cytostatic effect in WSU-NHL cells, demonstrated by reduced cell viability and decreased proliferation. Co-treatment of BMS1 or GGTI-298 with CHOP showed synergistic effects with regard to markers of apoptosis. We propose that inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation together with conventional cytostatic therapy is a potential novel strategy for treating patients with CHOP refractory DLBCL.

  9. Cell surface glycopeptides from human intestinal epithelial cell lines derived from normal colon and colon adenocarcinomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cell surface glycopeptides from an epithelial cell line (CCL 239) derived from normal human colon were compared with those from three cell lines (HCT-8R, HCT-15, and CaCo-2) derived independently from human colonic adenocarcinomas. Cells were incubated with D-[2-3H]mannose or L-[5,6-3H]fucose for 24 h and treated with trypsin to release cell surface components which were then digested exhaustively with Pronase and fractionated on Bio-Gel P-6 before and after treatment with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H. The most noticeable difference between the labeled glycopeptides from the tumor and CCL 239 cells was the presence in the former of an endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase H-resistant high molecular weight glycopeptide fraction which was eluted in the void volume of Bio-Gel P-6. This fraction was obtained with both labeled mannose and fucose as precursors. However, acid hydrolysis of this fraction obtained after incubation with [2-3H]mannose revealed that as much as 60-90% of the radioactivity was recovered as fucose. Analysis of the total glycopeptides (cell surface and cell pellet) obtained after incubation with [2-3H]mannose showed that from 40-45% of the radioactivity in the tumor cells and less than 10% of the radioactivity in the CCL 239 cells was recovered as fucose. After incubation of the HCT-8R cells with D-[1,6-3H]glucosamine and L-[1-14C]fucose, strong acid hydrolysis of the labeled glycopeptide fraction excluded from Bio-Gel P-6 produced 3H-labeled N-acetylglucosamine and N-acetylgalactosamine

  10. Glioma cells on the run – the migratory transcriptome of 10 human glioma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holz David

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM is the most common primary intracranial tumor and despite recent advances in treatment regimens, prognosis for affected patients remains poor. Active cell migration and invasion of GBM cells ultimately lead to ubiquitous tumor recurrence and patient death. To further understand the genetic mechanisms underlying the ability of glioma cells to migrate, we compared the matched transcriptional profiles of migratory and stationary populations of human glioma cells. Using a monolayer radial migration assay, motile and stationary cell populations from seven human long term glioma cell lines and three primary GBM cultures were isolated and prepared for expression analysis. Results Gene expression signatures of stationary and migratory populations across all cell lines were identified using a pattern recognition approach that integrates a priori knowledge with expression data. Principal component analysis (PCA revealed two discriminating patterns between migrating and stationary glioma cells: i global down-regulation and ii global up-regulation profiles that were used in a proband-based rule function implemented in GABRIEL to find subsets of genes having similar expression patterns. Genes with up-regulation pattern in migrating glioma cells were found to be overexpressed in 75% of human GBM biopsy specimens compared to normal brain. A 22 gene signature capable of classifying glioma cultures based on their migration rate was developed. Fidelity of this discovery algorithm was assessed by validation of the invasion candidate gene, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF. siRNA mediated knockdown yielded reduced in vitro migration and ex vivo invasion; immunohistochemistry on glioma invasion tissue microarray confirmed up-regulation of CTGF in invasive glioma cells. Conclusion Gene expression profiling of migratory glioma cells induced to disperse in vitro affords discovery of genomic signatures; selected

  11. Aquaporin expression and cell volume regulation in the SV40 immortalized rat submandibular acinar cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Ann-Kristin; Galtung, Hilde Kanli

    2007-03-01

    The amount of aquaporins present and the cellular ability to perform regulatory volume changes are likely to be important for fluid secretions from exocrine glands. In this work these phenomena were studied in an SV40 immortalized rat submandibular acinar cell line. The regulatory cell volume characteristics have not previously been determined in these cells. Cell volume regulation following hyposmotic exposure and aquaporin induction was examined with Coulter counter methodology, radioactive efflux studies, fura-2 fluorescence, and polymerase chain reaction and Western blot techniques. Cell volume regulation was inhibited by the K(+) channel antagonists quinine and BaCl(2) and the Cl(-) channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenypropylamino)benzoic acid. A concomitant increase in cellular (3)H-taurine release and Ca(2+) concentration was also observed. Chelation of both intra- and extracellular Ca(2+) with EGTA and the Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 did not, however, affect cell volume regulation. Aquaporin 5 (AQP5) mRNA and protein levels were upregulated in hyperosmotic conditions and downregulated upon return to isosmotic solutions, but were reduced by the mitogen-activated ERK-activating kinase (MEK) inhibitor U0126. A 24-h MEK inhibition also diminished hyposmotically induced cell swelling and cell volume regulation. In conclusion, it was determined that regulatory volume changes in this immortalized cell line are due to KCl and taurine efflux. In conditions that increased AQP5 levels, the cells showed a faster cell swelling and a more complete volume recovery following hyposmotic exposure. This response could be overturned by MEK inhibition. PMID:17021794

  12. The Molecular Karyotype of 25 Clinical-Grade Human Embryonic Stem Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Canham, Maurice A; Amy Van Deusen; Daniel R Brison; De Sousa, Paul A.; Janet Downie; Liani Devito; Hewitt, Zoe A; Dusko Ilic; Kimber, Susan J.; Moore, Harry D; Helen Murray; Tilo Kunath

    2015-01-01

    The application of human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derivatives to regenerative medicine is now becoming a reality. Although the vast majority of hESC lines have been derived for research purposes only, about 50 lines have been established under Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) conditions. Cell types differentiated from these designated lines may be used as a cell therapy to treat macular degeneration, Parkinson's, Huntington's, diabetes, osteoarthritis and other degenerative conditions. It ...

  13. Antisense bcl-2 treatment increases programmed cell death in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koty, P P; Zhang, H; Levitt, M L