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Sample records for cell line u937

  1. Poliovirus modulates Bcl-xl expression in the human U937 promonocytic cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandria, C; López-Guerrero, J A

    2002-12-01

    Poliovirus induces bcl-2-independent apoptosis in the human U937 promonocytic cell line [28]. Here we describe that this cell death, induced after viral infection, correlates with the modulation of the protooncoprotein Bcl-xl. Furthermore, poliovirus infection decreases the detected Bcl-xl in a U937 clone that overexpresses this protein (U937bcl-xl). Although in U937bcl-xl cells, Bcl-xl was not as highly regulated as in parental U937 cells, correlation between Bcl-xl modulation and the cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase could be observed. Nevertheless, the induction of shutoff after infection of transfected control U937neo or U937bcl-xl clones was not significantly altered. Finally, production of new viral particles was slightly restricted in Bcl-xl-overexpressing U937 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that Bcl-xl is modulated during the induction of apoptosis in the promonocytic cell line U937 after poliovirus infection, although modulation of this protooncogene was not sufficient to modify the course of infection.

  2. Rapid desensitization of the histamine H2 receptor on the human monocytic cell line U937

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, M J; Leurs, R; Shukrula, S R; Bast, A; Timmerman, H

    1994-01-01

    In the present study we have subjected the histamine H2 receptor on the monocytic cell line U937 to a thorough pharmacological characterization using a series of selective histamine H1, H2 and H3 receptor agonists and antagonists. Recent reports have demonstrated the existence of a histamine H2

  3. Effect of anti-carbohydrate antibodies on HIV infection in a monocytic cell line (U937)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Clausen, H

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against carbohydrate epitopes of gp120 have recently been found to inhibit HIV infection of lymphocytes in vitro thereby opening new possibilities for vaccine considerations. Antibody-dependent enhancement of infection has however come increasingly into focus....... This study therefore investigated the neutralization of HIV in a monocytic cell line (U937) using mAbs against these carbohydrate gp120-epitopes. While antibodies against one of the epitopes (AI) neutralized infection of U937 cells despite binding to the Fc-receptor, one mAb against the sialosyl-Tn epitope...... enhanced infection. This enhancement was independent of complement and could be blocked by mAb Leu3a against the CD4-receptor. The study indicated that enhancement of infection in monocytic cells can occur by the same anti-carbohydrate antibodies that neutralize infection in lymphocytes, and that antibody...

  4. Assessment of the U937 cell line for the detection of contact allergens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Python, Francois; Goebel, Carsten; Aeby, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    The human myeloid cell line U937 was evaluated as an in vitro test system to identify contact sensitizers in order to develop alternatives to animal tests for the cosmetic industry. Specific culture conditions (i.e., presence of interleukin-4, IL-4) were applied to obtain a dendritic cell-like phenotype. In the described test protocol, these cells were exposed to test chemicals and then analyzed by flow cytometry for CD86 expression and by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for IL-1β and IL-8 gene expressions. Eight sensitizers, three non-sensitizers and five oxidative hair dye precursors were examined after 24-, 48- and 72-h exposure times. Test item-specific modulations of the chosen activation markers (CD86, IL-1β and IL-8) suggest that this U937 activation test could discriminate test items classified as contact sensitizers or non-sensitizers in the local lymph node assay in mice (LLNA). More specifically, a test item can be considered as a potential sensitizer when it significantly induced the upregulation of the expression of at least two markers. Using this approach, we could correctly evaluate the dendritic cell (DC) activation potential for 15 out of 16 tested chemicals. We conclude that the U937 activation test may represent an useful tool in a future in vitro test battery for predicting sensitizing properties of chemicals

  5. High expression of lnc-CRNDE presents as a biomarker for acute myeloid leukemia and promotes the malignant progression in acute myeloid leukemia cell line U937.

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    Wang, Y; Zhou, Q; Ma, J-J

    2018-02-01

    To detect the expression of long non-coding RNA-CRNDE in patients with acute myeloid leukemia and its effect on proliferation and apoptosis in acute myeloid leukemia cell line U937. 81 cases of newly diagnosed acute myeloid leukemia (AML) were enrolled, and 35 non-malignant hematological patients were selected as controls. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to detect the expression of lncRNA-CRNDE in the bone marrow specimens of the subjects, and the difference between the two groups was also compared. The correlation between the expression of lncRNA-CRNDE and the sex, age, classification and total survival of clinical patients was analyzed according to the clinical data. U937 cells and monocytes isolated from normal people were cultured, and the expression of lncRNA-CRNDE in acute myeloid leukemia cell line U937 and normal monocytes was compared. SiRNA-CRNDE and pcDNA-CRNDE were transfected into U937 cells, and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay was performed to detect proliferation of U937 cells, Annexin V/PI flow cytometry was carried out to detect cell apoptosis. Cell cycle was measured by flow cytometry. The expression of lncRNA-CRNDE in patients with AML and U937 cells was significantly higher than that in non-malignant hematological controls. Results of clinical data showed that the expression of lncRNA-CRNDE was associated with the classification and total survival of myeloid leukemia in clinical patients. After transfection of siRNA-CRNDE, the proliferation and cloning ability of U937 cells decreased, while the apoptosis increased (p < 0.01) and cells were arrested in G0-G1 phase. Meanwhile, after transfection of pcDNA-CRNDE, the proliferation ability of U937 cells increased significantly, which indicated that the expression of lncRNA-CRNDE might play an essential role in promoting the proliferation of U937 cells. LncRNA-CRNDE is highly expressed in the bone marrow tissues of AML patients, and the expression level is negatively correlated with the

  6. Antioxidant and cytotoxicitic effects of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Rose Canina fruit on on the cell line U937

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    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background : Reactive oxygen species (ROS can be lethal for the cell. Edible plants due to containing antioxidants reduce risk of disease and damages resulting from ROS. The aim of this study was to determine the antioxidant and cytotoxicity effects of aqueous and alcoholic fruit extracts of Rose Canina on the cell line U937. Materials and Methods: Cell line U937 (cell leukemia , human purchased from the Pasteur Institute were incubated for 24 hours.Oxidative stress was created by iron ( 50 mM or copper ( 50 mM and H2O2 (mM1% for cells, and the selected antioxidants ( aqueous and alcoholic extract, 15 µmol of separate concentration levels of 25,50, and 100 mM were added to them (except for control samples. Glutathione levels were measured by Tietze. Lipid peroxidation was detected by MDA assay method. LDH kit was used for cytotoxicity assessments. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results: Mean and Sd of MDA for alcoholic extract was 0.6338 and 0.0012 µm/mg protein and for aqueous extract were 0.6389 and 0.0017 vs. for control: 0.6570 and 0.0023, respectively (p<0.05. There was no significant differentce between glutathione amounts among alcoholic and aqueous extract samples and control sample. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts 25% more than other concentrations significantly decreased the MDA. Alcoholic extract 100% had the most(62/15% and 25% had the lowest (24/1% toxicity. Conclusion: Alcholic and aqueous extracts of Rosa Canina fruit lead to decrease in lipid peroxidation. Their high concentrations have the most toxicity.

  7. A combination of proteomics, principal component analysis and transcriptomics is a powerful tool for the identification of biomarkers for macrophage maturation in the U937 cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeckx, K.C.M.; Bijlsma, S.; Groene, E.M. de; Witkamp, R.F.; Greef, J. van der; Rodenburg, R.J.T.

    2004-01-01

    The monocyte-like human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937 can be induced by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) to undergo differentiation into a macrophage-like phenotype. We have used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE), oligonucleotide microarrays and principal component analysis (PCA)

  8. Effect of anti-carbohydrate antibodies on HIV infection in a monocytic cell line (U937)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Nielsen, C; Clausen, H

    1991-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against carbohydrate epitopes of gp120 have recently been found to inhibit HIV infection of lymphocytes in vitro thereby opening new possibilities for vaccine considerations. Antibody-dependent enhancement of infection has however come increasingly into focus. This st......Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against carbohydrate epitopes of gp120 have recently been found to inhibit HIV infection of lymphocytes in vitro thereby opening new possibilities for vaccine considerations. Antibody-dependent enhancement of infection has however come increasingly into focus...... enhanced infection. This enhancement was independent of complement and could be blocked by mAb Leu3a against the CD4-receptor. The study indicated that enhancement of infection in monocytic cells can occur by the same anti-carbohydrate antibodies that neutralize infection in lymphocytes, and that antibody...

  9. Effect of Cadmium on Macrophage U937 Cell Proliferation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Later, U937 cells were also pre-treated with phorbol 12- myristate, 13-acetate to transform the cells from the monocyte-like morphology to the macrophage form. The macrophage U937 cells were then incubated with different concentrations of cadmium and the supernatants of the cell cultures were analyzed for the ...

  10. Extrachromosomal HIV-1 DNA in persistently infected U937 cells.

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    Pauza, C D; Singh, M K

    1990-08-01

    Persistent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of U937 monocytic cells resulted in the accumulation of novel forms of extrachromosomal viral DNA. These DNA species are larger than the genome size of HIV-1 and persist indefinitely. The extrachromosomal viral DNA species (E-DNA) were shown to be structurally stable by subcloning of infected cell lines and restriction fragment analysis. Similar E-DNA structures were observed in independent infections. Persistently infected monocytic cells had low levels of viral antigens, reflecting the low levels of viral RNA that were detected. These results support a role for E-DNA in persistent HIV-1 infection of monocytic cells.

  11. Enhanced autophagy in cytarabine arabinoside-resistant U937 leukemia cells and its potential as a target for overcoming resistance.

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    Cheong, June-Won; Kim, Yundeok; Eom, Ju In; Jeung, Hoi-Kyung; Min, Yoo Hong

    2016-04-01

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation mechanism that is essential for cell survival, differentiation, development, and homeostasis. Autophagy protects cells from various stresses, including protecting normal cells from harmful metabolic conditions, and cancer cells from chemotherapeutics. In the current study, a cytarabine arabinoside (Ara‑C)‑sensitive U937 leukemia cell line and an Ara‑C‑resistant U937 (U937/AR) cell line were assessed for baseline autophagy activity by investigating the LC3‑I conversion to LC3‑II, performing EGFP‑LC3 puncta, an acidic autophagolysosome assay, and measuring the expression of various autophagy‑related genes. The results demonstrated significantly higher autophagic activity in the U937/AR cells compared with the U937 cells, when the cells were cultured with or without serum. Furthermore, an increase in the autophagic activity in starved U937/AR cells was demonstrated, compared with that in the starved U937 cells. Administration of an autophagy inhibitor demonstrated no change in cell death in the two cell lines when cultured with serum, however, it induced cell death regardless of the Ara‑C sensitivity when the cell lines were cultured without serum. In addition, the U937 cells demonstrated an Ara‑C resistance when cultured without serum. Co‑treatment with Ara‑C and the autophagy inhibitor significantly induced cell death in the U937/AR and Ara‑C‑sensitive U937 cells. In conclusion, autophagy serves an important role in protecting U937 cells from Ara‑C and in the development of Ara‑C resistance. Inhibition of autophagy combined with the Ara‑C treatment in the U937 cells augmented the anti‑leukemic effect of Ara‑C and overcame Ara‑C resistance, suggesting that autophagy may be an important therapeutic target to further improve the treatment outcome in patients with acute myeloid leukemia.

  12. Elimination of clonogenic tumor cells from HL-60, Daudi, and U-937 cell lines by laser photoradiation therapy: implications for autologous bone marrow purging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulliya, K.S.; Pervaiz, S.

    1989-01-01

    Laser photoradiation therapy was tested in an in vitro model for its efficacy in the elimination of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cells. Results show that at 31.2 J/cm2 of laser light in the presence of 20 micrograms/mL of merocyanine 540 (MC540) there was greater than 5 log reduction in Burkitt's lymphoma (Daudi) cells. Similar tumor cell kill was obtained for leukemia (HL-60) cells at a laser light dose of 93.6 J/cm2. However, to obtain the same efficiency of killing for histiocytic lymphoma (U-937) cells, a higher dose of MC540 (25 micrograms/mL) was required. Clonogenic tumor stem cell colony formation was reduced by greater than 5 logs after laser photoradiation therapy. Under identical conditions for each cell line the percent survival for granulocyte-macrophage colony-forming units (CFU-GM, 45.9%, 40%, 17.5%), granulocyte/erythroid/macrophage/megakaryocyte (GEMM, 40.1%, 20.1%, 11.5%), colony-forming units (CFU-C, 16.2%, 9.1%, 1.8%), and erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E, 33.4%, 17.8%, 3.9%) was significantly higher than the tumor cells. Mixing of gamma ray-irradiated normal marrow cells with tumor cells (1:1 and 10:1 ratio) did not interfere with the elimination of tumor cells. The effect of highly purified recombinant interferon alpha (rIFN) on laser photoradiation therapy of tumor cells was also investigated. In the presence of rIFN (30 to 3,000 U/mL), the viability of leukemic cells was observed to increase from 0% to 1.5% with a concurrent decrease in membrane polarization, suggesting an increase in fluidity of cell membrane in response to rIFN. However, at higher doses of rIFN (6,000 to 12,000 U/mL) this phenomenon was not observed. The viability of lymphoma cells remained unaffected at all doses of rIFN tested

  13. New Approach in Translational Medicine: Effects of Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW on NF-κB/iNOS Pathway in U937 Cell Line under Altered Redox State

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    Sara Franceschelli

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is known that increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS can exert harmful effects, altering the cellular redox state. Electrolyzed Reduced Water (ERW produced near the cathode during water electrolysis exhibits high pH, high concentration of dissolved hydrogen and an extremely negative redox potential. Several findings indicate that ERW had the ability of a scavenger free radical, which results from hydrogen molecules with a high reducing ability and may participate in the redox regulation of cellular function. We investigated the effect of ERW on H2O2-induced U937 damage by evaluating the modulation of redox cellular state. Western blotting and spectrophotometrical analysis showed that ERW inhibited oxidative stress by restoring the antioxidant capacity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase. Consequently, ERW restores the ability of the glutathione reductase to supply the cell of an important endogenous antioxidant, such as GSH, reversing the inhibitory effect of H2O2 on redox balance of U937 cells. Therefore, this means a reduction of cytotoxicity induced by peroxynitrite via a downregulation of the NF-κB/iNOS pathway and could be used as an antioxidant for preventive and therapeutic application. In conclusion, ERW can protect the cellular redox balance, reducing the risk of several diseases with altered cellular homeostasis such as inflammation.

  14. Mechanism of cell death by 5-aminolevulinic acid-based photodynamic action and its enhancement by ferrochelatase inhibitors in human histiocytic lymphoma cell line U937.

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    Amo, Takashi; Kawanishi, Noriaki; Uchida, Masataka; Fujita, Hirofumi; Oyanagi, Eri; Utsumi, Toshihiko; Ogino, Tetsuya; Inoue, Keiji; Shuin, Taro; Utsumi, Kozo; Sasaki, Junzo

    2009-12-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) for tumors is based on the tumor-selective accumulation of a photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), followed by irradiation with visible light. However, the molecular mechanism of cell death caused by PDT has not been fully elucidated. The 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA)-based photodynamic action (PDA) was dependent on the accumulation of PpIX, the level of which decreased rapidly by eliminating ALA from the incubation medium in human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells. PDA induced apoptosis characterized by lipid peroxidation, increase in Bak and Bax/Bcl-xL, decrease in Bid, membrane depolarization, cytochrome c release, caspase-3 activation, phosphatidylserine (PS) externalization. PDT-induced cell death seemed to occur predominantly via apoptosis through distribution of PpIX in mitochondria. These cell death events were enhanced by ferrochelatase inhibitors. These results indicated that ALA-based-PDA induced apoptotic cell death through a mitochondrial pathway and that ferrochelatase inhibitors might enhanced the effect of PDT for tumors even at low concentrations of ALA.

  15. Hibiscus sabdariffa extractivities on cadmium-mediated alterations of human U937 cell viability and activation.

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    Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of the anthocyanin-rich extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa (H. sabdariffa) calyx on the viability of cadmium-treated U937 cells and cadmium-mediated activation of U937-derived macrophages. The macrophage cell line U937 was treated with cadmium (0.1 μ mol/L) and later incubated with the anthocyanin-rich extract and cell viability was assessed via trypan blue staining. In the other experiment, the U937 cells were transformed to the macrophage form by treatment with phorbol 12, myristate 13, and acetate and incubated with cadmium (10 μ mol/L). The anthocyanin-rich extract was added to the cells later and subsequently, the supernatant of each cell culture was analysed for the production of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 1 (IL-1), interleukin 6 (IL-6), nitric oxide, and catalase activity as indices for the activation of macrophages. It revealed that the anthocynanin-rich extract significantly (P sabdariffa possesses significant immunoprotective effect. These corroborate the immense reported antioxidant and medicinal potential of the calyces of the plant which could be exploited for pharmacological and neutraceutical advantages. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A micro-Raman spectroscopic investigation of leukemic U-937 cells in aged cultures

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    Fazio, Enza; Trusso, Sebastiano; Franco, Domenico; Nicolò, Marco Sebastiano; Allegra, Alessandro; Neri, Fortunato; Musolino, Caterina; Guglielmino, Salvatore P. P.

    2016-04-01

    Recently it has been shown that micro-Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis is able to discriminate among different types of tissues and tumoral cells by the detection of significant alterations and/or reorganizations of complex biological molecules, such as nucleic acids, lipids and proteins. Moreover, its use, being in principle a non-invasive technique, appears an interesting clinical tool for the evaluation of the therapeutical effects and of the disease progression. In this work we analyzed molecular changes in aged cultures of leukemia model U937 cells with respect to fresh cultures of the same cell line. In fact, structural variations of individual neoplastic cells on aging may lead to a heterogeneous data set, therefore falsifying confidence intervals, increasing error levels of analysis and consequently limiting the use of Raman spectroscopy analysis. We found that the observed morphological changes of U937 cells corresponded to well defined modifications of the Raman contributions in selected spectral regions, where markers of specific functional groups, useful to characterize the cell state, are present. A detailed subcellular analysis showed a change in cellular organization as a function of time, and correlated to a significant increase of apoptosis levels. Besides the aforementioned study, Raman spectra were used as input for principal component analysis (PCA) in order to detect and classify spectral changes among U937 cells.

  17. Structure-activity relationships of dimethylsphingosine (DMS) derivatives and their effects on intracellular pH and Ca2+ in the U937 monocyte cell line.

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    Chang, Young-Ja; Lee, Yun-Kyung; Lee, Eun-Hee; Park, Jeong-Ju; Chung, Sung-Kee; Im, Dong-Soon

    2006-08-01

    We recently reported that dimethylsphingosine (DMS), a metabolite of sphingolipids, increased intracellular pH and Ca2+ concentration in U937 human monocytes. In the present study, we found that dimethylphytosphingosine (DMPH) induced the above responses more robustly than DMS. However, phytosphingosine, monomethylphytosphingosine or trimethylsphingosine showed little or no activity. Synthetic C3 deoxy analogues of sphingosine did show similar activities, with the C16 analogue more so than C18. The following structure-activity relationships were observed between DMS derivatives and the intracellular pH and Ca2+ concentrations in U937 monocytes; 1) dimethyl modification is important for the DMS-induced increase of intracellular pH and Ca2+, 2) the addition of an OH group on C4 enhances both activities, 3) the deletion of the OH group on C3 has a negligible effect on the activities, and 4) C16 appears to be more effective than C18. We also found that W-7, a calmodulin inhibitor, blocked the DMS-induced pH increase, whereas, KN-62, ML9, and MMPX, specific inhibitors for calmodulin-dependent kinase II, myosin light chain kinase, and Ca(2+)-calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase, respectively, did not affect DMS-induced increases of pH in the U937 monocytes.

  18. A Central Role for JNK/AP-1 Pathway in the Pro-Oxidant Effect of Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate through Superoxide Dismutase 1 Gene Repression and Reactive Oxygen Species Generation in Hematopoietic Human Cancer Cell Line U937.

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    Riera, Humberto; Afonso, Valéry; Collin, Pascal; Lomri, Abderrahim

    2015-01-01

    Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) known as antioxidant and specific inhibitor of NF-κB was also described as pro-oxidant by inducing cell death and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation in cancer. However, the mechanism by which PDTC indices its pro-oxidant effect is unknown. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the effect of PDTC on the human Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene transcription in hematopoietic human cancer cell line U937. We herein show for the first time that PDTC decreases SOD1 transcripts, protein and promoter activity. Furthermore, SOD1 repression by PDTC was associated with an increase in oxidative stress as evidenced by ROS production. Electrophoretic mobility-shift assays (EMSA) show that PDTC increased binding of activating protein-1 (AP-1) in dose dependent-manner suggesting that the MAPkinase up-stream of AP-1 is involved. Ectopic NF-κB p65 subunit overexpression had no effect on SOD1 transcription. In contrast, in the presence of JNK inhibitor (SP600125), p65 induced a marked increase of SOD1 promoter, suggesting that JNK pathway is up-stream of NF-κB signaling and controls negatively its activity. Indeed, using JNK deficient cells, PDTC effect was not observed nether on SOD1 transcription or enzymatic activity, nor on ROS production. Finally, PDTC represses SOD1 in U937 cells through JNK/c-Jun phosphorylation. Taken together, these results suggest that PDTC acts as pro-oxidant compound in JNK/AP-1 dependent-manner by repressing the superoxide dismutase 1 gene leading to intracellular ROS accumulation.

  19. Different mechanisms between premitotic apoptosis and postmitotic apoptosis in X-irradiated U937 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinomiya, Nariyoshi; Kuno, Yukie; Yamamoto, Fuyumi; Fukasawa, Masashi; Okumura, Atsushi; Uefuji, Megumi; Rokutanda, Makoto

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: Apoptosis is currently being evaluated for its importance as a pathway of radiation-induced cell death. However, the difference in the mechanisms between premitotic and postmitotic apoptosis following X-irradiation remains not well understood. We show here that the human monoblastoid cell line U937 can be induced to undergo these two different types of apoptosis. Methods and Materials: U937 cells were irradiated at a dose of 5 or 20 Gy, and the DNA fragmentation rate was measured by both flow cytometric analysis and gel electrophoresis. Activation of caspase-3 was detected by Western blot analysis and fluorogenic assay using acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-7-amino-4-methyl-coumarin (Ac-DEVD-AMC). Detection of mitochondrial transmembrane potential (no. DELTAno. no. PSIno. ) was performed by using Rho123. Chasing of S-phase fraction following X-irradiation was performed after labeling with 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU). Thymidine was used for synchronization of the cells. Inhibition of caspase-3 activity was achieved by Acetyl-Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-aldehyde (Ac-DEVD-CHO). Results: Time courses of the apoptotic rates, caspase activation, and no. DELTAno. no. PSIno. indicated that two different types of cell death were induced by the different X-ray doses. High-dose X-ray (20 Gy) induced a rapid and strong apoptosis, whereas low-dose X-ray (5 Gy) induced a slow and mild apoptosis. Cell-cycle analyses revealed that there was cell death before cell division in the former apoptosis but the cells must be dying after cell division in the latter apoptosis. By means of cell-cycle synchronization, the S-phase cells proved to be the most sensitive fraction to premitotic apoptosis, but an obvious difference in the susceptibility to cell death among the cell-cycle phases was not observed in postmitotic apoptosis. Ac-DEVD-CHO treatment effectively blocked caspase activity and premitotic apoptosis, but it failed to block postmitotic apoptosis. Conclusions: Irradiation of U937 cells at

  20. Deguelin regulates nuclear pore complex proteins Nup98 and Nup88 in U937 cells in vitro.

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    Liu, Hong-li; Chen, Yan; Cui, Guo-hui; Wu, Qiu-ling; He, Jing; Chen, Wei-hua; Zhou, Jian-feng

    2005-10-01

    To investigate the anticancer effects and the molecular mechanisms of deguelin on human U937 leukemia cells, and to explore the underlying mechanism regulating nucleoporin 98 (Nup98) and nucleoporin 88 (Nup88) in vitro. The effects of deguelin on the growth of U937 cells were studied by MTT assay. The effect of deguelin on the cell cycle of U937 cells was studied by using a propidium iodide method. The localization of the nuclear pore complex proteins Nup98 and Nup88 was investigated by using immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. The expression of Nup98 and Nup88 in U937 cells was investigated by using flow cytometry and Western blot. The proliferation of U937 cells was inhibited in the deguelin-treated group, with a 24-h IC(50) value of 21.61 nmol/L and a 36-h IC(50) value of 17.07 nmol/L. U937 cells treated with deguelin had reduced percentages of cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase, whereas cells accumulated in the S and G(2)/M phases. Nup88 and Nup98 were found on both the nuclear and cytoplasmic sides of the U937 cells by using immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. The expression of Nup98 was upregulated and that of the Nup88 protein was downregulated in U937 cells treated with deguelin. Deguelin is able to inhibit the proliferation of U937 cells by regulating the cell cycle such that cells are arrested at the S and G(2)/M phases, so that the proportion of cells in the G(0)/G(1) phase decreases. The antitumor effects of deguelin are related to upregulating the expression of Nup98 and downregulating the expression of Nup88 protein in U937 cells.

  1. NRF2 Signaling Negatively Regulates Phorbol-12-Myristate-13-Acetate (PMA-Induced Differentiation of Human Monocytic U937 Cells into Pro-Inflammatory Macrophages.

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    Min-Gu Song

    Full Text Available Blood monocytes are recruited to injured tissue sites and differentiate into macrophages, which protect against pathogens and repair damaged tissues. Reactive oxygen species (ROS are known to be an important contributor to monocytes' differentiation and macrophages' function. NF-E2-related factor 2 (NRF2, a transcription factor regulating cellular redox homeostasis, is known to be a critical modulator of inflammatory responses. We herein investigated the role of NRF2 in macrophage differentiation using the human monocytic U937 cell line and phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA. In U937 cells with NRF2 silencing, PMA-stimulated cell adherence was significantly facilitated when compared to control U937 cells. Both transcript and protein levels for pro-inflammatory cytokines, including interleukine-1β (IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα were highly elevated in PMA-stimulated NRF2-silenced U937 compared to the control. In addition, PMA-inducible secretion of monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1 was significantly high in NRF2-silenced U937. As an underlying mechanism, we showed that NRF2-knockdown U937 retained high levels of cellular ROS and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress markers expression; and subsequently, PMA-stimulated levels of Ca2+ and PKCα were greater in NRF2-knockdown U937 cells, which caused enhanced nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor-ҡB (NFҡB p50 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK-1/2 phosphorylation. Whereas the treatment of NRF2-silenced U937 cells with pharmacological inhibitors of NFҡB or ERK1/2 largely blocked PMA-induced IL-1β and IL-6 expression, indicating that these pathways are associated with cell differentiation. Taken together, our results suggest that the NRF2 system functions to suppress PMA-stimulated U937 cell differentiation into pro-inflammatory macrophages and provide evidence that the ROS-PKCα-ERK-NFҡB axis is involved in PMA-facilitated differentiation of NRF2-silenced U937

  2. Characterization of the Flexcell Uniflex cyclic strain culture system with U937 macrophage-like cells.

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    Matheson, Loren A; Fairbank, N Jack; Maksym, Geoffrey N; Paul Santerre, J; Labow, Rosalind S

    2006-01-01

    Mechanical forces alter many cell functions in a variety of cell types. It has been recognized that stimulation of cells in culture may be more representative of some physiologic conditions. Although there are commercially available systems for the study of cells cultured in a mechanical environment, very little has been documented on the validation techniques for these devices. In this study, Flexcell's recently introduced Uniflex cyclic strain system was programmed to apply 10% longitudinal sinusoidal strain (0.25 Hz) for 48 h to U937 cells cultured on Uniflex plates. Image analysis was employed to characterize the actual strain field. For a chosen amplitude of 10% the applied strain was highly reproducible and relatively uniform (10.6+/-0.2%) in a central rectangular region of the membrane (dimensions of 9.2+/-2 x 13.6+/-0.8 mm2). The strain increased the release of IL-6, esterase and acid phosphatase activity (p<0.05) from adherent U937 cells. Cells also displayed altered morphology, aligning and lengthening with the direction of strain, whereas static cells maintained a round appearance showing no preferred orientation. These data indicate that cyclic mechanical strain applied by the Uniflex strain system modulates U937 cell function leading to selective increases in enzymatic activities as well as orientation in a favored direction.

  3. Effect of cyclosporin A on inflammatory cytokine production by U937 monocyte-like cells

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    Juan E. Losa Garcia

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclosporin A (CsA is an immunosuppresor drug that has been used in the treatment of several types of inflammatory diseases. In some of them the inhibition of T-lymphocyte activation does not suitably account for the observed beneficial effect, suggesting that CsA could act on other types of cells. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of CsA on inflammatory cytokine secretion by U937 monocyte cells. Undifferentiated and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO differentiated U937 cells were incubated with different concentrations of CsA (200, 20 and 2 ng/mL in the presence or absence of phorbol-myristateacetate (PMA. Interleukin-1g (IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8 levels were measured in supernatants using specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. At the highest concentration used (200 ng/mL CsA decreased the basal and stimulated secretion of all the inflammatory cytokines studied in both undifferentiated and differentiated cells, with the only exception of PMA-stim ulated IL-1 secretion by undifferentiated cells. However, only basal secretion of interleukin-8 in both undifferentiated and DMSO-differentiated U937 cells was significantly reduced by CsA at the highest concentration (200 ng/ mL. At therapeutic concentrations in vivo, CsA exerts a predominant effect on IL-8 secretion by human mononuclear phagocytes.

  4. hCLP46 regulates U937 cell proliferation via Notch signaling pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Wenzhan; Du, Jie; Chu, Qiaoyun [College of Life Science, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wang, Youxin [School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Liu, Lixin [College of Life Science, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Song, Manshu [School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Wang, Wei, E-mail: wei6014@yahoo.com [College of Life Science, Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); School of Public Health and Family Medicine, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China)

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} Knock down of hCLP46 by RNAi impairs mammalian Notch signaling. {yields} hCLP46 affects neither cell surface Notch1 expression nor ligand-receptor binding. {yields} Knock down of hCLP46 inhibits U937 cell-growth by up-regulation of CDKN1B. -- Abstract: Human CAP10-like protein 46 kDa (hCLP46) is the homolog of Rumi, which is the first identified protein O-glucosyltransferase that modifies Notch receptor in Drosophila. Dysregulation of hCLP46 occurs in many hematologic diseases, but the role of hCLP46 remains unclear. Knockdown of hCLP46 by RNA interference resulted in decreased protein levels of endogenous Notch1, Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and Notch target gene Hes-1, suggesting the impairment of the Notch signaling. However, neither cell surface Notch expression nor ligand binding activities were affected. In addition, down-regulated expression of hCLP46 inhibited the proliferation of U937 cells, which was correlated with increased cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) CDKN1B (p27) and decreased phosphorylation of retinoblastoma (RB) protein. We showed that lack of hCLP46 results in impaired ligand induced Notch activation in mammalian cell, and hCLP46 regulates the proliferation of U937 cell through CDKI-RB signaling pathway, which may be important for the pathogenesis of leukemia.

  5. Staurosporine induces necroptotic cell death under caspase-compromised conditions in U937 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna A Dunai

    Full Text Available For a long time necrosis was thought to be an uncontrolled process but evidences recently have revealed that necrosis can also occur in a regulated manner. Necroptosis, a type of programmed necrosis is defined as a death receptor-initiated process under caspase-compromised conditions. The process requires the kinase activity of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3 and mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL, as a substrate of RIPK3. The further downstream events remain elusive. We applied known inhibitors to characterize the contributing enzymes in necroptosis and their effect on cell viability and different cellular functions were detected mainly by flow cytometry. Here we report that staurosporine, the classical inducer of intrinsic apoptotic pathway can induce necroptosis under caspase-compromised conditions in U937 cell line. This process could be hampered at least partially by the RIPK1 inhibitor necrotstin-1 and by the heat shock protein 90 kDa inhibitor geldanamycin. Moreover both the staurosporine-triggered and the classical death ligand-induced necroptotic pathway can be effectively arrested by a lysosomal enzyme inhibitor CA-074-OMe and the recently discovered MLKL inhibitor necrosulfonamide. We also confirmed that the enzymatic role of poly(ADP-ribosepolymerase (PARP is dispensable in necroptosis but it contributes to membrane disruption in secondary necrosis. In conclusion, we identified a novel way of necroptosis induction that can facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of necroptosis. Our results shed light on alternative application of staurosporine, as a possible anticancer therapeutic agent. Furthermore, we showed that the CA-074-OMe has a target in the signaling pathway leading to necroptosis. Finally, we could differentiate necroptotic and secondary necrotic processes based on participation of PARP enzyme.

  6. Changes in protein expression of U937 and Jurkat cells exposed to nanosecond pulsed electric fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moen, Erick K.; Roth, Caleb C.; Cerna, Caesar; Estalck, Larry; Wilmink, Gerald; Ibey, Bennett L.

    2013-02-01

    Application of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) to various biological cell lines has been to shown to cause many diverse effects, including poration of the plasma membrane, depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane, blebbing, apoptosis, and intracellular calcium bursts. The underlying mechanism(s) responsible for these diverse responses are poorly understood. Of specific interest in this paper are the long-term effects of nsPEF on cellular processes, including the regulation of genes and production of proteins. Previous studies have reported transient activation of select signaling pathways involving mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), protein phosphorylation and downstream gene expression following nsPEF application. We hypothesize that nsPEF represents a unique stimulus that could be used to externally modulate cellular processes. To validate our hypothesis, we performed a series of cuvette-based exposures at 10 and 600ns pulse widths using a custom Blumlien line pulser system. We measured acute changes in the plasma membrane structure using flow cytometry by tracking phosphatidylserine externalization via FITC-Annexin V labeling and poration via propidium iodide uptake. We then compared these results to viability of the cells at 24 hours post exposure using MTT assay and changes in the MAPK family of proteins at 8 hours post-exposure using Luminex assay. By comparing exposures at 10 and 600ns duration, we found that most MAPK family-protein expression increased in Jurkat and U937 cell lines following exposure and compared well with drops in viability and changes in plasma membrane asymmetry. What proved interesting is that some MAPK family proteins (e.g. p53, STAT1), were expressed in one cell line, but not the other. This difference may point to an underlying mechanism for observed difference in cellular sensitivity to nsPEFinduced stresses.

  7. Evaluation of the Genetic Response of U937 and Jurkat Cells to 10-Nanosecond Electrical Pulses (nsEP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-02

    Article 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 15 Jun 2015 – 1 Dec 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of the Genetic Response of U937 and Jurkat Cells to 10...analysis, we evaluated how two commonly studied cell types, U937 and Jurkat , respond to nsEP exposure. We hypothesized that by studying the genetic...evidence that the interaction of nsEPs with cells involves mechanical stress. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Jurkat , Mechanical Stress, Microarray, Nanosecond

  8. Baicalin Augments Hyperthermia-Induced Apoptosis in U937 Cells and Modulates the MAPK Pathway via ROS Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakki, Shahbaz Ahmad; Cui, Zheng-Guo; Sun, Lu; Feng, Qian-Wen; Li, Meng-Ling; Inadera, Hidekuni

    2018-03-15

    Hyperthermia is a widely used therapeutic tool for cancer therapy and a well-known inducer of apoptosis. Although the flavonoid compound baicalin (BCN) is a potent anticancer agent for several human carcinomas, it is less potent in the human U937 myelomonocytic leukemia cell line. To explore any enhancing effects of BCN on hyperthermia-induced apoptosis, this study investigated the combined effects and apoptotic mechanisms of hyperthermia and BCN in U937 cells. U937 cells were heat treated at 44ºC for 12 min with or without pre-treatment with BCN (10-50 µM) and then incubated for 6 h at 37 ºC with 5% CO2 and 95% air. Cell viability was analyzed by Trypan blue exclusion assay. Apoptosis was examined by DNA fragmentation, fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Generation of mitochondrial trans-membrane potential (MMP), mitochondrial calcium, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) was also detected by flow cytometry. The expression of proteins related to apoptosis and signaling pathways was determined by western blotting. Hyperthermia alone did not reduce cell viability or induce notable levels of apoptosis, but combined hyperthermia and BCN treatment markedly augmented apoptosis by upregulating proapoptotic proteins and suppressing antiapoptotic proteins, culminating in caspase-3 activation. Mitochondrial transmembrane potential was significantly decreased, and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suppression of antioxidant enzymes were marked. Furthermore, with the combined treatment, the phosphorylated forms of JNK and p38 showed increased expression, whereas AKT was dephosphorylated. JNK-IN-8 (a JNK inhibitor) and NAC (a ROS scavenger) abrogated the apoptotic effects of the combined treatment, significantly protecting the cells and indicating the involvement of high ROS generation and the MAPK pathway in the underlying molecular mechanism. This study provides compelling evidence that hyperthermia, in combination with BCN, is a promising therapeutic

  9. Effects of vinegar–egg on growth inhibition, differentiation human leukemic U937 cells and its immunomodulatory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiu-Yu Wang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Vinegar and eggs have rich nutrients. In this study, the mixed form of both derived products, vinegar–egg solution and its products (vinegar–egg concentrate and vinegar–egg condensate were chosen for an assessment of their biological activity. To further our understanding regarding the anticancer and immunomodulatory effects of vinegar–egg, we investigated its effects on the proliferation and differentiation of U937 cells. Vinegar–egg was treated using spray drying, freeze drying and vacuum concentration and used to stimulate human mononuclear cells. The conditioned media obtained from these cultures by filtration were used to treat U937 cells. Three conditioned media inhibited U937 cell growth by 22.1–67.25% more effectively than PHA-treated control (22.53%. CD11b and CD14 expression on the treated U937 cells were 29.1–45.4% and 31.6–47.2%, respectively. High levels of cytokines IL-1β, IFN-γ and TNF-α were detected in the three conditioned media. Vinegar–egg stimulates human mononuclear cells to secrete cytokines, which inhibit the growth of U937 cells and induce their differentiation. Keywords: Cytokines, Differentiation, Immunomodulatory activity, Leukemic U937 cells, Vinegar–egg

  10. Nanosecond pulsed electric fields modulate the expression of Fas/CD95 death receptor pathway regulators in U937 and Jurkat Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estlack, Larry E; Roth, Caleb C; Thompson, Gary L; Lambert, William A; Ibey, Bennett L

    2014-12-01

    In this publication, we demonstrate that exposure of Jurkat and U937 cells to nanosecond pulsed electrical fields (nsPEF) can modulate the extrinsic-mediated apoptotic pathway via the Fas/CD95 death receptor. An inherent difference in survival between these two cell lines in response to 10 ns exposures has been previously reported (Jurkat being more sensitive to nsPEF than U937), but the reason for this sensitivity difference remains unknown. We found that exposure of each cell line to 100, 10 ns pulses at 50 kV/cm caused a marked increase in expression of cFLIP (extrinsic apoptosis inhibitor) in U937 and FasL (extrinsic apoptosis activator) in Jurkat, respectively. Measurement of basal expression levels revealed an inherent difference between U937 cells, having a higher expression of cFLIP, and Jurkat cells, having a higher expression of FasL. From these data, we hypothesize that the sensitivity difference between the cells to nsPEF exposure may be directly related to expression of extrinsic apoptotic regulators. To validate this hypothesis, we used siRNA to knockdown cFLAR (coding for cFLIP protein) expression in U937, and FasL expression in Jurkat and challenged them to 100, 10 ns pulses at 150 kV/cm, a typical lethal dose. We observed that U937 survival was reduced nearly 60% in the knockdown population while Jurkat survival improved ~40%. These findings support the hypothesis that cell survival following 10 ns pulse exposures depends on extrinsic apoptotic regulators. Interestingly, pretreatment of U937 with a 100-pulse, 50 kV/cm exposure (to amplify cFLAR expression) significantly reduced the lethality of a 150 kV/cm, 100-pulse exposure applied 24 h later. From these data, we conclude that the observed survival differences between cells, exposed to 10 ns pulsed electric fields, is due to inherent cell biochemistry rather than the biophysics of the exposure itself. Understanding cell sensitivity to nsPEF may provide researchers/clinicians with a predicable way

  11. Synergism between arsenite and proteasome inhibitor MG132 over cell death in myeloid leukaemic cells U937 and the induction of low levels of intracellular superoxide anion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, Tomás [Laboratorio de Immunotoxicologia (LaITO), IDEHU-CONICET, Hospital de Clínicas, José de San Martín, Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Cavaliere, Victoria; Costantino, Susana N. [Laboratorio de Inmunología Tumoral (LIT), IDEHU-CONICET, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Kornblihtt, Laura [Servicio de Hematología, Hospital de Clínicas, José de San Martín (UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Alvarez, Elida M. [Laboratorio de Inmunología Tumoral (LIT), IDEHU-CONICET, Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Blanco, Guillermo A., E-mail: gblanco@ffyb.uba.ar [Laboratorio de Immunotoxicologia (LaITO), IDEHU-CONICET, Hospital de Clínicas, José de San Martín, Universidad de Buenos Aires (UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2012-02-01

    associated with superoxide levels as assessed by flow cytometry. ► Synergism between arsenite and MG132 in U937 leukemia cell line. ► Synergism turned into antagonism by low levels of hydrogen peroxide. ► Resistance to arsenic cytotoxicity linked to early superoxide anion increased levels.

  12. Induction of Programmed Cell Death by Parvovirus H-1 in U937 Cells: Connection with the Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Signalling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayet, Béatrice; Lopez-Guerrero, José-Antonio; Rommelaere, Jean; Dinsart, Christiane

    1998-01-01

    The human promonocytic cell line U937 undergoes apoptosis upon treatment with tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). This cell line has previously been shown to be very sensitive to the lytic effect of the autonomous parvovirus H-1. Parvovirus infection leads to the activation of the CPP32 ICE-like cysteine protease which cleaves the enzyme poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase and induces morphologic changes that are characteristic of apoptosis in a way that is similar to TNF-α treatment. This effect is also observed when the U937 cells are infected with a recombinant H-1 virus which expresses the nonstructural (NS) proteins but in which the capsid genes are replaced by a reporter gene, indicating that the induction of apoptosis can be assigned to the cytotoxic nonstructural proteins in this cell system. The c-Myc protein, which is overexpressed in U937 cells, is rapidly downregulated during infection, in keeping with a possible role of this product in mediating the apoptotic cell death induced by H-1 virus infection. Interestingly, four clones (designated RU) derived from the U937 cell line and selected for their resistance to H-1 virus (J. A. Lopez-Guerrero et al., Blood 89:1642–1653, 1997) failed to decrease c-Myc expression upon treatment with differentiation agents and also resisted the induction of cell death after TNF-α treatment. Our data suggest that the RU clones have developed defense strategies against apoptosis, either by their failure to downregulate c-Myc and/or by activating antiapoptotic factors. PMID:9765434

  13. Signal transduction of p53-independent apoptotic pathway induced by hexavalent chromium in U937 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Yoko; Kondo, Takashi; Zhao Qingli; Ogawa Ryohei; Cui Zhengguo; Feril, Loreto B.; Teranishi, Hidetoyo; Kasuya, Minoru

    2004-01-01

    It has been reported that the hexavalent chromium compound (Cr(VI)) can induce both p53-dependent and p53-independent apoptosis. While a considerable amount of information is available on the p53-dependent pathway, only little is known about the p53-independent pathway. To elucidate the p53-independent mechanism, the roles of the Ca 2+ -calpain- and mitochondria-caspase-dependent pathways in apoptosis induced by Cr(VI) were investigated. When human lymphoma U937 cells, p53 mutated cells, were treated with 20 μM Cr(VI) for 24 h, nuclear morphological changes and DNA fragmentation were observed. Production of hydroxyl radicals revealed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-spin trapping, and increase of intracellular calcium ion concentration monitored by digital imaging were also observed in Cr(VI)-treated cells. An intracellular Ca 2+ chelator, BAPTA-AM, and calpain inhibitors suppressed the Cr(VI)-induced DNA fragmentation. The number of cells showing low mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), high level of superoxide anion radicals (O 2 - ), and high activity of caspase-3, which are indicators of mitochondria-caspase-dependent pathway, increased significantly in Cr(VI)-treated cells. An antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), decreased DNA fragmentation and inhibited the changes in MMP, O 2 - formation, and activation of caspase-3 induced by Cr(VI). No increase of the expressions of Fas and phosphorylated JNK was observed after Cr(VI) treatment. Cell cycle analysis revealed that the fraction of G2/M phase tended to increase after 24 h of treatment, suggesting that Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis is related to the G2 block. These results indicate that Ca 2+ -calpain- and mitochondria-caspase-dependent pathways play significant roles in the Cr(VI)-induced apoptosis via the G2 block, which are independent of JNK and Fas activation. The inhibition of apoptosis and all its signal transductions by NAC suggests that intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) are

  14. Regulation of urokinase receptors in monocytelike U937 cells by phorbol ester phorbol myristate acetate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Picone, R; Kajtaniak, E L; Nielsen, Lars Søegaard

    1989-01-01

    A specific surface receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) recognizes the amino-terminal growth factor-like sequence of uPA, a region independent from and not required for the catalytic activity of this enzyme. The properties of the uPA receptor (uPAR) and the localization and distribu......A specific surface receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) recognizes the amino-terminal growth factor-like sequence of uPA, a region independent from and not required for the catalytic activity of this enzyme. The properties of the uPA receptor (uPAR) and the localization...... and distribution of uPA in tumor cells and tissues suggest that the uPA/uPAR interaction may be important in regulating extracellular proteolysis-dependent processes (e.g., invasion, tissue destruction). Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), an inducer of U937 cell differentiation to macrophage-like cells, elicits...... in the affinity of the uPAR for uPA, thus uncovering another way of regulating the interaction between uPA and uPAR. In addition, the PMA treatment causes a modification of migration of the cross-linked receptor in mono- and bidimensional gel electrophoresis....

  15. Evaluation of the Genetic Response of U937 and Jurkat Cells to 10-Nanosecond Electrical Pulses (nsEP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caleb C Roth

    Full Text Available Nanosecond electrical pulse (nsEP exposure activates signaling pathways, produces oxidative stress, stimulates hormone secretion, causes cell swelling and induces apoptotic and necrotic death. The underlying biophysical connection(s between these diverse cellular reactions and nsEP has yet to be elucidated. Using global genetic analysis, we evaluated how two commonly studied cell types, U937 and Jurkat, respond to nsEP exposure. We hypothesized that by studying the genetic response of the cells following exposure, we would gain direct insight into the stresses experienced by the cell and in turn better understand the biophysical interaction taking place during the exposure. Using Ingenuity Systems software, we found genes associated with cell growth, movement and development to be significantly up-regulated in both cell types 4 h post exposure to nsEP. In agreement with our hypothesis, we also found that both cell lines exhibit significant biological changes consistent with mechanical stress induction. These results advance nsEP research by providing strong evidence that the interaction of nsEPs with cells involves mechanical stress.

  16. Pectinesterase inhibitor from jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) achene induces apoptosis of human leukemic U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jia-Huei; Wang, Yuh-Tai; Chang, Hung-Min

    2005-05-01

    The antitumor activity of pectinesterase inhibitor (PEI), a group of cationic polypeptides, from jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) achene was first examined as a treatment for leukemia in this study. PEI displayed strong growth inhibition against human leukemic U937 cells via induction of apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. At a level of 50 microg/mL, PEI inhibited 90% of cell growth, and the concentration of PEI required to induce 50% of cell viability (LC50) was about 180 microg/mL. Meanwhile, cell cycle arrest at G2/M phase was observed when cells were incubated with 100 microg PEI/mL for 24 h. PEI displayed a dose-dependent influence on mitochondria transmembrane potential (MTP, delta psi m) of cells when detected by a flow cytometry. MTP of more than 50% cells was reduced when cells were incubated with PEI at levels higher than 50 microg PEI/mL for 24 h. In addition, PEI upregulated caspase-3 activity. Taken together, PEI potently inhibited the proliferation of human leukemic U937 cells via cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in association with MTP reduction and caspase-3 activation, respectively, and showed therapy potential for U937 cells.

  17. Characterization of NF-κB Reporter U937 Cells and Their Application for the Detection of Inflammatory Immune-Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csilla Kecse-Nagy

    Full Text Available Our study tested the hypothesis that immunoglobulins differ in their ability to activate the nuclear factor-κB pathway mediated cellular responses. These responses are modulated by several properties of the immune complex, including the ratio of antibody isotypes binding to antigen. Immunoassays allow the measurement of antigen specific antibodies belonging to distinct immunoglobulin classes and subclasses but not the net biological effect of the combination of these antibodies. We set out to develop a biosensor that is suitable for the detection and characterization of antigen specific serum antibodies. We genetically modified the monocytoid U937 cell line carrying Fc receptors with a plasmid encoding NF-κB promoter-driven GFP. This clone, U937-NF-κB, was characterized with respect to FcR expression and response to solid-phase immunoglobulins. Human IgG3, IgG4 and IgG1 induced GFP production in a time- and dose-dependent manner, in this order of efficacy, while IgG2 triggered no activation at the concentrations tested. IgA elicited no response alone but showed significant synergism with IgG3 and IgG4. We confirmed the importance of activation via FcγRI by direct stimulation with monoclonal antibody and by competition assays. We used citrullinated peptides and serum from rheumatoid arthritis patients to generate immune complexes and to study the activation of U937-NF-κB, observing again a synergistic effect between IgG and IgA. Our results show that immunoglobulins have distinct pro-inflammatory potential, and that U937-NF-κB is suitable for the estimation of biological effects of immune-complexes, offering insight into monocyte activation and pathogenesis of antibody mediated diseases.

  18. Oxidative damage of U937 human leukemic cells caused by hydroxyl radical results in singlet oxygen formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Rác

    Full Text Available The exposure of human cells to oxidative stress leads to the oxidation of biomolecules such as lipids, proteins and nuclei acids. In this study, the oxidation of lipids, proteins and DNA was studied after the addition of hydrogen peroxide and Fenton reagent to cell suspension containing human leukemic monocyte lymphoma cell line U937. EPR spin-trapping data showed that the addition of hydrogen peroxide to the cell suspension formed hydroxyl radical via Fenton reaction mediated by endogenous metals. The malondialdehyde HPLC analysis showed no lipid peroxidation after the addition of hydrogen peroxide, whereas the Fenton reagent caused significant lipid peroxidation. The formation of protein carbonyls monitored by dot blot immunoassay and the DNA fragmentation measured by comet assay occurred after the addition of both hydrogen peroxide and Fenton reagent. Oxidative damage of biomolecules leads to the formation of singlet oxygen as conformed by EPR spin-trapping spectroscopy and the green fluorescence of singlet oxygen sensor green detected by confocal laser scanning microscopy. It is proposed here that singlet oxygen is formed by the decomposition of high-energy intermediates such as dioxetane or tetroxide formed by oxidative damage of biomolecules.

  19. The crosstalk between α-irradiated Beas-2B cells and its bystander U937 cells through MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jiamei; Yuan, Dexiao; Xiao, Linlin; Tu, Wenzhi; Dong, Chen; Liu, Weili; Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • α-irradiated Beas-2B cells induced bystander effects in macrophage U937 cells. • The neighboring macrophages enhanced the damage of α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. • MAPK and NF-κB pathways were activated in U937 cells after cell co-culture. • NF-κB and MAPK pathways participated in the bilateral bystander responses. - Abstract: Although accumulated evidence suggests that α-particle irradiation induced bystander effect may relevant to lung injury and cancer risk assessment, the exact mechanisms are not yet elucidated. In the present study, a cell co-culture system was used to investigate the interaction between α-particle irradiated human bronchial epithelial cells (Beas-2B) and its bystander macrophage U937 cells. It was found that the cell co-culture amplified the detrimental effects of α-irradiation including cell viability decrease and apoptosis promotion on both irradiated cells and bystander cells in a feedback loop which was closely relevant to the activation of MAPK and NF-κB pathways in the bystander U937 cells. When these two pathways in U937 cells were disturbed by special pharmacological inhibitors before cell co-culture, it was found that a NF-κB inhibitor of BAY 11-7082 further enhanced the proliferation inhibition and apoptosis induction in bystander U937 cells, but MAPK inhibitors of SP600125 and SB203580 protected cells from viability loss and apoptosis and U0126 presented more beneficial effect on cell protection. For α-irradiated epithelial cells, the activation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways in U937 cells participated in detrimental cellular responses since the above inhibitors could largely attenuate cell viability loss and apoptosis of irradiated cells. Our results demonstrated that there are bilateral bystander responses between irradiated lung epithelial cells and macrophages through MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways, which accounts for the enhancement of α-irradiation induced damage.

  20. In vitro studies of the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles on HeLa and U937 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaba SI

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Said I Kaba, Elena M Egorova Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology, Moscow, Russia Abstract: In the last decade, much attention has been paid to studies of the effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs on tumor cells. Apart from elucidation of the mechanism of NPs’ interaction with mammalian cells, these studies are aimed at discovering new effective antitumor drugs. In this work, we report about the toxic effects of Ag NPs observed on two types of tumor cells: HeLa (adhesive cells and U937 (suspension cells. The Ag NPs were obtained by an original method of biochemical synthesis. Particle size was 13.2±4.72 nm, and zeta potential was -61.9±3.2 mV. The toxicity of Ag NPs in the concentration range 0.5–8.0 µg Ag/mL was determined by means of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and cytofluorometry after 4 and 24 hours' incubation. It was found that Ag NPs had high toxicity toward both cell types. The minimal concentrations where a toxicity effect was registered (toxicity thresholds lied in the range 0.5–2.0 µg Ag/mL. In parallel with the Ag NP solution, cells were incubated with water solutions of the NP stabilizer (aerosol-OT and Ag+ ions (as silver nitrate. It was shown that aerosol-OT had no effect on the viability on HeLa cells, but was moderately toxic toward U937, though less dangerous for these cells than Ag NPs. With Ag+ ions, for HeLa no toxic effect was observed, while for U937 they were as toxic as the Ag NPs. The data obtained indicate that Ag NPs as used in this study may prove to be useful for the creation of medicines for cancer therapy. Keywords: silver nanoparticles, cell viability, apoptosis, tumor cells

  1. Immune complexes induce TNF-α and BAFF production from U937 cells by HMGB1 and RAGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X-J; Qu, Y-Y; Liu, X-W; Zhu, M; Ma, C-Y; Jiao, Y-L; Cui, B; Chen, Z-J; Zhao, Y-R

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of immune complexes (ICs) on tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and B cell-activating factor (BAFF) production from U937 cells and further explored the mechanism. U937 cells were incubated with necrosis supernatant or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) sera alone, or their combination. The expression of TNF-α and BAFF was determined by Real-time polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. High mobility group box protein 1(HMGB1) A-box was produced by gene recombination. HMGB1 A-box and anti-receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) antibody were adopted in the blocking experiments. The importance of DNA for cytokine induction was investigated by DNase treatment. The combination of necrosis supernatant and SLE sera induced the expression of TNF-α and BAFF significantly increased compared to necrosis supernatant or SLE sera alone. Recombinant HMGB1 A-box protein was purified, and TNF-α and BAFF production, which were induced by this combination, was blocked via HMGB1 A-box and anti-RAGE antibody. Moreover, we found that DNA component is important for the immunostimulatory activity of this combination. ICs containing DNA can promote TNF-α and BAFF production in U937 cells, and this process can be mediated by HMGB1 and RAGE. One possible mechanism of increasing BAFF production in SLE is proposed in this study whereby B cell activation, antibody production and ICs stimulated monocytes may create a vicious cycle that leads to B cell hyperactivity, which can be of importance for SLE etiopathogenesis.

  2. NF-kB activity-dependent P-selectin involved in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation in U937 cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yi, E-mail: wangyi2004a@126.com [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China); Wang, Xiang; Sun, Minghui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Cao, Heng; Chen, Xiaoqing [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai First People' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200080 (China)

    2011-08-05

    Highlights: {yields} Ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. {yields} Ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and augment of NF-kB activity and protein level during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. {yields} P-selectin and NF-kB may be identified as pivotal regulators of ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. {yields} Therapy based on the inhibition of P-selectin and NF-kB may complement conventional treatments to prevent atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays a critical role in regulation of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the role of Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) activity-dependent P-selectin in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation during atherosclerosis. In this study, we first investigated ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of U937 cells with ox-LDL increased lipid accumulation as well as intracellular cholesterol content. Next, a comparative analysis of gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray and Real-time-PCR indicated that ox-LDL exposure induced, in three treated groups, an extremely marked increase in the mRNA level of P-selectin. Protein levels of P-selectin and its upstream regulators IkBa and NF-kB showed that NF-kB pathway is involved in the ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. Finally, overexpression of NF-kB significantly accelerated, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB with siRNA remarkably attenuated ox-LDL-induced macrophage-derived foam cell formation. It was concluded that the activity of NF-kB is augmented during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. Activation of NF-kB increased, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB decreased ox-LDL-induced P-selectin expression and lipid accumulation in macrophages, suggesting ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and activation of NF-kB in the

  3. NF-kB activity-dependent P-selectin involved in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation in U937 cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Xiang; Sun, Minghui; Zhang, Zhenyu; Cao, Heng; Chen, Xiaoqing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. → Ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and augment of NF-kB activity and protein level during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. → P-selectin and NF-kB may be identified as pivotal regulators of ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. → Therapy based on the inhibition of P-selectin and NF-kB may complement conventional treatments to prevent atherosclerosis. -- Abstract: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) plays a critical role in regulation of atherosclerosis. However, little is known about the role of Nuclear factor kB (NF-kB) activity-dependent P-selectin in ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation during atherosclerosis. In this study, we first investigated ox-LDL induced foam cell formation in the human U937 promonocytic cell line in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Treatment of U937 cells with ox-LDL increased lipid accumulation as well as intracellular cholesterol content. Next, a comparative analysis of gene expression profiling using cDNA microarray and Real-time-PCR indicated that ox-LDL exposure induced, in three treated groups, an extremely marked increase in the mRNA level of P-selectin. Protein levels of P-selectin and its upstream regulators IkBa and NF-kB showed that NF-kB pathway is involved in the ox-LDL-induced foam cell formation. Finally, overexpression of NF-kB significantly accelerated, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB with siRNA remarkably attenuated ox-LDL-induced macrophage-derived foam cell formation. It was concluded that the activity of NF-kB is augmented during macrophage-derived foam cell formation. Activation of NF-kB increased, whereas, inhibition of NF-kB decreased ox-LDL-induced P-selectin expression and lipid accumulation in macrophages, suggesting ox-LDL induced expression of P-selectin through degradation of IkBa and activation of NF-kB in the regulation of foam

  4. Citrus aurantium L. exhibits apoptotic effects on U937 human leukemia cells partly through inhibition of Akt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Min Ho; Lee, Won Sup; Lu, Jing Nan; Kim, Gonsup; Jung, Jin Myung; Ryu, Chung Ho; Kim, Gi-Young; Hwang, Hye Jin; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2012-06-01

    Citrus fruits have been used as edible fruits and a traditional medicine since ancient times. In particular, the peels of immature citrus fruits are frequently prescribed in concert with other support herbs for many types of disease including cancer. We investigated the anti-proliferative activity of the peels of Citrus aurantium L. along with their effects on apoptosis. We prepared crude methanol extracts of the peels of Citrus aurantium L. (CMEs) and performed experiments using U937 human leukemia cells. The growth of U937 cells was inhibited by CME treatment in a dose-dependent manner, and CME induced caspase-dependent apoptosis. CME inhibited the expression of XIAP and Bcl-xL which are anti-apoptotic proteins. CME inhibited Akt activity in a dose-dependent manner. The apoptotic activity of CME was significantly attenuated by Akt augmentation. In conclusion, this study suggested that CME should induce caspase-dependent apoptosis at least in part through Akt inhibition, providing evidence that CMEs have anticancer activity on human leukemia cells.

  5. Platelet Activating Factor (PAF) biosynthesis is inhibited by phenolic compounds in U-937 cells under inflammatory conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachogianni, Ioanna C; Fragopoulou, Elizabeth; Stamatakis, George M; Kostakis, Ioannis K; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi

    2015-09-01

    Interleukin 1 beta (IL-1β) induced platelet activating factor (PAF) synthesis in U-937 cells through stimulation of acetyl-CoA:lysoPAF-acetyltransferase (lyso PAF-AT) at 3 h and DTT-independentCDP-choline-1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol cholinophosphotransferase (PAF-CPT) at 0.5 h. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tyrosol (T), resveratrol (R) and their acetylated derivatives(AcDs) which exhibit enhanced bioavailability, on PAF synthesis in U-937 after IL-1β stimulation. The specific activity of PAF enzymes and intracellular levels were measured in cell homogenates. T and R concentration capable of inducing 50% inhibition in IL-1β effect on lyso PAF-AT was 48 μΜ ± 11 and 157 μΜ ± 77, for PAF-CPT 246 μΜ ± 61 and 294 μΜ ± 102, respectively. The same order of concentration was also observed on inhibiting PAF levels produced by IL-1β. T was more potent inhibitor than R (p<0.05). AcDs of T retain parent compound inhibitory activity, while in the case of R only two AcDs retain the activity. The observed inhibitory effect by T,R and their AcDs, may partly explain their already reported beneficial role. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Effects of alpha-mangostin on the expression of anti-inflammatory genes in U937 cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Szu-Hsiu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background α-Mangostin (α-MG is a main constituent of the fruit hull of the mangosteen. Previous studies have shown that α-MG has pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral effects. This study aims to investigate the anti-inflammatory molecular action of α-MG on gene expression profiles. Methods U937 and EL4 cells were treated with different concentrations of α-MG in the presence of 0.1 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS for 4 h. The anti-inflammatory effects of α-MG were measured by the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-4 in cell culture media, which were determined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. The gene expression profiles of all samples were analyzed with a whole human genome microarray, Illumina BeadChip WG-6 version 3, containing 48804 probes. The protein levels were determined by Western blotting analyses. Results α-MG decreased the LPS induction of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α (P = 0.038 and IL-4 (P = 0.04. α-MG decreased the gene expressions in oncostatin M signaling via mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways, including extracellular signal-regulated kinases (P = 0.016, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (P = 0.01 , and p38 (P = 0.008. α-MG treatment of U937 cells reduced the phosphorylation of MAPK kinase 3 / MAPK kinase 6 (P = 0.0441, MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (P = 0.0453, signal transducers and activators of transcription-1 (STAT1 (P = 0.0012, c-Fos (P = 0.04, c-Jun (P = 0.019 and Ets-like molecule 1 (Elk-1 (P = 0.038. Conclusion This study demonstrates that α-MG attenuates LPS-mediated activation of MAPK, STAT1, c-Fos, c-Jun and EIK-1, inhibiting TNF-α and IL-4 production in U937 cells.

  7. Hydrogen peroxide produced during gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity is involved in prevention of apoptosis and maintainance of proliferation in U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Bello, B; Paolicchi, A; Comporti, M; Pompella, A; Maellaro, E

    1999-01-01

    It has been reported in several cell lines that exposure to low levels of reactive oxygen species can exert a stimulatory effect on their proliferation. We have previously shown that mild oxidative conditions can also counteract apoptotic stimuli. A constitutive cellular production of low levels of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide originates from various sources; among these, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), the plasma membrane-bound activity in charge of metabolizing extracellular reduced glutathione, has recently been included. Since the inhibition of GGT is a sufficient stimulus for the induction of apoptosis in selected cell lines, we investigated whether this effect might result from the suppression of the mentioned GGT-dependent prooxidant reactions, on the theory that the latter may represent a basal antiapoptotic and proliferative signal for the cell. Experiments showed that: 1) GGT activity in U937 monoblastoid cells is associated with the production of low levels of hydrogen peroxide, and two independent GGT inhibitors cause a dose-dependent decrease of such GGT-dependent production of H2O2; 2) GGT inhibition with acivicin results in cell growth arrest, and induces cell death and DNA fragmentation with the ladder appearance of apoptosis; 3) treatment of cells with catalase--and even more with Trolox C--is able to decrease their proliferative rate; 4) GGT inhibition (with suppression of H2O2 production) results in a down-regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polimerase (PARP) activity, which precedes the proteolytic cleavage of PARP molecule, such as that typically induced by caspases. The reported data suggest that the low H2O2 levels originating as a by-product during GGT activity are able to act as sort of a 'life signal' in U937 cells, insofar as they can maintain cell proliferation and protect against apoptosis, possibly through an up-regulation of PARP activity.

  8. Effect of Robola and Cabernet Sauvignon extracts on platelet activating factor enzymes activity on U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, M N; Asimakopoulos, D; Antonopoulou, S; Demopoulos, C A; Fragopoulou, E

    2014-12-15

    A number of studies support the anti-atherogenic effect of wine compounds. The scope of this study was to examine the effect of a red (Cabernet Sauvignon-CS) and a white (Robola-R) wine, as well as resveratrol and quercetin, on the platelet activating factor (PAF) biosynthetic enzymes, acetyl-CoA:lyso-PAF acetyltransferase (lyso-PAF-AT) and DTT-insensitive CDP-choline 1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol cholinephosphotransferase (PAF-CPT), and its main catabolic enzyme (PAF acetylhydrolase; PAF-AH), on U937 cells, in cell free and in intact cell experiments. In cell free experiments, phenolic compounds and wine extracts inhibited PAF biosynthetic enzymes, however in higher concentrations than intact cell experiments. In the latter cases, polar lipids of both wines inhibited in the same order of magnitude the action of lyso-PAF-AT and of PAF-CPT. The water fractions possessed a dual action, in lower concentrations they activated both enzymes, while in higher concentrations only inhibited PAF-CPT. All fractions either did not affect or slightly activated PAF-AH activity. In conclusion, wine compounds may exert their anti-inflammatory activity by reducing PAF levels through modulation of the PAF metabolic enzymes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Induced Apoptosis in U937 Cells Promotes Cathepsin D-Independent Stefin B Degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidovec, Katja; Božič, Janja; Dolenc, Iztok; Turk, Boris; Turk, Vito; Stoka, Veronika

    2017-12-01

    Lysosomal cathepsins were previously found to be involved in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα)-induced apoptosis. However, there are opposing views regarding their role as either initiators or amplifiers of the signaling cascade as well as the order of molecular events during this process. In this study, we investigated the role of cathepsin D (catD) in TNFα/cycloheximide-induced apoptosis in U937 human monocytic cells. TNFα-induced apoptosis proceeds through caspase-8 activation, processing of the pro-apoptotic molecule Bid, mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, and caspase-3 activation. The translocation of lysosomal catD into the cytosol was a late event, suggesting that lysosomal membrane permeabilization and the release of cathepsins are not required for the induction of apoptosis, but rather amplifies the process through the generation of reactive oxygen species. For the first time, we show that apoptosis is accompanied by degradation of the cysteine cathepsin inhibitor stefin B (StfB). CatD did not exhibit a crucial role in this step. However, this degradation was partially prevented through pre-incubation with the antioxidant N-acetyl cysteine, although it did not prevent apoptosis and its progression. These results suggest that the degradation of StfB, as a response to TNFα, could induce a cell death amplification effect as a result of progressive damage to lysosomes during TNFα treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 118: 4813-4820, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Signaling factors and pathways of α-particle irradiation induced bilateral bystander responses between Beas-2B and U937 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Jiamei; Wang, Juan; Wang, Xiangdong; Wang, Ping; Xu, Jinping; Zhou, Cuiping; Bai, Yang; Shao, Chunlin, E-mail: clshao@shmu.edu.cn

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Radiation damage of Beas-2B cells was enhanced by macrophage-mediated bilateral bystander responses. • Expressions of TNF-α and IL-8 in the α-irradiated Beas-2B cells were dependent on ERK and p38 pathways. • The neighboring U937 cells further increased the generation of TNF-α and IL-8 in the α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. • NF-κB dependent upregulation of TNF-α and IL-8 was induced in the bystander U937 cells. - Abstract: Although radiation induced bystander effects (RIBE) have been investigated for decades for their potential health risk, the underlying gene regulation is still largely unclear, especially the roles of immune system and inflammatory response in RIBE. In the present study, macrophage U937 cells and epithelial Beas-2B cells were co-cultured to disclose the cascades of bystander signaling factors and intercellular communications. After α-particle irradiation, both ERK and p38 pathways were activated in Beas-2B cells and were associated with the autocrine and paracrine signaling of TNF-α and IL-8, resulting in direct damage to the irradiated cells. Similar upregulation of TNF-α and IL-8 was induced in the bystander U937 cells after co-culture with α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. This upregulation was dependent on the activation of NF-κB pathway and was responsible for the enhanced damage of α-irradiated Beas-2B cells. Interestingly, the increased expressions of TNF-α and IL-8 mRNAs in the bystander U937 cells were clearly relayed on the activated ERK and p38 pathways in the irradiated Beas-2B cells, and the upregulation of TNF-α and IL-8 mRNAs in co-cultured Beas-2B cells was also partly due to the activated NF-κB pathway in the bystander U937 cells. With the pretreatment of U0126 (MEK1/2 inhibitor), SB203580 (p38 inhibitor) or BAY 11-7082 (NF-κB inhibitor), the aggravated damage in the α-irradiated Beas-2B cells could be largely alleviated. Our results disclosed novel signaling cascades of macrophage-mediated bilateral

  11. Identification of biological functions and gene networks regulated by heat stress in U937 human lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Yukihiro; Tabuchi, Yoshiaki; Wada, Shigehito; Takasaki, Ichiro; Ohtsuka, Kenzo; Kondo, Takashi

    2011-08-01

    Although cancer cells exposed to temperatures >42.5°C undergo cell death as the temperature rises, exposure of up to 42.5°C induces slight or no cytotoxicity. The temperature of 42.5°C is, therefore, well known to be the inflection point of hyperthermia. To better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying cellular responses to heat stress at temperatures higher and lower than the inflection point, we carried out global scale microarray and computational gene expression analyses. Human leukemia U937 cells were incubated at 42°C or 44°C for 15 min and cultured at 37°C for 0-6 h. Apoptosis accompanied by the activation of caspase-3 and DNA fragmentation was only observed in cells treated with heat stress at 44°C, but not at 42°C. Although a large number of genes were differentially expressed by a factor of 2.0 or greater, we found substantial differences with respect to the biological functions and gene networks of the genes differentially expressed at the two temperatures examined. Interestingly, we identified temperature-specific gene networks that were considered to be mainly associated with cell death or cellular compromise and cellular function and maintenance at 44°C or 42°C, respectively, by using the Ingenuity pathway analysis tools. These findings provide the molecular basis for a further understanding of the mechanisms of the biological changes that are responsive to heat stress in human lymphoma cells.

  12. A micro-Raman spectroscopic investigation of leukemic U-937 cells treated with Crotalaria agatiflora Schweinf and the isolated compound madurensine

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Roux, Karlien; Prinsloo, Linda C.; Hussein, Ahmed A.; Lall, Namrita

    In South Africa traditional medicine plays an important role in primary health care and therefore it is very important that the medicinal use of plants is scientifically tested for toxicity and effectiveness. It was established that the ethanolic extract of the leaves of Crotalaria agatiflora, as well as the isolated compound madurensine, is moderately toxic against leukemic U-937 cells. Light microscopic investigations indicated that symptoms of cell death are induced during treatments, but flow cytometry analysis of treated cells, using annexin-V and propidium iodide, showed that apoptosis and necrosis are insignificantly induced. The Raman results suggested that protein extraction and DNA melting occur in the cells during treatment with the ethanolic extracts (IC50 value 73.9 μg/mL), drastically changing the molecular content of the cells. In contrast, treatment with madurensine (IC50 value 136.5 μg/mL), an isolated pyrrolizidine alkaloid from the ethanolic extract of the leaves, did not have the same effect. The results are also compared to that of cells treated with actinomycin D, a compound known to induce apoptosis. The investigation showed that micro-Raman spectroscopy has great promise to be used for initial screening of samples to determine the effects of different treatments on cancerous cell lines together with conventional methods. The results highlight the fact that for many natural products used for medicinal purposes, the therapeutic effect of the crude plant extract tends to be significantly more effective than the particular action of its individual constituents.

  13. Mitochondrial ascorbic acid is responsible for enhanced susceptibility of U937 cells to the toxic effects of peroxynitrite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidarelli, Andrea; Cerioni, Liana; Fiorani, Mara; Azzolini, Catia; Cantoni, Orazio

    2014-01-01

    Otherwise nontoxic levels of peroxynitrite promote toxicity in U937 cells pre-exposed to low micromolar concentrations of l-ascorbic acid (AA). This event was associated with the mitochondrial accumulation of the vitamin and with the early formation of secondary reactive oxygen species and DNA single-strand breaks. The same concentrations of peroxynitrite, however, failed to elicit detectable effects in cells pre-exposed to dehydroascorbic acid (DHA), in which mitochondrial accumulation of vitamin C did not occur despite the identical cytosolic levels. Coherently, oxidation of extracellular AA failed to affect the intracellular concentration of the vitamin, but nevertheless prevented its mitochondrial localization as well as the enhanced response to peroxynitrite. Furthermore, in cells postincubated in vitamin C-free medium, time-dependent loss of mitochondrial AA was paralleled by a progressive decline of susceptibility to peroxynitrite, under the same conditions in which cells retained about half of the initial AA. Using different experimental approaches, we finally showed that the enhancing effects of AA are mediated by events associated with peroxynitrite-dependent superoxide/H2 O2 formation in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Collectively, these results indicate that mitochondria actively take up vitamin C as AA and respond to otherwise inactive concentrations of peroxynitrite with the mitochondrial formation of secondary species responsible for DNA damage and toxicity. DHA preloading, while leading to the accumulation of identical levels of vitamin C, fails to produce these effects because of the poor mitochondrial accumulation of the vitamin. © 2013 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. 9,10-phenanthrenequinone induces monocytic differentiation of U937 cells through regulating expression of aldo-keto reductase 1C3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Hosogai, Mika; Arakaki, Marina; Endo, Satoshi; El-Kabbani, Ossama; Hara, Akira

    2012-01-01

    Persistent inhalation of diesel exhaust particles results in damaged lung cells through formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the details of the toxicity mechanism against monocytes are poorly understood. In this study, we used human promyelomonocytic U937 cells as surrogates of monocytes and investigated the toxicity mechanism initiated by exposure to 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ), a major quinone component in diesel exhaust particles. A 24-h incubation with 9,10-PQ provoked apoptotic cell death, which was due to signaling through the enhanced ROS generation and concomitant caspase activation. Flow cytometric analyses of U937 cells after long-term exposure to 9,10-PQ revealed induction of differentiation that was evidenced by increasing expression of CD11b/CD18, a cell-surface marker for monocytic differentiation into macrophages. The 9,10-PQ-induced differentiation was significantly abolished by ROS inhibitors, suggesting that ROS generation contributes to cell differentiation. The 9,10-PQ treatment increased the expression of aldo-keto reductase (AKR) 1C3, which reached a peak at 1 to 2 d post-treatment and then declined. The bell-shaped curve of the AKR1C3 expression by 9,10-PQ resembled that caused by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, a differentiation inducer. Additionally, the concomitant treatment with tolfenamic acid, a selective AKR1C3 inhibitor, sensitized the differentiation induced by 9,10-PQ. These results suggest that ROS formation during 9,10-PQ treatment acutely leads to apoptosis of U937 cells and the initiation of monocytic differentiation, which proceeds after the provisional overexpression of AKR1C3.

  15. SIRT6 Is a Positive Regulator of Aldose Reductase Expression in U937 and HeLa cells under Osmotic Stress: In Vitro and In Silico Insights.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Can Timucin

    Full Text Available SIRT6 is a protein deacetylase, involved in various intracellular processes including suppression of glycolysis and DNA repair. Aldose Reductase (AR, first enzyme of polyol pathway, was proposed to be indirectly associated to these SIRT6 linked processes. Despite these associations, presence of SIRT6 based regulation of AR still remains ambiguous. Thus, regulation of AR expression by SIRT6 was investigated under hyperosmotic stress. A unique model of osmotic stress in U937 cells was used to demonstrate the presence of a potential link between SIRT6 and AR expression. By overexpressing SIRT6 in HeLa cells under hyperosmotic stress, its role on upregulation of AR was revealed. In parallel, increased SIRT6 activity was shown to upregulate AR in U937 cells under hyperosmotic milieu by using pharmacological modulators. Since these modulators also target SIRT1, binding of the inhibitor, Ex-527, specifically to SIRT6 was analyzed in silico. Computational observations indicated that Ex-527 may also target SIRT6 active site residues under high salt concentration, thus, validating in vitro findings. Based on these evidences, a novel regulatory step by SIRT6, modifying AR expression under hyperosmotic stress was presented and its possible interactions with intracellular machinery was discussed.

  16. Phenolic extracts of brewers' spent grain (BSG) as functional ingredients - assessment of their DNA protective effect against oxidant-induced DNA single strand breaks in U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Aoife L; O'Callaghan, Yvonne C; Connolly, Alan; Piggott, Charles O; Fitzgerald, Richard J; O'Brien, Nora M

    2012-09-15

    Brewers' spent grain (BSG), a by-product of the brewing industry, contains high amounts of phenolic acids, which have antioxidant effects. The present study examined the ability of BSG extracts to protect against the genotoxic effects of oxidants, hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1), 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO) and tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH) in U937 cells. Four pale (P1-P4) and four black (B1-B4) BSG extracts were investigated. U937 cells were pre-incubated with BSG extracts, exposed to the oxidants and the DNA damage was measured by the Comet assay. The black BSG extracts (B1-B4) significantly protected against H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage. Extract B2, which had the highest phenol content, provided the greatest protection. Extracts P2, B2, B3 and B4 provided significant protection against SIN-1-induced DNA damage. None of the extracts protected against DNA damage induced by t-BOOH and 4-NQO. The DNA protective effects of the BSG phenolic extracts may be related to iron chelation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Internalization, lysosomal degradation and new synthesis of surface membrane CD4 in phorbol ester-activated T-lymphocytes and U-937 cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, C M; Christensen, E I; Andresen, B S

    1992-01-01

    Protein kinase C activating phorbol esters downregulated membrane CD4 by endocytosis in U-937 and human T-cells. Half-time for internalization (approximately 15 min at 50 ng/ml PMA) was determined by FACS. CD4-bound 125I-labeled anti-CD4 mAb was rapidly degraded in PMA-activated cells, whereas...... degradation was low in resting cells. Endocytosis and/or degradation of anti-CD4 mAb was suppressed by H7, and by inhibitors of membrane traffic (Monensin) and lysosome function (methylamine, chloroquine). Immunocytochemistry localized CD4 to the surface of unstimulated T-cells. Upon PMA stimulation...... occasional labeling was seen in endosomes but whole cell CD4 decreased dramatically. However, methylamine-treated PMA blasts showed accumulation of CD4 in lysosomes and accordingly, pulse-chase experiments in biolabeled cell cultures suggested a manifest reduction of CD4 half-life in response to PMA. Despite...

  18. Andrographolide Analogue Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy Mediated Cell Death in U937 Cells by Inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Kumar

    Full Text Available Current chemotherapeutic agents based on apoptosis induction are lacking in desired efficacy. Therefore, there is continuous effort to bring about new dimension in control and gradual eradication of cancer by means of ever evolving therapeutic strategies. Various forms of PCD are being increasingly implicated in anti-cancer therapy and the complex interplay among them is vital for the ultimate fate of proliferating cells. We elaborated and illustrated the underlying mechanism of the most potent Andrographolide analogue (AG-4 mediated action that involved the induction of dual modes of cell death-apoptosis and autophagy in human leukemic U937 cells.AG-4 induced cytotoxicity was associated with redox imbalance and apoptosis which involved mitochondrial depolarisation, altered apoptotic protein expressions, activation of the caspase cascade leading to cell cycle arrest. Incubation with caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk or Bax siRNA decreased cytotoxic efficacy of AG-4 emphasising critical roles of caspase and Bax. In addition, AG-4 induced autophagy as evident from LC3-II accumulation, increased Atg protein expressions and autophagosome formation. Pre-treatment with 3-MA or Atg 5 siRNA suppressed the cytotoxic effect of AG-4 implying the pro-death role of autophagy. Furthermore, incubation with Z-VAD-fmk or Bax siRNA subdued AG-4 induced autophagy and pre-treatment with 3-MA or Atg 5 siRNA curbed AG-4 induced apoptosis-implying that apoptosis and autophagy acted as partners in the context of AG-4 mediated action. AG-4 also inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Inhibition of mTOR or Akt augmented AG-4 induced apoptosis and autophagy signifying its crucial role in its mechanism of action.Thus, these findings prove the dual ability of AG-4 to induce apoptosis and autophagy which provide a new perspective to it as a potential molecule targeting PCD for future cancer therapeutics.

  19. Andrographolide Analogue Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy Mediated Cell Death in U937 Cells by Inhibition of PI3K/Akt/mTOR Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Das, Bimolendu; Sen, Rupashree; Kundu, Priyanka; Manna, Alak; Sarkar, Avijit; Chowdhury, Chinmay; Chatterjee, Mitali; Das, Padma

    2015-01-01

    Current chemotherapeutic agents based on apoptosis induction are lacking in desired efficacy. Therefore, there is continuous effort to bring about new dimension in control and gradual eradication of cancer by means of ever evolving therapeutic strategies. Various forms of PCD are being increasingly implicated in anti-cancer therapy and the complex interplay among them is vital for the ultimate fate of proliferating cells. We elaborated and illustrated the underlying mechanism of the most potent Andrographolide analogue (AG-4) mediated action that involved the induction of dual modes of cell death-apoptosis and autophagy in human leukemic U937 cells. AG-4 induced cytotoxicity was associated with redox imbalance and apoptosis which involved mitochondrial depolarisation, altered apoptotic protein expressions, activation of the caspase cascade leading to cell cycle arrest. Incubation with caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-fmk or Bax siRNA decreased cytotoxic efficacy of AG-4 emphasising critical roles of caspase and Bax. In addition, AG-4 induced autophagy as evident from LC3-II accumulation, increased Atg protein expressions and autophagosome formation. Pre-treatment with 3-MA or Atg 5 siRNA suppressed the cytotoxic effect of AG-4 implying the pro-death role of autophagy. Furthermore, incubation with Z-VAD-fmk or Bax siRNA subdued AG-4 induced autophagy and pre-treatment with 3-MA or Atg 5 siRNA curbed AG-4 induced apoptosis-implying that apoptosis and autophagy acted as partners in the context of AG-4 mediated action. AG-4 also inhibited PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway. Inhibition of mTOR or Akt augmented AG-4 induced apoptosis and autophagy signifying its crucial role in its mechanism of action. Thus, these findings prove the dual ability of AG-4 to induce apoptosis and autophagy which provide a new perspective to it as a potential molecule targeting PCD for future cancer therapeutics.

  20. NFκB- and AP-1-mediated DNA looping regulates matrix metalloproteinase-9 transcription in TNF-α-treated human leukemia U937 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying-Jung; Chang, Long-Sen

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the spatial association of critical genomic elements in the effect of TNF-α on matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression in human leukemia U937 cells. TNF-α up-regulated MMP-9 protein expression and mRNA level in U937 cells, and Akt-mediated-NFκB/p65 activation and JNK-mediated c-Jun activation were proven to be involved in TNF-α-induced MMP-9 up-regulation. Promoter luciferase activity assay revealed that NFκB (nt-600) and AP-1 (nt-79) binding sites were crucial for TNF-α-induced transcription of MMP-9 gene. The results of a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay indicated that TNF-α reduced histone deacetylase-1 (HDAC-1) recruitment but increased p300 (a histone acetyltransferase) recruitment to MMP-9 promoter regions surrounding NFκB and AP-1 binding sites. Consistently, TNF-α increased enrichment of the acetylated histone H3 mark on MMP-9 promoter regions. DNA affinity purification assay revealed that p300 and HDAC1 could bind oligonucleotides containing AP-1/c-Jun and NFκB/p65 binding sites. Chromosome conformation capture assay showed that TNF-α stimulated chromosomal loops in the MMP-9 promoter via NFκB/p65 and AP-1/c-Jun. The p300-associated acetyltransferase activity was crucial for p65/c-Jun-mediated DNA looping, and inhibition of HDAC activity increased the level of DNA looping. Reduction in the level of DNA looping eliminated all TNF-α-stimulated MMP-9 up-regulation. Taken together, our data suggest that p65/c-Jun-mediated DNA looping is involved in TNF-α-induced MMP-9 up-regulation and that the recruitment of p300 or HDAC1 to NFκB and AP-1 binding sites modifies the level of DNA looping. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. KCa3.1-Dependent Hyperpolarization Enhances Intracellular Ca2+ Signaling Induced by fMLF in Differentiated U937 Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Penna

    Full Text Available Formylated peptides are chemotactic agents generated by pathogens. The most relevant peptide is fMLF (formyl-Met-Leu-Phe which participates in several immune functions, such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, cytokine release and generation of reactive oxygen species. In macrophages fMLF-dependent responses are dependent on both, an increase in intracellular calcium concentration and on a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential. However, the molecular entity underlying this hyperpolarization remains unknown and it is not clear whether changes in membrane potential are linked to the increase in intracellular Ca2+. In this study, differentiated U937 cells, as a macrophage-like cell model, was used to characterize the fMLF response using electrophysiological and Ca2+ imaging techniques. We demonstrate by means of pharmacological and molecular biology tools that fMLF induces a Ca2+-dependent hyperpolarization via activation of the K+ channel KCa3.1 and thus, enhancing fMLF-induced intracellular Ca2+ increase through an amplification of the driving force for Ca2+ entry. Consequently, enhanced Ca2+ influx would in turn lengthen the hyperpolarization, operating as a positive feedback mechanism for fMLF-induced Ca2+ signaling.

  2. Evidence of biological activity of Mentha species extracts on apoptotic and autophagic targets on murine RAW264.7 and human U937 monocytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahmi, Fatiha; Hadj-Ahmed, Samia; Zarrouk, Amira; Bezine, Maryem; Nury, Thomas; Madani, Khodir; Chibane, Mohamed; Vejux, Anne; Andreoletti, Pierre; Boulekbache-Makhlouf, Lila; Lizard, Gérard

    2017-12-01

    Mints (Lamiaceae) are used as traditional remedies for the treatment of several diseases. Their extracts are recognized as anti-inflammatory compounds. This study characterized the cytotoxic effects of Mentha spicata L. (MS), Mentha pulegium L. (MP) and Mentha rotundifolia (L). Huds (MR) on macrophage cells (RAW264.7; U937) and determined their impact on apoptosis and autophagy, which can play a role in controlling inflammation. The extracts were prepared in culture medium and tested from 25 to 400 μg/mL after 24-48 h of treatment. To show the effect of the aqueous ethanol (50%) extracts on apoptosis and authophagy, the presence of cleaved caspase-3, and the conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II was evaluated by Western blotting. Compared with the MTT assay, crystal violet showed a pronounced decrease in the number of cells with all extracts at 48 h. Calculated IC 50 values were 257.31, 207.82 and 368.02 μg/mL for MS, MP and MR, respectively. A significant increase in PI positive cells was observed with all extracts at 200-400 μg/mL. Mitochondrial dysfunctions and nuclear morphological changes were detected with MS and MR extracts at 400 μg/mL. At this concentration, no cleaved caspase-3 was found whereas stabilized caspase-3 in its dimeric form was identified. MS and MR extracts also favour LC3-I to LC3-II conversion which is a criterion of autophagy. The cytotoxic profiles depend on the extracts considered; MS extract showed the strong activity. However, all the mint extracts studied interact with the apoptotic and autophagic pathways at elevated concentrations.

  3. Molecular characterization of Helicobacter pylori VacA induction of IL-8 in U937 cells reveals a prominent role for p38MAPK in activating transcription factor-2, cAMP response element binding protein, and NF-kappaB activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hisatsune, Junzo; Nakayama, Masaaki; Isomoto, Hajime

    2008-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori VacA induces multiple effects on susceptible cells, including vacuolation, mitochondrial damage, inhibition of cell growth, and enhanced cyclooxygenase-2 expression. To assess the ability of H. pylori to modulate the production of inflammatory mediators, we examined...... the mechanisms by which VacA enhanced IL-8 production by promonocytic U937 cells, which demonstrated the greatest VacA-induced IL-8 release of the cells tested. Inhibitors of p38 MAPK (SB203580), ERK1/2 (PD98059), IkappaBalpha ((E)-3-(4-methylphenylsulfonyl)-2-propenenitrile), Ca(2+) entry (SKF96365......+) in mediating activation of MAPK and the canonical NF-kappaB pathway. VacA stimulated translocation of NF-kappaBp65 to the nucleus, consistent with enhancement of IL-8 expression by activation of the NF-kappaB pathway. In addition, small interfering RNA of activating transcription factor (ATF)-2 or CREB, which...

  4. A natural xanthone increases catalase activity but decreases NF-kappa B and lipid peroxidation in U-937 and HepG2 cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Binay K; Zaidi, Adeel H; Gupta, Pankaj; Mokhamatam, Raveendra B; Raviprakash, Nune; Mahali, Sidhartha K; Manna, Sunil K

    2015-10-05

    Mangiferin, a C-glycosyl xanthone, has shown anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-tumorigenic activities. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanism for the antioxidant property of mangiferin. Considering the role of nuclear transcription factor kappa B (NF-κB) in inflammation and tumorigenesis, we hypothesized that modulating its activity will be a viable therapeutic target in regulating the redox-sensitive ailments. Our results show that mangiferin blocks several inducers, such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), lypopolysaccharide (LPS), phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) mediated NF-κB activation via inhibition of reactive oxygen species generation. In silico docking studies predicted strong binding energy of mangiferin to the active site of catalase (-9.13 kcal/mol), but not with other oxidases such as myeloperoxidase, glutathione peroxidase, or inducible nitric oxide synthase. Mangiferin increased activity of catalase by 44%, but had no effect on myeloperoxidase activity in vitro. Fluorescence spectroscopy further revealed the binding of mangiferin to catalase at the single site with binding constant and binding affinity of 3.1×10(-7) M(-1) and 1.046 respectively. Mangiferin also inhibits TNF-induced lipid peroxidation and thereby protects apoptosis. Hence, mangiferin with its ability to inhibit NF-κB and increase the catalase activity may prove to be a potent therapeutic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dimethyl sulfoxide potentiates death receptor-mediated apoptosis in the human myeloid leukemia U937 cell line through enhancement of mitochondrial membrane depolarization

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vondráček, Jan; Souček, Karel; Sheard, M. A.; Chramostová, Kateřina; Andrysík, Zdeněk; Hofmanová, Jiřina; Kozubík, Alois

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 1 (2006), s. 81-89 ISSN 0145-2126 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/03/0766 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : human myeloid leukemia * DMSO * apoptosis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 2.483, year: 2006

  6. PAF effects on MCP-1 and IL-6 secretion in U-937 monocytes in comparison with oxLDL and IL-1β effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verouti, Sophia N; Fragopoulou, Elizabeth; Karantonis, Haralabos C; Dimitriou, Andromaxi A; Tselepis, Alexandros D; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Demopoulos, Constantinos A

    2011-12-01

    To study the effects of PAF, in comparison with oxLDL and IL-1β on MCP-1 and IL-6 secretion from U-937 monocytes and to investigate the mechanism of its action. U-937 cell line was cultured in the presence or absence of PAF or oxLDL or IL-1β. Secretion of IL-6 and MCP-1 was measured by ELISA method, mRNA levels of MCP-1 and PAFR was measured using real-time PCR. In order to investigate the mechanism of mediator's action signal transduction appropriate inhibitors was used and oxidant status of cells by measurement the total cellular thiols content and glutathione was determined. None of the tested mediators induced the secretion of IL-6. On the other hand PAF and oxLDL caused a short-term while IL-1β caused a long-term secretion and expression of MCP-1. Reduced total thiol levels and GSH/GSSG ratio indicate that the above mediators induce oxidative stress. The signal transduction of all mediators is mediated through G-proteins, protein kinases (PKC, serine-threonine kinase and tyrosine kinase) and NF-κB activation. In addition, PAF, oxLDL, IL-1β activates monocytes leading to increased PAF receptor mRNA levels. These results indicate that PAF and oxLDL, in a different pattern from that of IL-1β, regulate MCP-1 expression via pathways that involve changes in cell redox status. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Effect of Cadmium on Macrophage U937 Cell Proliferation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BSN

    All other chemicals were analytical reagents hence were used without further purification. All buffers were prepared in double glass-distilled water while all .... DNA damage and nitric oxide. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 387: 177-. 185. Klassen, C.D., Liu, L., and Choudhuri, S. (1999). Metallothionein: an intracellular protein to.

  8. Regulation of CD43-induced U937 homotypic aggregation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cho, J. Y.; Chain, B.; M. Vives, J.; Hořejší, Václav; Katz, D. R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 290, č. 1 (2003), s. 155-167 ISSN 0014-4827 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5052915 Keywords : CD43 * cell adhesion Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 3.949, year: 2003

  9. Decreased accessory cell function by human monocytic cells after infection with HIV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petit, A. J.; Tersmette, M.; Terpstra, F. G.; de Goede, R. E.; van Lier, R. A.; Miedema, F.

    1988-01-01

    We studied the effect of HIV infection on the human monocytic cell line U937. The cell line was infected with cellfree HIV, strain HTLV-IIIB. After 3 wk, a high reverse transcriptase activity was continuously detected in the supernatant of the cell line. Neither cytopathic effects nor changes in

  10. Identification of latent tuberculosis infection-related microRNAs in human U937 macrophages expressing Mycobacterium tuberculosis Hsp16.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qing-Lin; Liu, Fei; Yang, Xing-Yuan; Liu, Xiao-Mei; Zhang, Xia; Zhang, Chun; Zhang, Zong-De

    2014-02-12

    Latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) relies on a homeostasis of macrophages and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The small heat shock protein, Mtb Hsp16.3 (also known as latency-associated antigen), plays an important role in Mtb persistence within macrophages. However, the mechanism of LTBI remains elusive. The aim of this study was to delineate LTBI-related miRNA expression in U937 macrophages expressing Mtb Hsp16.3 protein. U937 macrophages were infected with an integrase-deficient Lentivirus vector to transiently express Mtb Hsp16.3, and green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a control. We used a microRNA (miRNA) microarray chip containing more than 1000 probes to identify the significant differentially expressed miRNAs in the infected U937 cells, and employed real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) for validation. Furthermore, we confirmed these candidate LTBI-related miRNAs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from subjects with LTBI and in healthy control individuals. Functional annotation prediction of miRNA target genes and pathway enrichment analyses were used to explore the putative links between these miRNAs and LTBI. Analysis of the miRNA expression profile identified 149 miRNAs that were differentially expressed in U937 macrophages expressing Mtb Hsp16.3 compared with the control expressing GFP. The expression level of seven miRNAs (miR-424-5p, miR-493-5p, miR-296-5p, miR-27b-3p, miR-377-5p, miR-3680-5p, miR-191-5p) were validated by qRT-PCR. The expression level of four miRNAs (miR-424-5p, miR-27b-3p, miR-377-5p, miR-3680-5p) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells samples from LTBI and healthy participants reflected the altered patterns observed in the microarray profile. The bioinformatic analyses suggest that the miRNAs may regulate Mtb latent infection by affecting the development of macrophage cells. The results suggest that miRNA expression may play a considerable role in the pathogenesis of LTBI, and this would increase our

  11. Nanoparticulate Quillaja saponin induces apoptosis in human leukemia cell lines with a high therapeutic index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kefei; Berenjian, Saideh; Larsson, Rolf; Gullbo, Joachim; Nygren, Peter; Lövgren, Tanja; Morein, Bror

    2010-02-02

    Saponin fractions of Quillaja saponaria Molina (QS) have cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro, but are too toxic to be useful in the clinic. The toxic effect was abolished by converting QS fractions into stable nanoparticles through the binding of QS to cholesterol. Two fractions of QS were selected for particle formation, one with an acyl-chain (ASAP) was used to form killing and growth-inhibiting (KGI) particles, and the other without the acyl-chain (DSAP) was used to formulate blocking and balancing effect (BBE) particles. KGI showed significant growth inhibiting and cancer cell-killing activities in nine of 10 cell lines while BBE showed that on one cell line. The monoblastoid lymphoma cell line U937 was selected for analyzing the mode of action. Low concentrations of KGI (0.5 and 2 microg/mL) induced irreversible exit from the cell cycle, differentiation measured by cytokine production, and eventually programmed cell death (apoptosis). Compared to normal human monocytes, the U937 cells were 30-fold more sensitive to KGI. The nontoxic BBE blocked the cell killing effect of KGI in a concentration-dependent manner. In conclusion, the formulation of QS into nanoparticles has the potential of becoming a new class of anticancer agents.

  12. A 55,000-60,000 Mr receptor protein for urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Identification in human tumor cell lines and partial purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, L S; Kellerman, G M; Behrendt, N

    1988-01-01

    -PA-R consists of one polypeptide chain. Two forms of u-PA-R, which differed with respect to affinity to concanavalin A, were identified. u-PA-R retained its ability to bind to ATF after cell lysis, and it was purified approximately 2,200-fold from biosynthetically labeled U937 cells by affinity chromatography...... protein (u-PA-R). In the human monocyte cell line U937 cultivated in the presence of phorbol ester, the amount of complex was strongly increased, and a fraction of the complex had a slower electrophoretic mobility. Comparison between autoradiograms of reduced and unreduced samples suggests that u...... with proenzyme u-PA coupled to Sepharose. The purified Mr 55,000-60,000 protein was specifically bound and cross-linked to u-PA, proenzyme u-PA, and ATF, but not to tissue-type plasminogen activator or other unrelated proteins....

  13. Cytotoxicity of Vitex agnus-castus fruit extract and its major component, casticin, correlates with differentiation status in leukemia cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Hidetomo; Yuan, Bo; Nishimura, Yoshio; Imai, Masahiko; Furutani, Ryota; Kamoi, Saki; Seno, Misako; Fukushima, Shin; Hazama, Shingo; Hirobe, Chieko; Ohyama, Kunio; Hu, Xiao-Mei; Takagi, Norio; Hirano, Toshihiko; Toyoda, Hiroo

    2013-12-01

    We have demonstrated that an extract from the ripe fruit of Vitex agnus-castus (Vitex) exhibits cytotoxic activities against various types of solid tumor cells, whereas its effects on leukemia cells has not been evaluated to date. In this study, the effects of Vitex and its major component, casticin, on leukemia cell lines, HL-60 and U-937, were investigated by focusing on proliferation, induction of apoptosis and differentiation. Identification and quantitation by NMR spectroscopy showed that casticin accounted for approximate 1% weight of Vitex. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity of Vitex and casticin was observed in both cell lines, and HL-60 cells were more sensitive to the cytotoxicity of Vitex/casticin compared to U-937 cells. Furthermore, compared to unstimulated HL-60 cells, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)- and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D₃ (VD₃)-differentiated HL-60 cells acquired resistance to Vitex/casticin based on the results from cell viability and apoptosis induction analysis. Since the HL-60 cell line is more immature than the U-937 cell line, these results suggested that the levels of cytotoxicity of Vitex/casticin were largely attributed to the degree of differentiation of leukemia cells; that is, cell lines with less differentiated phenotype were more susceptible than the differentiated ones. RT-PCR analysis demonstrated that PMA upregulated the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in HL-60 cells, and that anti-ICAM-1 monoclonal antibody not only abrogated PMA-induced aggregation and adhesion of the cells but also restored its sensitivity to Vitex. These results suggested that ICAM-1 plays a crucial role in the acquired resistance in PMA-differentiated HL-60 cells by contributing to cell adhesion. These findings provide fundamental insights into the clinical application of Vitex/casticin for hematopoietic malignancy.

  14. In vitro anticancer effect of venom from Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus against a panel of human cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    D?az-Garc?a, Alexis; Morier-D?az, Luis; Fri?n-Herrera, Yahima; Rodr?guez-S?nchez, Hermis; Caballero-Lorenzo, Yamira; Mendoza-Llanes, Dianeya; Riquenes-Garlobo, Yanelis; Fraga-Castro, Jos? A

    2013-01-01

    In Cuba the endemic species of scorpion Rhopalurus junceus has been used in traditional medicine for cancer treatment. However, there is little scientific evidence about its potential in cancer therapy. The effect of a range of scorpion venom concentrations (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1mg/ml) against a panel of human tumor cell lines from epithelial (Hela, SiHa, Hep-2, NCI-H292, A549, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, HT-29), hematopoietic origins (U937, K562, Raji) and normal cells (MRC-5, MDCK, Vero) w...

  15. Tricyclic antidepressant-induced lipidosis in human peripheral monocytes in vitro, as well as in a monocyte-derived cell line, as monitored by spectrofluorimetry and flow cytometry after staining with Nile red.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Z; Appelkvist, E L; DePierre, J W; Nässberger, L

    1997-05-15

    Human mono- and lymphocytes from peripheral blood and the monoblastoid cell line U-937 were used in this in vitro study of drug-induced lipidosis. Mono- and lymphocytes were exposed for 4 days to three different tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), imipramine (25 microM), clomipramine (10 microM) and citalopram (80 microM). The lipophilic fluorophore Nile red, which stains intracellular lipid structures selectively, was used as a lipid probe. Fluorescence microscopy, spectrofluorimetry and flow cytometry were used to detect cellular lipidosis, as verified by electron microscopy. Our results demonstrate that imipramine, clomipramine and citalopram induce lipidosis in monocytes and U-937 cells, but not in lymphocytes. An accurate quantitation of induced intracellular lipidosis can be achieved by spectrofluorimetric and flow cytometric analysis.

  16. EVI1 inhibits apoptosis induced by antileukemic drugs via upregulation of CDKN1A/p21/WAF in human myeloid cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rommer

    Full Text Available Overexpression of ecotropic viral integration site 1 (EVI1 is associated with aggressive disease in acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Despite of its clinical importance, little is known about the mechanism through which EVI1 confers resistance to antileukemic drugs. Here, we show that a human myeloid cell line constitutively overexpressing EVI1 after infection with a retroviral vector (U937_EVI1 was partially resistant to etoposide and daunorubicin as compared to empty vector infected control cells (U937_vec. Similarly, inducible expression of EVI1 in HL-60 cells decreased their sensitivity to daunorubicin. Gene expression microarray analyses of U937_EVI1 and U937_vec cells cultured in the absence or presence of etoposide showed that 77 and 419 genes were regulated by EVI1 and etoposide, respectively. Notably, mRNA levels of 26 of these genes were altered by both stimuli, indicating that EVI1 regulated genes were strongly enriched among etoposide regulated genes and vice versa. One of the genes that were induced by both EVI1 and etoposide was CDKN1A/p21/WAF, which in addition to its function as a cell cycle regulator plays an important role in conferring chemotherapy resistance in various tumor types. Indeed, overexpression of CDKN1A in U937 cells mimicked the phenotype of EVI1 overexpression, similarly conferring partial resistance to antileukemic drugs.

  17. Nanoparticulate Quillaja saponin induces apoptosis in human leukemia cell lines with a high therapeutic index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefei Hu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Kefei Hu1, Saideh Berenjian1, Rolf Larsson2, Joachim Gullbo2, Peter Nygren3, Tanja Lövgren4, Bror Morein11Department of Medical Sciences, Section of Virology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; 2Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden; 3Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden; 4Department of Molecular Bioscience, Section for Veterinary Immunology and Virology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, SwedenAbstract: Saponin fractions of Quillaja saponaria Molina (QS have cytotoxic activity against cancer cells in vitro, but are too toxic to be useful in the clinic. The toxic effect was abolished by converting QS fractions into stable nanoparticles through the binding of QS to cholesterol. Two fractions of QS were selected for particle formation, one with an acyl-chain (ASAP was used to form killing and growth-inhibiting (KGI particles, and the other without the acyl-chain (DSAP was used to formulate blocking and balancing effect (BBE particles. KGI showed significant growth inhibiting and cancer cell-killing activities in nine of 10 cell lines while BBE showed that on one cell line. The monoblastoid lymphoma cell line U937 was selected for analyzing the mode of action. Low concentrations of KGI (0.5 and 2 µg/mL induced irreversible exit from the cell cycle, differentiation measured by cytokine production, and eventually programmed cell death (apoptosis. Compared to normal human monocytes, the U937 cells were 30-fold more sensitive to KGI. The nontoxic BBE blocked the cell killing effect of KGI in a concentrationdependent manner. In conclusion, the formulation of QS into nanoparticles has the potential of becoming a new class of anticancer agents.Keywords: anticancer drug, Quillaja saponin, nanoparticle, apoptosis

  18. Expression and function of β-adrenergic receptors in human hematopoietic cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeki, T.; Andersson, L.C.; Kontula, K.K.

    1992-01-01

    We investigated the expression and functional characteristics of β-adrenoceptors in a panel of 10 phenotypically different human hematopoietic cell lines. A binding assay with [ 125 I]iodocyanopindolol as the ligand revealed that cell lines of myelomonocytic or histiocytic derivation (HL-60, ML-2, RC-2A, U-937) expressed high numbers of β-adrenoceptors. An intermediate density of receptors was found in a non-T, non-B cell leukemia line (Nall-1), whereas T-cell (JM, CCRF-CEM), B-cell (Raji) or erythroleukemic cell lines (K-562, HEL) displayed minimala or undetectable binding of the radioligand. Isoprenaline-stimulated cAMP production by the cells correlated to their extent of β-adrenoceptor expression. Southern blot hybridization analysis of genomic DNA from the cell lines with a 32 P-labelled β 2 -adrenoceptor cDNA probe revealed no evidence for major rearrangement or amplification of the receptor gene. Incubation with isoprenaline in vitro suppressed the proliferation of the receptor-rich RC-2A cells but did not affect the growth rate of the receptor-deficient K-562 cells. Treatment with propranolol slightly enhanced the proliferation of the RC-2A cells but did not markedly alter the growth rate of two other cell lines, regardless of their β-adrenoceptor status. These findings indicate a regulatory influence by the sympathoadrenergic system on selected cells of the myelomonocytic lineage. (au)

  19. Mechanism of Hericium erinaceus (Yamabushitake) Mushroom-Induced Apoptosis of U937 Human Monocytic Leukemia Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytochemicals in some foods are a potential source of bioactive safe compounds for cancer chemoprevention. In the present study, we evaluated hot water (HWE), microwaved 50% ethanol (MWE), acidic (ACE), and alkaline (AKE) extracts of the fruit body (sporocarp) of edible Hericium erinaceus (Yamabus...

  20. Effects of hypoxia on human cancer cell line chemosensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Environment inside even a small tumor is characterized by total (anoxia) or partial oxygen deprivation, (hypoxia). It has been shown that radiotherapy and some conventional chemotherapies may be less effective in hypoxia, and therefore it is important to investigate how different drugs act in different microenvironments. In this study we perform a large screening of the effects of 19 clinically used or experimental chemotherapeutic drugs on five different cell lines in conditions of normoxia, hypoxia and anoxia. Methods A panel of 19 commercially available drugs: 5-fluorouracil, acriflavine, bortezomib, cisplatin, digitoxin, digoxin, docetaxel, doxorubicin, etoposide, gemcitabine, irinotecan, melphalan, mitomycin c, rapamycin, sorafenib, thalidomide, tirapazamine, topotecan and vincristine were tested for cytotoxic activity on the cancer cell lines A2780 (ovarian), ACHN (renal), MCF-7 (breast), H69 (SCLC) and U-937 (lymphoma). Parallel aliquots of the cells were grown at different oxygen pressures and after 72 hours of drug exposure viability was measured with the fluorometric microculture cytotoxicity assay (FMCA). Results Sorafenib, irinotecan and docetaxel were in general more effective in an oxygenated environment, while cisplatin, mitomycin c and tirapazamine were more effective in a low oxygen environment. Surprisingly, hypoxia in H69 and MCF-7 cells mostly rendered higher drug sensitivity. In contrast ACHN appeared more sensitive to hypoxia, giving slower proliferating cells, and consequently, was more resistant to most drugs. Conclusions A panel of standard cytotoxic agents was tested against five different human cancer cell lines cultivated at normoxic, hypoxic and anoxic conditions. Results show that impaired chemosensitivity is not universal, in contrast different cell lines behave different and some drugs appear even less effective in normoxia than hypoxia. PMID:23829203

  1. Deoxynivalenol (DON) is toxic to human colonic, lung and monocytic cell lines, but does not increase the IgE response in a mouse model for allergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Instanes, Christine; Hetland, Geir

    2004-01-01

    We examined whether the common crop mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) from Fusarium species is toxic to human colonic (Caco-2), lung (A549) and monocytic (U937) cell lines. Moreover, since DON reportedly induces increased levels of Th2 cytokines and total IgE, and we have observed that mould extracts adjuvated allergy development in mice, possible adjuvant effect of DON on allergy was studied in a mouse model. For all the cells, exposure to DON for 24 h reduced cellular protein synthesis, proliferation and survival rate dose-dependently. In addition, production of IL-8 in the U937 cell line increased up to eight-fold at levels of DON just lower than the most toxic one, suggesting that IL-8 can be used as an additional index for cytotoxicity in mononuclear phagocytes. However, DON did not increase levels of allergen-specific IgE or IgG1 in the mouse model for allergy. These results suggest that DON, when inhaled or ingested, may have toxic effect on human alveolar macrophages and epithelial cells in lungs and colon, but does not increase the allergic response to allergens

  2. A 55,000-60,000 Mr receptor protein for urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Identification in human tumor cell lines and partial purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lars Søegaard; Kellerman, G M; Behrendt, N

    1988-01-01

    a bifunctional amino-reactive reagent followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography revealed with the four cell lines studied the occurrence of a single band migrating with an Mr of 70,000-75,000, indicating complex formation with an Mr of 55,000-60,000 u-PA receptor...... protein (u-PA-R). In the human monocyte cell line U937 cultivated in the presence of phorbol ester, the amount of complex was strongly increased, and a fraction of the complex had a slower electrophoretic mobility. Comparison between autoradiograms of reduced and unreduced samples suggests that u......The iodinated Mr approximately equal to 15,000 amino-terminal fragment (ATF) of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (u-PA) molecule bound specifically to the cell surface of all of seven cultured human tumor cell lines studied. Cross-linking of iodinated ATF to the cell surface using...

  3. Cell cycle dependency of 67gallium uptake and cytotoxicity in human cell lines of hematological malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen-Stok, E A; Jonkhoff, A R; Visser-Platier, A W; Dräger, L M; Teule, G J; Huijgens, P C; Schuurhuis, G J

    1998-11-01

    67Gallium (67Ga) is a radionuclide which accumulates in hematological malignancies and is used for diagnostic imaging. We investigated in this in vitro study the cell cycle dependency of cellular uptake and cytotoxicity of 67Ga. Cell cycle synchronization of cells was achieved by counterflow centrifugal elutriation and the use of cytostatic drugs. The human lymphoma cell lines U-937 and U-715 were used and in elutriation experiments we also used the leukemic cell line HL-60. The transferrin receptor (CD71) expression, 67Ga uptake and cell proliferation inhibition were the parameters measured. We also studied cytotoxicity in various schedules for combination of 67Ga and drugs and the residual proliferative capacity was measured. The CD71 expression in the three cell lines increased from 106-177% on S phase cells and from 118-233% on G2M cells, as compared to the G0/G1 cell fraction. The 67Ga uptake varied from 108-127% for S cells and 128-139% for G2M cells. The drugs chosen induced cell cycle phase accumulation in S and/or G2M phase during preincubation. 67Ga preincubation induced accumulation in the G2M phase. Almost all combinations of 67Ga and drugs resulted in a non-interactive effect, except for methotrexate which resulted in an antagonistic effect. No preferential effect of any of the incubation schemes was seen. CD71 expression and 67Ga uptake were increased in S and G2M cells. Combination of 67Ga with drugs which arrest cells in these cell cycle phases did not result in a change in cytotoxicity. However, these results implicate that 67Ga and the cytostatic drugs tested except for methotrexate might be used together or sequentially in therapy.

  4. Concurrent targeting Akt and sphingosine kinase 1 by A-674563 in acute myeloid leukemia cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Lin [Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha (China); Shaoyang Central Hospital, Hunan Province (China); Zhang, Yanan; Gao, Meng [The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410013 (China); Wang, Guangping, E-mail: wangguangping45@sina.com [Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha (China); Fu, Yunfeng, E-mail: fuyunfeng33163@163.com [The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 410013 (China)

    2016-04-15

    Akt signaling plays a pivotal role in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) development and progression. In the present study, we evaluated the potential anti-AML activity by a novel Akt kinase inhibitor A-674563. Our results showed that A-674563 dose-dependently inhibited survival and proliferation of U937 AML cells and six lines of human AML progenitor cells, yet sparing human peripheral blood mononuclear leukocytes (PBMCs). A-674563 activated caspase-3/9 and apoptosis in the AML cells. Reversely, the pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD-CHO dramatically alleviated A-674563-induced AML cell apoptosis and cytotoxicity. For the molecular study, we showed that A-674563 blocked Akt activation in U937 cells and human AML progenitor cells. Further, A-674563 decreased sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) activity in above AML cells to deplete pro-survival sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) and boost pro-apoptotic ceramide production. Such an effect on SphK1 signaling by A-674563 appeared independent of Akt blockage. Significantly, K6PC-5, a novel SphK1 activator, or supplement with S1P attenuated A-674563-induced ceramide production, and subsequent U937 cell death and apoptosis. Importantly, intraperitoneal injection of A-674563 at well-tolerated doses suppressed U937 leukemic xenograft tumor growth in nude mice, whiling significantly improving the animal survival. The results of the current study demonstrate that A-674563 exerts potent anti-leukemic activity in vitro and in vivo, possibly via concurrent targeting Akt and SphK1 signalings. - Highlights: • A-674563 is cytotoxic and anti-proliferative in U937 and AML progenitor cells. • A-674563 activates caspase-3/9 and apoptosis in U937 and AML progenitor cells. • Whiling blocking Akt, A-674563 manipulates other signalings in AML cells. • A-674563 inhibits SphK1 activity in AML cells, independent of Akt blockage. • A-674563 injection inhibits U937 xenograft in vivo growth, and improves mice survival.

  5. Homotypic aggregation of human cell lines by HLA class II-, class Ia- and HLA-G-specific monoclonal antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Odum, Niels; Ledbetter, J A; Martin, P

    1991-01-01

    adhesion between T and B cells by activating the CD18/CD11a (LFA-1) adhesion pathway. Here we report that monoclonal antibodies (mAb) against HLA-DR (L243, p4.1, HB10a, VI15) and certain broad class II reacting mAb (TU35, TU39), but not anti-DQ (TU22, Leu-10) mAb, induced homotypic aggregation of human...... class II-positive monocytic (I937) and T leukemic (HUT78) tumor cell lines and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) transformed B-lymphoid cell lines (EBV-LCL). Class II-negative cell lines (U-937 and the EBV-LCL mutant line 616) were not induced to aggregate. An HLA-G-transfected EBV-LCL, 221-AGN......, but not the class I-negative parental line, 221, showed homotypic aggregation in response to an HLA-G specific mAb (87G) and a broad reacting class I-specific mAb (IOT2). Both cell lines responded with aggregation to anti-class II mAb (TU35). The anti-class I mAb, W6/32, had no effect on all cell lines tested...

  6. Linalool Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells and Cervical Cancer Cells through CDKIs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei-Yin Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plantaginaceae, a popular traditional Chinese medicine, has long been used for treating various diseases from common cold to cancer. Linalool is one of the biologically active compounds that can be isolated from Plantaginaceae. Most of the commonly used cytotoxic anticancer drugs have been shown to induce apoptosis in susceptible tumor cells. However, the signaling pathway for apoptosis remains undefined. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of linalool on human cancer cell lines was investigated. Water-soluble tetrazolium salts (WST-1 based colorimetric cellular cytotoxicity assay, was used to test the cytotoxic ability of linalool against U937 and HeLa cells, and flow cytometry (FCM and genechip analysis were used to investigate the possible mechanism of apoptosis. These results demonstrated that linalool exhibited a good cytotoxic effect on U937 and HeLa cells, with the IC50 value of 2.59 and 11.02 μM, respectively, compared with 5-FU with values of 4.86 and 12.31 μM, respectively. After treating U937 cells with linalool for 6 h, we found an increased sub-G1 peak and a dose-dependent phenomenon, whereby these cells were arrested at the G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, by using genechip analysis, we observed that linalool can promote p53, p21, p27, p16, and p18 gene expression. Therefore, this study verified that linalool can arrest the cell cycle of U937 cells at the G0/G1 phase and can arrest the cell cycle of HeLa cells at the G2/M phase. Its mechanism facilitates the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors (CDKIs p53, p21, p27, p16, and p18, as well as the non-expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs activity.

  7. Linalool Induces Cell Cycle Arrest and Apoptosis in Leukemia Cells and Cervical Cancer Cells through CDKIs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mei-Yin; Shieh, Den-En; Chen, Chung-Chi; Yeh, Ching-Sheng; Dong, Huei-Ping

    2015-11-26

    Plantaginaceae, a popular traditional Chinese medicine, has long been used for treating various diseases from common cold to cancer. Linalool is one of the biologically active compounds that can be isolated from Plantaginaceae. Most of the commonly used cytotoxic anticancer drugs have been shown to induce apoptosis in susceptible tumor cells. However, the signaling pathway for apoptosis remains undefined. In this study, the cytotoxic effect of linalool on human cancer cell lines was investigated. Water-soluble tetrazolium salts (WST-1) based colorimetric cellular cytotoxicity assay, was used to test the cytotoxic ability of linalool against U937 and HeLa cells, and flow cytometry (FCM) and genechip analysis were used to investigate the possible mechanism of apoptosis. These results demonstrated that linalool exhibited a good cytotoxic effect on U937 and HeLa cells, with the IC50 value of 2.59 and 11.02 μM, respectively, compared with 5-FU with values of 4.86 and 12.31 μM, respectively. After treating U937 cells with linalool for 6 h, we found an increased sub-G1 peak and a dose-dependent phenomenon, whereby these cells were arrested at the G0/G1 phase. Furthermore, by using genechip analysis, we observed that linalool can promote p53, p21, p27, p16, and p18 gene expression. Therefore, this study verified that linalool can arrest the cell cycle of U937 cells at the G0/G1 phase and can arrest the cell cycle of HeLa cells at the G2/M phase. Its mechanism facilitates the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitors (CDKIs) p53, p21, p27, p16, and p18, as well as the non-expression of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) activity.

  8. Lapatinib induces autophagic cell death and differentiation in acute myeloblastic leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen YJ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Yu-Jen Chen,1–4 Li-Wen Fang,5 Wen-Chi Su,6,7 Wen-Yi Hsu,1 Kai-Chien Yang,1 Huey-Lan Huang8 1Department of Medical Research, 2Department of Radiation Oncology, Mackay Memorial Hospital, 3Institute of Traditional Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, 4Institute of Pharmacology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, 5Department of Nutrition, I-Shou University, Kaohsiung, 6Research Center for Emerging Viruses, China Medical University Hospital, 7Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, Taichung, 8Department of Bioscience Technology, College of Health Science, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, Taiwan, Republic of China Abstract: Lapatinib is an oral-form dual tyrosine kinase inhibitor of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR or ErbB/Her superfamily members with anticancer activity. In this study, we examined the effects and mechanism of action of lapatinib on several human leukemia cells lines, including acute myeloid leukemia (AML, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML, and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL cells. We found that lapatinib inhibited the growth of human AML U937, HL-60, NB4, CML KU812, MEG-01, and ALL Jurkat T cells. Among these leukemia cell lines, lapatinib induced apoptosis in HL-60, NB4, and Jurkat cells, but induced nonapoptotic cell death in U937, K562, and MEG-01 cells. Moreover, lapatinib treatment caused autophagic cell death as shown by positive acridine orange staining, the massive formation of vacuoles as seen by electronic microscopy, and the upregulation of LC3-II, ATG5, and ATG7 in AML U937 cells. Furthermore, autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine and knockdown of ATG5, ATG7, and Beclin-1 using short hairpin RNA (shRNA partially rescued lapatinib-induced cell death. In addition, the induction of phagocytosis and ROS production as well as the upregulation of surface markers CD14 and CD68 was detected in lapatinib-treated U937 cells, suggesting the induction of

  9. Cell line provenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freshney, R Ian

    2002-07-01

    Cultured cell lines have become an extremely valuable resource, both in academic research and in industrial biotechnology. However, their value is frequently compromised by misidentification and undetected microbial contamination. As detailed elsewhere in this volume, the technology, both simple and sophisticated, is available to remedy the problems of misidentification and contamination, given the will to apply it. Combined with proper records of the origin and history of the cell line, assays for authentication and contamination contribute to the provenance of the cell line. Detailed records should start from the initiation or receipt of the cell line, and should incorporate data on the donor as well as the tissue from which the cell line was derived, should continue with details of maintenance, and include any accidental as well as deliberate deviations from normal maintenance. Records should also contain details of authentication and regular checks for contamination. With this information, preferably stored in a database, and suitable backed up, the provenance of the cell line so created makes the cell line a much more valuable resource, fit for validation in industrial applications and more likely to provide reproducible experimental results when disseminated for research in other laboratories.

  10. Morin, a flavonoid from moraceae, induces apoptosis by induction of BAD protein in human leukemic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheol; Lee, Won Sup; Go, Se-Il; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Han, Min Ho; Hong, Su Hyun; Kim, Gon Sup; Kim, Gi Young; Kwon, Taeg Kyu; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Choi, Yung Hyun

    2014-12-30

    Evidence suggests that phytochemicals can safely modulate cancer cell biology and induce apoptosis. Here, we investigated the anti-cancer activity of morin, a flavone originally isolated from members of the Moraceae family in human leukemic cells, focusing on apoptosis. An anti-cancer effect of morin was screened with several human leukemic cell lines. U937 cells were most sensitive to morin, where it induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. It also induced loss of MMP (ΔΨm) along with cytochrome c release, down-regulated Bcl-2 protein, and up-regulated BAX proteins. The apoptotic activity of morin was significantly attenuated by Bcl-2 augmentation. In conclusion, morin induced caspase-dependent apoptosis through an intrinsic pathway by upregulating BAD proteins. In addition, Bcl-2 protein expression is also important in morin-induced apoptosis of U937 cells. This study provides evidence that morin might have anticancer properties in human leukemic cells.

  11. Induced myelomonocytic differentiation in leukemia cells is accompanied by noncanonical transcription factor expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Holly A; Yourish, Harmony B; Bunaciu, Rodica P; Varner, Jeffrey D; Yen, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Transcription factors that drive non-neoplastic myelomonocytic differentiation are well characterized but have not been systematically analyzed in the leukemic context. We investigated widely used, patient-derived myeloid leukemia cell lines with proclivity for differentiation into granulocytes by retinoic acid (RA) and/or monocytes by 1,25-dihyrdroxyvitamin D3 (D3). Using K562 (FAB M1), HL60 (FAB M2), RA-resistant HL60 sublines, NB4 (FAB M3), and U937 (FAB M5), we correlated nuclear transcription factor expression to immunophenotype, G1/G0 cell cycle arrest and functional inducible oxidative metabolism. We found that myelomonocytic transcription factors are aberrantly expressed in these cell lines. Monocytic-lineage factor EGR1 was not induced by D3 (the monocytic inducer) but instead by RA (the granulocytic inducer) in lineage bipotent myeloblastic HL60. In promyelocytic NB4 cells, EGR1 levels were increased by D3, while Gfi-1 expression (which promotes the granulocytic lineage) was upregulated during D3-induced monocytic differentiation in HL60, and by RA treatment in monocytic U937 cells. Furthermore, RARα and VDR expression were not strongly correlated to differentiation. In response to different differentiation inducers, U937 exhibited the most distinct transcription factor expression profile, while similarly mature NB4 and HL60 were better coupled. Overall, the differentiation induction agents RA and D3 elicited cell-specific responses across these common FAB M1-M5 cell lines.

  12. Knockdown of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit D (eIF3D) inhibits proliferation of acute myeloid leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Zhen; Liu, Ji-Zhu; Li, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Li; Li, Shuang-Jing; Xiao, Tai-Wu; Wang, Jing-Xia; Li, Guang-Yao; Liu, Yusen

    2018-01-01

    Various eukaryotic translation initiation factors (eIFs) have been implicated in carcinoma development. Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 3 subunit D (eIF3D) has recently been shown to regulate the growth of several types of human cancer cells. However, the function of eIF3D in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of eIF3D in three AML cell lines and a lymphoblast cell line, and found that eIF3D was expressed in all four leukemia cell lines. To explore the role of eIF3D in AML cell proliferation, lentivirus-mediated RNA interference was applied to knock down the expression of eIF3D in U937 cells. The expression of eIF3D was significantly downregulated in U937 cells after eIF3D knockdown, as confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. Knockdown of eIF3D significantly inhibited proliferation of U937 cells. Furthermore, flow cytometry analysis revealed that eIF3D silencing induced cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase, ultimately leading to apoptosis. Our results indicate that eIF3D plays a key role in the proliferation of AML cells, and suggest that eIF3D silencing might be a potential therapeutic strategy for leukemia.

  13. Dose-dependent ATP depletion and cancer cell death following calcium electroporation, relative effect of calcium concentration and electric field strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Emilie Louise; Sozer, Esin Bengisu; Romeo, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    death and could be a novel cancer treatment. This study aims at understanding the relationship between applied electric field, calcium concentration, ATP depletion and efficacy. METHODS: In three human cell lines--H69 (small-cell lung cancer), SW780 (bladder cancer), and U937 (leukaemia), viability...... was observed with fluorescence confocal microscopy of quinacrine-labelled U937 cells. RESULTS: Both H69 and SW780 cells showed dose-dependent (calcium concentration and electric field) decrease in intracellular ATP (p...-dependently reduced cell survival and intracellular ATP. Increasing extracellular calcium allows the use of a lower electric field. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study supports the use of calcium electroporation for treatment of cancer and possibly lowering the applied electric field in future trials....

  14. Multiwalled carbon nanotube buckypaper induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in human leukemia cell lines through modulation of AKT and MAPK signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinicola, Simona; Masiello, Maria Grazia; Proietti, Sara; Coluccia, Pierpaolo; Fabrizi, Gianmarco; Palombo, Alessandro; Micciulla, Federico; Bistarelli, Silvia; Ricci, Giulia; Catizone, Angela; De Toma, Giorgio; Bizzarri, Mariano; Bellucci, Stefano; Cucina, Alessandra

    2015-10-01

    MWCNT buckypaper (BP) shows physico-chemical and mechanical properties that make it potentially useful as a substrate in nano-bio interface research including in tissue engineering. When used as a scaffold material, BP comes into contact with host cells and surrounding tissues; therefore it is critical to determine its biocompatibility and interaction with living systems. The aim of this study was to investigate BP effects on cell growth, apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in three human leukemia cell lines HL-60, U-937 and K-562. BP was able to induce both the reduction of cell proliferation, associated with an arrest in G0/G1 phase of cell cycle and the increase of apoptosis in leukemic cell lines, thus exerting both cytostatic and cytotoxic effects. The growth inhibitory effect was likely mediated by the decrease of cyclins D, E, A, B1 levels and CDK4 expression; meanwhile, the apoptotic effect, not mediated by ROS production, was presumably due to the combined action of the survival and pro-apoptotic AKT and MAPK signal transduction pathways. These results raised the issue of biocompatibility of MWCNT BP for the creation of carbon nanotubes based scaffolds to utilize as prostheses in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Radiosensitivity of mesothelioma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haekkinen, A.M.; Laasonen, A.; Linnainmaa, K.; Mattson, K.; Pyrhoenen, S.

    1996-01-01

    The present study was carried out in order to examine the radiosensitivity of malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines. Cell kinetics, radiation-induced delay of the cell cycle and DNA ploidy of the cell lines were also determined. For comparison an HeLa and a human foetal fibroblast cell line were simultaneously explored. Six previously cytogenetically and histologically characterized mesothelioma tumor cell lines were applied. A rapid tiazolyl blue microtiter (MTT) assay was used to analyze radiosensitivity and cell kinetics and DNA ploidy of the cultured cells were determined by flow cytometry. The survival fraction after a dose of 2 Gy (SF2), parameters α and β of the linear quadratic model (LQ-model) and mean inactivation dose (D MID ) were also estimated. The DNA index of four cell lines equaled 1.0 and two cell lines equaled 1.5 and 1.6. Different mesothelioma cell lines showed a great variation in radiosensitivity. Mean survival fraction after a radiation dose of 2 Gy (SF2) was 0.60 and ranged from 0.36 to 0.81 and mean α value was 0.26 (range 0.48-0.083). The SF2 of the most sensitive diploid mesothelioma cell line was 0.36: Less than that of the foetal fibroblast cell line (0.49). The survival fractions (0.81 and 0.74) of the two most resistant cell lines, which also were aneuploid, were equal to that of the HeLa cell line (0.78). The α/β ratios of the most sensitive cell lines were almost an order of magnitude greater than those of the two most resistant cell lines. Radiation-induced delay of the most resistant aneuploid cell line was similar to that of HeLa cells but in the most sensitive (diploid cells) there was practically no entry into the G1 phase following the 2 Gy radiation dose during 36 h. (orig.)

  16. Analysis of tanshinone IIA induced cellular apoptosis in leukemia cells by genome-wide expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Chang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA is a diterpene quinone extracted from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza, a Chinese traditional herb. Although previous studies have reported the anti-tumor effects of Tan IIA on various human cancer cells, the underlying mechanisms are not clear. The current study was undertaken to investigate the molecular mechanisms of Tan IIA's apoptotic effects on leukemia cells in vitro. Methods The cytotoxicity of Tan IIA on different types of leukemia cell lines was evaluated by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2,5]-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay on cells treated without or with Tan IIA at different concentrations for different time periods. Cellular apoptosis progression with and without Tan IIA treatment was analyzed by Annexin V and Caspase 3 assays. Gene expression profiling was used to identify the genes regulated after Tan IIA treatment and those differentially expressed among the five cell lines. Confirmation of these expression regulations was carried out using real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA. The antagonizing effect of a PXR inhibitor L-SFN on Tan IIA treatment was tested using Colony Forming Unit Assay. Results Our results revealed that Tan IIA had different cytotoxic activities on five types of leukemia cells, with the highest toxicity on U-937 cells. Tan IIA inhibited the growth of U-937 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Annexin V and Caspase-3 assays showed that Tan IIA induced apoptosis in U-937 cells. Using gene expression profiling, 366 genes were found to be significantly regulated after Tan IIA treatment and differentially expressed among the five cell lines. Among these genes, CCL2 was highly expressed in untreated U-937 cells and down-regulated significantly after Tan IIA treatment in a dose-dependent manner. RT-qPCR analyses validated the expression regulation of 80% of genes. Addition of L- sulforaphane (L-SFN, an inhibitor of Pregnane × receptor (PXR significantly

  17. CLO : The cell line ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sarntivijai, Sirarat; Lin, Yu; Xiang, Zuoshuang; Meehan, Terrence F.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Vempati, Uma D.; Schuerer, Stephan C.; Pang, Chao; Malone, James; Parkinson, Helen; Liu, Yue; Takatsuki, Terue; Saijo, Kaoru; Masuya, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Yukio; Brush, Matthew H.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Zheng, Jie; Stoeckert, Christian J.; Peters, Bjoern; Mungall, Christopher J.; Carey, Thomas E.; States, David J.; Athey, Brian D.; He, Yongqun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cell lines have been widely used in biomedical research. The community-based Cell Line Ontology (CLO) is a member of the OBO Foundry library that covers the domain of cell lines. Since its publication two years ago, significant updates have been made, including new groups joining the CLO

  18. The MHC-II transactivator CIITA inhibits Tat function and HIV-1 replication in human myeloid cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forlani, Greta; Turrini, Filippo; Ghezzi, Silvia; Tedeschi, Alessandra; Poli, Guido; Accolla, Roberto S; Tosi, Giovanna

    2016-04-18

    We previously demonstrated that the HLA class II transactivator CIITA inhibits HIV-1 replication in T cells by competing with the viral transactivator Tat for the binding to Cyclin T1 subunit of the P-TEFb complex. Here, we analyzed the anti-viral function of CIITA in myeloid cells, another relevant HIV-1 target cell type. We sinvestigated clones of the U937 promonocytic cell line, either permissive (Plus) or non-permissive (Minus) to HIV-1 replication. This different phenotype has been associated with the expression of TRIM22 in U937 Minus but not in Plus cells. U937 Plus cells stably expressing CIITA were generated and HLA-II positive clones were selected by cell sorting and cloning. HLA and CIITA proteins were analyzed by cytofluorometry and western blotting, respectively. HLA-II DR and CIITA mRNAs were quantified by qRT-PCR. Tat-dependent transactivation was assessed by performing the HIV-1 LTR luciferase gene reporter assay. Cells were infected with HIV-1 and viral replication was evaluated by measuring the RT activity in culture supernatants. CIITA was expressed only in HLA-II-positive U937 Minus cells, and this was strictly correlated with inhibition of Tat-dependent HIV-1 LTR transactivation in Minus but not in Plus cells. Overexpression of CIITA in Plus cells restored the suppression of Tat transactivation, confirming the inhibitory role of CIITA. Importantly, HIV-1 replication was significantly reduced in Plus-CIITA cells with respect to Plus parental cells. This effect was independent of TRIM22 as CIITA did not induce TRIM22 expression in Plus-CIITA cells. U937 Plus and Minus cells represent an interesting model to study the role of CIITA in HIV-1 restriction in the monocytic/macrophage cell lineage. The differential expression of CIITA in CIITA-negative Plus and CIITA-positive Minus cells correlated with their capacity to support or not HIV-1 replication, respectively. In Minus cells CIITA targeted the viral transactivator Tat to inhibit HIV-1

  19. Polyphenolic Profile and Targeted Bioactivity of Methanolic Extracts from Mediterranean Ethnomedicinal Plants on Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Pollio

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The methanol extracts of the aerial part of four ethnomedicinal plants of Mediterranean region, two non-seed vascular plants, Equisetum hyemale L. and Phyllitis scolopendrium (L. Newman, and two Spermatophyta, Juniperus communis L. (J. communis and Cotinus coggygria Scop. (C. coggygria, were screened against four human cells lines (A549, MCF7, TK6 and U937. Only the extracts of J. communis and C. coggygria showed marked cytotoxic effects, affecting both cell morphology and growth. A dose-dependent effect of these two extracts was also observed on the cell cycle distribution. Incubation of all the cell lines in a medium containing J. communis extract determined a remarkable accumulation of cells in the G2/M phase, whereas the C. coggygria extract induced a significant increase in the percentage of G1 cells. The novelty of our findings stands on the observation that the two extracts, consistently, elicited coherent effects on the cell cycle in four cell lines, independently from their phenotype, as two of them have epithelial origin and grow adherent and two are lymphoblastoid and grow in suspension. Even the expression profiles of several proteins regulating cell cycle progression and cell death were affected by both extracts. LC-MS investigation of methanol extract of C. coggygria led to the identification of twelve flavonoids (compounds 1–11, 19 and eight polyphenols derivatives (12–18, 20, while in J. communis extract, eight flavonoids (21–28, a α-ionone glycoside (29 and a lignin (30 were found. Although many of these compounds have interesting individual biological activities, their natural blends seem to exert specific effects on the proliferation of cell lines either growing adherent or in suspension, suggesting potential use in fighting cancer.

  20. Radiosensitivity of mesothelioma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haekkinen, A.M. [Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Laasonen, A. [Dept. of Pathology, Central Hospital of Etelae-Pohjanmaa, Seinaejoki (Finland); Linnainmaa, K. [Dept. of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology, Inst. of Occupational Health, Helsinki (Finland); Mattson, K. [Dept. Pulmonary Medicine, Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland); Pyrhoenen, S. [Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Central Hospital, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-10-01

    The present study was carried out in order to examine the radiosensitivity of malignant pleural mesothelioma cell lines. Cell kinetics, radiation-induced delay of the cell cycle and DNA ploidy of the cell lines were also determined. For comparison an HeLa and a human foetal fibroblast cell line were simultaneously explored. Six previously cytogenetically and histologically characterized mesothelioma tumor cell lines were applied. A rapid tiazolyl blue microtiter (MTT) assay was used to analyze radiosensitivity and cell kinetics and DNA ploidy of the cultured cells were determined by flow cytometry. The survival fraction after a dose of 2 Gy (SF2), parameters {alpha} and {beta} of the linear quadratic model (LQ-model) and mean inactivation dose (D{sub MID}) were also estimated. The DNA index of four cell lines equaled 1.0 and two cell lines equaled 1.5 and 1.6. Different mesothelioma cell lines showed a great variation in radiosensitivity. Mean survival fraction after a radiation dose of 2 Gy (SF2) was 0.60 and ranged from 0.36 to 0.81 and mean {alpha} value was 0.26 (range 0.48-0.083). The SF2 of the most sensitive diploid mesothelioma cell line was 0.36: Less than that of the foetal fibroblast cell line (0.49). The survival fractions (0.81 and 0.74) of the two most resistant cell lines, which also were aneuploid, were equal to that of the HeLa cell line (0.78). The {alpha}/{beta} ratios of the most sensitive cell lines were almost an order of magnitude greater than those of the two most resistant cell lines. Radiation-induced delay of the most resistant aneuploid cell line was similar to that of HeLa cells but in the most sensitive (diploid cells) there was practically no entry into the G1 phase following the 2 Gy radiation dose during 36 h. (orig.).

  1. In vitro anticancer effect of venom from Cuban scorpion Rhopalurus junceus against a panel of human cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-García, Alexis; Morier-Díaz, Luis; Frión-Herrera, Yahima; Rodríguez-Sánchez, Hermis; Caballero-Lorenzo, Yamira; Mendoza-Llanes, Dianeya; Riquenes-Garlobo, Yanelis; Fraga-Castro, José A

    2013-01-01

    In Cuba the endemic species of scorpion Rhopalurus junceus has been used in traditional medicine for cancer treatment. However, there is little scientific evidence about its potential in cancer therapy. The effect of a range of scorpion venom concentrations (0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 1mg/ml) against a panel of human tumor cell lines from epithelial (Hela, SiHa, Hep-2, NCI-H292, A549, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, HT-29), hematopoietic origins (U937, K562, Raji) and normal cells (MRC-5, MDCK, Vero) was determined by the MTT assay. Additionally, the effect of venom on tumor cell death was assayed by Fluorescence microscopy, RT-PCR and western blot. Only the epithelial cancer cells showed significant cell viability reduction, with medium cytotoxic concentration (IC50) ranging from 0.6-1mg/ml, in a concentration-dependent manner. There was no effect on either normal or hematopoietic tumor cells. Scorpion venom demonstrated to induce apoptosis in less sensitive tumor cells (Hela) as evidenced by chromatin condensation, over expression of p53 and bax mRNA, down expression of bcl-2 mRNA and increase of activated caspases 3, 8, 9. In most sensitive tumor cells (A549), scorpion venom induced necrosis evidenced by acridine orange/ethidium bromide fluorescent dyes and down-expression of apoptosis-related genes. We concluded the scorpion venom from R. junceus possessed a selective and differential toxicity against epithelial cancer cells. This is the first report related to biological effect of R. junceus venom against a panel of tumor cells lines. All these results make R. junceus venom as a promise natural product for cancer treatment.

  2. Gamma interferon augments Fc gamma receptor-mediated dengue virus infection of human monocytic cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Kontny, U; Kurane, I; Ennis, F A

    1988-01-01

    It has been reported that anti-dengue antibodies at subneutralizing concentrations augment dengue virus infection of monocytic cells. This is due to the increased uptake of dengue virus in the form of virus-antibody complexes by cells via Fc gamma receptors. We analyzed the effects of recombinant human gamma interferon (rIFN-gamma) on dengue virus infection of human monocytic cells. U937 cells, a human monocytic cell line, were infected with dengue virus in the form of virus-antibody complexe...

  3. The effect of Isosorbide Dinitrate on vascular endothelial growth factor production by human leukemic cell lines in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajighasemi F

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF has mitogenic effect for endothelial cells and is an important mediator of tumor expansion, metastasis and angiogenesis in vivo. Isosorbide dinitrate, as a nitric oxide donor, has been widely used in treatment of many cardiovascular diseases such as congestive heart failure and acute coronary syndromes. Furthermore this drug was found to have inhibitory effect on angiogenesis, tumor growth and metastasis in vivo. In the present study we evaluated the isosorbide effect on the VEGF production using some human leukemic cell lines. "nMethods: Human leukemic MOLT-4, JURKAT and U937 cells were cultured in complete RPMI medium. The cells at the exponential growth phase were then incubated with different concentrations of Isosorbide (4´10-7 -4´10-4 M in the presence or absence of PMA (25ng/ml for 24 hours. The VEGF concentrations in the culture supernatants were measured by enzyme immunoassay kits (R&D systems according to the manufacturer's instructions. "nResults: The level of VEGF produced by the human leukemic cell lines which was treated with different concentrations of isosorbide, did not show any significant difference with untreated control cells. "nConclusions: The results of this study showed that isosorbide had no significant effect on VEGF production. Our findings suggest that anti-angiogenesis effect of isosorbide could be mediated through VEGF-independent mechanism(s. Further studies are warranted to determine definite isosorbide effect on VEGF and other angiogenic factors production in patients as well as animal models.

  4. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes.

  5. Allium compounds, dipropyl and dimethyl thiosulfinates as antiproliferative and differentiating agents of human acute myeloid leukemia cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Merhi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Faten Merhi1, Jacques Auger2, Francine Rendu1, Brigitte Bauvois11UMR 7131 UPMC Paris Universitas/CNRS, Groupe Hospitalier Broussais-HEGP, Paris, France; 2University F. Rabelais, IRBI, UPRESA CNRS 6035, Tours, FranceAbstract: Epidemiologic studies support the premise that Allium vegetables may lower the risk of cancers. The beneficial effects appear related to the organosulfur products generated upon processing of Allium. Leukemia cells from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML display high proliferative capacity and have a reduced capacity of undergoing apoptosis and maturation. Whether the sulfur-containing molecules thiosulfinates (TS, diallyl TS (All2TS, dipropyl TS (Pr2TS and dimethyl TS (Me2TS, are able to exert chemopreventative activity against AML is presently unknown. The present study was an evaluation of proliferation, cytotoxicity, differentiation and secretion of AML cell lines (U937, NB4, HL-60, MonoMac-6 in response to treatment with these TS and their related sulfides (diallylsulfide, diallyl disulfide, dipropyl disulfide, dimethyl disulfide. As assessed by flow cytometry, ELISA, gelatin zymogaphy and RT-PCR, we showed that Pr2TS and Me2TS, but not All2TS and sulfides, 1 inhibited cell proliferation in dose- and time-dependent manner and this process was neither due to cytotoxicity nor apoptosis, 2 induced macrophage maturation, and 3 inhibited the levels of secreted MMP-9 (protein and activity and TNF-α protein, without altering mRNA levels. By establishing for the first time that Pr2TS and Me2TS affect proliferation, differentiation and secretion of leukemic cell lines, this study provides the opportunity to explore the potential efficiency of these molecules in AML.Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia, thiosulfinate, proliferation, differentiation, matrix metalloproteinase-9

  6. Esculetin Downregulates the Expression of AML1-ETO and C-Kit in Kasumi-1 Cell Line by Decreasing Half-Life of mRNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharad Sawney

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the most frequent genetic aberrations in acute myeloid leukemia (AML is chromosomal translocation between AML1/RUNX1 on chromosome 21 and ETO gene on chromosome 8 resulting in the expression of chimeric oncogene AML1-ETO. Although patients with t(8;21 translocation have good prognosis, 5-year survival is observed only in 50% of the cases. AML1-ETO translocation is usually accompanied by overexpression of mutant C-Kit, a tyrosine kinase, which contributes to uncontrolled proliferation of premature blood cells leading to relapse and poor prognosis. We illustrate the potential use of esculetin on leukemic cell line, Kasumi-1, bearing t(8;21 translocation and mutated C-Kit gene. Esculetin decreases the expression of AML1-ETO at both protein and transcript level within 24 hours of treatment. Half-life of AML1-ETO mRNA was reduced from 7 hours to 1.5 hours. Similarly half-life of C-Kit mRNA was reduced to 2 hours from 5 hours in esculetin treated cells. Esculetin also perturbed the expression of ectopically expressed AML1-ETO in U937 cells. The decreased expression of AML1-ETO chimeric gene was associated with increased expression of LAT1 and RUNX3 genes, targets of AML1. We envisage that discovery of a drug candidate which could target both these mutated genes would be a considerable breakthrough for future application.

  7. Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides can induce human monocytic leukemia cells into dendritic cells with immuno-stimulatory function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lau Yu

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies demonstrated Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides (GL-PS, a form of bioactive β-glucan can stimulate the maturation of monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DC. The question of how leukemic cells especially in monocytic lineage respond to GL-PS stimuli remains unclear. Results In this study, we used in vitro culture model with leukemic monocytic cell-lines THP-1 and U937 as monocytic effectors cells for proliferation responses and DCs induction. We treated the THP-1 and U937 cells with purified GL-PS (100 μg/mL or GL-PS with GM-CSF/IL-4. GL-PS alone induced proliferative response on both THP-1 and U937 cells but only THP-1 transformed into typical DC morphology when stimulated with GL-PS plus GM-CSF/IL-4. The transformed THP-1 DCs had significant increase expression of HLA-DR, CD40, CD80 and CD86 though not as high as the extent of normal monocyte-derived DCs. They had similar antigen-uptake ability as the normal monocyte-derived DCs positive control. However, their potency in inducing allogeneic T cell proliferation was also less than that of normal monocyte-derived DCs. Conclusion Our findings suggested that GL-PS could induce selected monocytic leukemic cell differentiation into DCs with immuno-stimulatory function. The possible clinical impact of using this commonly used medicinal mushroom in patients with monocytic leukemia (AML-M4 and M5 deserved further investigation.

  8. The targeted inhibition of mitochondrial Hsp90 overcomes the apoptosis resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Chunlan; Oh, Joon Seok; Yoo, Seung Hee; Lee, Jee Suk; Yoon, Young Geol; Oh, Yoo Jin; Jang, Min Seok; Lee, Sang Yeob; Yang, Jun; Lee, Sang Hwa; Kim, Hye Young; Yoo, Young Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that a Gamitrinib variant containing triphenylphosphonium (G-TPP) binds to mitochondrial Hsp90 and rapidly inhibits its activity, thus inducing the apoptotic pathway in the cells. Accordingly, G-TPP shows a potential as a promising drug for the treatment of cancer. A cell can die from different types of cell death such as apoptosis, necrosis, necroptosis, and autophagic cell death. In this study, we further investigated the mechanisms and modes of cell death in the G-TPP-treated Hep3B and U937 cell lines. We discovered that G-TPP kills the U937 cells through the apoptotic pathway and the overexpression of Bcl-2 significantly inhibits U937 cell death to G-TPP. We further discovered that G-TPP kills the Hep3B cells by activating necroptosis in combination with the partial activation of caspase-dependent apoptosis. Importantly, G-TPP overcomes the apoptosis resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis. We also observed that G-TPP induces compensatory autophagy in the Hep3B cell line. We further found that whereas there is a Bcl-2-Beclin 1 interaction in response to G-TPP, silencing the beclin 1 gene failed to block LC3-II accumulation in the Hep3B cells, indicating that G-TPP triggers Beclin 1-independent protective autophagy in Hep3B cells. Taken together, these data reveal that G-TPP induces cell death through a combination of death pathways, including necroptosis and apoptosis, and overcomes the apoptosis resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis. These findings are important for the therapeutic exploitation of necroptosis as an alternative cell death program to bypass the resistance to apoptosis. Highlights: ► G-TPP binds to mitochondrial Hsp90. ► G-TPP induces apoptosis in U937 human leukemia cancer cells. ► G-TPP induces combination of death pathways in Hep3B cell. ► G-TPP overcomes the resistance conferred by Bcl-2 in Hep3B cells via necroptosis. ► G-TPP triggers Beclin 1-independent

  9. In Vitro Effects of Bromoalkyl Phenytoin Derivatives on Regulated Death, Cell Cycle and Ultrastructure of Leukemia Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śladowska, Katarzyna; Opydo-Chanek, Małgorzata; Król, Teodora; Trybus, Wojciech; Trybus, Ewa; Kopacz-Bednarska, Anna; Handzlik, Jadwiga; Kieć-Kononowicz, Katarzyna; Mazur, Lidia

    2017-11-01

    To search for new antileukemic agents, the chemical structure of phenytoin was modified. A possible cytotoxic activity of three bromoalkyl phenytoin analogs, methyl 2-(1-(3-bromopropyl)-2,4-dioxo-5,5-diphenylimidazolidin-3-yl) propanoate (PH2), 1-(3-bromopropyl)-3-methyl-5,5-diphenylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (PH3) and 1-(4-bromobutyl)-3-methyl-5,5-diphenylimidazolidine-2,4-dione (PH4) on regulated cell death, the cell cycle and cell ultrastructure was assessed. The experiments were performed in vitro on HL-60 and U937 cells, using flow cytometry and electron microscopy methods. Application of PH2, PH3, and PH4 resulted in cell surface exposure of phosphatidylserine and plasma membrane impairment, caspase-8, -9, and -3/7 activation, dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, DNA breakage, cell-cycle disturbance and cell ultrastructural changes. In general, PH3 appeared to be the most active against the leukemia cells, and all bromoalkyl hydantoins, PH2-PH4, were more active in HL-60 cells than in U937 cells. The antileukemic activity of the bromoalkyl phenytoin analogs depended on the combination of N-hydantoin substituents and the human cell line used. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. SphK1 inhibitor II (SKI-II) inhibits acute myelogenous leukemia cell growth in vitro and in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Li; Weng, Wei; Sun, Zhi-Xin; Fu, Xian-Jie; Ma, Jun; Zhuang, Wen-Fang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have identified sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) as a potential drug target for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the current study, we investigated the potential anti-leukemic activity of a novel and specific SphK1 inhibitor, SKI-II. We demonstrated that SKI-II inhibited growth and survival of human AML cell lines (HL-60 and U937 cells). SKI-II was more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors SK1-I and FTY720 in inhibiting AML cells. Meanwhile, it induced dramatic apoptosis in above AML cells, and the cytotoxicity by SKI-II was almost reversed by the general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. SKI-II treatment inhibited SphK1 activation, and concomitantly increased level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) precursor ceramide in AML cells. Conversely, exogenously-added S1P protected against SKI-II-induced cytotoxicity, while cell permeable short-chain ceramide (C6) aggravated SKI-II's lethality against AML cells. Notably, SKI-II induced potent apoptotic death in primary human AML cells, but was generally safe to the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy donors. In vivo, SKI-II administration suppressed growth of U937 leukemic xenograft tumors in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. These results suggest that SKI-II might be further investigated as a promising anti-AML agent. - Highlights: • SKI-II inhibits proliferation and survival of primary and transformed AML cells. • SKI-II induces apoptotic death of AML cells, but is safe to normal PBMCs. • SKI-II is more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors in inhibiting AML cells. • SKI-II inhibits SphK1 activity, while increasing ceramide production in AML cells. • SKI-II dose-dependently inhibits U937 xenograft growth in SCID mice

  11. Coordinate viral induction of tumor necrosis factor α and interferon β in human B cells and monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldfeld, A.E.; Maniatis, T.

    1989-01-01

    Human tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) gene expression can be induced primarily in cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage by a variety of inducers, including lipopolysaccharide, phorbol esters such as phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, and virus or synthetic double-stranded RNA [poly(I)·poly(C)]. In this paper the authors show that the TNF-α gene also responds to virus and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in B lymphocytes and that virus is the most potent inducer of TNF-α mRNA in both monocyte and B-cell lines. In addition, they show that viral infection coinduces the expression of TNF-α and interferon β mRNA and that viral induction of both genes is blocked by the kinase inhibitor 2-aminopurine. Inhibition of protein synthesis with cycloheximide had no effect on mRNA expression of the genes in one of three cell lines tested (U937) but blocked the viral induction of both genes in another (Namalwa). Thus, the regulatory factors required for mRNA induction of both genes are present prior to the addition of virus in U937 but not in Namalwa cells. However, in a third cell line (JY), cycloheximide blocked viral induction of the interferon β gene but not the TNF-α gene. Taken together, these observations suggest that viral induction of TNF-α and interferon β gene expression may involve overlapping pathways with both common and distinct regulatory factors

  12. Cytotoxic Indole Alkaloids against Human Leukemia Cell Lines from the Toxic Plant Peganum harmala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Bioactivity-guided fractionation was used to determine the cytotoxic alkaloids from the toxic plant Peganum harmala. Two novel indole alkaloids, together with ten known ones, were isolated and identified. The novel alkaloids were elucidated to be 2-(indol-3-ylethyl-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 6-β-D-glucopyranoside (2 and 3-hydroxy-3-(N-acetyl-2-aminoethyl-6-methoxyindol-2-one (3. The cytotoxicity against human leukemia cells was assayed for the alkaloids and some of them showed potent activity. Harmalacidine (compound 8, HMC exhibited the highest cytotoxicity against U-937 cells with IC50 value of 3.1 ± 0.2 μmol/L. The cytotoxic mechanism of HMC was targeting the mitochondrial and protein tyrosine kinase signaling pathways (PTKs-Ras/Raf/ERK. The results strongly demonstrated that the alkaloids from Peganum harmala could be a promising candidate for the therapy of leukemia.

  13. SphK1 inhibitor II (SKI-II) inhibits acute myelogenous leukemia cell growth in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li; Weng, Wei; Sun, Zhi-Xin; Fu, Xian-Jie; Ma, Jun; Zhuang, Wen-Fang

    2015-05-15

    Previous studies have identified sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1) as a potential drug target for treatment of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In the current study, we investigated the potential anti-leukemic activity of a novel and specific SphK1 inhibitor, SKI-II. We demonstrated that SKI-II inhibited growth and survival of human AML cell lines (HL-60 and U937 cells). SKI-II was more efficient than two known SphK1 inhibitors SK1-I and FTY720 in inhibiting AML cells. Meanwhile, it induced dramatic apoptosis in above AML cells, and the cytotoxicity by SKI-II was almost reversed by the general caspase inhibitor z-VAD-fmk. SKI-II treatment inhibited SphK1 activation, and concomitantly increased level of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) precursor ceramide in AML cells. Conversely, exogenously-added S1P protected against SKI-II-induced cytotoxicity, while cell permeable short-chain ceramide (C6) aggravated SKI-II's lethality against AML cells. Notably, SKI-II induced potent apoptotic death in primary human AML cells, but was generally safe to the human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from healthy donors. In vivo, SKI-II administration suppressed growth of U937 leukemic xenograft tumors in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. These results suggest that SKI-II might be further investigated as a promising anti-AML agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fraction against Human Cancer Cell Lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kidney carcinoma cell lines of hamsters (BSR). [11]. While, in another article, A. sieberia unrefined extract exhibited dose dependent antiproliferative activity against several cancer cell lines (human bladder carcinoma RT112, human laryngeal carcinoma and human myelogenous leukaemia K562), with IC50. = 81.59, 59.05 ...

  15. Difference in membrane repair capacity between cancer cell lines and a normal cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Stine Krog; McNeil, Anna K.; Novak, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    repair was investigated by disrupting the plasma membrane using laser followed by monitoring fluorescent dye entry over time in seven cancer cell lines, an immortalized cell line, and a normal primary cell line. The kinetics of repair in living cells can be directly recorded using this technique......, providing a sensitive index of repair capacity. The normal primary cell line of all tested cell lines exhibited the slowest rate of dye entry after laser disruption and lowest level of dye uptake. Significantly, more rapid dye uptake and a higher total level of dye uptake occurred in six of the seven tested...

  16. Biophysical Profiling of Tumor Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Coffman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite significant differences in genetic profiles, cancer cells share common phenotypic properties, including membrane-associated changes that facilitate invasion and metastasis. The Corning Epic® optical biosensor was used to monitor dynamic mass rearrangements within and proximal to the cell membrane in tumor cell lines derived from cancers of the colon, bone, cervix, lung and breast. Data was collected in real time and required no exogenously added signaling moiety (signal-free technology. Cell lines displayed unique profiles over the time-courses: the time-courses all displayed initial signal increases to maximal values, but the rate of increase to those maxima and the value of those maxima were distinct for each cell line. The rate of decline following the maxima also differed among cell lines. There were correlations between the signal maxima and the observed metastatic behavior of the cells in xenograft experiments; for most cell types the cells that were more highly metastatic in mice had lower time-course maxima values, however the reverse was seen in breast cancer cells. The unique profiles of these cell lines and the correlation of at least one profile characteristic with metastatic behavior demonstrate the potential utility of biophysical tumor cell profiling in the study of cancer biology.

  17. Establishment of cell lines with rat spermatogonial stem cell characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Pelt, Ans M. M.; Roepers-Gajadien, Hermien L.; Gademan, Iris S.; Creemers, Laura B.; de Rooij, Dirk G.; van Dissel-Emiliani, Federica M. F.

    2002-01-01

    Spermatogonial cell lines were established by transfecting a mixed population of purified rat A(s) (stem cells), A(pr) and A(al) spermatogonia with SV40 large T antigen. Two cell lines were characterized and found to express Hsp90alpha and oct-4, specific markers for germ cells and A spermatogonia,

  18. Interaction of leukemic cells with proteins of the extracellular matrix Interações de células leucêmicas com proteínas da matriz extracelular

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Rodrigues-Anjos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of neoplastic cells with basement membrane molecules is the first step for the dissemination of tumor cells in vivo. Leukemic cells have a great ability to spread in the host, since cells are released from the bone marrow to the circulation. In this study we analysed whether CEM, U937, K562 and HL-60 cells were able to attach to different concentrations of laminin and/or fibronectin and/or type IV collagen. Attachment to type IV collagen was low, but it increased with the addition of laminin and occurred in all four leukemic cell lines. On the other hand, attachment to fibronectin was higher, but it decreased with the addition of laminin in the assays using U937 and HL-60 cells. The combination of type IV collagen and fibronectin was a good substratum for cellular attachment. However, the addition of laminin to this substratum impaired its attachment activity in U937, HL-60 and K562. These data suggest that laminin may control cellular attachment to the extracellular matrix during leukemic dissemination in hosts in different ways.A interação de células neoplásicas com moléculas da membrana basal é a primeira etapa para a disseminação, in vivo, de células tumorais in vivo. As células leucêmicas possuem grande capacidade de espraiamento e disseminação no organismo uma vez que as mesmas são liberadas da medula óssea para a circulação. Neste trabalho avaliamos a capacidade das linhagens celulares CEM, U937, K562 and HL-60 em aderirem a uma matriz extracelular constituída por diferentes concentrações de laminina e,ou fibronectina e sobre colágeno IV. A adesão de todas a linhagens leucêmicas a colágeno IV foi baixa, mas aumentou com a associação à laminina. Por outro lado, as células U937 e HL-60 apresentaram alta ligação à fibronectina porém, foi reduzida com a adição de laminina. A associação de colágeno IV e fibronectina possibilitou um bom substrato para a adesão celular. Entretanto, a adi

  19. Aqueous ethanolic extract of St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum L.) induces growth inhibition and apoptosis in human malignant cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hostanska, K; Reichling, J; Bommer, S; Weber, M; Saller, R

    2002-05-01

    Extracts of Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) are widely and effectively used in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. In addition, hypericin, a component of Hypericum p. extracts, exhibits light-dependent phototoxic properties and can be used in phototherapy. We therefore investigated the cytotoxic activity of two total Hypericum p. extracts, namely from fresh and dried plants in the dark and after exposure to 7.5 J/cm2 white light illumination and compared it with the effect of hypericin on K562, U937, LN229 glioblastoma cell lines and normal human astrocytes. The chemical toxicity of non-illuminated Hypericum p. extracts in the cells tested is low as expressed by a LC50 between 1.9-4.1 mg/ml, which corresponds to 10.3-17.3 microM hypericin and 114.4-190.7 microM hyperforin after 48 h treatment. Hypericum p. extracts induced dose-dependent growth arrest of human malignant cells in the absence of illumination with GI50 values between 0.43-1.77 mg/ml (2.3-9.7 microM hypericin, 26.1-106.7 microM hyperforin) for the fresh plant extract and 0.59-3.03 mg/ml (2.5-12.8 microM hypericin, 24.2-124.7 microM hyperforin) for the dried extract. The growth inhibitory effect of fresh Hypericum p. extract was more pronounced in leukemia cell lines K562 and U937, the GI50 concentrations being about 7-fold lower than the corresponding LC50 for the cell lines K562 and U937, but almost the same as the LC50 for LN229 and NHA cells. GI50 (microgram/ml) for tumor cell lines K562 and U937 (432 and 799) established after 48 h differed significantly (p phosphaditylserine exposure on the outer plasma membrane investigated by Annexin V-binding with flow cytometry after 24 h confirmed that Hypericum p. extracts caused apoptosis of treated cells without exposure to light. Hypericum p. extracts derived from fresh herbs and from dried herbs which differ in their levels of phloroglucinols (hyperforin and adhyperforin) were compared. The hyperforin content of fresh St. John's wort

  20. BHD Tumor Cell Line and Renal Cell Carcinoma Line | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists at the National Cancer Institute  have developed a novel renal cell carcinoma (RCC) cell line designated UOK257, which was derived from the surgical kidney tissue of a patient with hereditary Birt-Hogg-Dube''''(BHD) syndrome and companion cell line UOK257-2 in which FLCN expression has been restored by lentivirus infection. The NCI Urologic Oncology Branch seeks parties interested in licensing or collaborative research to co-develop, evaluate, or commercialize kidney cancer tumor cell lines.

  1. Combined 17β-Estradiol with TCDD Promotes M2 Polarization of Macrophages in the Endometriotic Milieu with Aid of the Interaction between Endometrial Stromal Cells and Macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Wang

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to elucidate the effects of 17β-estradiol and TCDD (2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on macrophage phenotypes in the endometriotic milieu. Co-culture of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs and U937 cells (macrophage cell line was performed to simulate the endometriotic milieu and to determine the effects of 17β-estradiol and/or TCDD on IL10, IL12 production and HLA-DR, CD86 expression by U937 macrophages. We found that combining 17β-estradiol with TCDD has a synergistic effect on inducing M2 activation when macrophages are co-cultured with ESCs. Moreover, the combination of 17β-estradiol and TCDD significantly enhanced STAT3 and P38 phosphorylation in macrophages. Differentiation of M2 macrophages induced by 17β-estradiol and TCDD were effectively abrogated by STAT3 and P38MAPK inhibitors, but not by ERK1/2 and JNK inhibitors. In conclusion, 17β-estradiol and TCDD in the ectopic milieu may lead to the development of endometriosis by inducing M2 polarization of macrophages through activation of the STAT3 and P38MAPK pathways.

  2. Genomic characterisation of acral melanoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furney, Simon J; Turajlic, Samra; Fenwick, Kerry; Lambros, Maryou B; MacKay, Alan; Ricken, Gerda; Mitsopoulos, Costas; Kozarewa, Iwanka; Hakas, Jarle; Zvelebil, Marketa; Lord, Christopher J; Ashworth, Alan; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Herlyn, Meenhard; Murata, Hiroshi; Marais, Richard

    2012-07-01

    Acral melanoma is a rare melanoma subtype with distinct epidemiological, clinical and genetic features. To determine if acral melanoma cell lines are representative of this melanoma subtype, six lines were analysed by whole-exome sequencing and array comparative genomic hybridisation. We demonstrate that the cell lines display a mutation rate that is comparable to that of published primary and metastatic acral melanomas and observe a mutational signature suggestive of UV-induced mutagenesis in two of the cell lines. Mutations were identified in oncogenes and tumour suppressors previously linked to melanoma including BRAF, NRAS, KIT, PTEN and TP53, in cancer genes not previously linked to melanoma and in genes linked to DNA repair such as BRCA1 and BRCA2. Our findings provide strong circumstantial evidence to suggest that acral melanoma cell lines and acral tumours share genetic features in common and that these cells are therefore valuable tools to investigate the biology of this aggressive melanoma subtype. Data are available at: http://rock.icr.ac.uk/collaborations/Furney_et_al_2012/. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Metronidazole affects breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, A; Prokopiuk, S; Miltyk, W; Surażyński, A; Konończuk, J; Sawicka, D; Car, H

    2013-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of metronidazole (MTZ) on cytotoxicity and DNA synthesis in MCF-7 (estrogen receptor positive) and MDA-MB-231 (estrogen receptor negative) breast cancer cell lines. Toxicity of MTZ was determined by MTT test. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were incubated with metronidazole used in different concentrations for 24, 48 and 72 hours. The effect of MTZ on DNA synthesis was measured as [3H]-thymidine incorporation. We showed that MTZ in concentration 250 μg/ml significantly increases the growth of MCF-7 cell lines after 24 hours of incubation, but it reduces cell viability in concentrations 1 and 10 μg/ml 72 hours after the drug application. Significant increase of MDA-MB-231 cell viability was obtained in MTZ concentration of 250 μg/ml after 24 and 72 hours. The increase of [3H]-thymidine incorporation in MCF-7 cell line treated with MTZ in concentration 250 μg/ml was statistically significant after 24 hours. Great suppression of cell proliferation was obtained in MDA-MB-231 breast cell line after application of the following concentrations of MTZ: 0.1 μg/ml (after 24 hours) and 0.1, 10, 50, 250 μg/ml (after 72h). We found that metronidazole exerts different dose- and time- dependent effects on human breast cancer cell lines characterized by presence or absence of estrogen receptors. We suggest that these discrepancies may be influenced by the estrogen signaling.

  4. Cell Line Data Base: structure and recent improvements towards molecular authentication of human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Paolo; Manniello, Assunta; Aresu, Ottavia; Armento, Massimiliano; Cesaro, Michela; Parodi, Barbara

    2009-01-01

    The Cell Line Data Base (CLDB) is a well-known reference information source on human and animal cell lines including information on more than 6000 cell lines. Main biological features are coded according to controlled vocabularies derived from international lists and taxonomies. HyperCLDB (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/hypercldb/) is a hypertext version of CLDB that improves data accessibility by also allowing information retrieval through web spiders. Access to HyperCLDB is provided through indexes of biological characteristics and navigation in the hypertext is granted by many internal links. HyperCLDB also includes links to external resources. Recently, an interest was raised for a reference nomenclature for cell lines and CLDB was seen as an authoritative system. Furthermore, to overcome the cell line misidentification problem, molecular authentication methods, such as fingerprinting, single-locus short tandem repeat (STR) profile and single nucleotide polymorphisms validation, were proposed. Since this data is distributed, a reference portal on authentication of human cell lines is needed. We present here the architecture and contents of CLDB, its recent enhancements and perspectives. We also present a new related database, the Cell Line Integrated Molecular Authentication (CLIMA) database (http://bioinformatics.istge.it/clima/), that allows to link authentication data to actual cell lines.

  5. Subcloning of ovarian cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunt, T W

    2001-01-01

    Cellular heterogeneity of malignant tissues is a well-known phenomenon (1). Intralineal/intraclonal diversity may be explained in part by proposing the concept of a hierarchically ordered, differentiating and self-renewing stem cell system for transformed cell populations (2). However, in many solid tumors, the stem cells are not easily accessible to phenotypic identification. In the past, density gradient centrifugation was successfully used to separate cells from tumors and from cell lines into distinct subpopulations (3-5). Using Percoll density gradients, we isolated undifferentiated clonogenic tumor stem-cell fractions from HOC-7 human ovarian adenocarcinoma cells. In addition, we also identified a low-density cell subpopulation formed by large, vacuolated, slowly growing, adenoid differentiated cells with very low clonogenic activity (6-11). Further characterization of these cell fractions in terms of stability of the isolated phenotypes is essential for the assessment of their biological significance. Subcloning of the isolated cell fractions by limiting dilution culture (12) followed by long-term culture yielded three permanent monoclonal sublines, which reveal a stable adenoid differentiated phenotype, and three subclones representing undifferentiated, clonogenic tumor stem cells (13). These data demonstrate that the isolated phenotypes represent distinct cell entities reflecting specific stages of ovarian surface epithelial cell differentiation.

  6. (Asteraceae) Fraction against Human Cancer Cell Lines

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the anti-proliferative and apoptotic activity of crude and dichloromethane fraction of A. sieberi against seven cancer cell lines (Colo20, HCT116, DLD, MCF7, Jurkat, HepG2 and L929). Methods: A. sieberi was extracted with methanol and further purification was carried out using liquidliquid extraction ...

  7. Breast cancer cell lines: friend or foe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdall, Sarah E; Hanby, Andrew M; Lansdown, Mark RJ; Speirs, Valerie

    2003-01-01

    The majority of breast cancer research is conducted using established breast cancer cell lines as in vitro models. An alternative is to use cultures established from primary breast tumours. Here, we discuss the pros and cons of using both of these models in translational breast cancer research

  8. Comparative DNA microarray analysis of human monocyte derived dendritic cells and MUTZ-3 cells exposed to the moderate skin sensitizer cinnamaldehyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Python, Francois; Goebel, Carsten; Aeby, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The number of studies involved in the development of in vitro skin sensitization tests has increased since the adoption of the EU 7th amendment to the cosmetics directive proposing to ban animal testing for cosmetic ingredients by 2013. Several studies have recently demonstrated that sensitizers induce a relevant up-regulation of activation markers such as CD86, CD54, IL-8 or IL-1β in human myeloid cell lines (e.g., U937, MUTZ-3, THP-1) or in human peripheral blood monocyte-derived dendritic cells (PBMDCs). The present study aimed at the identification of new dendritic cell activation markers in order to further improve the in vitro evaluation of the sensitizing potential of chemicals. We have compared the gene expression profiles of PBMDCs and the human cell line MUTZ-3 after a 24-h exposure to the moderate sensitizer cinnamaldehyde. A list of 80 genes modulated in both cell types was obtained and a set of candidate marker genes was selected for further analysis. Cells were exposed to selected sensitizers and non-sensitizers for 24 h and gene expression was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Results indicated that PIR, TRIM16 and two Nrf2-regulated genes, CES1 and NQO1, are modulated by most sensitizers. Up-regulation of these genes could also be observed in our recently published DC-activation test with U937 cells. Due to their role in DC activation, these new genes may help to further refine the in vitro approaches for the screening of the sensitizing properties of a chemical.

  9. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor alpha-stimulated monocyte adhesion to human aortic endothelial cells by AMP-activated protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, Marie-Ann; Kohlhaas, Christine F; Salt, Ian P

    2008-12-01

    Proatherosclerotic adhesion of leukocytes to the endothelium is attenuated by NO. As AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) regulates endothelial NO synthesis, we investigated the modulation of adhesion to cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) by AMPK. HAECs incubated with the AMPK activator, AICAR, or expressing constitutively active AMPK demonstrated reduced TNFalpha-stimulated adhesion of promonocytic U-937 cells. Rapid inhibition of TNFalpha-stimulated U-937 cell adhesion by AICAR was NO-dependent, associated with unaltered cell surface adhesion molecule expression, and reduced MCP-1 secretion by HAECs. In contrast, inhibition of TNFalpha-stimulated U-937 cell adhesion by prolonged AMPK activation was NO-independent and associated with reduced cell surface adhesion molecule expression. AMPK activation in HAECs inhibits TNFalpha-stimulated leukocyte adhesion by a rapid NO-dependent mechanism associated with reduced MCP-1 secretion and a late NO-independent mechanism whereby adhesion molecule expression, in particular E-selectin, is suppressed.

  10. Leukemia-associated gene MLAA-34 reduces arsenic trioxide-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells via activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengyu; Zhao, Xuan; Zhang, Wenjuan; He, Aili; Lei, Bo; Zhang, Wanggang; Chen, Yinxia

    2017-01-01

    Our laboratory previously used the SEREX method in U937 cells and identified a novel leukemia-associated gene MLAA-34, a novel splice variant of CAB39L associated with acute monocytic leukemia, that exhibited anti-apoptotic activities in U937 cells. Whether MLAA-34 has an anti-apoptotic role in other tumor cells has not yet been reported. We explored whether MLAA-34 exhibited anti-apoptotic effects in HeLa cervical cancer cells and the possible mechanism of action. We generated a HeLa cell line stably expressing MLAA-34 and found that MLAA-34 overexpression had no effect on the growth, apoptosis and cell cycle of HeLa cells. However, upon treatment with arsenic trioxide (ATO) to induce apoptosis, the cell viability and colony formation ability of ATO-treated MLAA-34 stable HeLa cells were significantly higher than that of ATO-treated controls, and the apoptosis rate and proportion of G2/M cells also decreased. We found that ATO treatment of HeLa cells resulted in significant decreases in the expression of β-catenin mRNA and protein and the downstream target factors c-Myc, cyclin B1, and cyclin D1 in the Wnt signaling pathway. Notably, ATO-treated MLAA-34 stable HeLa cells showed a significant reduction in the ATO-mediated downregulation of these factors. In addition, MLAA-34 overexpression significantly increased the expression of nuclear β-catenin protein in ATO-treated cells compared with HeLa cells treated only with ATO. Thus, here we have found that the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway is involved in ATO-induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. MLAA-34 reduces ATO-induced apoptosis and G2/M arrest, and the anti-apoptotic effect may be achieved by activating the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in HeLa cells.

  11. Cellular radiosensitivity of small-cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, M; Poulsen, H S; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine the radiobiological characteristics of a panel of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines by use of a clonogenic assay. In addition, we tested whether comparable results could be obtained by employing a growth extrapolation method based...

  12. Cellular radiosensitivity of small-cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, M; Poulsen, H S; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1997-01-01

    PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to determine the radiobiological characteristics of a panel of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines by use of a clonogenic assay. In addition, we tested whether comparable results could be obtained by employing a growth extrapolation method based...... on the construction of continuous exponential growth curves. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Fifteen SCLC cell lines were studied, applying a slightly modified clonogenic assay and a growth extrapolation method. A dose-survival curve was obtained for each experiment and used for calculating several survival parameters...... to calculate the surviving fraction after 2-Gy irradiation (SF2). RESULTS: In our investigation, the extrapolation method proved to be inappropriate for the study of in vitro cellular radiosensitivity due to lack of reproducibility. The results obtained by the clonogenic assay showed that the cell lines...

  13. Mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum stress pathways cooperate in zearalenone-induced apoptosis of human leukemic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chokchaichamnankit Daranee

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zearalenone (ZEA is a phytoestrogen from Fusarium species. The aims of the study was to identify mode of human leukemic cell death induced by ZEA and the mechanisms involved. Methods Cell cytotoxicity of ZEA on human leukemic HL-60, U937 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs was performed by using 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT assay. Reactive oxygen species production, cell cycle analysis and mitochondrial transmembrane potential reduction was determined by employing 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate, propidium iodide and 3,3'-dihexyloxacarbocyanine iodide and flow cytometry, respectively. Caspase-3 and -8 activities were detected by using fluorogenic Asp-Glu-Val-Asp-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (DEVD-AMC and Ile-Glu-Thr-Asp-7-amino-4-methylcoumarin (IETD-AMC substrates, respectively. Protein expression of cytochrome c, Bax, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL was performed by Western blot. The expression of proteins was assessed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel-electrophoresis (PAGE coupled with LC-MS2 analysis and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR approach. Results ZEA was cytotoxic to U937 > HL-60 > PBMCs and caused subdiploid peaks and G1 arrest in both cell lines. Apoptosis of human leukemic HL-60 and U937 cell apoptosis induced by ZEA was via an activation of mitochondrial release of cytochrome c through mitochondrial transmembrane potential reduction, activation of caspase-3 and -8, production of reactive oxygen species and induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Bax was up regulated in a time-dependent manner and there was down regulation of Bcl-xL expression. Two-dimensional PAGE coupled with LC-MS2 analysis showed that ZEA treatment of HL-60 cells produced differences in the levels of 22 membrane proteins such as apoptosis inducing factor and the ER stress proteins including endoplasmic reticulum protein 29 (ERp29, 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein, heat shock

  14. Induced pluripotent stem cell lines derived from human somatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Junying; Vodyanik, Maxim A; Smuga-Otto, Kim; Antosiewicz-Bourget, Jessica; Frane, Jennifer L; Tian, Shulan; Nie, Jeff; Jonsdottir, Gudrun A; Ruotti, Victor; Stewart, Ron; Slukvin, Igor I; Thomson, James A

    2007-12-21

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer allows trans-acting factors present in the mammalian oocyte to reprogram somatic cell nuclei to an undifferentiated state. We show that four factors (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, and LIN28) are sufficient to reprogram human somatic cells to pluripotent stem cells that exhibit the essential characteristics of embryonic stem (ES) cells. These induced pluripotent human stem cells have normal karyotypes, express telomerase activity, express cell surface markers and genes that characterize human ES cells, and maintain the developmental potential to differentiate into advanced derivatives of all three primary germ layers. Such induced pluripotent human cell lines should be useful in the production of new disease models and in drug development, as well as for applications in transplantation medicine, once technical limitations (for example, mutation through viral integration) are eliminated.

  15. Susceptibility testing of fish cell lines for virus isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ariel, Ellen; Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    compare susceptibility between cell lines and between lineages within a laboratory and between laboratories (Inter-laboratory Proficiency Test). The objective being that the most sensitive cell line and lineages are routinely selected for diagnostic purposes.In comparing cell lines, we simulated "non......-cell-culture-adapted" virus by propagating the virus in heterologous cell lines to the one tested. A stock of test virus was produced and stored at - 80 °C and tests were conducted biannually. This procedure becomes complicated when several cell lines are in use and does not account for variation among lineages. In comparing...... cell lineages, we increased the number of isolates of each virus, propagated stocks in a given cell line and tested all lineages of that line in use in the laboratory. Testing of relative cell line susceptibility between laboratories is carried out annually via the Inter-laboratory Proficiency Test...

  16. Two novel triterpenoids with antiproliferative and apoptotic activities in human leukemia cells isolated from the resin of Garcinia hanburyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-li; Li, Zhan-lin; Song, Dan-dan; Sun, Lin; Pei, Yue-hu; Jing, Yong-kui; Hua, Hui-ming

    2008-11-01

    Two new triterpenoids, 2alpha-hydroxy-3beta-O-acetyllup-20(29)-en-28-oic acid (1) and 3- O-(4'- O-acetyl)-alpha- L-arabinopyranosyloleanolic acid ( 2), together with two known triterpenoids, betulinic acid ( 3) and messagenic acid ( 4) were isolated from the CHCl3 extract of Garcinia hanburyi resin. The structures were elucidated by analysis of the NMR spectroscopic data. The antiproliferative effects and the apoptosis induction abilities of compounds 1 and 2 were determined in four human leukemia cell lines. Compound 2 was more potent than compound 1 in inhibiting cell growth with IC50 values of 2.45, 2.69, 2.42, and 4.15 microM in HL-60, NB4, U937 and K562 cells, respectively.

  17. Engineered cell lines for fish health research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collet, Bertrand; Collins, Catherine; Lester, Katherine

    2018-03-01

    As fish farming continues to increase worldwide, the related research areas of fish disease and immunology are also expanding, aided by the revolution in access to genomic information and molecular technology. The genomes of most fish species of economic importance are now available and annotation based on sequence homology with characterised genomes is underway. However, while useful, functional homology is more difficult to determine, there being a lack of widely distributed and well characterised reagents such as monoclonal antibodies, traditionally used in mammalian studies, to help with confirming functions and cellular interactions of fish molecules. In this context, fish cell lines and the possibility of their genetic engineering offer good prospects for studying functional genomics with respect to fish diseases. In this review, we will give an overview of available permanently genetically engineered fish cell lines, as cell-based reporter systems or platforms for expression of endogenous immune or pathogen genes, to investigate interactions and function. The advantages of such systems and the technical challenge for their development will be discussed. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Radiosensitivity of Human Melanoma Cell Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergoc, R. M.; Medina, V.; Cricco, G.; Mohamed, N.; Martin, G.; Nunez, M.; Croci, M.; Crescenti, E. J.; Rivera, E. S.

    2004-07-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is a skin cancer resulting from the malign transformation of skin-pigment cells, the melanocytes. The radiotherapy, alone or in combination with other treatment, is an important therapy for this disease. the objective of this paper was to determine in vitro the radiosensitivity of two human melanoma cell lines with different metastatic capability: WM35 and MI/15, and to study the effect of drugs on radiobiological parameters. The Survival Curves were adjusted to the mathematical Linear-quadratic model using GrapsPad Prism software. Cells were seeded in RPMI medium (3000-3500 cells/flask), in triplicate and irradiated 24 h later. The irradiation was performed using an IBL 437C H Type equipment (189 TBq, 7.7 Gy/min) calibrated with a TLD 700 dosimeter. The range of Doses covered from 0 to 10 Gy and the colonies formed were counted at day 7th post-irradiation. Results obtained were: for WM35, {alpha}=0.37{+-}0.07 Gy''-1 and {beta}=0.06{+-}0.02 Gy''-2, for M1/15m {alpha}=0.47{+-}0.03 Gy''-1 and {beta}=0.06{+-}0.01 Gy''-2. The {alpha}/{beta} values WM35: {alpha}/{beta} values WM35: {alpha}/{beta}=6.07 Gy and M1/15: {alpha}/{beta}{sub 7}.33 Gy were similar, independently of their metastatic capabillity and indicate that both lines exhibit high radioresistance. Microscopic observation of irradiated cells showed multinuclear cells with few morphologic changes non-compatible with apoptosis. By means of specific fluorescent dyes and flow cytometry analysis we determined the intracellular levels of the radicals superoxide and hydrogen peroxide and their modulation in response to ionizing radiation. The results showed a marked decreased in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} intracellular levels with a simultaneous increase in superoxide that will be part of a mechanism responsible for induction of cell radioresistance. This response triggered by irradiated cells could not be abrogated by different treatments like histamine or the

  19. Histone signature of metanephric mesenchyme cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Nathan; Yao, Xiao; Li, Yuwen; Saifudeen, Zubaida; El-Dahr, Samir S

    2013-09-01

    The metanephric mesenchyme (MM) gives rise to nephrons, the filtering units of the mature kidney. The MM is composed of uninduced (Six2(high)/Lhx1(low)) and induced (Wnt-stimulated, Six2(low)/Lhx1(high)) cells. The global epigenetic state of MM cells is unknown, partly due to technical difficulty in isolating sufficient numbers of homogenous cell populations. We therefore took advantage of two mouse clonal cell lines representing the uninduced (mK3) and induced (mK4) metanephric mesenchyme (based on gene expression profiles and ability to induce branching of ureteric bud). ChIP-Seq revealed that whereas H3K4me3 active region "peaks" are enriched in metabolic genes, H3K27me3 peaks decorate mesenchyme and epithelial cell fate commitment genes. In uninduced mK3 cells, promoters of "stemness" genes (e.g., Six2, Osr1) are enriched with H3K4me3 peaks; these are lost in induced mK4 cells. ChIP-qPCR confirmed this finding and further demonstrated that G9a/H3K9me2 occupy the promoter region of Six2 in induced cells, consistent with the inactive state of transcription. Conversely, genes that mark the induced epithelialized state (e.g., Lhx1, Pax8), transition from a non-permissive to an active chromatin signature in mK3 vs. mK4 cells, respectively. Importantly, stimulation of Wnt signaling in uninduced mK3 cells provokes an active chromatin state (high H3K4me3, low H3K27me3), recruitment of β-catenin, and loss of pre-bound histone methyltransferase Ezh2 in silent induced genes followed by activation of transcription. We conclude that the chromatin signature of uninduced and induced cells correlates strongly with their gene expression states, suggesting a role of chromatin-based mechanisms in MM cell fate.

  20. Menadione inhibits MIBG uptake in two neuroendocrine cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, J.; Tytgat, G. A.; van den Brug, M.; van Kuilenburg, A. B.; Voûte, P. A.; van Gennip, A. H.

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we report on our studies of the effect of menadione on the uptake of MIBG in the neuroendocrine cell lines PC12 and SK-N-SH. Menadione inhibits the uptake of MIBG in both cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of MIBG uptake is most pronounced in the PC12 cell line.

  1. 77 FR 5489 - Identification of Human Cell Lines Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ... selection of this technology over other possible candidates for this project include: (i) The ability to... cell line, whether the cell line is misidentified, cross- contaminated, or genetically unstable... database. Submission Process: Submitters should contact Margaret Kline with a list of proposed cell lines...

  2. Garcinia kola extract reduced lipopolysaccharide activation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of Garcinia kola heckel seed extract on the promonocytic cell line U937 activated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was investigated. 200 l of U937 cells maintained in culture at 5 x 105 cells per ml was delivered into wells of a culture plate according to groups. Cells were pre-treated with 20 l of 100 ng/ml phorbol ...

  3. Cell-induced potentiation of the plasminogen activation system is abolished by a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the NH2-terminal domain of the urokinase receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rønne, E; Behrendt, N; Ellis, V

    1991-01-01

    -u-PA and plasminogen with U937 cells. This antibody, which is also the only one to completely inhibit the binding of DFP-inactivated [125I]-u-PA to U937 cells, is directed against the u-PA binding NH2-terminal domain of u-PAR, a well-defined fragment formed by limited chymotrypsin digestion of purified u......-PAR, demonstrating the functional independence of the u-PA binding domain as well as the critical role of u-PAR in the assembly of the cell-surface plasminogen activation system....

  4. Butyrate regulates the expression of inflammatory and chemotactic cytokines in human acute leukemic cells during apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, Stephanie R; Pellom, Samuel T; Shanker, Anil; Adunyah, Samuel E

    2016-08-01

    Butyrate is a histone deacetylase inhibitor implicated in many studies as a potential therapy for various forms of cancer. High concentrations of butyrate (>1.5mM) have been shown to activate apoptosis in several cancer cell lines including prostate, breast, and leukemia. Butyrate is also known to influence multiple signaling pathways that are mediators of cytokine production. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of high concentrations of butyrate on the cancer microenvironment vis-à-vis apoptosis, cellular migration, and capacity to modulate cytokine expression in cancer cells. The results indicate that high concentrations of butyrate induced a 2-fold activation of caspase-3 and reduced cell viability by 60% in U937 leukemia cells. Within 24h, butyrate significantly decreased the levels of chemokines CCL2 and CCL5 in HL-60 and U937 cells, and decreased CCL5 in THP-1 leukemia cells. Differential effects were observed in treatments with valproic acid for CCL2 and CCL5 indicating butyrate-specificity. Many of the biological effects examined in this study are linked to activation of the AKT and MAPK signaling pathways; therefore, we investigated whether butyrate alters the levels of phosphorylated forms of these signaling proteins and how it correlated with the expression of chemokines. The results show that butyrate may partially regulate CCL5 production via p38 MAPK. The decrease in p-ERK1/2 and p-AKT levels correlated with the decrease in CCL2 production. These data suggest that while promoting apoptosis, butyrate has the potential to influence the cancer microenvironment by inducing differential expression of cytokines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Amiloride-insensitive sodium channels are directly regulated by actin cytoskeleton dynamics in human lymphoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudarikova, Anastasia V; Tsaplina, Olga A; Chubinskiy-Nadezhdin, Vladislav I; Morachevskaya, Elena A; Negulyaev, Yuri A

    2015-05-22

    Sodium influx mediated by ion channels of plasma membrane underlies fundamental physiological processes in cells of blood origin. However, little is known about the single channel activity and regulatory mechanisms of sodium-specific channels in native cells. In the present work, we used different modes of patch clamp technique to examine ion channels involved in Na-transporting pathway in U937 human lymphoma cells. The activity of native non-voltage-gated sodium (NVGS) channels with unitary conductance of 10 pS was revealed in cell-attached, inside-out and whole-cell configurations. NVGS channel activity is directly controlled by submembranous actin cytoskeleton. Specifically, an activation of sodium channels in U937 cells in response to microfilament disassembly was demonstrated on single-channel and integral current level. Inside-out experiments showed that filament assembly on cytoplasmic membrane surface caused fast inactivation of the channels. Biophysical characteristics of NVGS channels in U937 cells were similar to that of epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs). However, we found that amiloride, a known inhibitor of DEG/ENaC, did not block NVGS channels in U937 cells. Whole-cell current measurements revealed no amiloride-sensitive component of membrane current. Our data show that cortical actin structures represent the main factor that controls the activity of amiloride-insensitive ENaC-like channels in human lymphoma cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Cellular radiosensitivity of small-cell lung cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krarup, Marianne; Poulsen, Hans Skovgaard; Spang-Thomsen, Mogens

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to determine the radiobiological characteristics of a panel of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines by use of a clonogenic assay. In addition, we tested whether comparable results could be obtained by employing a growth extrapolation method based on the construction of continuous exponential growth curves. Methods and Materials: Fifteen SCLC cell lines were studied, applying a slightly modified clonogenic assay and a growth extrapolation method. A dose-survival curve was obtained for each experiment and used for calculating several survival parameters. The multitarget single hit model was applied to calculate the cellular radiosensitivity (D 0 ), the capacity for sublethal damage repair (D q ), and the extrapolation number (n). Values for α and β were determined from best-fit curves according to the linear-quadratic model and these values were applied to calculate the surviving fraction after 2-Gy irradiation (SF 2 ). Results: In our investigation, the extrapolation method proved to be inappropriate for the study of in vitro cellular radiosensitivity due to lack of reproducibility. The results obtained by the clonogenic assay showed that the cell lines studied were radiobiologically heterogeneous with no discrete features of the examined parameters including the repair capacity. Conclusion: The results indicate that SCLC tumors per se are not generally candidates for hyperfractionated radiotherapy

  7. In vitro radiosensitivity of human leukemia cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weichselbaum, R.R.; Greenberger, J.S.; Schmidt, A.; Karpas, A.; Moloney, W.C.; Little, J.B.

    1981-01-01

    The in vitro radiobiologic survival values (anti n, D 0 ) of four tumor lines derived from human hematopoietic tumors were studied. These cell lines were HL60 promyelocytic leukemia; K562 erythroleukemia; 45 acute lymphocytic leukemia; and 176 acute monomyelogenous leukemia. More cell lines must be examined before the exact relationship between in vitro radiosensitivity and clinical radiocurability is firmly established

  8. Analysis of renal cancer cell lines from two major resources enables genomics-guided cell line selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Rileen; Winer, Andrew G.; Chevinsky, Michael; Jakubowski, Christopher; Chen, Ying-Bei; Dong, Yiyu; Tickoo, Satish K.; Reuter, Victor E.; Russo, Paul; Coleman, Jonathan A.; Sander, Chris; Hsieh, James J.; Hakimi, A. Ari

    2017-05-01

    The utility of cancer cell lines is affected by the similarity to endogenous tumour cells. Here we compare genomic data from 65 kidney-derived cell lines from the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia and the COSMIC Cell Lines Project to three renal cancer subtypes from The Cancer Genome Atlas: clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC, also known as kidney renal clear cell carcinoma), papillary (pRCC, also known as kidney papillary) and chromophobe (chRCC, also known as kidney chromophobe) renal cell carcinoma. Clustering copy number alterations shows that most cell lines resemble ccRCC, a few (including some often used as models of ccRCC) resemble pRCC, and none resemble chRCC. Human ccRCC tumours clustering with cell lines display clinical and genomic features of more aggressive disease, suggesting that cell lines best represent aggressive tumours. We stratify mutations and copy number alterations for important kidney cancer genes by the consistency between databases, and classify cell lines into established gene expression-based indolent and aggressive subtypes. Our results could aid investigators in analysing appropriate renal cancer cell lines.

  9. Tunicamycin promotes apoptosis in leukemia cells through ROS generation and downregulation of survivin expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Eun Jin; Heo, Jeonghoon; Kim, Young-Ho

    2015-08-01

    Tunicamycin (TN), one of the endoplasmic reticulum stress inducers, has been reported to inhibit tumor cell growth and exhibit anticarcinogenic activity. However, the mechanism by which TN initiates apoptosis remains poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the effect of TN on the apoptotic pathway in U937 cells. We show that TN induces apoptosis in association with caspase-3 activation, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and downregulation of survivin expression. P38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) and the generation of ROS signaling pathway play crucial roles in TN-induced apoptosis in U937 cells. We hypothesized that TN-induced activation of p38 MAPK signaling pathway is responsible for cell death. To test this hypothesis, we selectively inhibited MAPK during treatment with TN. Our data demonstrated that inhibitor of p38 (SB), but not ERK (PD) or JNK (SP), partially maintained apoptosis during treatment with TN. Pre-treatment with NAC and GSH markedly prevented cell death, suggesting a role for ROS in this process. Ectopic expression of survivin in U937 cells attenuated TN-induced apoptosis by suppression of caspase-3 cleavage, mitochondrial membrane potential, and cytochrome c release in U937 cells. Taken together, our results show that TN modulates multiple components of the apoptotic response of human leukemia cells and raise the possibility of a novel therapeutic strategy for hematological malignancies.

  10. Antiproliferative effects of galectin-1 from Rana catesbeiana eggs on human leukemia cells and its binding proteins in human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasumitsu, Hidetaro; Mochida, Keiichi; Yasuda, Chie; Isobe, Masaharu; Kawsar, Sarkar M A; Fujii, Yuki; Matsumoto, Ryo; Kanaly, Robert A; Ozeki, Yasuhiro

    2011-12-01

    Galectin-1 from American bullfrog, RCG1, was isolated to high purity, and its growth inhibitory properties against human cells were examined. The results demonstrated that highly purified RCG1 induced large cell aggregates and revealed cell-type-specific growth inhibition. It significantly inhibited all human leukemia cell lines tested such as HL-60, U937, and K562 cells but did not inhibit human colon cancer cell line, Colo 201, or mouse mammary tumor cell line FM3A cells. Although most of the galectin-induced growth inhibitions are known to be apoptic, RCG1 induced growth arrest and neither apoptosis nor necrosis. RCG1-mediated growth inhibition was specifically suppressed by the corresponding sugar, lactose, but not by sucrose or even the structurally similar sugar, melibiose. Several studies have reported that galectin-mediated biological functions were modulated by charge modification. Since the high purity of RCG1 was demonstrated but a moderate degree of growth inhibition occurred, it is possible protein charge modification was examined by isoelectric focusing, and it was found to be highly heterogeneous in charge. RCG1 binding proteins in human cells were analyzed by lectin blotting using biotinylated RCG1, and lectin blotting revealed that in human cell extracts the specific proteins at molecular weight 37 and 50 kDa possessed the responsive features of RCG1 binding and lactose competition.

  11. MODERATE CYTOTOXICITY OF PROANTHOCYANIDINS TO HUMAN TUMOR-CELL LINES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    KOLODZIEJ, H; HABERLAND, C; WOERDENBAG, HJ; KONINGS, AWT

    In the present study the cytotoxicity of 16 proanthocyanidins was evaluated in GLC(4), a human small cell lung carcinoma cell line, and in COLO 320, a human colorectal cancer cell line, using the microculture tetrazolium (MTT) assay. With IC50 values ranging from 18 to >200 mu m following continuous

  12. Modeling Adenovirus Latency in Human Lymphocyte Cell Lines ▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yange; Huang, Wen; Ornelles, David A.; Gooding, Linda R.

    2010-01-01

    Species C adenovirus establishes a latent infection in lymphocytes of the tonsils and adenoids. To understand how this lytic virus is maintained in these cells, four human lymphocytic cell lines that support the entire virus life cycle were examined. The T-cell line Jurkat ceased proliferation and died shortly after virus infection. BJAB, Ramos (B cells), and KE37 (T cells) continued to divide at nearly normal rates while replicating the virus genome. Viral genome numbers peaked and then decl...

  13. Isolation of a Wheat Cell Line with Altered Membrane Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdei, László; Vigh, László; Dudits, Dénes

    1982-01-01

    A spontaneous dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)-tolerant cell line was isolated from a cell culture of wheat (Triticum monococcum L.). The tolerant cells were able to grow in the presence of 4% DMSO. Cells formed from protoplasts of the tolerant line required DMSO for division in culture medium of high osmotic value. Fatty acid composition and the molar ratio of phospholipids/sterols suggest a more ordered membrane structure in the tolerant line. Accordingly, a lower K+ influx rate was detected in the tolerant cells in comparison with the original line. These characteristics were maintained after 6 months' cultivation of the cells in DMSO-free growth medium. This suggested that genetic changes could be responsible for differences between the two cell lines. PMID:16662251

  14. Investigation of the selenium metabolism in cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunøe, Kristoffer; Gabel-Jensen, Charlotte; Stürup, Stefan

    2011-01-01

    incubated with cells for 24 h and the induction of cell death was measured using flow cytometry. The amounts of total selenium in cell medium, cell lysate and the insoluble fractions was determined by ICP-MS. Speciation analysis of cellular fractions was performed by reversed phase, anion exchange and size......The aim of this work was to compare different selenium species for their ability to induce cell death in different cancer cell lines, while investigating the underlying chemistry by speciation analysis. A prostate cancer cell line (PC-3), a colon cancer cell line (HT-29) and a leukaemia cell line...... (Jurkat E6-1) were incubated with five selenium compounds representing inorganic as well as organic Se compounds in different oxidation states. Selenomethionine (SeMet), Se-methylselenocysteine (MeSeCys), methylseleninic acid (MeSeA), selenite and selenate in the concentration range 5-100 mu M were...

  15. The pursuit of ES cell lines of domesticated ungulates

    Science.gov (United States)

    In contrast to differentiated cells, embryonic stem cells (ESC) maintain an undifferentiated state, have the ability to self-renew, and exhibit pluripotency, i.e., they can give rise to most if not all somatic cell types and to the germ cells, egg and sperm. These characteristics make ES cell lines...

  16. VOLIN and KJON-Two novel hyperdiploid myeloma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Våtsveen, Thea Kristin; Børset, Magne; Dikic, Aida; Tian, Erming; Micci, Francesca; Lid, Ana H B; Meza-Zepeda, Leonardo A; Coward, Eivind; Waage, Anders; Sundan, Anders; Kuehl, W Michael; Holien, Toril

    2016-11-01

    Multiple myeloma can be divided into two distinct genetic subgroups: hyperdiploid (HRD) or nonhyperdiploid (NHRD) myeloma. Myeloma cell lines are important tools to study myeloma cell biology and are commonly used for preclinical screening and testing of new drugs. With few exceptions human myeloma cell lines are derived from NHRD patients, even though about half of the patients have HRD myeloma. Thus, there is a need for cell lines of HRD origin to enable more representative preclinical studies. Here, we present two novel myeloma cell lines, VOLIN and KJON. Both of them were derived from patients with HRD disease and shared the same genotype as their corresponding primary tumors. The cell lines' chromosomal content, genetic aberrations, gene expression, immunophenotype as well as some of their growth characteristics are described. Neither of the cell lines was found to harbor immunoglobulin heavy chain translocations. The VOLIN cell line was established from a bone marrow aspirate and KJON from peripheral blood. We propose that these unique cell lines may be used as tools to increase our understanding of myeloma cell biology. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Authentication of M14 melanoma cell line proves misidentification of MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korch, Christopher; Hall, Erin M; Dirks, Wilhelm G; Ewing, Margaret; Faries, Mark; Varella-Garcia, Marileila; Robinson, Steven; Storts, Douglas; Turner, Jacqueline A; Wang, Ying; Burnett, Edward C; Healy, Lyn; Kniss, Douglas; Neve, Richard M; Nims, Raymond W; Reid, Yvonne A; Robinson, William A; Capes-Davis, Amanda

    2018-02-01

    A variety of analytical approaches have indicated that melanoma cell line UCLA-SO-M14 (M14) and breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435 originate from a common donor. This indicates that at some point in the past, one of these cell lines became misidentified, meaning that it ceased to correspond to the reported donor and instead became falsely identified (through cross-contamination or other means) as a cell line from a different donor. Initial studies concluded that MDA-MB-435 was the misidentified cell line and M14 was the authentic cell line, although contradictory evidence has been published, resulting in further confusion. To address this question, we obtained early samples of the melanoma cell line (M14), a lymphoblastoid cell line from the same donor (ML14), and donor serum preserved at the originator's institution. M14 samples were cryopreserved in December 1975, before MDA-MB-435 cells were established in culture. Through a series of molecular characterizations, including short tandem repeat (STR) profiling and cytogenetic analysis, we demonstrated that later samples of M14 and MDA-MB-435 correspond to samples of M14 frozen in 1975, to the lymphoblastoid cell line ML14, and to the melanoma donor's STR profile, sex and blood type. This work demonstrates conclusively that M14 is the authentic cell line and MDA-MB-435 is misidentified. With clear provenance information and authentication testing of early samples, it is possible to resolve debates regarding the origins of problematic cell lines that are widely used in cancer research. © 2017 The Authors International Journal of Cancer published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of UICC.

  18. Authentication of M14 melanoma cell line proves misidentification of MDA‐MB‐435 breast cancer cell line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korch, Christopher; Hall, Erin M.; Dirks, Wilhelm G.; Ewing, Margaret; Faries, Mark; Varella‐Garcia, Marileila; Robinson, Steven; Storts, Douglas; Turner, Jacqueline A.; Wang, Ying; Burnett, Edward C.; Healy, Lyn; Kniss, Douglas; Neve, Richard M.; Nims, Raymond W.; Reid, Yvonne A.; Robinson, William A.

    2017-01-01

    A variety of analytical approaches have indicated that melanoma cell line UCLA‐SO‐M14 (M14) and breast carcinoma cell line MDA‐MB‐435 originate from a common donor. This indicates that at some point in the past, one of these cell lines became misidentified, meaning that it ceased to correspond to the reported donor and instead became falsely identified (through cross‐contamination or other means) as a cell line from a different donor. Initial studies concluded that MDA‐MB‐435 was the misidentified cell line and M14 was the authentic cell line, although contradictory evidence has been published, resulting in further confusion. To address this question, we obtained early samples of the melanoma cell line (M14), a lymphoblastoid cell line from the same donor (ML14), and donor serum preserved at the originator's institution. M14 samples were cryopreserved in December 1975, before MDA‐MB‐435 cells were established in culture. Through a series of molecular characterizations, including short tandem repeat (STR) profiling and cytogenetic analysis, we demonstrated that later samples of M14 and MDA‐MB‐435 correspond to samples of M14 frozen in 1975, to the lymphoblastoid cell line ML14, and to the melanoma donor's STR profile, sex and blood type. This work demonstrates conclusively that M14 is the authentic cell line and MDA‐MB‐435 is misidentified. With clear provenance information and authentication testing of early samples, it is possible to resolve debates regarding the origins of problematic cell lines that are widely used in cancer research. PMID:28940260

  19. The stimulating effects of polyphenol and protein fractions from jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) achenes against proliferation of leukemia cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yi-Zhen; Huang, Ai-Jun; Hou, Chih-Yao; Jiang, Chii-Ming; Wu, Ming-Chang

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the direct and immune-stimulated antiproliferative activities of jelly fig achenes fractions including pectinesterase inhibitors, crude polyphenols extract, and purified polyphenols extract (PP). Beside the measurement of cell viability of U937, the quantity of cytokines in conditioned medium and morphologic changes in leukemia were observed. After surveying all fractions in jelly fig, the obtained fractions of polyphenol exhibited the highest stimulating effects and directly cytotoxic effects against leukemia with the lowest effect found in protein fractions. The leukemia treated by our PP fraction showed dose-dependent response between the concentration and G2/M cell numbers of the U937 cells. The PP fraction had more pronounced effect on immune-stimulated than direct antiproliferative activities. The finding was also supported by morphological analysis by showing the formation of apoptotic bodies and differentiation from immature U937 cells into mature monocytes/macrophages on cells cultured with PP-conditioned medium. In conclusion, polyphenol fraction of pectinesterase inhibitors from jelly fig showed the immune-stimulated antiproliferative activities against U937 cell. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. The stimulating effects of polyphenol and protein fractions from jelly fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino achenes against proliferation of leukemia cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Zhen Shih

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the direct and immune-stimulated antiproliferative activities of jelly fig achenes fractions including pectinesterase inhibitors, crude polyphenols extract, and purified polyphenols extract (PP. Beside the measurement of cell viability of U937, the quantity of cytokines in conditioned medium and morphologic changes in leukemia were observed. After surveying all fractions in jelly fig, the obtained fractions of polyphenol exhibited the highest stimulating effects and directly cytotoxic effects against leukemia with the lowest effect found in protein fractions. The leukemia treated by our PP fraction showed dose-dependent response between the concentration and G2/M cell numbers of the U937 cells. The PP fraction had more pronounced effect on immune-stimulated than direct antiproliferative activities. The finding was also supported by morphological analysis by showing the formation of apoptotic bodies and differentiation from immature U937 cells into mature monocytes/macrophages on cells cultured with PP-conditioned medium. In conclusion, polyphenol fraction of pectinesterase inhibitors from jelly fig showed the immune-stimulated antiproliferative activities against U937 cell.

  1. Derivation of the human embryonic stem cell line RCM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. De Sousa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The human embryonic stem cell line RCM-1 was derived from a failed to fertilise egg undergoing parthenogenetic stimulation. The cell line shows normal pluripotency marker expression and differentiation to three germ layers in vitro and in vivo. It has a normal 46XX female karyotype and microsatellite PCR identity, HLA and blood group typing data is available.

  2. Beryllium-stimulated apoptosis in macrophage cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, R T; Fadok, V A; Kittle, L A; Maier, L A; Newman, L S

    2000-08-21

    In vitro stimulation of bronchoalveolar lavage cells from patients with chronic beryllium disease (CBD) induces the production of TNF-alpha. We tested the hypothesis that beryllium (Be)-stimulated TNF-alpha might induce apoptosis in mouse and human macrophage cell lines. These cell lines were selected because they produce a range of Be-stimulated TNF-alpha. The mouse macrophage cell line H36.12j produces high levels of Be-stimulated TNF-alpha. The mouse macrophage cell line P388D.1 produces low, constitutive, levels of TNF-alpha and does not up-regulate Be-stimulated TNF-alpha production. The DEOHS-1 human CBD macrophage cell line does not produce constitutive or Be-stimulated TNF-alpha. Apoptosis was determined by microscopic observation of propidium iodide stained fragmented nuclei in unstimulated and BeSO(4)-stimulated macrophage cell lines. BeSO(4) induced apoptosis in all macrophage cell lines tested. Beryllium-stimulated apoptosis was dose-responsive and maximal after 24 h of exposure to 100 microM BeSO(4). In contrast, unstimulated and Al(2)(SO(4))(3)-stimulated macrophage cell lines did not undergo apoptosis. The general caspase inhibitor BD-fmk inhibited Be-stimulated macrophage cell line apoptosis at concentrations above 50 microM. Our data show that Be-stimulated macrophage cell line apoptosis was caspase-dependent and not solely dependent on Be-stimulated TNF-alpha levels. We speculate that the release of Be-antigen from apoptotic macrophages may serve to re-introduce Be material back into the lung microenvironment, make it available for uptake by new macrophages, and thereby amplify Be-stimulated cytokine production, promoting ongoing inflammation and granuloma maintenance in CBD.

  3. Susceptibility of various cell lines to Neospora caninum tachyzoites cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khordadmehr, M.,

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Neospora caninum is a coccidian protozoan parasite which is a major cause of bovine abortions and neonatal mortality in cattle, sheep, goat and horse. Occasionally, cultured cells are used for isolation and multiplication of the agent in vitro with several purposes. In this study the tachyzoite yields of N. caninum were compared in various cell cultures as the host cell lines. Among the cell cultures tested, two presented good susceptibility to the agent: cell lines Vero and MA-104. SW742 and TLI (in vitro suspension culture of lymphoid cells infected with Theileria lestoquardi showed moderate sensitivity. No viable tachyzoite were detected in the culture of MDCK and McCoy cell lines. These results demonstrate that MA-104 and SW742 cells present adequate susceptibility to N. caninum compared to Vero cells, which have been largely used to multiply the parasite in vitro. Moreover, these have easy manipulation, fast multiplication and relatively low nutritional requirements. In addition, the result of this study showed that TLI cell line as a suspension cell culture is susceptible to Nc-1 tachyzoites infection and could be used as an alternative host cell line for tachyzoites culture in vitro studies.

  4. Natural killer cells for immunotherapy – Advantages of cell lines over blood NK cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans eKlingemann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer cells are potent cytotoxic effector cells for cancer therapy and potentially for severe viral infections. However, there are technical challenges to obtain sufficient numbers of functionally active NK cells form a patient’s blood since they represent only 10% of the lymphocytes. Especially, cancer patients are known to have dysfunctional NK cells. The alternative is to obtain cells from a healthy donor, which requires depletion of the allogeneic T-cells. Establishing cell lines from donor blood NK cells have not been successful, in contrast to blood NK cells obtained from patients with a clonal NK cell lymphoma. Those cells can be expanded in culture in the presence of IL-2. However, except for the NK-92 cell line none of the other six known cell lines has consistent and reproducibly high anti-tumor cytotoxicity, nor can they be easily genetically manipulated to recognize specific tumor antigens or to augment monoclonal antibody activity through ADCC. NK-92 is also the only cell line product that has been widely given to patients with advanced cancer with demonstrated efficiency and minimal side effects.

  5. Effect of irradiation-induced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 expression on natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity toward human cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Jae-Uk; Uong, Tung Nguyen Thanh; Chung, Woong-Ki; Nam, Taek-Keun; Ahn, Sung-Ja; Song, Ju-Young; Kim, Sang-Ki; Shin, Dong-Jun; Cho, Eugene; Kim, Kyoung Won; Cho, Duck; Yoon, Mee Sun

    2018-03-20

    Irradiation enhances the adhesion between natural killer (NK) cells and target cells by up-regulating intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) on target cells. Therefore, we investigated the effect of irradiation-induced ICAM-1 expression on human cancer cells on NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Expression levels of ICAM-1 on the target cell surface before and after irradiation of six human cancer cell lines (HL60, SKBR-3, T47D, HCT-116, U937 and U251) were analyzed by flow cytometry. Ex vivo expansion of NK cells from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells was performed by co-culture with irradiated K562 cells. The related adhesion molecule lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1) on NK cells was analyzed by flow cytometry. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and WST-8 assays were performed to check NK cell cytotoxicity. Finally, blocking assays were performed using monoclonal antibodies against ICAM-1 or LFA-1. LFA-1 expression increased on NK cells after expansion (P cytotoxicity increased after irradiation of HL60 (P cytotoxicity against irradiated SKBR-3 (P cytotoxicity against irradiated HL60 (P cytotoxicity. Therefore, irradiation combined with NK cell therapy may improve the antitumor effects of NK cells. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Radiation sensitivity of human lung cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmichael, J.; Degraff, W.G.; Gamson, J.; Russo, G.; Mitchell, J.B.; Gazdar, A.F.; Minna, J.D.; Levitt, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    X-Ray survival curves were determined using a panel of 17 human lung cancer cell lines, with emphasis on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In contrast to classic small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines, NSCLC cell lines were generally less sensitive to radiation as evidenced by higher radiation survival curve extrapolation numbers, surviving fraction values following a 2Gy dose (SF2) and the mean inactivation dose values (D) values. The spectrum of in vitro radiation responses observed was similar to that expected in clinical practice, although mesothelioma was unexpectedly sensitive in vitro. Differences in radiosensitivity were best distinguished by comparison of SF2 values. Some NSCLC lines were relatively sensitive, and in view of this demonstrable variability in radiation sensitivity, the SF2 value may be useful for in vitro predictive assay testing of clinical specimens. (author)

  7. Establishment and characterization of rat portal myofibroblast cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Fausther

    Full Text Available The major sources of scar-forming myofibroblasts during liver fibrosis are activated hepatic stellate cells (HSC and portal fibroblasts (PF. In contrast to well-characterized HSC, PF remain understudied and poorly defined. This is largely due to the facts that isolation of rodent PF for functional studies is technically challenging and that PF cell lines had not been established. To address this, we have generated two polyclonal portal myofibroblast cell lines, RGF and RGF-N2. RGF and RGF-N2 were established from primary PF isolated from adult rat livers that underwent culture activation and subsequent SV40-mediated immortalization. Specifically, Ntpdase2/Cd39l1-sorted primary PF were used to generate the RGF-N2 cell line. Both cell lines were functionally characterized by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence, immunoblot and bromodeoxyuridine-based proliferation assay. First, immortalized RGF and RGF-N2 cells are positive for phenotypic myofibroblast markers alpha smooth muscle actin, type I collagen alpha-1, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-1, PF-specific markers elastin, type XV collagen alpha-1 and Ntpdase2/Cd39l1, and mesenchymal cell marker ecto-5'-nucleotidase/Cd73, while negative for HSC-specific markers desmin and lecithin retinol acyltransferase. Second, both RGF and RGF-N2 cell lines are readily transfectable using standard methods. Finally, RGF and RGF-N2 cells attenuate the growth of Mz-ChA-1 cholangiocarcinoma cells in co-culture, as previously demonstrated for primary PF. Immortalized rat portal myofibroblast RGF and RGF-N2 cell lines express typical markers of activated PF-derived myofibroblasts, are suitable for DNA transfection, and can effectively inhibit cholangiocyte proliferation. Both RGF and RGF-N2 cell lines represent novel in vitro cellular models for the functional studies of portal (myofibroblasts and their contribution to the progression of liver fibrosis.

  8. UCI-VULV-1, a vulvar squamous carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, P M; Gamboa-Vujicic, G; Mascarello, J T; Wilczynski, S; Bhaumik, M; Dorion, G; Manetta, A

    1995-05-01

    Squamous carcinoma of the vulva (SCV) is an uncommon neoplasm of uncertain etiology. There is evidence that there are two subgroups of SCV, one associated with human papilloma virus (HPV) and a second HPV-negative group. The UCI-VULV-1 cell line, obtained from a lymph node metastasis of an SCV, grows with a population doubling time of approximately 60 hr. The saturation density is 10(5) cells/cm2. The cell line does not exhibit anchorage independence and is weakly tumorigenic. The cells range in appearance from an abundant spindle cell to a less common larger, flat cell. All of the cells are immunoreactive for high-molecular-weight keratin, but only the flat cells, which form squamous pearls in vivo, are immunoreactive for low-molecular-weight keratin. The cell line expresses epidermal growth factor (EGF), transforming growth factor-alpha, the EGF receptor, and p53 protein. Polymerase chain reaction revealed no HPV DNA within the cells. Early passage cells exhibited karyotypic heterogeneity with few similarities to previous described SCV karyotypes. The cells display sensitivity to cis-platinum in concentrations toxic to many ovarian and cervical carcinoma lines. UCI-VULV-1 may be helpful for studying the properties of the HPV-negative form of SCV.

  9. Differential effects of bisphosphonates on breast cancer cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verdijk, R.; Franke, H.R.; Wolbers, F.; Vermes, I.

    2007-01-01

    Bisphosphonates may induce direct anti-tumor effects in breast cancers cells in virtro. In this study, six bisphosphonates were administered to three breast caner cell lines. Cell proliferation was measured by quantification of th expressio of Cyclin D1 mRNA. Apoptosis was determined by flow

  10. A stromal myoid cell line provokes thymic erythropoiesis between ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The thymus provides an optimal cellular and humoral microenvironment for cell line committed differentiation of haematopoietic stem cells. The immigration process requires the secretion of at least one peptide called thymotaxine by cells of the reticulo-epithelial (RE) network of the thymic stromal cellular ...

  11. Cytotoxicity against MCF-7 breast cancer cell line and interaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    N6-furfuryladenine (kinetin) is a cytokinin growth factor with several biological effects observed in human cells and fruit flies. Kinetin exists naturally in the DNA of almost all organisms tested so far, including human cells and various plants. The cytotoxicity effect of kinetin on MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines was measured by ...

  12. Susceptibilities of medaka (Oryzias latipes cell lines to a betanodavirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adachi Kei

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betanodaviruses, members of the family Nodaviridae, have bipartite, positive-sense RNA genomes and are the causal agents of viral nervous necrosis in many marine fish species. Recently, the viruses were shown to infect a few freshwater fish species including a model fish medaka (Oryzias latipes. Although virological study using cultured medaka cells would provide a lot of insight into virus-fish interactions in molecular aspects, no such cells have yet been tested for virus susceptibility. Results We tested ten medaka cell lines for susceptibilities to redspotted grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV. Although the viral coat protein was detected in all the cell lines inoculated, the levels of cytopathic effect development and viral propagation were quite different among the cell lines. Those levels were especially high in OLHNI-1 and OLHNI-2 cells, but were extremely low in OLME-104 cells. Some cell lines entered into antiviral state after RGNNV infections probably because of inducing an antiviral system. This is the first report to examine the susceptibilities of cultured medaka cells against a virus. Conclusion OLHNI-1 and OLHNI-2 cells are candidates of new standard cells for betanodavirus study because of their high susceptibilities to the virus and their several advantages as model fish cells.

  13. Establishment and characterization of a chicken mononuclear cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, M A; Miller, L; Lillehoj, H S; Ficken, M D

    1990-11-01

    A new chicken mononuclear cell line (MQ-NCSU) has been established. The starting material used to initiate this cell line was a transformed spleen from a female Dekalb XL chicken which had been experimentally challenged with the JM/102W strain of the Marek's disease virus. After homogenization, a single cell suspension of splenic cells was cultured using L.M. Hahn medium supplemented with 10 microM 2-mercaptoethanol. Under these culture conditions, a rapidly proliferating cell was observed and then expanded after performing limiting dilution cultures. These cells were moderately adherent and phagocytic for sheep red blood cells and Salmonella typhimurium. When tested against a panel of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) using the flow cytometry, MQ-NCSU cells stained readily with anti-chicken monocyte specific (K-1) mAb but did not stain with mAb detecting T-helper, T-cytotoxic/suppressor, and NK cells. MQ-NCSU cells expressed very high levels of Ia antigens and transferrin receptors. In addition, cell-free supernatant obtained from MQ-NCSU culture contained a factor which exhibited cytolytic activity against tumor cell targets. Based on their cultural, morphological, and functional characteristics and mAb reactivity profile, we conclude that MQ-NCSU cell line represents a malignantly-transformed cell which shares features characteristic of cells of the mononuclear phagocyte lineage.

  14. Global Conservation of Protein Status between Cell Lines and Xenografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Biau

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Common preclinical models for testing anticancer treatment include cultured human tumor cell lines in monolayer, and xenografts derived from these cell lines in immunodeficient mice. Our goal was to determine how similar the xenografts are compared with their original cell line and to determine whether it is possible to predict the stability of a xenograft model beforehand. We studied a selection of 89 protein markers of interest in 14 human cell cultures and respective subcutaneous xenografts using the reverse-phase protein array technology. We specifically focused on proteins and posttranslational modifications involved in DNA repair, PI3K pathway, apoptosis, tyrosine kinase signaling, stress, cell cycle, MAPK/ERK signaling, SAPK/JNK signaling, NFκB signaling, and adhesion/cytoskeleton. Using hierarchical clustering, most cell culture-xenograft pairs cluster together, suggesting a global conservation of protein signature. Particularly, Akt, NFkB, EGFR, and Vimentin showed very stable protein expression and phosphorylation levels highlighting that 4 of 10 pathways were highly correlated whatever the model. Other proteins were heterogeneously conserved depending on the cell line. Finally, cell line models with low Akt pathway activation and low levels of Vimentin gave rise to more reliable xenograft models. These results may be useful for the extrapolation of cell culture experiments to in vivo models in novel targeted drug discovery.

  15. Pathway-specific differences between tumor cell lines and normal and tumor tissue cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tozeren Aydin

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cell lines are used in experimental investigation of cancer but their capacity to represent tumor cells has yet to be quantified. The aim of the study was to identify significant alterations in pathway usage in cell lines in comparison with normal and tumor tissue. Methods This study utilized a pathway-specific enrichment analysis of publicly accessible microarray data and quantified the gene expression differences between cell lines, tumor, and normal tissue cells for six different tissue types. KEGG pathways that are significantly different between cell lines and tumors, cell lines and normal tissues and tumor and normal tissue were identified through enrichment tests on gene lists obtained using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM. Results Cellular pathways that were significantly upregulated in cell lines compared to tumor cells and normal cells of the same tissue type included ATP synthesis, cell communication, cell cycle, oxidative phosphorylation, purine, pyrimidine and pyruvate metabolism, and proteasome. Results on metabolic pathways suggested an increase in the velocity nucleotide metabolism and RNA production. Pathways that were downregulated in cell lines compared to tumor and normal tissue included cell communication, cell adhesion molecules (CAMs, and ECM-receptor interaction. Only a fraction of the significantly altered genes in tumor-to-normal comparison had similar expressions in cancer cell lines and tumor cells. These genes were tissue-specific and were distributed sparsely among multiple pathways. Conclusion Significantly altered genes in tumors compared to normal tissue were largely tissue specific. Among these genes downregulation was a major trend. In contrast, cell lines contained large sets of significantly upregulated genes that were common to multiple tissue types. Pathway upregulation in cell lines was most pronounced over metabolic pathways including cell nucleotide metabolism and oxidative

  16. Induction of apoptosis by opium in some tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleghi, M; Farsinejad, A; Dabiri, S; Asadikaram, G

    2016-09-30

    The current study is aimed at investigation of the opium effects on the apoptosis of different cell lines in culture medium and compares such effects with one another. The study is carried out on over 8 cell lines (AA8, AGS, Hela, HepG2, MCF7, N2a, PC12, WEHI). A 2.86 x 10-4 g/ml opium concentration was prepared and added to the culture medium of the cell lines for 48 hours. Cytotoxicity was tested by 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The apoptotic effect of opium on the cell lines was analyzed by Annexin-PI test. Opium with concentration of 2.86 x 10-4 g/ml in 48 hours significantly induces apoptosis in certain cell lines (i.e. AA8, N2a, WEHI), apoptosis and necrosis in some others (i.e. Hela, HepG2, MCF7, and PC12), and also solely necrosis in the AGS cell line. One could infer that the usage of opium with different levels in different tissues leads to certain disorders in some tissues and may have therapeutic effects under distinctive conditions (i.e. unchecked growth of cells) as confirmed by the results.

  17. Fish cell lines as a tool in aquatic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segner, H

    1998-01-01

    In aquatic toxicology, cytotoxicity tests using continuous fish cell lines have been suggested as a tool for (1) screening or toxicity ranking of anthropogenic chemicals, compound mixtures and environmental samples, (2) establishment of structure-activity relationships, and (3) replacement or supplementation of in vivo animal tests. Due to the small sample volumes necessary for cytotoxicity tests, they appear to be particularly suited for use in chemical fractionation studies. The present contribution reviews the existing literature on cytotoxicity studies with fish cells and considers the influence of cell line and cytotoxicity endpoint selection on the test results. Furthermore, in vitro/in vivo correlations between fish cell lines and intact fish are discussed. During recent years, fish cell lines have been increasingly used for purposes beyond their meanwhile established role for cytotoxicity measurements. They have been successfully introduced for detection of genotoxic effects, and cell lines are now applied for investigations on toxic mechanisms and on biomarkers such as cytochrome P4501A. The development of recombinant fish cell lines may further support their role as a bioanalytical tool in environmental diagnostics.

  18. Lining cells on normal human vertebral bone surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henning, C.B.; Lloyd, E.L.

    1982-01-01

    Thoracic vertebrae from two individuals with no bone disease were studied with the electron microscope to determine cell morphology in relation to bone mineral. The work was undertaken to determine if cell morphology or spatial relationships between the bone lining cells and bone mineral could account for the relative infrequency of bone tumors which arise at this site following radium intake, when compared with other sites, such as the head of the femur. Cells lining the vertebral mineral were found to be generally rounded in appearance with varied numbers of cytoplasmic granules, and they appeared to have a high density per unit of surface area. These features contrasted with the single layer of flattened cells characteristic of the bone lining cells of the femur. A tentative discussion of the reasons for the relative infrequency of tumors in the vertebrae following radium acquisition is presented

  19. MORPHOMETRIC SUBTYPING FOR A PANEL OF BREAST CANCER CELL LINES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Ju; Chang, Hang; Fontenay, Gerald; Wang, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joe W.; Parvin, Bahram

    2009-05-08

    A panel of cell lines of diverse molecular background offers an improved model system for high-content screening, comparative analysis, and cell systems biology. A computational pipeline has been developed to collect images from cell-based assays, segment individual cells and colonies, represent segmented objects in a multidimensional space, and cluster them for identifying distinct subpopulations. While each segmentation strategy can vary for different imaging assays, representation and subpopulation analysis share a common thread. Application of this pipeline to a library of 41 breast cancer cell lines is demonstrated. These cell lines are grown in 2D and imaged through immunofluorescence microscopy. Subpopulations in this panel are identified and shown to correlate with previous subtyping literature that was derived from transcript data.

  20. DNA fingerprinting of the NCI-60 cell line panel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzi, Philip L; Reinhold, William C; Varma, Sudhir; Hutchinson, Amy A; Pommier, Yves; Chanock, Stephen J; Weinstein, John N

    2009-04-01

    The National Cancer Institute's NCI-60 cell line panel, the most extensively characterized set of cells in existence and a public resource, is frequently used as a screening tool for drug discovery. Because many laboratories around the world rely on data from the NCI-60 cells, confirmation of their genetic identities represents an essential step in validating results from them. Given the consequences of cell line contamination or misidentification, quality control measures should routinely include DNA fingerprinting. We have, therefore, used standard DNA microsatellite short tandem repeats to profile the NCI-60, and the resulting DNA fingerprints are provided here as a reference. Consistent with previous reports, the fingerprints suggest that several NCI-60 lines have common origins: the melanoma lines MDA-MB-435, MDA-N, and M14; the central nervous system lines U251 and SNB-19; the ovarian lines OVCAR-8 and OVCAR-8/ADR (also called NCI/ADR); and the prostate lines DU-145, DU-145 (ATCC), and RC0.1. Those lines also show that the ability to connect two fingerprints to the same origin is not affected by stable transfection or by the development of multidrug resistance. As expected, DNA fingerprints were not able to distinguish different tissues-of-origin. The fingerprints serve principally as a barcodes.

  1. Characterization of newly established colorectal cancer cell lines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    2000-12-19

    Gastroenterology Service,. Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, 1275 York Avenue, New York, NY 10021, USA. Abstract. We have established a series of 20 colorectal cancer cell lines and performed ...

  2. EPR, TEM and cell viability study of asbestiform zeolite fibers in cell media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cangiotti, Michela; Salucci, Sara; Battistelli, Michela; Falcieri, Elisabetta; Mattioli, Michele; Giordani, Matteo; Ottaviani, Maria Francesca

    2018-01-01

    Human monocyte U937 cell line was used as a model to verify the toxicity of erionite and offretite asbestiform zeolite fibers. As a presumed non-toxic reference, a fibrous scolecite zeolite was also used. To analyze the process of fiber ingestion into cells and the cells-fibers interactions, a spin-probe electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis was performed supported by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cell viability measurements as a function of the incubation time. Erionite fibers were fast internalized in the membrane mainly as aggregates with radical-solution drops trapped inside, and were found in the cytosol and at the nucleus. In 24h, first erionite fibers rich in sodium and potassium, and then calcium-rich erionite fibers, induced cell necrosis. The offretite fibers formed rounding electron-dense filaments which transformed in curved filaments, initially perturbing the cell structure and interacting at the external surface more than erionite fibers. Such interactions probably diminished the toxic effect of offretite on cells. Interestingly, the presumed non-toxic scolecite fibers were partially internalized, inducing formation of swollen mitochondria and squared cells. Overall, the toxic effect of the fibrous zeolites was related to fiber morphology, chemical distribution of sites, structural variations and formation of aggregates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Isolation of two chloroethylnitrosourea-sensitive Chinese hamster cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, H.; Numata, M.; Tohda, H.; Yasui, A.; Oikawa, A.

    1991-01-01

    1-[(4-Amino-2-methylpyrimidin-5-yl)methyl]-3-(2-chloroethyl)-3- nitrosourea hydrochloride (ACNU), a cancer chemotherapeutic bifunctional alkylating agent, causes chloroethylation of DNA and subsequent DNA strand cross-linking through an ethylene bridge. We isolated and characterized two ACNU-sensitive mutants from mutagenized Chinese hamster ovary cells and found them to be new drug-sensitive recessive Chinese hamster mutants. Both mutants were sensitive to various monofunctional alkylating agents in a way similar to that of the parental cell lines CHO9. One mutant (UVS1) was cross-sensitive to UV and complemented the UV sensitivity of all Chinese hamster cell lines of 7 established complementation groups. Since UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis was very low, a new locus related to excision repair is thought to be defective in this cell line. Another ACNU-sensitive mutant, CNU1, was slightly more sensitive to UV than the parent cell line. CNU1 was cross-sensitive to 1-(2-chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea and slightly more sensitive to mitomycin C. No increased accumulation of ACNU and a low level of UV-induced unscheduled DNA synthesis in this cell as compared with the parental cell line suggest that there is abnormality in a repair response of this mutant cell to some types of DNA cross-links

  4. In vitro Rb-1 gene transfer to retinoblastoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Sang Wook; Ham, Yong Hoh; Kim, Mee Heui

    1994-04-01

    After transfection of Rb-vector to packaging cell line (CRIP) by Ca-P precipitation method, we could select nineteen colonies of G-418 resistant clone by ring cloning. Each colony was transduced to NIH3T3 cells to select the one which produces high titer virus. After NIH3T3 cells transduction, we could get 28 colony counts for the high, 127 for the middle, and 6 for the low viral titer. With the supernatant of the high viral titer colony (CRIPRb 2-5). We transduct retinoblastoma cell lines. 5 figs, 11 refs. (Author)

  5. Assessment of cancer cell line representativeness using microarrays for Merkel cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daily, Kenneth; Coxon, Amy; Williams, Jonathan S; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Coit, Daniel G; Busam, Klaus J; Brownell, Isaac

    2015-04-01

    When using cell lines to study cancer, phenotypic similarity to the original tumor is paramount. Yet, little has been done to characterize how closely Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) cell lines model native tumors. To determine their similarity to MCC tumor samples, we characterized MCC cell lines via gene expression microarrays. Using whole transcriptome gene expression signatures and a computational bioinformatic approach, we identified significant differences between variant cell lines (UISO, MCC13, and MCC26) and fresh frozen MCC tumors. Conversely, the classic WaGa and Mkl-1 cell lines more closely represented the global transcriptome of MCC tumors. When compared with publicly available cancer lines, WaGa and Mkl-1 cells were similar to other neuroendocrine tumors, but the variant cell lines were not. WaGa and Mkl-1 cells grown as xenografts in mice had histological and immunophenotypical features consistent with MCC, whereas UISO xenograft tumors were atypical for MCC. Spectral karyotyping and short tandem repeat analysis of the UISO cells matched the original cell line's description, ruling out contamination. Our results validate the use of transcriptome analysis to assess the cancer cell line representativeness and indicate that UISO, MCC13, and MCC26 cell lines are not representative of MCC tumors, whereas WaGa and Mkl-1 more closely model MCC.

  6. Establishment of cell lines from adult T-cell leukemia cells dependent on negatively charged polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagami, Yoshitoyo; Uchiyama, Susumu; Kato, Harumi; Okada, Yasutaka; Seto, Masao; Kinoshita, Tomohiro

    2017-07-05

    Growing adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL) cells in vitro is difficult. Here, we examined the effects of static electricity in the culture medium on the proliferation of ATLL cells. Six out of 10 ATLL cells did not proliferate in vitro and thus had to be cultured in a medium containing negatively charged polymers. In the presence of poly-γ-glutamic acid (PGA) or chondroitin sulfate (CDR), cell lines (HKOX3-PGA, HKOX3-CDR) were established from the same single ATLL case using interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, and feeder cells expressing OX40L (OX40L + HK). Dextran sulfate inhibited growth in both HKOX3 cell lines. Both PGA and OX40L + HK were indispensable for HKOX3-PGA growth, but HKOX3-CDR could proliferate in the presence of CDR or OX40L + HK alone. Thus, the specific action of each negatively charged polymer promoted the growth of specific ATLL cells in vitro.

  7. Daintain/AIF-1 Plays Roles in Coronary Heart Disease via Affecting the Blood Composition and Promoting Macrophage Uptake and Foam Cell Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhan Wang

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Daintain/AIF-1 is an inflammatory polypeptide factor/allograft inflammatory factor 1 derived from macrophages. It is characterized in APOE-/- mice as a novel inflammatory factor associated with atherosclerosis. The purpose of this study was to characterize its function in human atherosclerosis. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the expression of daintain/AIF-1 in vessel segments within and far from atherosclerotic plaques; High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was used to display the effects of daintain/AIF-1 on C-reactive protein (CRP, oxidative capacity and superoxide dismutase (SOD in vivo; Oil Red O Staining was used to show the effects of daintain/AIF-1 on uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL into U937 cells, a macrophage line; Western Blot was used to test scavenger receptor A (SRA expression. Results: A high density of daintain/AIF-1 was observed in the tunica intima and media of coronary artery with atherosclerotic plaque, and fewer daintain/AIF-1 in the vessels without atherosclerotic plaque; Daintain/AIF-1 injected intravenously into BALB/c mice boosted oxidative capacity, significantly impaired SOD activities and augmented the CRP level in blood. According to the oil red O test, daintain/AIF-1 profoundly facilitated the uptake of ox-LDL in U937 macrophages and formation of foam cells in the endothelium. We also found that the molecular mechanisms are effective by promoting overexpression of SRA on macrophages. Conclusion: These findings implicate that the inflammatory factor daintain/AIF-1 is closely associated with atherogenesis, and could be further characterized as a novel risk factor for atherosclerosis

  8. Modulation of cell proliferation, survival and gene expression by RAGE and TLR signaling in cells of the innate and adaptive immune response: role of p38 MAPK and NF-KB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcell Costa de MEDEIROS

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate a possible synergism between AGE-RAGE and TLR4 signaling and the role of p38 MAPK and NF-kB signaling pathways on the modulation of the expression of inflammatory cytokines and proliferation of cells from the innate and adaptive immune response. Material and Methods: T lymphocyte (JM and monocyte (U937 cell lines were stimulated with LPS and AGE-BSA independently and associated, both in the presence and absence of p38 MAPK and NF-kB inhibitors. Proliferation was assessed by direct counting and viability was assessed by a biochemical assay of mitochondrial function. Cytokine gene expression for RAGe, CCL3, CCR5, IL-6 and TNF-α was studied by RT-PCR and RT-qPCR. Results: RAGE mRNA expression was detected in both cell lines. LPS and AGE-BSA did not influence cell proliferation and viability of either cell line up to 72 hours. LPS and LPS associated with AGE induced expression of IL-6 and TNF-α in monocytes and T cells, respectively. Conclusions: There is no synergistic effect between RAGE and TLR signaling on the expression of IL-6, TNF-α , RAGE, CCR5 and CCL3 by monocytes and lymphocytes. Activation of RAGE associated or not with TLR signaling also had no effect on cell proliferation and survival of these cell types.

  9. Antitumor Activity of Propolis on Differantiated Cancer Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    , Neşe Ersöz Gülçelik, Dilara Zeybek, Fige

    2012-01-01

    Propolis is a natural bee product with several pharmacological activities. Nowadays, it is also investigated for its antitumor properties. There are contraversies on the antitumor activity of propolis, not all tumour cells seem to respond to propolis treatment. The aim of our study is to evaluate the activity of propolis on differantiated thyroid cancer cell lines. Tyripan blue test and MTT assay were performed to evaluate the cell viability of B-CPAP cells after propolis treatment and compar...

  10. Drug/Cell-line Browser: interactive canvas visualization of cancer drug/cell-line viability assay datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Qiaonan; Wang, Zichen; Fernandez, Nicolas F; Rouillard, Andrew D; Tan, Christopher M; Benes, Cyril H; Ma'ayan, Avi

    2014-11-15

    Recently, several high profile studies collected cell viability data from panels of cancer cell lines treated with many drugs applied at different concentrations. Such drug sensitivity data for cancer cell lines provide suggestive treatments for different types and subtypes of cancer. Visualization of these datasets can reveal patterns that may not be obvious by examining the data without such efforts. Here we introduce Drug/Cell-line Browser (DCB), an online interactive HTML5 data visualization tool for interacting with three of the recently published datasets of cancer cell lines/drug-viability studies. DCB uses clustering and canvas visualization of the drugs and the cell lines, as well as a bar graph that summarizes drug effectiveness for the tissue of origin or the cancer subtypes for single or multiple drugs. DCB can help in understanding drug response patterns and prioritizing drug/cancer cell line interactions by tissue of origin or cancer subtype. DCB is an open source Web-based tool that is freely available at: http://www.maayanlab.net/LINCS/DCB CONTACT: avi.maayan@mssm.edu Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effects of Cigarette Smoke Condensate on Oxidative Stress, Apoptotic Cell Death, and HIV Replication in Human Monocytic Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pss Rao

    Full Text Available While cigarette smoking is prevalent amongst HIV-infected patients, the effects of cigarette smoke constituents in cells of myeloid lineage are poorly known. Recently, we have shown that nicotine induces oxidative stress through cytochrome P450 (CYP 2A6-mediated pathway in U937 monocytic cells. The present study was designed to examine the effect of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC, which contains majority of tobacco constituents, on oxidative stress, cytotoxicity, expression of CYP1A1, and/or HIV-1 replication in HIV-infected (U1 and uninfected U937 cells. The effects of CSC on induction of CYP1 enzymes in HIV-infected primary macrophages were also analyzed. The results showed that the CSC-mediated increase in production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in U937 cells is dose- and time-dependent. Moreover, CSC treatment was found to induce cytotoxicity in U937 cells through the apoptotic pathway via activation of caspase-3. Importantly, pretreatment with vitamin C blocked the CSC-mediated production of ROS and induction of caspase-3 activity. In U1 cells, acute treatment of CSC increased ROS production at 6H (>2-fold and both ROS (>2 fold and HIV-1 replication (>3-fold after chronic treatment. The CSC mediated effects were associated with robust induction in the expression of CYP1A1 mRNA upon acute CSC treatment of U937 and U1 cells (>20-fold, and upon chronic CSC treatment to U1 cells (>30-fold. In addition, the CYP1A1 induction in U937 cells was mediated through the aromatic hydrocarbon receptor pathway. Lastly, CSC, which is known to increase viral replication in primary macrophages, was also found to induce CYP1 enzymes in HIV-infected primary macrophages. While mRNA levels of both CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 were elevated following CSC treatment, only CYP1B1 protein levels were increased in HIV-infected primary macrophages. In conclusion, these results suggest a possible association between oxidative stress, CYP1 expression, and viral replication in

  12. Effect of failures and repairs on multiple cell production lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legato, P.; Bobbio, A.; Roberti, L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper examines a production line composed of multiple stages, or cells, which are passed in sequential order to arrive to the final product. Two possible coordination disciplines are considered, namely: the classical tandem arrangement of sequential working centers with input buffer and the kanban scheme, considered the Japanese shop floor realization of the Just-In-Time (JIT) manifacturing approach. The production line is modelled and analysed by means of Stochastic Petri Nets (SPN). Finally an analysis is made of the possibility that the working cells can incur failure/repair cycles perturbing the production flow of the line and thus reduce performance indices.

  13. Neurohypophysial Receptor Gene Expression by Thymic T Cell Subsets and Thymic T Cell Lymphoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Hansenne

    2004-01-01

    transcribed in thymic epithelium, while immature T lymphocytes express functional neurohypophysial receptors. Neurohypophysial receptors belong to the G protein-linked seven-transmembrane receptor superfamily and are encoded by four distinct genes, OTR, V1R, V2R and V3R. The objective of this study was to identify the nature of neurohypophysial receptor in thymic T cell subsets purified by immunomagnetic selection, as well as in murine thymic lymphoma cell lines RL12-NP and BW5147. OTR is transcribed in all thymic T cell subsets and T cell lines, while V3R transcription is restricted to CD4+ CD8+ and CD8+ thymic cells. Neither V1R nor V2R transcripts are detected in any kind of T cells. The OTR protein was identified by immunocytochemistry on thymocytes freshly isolated from C57BL/6 mice. In murine fetal thymic organ cultures, a specific OTR antagonist does not modify the percentage of T cell subsets, but increases late T cell apoptosis further evidencing the involvement of OT/OTR signaling in the control of T cell proliferation and survival. According to these data, OTR and V3R are differentially expressed during T cell ontogeny. Moreover, the restriction of OTR transcription to T cell lines derived from thymic lymphomas may be important in the context of T cell leukemia pathogenesis and treatment.

  14. Membrane lipidome of an epithelial cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sampaio, Julio L; Gerl, Mathias J; Klose, Christian

    2011-01-01

    Tissue differentiation is an important process that involves major cellular membrane remodeling. We used Madin-Darby canine kidney cells as a model for epithelium formation and investigated the remodeling of the total cell membrane lipidome during the transition from a nonpolarized morphology...... to an epithelial morphology and vice versa. To achieve this, we developed a shotgun-based lipidomics workflow that enabled the absolute quantification of mammalian membrane lipidomes with minimal sample processing from low sample amounts. Epithelial morphogenesis was accompanied by a major shift from sphingomyelin...... to glycosphingolipid, together with an increase in plasmalogen, phosphatidylethanolamine, and cholesterol content, whereas the opposite changes took place during an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Moreover, during polarization, the sphingolipids became longer, more saturated, and more hydroxylated as required...

  15. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Systems PVL Line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shearer, Susan; Rush, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    In July 2010, Stark State College (SSC), received Grant DE-EE0003229 from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Golden Field Office, for the development of the electrical and control systems, and mechanical commissioning of a unique 20kW scale high-pressure, high temperature, natural gas fueled Stack Block Test System (SBTS). SSC worked closely with subcontractor, Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems (US) Inc. (RRFCS) over a 13 month period to successfully complete the project activities. This system will be utilized by RRFCS for pre-commercial technology development and training of SSC student interns. In the longer term, when RRFCS is producing commercial products, SSC will utilize the equipment for workforce training. In addition to DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies program funding, RRFCS internal funds, funds from the state of Ohio, and funding from the DOE Solid State Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program have been utilized to design, develop and commission this equipment. Construction of the SBTS (mechanical components) was performed under a Grant from the State of Ohio through Ohio's Third Frontier program (Grant TECH 08-053). This Ohio program supported development of a system that uses natural gas as a fuel. Funding was provided under the Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-state Energy Conversion Alliance (SECA) program for modifications required to test on coal synthesis gas. The subject DOE program provided funding for the electrical build, control system development and mechanical commissioning. Performance testing, which includes electrical commissioning, was subsequently performed under the DOE SECA program. Rolls-Royce Fuel Cell Systems is developing a megawatt-scale solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) stationary power generation system. This system, based on RRFCS proprietary technology, is fueled with natural gas, and operates at elevated pressure. A critical success factor for development of the full scale system is the capability to

  16. Deletion of the GPG motif in the HIV type 1 V3 loop does not abrogate infection in all cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, J; Palm, A; Wu, Y; Sandin, S; Höglund, S; Vahlne, A

    2000-01-01

    The three amino acids glycine, proline, and glycine (GPG) constitute a conserved motif at the center of the V3 loop of HIV-1 surface glycoprotein 120. It has been indicated that deletion of this GPG motif is lethal for viral infectivity and abrogates the ability of the virus to form syncytia. In the present work, we studied the effects of GPG deletion on viral infectivity, cell tropism, syncytium formation, and initiation of apoptosis by constructing a mutant provirus based on the infectious clone pBRu-2. Successful infection and replication of GPG-deleted virus were detected in MT-2 cells, although the mutant virus showed lower infectivity. Infection could also be observed in the C8166, C91-PL, Molt-3, and THP-1 cell lines, and in PBMC-derived dendritic cells (DCs), but not in CEM-SS, HUT78, H9, Jurkat, and U937 cell lines or in PBMCs. Mutant virus also induced syncytia and apoptosis in the MT-2 cells. An intact GPG motif is probably necessary for unimpaired induction of fusion in some HIV-1-permissive cells. However, once the virus enters the cells, the GPG sequence does not seem to be indispensable for syncytium formation or apoptosis induction in MT-2 cells. Our data also imply that cell surface molecules other than CD4 and CXCR4 may be involved in entry of the GPG-deleted virus.

  17. Novel human multiple myeloma cell line UHKT-893

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uherková, L.; Vančurová, I.; Vyhlídalová, I.; Pleschnerová, M.; Špička, I.; Mihalová, R.; Březinová, J.; Hodný, Zdeněk; Čermáková, K.; Polanská, V.; Marinov, I.; Jedelský, P.L.; Kuželová, K.; Stöckbauer, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 37, č. 3 (2013), s. 320-326 ISSN 0145-2126 Institutional support: RVO:68378050 Keywords : human myeloma cell line * human multiple myeloma * plasma cell * IL-6 dependence * immunoglobulin * free light chain Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.692, year: 2013

  18. a stromal myoid cell line provokes thymic erythropoiesis between

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hi-tech

    81 No. 2 February 2004. A STROMAL MYOID CELL LINE PROVOKES THYMIC ERYTHROPOIESIS BETWEEN 16TH TO 20TH WEEKS OF INTRAUTERINE LIFE ... proliferation and differentiation in different stages of development: the stromal myoid cells. Design: ... human myasthenia gravis (MG) has been suggested(3).

  19. Frequency and distribution of Notch mutations in tumor cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mutvei, Anders Peter; Fredlund, Erik; Lendahl, Urban

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated Notch signaling is linked to a variety of tumors and it is therefore important to learn more about the frequency and distribution of Notch mutations in a tumor context. In this report, we use data from the recently developed Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia to assess the frequency and distribution of Notch mutations in a large panel of cancer cell lines in silico. Our results show that the mutation frequency of Notch receptor and ligand genes is at par with that for established oncogenes and higher than for a set of house-keeping genes. Mutations were found across all four Notch receptor genes, but with notable differences between protein domains, mutations were for example more prevalent in the regions encoding the LNR and PEST domains in the Notch intracellular domain. Furthermore, an in silico estimation of functional impact showed that deleterious mutations cluster to the ligand-binding and the intracellular domains of NOTCH1. For most cell line groups, the mutation frequency of Notch genes is higher than in associated primary tumors. Our results shed new light on the spectrum of Notch mutations after in vitro culturing of tumor cells. The higher mutation frequency in tumor cell lines indicates that Notch mutations are associated with a growth advantage in vitro, and thus may be considered to be driver mutations in a tumor cell line context. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1278-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users

  20. Clonogenic cell line survival of a human liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 after carbon ion irradiation with different LET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Suwen; Su Xu; Wang Jifang; Li Wenjian

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the survival fraction of a human liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 following irradiation with carbon ions with different LET. Methods: cells of the human liver cancer cell line SMMC-7721 were irradiated with carbon ions (LET=30 and 70 keV/μm). The survival fraction was determined with clonogenic assay after 9 days incubation in a 5% CO 2 incubator at 37 degree C. Results: When the survival fractions of 70 keV/μm were D s = 0.1 and D s=0.01 absorption dose were 2.94 and 5.88 Gy respectively, and those of 30 keV/μm were 4.00 and 8.00 Gy respectively. Conclusion: For the SMMC-7721 cell line, 70 keV/μm is more effective for cell killing than 30 keV/μm

  1. Guidelines for the use of cell lines in biomedical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, R J; Capes-Davis, A; Davis, J M; Downward, J; Freshney, R I; Knezevic, I; Lovell-Badge, R; Masters, J R W; Meredith, J; Stacey, G N; Thraves, P; Vias, M

    2014-09-09

    Cell-line misidentification and contamination with microorganisms, such as mycoplasma, together with instability, both genetic and phenotypic, are among the problems that continue to affect cell culture. Many of these problems are avoidable with the necessary foresight, and these Guidelines have been prepared to provide those new to the field and others engaged in teaching and instruction with the information necessary to increase their awareness of the problems and to enable them to deal with them effectively. The Guidelines cover areas such as development, acquisition, authentication, cryopreservation, transfer of cell lines between laboratories, microbial contamination, characterisation, instability and misidentification. Advice is also given on complying with current legal and ethical requirements when deriving cell lines from human and animal tissues, the selection and maintenance of equipment and how to deal with problems that may arise.

  2. Guidelines for the use of cell lines in biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geraghty, R J; Capes-Davis, A; Davis, J M; Downward, J; Freshney, R I; Knezevic, I; Lovell-Badge, R; Masters, J R W; Meredith, J; Stacey, G N; Thraves, P; Vias, M

    2014-01-01

    Cell-line misidentification and contamination with microorganisms, such as mycoplasma, together with instability, both genetic and phenotypic, are among the problems that continue to affect cell culture. Many of these problems are avoidable with the necessary foresight, and these Guidelines have been prepared to provide those new to the field and others engaged in teaching and instruction with the information necessary to increase their awareness of the problems and to enable them to deal with them effectively. The Guidelines cover areas such as development, acquisition, authentication, cryopreservation, transfer of cell lines between laboratories, microbial contamination, characterisation, instability and misidentification. Advice is also given on complying with current legal and ethical requirements when deriving cell lines from human and animal tissues, the selection and maintenance of equipment and how to deal with problems that may arise. PMID:25117809

  3. Establishment of mesenchymal cell line derived from human developing odontoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatano, H; Kudo, Y; Ogawa, I; Shimasue, H; Shigeishi, H; Ohta, K; Higashikawa, K; Takechi, M; Takata, T; Kamata, N

    2012-11-01

    An odontoma, which shows proliferating odontogenic epithelium and mesenchymal tissue, is one of the most common odontogenic tumors encountered. These are commonly found in tooth-bearing regions, although the etiology remains unknown. There are no previous reports of an established line of immortalized human odontoma cells. Using odontoma fragments obtained from a girl treated at our department, we established an immortalized human odontoma cell line and investigated cell morphology, dynamic proliferation, the presence of contamination, and karyotype. Moreover, cell characterization was examined using osteogenic and odontogenic markers. We successfully established a mesenchymal odontoma cell (mOd cells). The cells were found to be fibroblastic and had a high level of telomerase activity. Cell growth was confirmed after more than 200 population doublings without significant growth retardation. mOd cells expressed mRNA for differentiation markers, including collagen type I (COLI), alkaline phosphatase, bone sialoprotein, osteopontin, osteocalcin, cementum-derived protein (CP-23), dentin sialophosphoprotein (DSPP), and distal-less homeobox 3 (DLX3), as well as bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). In addition, they showed a high level of calcified nodule formation activity in vitro. We successfully established a cell line that may be useful for investigating the mechanisms of normal odontogenesis as well as characteristics of odontoma tumors. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Isolation of Oct4-expressing extraembryonic endoderm precursor cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bisrat G Debeb

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extraembryonic endoderm (ExEn defines the yolk sac, a set of membranes that provide essential support for mammalian embryos. Recent findings suggest that the committed ExEn precursor is present already in the embryonic Inner Cell Mass (ICM as a group of cells that intermingles with the closely related epiblast precursor. All ICM cells contain Oct4, a key transcription factor that is first expressed at the morula stage. In vitro, the epiblast precursor is most closely represented by the well-characterized embryonic stem (ES cell lines that maintain the expression of Oct4, but analogous ExEn precursor cell lines are not known and it is unclear if they would express Oct4. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we report the isolation and characterization of permanently proliferating Oct4-expressing rat cell lines ("XEN-P cell lines", which closely resemble the ExEn precursor. We isolated the XEN-P cell lines from blastocysts and characterized them by plating and gene expression assays as well as by injection into embryos. Like ES cells, the XEN-P cells express Oct4 and SSEA1 at high levels and their growth is stimulated by leukemia inhibitory factor, but instead of the epiblast determinant Nanog, they express the ExEn determinants Gata6 and Gata4. Further, they lack markers characteristic of the more differentiated primitive/visceral and parietal ExEn stages, but exclusively differentiate into these stages in vitro and contribute to them in vivo. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings (i suggest strongly that the ExEn precursor is a self-renewable entity, (ii indicate that active Oct4 gene expression (transcription plus translation is part of its molecular identity, and (iii provide an in vitro model of early ExEn differentiation.

  5. Establishment, immortalisation and characterisation of pteropid bat cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary Crameri

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bats are the suspected natural reservoir hosts for a number of new and emerging zoonotic viruses including Nipah virus, Hendra virus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and Ebola virus. Since the discovery of SARS-like coronaviruses in Chinese horseshoe bats, attempts to isolate a SL-CoV from bats have failed and attempts to isolate other bat-borne viruses in various mammalian cell lines have been similarly unsuccessful. New stable bat cell lines are needed to help with these investigations and as tools to assist in the study of bat immunology and virus-host interactions. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Black flying foxes (Pteropus alecto were captured from the wild and transported live to the laboratory for primary cell culture preparation using a variety of different methods and culture media. Primary cells were successfully cultured from 20 different organs. Cell immortalisation can occur spontaneously, however we used a retroviral system to immortalise cells via the transfer and stable production of the Simian virus 40 Large T antigen and the human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein. Initial infection experiments with both cloned and uncloned cell lines using Hendra and Nipah viruses demonstrated varying degrees of infection efficiency between the different cell lines, although it was possible to infect cells in all tissue types. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The approaches developed and optimised in this study should be applicable to bats of other species. We are in the process of generating further cell lines from a number of different bat species using the methodology established in this study.

  6. Survival and signaling changes in antigen presenting cell subsets after radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Jennifer Janell

    Radiation therapy is a widely used cancer treatment that has the potential to influence anti-tumor immune responses. Both myeloablative and non-myeloablative radiation are often used as part of preparatory regimens for hematopoetic stem cell transplantation, in combination with other chemotherapy or immuno-modulatory (e.g. Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG)) therapies for both cytotoxic and immune modulatory purposes. However, the mechanisms responsible for the effect of radiation on antigen presenting cell (APC) responsiveness and radioresistance are poorly understood. The first studies described in this thesis were designed to identify and characterize early radiation-induced signaling changes in antigen presenting cells and to determine the effects of these signaling changes on APC receptor expression and function. The NFkappaB pathway in antigen presenting cells was chosen for study because it is activated by radiation in a wide range of other cell types and plays a vital role in the maintenance and regulation of the immune system. The effects of therapeutically relevant doses radiation (2 and 20 Gy) were compared at various timepoints in the human monocytic cell line (U937) using phospho-flow cytometry staining methods and cytometric analysis. These studies demonstrated that radiation-induced changes in the phosphorylation state of NFkappaB family members that were p53 independent. However, these changes were dependent upon activation of ATM in response to single or double-stranded breaks in DNA, as shown in experiments using an inhibitor of ATM and ATM siRNA knockdown U937 cells. In addition, studies examining the effect of radiation on co-stimulatory receptors with and without inhibition of the NFkappaB pathway via phospho-flow cytometry revealed that radiation-induced phosphorylation of NEMO promoted the activation and functional maturation of U937 cells. Furthermore, functional studies using both phospho-flow cytometry and/or mixed lymphocyte reactions to

  7. Non-targeted radiation effects in vertebrate cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Lorna

    Radiation effects, such as bystander effects, hyper radiosensitivity/induced radioresistance (HRS/IRR) and adaptive response that are not related to direct DNA damage are now accepted. However the inter-relationship between them and the possible impact on the scientific basis for radiation protection are highly controversial. This thesis attempts to elucidate the mechanisms of some of these well known but little understood effects. Each paper examines some aspect of bystander effects, adaptive responses and HRS/IRR in an effort to understand how they vary with cell type, dose and time of exposure to single or multiple doses. All the effects involve non-linear dose effect curves and are mainly evident following low doses. Overall findings of the thesis include (1) A clear difference was observed between radioresistant, tumorigenic cell lines with mutant p53 gene expression, and radiosensitive, more normal, cell lines with wild type p53. In general death inducing bystander responses are induced in normal cell populations exposed to low doses of radiation while survival inducing IRR and adaptive responses are seen in the radioresistant tumorigenic cell lines. (2) A cohort of fish cell lines which demonstrated survival promoting bystander effects, also did not show a protective adaptive responses. (3) Adaptive responses traditionally occur when a large challenge dose is given 4--6hrs following low (10--100mGy) priming doses but this thesis shows that for the epithelial cell lines tested, the size of the priming dose (range 0.1--2Gy) does not appear to alter the size of the recovery response. Additionally increased survival could be detected in some cases when the challenge dose was given within one hour of the priming dose. The overall conclusion is that cell lines induce either a bystander response or a protective/adaptive response depending on genetic background and other factors. Care is needed in the interpretation of data generated from only one or two cell lines

  8. Characterization of a human ovarian carcinoma cell line: UCI 101.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchtner, C; Emma, D A; Manetta, A; Gamboa, G; Bernstein, R; Liao, S Y

    1993-02-01

    A new epithelial ovarian carcinoma cell line (UCI 101) has been established from the ascitic fluids and solid tumor of a patient with progressive papillary adenocarcinoma of the ovary shown previously to be refractory to combination chemotherapy consisting of cyclophosphamide, Adriamycin, and cisplatin as well as single-agent chemotherapy of taxol and high-dose cisplatin. The UCI 101 cell line grows well with an in vitro doubling time of 24 hr. The cell line expresses the B 72.3 (Tag 72), CA125, MH99 (ESA), and E29 (EMA) cell surface antigens and AE1/AE3 cytokeratins. This cell line overexpresses (as determined by immunocytochemistry) both p-glycoprotein and the epidermal growth factor receptor. The in vitro drug response to single agents including Adriamycin, cisplatin, dequalinium chloride, etoposide, 5-fluorouracil, taxol, and tumor necrosis factor was examined. Intraperitoneal transplantation of the cells into athymic mice resulted in foci of tumor on all peritoneal surfaces including the viscera and diaphragm ultimately leading to solid bulky disease with massive production of ascites. High levels of CA125 (> 500 units/ml) were detected in the serum of tumor-bearing mice. Cytogenetic analysis of cultured cells shows several marker chromosomes containing deletions, duplications, and translocations. Cytologic and histologic evaluation of the xenograft revealed morphological characteristics identical to those of the original tumor.

  9. SENSORY HAIR CELL REGENERATION IN THE ZEBRAFISH LATERAL LINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lush, Mark E.; Piotrowski, Tatjana

    2014-01-01

    Damage or destruction of sensory hair cells in the inner ear leads to hearing or balance deficits that can be debilitating, especially in older adults. Unfortunately, the damage is permanent, as regeneration of the inner ear sensory epithelia does not occur in mammals. Zebrafish and other non-mammalian vertebrates have the remarkable ability to regenerate sensory hair cells and understanding the molecular and cellular basis for this regenerative ability will hopefully aid us in designing therapies to induce regeneration in mammals. Zebrafish not only possess hair cells in the ear but also in the sensory lateral line system. Hair cells in both organs are functionally analogous to hair cells in the inner ear of mammals. The lateral line is a mechanosensory system found in most aquatic vertebrates that detects water motion and aids in predator avoidance, prey capture, schooling and mating. Although hair cell regeneration occurs in both the ear and lateral line, most research to date has focused on the lateral line due to its relatively simple structure and accessibility. Here we review the recent discoveries made during the characterization of hair cell regeneration in zebrafish. PMID:25045019

  10. Nestin expression in the cell lines derived from glioblastoma multiforme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veselska, Renata; Kuglik, Petr; Cejpek, Pavel; Svachova, Hana; Neradil, Jakub; Loja, Tomas; Relichova, Jirina

    2006-01-01

    Nestin is a protein belonging to class VI of intermediate filaments that is produced in stem/progenitor cells in the mammalian CNS during development and is consecutively replaced by other intermediate filament proteins (neurofilaments, GFAP). Down-regulated nestin may be re-expressed in the adult organism under certain pathological conditions (brain injury, ischemia, inflammation, neoplastic transformation). Our work focused on a detailed study of the nestin cytoskeleton in cell lines derived from glioblastoma multiforme, because re-expression of nestin together with down-regulation of GFAP has been previously reported in this type of brain tumor. Two cell lines were derived from the tumor tissue of patients treated for glioblastoma multiforme. Nestin and other cytoskeletal proteins were visualized using imunocytochemical methods: indirect immunofluorescence and immunogold-labelling. Using epifluorescence and confocal microscopy, we described the morphology of nestin-positive intermediate filaments in glioblastoma cells of both primary cultures and the derived cell lines, as well as the reorganization of nestin during mitosis. Our most important result came through transmission electron microscopy and provided clear evidence that nestin is present in the cell nucleus. Detailed information concerning the pattern of the nestin cytoskeleton in glioblastoma cell lines and especially the demonstration of nestin in the nucleus represent an important background for further studies of nestin re-expression in relationship to tumor malignancy and invasive potential

  11. Pluronic polyols in human lymphocyte cell line cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, A

    1975-01-01

    Pluronic polyols markedly improved the growth of two human lymphocyte cell lines when added to the growth medium in concentrations of 0.05 to 0.1%. The results of the current studies suggest that, in addition to the protective effect of polyols against mechanical damage of mammalian cells in submerged cultures, the pluronic compounds may also, by lowering surface tension, facilitate transport of metabolites into cells and thus increase the growth rate. PMID:1063740

  12. Cell-surface acceleration of urokinase-catalyzed receptor cleavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyer-Hansen, G; Ploug, M; Behrendt, N

    1997-01-01

    relative to the reaction in solution. The time course of uPA-catalyzed cleavage of cell-bound uPAR was studied using U937 cells stimulated with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. Only 30 min was required for 10 nM uPA to cleave 50% of the cell-bound uPAR. This uPA-catalyzed cleavage reaction was inhibited...

  13. Human squamous cell carcinoma. Establishment and characterization of new permanent cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, C J; Carey, T E; Ott, R W; Hurbis, C; McClatchey, K D; Regezi, J A

    1981-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common of human cancers, and yet because it is poorly represented by cultured cell lines, little is known about the characteristic cell biology and the cell-surface antigenic phenotypes of such tumors. To develop a continuously available source of squamous cell carcinoma for repeated and reproducible serologic analysis and for better understanding of its biologic characteristics, tissue culture methods and nude mice were used to establish new cell lines of squamous carcinoma. Special media, serum supplements from several sources, and methods of handling fresh tissue specimens were all examined as a means of improving the survival of tumor cell lines. Several new cell lines were established. Features characteristic of a squamous cell origin, eg, microvilli, desmosomes, tonofilaments, and the squamous cell differentiation antigen (pemphigus antigen), were found. The clinical course of disease in individual donor patients has been examined.

  14. Distinct metabolic responses of an ovarian cancer stem cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeersch, Kathleen A; Wang, Lijuan; McDonald, John F; Styczynski, Mark P

    2014-12-18

    Cancer metabolism is emerging as an important focus area in cancer research. However, the in vitro cell culture conditions under which much cellular metabolism research is performed differ drastically from in vivo tumor conditions, which are characterized by variations in the levels of oxygen, nutrients like glucose, and other molecules like chemotherapeutics. Moreover, it is important to know how the diverse cell types in a tumor, including cancer stem cells that are believed to be a major cause of cancer recurrence, respond to these variations. Here, in vitro environmental perturbations designed to mimic different aspects of the in vivo environment were used to characterize how an ovarian cancer cell line and its derived, isogenic cancer stem cells metabolically respond to environmental cues. Mass spectrometry was used to profile metabolite levels in response to in vitro environmental perturbations. Docetaxel, the chemotherapeutic used for this experiment, caused significant metabolic changes in amino acid and carbohydrate metabolism in ovarian cancer cells, but had virtually no metabolic effect on isogenic ovarian cancer stem cells. Glucose deprivation, hypoxia, and the combination thereof altered ovarian cancer cell and cancer stem cell metabolism to varying extents for the two cell types. Hypoxia had a much larger effect on ovarian cancer cell metabolism, while glucose deprivation had a greater effect on ovarian cancer stem cell metabolism. Core metabolites and pathways affected by these perturbations were identified, along with pathways that were unique to cell types or perturbations. The metabolic responses of an ovarian cancer cell line and its derived isogenic cancer stem cells differ greatly under most conditions, suggesting that these two cell types may behave quite differently in an in vivo tumor microenvironment. While cancer metabolism and cancer stem cells are each promising potential therapeutic targets, such varied behaviors in vivo would need to

  15. Modeling adenovirus latency in human lymphocyte cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yange; Huang, Wen; Ornelles, David A; Gooding, Linda R

    2010-09-01

    Species C adenovirus establishes a latent infection in lymphocytes of the tonsils and adenoids. To understand how this lytic virus is maintained in these cells, four human lymphocytic cell lines that support the entire virus life cycle were examined. The T-cell line Jurkat ceased proliferation and died shortly after virus infection. BJAB, Ramos (B cells), and KE37 (T cells) continued to divide at nearly normal rates while replicating the virus genome. Viral genome numbers peaked and then declined in BJAB cells below one genome per cell at 130 to 150 days postinfection. Ramos and KE37 cells maintained the virus genome at over 100 copies per cell over a comparable period of time. BJAB cells maintained the viral DNA as a monomeric episome. All three persistently infected cells lost expression of the cell surface coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) within 24 h postinfection, and CAR expression remained low for at least 340 days postinfection. CAR loss proceeded via a two-stage process. First, an initial loss of cell surface staining for CAR required virus late gene expression and a CAR-binding fiber protein even while CAR protein and mRNA levels remained high. Second, CAR mRNA disappeared at around 30 days postinfection and remained low even after virus DNA was lost from the cells. At late times postinfection (day 180), BJAB cells could not be reinfected with adenovirus, even when CAR was reintroduced to the cells via retroviral transduction, suggesting that the expression of multiple genes had been stably altered in these cells following infection.

  16. Differential heat shock response of primary human cell cultures and established cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, W W; Issinger, O G

    1986-01-01

    degrees C treatment, whereas in immortalized cell lines usually 90% of the cells were found in suspension. Enhanced expression of the major heat shock protein (hsp 70) was found in all heat-treated cells. In contrast to the primary cell cultures, established and transformed cell lines synthesized...... a protein with an apparent molecular mass of 70 kDa and an isoelectric pH of 7.0 as early as 3 h after the initial hyperthermal treatment....

  17. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV in two human glioma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Sedo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that dipeptidyl peptidase IV [DPP-IV, EC 3.4.14.5] takes part in the metabolism of biologically active peptides participating in the regulation of growth and transformation of glial cells. However, the knowledge on the DPP-IV expression in human glial and glioma cells is still very limited. In this study, using histochemical and biochemical techniques, the DPP-IV activity was demonstrated in two commercially available human glioma cell lines of different transformation degree, as represented by U373 astrocytoma (Grade III and U87 glioblastoma multiforme (Grade IV lines. Higher total activity of the enzyme, as well as its preferential localisation in the plasma membrane, was observed in U87 cells. Compared to U373 population, U87 cells were morphologically more pleiomorphic, they were cycling at lower rate and expressing less Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein. The data revealed positive correlation between the degree of transformation of cells and activity of DPP-IV. Great difference in expression of this enzyme, together with the phenotypic differences of cells, makes these lines a suitable standard model for further 57 studies of function of this enzyme in human glioma cells.

  18. Effect of Predatory Bacteria on Human Cell Lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilpi Gupta

    Full Text Available Predatory bacteria are Gram-negative bacteria that prey on other Gram-negative bacteria and have been considered as potential therapeutic agents against multi-drug resistant pathogens. In vivo animal models have demonstrated that predatory bacteria are non-toxic and non-immunogenic in rodents. In order to consider the use of predatory bacteria as live antibiotics, it is important to investigate their effect on human cells. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus strains 109J and HD100, and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus strain ARL-13 on cell viability and inflammatory responses of five human cell lines, representative of clinically relevant tissues. We found that the predators were not cytotoxic to any of the human cell lines tested. Microscopic imaging showed no signs of cell detachment, as compared to predator-free cells. In comparison to an E. coli control, exposure to higher concentrations of the predators did not trigger a significant elevation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in four of the five human cell lines tested. Our work underlines the non-pathogenic attributes of predatory bacteria on human cells and highlights their potential use as live antibiotics against human pathogens.

  19. Pheochromocytoma cell lines from heterozygous neurofibromatosis knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, J F; Evinger, M J; Tsokas, P; Bedri, S; Alroy, J; Shahsavari, M; Tischler, A S

    2000-12-01

    Transplantable tumors and cell lines have been developed from pheochromocytomas arising in mice with a heterozygous knockout mutation of the neurofibromatosis gene, Nf1. Nf1 encodes a ras-GTPase-activating protein, neurofibromin, and mouse pheochromocytoma (MPC) cells in primary cultures typically show extensive spontaneous neuronal differentiation that may result from the loss of the remaining wild-type allele and defective regulation of ras signaling. However, all MPC cell lines express neurofibromin, suggesting that preservation of the wild-type allele may be required to permit the propagation of MPC cells in vitro. MPC lines differ from PC12 cells in that they express both endogenous phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase (PNMT) and full-length PNMT reporter constructs. PNMT expression is increased by dexamethasone and by cell-cell contact in suspension cultures. Mouse pheochromocytomas are a new tool for studying genes and signaling pathways that regulate cell growth and differentiation in adrenal medullary neoplasms and are a unique model for studying the regulation of PNMT expression.

  20. Graphene Oxide Nanoribbons Induce Autophagic Vacuoles in Neuroblastoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Mari

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Since graphene nanoparticles are attracting increasing interest in relation to medical applications, it is important to understand their potential effects on humans. In the present study, we prepared graphene oxide (GO nanoribbons by oxidative unzipping of single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and analyzed their toxicity in two human neuroblastoma cell lines. Neuroblastoma is the most common solid neoplasia in children. The hallmark of these tumors is the high number of different clinical variables, ranging from highly metastatic, rapid progression and resistance to therapy to spontaneous regression or change into benign ganglioneuromas. Patients with neuroblastoma are grouped into different risk groups that are characterized by different prognosis and different clinical behavior. Relapse and mortality in high risk patients is very high in spite of new advances in chemotherapy. Cell lines, obtained from neuroblastomas have different genotypic and phenotypic features. The cell lines SK-N-BE(2 and SH-SY5Y have different genetic mutations and tumorigenicity. Cells were exposed to low doses of GO for different times in order to investigate whether GO was a good vehicle for biological molecules delivering individualized therapy. Cytotoxicity in both cell lines was studied by measuring cellular oxidative stress (ROS, mitochondria membrane potential, expression of lysosomial proteins and cell growth. GO uptake and cytoplasmic distribution of particles were studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM for up to 72 h. The results show that GO at low concentrations increased ROS production and induced autophagy in both neuroblastoma cell lines within a few hours of exposure, events that, however, are not followed by growth arrest or death. For this reason, we suggest that the GO nanoparticle can be used for therapeutic delivery to the brain tissue with minimal effects on healthy cells.

  1. Antiproliferative effect of Tualang honey on oral squamous cell carcinoma and osteosarcoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Noorliza M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC and human osteosarcoma (HOS includes surgery and/or radiotherapy which often lead to reduced quality of life. This study was aimed to study the antiproliferative activity of local honey (Tualang on OSCC and HOS cell lines. Methods Several concentrations of Tualang honey (1% - 20% were applied on OSCC and HOS cell lines for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Morphological characteristics were observed under light and fluorescent microscope. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay and the optical density for absorbance values in each experiment was measured at 570 nm by an ELISA reader. Detection of cellular apoptosis was done using the Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit. Results Morphological appearance showed apoptotic cellular changes like becoming rounded, reduction in cell number, blebbed membrane and apoptotic nuclear changes like nuclear shrinkage, chromatin condensation and fragmented nucleus on OSCC and HOS cell lines. Cell viability assay showed a time and dose-dependent inhibitory effect of honey on both cell lines. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 for OSCC and HOS cell lines was found to be 4% and 3.5% respectively. The maximum inhibition of cell growth of ≥80% was obtained at 15% for both cell lines. Early apoptosis was evident by flow cytometry where percentage of early apoptotic cells increased in dose and time dependent manner. Conclusion Tualang honey showed antiproliferative effect on OSCC and HOS cell lines by inducing early apoptosis.

  2. Characterization of cloned cells from an immortalized fetal pulmonary type II cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Lechner, J.F.

    1995-12-01

    A cultured cell line that maintained expression of pulmonary type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous to generate a large number of homogenous cells in which to study the biochemical functions of type II cells. Type II epithelial cells are the source of pulmonary surfactant and a cell of origin for pulmonary adenomas. Last year our laboratory reported the induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and surfactant lipid synthesis) in cultured fetal rat lung epithelial (FRLE) cells, a spontaneously immortalized cell line of fetal rat lung type II cell origin. Subsequently, the induction of the ability to synthesize surfactant lipid became difficult to repeat. We hypothesized that the cell line was heterogenuous and some cells were more like type II cells than others. The purpose of this study was to test this hypothesis and to obtain a cultured cell line with type II cell phenotypic markers by cloning several FRLE cells and characterizing them for phenotypic markers of type II cells (alkaline phosphatase activity and presence of surfactant lipids). Thirty cloned cell lines were analyzed for induced alkaline phosphatase activity (on x-axis) and for percent of phospholipids that were disaturated (i.e., surfactant).

  3. Expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rygaard, K; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1992-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor expression was evaluated in a panel of 21 small cell lung cancer cell lines with radioreceptor assay, affinity labeling, and Northern blotting. We found high-affinity receptors to be expressed in 10 cell lines. Scatchard analysis of the binding data...... lung cancer cell lines express the EGF receptor....... of EGF receptor mRNA in all 10 cell lines that were found to be EGF receptor-positive and in one cell line that was found to be EGF receptor-negative in the radioreceptor assay and affinity labeling. Our results provide, for the first time, evidence that a large proportion of a broad panel of small cell...

  4. TKTL1 expression in human malign and benign cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kämmerer, Ulrike; Gires, Olivier; Pfetzer, Nadja; Wiegering, Armin; Klement, Rainer Johannes; Otto, Christoph

    2015-06-10

    Overexpression of transketolase-like 1 protein TKTL1 in cancer cells has been reported to correlate with enhanced glycolysis and lactic acid production. Furthermore, enhanced TKTL1 expression was put into context with resistance to chemotherapy and ionizing radiation. Here, a panel of human malign and benign cells, which cover a broad range of chemotherapy and radiation resistance as well as reliance on glucose metabolism, was analyzed in vitro for TKTL1 expression. 17 malign and three benign cell lines were characterized according to their expression of TKTL1 on the protein level with three commercially available anti-TKTL1 antibodies utilizing immunohistochemistry and Western blot, as well as on mRNA level with three published primer pairs for RT-qPCR. Furthermore, sensitivities to paclitaxel, cisplatin and ionizing radiation were assessed in cell survival assays. Glucose consumption and lactate production were quantified as surrogates for the "Warburg effect". Considerable amounts of tktl1 mRNA and TKTL1 protein were detected only upon stable transfection of the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 with an expression plasmid for human TKTL1. Beyond that, weak expression of endogenous tktl1 mRNA was measured in the cell lines JAR and U251. Western blot analysis of JAR and U251 cells did not detect TKTL1 at the expected size of 65 kDa with all three antibodies specific for TKTL1 protein and immunohistochemical staining was observed with antibody JFC12T10 only. All other cell lines tested here revealed expression of tktl1 mRNA below detection limits and were negative for TKTL1 protein. However, in all cell lines including TKTL1-negative HEK293-control cells, antibody JFC12T10 detected multiple proteins with different molecular weights. Importantly, JAR and U251 did neither demonstrate an outstanding production of lactic acid nor increased resistance against chemotherapeutics or to ionizing radiation, respectively. Using RT-qPCR and three different antibodies we

  5. TKTL1 expression in human malign and benign cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kämmerer, Ulrike; Gires, Olivier; Pfetzer, Nadja; Wiegering, Armin; Klement, Rainer Johannes; Otto, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of transketolase-like 1 protein TKTL1 in cancer cells has been reported to correlate with enhanced glycolysis and lactic acid production. Furthermore, enhanced TKTL1 expression was put into context with resistance to chemotherapy and ionizing radiation. Here, a panel of human malign and benign cells, which cover a broad range of chemotherapy and radiation resistance as well as reliance on glucose metabolism, was analyzed in vitro for TKTL1 expression. 17 malign and three benign cell lines were characterized according to their expression of TKTL1 on the protein level with three commercially available anti-TKTL1 antibodies utilizing immunohistochemistry and Western blot, as well as on mRNA level with three published primer pairs for RT-qPCR. Furthermore, sensitivities to paclitaxel, cisplatin and ionizing radiation were assessed in cell survival assays. Glucose consumption and lactate production were quantified as surrogates for the “Warburg effect”. Considerable amounts of tktl1 mRNA and TKTL1 protein were detected only upon stable transfection of the human embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 with an expression plasmid for human TKTL1. Beyond that, weak expression of endogenous tktl1 mRNA was measured in the cell lines JAR and U251. Western blot analysis of JAR and U251 cells did not detect TKTL1 at the expected size of 65 kDa with all three antibodies specific for TKTL1 protein and immunohistochemical staining was observed with antibody JFC12T10 only. All other cell lines tested here revealed expression of tktl1 mRNA below detection limits and were negative for TKTL1 protein. However, in all cell lines including TKTL1-negative HEK293-control cells, antibody JFC12T10 detected multiple proteins with different molecular weights. Importantly, JAR and U251 did neither demonstrate an outstanding production of lactic acid nor increased resistance against chemotherapeutics or to ionizing radiation, respectively. Using RT-qPCR and three different antibodies

  6. Maslinic acid inhibits proliferation of renal cell carcinoma cell lines and suppresses angiogenesis of endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parth Thakor

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite the introduction of many novel therapeutics in clinical practice, metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC remains a treatment-re-sistant cancer. As red and processed meat are considered risk factors for RCC, and a vegetable-rich diet is thought to reduce this risk, research into plant-based therapeutics may provide valuable complementary or alternative therapeutics for the management of RCC. Herein, we present the antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of maslinic acid, which occurs naturally in edible plants, particularly in olive fruits, and also in a variety of medicinal plants. Human RCC cell lines (ACHN, Caki-1, and SN12K1, endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cell line [HUVEC], and primary cultures of kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC were treated with maslinic acid. Maslinic acid was relatively less toxic to PTEC when compared with RCC under similar experimental conditions. In RCC cell lines, maslinic acid induced a significant reduction in proliferation, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and colony formation. In HUVEC, maslinic acid induced a significant reduction in capillary tube formation in vitro and vascular endothelial growth factor. This study provides a rationale for incorporating a maslinic acid–rich diet either to reduce the risk of developing kidney cancer or as an adjunct to existing antiangiogenic therapy to improve efficacy.

  7. Characterization of stem-like cells in a new astroblastoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coban, Esra Aydemir; Kasikci, Ezgi [Department of Genetics and Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yeditepe University, Istanbul (Turkey); Karatas, Omer Faruk [Molecular Biology and Genetics Department, Erzurum Technical University, Erzurum (Turkey); Suakar, Oznur; Kuskucu, Aysegul [Department of Medical Genetics, Yeditepe University Medical School and Yeditepe University Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey); Altunbek, Mine [Department of Genetics and Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yeditepe University, Istanbul (Turkey); Türe, Uğur [Department of Neurosurgery, Yeditepe University School of Medicine, Istanbul (Turkey); Sahin, Fikrettin [Department of Genetics and Bioengineering, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Yeditepe University, Istanbul (Turkey); Bayrak, Omer Faruk, E-mail: ofbayrak@yeditepe.edu.tr [Department of Medical Genetics, Yeditepe University Medical School and Yeditepe University Hospital, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2017-03-15

    Cell lines established from tumors are the most commonly used models in cancer research, and their use in recent years has enabled a greater understanding of the biology of cancer and the means to develop effective treatment strategies. Astroblastomas are uncommon neuroepithelial tumors of glial origin, predominantly affecting young people, mainly teenagers and children, predominantly females. To date, only a single study has reported that astroblastomas contain a large number of neural stem-like cells, which had only a partial proliferation capacity and differentiation. Our objective was to establish an astroblastoma cell line to investigate the presence of astroblastic cells and cancer stem-like cells. The migratory and invasion abilities of the cells were quantified with invasion and migration assays and compared to a glioblastoma cell line. The presence of stem cells was detected with surface-marker analysis by using flow cytometry, and measuring the differentiation ability with a differentiation assay and the self-renewal capacity with a sphere-forming assay. These characteristics may determine whether this novel cell line is a model for astroblastomas that may have stem-cell characteristics. With this novel cell line, scientists can investigate the molecular pathways underlying astroblastomas and develop new therapeutic strategies for patients with these tumors. - Highlights: • An establishment of a novel astroblastoma cell line was proposed. • The presence of astroblastic cells and cancer stem-like cells was investigated. • The molecular pathways underlying astroblastomas may be investigated. • New therapeutic strategies for patients with astroblastoma may be developed.

  8. In vitro invasion of small-cell lung cancer cell lines correlates with expression of epidermal growth factor receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damstrup, L; Rude Voldborg, B; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1998-01-01

    receptor (EGFR) in a panel of 21 small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines. We have previously reported that ten of these cell lines expressed EGFR protein detected by radioreceptor and affinity labelling assays. In 11 small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines, EGFR mRNA was detected by Northern blot...... analysis. In vitro invasion in a Boyden chamber assay was found in all EGFR-positive cell lines, whereas no invasion was detected in the EGFR-negative cell lines. Quantification of the in vitro invasion in 12 selected SCLC cell lines demonstrated that, in the EGFR-positive cell lines, between 5% and 16......-PCR). However, in vitro invasive SCLC cell lines could not be distinguished from non-invasive cell lines based on the expression pattern of these molecules. In six SCLC cell lines, in vitro invasion was also determined in the presence of the EGFR-neutralizing monoclonal antibody mAb528. The addition...

  9. Changes in Chromosome Counts and Patterns in CHO Cell Lines upon Generation of Recombinant Cell Lines and Subcloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vcelar, Sabine; Melcher, Michael; Auer, Norbert; Hrdina, Astrid; Puklowski, Anja; Leisch, Friedrich; Jadhav, Vaibhav; Wenger, Till; Baumann, Martina; Borth, Nicole

    2018-03-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells are the number one production system for therapeutic proteins. A pre-requirement for their use in industrial production of biopharmaceuticals is to be clonal, thus originating from a single cell in order to be phenotypically and genomically identical. In the present study it was evaluated whether standard procedures, such as the generation of a recombinant cell line in combination with selection for a specific and stable phenotype (expression of the recombinant product) or subcloning have any impact on karyotype stability or homogeneity in CHO cells. Analyses used were the distribution of chromosome counts per cell as well as chromosome painting to identify specific karyotype patterns within a population. Results indicate that subclones both of the host and the recombinant cell line are of comparable heterogeneity and (in)stability as the original pool. In contrast, the rigorous selection for a stably expressing phenotype generated cell lines with fewer variation and more stable karyotypes, both at the level of the sorted pool and derivative subclones. We conclude that the process of subcloning itself does not contribute to an improved karyotypic homogeneity of a population, while the selection for a specific cell property inherently can provide evolutionary pressure that may lead to improved chromosomal stability as well as to a more homogenous population. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Derivation of Ethnically Diverse Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Eun Ah; Tomov, Martin L; Suhr, Steven T; Luo, Jiesi; Olmsted, Zachary T; Paluh, Janet L; Cibelli, Jose

    2015-10-20

    The human genome with all its ethnic variations contributes to differences in human development, aging, disease, repair, and response to medical treatments and is an exciting area of research and clinical study. The availability of well-characterized ethnically diverse stem cell lines is limited and has not kept pace with other advances in stem cell research. Here we derived xenofree ethnically diverse-human induced pluripotent stem cell (ED-iPSC) lines from fibroblasts obtained from individuals of African American, Hispanic-Latino, Asian, and Caucasian ethnic origin and have characterized the lines under a uniform platform for comparative analysis. Derived ED-iPSC lines are low passage number and evaluated in vivo by teratoma formation and in vitro by high throughput microarray analysis of EB formation and early differentiation for tri-lineage commitment to endoderm, ectoderm and mesoderm. These new xenofree ED-iPSC lines represent a well-characterized valuable resource with potential for use in future research in drug discovery or clinical investigations.

  11. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV in two human glioma cell lines

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šedo, A.; Malík, Radek; Drbal, K.; Lisá, Věra; Vlašicová, K.; Mareš, Vladislav

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 1 (2000), s. 57-63 ISSN 1121-760X Grant - others:GA UK(XC) 58/1999/C; GA UK(XC) 206019-2 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : dipeptidyl peptidase IV * glioma cell lines * cell proliferation and differentiation Subject RIV: FH - Neurology Impact factor: 1.039, year: 2000

  12. Cysteine modified polyaniline films improve biocompatibility for two cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yslas, Edith I., E-mail: eyslas@exa.unrc.edu.ar [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina); Cavallo, Pablo; Acevedo, Diego F.; Barbero, César A. [Departamento de Química, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina); Rivarola, Viviana A. [Departamento de Biología Molecular, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Agencia Postal Nro3, X580BYA Río Cuarto (Argentina)

    2015-06-01

    This work focuses on one of the most exciting application areas of conjugated conducting polymers, which is cell culture and tissue engineering. To improve the biocompatibility of conducting polymers we present an easy method that involves the modification of the polymer backbone using L-cysteine. In this publication, we show the synthesis of polyaniline (PANI) films supported onto Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) films, and modified using cysteine (PANI-Cys) in order to generate a biocompatible substrate for cell culture. The PANI-Cys films are characterized by Fourier Transform infrared and UV–visible spectroscopy. The changes in the hydrophilicity of the polymer films after and before the modification were tested using contact angle measurements. After modification the contact angle changes from 86° ± 1 to 90° ± 1, suggesting a more hydrophylic surface. The adhesion properties of LM2 and HaCaT cell lines on the surface of PANI-Cys films in comparison with tissue culture plastic (TCP) are studied. The PANI-Cys film shows better biocompatibility than PANI film for both cell lines. The cell morphologies on the TCP and PANI-Cys film were examined by florescence and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Microscopic observations show normal cellular behavior when PANI-Cys is used as a substrate of both cell lines (HaCaT and LM2) as when they are cultured on TCP. The ability of these PANI-Cys films to support cell attachment and growth indicates their potential use as biocompatible surfaces and in tissue engineering. - Highlights: • A new surface PANI-Cys was produced on films of polyethylene terephthalate. • The relationship between surface characteristics and biocompatibility is analyzed. • The PANI-Cys film presents good biocompatibility for two cell lines.

  13. Establishment of clinically relevant radioresistant cell lines and their characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukumoto, Manabu; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Suzuki, Masatoshi

    2014-01-01

    Although radiotherapy is one of the major therapeutic modalities for eradicating malignant tumors, the existence of radioresistant cells remains one of the most critical obstacles. Standard radiotherapy consists of fractionated radiation (FR) of 2-Gy X-rays once a day, 5 days a week, over 60 Gy in total. To understand the characteristics of radioresistant cells and to develop more effective radiotherapy, we have established novel radioresistant cell lines by long-term (> 5 years) exposure to moderate doses of fractionated X-rays. While all the parental human cancer cells ceased, their radioresistant derivatives continue to proliferate with daily exposure to 2-Gy FR for more than 30 days. We have coined those cells as 'clinically relevant radioresistant' (CRR) cells. Transplanted tumors into nude mice were also CRR, indicating that CRR cell lines are powerful tools to improve cancer radiotherapy. We have shown that the suppression of autophagic cell death but not apoptosis was mainly involved in cellular radioresistance. An inhibitor of the mTOR pathway which enhances autophagy was effective to overcome CRR tumors induced in nude mice. But the underlined mechanism was not through the inhibition of autophagy. Guanine nucleotide-binding protein 1 (GBP1) over expression was necessary for maintaining the CRR phenotype, but radioresistant cells were not necessarily cancer stem cells (CSCs). Targeting GBP1 positive cancer cells may be a more efficient method in conquering cancer than targeting CSCs. Slight but significant radioresistance was acquired by 0.5 Gy/12 hrs of long-term FR exposures to parental cells for more than 31 days in accordance with cyclinD1 over expression. This acquired radioresistance (ARR) was stably maintained in the tumor cells even on 31 days after the cessation of 0.5-Gy FR. Present observations give a mechanistic insight for ARR of tumor cells through long-term FR exposure, and provide novel therapeutic targets for radiosensitization

  14. Myelinating cocultures of rodent stem cell line-derived neurons and immortalized Schwann cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Tomohiro; Kawakami, Emiko; Endo, Kentaro; Misawa, Hidemi; Watabe, Kazuhiko

    2017-10-01

    Myelination is one of the most remarkable biological events in the neuron-glia interactions for the development of the mammalian nervous system. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of cell-to-cell interactions in myelin synthesis in vitro, establishment of the myelinating system in cocultures of continuous neuronal and glial cell lines are desirable. In the present study, we performed co-culture experiments using rat neural stem cell-derived neurons or mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived motoneurons with immortalized rat IFRS1 Schwann cells to establish myelinating cultures between these cell lines. Differentiated neurons derived from an adult rat neural stem cell line 1464R or motoneurons derived from a mouse ES cell line NCH4.3, were mixed with IFRS1 Schwann cells, plated, and maintained in serum-free F12 medium with B27 supplement, ascorbic acid, and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. Myelin formation was demonstrated by electron microscopy at 4 weeks in cocultures of 1464R-derived neurons or NCH4.3-derived motoneurons with IFRS1 Schwann cells. These in vitro coculture systems utilizing the rodent stable stem and Schwann cell lines can be useful in studies of peripheral nerve development and regeneration. © 2017 Japanese Society of Neuropathology.

  15. CellMinerHCC: a microarray-based expression database for hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staib, Frank; Krupp, Markus; Maass, Thorsten; Itzel, Timo; Weinmann, Arndt; Lee, Ju-Seog; Schmidt, Bertil; Müller, Martina; Thorgeirsson, Snorri S; Galle, Peter R; Teufel, Andreas

    2014-04-01

    Therapeutic options for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) still remain limited. Development of gene targeted therapies is a promising option. A better understanding of the underlying molecular biology is gained in in vitro experiments. However, even with targeted manipulation of gene expression varying treatment responses were observed in diverse HCC cell lines. Therefore, information on gene expression profiles of various HCC cell lines may be crucial to experimental designs. To generate a publicly available database containing microarray expression profiles of diverse HCC cell lines. Microarray data were analyzed using an individually scripted R program package. Data were stored in a PostgreSQL database with a PHP written web interface. Evaluation and comparison of individual cell line expression profiles are supported via public web interface. This database allows evaluation of gene expression profiles of 18 HCC cell lines and comparison of differential gene expression between multiple cell lines. Analysis of commonly regulated genes for signaling pathway enrichment and interactions demonstrates a liver tumor phenotype with enrichment of major cancer related KEGG signatures like 'cancer' and 'inflammatory response'. Further molecular associations of strong scientific interest, e.g. 'lipid metabolism', were also identified. We have generated CellMinerHCC (http://www.medicalgenomics.org/cellminerhcc), a publicly available database containing gene expression data of 18 HCC cell lines. This database will aid in the design of in vitro experiments in HCC research, because the genetic specificities of various HCC cell lines will be considered. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Cell lines radiosensitization of thyroid cancer by histone deacetylase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perona, M; Dagrosa, M A; Rossich, L; Casal, M; Pisarev, M A; Thomasz, L; Juvenal G J

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine neoplasia. Surgical resection and radioactive iodine is an effective treatment for well-differentiated tumors. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDAC-I) are agents that cause hyperacetylation of histone proteins and as a consequence remodeling of chromatin structure. They can induce growth arrest, differentiation and apoptotic cell death in different tumor cells. The use of HDAC-I agents could be of utility to enhance the response to external radiation therapy of those thyroid cancers that are refractory to most conventional therapeutic treatments. Objective: To study the effect of HDAC-I as radiosensitizers for the treatment of thyroid cancer and their ability to induce differentiation of thyroid cancer cells. Materials and methods: The human thyroid follicular (WRO) and papillary (TPC-1) carcinoma cell lines were seeded and incubated with increasing doses (0, 0.3, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 mM) of the HDAC-I sodium butirate (NaB) and valproic acid (VA) to evaluate cell proliferation and iodide uptake. Cells were irradiated with a 60 Co γ-ray source (1 ± 5% Gy/min) and postirradiation survival was quantified with the colony formation assay. Survival fraction at 2 Gy (SF2) was calculated for each cell line. Cell cycle and cell death were evaluated at a dose of 3 Gy. Iodide uptake, PCR analysis and transient transfection studies were performed. Results: Cell proliferation was not significantly suppressed after 24 hours of incubation with both drugs at all assayed doses. Iodide uptake was not modified after incubation with HDAC-I of both cell lines. SF2 was reduced from 68 ± 1.6 % in the control WRO cells to 42 ± 3.8 % (P<0.001) in NaB-treated cells. In TPC-1 SF2 was reduced from 32 ± 1.1 % in the control cells to 24 ± 0.8 % (P<0.01). In VA-treated cells SF2 was reduced from 69 ± 0.02 % in control WRO cells to 56 ± 0.01 % (P<0.01) and from 31 ± 2 % in control TPC-1 cells to 11 ± 1 % (P<0.01). There was an arrest

  17. Detection of immunotoxicity using T-cell based cytokine reporter cell lines ('Cell Chip')

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringerike, Tove; Ulleraas, Erik; Voelker, Rene; Verlaan, Bert; Eikeset, Aase; Trzaska, Dominika; Adamczewska, Violetta; Olszewski, Maciej; Walczak-Drzewiecka, Aurelia; Arkusz, Joanna; Loveren, Henk van; Nilsson, Gunnar; Lovik, Martinus; Dastych, Jaroslaw; Vandebriel, Rob J.

    2005-01-01

    Safety assessment of chemicals and drugs is an important regulatory issue. The evaluation of potential adverse effects of compounds on the immune system depends today on animal experiments. An increasing demand, however, exists for in vitro alternatives. Cytokine measurement is a promising tool to evaluate chemical exposure effects on the immune system. Fortunately, this type of measurement can be performed in conjunction with in vitro exposure models. We have taken these considerations as the starting point to develop an in vitro method to efficiently screen compounds for potential immunotoxicity. The T-cell lymphoma cell line EL-4 was transfected with the regulatory sequences of interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-10, interferon (IFN)-γ or actin fused to the gene for enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) in either a stabile or a destabilised form. Consequently, changes in fluorescence intensity represent changes in cytokine expression with one cell line per cytokine. We used this prototype 'Cell Chip' to test, by means of flow cytometry, the immunomodulatory potential of 13 substances and were able to detect changes in cytokine expression in 12 cases (successful for cyclosporine, rapamycin, pentamidine, thalidomide, bis(tri-n-butyltin)oxide, house dust mite allergen (Der p I), 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene, benzocaine, tolylene 2,4-diisocyanate, potassium tetrachloroplatinate, sodium dodecyl sulphate and mercuric chloride; unsuccessful for penicillin G). In conclusion, this approach seems promising for in vitro screening for potential immunotoxicity, especially when additional cell lines besides T-cells are included

  18. DNA methylation and sensitivity to antimetabolites in cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Shin; Kobunai, Takashi; Kitayama, Joji; Nagawa, Hirokazu

    2008-02-01

    The prediction of the cellular direction of metabolic pathways toward either DNA synthesis or DNA methylation is crucial for determining the susceptibility of cancers to anti-metabolites such as fluorouracil (5-FU). We genotyped the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene in NCI-60 cancer cell lines, and identified the methylation status of 24 tumor suppressor genes using methylation-specific multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. The susceptibility of the cancer cell lines to seven antimetabolites was then determined. Cells homozygous for CC at MTHFR-A1298C were significantly more sensitive to cyclocytidine, cytarabine (AraC) and floxuridine than those with AA or AC (p=0.0215, p=0.0166, and p=0.0323, respectively), and carried more methylated tumor suppressor genes (p=0.0313). Among the 12 tumor suppressor genes which were methylated in >25% of cancer cell lines, the methylation status of TIMP3, APC and IGSF4 significantly correlated with sensitivity to pyrimidine synthesis inhibitors. In particular, cells with methylated TIMP3 had reduced mRNA levels and were significantly more sensitive to aphidicolin-glycinate, AraC and 5-FU than cells with unmethylated TIMP3. We speculate that MTHFR-A1298C homozygous CC might direct the methylation rather than the synthesis of DNA, and result in the methylation of several tumor suppressor genes such as TIMP3. These genes could be useful biological markers for predicting the efficacy of antimetabolites.

  19. Cryopreservation of specialized chicken lines using cultured primordial germ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, S; Whyte, J; Taylor, L; Sherman, A; Nair, V; Kaiser, P; McGrew, M J

    2016-08-01

    Biosecurity and sustainability in poultry production requires reliable germplasm conservation. Germplasm conservation in poultry is more challenging in comparison to other livestock species. Embryo cryopreservation is not feasible for egg-laying animals, and chicken semen conservation has variable success for different chicken breeds. A potential solution is the cryopreservation of the committed diploid stem cell precursors to the gametes, the primordial germ cells ( PGCS: ). Primordial germ cells are the lineage-restricted cells found at early embryonic stages in birds and form the sperm and eggs. We demonstrate here, using flocks of partially inbred, lower-fertility, major histocompatibility complex- ( MHC-: ) restricted lines of chicken, that we can easily derive and cryopreserve a sufficient number of independent lines of male and female PGCs that would be sufficient to reconstitute a poultry breed. We demonstrate that germ-line transmission can be attained from these PGCs using a commercial layer line of chickens as a surrogate host. This research is a major step in developing and demonstrating that cryopreserved PGCs could be used for the biobanking of specialized flocks of birds used in research settings. The prospective application of this technology to poultry production will further increase sustainability to meet current and future production needs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association.

  20. Antibacterial and anti-breast cancer cell line activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the activity of extracts of Sanghuangporus sp.1 fungus against pathogenic bacteria and a breast cancer cell line. Methods: The wild fruiting body and mycelium of Sanghuangporus sp.1 were extracted with water and ethanol by ultrasonication extraction. The activity of the extracts against pathogenic ...

  1. Characterization of newly established colorectal cancer cell lines

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have established a series of 20 colorectal cancer cell lines and performed cytogenetic and RFLP analyses to show that the recurrent genetic abnormalities of chromosomes 1, 5, 17 and 18 associated with multistep tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer, and frequently detected as recurrent abnormalities in primary tumours, ...

  2. Apoptosis induction of epifriedelinol on human cervical cancer cell line

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Present investigation evaluates the antitumor activity of epifriedelinol for the management of cervical cancer by inducing process of apoptosis. Methods: Human Cervical Cancer Cell Line, C33A and HeLa were selected for study and treated with epifriedelinol at a concentration of (50-1000 μg/ml). Cytotoxicity of ...

  3. Characterization of newly established colorectal cancer cell lines ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We have established a series of 20 colorectal cancer cell lines and performed cytogenetic and RFLP analyses to show that the recurrent genetic abnormalities of chromosomes 1, 5, 17 and 18 associated with multistep tumorigenesis in colorectal cancer, and frequently detected as recurrent abnormalities in primary tumours, ...

  4. AAVS1-Targeted Plasmid Integration in AAV Producer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuxia; Frederick, Amy; Martin, John M; Scaria, Abraham; Cheng, Seng H; Armentano, Donna; Wadsworth, Samuel C; Vincent, Karen A

    2017-06-01

    Adeno-associated virus (AAV) producer cell lines are created via transfection of HeLaS3 cells with a single plasmid containing three components (the vector sequence, the AAV rep and cap genes, and a selectable marker gene). As this plasmid contains both the cis (Rep binding sites) and trans (Rep protein encoded by the rep gene) elements required for site-specific integration, it was predicted that plasmid integration might occur within the AAVS1 locus on human chromosome 19 (chr19). The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration in AAVS1 might be correlated with vector yield. Plasmid integration sites within several independent cell lines were assessed via Southern, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and PCR analyses. In the Southern analyses, the presence of fragments detected by both rep- and AAVS1-specific probes suggested that for several mid- and high-producing lines, plasmid DNA had integrated into the AAVS1 locus. Analysis with puroR and AAVS1-specific probes suggested that integration in AAVS1 was a more widespread phenomenon. High-producing AAV2-secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) lines (masterwell 82 [MW82] and MW278) were evaluated via FISH using probes specific for the plasmid, AAVS1, and a chr19 marker. FISH analysis detected two plasmid integration sites in MW278 (neither in AAVS1), while a total of three sites were identified in MW82 (two in AAVS1). An inverse PCR assay confirmed integration within AAVS1 for several mid- and high-producing lines. In summary, the FISH, Southern, and PCR data provide evidence of site-specific integration of the plasmid within AAVS1 in several AAV producer cell lines. The data also suggest that integration in AAVS1 is a general phenomenon that is not necessarily restricted to high producers. The results also suggest that plasmid integration within the AAVS1 locus is not an absolute requirement for a high vector yield.

  5. Sphere-forming cell subpopulations with cancer stem cell properties in human hepatoma cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Lei

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer stem cells (CSCs are regarded as the cause of tumor formation and recurrence. The isolation and identification of CSCs could help to develop novel therapeutic strategies specifically targeting CSCs. Methods Human hepatoma cell lines were plated in stem cell conditioned culture system allowed for sphere forming. To evaluate the stemness characteristics of spheres, the self-renewal, proliferation, chemoresistance, tumorigenicity of the PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells, and the expression levels of stem cell related proteins in the PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells were assessed, comparing with the parental cells. The stem cell RT-PCR array was performed to further explore the biological properties of liver CSCs. Results The PLC/PRF/5, MHCC97H and HepG2 cells could form clonal nonadherent 3-D spheres and be serially passaged. The PLC/PRF/5 sphere-forming cells possessed a key criteria that define CSCs: persistent self-renewal, extensive proliferation, drug resistance, overexpression of liver CSCs related proteins (Oct3/4, OV6, EpCAM, CD133 and CD44. Even 500 sphere-forming cells were able to form tumors in NOD/SCID mice, and the tumor initiating capability was not decreased when spheres were passaged. Besides, downstream proteins DTX1 and Ep300 of the CSL (CBF1 in humans, Suppressor of hairless in Drosophila and LAG1 in C. elegans -independent Notch signaling pathway were highly expressed in the spheres, and a gamma-secretase inhibitor MRK003 could significantly inhibit the sphere formation ability. Conclusions Nonadherent tumor spheres from hepatoma cell lines cultured in stem cell conditioned medium possess liver CSC properties, and the CSL-independent Notch signaling pathway may play a role in liver CSCs.

  6. Crude subcellular fractionation of cultured mammalian cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holden Paul

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The expression and study of recombinant proteins in mammalian culture systems can be complicated during the cell lysis procedure by contaminating proteins from cellular compartments distinct from those within which the protein of interest resides and also by solubility issues that may arise from the use of a single lysis buffer. Partial subcellular fractionation using buffers of increasing stringency, rather than whole cell lysis is one way in which to avoid or reduce this contamination and ensure complete recovery of the target protein. Currently published protocols involve time consuming centrifugation steps which may require expensive equipment and commercially available kits can be prohibitively expensive when handling large or multiple samples. Findings We have established a protocol to sequentially extract proteins from cultured mammalian cells in fractions enriched for cytosolic, membrane bound organellar, nuclear and insoluble proteins. All of the buffers used can be made inexpensively and easily and the protocol requires no costly equipment. While the method was optimized for a specific cell type, we demonstrate that the protocol can be applied to a variety of commonly used cell lines and anticipate that it can be applied to any cell line via simple optimization of the primary extraction step. Conclusion We describe a protocol for the crude subcellular fractionation of cultured mammalian cells that is both straightforward and cost effective and may facilitate the more accurate study of recombinant proteins and the generation of purer preparations of said proteins from cell extracts.

  7. Glucocorticoid inhibition of cellular proliferation in rat hepatoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, P.W.

    1987-01-01

    Glucocorticoids were shown to inhibit the growth rate of Fu5 rat hepatoma cells cultured in the presence or absence of serum and thus, induced a more stringent dependence on serum for growth in this cell line. Fu5 cells, made quiescent at low cell density by continuous exposure to glucocorticoid in the absence of serum, were induced with serum and insulin, which subsequently caused a rapid reinitiation of cellular proliferation. Analysis of total RNA isolated from hormone treated Fu5 cells undergoing serum/insulin induction of DNA synthesis revealed a sequential expression of cellular proto-oncogene products in the absence of any immediate changes in intracellular Ca ++ levels. Introduction of functional glucocorticoid receptor genes into both classes of dexamethasone resistant variants restored glucocorticoid responsiveness and suppression of cell growth. The BDS1 rat hepatoma cell line, an Fu5 derived subclone hypersensitive to the antiprofliferation effects of glucocorticoid, was observed to externalize a glucocorticoid suppressible mitogen (GSM) activity capable of mimicking EGF and insulin induced stimulation of [ 3 H]thymidine incorporation into serum starved, competant Balb/c 3T3 cells

  8. Differences in radiosensitivity between three HER2 overexpressing cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffen, Ann-Charlott; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Stenerloew, Bo [Uppsala University, Unit of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Goestring, Lovisa [Affibody AB, Bromma (Sweden); Palm, Stig [Sahlgrenska Academy at Goeteborg University, Department of Radiation Physics, Goeteborg (Sweden); Carlsson, Joergen [Uppsala University, Unit of Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Department of Oncology, Radiology and Clinical Immunology, Rudbeck Laboratory, Uppsala (Sweden); Rudbeck Laboratory, Biomedical Radiation Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2008-06-15

    HER2 is a potential target for radionuclide therapy, especially when HER2 overexpressing breast cancer cells are resistant to Herceptin {sup registered} treatment. Therefore, it is of interest to analyse whether HER2 overexpressing tumour cells have different inherent radiosensitivity. The radiosensitivity of three often used HER2 overexpressing cell lines, SKOV-3, SKBR-3 and BT-474, was analysed. The cells were exposed to conventional photon irradiation, low linear energy transfer (LET), to characterise their inherent radiosensitivity. The analysis was made with clonogenic survival and growth extrapolation assays. The cells were also exposed to alpha particles, high LET, from {sup 211}At decays using the HER2-binding affibody molecule {sup 211}At-(Z{sub HER2:4}){sub 2} as targeting agent. Assays for studies of internalisation of the affibody molecule were applied. SKOV-3 cells were most radioresistant, SKBR-3 cells were intermediate and BT-474 cells were most sensitive as measured with the clonogenic and growth extrapolation assays after photon irradiation. The HER2 dependent cellular uptake of {sup 211}At was qualitatively similar for all three cell lines. However, the sensitivity to the alpha particles from {sup 211}At differed; SKOV-3 was most resistant, SKBR-3 intermediate and BT-474 most sensitive. These differences were unexpected because it is assumed that all types of cells should have similar sensitivity to high-LET radiation. The sensitivity to alpha particle exposure correlated with internalisation of the affibody molecule and with size of the cell nucleus. There can be differences in radiosensitivity, which, if they also exist between patient breast cancer cells, are important to consider for both conventional radiotherapy and for HER2-targeted radionuclide therapy. (orig.)

  9. Radiosensitization of colorectal carcinoma cell lines by histone deacetylase inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flatmark, Kjersti; Nome, Ragnhild V; Folkvord, Sigurd; Bratland, Åse; Rasmussen, Heidi; Ellefsen, Mali Strand; Fodstad, Øystein; Ree, Anne Hansen

    2006-01-01

    The tumor response to preoperative radiotherapy of locally advanced rectal cancer varies greatly, warranting the use of experimental models to assay the efficacy of molecular targeting agents in rectal cancer radiosensitization. Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, agents that cause hyperacetylation of histone proteins and thereby remodeling of chromatin structure, may override cell cycle checkpoint responses to DNA damage and amplify radiation-induced tumor cell death. Human colorectal carcinoma cell lines were exposed to ionizing radiation and HDAC inhibitors, and cell cycle profiles and regulatory factors, as well as clonogenicity, were analyzed. In addition to G 2 /M phase arrest following irradiation, the cell lines displayed cell cycle responses typical for either intact or defective p53 function (the presence or absence, respectively, of radiation-induced expression of the cell cycle inhibitor p21 and subsequent accumulation of G 1 phase cells). In contrast, histone acetylation was associated with complete depletion of the G 1 population of cells with functional p53 but accumulation of both G 1 and G 2 /M populations of cells with defective p53. The cellular phenotypes upon HDAC inhibition were consistent with the observed repression of Polo-like kinase-1, a regulatory G 2 /M phase kinase. Following pre-treatment with HDAC inhibitors currently undergoing clinical investigation, the inhibitory effect of ionizing radiation on clonogenicity was significantly amplified. In these experimental models, HDAC inhibition sensitized the tumor cells to ionizing radiation, which is in accordance with the concept of increased probability of tumor cell death when chromatin structure is modified

  10. Differences in radiosensitivity between three HER2 overexpressing cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steffen, Ann-Charlott; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Stenerloew, Bo; Goestring, Lovisa; Palm, Stig; Carlsson, Joergen

    2008-01-01

    HER2 is a potential target for radionuclide therapy, especially when HER2 overexpressing breast cancer cells are resistant to Herceptin registered treatment. Therefore, it is of interest to analyse whether HER2 overexpressing tumour cells have different inherent radiosensitivity. The radiosensitivity of three often used HER2 overexpressing cell lines, SKOV-3, SKBR-3 and BT-474, was analysed. The cells were exposed to conventional photon irradiation, low linear energy transfer (LET), to characterise their inherent radiosensitivity. The analysis was made with clonogenic survival and growth extrapolation assays. The cells were also exposed to alpha particles, high LET, from 211 At decays using the HER2-binding affibody molecule 211 At-(Z HER2:4 ) 2 as targeting agent. Assays for studies of internalisation of the affibody molecule were applied. SKOV-3 cells were most radioresistant, SKBR-3 cells were intermediate and BT-474 cells were most sensitive as measured with the clonogenic and growth extrapolation assays after photon irradiation. The HER2 dependent cellular uptake of 211 At was qualitatively similar for all three cell lines. However, the sensitivity to the alpha particles from 211 At differed; SKOV-3 was most resistant, SKBR-3 intermediate and BT-474 most sensitive. These differences were unexpected because it is assumed that all types of cells should have similar sensitivity to high-LET radiation. The sensitivity to alpha particle exposure correlated with internalisation of the affibody molecule and with size of the cell nucleus. There can be differences in radiosensitivity, which, if they also exist between patient breast cancer cells, are important to consider for both conventional radiotherapy and for HER2-targeted radionuclide therapy. (orig.)

  11. Plasmids and packaging cell lines for use in phage display

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.

    2012-07-24

    The invention relates to a novel phagemid display system for packaging phagemid DNA into phagemid particles which completely avoids the use of helper phage. The system of the invention incorporates the use of bacterial packaging cell lines which have been transformed with helper plasmids containing all required phage proteins but not the packaging signals. The absence of packaging signals in these helper plasmids prevents their DNA from being packaged in the bacterial cell, which provides a number of significant advantages over the use of both standard and modified helper phage. Packaged phagemids expressing a protein or peptide of interest, in fusion with a phage coat protein such as g3p, are generated simply by transfecting phagemid into the packaging cell line.

  12. Morphometric Characterization of Rat and Human Alveolar Macrophage Cell Models and their Response to Amiodarone using High Content Image Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Ewelina; Patel, Aateka; Ball, Doug; Klapwijk, Jan; Millar, Val; Kumar, Abhinav; Martin, Abigail; Mahendran, Rhamiya; Dailey, Lea Ann; Forbes, Ben; Hutter, Victoria

    2017-12-01

    Progress to the clinic may be delayed or prevented when vacuolated or "foamy" alveolar macrophages are observed during non-clinical inhalation toxicology assessment. The first step in developing methods to study this response in vitro is to characterize macrophage cell lines and their response to drug exposures. Human (U937) and rat (NR8383) cell lines and primary rat alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage were characterized using high content fluorescence imaging analysis quantification of cell viability, morphometry, and phospholipid and neutral lipid accumulation. Cell health, morphology and lipid content were comparable (p content. Responses to amiodarone, a known inducer of phospholipidosis, required analysis of shifts in cell population profiles (the proportion of cells with elevated vacuolation or lipid content) rather than average population data which was insensitive to the changes observed. A high content image analysis assay was developed and used to provide detailed morphological characterization of rat and human alveolar-like macrophages and their response to a phospholipidosis-inducing agent. This provides a basis for development of assays to predict or understand macrophage vacuolation following inhaled drug exposure.

  13. Subcloning of three osteoblastic cell lines with distinct differentiation phenotypes from the mouse osteoblastic cell line KS-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, T; Ishii, H; Shimoda, K; Sampath, T K; Katagiri, T; Wada, M; Osawa, T; Suda, T

    1996-11-01

    Three distinct osteoblastic cell lines (KS418, KS460, and KS483) were subcloned from the mouse osteoblastic KS-4 cells, which possessed the abilities not only to differentiate into mature osteoblasts, but also to support osteoclast differentiation in coculture with spleen cells. The order of the magnitude of the basal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was KS483 > KS418 > KS460. KS483 cells were also more differentiated than KS418 and KS460 in terms of ALP activity and osteocalcin production, when cultured in growth medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. In long-term culture, KS418 and KS483 apparently differentiated into mature osteoblasts and formed calcified nodules without addition of beta-glycerophosphate. Electron microscopic analysis demonstrated that calcification occurring in the nodules was initiated in the matrix vesicles as observed in bone formation in vivo. Nodule formation and mineral deposition occurred simultaneously in the presence of beta-glycerophosphate, but the former always preceded the latter without addition of beta-glycerophosphate. In contrast, KS460 cells did not show time-dependent increases of ALP activity, type I collagen expression and osteocalcin production, which were induced by treatment with recombinant osteogenic protein-1 (OP-1). The three cell lines similarly supported osteoclast differentiation in coculture with spleen cells in response to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. These results indicate that the three cell lines subcloned from the original KS-4 cells represent phenotypically distinct osteoblasts during osteoblast differentiation, but are equipped similarly with the capacity to support osteoclast differentiation. The subcloned cells of the KS-4 series may provide useful systems in which to study osteoblast differentiation and function.

  14. Cytotoxicity evaluation of silica nanoparticles using fish cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Nguyen T K; Bufalino, Mary R; Hartlen, Kurtis D; Kitaev, Vladimir; Lee, Lucy E J

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have extensive industrial, biotechnological, and biomedical/pharmaceutical applications, leading to concerns over health risks to humans and biota. Among various types of nanoparticles, silica nanoparticles (SiO2 NPs) have become popular as nanostructuring, drug delivery, and optical imaging agents. SiO2 NPs are highly stable and could bioaccumulate in the environment. Although toxicity studies of SiO2 NPs to human and mammalian cells have been reported, their effects on aquatic biota, especially fish, have not been significantly studied. Twelve adherent fish cell lines derived from six species (rainbow trout, fathead minnow, zebrafish, goldfish, haddock, and American eel) were used to comparatively evaluate viability of cells by measuring metabolic impairment using Alamar Blue. Toxicity of SiO2 NPs appeared to be size-, time-, temperature-, and dose-dependent as well as tissue-specific. However, dosages greater than 100 μg/mL were needed to achieve 24 h EC50 values (effective concentrations needed to reduce cell viability by 50%). Smaller SiO2 NPs (16 nm) were relatively more toxic than larger sized ones (24 and 44 nm) and external lining epithelial tissue (skin, gills)-derived cells were more sensitive than cells derived from internal tissues (liver, brain, intestine, gonads) or embryos. Higher EC50 values were achieved when toxicity assessment was performed at higher incubation temperatures. These findings are in overall agreement with similar human and mouse cell studies reported to date. Thus, fish cell lines could be valuable for screening emerging contaminants in aquatic environments including NPs through rapid high-throughput cytotoxicity bioassays.

  15. Multidrug resistance and retroviral transduction potential in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, M D; Gram, G J; Jensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    for the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV-1) receptor or had specificity for the amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV-A) receptor were used for transduction of five SCLC cell lines differing by a range of MDR mechanisms. Transduction efficiencies in these cell lines were compared by calculating the percentage...... of blue colonies after X-Gal staining of the cells grown in soft agar. All examined SCLC cell lines were transducible with either vector. Transduction efficiencies varied from 5.7% to 33.5% independent of the presence of MDR. These results indicate that MDR does not severely impair transduction of SCLC...

  16. Up-Regulation of P21 Inhibits TRAIL-Mediated Extrinsic Apoptosis, Contributing Resistance to SAHA in Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: P21, a multifunctional cell cycle-regulatory molecule, regulates apoptotic cell death. In this study we examined the effect of altered p21 expression on the sensitivity of acute myeloid leukemia cells in response to HDAC inhibitor SAHA treatment and investigated the underlying mechanism. Methods: Stably transfected HL60 cell lines were established in RPMI-1640 with supplementation of G-418. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Western blot was applied to assess the protein expression levels of target genes. Cell apoptosis was monitored by AnnexinV-PE/7AAD assay. Results: We showed HL60 cells that that didn't up-regulate p21 expression were more sensitive to SAHA-mediated apoptosis than NB4 and U937 cells that had increased p21 level. Enforced expression of p21 in HL60 cells reduced sensitivity to SAHA and blocked TRAIL-mediated apoptosis. Conversely, p21 silencing in NB4 cells enhanced SAHA-mediated apoptosis and lethality. Finally, we found that combined treatment with SAHA and rapamycin down-regulated p21 and enhanced apoptosis in AML cells. Conclusion: We conclude that up-regulated p21 expression mediates resistance to SAHA via inhibition of TRAIL apoptotic pathway. P21 may serve as a candidate biomarker to predict responsiveness or resistance to SAHA-based therapy in AML patients. In addition, rapamycin may be an effective agent to override p21-mediated resistance to SAHA in AML patients.

  17. Drastically increased expression of MYC and FOS protooncogenes during in vitro differentiation of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.G.; Gray, H.E.; Toetterman, T.; Pettersson, U.; Nilsson, K.

    1987-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells, representing a clonal population of resting B lymphocytes, were induced to differentiate into immunoglobulin-secreting lymphoblasts and plasmablasts by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate. The induction resulted in a rapid increase in the molar ratio of secreted/membrane-bound μ-chain mRNA. Immunoglobulin secretion was preceded by a transition of the cells from the G 0 to G 1 phase of the cell cycle, as indicated by an increase in RNA and protein synthesis, and an overall increase in cellular RNA. The cells, however, became blocked in G 1 and did not enter S phase. The expression of MYC and FOS was rapidly induced by the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate treatment. MYC expression remained at a relatively high level during the whole differentiation process. It is thus concluded that a decline of MYC expression is not a prerequisite for differentiation of the chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells. This suggests that MYC expression may play a different role during differentiation of nonproliferating B cells than in the myelomonocytic cell lines HL-60 and U-937, where MYC expression has been reported to decrease during induced differentiation. The results also show that the expression of the MYC and FOS genes does not result in the transition of these cells into the S phase of the cell cycle

  18. Change of cell cycle arrest of tumor cell lines after 60Co γ-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Yi; Liu Wenli; Zhou Jianfeng; Gao Qinglei; Wu Jianhong

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the cell cycle arrest changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNCs) of normal persons and several kinds of tumor cell lines after 60 Co γ-irradiation. Methods: PBMNCs of normal persons, HL-60, K562, SiHA and 113 tumor cell lines were irradiated with 60 Co γ-rays at the absorbed doses of 6, 10,15 Gy. Cell cycles changes were checked 6, 12, 24, 48 and 60 h after the irradiation. Results: A stasis state was observed in normal person PBMNCs, 95 percents of which were in G 1 phase, and they still remained stasis after the irradiation. Except the 113 cell line manifesting G 1 phase arrest, all other tumor cell lines showed G 2 /M phase arrest after irradiation. The radiation sensitivity of HL-60 was higher than that of SiHA cell line. Conclusion: Different cell lines have different cell cycle arrest reaction to radiation and their radiation sensitivity are also different

  19. Sensitivity of breast cancer cell lines to recombinant thiaminase I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shuqian; Monks, Noel R; Hanes, Jeremiah W; Begley, Tadhg P; Yu, Hui; Moscow, Jeffrey A

    2010-05-01

    We have previously shown that the expression of the thiamine transporter THTR2 is decreased sevenfold in breast cancer, which may leave breast cancer cells vulnerable to acute thiamine starvation. This concept was supported by the observation that MDA231 breast cancer xenografts demonstrated growth inhibition in mice fed a thiamine-free diet. We purified recombinant Bacillus thiaminolyticus thiaminase I enzyme, which digests thiamine, to study acute thiamine starvation in breast cancer. Thiaminase I enzyme was cytotoxic in six breast cancer cell lines with IC(50)s ranging from 0.012 to 0.022 U/ml. The growth inhibitory effects of the combination of thiaminase I with either doxorubicin or paclitaxel were also examined. Over a wide range of drug concentrations, thiaminase 1 was consistently synergistic or additive with doxorubicin and paclitaxel in MCF-7, ZR75, HS578T and T47D cell lines, with most combinations having a calculated combination index (CI) of less than 0.8, indicating synergy. Although thiaminase I exposure did not stimulate the energy-sensing signaling kinases AKT, AMPK and GSK-3beta in MCF-7, ZR75, HS578T and T47D cell lines, thiaminase I exposure did stimulate expression of the ER stress response protein GRP78. In summary, thiaminase I is cytotoxic in breast cancer cell lines and triggers the unfolded protein response. These findings suggest that THTR2 down-regulation in breast tumors may present a nutritional vulnerability that could be exploited by thiaminase I enzyme therapy.

  20. In vivo quantification of magnetically labelled cells by MRI relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Ulysse; Lajous, Hélène; El Atifi, Michèle; Bidart, Marie; Auboiroux, Vincent; Fries, Pascal Henry; Berger, François; Lahrech, Hana

    2016-11-01

    Cellular MRI, which visualizes magnetically labelled cells (cells*), is an active research field for in vivo cell therapy and tracking. The simultaneous relaxation rate measurements (R 2 *, R 2 , R 1 ) are the basis of a quantitative cellular MRI method proposed here. U937 cells were labelled with Molday ION Rhodamine B, a bi-functional superparamagnetic and fluorescent nanoparticle (U937*). U937* viability and proliferation were not affected in vitro. In vitro relaxometry was performed in a cell concentration range of [2.5 × 10 4 -10 8 ] cells/mL. These measurements show the existence of complementary cell concentration intervals where these rates vary linearly. The juxtaposition of these intervals delineates a wide cell concentration range over which one of the relaxation rates in a voxel of an in vivo image can be converted into an absolute cell concentration. The linear regime was found at high concentrations for R 1 in the range of [10 6 - 2 × 10 8 ] cells/mL, at intermediate concentrations for R 2 in [2.5 × 10 5 - 5 × 10 7 ] cells/mL and at low concentrations for R 2 * in [8 × 10 4 - 5 × 10 6 ] cells/mL. In vivo relaxometry was performed in a longitudinal study, with labelled U937 cells injected into a U87 glioma mouse model. Using in vitro data, maps of in vivo U937* concentrations were obtained by converting one of the in vivo relaxation rates to cell concentration maps. MRI results were compared with the corresponding optical images of the same brains, showing the usefulness of our method to accurately follow therapeutic cell biodistribution in a longitudinal study. Results also demonstrate that the method quantifies a large range of magnetically labelled cells*. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Caffeine markedly sensitizes human mesothelioma cell lines to pemetrexed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Sang Hee; Goldman, I. David; Zhao, Rongbao

    2013-01-01

    Pemetrexed is a new generation antifolate approved for the treatment of mesothelioma and non-small cell lung cancer. Caffeine is known to augment radiation or chemotherapeutic drug-induced cell killing. The current study addresses the impact of caffeine on the activity of pemetrexed in mesothelioma cell lines. Caffeine enhanced pemetrexed activity in all four mesothelioma cell lines tested (H2052, H2373, H28 and MSTO-211H). Caffeine sensitized H2052 cells in a dose- and schedule-dependent manner, and was associated with a markedly decreased clonogenic survival. Caffeine sensitization occurred only in cells subjected to pulse, but not continuous, exposure to pemetrexed. Similar pemetrexed sensitization was also observed with the clinically better tolerated caffeine analog, theobromine. Pemetrexed sensitization by caffeine was associated with an increase in pemetrexed-induced phosphorylation of ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and Chk1. These data indicate that caffeine and its analog, theobromine, may be a useful approach to enhance pemetrexed-based chemotherapy. PMID:17594092

  2. Systemic alteration of cell-surface and secreted glycoprotein expression in malignant breast cancer cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Timpe, Leslie C; Yen, Roger; Haste, Nicole V; Litsakos-Cheung, Christina; Yen, Ten-Yang; Macher, Bruce A

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer cell lines express fewer transmembrane and secreted glycoproteins than nonmalignant ones. The objective of these experiments was to characterize the changes in the expression of several hundred glycoproteins quantitatively. Secreted and cell-surface glycoproteins were isolated using a glycoprotein capture protocol and then identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Glycoproteins expressed by a group of cell lines originating from malignant tumors of the breast were compared with th...

  3. Monitoring cell line identity in collections of human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarafian, Raquel; Morato-Marques, Mariana; Borsoi, Juliana; Pereira, Lygia Veiga

    2018-01-31

    The ability to reprogram somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) has led to the generation of large collections of cell lines from thousands of individuals with specific phenotypes, many of which will be shared among different research groups as invaluable tools for biomedical research. As hiPSC-based research involves extensive culture of many cell lines, the issue periodic cell line identification is particularly important to ensure that cell line identity remains accurate. Here we analyzed the different commercially available genotyping methods considering ease of in-house genotyping, cost and informativeness, and applied one of them in our workflow for hiPSC generation. We show that the chosen STR method was able to establish a unique DNA profile for each of the 35 individuals/hiPSC lines at the examined sites, as well as identify two discrepancies resulting from inadvertently exchanged samples. Our results highlight the importance of hiPSC line genotyping by an in-house method that allows periodic cell line identification and demonstrate that STR is a useful approach to supplement less frequent karyotyping and epigenetic evaluations. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Designing of promiscuous inhibitors against pancreatic cancer cell lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rahul; Chaudhary, Kumardeep; Singla, Deepak; Gautam, Ankur; Raghava, Gajendra P. S.

    2014-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains the most devastating disease with worst prognosis. There is a pressing need to accelerate the drug discovery process to identify new effective drug candidates against pancreatic cancer. We have developed QSAR models for predicting promiscuous inhibitors using the pharmacological data. Our models achieved maximum Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.86, when evaluated on 10-fold cross-validation. Our models have also successfully validated the drug-to-oncogene relationship and further we used these models to screen FDA approved drugs and tested them in vitro. We have integrated these models in a webserver named as DiPCell, which will be useful for screening and designing novel promiscuous drug molecules. We have also identified the most and least effective drugs for pancreatic cancer cell lines. On the other side, we have identified resistant pancreatic cancer cell lines, which need investigative scanner on them to put light on resistant mechanism in pancreatic cancer.

  5. Embryonic liver cells and permanent lines as models for hepatocyte and bile duct cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strick-Marchand, Hélène; Weiss, Mary C

    2003-01-01

    Analysis of liver cells during development is facilitated by the possibility of complementing in vivo analysis with experiments on cultured cells. In this review, we discuss results from several laboratories concerning bipotential hepatic stem cells from mouse (HBC-3, H-CFU-C, MMH and BMEL), rat (rhe14321) and primate (IPFLS) embryos. Several groups have used fluorescence-activated cell sorting to identify clonogenic bipotential cells; others have derived bipotential cell lines by plating liver cell suspensions and cloning. The bipotential cells, which probably originate from hepatoblasts, can differentiate as hepatocytes or bile duct cells, and undergo morphogenesis in culture. Disparities in differentiation can be explained by distinct medium compositions, extracellular matrix coated culture surfaces, and gene expression detection methods. Potential applications of these cell lines are discussed.

  6. Off-line test of the KISS gas cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirayama, Yoshikazu, E-mail: yoshikazu.hirayama@kek.jp [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Watanabe, Yutaka; Imai, Nobuaki; Ishiyama, Hironobu; Jeong, Sun-Chan; Miyatake, Hiroari; Oyaizu, Michihiro [Institute of Particle and Nuclear Studies (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Kim, Yung Hee [Seoul National University, Seoul 151 742 (Korea, Republic of); Mukai, Momo [Tsukuba University, Ibaraki 305 0006 (Japan); Matsuo, Yukari; Sonoda, Tetsu; Wada, Michiharu [Nishina Center for Accelerator-Based Science, RIKEN, Wako, Saitama 351 0198 (Japan); Huyse, Mark; Kudryavtsev, Yuri; Van Duppen, Piet [Instituut voor Kern-en Stralingsfysica, KU Leuven, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2013-12-15

    Highlights: • Construction of the KEK Isotope Separation System (KISS) at RIKEN. • Ionization scheme of an iron. • Measurement of transport time profile in a gas cell. -- Abstract: The KEK Isotope Separation System (KISS) has been constructed at RIKEN to study the β-decay properties of neutron-rich isotopes with neutron numbers around N = 126 for application to astrophysics. A key component of KISS is a gas cell filled with argon gas at a pressure of 50 kPa to stop and collect the unstable nuclei, where the isotopes of interest will be selectively ionized using laser resonance ionization. We have performed off-line tests to study the basic properties of the gas cell and of KISS using nickel and iron filaments placed in the gas cell.

  7. Destabilization of Akt Promotes the Death of Myeloma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanan Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitutive activation of Akt is believed to be an oncogenic signal in multiple myeloma and is associated with poor patient prognosis and resistance to available treatment. The stability of Akt proteins is regulated by phosphorylating the highly conserved turn motif (TM of these proteins and the chaperone protein HSP90. In this study we investigate the antitumor effects of inhibiting mTORC2 plus HSP90 in myeloma cell lines. We show that chronic exposure of cells to rapamycin can inhibit mTORC2 pathway, and AKT will be destabilized by administration of the HSP90 inhibitor 17-allylamino-geldanamycin (17-AAG. Finally, we show that the rapamycin synergizes with 17-AAG and inhibits myeloma cells growth and promotes cell death to a greater extent than either drug alone. Our studies provide a clinical rationale of use mTOR inhibitors and chaperone protein inhibitors in combination regimens for the treatment of human blood cancers.

  8. RBE of neutrons for induction of cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations in three cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoetelief, J.; Kuijpers, W.C.; Baten-Wittwer, A.; Barendsen, G.W.

    1983-01-01

    The authors have compared the RBE values for induction of dicentrics and centric rings with those for cell inactivation and with the mean or effective quality factors (Q) recommended for radiation protection. The induction of cell reproductive death and chromosome aberrations has been investigated in plateau phase cultures of established lines of a rat rhabdomyosarcoma, a rat ureter carcinoma and Chinese hamster cells for single doses of 300 kV X-rays and 0.5, 4.2 and 15 MeV neutrons. The different cell lines show considerable variations in sensitivity and the RBE values obtained are presented in tabular form. The mean RBE values for the rat rhabdomyosarcoma cells are lower than those for the other two relatively resistant cell lines. Those for the Chinese hamster cells extrapolated to levels according to low doses of X-rays are in good agreement with the quoted Q values. (Auth./C.F.)

  9. Establishment of human cell lines showing circadian rhythms of bioluminescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Aki; Shimada, Hiroko; Numazawa, Kahori; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Ikeda, Masaaki; Kawashima, Minae; Kato, Nobumasa; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Ebisawa, Takashi

    2008-11-28

    We have established human retinal pigment epithelial cell lines stably expressing the luciferase gene, driven by the human Bmal1 promoter, to obtain human-derived cells that show circadian rhythms of bioluminescence after dexamethasone treatment. The average circadian period of bioluminescence for the obtained clones was 24.07+/-0.48 h. Lithium (10 mM) in the medium significantly lengthened the circadian period of bioluminescence, which is consistent with previous reports, while 2 mM or 5 mM lithium had no effect. This is the first report on the establishment of human-derived cell lines that proliferate infinitely and show circadian rhythms of bioluminescence, and also the first to investigate the effects of low-dose lithium on the circadian rhythms of human-derived cells in vitro. The established cells will be useful for various in vitro studies of human circadian rhythms and for the development of new therapies for human disorders related to circadian rhythm disturbances.

  10. Proteomics of cancer cell lines resistant to microtubule-stabilizing agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrethsen, Jakob; Angeletti, Ruth H; Horwitz, Susan Band

    2014-01-01

    was compared with two drug-resistant daughter cell lines, an EpoB-resistant cell line (EpoB8) and an ixabepilone-resistant cell line (Ixab80). All 2D DIGE results were validated by Western blot analyses. A variety of cytoskeletal and cytoskeleton-associated proteins were differentially expressed in drug......Despite the clinical success of microtubule-interacting agents (MIA), a significant challenge for oncologists is the inability to predict the response of individual patients with cancer to these drugs. In the present study, six cell lines were compared by 2D DIGE proteomics to investigate cellular...... resistance to the class of MIAs known as microtubule-stabilizing agents (MSA). The human lung cancer cell line A549 was compared with two drug-resistant daughter cell lines, a taxol-resistant cell line (AT12) and an epothilone B (EpoB)-resistant cell line (EpoB40). The ovarian cancer cell line Hey...

  11. Cell-line dependent effects of hypoxia prior to irradiation in squamous cell carcinoma lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franziska Hauth

    2017-08-01

    Conclusion: We herein report a key role of ATM in the cellular fitness of cells exposed to prolonged moderate hypoxia prior to irradiation. While DNA damage response post-irradiation seem to be mainly driven by non-homologous end joining repair pathway in these conditions, our data suggest an important role for ATM kinase in hypoxia-driven modification of radiation response.

  12. Differential CCR4 Expression And Function in Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chieh-Shan Wu

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL is a clonal epidermotropic malignancy of memory T cells primarily involving the skin. However, the mechanisms governing migration of CTCL cells have not been fully clarified. It has been shown that certain chemokine receptors are upregulated in CTCL cells, but it remains unanswered whether these chemokine receptors play a critical role in the migration dynamics of CTCL. Using cell lines originally derived from patients with different subtypes of CTCL, we have shown higher CCR4 expression in the line derived from the mycosis fungoides (MJ, compared with the line derived from Sézary syndrome (Hut78. In specific responses to CCL22 (a CCR4 ligand treatments, MJ cells showed significant chemotactic migration, enhanced activation and adhesion of certain integrins (CD49d and CD29 in vitro, while the control cells (Hut78, CD4+CD45RO+ memory T cells, and Jurkat cells did not. Furthermore, compared with Hut78 cells, MJ cells manifested significantly more transendothelial migration in responses to treatments with either CCL22 or conditioned medium from dendritic cells in vitro. These results provide further dynamic evidence, in line with the multistep cascade paradigm for leukocyte transendothelial migration, to support a critical role for CCR4 in CTCL migration.

  13. Discovery of HeLa Cell Contamination in HES Cells: Call for Cell Line Authentication in Reproductive Biology Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kniss, Douglas A; Summerfield, Taryn L

    2014-08-01

    Continuous cell lines are used frequently in reproductive biology research to study problems in early pregnancy events and parturition. It has been recognized for 50 years that many mammalian cell lines contain inter- or intraspecies contaminations with other cells. However, most investigators do not routinely test their culture systems for cross-contamination. The most frequent contributor to cross-contamination of cell lines is the HeLa cell isolated from an aggressive cervical adenocarcinoma. We report on the discovery of HeLa cell contamination of the human endometrial epithelial cell line HES isolated in our laboratory. Short tandem repeat analysis of 9 unique genetic loci demonstrated molecular identity between HES and HeLa cells. In addition, we verified that WISH cells, isolated originally from human amnion epithelium, were also contaminated with HeLa cells. Inasmuch as our laboratory did not culture HeLa cells at the time of HES cell derivations, the source of contamination was the WISH cell line. These data highlight the need for continued diligence in authenticating cell lines used in reproductive biology research. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Expression of cadherin and NCAM in human small cell lung cancer cell lines and xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, K; Møller, C; Bock, E

    1992-01-01

    characterised, the cadherin family and the Ig superfamily member, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). We investigated expression of these two adhesion molecule families in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and xenografts by immunoblotting. Nineteen tumours established from 15 patients with SCLC were......Tumour cell adhesion, detachment and aggregation seem to play an important part in tumour invasion and metastasis, and numerous cell adhesion molecules are expressed by tumour cells. Several families of cell-cell adhesion molecules have been described, of which two groups are particularly well...... embryonic development, which may play a role in connection with tumour invasion and metastasis, was found in 14/18 NCAM expressing SCLC tumours. Individual tumours grown as cell lines and as nude mouse xenografts showed no qualitative differences in cadherin or NCAM expression....

  15. Assessment of citalopram and escitalopram on neuroblastoma cell lines: Cell toxicity and gene modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Laurent; Delétage, Nathalie; Chalus, Maryse; Aissouni, Youssef; Sylvain-Vidal, Valérie; Gobron, Stéphane; Coll, Guillaume

    2017-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are common antidepressants which cytotoxicity has been assessed in cancers notably colorectal carcinomas and glioma cell lines. We assessed and compared the cytotoxicity of 2 SSRI, citalopram and escitalopram, on neuroblastoma cell lines. The study was performed on 2 non-MYCN amplified cell lines (rat B104 and human SH-SY5Y) and 2 human MYCN amplified cell lines (IMR32 and Kelly). Citalopram and escitalopram showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity on all cell lines. Citalopram was more cytotoxic than escitalopram. IMR32 was the most sensitive cell line. The absence of toxicity on human primary Schwann cells demonstrated the safety of both molecules for myelin. The mechanisms of cytotoxicity were explored using gene-expression profiles and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Citalopram modulated 1 502 genes and escitalopram 1 164 genes with a fold change ≥ 2. 1 021 genes were modulated by both citalopram and escitalopram; 481 genes were regulated only by citalopram while 143 genes were regulated only by escitalopram. Citalopram modulated 69 pathways (KEGG) and escitalopram 42. Ten pathways were differently modulated by citalopram and escitalopram. Citalopram drastically decreased the expression of MYBL2, BIRC5 and BARD1 poor prognosis factors of neuroblastoma with fold-changes of -107 (pescitalopram. PMID:28467792

  16. Assessment of citalopram and escitalopram on neuroblastoma cell lines. Cell toxicity and gene modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Laurent; Delétage, Nathalie; Chalus, Maryse; Aissouni, Youssef; Sylvain-Vidal, Valérie; Gobron, Stéphane; Coll, Guillaume

    2017-06-27

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) are common antidepressants which cytotoxicity has been assessed in cancers notably colorectal carcinomas and glioma cell lines. We assessed and compared the cytotoxicity of 2 SSRI, citalopram and escitalopram, on neuroblastoma cell lines. The study was performed on 2 non-MYCN amplified cell lines (rat B104 and human SH-SY5Y) and 2 human MYCN amplified cell lines (IMR32 and Kelly). Citalopram and escitalopram showed concentration-dependent cytotoxicity on all cell lines. Citalopram was more cytotoxic than escitalopram. IMR32 was the most sensitive cell line. The absence of toxicity on human primary Schwann cells demonstrated the safety of both molecules for myelin. The mechanisms of cytotoxicity were explored using gene-expression profiles and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Citalopram modulated 1 502 genes and escitalopram 1 164 genes with a fold change ≥ 2. 1 021 genes were modulated by both citalopram and escitalopram; 481 genes were regulated only by citalopram while 143 genes were regulated only by escitalopram. Citalopram modulated 69 pathways (KEGG) and escitalopram 42. Ten pathways were differently modulated by citalopram and escitalopram. Citalopram drastically decreased the expression of MYBL2, BIRC5 and BARD1 poor prognosis factors of neuroblastoma with fold-changes of -107 (pescitalopram.

  17. Establishment of a novel human medulloblastoma cell line characterized by highly aggressive stem-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Patrícia Benites Gonçalves da; Rodini, Carolina Oliveira; Kaid, Carolini; Nakahata, Adriana Miti; Pereira, Márcia Cristina Leite; Matushita, Hamilton; Costa, Silvia Souza da; Okamoto, Oswaldo Keith

    2016-08-01

    Medulloblastoma is a highly aggressive brain tumor and one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality related to childhood cancer. These tumors display differential ability to metastasize and respond to treatment, which reflects their high degree of heterogeneity at the genetic and molecular levels. Such heterogeneity of medulloblastoma brings an additional challenge to the understanding of its physiopathology and impacts the development of new therapeutic strategies. This translational effort has been the focus of most pre-clinical studies which invariably employ experimental models using human tumor cell lines. Nonetheless, compared to other cancers, relatively few cell lines of human medulloblastoma are available in central repositories, partly due to the rarity of these tumors and to the intrinsic difficulties in establishing continuous cell lines from pediatric brain tumors. Here, we report the establishment of a new human medulloblastoma cell line which, in comparison with the commonly used and well-established cell line Daoy, is characterized by enhanced proliferation and invasion capabilities, stem cell properties, increased chemoresistance, tumorigenicity in an orthotopic metastatic model, replication of original medulloblastoma behavior in vivo, strong chromosome structural instability and deregulation of genes involved in neural development. These features are advantageous for designing biologically relevant experimental models in clinically oriented studies, making this novel cell line, named USP-13-Med, instrumental for the study of medulloblastoma biology and treatment.

  18. Hypoxia induces adipogenic differentitation of myoblastic cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoigawa, Yoshiaki [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Kishimoto, Koshi N., E-mail: kishimoto@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Okuno, Hiroshi; Sano, Hirotaka [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Kaneko, Kazuo [Juntendo University School of Medicine, Tokyo (Japan); Itoi, Eiji [Tohoku University School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2010-09-03

    Research highlights: {yields} C2C12 and G8 myogenic cell lines treated by hypoxia differentiate into adipocytes. {yields} The expression of C/EBP{beta}, {alpha} and PPAR{gamma} were increased under hypoxia. {yields} Myogenic differentiation of C2C12 was inhibited under hypoxia. -- Abstract: Muscle atrophy usually accompanies fat accumulation in the muscle. In such atrophic conditions as back muscles of kyphotic spine and the rotator cuff muscles with torn tendons, blood flow might be diminished. It is known that hypoxia causes trans-differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells derived from bone marrow into adipocytes. However, it has not been elucidated yet if hypoxia turned myoblasts into adipocytes. We investigated adipogenesis in C2C12 and G8 murine myogenic cell line treated by hypoxia. Cells were also treated with the cocktail of insulin, dexamethasone and IBMX (MDI), which has been known to inhibit Wnt signaling and promote adipogenesis. Adipogenic differentiation was seen in both hypoxia and MDI. Adipogenic marker gene expression was assessed in C2C12. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) {beta}, {alpha} and peroxisome proliferator activating receptor (PPAR) {gamma} were increased by both hypoxia and MDI. The expression profile of Wnt10b was different between hypoxia and MDI. The mechanism for adipogenesis of myoblasts in hypoxia might be regulated by different mechanism than the modification of Wnt signaling.

  19. CD3 receptor modulation in Jurkat leukemic cell line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek M Witkowski

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available CD3 antigen is a crucial molecule in T cell signal transduction. Although its expression on cell surface is constitutive, dynamic regulation of TCR-CD3 level is probably the most important mechanism allowing T cells to calibrate their response to different levels of stimuli. In our study we examined the role of two main T cell signal transduction pathways in controlling the surface level of CD3 antigen, one based on protein kinase C activity and the other dependent on calcineurin. As an experimental model we used three clones derived from Jurkat cell line, expressing different levels of CD3 antigen surface expression: CD3(low (217.6, CD3+(217.9 or CD3(low (217.7. The cells were stimulated with PMA or ionomycin, acting directly on PKC and calcineurin, respectively. Prior to the stimulation cells were incubated with PKC inhibitor--chelerythrine or calcineurin blocker--cyclosporine A. Changes in CD3 surface expression were measured by flow cytometry. Only PMA and chelerythrine were able to change CD3 expression suggesting important involvement of PKC in the regulation of its expression. To confirm these findings, PKC activity was estimated in Jurkat clones. Our data demonstrated that Jurkat clones with different CD3 expression showed also different PKC activities, so we conclude that PKC-dependent pathway is the main way of controlling CD3 level on Jurkat clones.

  20. Characterization of cell lines stably transfected with rubella virus replicons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Xu, Jie; Frey, Teryl K.

    2012-01-01

    Rubella virus (RUBV) replicons expressing a drug resistance gene and a gene of interest were used to select cell lines uniformly harboring the replicon. Replicons expressing GFP and a virus capsid protein GFP fusion (C-GFP) were compared. Vero or BHK cells transfected with either replicon survived drug selection and grew into a monolayer. However, survival was ∼9-fold greater following transfection with the C-GFP-replicon than with the GFP-expressing replicon and while the C-GFP-replicon cells grew similarly to non-transfected cells, the GFP-replicon cells grew slower. Neither was due to the ability of the CP to enhance RNA synthesis but survival during drug selection was correlated with the ability of CP to inhibit apoptosis. Additionally, C-GFP-replicon cells were not cured of the replicon in the absence of drug selection. Interferon-alpha suppressed replicon RNA and protein synthesis, but did not cure the cells, explaining in part the ability of RUBV to establish persistent infections.

  1. Characterization of cell lines stably transfected with rubella virus replicons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tzeng, Wen-Pin; Xu, Jie [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States); Frey, Teryl K., E-mail: tfrey@gsu.edu [Department of Biology, Georgia State University, P.O. Box 4010, Atlanta GA 30302-4010 (United States)

    2012-07-20

    Rubella virus (RUBV) replicons expressing a drug resistance gene and a gene of interest were used to select cell lines uniformly harboring the replicon. Replicons expressing GFP and a virus capsid protein GFP fusion (C-GFP) were compared. Vero or BHK cells transfected with either replicon survived drug selection and grew into a monolayer. However, survival was {approx}9-fold greater following transfection with the C-GFP-replicon than with the GFP-expressing replicon and while the C-GFP-replicon cells grew similarly to non-transfected cells, the GFP-replicon cells grew slower. Neither was due to the ability of the CP to enhance RNA synthesis but survival during drug selection was correlated with the ability of CP to inhibit apoptosis. Additionally, C-GFP-replicon cells were not cured of the replicon in the absence of drug selection. Interferon-alpha suppressed replicon RNA and protein synthesis, but did not cure the cells, explaining in part the ability of RUBV to establish persistent infections.

  2. Multidrug resistance and retroviral transduction potential in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, M D; Gram, G J; Jensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) remains a major problem in the successful treatment of small cell lung cancer (SCLC). New treatment strategies are needed, such as gene therapy specifically targeting the MDR cells in the tumor. Retroviral LacZ gene-containing vectors that were either pseudotyped...... for the gibbon ape leukemia virus (GALV-1) receptor or had specificity for the amphotropic murine leukemia virus (MLV-A) receptor were used for transduction of five SCLC cell lines differing by a range of MDR mechanisms. Transduction efficiencies in these cell lines were compared by calculating the percentage...... of blue colonies after X-Gal staining of the cells grown in soft agar. All examined SCLC cell lines were transducible with either vector. Transduction efficiencies varied from 5.7% to 33.5% independent of the presence of MDR. These results indicate that MDR does not severely impair transduction of SCLC...

  3. Radiation-induced apoptosis and cell cycle checkpoints in human colorectal tumour cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Playle, L.C.

    2001-03-01

    The p53 tumour suppressor gene is mutated in 75% of colorectal carcinomas and is critical for DNA damage-induced G1 cell cycle arrest. Data presented in this thesis demonstrate that after treatment with Ionizing Radiation (IR), colorectal tumour cell lines with mutant p53 are unable to arrest at G1 and undergo cell cycle arrest at G2. The staurosporine derivative, UCN-01, was shown to abrogate the IR-induced G2 checkpoint in colorectal tumour cell lines. Furthermore, in some cell lines, abrogation of the G2 checkpoint was associated with radiosensitisation. Data presented in this study demonstrate that 2 out of 5 cell lines with mutant p53 were sensitised to IR by UCN-01. In order to determine whether radiosensitisation correlated with lack of functional p53, transfected derivatives of an adenoma-derived cell line were studied, in which endogenous wild type p53 was disrupted by expression of a dominant negative p53 mutant protein (and with a vector control). In both these cell lines UCN-01 abrogated the G2 arrest however this was not associated with radiosensitisation, indicating that radiosensitisation is a cell type-specific phenomenon. Although 2 colorectal carcinoma cell lines, with mutant p53, were sensitised to IR by UCN-01, the mechanisms of p53-independent IR-induced apoptosis in the colon are essentially unknown. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways (that is the JNK, p38 and ERK pathways) have been implicated in apoptosis in a range of cell systems and in IR-induced apoptosis in some cell types. Data presented in this study show that, although the MAPKs can be activated by the known activator anisomycin, there is no evidence of a role for MAPKs in IR-induced apoptosis in colorectal tumour cell lines, regardless of p53 status. In summary, some colorectal tumour cell lines with mutant p53 can be sensitised to IR-induced cell death by G2 checkpoint abrogation and this may be an important treatment strategy, however mechanisms of IR-induced p53

  4. Transcriptional signature of accessory cells in the lateral line, using the Tnk1bp1:EGFP transgenic zebrafish line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behra, Martine; Gallardo, Viviana E; Bradsher, John; Torrado, Aranza; Elkahloun, Abdel; Idol, Jennifer; Sheehy, Jessica; Zonies, Seth; Xu, Lisha; Shaw, Kenna M; Satou, Chie; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Weinstein, Brant M; Burgess, Shawn M

    2012-01-24

    Because of the structural and molecular similarities between the two systems, the lateral line, a fish and amphibian specific sensory organ, has been widely used in zebrafish as a model to study the development/biology of neuroepithelia of the inner ear. Both organs have hair cells, which are the mechanoreceptor cells, and supporting cells providing other functions to the epithelium. In most vertebrates (excluding mammals), supporting cells comprise a pool of progenitors that replace damaged or dead hair cells. However, the lack of regenerative capacity in mammals is the single leading cause for acquired hearing disorders in humans. In an effort to understand the regenerative process of hair cells in fish, we characterized and cloned an egfp transgenic stable fish line that trapped tnks1bp1, a highly conserved gene that has been implicated in the maintenance of telomeres' length. We then used this Tg(tnks1bp1:EGFP) line in a FACsorting strategy combined with microarrays to identify new molecular markers for supporting cells. We present a Tg(tnks1bp1:EGFP) stable transgenic line, which we used to establish a transcriptional profile of supporting cells in the zebrafish lateral line. Therefore we are providing a new set of markers specific for supporting cells as well as candidates for functional analysis of this important cell type. This will prove to be a valuable tool for the study of regeneration in the lateral line of zebrafish in particular and for regeneration of neuroepithelia in general.

  5. Molecular signatures in response to Isoliquiritigenin in lymphoblastoid cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae-Eun; Hong, Eun-Jung; Nam, Hye-Young [National Biobank of Korea, Center for Genome Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Meeyul [Research Center for Biomedical Resource of Oriental Medicine, Daegu Haany University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji-Hyun [National Biobank of Korea, Center for Genome Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Korea, Republic of); Han, Bok-Ghee, E-mail: bokghee@nih.go.kr [National Biobank of Korea, Center for Genome Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Jae-Pil, E-mail: jpjeon@cdc.go.kr [National Biobank of Korea, Center for Genome Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We identified the inhibitory effect of ISL on cell proliferation of LCLs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We found ISL-induced genes and miRNAs through microarray approach. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ISL-treated LCLs represented gene expression changes in cell cycle and p53 pathway. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We revealed 12 putative mRNA-miRNA functional pairs associated with ISL effect. -- Abstract: Isoliquiritigenin (ISL) has been known to induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of various cancer cells. However, genetic factors regulating ISL effects remain unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the molecular signatures involved in ISL-induced cell death of EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) using microarray analyses. For gene expression and microRNA (miRNA) microarray experiments, each of 12 LCL strains was independently treated with ISL or DMSO as a vehicle control for a day prior to total RNA extraction. ISL treatment inhibited cell proliferation of LCLs in a dose-dependent manner. Microarray analysis showed that ISL-treated LCLs represented gene expression changes in cell cycle and p53 signaling pathway, having a potential as regulators in LCL survival and sensitivity to ISL-induced cytotoxicity. In addition, 36 miRNAs including five miRNAs with unknown functions were differentially expressed in ISL-treated LCLs. The integrative analysis of miRNA and gene expression profiles revealed 12 putative mRNA-miRNA functional pairs. Among them, miR-1207-5p and miR-575 were negatively correlated with p53 pathway- and cell cycle-associated genes, respectively. In conclusion, our study suggests that miRNAs play an important role in ISL-induced cytotoxicity in LCLs by targeting signaling pathways including p53 pathway and cell cycle.

  6. UV light blocks EGFR signalling in human cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, BB; Neves-Petersen, M T; Klitgaard, S

    2007-01-01

    UV light excites aromatic residues, causing these to disrupt nearby disulphide bridges. The EGF receptor is rich in aromatic residues near the disulphide bridges. Herein we show that laser-pulsed UV illumination of two different skin-derived cancer cell lines i.e. Cal-39 and A431, which both...... antibodies. There was a threshold level, below which the receptor could not be blocked. In addition, illumination caused the cells to upregulate the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1, irrespective of the p53 status. Since the EGF receptor is often overexpressed in cancers and other proliferative skin...... disorders, it might be possible to significantly reduce the proliferative potential of these cells making them good targets for laser-pulsed UV light treatment....

  7. Internalization of cystatin C in human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, Ulf; Wallin, Hanna; Lorenzo, Julia; Holmqvist, Bo; Abrahamson, Magnus; Avilés, Francesc X

    2008-09-01

    Altered protease activity is considered important for tumour invasion and metastasis, processes in which the cysteine proteases cathepsin B and L are involved. Their natural inhibitor cystatin C is a secreted protein, suggesting that it functions to control extracellular protease activity. Because cystatins added to cell cultures can inhibit polio, herpes simplex and coronavirus replication, which are intracellular processes, the internalization and intracellular regulation of cysteine proteases by cystatin C should be considered. The extension, mechanism and biological importance of this hypothetical process are unknown. We investigated whether internalization of cystatin C occurs in a set of human cell lines. Demonstrated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy, A-431, MCF-7, MDA-MB-453, MDA-MB-468 and Capan-1 cells internalized fluorophore-conjugated cystatin C when exposed to physiological concentrations (1 microm). During cystatin C incubation, intracellular cystatin C increased after 5 min and accumulated for at least 6 h, reaching four to six times the baseline level. Western blotting showed that the internalized inhibitor was not degraded. It was functionally intact and extracts of cells exposed to cystatin C showed a higher capacity to inhibit papain and cathepsin B than control cells (decrease in enzyme activity of 34% and 37%, respectively). The uptake of labelled cystatin C was inhibited by unlabelled inhibitor, suggesting a specific pathway for the internalization. We conclude that the cysteine protease inhibitor cystatin C is internalized in significant quantities in various cancer cell lines. This is a potentially important physiological phenomenon not previously described for this group of inhibitors.

  8. Expression of cadherin and NCAM in human small cell lung cancer cell lines and xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, K; Møller, C; Bock, E

    1992-01-01

    characterised, the cadherin family and the Ig superfamily member, neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). We investigated expression of these two adhesion molecule families in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and xenografts by immunoblotting. Nineteen tumours established from 15 patients with SCLC were...... embryonic development, which may play a role in connection with tumour invasion and metastasis, was found in 14/18 NCAM expressing SCLC tumours. Individual tumours grown as cell lines and as nude mouse xenografts showed no qualitative differences in cadherin or NCAM expression....

  9. Detection of circulating tumour cells on mRNA levels with established breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zebisch, Michael; Kölbl, Alexandra C; Andergassen, Ulrich; Hutter, Stephan; Neugebauer, Julia; Engelstädter, Verena; Günthner-Biller, Maria; Jeschke, Udo; Friese, Klaus; Rack, Brigitte

    2013-03-01

    Circulating tumour cells were detected and quantified by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood, based on the fact that the expression of certain genes is upregulated in tumour tissues in comparison to surrounding blood cells. Calibration curves showing gene expression as functions of the number of tumour cells within a blood sample were prepared. Blood samples were therefore spiked with cells of breast cancer cell lines, RNA was extracted, transcribed to complementary DNA (cDNA) and used in real-time PCR reaction on the Cytokeratins (CK) 8, 18 and 19. Calibration curves were generated by Microsoft™ Excel®. Relative quantification curves of gene expression in different breast cancer cell lines showed no unitary tendencies. The oscillations in the relative quantification curves of gene expression suggested an occurrence of immunological effects, leading to an apparent agglutination of added tumour cells together with the blood cells of the sample. Thus, strategies to obtain evaluable results should be considered.

  10. Mechanisms of cell sensitization to alpha radioimmunotherapy by doxorubicin or paclitaxel in multiple myeloma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supiot, Stephane; Gouard, Sebastien; Charrier, Josiane; Apostolidis, Christos; Chatal, Jean-Francois; Barbet, Jacques; Davodeau, François; Cherel, Michel

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze different mechanisms (cell cycle synchronization, DNA damage, and apoptosis) that might underlie potential synergy between chemotherapy (paclitaxel or doxorubicin) and radioimmunotherapy with alpha radionuclides. Three multiple myeloma cell lines (LP1, RMI 8226, and U266) were treated with 213Bi-radiolabeled B-B4, a monoclonal antibody that recognizes syndecan-1 (CD138) 24 hours after paclitaxel (1 nmol/L) or doxorubicin (10 nmol/L) treatment. Cell survival was assessed using a clonogenic survival assay. Cell cycle modifications were assessed by propidium iodide staining and DNA strand breaks by the comet assay. Level of apoptosis was determined by Apo 2.7 staining. Radiation enhancement ratio showed that paclitaxel and doxorubicin were synergistic with alpha radioimmunotherapy. After a 24-hour incubation, paclitaxel and doxorubicin arrested all cell lines in the G2-M phase of the cell cycle. Doxorubicin combined with alpha radioimmunotherapy increased tail DNA in the RPMI 8226 cell line but not the LP1 or U266 cell lines compared with doxorubicin alone or alpha radioimmunotherapy alone. Neither doxorubicin nor paclitaxel combined with alpha radioimmunotherapy increased the level of apoptosis induced by either drug alone or alpha radioimmunotherapy alone. Both cell cycle arrest in the G2-M phase and an increase in DNA double-strand breaks could lead to radiosensitization of cells by doxorubicin or paclitaxel, but apoptosis would not be involved in radiosensitization mechanisms.

  11. Functional somatostatin receptors on a rat pancreatic acinar cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viguerie, N.; Tahiri-Jouti, N.; Esteve, J.P.; Clerc, P.; Logsdon, C.; Svoboda, M.; Susini, C.; Vaysse, N.; Ribet, A.

    1988-01-01

    Somatostatin receptors from a rat pancreatic acinar cell line, AR4-2J, were characterized biochemically, structurally, and functionally. Binding of 125 I-[Tyr 11 ]Somatostatin to AR4-2J cells was saturable, exhibiting a single class of high-affinity binding sites with a maximal binding capacity of 258 ± 20 fmol/10 6 cells. Somatostatin receptor structure was analyzed by covalently cross-linking 125 I-[Tyr 11 ]somatostatin to its plasma membrane receptors. Gel electrophoresis and autoradiography of cross-linked proteins revealed a peptide containing the somatostatin receptor. Somatostatin inhibited vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-stimulated adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) formation in a dose-dependent manner. The concentration of somatostatin that caused half-maximal inhibition of cAMP formation was close to the receptor affinity for somatostatin. Pertussis toxin pretreatment of AR4-2J cells prevented somatostatin inhibition of VIP-stimulated cAMP formation as well as somatostatin binding. The authors conclude that AR4-2J cells exhibit functional somatostatin receptors that retain both specificity and affinity of the pancreatic acinar cell somatostatin receptors and act via the pertussis toxin-sensitive guanine nucleotide-binding protein N i to inhibit adenylate cyclase

  12. New model for gastroenteropancreatic large-cell neuroendocrine carcinoma: establishment of two clinically relevant cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Krieg

    Full Text Available Recently, a novel WHO-classification has been introduced that divided gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasms (GEP-NEN according to their proliferation index into G1- or G2-neuroendocrine tumors (NET and poorly differentiated small-cell or large-cell G3-neuroendocrine carcinomas (NEC. Our knowledge on primary NECs of the GEP-system is limited due to the rarity of these tumors and chemotherapeutic concepts of highly aggressive NEC do not provide convincing results. The aim of this study was to establish a reliable cell line model for NEC that could be helpful in identifying novel druggable molecular targets. Cell lines were established from liver (NEC-DUE1 or lymph node metastases (NEC-DUE2 from large cell NECs of the gastroesophageal junction and the large intestine, respectively. Morphological characteristics and expression of neuroendocrine markers were extensively analyzed. Chromosomal aberrations were mapped by array comparative genomic hybridization and DNA profiling was analyzed by DNA fingerprinting. In vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity was evaluated and the sensitivity against chemotherapeutic agents assessed. Both cell lines exhibited typical morphological and molecular features of large cell NEC. In vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that both cell lines retained their malignant properties. Whereas NEC-DUE1 and -DUE2 were resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs such as cisplatin, etoposide and oxaliplatin, a high sensitivity to 5-fluorouracil was observed for the NEC-DUE1 cell line. Taken together, we established and characterized the first GEP large-cell NEC cell lines that might serve as a helpful tool not only to understand the biology of these tumors, but also to establish novel targeted therapies in a preclinical setup.

  13. Characterization of the novel Sezary lymphoma cell line BKP1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudjarane, John; Essaydi, Arnaud; Farnault, Laure; Popovici, Cornel; Lafage-Pochitaloff, Marina; Beaufils, Nathalie; Berda-Haddad, Yaël; Lacroix, Romaric; Nicolino-Brunet, Corinne; Le Treut, Thérèse; Zattara, Hélène; Gabert, Jean; Kahn-Perlès, Brigitte; Costello, Régis

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous T-cell lymphomas (CTCL) are a heterogeneous group of lymphomas primarily involving the skin. The most common types are mycosis fungoides (MF) and Sezary Syndrome (SS). We report a novel long-term fast-growing SS line termed BKP1 that was characterized by flow cytometry (FC), conventional and molecular cytogenetic [FISH/multi-FISH together with array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH)]. FC immunophenotype of the BKP1 is CD2+CD5+CD3+CD4+CD8-CD7-CD25-CD26-CD30-CD158k+. The TCRγ characterization of BKP1 by PCR identified a clonal rearrangement. The conventional cytogenetic and Multi-FISH analysis showed complex chromosomal rearrangements. aCGH analysis highlighted the loss of genes involved in cell cycle control, in immune response (HLA, complement complex) and DNA damage repair mechanisms. The BKP1 is another lymphoma cell line thoroughly characterized that can be a valuable tool for both basic and applied research such as identification of deregulated genes and/or pathways and screening for new antilymphoma drugs. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Establishment of immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines able to produce enucleated red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryo Kurita

    Full Text Available Transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs is a standard and indispensable therapy in current clinical practice. In vitro production of RBCs offers a potential means to overcome a shortage of transfusable RBCs in some clinical situations and also to provide a source of cells free from possible infection or contamination by microorganisms. Thus, in vitro production of RBCs may become a standard procedure in the future. We previously reported the successful establishment of immortalized mouse erythroid progenitor cell lines that were able to produce mature RBCs very efficiently. Here, we have developed a reliable protocol for establishing immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines that are able to produce enucleated RBCs. These immortalized cell lines produce functional hemoglobin and express erythroid-specific markers, and these markers are upregulated following induction of differentiation in vitro. Most importantly, these immortalized cell lines all produce enucleated RBCs after induction of differentiation in vitro, although the efficiency of producing enucleated RBCs remains to be improved further. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of the feasibility of using immortalized human erythroid progenitor cell lines as an ex vivo source for production of enucleated RBCs.

  15. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: Problems & perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajvi H Mehta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been ′discarded′ or ′spare′ fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. In case a couple does not desire to ′cryopreserve′ their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered ′spare′ or if a couple is no longer in need of the ′cryopreserved′ embryos then these also can be considered as ′spare′. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, "what about ′slightly′ over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to ′discarded′ embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of ′discarding′ embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential ′use′ of ESC derived from the ′abnormal appearing′ embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material.

  16. Sourcing human embryos for embryonic stem cell lines: problems & perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Rajvi H

    2014-11-01

    The ability to successfully derive human embryonic stem cells (hESC) lines from human embryos following in vitro fertilization (IVF) opened up a plethora of potential applications of this technique. These cell lines could have been successfully used to increase our understanding of human developmental biology, transplantation medicine and the emerging science of regenerative medicine. The main source for human embryos has been 'discarded' or 'spare' fresh or frozen human embryos following IVF. It is a common practice to stimulate the ovaries of women undergoing any of the assisted reproductive technologies (ART) and retrieve multiple oocytes which subsequently lead to multiple embryos. Of these, only two or maximum of three embryos are transferred while the rest are cryopreserved as per the decision of the couple. in case a couple does not desire to 'cryopreserve' their embryos then all the embryos remaining following embryo transfer can be considered 'spare' or if a couple is no longer in need of the 'cryopreserved' embryos then these also can be considered as 'spare'. But, the question raised by the ethicists is, "what about 'slightly' over-stimulating a woman to get a few extra eggs and embryos? The decision becomes more difficult when it comes to 'discarded' embryos. As of today, the quality of the embryos is primarily assessed based on morphology and the rate of development mainly judged by single point assessment. Despite many criteria described in the literature, the quality assessment is purely subjective. The question that arises is on the decision of 'discarding' embryos. What would be the criteria for discarding embryos and the potential 'use' of ESC derived from the 'abnormal appearing' embryos? This paper discusses some of the newer methods to procure embryos for the derivation of embryonic stem cell lines which will respect the ethical concerns but still provide the source material.

  17. Tumor associated macrophage × cancer cell hybrids may acquire cancer stem cell properties in breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxian Ding

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among women, and metastasis makes it lethal. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs that acquire an alternatively activated macrophage (M2 phenotype may promote metastasis. However, the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Here, we examined how TAMs interact with breast cancer cells to promote metastasis. Immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression of the M2-specific antigen CD163 in paraffin-embedded mammary carcinoma blocks to explore fusion events in breast cancer patients. U937 cells were used as a substitute for human monocytes, and these cells differentiated into M2 macrophages following phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and M-CSF stimulation. M2 macrophages and the breast cancer cell lines MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 fused in the presence of 50% polyethylene glycol. Hybrids were isolated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, and the relevant cell biological properties were compared with their parental counterparts. Breast cancer stem cell (BCSC-related markers were quantified by immunofluorescence staining, RT-PCR, quantitative RT-PCR and/or western blotting. The tumor-initiating and metastatic capacities of the hybrids and their parental counterparts were assessed in NOD/SCID mice. We found that the CD163 expression rate in breast cancer tissues varied significantly and correlated with estrogen receptor status (p0.05. Characterization of the fusion hybrids revealed a more aggressive phenotype, including increased migration, invasion and tumorigenicity, but reduced proliferative ability, compared with the parental lines. The hybrids also gained a CD44(+CD24(-/low phenotype and over-expressed epithelial-mesenchymal transition-associated genes. These results indicate that TAMs may promote breast cancer metastasis through cell fusion, and the hybrids may gain a BCSC phenotype.

  18. Development of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis embryonic stem cell lines from somatic cell nuclear transferred blastocysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mohmad Shah

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available We developed buffalo embryonic stem cell lines from somatic cell nuclear transfer derived blastocysts, produced by hand-guided cloning technique. The inner cell mass of the blastocyst was cut mechanically using a Microblade and cultured onto feeder cells in buffalo embryonic stem (ES cell culture medium at 38 °C in a 5% CO2 incubator. The stem cell colonies were characterized for alkaline phosphatase activity, karyotype, pluripotency and self-renewal markers like OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, c-Myc, FOXD3, SSEA-1, SSEA-4, TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81 and CD90. The cell lines also possessed the capability to differentiate across all the three germ layers under spontaneous differentiation conditions.

  19. Singlet oxygen mediated DNA degradation by copper nanoparticles: potential towards cytotoxic effect on cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sengupta Tapas K

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The DNA degradation potential and anti-cancer activities of copper nanoparticles of 4-5 nm size are reported. A dose dependent degradation of isolated DNA molecules by copper nanoparticles through generation of singlet oxygen was observed. Singlet oxygen scavengers such as sodium azide and Tris [hydroxyl methyl] amino methane were able to prevent the DNA degradation action of copper nanoparticles confirming the involvement of activated oxygen species in the degradation process. Additionally, it was observed that the copper nanoparticles are able to exert cytotoxic effect towards U937 and Hela cells of human histiocytic lymphoma and human cervical cancer origins, respectively by inducing apoptosis. The growth characteristics of U937 and Hela cells were studied applying various concentrations of the copper nanoparticles.

  20. Singlet oxygen mediated DNA degradation by copper nanoparticles: potential towards cytotoxic effect on cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Gregor P; Santra, Subhankar; Mandal, Swadhin K; Sengupta, Tapas K

    2011-03-25

    The DNA degradation potential and anti-cancer activities of copper nanoparticles of 4-5 nm size are reported. A dose dependent degradation of isolated DNA molecules by copper nanoparticles through generation of singlet oxygen was observed. Singlet oxygen scavengers such as sodium azide and Tris [hydroxyl methyl] amino methane were able to prevent the DNA degradation action of copper nanoparticles confirming the involvement of activated oxygen species in the degradation process. Additionally, it was observed that the copper nanoparticles are able to exert cytotoxic effect towards U937 and Hela cells of human histiocytic lymphoma and human cervical cancer origins, respectively by inducing apoptosis. The growth characteristics of U937 and Hela cells were studied applying various concentrations of the copper nanoparticles.

  1. Characterization of UV radiation sensitive frog cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith-Stein, A.C.

    1983-01-01

    Twenty-one subclones of nine frog cell isolates were tested for sensitivity to a panel of DNA damaging agents. Two clones were identified which had a greater than wild type level of sensitivity to UV radiation but had a wild type level of sensitivity to the other agents. These clones were the haploid RRP602-7 and the diploid RRP802-1. RRP802-1 was found to be unstable with respect to UV sensitivity. The line was cloned in order to isolate stable sensitive and wild type derivatives. RRP802-1-16, a UV sensitive clone and RRP802-1-13, a clone with a wild type level of sensitivity to UV radiation, were isolated. The UV radiation sensitivity of RRP602-7, RRP802-1 and RRP802-1-16 did not correlate with cell size, cell shape, cell cycle distribution or ploidy. The cell cycle distribution after UV irradiation, the rate of DNA synthesis after UV-irradiation, the DNA polymerase α activity and the sister chromatid exchange frequency were all measured in RRP602-7, RRP802-1 and RRP802-1-16 in order to examine the DNA repair capacity. The presence of DNA repair pathways was examined directly in RRP602-7, RRP802-1 and RRP802-1-16. All were found to be proficient in photo-reactivation repair and postreplication repair of UV elicited DNA damage

  2. Identification of genes associated with cisplatin resistance in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ping

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin is widely used for chemotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, details of the molecular mechanism responsible for cisplatin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the expression of genes related to cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Methods A cisplatin-resistant cell line, Tca/cisplatin, was established from a cisplatin-sensitive cell line, Tca8113, which was derived from moderately-differentiated tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Global gene expression in this resistant cell line and its sensitive parent cell line was analyzed using Affymetrix HG-U95Av2 microarrays. Candidate genes involved in DNA repair, the MAP pathway and cell cycle regulation were chosen to validate the microarray analysis results. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis following cisplatin exposure were also investigated. Results Cisplatin resistance in Tca/cisplatin cells was stable for two years in cisplatin-free culture medium. The IC50 for cisplatin in Tca/cisplatin was 6.5-fold higher than that in Tca8113. Microarray analysis identified 38 genes that were up-regulated and 25 that were down-regulated in this cell line. Some were novel candidates, while others are involved in well-characterized mechanisms that could be relevant to cisplatin resistance, such as RECQL for DNA repair and MAP2K6 in the MAP pathway; all the genes were further validated by Real-time PCR. The cell cycle-regulated genes CCND1 and CCND3 were involved in cisplatin resistance; 24-hour exposure to 10 μM cisplatin induced a marked S phase block in Tca/cisplatin cells but not in Tca8113 cells. Conclusion The Tca8113 cell line and its stable drug-resistant variant Tca/cisplatin provided a useful model for identifying candidate genes responsible for the mechanism of cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Our data provide a useful basis for screening candidate targets for early diagnosis

  3. Identification of genes associated with cisplatin resistance in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ping; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Zhou, Xiaojian; Qiu, Weiliu; Chen, Fangan; Chen, Wantao

    2006-01-01

    Cisplatin is widely used for chemotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, details of the molecular mechanism responsible for cisplatin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the expression of genes related to cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. A cisplatin-resistant cell line, Tca/cisplatin, was established from a cisplatin-sensitive cell line, Tca8113, which was derived from moderately-differentiated tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Global gene expression in this resistant cell line and its sensitive parent cell line was analyzed using Affymetrix HG-U95Av2 microarrays. Candidate genes involved in DNA repair, the MAP pathway and cell cycle regulation were chosen to validate the microarray analysis results. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis following cisplatin exposure were also investigated. Cisplatin resistance in Tca/cisplatin cells was stable for two years in cisplatin-free culture medium. The IC50 for cisplatin in Tca/cisplatin was 6.5-fold higher than that in Tca8113. Microarray analysis identified 38 genes that were up-regulated and 25 that were down-regulated in this cell line. Some were novel candidates, while others are involved in well-characterized mechanisms that could be relevant to cisplatin resistance, such as RECQL for DNA repair and MAP2K6 in the MAP pathway; all the genes were further validated by Real-time PCR. The cell cycle-regulated genes CCND1 and CCND3 were involved in cisplatin resistance; 24-hour exposure to 10 μM cisplatin induced a marked S phase block in Tca/cisplatin cells but not in Tca8113 cells. The Tca8113 cell line and its stable drug-resistant variant Tca/cisplatin provided a useful model for identifying candidate genes responsible for the mechanism of cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Our data provide a useful basis for screening candidate targets for early diagnosis and further intervention in cisplatin resistance

  4. Doxycycline alters metabolism and proliferation of human cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ethan Ahler

    Full Text Available The tetracycline antibiotics are widely used in biomedical research as mediators of inducible gene expression systems. Despite many known effects of tetracyclines on mammalian cells-including inhibition of the mitochondrial ribosome-there have been few reports on potential off-target effects at concentrations commonly used in inducible systems. Here, we report that in human cell lines, commonly used concentrations of doxycycline change gene expression patterns and concomitantly shift metabolism towards a more glycolytic phenotype, evidenced by increased lactate secretion and reduced oxygen consumption. We also show that these concentrations are sufficient to slow proliferation. These findings suggest that researchers using doxycycline in inducible expression systems should design appropriate controls to account for potential confounding effects of the drug on cellular metabolism.

  5. [Expression of human Jagged-1 protein on eukaryotic cells and establishment of stable transfectant cell line].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhi-Hua; Chen, Yu; Yan, Hua; Wang, Kan-Kan

    2010-08-01

    Jagged-1 protein is one of the ligands belonging to Notch signaling pathway. Notch signaling pathway is one of the major signaling pathways mediated by contact between cells and plays an important role to regulate the process of proliferation and differentiation of hematopoietic cells in the hematopoietic microenvironment. To study the biological effect after the combination of receptor and ligand in Notch signaling pathway and the mechanism of Notch signaling pathway in bone marrow stromal cells mediated-drug resistance, a NIH-3T3 cell line over-expressing Jagged-1 protein was constructed for further research purposes. A full coding region of Jagged-1 gene was cloned and inserted into eukaryotic expression plasmid to construct pEGFP-IRES2-Jagged-1 eukaryotic expression vector, then transfected into NIH-3T3 cell line, a mammalian cells. As a result Western blot analysis confirmed that the transfectant NIH-3T3 cells highly expressed Jagged-1 protein and flow cytometry analysis confirmed that the NIH-3T3-pEGFP-IRES2-Jagged-1 cell line over-expressed Jagged-1 protein was monoclonal after screened by selective medium and limiting dilution analysis. It is concluded that the pEGFP-IRES2-Jagged-1 eukaryotic expression vector and a stable transfectant monoclonal NIH-3T3 cell line are successfully established. The construction of the stable transfectant monoclonal NIH-3T3 cell line which overexpressed Jagged-1 protein, provides the conditions to further study the mechanism of the bone marrow stromal cell-mediated drug resistance and to discover the new drug targets.

  6. A vertically integrated dynamic RAM-cell: Buried bit line memory cell with floating transfer layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouthaan, A.J.; Vertregt, Maarten

    1986-01-01

    A charge injection device has been realized in which charge can be injected on to an MOS-capacitor from a buried layer via an isolated transfer layer. The cell is positioned vertically between word and bit line. LOCOS (local oxidation) is used to isolate the cells and (deep) ion implantation to

  7. Role of free radicals in an adriamycin-resistant human small cell lung cancer cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, C.; Mulder, N H; Timmer-Bosscha, H; Zijlstra, J G; de Vries, E G

    1987-01-01

    In two Adriamycin (Adr) resistant sublines (GLC4-Adr1 and GLC4-Adr2) of a human small cell lung carcinoma cell line, GLC4, cross-resistance for radiation was found. GLC4-Adr1 has an acquired Adr resistance factor of 44 after culturing without Adr for 20 days and GLC4-Adr2, the same subline cultured

  8. Multidrug resistance and retroviral transduction potential in human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theilade, M D; Gram, G J; Jensen, P B

    1999-01-01

    of blue colonies after X-Gal staining of the cells grown in soft agar. All examined SCLC cell lines were transducible with either vector. Transduction efficiencies varied from 5.7% to 33.5% independent of the presence of MDR. These results indicate that MDR does not severely impair transduction of SCLC...

  9. 3-Bromopyruvate induces necrotic cell death in sensitive melanoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin, J.-Z.; Xin, H.; Nickoloff, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    Clinicians successfully utilize high uptake of radiolabeled glucose via PET scanning to localize metastases in melanoma patients. To take advantage of this altered metabolome, 3-bromopyruvate (BrPA) was used to overcome the notorious resistance of melanoma to cell death. Using four melanoma cell lines, BrPA triggered caspase independent necrosis in two lines, whilst the other two lines were resistant to killing. Mechanistically, sensitive cells differed from resistant cells by; constitutively lower levels of glutathione, reduction of glutathione by BrPA only in sensitive cells; increased superoxide anion reactive oxygen species, loss of outer mitochondrial membrane permeability, and rapid ATP depletion. Sensitive cell killing was blocked by N-acetylcysteine or glutathione. When glutathione levels were reduced in resistant cell lines, they became sensitive to killing by BrPA. Taken together, these results identify a metabolic-based Achilles' heel in melanoma cells to be exploited by use of BrPA. Future pre-clinical and clinical trials are warranted to translate these results into improved patient care for individuals suffering from metastatic melanoma.

  10. In vitro evaluation of a new nitrosourea, TCNU, against human small cell lung cancer cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roed, H; Vindeløv, L L; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1987-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of a new nitrosourea, TCNU, was compared with that of BCNU in five human small cell lung cancer cell lines in vitro. TCNU was found to be equivalent or inferior to BCNU when compared on a microgram to microgram basis. If the potential of in vitro phase II trials for selection...

  11. Characterisation and Manipulation of Docetaxel Resistant Prostate Cancer Cell Lines

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Neill, Amanda J

    2011-10-07

    Abstract Background There is no effective treatment strategy for advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer. Although Docetaxel (Taxotere®) represents the most active chemotherapeutic agent it only gives a modest survival advantage with most patients eventually progressing because of inherent or acquired drug resistance. The aims of this study were to further investigate the mechanisms of resistance to Docetaxel. Three Docetaxel resistant sub-lines were generated and confirmed to be resistant to the apoptotic and anti-proliferative effects of increasing concentrations of Docetaxel. Results The resistant DU-145 R and 22RV1 R had expression of P-glycoprotein and its inhibition with Elacridar partially and totally reversed the resistant phenotype in the two cell lines respectively, which was not seen in the PC-3 resistant sublines. Resistance was also not mediated in the PC-3 cells by cellular senescence or autophagy but multiple changes in pro- and anti-apoptotic genes and proteins were demonstrated. Even though there were lower basal levels of NF-κB activity in the PC-3 D12 cells compared to the Parental PC-3, docetaxel induced higher NF-κB activity and IκB phosphorylation at 3 and 6 hours with only minor changes in the DU-145 cells. Inhibition of NF-κB with the BAY 11-7082 inhibitor reversed the resistance to Docetaxel. Conclusion This study confirms that multiple mechanisms contribute to Docetaxel resistance and the central transcription factor NF-κB plays an immensely important role in determining docetaxel-resistance which may represent an appropriate therapeutic target.

  12. Epigenetic alterations differ in phenotypically distinct human neuroblastoma cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Qiwei; Tian, Yufeng; Ostler, Kelly R; Chlenski, Alexandre; Guerrero, Lisa J; Salwen, Helen R; Godley, Lucy A; Cohn, Susan L

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetic aberrations and a CpG island methylator phenotype have been shown to be associated with poor outcomes in children with neuroblastoma (NB). Seven cancer related genes (THBS-1, CASP8, HIN-1, TIG-1, BLU, SPARC, and HIC-1) that have been shown to have epigenetic changes in adult cancers and play important roles in the regulation of angiogenesis, tumor growth, and apoptosis were analyzed to investigate the role epigenetic alterations play in determining NB phenotype. Two NB cell lines (tumorigenic LA1-55n and non-tumorigenic LA1-5s) that differ in their ability to form colonies in soft agar and tumors in nude mice were used. Quantitative RNA expression analyses were performed on seven genes in LA1-5s, LA1-55n and 5-Aza-dC treated LA1-55n NB cell lines. The methylation status around THBS-1, HIN-1, TIG-1 and CASP8 promoters was examined using methylation specific PCR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay was used to examine histone modifications along the THBS-1 promoter. Luciferase assay was used to determine THBS-1 promoter activity. Cell proliferation assay was used to examine the effect of 5-Aza-dC on NB cell growth. The soft agar assay was used to determine the tumorigenicity. Promoter methylation values for THBS-1, HIN-1, TIG-1, and CASP8 were higher in LA1-55n cells compared to LA1-5s cells. Consistent with the promoter methylation status, lower levels of gene expression were detected in the LA1-55n cells. Histone marks associated with repressive chromatin states (H3K9Me3, H3K27Me3, and H3K4Me3) were identified in the THBS-1 promoter region in the LA1-55n cells, but not the LA1-5s cells. In contrast, the three histone codes associated with an active chromatin state (acetyl H3, acetyl H4, and H3K4Me3) were present in the THBS-1 promoter region in LA1-5s cells, but not the LA1-55n cells, suggesting that an accessible chromatin structure is important for THBS-1 expression. We also show that 5-Aza-dC treatment of LA1-55n cells alters the DNA methylation

  13. Global Proteome Analysis of the NCI-60 Cell Line Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Moghaddas Gholami

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The NCI-60 cell line collection is a very widely used panel for the study of cellular mechanisms of cancer in general and in vitro drug action in particular. It is a model system for the tissue types and genetic diversity of human cancers and has been extensively molecularly characterized. Here, we present a quantitative proteome and kinome profile of the NCI-60 panel covering, in total, 10,350 proteins (including 375 protein kinases and including a core cancer proteome of 5,578 proteins that were consistently quantified across all tissue types. Bioinformatic analysis revealed strong cell line clusters according to tissue type and disclosed hundreds of differentially regulated proteins representing potential biomarkers for numerous tumor properties. Integration with public transcriptome data showed considerable similarity between mRNA and protein expression. Modeling of proteome and drug-response profiles for 108 FDA-approved drugs identified known and potential protein markers for drug sensitivity and resistance. To enable community access to this unique resource, we incorporated it into a public database for comparative and integrative analysis (http://wzw.tum.de/proteomics/nci60.

  14. Immunomodulatory effect of prednisolone (PRD) induced soluble suppressor factor(s) (PRD-SSF) on natural killer (NK) cell activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nair, M.P.N.; Cilik, J.M.; Schwartz, S.A.

    1986-03-01

    The authors have previously reported that peripheral blood lymphocytes precultured for 24 hrs with PRD showed significant suppression of their NK activity. Purified HNK-1/sup +/ lymphocytes were treated either directly with PRD or with supernates from allogeneic lymphocytes precultured with 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -9/M PRD and examined for any inhibition of NK activity. For the NK assay K562 and U937 cell lines were used as targets in a 4 hr /sup 51/Cr release assay. HNK-1/sup +/ lymphocytes precultured with PRD showed significantly lower level of NK activity. In a single cell assay, both HNK-1/sup +/ and HNK-1/sup -/ subpopulations of PBL precultured with PRD also suppressed the target binding and lytic capacity of allogeneic fresh large granular lymphocytes, suggesting that NK cells/T cells or their precursors can be stimulated by PRD to inhibit NK activity. PBL precultured with increasing concentrations of culture supernates containing PRD-SSF showed a dose dependent inhibitory effect of their NK activity. This data suggest that PRD activated suppressor cells function through the release of soluble mediators. These findings may be of clinical significance to patients receiving corticosteroids for a variety of disorders including malignant, autoimmune and atopic diseases.

  15. Growth inhibitory activity of Ankaferd hemostat on primary melanoma cells and cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyhan Turk

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Ankaferd hemostat is the first topical hemostatic agent about the red blood cell–fibrinogen relations tested in the clinical trials. Ankaferd hemostat consists of standardized plant extracts including Alpinia officinarum, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Thymus vulgaris, Urtica dioica, and Vitis vinifera. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of Ankaferd hemostat on viability of melanoma cell lines. Methods: Dissimilar melanoma cell lines and primary cells were used in this study. These cells were treated with different concentrations of Ankaferd hemostat to assess the impact of different dosages of the drug. All cells treated with different concentrations were incubated for different time intervals. After the data had been obtained, one-tailed T-test was used to determine whether the Ankaferd hemostat would have any significant inhibitory impact on cell growth. Results: We demonstrated in this study that cells treated with Ankaferd hemostat showed a significant decrease in cell viability compared to control groups. The cells showed different resistances against Ankaferd hemostat which depended on the dosage applied and the time treated cells had been incubated. We also demonstrated an inverse relationship between the concentration of the drug and the incubation time on one hand and the viability of the cells on the other hand, that is, increasing the concentration of the drug and the incubation time had a negative impact on cell viability. Conclusion: The findings in our study contribute to our knowledge about the anticancer impact of Ankaferd hemostat on different melanoma cells.

  16. Neuroblastoma cell lines contain pluripotent tumor initiating cells that are susceptible to a targeted oncolytic virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonatan Y Mahller

    Full Text Available Although disease remission can frequently be achieved for patients with neuroblastoma, relapse is common. The cancer stem cell theory suggests that rare tumorigenic cells, resistant to conventional therapy, are responsible for relapse. If true for neuroblastoma, improved cure rates may only be achieved via identification and therapeutic targeting of the neuroblastoma tumor initiating cell. Based on cues from normal stem cells, evidence for tumor populating progenitor cells has been found in a variety of cancers.Four of eight human neuroblastoma cell lines formed tumorspheres in neural stem cell media, and all contained some cells that expressed neurogenic stem cell markers including CD133, ABCG2, and nestin. Three lines tested could be induced into multi-lineage differentiation. LA-N-5 spheres were further studied and showed a verapamil-sensitive side population, relative resistance to doxorubicin, and CD133+ cells showed increased sphere formation and tumorigenicity. Oncolytic viruses, engineered to be clinically safe by genetic mutation, are emerging as next generation anticancer therapeutics. Because oncolytic viruses circumvent typical drug-resistance mechanisms, they may represent an effective therapy for chemotherapy-resistant tumor initiating cells. A Nestin-targeted oncolytic herpes simplex virus efficiently replicated within and killed neuroblastoma tumor initiating cells preventing their ability to form tumors in athymic nude mice.These results suggest that human neuroblastoma contains tumor initiating cells that may be effectively targeted by an oncolytic virus.

  17. Generation of genome-modified Drosophila cell lines using SwAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Alexandra; Brunner, Erich; Basler, Konrad

    2017-10-02

    The ease of generating genetically modified animals and cell lines has been markedly increased by the recent development of the versatile CRISPR/Cas9 tool. However, while the isolation of isogenic cell populations is usually straightforward for mammalian cell lines, the generation of clonal Drosophila cell lines has remained a longstanding challenge, hampered by the difficulty of getting Drosophila cells to grow at low densities. Here, we describe a highly efficient workflow to generate clonal Cas9-engineered Drosophila cell lines using a combination of cell pools, limiting dilution in conditioned medium and PCR with allele-specific primers, enabling the efficient selection of a clonal cell line with a suitable mutation profile. We validate the protocol by documenting the isolation, selection and verification of eight independently Cas9-edited armadillo mutant Drosophila cell lines. Our method provides a powerful and simple workflow that improves the utility of Drosophila cells for genetic studies with CRISPR/Cas9.

  18. Probenecid is a chemosensitizer in cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos-Arroyo, Denise; Martínez-Lazcano, Juan Carlos; Melendez-Zajgla, Jorge

    2012-02-01

    Resistance and toxicity are the major barriers to successful cancer chemotherapies. Developing molecules that reduce drug resistance and improve antineoplastic effects is of great interest for cancer research; ideally, these substances should not affect the pharmacodynamics of the chemotherapeutic agent while providing a synergistic antineoplastic effect. In this study, we tested in vitro co-administration of the antineoplastic agents cisplatin or paclitaxel with probenecid, an anion channel inhibitor, in a panel of cancer cell lines to determine the cytotoxicity and synergistic effects of these drug combinations. In addition, we measured the clonogenicity and apoptotic index in these cells. We observed a synergistic interaction between probenecid and the chemotherapeutic agents, and increasing doses of probenecid resulted in a significant decrease in the effective doses of the chemotherapeutic agents. For the antineoplastic agent and probenecid combinations, we found increased cell death, reduced colony formation, and a higher number of apoptotic cells, compared with treatment of cisplatin or paclitaxel alone. Further research is necessary to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which the synergistic effect occurs. If these synergistic effects can be reproduced in vivo, the co-administration of probenecid with different chemotherapeutic agents may provide a valid treatment in patients with chemotherapy resistance.

  19. Establishment of a pig fibroblast-derived cell line for locus-directed transgene expression in cell cultures and blastocysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Jannik E.; Li, Juan; Moldt, Brian

    2011-01-01

    We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon-based do......We report the establishment of a spontaneously immortalized pig cell line designated Pig Flip-in Visualize (PFV) for locus-directed transgene expression in pig cells and blastocysts. The PFV cell line was isolated from pig ear fibroblasts transfected with a Sleeping Beauty DNA transposon...... transfer. PFV cells supported Flp mediated cassette exchange for transgene substitution of eGFP with dsRED, and the dsRED transgenic PFV cells generated blastocysts with transgene expression. Hence, the PFV cell line constitutes a valuable pig equivalent to transformed cell lines from other mammalian...

  20. Inhibitory effects of xanthohumol from hops (Humulus lupulus L.) on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Yi-Chien; Liu, Chi-Hsien; Chen, Chien-Nan; Duan, Kow-Jen; Lin, Ming-Tse

    2008-11-01

    Xanthohumol is one of the main flavonoids in hop extracts and in beer. Very few investigations of xanthohumol have studied hepatocellular carcinoma. In this study, the inhibitory effects of xanthohumol on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were investigated. The IC(50) values of xanthohumol for two hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines and one normal hepatocyte cell line were 108, 166 and 211 microm, respectively. Normal murine hepatocyte cell line had more resistance to xanthohumol than hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines. Besides, the inhibitory effects of xanthohumol on human hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines were attributed to apoptosis as indicated in the results of flow cytometry, fluorescent nuclear staining and electrophoresis of oligonucleosomal DNA fragments. Hop xanthohumol was more efficient in the growth inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines than the flavonoids silibinin and naringin from thistle and citrus. It was shown for the first time that xanthohumol from hops effectively inhibits proliferation of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro.

  1. Individualized medicine for renal cell carcinoma: establishment of primary cell line culture from surgical specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Fernando J; Campagna, Adriano; Khandrika, Lakshmipathi; Koul, Sweaty; Byun, Seok-Soo; vanBokhoven, Adrie; Moore, Ernest E; Koul, Hari

    2008-10-01

    The lack of effective "in vivo" and "in vitro" models to predict success of pharmacological therapy for patients with renal cell carcinoma, as well as, the variety of cancer cell types demands the development of better experimental models to understand the pathophysiology of the disease and evaluate drug sensitivity in vitro. To develop primary renal cancer cell culture irrespective of tumor grade and tumor type, harvested from the patient's pathological specimen immediately after the laparoscopic radical nephrectomy to study potential "in vivo" pharmacological sensitivity. A total of 24 patients (17 males and 7 females). Mean age of 63.1+/-3.1 y.o. The mean size of the renal masses was 7.56+/-3.1 cm. Normal and pathological renal tissue was collected immediately after the specimen was extracted and submitted to enzymatic digestion for 16-24 hours. Clear cell carcinoma cells were selected through multiple passages in DMEM medium supplemented with glucose and antibiotics. Establishment of cell line culture from all the patients' specimens irrespective of tumor grade and tumor type was achieved successfully. In addition to the tumor cell line culture, normal parenchyma tissue yielded primary cell lines to allow testing the response of tumor types to various pharmacological therapeutic agents and toxicity of such treatments to healthy tissue. From the initial collection of the specimens obtained after the removal of the kidney to the development of cell lines took occurred in average 32+6 hrs. The cells in culture showed characteristics of epithelial cells; like expression on cytokeratin and were maintained in culture for more than 20 passages. The development of renal cancer cell cultures in vitro is labor intense but may yield a more realistic model to tailor pharmacological therapies and predict therapeutic success prior to "in vivo" application-a step in the direction of individualized medicine for RCC.

  2. 'Fluorescent Cell Chip' for immunotoxicity testing: Development of the c-fos expression reporter cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trzaska, Dominika; Zembek, Patrycja; Olszewski, Maciej; Adamczewska, Violetta; Ulleras, Erik; Dastych, JarosIaw

    2005-01-01

    The Fluorescent Cell Chip for in vitro immunotoxicity testing employs cell lines derived from lymphocytes, mast cells, and monocytes-macrophages transfected with various EGFP cytokine reporter gene constructs. While cytokine expression is a valid endpoint for in vitro immunotoxicity screening, additional marker for the immediate-early response gene expression level could be of interest for further development and refinement of the Fluorescent Cell Chip. We have used BW.5147.3 murine thymoma transfected with c-fos reporter constructs to obtain reporter cell lines expressing ECFP under the control of murine c-fos promoter. These cells upon serum withdrawal and readdition and incubation with heavy metal compounds showed paralleled induction of c-Fos expression as evidenced by Real-Time PCR and ECFP fluorescence as evidenced by computer-supported fluorescence microscopy. In conclusion, we developed fluorescent reporter cell lines that could be employed in a simple and time-efficient screening assay for possible action of chemicals on c-Fos expression in lymphocytes. The evaluation of usefulness of these cells for the Fluorescent Cell Chip-based detection of immunotoxicity will require additional testing with a larger number of chemicals

  3. Extracellular vesicles from a muscle cell line (C2C12) enhance cell survival and neurite outgrowth of a motor neuron cell line (NSC-34).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madison, Roger D; McGee, Christopher; Rawson, Renee; Robinson, Grant A

    2014-01-01

    There is renewed interest in extracellular vesicles over the past decade or 2 after initially being thought of as simple cellular garbage cans to rid cells of unwanted components. Although there has been intense research into the role of extracellular vesicles in the fields of tumour and stem cell biology, the possible role of extracellular vesicles in nerve regeneration is just in its infancy. When a peripheral nerve is damaged, the communication between spinal cord motor neurons and their target muscles is disrupted and the result can be the loss of coordinated muscle movement. Despite state-of-the-art surgical procedures only approximately 10% of adults will recover full function after peripheral nerve repair. To improve upon such results will require a better understanding of the basic mechanisms that influence axon outgrowth and the interplay between the parent motor neuron and the distal end organ of muscle. It has previously been shown that extracellular vesicles are immunologically tolerated, display targeting ligands on their surface, and can be delivered in vivo to selected cell populations. All of these characteristics suggest that extracellular vesicles could play a significant role in nerve regeneration. We have carried out studies using 2 very well characterized cell lines, the C2C12 muscle cell line and the motor neuron cell line NSC-34 to ask the question: Do extracellular vesicles from muscle influence cell survival and/or neurite outgrowth of motor neurons? Our results show striking effects of extracellular vesicles derived from the muscle cell line on the motor neuron cell line in terms of neurite outgrowth and survival.

  4. Anti-leukemic activity of bortezomib and carfilzomib on B-cell precursor ALL cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Takahashi

    Full Text Available Prognosis of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL has been dramatically improved. However, prognosis of the cases refractory to primary therapy is still poor. Recent phase 2 study on the efficacy of combination chemotherapy with bortezomib (BTZ, a proteasome inhibitor, for refractory childhood ALL demonstrated favorable clinical outcomes. However, septic death was observed in over 10% of patients, indicating the necessity of biomarkers that could predict BTZ sensitivity. We investigated in vitro BTZ sensitivity in a large panel of ALL cell lines that acted as a model system for refractory ALL, and found that Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+ ALL, IKZF1 deletion, and biallelic loss of CDKN2A were associated with favorable response. Even in Ph-negative ALL cell lines, IKZF1 deletion and bilallelic loss of CDKN2A were independently associated with higher BTZ sensitivity. BTZ showed only marginal cross-resistance to four representative chemotherapeutic agents (vincristine, dexamethasone, l-asparaginase, and daunorubicin in B-cell precursor-ALL cell lines. To improve the efficacy and safety of proteasome inhibitor combination chemotherapy, we also analyzed the anti-leukemic activity of carfilzomib (CFZ, a second-generation proteasome inhibitor, as a substitute for BTZ. CFZ showed significantly higher activity than BTZ in the majority of ALL cell lines except for the P-glycoprotein-positive t(17;19 ALL cell lines, and IKZF1 deletion was also associated with a favorable response to CFZ treatment. P-glycoprotein inhibitors effectively restored the sensitivity to CFZ, but not BTZ, in P-glycoprotein-positive t(17;19 ALL cell lines. P-glycoprotein overexpressing ALL cell line showed a CFZ-specific resistance, while knockout of P-glycoprotein by genome editing with a CRISPR/Cas9 system sensitized P-glycoprotein-positive t(17;19 ALL cell line to CFZ. These observations suggested that IKZF1 deletion could be a useful biomarker to predict good

  5. Electrophysiological Characteristics of Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes are Cell Line-Dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modelling of cardiac development, physiology and pharmacology by differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs requires comparability of cardiac differentiation between different ESC lines. To investigate whether the outcome of cardiac differentiation is consistent between different ESC lines, we compared electrophysiological properties of ESC-derived cardiomyocytes (ESC-CMs of different murine ESC lines. Methods: Two wild-type (D3 and R1 and two transgenic ESC lines (D3/aPIG44 and CGR8/AMPIGX-7 were differentiated under identical culture conditions. The transgenic cell lines expressed enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP and puromycin-N-acetyltransferase under control of the cardiac specific α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC promoter. Action potentials (APs were recorded using sharp electrodes and multielectrode arrays in beating clusters of ESC-CMs. Results: Spontaneous AP frequency and AP duration (APD as well as maximal upstroke velocity differed markedly between unpurified CMs of the four ESC lines. APD heterogeneity was negligible in D3/aPIG44, moderate in D3 and R1 and extensive in CGR8/AMPIGX-7. Interspike intervals calculated from long-term recordings showed a high degree of variability within and between recordings in CGR8/AMPIGX-7, but not in D3/aPIG44. Purification of the αMHC+ population by puromycin treatment posed only minor changes to APD in D3/aPIG44, but significantly shortened APD in CGR8/AMPIGX-7. Conclusion: Electrophysiological properties of ESC-CMs are strongly cell line-dependent and can be influenced by purification of cardiomyocytes by antibiotic selection. Thus, conclusions on cardiac development, physiology and pharmacology derived from single stem cell lines have to be interpreted carefully.

  6. Application of the inter-line PCR for the analyse of genomic rearrangements in radiation-transformed mammalian cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leibhard, S.; Smida, J.

    1996-01-01

    Repetitive DNA sequences of the LINE-family (long interspersed elements) that are widely distributed among the mammalian genome can be activated or altered by the exposure to ionizing radiation [1]. By the integration at new sites in the genome alterations in the expression of genes that are involved in cell transformation and/or carcinogenesis may occur [2, 3]. A new technique -the inter-LINE PCR - has been developed in order to detect and analyse such genomic rearrangements in radiation-transformed cell lines. From the sites of transformation- or tumour-specific changes in the genome it might be possible to develop new tumour markers for diagnostic purpose. (orig.) [de

  7. Expression of myc family oncoproteins in small-cell lung-cancer cell lines and xenografts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygaard, K; Vindeløv, L L; Spang-Thomsen, M

    1993-01-01

    A number of genes have altered activity in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), but especially genes of the myc family (c-myc, L-myc and N-myc) are expressed at high levels in SCLC. Most studies have explored expression at the mRNA level, whereas studies of myc family oncoprotein expression are sparse....... WE examined the expression of myc proto-oncogenes at the mRNA and protein level in 23 cell lines or xenografts. In the cell lines, the doubling time and the cell-cycle distribution, as determined by flow-cytometric DNA analysis, were examined to establish whether the level of myc......-myc. In general, the level of expression of c-myc and N-myc was similar at the mRNA and the protein level. Expression of c-myc was positively correlated with the proliferative index (sum of S and G2+M phases) of cell lines, but not with the population doubling time. In general, L-myc-expressing cell lines had...

  8. Identification of replication competent murine gammaretroviruses in commonly used prostate cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Sandell Sfanos

    Full Text Available A newly discovered gammaretrovirus, termed XMRV, was recently reported to be present in the prostate cancer cell line CWR22Rv1. Using a combination of both immunohistochemistry with broadly-reactive murine leukemia virus (MLV anti-sera and PCR, we determined if additional prostate cancer or other cell lines contain XMRV or MLV-related viruses. Our study included a total of 72 cell lines, which included 58 of the 60 human cancer cell lines used in anticancer drug screens and maintained at the NCI-Frederick (NCI-60. We have identified gammaretroviruses in two additional prostate cancer cell lines: LAPC4 and VCaP, and show that these viruses are replication competent. Viral genome sequencing identified the virus in LAPC4 and VCaP as nearly identical to another known xenotropic MLV, Bxv-1. We also identified a gammaretrovirus in the non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line EKVX. Prostate cancer cell lines appear to have a propensity for infection with murine gammaretroviruses, and we propose that this may be in part due to cell line establishment by xenograft passage in immunocompromised mice. It is unclear if infection with these viruses is necessary for cell line establishment, or what confounding role they may play in experiments performed with these commonly used lines. Importantly, our results suggest a need for regular screening of cancer cell lines for retroviral "contamination", much like routine mycoplasma testing.

  9. Tualang Honey Promotes Apoptotic Cell Death Induced by Tamoxifen in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

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    Nik Soriani Yaacob

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tualang honey (TH is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids and has significant anticancer activity against breast cancer cells comparable to the effect of tamoxifen (TAM, in vitro. The current study evaluated the effects of TH when used in combination with TAM on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. We observed that TH promoted the anticancer activity of TAM in both the estrogen receptor-(ER-responsive and ER-nonresponsive human breast cancer cell lines. Flow cytometric analyses indicated accelerated apoptosis especially in MDA-MB-231 cells and with the involvement of caspase-3/7, -8 and -9 activation as shown by fluorescence microscopy. Depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane was also increased in both cell lines when TH was used in combination with TAM compared to TAM treatment alone. TH may therefore be a potential adjuvant to be used with TAM for reducing the dose of TAM, hence, reducing TAM-induced adverse effects.

  10. Assessment of tumor characteristic gene expression in cell lines using a tissue similarity index (TSI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, Rickard; Ernberg, Ingemar

    2005-02-08

    The gene expression profiles of 60 cell lines, derived from nine different tissues, were compared with their corresponding in vivo tumors and tissues. Cell lines expressed few tissue-specific (2%) or tumor-specific (5%) genes when analyzed group-wise. A tissue similarity index (TSI) was designed based upon singular value decomposition that measured in vivo tumor characteristic gene expression in each cell line independently. Only 34 of the 60 cell lines received the highest TSI toward its tumor of origin. In addition, we identified the most appropriate cell lines to be used as model systems for different in vivo tumors. Seven cell lines were identified as being of another origin than the originally presumed one. The proposed TSI will likely become an important tool for the selection of the most appropriate cell lines in pharmaceutical screening programs and experimental and biomedical research.

  11. Transcriptional signature of accessory cells in the lateral line, using the Tnk1bp1:EGFP transgenic zebrafish line

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    Behra Martine

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the structural and molecular similarities between the two systems, the lateral line, a fish and amphibian specific sensory organ, has been widely used in zebrafish as a model to study the development/biology of neuroepithelia of the inner ear. Both organs have hair cells, which are the mechanoreceptor cells, and supporting cells providing other functions to the epithelium. In most vertebrates (excluding mammals, supporting cells comprise a pool of progenitors that replace damaged or dead hair cells. However, the lack of regenerative capacity in mammals is the single leading cause for acquired hearing disorders in humans. Results In an effort to understand the regenerative process of hair cells in fish, we characterized and cloned an egfp transgenic stable fish line that trapped tnks1bp1, a highly conserved gene that has been implicated in the maintenance of telomeres' length. We then used this Tg(tnks1bp1:EGFP line in a FACsorting strategy combined with microarrays to identify new molecular markers for supporting cells. Conclusions We present a Tg(tnks1bp1:EGFP stable transgenic line, which we used to establish a transcriptional profile of supporting cells in the zebrafish lateral line. Therefore we are providing a new set of markers specific for supporting cells as well as candidates for functional analysis of this important cell type. This will prove to be a valuable tool for the study of regeneration in the lateral line of zebrafish in particular and for regeneration of neuroepithelia in general.

  12. Cytotoxic Effect Of Verapamil On Human Embryonic Kidney Cell Line

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    Jamil L Ahmad

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The link between long term use of verapamil and cancer development has been suggested in literature many years back. However there are numerous controversies surrounding this association with several epidemiological studies in the positive negative and non-association between verapamil and cancer development. Aim To investigate in mechanistic terms the link between chronic use of a calcium channel blocker verapamil and cancer development using human embryonic kidney HEK293 cell line. Method Trypan blue dye exclusion cell counting and 3-amp615314 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-ylamp61533-2 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide MTT assays were used to determine the proliferative as well as cytotoxic effects of verapamil. Results Verapamil had a growth inhibitory rather than proliferative effect on HEK293 cells and the growth inhibition was found to be significant p0.05. Conclusion The long term use of verapamil is associated with cellular growth inhibition and this possibly explained the rationale behind its use as part of combination chemotherapy for some human cancers.

  13. Synergistic effects of coralyne and paclitaxel on cell migration and proliferation of breast cancer cells lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Seema; Badana, Anil Kumar; Mohan, G Murali; Shailender Naik, G; Malla, RamaRao

    2017-07-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancer in woman. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is most aggressive form of breast cancer. There is a growing interest in the use of natural products in combinational chemotherapy to improve the effectiveness in combating proliferation of cancer cells. Here, we hypothesized that coralyne in combination with paclitaxel may exhibit synergistic effect on inhibition of proliferation, migration and induction of apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell lines. MTT and BrdU incorporation assays were performed to study the effect of drugs alone and in combination on cell cytotoxicity and proliferation of the breast cancer cell lines, respectively. Adhesion and wound healing assays were performed to study the cell and extracellular matrix interactions. In addition, expression of proliferation marker ki-67 and apoptotic markers Bax and Bcl-2 was determined to study the effect of coralyne in combination with paclitaxel by reverse transcriptase PCR and confirmed by Western blot. The results indicated the synergism between coralyne and paclitaxel on proliferation and migration of breast cancer cell lines. This study also showed that combinational drug treatment decreased the expression of ki-67 and there was an increase in pro apoptotic factor Bax with decreased in expression of anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 in breast cancer cell lines with negligible effect on normal breast cell line. Overall, our data described the promising therapeutic potential of coralyne in combination with paclitaxel in treating breast cancer at lower effective dose. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. [Neuronal differentiation of human small cell lung cancer cell line PC-6 by Solcoseryl].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, T

    1997-11-01

    Solcoseryl is composed of extracts from calf blood, and is a drug known to activate tissue respiration. In the present study, I demonstrated the cell biological effects of Solcoseryl on a human small cell lung cancer cell line, PC-6, by analyzing cell morphology, cell growth, expression of neuronal differentiation markers, and the ras proto-oncogene product(ras p21). Exposure of PC-6 cells to Solcoseryl at the concentration of 200 microliters/ml induced (1) cell morphological changes, including neurodendrite-like projections from the cell surface, and (2) complete inhibition of cell growth, that was shown by the loss of Ki-67 expression. Solcoseryl also induced the expression of neurofilament protein and acetylcholinesterase, both of which are markers of neuronal differentiation. Moreover, it upregulated the expression of the ras proto-oncogene product, ras p21. Taken together, these data suggest that Solcoseryl is composed of component(s) which can induce neuronal differentiation of the human small cell lung cancer cell line, PC-6.

  15. Analysis of differential protein expression in normal and neoplastic human breast epithelial cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, K.; Chubb, C.; Huberman, E.; Giometti, C.S.

    1997-07-01

    High resolution two dimensional get electrophoresis (2DE) and database analysis was used to establish protein expression patterns for cultured normal human mammary epithelial cells and thirteen breast cancer cell lines. The Human Breast Epithelial Cell database contains the 2DE protein patterns, including relative protein abundances, for each cell line, plus a composite pattern that contains all the common and specifically expressed proteins from all the cell lines. Significant differences in protein expression, both qualitative and quantitative, were observed not only between normal cells and tumor cells, but also among the tumor cell lines. Eight percent of the consistently detected proteins were found in significantly (P < 0.001) variable levels among the cell lines. Using a combination of immunostaining, comigration with purified protein, subcellular fractionation, and amino-terminal protein sequencing, we identified a subset of the differentially expressed proteins. These identified proteins include the cytoskeletal proteins actin, tubulin, vimentin, and cytokeratins. The cell lines can be classified into four distinct groups based on their intermediate filament protein profile. We also identified heat shock proteins; hsp27, hsp60, and hsp70 varied in abundance and in some cases in the relative phosphorylation levels among the cell lines. Finally, we identified IMP dehydrogenase in each of the cell lines, and found the levels of this enzyme in the tumor cell lines elevated 2- to 20-fold relative to the levels in normal cells.

  16. Dysfunctional p53 deletion mutants in cell lines derived from Hodgkin's lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feuerborn, Alexander; Moritz, Constanze; von Bonin, Frederike

    2006-01-01

    derived from cHL are rare and therefore not notably involved in the pathogenesis of the malignant H&RS cells. Re-evaluating the expression in cHL-derived cell lines, we found that in 3/6 of these cell lines, TP53 transcripts are characterized by deletions within exon 4 (L428 cells) and nearly a complete...

  17. Novel stable HBV producing cell line systems for expression and screening antiviral inhibitor of hepatitis B virus in human hepatoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogura, Naoki; Ogawa, Kazuya; Watashi, Koichi; Ito, Takayoshi; Wakita, Takaji

    2018-03-25

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is currently a major public health burden. Therefore, there is an urgent need for the development of novel antiviral inhibitors. The stable HBV-producing cell lines of genotype D are widely used to investigate the HBV life cycle and to evaluate antiviral agents. However, stable HBV-producing cell lines of different genotypes do not exist. To construct more convenient and efficient novel cell systems, stable cell lines of genotypes A, B, and C were established using a full-length HBV genome sequence isolated from chronic HBV patients in human hepatoma HepG2 cells. Novel HBV clones were identified and stable HBV-producing cell lines derived from these clones were constructed. HBV replication activities demonstrated time-dependent expression, and the novel cell lines were susceptible to several antiviral inhibitors with no cytotoxicity. Furthermore, infectious viruses were produced from these cell lines. In conclusion, we have established novel stable HBV-producing cell line systems of genotypes A, B, and C. These systems can provide valuable tools for screening antiviral agents and analyzing viral phenotypes in vitro. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cell death induced by Bothrops asper snake venom metalloproteinase on endothelial and other cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenes, Oscar; Muñóz, Eduardo; Roldán-Rodríguez, Raquel; Díaz, Cecilia

    2010-06-01

    Two adherent cell lines, BAEC and HeLa, and non-adherent Jurkat, were treated with snake venom metalloproteinase BaP1 to determine whether cytotoxicity, previously reported for this toxin, could be mediated by the process of anoikis. It was observed that there was no correlation between the ability of this toxin to induce loss of adherence, and the cytotoxic effect, since concentrations that do not induce loss of adherence (3-6 microg/mL), were able to trigger 50% of cytotoxicity in BAEC. In the case of HeLa, where toxicity was very low (less than 20% at maximun concentrations and times of exposure), significant detachment and no toxicity was observed at concentrations of 1.5 microg/mL, showing also no correlation between both events. We also observed differences between BAEC toxicity measured by XTT reduction and DNA fragmentation determined by flow cytometry (as an indicator of apoptosis), since concentrations that induce 100% of cytotoxicity barely showed any DNA fragmentation (12% at 24h), suggesting that if apoptosis was involved, DNA damage is still not present, although chromatin condensation, another indicator of apoptosis, is observed in 40% of the cells. Inhibition of BAEC cytotoxicity by caspase inhibitors indicate that apoptosis is playing a role in this process, but other mechanisms of cell death could be participating also. Another way to determine whether the mechanism of cell death was related to anoikis was using a non-adherent cell line, which should show substrate independence. We determined by TUNEL that at 50 microg/ml BaP1 triggered 50% of apoptosis at 96 h, an effect that was seen earlier, suggesting also that if this toxin was inducing apoptosis in a non-adherent cell line, the mechanism could not be related to loss of attachment. Cell cycle arrest in S phase was also observed in Jurkat cells, an effect that could be leading to apoptosis. In conclusion, since there was no correlation between cell detachment and cytotoxicity (and apoptosis

  19. Cytotoxic Effects of Fascaplysin against Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Fascaplysin, the natural product of a marine sponge, exhibits anticancer activity against a broad range of tumor cells, presumably through interaction with DNA, and/or as a highly selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) inhibitor. In this study, cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin against a panel of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell lines and putative synergism with chemotherapeutics was investigated. SCLC responds to first-line chemotherapy with platinum-based drugs/etoposide, but relapses early with topotecan remaining as the single approved therapeutic agent. Fascaplysin was found to show high cytotoxicity against SCLC cells and to induce cell cycle arrest in G1/0 at lower and S-phase at higher concentrations, respectively. The compound generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and induced apoptotic cell death in the chemoresistant NCI-H417 SCLC cell line. Furthermore, fascaplysin revealed marked synergism with the topoisomerase I-directed camptothecin and 10-hydroxy-camptothecin. The Poly(ADP-ribose)-Polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitor BYK 204165 antagonized the cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin, pointing to the involvement of DNA repair in response to the anticancer activity of the drug. In conclusion, fascaplysin seems to be suitable for treatment of SCLC, based on high cytotoxic activity through multiple routes of action, affecting topoisomerase I, integrity of DNA and generation of ROS. PMID:24608973

  20. Cytotoxic Effects of Fascaplysin against Small Cell Lung Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Hamilton

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fascaplysin, the natural product of a marine sponge, exhibits anticancer activity against a broad range of tumor cells, presumably through interaction with DNA, and/or as a highly selective cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4 inhibitor. In this study, cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin against a panel of small cell lung cancer (SCLC cell lines and putative synergism with chemotherapeutics was investigated. SCLC responds to first-line chemotherapy with platinum-based drugs/etoposide, but relapses early with topotecan remaining as the single approved therapeutic agent. Fascaplysin was found to show high cytotoxicity against SCLC cells and to induce cell cycle arrest in G1/0 at lower and S-phase at higher concentrations, respectively. The compound generated reactive oxygen species (ROS and induced apoptotic cell death in the chemoresistant NCI-H417 SCLC cell line. Furthermore, fascaplysin revealed marked synergism with the topoisomerase I-directed camptothecin and 10-hydroxy-camptothecin. The Poly(ADP-ribose-Polymerase 1 (PARP1 inhibitor BYK 204165 antagonized the cytotoxic activity of fascaplysin, pointing to the involvement of DNA repair in response to the anticancer activity of the drug. In conclusion, fascaplysin seems to be suitable for treatment of SCLC, based on high cytotoxic activity through multiple routes of action, affecting topoisomerase I, integrity of DNA and generation of ROS.

  1. Binding of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator to its cell surface receptor is inhibited by low doses of suramin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Danø, K

    1993-01-01

    micrograms/ml when using U937 cells and a ligand concentration of 0.3 nM. This concentration of the drug is well below the serum levels found in suramin-treated patients. Inhibition of binding was also demonstrated at the molecular level, using chemical cross-linking or an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay...... to the anti-invasive properties of suramin by destroying the cellular potential for localized plasminogen activation and proteolytic matrix degradation....

  2. Biologic characteristics of the side population of human small cell lung cancer cell line H446.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bo; Yang, Huan; Huang, Yu-Zheng; Yan, Ru-Hong; Liu, Fen-Ju; Zhang, Jun-Ning

    2010-03-01

    Recently, the theory of cancer stem cells (CSCs) has presented new targets and orientations for tumor therapy. The major difficulties in researching CSCs include their isolation and purification. The aim of this study is to identify and characterize the side population (SP) cells in small cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line H446, which lays the foundation for the isolation and purification of CSCs. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to sort SP and non-SP (NSP) cells from H446. Both subgroups were cultivated to survey the capacity to form into suspended tumor cell spheres. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR were used to evaluate the expression levels of the mRNA of CD133, ABCG2, and nucleostemin in both subgroups. The capacity of proliferation and the differences in drug resistance of both subgroups and unsorted cells were tested by the MTT method. The differentiation ability of both subgroups was determined by FACS. Proliferation was determined by subcutaneous tumor formation in nude mice. The percent of Hoechst 33342 negative cells was about (5.1 +/- 0.2)% in H446 by fluorescence microscopy. The percent of SP cells was (6.3 +/- 0.1)% by flow cytometry. SP cells had a stronger capability of forming into tumor spheres than NSP cells. The mRNA expression levels of ABCG2, CD133, and nucleostemin in SP cells were 21.60 +/- 0.26, 7.10 +/- 0.14, and 1.02 +/- 0.08 folds higher than that in NSP cells (P 0.05, respectively). In vivo, SP cells showed better proliferative ability and tougher viability when treated with drugs. SP cells can differentiate into NSP cells, but NSP cells cannot differentiate into SP cells. SP cells had a greater ability to form tumors. The H446 cell line contained some SP cells with stem cell properties. CD133 and ABCG2 may be cancer stem cell markers of SCLC.

  3. Establishment and characterization of 7 novel hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines from patient-derived tumor xenografts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Xin

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common cancer with poor prognosis worldwide and the molecular mechanism is not well understood. This study aimed to establish a collection of human HCC cell lines from patient-derived xenograft (PDX models. From the 20 surgical HCC sample collections, 7 tumors were successfully developed in immunodeficient mice and further established 7 novel HCC cell lines (LIXC002, LIXC003, LIXC004, LIXC006, LIXC011, LIXC012 and CPL0903 by primary culture. The characterization of cell lines was defined by morphology, growth kinetics, cell cycle, chromosome analysis, short tandem repeat (STR analysis, molecular profile, and tumorigenicity. Additionally, response to clinical chemotherapeutics was validated both in vitro and in vivo. STR analysis indicated that all cell lines were unique cells different from known cell lines and free of contamination by bacteria or mycoplasma. The other findings were quite heterogeneous between individual lines. Chromosome aberration could be found in all cell lines. Alpha-fetoprotein was overexpressed only in 3 out of 7 cell lines. 4 cell lines expressed high level of vimentin. Ki67 was strongly stained in all cell lines. mRNA level of retinoic acid induced protein 3 (RAI3 was decreased in all cell lines. The 7 novel cell lines showed variable sensitivity to 8 tested compounds. LIXC011 and CPL0903 possessed multiple drug resistance property. Sorafenib inhibited xenograft tumor growth of LIXC006, but not of LIXC012. Our results indicated that the 7 novel cell lines with low passage maintaining their clinical and pathological characters could be good tools for further exploring the molecular mechanism of HCC and anti-cancer drug screening.

  4. Interaction between x-irradiated plateau-phase bone marrow stromal cell lines and co-cultivated factor-dependent cell lines leading to leukemogenesis in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naparstek, E.; Anklesaria, P.; FitzGerald, T.J.; Sakakeeny, M.A.; Greenberger, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Plateau-phase mouse clonal bone marrow stromal cell lines D2XRII and C3H cl 11 produce decreasing levels of M-CSF (CSF-1), a specific macrophage progenitor cell humoral regulator, following X-irradiation in vitro. The decrease did not go below 40% of control levels, even after irradiation doses of 50,000 rad (500 Gy). In contrast, a distinct humoral regulator stimulating growth of GM-CSF/IL-3 factor-dependent (FD) hematopoietic progenitor cell lines was detected following radiation to doses above 2000 rad. This humoral factor was not detectable in conditioned medium from irradiated cells, weakly detected using factor-dependent target cell populations in agar overlay, and was prominently detected by liquid co-cultivation of factor-dependent cells with irradiated stromal cell cultures. Subclonal lines of FD cells, derived after co-cultivation revealed karyotypic abnormalities and induced myeloblastic tumors in syngeneic mice. Five-eight weeks co-cultivation was required for induction of factor independence and malignancy and was associated with dense cell to cell contact between FD cells and stromal cells demonstrated by light and electron microscopy. Increases in hematopoietic to stromal cell surface area, total number of adherent cells per flask, total non-adherent cell colonies per flask, and cumulative non-adherent cell production were observed after irradiation. The present data may prove very relevant to an understanding of the cell to cell interactions during X-irradiation-induced leukemia

  5. Evaluation of Stem Cell Markers, CD44/CD24 in Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Hashemi Arabi

    2014-05-01

    Four breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 ، T47D ، MDA-MB231 and MDA-MB468 were purchased from National cell Bank of Iran based in Iran Pasture Institute and were cultured in high glucose DMEM supplemented with 10% FCS. Cells were stained with antiCD44-PE and antiCD24-FITC antibodies and Status of CD44 and CD24 as markers of breast cancer stem cells were evaluated using flow cytometer and fluorescent microscopy.Evaluation of CD44 and CD24 as markers of breast cancer stem cells showed that MDA-MB231 with 97±1.2% CD44+/CD24-/low cells is significantly different from the others that they were mainly CD44 and CD24 positive cells(p

  6. Histamine as a Radiosensitizer of Malignant Cell Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, E. S.; Medina, V.; Cricco, G.; Mohamed, N.; Croci, M.; Martin, G.; Nunez, M.; Bergoc, R. M.

    2004-07-01

    It has been established that the treatment with Histamine (Hi) produces a significant growth inhibition of different cell lines derived from human neoplasia. In a model of Knockout mice completely depleted of endogenous Hi, it was observed a significant delay in bone marroe repopulation after whole body irradiation. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis that histamine has a role in the regulation of haematopoiesis as well as an inhibitory effect on apoptosis. The objective of this paper was to study the possible effect of Hi as protector of normal cells and radiosensitizer of malignant ones. To study the effect of Hi on small-intestine and bone marrow, thirty made mice were randomly separeted into two groups: Control irradiated (C), and irradiated receiving Histamine (HI-group). All animals received a single dose of 10 Gy on whole-body employing a ''137Cs source of 189 TB{sub q} (Dose rate: 7.7 Gy/min) calibrated with TLD 700 dosimeter. Hi-group recieved a daily se injection (0.1 mg/kg) starting 20 hs before irradiation. Mice were sacrificed 5 days after irradiation. Histopathological analysis indicated that intestinal mucosae of C group showed important injury, whist mucosae of Hi-treated mice showed mild mucosal atrophy with conservation of villous projections and absence of vascular congestive changes. In order to investigate the effect of Hi on radiosensitivity of transformed cells, MDA-MB-231 (human breast carcinoma cells) were irradiated in vitro with doses ranging from 0 to 10 Gy. Results of radiobiological parameters indicate a significant increase on radiosensitivity of malignant cells. Employing specific fluorescent dyes and flow cytometric analysis we determined that the intracellular levels of hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) are significant increased by Hi 10 {mu}M in control and also in irradiated MDA-MB-231 cells, while the levels of superoxide (SO{sub 2}) were not significantly modified by Hi-treatment. (Author) 9 refs.

  7. Cytotoxicity screening of essential oils in cancer cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollyanna Francielli de Oliveira

    Full Text Available Abstract This study evaluated the cytotoxicity activity of the essential oils of Tagetes erecta L., Asteraceae (TE-OE, Tetradenia riparia (Hochst. Codd, Lamiaceae (TR-OE, Bidens sulphurea (Cav. Sch. Bip., Asteraceae (BS-OE, and Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae (FV-OE, traditionally used in folk medicine, against the tumor cell lines murine melanoma (B16F10, human colon carcinoma (HT29, human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7, human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa, human hepatocellular liver carcinoma (HepG2, and human glioblastoma (MO59J, U343, and U251. Normal hamster lung fibroblasts (V79 cells were included as control. The cells were treated with essential oil concentrations ranging from 3.12 to 400 µg/ml for 24 h. The cytotoxic activity was evaluated using the XTT assay; results were expressed as IC50, and the selectivity index was calculated. The results were compared with those achieved for classic chemotherapeutic agents. TE-OE was the most promising among the evaluated oils: it afforded the lowest IC50 values for B16F10 cells (7.47 ± 1.08 µg/ml and HT29 cells (6.93 ± 0.77 µg/ml, as well as selectivity indices of 2.61 and 2.81, respectively. The major BS-EO, FV-EO and TE-EO chemical constituents were identified by gas chromatography mass spectrometry as being (E-caryophyllene (10.5%, germacrene D (35.0% and 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (43.0% (BS-EO; limonene (21.3% and (E-anethole (70.2% (FV-EO; limonene (10.4%, dihydrotagetone (11.8%, α-terpinolene (18.1% and (E-ocimenone (13.0% (TE-EO; and fenchone (6.1%, dronabinol (11.0%, aromadendrene oxide (14.7% and (E,E–farnesol (15.0% (TR-EO. 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol (43.0%, (E-anethole (70.2% and α-terpinolene (18.1%, respectively. These results suggest that TE-OE may be used to treat cancer without affecting normal cells.

  8. Effect of New Water-Soluble Dendritic Phthalocyanines on Human Colorectal and Liver Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebru YABAŞ

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2 cells and colorectal adenocarcinoma (DLD-1 cells were treated with the synthesized water soluble phthalocyanine derivatives to understand the effect of the compounds both on colorectal and liver cancer cells. The compounds inhibited cell proliferation and displayed cytotoxic effect on these cancer cell lines however; the effect of the compounds on healthy control fibroblast cell line was comparatively lower. The compounds can be employed for cancer treatment as anticancer agents.

  9. Opioid binding site in EL-4 thymoma cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiorica, E.; Spector, S.

    1988-01-01

    Using EL-4 thymoma cell-line we found a binding site similar to the k opioid receptor of the nervous system. The Scatchard analysis of the binding of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine indicated a single site with a K/sub D/ = 60 +/- 17 nM and Bmax = 2.7 +/- 0.8 pmols/10/sup 6/ cells. To characterize this binding site, competition studies were performed using selective compounds for the various opioid receptors. The k agonist U-50,488H was the most potent displacer of (/sup 3/H) bremazocine with an IC/sub 50/ value = 0.57..mu..M. The two steroisomers levorphanol and dextrorphan showed the same affinity for this site. While morphine, (D-Pen/sup 2/, D-Pen/sup 5/) enkephalin and ..beta..-endorphin failed to displace, except at very high concentrations, codeine demonstrated a IC/sub 50/ = 60..mu..M, that was similar to naloxone. 32 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  10. Immune suppressor factor confers stromal cell line with enhanced supporting activity for hematopoietic stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hideaki; Shibata, Fumi; Fukuchi, Yumi; Goto-Koshino, Yuko; Ito, Miyuki; Urano, Atsushi; Nakahata, Tatsutoshi; Aburatani, Hiroyuki; Kitamura, Toshio

    2006-01-01

    Immune suppressor factor (ISF) is a subunit of the vacuolar ATPase proton pump. We earlier identified a short form of ISF (ShIF) as a stroma-derived factor that supports cytokine-independent growth of mutant Ba/F3 cells. Here, we report that ISF/ShIF supports self-renewal and expansion of primary hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). Co-culture of murine bone marrow cells with a stromal cell line overexpressing ISF or ShIF (MS10/ISF or MS10/ShIF) not only enhanced their colony-forming activity and the numbers of long-term culture initiating cells, but also maintained the competitive repopulating activity of HSC. This stem cell supporting activity depended on the proton-transfer function of ISF/ShIF. Gene expression analysis of ISF/ShIF-transfected cell lines revealed down-regulation of secreted frizzled-related protein-1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-3, and the restoration of their expressions in MS10/ISF cells partially reversed its enhanced LTC-IC supporting activity to a normal level. These results suggest that ISF/ShIF confers stromal cells with enhanced supporting activities for HSCs by modulating Wnt-activity and the extracellular matrix

  11. Macrophage cell lines derived from major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beharka, A. A.; Armstrong, J. W.; Chapes, S. K.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Two bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell lines, C2D and C2Dt, were isolated from major histocompatibility class II negative knock-out mice. The C2D cell line was stabilized by continuous culture in colony-stimulating factor-1 and the C2Dt cell line was transformed with SV40 virus large T antigen. These cells exhibited phenotypic properties of macrophages including morphology and expression of Mac 1 and Mac 2 cell surface molecules. These cells also had comparable growth to the bone-marrow-derived macrophage cell line B6MP102. These new cell lines were not spontaneously cytotoxic and were only capable of modest killing of F5b tumor cells when stimulated with LPS and interferon-gamma, but not when stimulated with LPS alone or with staphylococcal exotoxin. C2D and C2Dt cells phagocytosed labeled Staphylococcus aureus similarly to B6MP102 cells but less well than C2D peritoneal macrophages. These cell lines secreted interleukin-6, but not tumor necrosis factor or nitric oxide in response to LPS or staphlococcal enterotoxins A or B C2D(t) cells were tumorigenic in C2D and C57BL/6J mice but C2D cells were not. These data suggest that macrophage cell lines can be established from bone marrow cells of major histocompatibility complex II-negative mice.

  12. Comparison of mammalian and fish cell line cytotoxicity: impact of endpoint and exposure duration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guelden, Michael; Moerchel, Sabine; Seibert, Hasso

    2005-01-01

    Comparisons of acute toxic concentrations of chemicals to fish in vivo and cytotoxic concentrations to fish cell lines in vitro reveal rather good correlations of the toxic potencies in vitro and in vivo, but a clearly lower sensitivity of the fish cells. To examine whether the low sensitivity is specific for fish cells, cytotoxic potencies of reference chemicals from the Multicenter Evaluation of In Vitro Cytotoxicity program (MEIC) reported for the fish cell lines R1 and RTG-2 were compared with those obtained with the mouse Balb/c 3T3 cell line. Cytotoxic potencies (EC 50 values) for MEIC reference chemicals were determined with exponentially growing Balb/c 3T3 cells using three different test protocols. To assess both endpoints, cell proliferation and cell survival, EC 50 values were measured for the decrease in final cell protein after 24 and 72 h of exposure and for the reduction of cell protein increase during 24 h of exposure. EC 50 values obtained with the fish cell lines R1 and RTG-2 using cell survival as endpoint were taken from the MEIC data base. The comparison of cytotoxic potencies shows that, in general, the fish cell lines and the mammalian cell line are almost equally sensitive towards the cytotoxic action of chemicals. The mammalian cell line assay, however, becomes considerably more sensitive, by factors of 3.4-8.5, than the fish cell line assays, if cell growth instead of cell survival is used as endpoint. It is concluded, that cell proliferation might be a better endpoint than cell survival and that mammalian cell lines might be suited to assess fish acute toxicity

  13. Uveal Melanoma Cell Lines: Where do they come from? (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Martine J; Magner, J Antonio Bermudez; Ksander, Bruce R; Dubovy, Sander R

    2016-08-01

    To determine whether some of the most often used uveal melanoma cell lines resemble their original tumor. Analysis of the literature, patient charts, histopathology, mutations, chromosome status, HLA type, and expression of melanocyte markers on cell lines and their primary tumors. We examined five cell lines and the primary tumors from which they were derived. Four of the five examined primary tumors were unusual: one occupied the orbit, two were recurrences after prior irradiation, and one developed in an eye with a nevus of Ota. One cell line did not contain the GNA11 mutation, but it was present in the primary tumor. Three of the primary tumors had monosomy 3 (two of these lacked BAP1 expression); however, all five cell lines showed disomy 3 and BAP1 expression. All of the cell lines had gain of 8q. Two cell lines lacked expression of melanocyte markers, although these were present in the corresponding primary tumor. All cell lines could be traced back to their original uveal melanoma. Four of the five primary tumors were unusual. Cell lines often differed from their primary tumor in chromosome status and melanocyte markers. However, their specific chromosome aberrations and capacity to continue proliferation characterize them as uveal melanoma cell lines.

  14. Uveal Melanoma Cell Lines: Where do they come from? (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jager, Martine J.; Magner, J. Antonio Bermudez; Ksander, Bruce R.; Dubovy, Sander R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether some of the most often used uveal melanoma cell lines resemble their original tumor. Methods Analysis of the literature, patient charts, histopathology, mutations, chromosome status, HLA type, and expression of melanocyte markers on cell lines and their primary tumors. We examined five cell lines and the primary tumors from which they were derived. Results Four of the five examined primary tumors were unusual: one occupied the orbit, two were recurrences after prior irradiation, and one developed in an eye with a nevus of Ota. One cell line did not contain the GNA11 mutation, but it was present in the primary tumor. Three of the primary tumors had monosomy 3 (two of these lacked BAP1 expression); however, all five cell lines showed disomy 3 and BAP1 expression. All of the cell lines had gain of 8q. Two cell lines lacked expression of melanocyte markers, although these were present in the corresponding primary tumor. Conclusions All cell lines could be traced back to their original uveal melanoma. Four of the five primary tumors were unusual. Cell lines often differed from their primary tumor in chromosome status and melanocyte markers. However, their specific chromosome aberrations and capacity to continue proliferation characterize them as uveal melanoma cell lines. PMID:28018010

  15. Quantifying differences in cell line population dynamics using CellPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juarez, Edwin F; Lau, Roy; Friedman, Samuel H; Ghaffarizadeh, Ahmadreza; Jonckheere, Edmond; Agus, David B; Mumenthaler, Shannon M; Macklin, Paul

    2016-09-21

    The increased availability of high-throughput datasets has revealed a need for reproducible and accessible analyses which can quantitatively relate molecular changes to phenotypic behavior. Existing tools for quantitative analysis generally require expert knowledge. CellPD (cell phenotype digitizer) facilitates quantitative phenotype analysis, allowing users to fit mathematical models of cell population dynamics without specialized training. CellPD requires one input (a spreadsheet) and generates multiple outputs including parameter estimation reports, high-quality plots, and minable XML files. We validated CellPD's estimates by comparing it with a previously published tool (cellGrowth) and with Microsoft Excel's built-in functions. CellPD correctly estimates the net growth rate of cell cultures and is more robust to data sparsity than cellGrowth. When we tested CellPD's usability, biologists (without training in computational modeling) ran CellPD correctly on sample data within 30 min. To demonstrate CellPD's ability to aid in the analysis of high throughput data, we created a synthetic high content screening (HCS) data set, where a simulated cell line is exposed to two hypothetical drug compounds at several doses. CellPD correctly estimates the drug-dependent birth, death, and net growth rates. Furthermore, CellPD's estimates quantify and distinguish between the cytostatic and cytotoxic effects of both drugs-analyses that cannot readily be performed with spreadsheet software such as Microsoft Excel or without specialized computational expertise and programming environments. CellPD is an open source tool that can be used by scientists (with or without a background in computational or mathematical modeling) to quantify key aspects of cell phenotypes (such as cell cycle and death parameters). Early applications of CellPD may include drug effect quantification, functional analysis of gene knockout experiments, data quality control, minable big data generation, and

  16. Bimodal cell death induced by high radiation doses in the radioresistant sf9 insect cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandna, S.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: This study was conducted to investigate the mode(s) of cell death induced by high radiation doses in the highly radioresistant Sf9 insect ovarian cell line. Methods: Cells were exposed to γ-radiation doses 200Gy and 500Gy, harvested at various time intervals (6h-72h) following irradiation, and subjected to cell morphology assay, DNA agarose gel electrophoresis, single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE; comet assay) and Annexin-V labeling for the detection of membrane phosphatidylserine externalization. Cell morphology was assessed in cells entrapped and fixed in agarose gel directly from the cell suspension, thus preventing the possible loss of fragments/ apoptotic bodies. Surviving fraction of Sf9 cells was 0.01 at 200Gy and 98%) undergoing extensive DNA fragmentation at 500Gy, whereas the frequency of cells with DNA fragmentation was considerably less (∼12%) at 200Gy. Conclusions: While the mode of cell death at 200Gy seems to be different from typical apoptosis, a dose of 500Gy induced bimodal cell death, with typical apoptotic as well as the atypical cell death observed at 200Gy

  17. Imiquimod activates p53-dependent apoptosis in a human basal cell carcinoma cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shi-Wei; Chang, Shu-Hao; Mu, Szu-Wei; Jiang, Hsin-Yi; Wang, Sin-Ting; Kao, Jun-Kai; Huang, Jau-Ling; Wu, Chun-Ying; Chen, Yi-Ju; Shieh, Jeng-Jer

    2016-03-01

    The tumor suppressor p53 controls DNA repair, cell cycle, apoptosis, autophagy and numerous other cellular processes. Imiquimod (IMQ), a synthetic toll-like receptor (TLR) 7 ligand for the treatment of superficial basal cell carcinoma (BCC), eliminates cancer cells by activating cell-mediated immunity and directly inducing apoptosis and autophagy in cancer cells. To evaluate the role of p53 in IMQ-induced cell death in skin cancer cells. The expression, phosphorylation and subcellular localization of p53 were detected by real-time PCR, luciferase reporter assay, cycloheximide chase analysis, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Using BCC/KMC1 cell line as a model, the upstream signaling of p53 activation was dissected by over-expression of TLR7/8, the addition of ROS scavenger, ATM/ATR inhibitors and pan-caspase inhibitor. The role of p53 in IMQ-induced apoptosis and autophagy was assessed by genetically silencing p53 and evaluated by a DNA content assay, immunoblotting, LC3 puncta detection and acridine orange staining. IMQ induced p53 mRNA expression and protein accumulation, increased Ser15 phosphorylation, promoted nuclear translocation and up-regulated its target genes in skin cancer cells in a TLR7/8-independent manner. In BCC/KMC1 cells, the induction of p53 by IMQ was achieved through increased ROS production to stimulate the ATM/ATR-Chk1/Chk2 axis but was not mediated by inducing DNA damage. The pharmacological inhibition of ATM/ATR significantly suppressed IMQ-induced p53 activation and apoptosis. Silencing of p53 significantly decreased the IMQ-induced caspase cascade activation and apoptosis but enhanced autophagy. Mutant p53 skin cancer cell lines were more resistant to IMQ-induced apoptosis than wildtype p53 skin cancer cell lines. IMQ induced ROS production to stimulate ATM/ATR pathways and contributed to p53-dependent apoptosis in a skin basal cell carcinoma cell line BCC/KMC1. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology

  18. Identifying anti-growth factors for human cancer cell lines through genome-scale metabolic modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghaffari, Pouyan; Mardinoglu, Adil; Asplund, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Human cancer cell lines are used as important model systems to study molecular mechanisms associated with tumor growth, hereunder how genomic and biological heterogeneity found in primary tumors affect cellular phenotypes. We reconstructed Genome scale metabolic models (GEMs) for eleven cell lines...... based on RNA-Seq data and validated the functionality of these models with data from metabolite profiling. We used cell line-specific GEMs to analyze the differences in the metabolism of cancer cell lines, and to explore the heterogeneous expression of the metabolic subsystems. Furthermore, we predicted...... for inhibition of cell growth may provide leads for the development of efficient cancer treatment strategies....

  19. Radiation response of mouse lymphoid and myeloid cell lines. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, I.R.

    1994-01-01

    The sensitivity of 10 mouse lymphoid or myeloid cell lines to γ-ray- and DNA-associated 125 I-decay-induced clonogenic cell killing have been compared with their rate of loss of viability (membrane integrity) and with their putative cell type of origin. The increased sensitivity of haematopoietic cell lines to killing by DNA dsb may be related to their mode of death (apoptosis versus necrosis). Mode of cell death may thus be an important factor in determining the 'inherent radiosensitivity' of normal cells/tissues. Haematopoietic cell lines that undergo rapid interphase apoptotic death showed extreme sensitivity to DNA dsb. (author)

  20. Establishment and characterization of a cell line (OMC-9) originating from a human endometrial stromal sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuno, Yoshiteru; Yamada, Takashi; Mori, Hiroshi; Narabayashi, Isamu

    2008-05-01

    Cell lines are very useful for clinical and basic research. The establishment of uterine malignant tumor cell lines with unusual histology is especially important. We describe the establishment and characterization of a new human endometrial stromal sarcoma cell line of the uterus. The cell line OMC-9 was established from a tumor mass in the uterine body of a 55-year-old woman. Characteristics of the cell line studied include morphology, chromosome analysis, heterotransplantation, tumor markers and chemosensitivity. This cell line has grown well for 196 months and has been subcultured more than 50 times. Monolayer cultured cells are polygonal in shape, appear to be spindle-shaped or multipolar and have a tendency to pile up without contact inhibition. The cells exhibit a human karyotype with a modal chromosomal number in the diploid range. The cells were able to be transplanted into the subcutis of nude mice and produced tumors resembling the original tumor. OMC-9 cells produced tissue polypeptide antigen. Both CD10, a sensitive and diagnostically useful marker of endometrial stromal neoplasms, and vimentin were identified immunohistochemically in the original tumor and the heterotransplanted tumor. The cells were sensitive to actinomycin D, doxorubicin, carboplatin, cisplatin and etoposide, drugs used commonly in the treatment of gynecologic cancer. Only three reports of uterine endometrial stromal sarcoma cell lines have thus far been reported in the literature. OMC-9 is the first endometrial stromal sarcoma cell line in which CD10 expression and chemosensitivity have been identified.

  1. Network signatures of cellular immortalization in human lymphoblastoid cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Sung-Mi; Jung, So-Young; Nam, Hye-Young; Kim, Hye-Ryun; Lee, Mee-Hee; Kim, Jun-Woo; Han, Bok-Ghee [National Biobank of Korea, Center for Genome Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Osong 363-951 (Korea, Republic of); Jeon, Jae-Pil, E-mail: jaepiljeon@hanmail.net [Division of Brain Diseases, Center for Biomedical Science, Korea National Institute of Health, Osong 363-951 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •We identified network signatures of LCL immortalization from transcriptomic profiles. •More than 41% of DEGs are possibly regulated by miRNAs in LCLs. •MicroRNA target genes in LCLs are involved in apoptosis and immune-related functions. •This approach is useful to find functional miRNA targets in specific cell conditions. -- Abstract: Human lymphoblastoid cell line (LCL) has been used as an in vitro cell model in genetic and pharmacogenomic studies, as well as a good model for studying gene expression regulatory machinery using integrated genomic analyses. In this study, we aimed to identify biological networks of LCL immortalization from transcriptomic profiles of microRNAs and their target genes in LCLs. We first selected differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and microRNAs (DEmiRs) between early passage LCLs (eLCLs) and terminally differentiated late passage LCLs (tLCLs). The in silico and correlation analysis of these DEGs and DEmiRs revealed that 1098 DEG–DEmiR pairs were found to be positively (n = 591 pairs) or negatively (n = 507 pairs) correlated with each other. More than 41% of DEGs are possibly regulated by miRNAs in LCL immortalizations. The target DEGs of DEmiRs were enriched for cellular functions associated with apoptosis, immune response, cell death, JAK–STAT cascade and lymphocyte activation while non-miRNA target DEGs were over-represented for basic cell metabolisms. The target DEGs correlated negatively with miR-548a-3p and miR-219-5p were significantly associated with protein kinase cascade, and the lymphocyte proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. In addition, the miR-106a and miR-424 clusters located in the X chromosome were enriched in DEmiR–mRNA pairs for LCL immortalization. In this study, the integrated transcriptomic analysis of LCLs could identify functional networks of biologically active microRNAs and their target genes involved in LCL immortalization.

  2. Derivation and Osmotolerance Characterization of Three Immortalized Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardell, Alison M.; Qin, Qin; Rice, Robert H.; Li, Johnathan; Kültz, Dietmar

    2014-01-01

    Fish cell cultures are becoming more widely used models for investigating molecular mechanisms of physiological response to environmental challenge. In this study, we derived two immortalized Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) cell lines from brain (OmB) and lip epithelium (OmL), and compared them to a previously immortalized bulbus arteriosus (TmB) cell line. The OmB and OmL cell lines were generated without or with Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) inhibitor/3T3 feeder layer supplementation. Although both approaches were successful, ROCK inhibitor/feeder layer supplementation was found to offer the advantages of selecting for epithelial-like cell type and decreasing time to immortalization. After immortalization (≥ passage 5), we characterized the proteomes of the newly derived cell lines (OmB and OmL) using LCMS and identified several unique cell markers for each line. Subsequently, osmotolerance for each of the three cell lines following acute exposure to elevated sodium chloride was evaluated. The acute maximum osmotolerance of these tilapia cell lines (>700 mOsm/kg) was markedly higher than that of any other known vertebrate cell line, but was significantly higher in the epithelial-like OmL cell line. To validate the physiological relevance of these tilapia cell lines, we quantified the effects of acute hyperosmotic challenge (450 mOsm/kg and 700 mOsm/kg) on the transcriptional regulation of two enzymes involved in biosynthesis of the compatible organic osmolyte, myo-inositol. Both enzymes were found to be robustly upregulated in all three tilapia cell lines. Therefore, the newly established tilapia cells lines represent valuable tools for studying molecular mechanisms involved in the osmotic stress response of euryhaline fish. PMID:24797371

  3. Derivation and osmotolerance characterization of three immortalized tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison M Gardell

    Full Text Available Fish cell cultures are becoming more widely used models for investigating molecular mechanisms of physiological response to environmental challenge. In this study, we derived two immortalized Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus cell lines from brain (OmB and lip epithelium (OmL, and compared them to a previously immortalized bulbus arteriosus (TmB cell line. The OmB and OmL cell lines were generated without or with Rho-associated kinase (ROCK inhibitor/3T3 feeder layer supplementation. Although both approaches were successful, ROCK inhibitor/feeder layer supplementation was found to offer the advantages of selecting for epithelial-like cell type and decreasing time to immortalization. After immortalization (≥ passage 5, we characterized the proteomes of the newly derived cell lines (OmB and OmL using LCMS and identified several unique cell markers for each line. Subsequently, osmotolerance for each of the three cell lines following acute exposure to elevated sodium chloride was evaluated. The acute maximum osmotolerance of these tilapia cell lines (>700 mOsm/kg was markedly higher than that of any other known vertebrate cell line, but was significantly higher in the epithelial-like OmL cell line. To validate the physiological relevance of these tilapia cell lines, we quantified the effects of acute hyperosmotic challenge (450 mOsm/kg and 700 mOsm/kg on the transcriptional regulation of two enzymes involved in biosynthesis of the compatible organic osmolyte, myo-inositol. Both enzymes were found to be robustly upregulated in all three tilapia cell lines. Therefore, the newly established tilapia cells lines represent valuable tools for studying molecular mechanisms involved in the osmotic stress response of euryhaline fish.

  4. Cytokine-Induced Killer Cells Modulates Resistance to Cisplatin in the A549/DDP Cell Line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lili; Du, Chunjuan; Wu, Lei; Yu, Jinpu; An, Xiumei; Yu, Wenwen; Cao, Shui; Li, Hui; Ren, Xiubao

    2017-01-01

    Background Cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cells can potentially enhance the tumor-killing activity of chemotherapy. Objective This study aimed to evaluate the effects of CIK cells on cisplatin (DDP) resistance in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549/DDP. Methods The detect resistance index, drug resistance related-genes and cytokine secretion of A549/DDP co-cultured with CIK cells were assayed in vitro . Results After A549/DDP co-culture with CIK cells, the DDP resistance of A549/DDP significantly decreased in a time-dependent manner. The DDP resistance of A549/DDP co-cultured with CIK cells for 20 h decreased 4.93-fold compared with that of A549/DDP cells cultured alone ( P A549/DDP significantly decreased after co-culture with CIK cells ( P A549/DDP with CIK cells. The expression of GST-π was restored by adding the neutralizing IFN-γ. Conclusion CIK cells can reverse the drug resistance of A549/DDP in a time-dependent manner by reducing GST-π expression to increase the accumulation of DDP. The effect of CIK cells on re-sensitizing lung cancer cells to the chemotherapy drug was partially dependent on the secretion of IFN-γ.

  5. Low dose perfluorooctanoate exposure promotes cell proliferation in a human non-tumor liver cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Cui, Ruina [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Guo, Xuejiang [State Key Laboratory of Reproductive Medicine, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Hu, Jiayue [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Dai, Jiayin, E-mail: daijy@ioz.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Animal Ecology and Conservation Biology, Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • Differential expression of proteins induced by PFOA in HL-7702 was identified. • Most of the differentially expressed proteins are related to cell proliferation. • A low dose of PFOA stimulates HL-7702 cell proliferation. • A high dose of PFOA inhibits HL-7702 cell proliferation. - Abstract: Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) is a well-known persistent organic pollutant widely found in the environment, wildlife and humans. Medical surveillance and experimental studies have investigated the potential effects of PFOA on human livers, but the hepatotoxicity of PFOA on humans and its underlying mechanism remain to be clarified. We exposed a human liver cell line (HL-7702) to 50 μM PFOA for 48 h and 96 h, and identified 111 significantly differentially expressed proteins by iTRAQ analysis. A total of 46 proteins were related to cell proliferation and apoptosis. Through further analysis of the cell cycle, apoptosis and their related proteins, we found that low doses of PFOA (50–100 μM) promoted cell proliferation and numbers by promoting cells from the G1 to S phases, whereas high doses of PFOA (200–400 μM) led to reduced HL-7702 cell numbers compared with that of the control mainly due to cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the promotion of cell cycle progression in human cells following PFOA exposure.

  6. Low dose perfluorooctanoate exposure promotes cell proliferation in a human non-tumor liver cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Hongxia; Cui, Ruina; Guo, Xuejiang; Hu, Jiayue; Dai, Jiayin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Differential expression of proteins induced by PFOA in HL-7702 was identified. • Most of the differentially expressed proteins are related to cell proliferation. • A low dose of PFOA stimulates HL-7702 cell proliferation. • A high dose of PFOA inhibits HL-7702 cell proliferation. - Abstract: Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) is a well-known persistent organic pollutant widely found in the environment, wildlife and humans. Medical surveillance and experimental studies have investigated the potential effects of PFOA on human livers, but the hepatotoxicity of PFOA on humans and its underlying mechanism remain to be clarified. We exposed a human liver cell line (HL-7702) to 50 μM PFOA for 48 h and 96 h, and identified 111 significantly differentially expressed proteins by iTRAQ analysis. A total of 46 proteins were related to cell proliferation and apoptosis. Through further analysis of the cell cycle, apoptosis and their related proteins, we found that low doses of PFOA (50–100 μM) promoted cell proliferation and numbers by promoting cells from the G1 to S phases, whereas high doses of PFOA (200–400 μM) led to reduced HL-7702 cell numbers compared with that of the control mainly due to cell cycle arrest in the G0/G1 phase. To our knowledge, this is the first report on the promotion of cell cycle progression in human cells following PFOA exposure.

  7. A novel cell growth-promoting factor identified in a B cell leukemia cell line, BALL-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, T.; Holan, V.; Minowada, J.

    1993-01-01

    A novel leukemia cell growth-promoting activity has been identified in the culture supernatant from a human B cell leukemia cell line, BALL-1. The supernatant from unstimulated cultures of the BALL-1 cells significantly promoted the growth of 16 out of 24 leukemia/lymphoma cell lines of different lineages (T, B and non-lymphoid) in a minimal concentration of fetal bovine serum (FBS), and 5 out of 12 cases of fresh leukemia cells in FBS-free medium. The growth-promoting sieve filtration and dialysis. The MW of the factor was less than 10 kDa. The growth-promoting activity was heat and acid stable and resistant to trypsin treatment. The factor isolated from the BALL-1 supernatant was distinct from known polypeptide growth factors with MW below 10 kDa, such as epidermal growth factor, transforming growth factor α, insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-II and insulin, as determine by specific antibodies and by cell-growth-promoting tests. The factor is the BALL-1 supernatant did not promote the proliferation of normal human fresh peripheral blood lymphocytes or mouse fibroblast cell line, BALB/C 3T3. In addition to the BALL-1 supernatant, a similar growth-promoting activity was found in the culture supernatant from 13 of 17 leukemia/lymphoma cell lines tested. The activity in these culture supernatant promoted the growth of leukemia/lymphoma cell lines in autocrine and/or paracrine fashions. These observations suggest that the low MW cell growth-promoting activity found in the BALL-1 culture supernatant is mediated by a novel factor which may be responsible for the clonal expansion of particular leukemic clones. (author)

  8. LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minas Bakalchev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The perception of elements in a system often creates their interdependence, interconditionality, and suppression. The lines from a basic geometrical element have become the model of a reductive world based on isolation according to certain criteria such as function, structure, and social organization. Their traces are experienced in the contemporary world as fragments or ruins of a system of domination of an assumed hierarchical unity. How can one release oneself from such dependence or determinism? How can the lines become less “systematic” and forms more autonomous, and less reductive? How is a form released from modernistic determinism on the new controversial ground? How can these elements or forms of representation become forms of action in the present complex world? In this paper, the meaning of lines through the ideas of Le Corbusier, Leonidov, Picasso, and Hitchcock is presented. Spatial research was made through a series of examples arising from the projects of the architectural studio “Residential Transformations”, which was a backbone for mapping the possibilities ranging from playfulness to exactness, as tactics of transformation in the different contexts of the contemporary world.

  9. Rapid selection and proliferation of CD133+ cells from cancer cell lines: chemotherapeutic implications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah E Kelly

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs are considered a subset of the bulk tumor responsible for initiating and maintaining the disease. Several surface cellular markers have been recently used to identify CSCs. Among those is CD133, which is expressed by hematopoietic progenitor cells as well as embryonic stem cells and various cancers. We have recently isolated and cultured CD133 positive [CD133+] cells from various cancer cell lines using a NASA developed Hydrodynamic Focusing Bioreactor (HFB (Celdyne, Houston, TX. For comparison, another bioreactor, the rotary cell culture system (RCCS manufactured by Synthecon (Houston, TX was used. Both the HFB and the RCCS bioreactors simulate aspects of hypogravity. In our study, the HFB increased CD133+ cell growth from various cell lines compared to the RCCS vessel and to normal gravity control. We observed a +15-fold proliferation of the CD133+ cellular fraction with cancer cells that were cultured for 7-days at optimized conditions. The RCCS vessel instead yielded a (-4.8-fold decrease in the CD133+cellular fraction respect to the HFB after 7-days of culture. Interestingly, we also found that the hypogravity environment of the HFB greatly sensitized the CD133+ cancer cells, which are normally resistant to chemo treatment, to become susceptible to various chemotherapeutic agents, paving the way to less toxic and more effective chemotherapeutic treatment in patients. To be able to test the efficacy of cytotoxic agents in vitro prior to their use in clinical setting on cancer cells as well as on cancer stem cells may pave the way to more effective chemotherapeutic strategies in patients. This could be an important advancement in the therapeutic options of oncologic patients, allowing for more targeted and personalized chemotherapy regimens as well as for higher response rates.

  10. Prediction of epigenetically regulated genes in breast cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loss, Leandro A; Sadanandam, Anguraj; Durinck, Steffen; Nautiyal, Shivani; Flaucher, Diane; Carlton, Victoria EH; Moorhead, Martin; Lu, Yontao; Gray, Joe W; Faham, Malek; Spellman, Paul; Parvin, Bahram

    2010-05-04

    Methylation of CpG islands within the DNA promoter regions is one mechanism that leads to aberrant gene expression in cancer. In particular, the abnormal methylation of CpG islands may silence associated genes. Therefore, using high-throughput microarrays to measure CpG island methylation will lead to better understanding of tumor pathobiology and progression, while revealing potentially new biomarkers. We have examined a recently developed high-throughput technology for measuring genome-wide methylation patterns called mTACL. Here, we propose a computational pipeline for integrating gene expression and CpG island methylation profles to identify epigenetically regulated genes for a panel of 45 breast cancer cell lines, which is widely used in the Integrative Cancer Biology Program (ICBP). The pipeline (i) reduces the dimensionality of the methylation data, (ii) associates the reduced methylation data with gene expression data, and (iii) ranks methylation-expression associations according to their epigenetic regulation. Dimensionality reduction is performed in two steps: (i) methylation sites are grouped across the genome to identify regions of interest, and (ii) methylation profles are clustered within each region. Associations between the clustered methylation and the gene expression data sets generate candidate matches within a fxed neighborhood around each gene. Finally, the methylation-expression associations are ranked through a logistic regression, and their significance is quantified through permutation analysis. Our two-step dimensionality reduction compressed 90% of the original data, reducing 137,688 methylation sites to 14,505 clusters. Methylation-expression associations produced 18,312 correspondences, which were used to further analyze epigenetic regulation. Logistic regression was used to identify 58 genes from these correspondences that showed a statistically signifcant negative correlation between methylation profles and gene expression in the

  11. The genomic sequence of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xun; Pan, Shengkai; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-derived cell lines are the preferred host cells for the production of therapeutic proteins. Here we present a draft genomic sequence of the CHO-K1 ancestral cell line. The assembly comprises 2.45 Gb of genomic sequence, with 24,383 predicted genes. We associate most...

  12. The genomic sequence of the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-K1 cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Xun; Pan, Shengkai; Liu, Xin

    2011-01-01

    Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-derived cell lines are the preferred host cells for the production of therapeutic proteins. Here we present a draft genomic sequence of the CHO-K1 ancestral cell line. The assembly comprises 2.45 Gb of genomic sequence, with 24,383 predicted genes. We associate most of...

  13. Electroporation enhances mitomycin C cytotoxicity on T24 bladder cancer cell line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasquez, Juan Luis; Gehl, Julie; Hermann, Gregers G

    2012-01-01

    improves the cytotoxicity of mitomycin. In two cell lines, T24 (bladder cancer cell line) and DC3F (Chinese hamster fibroblast), exposure to different concentrations of mitomycin (0.01-2000μM) was tested with and without electroporation (6 pulses of 1kV/cm, duration: 99μs, frequency: 1Hz). Cell viability...

  14. Radiosensitivity evaluation of Human tumor cell lines by single cell gel electrophoresis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yipei; Cao Jia; Wang Yan; Du Liqing; Li Jin; Wang Qin; Fan Feiyue; Liu Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the feasibility of determining radiosensitivity of human tumor cell lines in vitro using single cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE). Methods: Three human tumor cell lines were selected in this study, HepG 2 , EC-9706 and MCF-7. The surviving fraction (SF) and DNA damage were detected by MTT assay, nested PCR technique and comet assay respectively. Results: MTT assay: The SF of HepG 2 and EC-9706 after irradiated by 2, 4 and 8 Gy was lower significantly than that of MCF-7, which showed that the radiosensitivity of HepG 2 and EC-9706 was higher than that of MCF-7. But there was no statistical difference of SF between HepG 2 and EC-9706. SCGE: The difference of radiosensitivity among these three tumor cell lines was significant after 8 Gy γ-ray irradiation. Conclusion: The multi-utilization of many biological parameter is hopeful to evaluate the radiosensitivity of tumor cells more objectively and exactly. (authors)

  15. A comparative study of the FcepsilonRI molecule on human mast cell and basophil cell lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bettina Margrethe; Dissing, S; Skov, P S

    2005-01-01

    Mast cells and basophils express the high-affinity IgE receptor FcepsilonRI. We have analysed the human mast cell line LAD2 and four subclones of the basophil cell line KU812 in order to reveal possible differences concerning the FcepsilonRI surface regulation, anti-IgE-triggered activation...

  16. The Importance of Physiologically Relevant Cell Lines for Studying Virus–Host Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hare

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Viruses interact intimately with the host cell at nearly every stage of replication, and the cell model that is chosen to study virus infection is critically important. Although primary cells reflect the phenotype of healthy cells in vivo better than cell lines, their limited lifespan makes experimental manipulation challenging. However, many tumor-derived and artificially immortalized cell lines have defects in induction of interferon-stimulated genes and other antiviral defenses. These defects can affect virus replication, especially when cells are infected at lower, more physiologically relevant, multiplicities of infection. Understanding the selective pressures and mechanisms underlying the loss of innate signaling pathways is helpful to choose immortalized cell lines without impaired antiviral defense. We describe the trials and tribulations we encountered while searching for an immortalized cell line with intact innate signaling, and how directed immortalization of primary cells avoids many of the pitfalls of spontaneous immortalization.

  17. Study of cancer cell lines with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR)/vibrational absorption (VA) spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uceda Otero, E. P.; Eliel, G. S. N.; Fonseca, E. J. S.

    2013-01-01

    In this work we have used Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) / vibrational absorption (VA) spectroscopy to study two cancer cell lines: the Henrietta Lacks (HeLa) human cervix carcinoma and 5637 human bladder carcinoma cell lines. Our goal is to experimentally investigate biochemical changes...... and differences in these cells lines utilizing FTIR spectroscopy. We have used the chemometrical and statistical method principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate the spectral differences. We have been able to identify certain bands in the spectra which are so-called biomarkers for two types of cell lines......, three groups for the 5637 human bladder carcinoma cell line (5637A, 5637B and 5637C), and another one for the HeLa human cervix carcinoma cell line. The vibrational modes can be assigned to specific bands involving characteristic motions of the protein backbone. This work shows that infrared vibrational...

  18. Heterogeneity of cell lines derived after transformation of early passage rodent cells by the Ha-ras1 human oncogene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spandidos, D A; Freshney, M; Wilkie, N M

    1985-01-01

    The chromosome patterns of Chinese hamster cell lines derived after immortalization or tumorigenic conversion of early passage cells with recombinants carrying the mutated T24 or the normal human Ha-ras1 gene have been characterized by trypsin-Giemsa banding. Whereas immortalized Chinese hamster cell lines exhibited a near normal karyotype, tumorigenic cell lines were found to have abnormal karyotypes carrying marker chromosomes. Moreover, chromosomal patterns correlated with growth in semisolid media and tumourigenicity in nude mice. Similarly, malignant conversion of early passage Syrian hamster cells, with a recombinant carrying the mutated T24 human Ha-ras1 gene, resulted in cells with a near diploid karyotype. On the other hand, tumorigenic conversion of early passage Wistar rat cells with the same oncogene produced cell lines with heteroploid karyotypes. More chromosomal alterations have been observed during further growth of these cells. It is suggested that the transformed phenotype in these cells may be dependent on the chromosomal instability.

  19. Rabbit embryonic stem cell lines derived from fertilized, parthenogenetic or somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang, Zhen F.; Gai, Hui; Huang, You Z.; Li, Shan G.; Chen, Xue J.; Shi, Jian J.; Wu, Li; Liu, Ailian; Xu, Ping; Sheng, Hui Z.

    2006-01-01

    Embryonic stem cells were isolated from rabbit blastocysts derived from fertilization (conventional rbES cells), parthenogenesis (pES cells) and nuclear transfer (ntES cells), and propagated in a serum-free culture system. Rabbit ES (rbES) cells proliferated for a prolonged time in an undifferentiated state and maintained a normal karyotype. These cells grew in a monolayer with a high nuclear/cytoplasm ratio and contained a high level of alkaline phosphate activity. In addition, rbES cells expressed the pluripotent marker Oct-4, as well as EBAF2, FGF4, TDGF1, but not antigens recognized by antibodies against SSEA-1, SSEA-3, SSEA-4, TRA-1-10 and TRA-1-81. All 3 types of ES cells formed embryoid bodies and generated teratoma that contained tissue types of all three germ layers. rbES cells exhibited a high cloning efficiency, were genetically modified readily and were used as nuclear donors to generate a viable rabbit through somatic cell nuclear transfer. In combination with genetic engineering, the ES cell technology should facilitate the creation of new rabbit lines

  20. Mechanism of multidrug resistance of human small cell lung cancer cell line H446/VP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Ling; Yan, Yun-Li; Zhou, Na-Jing; Han, Shuo; Zhao, Jun-Xia; Cao, Cui-Li; Lü, Yu-Hong

    2010-11-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is the most aggressive form of lung cancer. This study aimed to investigate the mechanism of human small cell lung cancer cell line resistance to etoposide (VP-16), H446/VP. The cell viability was measured by MTT assay. Immunocytochemistry, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blotting methods were used to detect the multidrug resistance gene (MDR1), bcl-2, bax and the topoisomerase II (Topo II) expressions in H446 and H446/VP cells after treated with or without VP-16. The 50% inhibition concentration (IC50) of VP-16 on H446 cells was 49 mg/L, and 836 mg/L was for H446/VP cells. The expressions of MDR1 and bcl-2 were up-regulated, while the amounts of bax and Topo II were reduced in H446/VP cells. After treated with 49 mg/L of VP-16, it showed that the drug could significantly inhibit bcl-2 and Topo II expressions, and increase bax expression in H446 cells compared with that of H446/VP cells. The H446/VP cell was stably resistant to VP-16. The decreased expression of Topo II was correlated with the H446/VP multidrug resistance. The elevated expressions of MDR1, and the altered apoptotic pathways also played an important role in VP-16 induced multidrug resistance of SCLC.

  1. A biocompatible micro cell culture chamber (mu CCC) for the culturing and on-line monitoring of eukaryote cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Petronis, Sarunas; Jørgensen, Anders Michael

    2006-01-01

    on cell survival. Low grade light exposure was however compatible with optical recordings as well as cell viability. These results strongly indicate that a cell culture chip could be constructed that allowed for on-line optical recording of cellular events without affecting the cell culturing condition...... culture chip compared to cell culture flasks. The cell culture chip could without further modification support cell growth of two other cell lines. Light coming from the microscope lamp during optical recordings of the cells was the only external factor identified, that could have a negative effect...

  2. Inhibition of geranylgeranylation mediates sensitivity to CHOP-induced cell death of DLBCL cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageberg, Malin, E-mail: Malin.Ageberg@med.lu.se [Division of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Lund University, BMC C14, 221 84 Lund (Sweden); Rydstroem, Karin, E-mail: Karin.Rydstom@skane.se [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden); Linden, Ola, E-mail: Ola.Linden@skane.se [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden); Linderoth, Johan, E-mail: Johan.Linderoth@skane.se [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden); Jerkeman, Mats, E-mail: Mats.Jerkeman@skane.se [Department of Oncology, Skanes University Hospital, Allmaenmott, Onkologiska kliniken i Lund, 221 85 Lund (Sweden); Drott, Kristina, E-mail: Kristina.Drott@med.lu.se [Division of Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Lund University, BMC C14, 221 84 Lund (Sweden)

    2011-05-01

    Prenylation is a post-translational hydrophobic modification of proteins, important for their membrane localization and biological function. The use of inhibitors of prenylation has proven to be a useful tool in the activation of apoptotic pathways in tumor cell lines. Rab geranylgeranyl transferase (Rab GGT) is responsible for the prenylation of the Rab family. Overexpression of Rab GGTbeta has been identified in CHOP refractory diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Using a cell line-based model for CHOP resistant DLBCL, we show that treatment with simvastatin, which inhibits protein farnesylation and geranylgeranylation, sensitizes DLBCL cells to cytotoxic treatment. Treatment with the farnesyl transferase inhibitor FTI-277 or the geranylgeranyl transferase I inhibitor GGTI-298 indicates that the reduction in cell viability was restricted to inhibition of geranylgeranylation. In addition, treatment with BMS1, a combined inhibitor of farnesyl transferase and Rab GGT, resulted in a high cytostatic effect in WSU-NHL cells, demonstrated by reduced cell viability and decreased proliferation. Co-treatment of BMS1 or GGTI-298 with CHOP showed synergistic effects with regard to markers of apoptosis. We propose that inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation together with conventional cytostatic therapy is a potential novel strategy for treating patients with CHOP refractory DLBCL.

  3. Cellular radiosensitivity of primary and metastatic human uveal melanoma cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Aardweg, Gerard J. M.; Naus, Nicole; Verhoeven, A.C.; Klein, Annelies; Luyten, Gré

    2002-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To investigate the radiosensitivity of uveal melanoma cell lines by a clonogenic survival assay, to improve the efficiency of the radiation regimen. METHODS: Four primary and four metastatic human uveal melanoma cell lines were cultured in the presence of conditioned medium. After single-dose irradiation (0-12 Gy), colonies were allowed to form for 6 to 14 days. Two cutaneous melanomas cell lines were also tested for comparison. The survival curves were analyzed by the li...

  4. Taurine Biosynthesis in a Fish Liver Cell Line (ZFL) Adapted to a Serum-Free Medium

    OpenAIRE

    Chieh-Lun Liu; Aaron M. Watson; Allen R. Place; Rosemary Jagus

    2017-01-01

    Although taurine has been shown to play multiple important physiological roles in teleosts, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying dietary requirements. Cell lines can provide useful tools for deciphering biosynthetic pathways and their regulation. However, culture media and sera contain variable taurine levels. To provide a useful cell line for the investigation of taurine homeostasis, an adult zebrafish liver cell line (ZFL) has been adapted to a taurine-free medium by gr...

  5. A bovine cell line that can be infected by natural sheep scrapie prions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja M Oelschlegel

    Full Text Available Cell culture systems represent a crucial part in basic prion research; yet, cell lines that are susceptible to prions, especially to field isolated prions that were not adapted to rodents, are very rare. The purpose of this study was to identify and characterize a cell line that was susceptible to ruminant-derived prions and to establish a stable prion infection within it. Based on species and tissue of origin as well as PrP expression rate, we pre-selected a total of 33 cell lines that were then challenged with natural and with mouse propagated BSE or scrapie inocula. Here, we report the successful infection of a non-transgenic bovine cell line, a sub-line of the bovine kidney cell line MDBK, with natural sheep scrapie prions. This cell line retained the scrapie infection for more than 200 passages. Selective cloning resulted in cell populations with increased accumulation of PrPres, although this treatment was not mandatory for retaining the infection. The infection remained stable, even under suboptimal culture conditions. The resulting infectivity of the cells was confirmed by mouse bioassay (Tgbov mice, Tgshp mice. We believe that PES cells used together with other prion permissive cell lines will prove a valuable tool for ongoing efforts to understand and defeat prions and prion diseases.

  6. Beta-cell lines derived from transgenic mice expressing a hybrid insulin gene-oncogene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Efrat, S; Linde, S; Kofod, Hans

    1988-01-01

    Three pancreatic beta-cell lines have been established from insulinomas derived from transgenic mice carrying a hybrid insulin-promoted simian virus 40 tumor antigen gene. The beta tumor cell (beta TC) lines maintain the features of differentiated beta cells for about 50 passages in culture...... by glucose, although with a lower threshold for maximal stimulation than that for normal beta cells. beta TC lines can be repeatedly derived from primary beta-cell tumors that heritably arise in the transgenic mice. Thus, targeted expression of an oncogene with a cell-specific regulatory element can be used...

  7. Tumor suppressors status in cancer cell line Encyclopedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonkin, Dmitriy; Hassan, Mehedi; Murphy, Denis J; Tatarinova, Tatiana V

    2013-08-01

    Tumor suppressors play a major role in the etiology of human cancer, and typically achieve a tumor-promoting effect upon complete functional inactivation. Bi-allelic inactivation of tumor suppressors may occur through genetic mechanisms (such as loss of function mutation, copy number (CN) loss, or loss of heterozygosity (LOH)), epigenetic mechanisms (such as promoter methylation or histone modification), or a combination of the two. We report systematically derived status of 69 known or putative tumor suppressors, across 799 samples of the Cancer Cell Line Encyclopedia. In order to generate such resource we constructed a novel comprehensive computational framework for the assessment of tumor suppressor functional "status". This approach utilizes several orthogonal genomic data types, including mutation data, copy number, LOH and expression. Through correlation with additional data types (compound sensitivity and gene set activity) we show that this integrative method provides a more accurate assessment of tumor suppressor status than can be inferred by expression, copy number, or mutation alone. This approach has the potential for a more realistic assessment of tumor suppressor genes for both basic and translational oncology research. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Single-dose and fractionated irradiation of four human lung cancer cell lines in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodin, O.; Lennartsson, L.; Nilsson, S.

    1991-01-01

    Four established human lung cancer cell lines were exposed to single-dose irradiation. The survival curves of 2 small cell lung carcinomas (SCLC) were characterized by a limited capacity for repair with small and moderate shoulders with extrapolation numbers (n) of 1.05 and 1.60 respectively. Two non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) cell lines, one squamous cell (SQCLC) and one large cell (LCLC) had large shoulders with n-values of 73 and 15 respectively. The radiosensitivity when measured as D 0 did not, however, differ as much from cell line to cell line, with values from 1.22 to 1.65. The surviving fraction after 2 Gy (SF2) was 0.24 and 0.42 respectively in the SCLC cell lines and 0.90 and 0.88 respectively in the NSCLC cell lines. Fractionated irradiation delivered according to 3 different schedules was also investigated. All the schedules delivered a total dose of 10 Gy in 5 days and were applied in 1, 2 and 5 Gy dose fractions respectively. Survival followed the pattern found after single-dose irradiation; it was lowest in the SCLC cell line with the lowest SF and highest in the two NSCLC cell lines. In the SCLC cell lines all schedules were approximately equally efficient. In the LCLC and in the SQCLC cell lines, the 5 Gy schedule killed more cells than the 1 and 2 Gy schedules. The results indicate that the size of the shoulder of the survival curve is essential when choosing the most tumoricidal fractionation schedule. (orig.)

  9. Annona squamosa Linn: cytotoxic activity found in leaf extract against human tumor cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, De-Shen; Rizwani, Ghazala H; Guo, Huiqin; Ahmed, Mansoor; Ahmed, Maryam; Hassan, Syed Zeeshan; Hassan, Amir; Chen, Zhe-Sheng; Xu, Rui-Hua

    2014-09-01

    Cancer is a common cause of death in human populations. Surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy still remain the corner stone of treatment. However, herbal medicines are gaining popularity on account of their lesser harmful side effects on non-targeted human cells and biological environment. Annona squamosa Linn is a common delicious edible fruit and its leaf have been used for the treatment in various types of diseases. The objective of present study is to determine the anticancer potential of the organic and aqueous extracts of leaf of Annona squamosa L. MTT (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazole-2yl)-2, 5-biphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay against hepatocellular carcinoma cell line BEL-7404, lung cancer line H460, human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1, prostatic cancer cell line DU145, breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB-435, and colon cancer cell line HCT-116 Human primary embryonic kidney cell line HEK293 as control were used for the study. The crude extract (Zcd) and Ethyl acetate extract (ZE) were found significant anticancer activity only on human epidermoid carcinoma cell line KB-3-1 and colon cancer cell line HCT-116.

  10. Generation of breast cancer stem cells by steroid hormones in irradiated human mammary cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Vares

    Full Text Available Exposure to ionizing radiation was shown to result in an increased risk of breast cancer. There is strong evidence that steroid hormones influence radiosensitivity and breast cancer risk. Tumors may be initiated by a small subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs. In order to assess whether the modulation of radiation-induced breast cancer risk by steroid hormones could involve CSCs, we measured by flow cytometry the proportion of CSCs in irradiated breast cancer cell lines after progesterone and estrogen treatment. Progesterone stimulated the expansion of the CSC compartment both in progesterone receptor (PR-positive breast cancer cells and in PR-negative normal cells. In MCF10A normal epithelial PR-negative cells, progesterone-treatment and irradiation triggered cancer and stemness-associated microRNA regulations (such as the downregulation of miR-22 and miR-29c expression, which resulted in increased proportions of radiation-resistant tumor-initiating CSCs.

  11. Radiosensitization of C225 on human non-small cell lung cancer cell line H-520

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yingdong; Wang Junjie; Liu Feng; Zhao Yong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the efficacy of C225 (cetuximab), a chimeric human-mouse anti-epithelial growth factor receptor monoclonal antibody, combined with 60 Co gamma irradiation against human non-small cell lung cancer cell line H-520. Methods: H-520 cells were treated either with different dose of 60 Co irradiation (1,2,4,6,8 and 10 Gy)alone or together with C225 (100 nmol/L). Colony forming capacity was determined to create the survival curve 10 days after the treatment. Cells in different groups were harvested 72 hours after irradiation for apoptosis analysis or 48 hours after irradiation for cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry assay. Results: The clone number in combinational treatment group was less than that in irradiation only group, which suggested that the cell survival rate in the combinational treatment group was significantly decreased comparing with irradiation only group (F=6.36, P O + G 1 phases for C225 treatment, in G 2 + M phases for 60 Co irradiation, and in both G 0 + G 1 and G 2 + M phases for C225 in combination with 60 Co irradiation. Conclusions: C225 has radiosensitizing effects on H-520 cells, which may through the enhancement of 60 Co irradiation-induced cell death and cell cycle arrest. This study provides a supportive evidence for clinical treatment in non-small cell lung cancer. (authors)

  12. Identification of transporters associated with Etoposide sensitivity of stomach cancer cell lines and methotrexate sensitivity of breast cancer cell lines by quantitative targeted absolute proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obuchi, Wataru; Ohtsuki, Sumio; Uchida, Yasuo; Ohmine, Ken; Yamori, Takao; Terasaki, Tetsuya

    2013-02-01

    Membrane transporter proteins may influence the sensitivity of cancer cells to anticancer drugs that can be recognized as substrates. The purpose of this study was to identify proteins that play a key role in the drug sensitivity of stomach and breast cancer cell lines by measuring the absolute protein expression levels of multiple transporters and other membrane proteins and examining their correlation to drug sensitivity. Absolute protein expression levels of 90 membrane proteins were examined by quantitative targeted absolute proteomics using liquid chromatography-linked tandem mass spectrometry. Among them, 11 and 14 membrane proteins, including transporters, were present in quantifiable amounts in membrane fraction of stomach cancer and breast cancer cell lines, respectively. In stomach cancer cell lines, the protein expression level of multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) was inversely correlated with etoposide sensitivity. MK571, an MRP inhibitor, increased both the cell-to-medium ratio of etoposide and the etoposide sensitivity of MRP1-expressing stomach cancer cell lines. In breast cancer cell lines, the protein expression level of reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1) was directly correlated with methotrexate (MTX) sensitivity. Initial uptake rate and steady-state cell-to-medium ratio of [(3)H]MTX were correlated with both RFC1 expression level and MTX sensitivity. These results suggest that MRP1 modulates the etoposide sensitivity of stomach cancer cell lines and RFC1 modulates the MTX sensitivity of breast cancer cell lines. Our results indicate that absolute quantification of multiple membrane proteins could be a useful strategy for identification of candidate proteins involved in drug sensitivity.

  13. Ethanolic Extract Cytotoxic Effect of Zingiber Afficinale in Breast Cancer (MCF7 Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Tavakkol Afshari

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Biological activities of Zingiber afficieale plants have been reported as possessing anticancer, antibacterial, anti ulcer, antifungal, and insecticidal properties. However, its antitumor effects haven't been studied in cancer cell lines. The aim of this study was to investigate the antitumor effect of zingiber afficieale on breast cancer cell lines. Materials & Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 2010 at Mashhad University of medical Sciences. Breast cancer cell line (MCF7 and normal connective tissue cell line (L929 were cultured in DMEM medium. Ethanolic extract of Zingiber afficinale was prepared and cell lines were treated with different concentration of extract (5000 to 78 µg. Cell viability was measured by MTT assay after 24, 48, and 72 hours. The collected data were statistically analyzed by SPSS software. Results: The effects of Zingiber afficinale on cell viability were observed after 48 hours on cell lines. Ginger doses in 2500 µg concentration inhibited 50% of cell growth (IC50 in cell lines after 48 hours. Conclusion: Our study revealed that fresh ginger extract has cytotoxic effects on tumor cells, but it doesn’t have any cytotoxic effect on normal cells. It seems that ginger could be considered as a promising chemotherapeutic agent in cancer treatment.

  14. Check your cultures! A list of cross-contaminated or misidentified cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capes-Davis, Amanda; Theodosopoulos, George; Atkin, Isobel; Drexler, Hans G; Kohara, Arihiro; MacLeod, Roderick A F; Masters, John R; Nakamura, Yukio; Reid, Yvonne A; Reddel, Roger R; Freshney, R Ian

    2010-07-01

    Continuous cell lines consist of cultured cells derived from a specific donor and tissue of origin that have acquired the ability to proliferate indefinitely. These cell lines are well-recognized models for the study of health and disease, particularly for cancer. However, there are cautions to be aware of when using continuous cell lines, including the possibility of contamination, in which a foreign cell line or microorganism is introduced without the handler's knowledge. Cross-contamination, in which the contaminant is another cell line, was first recognized in the 1950s but, disturbingly, remains a serious issue today. Many cell lines become cross-contaminated early, so that subsequent experimental work has been performed only on the contaminant, masquerading under a different name. What can be done in response-how can a researcher know if their own cell lines are cross-contaminated? Two practical responses are suggested here. First, it is important to check the literature, looking for previous work on cross-contamination. Some reports may be difficult to find and to make these more accessible, we have compiled a list of known cross-contaminated cell lines. The list currently contains 360 cell lines, drawn from 68 references. Most contaminants arise within the same species, with HeLa still the most frequently encountered (29%, 106/360) among human cell lines, but interspecies contaminants account for a small but substantial minority of cases (9%, 33/360). Second, even if there are no previous publications on cross-contamination for that cell line, it is essential to check the sample itself by performing authentication testing.

  15. A Corn Tissue Culture Cell Line with Altered Lipid Metabolism

    OpenAIRE

    Yue-ie C, Hsing; Jack M, Widholm; Robert W, Rinne; Institute of Botany, Academia Sinica; Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana; Plant Physiology and Genetics Research Unit, Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service and Department of Agronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana

    1991-01-01

    A variant corn callus line derived from callus which originated from etiolated leaves of Illinois High Oil corn (Zea mays L.) has been identified. The variant corn callus line had increased lipid content concomitant with increased acetyl-CoA carboxylase activity and altered biotin-containing protein patterns relative to the wild type callus. The variant callus line also had altered fatty acid composition concomitant with decreased oleate desaturase activity compared to the wild type callus. T...

  16. Production Line for Dendritic-Web Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    Direct inclusion of web-growth furnaces in production line expected to result in lower costs than current production processes using silicon wafers sliced from Czochralski boules. Silicon-web input capacity of line is 0.5 m2/min, which corresponds to total peak-power output of about 25 MW for 1 year of production. Line employs about 18 production people per shift and requires about 3,650 square feet of floorspace.

  17. Effect of sirolimus on urinary bladder cancer T24 cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Paula A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sirolimus is recently reported to have antitumour effects on a large variety of cancers. The present study was performed to investigate sirolimus's ability to inhibit growth in T24 bladder cancer cells. Methods T24 bladder cancer cells were treated with various concentrations of sirolimus. MTT assay was used to evaluate the proliferation inhibitory effect on T24 cell line. The viability of T24 cell line was determined by Trypan blue exclusion analysis. Results Sirolimus inhibits the growth of bladder carcinoma cells and decreases their viability. Significant correlations were found between cell proliferation and sirolimus concentration (r = 0.830; p Conclusion Sirolimus has an anti-proliferation effect on the T24 bladder carcinoma cell line. The information from our results is useful for a better understanding sirolimus's anti-proliferative activity in the T24 bladder cancer cell line.

  18. Induction of chromosome aberrations in two lines of cultured cells using different types of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoetelief, J.; Dingjan-Hirschi, E.S.; Hasper, J.; Janse, H.C.; Barendsen, G.W.

    The induction of chromosome aberrations has been investigated in two lines of cultured cells for different types of radiation. The obtained results are compared with information on induction of cell reproductive death and malignant transformation. (Auth.)

  19. Differential hypersensitivity of xeroderma pigmentosum lymphoblastoid cell lines to ultraviolet light mutagenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsumi, Kouichi; Toyoda, Mariko; Takebe, Hiraku; Kurihara, Takayuki; Inoue, Masao

    1987-01-01

    Survival and mutation after u.v. light irradiation were examined in four human lymphoblastoid cell lines; one cell line with normal excision-repair capacity (HH4), two excision-repair-deficient xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) cell lines from patient XP3BE (complementation group C) and XP7NI (group A), and one cell line from an XP heterozygote (XPF7NI, father of XP7NI). The results imply that the mechanism of u.v.-induced mutation in XP7NI cells may intrinsically be different from that in XP3BE, XP heterozygote or normal cells, or that potentially mutagenic lesions are repaired much less efficiently in XP7NI cells than are potentially lethal lesions, as compared with XP3BE, XPF7NI and HH4 cells. (author)

  20. Response of the MG-63 human osteosarcoma cell line grown as multicellular spheroids to neutron irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Nobuo; Kakehi, Masae; Matsubara, Shou; Koike, Sachiko; Ando, Koichi.

    1993-01-01

    Multicellular tumor spheroids are composed of the mixed populations of cells with regard to cell proliferation, nutrition, oxygenation and radiosensitivity. Human osteogenic sarcoma is generally considered clinically radioresistant. However, the in vitro cell survival curves for human osteogenic sarcoma cell lines do not differ from those of other tumor cell lines. In this study, the responses of human osteogenic sarcoma cell line to gamma ray and neutrons were investigated by using spheroid system. The spheroids of the osteogenic sarcoma cell line are considered to be a good in vitro model of radioresistant tumors. The purpose of this study is to measure the response of the spheroids to fast neutron irradiation. MG-63 human osteogenic sarcoma cell line was used for this study. The cell line was cultured in alpha-MEM with supplement. Cell survival was estimated after the trypsinization of spheroids 24 hours after irradiation. The method of measuring spheroid cure is explained. The mean number of surviving cells per spheroid can be obtained from the mean clonogenic number and cell survival curve. The cell survival of MG-63 spheroids exposed to gamma ray and neutrons and the dose effect curves for spheroid cure after irradiation are shown. (K.I.)

  1. S100 protein expression in human melanoma cells: Comparison of levels of expression among different cell lines and individual cells in different phases of the cell cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marks, A.; O' Hanlon, D.; Dunn, R. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Petsche, D.; Baumal, R. (Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)); Kwong, P.C.; Stead, R. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)); Liao, S.K. (McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada) Biotherapeutics, Inc., Franklin, TN (United States))

    1990-03-01

    The synthesis of S100 protein in cultured human melanoma cells was examined using metabolic labeling with ({sup 35}S)methionine, immunoprecipitation with anti-S100 protein antiserum, and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. Six of seven cell lines derived from melanomas synthesized relatively large amounts of S100 protein, whereas three cell lines derived from normal melanocytes synthesized lesser amounts. Synthesis of S100 protein was not detected in 10 human cell lines of non-neuroectodermal origin. Analysis of poly(A{sup +}) RNA form one melanoma cell line by Northern blot hybridization with a probe specific for the {beta} subunit of rat S100 protein revealed a single mRNA species of 1.0 kb coding for the human protein. Flow cytometric analysis of individual cells of two melanoma cell lines and the rat glioma cell line C6 indicated that G0/G1 cells were heterogeneous with respect to S100 protein expression, while almost all the cells in S+G2+M expressed S100 protein. These results suggest that expression of S100 protein in G0/G1 could be a prerequisite for progression of the cells through the cell cycle.

  2. Efficient production of a gene mutant cell line through integrating TALENs and high-throughput cell cloning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changhong; Fan, Yu; Li, Juan; Wang, Gancheng; Zhang, Hanshuo; Xi, Jianzhong Jeff

    2015-02-01

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) are becoming powerful DNA-targeting tools in a variety of mammalian cells and model organisms. However, generating a stable cell line with specific gene mutations in a simple and rapid manner remains a challenging task. Here, we report a new method to efficiently produce monoclonal cells using integrated TALE nuclease technology and a series of high-throughput cell cloning approaches. Following this method, we obtained three mTOR mutant 293T cell lines within 2 months, which included one homozygous mutant line. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  3. Mast cell lines HMC-1 and LAD2 in comparison with mature human skin mast cells--drastically reduced levels of tryptase and chymase in mast cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guhl, Sven; Babina, Magda; Neou, Angelos; Zuberbier, Torsten; Artuc, Metin

    2010-09-01

    To circumvent the costly isolation procedure associated with tissue mast cells (MC), two human MC lines, i.e. HMC-1 and LAD2, are frequently employed, but their relation to mature MC is unknown. Here, we quantitatively assessed their expression of MC markers in direct comparison to skin MC (sMC). sMC expressed all lineage markers at highest and HMC-1 cells at lowest levels. LAD2 cells expressed comparable high-affinity IgE receptor alpha (FcepsilonRIalpha) and FcepsilonRIgamma but less FcepsilonRIbeta than sMC and displayed slightly reduced, but robust FcepsilonRI-mediated histamine release. Only minor differences were found for total histamine content and c-Kit expression. Huge, and to this level unexpected, differences were found for MC tryptase and chymase, with sMC > LAD2 > HMC-1. Taken together, HMC-1 cells represent very immature malignantly transformed MC, whereas LAD2 cells can be considered intermediately differentiated. Because of the minute levels of MC proteases, MC lines can serve as surrogates of tissue MC to a limited degree only.

  4. Escin reduces cell proliferation and induces apoptosis on glioma and lung adenocarcinoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çiftçi, Gülşen Akalin; Işcan, Arzu; Kutlu, Mehtap

    2015-10-01

    Aesculus hippocastanum (the horse chestnut) seed extract has a wide variety of biochemical and pharmacological effects including anti-inflammatory, antianalgesic, and antipyretic activities. The main active compound of this plant is escin. It is known that several medicinal herbs with anti-inflammatory properties have been found to have a role in the prevention and treatment of cancer. In the present study, the cytotoxic effects of escin in the C6 glioma and A549 cell lines were analyzed by MTT. Apoptotic effects of escin on both cell lines were evaluated by Annexin V binding capacity with flow cytometric analysis. Structural and ultrastructural changes were also evaluated using transmission electron microscopy. The results indicated that escin has potent antiproliferative effects against C6 glioma and A549 cells. These effects are both dose and time dependent. Taken together, escin possesses cell cycle arrest on G0/G1 phase and selective apoptotic activity on A549 cells as indicated by increased Annexin V-binding capacity, bax protein expression, caspase-3 activity and morphological changes obtained from micrographs by transmission electron microscopy.

  5. Cationic Phosphorus Dendrimer Enhances Photodynamic Activity of Rose Bengal against Basal Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabrzalska, Monika; Janaszewska, Anna; Zablocka, Maria; Mignani, Serge; Majoral, Jean Pierre; Klajnert-Maculewicz, Barbara

    2017-05-01

    In the last couple of decades, photodynamic therapy emerged as a useful tool in the treatment of basal cell carcinoma. However, it still meets limitations due to unfavorable properties of photosensitizers such as poor solubility or lack of selectivity. Dendrimers, polymers widely studied in biomedical field, may play a role as photosensitizer carriers and improve the efficacy of photodynamic treatment. Here, we describe the evaluation of an electrostatic complex of cationic phosphorus dendrimer and rose bengal in such aspects as singlet oxygen production, cellular uptake, and phototoxicity against three basal cell carcinoma cell lines. Rose bengal-cationic dendrimer complex in molar ratio 5:1 was compared to free rose bengal. Obtained results showed that the singlet oxygen production in aqueous medium was significantly higher for the complex than for free rose bengal. The cellular uptake of the complex was 2-7-fold higher compared to a free photosensitizer. Importantly, rose bengal, rose bengal-dendrimer complex, and dendrimer itself showed no dark toxicity against all three cell lines. Moreover, we observed that phototoxicity of the complex was remarkably enhanced presumably due to high cellular uptake. On the basis of the obtained results, we conclude that rose bengal-cationic dendrimer complex has a potential in photodynamic treatment of basal cell carcinoma.

  6. The Tribolium castaneum cell line TcA: a new tool kit for cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silver, Kristopher; Jiang, Hongbo; Fu, Jinping; Phillips, Thomas W; Beeman, Richard W; Park, Yoonseong

    2014-10-30

    The red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, is an agriculturally important insect pest that has been widely used as a model organism. Recently, an adherent cell line (BCIRL-TcA-CLG1 or TcA) was developed from late pupae of the red flour beetle. Next generation transcriptome sequencing of TcA cells demonstrated expression of a wide variety of genes associated with specialized functions in chitin metabolism, immune responses and cellular and systemic RNAi pathways. Accordingly, we evaluated the sensitivity of TcA cells to dsRNA to initiate an RNAi response. TcA cells were highly sensitive to minute amounts of dsRNA, with a minimum effective dose of 100 pg/mL resulting in significant suppression of gene expression. We have also developed a plasmid containing two TcA-specific promoters, the promoter from the 40S ribosomal protein subunit (TC006550) and a bi-directional heat shock promoter (TcHS70) from the intergenic space between heat shock proteins 68a and b. These promoters have been employed to provide high levels of either constitutive (TC006550) or inducible (TcHS70) gene expression of the reporter proteins. Our results show that the TcA cell line, with its sensitivity to RNAi and functional TcA-specific promoters, is an invaluable resource for studying basic molecular and physiological questions.

  7. Migration of acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells into human bone marrow stroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makrynikola, V; Bianchi, A; Bradstock, K; Gottlieb, D; Hewson, J

    1994-10-01

    Most cases of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) arise from malignant transformation of B-cell precursors in the bone marrow. Recent studies have shown that normal and leukemic B-cell precursors bind to bone marrow stromal cells through the beta-1 integrins VLA-4 and VLA-5, thereby exposing early lymphoid cells to regulatory cytokines. It has been recently reported that the pre-B cell line NALM-6 is capable of migrating under layers of murine stromal cells in vitro (Miyake et al. J Cell Biol 1992;119:653-662). We have further analyzed leukemic cell motility using human bone marrow fibroblasts (BMF) as a stromal layer. The precursor-B ALL cell line NALM-6 rapidly adhered to BMF, and underwent migration or tunneling into BMF layers within 5 h, as demonstrated by light and electron microscopy, and confirmed by a chromium-labeling assay. Migration was also observed with the precursor-B ALL lines Reh and KM-3, with a T leukemia line RPMI-8402, the monocytic line U937, and the mature B line Daudi. In contrast, mature B (Raji), myeloid (K562, HL-60), and T lines (CCRF-CEM, MOLT-4) did not migrate. When cases of leukemia were analyzed, BMF migration was largely confined to precursor-B ALL, occurring in eight of 13 cases tested. Of other types of leukemia, migration was observed in one of four cases of T-ALL, but no evidence was seen in six acute myeloid leukemias and two patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Only minimal migration into BMF was observed with purified sorted CD10+ CD19+ early B cells from normal adult marrow, while normal mature B lymphocytes from peripheral blood did not migrate. ALL migration was inhibited by monoclonal antibodies to the beta sub-unit of the VLA integrin family, and by a combination of antibodies to VLA-4 and VLA-5. Partial inhibition was also observed when leukemic cells were incubated with antibodies to VLA-4, VLA-5, or VLA-6 alone. In contrast, treatment of stromal cells with antibodies to vascular cell adhesion molecule or

  8. Radiation equivalence of genotoxic chemicals - Validation in cultered mammalian cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, M.S.S.

    1982-01-01

    Published data on mutations induced by ionizing radiation and 6 monofunctional alkylating agents, namely EMS, MMS, ENNG, MNNG, ENU and MNU, in different cell lines (Chinese hamster ovary, Chinese hamster lung V79, mouse lymphoma L5178 and human cells) were analysed so that radiation-equivalent chemical (REC) values could be calculated. REC values thus obtained for a given alkylating agent with different cell lines fall within a narrow range suggesting its validation in cultured mammalian cell systems including human. (orig.)

  9. Systemic alteration of cell-surface and secreted glycoprotein expression in malignant breast cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timpe, Leslie C; Yen, Roger; Haste, Nicole V; Litsakos-Cheung, Christina; Yen, Ten-Yang; Macher, Bruce A

    2013-11-01

    Breast cancer cell lines express fewer transmembrane and secreted glycoproteins than nonmalignant ones. The objective of these experiments was to characterize the changes in the expression of several hundred glycoproteins quantitatively. Secreted and cell-surface glycoproteins were isolated using a glycoprotein capture protocol and then identified by tandem mass spectrometry. Glycoproteins expressed by a group of cell lines originating from malignant tumors of the breast were compared with those expressed by a nonmalignant set. The average number of spectral counts (proportional to relative protein abundance) and the total number of glycopeptides in the malignant samples were reduced to about two-thirds of the level in the nonmalignant samples. Most glycoproteins were expressed at a different level in the malignant samples, with nearly as many increasing as decreasing. The glycoproteins with reduced expression accounted for a larger change in spectral counts, and hence for the net loss of spectral counts in the malignant lines. Similar results were found when the glycoproteins were studied via identified glycosylation sites only, or through identified sites together with non-glycopeptides. The overall reduction is largely due to the loss of integrins, laminins and other proteins that form or interact with the basement membrane.

  10. Generation and characteristics of human Sertoli cell line immortalized by overexpression of human telomerase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Liping; Yuan, Qingqing; Sun, Min; Niu, Minghui; Wang, Hong; Fu, Hongyong; Zhou, Fan; Yao, Chencheng; Wang, Xiaobo; Li, Zheng; He, Zuping

    2017-03-07

    Sertoli cells are required for normal spermatogenesis and they can be reprogrammed to other types of functional cells. However, the number of primary Sertoli cells is rare and human Sertoli cell line is unavailable. In this study, we have for the first time reported a stable human Sertoli cell line, namely hS1 cells, by overexpression of human telomerase. The hS1 cells expressed a number of hallmarks for human Sertoli cells, including SOX9, WT1, GDNF, SCF, BMP4, BMP6, GATA4, and VIM, and they were negative for 3β-HSD, SMA, and VASA. Higher levels of AR and FSHR were observed in hS1 cells compared to primary human Sertoli cells. Microarray analysis showed that 70.4% of global gene profiles of hS1 cells were similar to primary human Sertoli cells. Proliferation assay demonstrated that hS1 cells proliferated rapidly and they could be passaged for more than 30 times in 6 months. Neither Y chromosome microdeletion nor tumorgenesis was detected in this cell line and 90% normal karyotypes existed in hS1 cells. Collectively, we have established the first human Sertoli cell line with phenotype of primary human Sertoli cells, an unlimited proliferation potential and high safety, which could offer sufficient human Sertoli cells for basic research as well as reproductive and regenerative medicine.

  11. Cytotoxic effects of SMAC-mimetic compound LCL161 in head and neck cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Roman C; Herbst, Franziska; Hartmann, Stefan; Seher, Axel; Linz, Christian; Kübler, Alexander C; Müller-Richter, Urs D A

    2016-12-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is one of the most common tumor entities worldwide. Unfortunately, recent drug developments in other fields of oncology have yielded no efficacy in the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma. As a new starting point, we investigated the impact of Fas ligand (FasL) and the SMAC-mimetic compound LCL161 in mono- and combination treatment in HNSCC cell lines. Five different cell lines of HNSCC were treated with FasL and LCL161 in mono- and combination treatment. Cytotoxicity was measured via a crystal violet assay. The cell lines were characterized for CD95 (FasL receptor) expression via flow cytometry. The degradation of cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 1 (cIAP1) was detected via Western blot. Incubation with FasL led to a significant decrease in three out of five cell lines. Combination treatment with LCL161 enhanced cytotoxicity significantly. Two cell lines were FasL resistant, but one of them could be resensitized with LCL161. In all cell lines, Western blot analysis showed degradation of cIAP1 after LCL161 application. However, one cell line showed only minor vulnerability to the FasL and LCL161 combination. This is the first study investigating combination treatment of FasL and LCL161 in head and neck cancer cell lines. Pro-apoptotic effects of the combination were detected in the majority of the cell lines. Interestingly, one of two FasL-resistant cell lines was sensitive to the combination therapy with FasL and LCL161. SMAC-mimetic compounds show promising results in the treatment of other tumor entities in vitro and might be useful drugs to improve HNSCC therapy.

  12. Measurement of separase proteolytic activity in single living cells by a fluorogenic flow cytometry assay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiltrud Haaß

    Full Text Available ESPL1/Separase, an endopeptidase, is required for centrosome duplication and separation of sister-chromatides in anaphase of mitosis. Overexpression and deregulated proteolytic activity of Separase as frequently observed in human cancers is associated with the occurrence of supernumerary centrosomes, chromosomal missegregation and aneuploidy. Recently, we have hypothesized that increased Separase proteolytic activity in a small subpopulation of tumor cells may serve as driver of tumor heterogeneity and clonal evolution in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML. Currently, there is no quantitative assay to measure Separase activity levels in single cells. Therefore, we have designed a flow cytometry-based assay that utilizes a Cy5- and rhodamine 110 (Rh110-biconjugated Rad21 cleavage site peptide ([Cy5-D-R-E-I-M-R]2-Rh110 as smart probe and intracellular substrate for detection of Separase enzyme activity in living cells. As measured by Cy5 fluorescence the cellular uptake of the fluorogenic peptide was fast and reached saturation after 210 min of incubation in human histiocytic lymphoma U937 cells. Separase activity was recorded as the intensity of Rh110 fluorescence released after intracellular peptide cleavage providing a linear signal gain within a 90-180 min time slot. Compared to conventional cell extract-based methods the flow cytometric assay delivers equivalent results but is more reliable, bypasses the problem of vague loading controls and unspecific proteolysis associated with whole cell extracts. Especially suited for the investigaton of blood- and bone marrow-derived hematopoietic cells the flow cytometric Separase assay allows generation of Separase activity profiles that tell about the number of Separase positive cells within a sample i.e. cells that currently progress through mitosis and about the range of intercellular variation in Separase activity levels within a cell population. The assay was used to quantify Separase proteolytic

  13. Cardamom extract induces cell proliferation by increasing potassium currents in NIH3T3 cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Sonia; Hassan, Sohail; Imran, Sumaira; Khan, Faisal; Ahmed, Faheem; Dar, Asim

    2017-11-01

    Amommum subulatum (Roxb.) or Cardamom extract is known to have anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects towards many gastrointestinal related problems. However, uptill now different fractions of cardamom extract on fibroblasts with respect to potassium channel activity have not been investigated. Therefore, present study investigated the effects of different fractions of cardamom extract on potassium channels in non-tumor NIH3T3 cell line. Phytochemical analysis of hydroalcoholic, n-hexane, butane and ethyl acetate fractions of cardamom extracts were purified and isolated by thin layer chromatography (TLC). 3T3 cells were cultured and incubated with hydroalcohol (1-2 μ/ml), n-hexane (1 μ/ml), butane (2 μ/ml) and ethyl acetate (1-2 μ/ml) for 5 hrs at 37°C. Modulation in potassium currents were recorded by whole-cell patch clamp method. The data showed two constituents Cineol (C 10 H 18 O) and Terpinyl acetate (C10H17OOCCH3) by TLC method. The present study shows that the constituents in n-hexane, hydro alcohol (1 μ/ml) and ethyl acetate (2 μ/ml) significantly increased (p<0.01) the potassium outward rectifying currents from NIH3T3 cells when compared to untreated controls cells. Whereas, butanol fraction (2 μ/ml) significantly decreased (p<0.01) the inward rectifying currents when compared to controls. Moreover hydroalcoholic and n-hexane fractions have increased the proliferation in 3T3 cell line. On the other hand butanol and ethyl acetate did not induce proliferation in 3T3 cells. Taken together, our data suggested that cardamom extract contains constituents that increased K+ currents, cell migration and proliferation and are involved in wound healing.

  14. HeLa-LAV, an epithelial cell line stably infected with HIV-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, J; Doe, B; Steimer, K S; Wabl, M

    1991-01-01

    An HeLa-LAV cell line was established by infecting and subcloning previously described CD4-expressing HeLa cells with HIV-1. Cells of this line stably synthesize all major HIV proteins, release infectious particles of HIV-1, but do not die even after long term culture. More than 90% of the cells express the envelope protein gp120 on the surface. The cells can be easily and efficiently labeled with 51chromium, and exhibit a low spontaneous release. Because they are susceptible to killing by allogeneic cytotoxic T cells (CTL) when targeted to gp120, they ought to be a useful source of target cells in any kind of HIV-specific killing assays. The cells may also help studies on HIV replication in non-lymphatic/non-monocytic cells. The HeLa-LAV cell line will be freely available from the AIDS Research and Reference Reagent Program.

  15. Application of low level laser on skin cell lines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndhundhuma, IM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Lasers have emerged as powerful tools for tissue engineering. To examine cellular growth, and cell to cell interactions, in vitro skin models have been developed combining two major cell types of skin, keratinocytes and fibroblasts. The main...

  16. Cytotoxicity of arctigenin and matairesinol against the T-cell lymphoma cell line CCRF-CEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shan; Cheng, Xinlai; Wink, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Arctigenin and matairesinol possess a diversity of bioactivities. Here we investigated the cytotoxicity of arctigenin and matairesinol against a T-cell lymphoma cell line CCRF-CEM and the underlying mechanisms that have not been explored before. The cytotoxic activity was investigated using MTT assay. The cell cycle arrest and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were determined by flow cytometric analysis. The apoptosis induction was assessed using Annexin V/Propidium Iodide assay. The gene quantification analysis was measured through real-time polymerase chain reaction. Arctigenin and matairesinol exhibited significant antiproliferative activity against CCRF-CEM cells after 72 h treatment with IC50 values of 1.21 ± 0.15 μm and 4.27 ± 0.41 μm, respectively. In addition, both lignans arrest CCRF-CEM cells in the S phase. Furthermore, they could induce apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Interestingly, the lignans differentially regulated the expression of several key genes involved in apoptosis pathways, including Bax, Bad and caspase-9. Moreover, both lignans could increase ROS levels in CCRF-CEM cells. Our study provides an insight into the potential of arctigenin and matairesinol as good candidates for the development of novel agents against T-cell lymphoma. © 2015 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. Induction of expression of two phenotypic markers of pulmonary type II cells in a cultured cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, R.F.; Waide, J.J.; Scott, G.G.

    1994-01-01

    The functions of pulmonary type II cells, such as synthesis of pulmonary surfactant and metabolism of inhaled xenobiotics, can be studied in primary isolates of lung cells. However, isolated type II cells, when cultured, quickly lose the phenotypic expressions characteristics of type II cells, including surfactant lipid and protein synthesis and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activity. A cultured cell line that maintained expression of type II cell markers of differentiation would be advantageous for the study of such functions as surfactant synthesis and secretion. Such a cell line would allow generation of a large number of homogeneous cells for study. The purpose of the current study was to induce markers of differentiated type II cells in a cultured cell line to facilitate studies of factors that control surfactant synthesis and secretion

  18. Development of the sulfur mustard resistant keratinocyte cell line HaCaT/SM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Annette; Steinritz, Dirk; Thiermann, Horst

    2016-02-26

    Pairs of corresponding cytotoxic drug sensitive and resistant cell lines are powerful tools to develop treatment strategies. Developing cytotoxic drug resistant cell lines is a well-established method in cancer research. In more than fifty years of sulfur mustard (SM) resistant research such a cell pair has never been produced. Hereinafter we describe the first successful approach to develop a SM resistant keratinocyte cell line. Starting with the SM sensitive keratinocyte cell line HaCaT we used a strategy of continuous exposure with gradually increased concentrations. Cells were cultured in total for more than 40 months starting with an initial concentration of 0.07μM SM twice a week up to a final concentration of 7.2μM SM. The achieved cell line HaCaT/SM had an LC50 resistance increase of 4.7-fold and an LC90 increase of 8.2-fold. Hereinafter we demonstrate the production of the first sulfur mustard (SM) resistant cell line. The new achieved cell line called HaCaT/SM is able to tolerate a continuous exposure of an SM concentration, which is associated with an inhibitory effect of 93% within the original HaCaT cells, which were used as starting point. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Development and characterization of two new cell lines from common carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wazir S Lakra

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Two new cell lines (CCF and CCH were established from fin and heart tissues of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. The cells were optimally maintained in Leibovitz-15 medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS and 10 ng/ml of basic fibroblastic growth factor (bFGF. The effects of temperature, concentration of FBS and bFGF on the growth of CCF and CCH cells were examined. The temperature ranged from 24 to 32 °C for good growth of the cells. The growth rate of cells was higher in medium containing 10% FBS and the addition of bFGF to the medium significantly increased the growth rate. The CCF cells were found to be epithelial, while the CCH cells were fibroblastic in nature. The cytogenetic analysis of the cell lines revealed a diploid number of 100 chromosomes in C. carpio. The viability of CCF and CCH cell lines were 70 and 72%, respectively, after six months of storage in liquid nitrogen (-196 ° C. Molecular characterization of the cell lines using 16S rRNA and Cytochrome Oxidase Subunit I (COI revealed the origin of the cell lines. These new cell lines will be useful for isolation of fish viruses and other in vitro biotechnological studies.

  20. Establishment and culture optimization of a new type of pituitary immortalized cell line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokubu, Yuko [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Asashima, Makoto [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Life Science Center of TARA, The University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki-ken 305-8577 (Japan); Kurisaki, Akira, E-mail: akikuri@hotmail.com [Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, The University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan); Biotechnology Research Institute for Drug Discovery, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8562 (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    The pituitary gland is a center of the endocrine system that controls homeostasis in an organism by secreting various hormones. The glandular anterior pituitary consists of five different cell types, each expressing specific hormones. However, their regulation and the appropriate conditions for their in vitro culture are not well defined. Here, we report the immortalization of mouse pituitary cells by introducing TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes. The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed a thyrotroph-specific thyroid stimulating hormone beta (Tshb). After optimization of the culture conditions, these immortalized cells proliferated and maintained morphological characteristics similar to those of primary pituitary cells under sphere culture conditions in DMEM/F12 medium supplemented with N2, B27, basic FGF, and EGF. These cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators and induced the expression of Tshb mRNA. Moreover, transplantation of the immortalized cell line into subcutaneous regions and kidney capsules of mice further increased Tshb expression. These results suggest that immortalization of pituitary cells with TERT, E6, and E7 transgenes is a useful method for generating proliferating cells for the in vitro analysis of pituitary regulatory mechanisms. - Highlights: • Mouse pituitary cell lines were immortalized by introducing TERT, E6, and E7. • The immortalized cell lines mainly expressed thyroid stimulating hormone beta. • The cell lines responded to PKA or PKC pathway activators, and induced Tshb.

  1. Cellular radiosensitivity of primary and metastatic human uveal melanoma cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.J.M.J. van den Aardweg (Gerard J. M.); N.C. Naus (Nicole); A.C. Verhoeven; J.E.M.M. de Klein (Annelies); G.P.M. Luyten (Gré)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To investigate the radiosensitivity of uveal melanoma cell lines by a clonogenic survival assay, to improve the efficiency of the radiation regimen. METHODS: Four primary and four metastatic human uveal melanoma cell lines were cultured in the presence of

  2. Gene expression profiling in chemoresistant variants of three cell lines of different origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Anders; Vallon-Christensson, Johan; Strand, Carina

    2005-01-01

    . Several genes encoding ABC transporters were highly up-regulated, most notably ABCB1 (MDR1) and ABCB4 in several cell lines and ABCG2 (MXR) specifically in MX-resistant cell lines. A pronounced down-regulation of several histones was noted in the MCF-7-derived resistant sublines. Altered expression...

  3. Chromatin structure and cellular radiosensitivity : A comparison of two human tumour cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woudstra, EC; Roesink, JM; Rosemann, M; Brunsting, JF; Driessen, C; Orta, T; Konings, AWT; Peacock, JH; Kampinga, HH

    1996-01-01

    The role of variation in susceptibility to DNA damage induction was studied as a determinant for cellular radiosensitivity. Comparison of the radiosensitive HX142 and radioresistant RT112 cell lines previously revealed higher susceptibility to X-ray-induced DNA damage in the sensitive cell line

  4. Establishment and conventional cytogenetic characterization of three gastric cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Martins do Nascimento, José Luiz; da Silva, Carla Elvira Araújo; Vita Lamarão, Maria Fernanda; Calcagno, Danielle Queiroz; Khayat, André Salim; Assumpção, Paulo Pimentel; Cabral, Isabel Rosa; de Arruda Cardoso Smith, Marília; Burbano, Rommel Rodríguez

    2009-11-01

    Gastric cancer is the fourth most frequent type of cancer and the second most frequent cause of cancer mortality worldwide. Only a modest number of gastric carcinoma cell lines have been isolated thus far. Here we describe the establishment and cytogenetic characterization of three new gastric cancer cell lines obtained from primary gastric adenocarcinoma (ACP02 and ACP03) and cancerous ascitic fluid (AGP01) of individuals from northern Brazil. ACP02, ACP03, and AGP01 cell lines are presently in the 60th passage. The cell lines grew in a disorganized single layer with some agglomerations and heterogeneous divisions (bipolar and multipolar). All cell lines exhibited a composite karyotype with several clonal chromosome alterations. Trisomy 8 was the most frequent alteration. Chromosome 8 aneusomy was confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization. All cell lines also exhibited trisomy 7 and deletion of chromosome arm 17p. These results suggest that, although frequent chromosome alterations are commonly observed due to culture process, the ACP02, ACP03, and AGP01 cell lines and primary gastric cancer from individuals of northern Brazil share genetic alterations, supporting use of these cell lines as a model of gastric carcinogenesis in this population.

  5. Establishment and characterization of two new cell lines from the mosquito Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett) (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Keita; Isawa, Haruhiko; Kuwata, Ryusei; Tajima, Shigeru; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Iwabuchi, Kikuo; Sawabe, Kyoko; Kobayashi, Mutsuo; Sasaki, Toshinori

    2015-08-01

    Armigeres subalbatus (Coquillett) is a medically important mosquito and a model species for immunology research. We successfully established two cell lines from the neonate larvae of A. subalbatus using two different media. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an established Armigeres mosquito cell line. The cell lines, designated as Ar-3 and Ar-13, consist of adherent and diploid cells with compact colonies. Both these cell lines grow slowly after passage at a split ratio of 1:5 and a population doubling time of 2.7 and 3.0 d, respectively. Random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was used to confirm that these lines correspond to the species of origin and are clearly distinct from seven other insect cell lines. Furthermore, reverse-transcription PCR was used to demonstrate that the Ar-3 cell line is susceptible to the Japanese encephalitis virus and two insect flaviviruses associated with Culex and Aedes mosquitoes but relatively insensitive to dengue virus. These data indicate that the newly established cell lines are cellular models of A. subalbatus as well as beneficial tools for the propagation of viruses associated with the Armigeres mosquito.

  6. Abnormal A-type lamin organization in a human lung carcinoma cell line

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Machiels, BM; Broers, JL; Raymond, Y; de Leij, Louis; Kuijpers, HJH; Caberg, NEH; Ramaekers, Frans C. S.

    We have studied the expression of lamins A and C (A-type lamins) in a lung carcinoma cell line using type-specific monoclonal antibodies, Using immunofluorescence and immunoblotting studies it was noted that several irregularities in lamin expression exist in the cell line GLC-A1, derived from an

  7. Development of Fibroblast Cell Lines From the Cow Used to Sequence the Bovine Genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two cell lines, designated MARC.BGCF.2 and MARC.BGCF.1-3, were initiated from skin biopsies obtained from the Hereford cow whose DNA was used in sequencing the bovine genome. These cell lines were submitted to American Type Culture Collection (ATCC, Manassas, VA, USA) and will be made publicly avai...

  8. Differential radiosensitizing potential of temozolomide in mgmt promoter methylated glioblastoma multiforme cell lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nifterik, Krista A.; van den Berg, Jaap; Stalpers, Lukas J. A.; Lafleur, M. Vincent M.; Leenstra, Sieger; Slotman, Ben J.; Hulsebos, Theo J. M.; Sminia, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the radiosensitizing potential of temozolomide (TMZ) for human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines using single-dose and fractionated gamma-irradiation. Methods and Materials: Three genetically characterized human GBM cell lines (AMC-3046, VU-109, and VU-122) were

  9. Propagation of Asian isolates of canine distemper virus (CDV in hamster cell lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamaguchi Ryoji

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Backgrounds The aim of this study was to confirm the propagation of various canine distemper viruses (CDV in hamster cell lines of HmLu and BHK, since only a little is known about the possibility of propagation of CDV in rodent cells irrespective of their epidemiological importance. Methods The growth of CDV in hamster cell lines was monitored by titration using Vero.dogSLAMtag (Vero-DST cells that had been proven to be susceptible to almost all field isolates of CDV, with the preparations of cell-free and cell-associated virus from the cultures infected with recent Asian isolates of CDV (13 strains and by observing the development of cytopathic effect (CPE in infected cultures of hamster cell lines. Results Eleven of 13 strains grew in HmLu cells, and 12 of 13 strains grew in BHK cells with apparent CPE of cell fusion in the late stage of infection. Two strains and a strain of Asia 1 group could not grow in HmLu cells and BHK cells, respectively. Conclusion The present study demonstrates at the first time that hamster cell lines can propagate the majority of Asian field isolates of CDV. The usage of two hamster cell lines suggested to be useful to characterize the field isolates biologically.

  10. Generation of a predictive melphalan resistance index by drug screen of B-cell cancer cell lines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Boegsted

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent reports indicate that in vitro drug screens combined with gene expression profiles (GEP of cancer cell lines may generate informative signatures predicting the clinical outcome of chemotherapy. In multiple myeloma (MM a range of new drugs have been introduced and now challenge conventional therapy including high dose melphalan. Consequently, the generation of predictive signatures for response to melphalan may have a clinical impact. The hypothesis is that melphalan screens and GEPs of B-cell cancer cell lines combined with multivariate statistics may provide predictive clinical information. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Microarray based GEPs and a melphalan growth inhibition screen of 59 cancer cell lines were downloaded from the National Cancer Institute database. Equivalent data were generated for 18 B-cell cancer cell lines. Linear discriminant analyses (LDA, sparse partial least squares (SPLS and pairwise comparisons of cell line data were used to build resistance signatures from both cell line panels. A melphalan resistance index was defined and estimated for each MM patient in a publicly available clinical data set and evaluated retrospectively by Cox proportional hazards and Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Both cell line panels performed well with respect to internal validation of the SPLS approach but only the B-cell panel was able to predict a significantly higher risk of relapse and death with increasing resistance index in the clinical data sets. The most sensitive and resistant cell lines, MOLP-2 and RPMI-8226 LR5, respectively, had high leverage, which suggests their differentially expressed genes to possess important predictive value. CONCLUSION: The present study presents a melphalan resistance index generated by analysis of a B-cell panel of cancer cell lines. However, the resistance index needs to be functionally validated and correlated to known MM biomarkers in independent data sets in order to

  11. Human cell lines for biopharmaceutical manufacturing: history, status, and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Jennifer; Euwart, Don; Mei, Baisong; Estes, Scott; Kshirsagar, Rashmi

    2016-12-01

    Biotherapeutic proteins represent a mainstay of treatment for a multitude of conditions, for example, autoimmune disorders, hematologic disorders, hormonal dysregulation, cancers, infectious diseases and genetic disorders. The technologies behind their production have changed substantially since biotherapeutic proteins were first approved in the 1980s. Although most biotherapeutic proteins developed to date have been produced using the mammalian Chinese hamster ovary and murine myeloma (NS0, Sp2/0) cell lines, there has been a recent shift toward the use of human cell lines. One of the most important advantages of using human cell lines for protein production is the greater likelihood that the resulting recombinant protein will bear post-translational modifications (PTMs) that are consistent with those seen on endogenous human proteins. Although other mammalian cell lines can produce PTMs similar to human cells, they also produce non-human PTMs, such as galactose-α1,3-galactose and N-glycolylneuraminic acid, which are potentially immunogenic. In addition, human cell lines are grown easily in a serum-free suspension culture, reproduce rapidly and have efficient protein production. A possible disadvantage of using human cell lines is the potential for human-specific viral contamination, although this risk can be mitigated with multiple viral inactivation or clearance steps. In addition, while human cell lines are currently widely used for biopharmaceutical research, vaccine production and production of some licensed protein therapeutics, there is a relative paucity of clinical experience with human cell lines because they have only recently begun to be used for the manufacture of proteins (compared with other types of cell lines). With additional research investment, human cell lines may be further optimized for routine commercial production of a broader range of biotherapeutic proteins.

  12. Identification and characterisation in vitro of cells with a non-SCLC cell-like phenotype derived from a continuous SCLC cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M Z; Freshney, R I; Murray, A M; Merry, S; Plumb, J A; McNicol, A M

    1991-01-01

    Two adherent sublines, H69V and H69VZ, have been isolated from the classic SCLC cell line NCI-H69. Significant morphological differences were observed between the parental and the derivative cell lines. While NCI-H69 grew as densely packed free floating cellular aggregates the derivative lines grew as a monolayer of epithelioid cells. The growth rates of both the derivative lines were faster than the parental line with doubling times closer to non-SCLC cell lines in the derivative lines. Both H69V and H69VZ either express very low levels or do not express neuroendocrine cell markers including L-dopa-decarboxylase (DDC), creatine kinase-BB isoenzyme (CK-BB), bombesin-like immunoreactivity (BLI), neuron specific enolase (NSE), and neurosecretory type dense core granules (DGCs), compared to the parental cell line. All the lines stained positive for epithelial markers such as CAM5.2. LDH isoenzyme and chromosome analyses confirmed the human origin of all the cell lines. Therefore, it appears that cell line NCI-H69 contains stem cell subpopulation capable of generating cells of both small and non-small cell like phenotypes.

  13. Cell-killing induced by 125I seeds in CL187 cell line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhuang Hongqing; Wang Junjie; Wang Jidong; Liao Anyan; Wang Yong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study the response patterns of CL187 cell lines irradiated with low dose rates of 125 I seeds. Methods: CL187 cells were exposed with radioactive 125 I seeds and 60 Co source, which were put under culture plate. The radiation response at different doses and dose-rates were evaluated through cell- proliferation assessed by the colony-forming assay and death rate after irradiation. Meanwhile, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were measured by flow cytometry after 2, 5 and 10 Gy of low dose rate irradiation. Results: It was shown that the cell-killing effects were related to the doses and dose-rates. At 1 Gy, comparison of the death rate between the low and high dose rate showed that the higher dose rate led to increased cell responses, but at the doses higher than 2 Gy, the effect of the low dose rate were more efficient. At the same dose, the survival fraction of 125 I was always lower than that of 60 Co. Exposed to the low dose rate irradiation, apoptosis and G 2 /M cell cycle arrest rose a little at 2 Gy, the peak appeared at 5 Gy, and the ratio at 10 Gy was also high but lower than at 5 Gy. Furthermore, the G 2 /M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis changed together along with the doses. Conclusions: At the same dose, 125 I seeds have more cell-killing effects than 60 Co at high dose rate irradiation. Apoptosis following the G 2 /M cell cycle arrest were the main mechanism of cell-killing effects under low dose rate irradiation. (authors)

  14. The transcriptional diversity of 25 Drosophila cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherbas, Lucy [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Willingham, Aarron [Affymetrix Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Zhang, Dayu [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Yang, Li [University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut (United States); Zou, Yi [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Eads, Brian D. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Carlson, Joseph W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Landolin, Jane M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kapranov, Philipp [Affymetrix Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Dumais, Jacqueline [Affymetrix Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Samsonova, Anastasia [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Choi, Jeong-Hyeon [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Roberts, Johnny [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); Davis, Carrie A. [Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York (United States); Tang, Haixu [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States); van Baren, Marijke J. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Ghosh, Srinka [Affymetrix Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Dobin, Alexander [Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York (United States); Bell, Kim [Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York (United States); Lin, Wei [Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York (United States); Langton, Laura [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Duff, Michael O. [University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut (United States); Tenney, Aaron E. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Zaleski, Chris [Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York (United States); Brent, Michael R. [Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (United States); Hoskins, Roger A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Kaufman, Thomas C. [Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana (United States); Andrews, Justen [Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana (United States); Graveley, Brenton R. [University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, Connecticut (United States); Perrimon, Norbert [Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States); Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Boston, MA (United States); Celniker, Susan E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Gingeras, Thomas R. [Affymetrix Inc., Santa Clara, CA (United States); Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, New York (United States); Cherbas, Peter [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)

    2010-12-22

    Drosophila melanogaster cell lines are important resources for cell biologists. In this article, we catalog the expression of exons, genes, and unannotated transcriptional signals for 25 lines. Unannotated transcription is substantial (typically 19% of euchromatic signal). Conservatively, we identify 1405 novel transcribed regions; 684 of these appear to be new exons of neighboring, often distant, genes. Sixty-four percent of genes are expressed detectably in at least one line, but only 21% are detected in all lines. Each cell line expresses, on average, 5885 genes, including a common set of 3109. Expression levels vary over several orders of magnitude. Major signaling pathways are well represented: most differentiation pathways are ‘‘off’’ and survival/growth pathways ‘‘on.’’ Roughly 50% of the genes expressed by each line are not part of the common set, and these show considerable individuality. Thirty-one percent are expressed at a higher level in at least one cell line than in any single developmental stage, suggesting that each line is enriched for genes characteristic of small sets of cells. Most remarkable is that imaginal disc-derived lines can generally be assigned, on the basis of expression, to small territories within developing discs. These mappings reveal unexpected stability of even fine-grained spatial determination. No two cell lines show identical transcription factor expression. We conclude that each line has retained features of an individual founder cell superimposed on a common ‘‘cell line‘‘ gene expression pattern. We report the transcriptional profiles of 25 Drosophila melanogaster cell lines, principally by whole-genome tiling microarray analysis of total RNA, carried out as part of the modENCODE project. The data produced in this study add to our knowledge of the cell lines and of the Drosophila transcriptome in several ways. We summarize the expression of previously annotated genes in each of the 25

  15. Survival curves of neoplastic and non transformed human cell lines: statistical analysis using different models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fertil, B.; Deschavanne, P.; Malaise, E.P.; Lachet, B.

    1978-01-01

    The 'in vitro' radiosensitivity to γ rays of 6 human cell lines is studied by the colony method: 3 cell lines are derived from colorectal carcinomas, one from a squamous cell carcinoma, one from a Melanoma and the last one is a non-transformed fibroblast cell line. We have attempted to get the lowest percentage of surviving cells as possible. We have used four statistical models to fit the different survival curves: the multitarget single hit, the multitarget two hits, the 'Wideroe', and the quadratic models. The main conclusions drawn from these analyses are the following: -the discrimination between the models could be done by the shape of the curve and the accuracy of the experimental results, but also by the determination of the cell survival after high doses. The quadratic model fits in best with the suvival curves of the 6 cell lines. It allows an accurate description of the shoulder of the survival curves and thus provides information for the comprehension of results in the radiotherapy of human cancers. The quadratic dependence of the surviving fraction on the dose is precisely determined; -significative differences in radiosensitivity show up among the cell lines. The biological interpretation of this finding is discussed: -concerning the fibroblast cell line, it appears that: as opposed to most results published till now, the interpretation of their survival curves must be based upon a quadratic radiation action. Despite their radiosensitivity higher than most other mammalian cells in vitro, fibroblast cells seem to have a comparable survival curve

  16. Benzodiazepinone derivatives protect against endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated cell death in human neuronal cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Haixia; Limpert, Allison S; Zou, Jiwen; Dembo, Anna; Lee, Pooi-San; Grant, Daniel; Ardecky, Robert; Pinkerton, Anthony B; Magnuson, Gavin K; Goldman, Mark E; Rong, Juan; Teriete, Peter; Sheffler, Douglas J; Reed, John C; Cosford, Nicholas D P

    2015-03-18

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes neuronal dysfunction followed by cell death and is recognized as a feature of many neurodegenerative diseases. Using a phenotypic screen, we recently identified benzodiazepinone derivatives that reduce ER stress-mediated apoptosis in a rat neuronal progenitor cell line (CSM14.1). Herein we describe how structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies around these screening hits led to compounds that display robust cytoprotective activity against thapsigargin-induced ER stress in SH-SY5Y and H4 human neuronal cell